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VOL. V. 






Objects and Rules of the Association v 

Officers and Council viii 

Treasurer's Account xi 

Reports, Researches, and Desiderata xii 

Address of Dr. Daubeny xxi 


Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with respect to 
Mineral and Thermal Waters. By Charles Daubeny, M.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A., &c.. Professor of Chemistiy and of Botany. 
Oxford 1 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial 
Magnetic Force in Scotland. By Major Edwaed Sabine, R.A., 
F.R.S., &c 97 

Report on North American Zoology. By John Richardson, 
M.D., F.R.S., &c 121 

Supplementary Report on the Mathematical Theory of Fluids. 
By the Rev. J. Challis, Plumian Professor of Astronomy in 
the University of Cambridge 225 

Comparative View of the more remarkable Plants which charac- 
terize the Neighbourhood of Dublin, the Neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh, and the South-west of Scotland, &c. ; drawn up 
for the British Association, by J. T. Mackay, M.R.I.A., A.L.S., 
&c., assisted by Robert Graham, Esq., M.D., Professor of Bo- 
tany in the University of Edinburgh 253 

a 2 


Comparative geographical notices of the more remarkable Plants 
which characterize Scotland and Ireland. By J. T. Mackat, 
M.R.I.A,, A.L.S,, &c 257 

Report of the London Sub-Committee of the Medical Section on 
the Motions and Sounds of the Heart 261 

Second Report of the Dublin Sub-Committee on the Motions and 
Sounds of the Heart 275 

Report of the Dublin Committee on the Pathology of the Brain 
and Nervous System 283 

Account of the recent Discussions of Observations of the Tides 
which have been obtained by means of the grant of Money 
wliich was placed at the disposal of the Author for that purpose 
at the last Meeting of the Association. By J. W. Lubbock, Esq. 285 

Observations for determining the refractive Indices for the Standard 
Rays of the Solar Spectrum in various media. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry 
in the University of Oxford 288 

Provisional Report on the Communication between the Arteries 
and Absorbents on the part of the London Committee. By 
Dr. HoDGKiN 289 

Report of Experiments on Subterranean Temperature, under the 
direction of a Committee, consisting of Professor Forbes, Mr. 
W. S. Harris, Professor Powell, Lieut.-Col. Sykes, and Pro- 
fessor Phillips, (Reporter) 291 

Inquiry into the Validity of a Method recently proposed by George 
B. Jerrard, Esq., for Transforming and Resolving Equations of 
Elevated Degrees : undert^dien at the Request of the Association 
by Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton 295 




The Association contemplates no interference with the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a 
stronger impulse and a more systematic direction to scientific 
inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate Sci- 
ence in different parts of the British Empire, with one another, 
and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general atten- 
tion to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvan- 
tages of a public kind, which impede its progress. 



All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be 
Entitled to become Members of the Association, upon subscri- 
bing an obligation to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philo- 
sophical Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Em- 
pire, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Members of 
the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or managing 
Committees, of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by 
its Council or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like 
manner, to become Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by 
the General Committee or Council, to become Members of the 
Association, subject to the approval of a General Meeting. 



The amount of the Annual Subscription shall be One Pound, 
to be paid in advance upon admission ; and the amount of the 
composition in lieu thereof, Five Pounds. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secre- 

If the annual subscription of any Member shall have been in 
arrear for two years, and shall not be paid on proper notice, he 
shall cease to be a member ; but it shall be in the power of the 
Committee or Council to reinstate him, on payment of arrears. 


The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. 
The place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General 
Committee at the previous Meeting ; and the Arrangements 
for it shall be entrusted to the Of&cers of the Association. 


The General Committee shall sit during the time of the 
Meeting, or longer, to transact the business of the Association. 
It shall consist of all Members present, who have communicated 
any scientific Paper to a Philosophical Society, which Paper 
has been printed in its Transactions, or with its concurrence. 

Members of Philosophical Institutions, being Members of 
this Association, who may be sent as Deputies to any Meeting 
of the Association, shall be Members of the Committee for that 
Meeting, the number being limited to two from each Institution. 


The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, 
Committees, consisting severally of the Members most conver- 
sant with the several branches of Science, to advise together for 
the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation 
they would particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the 
ensuing year, and brought under consideration at the next 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and 
progress of particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to 
time by competent persons, for the information of the Annual 



The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Com- 
mittee, which shall receive and consider the Recommendations 
of the Sectional Committees, and report to the General Com- 
mittee the measures which they would advise to be adopted for 
the advancement of science. 


Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Asso- 
ciation to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings, 

Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may 


A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, two or more Se- 
cretaries, and a Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the 
General Committee. 


In the intervals of the Meetings the affairs of the Association 
shall be managed by a Council, appointed by the General Com- 
mittee. The Council may also assemble for the dispatch of 
business during the week of the Meeting. 


The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty 
to reserve his right of property therein. 


The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by 
Auditors appointed by the Meeting. 


Trustees {jtermanent). — Charles Babbage, Esq. R. I. Murchi- 
son, Esq. John Taylor, Esq. 

President, — The Most Noble the Marquis of Lansdowne. 

Vice-Presidents. — The Most Noble the Marquis of North- 
ampton. Rev. William D. Conybeare. J. C. Prichard, M.D. 

President elect. — The Earl of Burlington. 

Vice-Presidents elect. — The Right Rev. The Bishop of Nor- 
wich. Rev. William W^hewell. John Dalton, LL.D. Sir 
Phihp Egerton, Bart. 

General Secretaries. — Rev. W. V. Harcourt. R. I. Mur- 
chison, Esq. 

Assista7it General Secretary. — John Phillips, Esq., York. 

Secretaries for Liverpool. — James S. Traill, M.D. J. N. 
Walker, Esq. Wm. Wallace Currie, Esq. 

Treasurer. — John Taylor, Esq., 14, Chatham Place, Black- 

Treasurer to the Liverjiool Meeting. — Samuel Turner, Esq. 

Council. — Professor Christie, Woolwich. Professor Daniell, 
London. G. B. Greenough, Esq., London. H. Hallam, Esq., 
London. R. Hutton, Esq., London. Professor Sir W. Hamilton, 
Dublin. T. Hodgkin, M.D., London. J. W. Lubbock, Esq., 
London. Professor Lindley, London. Professor Owen, London. 
Professor Powell, Oxford. Dr. Roget, London. J. Robison, 
Esq., Edinburgh. N. A. Vigors, Esq., London. William 
Yarrell, Esq., London. 

Secretary to the Council. — Rev. James Yates, 49, Upper 
Bedford Place, London. 

Local Treasurers. — Dr. Daubeny, Oxford. Professor Hens- 
low, Cambridge. Dr. Orpen, Dublin. Charles Forbes, Esq., 
Edinburgh. Jonathan Gray, Esq., York. George Bengough, 
Esq., Bristol. Samuel Turner, Esq., Liverpool. Rev. John 
James Tayler, Manchester. James Russell, Esq., Birmingham. 
William Hutton, Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne. Henry WooUcombe, 
Esq., Plymouth. 




President. — Rev. William Whewell. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir D. Brewster. Sir W. R. Hamilton. 
Secretaries.— VroiQ^^ov Forbes. W. S. Harris, Esq. F. W. 
Jerrard, Esq. 


President. — Rev. Professor Cumming. 
Vice-Presidents.— Dm. Dalton. Dr. Henry. 
Secretaries. — Dr. Apjohn. Dr. C. Henry. W. HeraiJath, 


President. — Rev. Dr. Buckland, 

Vice-Presidents. — R. Griffith, Esq. G. B. Greenough, Esq. 
(For Geography) R. I. Murchison, Esq. 

Secretaries. — Wm. Sanders, Esq. S. Stutchbury, Esq. 
T. J. Torrie, Esq. 


President. — Rev. Professor Henslow. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. F. W. Hope. Dr. J. Richardson. 
Professor Royle. 

Secretaries. — John Cmlis, Esq. Professor Don. Dr. Riley. 
S. Rootsey, Esq. 


President. — Dr. Roget. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dv. Bright. Dr. Macai'tuey. 

Secretary. — Dr. Symonds. 


President. — Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. 
Vice-Presidents. — H. Hallam, Esq. Dr. Jerrard. 
Secretaries. — Rev. J. E. Bromby. C. B. Fripp, Esq. James 
Heywood, Esq. 



President. — Davies Gilbert, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents. — M. J. Brunei, Esq. John Robison, Esq. 
Secretaries.-^G. T. Clark, Esq. T. G. Bunt, Esq. Wil- 
liam West, Esq. 


Professor Agassiz, Neufchatel. M. Arago, Secretary of the 
Institute, Paris. Professor Berzelius, Stockholm. Mr. Bow- 
ditch, Boston, North America. Professor De la Rive, Geneva. 
Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Berlin. Professor Moll, 
Utrecht. Professor CErsted, Copenhagen. Jean Plana, Astro- 
nomer Royal, Turin. M. Quetelet, Brussels. Professor Schu- 
macher, Altona. 

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The following Reports on the progress and desiderata of dif- 
ferent branches of science have been drawti up at the request 
of the Association, and jjrinted in its Transactions. 

On the progress of Astronomy during the present century, by 
G. B. Airy, M.A., Astronomer Royal. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Tides, by J. W. 
Lubbock, M.A., Vice-President of the Royal Society. 

On the recent progress and present state of Meteorology, by 
James D. Forbes, F.R.S,, Professor of Natural Philosophy, 

On the present state of our knowledge of the Science of Ra- 
diant Heat, by the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian 
Professor of Geometry, Oxford. 

On Thermo-electricity, by the Rev. James Gumming, M.A., 
F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Cambridge. 

On the recent progress of Optics, by Sir David Brewster, 
K.C.G., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 

On the recent progress and present state of Mineralogy, by 
the Rev. William Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On the progress, actual state, and ulterior prospects of Geology, 
by the Rev. William Conybeare, M.A., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., &c. 

On the recent progress and present state of Chemical Science, 
by James F. W. Johnston, A.M., Professor of Chemistry, Dur- 

On the application of Philological and Physical researches to 
the History of the Human Species, by J. C. Prichard, M.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

On the advances which have recently been made in certain 
branches of Analysis, by the Rev. G. Peacock, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the present state of the Analytical Theory of Hydrostatics 
and Hydrodynamics, by the Rev. John Challis, M.A.,F.R.S.,&c. 

On the state of our knowledge of Hydraulics, considered as a 
branch of Engineering, by George Rennie, F.R.S., &c. (Parts 
I. and II.) 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the Magnetism of 
the Earth, by S. H. Christie, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Mathe- 
matics, Woolwich. 

On the state of our knowledge of the Strength of Materials, 
by Peter Barlow, F.R.S. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Mineral Veins, by 
John Taylor, F.R.S., Treasurer G.S., &c. 


On the state of the Physiology of the Nervous System, by 
William Charles Henry, M.D. t i. t • j 

On the recent progress of Physiological Botany, by John Lind- 
ley, F.R.S., Professor of Botany in the University of London. 

On the Geology of North America, by H. D. Rogers, F.G.S. 

On the philosophy of Contagion, by Wm. Henry, M.D.,F.R.S. 

On the state of Physiological Knowledge, by the Rev. Wilham 
Clark, M.D., F.G.S., Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge. 

On the state and progress of Zoology, by the Rev. Leonard 
Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

On the theories of Capillary Attraction, and of the Propagation 
of Sound as affected by the development of Heat, by the Rev. 
John Challis, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the state of the science of Physical Optics, by the Rev. 
H. Lloyd, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy, Dublin. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the application of 
Mathematical and Dynamical principles to Magnetism, Electri- 
city, Heat, &c., by the Rev. Wm. Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On Hansteen's researches in Magnetism, by Captain Sabine, 

F.R.S. , ^ . . _ - 

On the state of Mathematical and Physical Science in Bel- 
gium, by M. Quetelet, Director of the Observatory, Brussels. 

On the present state of our knowledge with respect to Mine- 
ral and Thermal Waters, by Charles Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A., &c.. Professor of Chemistry and of Botany, Oxford. 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terres- 
trial Magnetic Force in Scotland, by Major Edward Sabine, 
R.A., F.R.S., &c. 

Report on North American Zoology, by John Richardson, 
M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

Supplementary report on the Mathematical Theory of Fluids, 
by the Rev. J. Challis, Plumian Professor of Astronomy in the 
University of Cambridge. 

Comparative view of the more remarkable Plants which cha- 
racterize the Neighbourhood of Dublin, the Neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh, and the South-west of Scotland, &c. ; drawn up for 
the British Association, by J. T. Mackay, M.R.I.A., A.L.S., 
&c., assisted by Robert Graham, Esq., M.D., Professor of 
Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 


The following Reports of Researches undertaken at the re- 
quest of the Association have been published, viz. 

Report on the comparative measurement of the Aberdeen 
Standard Scale, by Francis Baily, Treasurer R.S., &c. 
On Impact upon Beams, by Eaton Hodgkinson. 
Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial 
Magnetic Force in Ireland, by the Rev. H. Lloyd, Capt. Sabine, 
and Capt. J. C. Ross. 

On the Phaenomena usually referred to the Radiation of Heat, 
by H. Hudson, M.D. 

Experiments on Rain at different elevations, by Wm. Gray, 
jun. and Professor Phillips. 

Hourly observations of the Thermometer at Plpiiouth, by 
W. S. Harris. 

On the Infra-orbital Cavities in Deers and Antelopes, by A. 
Jacob, M.D. 

On the Effects of Acrid Poisons, by T. Hodgkin, M.D. 
On the Motions and Sounds of the Heart, by the Dublin Sub- 

On the Registration of Deaths, by the Edinburgh Sub-Com- 

Report of the London Sub-Committee of the Medical Section, 
of the British Association on the Motions and Sounds of the 

Second Report of the Dublin Sub-Committee on the Motions 
and Sounds of the Heart. (See vol. iv. p. 243.) 

Report of the Dublin Committee on the Pathology of the 
Brain and Nervous System. 

Account of the recent Discussions of Observations of the 
Tides which have been obtained by means of the grant of Money 
which was placed at the disposal of the Author for that purpose at 
the last Meeting of the Association, by J. W. Lubbock, Esq. 

Observations for determining the refractive Indices for the 
Standard Rays of the Solar Spectrum in various media, by the 
Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Saviliau Professor of Geome- 
try in the University of Oxford. 

Provisional Report on the Communication between the Arteries 
and Absorbents on the part of the London Committee, by Dr. 

Report of Experiments on Subterranean Temperature, imder 
the direction of a Committee, consisting of Professor Forbes, 
Mr. W. S. Harris, Professor Powell, Lieut. Colonel Sykes, and 
Professor Phillips, (Reporter.) 


Inquiry into the Validity of a Method recently proposed by 
George B. Jerrard, Esq., for Transforming and Resolving Equa- 
tions of Elevated Degrees : undertaken at the request of the 
Association by Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton. 

The following Reports and Continuations of Reports have 
been undertaken to be draivn up at the request of the Asso- 

On the progress of Electro-chemistry and Electro-magnetism, 
so far as regards the experimental part of the subject, by P. M. 
Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

On the Connection of Electricity and Magnetism, by S. H. 
Christie, F.R.S., &c. 

On the state of know^ledge on the Phsenomeua of Sound, by 
the Rev. Robert Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the relative level of 
Land and Sea, and the waste and extension of the land on the 
east coast of England, by R. Stevenson, Engineer to tlie North- 
ern Lighthouses, Edinburgh. 

On the Botany of North America, by Jacob Greene, M.D., 
and Sir W. J. Hooker, M.D., Professor of Botany, Glasgow. 

On the Geographical Distribution of Lisects, and particularly 
the order Coleoptera, by J. Wilson, F.R.S.E. 

On the influence of Climate upon Vegetation, , by the Rev. 
J. S. Henslow, M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Botany, Cambridge. 

On circumstances in Vegetation influencing the Medicinal 
Virtues of Plants, by R. Christison, M.D., &c. 

On Salts, by Professor Graham, 

On the progress of Medical Science in Germany, by Dr. 

On the Differential and Integral Calculus, by the Rev. G. 
Peacock, M.A., F.R.S. 

On the present state of our knowledge of the Phsenomena of 
Terrestrial Magnetism, by Captain Sabine, F.R.S. 

On the Geology of North America, by H. D. Rogers, F.G.S., 
Professor of Geology, Philadelphia. 

On the Mineral Riches of Great Britain, by John Taylor, 
F.R.S. G.S. 

On the Methods of Printing for the Blind, by the Rev. Wm. 
Taylor, F.R.S. 

On the Statistics of Dukhun, by Lieut.-Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. 

On the Physical and Chemical Properties of Dimorphous 
Bodies, by J. F. W. Johnston, F.R.S. 


Researches recommended, and Desiderata noticed by the Com- 
mittees of Science at the Bristol Meeting*. 


Mr. Lubbock's proposition for the construction of new em- 
pirical lunar Tables was referred to a Committee, consisting of 
Mr. Lubbock, the Astronomer Royal, Mr. Baily, Professor 
Rigaud, Professor Challis, and Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton; 
and Mr. Lubbock was requested to report to the next Meeting 
on the best mode of carrying it into effect. 


An experimental investigation on Waves, having particular 
reference to the manner in which they are produced, the effect 
of wind, and the effect of the form of the canal, was entrusted 
to Mr. J. S. Russell and Mr. J. Robison, and a sum not ex- 
ceeding 100/. was placed at their disposal for the purpose f . 


The Meteorological Committee was requested to endeavour 
to establish hourly observations of the Barometer and Wet-bulb 
Hygrometer %, and a grant of 30^. was placed at their disposal 
for this object. 


The sum of 150/. was placed at the disposal of a Committee, 
consisting of the Rev. W. V. Harcourt, Dr. Turner, and Dr. 
Faraday, for the purpose of experimental investigations into the 
fabrication of glass §. 


A series of Experiments on the comparative analysis of Iron 

* In addition to those contained in vol. v. 

f This inquiry is in progress. 

X Mr. W. Snow Harris has commenced these researches at Plymouth. 

§ Mr. Harcourt has been sometime occupied in this investigation. 


in the different stages of its manufacture, with the hot and cold 
blast, was enti'usted to Dr. Dalton, Dr. Henry, and Mr. H. H. 


Dr. Turner was requested to undertake experiments on the 
Amount of Heat evolved in Combustion and other kinds of 
Chemical Action. 

Dr. Daubeny suggested the following points with reference 
to Mineral Waters, as peculiarly worthy of investigation by 
British Chemists. 

1. The chemical composition and physical properties of the water 
drunk in places subject to peculiar endemics, as Goitre. 

2. The nature of the organic matter present in hot springs. 

3. The evolution of Nitrogen from springs of ordinary temperature, 
as well as from thermal ones. 

4. The state in which Alkali exists in certain thermal waters. 

5. The means by which Silica is held in chemical solution. 

6. The geological relations of the country in which thermal waters 
are found. 

7. An exact estimate of their temperature, taken with accurate instru- 
ments at different periods of the year, together with the amount of 
water discharged in a given time. 

8. Is Carbonate of Potash, in reality, a very rare constituent of 
thermal waters, or may not the Carbonate of Soda have been often 
mistalcen for it ? 

Dr. Dalton and Mr. Wm. West were requested to investigate 
the presence and proportion of substances present in minute pro- 
portions in atmospheric air, according to a plan proposed by 
the latter. 


The Committee for procuring data on the question of the 
permanence of the relative level of Land and Sea on the coasts 
of Great Britain and Ireland, received a grant of 500/. in order 
that the subject might be satisfactorily investigated, by ascer- 
taining with great accuracy the differences of level of a number 
of points in two straight lines at right angles to one another, 
and terminating on the sea-coast*. 

The attention of observers was directed to the discovery of 
Plants of any kind in strata older than the coal formation. 

The observation of divisional planes in Stratified Rocks, 
(cleavage, joints, fissures, &c.) in relation to the surfaces of 

* These measures are in course of execution. 
VOL. V. — 1836. b 

Xviii SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

stratification, the chemicnl quality, and molecular aggregation 
of the rocks, and other circumstances, was recommended for the 
purpose of procuring accurate data on this part of physical 

The Officers of the Ordnance Survey in Ireland were requested 
to make such excavations in the Peat Mosses of Ireland, as 
may tend to ascertain the relative periods at which they were 
deposited ; and the sum of 50/. Avas placed at the disposal of 
Colonel Colby for this object. 


Mr. R. Ball and Mr. Thompson, of Belfast, were requested 
to prepare an exact catalogue of the Animals inhabiting Ireland. 

A Committee was named, consisting of Professor Henslow, 
Dr. Daubeny, Mr. James Yates, Dr. Henry, and Dr. Dalton, 
to institute Experiments on the growth of Plants under Glass, 
and excluded from the external Air, on the plan of Mr. N. G. 
Ward (described in the Transactions of the Society of Arts), 
and the sum of 251. was placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Mr. R.Bali was requested to investigate the mode bywhichMol- 
lusca, Annelida, and other marine Invertebrata excavate rocks. 

Dr. Richardson mentioned the following desiderata in North 
American Zoology : 

1 . Fauna of Mexico, California, New Caledonia and Russian America. 

2. Local Lists of the Animals of the Atlantic States of America, such 
as the one prepared by order of the Government of Massachusetts for 
that State. 

3. Accurate Comparisons of the Skeletons and of Living Specimens 
of European and American Species supposed to be common to the 
two countries. 

4. Monographs of the various FamiUes of North American Mamma- 
lia, including notices of the habits of the Species, from personal obser- 
vation only; and particularly of the Bats, Seals, Deer, and Pouched Rats. 

5. Comparison of the Northern and Woodland Rein Deer. 

6. An account of the Reptiles and Amphibia of Canada and the more 
northern parts of the Continent. 

7 . Notices of the North American Mollusca. 

8. Determination of a Species of Fish which makes a loud drumming 
noise on the bottoms of vessels anchoring on the Coasts of Georgia and 
Florida, and the investigation of the causes and manner of its drumming. 

The Committee of Natural History likewise requested atten- 
tion to the Chemistry of Entomology, and to the Geographical 
distribution of Insects, more particularly with respect to the 
influences exercised by geological conditions and by vegetation. 



The Chemical Composition of Secreting Organs, and their 
products, was referred for investigation to a Committee in Lon- 
don, consisting of Dr. Roget, Dr. Turner, Dr. Hodgkin, and 
G. O. Rees, Esq., with a grant of 251. 

The Physiological Influence of Cold upon Man and Animals 
was recommended to the attention of Mr. King, in the event of 
his visiting the Arctic Regions, and 25/. was placed at his dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

An experimental Investigation of the Physiology of the Spinal 
Nerves was referred to Mr. S. D. Broughton, Dr. Sharpey, and 
Mr. E. Cock. 

The Committee appointed in Dublin (vol. iv. p. 32) to re- 
port on the Pathology of the Brain and Nervous System was 
requested to extend its researches to the Physiology of these 


In furtherance of inquiries into the actual state of schools in 
England, considered merely as to numerical analyses, 150/. was 
placed at the disposal of a Committee, consisting of Colonel 
Sykes, Mr. Hallam, and Mr. Porter. 

Committees were named (with power to add to their number) 
to draw up Instructions for observing in different branches of 
Science, viz. 

Physical Science. — Rev. W. Whewell, Professor Forbes, Mr. 
Baily, Mr. Babbage, Professor Christie. 

Geology. — Mr. Murchison, Mr. Lonsdale, Mr. Hopkins, Mr. 

Natural History. — Dr. Richardson, Professor Royle. 





Reduction of Observations on Stars (vol. iv. p. xv.) . £500 

Discussion of Tides (vol. iv. p. xvii.) 250 

Ditto in the Port of Bristol .... 150 
Constant of Lunar Nutation (vol. iv. p. xvi.) ... 70 
Meteorological Instruments and Subterranean Tem- 
perature (vol. iv. p. xix.) 100 

Comparative Level of Land and Sea (vol. iv. p. xxvi.) 500 

Lens of Rock Salt (vol. iv. p. xxii.) 80 

Hourly Observations of Barometer and Wet-bulb Hy- 
grometer 30 O 

Investigations on the Form of Waves 100 

Experiments on Vitrification 150 

Specific Gi-avity of Gases (vol. iv. p. xxiii.) . ... 50 

Heat developed in Combustion, &c 30 

Composition of Atmospheric Air 15 

Chemical Constants (vol. iv. p. xxiv.) ..... 24 13 

Strength of Iron (vol. iv. p. xxxii.) 60 

Mud in Rivers (vol. iv. p. xxvii.) 20 

Subterranean Temperature and Electricity .... 30 

Origin of Peat Mosses ... 50 

Growth of Plants under Glass and excluded from Air 25 

Absorbents and Veins (vol. iv. p. xxxi.) 50 

Sounds of the Heart (vol. iv. p. xxxi.) 50 

Chemical Composition of Secreting Organs ... 25 

Influence of Cold on Man and Animals 25 

Effect of Poisons on the Animal OEconomy( vol. iv. p. xxxi.) 25 

Pathology of Brain and Nervous System (vol. iv.p. xxxii.) 25 

Physiology of Spinal Nerves 25 

State of Schools in England 150 

Duty of Steam Engines 50 



Gentlemen, — The practice of the three preceding Anniversaries has 
prepared you to expect, at the first General Meeting that may be held, 
a short address, explanatory of the nature of those scientific objects 
which had chiefly occupied the Association on the former occasion, and, 
in particular, of the contents of the last pubUshed Volume of Transac- 
tions, in which the results of your labours are recorded. This it has 
hitherto been usual for the Local Secretaries of the year to prepare; and 
it seemed but a fair division of labour that such a task should, in the 
present instance, be allotted to the one, on whom, from unavoidable cir- 
cumstances, the smaller share in the other duties of the office had de- 
volved. It was this consideration, indeed, which reconciled me to the 
tmdertaking ; for had I not felt that the framing of this Address was the 
only part of the functions of Secretary that could be discharged at a 
distance from the intended place of meeting, and that the time of my 
colleague would be engrossed by the preparatory arrangements, in which, 
from my absence, I was unable till lately to participate, I should have 
shrunk from the responsibility of a task which involved the consideration 
of questions of a high and abstruse character, to several of which I feel 
myself but ill-qualified to do justice. It is nevertheless, be assured, with 
extreme diffidence that I enter upon a taskwhich has, at former meetings, 
been executed by men so eminent in science, and that I presume, though 
one of the humblest members of this great body, to exhibit to you a brief 
sketch of the labours of some of those individuals, whose presence 
amongst us sheds a lustre over our proceedings, and has contributed, 
more than any other motive, to draw together this great concourse here 

There is one consideration, however, that may perhaps give me some 
claim to your indulgence : I mean that of my having attended to all the 
meetings of this Association up to the present time, and hence having 
traced its progress through all its various stages, from its first small be- 
giniiings at York, up to this period of its full maturity ; thus having 

Xxii SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

been enabled, bj* an actual participation in the business of the meetings, 
to form a juster estimate of the real condition of the Association, and of 
the services it has rendered to science, than the public at large could 

Thus circumstanced, for example, I have become sensible of results, 
flowing from the meetings of this great body, which can scarcely figure 
in a Report, or find expression in the accounts transmitted by the pe- 
riodical press : — I have been struck by the enthusiasm elicited by the 
concourse of congenial minds — the friendships formed and cemented — 
the trains of experiment first suggested, or prosecuted anew after being 
long abandoned; — above all, the awakening of the public mind to the 
just claims of Science by the celebration of these Anniversaries. 

But, important as these consequences may appear, and imperfectly as 
they may be understood by persons who keep aloof from our meetings, 
it seems almost superfluous to dilate on such topics to those actually 
present at them, when the mere fact of their being congregated here in 
such numbers, conveys the best assurance that such is already their con- 
viction. Nor is it merely the assembling of so large a portion of the 
respectable inhabitants of this city and neighbourhood, nor yet the at- 
tracting from a distance so great a number of the mere amateurs of 
science, which justifies me in this conclusion ; but it is the presence of 
so many hard-working, so many successful, cultivators of physical re- 
search, and their devoting to the service of the Association that most 
valuable of their possessions, their time, which gives me a right to as- 
sume, tliat the minds of those qualified to judge on such matters (and 
those only can be fully qualified who have been present) ai-e already 
made up respecting the beneficial influence which this Association is 

The volume, indeed, which now lies upon the table, and which con- 
tains the results of our last year's proceedings, not only amply sustains 
the former character of these Transactions, but even shows more strongly 
than those which have preceded it, the power which the Association has 
been exercising in the direct advancement of Science. It contains, in 
the first place, several valuable contributions to our knowledge of Mag- 
netism, — a branch of science, which within a few years, stood in a 
manner isolated from the rest, but which now, thanks to the researches 
of living philosophers, is shown to be intimately connected with, or rather 
to be one of tlie manifestations of that mysterious, but all-perA'ading 
power, which seems to be displayed not less in those molecular attrac- 
tions that bind together the elements of every compound body, than in 
the direction imparted to the loadstone ; perhaps even in the light and 


heat which attend upon combustion, no less than in the awful phenomena 
of a thunder-storm. 

Considering the connexion that subsists between the sciences of Heat, 
Electricity, and Magnetism, and considering, likewise, the efforts made 
with various degrees of success, and by men of very unequal pretensions, 
to develop the laws of each of these sciences in accordance with ma- 
thematical formulae, one cannot wonder that the Association should have 
been anxious to assign to a member, no less distinguished for the depth 
of his mathematical attainments than for the range of his acquaintance 
with modem science, the task of drawing up a Report on the theories 
of these three departments of Physics, considered in relation one to the 
other. This accordingly has been executed by Mr. Whewell, whose 
Report stands at the commencement of the volume. 

The point of view in which he was directed to contemplate the sub- 
ject possesses an interest to all who are engaged in the investigation of 
natural phenomena, whatever may have been the particular bent to which 
their researches have been directed. 

All the physical sciences aspire to become in time mathematical: the 
summit of their ambition, and the ultimate aim of the efforts of their 
votaries, is to obtain their recognition as the worthy sisters of the no- 
blest of these sciences — Physical Astronomy. But their reception into 
this privileged and exalted order is not a point to be lightly conceded ; 
nor are the speculations of modern times to be admitted into this august 
circle, merely because their admirers have chosen to cast over them a 
garb, oftentimes ill-fitting and inappropriate, of mathematical symbols. 
To weigh the credentials of the three physical sciences which have been 
pointed out as mathematical, was therefore a proper office for the Asso- 
ciation to impose upon one of its members ; and I believe it will be 
found that no small light has been thrown upon the subject by the 
manner in which that trust has been discharged. 

With regard, however, to Magnetism, which forms one of the sub- 
jects of Mr. Whewell's Report, much still remains to be done, before 
the mathematician can flatter himself that a secure foundation for his 
calculations has been established ; and the materials for this foundation 
must be collected from such a variety of isolated points, distant one from 
the other, both in time and place, dependent for their accuracy upon 
the occuiTence of favourable circumstances, and, after all, demanding 
from the obser\'er an uncommon union of skill and experience, that 
there is perhaps no scientific undertaking for which the co-operation of 
public bodies, and even of governments, is more imperiously demanded; 
and the Association has, in consequence, both engaged its members in 

Xxiv SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

the prosecution of these researches, and has proposed to obtain for them 
the national assistance. To call the attention therefore of the scientific 
world, in a greater degree, to the present condition of our knowledge 
as to Terrestrial Magnetism, was the object of Captain Sabine's Report 
in the present volume of these Transactions; and this he has accom- 
plished by presenting us with an elaborate abstract of the work which 
Professor Hansteen, of Copenhagen, had published upon that subject. 

This mathematician, in the year 1811, constructed a chart, in which 
were laid down, so far as could be ascertained, the lines of equal varia- 
tion and dip of the magnetic needle in all parts of the world. It is 
curious to observe the degree of coincidence which exists between these 
lines representing the distribution of the magnetic force, and the iso- 
thermal lines by which Humboldt has expressed the distribution of heat 
over the earth's surface ; and this apparent connexion, the cause of which 
remains a mystery, is calculated to stimulate our zeal for investigating 
the phenomena of both. Nor is it less interesting to trace in what de- 
gree these later observations appear to confirm the general conclusions 
arrived at by the celebrated Halley more than a century before. That 
astronomer had inferred, from a general review of all that was then 
known with regard to the variation and dip of the needle, that there 
must be two magnetic axes ; whilst the gradual shifting of the line of 
no variation from west to east, led him to propose the ingenious, though 
whimsical hypothesis, of a moveable globe existing in the interior of the 
earth we inhabit, actuated by the same forces as those which propel the 
hollow sphere surrounding it, and, like it, possessing a north and south 
magnetic pole. This interior globe, if it be supposed to move with 
somewhat less rapidity than the exterior shell, might, as he conceived, 
produce a gradual shifting of the poles from east to west, and thus ac- 
count for the difference observed from time to time in the position of 
the magnetic axes. 

Now the researches of Professor Hansteen confirm the existence of 
two magnetic axes, though they led him to discard the hypothesis by 
which Halley accounted for the progressive shifting, which, indeed, the 
recently-discovered connexion between Electricity and Magnetism gives 
us hopes of explaining more satisfactorily, as has been shown by Pro- 
fessor Christie in the Report read by him at our third meeting. 

Since the publication, however, of the great work to which his Mag- 
netic Chart is appended. Professor Hansteen, aware of the mystery 
which still overhangs the subject, has been zealously employed in at- 
tempting to remove it, by ascertaining the present state and progressive 
change of the magnetic forces. He has accordingly employed himself 


in making observations on the line of no variation, or, as he prefers to 
call it, the line of convergence which passes through Siberia ; and, by 
a fortunate concurrence of circumstances, the north-western expedition 
lately undertaken by British navigators, has afforded the means of ob- 
taining, at the very same time, corresponding ones on the similar line, 
which extends from Hudson's Bay through the United States of America. 
Thus the position of these lines in the above two most interesting lo- 
calities, has been almost simultaneously determined with an exactness 
before unequalled. 

In conjunction with Captain Sabine, Professor Lloyd, of Dublin, has 
contributed, in another way, at the instance of the Association, to ex- 
tend our acquaintance with the empirical laws of this interesting de- 
partment of science. This they have effected by determining the dip 
and variation of the magnetic needle in different parts of Ireland, which 
it was considered the more important to ascertain, fi-om the situation of 
that island in the most westerly point of Europe, at which observations 
could be instituted. 

The distribution of the earth's magnetism through this country was 
determined by the above-named observers ; first by a separate series of 
observations relating to the force of that portion of the magnetic influ- 
ence which operates horizontally ; secondly, by a similar series on the 
dip of the needle ; thirdly, by means of observations both on the dip 
and intensity of the magnetic force made at the same time and with the 
same instruments. 

It would occupy too much of the time of the Association, were I to 
attempt to point out, however briefly, the precautions adopted, and the 
corrections applied, in order to arrive at accurate results. I shall tliere- 
fore only remark, that the method by which the intensity of the mag- 
netic force was ascertained, resembles in principle that by which philo- 
sophers determine the force of gravity. For as a pendulum when set in 
motion oscillates on either side of the vertical line by the force of gravity, 
so the needle, when drawn out of its natural position, will oscillate on 
either side of the magnetic meridian by the earth's magnetic force, and 
hence, in either case, the force may be inferred to vary, inversely, as the 
square of the time in which a certain number of vibrations are performed. 
In order, however, to arrive at trustworthy results, many precautions 
must be adopted, which are pointed out in detail in Professor Lloyd's 
memoir, and in particular one relating to temperature ; it being found 
that the same needle will vary in force about 1 -4000th part for every 
degree of Fahrenheit. Having, however, arrived at a determination of 
the intensity of the magnetic force at the two extremities of the Island 

XXvi SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

by a sufficiently extended series of observations, namely, at Limerick 
by Captain Sabine, and at Dublin by Professor Lloyd, and having com- 
pared the results with those obtained by means of the same needles at 
a spot out of Ireland, whose magnetic intensity had been previously 
settled, by availing themselves of the obsen'ations of Captain James 
Ross, at London, our authors proceeded to estimate the relative inten- 
sity of the magnetic force at twenty-five different places within the 
compass of Ireland, by observations made at each of these simultaneously 
with others at Dublin or at Limerick. Thej'^ thus obtained data by which 
to exhibit the law of Terrestrial Magnetism in Ireland, in a similar 
manner to that by which Humboldt laid down the laws of the distribu- 
tion of Terrestrial Heat. The same principle was adopted in deter- 
mining the lines of dip as of intensity, and the general result was ob- 
tained, that the angle which the lines of dip in Ireland make with the 
meridian of Dublin is 56° 48', and that the dip increases one degree for 
every distance of 101 miles in a direction perpendicular to these lines. 

The preceding method of estimating the intensity by the number of 
vibrations in a given time only applies to that portion of the earth's 
magnetic force which operates in a horizontal direction. In order, 
therefore, to determine the whole amount of this force, observations of 
the kind above alluded to must be combined with others on the dip. 
TTiis third series accordingly was instituted at twenty-three different 
stations in Ireland, and the result arrived at was, that the lines of abso- 
lute intensity make an angle of 33° 40' with the meridian of Dublin, 
and that the intensity increases in a direction perpendicular to these 
lines by the 1-lOOth part for every 95 miles of distance. 

Tlie importance of these researches in extending our knowledge of 
Terrestrial Magnetism, and affording the data on which a coirect theory 
with respect to this subject may hereafter be based, will be felt even by 
those who do not fully appreciate the skill and labour they required ; 
and no better proof could be afforded of the substantial benefits arising 
from such an institution as the British Association, than that of having 
originated such an inquiry. 

On the subject of Heat, Dr. Hudson, of Dublin, has detailed some 
experiments, the tenor of which he considers incompatible with the com- 
monly received theory respecting its radiation, which we owe to Pro- 
fessor Prevost, of Geneva, inasmuch as their tendency would be to esta- 
blish that cold is equally radiated with heat — a result inconsistent 
with the notion of the former being a negative quality. Without pro- 
fessing himself a convert to the views of Professor Leslie, who supposed 
heat to be radiated in consequence of the alternate expansion and con- 


traction of the air around, producing a series of aerial pulses. Dr. Hud- 
son considers that their particular experiments appear more reconcileable 
to his than to Prevost's theory, and, therefore, that the former deserves 
to be further investigated. 

In compliance with a wish expressed by the Meteorological Commit- 
tee, Dr. Apjohn has investigated the theory of the Wet-bulb Hygrometer, 
and communicated an account of his experiments on this subject at the 
Dublin Meeting. His paper, having been already published in the 
Transactions of the Dublin Academy, does not appear in our Report, 
which, however, contains two very interesting communications on sub- 
jects of Meteorology. 

Mr. Snow Harris has presented a statement of the variations of the 
thermometer at the Plymouth Dock-yard, as noted down by the war- 
dens and officers of the watch, during every hour of the day and night, 
commencing on the 1st of May, 1832, and terminating in December, 
1834, which are also checked by a concurrent series of thermometrical 
observations, registered every two hours, at the request of the Associa- 
tion, by the late lamented Mr. Harvey. 

Thus have been afforded us, for two complete years, obsen'ations to 
contrast with those taken during 1834 and 1835, at Leith Fort, under 
the superintendence of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

Mr. Snow Harris has deduced from an average of these obser\'ation3 
the following important results : — 

1st, The mean temperature of various seasons, as well as that of the 
entire year. 

2ndly, The daily progression of temperature. 

Srdly, The two periods of each day at which the mean temperature 

4thly, Tlie relation between the mean temperature of the whole twenty- 
four hours, and that of any single hour. 

5thly, The average daily range for each month. 

6thly, The form of the cur\'es described by the march of the tempera- 
ture between given periods of the day and night. 

In this manner has been accomplished one of the first undertakings 
suggested by the British Association to its members, and promoted by 
its funds, and the true form of the diurnal and annual curves in an im- 
portant station of our southern coast been attained, as a standard of 
comparison with that arrived at by Sir David Brewster in the latitude 
of Edinburgh, and from which they exhibit in the results some extremely 
curious and important discrepancies. 

Professor Phillips and, Mr. Gray have presented us with a continuation 

XXviii SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

of those curious observations on the Quantities of Rain falling at differ- 
ent elevations, which had formed the subject of two preceding commu- 
nications published in these Transactions. 

In the first series of these it had been shown by Professor PhiUips 
that the difference between the quantities of rain that fell depended on 
two conditions — 1st, the height, and 2ndly, the temperature ; the for- 
mer circumstance determining the ratio of the difference between the two 
stations, and the latter its amount. 

In the second series he showed that the ratio likewise varied at dif- 
ferent seasons. 

The present or third series presents us with a formula for expressing 
these variations, and points out its correspondence with the observations 

That the quantity of rain which falls should be greater at lower than 
at higher elevations, is a result which, though at first sight it may ap- 
pear paradoxical, is quickly perceived to harmonize with the fact, that 
drops of rain descend from a colder to a warmer atmosphere, and con- 
sequently condense a portion of the aqueous vapour which exists sus- 
pended in the lower strata. But that the rate of increase should actually 
be found reducible so nearly to a mathematical formula, is certainly far 
more than could have been expected, and its successful accomplishment 
is calculated to give us hopes that other meteorological phenomena, 
which seem at present so capricious as to baffle all calculation, may at 
length be found reducible to certain fixed principles. So far as relates 
to the rain that falls at York, the results are regarded by Professor 
Phillips as sufficiently complete, but he strongly urges the advantage of 
instituting in other spots selected in different parts of the Idngdom si- 
milar observations, which, if executed simultaneously, would mutually 
illustrate each other, and be likely to throw much additional light on 
the theory of rain, and on the distribution of vapour at different 

An important practical paper has been published in our Transactions 
of this year by Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson, on the effect of impact upon 
beams. It is a continuation of some researches which he communicated 
at the preceding Meeting, on the collision of imperfectly elastic bodies. 
In these experiments he had laid down the general principles relating 
to the collision of bodies of different natures, and had obtained amongst 
other results the following, — namely, that all rigid bodies possess some 
degree of elasticity, and that amongst bodies of the same class the hard- 
est arc generally the most clastic. 

It remained to be seen whether this difference in elasticity influenced 


the force of their impact, and this he has shown in his present memoir 
not to be the case, the hardest and most elastic substances producing 
no more eflfect upon a beam than any soft inelastic body of equal weight. 
Various other conclusions of much practical as weU as theoretical im- 
portance are stated in the above paper, and the results are severally 
borne out by an elaborate and careful series of experiments. 

Our Foreign Associate, Mons. Quetelet, has presented to us a sketch 
of the progress and actual state of the Mathematical and Physical Sci- 
ences in Belgium, of interest, not only from the information it conveys, 
but likewise as the contribution of a distinguished foreigner, who had 
evinced already his respect for this Association, by attending one of its 
meetings. The appearance of this Report, together with that published 
in the preceding volume by Professor Rogers, of Philadelphia, on the 
Geology of North America, I regard as a new proof of our prosperity. 
It shows that the Association has begun to exert an influence over the 
progress of Science, extending even beyond the sphere which, by its 
name of British, it claims for its own ; and that it has enlisted in its be- 
half the sympathies not only of our Transatlantic brethren, who speak 
the same language and boast of a common extraction, but likewise of 
those Continental nations, from whom we had so long been severed. 

On the subject of Chemistry, our transactions of this year contain 
only a short report by Dr. Turner, explanatory of the sentiments of the 
members of the Committee which had been appointed the preceding 
year, to consider whether or not it would be possible to recommend some 
uniform system of Notation which, coming forward under the sanction 
of the most distinguished British chemists, might obtain universal recog- 
nition. In the discussion which took place when this subject was 
brought before us at Dublin, three systems of Notation were proposed, 
differing one from the other no less in principle than in the end proposed 
by their adoption. 

The first was that suggested by the venerable founder of the Atomic 
Theory, Dr. Dalton, who aimed at expressing by his mode of notation, 
not merely the number of atoms of each ingredient which unite to form 
a given compound, but likewise the very mode of their union, the sup- 
posed collocation of the different particles respectively one to the other. 
He proposed, therefore, a sort of pictorial representation of each com- 
pound which he specified, just as in the infancy of writing each sub- 
stance was indicated, not by an arbitrary character, but by a sign 
bearing some remote resemblance to the object itself. This, therefore, 
may be denominated the Hieroglyphical mode of Chemical Notation ; 
it was of great use in the infancy of the Atomic Theory, in familiarizing 


the minds of men of science to the mode in which comhinations take 
place, and thus paved a more ready way to the reception of this import- 
ant doctrine. Even now it may have its advantages in conveying to 
the mind of a learner a clearer notion of the number and relation of the 
elements of a compound body one to the other ; and in those which con- 
sist only of two or three elements a symbolic representation after Dr. 
Dalton's plan might be nearly as concise as any other. But it would 
be difficult, consistently with brevity, to express in this manner any of 
those more complicated combinations that meet us in every stage of 
modern chemiced inquiry, as for instance in the compounds of Cyano- 
gen, or in the proximate principles of organic life. 

The second mode of Notation is that, in which the method adopted 
in Algebra is applied to meet the purposes of Chemistry. This method, 
whilst it is recommended by its greater perspicuity, and by its being in- 
telligible to all educated persons, has the advantage also of involving 
no hypothesis, and being equally available by individuals who may have 
taken up the most opposite views of the collocation of the several atoms, 
or who dismiss the question as altogether foreign to their consideration. 
Tliis, therefore, may be compared to the alphabetical mode of writing 
in use amongst civilized nations ; the characters indeed may differ, the 
words formed by a combination of these characters may be very various, 
but the principles on which they are put together to express certain 
sounds and ideas are in all countries the same. 

The third method of Notation, which has been recommenced by the 
authority of several great Continental chemists, and especially of Berze- 
lius, resembles rather a system of short-hand than one of ordinary writing ; 
its express object being to abbreviate, so far as is consistent with per- 
spicuity, the mode of Notation last described. But although most che- 
mists may find it convenient to employ some of these abbreviated forms 
of expression, it seems doubtful whether any particular amount of them 
can be recommended for general adoption, since the necessity for it will 
vary according to the habits of the individual, the nature of his inqui- 
ries, and the objects for which his notes are designed. 

A chemist, for example, the character of whose mind enables him 
quickly to perceive, and clearly to recollect minute distinctions, may 
find a much more abbreviated style of notation convenient, than would 
be at all advisable to others ; one who is engaged in the analysis of or- 
ganic compounds will be more sensible of the utility of such symbols, 
than another who is conversant chiefly with a less complicated class of 
combinations ; and one who notes down the results of his experiments 
for the benefit of private reference, and not with any immediate view to 


others, may indulge in a more concise and complex system of notation, 
than would be convenient, where either of the latter objects were con- 

As the shortest road is proverbially not always the most expeditious, 
so in Chemical Notation more time may often be lost in correcting our 
own blunders and those of the compositor, where dots and commas of 
many sorts are introduced in the place of initial letters to express cer- 
tain elements, than was gained by the more compendious method of 
expression employed. Add to which, in the preference given to one 
set of dots over another, or in the particular collocation of them, above, 
below, or at the side of, the symbol to which they are referred, we have 
no fixed principle to guide us, and can therefore only be determined by 
the greater or less frequent adoption of one method than of another. 

Perhaps, therefore, all that can be hoped from a Committee of British 
Chemists would be, to set forward the various uses of some system of 
Chemical Notation, the purposes for which each of those brought before 
them seems chiefly applicable, and the degree of prevalence which one 
has obtained over the rest. 

If I may be allowed to offer my own humble opinion on a point wMch 
has been so much debated amongst British chemists, I should remark, 
that for the purpose of rendering more intelligible to beginners the 
mode in which various bodies are supposed to combine, the Daltonian 
method of Notation may still be of use, just as pictorial representation 
often comes in aid of verbal description to convey the idea of a com- 
plex object ; but that where the design is to state in the clearest and 
least hypothetical terms, the nature of a series of combinations, a mode 
of notation as closely as possible approaching to that adopted in algebra 
seems preferable — remembering always, that as in algebra we omit cer- 
tain signs for the sake of greater brevity, so it may be allowable to do 
in applying its principles to Chemistry ; these abbreviations being of 
course the most advisable in cases, where, by reason of the greater num- 
ber of elements involved, the expression of them at whole length would 
occupy so much space, as to prevent the whole from being compre- 
hended at a glance. 

The above remarks will not, I believe, be found inconsistent with the 
spirit of the brief report which Dr. Turner has communicated, and 
which is to the following effect : — 

1st. That the majority of the Committee concur in approving of the 
employment of that system of Notation which is already in general use 
on the Continent, though there exist among them some difference of 
opinion on points of detail. 


2ndly. That they think it desirable not to deviate in the manner 
of notation from algebraic usage, except so far as convenience requires. 

And 3dly. That it would save much confusion If every chemist would 
state explicitly the exact quantities which he intends to represent by 
his symbols. 

But I must hasten on to those few other Reports which the present 
volume contains, but on which I shall have the less to say, as they re- 
late to subjects connected vdth Anatomy and Physiology, of less general 
interest to a mixed audience. 

Dr. Jacob has replied to a query proposed by the Zoological Com- 
mittee at a former meeting with respect to the uses of the infra-orbital 
cavities in Deers and Antelopes, and has pronounced them to be de- 
signed as the receptacles of a peculiar odoriferous secretion. 

Dr. Hodgkin and Dr. RoupeU have detailed a series of experiments 
and observations relative to the specific mode of action of acrid poisons, 
which, whether at once introduced into the stomach, or the circulation, 
by injection into the veins, seem to operate primarily in the same man- 
ner, as irritants to the mucous membrane. 

The Dublin Sub-Committee appointed for the purpose, have given 
in a report connected with a subject of great pathological interest, 
respecting which none, but the experienced medical practitioner, ought 
to pretend to pass a decided judgment. 

Nevertheless, when I look back to the early period of my own pro- 
fessional studies, and recollect the obscurity in which diseases of the 
heart appeared then to be involved, when their remedy seemed so de- 
sperate, as to suggest to one of the most distinguished writers on the 
subject the motto " Hceret lateri lethalis arundo " as appropriate to his 
work, and as significant of the probabilities of cure, and when their 
very nature was known but partially, and could only be guessed at by 
methods purely empirical, — ^^vhen I recollect all this, I cannot refrain 
from congratulating those of my brethren who are engaged in the duties 
of the profession from which I am myself a deserter, on the discovery 
of a new instrument of investigation in diseases of this nature, the use 
of which, being foimded on physiological principles, seems susceptible 
of greater improvement, and more extended application, in proportion 
as our knowledge of the animal ceconomy advances. 

But in order properly to avail ourselves of the indications of disease 
afforded by the differences of sound transmitted through the integu- 
ments by the heart, it is necessary that we should be acquainted with 
the nature of its pulsations, and of the sounds occasioned by them in a 
healthy state, and this information it has lieen the object of the Dublin 



Sub-committee to embody in the report which was communicated, by 
them last year to the Medical Section. 

Such are the principal contents of the volume which records the 
scientific labours instituted at the express suggestion of the general 
body, and prepared for its last Meeting ; but, exclusively of these, 
many very valuable and elaborate investigations were submitted to the 
several Sections without any such solicitation. 

I may instance in particular the views with respect to the classifica- 
tion and the geological distribution of Fishes, expounded to us with so 
much ability by Mons. Agassiz, whose important labours might perhaps 
have been suspended, but for the timely assistance dealt out to him by 
this body, and the opportunities which its Meetings afforded, for giving 
them that publicity which they deserved. 

I may point out likewise the important results submitted to the Geo- 
logical Section by Mr. Murchison and Professor Sedgwick, with refer- 
ence to the Silurian formations of Wales and Shropshire, and the mul- 
titude of facts illustrative of the physical structure of Ireland, which 
were elicited by the exhibition of Mr. Griffith's Geological Map, an 
undertaking which, coupled with the researches of Mr. Mackay on the 
plants indigenous to that country, promises to render us as well ac- 
quainted with the Natural History of this portion of the Empire, as we 
already are with respect to Great Britain itself. 

Nor must I forget the researches on Comparative Anatomy laid be- 
fore the Medical Section by Dr. Houston, who pointed out the existence 
of reservoirs connected with the veins leading to the lungs in the Ce- 
tacea — an admirable contrivance, by which Nature has provided for the 
unobstructed circulation of their blood, in spite of the enormous pressure 
which they have to sustain at the great depths to which they are wont 
to dive. 

The Members of the Association had also the satisfaction of witness- 
ing the ingenious manner in which Mr. Snow Harris contrives to render 
quantities of Electricity appreciable by the balance, like those of any 
gross material substance ; whilst such as could enter upon the more re- 
fined branches of mathematical analysis must have listened with pro- 
found interest to the exposition given by Professor Hamilton, of the 
ingenious labours of Mr. Jerrard, of this city, in solving Equations of 
the higher orders. 

What proportion of such inquiries may be attributable to the influ- 
ence of this Association, and how much might have been merely the 
VOL. V. — 1836. c 


result of that increased taste for physical research to which the Asso- 
ciation itself owes its existence, I do not pretend to determine ; this, 
however, at least must be allowed, that many of the most important 
truths communicated might have been long in winning their way to 
general recognition, and in ridding themselves of those exaggerated and 
mistaken views, which are the common accompaniments of every infant 
discovery, had it not been for the opportunities which these Meetings 
afford, of examinining the very authors of them, with respect to their 
own inquiries ; of confronting them with others who have prosecuted 
similar trains of research ; of questioning them with respect to the 
more doubtful and difficult points involved ; and of obtaining from them, 
in many instances, an exhibition of the very experiments by which they 
had been led to their conclusions. 

And it is this personal intercourse with the authors of these great 
revolutions in Science, which in itself constitutes one of the principal 
charms of these meetings. Who would not have listened with delight 
to a Newton, had he condescended to converse on the great truths of 
Astronomy ; to a Jussieu, imparting to a circle of his intimates in his 
own garden at Trianon, those glimpses with respect to the natural re- 
lations of plants, which he found it so difficult to reduce to writing ; 
or to a Linnseus, discussing at Oxford his then novel views with respect 
to the vegetable kingdom, and winning from the reluctant Dillenius a 
tardy acknowledgment of their merits ? And in like manner, who does 
not value the privilege of hearing a Dalton discourse on these occasions 
on his own Atomic Theory, or a Faraday, (who, however, I regret to 
say, is on this occasion prevented by illness from attending), explain 
orally the steps by which he has traced the relations between Electricity 
and Magnetism, although ever^' one is aware, that the principal facts, 
both with respect to the one and the other, have long since been made 
public by their respective authors, and have been abundantly commented 
upon by others. 

And nowhere, perhaps, is it more desirable to instil those sentiments 
to which I have alluded, than within the precincts of those provincial 
cities which the Association now proposes to visit. The inhabitants of 
those great emporiums of Commerce and Manufactures are indeed often 
enough reminded, that processes directed by the guidance of Chemistry 
and Mechanics constitute the very basis of their prosperity, but they 
are too apt to regard these and other kindred sciences, as the instru- 
ments merely of material wealth, and to deem it superfluous to prose- 
cute them further than they are seen to conduce to that one end. 

That such notions are short-sighted, even with reference to the prac- 


tical applications of the Arts, it would not be difficult to show ; but I 
am ambitious to place the question on a higher ground, and the presence 
amongst us of such individuals as I have mentionfed, will do more to- 
wards that object than volumes of argument would effect. It will con- 
vince us at least, that other roads to distinction, besides that of mere 
wealth, are opened to us through the instrumentality of the Sciences ; 
for although, thanks to the spirit of the age, which in this respect at 
least stands advantageously distinguished from those preceding it, the 
discoverers of important truths are not, as heretofore, allowed to lan- 
guish in absolute poverty, yet the debt which society owes to them 
would be but inadequately paid, were it not for the tribute of respect 
and admiration which is felt to be their due. 

It has indeed been sometimes objected, that too large a share of 
public attention is in this age directed to the Physical Sciences, and 
that the study of the human mind, the cultivation of literature, and the 
progress of the Fine Arts have been arrested in consequence. In what 
degree the accusation is well founded, this is not the place to inquii'e, 
although, when we look round upon the many literary characters that 
adorn this age, we should rather suppose the remark to have arisen 
from the increasing interest in Science, than from any diminished taste 
for other studies. 

If this complaint however had any foundation in truth, it would only 
supply a stronger argument in favour of an Association like the present, 
the express object of which is to correct that narrowness of mind which 
is the consequence of limiting ourselvea to the detjiils of a single science, 
or, it may be, to a single nook and corner of one, and therefore to render 
the prevailing taste of the times more subservient to mental culture, and 
therefore a better substitute for the studies it is alleged to have super- 
seded ; — an Association too, which, with no narrow and exclusive feel- 
ing towards those pursuits which it is designed to foster, extends the 
right hand of fellowship to men of eminence in every department upon 
which the human mind can be exercised, and which would have felt 
that no higher honour could have been bestowed upon its present 
Meeting, than by the attendance of the great poet, and the great 
sculptor, who own Bristol as their native city. 

To alter indeed the character of the period in which we live, is as 
much beyond the efforts of individuals, as to fix the time of their birth, 
or the country and station in which their lot is cast ; and it is perhaps 
inevitable, that an age and country so distinguished above aU others 
for the advancement of arts and manufactures, should attach an in- 
creased importance to those sciences on which both the latter are de- 


But it is at least consolatory to reflect, that Proridence has attached 
to every one of those conditions of society through which nations are 
destined to pass, capabilities of moral and intellectual improvement, 
and that the very sciences which so amply minister to our physical en- 
joyments, also afford the means of those higher gratifications which 
spring from the exercise of the taste and imagination. Thus, although 
it may not be easy for the citizen to indulge to any extent in studies alien 
from the pursuits which engross his hours of business, yet it cannot be 
deemed incompatible with the latter to mount up to the principles of 
those sciences which are connected with the arts he practises ; to study 
their relation one to the other ; and to acquaint himself with the steps 
by which they have reached their present eminence. It cannot but be 
useful to the chemical manufacturer to study the laws of that molecular 
attraction which binds together the elements of the substances which 
he prepares ; to the mechanic to examine the process of the arts in con- 
nexion with the general laws of matter ; to the miner or land-sur\'eyor, 
to inform himself with respect to the physical structure of the globe ; 
to the agriculturist, to become acquainted with the principles of vege- 
table physiology, and the natural relations of plants. 

For my own part, intimately connected as I am, both with the first 
of the commercial cities, and also with the first of the universities, that 
welcomed the British Association within its precincts, warmly interested 
in the prosperity of both, and officiating as Local Secretary on either 
occasion, I have felt personally gratified at seeing the selection of these 
places justified by the cordiality-of our reception in both, and at wit- 
nessing the new vigour which has been infused into the Association, in 
consequence of the support it has therein received. But how much will 
that gratification be augmented if it should be found hereafter that the 
benefit in either case has been mutual ; that these Meetings have ce- 
mented those bonds of union between the academical and the commer- 
cial portion of the British community, which it is so desirable to main- 
tain ; and that, whilst the University to which I belong has reaped ad- 
vantage, by having its attention called to the interest felt in the phy- 
sical sciences generally throughout the kingdom, my fellow-citizens 
here will in like manner catch the spirit which pervades our body, and 
will engage in the pursuit of knowledge, with a juster conception of its 
high objects, and with a zeal and devotion to its cause, which will not 
be less jiractically useful, because it is stimulated by a more disinter- 
ested love of truth ; less capable of ministering to the operation of the 
arts, because it is also rendered subservient to mental discipline and im- 
provement I 



Report on the Present State of our Knoivledf/e luith respect to 
Mineral and Thermal Waters. By Charles Daubexy, 
M.B., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., ^c. Professor of Chemistry and 
of Botany, Oxford. 

The term " Mineral Water," in its most extended sense, com- Definition. 
prises everj^ modification existing in nature of that universally- 
diffused fluid^ whether considered with reference to its sensible 
properties, or its action upon life. For as every agent which 
affects the animal system in a peculiar manner, must be pre- 
sumed to possess something in its constitution which is wanting 
in others, the circumstance of any remarkable medicinal virtue 
residing in a spring ought, if well established, to be regarded^ as 
a proof of something distinctive in its physical or chemical na- 
ture. All medicinal springs therefore Avill range themselves 
under the head, either of thermal, or of mineral waters, deriving 
their properties from the temperature tliey possess, or from some 
peculiarity of saline or gaseous impregnation ; but the subject- 
matter of the present Report embraces a much wider field than 
this, including the consideration of every other description of 
water, whether circulating through the atmosphere, collected in 
the ocean, or distributed over the surface of our continents. 

The former of these, however, or atmospheric water, as being 1st. Atmo- 
the purest form of any which nature presents, will supply us 'P'^' 
with the fewest materials for comment. I ought however to 
notice the reported detection in it of small quantities, of iron, 
nickel, manganese, of certain ammoniacal compounds, and of a 
peculiar organic substance chemically different from the extrac- 
tive matter and the gluten of plants and animals, ■which from its 
yellowish brown colour has been called pyrrhine. 

VOL. V. 1836. B 


fl SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

According to the statement of Zimmermann*, formerly Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry at Giessen, all the above matters are to be 
found in snow-water, but pyrrhine was first detected in a red 
shower of rain which fell at that town in 1821. The Avater that 
contained it was of a peach red colour, and flakes of a hyacinthine 
tinge floated on its surface. This latter was the substance de- 
signated by the above name. 

Some of these results have been since confirmed by Dr. Wit- 
tingt, of Hoxter on the Weser, who declares, that he has ten times 
examined the rain-water from his own neighbourhood, and that 
whilst in seven trials he found it destitute of fixed principles, in 
three he detected in it foreign matter, which in one case proved 
to be muriate of potash, and in the other two free muriatic acid. 
He also found the air collected from elevated spots on the Hartz 
mountains to contain the same organic principle which Zimmer- 
mann had designated as pyrrhine, thus confirming the probabi- 
lity of its existence in rain-water. 

He remarked, that the atmosphere of a place contained in 
general the same foreign ingredients which the first fall of rain 
brings to the ground, such, for example, as traces of muriates, 
"if free muriatic and carbonic acids, and of carburetted hydrogen 
gas. Rain which fell during a north-west wind connnonly con- 
tained much carbonic, together with traces of phosphoric, acid. 
The latter was discovered on several occasions in rain which 
had fallen during particular states of the weather; and Dr. 
Witting goes on to state, that certain plants exhale it, so that 
when they are confined under glass, traces of this acid may be 
detected on the internal surface of the latter. 

In four out of twelve trials snow was found to exhibit signs 
of muriatic acid, and of an organic colouring matter. Hal! and 
sleet collected in the spring of 1824 contained a large quantity 
of this latter substance, but none either of the acids nor the salts 
above mentioned. Dew showed vestiges of nitric and muriatic 
acids, but in hoar-frost no signs of any extraneous matter were 

Upon the whole then it may be observed, that of the above 
circumstances, the one relating to the existence of organic mat- 
ter in atmospheric water is best substantiated ; and this has more 
lately been ascribed by the distinguished Ehrenberg to the ova 
of a ipartlcular class of Infusoria (the Polygastrica), which, being 
raised by currents and by evaporation, fill the atmosphere, and 
thus produce the pyrrhine observed by chemists X- The presence 
of salts and of acids, in the atmosphere, and consequently in 
water derived from it, is also supported by sufficient evidence. 

* Kastner's Arcliiv., vol. ii. t Kastner's Arcliiv, vol. v. 

\ Ehrenberg in Jameson's Journal for 1831, "on Blood-red Water." 



Nitric acid, indeed, seems to be spontaneously generated from 
its elements under certain circumstances as yet but i)iiperfectly 
understood, as during the decomposition of water by ^•oltaic 
electricity*, and in the case of the formation of nitre on walls. 
We need not, therefore, be astonished to find it sometimes pre- 
sent in atmospheric water. Common salt is also taken up in 
small quantities by aqueous vapour, and the same is the case 
with many other alkaline and earthy compounds. 

But the existence of metallic bodies in the atmosphere re- 
quires further confirmation, although I am not disposed to reject 
the statements of Zimmermann on this point as altogether un- 
worthy of examination. Fax-aday indeed has shown f, that such 
matters cannot be suspended there by the mere repulsive force 
of heat, since every substance, according to his experiments, 
possesses a certain fixed point, below which no spontaneous vo- 
latilization of its particles takes place, and the limit of volati- 
lity in these metals greatly surpasses the highest temperature 
which the atmosphere ever attains. 

Still, however, it becomes a distinct question, whether such 
bodies may not exist there bj^ virtue of their affinity for others ; 
and experiments recently made in Italy seem to show, that in 
some manner or otlier they are so suspended. Thus, FusinieriJ 
has stated, that electrical light carries with it metallic bodies in 
a state of incandescence, and that ordinary lightning deposits 
upon the substances with which it comes into contact, sulphur, 
and iron, in a metallic, as well as in an oxidized, condition. 
Hence according to him arises the smell which always accom- 
panies thunder, and hence the pulverulent m.atter deposited 
round the fractures occasioned in those solid bodies which the 
lightning traverses. 

The connexion of these researches with the origin of meteoric 
stones is too obvious to require our ij3sisting on ; and hence it 
becomes of the more importance that some fresh experiments 
and observations should be set on foot, in order that the ques- 
tion may be finally determined. 

To conclude my account of the foreign bodies met with in 
meteoric water, I may mention, that the fact of carbui-etted hy- 
drogen having been detected in the water of rain, snow, aiid 
hail, is the more credible, inasmuch as Boussingault§ has found 
this same gas in the atmosphere surrounding large cities. 

With respect to sea-water, the next modification of this fluid 2ndiv. Wa- 
ter of Seas. 
* See Davy's Experiments, 1S07, Philosophical Transactions, 
f Plvhsophical Tfansactions, vol. cxvi. p. 2. 
X Becquerel, Traite d' Ekciricite, vol. iii. p. 157. 
§ Annales de CkimiP. 

B 2 

4 SIXTJI REPORT — 183(5. 

which I shall notice, the only new mineral substances disco- 
vered in it are, potash by Dr. Wollaston, iodine by Pfaff, and 
bromine by Balard. The quantity of the two former is so mi- 
nute, that the variation of either in different seas still remains 
undetermined ; but the proportion of bromine is considerable 
enougli to admit of being measured with something like pi-eci- 

I have myself found it to vary considerably in different sam- 
ples which I examined. 

Thus, 1 gallon of sea- water, taken off Cowes, afforded of bro- 
mine 0*915 grain ; in the Bay of Naples, 0*925 grain; off the 
coast near Marseilles, 1*260 grain. 

I have since examined two specimens of sea- water taken on the 
line, the former in long. 21° 30' west, the latter in long. 84° 30' 
east, and in both cases detected a larger proportion of bromine 
than in any of those above mentioned. In one sample, indeed, 
the quantity indicated was so large, that I suspect some error 
to have crept into the analysis, and therefore forbear quoting it j 
in the other, which probably was correct, it amounted to no less 
than 1*7 grain to the gallon. 

I mention these facts merely to stimulate inquiry, deeming 
them too few to allow of my grounding any inference at present 
upon them. It may be right however to state, that the quantity 
of bromine did not depend upon the greater amount of saline 
matter in some of the specimens than in others, this being found 
always very nearly to agree. 

With respect to the proportions of the latter present in differ- 
ent seas, it has been remarked by Dr. Marcet*, that the south- 
ern ocean contains more salt than the northern, in the ratio of 
1*02919 to r02757j and that the proportion present in the water 
at the equiitor holds the middle place between the two. 

This corresponds with my own experiments, which indicated 
a difference in that respect between the water of the equator 
taken from long. 84° 30' east of Greenwich, and that from the 
Bay of Naples at a considerable distance from land, off the 
island of Ischia, about as 100 to 95*5 ; whilst the water taken 
from the line, in the Atlantic, in long. 2 1° 30' west, was still Salter, 
being to that obtained in east longitude as 107"5 to 1000. 

This latter result agrees with one of the conclusions deduced 
by Lenzf, who accompanied Kotzebue in his expedition round 
the world, from a series of observations made by him during his 

That naturalist ascertained by numerous experiments : 

1st. That the Atlantic Ocean is salter than the South Sea, and 

• Philosophical Transactions, vol. cxii. 
t Edinburgh Jnunial of Science, 1832. 


that the Indian Ocean, wliich unites the two, is salter on the 
west where it approaches the Atlantic, than on the east where 

joins the South Sea. 

2nd. That in each of these oceans there exists a maximum 
point of saltness towards the north, and another towards the 
south, the first heing further from the equator than the second. 
The minimum between these two points in the Atlantic is found 
to be a few degrees south of the equator ; in the Pacific it still 
remains to be determined. 

3rd. In the Atlantic the western portion is more salt than the 
eastern ; in the Pacific, the saltness does not appear to vary. 

4th. In proceeding northwards from the point at which the 
saltness is at its maximum, the specific gravity of the water di- 
minishes constantly as the latitude increases. 

5th. From the equator to 45° north latitude, the sea-water, 
from the surface to the depth of 1000 fathoms, continues uni- 
form in saltness. 

This last conclusion, however, must not be looked upon as instru- 
fuUy established, since the instruments, by means of which sea- "lents for 
water has hitherto been drawn from great depths, are considered Wate'"from 
by the best judges very faulty in their construction, and inca- depths. 
pable of affording trustworthy results. Such was the opinion 
expressed by Dr. Marcet*, after examining those that had been 
invented up to the period at which he wrote ; and such more 
recently was the impression of M. Aragofj who hence was led 
to I'ecommend, to the navigators of the French discovery ship, 
the Bonite, an instrument for the same purpose of M. Blot's in- 
vention, which is on a different plan from those hitherto em- 

The description given of this contrivance by M. Arago is in 
itself very brief, and is unaccompanied by a plate. Possibly, 
therefore, I maj'^ not have understood every part of its con- 
struction, but upon the best consideration I was able to give 
to the subject, it appeared to me that some parts of the instru- 
ment might admit of improvement. 

I consequently designed an apparatus framed on a similar 
principle to that of M. Biot, but provided neither with a spring 
to exclude the external watei-, nor with a stopcock and bladder 
to receive the compressed gas, both which objects were fulfilled 
by means of a small hollow cap of brass, which being attached to 
a conical stopper, accurately ground to the hole in the bottom of 
the instrument through which the water was admitted, dropped 
down upon this aperture when the vessel was inverted, and 
thus at the same time would cut off all communication with the 

* Philosophical Tranc-aclions, 1819. t Jnnv.airc, 1836. 


external water, and would receive any air, whicli upon the re- 
moval of the pressure might escape from the body of the vessel. 

This instrument has been exhibited at the Mechanical Section, 

but I am loth to occupy more space in its description, until it 

has been put to the test of experiment in the open sea *. 

Gases pre- The gaseous contents of sea-water, which wilii an apparatus 

sent in Sea- of this description may be collected and examined, have not as 

water. y^^ received the attention they appear to deserve. 

I\I. Arago remarks, that oxygen predominates over azote in 
the surface water both of the sea and of rivers f, and likewise in 
that of the Mediterranean even at a depth of 1000 metres ;]:. 
This latter observation, however, is rendered doubtful by the 
imperfection of the means hitherto employed for drawing up 
water from the sea; and supposing it correct, still, as M. Arago 
remarks, we are left in the dark, as to whether the same law holds 
good at greater depths. 

The determination of this point, hov/evcr, is of the more im- 
portance, inasmuch as some observers have supposed the bub- 
bles of gas, which occasionally rise up througli the sea in the 
vicinity of volcanos, as, for example, off the coast of Sicily, to 
have been disengaged from sea-vvater ; now these bubbles, un- 
like what would have been the case, had they been derived from 
the air existing in tlie surface-water, were found to contain a 
predominance of nitrogen gas§. The pressure exercised upon 
sea-water at great depths would also enable it to hold in solution 
much larger quantities of air, tb.e presence of which, supposing 
it to consist in part of carbonic acid, might cause the waters to 
dissolve a greater amount of carbonate of lime, and thus afford 
a more abundant supply of that ingredient to the numerous 
moUuscfe, that are building up extensive calcareous formations 
within the ocean. 

Water of Inland seas and lakes may be divided into those vt'hich pos- 

Lakes. scss an outlet, and those which are destitute of one. 

The water of the former commoidy corresponds with that of 
the rivers which flow into them; that of the latter contains in 
general the same ingredients as sea- water, but in a state of much 
greater concentration. 

* This apparatus lias since been tried off Margate in water of 50 feet in 
depth, and appeared to answer perfectly. 

t The most recent experiments en this subject are those of Dr. Thomson, 
(Records of General Science for Sept. 1836,) who found that the air contained 
in Clyde water consisted of 70-9 azote, 29' 1 oxygen, and that when a 
mixture of the two gases v/as placed over water, the oxygen was absorbed 
much more readily and in larger quantities than the azote. 

I Annuaire, 1836. 

'5' Philosophical IVa/isaclions, 1834. 


Thus, 500 grains of the water of the lake Ourmia in the pro- 
vince of Azerbijan in Persia, contains, according to Dr. Marcet, 
111 grains of salt *, and a similar quantity from the Dead Sea 
192*5 grains, whereas the largest quantity present in the ocean 
does not seem to exceed 21*3 grains. 

In quality the saline ingredients found in these lakes seem to 
differ very little from those of sea- water, but Lake Ourmia con- 
tained a larger proportion of sulphates, whilst the Dead Sea is 
f jund to be entirely destitute of them. 

Prof. Henry Rose has lately examined the water of Lake Elton 
in Asiatic Russia, and has found it to possess a specific gravity 
of 1*27288, and to contain neai'ly 30 per cent, of saline matter, 
which approaches nearly to the quantity present in the Lake 

In this, muriate of magnesia was the prevailing ingrediejit, a 
circumstance doubtless attributable to the extreme concentration 
of the solution, which is such as to have brought about a pre- 
cipitation of the greater part of the less soluble ingredients. 
Hence rock salt is formed in thick beds, at the bottom and on the 
sides of this and of several other lakes adjoining the Caspian. 
The sea or estuary of Ohhotsk, with which are connected the 
brine springs of Irhoutzk, in Asiatic Russia, contains an in- 
gredient not found in the cases before alluded to, namely, mu- 
riate of alumina, with which is associated a large quantity of 
other deliquescent earthy muriates, ingredients which render 
the salt obtained from them unwholesome f. 

With respect to the borax lakes of Thibet, we possess no in- 
formation capable of throwing light on the cause of their pecu- 
liar mineral impregnation. 

Proceeding next to the subject of mineral waters properly so , ., ,,r 
called, I shall notice the circumstances relating, 1st, to their teiof" 
temperature ; 2ndly, to their chemical constitution ; and 3rdly, Springs. 
to their effects upon the animal economy. 

With respect to the first point, much confusion has arisen in Their Ten»« 
the application of the term "thermal" to springs. By some, perature. 
that epithet has been applied to those only, which exceed con- 
siderably the average temperature of the springs of the country; 
by others, to such as reach some arbitrary point in the scale. 
It appears to me however, that the only precise mode of pro- 
ceeding will be, to call every spring thermal which surpasses 
ever so little the average temperature of the country in which it 
is situated ; and in constructing a scale of temperatures with re- 
gard to them, to calculate it, not by their actual warmth, but by 
the degree of their excess above the mean of the climate. Thus, 

* Philosnxihkal Transactions, 1819. t -^nnales de Chhnic, vol.xli. 

8 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

a thermal spring having the temperature of 90° in this country, 
ought to stand higher in the scale than one of 100'' in Mexico, 
and a spring at 70° might justly be termed thermal in the one 
latitude, but not in the other. 

It is on this principle that I have constructed a table, which 
will appear at the close of this Report, conceiving, that although 
the exact mean temperature of the locality can in many instances 
be only guessed at, and in the majority must not be regarded as 
fully determined, still no error need arise from my mode of ex- 
pression, as the ascertained temperature of each spring may be 
readily computed, by simply adding the number which gives the 
assumed mean temperature of the spot, to that indicating the 
excess of heat inferi-ed to belong to the spring itself. 

Now Prof. Bischof of Bonn* has remarked, that in almost 
every case the temperature of mineral springs (amongst which 
we of course do not include land springs, or waters derived from 
a superficial source,) is such, as places them, according to the 
definition just given, amongst thermal ones ; and indeed the 
mere circumstance of a difference in this respect existing among 
them is in itself a strong presumption that such is the case ; for 
it is evident that, except where a spring has its origin in certain 
high mountains adjoining, the coldest of the series will approach 
nearest to the mean temperature of the locality, whilst the re- 
maining ones must derive their excess of warmth from some in- 
dependent cause. 

Tluis Bischof examined about twenty springs near the Lake 
of Laach, and found the temperature of the coldest of them to 
exceed that of the place by nearly 2 j degrees of Fahrenheit. 

This rule held good even amongst the springs of countries 
like Hessia, Hanover, Bavaria, and Wurtemberg, where no such 
decided indications of recent volcanic action exist. 

The same remark applies likewise to Artesian wells. Thus 
the temperature of forty-eight springs bored in and near Vienna, 
was found by observations made in November 1820, to fall be- 
tween 52°'25 and 57°*2, whereas the mean temperature of Vi- 
enna is only 50°"80. 

It would be important, if such observations were followed up 
in other portions of the globe, as well as within the comparatively 
limited range to which Prof. Bischof's statements apply. In 
some countries, for instance, where volcanic action has once been 
rife, as in the Hebrides and in various parts of Scotland and Ire- 
land, one might expect some excess of temperature in the springs 
of the district over the mean of the climate ; whilst in others, 

• Edinhurgh New Philosophical Journal, April, 1836. It is to be regretted, 
that a translation of the latter portion of this valuable paper has not yet been 
publislu'd ill the above Joiiniaj. 


where volcanic phaenomena are of rare occurrence, as in the 
Scandinavian Peninsula*, Russia, and Poland, it would be well 
to learn, whether the temperature of springs more nearly corre- 
sponded with that of the climate, than is the case in the parts 
of Germany where igneous action may still be suspected. Such 
an inquiry would not be without its bearing upon those pro- 
blems concerning the origin of thermal springs in general, which 
will be discussed in a subsequent part of this Report, for if ther- 
mal springs derive their temperature from a remnant of volcanic 
energy existing beneath, they ought to be most frequent in coun- 
tries where such energy has at one time or other been mani- 
fested ; whilst if they simply proceed from a generally diflfiised 
heat pervading the interior of our planet, they might be expected 
to appear in countries of every geological structure. 

Independently, however, of the mere question, as to whether Periodical 
there be any evidence of the existence in the springs of a coun- Variations 
try of an excess of temperature beyond the mean of the climate, °ature°hi^' 
and the determination of this question by accurate thermome- Springs. 
trical observations both on the air and the spring, neither of 
which has in most cases been done in a satisfactory manner, 
two points of inquiry present themselves ; first, as to whether 
there be any periodical variation of heat in the latter from day to 
day, or at different seasons of the year ; and secondly, whether, 
in the course of the ages that have elapsed since they were first 
known, any augmentation or diminution of temperature had oc- 

Prof. Bischof t has shown, that in some cases the variations of 
external temperature do manifest themselves in the thermal 
springs of a district; but this only happens when their excess 
of heat is inconsiderable. 

A similar variation has been observed, as I am informed in a 
letter with which I was favoured from Mr. Jephson, M.P. for 
Mallow, in the thermal spring of that town, and it would be 
desirable that exact observations should elsewhere be instituted 
on the same point. 

A variation of temperature at different periods of the year has 
heen observed in the spring of Bourboulc in Auvergne X, and in 
that of Balaruc near Montpellier. 

Still more important is the question relative to the secular Secular va- 
variation of temperature in thermal waters. riation of 

In countries where traces of former or present volcanic action ^rTiT*" 
are discoverable, and where earthquakes are frequent, the tem- Springs. 

* I shall allude to Wablenberg's observations on this country in a subse- 
quent part of this Report, 
t Edinhuryh Journal, loc. cif. 
X Lecoq, Annales Scicntifiques dc I'Auveryne, 

10 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

perature of springs is often inconstant. Thus in Vene- 
zuela, Boussiiigault and Rivero* found the waters of Mariana 
64° Cent., whereas Humboldt a few 3ears before determined it 
to be 59° ; and that of Funcheras 92"°-2, which Humboldt had 
found to be 90- °4 Cent. 

But in the interval between these two observations had oc- 
curred the great earthquake, which overwhelmed the Caraccas 
and other towns situated in the western Cordilleras. 

The same explanation however cannot be extended to those 
thermal springs which are unconnected with volcanic action, and 
concerning these the testimony is of rather a conflicting nature. 
Thus Angladaf has compared the temperature often springs in 
the Pyrenees as ascertained by him in 1819, with that determined 
by Carrere sixty-five years before, and in all of them found a di- 
minution, amounting in one instance to 27°, but in the rest va- 
rying from half a degree to 7° of Fahrenheit. The same ob- 
server found an abatement of 2° in the spring of Molitg in the 
eastern Pyrenees after an interval of only two jears. 

On the other hand, it id remarkable that Berzeliust in 1822 
found the spring of Carlsbad to possess the identical temperature 
which belonged to it in 1770, according to the observations of 
Becher, viz. 164° Fahrenheit. Yet so contradictory is the evi- 
dence, that this very spring is reported by Klaprotli, at a period 
intermediate between the above two observations, as being 8° of 
temperature lower. 

With regard indeed to thermal springs in general, it must, I 
believe, be admitted, that no observations have been yet made 
with thermometers of sufficient exactness to set the question at 
rest) and I therefore conceive, that a valuable legacy has been 
bequeathed to science by Prof. Forbes in the report on the tem- 
perature of the thermal springs of the Pyrenees and others, which 
he has lately laid before the Royal Society of London, were it 
only for the pains he had previously taken in verifying, and in 
comparing with an uniform standard, the instruments he em- 

In the absence, hoAvever, of direct experiments, we may be 
authorized on general grounds to presume, that the temperature 
of thermal springs, in countries not exposed to present volcanic 
operations, undergoes no sensible change during a long period 
of time. 

If any change did take place, it would probably be from a 
higher to a lower degree, rather than the reverse; and as several 
of the thermal springs which were knovvu and resorted to by the 

* Aiinales de Chimie, 1. xxiii. p. 274. 

+ Mhnoires sur les Eaux Mineralcs, 1S27, p. 65. 

i Aiinahs de Chimin, t. xxviii. 


ancients, such as Aix, Mont Dor*, Plombieres, and Bath, re- 
tain at present a lieat as great as is tolerable to the human bod)-, 
it seems evident, that if they had been only in a slight degree 
hotter in the time of the Romans, they would have required to 
be cooled down by artificial means before they were employed 
for bathing, which we are not told was ever the case. 

The same question, as the one concerning the temperature of Fixed in- 
mineral springs just discussed, may also be started with respect gredients of 
to the quality and quantity of their ingredients. But before we springs. 
proceed to state what is known on this subject, it will be con- 
venient to advert to a notion at one time advanced by D()be- 
reinert, namely, that the salts present in mineral waters bear 
a certain relation as to quantity one to the other. 

Ignorant as we are of the processes by which saline substances Whether in 
are formed in the interior of the earth, it might be rash to affirm, definite 
that in a mineral water viiiich had obtained its fixed ingredients one^°o'°he 
exclusively from one spot, some fixed ratio did not obtain be- other. 
tween the respective quantities of the latter. 

But it is inconceivable, that a spring, liaving to pass through 
a great extent of rock befoi'e it reaches the surface, should not 
more commonly find certain substances to dissolve, or become 
intermixed with other currents of water in its way, and that in 
the event of either of these things happening, the relative pro- 
portions of the original ingredients should remain as before. 

If, therefore, Dobereiner were admitted to have established, 
that in a few special cases J the salts existing in a mineral water 
hold a certain definite proportion one to the other, probability 
suggests, that the circumstance is to be regarded as an exception 
merely, and not as the rule, and this inference, I believe, will be 
fully confirmed, by referring to the actual results of the analysis 
of mineral springs in general. 

Hence, without embarrassing ourselves with the consideration. Whether 

• At Rlont Dor the very bath exists which was constructed in the time ' ^ ^' 

of Caesar. 
t Uebei- die chemisrhe Constitution der Mineralioasser. Jena, 1821. 
X I confess myself unable to find any examples which establish Doberei- 
ner's rule. Let us take the Carlsbad water, to which he appeals, and suppose 
the ingredients to be in atomic proportions. The following appear to be the 
nearest approximation that can be made : 

Real amount 

Sulphate of soda 15 atoms X 72 = 1290 — 1290 

Muriate of soda 9 — X 69 = 621— 517 

Carbonate of soda 12 — X 54 = 648 — 630 

Carbonate of lime 13 — X 50 = 650— 650 

Carbonate of magnesia . . 2 — X 42 =; 84 — 86 
Here are some remarkable coincidences, it is true, but how arc the propor- 
tions of the minor ingredients to be reconciled to such a formula .' 

12 SIXTH RKPORT 1836. 

tuents of how far such a law as tliat hinted at by Dobereincr could be 
Mineral reconciled with the idea of a gradual diminution taking place in 
fronfunie'^'' *^^ Strength of the saline impregnation of a spring (which, ac- 
to time. cording to this view, ought to proceed, if at all, in regular pro- 
portions likewise), let us simply consider the weight of evidence 
in favour or against the permanency of mineral springs in this 
Cases in On the One hand, Bischof * states, that the mineral contents of 

which they the Spring of Geilnau in the Taunus mountains, as determined 
observed't ^^ himself in 1826, agree in quantity with those existing there 
be constant, thirty- tliree years before, if we believe the report of Amburger. 
According to the same author, seventy-seven years have made 
no difference in the mineral impregnation of the spring of Fa- 
chingen in the same district, and the analysis of the water of 
Selters made thirty-eight years before by Westrumb corresponds 
very nearly vvith his own. 

Berzelius too has shown, that the composition of the Carls- 
bad waters accords with the results of the analysis of Klaproth 
made thirty-three years previously. 
Cases in But, on the other hand, the Steinbad at Toeplitz contains, 

which they according to the last chemist, scarcely half the quantity of fixed 
are found to ingredients -which were present in it, according to Ambrozzi, 
^^^' thirty-three years before, and even then it was suspected that a 

diminution from an antecedent period in its saline contents had 
taken place. 

Wurzerf found the spring of Neundorf, in the wet summer of 
1833, more fully impregnated with saline matter and with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, than in the dry summer of 1814. 

Klaproth detected in 1806 carbonate of soda, carbonate of 
magnesia, and silica in the mineral water of Riepoldsau. Sult- 
zer in 1811 could not discover in it one of the above ingre- 

Westrumb in 1788 concluded, that in the Pyrmont water the 
saline matter was almost constant in quantity, being from 23 
to 24 grains in the pint, but that the proportion of the respective 
ingredients varied. In March 1788 it contained rather more 
alkaline salt, and rather less gypsum, than in June, July, and 
August ; but though the proportions of the respective salts might 
vary, the same principles always existed in it. 

Struve J remarks, that almost every new analysis of the spring 
of Marienbad affords different results as to quantity, though the 
total amount of saline matter, and the nature of the acids and 
bases present, appear invariable. 

Vidk. Mill. Qiiellen, p. 329. t See Bischof, p. 331. 

Kwistlk/teii Min. Wasser, p. 15. 




Hermann* shows, that in the brine springs of Halle the quan- 
tity of muriate of magnesia has gone on progressively increasing, 
and that of the muriate of lime diminishing, since 1798, whilst 
in those of Schonbeck the sulphate of soda each year has under- 
gone a diminution. 

With respect to our own mineral waters, there is a general 
impression, that the aperient springs, which rise so abundantly 
from the lias, become weaker when long drawn upon, and it is 
only in this way that I can reconcile the extreme discrepancy 
between the analyses of the same spring, at periods not very re- 
mote one from the other. 

Bischof remarks, that in some cases different results may have Mode of ac- 
been obtained, owing to some variation in the circumstances counting for 
under which the water had been drawn. tion/^"* 

Supposing the well to have been just before exhausted, the 
water obtained ought not to be expected to be so sti'ongly im- 
pregnated as in common, because time had not been allowed for 
that which had flowed in since to obtain its full complement of 
saline ingredients. 

In this way he accounts for a discrepancy, between the quan- 
tity of sulphate and of muriate of soda, which he detected at 
Roisdorf in September 1824, and in April 1825 ; and on the 
same principle we may explain, why the Pyrmont water was 
found to be more strongly impregnated before the season of 
taking the waters, in May, than during June and July, the 
months of fashionable resort. 

I may add, that if we suppose the respective salts to require 
different times for their solution, it may be seen, why in some 
cases the relative proportions uf the saline ingredients have ap- 
peared to varj'^, whilst the total amount continued as before ; for 
if, owing to the well having been just before much drawn upon, 
the salts which required the longest time for their solution ex- 
isted in the water in a smaller proportion than usual, that very 
circumstance might enable the water to dissolve a larger quan- 
tity of the remaining ones, so as to make good the deficiency, 
and to render the total amount of fixed ingredients nearly the 
same as usual. 

Considering, therefore, the great uncertainty that exists with Method of 
regard to this point in most cases, and the progressive condition ^f^^"^™;" 
of chemical analysis, which renders the results obtained at one question. 
period scarcely capable of accurate comparison with those of a 
succeeding one, it were to be wished, that at each of the more 
important mineral springs samples of the water were preserved 
in bottles, hermetically, or at least very closely, sealed, to be 

• Bischof, p. 334. 



tion of Mi- 
neral Wa- 

found in 

Iron witli 

opened at the expiration of a certain time, in order tliat an ana- 
lysis should be made of it, as well as of the water fresh taken 
from the spring, by some chemist of reputation ; which being 
done, and the results being duly registered, a similar sample of 
the M-ater might be set apart for examination after the lapse of 
an equal interval of time. 

If this method were adopted, the question at issue might sooa 
be determined beyond the possibility of doubt. 

Writers on mineral waters liave frequently attempted to chis- 
sify them according to the nature of their ingredients, but these 
unfortunately are so often found intermixed in all conceivable 
proportions, that no division of them into orders founded on 
such a principle can be regarded as unexceptionable. 

For medical purposes the most useful method would seem to 
be, to select, as tlae groundwork of the classification, those sub- 
stances whicli stamp upon a mineral water its peculiar value as 
a tlierapeutic agent, without regarding v.hethcr they are pre- 
dominant in quantity or not. Thus, as the most general di- 
vision, we might distinguish them into, first, alkaline or carbo- 
nated spi'ings, containing a certain proportion of carbonate of 
soda ; secondly, saline, rich in muriatic salts ; thirdly, aperieiit, 
containing the soluble sulphates ; fourthly, sulphureous, contain- 
ing sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The alkaline might then be subdivided into those witli, and 
without iron ; the saline into those with, and v.'ithout iodine and 
bromine ; the aperient into those containing the alkaline, the 
magncsian, and the aluminous sulphates; the sulphureous into 
those with free sulphuretted hydrogen, or with the hydrosulphu- 
rets. Each of their subdivisions might then be distinguished 
into two sub-orders, the thermal and cold. 

Such a classification might be convenient in a medical treatise, 
but in a scientific one we should frequently find ourselves em- 
barrassed in assigning a place to a spring, which, like those of 
the Pyrenees, partook strongly of the character of the alkaline 
class, whilst it was at the same time sulphureous ; like that of 
Wiesbaden, whilst allied to the alkaline ones in its vicinity, was 
itself strongly saline ; or like the Carlsbad, Toeplitz, Bath, and 
Ems waters, seemed from its mineral constitution to possess an 
equal claim to admission into several of the classes established. 

With respect to the particular ingredients which mineral waters 
contain, it would seem superfluous to notice in the present Re- 
port any, but those which have been either discovered, or newly 
investigated, within a short period. 

Iron in a new form of combination has been detected in the 


springs of Lucca by Sir H. Davy*; the body combined with it 
being, not the cra-bonic or sulphuric acid, but silica. 

Sir Humphry suggests, that the ochreous deposit so frequent 
in hot springs, as at Mont Dor, Bath, &c., may be a similar 
chemical compound, tlie iron originally existing in the state of 
a protoxide, but passing into that of a peroxide upon exposure 
to air. 

Though the iron however is thrown down from the water in 
this condition, it does not follow that it exists there in the same, 
since, in proportion as the carbonic acid which had upheld it 
escaped, the silica present in the water might begin to exert its 
affinity, and be carried down along with the metal. 

Iron has also been found by Dr. Thomson combined with iron with 
muriatic acid in the mineral water of Mitchill in the parish of ^^"^"'"'^ 
Nielstont, near Glasgow, and by Lachmund in the aluminous 
■water of Buckowine in Lower Silesia J. 

Manganese was discovered many years ago by Becher in the Manganese. 
springs of Cai'lsbad ; and recent observations have shown that 
it is by no means uncommon either in cold or in thermal waters. 
Thus it has been found in the chalybeates of Pyrmont§, Ma- 
rienbad. Seltzers, and Fachingen ; at Luxeuil near Paris || ; at 
Adolphsberg in Sweden; and in several springs in Russia. Also 
in the thermal waters of Carlsbad and Ems ; the sulphiu'eous 
ones of Neundorf and Eilsen ; the aperient ones of Seidschutz ; 
and the brine springs of Kreutznach. 

It has likewise been met with as a deposit from the thermal 
water of Popayan in the Andes *^. 

Zinc combined v.ith sulphuric acid has been found by Berze- Zinc. 
lius in small quantities in a mineral water at Ronneby in Swe- 
den**, probably under circumstances similar to those, under 
which copper is occasionally met with in streams flowing 
through beds of copper pyrites. 

Strontian lias been detected in the chalybeates of Seltzer ff strontian. 
and Pyrmont JJ, and in the thermal waters of Carlsbad, Konig- 
worth, Aix la Chapelle, and Borset§§. It seen:is also to exist in 
small qnantities in the springs of Bristol, it having been found, 
as I am informed, in a stalag'iiitical deposit incrusting the pipes 
that convey water to that city. 

* Anuales de Chimie, vol. xix. from the " Memoirs of the Academy of 

f Records of Science, \o\. iii. p. 418. + Bley> Taschenbiich. 

§ See Bley, Taschenbuch for the German springs. 

II Annules de Chimie, 1821. If Boussingault, Annales de Chimie, 1833. 

** Brandes' Archiv, b. xiii. as quoted by Osann. 

++ Struve, Kunstlich Miner. XX Brandes' Pyrmonfs HeilqucUen, 

§§ Bley's Taschenbvch. 

16 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

Barytes. Traces of barytes have likewise been detected by Brandes and 

Kruger in the chalybeate of Pyrmont, and by Berzelius in the 
thermal water of Carlsbad. 
Potassa and Potass was found in that of Toeplitz * and of Konigsworth in 
Lithia. Bohemia ; in the water of Bourbon Lancy, by Pavis f ; and in 
one of the Cheltenham waters, by Faraday j; whilst even Lithia 
has been discovered in several, as at Pyrmont in Westphalia § } 
at Carlsbad ||, Franzensbad, and Marienbad, in Bohemia j and 
at Rosheim near Strasburg %. 
Iodine and ^^e ingredients of salt springs in general have long been un- 
Bromine. derstood to be the same, as those which were known to exist in 
the present ocean, but upon the discovery of the two new prin- 
ciples, iodine and bromine, — iodine abundantly in various marine 
productions, and more sparingly in the ocean itself; bromine 
less commonly indeed in the former, but in much larger quan- 
tity in the latter, — chemists were naturally led to inquire, whe- 
ther the correspondence, that had before been traced between 
the actual and former constitution of these reservoirs of salt 
water extended also to the presence of the above tAvo bodies in 
them both. Accordingly Angelini searched for and discovered 
iodine in certain springs of Piedmont ** ; Vogel did the same at 
Heilbrunn in Bavaria f f ; and Turner at Bonington near Leith ; 
whilst Boussingault met with it in a spring fifteen leagues from 
Popa}'an in the Andes, eighty or ninety miles from the sea, and 
10,000 feet above its level ||. 

With regard to bromine, this principle was detected by Liebig 
at Kreutznach in the Palatinate §§ ; by Vogel |||{ at Rosenheim 
in Bavaria, and at Wiesbaden in Nassau 51 If ; by Desfosses at 
Salins, in the Department of the Jura***, and at Bourbon les 
Bains, in France ; and by Stromeyer in various springs of the 
kingdom of Hanoverf f f . 

Having also myself discovered bromine as well as iodine in 
several salt springs of South Britain, I was led to prosecute an 
extended examination of the principal ones, containing any con- 

* Berzelius, Untersitchung, translated in the Annales de Cliimie, vol. xxviii. 

t Annales de Chimie, Nov. 1827. X Journal of Science. 

§ Brandes and Kruger. II Kastner's Archiv, b. vi. 

% Edinburgh Nevj PhilosophicalJournal, for Oct. 1836. 

** Journal des Mines, vol. viii. ft Mineral Quellen desBaiern, 1825. 

\X Annales de Chimie, vol. v. 1833, or journal of the Royal Institution, N. S. 
vol. iii., from Dr. Mill." 

§§ Annales de Chimie for 1826, p. 330. 

{Ill Mineral Quellen des K. Baiern. Hlf Kastner's Archiv, vol. xiii. 

••* Ferussac's Bull, part viii. 

ttt See Schweigger's /o^^rnn/, 1827, for "A List of the Localities in which 
Bromine had been detected." 



siderable quantity of common salt, which are distributed through 
the several rocks of this country, beginning my search with the 
Silurian formations of Wales, and terminating it with the ter- 
tiary deposits of the London basin. 

In the tabular view of the constituents of these springs given 
in the paper I presented to the Royal Society * on that subject, 
and which is now published in their Transacfions, I showed, 
that although the proportions of the respective ingredients might 
vary, yet that as regards their quality, an almost entire corre- 
spondence must have obtained between the earliest accumula- 
tions of salt water and the existing ones, judging from the occa- 
sional presence of iodine and bromine in those of all ages. 

Thus both these jirinciples were found in waters issuing from 
the Silurian slates of Llandrindod and Bualt in Hadnorshire, 
and bromine, but not iodine, in those from the coal formation 
of Ashby de la Zouch, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Kingswood. 
Both principles exist in the springs issuing from lias, at Leam- 
ington, Gloucester, Tewkesbury, and Cheltenliam ; whilst in 
the aperient saline waters of Melksham, Epsom, and London, all 
of which are connected with newer rocks, iodine appeared to be 
altogether wanting, though traces of bromine were detected. 

It remains to be ascertained by a more extensive induction of 
particulars than that hitherto made, whether iodine is commonly 
deficient in springs connected with the more recent deposits ; as 
such a fact, combined with that of its scanty occurrence in our 
present seas, and its comparative abundance in strata of older 
date, might lead to some curious geological inferences. 

The proportion of iodine to water in different springs, I found 
to vary from gj^^ to ^j ^-'g gQ„ partj and to the chlorine present 
in it from 






In several of the German springs, however, the proportion 
appears to be much larger f. Thus, there have been "found, in a 
pint of the salt spring of 

of Soda. 

of Lime. 

of Mag- 

date of 










In the springs I examined, the proportion of bromine to 
water varied from ^ to 73^9 part, and to the chlorine from ~ 

to 1660" 

* Philosophical Ti-ansactions, 1830. 
t Osann, Ueber led- und Broin-haltige Min. Qmllen. 
VOL. v.— 1836. c 



The water however in which I discovered the largest quantity 
of bromine in proportion to its saline contents was that of 
Ashby de la Zouch, which contained only 179 grains of solid 
matter in the pint, and yet yielded more than half a grain of 
this principle. 

This latter result has been confirmed by Dr. Ure in a memoir 
on these springs published in the Philosophical Transactions 
for 1833. 

With respect to the salt springs of Germany, the following 
proportions of bromine and of otiier ingredients are contained 
in a pint of the water of each according to Osann. 

Brine spring of Ragozi at Kissingen 
Pandur ditto 



ftfuriate Muriate 
of Mag- 


] 8-370 



of Mag- 

of Soda. 


I 0-0410 

The entire absence both of iodine and bromine from a few of 
the very strongest brine springs we possess, those for example 
of Droitwich in Worcestershire, as was originally stated by 
mj^self, and as has been since confirmed by Dr. Hastings in 
his Memoir on that subject*, may be explained by considering, 
that in these same waters likewise all the more soluble salts 
present in the sea are of sparing occurrence. 

Hence the masses of salt, to which these springs OM^e their 
impregnation, may have been the first deposits from the satu- 
rated brine, and therefore contain chiefly muriate of soda. 

Agreeably with this explanation we find, that the lowest sali- 
ferous strata in Cheshire consist of perfectly transparent rock 
salt, without a trace either _of iodine or of bromine, whilst the 
more deliquescent muriates, together with combinations of these 
latter principles, are found plentifully in the clays and marls 

It may at first sight appear doubtful, whether (he saline ape- 
rients existing in the lias ought to be classed amongst brine 
springs, considering the larger proportion of alkaline sulphates 
and of muriate of lime belonging to them. 

In a medical point of view clearly they ought not to be so re- 
garded; for their most active, though not always their predomi- 
nant ingredients, are those very sulphates, which do not exist, 
except in minute quantity, in brine springs properly so called. 

• On the Salt Springs of Worcestershire. Worcester, 1835. 



But looking to their origin, or the materials from which they 
are derived, they must be grouped with salt springs of the com- 
mon kind, as I have shown in the memoir already quoted. 

I may appeal indeed to the authority of Mr. Murchison *^ 
when I state, that these waters, like the genuine brine springs 
of Cheshire and Worcestershire, rise out of the new red sand- 
stone formation. Hence it is probable, that their original con- 
stitution is analogous, but that during the passage of the 
water upwards through cracks and fissures in the lias clays 
overlying, the iron pyrites, which is so abundant in that stratum, 
supplies it by its gradual decomposition with the sulphuric acid 
found amongst its ingredients. 

That sulphuretted hydrogen is generated in the vicinity of 
these springs, we are assured, not only from the minute quan- 
tity of this gas observed in one or two of the Cheltenham and 
Leamington waters, but also from the strong impregnation of the 
spring of Willoughby in Warwickshire, as noticed by myself, 
and of that of Haslar in Worcestershire, reported by Dr. Hast- 

Now, if we grant the sulphuric acid to be derived from this 
source, the other differences between these saline aperients, and 
brine springs properly so called, will admit of an easy solution. 

The sulphuric acid, acting upon the several muriates, would 
form with their bases those earthy and alkaline sulphates on 
which their medicinal qualities chiefly depend ; whilst the free 
muriatic acid disengaged, attacking the calcareous rocks, would 
give rise to the production of the increased quantity of muriate 
of lime present in them. 

With respect, therefore, to the origin of the above ingredients 
modern discovery has added little to the general principle laid 
down by Pliny, " Tales sunt aquas, qualis terra per quam fluunt." 
For it seems needless to attempt tracing them further than the 
rocks from which the springs themselves issue. 

But there are other substances of occasional occurrence that 
cannot be referred to this source, so immediately, or without a 
more particular inquiry into the circumstances of their appear- 

Of this description are two acids discovered recently in mi- Phosphoric 
neral waters, namely, the phosphoric, and the fluoric, an addition ^^j.f(j^'"°"*^ 
to our knowledge for which we are indebted to the analytical 
skill of Berzelius. Subsequently, the former substance has 

• Proceedings of the Geological Society, vol. i. p. 390. 
+ Salt Springs of Worcestershire, p. 9- 
c 2 

20 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

been detected in the following springs amongst others, viz. 
the chalybeate of Hofgeismar by Wurzer, that of Pyrmont by 
Brandes, and that of Selters by Gustavus Bischoif ; and the 
latter principle at Carlsbad, Selters, Ems, Wiesbaden, and 

Now though phosphoric acid is not generally stated as a con- 
stituent of the rocks through which these springs have to pass, 
yet I am incUned to believe, that it exists in minute proportions 
in very many of those that contain organic remains. 

I have myself found traces of it in several secondary lime- 
stones ; and its existence there may be ascribed, not merely to 
the coprolites which these strata sometimes envelop, and which 
are found more or less in formations, even as high in the series 
as the Silurian rocks of this country, but likewise to the bones 
of animals, the coverings of Crustacea, and the scales of fishes * 
distributed through them. 

In granitic rocks its presence is equally implied by the occur- 
rence of minerals in which it constitutes the acidifying principle. 

The fluoric acid exists in the teeth of animals, but it would 
be absurd to attribute an organic source to its presence in the 
strata. Its origin must be looked for in the minerals which the 
primarj^ crystalline rocks contain. Thus mica and amphibole 
have been shoAvn by Bonsdorff often to contiiin small portions 
of this acidf, and fluate of lime is to be met with occasionally 
both in primary and secondary formations. 
Carbonate There is a class of springs, very common in some countries, 
of Soda, thougli scarcely found in England, which owes its peculiar pi'O- 
perties to the presence of a portion of soda, often associated 
with protoxide of iron, both of which are held in combination 
b}' carbonic acid. 

Now as carbonate of soda does not exist in any of the strata 
with which we are acquainted, its occurrence cannot be so im- 
mediately referred to the latter ; and j-et the quantity drawn from 
the bowels of the earth by the agency of springs must be very 
considerable, for Gilbert X calculates, that the water given out 
in a single year by the Carlsbad waters alone contains more 
than thirteen million pounds of carbonate of soda, and about 
twenty million pounds of its sulphate, so that Me may fairly 
reckon the annual amount of alkali extracted, under one or the 
other of these forms, to be as much as 6,746,050 pounds. 

• See Notice of Mr. Connell's Paper in the Fifth Report of the British As- 
sociation, p. 41. 

t Edinlmrt/h Philosophical Journal, vol. iv. 
J Amialen, vol. Ixxiv. p. 198. 



But it has been observed, that mineral waters of this descrip- Mode of ac- 
tion occur in many instances in connexion with felspathic fo^jt""® 
rocks, issuing either from primary sti*ata, or else from volcanic 

Now common felspar* consists, according to Dr. Thomson^ 
(Outlines of 3Iineratogy, 1836, vol. i. p. 295,) of one atom of 
trisilicate of potass, united to three atoms of trisilicate of alu- 
mina 5 glassy felspar of one atom of trisilicate of potass and 
soda, to four of trisilicate of alumina 5 whilst in albite, a mineral 
in which the ingredients are in the same proportions as in com- 
mon felspar, the potass is altogether replaced by soda. 

This latter alkali is therefore commonly traced to the felspa- 
thic rocks in contact with these waters ; and, without going into 
the elaborate calculations which Professor Bischof has thought 
fit to institute f, by way of showing, that a single mountain of 
moderate dimensions, — the Donnerburg, for example, near Mil- 
leschau in the Bohemian Mittelgebirge, — contains soda enough 
to impregnate the Carlsbad water for the space of 35,394 years, 
it will be readily granted, that where a spring is in connexion 
with volcanic or trappean materials, there can be no want of 
alkali, to supply it for any conceivable length of time with that 
portion, which is found belonging to its constitution. 

But three questions still remain to be determined, before the 
source of the alkali can be regarded as explained. 

1st. By what process does the thermal water separate this 
material from its combination ? 

2ndly. Why does not the same force which extracts the soda, 
also cause the separation of a portion of the potass, with which, 
granitic rocks at least are still more abundantly charged ? 

3rdly. How does the spring obtain its soda at all, in eases 
where it rises, either from granitic rocks containing only com- 
mon felspar, and therefore no other alkali than potass, or from 
slates and other rocks that are destitute of alkali altogether ? 

The first of these difl&culties has been elucidated, by the expe^ 

* The composition of these minerals may be expressed with greater clear- 
ness symbolically, thus : 

Common Felspar (K + 3 Si) +3 (Al -|- 3 Si), 

Glassy Felspar . P • ^ -|- 3 Si. j -f- 4 (Al" -|- 3 Si),. 

Albite (N + 3 Si) + 3 (Al -f- 3 Si). 

t I'ulk. Mineral, p. 322. et seq. 

SIXTH Rlil'OKT 183G. 

to tills ex- 

rimciitd of Bischof and Struve, and by the observations of 

Bischof has stated*, that even long-continued boilins: in water 
will separate the alkali from a ni;^ss of trass or volcanic tuff, 
but that the process is facilitated by the presence of carbonic 
acid ; so that he conceives the disintegration of felspathic rocks 
to be brought about by water impregnated with that ingredient. 

Dr. Struve j- of Dresden, known for his imitations of some of 
the most noted mineral springs in Germany, informs us, that 
he has extracted alkali from granite, by merely filling a tall ves- 
sel with small fragments of the stone, pouring upon it distilled 
water, and suffering a stream of carbonic acid gas to rise slowly 
through the materials, and to diffuse itself amongst the water 
filling tlie interstices between them. 

Turner like^\'ise has pointed out the action of carbonic acid 
and water on sucli substances in his Lecture on the Chemistry 
of Geology, which will be afterwards adverted to. 

With respect to tlie second difficulty J, it has been argued, 
that the majority of these springs arise from volcanic rocks in 
which glassy felspar predominates ; that when they spring from 
granite, they have been ascertained, in some instances to con- 
tain potass as well as soda, as is the case at Carlsbad, and at 
Sciionau near Toeplitz ; and in others soda alone, as at Adolphs- 
burg and Poila in Sweden. 

It has also been remarked, that granite, in which albite has 
taken the place of common felspar, is more decomposable than 
usual §, so that if the water of a thermal spring were to traverse 
a rock consisting, partly of the one kind of granite, and partly 
of the other, it might dissolve the soda without affecting the 

It has been further suggested by Bischof, that in many of 
the analyses which have been made, potass may have been mis- 
taken for soda, and that the former is, in fact, a much more 
common ingredient in mineral waters tlian has hitherto been 

Bischof also sees a reason for deriving the alkali from the 
contiguous strata, in the circumstance, that the thermal springs 
of the Alps, which arise in general from primary rocks, contain 
little or no carbonate of soda. 

To these considerations it may be replied : 

1. That the quantity of potass in tlie Carlsbad springs is too 
inconsiderable to affect the argument ; for it was only by a mi- 

* P. 305. t Ueber Kunst. Min. Qiiellen, vol. ii. 

I See these arguments detailed in full in Bischof s Work so often alluded to. 
§ Hence sometimes distinguished as " crumbling felspar." 


nute examination of the sprudelstein, the deposit from the waters, 
that Berzelius was able to detect its presence, whilst in the 
water itself much carbonate of soda, but no potass, was discer- 

2. That the detection of potass in the Swedish mineral waters 
only increases the difficulty of explaining, why springs, vshich, 
like those of Carlsbad, rise also from granite, contain so very 
small a quantity of the so-called vegetable alkali, whilst they 
are thus strongly impregnated with the mineral one. 

3. That the alkaline springs alluded to ought to be shown 
to proceed uniformly from a rock containing albite, before any 
legitimate inference can be deduced from the alleged difference, 
as to the facility of disintegration, between this and other kinds 
of granite. 

4. That although it is conceivable that one alkali may have 
been mistaken for the other by the older analysts, it can hardly 
be suspected that chemists like Berzelius, or even Anglada, 
could have been guilty of such an error with respect to the 
springs they had examined. 

5. That although none of the thermal springs of the Alps, 
with the exception of Yverdun, are represented as containing 
natron, yet all of them are fraught with other salts of soda, and 
some of them with salts of potass, so that probably the earthy 
matter present existed in the water in the state of a muriate or 
a sulphate, whilst the carbonic acid, together with which they 
were thrown down on boiling, was united in the water with a 
portion of that soda, which the analyst represents as being 
combined with some other acid. 

Thus the composition of the water of Baden, in the canton 
of Argau, is stated by Bauhof as follows : 
In 300 ounces of the water. 

Carbonic acid 48 cubic inches. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen .... traces. 

Sulphate of lime 233 grains. 

Muriate of soda 186 „ 

Muriate of magnesia .... 51 „ 

Sulphate of soda 48 „ 

Lime 36 „ 

Sulphate of magnesia .... 31 „ 

Magnesia 11 „ 

Extractive matter 3 „ 

Oxide of iron 1 a? 

Now doubtless Bauhoff here meant to express, that the 
lime and magnesia were thrown down combined with the cai*- 

^4 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

bonic acid ; but when we perceive the large proportion of soda 
indicated by the analysis, it seems quite as probable that these 
earths existed in the water as muriates or sulphates, and that 
they were precipitated in the state of carbonates by the car- 
bonate of soda, on concentrating the solution. 

The same explanation may be extended to the cases of Schinz- 
nach, Weissenburg, Pfeffers, and Loueche amongst the thermal, 
and to Gurnigel and Engistein amongst the cold carbonated 
springs ; whilst at Fideris, Tarasp, Luxemburg (in Thurgau), 
and others, carbonate of soda is stated as abundant. 

But the greatest difficulty, as appears to me, is presented by 
the thermal waters of the Pyrenees, which are for the most part 
richly impregnated with soda, and yet are derived exclusively 
from granitic rocks, or others equally destitute of mineral alkali. 
Should future observations, directed expressly to these parti- 
cular points, substantiate the fact of the entire absence of potass 
from these springs, and that of the scanty presence of soda in 
the rocks with which they are connected, I apprehend the hypo- 
thesis of Bischof, plausible as it may seem, and well as it may 
suit the case of "volcanic mineral waters," must be al)andoned, 
and the same theory be extended to the carbonate of soda, which 
we have already applied, to the boracic acid present in the La- 
goni of Tuscany, and to the common salt exhaled from the cra- 
ters of volcanos. 

There seems at least no absurdity in supposing, that if, as I 
"ry pvopo- shall afterwards attempt to show, thermal springs owe their 
*<=^- temperature to steam and gases given out by volcanic processes 

carried on underneath, the former may carry with it, not only 
boracic acid, but also soda, which, in its passage upwards, inight 
enter into combination with the muriatic, the sulphuric, the 
carbonic, or any other acid that was present. 
Origin of We need not however resort to any such hypothesis in order 

the Carbo- j-q accouut for the occasional presence of carbonate of soda in 
"'"c^ena^n*^^ secondary strata. In salt lakes which become nearly dry in 
leco'i'clary summer, a portion of natron will often result, either from the de- 
rocks, composition of the muriate of soda by calcareous matter, in con- 
sequence, as is supposed, of the operation of the law of Berthol- 
let with respect to the influence of the mass, or, as is more pro- 
bable, from the conversion of sulphate of soda l)y organic nuit- 
ter into sulphuret, and the decomposition of the latter by the 
earthy carbonate. To one or other of these causes we ascribe 
the natron of Hungary, and perhaps that existing in certain 
mineral waters of Bavaria, said to be remote from volcanic or 
trappean rocks. 
Soda with- In the cases hitherto mentioned, the alkali has been supposed 

New The- 


to be united with carbonic acid, and this is stated as being the out Car- 
case in the maioritv of the mineral springs that contain it. ?"'"''^ ^'^"* 

Longchamp * however asserts, that in certain of the thermal 
waters of the high Pyrenees, as at Bareges, Cauterets, St. Sau- 
veur, and the like, the soda exists in an uncombined form, and 
that to this must be attributed the peculiar action it exerts upon 
the cuticle, causing the water to feel soapy and unctuous to those 
who bathe in it. 

Anglada f questions this assertion, on the faith of experiments 
made by him on some of these waters that had been sent him, 
(as he says,) carefully corked ; but trials of such a description 
cannot of course be put into competition with others instituted, 
as those of M. Longchamp appear to have been, on the spot, 
granting both the individuals to be competent authorities on 
the point. 

I may also state, in confirmation of Longchamp's evidence, 
that being at Barege some years ago, I tested the water fresh 
drawn from the well with a solution of baryta, and found no 
cloudiness to be produced till after it had stood some little time 
exposed to the air, w^iilst after the addition of lime-water a 
still longer period elapsed before any indication of carbonic 
acid appeared. 

The experiment was tried with the same success at St. 

Dr. Turner has also stated X, that the sjirings of Pinnarkoon 
and Loorgootha in India, which were examined by him, contain 
soda uncombined with an acid ; and Faraday § has confirmed 
the statement of Dr. Black, who long ago reported the soda of 
the Iceland springs as being in that condition. 

Now, as in many of these springs no carbonic acid is pre- 
sent, and as the alkaline salt existing in the rock from which 
they emerge is not a carbonate, but a silicate, we can better un- 
derstand the possibility of the soda being found in the condition 
stated, even if, adopting the theory of Bischof, we refer it to 
the rock in connexion with the spring ; whilst those who lean to 
the contrary hypothesis, and trace the alkali to the very seat of 
the volcanic action which causes the high temperature, will be 
able still more readily to account for its appearance in that 

Silica appears to be an universal ingredient in thermal Silica, its 
springs, and is perhaps present in more minute quantities even in °"S"^ '" 
those^of all temperatures. S^nugi. 

* Annalcs de Chimie, vol. xxii. -f Memoires, p. 302. 

X Edinb. Journal of Science, No. xvii.'p. 97. 
§ Barrow's J^isit to Ireland in 1835. 

26 SIXTH RKPORT — 1836. 

Its existence in the epidermis of most monocotyledonous 
plants proves, that it must be held in solution by the descend- 
ing sap ; and the latter, in whatever way it may l3e supposed to 
be elaborated within the texture of the plant, can only obtain its 
earthy principles fi'om the water which happens to encircle the 
How farex- On the fact of its solution in water, Turner has lately made 
plained. gome observations in his Lecture on the Chemistry of Geology*. 

He has shown, that water must have the property of dissolv- 
ing silica, by contrasting the chemical composition of felspar 
with that of the porcelain clay which results from its decompo- 

The former, as he represents it, consists of one atom of trisi- 
licate of potass, with one atom of silicate of alumina, in the pro- 
portion of nine of silica to one of alumina; whilst porcelain 
clay consists of seven atoms of silica to two of alumina, or as 
three and a half to onef . 

Hence water had carried off in some way all the potass, and 
eight and a half out of twelve proportioijals of the silica, leaving 
all the alumina and the remainder of the silica untouched. 

Now the solution of the silica may be referred in general to 
its being exposed, at the moment of its disengagement from its 
existing combination, to the joint action of water and alkali. 

But it seems to admit of question, whether the latter be 
realljf essential to the process. 

I have myself found a coating of a substance like hyalite in 
the fissures of a rock in the island of Ischia, through which hot 
vapours were constantly issuing, and am at a loss to refer 
it to any other cause, except the gradual solution of silica in the 
first instance by the steam, and its precipitation afterwards 
from it. 

I have also found, in a soft state, coating fissures in a tra- 
chytic rock, near Schemnitz in Hungary, what appeared to be 
silex hardening into the condition of hyalite, a mineral occur- 
ring in many places near, — an ol)servation in which I find myself 
to be anticipated by M. Beudant. 

Dr Wollaston indeed had observed, and Dr. Turner confirms 

• Phil. Magazine, 1833, vol. iii. p. 20. 
■f- Represented symbolically thus : 

(k -f 3 Si) + (.M + 9 Si) Felspar, 

(Al + 3-i^ Si) Porcelain Clay ; 
so that (K ■\- 3 Si) + 5i Si have been removed, and only 3 J- Si remaios 


the truth of the remark, that Bteam under high pressure be- 
comes a rapid solvent of alkaline silicates. 

The latter chemist even found*, that glass exposed to the va- 
po\ir issuing from an high-pressure engine was rapidly corroded, 
and that the silica taken up was again deposited in a beautiful 
stalactitical form. 

It however remains open to further inquiry — How far 

1st, What is the solvent of silica in springs which contain no unaccount- 
free alkali : ^^ for. 

2nd, By what means it is held in solution by the sap of ve- 
getables : 

3rd, What are the circumstances which interfere with its 
solution by artificial means. 

With reference to this subject, I may allude to an interesting 
memoir by Professor Fuchs, on the amorphism of solid bodiesf , 
as throwing some light upon the question as to the solubility of 
silex, and illustrating the influence in this case of mechanical 
obstacles upon chemical affinities. 

He has shown, that silica exists in minerals in two condi- 
tions, a crystallized and an amorphous one, and that in the 
latter it is much more readily acted upon by solvents, than in 
the former;}:. 

Dr. Turner also found, that whilst glass was rapidly dissolved 
by high-pressure steam, rock crystal remained unchanged. 

It would have been curious to determine, whether under such 
circumstances, amorphous silex (such as opal) would continue 

Muriatic and sulphuric acids in a free state are found only in Muriatic 
spi'ings connected with volcanos, to which they are obviously and Sul- 
riferable. f^^'^ 

Boracic acid, which has been detected in a thermal spring of Boracic 
the island of Ischia, and more abundantly in the water of the A"d. 
Lagoni of Tuscany, seems also to be a volcanic product. 

It is well known as resulting from volcanic operations in the 
Lipari Islands and elsewhere ; and its appearance in their craters 

• Proceedings of the Geol. Soc, vol. ii. p. 95. 

t Edinh. New PJii^os. Juiirnal for April, 1835. 

J A recent traveller in Iceland (Kriig von Nidda) in Karsten's^rcAti', vol.ix., 
remarks, " tliat the solubility of the silica in such considerable quantity in 
the hot springs of Iceland, remained for a long time a puzzling phaenome- 
non, until that property was discovered, which it has in common with 
phosphoric acid, viz. of forming two isomeric modifications, of which one is 
insoluble in water and in acids ; the other is soluble in both." This may 
be ti-ue ; but the statement must be regarded as a mere expression of a fact, 
not as the explanation of it. 

28 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

becomes intelligible, when we reflect, that although dry boracic 
acid continues fixed at high temperatures, yet when steam is 
passed over it at a red heat, a portion of the acid is always sub- 
limed, as I have myself ascertained by experiment. 

Whether the same explanation will apply to the case of the 
lakes of Thibet, whence so large a quantity of borate of soda is 
obtained, future travellers must determine. 

Nitric Acid. Nitric acid, united probably with potass (this alkali being 
found along with it), sometimes occurs in the springs of large 
towns, as observed by Pagenstecher* in those of Berne, and by 
Berzelius in those of Stockholmf. 

There is also a tract in Hungary, included betwixt the Car- 
pathians and the river Dran, throughout which all the springs 
are said to be impregnated with this ingredient|. 

The spontaneous production of nitre, wherever organic matter 
in a state of decomposition remains in contact with calcareous 
rocks, or with earth containing carbonate of lime, may suffi- 
ciently account for its existence in such springs as these, which 
probably owe their origin rather to superficial than to deep- 
seated causes. 

It remains, however, to be inquired, whether the same ex- 
planation can be extended to the waters of St. Alban, Dep. de 
Loire §, and of Miinchhof|| in Germany, in both of which nitre 
is said to be present, and that not, as in the former cases, in 
variable, but in fixed proportions. 
Ammonia Can we attribute to the same decomposition of organic mat- 
in Springs, jpj, jj-jp presence of ammonia in certain mineral waters ? 

Scherer^ mentions a sidphureous spring in Courland, which 
contains it in union with the muriatic acid ; and Osann** one 
at Raab in Hungary ; whilst Berzelius ft notices its occurrence 
in the mineral waters of Porla, united with a peculiar acid, the 
creiiic, which will be noticed presently. 

Longchamp also states, that there are traces of it in some of 
the thermal springs of tlie Pyrenees ; but he does not state in 
M hat state of combination it occurs. 

Professor Fischer J:]: of Breslau has detected it in conibination 
with cai'bonic acid in the thermal water of Warmbrunn, in 

* Uehersicht dcr Bestandih. der Brunnen der Studt Berne. 

■\- Osann, vol. i. p. 92. + Ibid. 

§ Patissier Manuel des Eau.c Minerules, p. 280. 

Ij .Schweigger, Journal, vol. xlv. 

il Page 180. ** Page 85. 

+ 1 Pldl. Magazine, vol. vi. p. iSQ. 

II Groel'e, Jahrbuchci- fur Deulchlands Heilquelkn, 1836. 


Silesia; Wetzler* in the cold spring of Krumbach, in Bava- 
ria; and Kastnerf in that of Kissingen, in the same kingdom. 
The water of Clinton, near New York, is likewise stated to 
contain five grains of carbonate of ammonia in the gallon ;[. 

It may, indeed, be suspected that this principle is in reality 
of still more frequent occurrence, and that chemists have often 
overlooked its presence, in consequence of having driven it off 
by the heat which, in analysing the water, they had in the first 
instance applied. 

Now in many of the above instances, I should be disposed to 
ascribe the occurrence of ammonia to causes of the same de- 
scription, with those which I suppose to have given rise to it 
when found issuing from the spiracles of volcanos, especially as 
it is remarkable that, although the evolution of nitrogen gas 
and of ammoniacal compoimds in a few rare instances occurs 
simultaneously, yet for the most part the two in a manner take 
each other's place, the volatile alkali being abundant in active 
volcanos, where nitrogen gas is not common, and scanty and un- 
frequent in the thermal springs of primary countries, where 
nitrogen gas is so generally disengaged. 

My own views respecting the formation of ammonia in vol- 
canos are stated in my Memoir on the eruption of Vesuvius in 
1834, published in the Philosophical Transactions, and will be 
elsewhere referred to in this Report ; but I sliould be unwilling 
to extend them beyond the case of those springs which, judging 
from their temperature, appear connected with volcanic action, 
and from their purity, or freedom from organic matter, cannot 
be supposed capable of generating ammonia by any process of 
animal or vegetable fermentation. 

To these latter causes I should of course refer the presence 
of ammoniacal compounds in those waters, which, from their 
contiguity to large cities, or from their own impure condition, 
seem to contain in themselves the elements from which the 
volatile alkali might be generated. 

Whilst speaking of ingredients which may be suspected to 
arise from the presence of organic matter in springs, I must 
state, that formic acid is said to have been detected in the waters Formic 
of Prinzhofen near Staubing§, and at Brunnen near Emkirchen, ^<^"'- 
four or five leagues from Erlangen II, both in Bavaria; and acetic AceticAcid. 

* Kastner's Archiv, vol. x. t ^Irchiv, vol. xxvi. 

X Silliman's Journal, vol. xviii. 

§ Pattenhofer, in Kastner's //j-cA/i', vol.vii. || Archiv, vol. xxiii. 



Crenic and 

mutter in 
Glairine, or 
so called 

acid in a sprins^ at Craveggia in Piedmont, by Vauqnelin; and 
also in those of Ronneberg*, and Bruchenau in Bavaria. 

More recently Berzelius has described two new vegetable 
acids in the springs of Porlaf in Sweden, to which he has given 
the names of the crenic and the apocrenic, both derived from 
an organic matter present in the water, the crenic first, the 
apocrenic from the other by the action of oxygen. 

Crenic acid does not crystallize, but its solution in water 
concentrated to the consistence of a syrup is almost colourless. 
When dried in vacuo it splits in all directions, and its taste is 
then distinctly acid and astringent. Though a weak acid, it 
decomposes the acetates, and combines with the alkalis and 
alkaline earths. Most of them are insoluble in water, but the 
protocrenate of iron is soluble. 

The apocrenic acid imparts a brownish colour to water, in 
which it is but slightly soluble. Its salts resemble the crenates, 
but are either brown or black, and are insoluble in alcohol. 

Thej' combine with hydrate of alumina when digested with 
it, and form a colourless solution. 

These two acids were found in several chalybeate waters in 
Sweden, and may be separated from the ochre which they de- 
posit by boiling it with potass. 

The crenic acid J, or one much resembling it, has since been 
detected by Professor Fischer of Breslau in the mineral spring 
of Landeck in Silesia §. 

The above acids may possibly have some connexion with an 
organic substance found in most thermal and many cold springs, 
which has excited much speculation, and been supposed to 
possess important medicinal qualities. We owe the first accurate 
information respecting it to Bayen ||, who, in 1765, published an 
account of the mineral water of Luchon, in the Pyrenees, in 
which he discriminated this flocculent matter from the sulphur 
also present. 

In 1786 Dr. Willar.^ described a white mucous substance ex- 
isting in the waters of Croft, in the county of Durham, which 

* Dobereiner in Kastner's Arcliiv, vol. xvi. 

t Phil. Magazine, vol. vi. p. 239. 

X The crenic acid has lately, it is said, been found to be an ingredient of 
the Bergniehl of Lapland, which the natives in times of scarcity mix with 
their flour, considering it to contain nutriment. This material is stated to be 
chiefly made up of the outer shells of fossil infusoria, together with some 
animal matter probably derived from their internal substance, and of the acid 
alluded to.— Phil. Mag. for April 183?. 

§ Jahrbucher Deutsnhlands Hcitquellen. \\ Opuscules Chemiques. 

If On Croft and Harrogate Waters. London, 1786. 



had likewise been confounded with the sulphur given out bj' the 
same springs. 

In a recent visit to Croft I found this substance in abundance, 
and traced it as far as the water flowing from the sprhig retained 
its sulphureous odour, but not when the latter was dissipated. 

Mr. Dillwyn, in his work on British Confervae*, notices the 
same as occurring, not only at Croft, but likewise at Harrogate 
in Yorkshire, and Llanwrtyd in South Wales, all of them springs 
of similar composition, and determined the substance to be a 
Conferva, which, from its whiteness, he denominated Nivea. 

In the thermal spring of Bath a Conferva of a diiferent species 
abounds, which, from its colour and appearance, used to be 
called Bath sulphur, although not a particle of this latter prin- 
ciple exists in these waters. 

It seems, therefore, to be generally agreed, that the mucous 
matter found in the mineral waters of this country is owing to 
the generation of organized beings ; but with respect to that 
met with amongst thermal and other springs in various parts of 
the Continent, no such correspondence of opiuion subsists. 

On the one hand, Bory St. Vincent, in a memoir " Sur la 
Botanique des Eauxf," appears to atti'ibute it in every instance 
to the growth of a certain class of Confervse, to which he has 
given the name of Anabaina. 

To this opinion also M. Delarive, in his memoir on the springs 
of St. GervaisJ, adheres ; and I am informed by Professor De- 
candoUe, that the waters of Acqui in Piedmont were examined 
by him with reference to this point, and that he always found 
himself able to detect in the so-called animal matter which 
aboui'ds there an organic structure. 

Many chemists, on the other hand, have taken up a contrary 
view of this subject, amongst whom I may instance Professor 
Anglada|| of Montpellier, who, in his elaborate work on the 
mineral waters of the Eastern Pyrenees, has given a detailed 
description of its properties, as presented in the localiiies he has 

The substance in question he denominates (flairine, from its Described, 
glutinous or jelly-like appearance. It was observed by him in 
cold as well as hot sulphureous springs, in all nearly fifty in 
number. It occurs in flocks, in threads, having the character 
of mucus, or of membrane, in compact concentric coats or 

• P. 54. 

•j- Bulletin de la Societe Philomaiique, et Dictionnaire Classinue d'Hisioire 
Nalurelle, art. Arthrodi-e. 
X Bibliotheqiie Univnrselle, vol. xxii. || MSmoh-es pcur servir, &c., vol. i. 

312 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

zones, in parallel fibres, and pendent in a stalactitical form 
from caverns. 

With respect to colour, glairine is of various shades of either 
white or red, the latter being found generally in the hottest 

It gives out a mawkish smell, succeeded after a little time by 
one of a more repulsive kind, arising from its decomposition. 
In its chemical properties it bears most resemblance to animal 
mucus, and disengages azote when acted upon by nitric acid. 
M. Anglada afterwards shows that the thermal waters which de- 
posit glairine, also contain a portion of the same in a state of 
chemical combination, the largest quantity, however, present 
not exceeding one third of a grain to the pint. 

As the water cools, a portion of this matter separates, and 
may then sometimes be perceived floating in it in minute semi- 
transparent flocks of a mucous character. 
Accounted It is this latter circumstance, which principally leads him to 
for. suppose, that the glairine existsformed in the interior of the earth, 

and that the mineral water is merely instrumental in bringuig it 
to the surface. 

In order to explain how such a product could arise, Anglada 
appeals to an experiment of Dobereiner's, who found, that 
when steam was passed through an iron tube containing heated 
charcoal, a gelatinous matter frequently made its appearance. 
He also notices the production of a fatty-looking substance by 
Berard, on passing through a red-hot tube a mixture of carbonic 
acid, olefiant gas, and simple hydrogen. 

It is with great diffidence that I dissent from the views of 
M. Anglada, who has undoubtedly paid more attention to this 
remarkable substance than any other individual that could be 
mentioned, and question the fact which he so confidently affirms, 
of the occurrence of specimens of glairine in the Pyrenean 
springs and elsewhere, to which it would be impossible to assign 
an organic origin f- 

* Vol. xiii. part i. 

t In further corroboration of my views I may quote the authority of the 
naturalist Turpin, who has also examined two sjieciraens of the so-called 
Baregine, the one from Barege, the other from Neris. An investigation of 
them under the microscope proved, that chemists had been confounding under 
the same name, several very different organic products, and that the so- 
called Baregine from Neris had no resemblance in its origin or constitution to 
that from Barege. 

The former, which he obtained from Robiquet, was nothing else than the 
Nosthoc or Conferva thermalis, already so often described. That from 
Barege, which he got from Longchamp, consisted of a gelatinous transparent 
and almost colourless substance, without any apparent mark of organiza- 


Nevertheless, the observations I have myself made in some 
of the very same localities as those visited by M. Anglada, the 
substance of which is given in the Limiean TrunMictions* , lead 
me to conclude, that the glairine of M. Anglada is frequently, 
and therefore justify me in suspecting that it may be always, 
generated at or near the surface, by the rapid growth of certain 
lower tribes of organic beings. 

At Greoulx I remarked large patches of it hanging from the 
sides of a highly inclined rock, over which the water of that 
thermal spring had descended. 

Now if it had been a chemical precipitate from the waters, 
this could not have happened ; but supposing it an organic 
matter, whose gi'owth was favoured by the temperature or the 
constitution of the spring, its presence therein is not more diffi- 
cult of explanation, than that of Algfeon the face of a precipitous 

Moreover, the specimens of glairine which I collected always 
presented under the microscope, in some part or other, an or- 
ganic structure. 

It is indeed true, that I detected traces of what appeared to 
be the same substance in the water of Barege fresh drawn ; but 
it being admitted that, like many other organic matters, glairine 
is slightly soluble in water, and more so in hot than in cold, 
its presence there may be explained, if we only suppose that 
its growth proceeds, not only in the open air, but likewise in 
those fissures and cavities underground through which the 
water has to pass. 

Berthierf also, who has considered this subject in a memoir 
on the Hot Springs of St. Nectaire, declares that he has never 
found this organic matter in waters taken from the fountain-head, 
and corked directly afterwards, but that it makes its appearance 
after a very short exposure of the water to air and light. Though 
this remark may not be universally true, the larger deposits of 
glairine, I believe, always arise in water that has been exposed 
to the atmosphere. 

In short, there seems no insurmountable difficulty, in the way 
of om- attributing the existence of glairine everywhere to the 
growth of organic bodies, such as should reconcile us to the 

tion. It is a slimy mass formed out of a great number of parts, which for the 
most part arose from the decomposition of plants and animals, especially In- 

It is plain from this, how necessary it is that the chemist should ascertain the 
homogeneous nature of any substance which may be suspected to be organic, 
before he submits it to chemical analysis. — Poggendorft's Aunulen, 1836. 

* Vol. xiii. part i. \ Annales des Mines, vol. vii. p. 215. 

VOL.V.— 1836. D 

34 SIXTH UEPOUT — 1836. 

adoption of an hypothesis, so strongly opposed to probability as 
that advocated by Anglada, 

Those who are sceptical as to the possibility of so very rapid 
and apparently so spontaneous a production of organic matter, 
as that which takes place in these thermal waters, should peruse 
a memoir in Schweigger's Journal^, and also one more lately 
published in Poggendorff'sf, by the celebrated Ehrenberg, on 
the blood-red appearances observed at various periods, covering 
the surface of lakes and stagnant pools, spreading over various 
articles of food, or descending in rain from the heavens. 

The former of these papers proves the rapidity with which 
bodies of this kind are generated ; the latter establishes, that in 
almost every case in which the particulars have been carefully 
investigated, the pbaenomenon has resulted from the generation 
of some kind or other of organic matter. 

There is, indeed, an observation of GimbernatJ, which ought 
perhaps not to be passed over, although I am not myself dis- 
posed to attribute any weight to it. I allude to his finding a 
substance similar at least to glairine, if not identical with it, in 
the condensed vapours proceeding from the fumaroles of Vesu- 
I'ius. But when we recollect, that the apparatus in which this 
steam was collected had been allowed to remain for one or two 
days without being disturbed, during which time the water was 
freely exposed to atmospheric influences, under circumstances 
peculiarly favourable to the growth of Confervse, there seems no 
necessity for supposing the organic matter found in it to have 
been derived from the entrails of the volcano. 

I have myself collected, on several occasions, the vxipours that 
arose from the spiracles of this very same mountain, after the 
great eruption of ] 834, as I have stated in the memoir which I 
published in the Philosophical Transactions ior 1835, but in no 
instance could I discover any organic matter. 

Red ferru- I" the thermal springs of Vichy, and in some other localities, 
ginous mat- where sulphur is not present, an organic substance has been 
**''■ observed floating on the surface §. 

Longchan)p, in his account of that spring, states that it is in- 
termixed with carbonate of lime, together with which I found 
entangled within its meshes a portion of peroxide of iron j and 

• For 182? ; extracted from a work by Dr. Sette, entitled Mem. Storica 
Naturale. Vcnezia, 1824. 

f Translated in Edinburgh New Philosophical Join-nal for 1830. 

X Bihliotheque Univeiselle, vol. xi. 

§ Vauquelin, Annales de Chimic, vol. xxviii. 


in the memoir already referred to*, T explained the mode in 
which I conceived these substances to iind their way to the 

It seemed to me probable, that each portion of warm water, 
from below, as it rose to the surface of the vvell or reservoir 
which received the overflowings from the spring, would set at 
liberty a little of the earthy and ferruginous matter it had held 
in solution, in consequence of the disengagement of some of 
the carbonic acid witli which it had been surcharged whilst 
under a greater pressure. ' 

But this solid matter, being entangled in the Confervse float- 
ing on the surface, would be prevented from becoming precipi- 
tated ; and would form, by degrees, an earthy and ochreous crust 
upon the water. 

But Professor Ehrenberg, of Berlin, to whom we are in- Einenbcrg'; 
debted for so many striking discoveries with respect to recent lesearcbes 
and fossil infusoria, has thrown quite a new light upon this |'o^P'^'^""S 
subject, having ascertained, as he lately assured me, that this 
red matter is in fact composed of the outer sheaths or coverings 
of a multitude of little infusorial animalcules, which appear to 
possess the singular property of secreting oxide of iron as well 
as silica, and hence thrive only in chalybeate waters, which 
afford them the material for the coat of mail Avhich invests 
their softer parts. This at least he finds to hold good with re- 
spect to the red fevruginous matter which collects in certain cha- 
lybeate waters in the neighbourhood of Halle, and I have little 
doubt that the same will apply to the similar incrustation found 
in the water of Vichy, &c. 

Thus, whilst one class of beings requires, as we have seen, 
for its existence the presence of sulphur in such a state of com- 
bination, as is found to be absolutely destructive to other kmds of 
life, another class secretes iron, a substance equally unsuited for 
the nourishment of the great majority of animals ; as if it were 
intended, that there should be no class of inorganic productions 
which did not minister to the wants, and favour the production, 
of a corresponding order of organized creatures. 

It seems worth inquiry, whether the red ochreous sediment Colouring 
found by Davy in the baths of Lucca may not have arisen from '"a'fei- oi 
a similar cause, and be made up of an accumulation of infusoria; plained. 
and likewise whether the colours which belong to certain speci- 
mens of I'ock-salt, which are sometimes of a deep-blue, but more 
generally red, are not owing to certain vegetable or animal 

* Linnean Trans., vol. xvii. 
D 2 



Ehrenberg*, in his journey into Siberia, observed a rose-red 
colour in the salt lake Elton, in the steppe of Astracan, which 
did not appear to belong to the water, but faded on drying ; and 
I perceive in a recent journal, that Mr. Pajean, in his travels 
in Tuscany, remarked that the red substance, which is produced 
on the surface of water charged with marine salt in that country, 
is the result of an accumulation of an enormous quantity of 
small Crustacea, of one or two lines in length, having nearly the 
form of a craw-fish, which live very well in brine of 15 degrees, 
but die when the water is further concentrated. 

It is stated, that M. Darcet brought similar Crustacea from 
certain lakes in Egypt which are charged with natron. 

With respect to the blue colour sometimes observed in rock- 
salt, it is possible that the same kind of explanation may apply 
to it. I was once inclined to imagine, that it might be caused by 
a compound of iodine with some vegetable principle, analogous 
to starch, or producing with the former a siiiiihirly coloui-ed 
compound ; but I could detect no iodine in the specimen, and 
failed to reproduce the violet tinge, when the salt had been dis- 
solved in water and crystallized a second time. 

Now Ehrenberg relates, that a lake in the South of Prussia 
in 1819, produced a particular colouring matter very similar to 
indigo, which appeared to be of a vegetable nature ; and Scores- 
byt mentions, having in 1820 observed, that the water of the 
Greenland sea was chequered with alternate green and blue 
stripes, and that these colours were produced by minute animal- 
cules of the medusa kind. 



The gases disengaged from mineral waters have been investi- 
gated by Bischoff, Anglada, Boussingault, Longchamp, and 

BoussingaultJ remarks, that the elastic vapours which rise so 
abundantly from the thermal springs of the Andes, consist of 
carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen, and the same observa- 
tion applies to most of those in connexion with volcanic forma- 
tions elscM'here. 

Of these two gases, the one most copiously evolved is carbonic 
acid, which, as is well known, produces those extensive deposits 
of calc-sinter, that are so common in caverns exposed to the 
drippings of water, and of arragonite§, which are of rather rarer 

* On Blood-red Water. t ylrctic Researches. 

X Edinburgh New PhiloxophiculJournal, vol. xv. 151. 

§ See a pajjcr in the Annales de Chimie, June, 1834, on the presence of Ar- 
ragonitc in an Artesian well at Tours. I possess some also deposited from the 
spring of St. Nectaire in Auvergne. 


occurrence in such situations. The particular circumstances 
determining the production of the one rather than the other 
form of calcareous spar, appear to be still unexplained, for 
stalactitical arragonite does not appear to contain any other 
essential ingredient than carbonate of lime, and is now supposed 
to arise from a difference of form in the integrant molecule of 
that base*. 

Another point requiring elucidation, relates to the absence of 
carbonate of magnesia from stalactites arising from dolomitic 

Is it, that the acidulated water first dissolves the carbonate 
of lime, before it attacks the atomic compound of lime and 
magnesia, or that the attraction of carbonic acid for the former 
exceeds that which it exerts for the latter earth ? 

With respect to the extrication of carbonic acid from the its quan- 
earth, I have myself pointed outf the enormous quantity *"y- 
evolved in the vicinity of Naples, as at Torre del Annunziata, in 
which and in other places it frequently destroys vegetation, and 
likewise near the axis of the Apennine chain, midway betwixt 
the active volcano of Vesuvius, and the extinct one of Mount 
Vultur, at the Lago d' AnsantoJ. 

Bischof§ has described its extrication, from the various mine- 
ral waters connected with the volcanic mountains of the Rhenish 
provinces, and likewise from dry fiissures in the ground, where 
its escape is recognised by the stunted vegetation, and by finding 
a number of small animals suffocated round the spot. 

LecoqII and others have mentioned the remarkable erosion 
produced in the rocks contiguous to the mines of Pont Gibaud 
in Auvergne, owing to the presence of this gas in the water 
which oozes through the rocks encircling them. 

Brandes and Kruger, in their account of the mineral waters 
of Pyrmont^, have shown, that the extrication of carbonic acid 
is by no means limited to the spot from whence the chalybeate 

* Mr. Crosse, amongst the experiments which he detailed at the Bristol 
Meeting of the British Association, stated, his having found that calcareous 
spar was formed on limestone, and arragonite on slate, by the drippings 
from the same cavern, and that he was even able by the slow action of elec- 
tricity, to produce each of these minerals from the same water, charged with 
carbonate of lime, according as he placed it on a piece of limestone, or of 

t Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 1835. 

X Memoir on the LaJce Amsanctus, and on Mount Vultur in Jpulia, printed 
by the Ashmolean Society of Oxford, 1836. 

§ VulJcanische Mineralquellen, p. 251. 

II Annales Scientifiques de I' Auvergne, and Ferussac's Bulleiin, vol. xvi. 

i P. 155, et seq. See also Brandes' work on the Mineral Waters of 
Meinburg. Lemgo, 1832. 

38 SIXTH HKrORT — 1836. 

springs of tliat u;iteriug-pl;icc arise, but is observed for some 
distance round, wherever fissures, natural or artificial, exist. 

Thus, a cavity having been made by some workmen for quarry- 
ing stone, it was found, that the air witliin became charged with 
from 36 to 48 per cent, of carbonic acid, which rose in the 
cavern to different lieights at different times. 
Its v.iii- These writers report, that in winter the gas never attained so 

atioiis. high a point as at other seasons ; that in the morning, some 
hours after daybreak, and in the evening, soon after sunset, the 
mephitic air liad reached its maxiumm, whilst at midday, when 
the sun shone into the cave, it was very low ; that the evolution 
of gas was greatest before tlie breaking out of a storm, but dimi- 
nished after it had begun ; that the variations of barometric 
pressure seemed to exert no influence upon the phenomenon, 
except so far as they were connected with the occurrence of a 
storm ; tliat it was greater during hot weather than cold ; in 
calm than in windy ; in a moist state of the atmosphere than in 
a dry one. A similar remark has been made with respect to the 
disengagement of carbonic acid in Auvergne*, as that recorded 
as to Pyrmont, the quantity given out being so large during 
storms, and during the prevalence of a westerly wind, as to 
render some of the mines unworkable. 

Kastner f also alludes to the variation as to quantity, both in 
the water and the carbonic acid,observed atKissingen in Bavaria, 
and attributes it in both cases to a difference in atmospheric 
pressure, the water being forced out by the gas, and the escape 
of the latter checked, in proportion to the weight of the atmo- 
sphere above. 

According to Mayen, the springs of Bochlet have a regular 
ebb and flow, both as to the amount of water and of gas. The 
greatest difference in quantitj^ corresponded with the interval 
between the first and last of the moon's quarters. At Fachin- 
genj the quantity of gas evolved is said to be greatest just 
before sunrise, and least about two or three o'clock after mid- 
Its amount. The auiouiit of carbonic acid given off has in a few instances 
only been determined §. 

Trommsdorft" found the quantity evolved from a fissure at 
Kaiser Franzeiibad, near Egra, to amount to 5760 Vienna cubic 

* Fournet Aiinules Scientifiqucs de I' Auvergne, vol. ii. p. 241; or Ferussac's 
Bulletin, for 1829. 

t Archiv, vol. xvi. + Kastner, Archie, vol. i. 

§ See G. BischofF in Edhdturijh New Philosophical Journal, 1833, from 
PoggcudorflF's Aimalen. 


feet in 24 hours, whereas the water in the same time emitted 
was calculated at 259 cubic feet ; and Bischoff notices one 
spring which gave out in the same time 4237 c. f., the water 
being 1157 c. f. and containing 1909 cubic inches of this 
gas, and another which evolved of gas 3063, and of water 
3645 cubic feet, which contained of gas 871. 

Such statements are worth recording, as enabling our suc- 
cessors to ascertain whether there be any secular variation in 
the quantity of gas evolved; and it is therefore to be regretted, 
that Bischoff has not mentioned the names of the springs which 
he had examined with reference to this point. 

The uninterrupted manner in which the carbonic acid rises 
up through the spring is explained by Bischoff, by supposing 
it held in chemical solution by the water at a great depth, and 
therefore under an enormous pressure. 

Such a supposition would enable us to understand the trifling 
irregularities observed in the flow of gas, without imagining 
that the state of the atmosphere above has any direct influence 
upon the energy of the volcanic operations below, since the 
barometric pressure, the relations to moisture, &c. of the air 
surrounding the spring, might favour at one time more than at 
another the escape of gas from the spring, or its diffusion 
through space. Some have supposed*, that the water of the 
spring is iPorced upwards by the elasticity of the confined gas, 
but Bischoff justly remarks, that the flow of the former is too 
equable for any such thing to happen. 

An explanation of this kind can only be resorted to in such 
cases as those of the Sprudel at Carlsbad, and at the Geysers 
in Iceland, where the spring appears, as it were, by fits and 

Yet in these cases the phsenomenon may, perhaps, be more 
readily accounted for by the extrication of steam in cavities 
connected with the fissure through which the spring rises, as 
was first suggested by Sir G. Mackenzie f. Dutrochet, how- 
ever, has described an intermitting -spring in the Jura, which he 
ascribes with more reason to a periodical evolution of carbonic 
acid gas ; though, even here an accumulation of gas taking 
place in a cavity connected with the spring, may have been 
competent to produce the phenomenon. 

That Nitrogen escapes occasionally from thermal springs, is Nitrogen. 
by no means a new discovery, for it was remarked by Priestley 

* Berthier, Annales de Chimie, vol. xix. f Travels in Iceland, 

40 SIXTH REPOKT — 1836. 

at Bath, ami by Pearson at Buxton, before the commencement 
of the present century. 
In iiicimal Morc recently it has been observed issuing from almost all 
hill iig:,. the sulphureous thermal waters of the Pyrenees*; and I have 
shown, that not only has it in many instances been mistaken 
for carbonic acid, but also that it is commonl)^ evolved where- 
ever thermal waters existf. 

Even when the prevailing gas emitted is carbonic acid, I find 
that a small quantity of residuary air is present, which consists 
in general of oxygen and niti'ogen, but with a much smaller 
proportion of the former than that present in the atmosphere. 

The volcanic district of Ischia affords the only example that 
has occurred to me, of a number of thermal springs lying to- 
getliei*, not one of which evolves nitrogen^. 

In this case, however, we may remark, that no kind of air 
whatever is emitted from the waters, which therefore would 
seem to derive their heat, not from any volcanic processes going 
on at present, but from their contiguity to a mass of rock heated 
by antecedent eruptions. 

In corroboi'ation of this view I may state, that several springs 
on the skirts of Vesuvius, where volcanic operations are actually 
proceeding, give out nitrogen, though in much smaller quantity 
than they do carbonic acid ; as for example, the thermal water 
of Torre del Annunziata, and the cold spring of Castellamare. 

From the Thermals connected with extinct volcanos, azote is 
emitted, though for the most part in inferior quantity, than it is 
from springs associated with primary, or with intrusive rocks of 
older formation. 
Its amount. The quantity of this gas returned to the atmosphere through 
the medium of thermal waters is evidently considerable. I 
measured that emitted from the King's Bath, in the city of 
Bath§, nearly every day for a month dm'ing the autumn of 1833, 
and found that its average quantity was 267 cubic inches per 
minute, or 222 cubic feet in the 24 hours. 

The gas consisted of 97 per cent, of nitrogen, and of 3 per 
cent, of oxygen, with a variable quantity of carbonic acid. 
Since this period, the sinking of a well in a remote quarter of 
the town through the lias to the depth of 250 feet, from which 
water rose of a temperature but little inferior to that of the 

• Anglada, Mcmoires. 

t On Hot Springs and their connexion with Volcanos, Edinhuryh New 
Philnsophical Journal for 1832. 

X Daubenv, on a Spring at Torre del Annunziata near Naples. 

§ Sec my l'a|iur on the quantity and quality of the Gases disengaged from 
the Thermal Springs at Bath, Philosophical Transactions, 1834. 


Public Bath*, was followed, not only by a diminution in the 
supply of water at the latter, but also in the amount of gas 
emitted, which, according to the accurate observations of Mr. 
George Spry, of Bath, made in the beginning of August in this 
yearf, appears not to average at present more than 17O cubic 
inches per minute, whilst the quantity of water discharged at 
the original spring, was reduced from 120 gallons to 75, in the 
same interval of time. 

Thus the relation between the decrease of gas and of water 
kept pace very nearly one with another ; for, 

as 150: 222:: 75 : 111. 

The slight excess of gas may have arisen from the more scru- 
pulous manner, in which Mr. Spry prevented its escape fi'om 
all the apertures in the bath, excepting those from which he 
collected it, than had been previously done by myself. 

1 have since estimated the amount of gas emitted from the 
thermal spring of Buxton at about 50 cubic inches per minute, 
and find that M. Longchamp determined the quantity at one of 
the springs, Cauterets in the Pyrenees, as being about 7'1 cubic 
inches, whilst he calculates that of the water given out by the 
same during an equal space of time at 1584, or nearly 226 times 
the amount. 

The above are nearly all the observations we at present 
possess, with respect to the quantity of nitrogen emitted from 
thermal springs, though it would be desirable to obtain in every 
instance an exact register of this, as well as of the quantity and 
temperature of the water itself, as affording us the data for de- 
termining at some future time, whether any secular variation is 
taking place in the quality of each spring in these several re- 

In the table, therefore, at the close of the present Report, I 
have registered in two separate columns all the observations 
I could collect, on the quantity of gas and water emitted within 
the space of twenty-four hours by the spi'ings named. 

It is worth remarking, that an evolution of nitrogen gas is in cold 
not altogether peculiar to thermal waters. springs. 

I detected it issuing pretty abundantly from a spring near 
Clonmel, which possessed the common temperature of those in 
the neighbourhood; another emitting the same has been de- 

* M. Arago, in his Annuaire for 1836, mentions, that the same falling off 
of the hot spring of Aix, in Provence, took place in consequence of the sink- 
ing of a contiguous well, but it is remarkable that in this case the water of 
the latter was cold. 

t Viz. in 1836. 

42 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

scribed, as occurring near Inverkeithing in Scotland, by the Rev. 
W. Robertson*, and I have been informed of a third in Shrop- 
shire by Mr. Murchison. 
Oxygen. In one or two cases oxygen is said to predominate in the air 

evolved, as Robiquet says is the case at Vichy ; but as he adds, 
that it is only found, after the water has been standing in the 
reservoir long enough to be covered by a vegetable slime, I 
conceive this gas to have arisen from the decomposition of car- 
bonic acid within the tissue of the plant, under the influence of 
solar light. 
Carburetted Carburetted hydrogen has in many instances been observed 
ydrogen. ^.^ issue from springs, as well as from clefts in tlie earth, as at 
the Pietra Mala on the Apennines, and at St. Barthelemi near 
Grenoble, where the gas, when once kindled either by accident 
or design, maintains a continued flame, until pains are taken to 
extinguish it. 

It has also been observed in many parts of the world to issue 
copiously from salt springs, as at Medonia in the State of New 
York, in China, &c. ; and a curious proof that the salt, with 
which these springs are impregnated, had been deposited under 
pressure, is afforded by the fact, that at Wielichza in Gallicia its 
cavities contain carburetted hydrogen in a condensed state, so 
that on immersing a lump of this salt in water, a series of small 
detonations is heard during its solution, in consequence of the 
sudden expansion of the gas on escaping from its prison. 

It is an interesting circumstance, to find this phasnomenon 
conthuiing in the very spots, in which it was observed during 
the periods of Grecian history. 

I have quoted in another placef , an instance of its occurrence 

among the Chimariot mountains of Albania, where ancient 

writers speak of a nympheum as existing, by which they meant 

to express, that a stream of inflammable gas had there been 


Suipim- The same permanency seems also in some cases to be the 

retted by- attribute of sulphurcous waters ; for the hot springs of Bithj?^- 

'Jgei- jjjj^^ which modern travellers describe as impregnated with 

sulphuretted hydrogen, appear from the accounts of Greek 

writers I to have been similarly constituted nearly two thousand 

years ago. 

These, however, which are thermal sulphureous springs, pro- 

* Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 1829. 
f Memoir on the Bath Waters above quoted. 

t See the Poem " IIsj/ t« sv Uvdiuii Qi^fAcc" extracted from the Greek 
Anthology in my Description of Volcanos, 8vo, 1826. 



bably derive their origin from a totally different cause, to that 
which impregnates cold ones with this same principle. 

The latter in some instances undergo, within a very short 
period, a material alteration in point of strength. 

Thus a sulphureous spring at Willoughby, in Warwickshire*, 
yielded me in the autumn of 1828, 16'9 cubic inches of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen to the gallon. 

In the April following, I could detect only 12'65 cubic inches, 
and in the autumn of 1834 only 5 "2. 

Whilst on this svibject, I may mention, that Professor An- 
glada of Montpellierf , has satisfied himself by a detailed exami- 
nation of the svdphureous springs of the Pyrenees, that no one 
of them contains sulphuretted hydrogen in a free state, but that 
in every instance this principle is united to an alkaline base, 
with which it constitutes an hydrosulphuret. 

Finding this to be the case so generally, he has proposed a 
classification of sulphureous springs founded on this principle, 
arranging them, according as they contain the above gas in a 
free state, or combined with one, or two atoms of a base. 

By applying the same reagent (the arsenious acid,) which 
M. Anglada had employed, I was led to conclude, that the 
springs of Aix la Chapelle and Borset were similarly consti- 
tuted, and indeed such would necessarily be the case, whei-e- 
ever the soda in the water was not impregnated with carbonic 
acid, nor could there well exist in it any free sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, until the whole of the alkali was thus saturated. 

Hence in affirming that the gas of the Pyrenean springs 
always occurs in this state of combination, M. Anglada has 
(apparently unconsciously) confirmed the statement, which he 
questions, as to the existence of caustic soda in the water. 

We have already considered whether under ordinary circuni- influence of 
stances mineral springs are subject to vicissitudes, either as to <^3ith- 
temperature, as to the quantity and quality of their fixed and ^pon^* 
gaseous constituents, or as to the amount of water discharged, springs. 

It will be proper, however, before proceeding further, to 
notice what has been observed, with respect to the influence 
exei'ted upon them in any of the above respects by earthquakes, 
which are stated in some cases to have aftected particular 
springs in an extraordinary manner. 

During an earthquake in 1768 at Vienna, the spring of Baden 
became more copious than before, and the evolution of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen more abundant J. 

* Philosophical Magazine, Jan. 1835. f Me'moires pour servir, Sfc. 

X Kastner's Archiv, vol. v. 

44 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

An earthquake in 1692 is said to have affected the spring of 
Spa in a similar manner; and one that happened in the sur- 
rounding district communicated to the spring of Bagneres de 
Luchon an increase of temperature. 

But these are effects produced by earthquakes in the vicinity 
of the springs j more remarkable is the influence exerted upon 
them by similar subterranean movements taking place in distant 

Thus during the great earthquake of Lisbon, the hot spring 
of Toeplitz in Bohemia, betwixt the hours of eleven and twelve 
in the day, is recorded to have become turbid, and then to have 
gushed out so copiously as to overflow the well. The water 
assumed a red tinge, and was suspected to have become hotter. 
At the same time the hot spring of Pesth in Hungary is said to 
have shown a similar increase of temperature. 

This sympathy with the subterranean movements of a distant 
quarter will appear less extraordinary, when we recollect, that the 
same earthquake is said to have been felt by the workmen in the 
mines of Derbj^shire. 

In other cases, the connexion of the spring with the subterra- 
nean movement has been evinced, perhaps as decisively, by the 
opposite effect occurring. 

Thus in 1G60, in consequence of an earthquake, the thermal 
waters of Bagneres de Bigorre were for a short time suspended ; 
during one that occurred at Naples, the Sprudel at Carlsbad is 
stated to have remained tranquil for six hours ; and in the great 
earthquake of Lisbon, that of Aix in Savoy ceased to flow. 

Lastly, in a few instances, the existence of a thermal spring 
has seemed to act as a safety valve, and to secure the immediate 
locality from those natural convulsions which affected the neigh- 
bourhood. Thus an earthquake which shook the whole district 
around was not felt at Carlsbad itself, and the same remark has 
been made at Wiesbaden. 

Springs ex- I have now stated the more recent additions that have been 
ertingape- made to our knowledge as to the contents of mineral springs ; 
cuiiaraction ^^^^ ^^^ Undertaking would be incomplete, if I passed over with- 
animal out Comment those, which, though not known to contain any 
ceconomy. peculiar chemical ingi'edient, seem nevertheless to produce cer- 
tain decided effects upon the animal ceconomy. 

For to refuse credence to the reports given by medical men 
with respect to the salutary or injurious effects of a particular 
water, merely because the chemist can discover in it no active 
principle, would seem a proceeding not less unphilosophical, 
than that of which our predecessors were guilty, in treating as 
fabulous the accounts given of stones that had fallen from the 


sky, because they did not understand how such ponderous masses 
could have continued suspended in it. And on the other hand, 
granting that a spring possesses peculiar virtues, we must sup- 
pose that it differs, either in its mechanical, or chemical proper- 
ties, from the rest. 

Accordingly those springs, which are believed on good autho- 
rity to possess medicinal virtues, ought properly to find a place, 
not merely in a professional treatise on the subject, but also in 
one that affects to consider it scientifically. 

Most countries affoi'd examples of springs, that appear almost 
chemically pure, to which medicinal qualities have been accord- 
ed : thus Gastein in the Saltzburg, and Loueche in the Swiss 
Alps, amongst thermal waters ; and Malvern in England, 
amongst cold ones*, are very sparingly charged with mineral 
matter, and what they contain consists of ingredients appa- 
rently not calculated to exert any action upon the animal 

How far the reputation enjoyed by these springs may be 
owing to other causes, such as the purity of the air, the change 
of diet, mode of living, &c., it is for the enlightened physician 
to inform us, and an interesting field of physiological inquiry 
seems to be open to him, in examining the effects exerted upon 
the system by that long-continued immersion in warm water, to 
which it is the practice of invalids in several of these watering 
places to resortf. 

It is remarkable, that a very large proportion of those cele- Causes of 
brated warm springs lie at a considerable elevation. Thus *eirngcncy 
Gastein is 3100 feet above the sea, Loueche 4400, and Pfeffers *^°"''' 
2128 feet; now one may easily imagine, that the exhalation 
from the surface of the body, and the activity of the functions 
thereon dependent, may be much promoted by the practice of 
the invalid, of remaining alternately immersed, in water of so 
high a temperature, and in so rarified an atmosphere. If, how- 
ever, after taking this and other circumstances into account, 
the testimony, in favour of some specific action derived from the 
spring itself upon the animal oeconomy, should seem imexcep- 

* Dr. Hastings, in his Illustratiom of the Natural History of Worcestershire, 
1834, states, that its efficacj'is found to be very considerable in arthritic, cal- 
culous, dyspeptic, and scrofulous cases. 

t Dr. Gairdner doubts the statement I had on a former occasion made on 
this point ; but I can assure him, from personal observation at Loueche, and 
by quite sufficient testimony as to Gastein, that in both these baths it is the 
practice to remain immersed, for periods of time, varying from four to ten 
hours, during the process of cure. At Buda too, and at Glasshutte in Hun- 
garj', the peasants continue in the public baths for a length of time, that would 
quite astonish an English physician. 



In the pre- 
sence of io- 
dine and 

In the ab- 
sence of air. 

tionable, the chemist oup^ht to consent to regard this action as 
indicative, of undiscovered principles, or modes of combination. 

Thus certain salt springs in Piedmont had acquired from time 
immemorial a reputation in the cure of goitre, which the nature 
of their then known mineral impregnation would not explain. 

Recent investigations have, however, shown, that these springs 
contain a small quantity of iodine, the very principle now found 
most efficacious in this and other glandular disorders. 

The superior efficacy attributed to the waters of Cheltenham 
and Leamington over mere artificial solutions of sulphate of 
soda, &c. of the same strength, was difficult of explanation, until 
chemical analysis had shown that, in addition to the more 
common ingredients, these springs contain portions of two 
active principles, iodine and bromine, wanting in the imitation 
of them. 

In like manner chemists, in the pride of half knowledge, may 
often have smiled at the faith reposed in the water, of Ashby- 
de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire, and of Ki-eutynach, in the Palati- 
nate, both which, until lately, appeared to be little more than 
mere saturated solutions of common salt. 

But the advance of science has shown, that these two springs 
are precisely the ones most fully impregnated of any perhaps 
known with salts of bromine, and therefore most highly charged 
with the properties of that active principle. 

It has long been a vulgar notion, that goitre arose from 
drinking snow water, and this opinion, which was derided by 
men of science, seems to be in some measure substantiated by 
the recent researches of Boussingault in the Andes*. 

That naturalist commences by showing, that the goitre of the 
above elevated region can arise, neither from the Innnidity of the 
climate, as had been supposed by some, nor from the nature of 
the earthy ingredients of the springs, as had been imagined by 

He then observes, that persons who habitually employ as their 
beverage water devoid of its due proportion of air (whether that 
deficiency be owing, to the rarefaction of the atmosphere on the 
high table land on which it lie^, or to the circumstance of its 
being immediately obtained from the melted snow of the moun- 
tains) are subject to this disease, whilst persons who take care 
to aerate their water before drinking it, as may be done by 
those residing at a moderate elevation, by merely exposing it to 
the atmosphere for 30 or 40 hours previous, escape the deformity. 

For the same reason, a river, which at a high level appears to 

* Annalea de Chimie, 1833. 


cause goitre, has no such tendency at a lower one, so soon, that 
is, as its waters have become duly aerated in the progress of 
their descent. 

In like manner, water which rises from calcareous rocks, or 
which has become stagnant in lakes, has a tendency to produce 
goitre, not by reason of its solid contents, but owing to the 
absence of the usual quantity of air. 

Boussingault also relates the extraordinary fact, that those 
provinces, which are provided with salt containing iodine, are not 
aflfected with goitre, whilst in others, where the salt is destitute 
of that principle, the disease is endemic. 

There has likewise been an attempt lately made by a German intheiieiec- 
physician* to mark a difference in the electrical condition of t'^''^^' condi- 
one of those springs, which, though almost chemically pure, 
seemed nevertheless to possess active properties. 

He states, that the water of Gastein conducts electricity better 
than common water would do. Such a statement, however, 
cannot receive any credence, until all the details of the method, 
by which a result so paradoxical was arrived at, have been sub- 
mitted to the judgement of scientific men. 

Kastner had previously endeavoured to establish the same in 
the case of the waters of Wiesbaden, but the fallacy of his ex- 
periments is now generally admitted. 

Equally fanciful appear the opinions of those, who attribute in their 
to natural thermal springs a greater capacity for heat than be- capacity for 
longs to artificially prepared waters of equal temperature, and '^^'" 
who maintain that they cool more slowly in consequence. 

M. Longchamp, in France, by experiments on the waters of 
Bourbon ; Professor Gmelin, of Heidelberg, by similar ones on 
those of Baden- baden; Reuss, Neumann, and Steinmann bysome 
on the springs of Carlsbad; andSchweigger andFicinus by others 
on those of Toeplitz, have exposed the fallacy of this notion; and 
have shown, that in reality no difference exists in this respect 
between the one and the otherf. 

Let us next proceed to consider the improvements, that have Analysis of 
been lately introduced into our methods of analysing the solid """*^f^' 
and gaseous constituents of mineral waters. 

Most chemists are by this time familiar with the simplification General 
upon the plan of proceeding, which we owe to Dr. Murray;}; of pi^'icipies. 
Edinburgh, in consequence of his having pointed out, that as the 
salts existing in a spring need not be the same with those we ob- 
tain on evaporation, and as salts viewed as incompatible may 

• Dr. Pettenhofer. + Consult BischofF, Vulk, Mineralq., p. 364. 

X Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 



coexist in a state of weak solution, the analysis of a mineral 
water consists in nothing more than in determining the nature 
and amount of the several acids and bases which it contains. 
But Berzelius has further contended*, that everything beyond 
this, which the chemical analysis professes to give, is a matter of 
hypothesis, and that in concluding the salts, actually present in 
the water, to be neccssurilj^ the most soluble compounds, that 
could be formed out of the acids and bases present, Murray went 
further than he was justified, either by experiment or analogy, in 

The Swedish chemist, on the contrary, contends, and appa- 
rently with much justice, that, consistently with the views of 
BerthoUet on the influence of the mass, we ought to suppose as 
many salts to exist in a mineral water, as can be formed out of 
the constituents present, whilst the proportion, in which these 
salts exist, is a point which we cannot obtain data for calculating, 
iHitil we are able to estimate numerically, the relative force of 
affinity subsisting between the ingi'edients. 

According, therefore, to the received views on this subject, 
the chemist ought in strictness barely to set down, as the results of 
his analysis, the respective weights of the acids and bases present. 

If he does more than this, and pi-ofesses to combine these 
principles into salts, it should be understood, that he acts merely 
ill conformity with existing visage, and in order to convey to the 
public the impression, that those waters, in which he has found 
such and such acids and bases, act upon the system in a manner 
similar to that, which the salts he states to exist in them are 
considered calculated to do. 


To distin- 
guish ba- 
rytes or 
from lime ; 

from stron- 

With respect to the particular improvements introduced into 
this department of chemical analysis, I may particularize the 
following : 

A solution of sulphate of lime has been proposed as a test for 
barytes, or strontites, in a mineral water. 

If either of these bases exists therein, a precipitate is formed, 
whereas, if lime alone is present, no effect takes place on the 
addition of this reagent. 

An easy method of separating barytes from strontites has been 
invented by Liebigt, who treats the mixed solution with iodate 
of soda, this forming, an insoluble precipitate with the haryt, 
but a soluble compound with the strontian. 

Another methodj has lately been proposed for the same ob- 
ject, namely, that of adding neutral chromate of potass to the 

• In his Analysis of the Carlsbad water, Annales de Chimie, vol. xxviii. 
•j- Already noticed in Mr. Johnson's Report. 
X Philosophical Magazine t March 183G. 


hiixture of strontian and baryt, whereby a soluble salt is formed 
with the former, and an insoluble one with the latter. 

The precipitated chromate of barytes must be heated to red- 
ness before it is weighed. 

The common method of detecting lithia in mineral waters is Lithia. 
to precipitate it by phosphoric acid, a little phosphate of soda 
being first added to the solution, in order to make sure of the 
whole of the phosphate of lithia being thrown down. 

Kastner* proposes as an improvement, that the solution 
should be neutralized by sulphuric acid, and then reduced to 

Alcohol will take up the sulphate of lithia without aflfecting 
the other sulphates, and the solution on being evaporated, and 
then redissolved in as small a quantity of water as possible, may 
have its lithia thrown down, in combination with phosphoric acid, 
by phosphate of soda. 

An elegant method of detecting nitric acid was proposed by Nitric Add. 
Dr. WoUaston. It consisted in adding to the liquid a few drops 
of muriatic acid, and a little gold leaf, which latter will be dis- 
solved if nitric acid be present f- 

DbbereinerJ has lately suggested another method, which 
enables us to determine also the amount of nitric acid, even 
when in small quantities. 

He mixes the suspected liquid with an equal quantity of con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, and introduces the mixture into a 
graduated tube, placed over quicksilver. A slip of copper is 
then added, and the mixture warmed. Sulphate of copper is 
thus formed, and an amount of azote collected equivalent to that 
of the nitric acid present. 

A more convenient plan of conducting the experiment would 
seem to be, that of heating the suspected liquid in a glass tube, 
containing a little metallic copper and sulphuric acid, and re- 
ceiving the gas over mercury. 

I have already noticed the probability that ammonia has often Ammonia. 
been overlooked in our analyses of mineral springs. To detect 
it, sulphuric acid should first be added to the water, which may 
then be concentrated, and evaporated in a water-bath, after 
which the addition of quicklime will separate the ammonia, and 
render it sensible both by its odour and alkaline reaction. 

The received method of estimating the amount of bromine. Bromine. 

* Archiv, vol. xvi. 

-f Becquerel has proposed an electro -chemical method of effecting the 
same object founded on the same principle. Traite de I'Electricite, vol. iii. 
p. 325. 

X Berzelius, Jahresberickf, 1832, p. 162. 
VOL. V. 1836. B 

50 SIXTH REPORT — 183C. 

when present in a M'atcr, together with chlorine, is staled in my 
work on the Atomic Theory *. 

It is nothing more than an application of the method sug- 
gested by M. Gay-Liissac for calculating the proportions of soda 
and potass, to the case of bromine and clilorine, and labours in 
common with it under the objection, that the inference is de- 
duced, not from a single experimeiit, but from a comparison 
of at least two ; and that a very trifling inaccuracy in either, 
being multiplied in the calculation founded on them, vitiates 
the whole result. 

It VI ould be well, therefore, if a direct method of determining 
the same could be hit upon ; and for this reason I set down one 
suggested by Lowig, which has already found a place in Professor 
Johnston's Report on Chemistry, published in the first volume of 
our Reports. 

The dried mixture of chloride and bromide is to be heated in 
a stream of chlorine, so long as any bromine appears to be dis- 
engaged. The chlorine and bromine which pass over are re- 
ceived into a solution of caustic potass, by which chloride of 
potassium and chlorate of potass, together with bromate of potass, 
are produced. 

Having neutralized the potass with nitric acid, nitrate of silver 
is added to precipitate the chlorine and the bromic acid. 

The precipitate, after being washed, is introduced moist into 
a bottle, and barytic water added. A soluble bromate of barytes 
is thus formed, whilst the chloride remains untouched. The 
solution being p(mred off, the excess of barytes is separated by 
carbonic acid, and the bromate of barytes is thus left in a state 
of purity. 

Dr. Osannt has lately suggested another mode of separating 
these two principles. 

It depends on the greater volatility of chlorine than bromine, 
and on the cii'cumstance, that chloride of silver becomes of a vio- 
let colour after exposure to light, whilst bromide of silver is 
rendered greyish black. 

He therefore expels the chlorine and bromine by means of 
sulphuric acid, slowly distils over the two, and makes them pass 
into a solution of nitrate of silver. The precipitate is from time 
to time tested by exposure to light, and when found to assume 
the appearance belonging to bromide of silver, that which comes 
over is set apart, and reckoned as such. 

In order to obviate the objection, arising from the circum- 
stance, that there is an intermediate period when the chlorine 

* Introduction to the Atomic Theory, p. 89. The same method was followed 
by Dr. Ure in his analysis of the Ashby water; Phil. Transactions, 1834. 
f PoggcnAorff's Annalcn, 1831. 


and bromine come over together, Osann proposes to stop the 
distillation, exactly at the point at Avhicli the precipitate is an 
equal mixtiu-e of the two acids. The deficiency of bromine in 
the solution is thus compensated for by the chlorine obtained. 
It is evident, however, that a very practised eye would be re- 
quired, in order to obtain correct quantitative results by such 
a method as the above. 

The same author proposes to separate iodine from chlorine, 
by causing the mixture to pass over in a state of vapour into a 
solution of potass, and then precipitating it with arsenious acid 
or arseniate of ammonia. 

The iodine unites with the arsenic, which latter is precipi- 
tated by sulphuretted hydrogen. This being got rid of by 
oxide of lead, the iodine is obtained by uniting it with silver. 

Henry Rose * has proposed a new method of distinguishing Oxides of 
between the protoxide and peroxide of iron. """"• 

When muriatic acid is added to a mixture containing both 
these oxides, the protoxide is converted into a protochloride, the 
peroxide into a perchloride. 

Now metallic silver robs the latter of its half-atom of chlorine, 
converting it into the protochloride, and hence the increase of 
weight in the silver added, enables us to calculate the amount of 
peroxide of iron originally present. 

Another method for the same object has been proposed by 
Fuchs f. It consists in digesting the solution of protoxide and 
peroxide in an acid, with carbonate of lime or of magnesia, by 
either of which the peroxide is precipitated, whilst the protoxide 
remains untouched. 

This peroxide is obtained in a state of mixture with the earth 
and acid employed, and must be separated from both by the 
ordinary means. 

The only difficulty consists, in preventing the weight of the 
precipitate from being increased during filtration, in consequence 
of the conversion of some of the protoxide into peroxide. 

In order to prevent this as much as possible, the precipitate 
should be washed repeatedly with warm water, before the super- 
natant liquor is thrown upon the filter. 

For the detection of organic matter in mineral waters, Dr. Organic 
Davy has suggested the employment of a solution of nitrate of ""'"'er. 
silver J. The blackening, which usually takes place in this fluid 
upon exposure to light, is attributable to the presence of organic 
matter ; for if care be taken to purify the water, light produccb 
no change. 

* Berzelius, Jahresberichf, 1832, p. 164. 
t Jahiesbericht. 1832, p. lG4. 
X Edinburgh New Phil. Journal, 1828, p. 129. 
E 2 

52 SlXTfl RKPORT -I8;3f>. 

When, however, this test is employed, we must first assure 
ourselves that no chlorides exist in the solution ; for chloride of 
silver, which would be formed, is blackened by the sun's rays, 
even though no organic matter be present. 
Gases. For determining the quality and amount of the gases chemi- 

cally combined with a mineral water, Mr. Walcher* suggested 
a modification in the common apparatus, witli a view of obviat- 
ing the error likely to arise from a portion of the water being 
driven over by the ebullition. 

In his experiments, the glass globe containing the water to 
be boiled was connected, air-tight, to a little phial, from which 
proceeded a sigmoid tube, passing under mercury, or into the 
vessel containing the substance intended to absorb the gas. 

Let us suppose, for instance, that our object is to ascertain 
the amount of nitrogen and oxygen which a water contains. In 
that case we fill the phial with carbonic acid, and the graduated 
tube with solution of potass. The air expelled by ebullition, 
together with a portion of the water itself, entering the phial, 
expels the air, which passing into the tube, is robbed of its car- 
bonic acid by the potass. 

After the experiment is over, the air remaining in the phial 
may easily be transferred into the jar, and the water which 
came over uic-iy be passed back again into the glass globe, in 
order that it may be treated like the rest. 

In this manner, perhaps, a somewhat greater degree of ac- 
curacy may be attained, than where a glass globe with a sigmoid 
tube alone is employed. 

But I conceive that the utility of Mr. Walcker's plan will be 
chiefly felt where the object is to ascertain the amount of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, or of carbonic acid in a mineral water, by 
boiling it, and passing the gases over into a solution calculated 
to absorb them. 

In such cases, if any portion of the water comes over with 
the gas, the result is entirely vitiated ; and to prevent this, 
there seems to be a convenience in the intervening bottle, which, 
however, where sulphuretted hydrogen is expected, should be 
filled with some gas not containing oxygen. 
Suiphuret- After all, however, the simplest mode of ascertaining the 
tea hydro- amount of sulphuretted hydrogen is by adding directly to the 
^^"" water some reagent, which precipitates it in a state of combi- 


Mr. Richard Phillips, in his analysis of a spring near Wey- 
moutht, has employed the nitrate of silver, which appears to be 

• Brwode's Journal of Science for 1828. 
t Phil. May., vol. iii. p. 158. 


preferable to any other substance, as the only combinations 
formed are the chloride and the sulphuret, of which the former 
is soluble in liquid ammonia, whilst the latter is not acted upon 
by it. 

I have already stated, that M. Anglada considers the sul- 
phuretted hydrogen of the Pyrenean springs to be combined 
with an alkali. In order to determine whether this be the case 
or not, the test he employs is a solution of arsenious acid*, 
which gives a yellow precipitate with the free acid, but does 
not affect solutions of the hydrosulphuretsf . 

Azote is usually detected by negative trials, but an ingenious Azote. 
method of directly proving its presence has lately been sug- 

This is, to melt a piece of potass in contact with a slip of 
zinc in the air suspected to contain it, suspending over the two 
a piece of turmeric paper, moistened. 

The water of the potass will thus be decomposed, its oxygen 
passing over to the zinc, and the hydrogen being liberated. 
The latter, at the moment of its separation, unites with any 
azote that may be present, forming ammonia, which produces 
its characteristic effect upon the test paper. 

The fabrication of factitious mineral waters, being entirely On factid- 
dependent on the knowledge we may possess of their chemical ""* mineral 
constitution, seems to claim a place immediately after the con- ^^'*'^'^^' 
sideration of their analysis. 

The subject is one which has excited considerable interest on 
the Continent, in consequence of the labours of Dr. Struve of 
Dresden, who has devoted himself, for a number of years past, 
to the imitation of those natural springs which possess the 
highest reputation amongst his countrymen. 

To do this completely, considerable skill in manipulation, 
and a minute attention to several apparently unimportant cir- 
cumstances, ai'e found to be requisite. 

As the first step of the process, the water intended to be 
mineralized, must be impregnated with the same amount, of car- 
bonic acid, and the other gases which its natural prototype 
possesses ; and, in order to effect this object, the whole of the 
atmospheric air existing in the water must be pi'eviously ex- 
pelled, and the carbonic acid added, under a pressure, neither 
greater nor less, than that to which it is subjected in nature. 

All this time the fluid must be kept at the exact temperature 

* Memoires pmir scrvir, &c., vol. ii. 

t Prof. Johnston mentions in his Rpport on Chemislnj another method, 
p. 460. 

54 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

which the natural spring maintains, and access of air during 
the continuance of the process must be scrupulously prevented. 
This done, the same fixed ingredients must be presented to the 
water, and no one principle omitted, however small may be its 
quantity in nature, or however inert it may in itself be, it being 
recollected that the introduction of a fresh substance, by the afii- 
nities it exerts, alters, according to the Berzelian doctrine, the 
proportions of all the salts previously existing in the water. 
Nor is this all, for it is necessary that the water should be 
maintained at the same temperature and under the same pres- 
sure till the very moment of drinking it. 

Similar precautions must be adopted during the act of bottling, 
the bottle being previously filled with carbonic acid before the 
water is passed into it : for if the vessel were already occupied 
by atmospheric air, much of the carbonic acid existing in the 
water would be expelled, and, consequentlj', a portion of the 
earthy or metallic ingredients be thrown down. 

To fabricate, therefore, a successful imitation of a natural 
spring, a more complicated apparatus is eniploj'^ed than was 
formerly believed requisite, and the water nnist be made to pass 
through various successive operations, before the process is 
wound iqi by the addition of the saline ingredients by which it 
is mineralized. 

When thus prepared, the factitious water will coincide with 
the natural one in taste, smell, specific gravity, and other phy- 
sical properties. The gas-bubbles will rise in the same form, 
and spontaneous decomposition will take place within the same 
period and to the same extent. 

The mineral waters prepared by Struve really seem to fulfill 
these conditions in a great degree, and have stood likewise the 
test of a rigorous chemical analysis, without the detection of any 
deviation from the original. 

Their pretensions, indeed, have been occasionally sneered at, 
as might be expected, by the physicians and chemists, who have 
taken under their patronage the interests of any one of those 
naturcil waters, for which the artificial ones are offered as sub- 

*' Dr. Struve," says one*, " professed to prepare genuine 
Carlsbad waters, prior to the analysis of Berzelius, who detected 
in it six or eight new ingredients. He went on doing the same 
after the discoveries of this great chemist had been announced. 
Perhaps ten years hence we shall find half a dozen more princi- 
ples in the water. But no matter, for we shall always find at 
Dr. Struve's a supply of the true and genuine Carlsbad water." 

* Fcez, Trait e des Eaux dc Wiesbaden, p. 93. 


This is scarcely candid criticism. It may be admitted, in- 
deed, that an artificial mineral water can at best be only a near 
approximation to the natural one, and that we can never be ab- 
solutely sure of having arrived at a knowledge of all the contents 
of the latter. 

Yet even if we take the very case of the Carlsbad waters, 
which are quoted against Struve, how minute is the difference 
between the analysis of Berzelius, and that of Klaproth, which 
he had previously taken as his guide. 

Struve* indeed calculates, that during a month's use of these 
waters, an individual who drank ten glasses full of them each 
day, would not have consumed quite five grains of those ingre- 
dients, which Berzelius's analysis shows to have been over- 
looked, namely. 

Of fluate of lime 2*58 grains 

Carbonate of strontia 0*77 )> 

Phosphate of lime 0*18 „ 

Carbonate of magnesia 0*67 „ 

Subphosphate of alumina , ... 0*26 „ 

Total . . 4-46 „ 

When, therefore, we have a mineral water prepared by art, 
which possesses the same apparent j)hysical properties belong- 
ing to the one which it is intended to imitate, and when the 
best analysis, which the existing state of chemical science ad- 
mits, confirms this identity, there is surely no such antecedent 
improbability, in the idea of its possessing similar medicinal 
virtues, as should indispose us to receive the reports of medical 
men, when they assure us that in this latter respect also the 
same correspondence subsistsf . 

Still, however, as the natural spring will always deserve a 
preference, I cannot think that Dr. Struve is happy in fixing, 
as the main seat of his operations, upon Dresden, a city lying 
not very remote from any of the springs which it has been his 
business to imitate. 

It is rather in the branch establishments which have been set 
up under his auspices, at Moscow, Warsaw, Konigsberg, and 
Brighton, that the value of his method will be appreciated, 
since the carbonated waters which he prepares are scarcely to 
be met with in these countries, lying as they do beyond the 
range of those volcanic phaenomena, which extend from the 

* Ueber kunstlich. Miner alwasser. 

f Half the substance of Struve's work consists of the statements of different 
physicians as to the efficacy of his artificial -waters. 

56 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

mountains of the Taunus to those of Bohemia and Silesia, and of 
which this class of springs are among the consequences. 

Products of Before I conclude this portion of my subject, it may be pro- 
springs. pgj. briefly to notice, to what extent mineral waters appear to 
have afffected the geological structure of certain parts of the earth. 
Trivial as this influence may seem at present to be, yet it will 
be sufiicient to refer to Mr. Lyell's well-known work, as esta- 
blishing the position, that no inconsiderable portion of the crust 
of the globe, in volcanic countries at least, is attributable to the 
deposits which they have occasioned. 
Calcareous. Without pretending to describe the vast accumulations of tra- 
vertin formed by carbonated springs, in Tuscanj', in the Cam- 
pagna di Roma, in Hungary, &c., I shall merely remark, that 
the resemblance, which some varieties of this deposit bear to the 
materials of older calcareous rocks is so great, and the passage 
from one to the other so imperceptible, that we are naturally led 
to suspect the latter to have been often produced in the very 
same manner. 

Thus some varieties of travertin are undistinguishable in hand 
specimens from marble, as that formed by the waters of Civita 
Vecchia in the Campagna*. Others, like that near the town 
of Nonette, on the right bank of the Allier in Auvergne, might 
be mistaken for the Juratic limestone f ; and the shelly lime^ 
stone, now forming at the bottom of many lakes, bears the most 
complete resemblance to certain tertiary deposits J. 

Even the concretionary structure of the limestone of Sunder- 
land, a rock, which, though existing in the magnesian limestone 
formation, and in the midst of a powdery variety of dolomite, is 
itself almcst wholly calcareous, is imitated by the spheroidal 
masses of travertin that occur at Tivoli and at Carlsbad, and 
may have resulted from the same gyratory motion of its com- 
ponent parts during their deposition, to which Mr. Lyell has 
ingeniously attributed the concentric circles of the latter deposit. 
The absence of magnesia confirms this suspicion. 

In the ocean it is probable that mineral springs fulfill a still 
more important office — that, namely, of supplying with calca- 
reous matter those Mollusc* which are building up extensive 
coral reefs ; for, as I observed many years back§, the muriate of 
lime which the ocean contains, would long ago have been ex- 
hausted by the operations of these animalcules, supposing them 
to have the power of decomposing it, and of appropriating its 

* Lyell's Geology, vol. i. p. 198. 

t Lecoq and Bouillct, Fues et Coupes d'Auveujne, p. 131. 

+ Lyell, Genl. D-nus., 2nd Series, vol.ii. p. 73. 

§ Jnatiyiti al Lecture on Cfmnislri/, Oxford, 1824. 

heport on Mineral and thermal waters. 57 

base, unless we assume this salt to have existed originally in sea- 
water, in such a proportion as would have been seemingly in- 
compatible with marine life. 

Mr. Lyell has also justly remarked, that the same volcanic 
agency, which has raised the bed of the ocean, sufficiently to admit 
of its serving as a baset* or the coral reefs which form within 
it, also, by the carbonic acid which it causes to be emitted, oc- 
casions a larger quantity of that calcareous matter, which they 
require, to be dissolved by the water in their vicinity. Gypseous 
deposits are likewise often produced by springs of the present 
day, as noticed, with respect to those of Baden near Vienna by 
Prevost, and that near the lake Amsanctus by myself. 

How far the beds of sulphur which occur in volcanic districts, 
and the sulphate of lime which is associated with most beds of salt, 
can be referred to the same, will be discussed afterwards; but we 
must take care not to confound (as some writers appear to have 
done,) the creative effects of mineral waters, with their decompo- 
sing agency. The latter is illustrated in the deposits of the mud- Argiiia- 
volcanos, as they are called, of South America, where vast masses cejus. 
of matter, chiefly argillaceous, derived from felspathic rocks de- 
composed by water and acid vapours, are washed down into the 
low country, and there constitute extensive beds. 

The rocks described by Menge *, as formed by hot springs in 
Iceland, are probably of the same description, for it is impossible 
to follow this author in that portion of his statement, in which 
he represents basalt, lava, and trap porphyry, as in the act of 
being produced in them. He appeals indeed to the fact of his 
extracting from the midst of a boiling marsh, a mass of matter, 
which when broken, exhibited the characters of basaltic lava in 
the centre, and towards the surface passed gradually into red and 
grey mud ; but it seems just as easy to explain this, by the de- 
composing influence of the water extending gradually from the 
circumference to the centre, as by the contrary process taking 
place in the reverse direction. 

The siliceous formations actually deposited at the present Siliceous. 
time by springs, appear to be comparatively insignificant, the 
most important being those of Iceland, and of St. Michael in the 
Azores. It is probable, however, that under the sea, where the 
influence of heat, and the chemical afiinity of alkali, are height- 
ened by the efl"ectof an enormous pressure, beds of considerable 
extent may be produced in this manner. 

Ii-on pyrites has been observed in a deposit from the thermal Fenugi- 
springs of Chaudes Aigues in the Cantal, owing probably to the """^• 

* Edinh. Phi/. Journal, vol. ii. 



decomposition of sulphate of iron by organic matter*, and ochre 
has been often observed forming, in the midst of travertin, small 
beds or veins, which owe their origin to the deposits from fer- 
ruginous waters f. 
Bitumi- To petroleum springs, which so commonly arise from the ope- 

nous. rations of volcanic fire, Mr. Lyell is disposed to attribute the bi- 

tuminous shales present in geological formations of different ages. 
Thus the phsenomena of mineral waters afford a clew to the 
origin of various constituents of our globe, which it would 
otherwise have been difficult to explain by the mere agency of 
water, and relieve us from the necessity of assuming the opera- 
tion of causes that have ceased to exist, in order to explain the 
occurrence of miiierals or beds composed of silica in the midst of 
Neptunian formations. 

Having now collected the principal facts of recent observa- 
tion which have fallen under my notice with respect to the na- 
tural history of mineral waters, I will next proceed to state what 
is known with respect to their origin, and the causes of their 
respective peculiarities. 

The notions entertained by our forefathers with respect to 
the formation of land springs by the infiltration of sea-water, 
deprived of its saltness by its passage through the intervening 
rocks, have long given place to the more rational theory which 
attributes them to the large reservoirs of rain-water, collected 
within the porous strata, and forced out by hydrostatic pressure, 
wherever a natural or artificial opening was created for them. 

A German writer, however, named Keferstein|, has attempted 
to cast doubts upcm this explanation, and to substitute for it 
one founded upon certain fanciful speculations with respect to 
the earth's vitality, which seem to be the fitting progeny of an 
earlier stage of physical research. 

The earth being, according to him, one great animated being, 
performing functions of a nature analogous to those discharged 
by the living creatures that exist upon its surface, the produc- 
tion of springs is regarded as the result of its respiration ; and 
the discharge of steam, carbonic acid, and nitrogen, together 
with the absorption of oxygen, is viewed as originating in pro- 
cesses similar in kind, to those which are carried on by the 
lungs of animals. 

It is not my purpose to combat this strange hypothesis, 
though if there be any in this country who have already become 
converts to it, they may perhaps find excuses for applying its 

* Berthier, Annales dcs Mines, 1810. t Lecoq, Fues, Sfc. p. 120. 

X In Kastncr's Archiv, vol. iii. p. 359, and in his work entitled, Deutsch- 
hiiid gcoloffisch dargestelli. Halle. 


principles to the case of springs, by espying difficulties in cer- 
tain special instances to the application of the received theory. 

It may, however, be sufficient for my purpose to remark, 
that, be the difficulties in question real or apparent, they are 
not, at least, of moment enough, or applicable to a sufficient num- 
ber of cases, to induce more sober theorists to adopt the views, 
which it has been proposed to substitute for the received ones. 

The majority of naturalists will be contented with appealing 
to the researches of Dr. Dalton, who, in a paper published in 
the Manchester Memoirs*, has shown the adequacy of the water 
^vhich descends from the heavens in the part of England he 
inhabits, to supply the springs of that district, notwithstanding 
the loss arising from evaporation. 

There appears indeed, from his calculation, to be an excess 
of 2 inches per annum in the latter beyond the amount of rain 
and dew which fall ; but this excess Dr. Dalton thinks may be 
explained without resorting to any other supposition than the 
one alluded to. 

Yet, although the general theory will scarcely admit of dis- 
pute, it is satisfactory to collect facts on this subject, in order 
to compare with the former ; and one singularity has been ob- 
served in the instance of springs issuing from chalk, which appear 
to be most copious in June, and least so in Decemberf. 

This, however, seems referable to the slowness with which 
water percolates so thick a stratum as the chalk, and is analo- 
gous to what has been observed with respect to terrestrial heat, 
where the excess of summer temperature does not reach the 
utmost limit of its progress into the earth till about the middle 
of winter. 

Mr. rienwoodj has also stated the quantity of water given 
out by the springs in a certain district of Cornwall, as deter- 
mined by the amount raised by the engines in particular mines ; 
and concludes, that it is greater by one third than that of the 
rain falling in the country. 

This, however, may easily arise, owing to the mines drawing 
water from a much larger surface, than the area of country di- 
rectly overlying them, Avhich, as being the deepest spots for a 
considerable distance, they may readily be conceived to do. 

To descend from the general theory of springs to the causes Origin of 
of their particular characters, I will first notice the circumstance "i'^.'''"*' 

e I. J. springs. 

or temperature. 

* Vol. V. See also A.rago on Artesian Wells, in the Ammaire for 1835, 
translated in Jameson's Journal. 

t Bland in Phil. Maijuxine for 1832, p. 38. 

+ Phil. Magazine, New Scries, vol. i, 1832, p. 287. 


According to Von Buch* all springs containing carbonic acid 
are more or less thermal, and Gustavus Bischof goes so far as 
to assert, that this remark extends universally to springs of con- 
stant temperaturef. 

The smallest difference, he says, between the warmth of the 
springs of a countiy and that of the soil, is never less than 2^ 
degrees of Fahrenheit. 

But I have already observed, that Bischof generalized on 
too narrow a basis, when he inferred from the observations 
quoted in his memoir the universality of such a law. 

It is one indeed directly at variance with the tenour of obser- 
vations made within the tropics, which seem to show, that in 
warm climates the mean temperature of the atmosphere is even 
higher than that of the perennial springs X- 

And if the remark be limited to colder regions, many ano- 
malies require to be reconciled, and a much more extensive se- 
ries of observations gone through, before it can be decided, 
whether this augmentation of temperature be the result of a ge- 
neral law, or of local circumstances. Thus, for example, if, as 
Humboldt and others have supposed, the excess of temperature 
in springs over the atmosphere increases with the latitude, then 
indeed the temperature assigned by Bischof as the minimum in 
the case of those near Andernach, in lat. 50^°, squares very well 
with the rate of progression indicated by observations, on the 
springs of Paris in lat. 49°, and those of Berlin in lat. 52^° §. 

For at Paris the mean temperature of the climate was found 
at 51°-6, and that of the springs 52°-7, the excess being 1°-1 ; 
whilst at Berlin the atmospheric temperature was 46°"4, terres- 
trial 50°*2, excess 3°"8, indicating a rate of pi'ogression equal to 
about 1°*8 of temperature to 1° of latitude. 

But, on the other hand, the accurate observations of Playfair 
have shown, that at Edinburgh, in a still higher latitude, viz. 
55°-58, the temperature of springs is identical with tliat of the 
atmosphere, so that the supposed progression would seem to be 
confined to a still higher latitude than this. 

Neither are the observations of Wahlenberg in the Scandina- 

* Poggendorff's Annalev, vol. xii. p. 415. 

t Edinburgh New Phil. Journal for April 1836. 

X See Von Buch, on the Temperature of Springs, Edinburgh Neio Phil. 
Journal, October, 1828, or his work on the Canary Islands, p. 84, French 
translation ; where he accounts for the fact, from the circumstance of the 
springs being derived from rain, which had fallen exclusively during the 
colder months, and which does not readily acquire, within the slowly con- 
ducting substance of the strata containing them, the temperature of the hotter 
portions of the year. See also Bischof's often quoted memoir, in which he dis- 
putes the general law, and supposes the tropical springs alluded to, to have been 
derived from high mountains, and therefore to possess a lower temperature. 

§ Humboldt on Isothermal Lines, Edinburgh New Phil. Journal. 


vian Peninsula *, nor those of Kupffer on the Ural range f ? ab- 
solutely conclusive, as to the generality of the supposed law even 
in the high latitudes to which they refer. 

The elevation of temperature may, for ought we know, be con- 
fined to the neighbourhood of uplifted chains of mountains ; it 
may be a consequence of those great natural events to which are 
owing the disturbances there experienced ; and consequently it 
may not extend to the great plains of Russia or Siberia, where 
no such local influences exist. Or if it should be found on further 
examination to be general in northern latitudes, it will still re- 
main to be discussed, before referring it to central heat, whether 
the phaenomenon may not depend upon the cause suggested by 
Von Buch in the memoir before referred to, namely, that the 
transmission of temperature through the earth chiefly takes 
place by the infiltration of water, a cause which, of course, 
ceases to operate below 32°. 

Granting, however, that the springs, which Bischof has no- 
ticed, owe their excess of temperature in part to a generally per- 
vading cause of heat, we have still to account for the enormous 
differences in this respect existing between one and another, and 
this is what I now propose to consider. 

The degree in which they exceed the mean of the climate is 
dependent, amongst other circumstances, on the elevation on the 
earth's surface at which they issue. 

Von Buch X has given various instances of springs, belonging 
to the same district, but bursting out at diff"erent heights, which, 
though they may correspond in mineral and gaseous impregna- 
tion, differ materially in temperature, the lowest being the hot- 

Boussingault§ also states, that in the littoral chain of Vene- 
zuela the temperature of the thermal springs is less in propor- 
tion as their absolute height is greater. 

Thus the warm spring of Las Funcheras near Puerto Cabello, 
which approaches the level of the sea, possesses a temperature of 
97° cent. That of Manaro, at a height of 476 metres, has only 
one of 64°; and that of Onoto, at 702 metres, only 44°-5. 

This regularity, however, does not extend to hot springs in 
immediate contact with volcanos. Von Buch || conjectures, that 
the heat of such springs is derived from the carbonic acid which 
impregnates them, and which possesses itself a high temperature, 
as having proceeded from a great depth. 

* Annals of Philosophy, vol. iv. 1814, translated from Gilbert's Annalen. 
f Kupffer in Edinburgh New Phil. Journal, vol. xxii. 
I PoggendorfFs Annalen, vol. xxii. § Annales de Chimie, 1831. 

y Poggendorff's Annalen, vol. xii. p. 41 5. 


SIXTH REPORT — 183fi. 

position of 

springs : 

1st, near 

This, however, is controverted by Bischof *, who shows clearly 
that no considerable augmentation could have arisen from sucii 
a cause. 

Brongniart, in an article t in the Dlctionnaire des Sciences 
Naturelles, has pointed out, that the temperature of thermal 
springs is regulated by the nature of the rocks from which they 

The hottest are those associated with recent volcanos, next 
those proceeding from extinct ones, or from primary rocks, and 
lowest in the scale such as are connected with younger forma- 
tions ; and though this ride may admit of exceptions, yet it 
seems to hold good in the majority of cases. 

Now this observation of Brongniart will be found to har- 
monize, and to point the same way, with the conclusions to 
which I have myself been conducted by the study of thermal 
springs, a summary of which will be found in an article in the 
London Review fSr 1829, and in a memoir inserted in the Edin- 
burgh New Philosophical Journal for 1831. 

In these publications I have attempted to show, that by far the 
majority of thermal waters arise, either from rocks of a volcanic 
nature, from the vicinity of some uplifted chain of mountains, 
or lastly, from clefts and fissures caused by disruption. 

In many cases, indeed, all the above circumstances are seen 
combined ; for the same spring may at once issue from the midst 
of volcanic products, be situated at the foot of an uplifted chain, 
and proceed out of a chasm or fissure ; so that, in classifying 
springs according to the above plan, we should find many 
perhaps possessing an equal claim to a place in all the three di- 

This circumstance, however, although it might prevent our 
adopting the above distinction, as the basis of a classification of 
mineral springs, only adds strength to the argument in favour of 
a common origin being ascribed to them. 

With respect to the first of these classes of springs, I have 
pointed out in a subsequent paper |, that they may be placed 
under two heads, namely, first, those impregnated with gases 
which are derived from volcanic energy, aiul probably owe their 
origin to processes now continuing ; and secondly, those which, 
from the absence of such accompaniments, seem to be nothing 
more than reservoirs of water heated by coming into contact, 
with a mass of rock, retaining some of the warmth it had acquired 
from the volcanic operations of an antecedent period. 

The springs of Mount Dor, of Hungary, and some of those in 

* On Hot and Thermal Springs, Ed. Journal, 1836. f Eaux. 

i On a Spring at Torre del Annunziata in Edinb. New Phil, Journal, 1835. 


the Andes, are instances of the former ; those of Ischia, noticed 
bj' myself, and those enumerated under the head of " siinple 
thermal ivaters," by Anglada*, and by Foderef, which latter are 
called in the country chaudons, and spring from below beds of 
gypsum, I consider to be illustrative of the latter. 

The connexion of thermal waters with uplifted chains will 2nd, near 
best be seen by coupling this description of springs with the systems of 
carbonated ones which usually accompany them, and which, ^ ^''^''°"* 
from the similarity of their mineral, and still more of their gaseous 
constitution, no less than that of their geological position, seem 
plainly referable to the same system of causes. 

Gustavus Bischof, in the work so often quoted, has enume- 
rated nine of these groups existing in different parts of Europe, 
alike impregnated with carbonic acid and soda. These are 

1. The springs of the Eyfel and Siebengebirge. 

2. Those of the Westerwald and Taunus. 

3. Of the Habichtswald, Meissner, Vogelsgebirge, and Rhon- 

4. Of the Fichtelgebirge. 

5. Of the Erzgebirge. 

6. Of the Bohemian Mittelgebirge. 

7. Of the Riesengebirge in Silesia. 

8. Of Auvergne and the Vivarais in France. 

9. Of the Pyrenees +. 

Now it is to be observed, that of the above groups two, 
namely, the mineral springs of the Rhine Province, and those of 
Central France, belong to our antecedent class ; and that a por- 
tion at least of the sixth group is allied to the same, since the 
mineral waters of Toeplitz and Bilin are manifestly in connex- 
ion with the porphyry-slate, and the volcanic products of the 
Mittelgebirge, and those of Franzensbad, with the little volcanic 
crater and scoriform lava of the Kammerburg in its immediate 

With regard to the remainder, it may be remarked, that 
the existence of trappean or porphyritic rocks in the vicinity 
of many of tliem, is a circumstance strongly corroborative of 
their volcanic origin, and consequently of the operation of forces 
capable of uplifting the mountains in their vicinity. 

It is likewise a negative proof of the same connexion, that no 
mineral springs of such a constitution are found on the continent 
of Europe, considerably north of the limit to which basaltic and 

* Vol. ii. p. 170. 

f Voyages mix Alpesmaritimes, p. 155. 

% We have seen, however, that Anglada denies the existence of carbonic 
acid in these waters. 


SfXTtt REPORT — 183C. 

of these 
springs to 
the rocks 

trappean rocks extend, a limit which nearly coincides with the 
line of elevation passing through the centre of Germany. 

It is certain, at least, that throughout those vast tracts of 
comparatively level country, which constitute the greater part of 
Northern Russia, Poland, and Prussia, neither basaltic rocks, nor 
thermal or carbonated springs have been noticed, whilst both the 
one and the other appear to become more and more abundant, 
in proportion as other indications of volcanic action appear. 

The above-mentioned groups however constitute but a small 
part of those distributed througho\it Europe. 

I have already shown, that the thermal springs of the Alps 
often contain alkali, and the occasional absence of that ingre- 
dient ought surely not to place them in another class, when their 
gaseous impregnation and other phaenomena coincide with those 
included under it. 

There is therefore a group of thermal springs manifesting 
itself, both in the central chain of the Alps, as at Baden in 
Argau, Schinznach, Pfeffers, and Loueche, and on its western 
and southern flank, at Aix in Savoy, St. Didier, Bonneval, and 
at Acqvii and Coni in Piedmont. 

Nor are other chains of mountains destitute of their own ap- 
propriate systems of thermal and carbonated springs. To men- 
tion one of the least known, that indefatigable geologist. 
Dr. Boue, who has lately been exploring the provinces of 
European Turkey, informs me, that in Servia and Bosnia, there 
exist acidulous and saline mineral waters, like those of Nassau, 
and that in the western part of the former province, as well as 
in Bulgaria, a line of hot springs with sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and probably azote, makes its appearance. 

The line begins at Mehadia in the Bannat, and continues to 
the south of Nissa. The great masses of travertin found in 
the neighbourhood denote, that carbonic acid was formerly 
evolved in large quantities. 

South of the Balkan and Orbelus, is a line of hot springs, 
running from east to west, which also contain sulphuretted 
hydrogen. Their highest temperature is 58° R. (162° Fahr.). 

Eruptions of trachyte and dolerite seem to have been the pre- 
cursors of the bursting out of these latter springs. 

Without extending our inquiry into other parts of the globe, 
where it would be easy to point out groups of mineral springs 
similarly constituted, let us consider how the latter stand re- 
lated to the mountains in the vicinity of which they lie. 

It would seem, as I have remarked in the memoir on Thermal 
Waters before referred to, that a large proportion of them are 
placed near the line at which the elevation of the chain appears 


to have commpnced ; but that when situated near to its axis, 
they generally occur in some deep valley, and consequently at a 
comparatively low level. 

This is the case with Barege and Cauterets in the Pyrenees, 
and with St. Gervais in the Alps, which latter, as M. Delarive* 
had many years ago observed, is situated exactly on the spot 
which, of all others, unites most completely the conditions, of 
approaching in the nearest degree to the centre of the chain, and 
being at the same time least elevated above the level of the ocean. 

But Professor Forbes, in an interesting memoir to which I 
have already had occasion to referf, points out other circum- 
stances of physical constitution, which seem to characterize the 
greater part, at least, of springs of this description. 

He has shown, by an extensive induction of particulars, that 
the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, for the most part gush out 
from the vicinity of intrusive rocks, such as granite, serpentine, 
greenstone, and the like ; moreover, that the structure and po- 
sition of the stratum through which the latter have lieen thrust, 
are both of such a nature as to afford indications of violence. 

Several of these thermal waters he has even traced, rising ex- 
actly from the line of junction between the granite and the 
stratified rock. 

And this brings me to the consideration of the third circum- 3rdly. Con- 
stance alluded to as characterizing thermal waters : 1 mean their ''guous to 

, . cxtcnsivG 

connexion with faults or dislocations. faults or 

This mutual relation is illustrated by the case of the Carlsbad dislocations. 
springs, according to the description of them given by Von HoffJ. 

They are described by him as issuing from the bottom of a 
narrow glen, bearing in itself the evidences of some great natural 

It lies nearly at right angles to the valleys of denudation that 
exist in the immediate neighbourhood ; it is more narrow and 
more precipitous than the latter ; and, as Von Hoff states, the 
granite which forms the fundamental rock, is overlaid by a 
breccia, made up of fragments of this rock cemented together by 
a siliceous paste, which is in great measure covered over by the 
calc. sinter deposited at present by the springs, but in one side of 
the valley protrudes itself, and appears above it. 

This breccia Von Hoff attributes to the spring, which in former 
times, like those of Iceland, may have deposited siliceous matter ; 
but as, on a recent visit to Carlsbad, I could perceive no kind of 
breccia that bore the appearance of having been cemented by 
the materials of a thermal water, I am disposed to doubt this 

* Bibliotheque Britannique. f Phil. Trans, 1836. 

X Geognostiche bemerknnyen i'cber Karhhad. Gotha, 1825. 
VOL. v.— 1836. F 


part of Von Hoff's statement, although ahle to confirm the gene- 
ral truth of his representation. 

Stifft, in his geological description of the neighbourhood 
of Wiesbaden*, remarks, that the following facts have been ob- 
served by himself relative to the springs of the Nassau territory. 

1st. That they follow distinctly six lines, and thus evince a 
determinate direction. 

2nd. That the rocks in their neighbourhood manifest evident 
changes in the direction and inclination of their sti-ata, especially 
saddle-shaped elevations, often accompanied with fractures. 

3rd. That in many places the adjacent rocks themselves ap- 
pear altered, and are more friable than elsewhere. 

In my memoir on Thermal Springs already referred to, I have 
pointed out several instances of the same connexion, between 
the existence of evidences of dislocation in the strata, and the 
bursting out of thermal springs, as occurring along the line of 
the Pyrenean chain, as at Aleth, Rennes, and Campagne, and 
still more remarkably at St. Paul de Fenouilhedes, on the road 
from Carcassone to Perpignan, near the town of Caudiez, all in 
Roussillon. The same fact is still more strikingly illustrated, by 
the structure of the country at St. Vincent's rocks, as described 
by Conybeare and Bucklandf , and at Matlock, as long ago 
pointed out by Whitehurstl ; for, since the rocks from which the 
thermal waters in these two instances proceed, are stratified, the 
inference, to which the mere inspection of the localities conducts 
us, is confirmed by the unconformable disposition of the strata 
themselves ; we not only observe springs gushing out from a 
narrow and precipitous cleft, but we find on examination the 
strata tilted up and disarranged, in a manner which implies that 
some violent action must have taken place. Mr. Murchison 
and Mr. Lyell§ have also remarked, that the hot spring of Aix 
in Provence lies contiguous to some remarkable dislocations of 
the strata. 

We must not, indeed, strain too far our inferences from this 
one circumstance ; for it is probable, as has lately been shown by 
Mr. Hopkins II, that natural springs, of VA^hatever temperature, 
have their origin very commonly in fissures, which appear owing 
to dislocations or disturbances in the strata. 

The latter, however, exhibit no evidences of violence, at all 
comparable to those afforded by the great natural chasms, to 

* In Rullman's Wiesbaden. 

+ Geological Transactions, vol. i. New Series, " On the South West Coal 
Field of England." 

X Whitehurst's Theory of the Earth, 1786. 

§ Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal. 

jl Cambridge Philosophical Transactions, 1836. 


which I have principally appealed, exhibited at Carlsbad, Mat- 
lock, and Clifton. 

And it is only in the last of these instances, where, fortunately 
for our argument, the evidence is of a more decisive character 
than in the rest, that we are unable to strengthen it by other 
collateral proofs, derived from the presence of intrusive rocks, 
or the general appearance of the surrounding country. 

In the other examples cited, I might have been indisposed to 
build upon this one fact, as a decisive proof of violent action 
having taken place in the locality, had not the probability of 
such events having occurred, obtained confirmation from other 
circumstances that had been pointed out. 

Thus at Carlsbad, the existence of volcanic products both to 
the east and west of the spot, as well as the propinquity of the 
spring itself to a mountain range, which doubtless owes its ele- 
vation to volcanic forces, together strengthen the inference 
which the particular character of the locality would dispose us 
to adopt. 

It appears then, that the geological position of thermal waters Theories of 
in general leads to the conclusion, that they are connected with thermal 
certain volcanic processes going on near the places in which ^P""s^* 
they occur ; but it must be at the same time admitted, that in a 
few special cases a high temperature is imparted to the springs Local 
of a district, by causes of a more local and superficial character, causes. 

Thus Kastner* states, that in the Westerwald, between Ma- 
rienburg and Stockhausen, the burning of brown coal under- 
ground has caused so great a heat in the contiguous rocks, as to 
give rise to several warm springs, which are characterized by 
the presence of acetic and succinic acids, both probably derived 
from the slow distillation of lignite. 

Setting aside, however, these comparatively rare and special General 
cases, let us next briefly consider, how far the facts detailed in causes. 
the preceding part of this Report, will assist us in explaining 
the cause of that exalted temperature, which thermal springs 
in common with other volcanic phaenomena exhibit. 

With respect to this question, a recent memoir by Professor 
Bischof of Bonnf, may be quoted, as disposing successfully of 
the hypotheses, in which certain chemical processes going on at 
the present time near the surface, such, for example, as the de- 
composition of pyrites, were appealed to, as capable of producing 
the heat which these springs possess. He has also said enough 
respecting another hypothesis, that of Anglada, who atti'ibutes 

* Arcliiv, vol. xvi. f Edinburgh New P/iilosop Ideal Joimiul.. April, 183G. 
F 2 






the heat of springs to the action of electricity. This mighty- 
agent is doubtless concerned in many of the changes which go 
on in rocks, but before we attribute to it the production of that 
steady heat which resides in certain springs, we ought to con- 
sider, what peculiar disposition of strata would be necessary to 
give rise to it, what evidence there is of such a disposition exist- 
ing, and why, if it exist at all, it be not more general, and thus 
render the occurrence of hot springs less a local phaenomenon/ 

None of these questions having been entered upon by An-' 
glada, it would be superfluous at present to proceed to a formal 
consideration of his hypothesis. 

Neither need I dwell upon any such hypotheses, as are founded 
on assumptions, which either seem contrary to acknowledged 
principles of physics, or which would be rejected by the general 
voice of men of science as absurd and fanciful. 

Thus I shall do no more than allude to the mode, in which 
Aristotle somewhere accounts for the high temperature of springs, 
by supposing, that as the figure of the earth is spherical, the 
solar rays penetrating its substance, ought to meet in the centre, 
as in the focus of a burning glass, and thus produce there an 
intense degree of heat. 

Neither shall I labour to refute the idea of Keferstein, that 
thermal springs are merely the result of, what he is pleased to 
call, the respiratory process of the earth, resting, as that opinion 
does, upon the assumption, that the globe itself is an animated 
body, a position, which I am loth seriously to attack, not know- 
ing in what precise sense his language is to be interpreted. 

But there remain two theories with respect to the origin of 
thermal springs, that seem to deserve a more attentive con- 
sideration . 

The former of these supposes them to arise from chemical 
processes carried on within the earth, processes, however, 
which possess nothing, in common with those witnessed on or 
near the surface, except the circumstance of being attended with 
an absorption of oxygen. 

If it be further demanded of the advocates of this theory, 
what particidar chemical processes are alluded to, they will pro- 
bably reply*, that a competent explanation of the phaenomena 

* They ought however carefully to distinguish, between that which appears 
to be a direct inference from observed facts, and what at the most can ad- 
vance no higher claim, than of being a plausible conjecture. The general 
occurrence of volcanos in the neighbourhood of the sea, and the constant 
disengagement of aqueous vapour and of sea-salt from their interior, are 
facts, which establish in my mind a conviction, that water finds its way to 
the seat of the igneous operations, almost as complete, as if I were myself an 


would be afforded, by the supposed oxidation of the bases, of 
those alkalis, earths, and metallic oxides, which are found to 
constitute the crust of the globe, through the agency, first of 
Mater, and afterwards of atmospheric air. 

Such, in a few words, was the theory which I adopted, to 
account for the phaenomenaof volcanos* in a work published on 
that subject in 1826t ; and to the same, after a mature, and, I 
trust, an impartial review of the question, I am still disposed to 
adhere, in preference at least to any other. 

In an article entitled Geology, in the Encyclopedia Metro- 
politana, I have endeavoured to reply to all the arguments that 
had been subsequently urged against my views ; and if I have not 
noticed every individual objection, it has only been, because 
the same difficulties were brought forvvai-d again and again by 
different persons, often without any allusion being made to the 
answers, which I had given to similar ones before. 

The latter theory, discarding all chemical operations whatso- Theory of 
ever, regards thermal springs as arising merely from the internal central 
heat of the globe, and consequently as possessing a temperature 
high, in proportion to the depth from which thej' have themselves 

For, as the temperature of the earth augments, as we descend, 
on the average, about I'^of Fahr. for every 100 feet, it is evident, 
that, if the increase be progressive, water would arrive at its 
boiling point at a depth not exceeding three miles, and there is 
no difficulty in understanding, that it should retain the greater 
part of that exalted temperature, when once the channels and 
passages in the rock, through which it reached the surface, were 
thoroughly penetrated by the heat. 

The theory just mentioned is sanctioned by the high autho- 

eye-witness of another Phlegethon discharging itself into the bowels of the 
earth, in every volcanic district, as in the solitary case of Cephalonia. 

Nor, as I shall afterwards attempt to prove, is the access of atmospheric 
air to volcanos more questionable, than that of water ; so that the appearance, 
of hydrogen united with sulphur, and of nitrogen, either alone, or combined 
with hydrogen, at the mouth of the volcano, seems a direct proof, that oxygen 
has been abstracted by some process or other from both. 

Having satisfied our minds with regard to the fact of internal oxidation, 
we naturally turn to consider, what principles can have existed in the inte- 
rior of the earth, capable of abstracting oxygen from water, as well as from 
air; and this leads us to speculate on the bases of the earths and alkalis as 

I having caused it. But in ascribing the pheenomena to the oxidation of these 
bodies, we ought not to lose sight of the Baconian maxim, that in every well- 
established theory, the cause assigned should be, not only competent to explain 
the phaenomena, but also known to have a real existence, which latter cannot 
be predicated of my alkaline and earthy metalloids in the interior of the 
* Description nf Active and Extinct Volcanos. London, 1826. 

70 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

rity of Laplace, and has also received the support of many mo- 
dern naturalists. 

Professor Bischof *, in adopting it, has undertaken in a late 
paper first of all to i-efute the opposite hypothesis, but in at- 
tempting so to do, has, I conceive, mistaken the views of its ad- 

Thus he quotes an experiment of his own, in which the com- 
bustion of 15 grains of sodium, in water containing a quantity of 
sulphuric and muriatic acid, such as would be adequate to form 
the saline matter present in a particular thermal spring, raised 
the temperature of 1000 grains of water scarcely 3° ; and this 
he alleges as a proof, that the heat cannot have arisen from any 
process of oxidation in which sodium acts a part. 

But under either view of the subject, the increased tempera- 
ture of the spring must be attributed to that of the contiguous 
rocks, the only question being, do these rocks derive their high 
temperature from a central fluid mass, or from chemical pi"0- 
cesses taking place generally in the interior of the globe ? 

Having discussed this question at length elsewhere, I will at 
present confine myself to remarking, that the supporters of Bi- 
schof 's views ought to be able to explain to us, why thermal springs 
are of local occurrence, and most frequent in proportion to the 
frequency of other indications of igneous activity; and if these 
latter indications are assumed to be themselves nothing more, 
than the result of the contraction of the earth's crust upon its 
internal fluid contents, why that contraction should be always 
accompanied with those exertions of explosive energy which we 
witness in volcanos, and those emissions of gas which are com- 
mon to both. 

They should also explain to us, why primary rocks, traversed 
as they so frequently are with fissures of all descriptions, should 
not in every part of the woi-ld, and in every kind of situation, give 
rise to hot springs, by evolving steam from their interior, and 
why they never appear to give issue to that class of thermal 
waters, which I have noticed in Ischia as being unaccompanied 
with gaseous products, and which therefore I suppose, to be 
purely the result of the infiltration of water to spots in the in- 
terior of the earth retaining a high temperatvue. 

In order however duly to appreciate the degree of support, 
which the chemical theory of thermal waters appears to derive 
from the nature of the gases which accompany them, I shall 
next propose to consider in detail the manner, in which these 
clastic fluids may severally be supposed to have been generated. 

* Erliiibiiirjh Fhi/. Joiinial for April 1836. 


The carbonic acid, which is so frequent an accompaniment of Origin of 
thermal waters, is explained by Bischof *, as deriving its origin Ji'^^^''^'|J°' 
from the calcination of earthy carbonates by the heat beneath ; evolved 
and to this view there seems to be no objection, provided only from 
we admit, that a portion of water is present, without which, sp""ss. 
as Faraday has shown, no disengagement of carbonic acid would 
take place under the influence of even a great heat. 

But that the amount of carbonic acid emitted bears some re- 
lation to the igneous or eruptive agency heretofore exerted, will 
appear by a mere enumeration of the localities in which this gas 
most abounds. 

Passing over its copious emission in the neighbourhood of 
active and extinct volcanos, I may notice the observations of 
Hoffman f, who has stated, that the carbonic acid so abundantly 
evolved at Pyrmont, rises out of what he describes as a circular 
valley of elevation, caused by the heaving up of the rocks in all 
directions round this central point. 

Sometimes also the evolution of carbonic acid is connected 
with faults, as has been observed by Professor Phillips with re- 
spect to the carbonated or petrifying springs of Yorkshire J. 

So general indeed is the distribution of calcareous rocks in 
the older, as well as the more modern formations, that I do not 
see the force of the objection started by Berzelius to the chemical 
theory of volcanos, in a notice with which he some years ago 
honoured the work I had published on that subject §, in which 
he says, that it fails in accounting for the extrication of carbonic 
acid gas, as a consequence of volcanic action. 

For my own part, inasmuch as an intense degree of heat is the 
immediate effect of these operations, and as rocks containing 
carbonic acid in a fixed state are so generally diffused, I should 
conceive that the extrication of this gas would have been anti- 
cipated to be a natural result of the process ; unless, indeed, by 
those theorists, who, maintaining the contrary hypothesis in its 
simplest form, refuse even to admit that water has had any ne- 
cessary share in the phaenomena. 

The evolution of nitrogen from springs has been discussed by Origin of 
Berzelius, Anglada, and others. '^''^ "'"^''' 

Berzelius II supposes it to arise from the decomposition of the ^^"' 
organic matter which these waters contain, whilst Anglada *f[ 

* Vulkanischen Miner alquellen, p. 255. 

t On Valleys of Elevation, Edinburgh New Phil. Journal, October, 1830. 

I See my memoir on Thermal Springs already referred to. 

§ Jahresheiicht, vol. vii. p. 352. 

jl " Analyse des Eaux dc Carlsbad," Jnn. de Chini., vol.xxiii. 

if Me'moires pour servir, 8fc. 

7^ SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

refers it to the atmospheric air present in them, the oxygen of 
which is absorbed by the sulphur found along with it. 

The theory of Berzelius may perhaps suit those cases, in which 
the quantity disengaged is small, but can scarcely be extended 
to others, in which it is more considerable. 

No amount of organic matter, that can be supposed to exist 
in the thermal water, could produce a constant supplj-- of nitrogen, 
continuing for hundreds and probably thousands of years, equal 
on an average to 222 cubic feet in the 24 hours, as at the hot 
spring of Bath. 

It would also have seemed needless to remark, had not the 
circumstance been overlooked by some who have commented 
upon this phsenomenon, that the decomposition of organic mat- 
ter would generate other gases never met with amongst thermal 
springs, especially carburetted hydrogen, which is actually found 
to accompany nitrogen in cases where the latter proceeds from 
organic matter, as was determined, with respect to the gas that 
renders buoyant the floating island of Derwentwater, by Dr. Dal- 

The explanation of Anglada seems to me only faulty in not 
being sufficiently general. 

Sulphur no doubt is one of the principles by which the oxygen 
is abstracted, but it does not seem probable that it should be the 
only ot)e ; and the case of Bath alone serves to show, that it is 
sometimes absent altogether from waters, where the evolution 
of nitrogen is most abundant. 

In short, the only direct inference, that seems deducible from 
the fact of the copious evolution of nitrogen from thermal 
waters is, that certain processes, occasioning the abstraction of 
oxygen from common air, are going on in the interior of the 

This inference remains the same, whether we suppose the 
nitrogen emitted, to consist merely of that carried down by 
the atmospheric waters, by which the thermal spring is main- 
tained, or to be the residue of the atmospheric air, that had 
found its way into cavities, where these processes are taking 

Both explanations may occasionally be true ; but whichever 
one we choose to adopt, the ultimate fact is still as before, 
namely, that a quantity of air, which, if derived from the atmo- 
sphere, contained originally ^th of its volume of oxygen, and if 
from atmospheric water, vvould contain nearlydouble that amount, 
returns to the surface, often with scarcely j^o*^' ^^^ ^^ most 
with not more than xo^'^' '^^ ^^is latter ingredient. 

That atmospheric air does find its way into the interior of the 


globe, and probably pervades every portion of its solid contents, 
is a factj of which a little reflection will convince us. 

Independently of, the cracks and fissures, by which the earth's 
crust is everywhere intersected, the large cavities it so frequently 
envelopes, and its general porosity and permeability to water 
containing air in solution, the solid strata themselves have the 
property, as has been shown by Saussure*, in various degrees, 
of absorbing oxygen and nitrogen gases ; though it is to be re- 
marked, that by a curious provision of nature, apparently de- 
signed to forward the process of internal oxidation, the two 
gases are absorbed, not in the proportion of five to one, but in 
nearly equal ratios. 

Professor Meinecke of Hallef is the only person, so far as I 
know, who has availed himself of this, as a principle on which 
to explain other phsenomena ; and his remarks, owing to certain 
loose and fanciful speculations interwoven with them, have not 
yet obtained much attention. 

Nevertheless, if it be true, that air pervades even the solid 
portions of our globe, down at least to a considerable depth, it 
seems not absurd to imagine, that it may suddenly be augmented 
by an increase of atmospheric pressure above, or diminished by 
processes taking place in the interior of the earth. ^ 

Such, in the main, are the views of Professor Meinecke, who 
imagines the amoiint of air retained in the interior of the earth, 
to be in a state of constant oscillation, and thus, reacting upon 
the atmosphere above, to be one of the causes of the variation 
of the barometer. He even attributes, to an extraordinary ab- 
sorption of air within the earth, a remarkable sinking of the 
barometer, which took place without any other assignable cause 
at Christmas 1821. 

The sulphuretted hydrogen, which so many springs contain, Origin of 
has been attributed to the action of organic matter upon alka- the sui- 
line and earthy sulphates; and M. Henry of Paris t has cited hydro"en. 
an example, where a spring, which at its source contained sul- 
phates of soda, magnesia, and lime, but no sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, was found to have acquired a trace of that gas, at the ex- 
pense of its sulphuric acid, after mixing with the water of a 
washing place. 

It seems probable, that the hepatic smells, which occur in the 
waste and stagnant waters of towns, sometimes arise from this 

* Bihliotheque Britannu/ue, vol. xlix. p. 319. 
t Schweigger's Journal, vol. viii. 1823. 
X Jowual do Pharmanic for 1827, p. 493. 

71 SIXTH REPORT— 1836. 

cause; and M. Brongniavt* attributes the sulphuretted hydro- 
gen present in the mineral water of Enghien, to the action of 
organic matter upon beds of gypsum belonging to the Paris 

But no one would attempt to explain in this manner, the sul- 
phuretted hydrogen contained in many thermal waters, still less 
that evolved from volcanos ; a phsenomenon, which seems to me 
to supply just the same evidence of the decomposition of water 
within the earth, which the emission of nitrogen affords of the 
abstraction of oxjgen from atmospheric air. And if it should 
be established, as many observers of volcanic phsenomena have 
thought probable, that the sulphur, which finds its way to the 
surface by the agency of volcanos, is always held in solution 
either by oxygen or hydrogen gases, the enormous quantity of 
either principle which is sent back to the atmosphere in con- 
junction with this Inflammable, maybe in some measure appre- 
ciated from one circumstance alone, namely, from the vast beds 
of volcanic sulphur accumulated in many parts of Italy, and still 
more remarkably in Sicily. 

Professor Phillips is even of opinion, that the origin of the mi- 
neral impregnation of the waters of Harrogate is to be ascribed, 
to the chemical effects specially exerted along the line of a 
subterranean disturbance, which he has traced in the vicinity 
of these springs ; and Mr. Murchison has been led to similar 
conclusions, with respect to the sulphureous spring of Llanwr- 
tyd, by the geological structure of that locality. 

Origin The Only remaining class of springs, that requires further no- 

!i'*;!,",. tice, is that which contains common salt, and the other ingre- 
dients of our present seas. 

The origin of these springs from masses of salt or muriatiferous 
clays, produced by the evaporation of sea-water, or of lakes 
of similar composition, wovild seem sufficiently obvious; and 
Mr. Lyellf has even attempted to explain the manner, in which 
a deposition of salt may be taking place at the present day from 
the waters of the Mediterranean, so as eventually to build up a 
bed of rock salt underneath it. 

But although the law of the increasing specific gravity^ of 
water, in proportion to the degree of its saline impregnation, 
would favour the process of deposition, when once it had com- 
menced, by keeping up a constant supply of the strongest brine 
near the bottom of the sea, we still seem to want some agent, for 

* Diet. d'Hist. Nat., art. Eaux. + Principles of Geology, vol. i. p. 297. 
X See a curious paper on the increasing strength of a brine well in propor- 
tion to its depth, in the PhU. Mnrjazinr, vol. iv. p. 91. 



bringing about a separation of its solid contents, from a fluid so 
far i-emoved from saturation, as the water of our present seas is 
found to be. 

Now a submarine volcano, or any other independent cause, 
producing a high temperature in any part of the bed of the 
ocean, might supply this desideratum; it would separate the 
salt from that portion of the water which came most within its 
immediate influence, converting the fluid into vapour, which, in 
a highly compressed condition, we may imagine to be interposed 
between the bed of salt in the act of forming, and the body of the 
superincumbent ocean. 

That volcanic action may have had some share in the forma- 
tion of beds of salt, is no new idea, and is immediately suggested 
by the almost constant association, of sulphuric salts, and espe- 
cially of gypsum, with the former. 

Thus Von Buch*, remarking on the connexion of rock-salt 
and brine springs with anhydrous gypsum at Bex in Switzer- 
land, attributes them both to direct sublimation from the inte- 
rior of the earth, the common salt being accompanied by sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, which, by its gradual conversion into sul- 
phuric acid, had given rise to the formation of sulphate of lime. 
That rock-salt is sometimes sublimed from the bowels of the 
earth we know by an examination of volcanos ; and where 
common salt is found abundantly in thermal springs which are 
of volcanic origin, and issue from primary rocks, as is the case 
with that of St. Nectaire in Auvergne, and possibly that of 
Wiesbaden in Nassau, it seems but I'easonable to attribute its 
occurrence to a similar cause. 

Proust t even has stated, that the salt mine of Burgos in Spain 
lies in the crater of an extinct volcano ; and though he may pos- 
sibly be mistaken as to this exact point, stiU such a notion would 
hardly have arisen, had not the beds been in a manner surrounded 
by volcanic products. 

Without, however, proposing so bold an hypothesis as that of 
sublimation, to account for the production of salt beds in general, 
we may perhaps see reason to suppose, that volcanic heat has in 
many cases caused their deposition, and that the sulphates which 
accompany them have arisen from the sulphuretted hydrogen, 
which is at the present day an ordinary effect of volcanic pro- 

In my memoir on the Lake Amsanctus|, I have attempted to 
trace the connexion, between the operations of volcanos, the 

* Poga;enclorff's ^-/«?i«?en, 1835. t Journal de Physique. 

X Published by the Ashmolean Society, Oxford 1S36. 



Works on 



emanations of carbonic acid, and the formation of beds of rock- 
salt ; on the present occasion it may be sufficient to quote the 
following brief summary of the points therein insisted on. 

Volcanos give out 

And cause 

Moffettes, connected geogra- 
phically with volcanos now 
in action or extinct, give out 

And cause 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, sal am- 
moniac, boracic acid, muri- 
atic acid, steam ; 

Deposits of sulphvu', of sulphu- 
ric salts, of muriatic salts, 

The same principles ; 
Deposits of sulphur and of sul- 
phuric salts. 
Many tertiary clays, some of 
which are connected in a 
geographical sense with vol- 
canos Contain beds of sulphur, of 

earthy sulphates, and of com- 
mon salt. 
Most salt formations are asso- 
ciated with Beds of gypsum. 

Some with Sulphur. 

Others with Sal ammoniac. 

I shall now conclude, by enumerating a few of the newer works 
on mineral and thermal waters that appear to aiford the most 
original and important information on the subject, considered in 
a scientific point of view. 

On English medicinal springs, Dr. Scudamore* has published 
a good practical treatise, and with the assistance of Mr. Garden, 
has undertaken to give an analysis of the more important ones 
which this country possesses. His work, however, is more 
adapted for practical physicians than for men of science, as he 
has limited himself exclusively to those mineral waters which 
already possess a reputation as medicinal agents. 

Professor Angladaf of Montpellier has published a very de- 
tailed and elaborate description of the thermal springs of the 
Eastern Pyrenees, in which he has investigated in particular, the 

• Treatise on the Composition and Medical Properties of the Mineral Waters 
of Buxton, &c. Second Edition. London, 1833. 

f Me'moires pour servir a I' Hisioire geuerale dea Eaux min^rales sulfureuses, 
2 vols. 1827; and Traife df^ Eaux mimraks dcs Pyrenees Orientales, 2 vols. 


condition in which the sulphureous principle of these waters 
exists, and that peculiar organic matter which is associated with 
the waters. 

Having already commented upon these points, I need only 
further remark, that I consider the work in general a most va- 
luable addition to our knowledge. 

M. Longchamp, who was expressly engaged by the late French 
Government to examine the mineral waters of that country, has 
completed his report on those of Vichy*, which appears to be 
drawn up with considerable care, but has been arrested in the 
further prosecution of the design by the overthrow of the Bour- 
bon dynasty. In a little wurk, entitled " Annuaire des Eaux 
Min&ales" for 1831, he has given a sketch of the principal 
springs of the Pyrenees and of others in France, which may be 
consulted to advantage. 

The work of Alibertf , though it bears the name of a distin- 
guished medical writer, is evidently designed ps a popular com- 
pendium, and therefore hardly comes under review on the pre- 
sent occasion ; nor am I aware of any other work of scientiBc 
interest on this subject, that has recently appeared in the French 

In Germany works on mineral waters abound ; but perhaps 
the most important is one published by Professor Bischof % of 
Bonn in 1826, relative to the mineral springs of the Rhine 
province and others of similar constitution, replete with valuable 
information, and important general views. 

In criticising some of the latter, I have all along been con- 
scious of the risk I incurred of being myself in error; nor should 
I, perhaps, have been tempted to question them, had it not ap- 
peared to me, that inferences deduced from one particular class 
of mineral waters, ought to undergo the test of a severe scrutiny, 
before we permitted ourselves to apply them to the springs of 
other and distant regions. 

Brandes §, with the assistance of Kruger, has published a very 
elaborate account of the waters of Pyrmont, and more recently 
a still larger work on those of Meinberg||, containing, not only 
a detailed description of the spring, hut also of the topography, 
antiquities, and natural history of the neighbourhood. 

But it would be endless to enumerate the various works on 
particular mineral waters, which have issued from the German 

* Analyse des Eaux Minirales de Vichy, 1825. 

+ Precis Historique sur les Eaux Minerales. 1826. 

I Die VulkanischenMineralquellenDeiitschlands vndFrankreichs. Bonn, 182G. 
§ Beschreibting der Mineralquellen zu Pyrmont. 1826. 

II Miner alqnellen zu Meinberg. Lemgo, 1832. 

78 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

press, and to which this general character seems to apply, that, 
although more frequently replete with mystical and absurd hy- 
potheses, than works of the same class in England, they display 
in general greater research and a richer fund of scientific infor- 

Of general works, I may mention that of Scherer * on the mi- 
neral waters of the Russian empire, which testify to this im- 
portant fact, that there are neither thermal nor acidulated 
springs in any part of that vast tract, till we approach the 
mountains of the Caucasus and Oural, or the volcanos of Kam- 

Professor Schuster f of the University of Pesth has lately 
edited the elaborate work of Kitaibel on the Mineral Waters of 
Hungary, which will be found to contain a very detailed, and 
probably authentic, accoimt of their properties. 

But to the general reader the necessity of consulting these 
local authorities will soon be superseded, by the appearance of 
the treatise of Dr. Osann of Berlin ;{:, of which the two first 
volumes have been already published. 

The first of these includes, a very complete sketch of the ge- 
neral views, entertained, with respect to the nature and constitu- 
tion of mineral and thermal springs, and a catalogue raisonn^ 
of those best known, classified under their respective heads. 

The second volume is occupied by a detailed description, of 
those of Germany, and some other contiguous countries, with 
copious references to original sources of information. 

The whole appears to be compiled with great care and re- 
search, and promises, when finished, to be the most complete 
work extant on the subject. 

Since the appearance of the first volume of Dr. Osann's work, 
Dr. Gairdner of Edinburgh has brought out a very compact, 
and useful Manual, in the English language, on the same sub- 
ject§. A large portion of its contents indeed are evidently ex- 
tracted from Osann ; nor does it appear, that the author has 
drawn much fi'om any stores of his own in the facts stated by 

Nevertheless the multitude of details brought together, and 
judiciously arranged in this little volume, ought to secure it a 
place in every scientific library ; and the best proof I can fur- 

• Versuch der Heilquellen des Russischcn Reichs. St. Petersburg, 1820. 

•t Pauli Kitaihel Hydrographica Hungariee, edidit J. Schuster, Pesth, 1829- 

X Darstellung der hekannten Heilquellen Enropa's. Berlin, vol. i. 1829, vol. ii. 

§ Essay on the Natural History, 8fc. of Mineral and TliPrmal Springs. Edin- 
burgh, 18.32. 


nish of my own opinion of its merits is, that I conceived it to 
have superseded the demand for a distinct woi'k on the subject, 
which I had for several previous years been preparing. 

Indeed I have been induced in some measure to modify the 
nature of this Report in consequence, having endeavoured to be 
most full on those points, which had been passed over by Dr. 
Gairdner, and in other instances supplying rather a comment 
upon the facts he had collected, than a mere recapitulation of 
their substance. 

Appendix to Page 42. 

When mentioning the reported presence of oxygen in thermal 
waters, I ought to have added, that Fodere, Voifages aux Alpes 
maritimes, states, that this gas was extracted, by boiling, from 
the water of Roccabigliera in Piedmont, in such quantities, and 
of such purity, as led him to believe, that a portion of deutoxide 
of hydrogen must have been present to occasion it. But so 
extraordinary a fact in the history of thermal waters, as this 
would be, requires further confirmation. 



Catfilogice of 

Name of the place 

where the spring 


Geological position. 


Name of the 
hottest spring and 

its excess of 
temperature above 
that of the locality. 

Number of cubic feet'*" 
evolTed in 24 hoursf c ' 

s ° 

^ "^ c 


-. « S 

>^ 2 „• 

CO 5" 

•n S 

*J C 

ta ra 

<-3 "' 





Stony Middleton 




Aix la Cliapelle . 




Schlangenbad .. 



New red sandstone 

Carboniferous limestone 
in a valley of disruption 



Coal strata 

Carboniferous limestone 


Derbyshire ... 



King's Bath 


Near Cardiff, 



Hot Well 25 

St. Anne's 33 

Bath Spring 13 



Spa Well 23 


222 ;i 

St. Anne's 

St. Anne 
41,60. I 


Connected with extinct 

At the junction of clay 

slate, and carboniferous 


Near Treves, 

Lower Rhine 


'«J CI • 

Clay slate. 

Chlorite slate 

Clay slate 


Felspar porphyry 




Kaiserquelle 85.5 





on the Main 

Lower Rhine 

Kochbrunnen 108 



Miinster am Stein 




• N.B. In this estimate of mean temperature, no allowance is made for height. It is evident, therefore, | 
Buxton, Bakewell, &c. i 

f Where the name of the spring is not given, the number is understood to indicate the amount evolved 
X N.B. Where not otherwise specified, the spring alluded to in this and the next column is assumed to 



^hernial Springs. 

ases evolved & their relative 
iroportions one to the other. 

Gaseous contents. 

Solid contents. 






In a pint of the water. 

Total .-jmount of 

ingredients in a pint 

of the water of the 

spring most strongly 


Nature of the more abundant 

and of the more active 

ingredients present. 














Daubeny ... 


Pearson ... 

Carbonic acid 1'2 

Carbonic acid 3-750 
Common air 0'375 
Carbonic acid 0-187 
Azote 0-580 

King's Ba 

Hot Well 
St. Anne's 


th 15 


ID- S-S 

Mur. lime and magnesia ; 
iron, (Iodine, Cuff.) 

Sulph. soda, mur. of lime . 

Mur. magn. and of soda ... 

Sulph. of lime, mur. of soda 

Sulph. of soda and mag., 

mur. lime 
Sulphate of magnesia 









Warm Spr""" 9-n 

Ditto .... 



Spa Well 

Carb. acid, with a trace 
of sulph. hyd. 

Sulphuretted hydro- 

Carbonic acid 7-6 
Nitrogen 19-0 


Carb. and sulph. of soda; 

Litkia, potass 
Mur., carb., and sulph., 

soda ; Sulphuret of sodium, 

phosph. soda 
Mur., carb., and sulph., of 

soda ; Lithia, strmitian, 

fluoric acid 
Carb., mur., and sulph., 

soda; Strontian, barytes, 

phosph. and fluoric acids. 
Mur. of soda, lime, and po- 



Kastner and 







Daubeny ... 




lie 31-95 
nd 34-0 
nnen 28-9 


Carbonic acid with a 
little nitrogen 

Schachtbrunn 6-0 

Saltzquelle unter 

derBrucke 119-8 
Theodorsb"" s'-Q 

tass ; Bromine, manga- 
nese, and fluoric acid 

Carb. of soda, muriate of 

Mur. of soda ; Potass, bro- 

Mur. of soda, lime, and 
magnesia; Potass, ahi- 
mine, phosphoric acid 




that a deduction must be made in all cases where the spring is placed above the level of the sea, as at 

from all the thermal springs belonging to the locality, 
be the same, as that of which the composition is given. 
VOL. V. — 1836. G 



Catalogue of Thermal i 

C T3 
O <U 

^ rt 


Name of the place 

where the spring 


Wiesenbad .. 





Baden-baden ... 


Geological position. 

Mica slate 


Granite, in a valley of 


Volcanic porphyry .. 

At the foot of a granitic 





Jura limestone 



Ditto .. 

Ditto .. 

Ditto .. 

Silesia .. 
Ditto .. 

Name of the 
hottest spring and 

its excess of 
temperature above 
that of the locality. 




Hauptquelle 71*0 
Trinkquelle 47 
Old Bath 35-5 

Number of cubic feet 
evolved in 24 hours of 





° o- 


Duchy of Ba- 

Austria .... 
Saltzburg Alps 

Hauptquelle 47 

Ditto 96-4 F.t 





* This, however, is far above the mark with reference to the majority of springs enumerated, in consequence 

\ Within the same range of latitude as the above occur the following thermal springs, few of which. 

as stated below, viz. 

In Styria. ^ 
Doppelbad, near Gratz 32'75 F. 
Roraerbad, near Cilli ... 48-00 
Neuhaus, near Cilli 46-25 

In Moravia. 

Uttersdorff 3''7-25 

Toplitz 12-00 

In Carinthia. ^ 

Toplitza 46-59 

Montfalcone, near Trieste . 50*00. < 

In the Tyrol. 
On the Brenner 23-0 

J Professor Forbes, Philosophical Transactions, part ii., 1836. 



springs. (Continued.) 

ises evolved and their relative 
roportions one to the other. 


Gaseous contents. 

Solid contents. 

In a pint of the water. 

Total amount of 

ingredients in a pint 

of the water of the 

spring most strongly 


Nature of the more abundant 

and of the more active According 

ingredients present. 


Daubeny ,. 

Carbonic acid 

) 2 


98 Ditto 






Daubeny ., 


Nitrogen 0-735 

Sulph.hyd. 6.6 to 8.0 
Carbonic acid I'OO 
Sulph. hyd. 4-33 







Carbonate of soda 

Carb., sulph., and mur., of 

Sulph. and carb. of soda ; 

Strontian, manganese,flu 

oric and phosph. acids 
Carb., sulph., and muriate 

of soda ; Lithia, potass, 

and manganese, phosph. 

Carb. and sulph. of soda 

Phosph. acid (Berzelius) 
Sulph. and carb. of soda 

Carb. of ammonia 
Sulph., and mur., of soda. 








Carbonic acid 12-00 
Nitrogen 79-25 
Oxygen 8-25 
Carbonic acid 


Sulph. hyd. 
Carbonic acid 

Carbonic acid 






Mur., carb., and sulph., of 

Mur. of soda, and of lime, 

sulph. of lime, silica 
Chiefly carb. of lime . . 

Sulph., lime and magnesia 

Sulph. of soda, mur. of so- 
da, and potass 

Sigwort and 

Otto and 



r their high elevation. 

ave been suflSciently examined, but which exceed the assumed mean temperature (51°) of the climate. 


In Croatia. g 


Jpina 62- 

klinczha 53- 

I-ker 73-25 

J'Mcza , 21-25 

In Hungary, q 

Ofen, or Bada 93-5 

Trencsin 53-0 

Pbstheny, near Presburg... 95-75 

Ribar, near Neusohl 27"80 

Altsohl, near ditto 32-75 

Stuben, near Kremnitz ... 59-75 

Gran 139 

In Hungary. ^ 

Szalathny 9-8 

Lucska 26-0 

Glasshiitte, near Schumnitz 53-0 

Eisenbach, near ditto 53-0 

Farad, near Erlau 35-0 

Szobranez, near Unghoar . 19-25 
Budos, near FUnfkirchen... 86"75 


SIXTH nEPORT — 1836. 

Catalogue of Thermml 

Name of the place 

where the spring 


Geological position. 


Name of the 
hottest spring and 

its excess of 
temperature above 
that of the locality. 

Number of cubic feci 
evolved in 24 hours o 

St. Amand 


o S 

Bourboniie les 

Luxeuil ., 



Bagnoles ., 

Slate covering the coal 

Granite, covered by Jura 

Granite, covered with 


Ditto .. 
Ditto .. 

Near Valenci- 
ennes, Dep, 
du Nord 
Nr. Chau- 
Near Ve- 
de Haute 
Near Epi 
nal, Dep. 
de Vosges 
Near ditto, 
Near Alenyon, 
Dep. d'Orne 


La Fontaine 80 

Grand Bain 75-5 

Ditto 95-75 

Grosse Source 71 

2 springs 



o iri 

. S 

CO « 

*^ 2 S 

Bourbonne I'Ar 

Bourbon Lancy . 


Slate formation 



Coal formation, covering 2 

Sandstone and coal, rest 
ing on granite 

Mont Dor. 



St. Nectaire 

Chaudes Aigues 




lins, Dep 

Near ditto, 

Near Gan 
nat, Dep. 

' de I'Allier 

Nr. Mont- 
Dep. de 



de Puy de 



Ditto . 

Nr. Auril 
lac, Dep. 
de Cantal 

Grand Puits 69 

E cures 84 

Bassin desBains 57 

Puitsde Cesar 89-5 

Bains de Cesar 

52 F. 

65 F. 

Gros Bouillon 

Par 118-0 







Bains dr 


No. 1 

* The mark (•) indicates that the gas 



ij^rings. (Continued. 

ises evolved and their relative 
roportions one to the other. 


Gaseous contents. 

In a pint of the water. 

Solid contents. 

Total amount of 

ingredients in a pint 

of the water of the 

spring most strongly 


Nature of the more abundant 
and of the more active 
ingredients present. 



Sulphuretted hyd. 





Sulphuret of sodium, sul- 
phate of soda, and mag- 

Muriates of soda and lime, 
sulphates of lime and 

Muriates and sulphs.of soda, 
lime, and magnesia 

Muriates and sulphs.of soda, 
magnesia, and lime 

Muriates of soda, lime, and 

Muriates of soda, magnesia, 

and lime. 




Carbonic acid 








Source des Celes- 
tins 62. 

Daubeny .. 

Carbonic acid 



Source de la Made 
laine 11*4 

Source des Fi^vres 
2nd Spring 50-0 

Source de Par J 4-5 

Mur. soda, sulph. soda. 

Mur. of soda and potass, Puvis. 

sulph. soda and lime 
Carb., mur., and sulph. of Longchamp. 


Carb., mur., and sulph. of 

Carb., mur., and sulph. of Bertrand. 

Muriate of soda. 

Carb., sulph., and mur. of Bouillay and 
soda Henry. 

Carb. and mur. of soda, Chevallier. 
magnesia, lime, and ox 
ide of iron. 

BXiatg, but that its proportion is unknown. 



Catalogue of Thermal 

Name of the place 

where the spring 


Geological position. 



Name of the 
hottest spring and 

its excess of 
temperature above 
that of the locality. 

Number of cubic feet 
evolved in 24 hours o 


Volcanic rocks . 

C a 

2 E 


Saint Laurent .. 









St. Paul de Fe 






St. Thomas 



Tertiary limestone, co^ 
vering granite, with 
volcanic rocks near 


Limestone in inclined 

Limestone in inclined 

Jura limestone, disloca- 
ted and inclined 

Jura limestone, near the 
volcano of Agde 


'Near Can 

nat, Dep. 

dePuy de 


Dep. de 

Near Au 



Dep. de 

Dep. des 



Grand Bains 45-75 

Puits de Cesar 





Bassin de I'Etuve 


Sandstone, breccia, and 
limestone, belonging 
to the coal formation, 
highly inclined 


From a fault in lime- 
stone, covering slate 

Granite near its junction 
with limestone 

Dep. d 
Dep. des 
du Rhone 
Nr.~Cette, Dep, 

Near St. 
Dep. de 

Near Li- 


Near Can- 
dies, Dep. 

Sextius 39-0 

Varying from 66 
o 52 


Junction of granite with 

stratified rocks 

Granite and serpentine 

}Mica slate, resting on 
a quartrose granite 






Petit Escaldadou 
85- 3 F. 

Source d'ApoUon 

Source interieur 


Grande Somce 40 

Source du Torrent 
Real ni'5 

No. 1 75 





3 springs 





jases evolved and their relative 
proportions one to the other. 

Gaseous contents. 

Solid contents. 1 

In a pint of the water. 







Total amount of 

ingredients in a pint 

of the water of the 

spring most strongly 


Nature of the more abundant 

and of the more active 

ingredients present. 

Carbonic acid. 



Carb., sulph., and mur. of 

Carb., mur., and sulph. of 

Mur. of magnesia and sulph. 
of lime. 

Sulphate of magnesia and 
lime, mur. of soda. 


Carbonic acid, sulph. 


Mur. of soda and magnesia. 

Carb. of magnesia and lime, 
sulph. of lime 

Mur. of soda and magnesia, 
and lime, carb. of lime 

Mur. and sulph. of soda 
and magnesia. 

Oxide of iron. 

Sulphuret of sodium, soda, 
caustic and combined 
with sulphuric acid 





Carbonic acid 6*0 





Anglada ... 

Nitrogen and oxygen 







Ditto f.iit 




Catalogue of Thermal 

Name of the place 

where the spring 


Geological position . 


Name of the 
hottest spring and 

its excess of 
temperature above 
that of the locality. 

Number of cubic feet 
evolved in 24 hours of 

Sorede ., 


Thuez . 

From granitic pebbles ., 
Mica slate 


Mica slate, resting on a 

saccharoid limestone 
Junction of granite with 

limestone along a line 

of fissure 
Granite near its contact 

with slate 

Los ... 

Like Escaldas 


Lez .. 

Bagneres de Lu 

Encausse , 

o- e 

5; -a 
o I 

Bagndres de Bi 


At the boundary line of 
granite and slate 

Limestone, with granite 


Granite near its junction 
with clay-slate 


Limestone resting 
clay-slate,with patches 
of granite near it 


Barege .... 
St. Sauveur 


Clay-slates, with horn- 
blende ; granite not 
far distant 

Slaty limestone, with 
hornblende slates ad 
jacent ; granite not far 

Clay-slate, with horn- 
blende in nearly ver- 
tical beds,near the con- 
tact with granite 


Dep. d'Ar 

Ditto, ditto 

Valley of 

Dep. de 


Dep. de 

ronne, nr. 
St. Gau- 

Dep. des 

Dep. des 
near Ba- 
gnferes de 

Dep. des 


Ditto , 


Font Agre 

Beu Calde 23-75 


Source d'Exhalade 

Buvette 47' 1 F 

44.4 F 
Source Gervais 

Source des Canons 



Source A 26-4 F, 

Grotte superieur 
791 F. 


Dauphin 59-0 F 

Grande Douche 

51-9 F, 

La Houtalade 

8-5 F, 

Source des CEufs 
70-1 F. 




Source de 




All the 



Source de 



\')ri7igs. (Continued.) 

es evolved and their relative 
aportions one to the other. 


Gaseous contents. 

Total amount of 

ingredients in a pint 

IQ a pint of the water. of the wter of the 

spring most strongly 


Solid contents. 

Nature of the more abundant 

and of the more active 

ingredients present. 


Anglada .. 





Carbonic acid 


Very small.. 

Carb., sulph., and mur. of Anglada. 

soda ; oxide of iron 
Sulph. of lime and soda, 

mur. of soda 




Hydrosulphuret of soda, 
with soda and potass, 
caustic? sulph. of soda? 



Carbonic acid 



Source de la Reine 



Le Pre 





Hydrosulphuret of sodium, 
caustic soda. 

Sulph. and mur. of mag. 

Sulphuret of sodium, carb., 
sulphate, mur. of soda. 

Sulph. of lime, magnesia, 
and soda. 

Sulph. of lime, magnesia, 
and soda, mur. of mag- 
nesia and soda 

Sulph. of lime and mag. 

Sulphuret of sodium, caus- 
tic soda, sulph. of soda. 








Catalogue of Thermit 

Name of the place 

where the spring 


Geological position. 


Name of the 
hottest spring and 

its excess of 
temperature above 
that of the locality. 

Number of cubic i 
evolved in 24 houti < 

Water. Gas. 




S o g 

5» 1-1 *J 

; c 


o- S 

3 E 

Eaux Bonnes . 
Eaux Chaudes . 



Barboutan .... 
Castera-vivant . 

In a valley of disruption, 
from highly inclined 
beds of limestone, near 
its contact with granite 

In a valley of disruption, 
at the junction of gra- 
nite, with inclined beds 
of limestone 

Clay-slate in inclined 
strata, resting on gra- 

Compact limestone, with 
trap near it 


Tertiary ?. 

Dep. des 


Source Vieille 32-0 
31-4 F. 

Ditto , 


Ditto . 

Dep. des 

Dep. de 

Ditto .. 

34-6 F. 






Disrupted beds of lime- 

Clay slate and compact 

■5 J E 

2 E 


Disrupted beds of lime 
stone, with granite not 
far distant 



Canton of St, 

Valley of Lug- 
nitz, canton 
of Grisons 

Canton of 

Canton of Va- 

Canton of Ar- 




Canton of Neu- 

From 50-5 to 51-OlVcry varia- 
48-9 F ble,greatest 
10 ./ i . j„ summer 
least in 


32-5 F. 
74-1 F 

St. Verene 78-0 

varying a degree 
or so 







prings. (Continued.) 

es evolved and their relative 

Gaseous contents. 

Solid contents. 1 

In a pint of the water. 

Total amount of 

ingredients in a pint 

of the water of the 

spring most strongly 


Nature of the more abundant 

and of the more active 

ingredients present. 








Sulphuret of sodium, caus- 
tic soda, sulph. of lime. 

Sulph. of magnesia, mur. of 
soda and magnesia 

Sulph. and mur. of mag. 

Sulph. of soda and mur. of 


Sulphuretted hyd. 







Sulphate of soda and mag- 
nesia, muriate of soda 
and magnesia 







Sulph. of lime and soda, 
carbonate of lime 

Sulphates of lime, soda, and 

Sulphate of lime, magnesia, 

and soda 

Sulph. of lime, muriate of 

soda and mag., sulph. of 

Sulphate of lime and soda, 

mur. of soda and mag., 

oxide of iron 
Muriate of soda, sulph. of 

lime, carb. of soda 




Ditto 2-56 
Sulphuretted hyd. 

Ditto 6-0 
Carbonic acid 2'3 



Catalogue of Thermal \ 

ij e 

- E 

Name of the place 

where the spring 


St. Gervais 
St. Martino 

Talc slate. 

Gritty dark-coloured 


Bonneval . 

La Perrier 

Moutiers ...., 

St. Didier. 

Geological position. 


Near Sallenche 

Near Worms, 
in the can- 
ton of Valte- 

Near Cham- 

Tarantaise, nr. 

Near Moutiers, 

Tarantaise . 
Maurienne . 
Valley of Aoste 

Vallee d' Aoste 


Name of the 
hottest spring and 

its excess of 
temperature aboTe 
that of the locality. 



Varies from 68 to 





Number of cubic fee 
evolved in 24 hours t 


N. Lat. 45° to 43°. Mean temp. 60°. 

Piedmont ...Acqui, excess of temperature q 

Acqua della BoUente 107- F. 

Valdieri 86-75 

Vinadio 93-50 

Craveggia 21-50 


Acqua Santa, near Genoa ... 17* 

La Penna, near Voltri 17. 

Roccabigliera, near Nizza... 21-5 

Lomhardii...k', near Padua 121-0 

Tuscany L-acca 64* 

Monte Cerboli 50- 

Pisa 46- 

Monte Catini 22"* 


N. Lat. 43° to 40°. Mean temp, assumed to be 6 


Bagni de San Filippo 49- 

Bagni de Vignone (the Reservoir) 

Viterbo, Bullicami (the Lake) 19- 

Civita Vecchia 25- 


Puzzuoli, Temple of Serapis 37-5 

Baths of Nero 1212 

Pisciarelli 51-0 

Torre del Annunziata 26- 

* At the Reservoir evolves gas consistingi 





sea evolved and their relative 
roportions one to the other. 

Gaseous contents. 

Solid contents. 1 






In a pint of the water. 

Total amount of 

ingredients in a pint 

of the water of the 

spring most strongly 


Nature of the more abundant 

and of the more active 

ingredients present. 



Daubeny ... 




Sulphur spring 



Sulphate of soda and lime, 
mur. of soda and mag. 

Sulphate of soda and lime, 
carb. of lime and mag. 

Sulphate of lime, soda, and 
mag., muriate mag. and 

Sulphate of lime, soda, and 

mag., mur. of mag. 
A strong brine spring. 

Mur. soda and mag., sulph. 
of lime and alumina, ox- 
ide of iron 

Mur. soda, sulph. of mag. 
and lime, oxide of iron 







Gimbernat . 
Socquet ... 

Carbonic acid, sulph. 

Carbonic acid, sulph. 
hydrogen, trace 

Daubeny ... 


ands connected geographically with Italy, and in 
the same latitude, viz. ; 
N. Lat. 43° to 40°. Mean temp. 61°. 

Tgitello, Ischia, varies from 8 3° '5 to ^ 

94°-5... 88- F. 

ua de Cappone, Ischia 27'25 

nitello 4400 

tara 62-00 

,gni d'Ischia 52*00 

Restitute 62-00 

quinas, Sardinia 98' 

qua Cotta 44* 

netutti 39* 

rdara 50* 

litera, Corsica 61* 

if.gno 57* 

of 10 carbonic, 2 oxygen, 98 nitrogen. {Daubeny.) 

Italy and adjacent islands. 

N. Lat. 40° to 37°. E. Long. 13° to 19°. 

Assumed mean temp. 63°. 


Santa Eufemia, in Calabria 

Bagni di Lipari, Island of Lipari 

Termini, Sicily 47* 

Trepani, sulphureous, hot 

Sciacca, Baths of Santa Cologero 63* 

94 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

Spanish Peninsula. 
m N. Lat. 41° to 36°. W. Long. 9° to E. Long 1°. 
Mean temp, not sufficiently ascertained. 

In Spain .... Along the line of the Pyrenees are several, especially in 
Catalonia, near Barcelona ; and at Albama, near Cata- 
layud in Aragon. 

Near the volcanic hills of Murcia — Fuente de Buzot, 
near Alicant (104° F.), and Archena, near Murcia. 

At the foot of the Sierra Noveda range — that near Merida, 
in Estremadura. 

Amongst the mountains of Grenada — the baths of Javal- 
Cohol, near Baeza; those near Alhama; and those 
near Almeria. 

Amongst the mountain- chain of the Basque provinces — 
Calda di Bonar, near Leon ; and Orense, in Galicia. 
In Portugal. . Province of Minho — San Antonio das Taipas, or Caldas 
das Taipas, near Guimarens, sulphureous 91° F. ; 
2. Caldellas de Rendusa, 89° ; 3. Canaveres, near 
Guimarens, sulphui'eous, 93°2 ; 4. Guimarens, sul- 
phureous, 138°; 5. Moncao, near Ucana, 109°'4. 

Province of Tra los Monies — 1. Carlao, Villa-real, sul- 
phureous, 92°'8 ; 2. Chaves, near Braganza, alkaline, 
141°-8 ; 3. Pombal d'Anicaes, near Torre de Mon- 
corvo, sulphureous, 95° ; 4. Ponte de Cavez, Villa- 
Real, sulphureous, 74°' 75 ; 5. Rede de Corvaceira, de 
Moledo, de Panaguiao, 98°'6. 

Province of Beira — 1. Alcafache, near Viseu, 98°'6 ; 2. 
Aregos, near Lamego, 142°'25 ; 3. Canas de Senho- 
rim, near Viseu, 93°-2 ; 4. Carvalhal, near Viseu, 
98°*6; 5. Santa Gemil, or Lagiosa, near Viseu, 120°'2; 
6. San Pedro Dosul, near Viseu, 153°-5 ; 7. Penagar- 
cia, or Caldas di Monsortinho, near Castelbranco, 68° ; 
8. Penamacon, 68°; 9. Prunto, Azenha, or Vinha da 
Rainha, near Coimbra, 89°* 6 ; 10. Ranhados, near Pin- 
hel, 107°"6; 11. Rapoila de Coa, near Castelbranco, 
93°-2; 12. Unhaes da Serra, near Guarda, 87°-8. 

N.B. All the above are sulphureous, excepting 

Province of Estremadura — 1. Caldas da Rainhas, near 
Alemquer, sulphureous, 93°2 ; 2. Cascaes, or Estoril, 
Torres Vedras, 84°* 2 ; 3. Gaieiras, near Alemquer, 
sulphureous, 91°"4; 4. Lejma, 77°; 5. Lisbon, sul- 
phureous, 86°; 6. Miorga, Alcoba(;a, 82°"4 ; 7.Povea 
de Coz, Alcobaco, 77° ; 8. Rio-Real, Alemquer, sul- 
phureous, 75°-2; 9. Torres Vedras, lll°-2 ; 10. Agua 
santa de Vimeiro, 78°-8. 

Province of Alentijo — 1. Cabe^o de Vide, 80°'6. 

Province of A^garves — 1. Monchique, near Lagos, sul- 
phureous, 92°-7; 2. Tavira, 75°-50. 


Provinces of European Turkey. 

N. Lat. 46° to 41°. E. Long. 17° to 29°. 

Mean temp, not sufficiently ascertained. 

Line of thermal waters extends from north to south in Servia, at the 

foot of the chain of mountains which connects the Carpathians with 

the ridge of the Balkan, and through which the Danube forces its way 

between Moldava and Gladova. The line of hot springs begins at 

Mehadia, in the Bannat, and extends south beyond Nizza in Servia. 

A second line may be traced running east and west at the foot of the 
Balkan. The hottest has a temperature of 162°- 5. 

A third group exists in southern Macedonia, near Salonichi and 
Serres. They are mostly sulphureous. 

Greece and its Islands. 
N. Lat. 41° to 36°. E. Long. 20° to 27°. 
Mean temp, not ascertained. 
A group of thermal springs at the base of Mount Olympus, of which 
that at the Pass of Thermopylae is the only one whose temperature is 
ascertained. This found by Clark to be 113°. 
Hot bath of Venus, east of Corinth. 

Korantzia, south of Mount Geranicus, near the Gulf of Corinth, 
gaseous eruptions and a spring at 87°'8. 

At Venetiko, west of Lepanto, a sulphureous thermal spring, called 
Taphoi (Tombs of Nessus). 

Six leagues from Patras, a saline thermal spring, 96°-8. 
In the Morea, near Methone, in the ancient Argolis, near the base 
of an extinct volcano, and in the Archipelago, in the islands of Negro- 
pont, (Lelantho, near the ancient Chalcis,) Milo, Thermia, and Lemnos, 
are thermal waters*. 

N. Lat. 63° to 67°. W. Long. 12° to 25°. 
Mean. temp. 37°-4 Fahr. 
A very numerous class of sulphureous waters, with a high tempera- 
ture, in that part of the island, where trachyte exists, and volcanic 
eruptions at present take place. 

A second class of thermal waters of a lower temperature, and impreg- 
nated only with carbonic acid gas, in the volcanic promontory of Snee- 
field-Syssel, where igneous operations have ceased f. 

• Consult Virlet, Expedition Scientifique de Moree. 

t See Krug von Nidda in Edinh. New Phil. Journ., vol. xxii. 





Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial 
Magnetic Force in Scotland. By Major Edward Sabine, 
B.A., F.R.S., &;c. 

[With a Plate.] 

J- HE observations, which form the subject of the following pa- 
per, were made dm-ing a leave of absence with which I was in- 
dulged from military duty in Ireland, in the summer of 1836. 

I was indebted for the opportunity of extending them to several 
stations in the Western Islands, to the interest felt in the subject, 
and to the private friendship of James Smith, Esq., of Jordan- 
hill, President of the Andersonian Institution at Glasgow, who 
devoted a cruise of his yacht to the purpose. 

I. Observations of Dip. 

The needle employed in making the observations of dip is the 
one characterized as S (2) in the account of the Magnetical Ob- 
servations in Ireland [Fifth Report of the British Association, 
pp. 141 — 149). It was made for me by Robinson, of Devon- 
shire-street, London, to be used on Professor Lloyd's principle 
of determining both dip and intensity by the same needle. Its 
length is 11| inches. The only peculiarity in the apparatus in 
which it is used is, that^the agate planes of support are rendered 
horizontal by a detached circular brass plate, groimd for the pur- 
pose, and carrying a small spirit level. The plate is placed on 
the planes themselves, and the foot-screws are adjusted until the 
level remains stationary whilst the plate is turned in every di- 
rection ; and it is then removed. There are also levels attached 
permanently to the circle, which serve to detect any change which 
might subsequently take place in the horizontality of the planes 
during the course of the observation. The mode of observation 
of the dip is the same as usual. The number of readings em- 
ployed in each result is noted in the tables, the reading of each 
pole being considered as a distinct reading. The needle was re- 
moved from its supports by Ys, and lowered afresh between each 
pair of readings ; and the face of the circle and of the needle were 
changed round frequently in the course of each determination. 

In a needle on Professor Lloyd's principle, the poles are not 
changed in each observation of the dip ; consequently a correc- 
tion is required to be applied to all the results obtained with it 

VOL. V. — 1836. H 



for the effect of the momentum of the needle, unless the centres 
of gravity and of the axle should be strictly coincident, which is 
a nicety of adjustment rarely if ever attained. The amount of 
this correction is learnt by comparing the dip observed at some 
one station with that needle, and with others of the ordinary con - 
struction in which the poles are changed in each determination. 
The following observations, made at Limerick, furnish this cor- 

]. Needle S(2). 



No.of Read. 

ings in each 



Reduced to 
Jan. 1836. 

July 1835 

December 1835 
February 1836 
May 1836 





7°1 16-93 
71 146 
71 13-4 
71 120 

71 15-68 
71 14-60 
71 137 
71 13-25 

Mean, weight being allowed proportioned 1 
to the number of sets. J 

71 14-7 

2. With other needles. 



No. of Read- 
ings in each 


Reduced to 
Jan. 1836. 

November 1833 
August 1834... 

May 1836 

May& June 1836 







7°l li-7 7°i 05-4 
71 03-5 70 59-5 
71 00-57 71 01-8 
71 00-05 71 01-4 

Dollond S(l). 
Dollond S(l). 
Meyer's Needle. 

Mean, weight being allowed proportioned } 
to the number of sets. S 

71 03-8 

Whence it results that — 12' is the correction for the dips ob- 
served with Needle S (2) ; and from the small amount of this 
correction it may he regarded as constant within the limits com- 
prised by the observations in Scotland. The dips inserted in the 

* In Meyer's needle, by the use of spheres of different magnitudes in the 
different sets, the results are obtained from arcs difTering very widely from 
each other, and in which the needle rests on very different parts of the axle. 
The avoidance thereby of any constant error, caused by the imperfect cun'ature 
of some particular parts of the axle, is one of the advantages of a needle on this 
construction which ought not to be lost sight of, or unattended to in observing 
with it. The partial results may be wider if the axle be not very truly ground, 
but the mean is more likely to be free from error. 



following table have therefore been diminished 12' from the ori- 
ginal observations. 

Table I. 
Observations of Dip, Needle S (2). 

Helensburgh . 
Gt. Cuinbray 
Loch Ridan . 
Loch Gilpliead 
Castle Duart... 
Tobermoric .. 
LochScavig .. 
Loch Slapin ... 

53 21 
55 48 

55 57 

56 04 
56 31 

56 38 

57 14 
57 14 

Artornish 56 33 

56 39 
7 08 

57 27 
57 58 

7 27 
57 37 
57 20 
57 13 
57 01 
56 36 
56 25 
56 07 
55 35 
55 34 
55 57 

55 51 

55 42 
55 23 


Fort Augustus 




Gordon Castle 




Blairgowrie ... 





Edinburgh ... 


Loch Ranza... 
Campbeltown . 

Stranraer [54 55 

Bangor 54 40 

Dublin 53 21 


6 15 
4 41 

4 50 

5 10 
5 28 

5 45 

6 01 
6 07 
6 02 
5 48 
5 07 
4 40 
4 11 

3 57 

4 11 
3 09 
2 50 

2 45 

3 25 
3 18 

2 55 

3 09 
2 44 

2 39 

3 11 

4 14 

4 41 

5 17 
5 38 

4 59 

5 40 

6 15 

July 22, 23, 
July 28. 
July 30. 
Aug. 5. 
Aug. 7. 
Aug. 9. 
Aug. 10. 
Aug. 12. 
Aug. 1*. 
Aug. 16. 
Aug. 17. 
Aug. 19. 
Aug. 20. 
Aug. 23. 
Aug. 24. 
Aug. 25. 
Aug. 26. 
Aug. 30. 
Aug. 31. 
Sept. 1. 
Sept. 3. 
Sept. 6. 
Sept. 7. 
Sept. 8. 
Sept. 9. 
Sept. 13. 
Sept. 16. 
Sept. 16. 
Sept. 18. 
Sept. 21. 
Oct. 4 . 

No. of I 



71 01-1 


72 15-9 


71 58-7 


72 14-2 


72 05-2 


72 12-3 


73 05-2 


73 02-8 


72 597 


72 40-4 


72 14-7 


72 37'9 


72 44-1 


72 53-1 


72 43-9 


72 3S-4 


72 23-2 


72 lS-5 


72 117 


71 52-25 


72 14-95 

72 08-5 
71 34-45 
71 31-2 
71 47-9 

71 59-2 

72 12-6 
72 20-45 
71 53-5 
71 40-93 
71 36-7 
71 007 

Place of Observation. 

Provost's Garden, Trinity College. 


NE. end of the Island. 

Eastern side of the Loch. 

Wood near the Canal. 

Grounds of Castle Duart. 

Seabeach S. of the Town. 

Near the entrance of Loch Coruisk. 

E. side of the inner Loch. 

Limestone Point S. ot the Castle. 

Grove near the Village. 

Field near the Canal. 

Grounds of Abertorf. 

Wood near the Inn. 

Grounds of Abertorf. 

Grounds of the Castle. 

Field near the Inn. 

By the River in front of the Manse. 

Field near the Inn. 

Field N. of the Town. 

Field inland of the Village. 

Mr. Fergus's Garden, 

Riverside, E. of the Abbey. 

Tweed side. 

Botanic Garden. 

Botanic Garden. 

Field East of the Town. 

East side of the Loch. 

S. side of the Harbour. 

Seabeach E. side of the Loch. 

Grounds of tlie Castle. 

Provost's Garden, Trinity College. 

The latitudes and longitudes are taken from the map of Scot- 
land published by the Society for Diffusing Useful Knowledge. 

The stations and dips enumerated in the preceding table re- 
quire to be combined, according to the method exemplified in 
the Irish Magnetical Report, in order to determine the angle 
which the isoclinal lines in Scotland make with the meridian ; 
and the distance apart of the isoclinal lines which correspond to 
certain differences of dip. For this purpose some one station 
may be selected as the origin of the coordinates of distance of 
the other stations ; and at that station the dip should be as- 
certained with all possible accuracy. In the progress of the 
observations, I had occasion frequently to remark the disturb- 
ance in the direction of the needle caused by the vicinity of rocks 
of igneous origin. Rocks of this nature are so extensively and 
generally diffused throughout Scotland, as to make it doubtful 
whether any station could be selected, which might be confidently 
assumed to be entirely free from local disturbance of this na- 




tiire; and at which consequently the dip, observed with sufl&cient 
care and repetition, might be presumed to be due solely to the 
geographical position of the station. With this view, I have 
deemed it preferable to take an arbitrary geographical position, 
nearly central in regard to Scotland and to the body of the ob- 
servations, and to compute the most probable dip for that po- 
sition by a combination of the results at all the stations of obser- 
vation. The central position adopted is lat. 56° 27', long. 4° 25' 
W. of Greenwich. The coordinates of distance in latitude and 
longitude of the several stations from the central position, ex- 
pressed in geographical miles, are inserted in the subjoined 
table, together with the observed dips at each station, in degrees 
and decimals of a degree. 

Table 11. 




Diff. Diff. 






■of of 
Lat, Long. 


Loch Scavig . . 

+ 47 

+ 55 


Loch Ridan ... 

- 30 +25 


Lech Slapin . . 

+ 47 

+ 52 


Blairgowrie . . 

+ 9 -37 



+ 91 



Helensburgh . . 

- 27, + 9 


Inverness .... 

+ 60 

— 8 


Helensburgh . . 

- 27, + 9 



+ 60 

- 8 


Lock Ranza . . 

— 45[ + 29 


Tobermorie . . 

+ 11 

+ 53 


Cuinbray .... 

- 39+14 


Fort Augustus 

+ 41 

+ 8 


Campbeltown . 

- 64' +42 


Gordon Castle 

+ 70 

+ 41 


Newport .... 

- 2 -50 



+ 6 

+ 46 



- 36 - 6 


Castle Duart.. 

+ 4 

+ 44 



- 20 —42 



+ 12 

+ 23 

72 245 

Etlinburgh .... 

- 30 -41 



+ 53 




-107 +43 



+ 34 




- 92 +20 



+ 46 




- 52' —57 


Loch Gilphead 


+ 35 



- 53 -60 


We have then three unknown quantities to seek; viz. S = the 
dip at the central position ; n = the angle which the isoclinal 
line passing through the central position makes with the me- 
ridian ; and r = the coefficient determining the rate of increase 
of the dip in the normal direction. 

Putting r cos m = x, and ?• sin it = y, the equations of con- 
dition to be combined by the method of least squares are of the 
following form : 

Loch Scavig 
Loch Slapin 
Golspie . . . 

73-047 = 8 + 55.07 -47.y, 
72-995 = 8 + 52.0,- - 47.^, 
72-885 = 8 - 15..r — 91. y. 


and so forth, there bemg as many equations ^^^^ere are stations 
of observation. Or if we diminish by an equal amount (71 , tor 
It ?e^rlh of the observed dips, for th^ c^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
ing with smaller numbers, and make S = 71 + ^ ^ne^e equa 
tions become, 

2-047 = 8' + 55.0; -47.y, 

1-995 = 8' + 52.0; -47.y, 

1-885 =8' - 15..r-91.y, 
and so forth. The sum of the 30 equations, representing the 
sum of the equations severally multiplied by the coefficient of 

^''^^ + 38-238 = + 30 S* + 4.0- + 56.?/ ... (A) 

Next, multiplying the same equations severally by the respective 

coefficients of x, we have 

+ 112-585= +55 8* + 3025. 0^-2585.. V, 

+ 103-740 = + 52 8' + 2704. A' - 2444. y, 
_ 28-275 =- 15 8' + 225.0; + 1365.?/, 

and so forth ; the sum of these 30 equations being 

+ 170-00 = +48' + 43084. x + 9660.?/ • • K'^) 

And lastly, multiplying by the coefficients of y, we have 

- 96-209= -47 8' -2585.0; + 2209.?/, 

- 93-765 = - 47 8' - 2444. x + 2209. y, 

- 171-535 = - 91 8' + 1365. X + 8281. y, 

and so forth ; the sum being 

-431-82= + 56 8' + 9660.0; + 7l514.y . • (C) 

The three final equations A, B, C, furnish by eUmination^^^^^^ 
most probable values of the quantities sought. These are as 
follows : 

8' = 1°"288, x= + -00557, y=- '00780; 

and from these we obtain the dip at the central station 8 = 71° 
!^V-T2°-288-72°l7'-3: the angle which the isoclinal line 
malellL The meridiaii =' - 54° 27' 5 or its direction is from 
N 54° I7' E. to S. 54° 27' W. ; and the rate of increase of dip 
iu the normal direction = 0'-575 in each geographical mile, or 
52-15 geographical miles to each half-degree of dip. 

If now we substitute in the second members of the original 
equations the previously unknown values of 8, .r, ^"d^, we ob- 
tain the most probable dip due to the geographical position ot 
each of the stations of observation ; and, by transposition, the 
most probable amount of error in each of the observations. 




whether it be regarded as error of observation or as resulting 
from local disturbance : bearing in recollection however, in the 
case of stations very distant from the central position, that the 
assumption upon which the equations are founded is probably 
not strictly correct, viz. of parallelism in the isoclinal lines, and 
of an uniform rate of increase of dip throughout Scotland. 

The following Table exhibits the differences of observation 
and calculation ; and shews the geological character of the surface 
rock at each of the stations, taken from Dr. MaccuUoch's Map, 
which, as far as I have had opportunities of judging, I have 
found everywhere most remarkably correct. When the ob- 
served dip is greater than the computed, the sign + is affixed, 
and — when less. 

Table III. 




observ \] 





Geological Character. 





Geological Character. 

Loch Scavig... 

+ 5 2 


Loch Ridan ... 

+ 2-0 

Mica Slate. 

Loch Slapin ... 

+ 3-0 

Lias and '1 rap. 

Blairgowrie ... 


RedSandstone &Trap. 


- 17 

Red Sandstone. 

Helensburgh . 

-- 6-5 

Red Sandstone. 


+ 1-3 

Red Sandstone. 

Loch Ranza... 


Clay Slate & Granite. 

Tobermoric ... 




-- 5-1 

Red Sandstone* Trap 

Fort Augustus 

- 1-2 

Red Sandstone. 

Campbeiton ... 

- 7-9 

Red Sandstone & Trap 


+ 4-9 

Limestone and Trap. 




Gordon Castle 

+ 2-0 

Red Sandstone. 


+ 0"9 

Coal Series. 

Castle Duart . 





Coal Series and Trap. 




Clayslate & Porphyry. 

Edinburgh ... 

- 17 

r Coal Series ^Botanic 
\ Garden). 





- 5-1 


- 1-2 





Loch Gilphead 


Chlorite Slate. 


+ 0-5 



- 1-3 


We may divide the differences shown in this Table into three 
classes ; the first, of seven stations, wherein the differences are 
veiy great, amounting to 14' and upwards ; second, of eight sta- 
tions, wherein the differences are more moderate, being between 
14' and 2' j and in the third class we may place the remaining 
twelve stations, at which the differences do not exceed 2', being 
an amount which scarcely deserves to be called a difference. 
Referring now to the geological characters of the stations, we 
find, 1st, that all those of the first class, or where the differ- 
ences exceed 14', are stations either of trap rocks or of rocks of a 
similar nature ; 2nd, that the stations of moderate differences 
are for the most part characterized also by the presence of 
igneous rocks either wholly or partially ; and 3rd, that at all 
the stations at which the differences do not exceed 2', the sur- 
face rock is sedimentary. It seems a reasonable inference from 
these facts, that instrumental errors make but a sukiII portion of 


the differences undei* the two first heads ; and that we are war- 
ranted in considering such differences as evidencing real irre- 
gularities in the magnetic direction at the respective stations, 
caused by the presence of igneous rocks. We shall subsequently 
find that this inference is confirmed by the agreement of the 
intensities deduced by the horizontal and statical methods, 
when the dij)S actually observed are employed in the reduction 
of the horizontal vibrations, and in their extreme disagreement 
when the dips due simply to the geographical positions are em- 

A question here arises, how far the general results which we 
have derived, in regard to the isoclinal lines, from the combina- 
tion of the dip observations, are likely to have been affected by 
these local irregularities ; and it is satisfactoiy in this view to 
find, that a careful consideration of the errors in Table III. leads 
to the inference, that the disturbing cause, whatever it may be, 
has no uniform tendency, but that its effect is nearly as often 
to diminish as to increase the dip. It is indeed a consequence 
of the method of combination that the + and — errors should 
nearly balance ; but had the effect of the disturbance at the 
igneous stations been uniformly to augment the dip (for in- 
stance), the sedimentary stations would all have appeared in 
defect, and all the igneous ones in excess ; whereas the I'esults 
at the sedimentary stations are indiscriminately in excess and 
in defect, but to a very inconsiderable amount ; and at the ig- 
neous stations thej"^ are also indiscriminately in excess and in 
defect, but with differences of considerable amount. 

After much consideration, it does not appear to me that a 
more satisfactory or probable conclusion would be arrived at, 
were any one or more of the stations now included in the cal- 
culation; to be withdrawn from it. Every observation of the 
dip has been incKided in the calculation, excepting two. One 
of these was at Oban, where I hastily observed the dip on a 
trap rock at no great distance from the wharf, whilst waiting 
for a steamer, and the result has been found to differ more than 
a degree from the dip assigned by calculation. I suspected the 
locality whilst making the observation ; and had time per- 
mitted I should have removed the instrument to another spot, 
and repeated the observation. As it is I can only consider it 
too doubtful a result to be placed on the same footing with the 
others. The other rejected observation was of a very extraor- 
dinary nature. On a rock on which I landed, on the west side 
of the harbour at Loch Scavig, I observed a dip of 78° 10'*3, 
exceeding by !j° that which could be assigned to tlie geographical 
position. I had never before experienced an irregularity of dip 

104 SIXTH RErouT — 183G. 

of similar amount, nor had I read of others who had done so. 
The weather was fine, and I had full time to assure myself that 
there was no instrumental mistake. After completing the series 
of four readings in each position of the needle, all of which 
corresponded well, I removed the instrument three several 
times to diflferent places of observation distant ten or twelve 
yards, always obtaining the same result. The coincidence of 
the plane of the circle with the magnetic meridian was also 
verified by removing the compass needle to a fourth place con- 
siderably distant. The rock was hypersthene, remarkably tra- 
versed and intersected by trap veins, and certainly not an eli- 
gible spot for magnetic observations. Crossing to the other 
side of the harbour, to a spot less intersected by trap veins, 
near where the waters from Loch Coruisk fall into the sea, the 
needle gave the result ^2° 59'"8, which has been included in the 
calculation, and differs only 5'*2 ft'om the general deduction. 

The lines of dip are laid down in the annexed chart agreeably 
to the general results which have been deduced. The dip at 
the central position in lat. 56° 27' and long. 4" 25' is 72° 17'-3, 
and the angle which the isoclinal lines make with the meridian 
at this station is 54° 27'. The isoclinal lines drawn in the 
map are those of 71° 30', 72°, 72° 30', and 73°, and are at 
distances apart of 52*15 geographical miles. 

The near accordance in the amovmt of the angle with the 
meridian, and of the interval corresponding to half-degrees of 
dip, with the results obtained in Ireland in the pi-eceding year, 
is confirmatory of both as near approximations. The angle 
with the meridian of the isoclinal lines in Ireland is 56° 48', 
and the interval between the lines representing half-degrees of 
dip is 50*7 geographical miles. So far the correspondence of 
the observations of the two years and of the two countries is 
very satisfactory. The lines of 71° 30' and 72° are the only 
ones that are common to both countries. If these lines are 
prolonged from the Scottish chart, they will enter Ireland to the 
south of the corresponding lines on the Irish chart ; the line of 
71° 30' by a geographical space equal to about 9' of dip, and 
that of 72° by a space equal to about 8'. In other words, 
the dip in the north-east part of Ireland, computed from the 
Scottish observations, would be about that number of mi- 
nutes greater than if computed from the general result of 
the Irish observations ; and in the north-west of Scotland the 
dip computed by the Irish results would be the same quan- 
tity less than by the Scotch results. Campbelton, Bangor, 
and Stranraer are frontier stations which may illustrate this. 
The dip at Campbelton deduced from the Irish resixlts (dimi- 


nished by 3' for the decrease of dip between 1835 and 1836,) is 
71° 53'-3 ; deduced from tlie Scottish results it is 72° 01'-4 
The actual observation was 71° 53'"5, agreeing in this case with 
the Irish deduction. At Bangor the dip deduced from the 
Irish results is 71° 32'-3, and from the Scotch 71° 41'-6 : the 
observed dip was 71° 36'"7, being intermediate between the 
two deductions. At Stranraer the deduction from the Irish 
results is 7l° 3l'-9, and from the Scottish 7l° 40'*9 ; the observed 
dip being 71° 40'"9, which in this instance corresponds with 
the Scotch deduction. The discrepancy is not of greater 
amount than may easily disappear on a slight modification of 
the results in one or both countries, a modification which they 
may be expected to receive from more multiplied and extended 
observations. The true values of u and r are probably not 
exactly the same in the two countries ; but it may be expected, 
when observations shall be sufficiently multiplied, that the de- 
ductions from the general results in both countries should 
agree in giving the same dip for the frontier stations. 

We have hitherto no general series of observations of dip in 
England ; but from the great pains which Captain James Clark 
Ross has bestowed on its determination in London, we may 
regard the result obtained by him in July 1835, viz. 69° 17''3, as 
extremely free from instrumental error, and liable only to such 
differences from the dip strictly due to its geographical position, 
as may arise from local causes. The corrected dip for Sep- 
tember 1836 would be about 69° 14'. The difference of dip 
between the central station in Scotland and in London, com- 
puted with the values of x and i/ i-esulting from the Scotch ob- 
servations,is — 3°-075 which being deducted from 72° 17''3, leaves 
the computed dip in London 69° 10''3. This is another con- 
firmation that the Scotch results are near approximations, pre- 
suming, as is probable, that the values of u and r are nearly the 
same in England as in Scotland. In this instance the deduc- 
tion from them is in defect; in the comparison with those from 
the Irish results it is in excess. 

II. Intensity. 

§. Hi/ Professor lAoyiVs Statical Method. 

The observations by this method Mere made with the same 
needle that was employed in determining the dip, viz. S (2). 
The method itself is described in the Fifth Report of the British 
Association, page 137, and more largely in the Transactions of 
the Royal Irish Academy for 1836. 

It is important in all observations of intensity that the needle 

106 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

should preserve its magnetic state unchanged or nearly so during 
the whole series of the observations. I had had this needle in my 
possession rather more than a twelvemonth, and had ascertained 
by frequent trials at the same station that its magnetic power was 
diminishing, but at a very slow and uniform rate, well admitting 
of interpolation. Being desirous of shortening as much as pos- 
sible the period within which interpolation might be necessary, 
(which would naturally have been the interval between my 
leaving Dublin and my return to it,) I made more than the 
usual number of observations at Helensburgh, the first station 
I observed at in Scotland, five days only after I had observed 
in Dublin, designing to return to Helensburgh for the purpose 
of verification once, or oftener if occasion required, iu the pro- 
gress of the observations. 

The first place to which I went from Helensburgh was the 
island of Great Cumbray. In disembarking the instruments, 
there being a good deal of sea, the case containing the needle 
fell from the table to the deck of the cabin. The needle was 
securely and immoveably fixed in the case, but the soft iron 
keeper which connected its poles was allowed a slight spring, 
arising from its own elasticity, to prevent its pressing too hard 
on the points of the needle. This occasioned a slight jar to 
take place ; very slight, but still sufficient to be audible. 

I conjectured immediately that the magnetism of the needle 
might be affected thereby ; and the observations at Cumbray 
strengthened this conjecture, by showing a greater difterence 
from the Helensburgh results than was likely to be due to the 
geographical distance between the stations. I returned to 
Helensburgh the following day, and on repeating the observa- 
tions there, found that the counterpoise which had deflected the 
needle 89° 33'-9, now deflected it 91° 15'-6, showing that the 
magnetism of the needle had been lessened. Needles have been 
frequently reiuarked gradually to lose magnetism for some time 
after it has been first communicated to them, luitil they arrive 
at what appears to be a permanent condition for each particular 
needle ; after which their magnetism remains steady. As far 
as can be conjectured, the jar above described seems to have 
brought this needle at once to its permanent state ; for on re- 
turning to Helensburgh a third time, after an interval of 42 
days, the observations being repeated, the same counterpoise 
again deflected the needle 91° 18'* 7, a result almost identical 
with that obtained on returning from Cumbray. Further, on 
my return to Dublin early in October, I found, on carefully 
repeating the observations at the same place I had observed at 
in July, a difference in the magnetism of the needle almost 


identical with the difference indicated by the results at Helens- 
burgh before and immediately after the accident. 

The ratio of the intensity of terrestrial magnetism between 
Dublin and Helensburgh as inferred from the results of July 
22nd in Dublin and July 27th in Helensburgh, (being both pre^ 
vious to the accident,) is 1-0067 Helensburgh to 1 in Dublin; 
and as inferred from the results of August 2 and September 
13 and 14 in Helensburgh, and October 4th in Dublin, (all sub- 
sequent to the accident,) the ratio is 1*0066 and 1*0059 Helens- 
burgh, to 1 in Dublin. I have therefore taken the result in 
Dublin of the 4th October as comparable with all the observa- 
tions made with this needle in Scotland, excepting the first 
results (July) at Helensburgh, and those are comparable with 
the first results (July) in Dublin. The same counterpoise was 
used throughout. 

Before the values of the terrestrial magnetic force can be 
derived with accuracy from the angles of deflection, it is 
necessary to apply a correction for the variations of tempe- 
rature of the needle itself in the observations at the different 
stations. The temperatures were observed by a thermometer 
placed in the circle with the dipping needle, and remaining 
dui'ing the course of the observations. For the purpose of 
ascertaining the value of this correction for needle S (2), the 
needle was suspended horizontally by fibres of unspun silk in an 
earthen vessel glazed at the top, standing in a larger earthen 
vessel, into which warm water might be poured to raise the 
temperature of the air and needle in the inner one. Several 
folds of flannel enveloped the whole apparatus, being drawn 
close round the upper part of the inner vessel, to keep the tem- 
perature steady for periods of sufficient duration. The tempe- 
rature of the needle was shown by a thermometer suspended 
horizontally across it, not being in contact with any part of the 
apparatus. The needle was then vibrated alternately in the 
natural temperature of the room, and in the artificially raised 
temperature. An arc for measuring the extent of the vibration 
was placed beneath the needle, which was drawn out of the 
meridian, and released at pleasure by a suitable contrivance. 
The following observations were made at Limerick on the 30th 
of October. 





Time of 100 


h. m. 



2 45 p.m. 


646 64 

] s. 

3 02 „ 




3 17 „ 




4 11 „ 




4 28 „ 

5 20 „ 



y 646-55 at 90-3. 

7 15 „ 



11 15 „ 
11 38 „ 



\ 643-35 at 54-5. 

Here in the formula, « = ^ ^, T' = 645^-89 ; - T'T 

1 [r — T) 

_. 0^-6 ; T — t' = .38°-7. Whence a = -000048. 

In this experiment the time of vibration, as may be seen, 
varied considerably in the cold temperatures at the commence- 
ment and at the close, and gave reason to believe that the 
change due to temperature might be overpowered by the 
diurnal variation of the force. The experiment was therefore 
repeated on the 15th November, as follows : 



Time of 110 


h. m. 


4 58 P.M. 




5 16 „ 
5 34 „ 



>661-04 at 49. 

5 50 „ 



7 30 „ 




7 48 „ 

8 05 „ 



1661-77 at 87-6. 

8 24 „ 



11 10 „ 




11 25 „ 



1660-98 at 51. 

11 43 „ 




Here T = 661^ ; T - T = 0^-76 ; t - t = 37°-6. Whence « = 
'000061. This experiment appears more satisfactory than the 
preceding one ; but as the results are so nearly the same, I have 
taken the arithmetical mean -000055 for the value of a, which 
being multiplied by M, the modulus of the common system of 
logarithms, = -000024 the coefficient of t — x' in the correction 
for temperature. 

In Table IV. the two last columns contain the value of the 
intensity computed from the angles of deflection, and from the 



dip, and corrected for the variations of temperature inserted in 
the preceding columns. In the first of the final columns the 
ratios are expressed to unity in Dvihlin. In the last column the 
ratios are expressed to unity in London, and are the numbers in 
the preceding column multiplied by 1*0208, which has been 
ascertained by Mr. Lloyd to express the value of the intensity in 
Dublin, that at London being unity. {Trans. R. I. Academy, 

Table IV. 

Intensity, Needle S (2). 





O c 



Dublin = 1 

London = 1 


July 22 
July 27 

July 30 
Aug. 2 
Aug. 10 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 17 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 23 
Aug. 24 
Aug. 25 
Aug. 27 
Aug. 30 
Aug. 31 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 6 
Sept. 7 
Sept. 8 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 16 
Sept. 16 
Sept. 18 
Sept. 21 
Oct. 4 

7 to 8 A.M. 

1 1 to 1 P.M. 

3 to 5 p. if. 

12 to 3 P.M. 

9 A.M. 

8 to 9 A.M. 
8 to 9 A.M. 

2 to 4 P.M. 

11 to 1 P.M. 

4 to 6 P.M. 

4 to 5 P.M. 

5 to 7 P.M. 
7 to 8 A.M. 

3 to 5 P.M. 

4 to 6 P.M. 
3 to 5 P.M. 

5 to 6 P.M. 

11 to 12 A.M. 

12 to 3 P.M. 

8 to 10 A.M. 

6 to 8 P.M. 

9 to 11 A.M. 
9 to 11 A.M. 

12 to 2 P.M. 












— 18 27-2 

- 17 17-9 



Helensburgh ... 

Gt.Cumbray ... 
Helensburgh ... 
Tobermorie. ... 
Loch Slapin ... 

- 18 31-9 

- 18 59-7 

- 15 29-3 

- 15 59 

- 17 50-8 

- 16 44-2 

- 17 08-4 

- 16 53-7 

- 16 52-4 

- 18 22 

- 18 401 

- 18 06-1 

- 18 40-8 

- 18 37-7 

- 19 43-7 

- 19 561 

- 19 24-0 

- 19 24-0 

- 19 06-1 

- 18 55-9 

- 18 16-1 

- 19 31-8 

- 18 55-9 
- 19 53-3 

] 0072 

1 0401 



Gordon Castle . 

Blairgowrie .... 





Helensburgh ... 
Loch Ranza ... 
Campbelton ... 


If now we make/= the most probable value of the intensity 
at the same central geographical position that was assumed in 
the calculation of the dip observations, viz. lat. 56° 27', long. 
4° 25' west ; u = the angle which the isodynamic line pass- 
ing thi'ough the central position makes with the meridian ; 

110 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

and r = the coefficient which determines the rate of increase 
of the force in the normal direction ; and if we put as before 
r cos u = X, r sin u = y, and / = 1 + /', we have tliree series 
of equations, analogous to those in the dip calculations ; each 
series in the present instance consisting of 23 equations. Sum- 
ming each series we obtain the three final equations as follows : 

+ '7158=+ 23/'- 158 .r+ 154y . . (A) 

— 2-7180 :^ - 158/' + 31892 A' + 87672/ • • (B) 

- 1-251 = + 154/' + 8767^' + 633343/ . . (C) 

From which we obtain by elimination, 

^ = + -00010705 ; y =. — -00011186 ; 
7< = — 46° 15'-5 ; r — -0001548; and/' = -0326. 

The intensity at the central position is consequently 1-0326 to 
unity in London. The isodynamic line passing through it 
makes an angle of 46° 15'-5 with the meridian ; and lines corre- 
sponding to differences of intensity amounting to -005 are at 
intervals apart of 32*29 geographical miles. These are the 
results of the statical method. 

II. Intensity. 
§ 2. jBz/ the Method of Horizontal Vibrations. 

These observations were made in the well-known apparatus 
of M. Hansteen. The cylinders employed were two, belonging 
to Professor Lloyd, which had been extensively used by us both 
in the Irish magnetical observations, and are described in the 
report of those observations as L (a) and L (Z»). The method 
of observing which I pursued in Scotland is precisely similar to 
the description given in that Report ; and nothing further in 
respect to it appears necessary to be added here, except that the 
same silk suspension was preserved throughout ; the same chro- 
nometer, of small and very steady rate, always employed ; and 
that the coefficient for temperature for both cylinders is -00025. 
The column of " corrected time" in the subjoined Tables is the 
time of vibration reduced by this coefficient to a standard tem- 
perature of 60°. 



Table V. 
Times of Vibration of Cyl. L (a). 




Time of 



Place of Observation. 


July 24. 

h m 
9 A.M. 

7 30 a.m. 




j 243-47 

J Provost's garden, Tri- 
\ nity College. 



4 40 P.M. 



Aug. 2. 

5 10 p.m. 
7 16 a.m. 






8 00 a.m. 



Field east of the town. 

Gt. Cumbray. 

July 30. 

I 50 P.M. 



1 249-82 

("Field N.E. end of the 
\ island. 


2 10 P.M. 




Aug. 7. 

50 P.M. 





4 30 P.M. 




Sir John Orde's grounds. 


4 50 P.M. 






8 20 A.M. 




Sea-beach S. of the town. 

Loch Scavig . 


6 20 P.M. 




J Near the fall from Loch 
\ Coruisk. 
J Inner Loch, E. side, on 
\ limestone. 

Loch Slapin... 


8 30 A.M. 




Artornish . ... 


8 30 a.m. 




J On a limestone point S. 

\ of Castle. 

Wood near the village. 



8 30 a.m. 




Fort Augustus 


2 50 P.M. 




Field near the fort. 

Inverness ... 


9 30 A.M. 
5 00 P.M. 
5 20 P.M. 






Grounds of Abertorf. 
■ Craig Phatric. 

f 253-11 



8 50 A.M. 

9 20 A.M. 




> Wood near the inn. 


2 30 P.M. 

3 00 P.M. 



V Wood up the glen. 

Inverness ... 


40 P.M. 

1 10 P.M. 



1 253-53 

Grounds of Abertorf. 

Gordon Castle 


1 45 P.M. 



} 252-72 

( Grounds of Gordon Cas- 
\ tie. 


2 10 P.M. 





6 35 P.M. 

7 10 P.M. 



1 251-09 

Field S.E. of the inn. 



7 45 A.M. 





8 10 A.M. 




Grove, near the manse. 


7 50 A.M. 






9 00 a.m. 




Field near the inn. 



6 00 P.M. 
6 30 P.M. 



j 248-10 

Field N. of the town. 


Sept. 1. 

1 40 P.M. 




A field inland. 



9 00 A.M. 




Mr. Fergus's garden. 



5 50 P.M. 

6 10 P.M. 



1 247-56 

Field E. of the Abbey. 

Dryburgh . . . 


4 10 P.M. 




Tweed side. 

Helensburgh . 


1 40 P.M. 
12 30 P.M. 



1 25 1-27 

Field E. of the town. 



10 10 A.M. 




f Sea-beach E. side of 
^ harbour. 



Table V. [coutmued.) 

Time of 


Place of Observation. 


Bangor (co 



Sept. 17. 





. 3 




C 45 A.M.'248-57 48-0 
7 00 A.M. 248-61 48-0 

3 35 p.M.'247-20 J54-3 
3 45 p.M.247-54 560 


9 45 A.M.i246-53 
10 15 A.M.;246-72 
10 10 A.M. 243-25 
2 8 P.M. 1243-22 
2 30 p.M.|243-09 
1 45 P.M. 243-18 



1 247-68 
1 247-30 


Sea-beach S. side of the 
harbour on red sand- 

Field S. of the town. 
Grounds of Bangor Castle. 

"Provost's garden, Tri- 
nity College. 

Times of Fibration of Cyl. L (Z».) 




Time of 



Place of Observation. 


July 24. 

h m 
8 30 A.M. 
8 00 a.m. 
8 40 A.M. 






r Provost's garden, Tri- 
[ nity College. 

Helensburgh . 


4 00 P.M. 

302-15 '69-4 


' Sea-beach. 

Aug. 1. 

8 30 A.M. 

302-22 54-5 


< Field E. of the town. 


7 45 A.M. 

302-55 165-1 



Gt. Cumbray . 

July 30. 

2 30 P.M. 




Field N.E. end of the isld. 


Aug. 7. 

1 25 P.M. 
5 10 p.m. 



1 300-22 

Sir John Orde's grounds. 

Tobermorie . . . 


8 40 A.M. 




Sea-beach S. of the town. 

Loch Sea vig... 


8 00 P.M. 




fNear the fall from Loch 

\ Coruisk. 

Inner loch on limestone. 

Loch Slapin... 


8 50 a.m. 




Artornish ... 


8 50 a.m. 

303-75 |600 


On a limestone point. 



9 20 a.m. 

300-91 '56-5 


Wood near the village. 

Fort Augustu.N 


3 00 p.m. 




Field near the fort. 



8 30 a.m. 



1 303-16 

r Grounds of Abertorf. 
\ Craig Phatric. 


5 30 P.M. 





4 15 P.M. 



1 305-87 

J Wood near the inn. 
\ Wood up the glen. 


4 40 P.M. 



Inverness ... 


11 50 a.m. 
1 20 p.m. 



1 304-25 

Grounds of Abertorf. 

Gordon Castle 


1 00 P.M.I30316 !58-5 
1 20 r.M.l303-27 139-5 

1 303-29 

In the grounds of theCast'e. 



6 10 P.M. 300-27 aO-5 

7 25 P.M.300-34 i44-5 

1 301 -24 

Field S.E. of the inn. 




8 30 a.m. 30204 ,52- 

1 302-67 

Grove near the manse. 

8 50 A.M. 302-09 




9 30A.M.S00-47 



Field near the inn. 



5 20 P.M. 297-47 

6 45 p.M.1297-47 


\ 297-69 

Field N. of the town. 


Sept. 1. 

1 00 P.M. 301-79 



A field inland. 



10 30 A.M. 300-80 



Mr. Fergus's garden. 



Table V. (continued.) 



Loch Ranza 


Bangor .... 



Sept. 21. 
Oct. 3. 




6 40 p, 

8 45 a, 
2 10 p, 

11 45 A, 

12 05 p, 

9 30 a. 
9 50 a, 

7 20 a. 

2 40 p. 

3 10 p. 
11 10 a. 

9 25 A. 
9 45 A. 
2 55 p. 
I 15 p. 

Time of 

.M. 295-68 

•M. 302-76 
M. 291-37 



Place of Observation. 

|- 296-85 
!■ 301-33 

► 303-15 



FieldE. of the Abbey. 

Field E. of the town. 

Sea-beach ; on red sandstone 
Field S. of the town. 
Grounds of the Castle. 

r Provost's garden, Tri- 
L nity College. 

From the near agreement in the respective times of vibration 
of the cylinders in Dublin in July and in October, we may infer 
that the magnetic state of each cylinder had experienced little, 
if any, alteration in the interval; an inference which is also 
confirmed for a portion of the interval by the correspondence in 
the times of vibration at Helensburgh in July and September. 
The times of vibration in Dublin at the two periods referred to 
are as follows, viz. 



July 24 and 25 243-47 292'96 

October 3 and 4 243*92 292-21 

Whence it would appear, if we ought to draw any conclusion 
from such small differences, that Cyl. L. (a) had sustained a 
small decrease of magnetism in the interval, and Cyl. L (Z»), on 
the contrary, a small increase, and very nearly to a proportionate 
amount. However this may be, we cannot err materially in 
regarding the mean of the times of vibration of each cylinder in 
July and October, as its rate in Dublin comparable with the 
rates observed at the different stations in Scotland. The fol- 
lowing Table has been computed accordingly. The first of the 
three columns under the general head of "Horizontal Intensity," 
expresses the ratio of the horizontal force at each station to 
imity in Dublin, deduced from the times of vibration of Cyl. 
L (a) ; the next column the ratios deduced from Cyl. L (Z») ; 
and the third column contains the ratios deduced from a mean 
VOL. V. — 1836. I 



of the two cylinders. The first column, under the general head 
of "Total Intensity," shows the ratios of the total force derived 

A sec S 
from the mean horizontal component by the formula / = j^ ^^^ g; ; 

8' and h! being the dip and horizontal intensity in Dublin, and S 
and h the same quantities at another station. The final column 
contains the values in the preceding column multiplied by 

Table VI. 

Magnetic Intensity deduced by the Horizontal Cylinders. 


Helensburgh. . 
Cambray .... 
Loch Gilphead 
Tobermorie . . 
Loch Siapin . . 
Artornish .... 
Glencoe ... 
Fort Augustus 
Inverness .... 


Inverness .... 
Gordon Castle 


Alford ...... 


Blairgowrie . . 
Newport .... 

Kirkaldy .... 

Melrose .... 

Dryburgh .... 

Helensburgh. , 
Loch Ranza . . 
Cambelton ., 
Stranraer . > . . 
Bangor ...... 

Dublin ...... 

Horizontal Intensity. 


Total In 






London= 1 




70 59-4 






72 14-2 






71 58-7 






72 05-2 






73 05-2 






72 59-7 






72 40-4 






72 14-7 






72 37-9 






72 44-0 






72 53-1 






72 44-0 






72 38-4 






72 23-2 






72 19-5 






72 11-7 






71 52-2 






72 14-9 






72 08-5 






71 34-4 





71 31-2 






72 14-2 






72 20-4 






71 53-5 


] 0230 




71 40-9 

1 -0043 





71 36-9 






70 59-4 



The observed dips in Table VI. are the same as those in Table I. 
with the exception of the dip in Dublin, at which station I have 
availed myself, in addition to my own observations, of the nu- 
merous results which Mr. Lloyd has obtained with several dip- 
ping needles at the same spot where the cylinders were vibrated. 
An abstract of all these observations from which the dip in 



Dublin is derived for the month of September 1836, is given 
in the subjoined Table. 




Reduced to Sept. 1836. 


Sept. 1834. 
Sept. 1834. 


Sept. 18.35. 
Sept. 1835. 


Nov. 1835. 

April 1836. 
April 1836. 


July 1836. 
Oct. 1836. 








71 03-8 
71 05-1 

71 04- 1 

=70 58-3(16obs.) 

=71 00-0(18obs.) 
=70 58-8 (3 obs.) 

=70 59-8 (8 obs.) 

=71 00-9 (4 obs.) 


71 03-5 
71 02-0 

71 030 

weight to 
each result, 
>;0° 59'.4iP';oportion- 
ed to the 
number of 


71 01-3 

71 02-1 

70 59-5 

71 00-8 

71 01-12 
71 00-75 

71 00-93 


In Table VI. we have twenty-five results to be combined by 
the method of least squares, in order to determine the most 
probable values of/', x, and y. _ The equations are analogous to 
those already described in treating of the statical results. We 
obtain from them the three final equations 

+ -7422 = + 25/' - 73 ar +117/ (A.) 

+ -1816 = -73/' + 35681 .r+ 13117 y (B.) 
- 5-9458 = + 11/' + 13117 X + 66193y (C.) 

From which we find by elimination 

x= + -0001094 y=— -0001165 

u= - 46° 47-5; r = -0001598; and/' = -0301, 

The intensity at the central position (lat. 56° 27', long. 4° 
25' W.) is consequently 1-0301 to unity in London. The iso- 
dynamic line passing through it makes an angle of 46° 47'-5 
with the meridian ; and the isodynamic lines corresponding to 
differences of intensity amounting to '005 are at intervals apart 
of 31'28 geographical miles. 




By the statical metliod we have found the intensity at the 
central station 1*0326 ; the angle with the meridian made by the 
isodynamic line 46" 15'*5 ; and the intervals between isodyna- 
mic lines representing differences of intensity of '005, to be 
32*29 geographical miles. 

The agreement of the two methods cannot be considered 
otherwise than as very remarkable. They have no element in 
common except the dip, which, whilst it is very influential in the 
horizontal method, might be many minutes in error without 
sensibly affecting the results by the statical method. The close 
agreement of two methods, which are thus independent of each 
otlicr, forms a strong mutual corroboration. 

By substituting in the original equations the values thus 
found of/', X, andtj, we may compute the intensity assigned by 
the combination of the observations at all the stations to the 
geographical position of each station in particular, and we shall 
tiius see what degree of accordance the observations at each 
station exhibit, with the indications of the combined results. The 
following table shows the differences between the observed and 
the combined result at each station by both the horizontal and 
statical methods ; the sign + signifies that the observed inten- 
sity is in excess ; — that it is in defect. 

Table VII. 
Differences of Observed and Comjnited Results. 







LochSlapin ... 

+ ■0052 




Helensburgh ... 
Camjibelton ... 





+ •0015 

Tobeimorie ... 



Fort Augustus . 



Gordon Castle... 
Loch Gilphead . 




We have seen that each of tlie two methods gives, when 
taken separately, general results agreeing in a very remarkable 
manner w ith those of the other method. When however we 
examine the contents of the preceding table, we remark that in 
the horizontal method much greater differences appear between 
the observed and the combined results at single stations, than i.s 


the case in the statical method. This accords with the antici- 
pations of the inventor of the statical method. And when it is con- 
sidered that an error of a single minute in the ohservation of the 
dip will occasion, in so high a magnetic latitude as Scotland, a cor- 
responding error of -0009 in the deduction of the total intensity 
from the horizontal vibrations, it must be acknowledged that the 
statical method possesses a great advantage in such latitudes, in 
being free from this source of liability to error. I must add, 
however, that I do not attribute the discrepancies observable in 
the results of the horizontal method, beyond those of the statical, 
altogether to defects inherent in the horizontal method. The ne- 
cessity of economizing time obliged me frequently to keep the 
dipping needle and the horizontal cylinders employed at the same 
time, when it was of course necessary to place them several yards 
apart. In a country so subject to local magnetic disturbance 
as Scotland, it is not too much to say, that it might not always 
follow that the dip should have been precisely the same at the 
two spots of observation, I have already noticed that at the 
two sides of the harbour at Loch Scavig I observed a difference 
of above 5° of dip ; and although that was no doubt an extreme 
case and one of very rare occurrence, it can scarcely be sup- 
posed but that irregularities do occur in a minor degree not 
unfrequently. In strict justice to the horizontal method, the 
cylinders, in countries liable to such local influences, should 
always be vibrated precisely in the same spot where the dip 
is observed. The place of observation of the two methods 
not being the same, may also subject the instruments to actual 
differences of intensity apart from the magnetic direction. In 
such cases the results may be true measures, though differing 
from each other; but discrepancies of this nature should 
not exceed the limit of the local irregularities of intensity, 
the existence of which we may infer from the statical residts. 
When they are considerably greater, a more probable mode of 
accounting for them is that the horizontal needle was affected 
by a different dip from that acting on the dipping needle and 
used in the reduction. In all such cases the total intensities 
derived from the horizontal vibrations are of course in error. 
It has been shown by the corresponding table of the dip obser- 
vations that there were seven stations at which the observed 
dip differed from the dip computed by a combination of the ob- 
servations at all the stations to an amount varying from 14'-5 to 
25'* 1. At six of these stations there were also horizontal and 
statical observations of the force. Had the differences between 
the observed and computed dips in these cases been errors of 
observation, and not actual irregularities in the magnetic dircc- 

118 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

tion from some disturbing cause, the discrepancies between the 
two methods of measuring the force must have been far greater 
than they are. The error in the deduction of the force by the 
horizontal method which would be occasioned by an error of 
observation of 14' of dip, would have greatly exceeded any dis- 
crepancy existing between the horizontal and statical results in 
the above table. Considerations of this kind are important in 
their bearing on the proper method of deducing the lines of 
total intensity from a series of horizontal vibrations. If discre- 
pancies in the observations of dip arise chiefly from instrumen- 
tal errors or errors of observation, the dip resulting from the 
calculation of least squares should be used in the reduction 
of the horizontal observations. If, on the other hand, the pro- 
bability of local disturbance is greater than of instrumental 
error, the dips actually observed should be employed in the re- 
duction. Were the dips due to the geographical positions 
employed in the reduction of the Scottish observations instead 
of the dips actually observed at the stations, the discrepancies 
in the resulting intensities would be increased to such an ex- 
treme amount, as to leave no doubt that, in the case of the Scot- 
tish observations at least, the observed dips are those which 
ought to be employed ; and it also follows, that in countries 
subject to such magnetic irregularities, the dipping-needle should 
be regarded as an indispensable accompaniment to the horizontal 

All the observations made with the statical needle have been 
included in the calculations, as well as all those with the horizon- 
tal cylinders, except the vibrations at Loch Scavig, which were 
evidently affected by some very great cause of irregularity, and 
their introduction into the calculation could only be productive 
of eiTor. Loch Scavig, with its hypersthene rocks and its trap 
dykes, is evidently a very unsuitable place for magnetic observa- 

The general results from the statical and horizontal methods 
are so nearly the same, that either might be used for the chart 
with scarcely a perceptible difference. Perhaps the statical re- 
sults may be considered as entitled to a preference, and they have 
been employed accordingly. 

Until the relation which the isodynamic lines in Scotland 
bear to the magnetic intensity in England shall be more 
thoroughly and satisfactorily ascertained, by a connected series 
of observations comprehending the whole of Great Britain, it 
has been deemed preferable to give the Scottish lines no other 
designation in the chart than that which expresses their relation 
to each other, thus limiting the conclusion to what is strictly war- 


ranted by the observationB recorded in this paper. Accordingly, 
the line passing through the central station, and making with its 
meridian an angle of 46° 15''5, is designated simply as unity for 
Scotland; and the other lines, at intervals of 32*29 geographical 
miles, are entitled + -015, + -010, + '005, —-005, - 'OlO, —'015, 
according to the values of the intensity which they represent 
relatively to the central line. 

The difference between the deductions in Ireland and in Scot- 
land, in regard to the isodynamic lines, is considerable, and 
apparently too great to be supposed due to an actual difference 
in the lines themselves. It will probably be elucidated by future 


lleport on North American Zoology. By John Richardson, 
M.D., F.R.S., &;c. 

The following paper having reference to the animals of only a 
single zoological province, bears the same relation to the valuable 
report made to the Association by the Rev. Leonard Jenyns, 
" On the present State of Zoology*," that a local fauna does to 
a woi'k embracing the whole animal kingdom. As it leaves un- 
touched the principles of systematic arrangement, structure, 
physiology, and in fact the fundamental doctrines of the science, 
the only subjects coming properly within its scope appear to 
be, an enumeration of the animals inhabiting North America ; 
the peculiarities of the fauna ivhich they co7istitute when con- 
trasted with those of the other zoological provinces into which the 
earth may be divided ; and the geographical range of groups 
or individual species, with the circumstances which tend to influ- 
ence its extent, such as the configuration of the land, climate, 
vegetation, 8fc. The only author who has written on the latter 
branch of the subject is Mr. Swainson, to whom we are indebted 
for an enumeration of the generic forms peculiar to North Ame- 
rica f. No separate treatise has hitherto been devoted to the 
laws which regulate the distribution of animals in North Ame- 
rica, and the geographical limits of each species have been 
very imperfectly pointed out in the systematic works containing 
descriptions of the animals. Hence, as the reports called for 
by the British Association are designed to exhibit the present 
state of science, and not for the publication of new facts or the 
mere enunciation of the reporter's opinions, portions only of the 
outline of a complete fauna will be traced in the following 
sketch ; but the purpose of the report will be answered if it 
serves to point out the gaps in North American zoology which 
require to be filled up, and to direct the attention of travellers 
and resident naturalists to those investigations which are im- 

• Vide Rejiort of the Fourth Meeting, &c. London, 1835, p. 143. Mr. Jenyns 
limits his report to " those researches which of late years have tended to 
elucidate the characters and affinities of tlie lai-ger groups of animals, and 
thereby to advance our knowledge of their natural arrangement." The great 
extent of the field of inquiry thus marked out will appear by a quotation from 
the first zoologist of the age : " En un mot, la melhode naturelle serait totile la 
science, et chaquepas qu'on luifait fuire apjiroche la science de son but." (Cuv., 
Reg. An., i. 10.) 

t Published in the Encyclopeedia of Geography; and in his volume on the 
Geography and Classification of Animals, forming part of Lardner's Cyclo- 

]^2 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

portant to the interests of science. A correct knowledge of the 
species is clearly the first point to be attained, being indispen- 
sable for the due discussion of the other subjects embraced by 
a local fauna^ but though this has formed the chief aim of the 
works hitherto devoted to North American zoology, great un- 
certainty still exists as to many species, the original descrip- 
tions being so obscure that they do not enable us to recognise 
the animals ; and even the commonest quadrupeds, about whose 
identity, when found in certain localities, there can be no doubt, 
have in very few instances, indeed, been satisfactorily compared 
with the analogous ones inhabiting distant districts of America 
or belonging to the old world. A critical review of the various 
opinions entertained by zoologists respecting the several species, 
(such as that which the Prince of Musignano has instituted in 
his observations on Wilson's Ornithology,) would be obviously of 
great utility, but want of space excludes it from this report, 
wherein the Mammalia alone will be noticed in detail. The pre- 
ference is given to this order, partly because, the number of spe- 
cies being small, individual notices can be compressed within 
reasonable limits, but chiefly because opinions are more various 
concerning the quadrupeds than respecting the contents of the 
other orders. A sketch of the labours of the different authors 
who have brought North American zoology to its present state 
might have been introduced, but its utility would not compensate 
for the space it would occupy, and the task has been already to 
a certain extent executed in the introductions to the several vo- 
lumes of the Fauna Boreali- Americana. The reader is therefore 
referred to that woi'k, to the American Natural History of 
Dr. Godman, the Fauna Americana of Dr. Harlan, and espe- 
cially to Pennant's Arctic Zoology, which contains ample re- 
ferences to all the older writers. Fischer's Synopsis Mammalitim 
is a good book of reference for the published species of Mam- 
malia up to the year 1828. 

Previous to entering upon the details of the report, it is ne- 
cessary to state that in it the term of North America is re- 
stricted to that part of the continent which lies north of the 
tropic of Cancer, thus including New Mexico, the Peninsulas of 
Florida and California, and as nearly as may be meeting the 
limits of the very different and peculiar South American zoolo- 
gical province. In considering Mexico as the region in which 
the Northern and Southern American faunae meet and mingle, I 
follow the opinions of Professor Lichtenstein * and Mr. Swain- 

* " Erlautcrungcn dcr Nachiichtcn dcs Franc. Hernandez von den vierfus- 
sigen Thicren Ncuspauicns, von Herr Lichtenstein." Gelesen m der Aka- 
demie der Wissenschaften am 28 Jun. 1827. Berlin. 


son *, and dissent from those who consider the Isthmus of Da- 
rien as a zoological boundary f. 

Physical Geography. 

The great range of the Rocky Mountains forms a most re- 
markable feature in the physical aspect of North America. 
Viewed as a continuation of the Cordilleras de los Andes of the 
southern continent, and extending from the Straits of Magalhaes 
to the Arctic sea through 120° of latitude, it is by far the longest 
mountain chain in the world. In Mexico it divides into three 
bi'anches ; the western one passing through the province of 
Guadalaxara to the Rio Gilaj the eastern one extending through 
the Texas towards the confluence of the Missouri and Missis- 
sippi, where it terminates after assuming the appellation of the 
Ozark Mountains ; and the highest or central branch con- 
tinuing northwards to between the 29th and 30th parallels of 
latitude, where it is linked to the lateral forks by connecting 
spurs, or as Humboldt names them '* counter forts." Within 
this mountain system, between the parallels of 19° and 24^°, lie 
immense table lands, elevated to the height of 6000 or 7000 
feet above the sea. The central Cordillera of Mexico has a di- 
rection of N. 10° W. from the 25th to the 38th degree of latitude ; 
and from thence the course of the ridge is with very slight de- 
flections about N. 28° W. to the 69th parallel and 138th meri- 
dian, near the mouth of the Mackenzie, where the Rocky Moun- 
tains terminate. Travellers, who have crossed the mountains at 
various parts, inform us that they are divided into several pa- 
rallel ridges; this is the case near the sources of the Rio del 
Norte ; again between the 37th and 41st parallels ; in the 58th 
parallel ; and lastly, in the 64th, where according to the report 
of the fur-hunters thirteen successive ridges must be crossed 
before the western declivity is attained. Many of the peaks of 
the Rocky Mountains rise to a considerable altitude : thus, 
Spanish Peak, lat. 37° 20' N. ; James Peak, 38° 38'; and Bighorn, 
lat. 40°, have been ascertained by officers of the United States 
to be from 10,000 to 12,000 feet in height. Mount Hooker and 
Mount Brown, in the 52nd and 53rd parallels, were stated by the 
late Mr. Douglas, but from less perfect data, to be respectively 
15,690 and 15,900 feet above the sea. It is manifest that ani- 
mals may travel along the acclivities of a mountain chain whose 
summits enter within the limits of perpetual snow, from the 

* Encyclopcedia of Geography, 1834; Geography and Classification ofAni- 
tiimals, by William Swainson, Esq., 1835, 
t Penny Cyclop<edia, art. America. 

ISi SIXTH UiiPORT — 183G. 

arctic circle down to the tabic landb of Mexico, almost without 
varying their climate ; and that were the altitude of the ridge 
between the tropics great enough and sufficiently continuous to 
join the temperate zones of North and South America, we might 
expect to find many species of quadrupeds and birds common 
to both; but it so happens that in the Isthmus of Panama, nearly 
at the place where the elevation for the accomplishment of such 
an union would require to be greatest, the Cordilleras are de- 
pressed to a height not exceeding 500 or 600 feet, and still 
further south there is a plain extending from sea to sea between 
Rio Naipipi and the Gulf of Cupica*. It is not, however, as 
Humboldt has remarked, the altitude of the mere peaks which 
is to form an element in an inquiry of this kind, but rather the 
heights of the backs of the mountains over which the passes 
from one side of the chain to the otlier are usually made. But 
we have no positive information respecting the height of the 
passes of the Rocky Mountains, and even the altitude of the 
base of the range above the sea, which forms a material item in 
the computation of the absolute elevation of the peaks, has not 
been calculated from barometric measurement, but merely by 
vague estimates of the descent of rivers. Major Long assigns 
to this base a height of 3000 feet, while Lieutenant Pike with 
less probability more than doubles that altitude. 

The Rocky Mountains are bounded on the Atlantic side by vast 
plains, having a gradual inclination to the eastward, and forming, 
from the 50th degree of latitude down to the Gulf of Mexico, a 
water-shed traversed by the Red River, the Arkansas, Missouri, 
and Mississippi. A zone to the westward of the latter river 
about 200 miles broad is well wooded, but the remainder con- 
sists of sandy and naked prairies, whose surface though gently 
undulated presents as few landmarks to guide the traveller on 
his way as he would meet with in the middle of the occanf. 

Between the 50th and 54th parallel lie plahis of similar 
character, crossed by the forks of the Saskatchewan, which falls 
into Hudson's Bay; and still further north the Peace River 
flows towards the Ai'ctic sea through a fertile tract generally 
level, and inclosing portions of prairie land, but more en- 
croached on by pine forests than the southern plains. The 
valley of the Mackenzie beyond the Gist parallel, instead of 
being separated from the Rocky Mountains by an intervening 
level tract of land, skirts their bases until it issues in the Arctic 
sea. We thus perceive that to the eastward of the Rocky Moun- 

• Humboldt. 

t The eastern banks of the Mississippi arc in general thickly wooded, but in 
the State of Illinois there are some considerable tracts of i>rairie lands. 


tains there is an immense longitudinal valley extending from 
the x\rctic sea to the Gulf of Mexico, crossed by no dividing 
ridges of note, but forming three separate water-sheds; the 
southerly one having, in addition to a general easterly declina- 
tion to the Mississippi, also a descent from the 49th parallel 
towards the outlet of the latter river in the Gulf of Mexico ; 
tlie northerly one having an inclination towards the Arctic sea, 
commencing between the 53rd and 54th degrees of latitude 
and the central one, which is necessarily the most elevated, 
having merely an easterly descent towards Hudson's Brj- The 
valley or plain is widest beween the 40th and 50th parallels, 
where it includes 15 degrees of longitude. This configuration 
of the land evidently gives great facilities for the range of 
herbivorous quadrupeds from north to south, and is the line of 
route piu'sued by many species of migratory birds ; and while 
the Mackenzie furnishes a channel by which the anadromous 
fish of the xVrctic sea can penetrate 10 degrees of latitude to 
tiie southward, the Mississippi oifers a route by which those 
of the Gulf of Mexico can ascend far to the north. 

There are no mountain chains to the eastward of the Missis- 
sippi at all approaching to the Rocky Mountains in magnitude, 
the most remarkable of the existing ones being the AUeghanies or 
Apalachian ranges, which have a breadth of about one hundred 
miles, and rise from 2000 to 3000 feet above the sea, springing 
from a base elevated 1000 or 1200 feet. Tliey extend from Ala- 
bama and the northern confines of Georgia nearly to the banks 
of the St. Lawrence, their general direction being about N.E. 
by N., that is, nearly parallel to a line drawn from Carolina to 
Nova Scotia through the principal promontories of the Atlantic 
coast, and forming an angle of five points with the Rocky Mount- 
ain chain. The strip of country intercepted between the Al- 
leghanies and the Atlantic, undulating and rising moderately to- 
wards the base of the mountains and generally very level near 
the coast, has a width of 200 miles in the Carolinas. In Georgia 
the low land becomes broader, and sweeping to the westward 
round the south end of the chain it joins the valley of the 
Mississippi. To the southward the level is continued into the 
peninsula of Florida, and this tongue of land must be noticed 
as influencing the distribution of animal life, not oidy by its 
southerly extension, amounting to five degrees of latitude, but 
also by its forming a barrier to the direct passage of fish from 
the Atlantic coast to the same parallel in thebottom of the 
Gulf of Mexico, and thus partly accounting for the very peculiar 
ichthyology of the Mississippi and its tributaries as contrasted 
with that of the eastern rivers. 

126 SIXTH REPORT — 183G. 

The whole northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico is low and 
swampy, atid from the very gradual shoaling of the water, in- 
approachable by ships, except at the mouths of rivers. The 
coast preserves much the same character on the Atlantic side 
up to Virginia, being almost everywhere skirted by low sandy 
islands, inclosing extensive lagoons and winding channels, into 
which mmierous large rivers open, and permit the access of 
anadromous fish to the foot of AUeghanies. In the middle and 
eastern districts of the United States the Atlantic plain is nar- 
rowed by an incurvature of the coast and the extensive encroach- 
ments of the Chesapeake, Delaware, and Long Island Sounds, 
to whose muddy beaches vast numbers of water-fowl resort. A 
nari'ow valley, having a direction of N. by E., runs from the last- 
mentioned sound to join the transverse basin of the St. Law- 
rence: it is occvipied on one side by the River Hudson and 
on the other by Lake Champlain and the River Richelieu*. 

The British Atlantic territory is also deeply indented by the 
Bay of Fundy, remarkable for the rise of its tides, and the extent 
of its mud banks exposed at low water. The island of New- 
foundland, viewed merely in reference to its physical geography, 
appears as a prolongation of the coast line; in its animal pro- 
ductions and vegetation it corresponds with the adjacent coast 
of Labrador. Its surface, as vi^ell as that of New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia, and the northern part of the United States, is 
considerably varied by hills. 

We have next to notice a great transverse valley, commencing 
with the mediterranean sea or gulf of the St. Lawrence, con- 
tinued first to the south-westward behind the AUeghanies in the 
channel of the river St. Lawrence and basins of Lakes Erie 
and Ontario, and afterwards more directly to the west by the 
valleys of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, from the 
two latter of which there are communications by low tracts of 
land with the great basin of the Mississippi. Canals have been 
executed and more are projected in the Canadas and United 
States for connecting the several systems of water communica- 
tion, by means of which an interchange of fish from widely 
diverging rivers will hereafter take place. 

The interior prairie lands lying to the northward of the great 
Canada lakes have on their eastern boundary a well-wooded, 
but swampy zone of nearly level limestone strata analogous to 
the valley of the Mississippi in its general direction, and having 
on or near its eastern border an almost continuous water-course, 

• A. recent traveller states that the only instances of tidal waters of sufficient 
depth to carry large shijis crossing primitive mountain chains, are those of the 
Hudson and St. Lawrence. T'ide Stuart's Three Years in America. 


which may he traced on the map as the River and Lake Wini- 
peg, lower part of the Saskatchewan, Beaver Lake, Mississippi, 
, Athabascow River and Lake, Slave River and Great Slave Lake, 
from whence Mackenzie's River issuing sweeps round the 
north end of the zone, and approaches the base of the Rocky 
Mountains within^^the Arctic circle. This longitudinal water- 
course lying nearly at a right angle with the transverse valley 
of the St. Lawrence cuts off a large north-east corner of the 
continent, including the Canadas, Labrador, Rupert's Land, 
and the more northern districts. Though this tract, which 
equals Europe in extent, has a greatly varied surface and in- 
cludes some high groups of hills, it possesses no continuous 
mountain ranges of great elevation, nor indeed any peaks which 
reach the limits of perpetual snow. Its lakes are numerous 
and often large, the proportion of water to land being great. 
In a zoological point of view the district admits of being divided 
into two portions : the northern one, destitute of trees and there- 
fore named the '' barren grounds," lies beyond a line running 
W.N.W. from Hudson's Bay in the 60th parallel to Great 
Bear Lake in the 65th. The southerly portion is wooded, antl 
although it embraces many degrees of latitude it presents a 
surprising uniformity everywhere in its ferine inhabitants. 
The great inland sea of Hudson's Bay, occupying the centre of 
the whole north-east district, (the lands north of Hudson's 
Strait being considered as part of it,) materially influences its 
temperature, and consequently its capability of supporting animal 
life. The south and south-west shores of this bay are flat and 
swampy with muddy beaches, whereon vast flocks of water- 
fowl halt for a time in the course of their autumn migrations 
from the northern breeding-places to their southerly winter 

On the Pacific side of the Rocky Mountains we have to the 
northward an expanded wing, as it were, of the continent pro- 
longed by the peninsula of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, 
and similar in geological and zoological characters, as far as has 
been ascertained, to the eastern barren grounds. Further to 
the south the coast line approaches the Rocky Mountains, but 
it recedes again in Upper California; while Lower or old Cali- 
fornia runs out in a peninsular form like Florida, intercepting 
the Gulf of Cortes or the Vermilion Sea, which though much 
narrower than the Gulf of Mexico extends nearly as far north- 
wards. The Pacific coast is flanked at some distance by a 
range termed by Humboldt the " Californian Maritime Alps ". 
These are in general nearly parallel to the Rocky Mountains, 
and become more and more elevated as they proceed northwards 

\28 ■ SIXTH REPORT 183C. 

from the comparatively low peninsula of California until they 
attain an elevation of 9000 feet opposite Cape Mendocino in 
the 40th degree of latitude. Near the 45th parallel, Mount Hood* 
rises 16,000 feet, and in the 46th stands Mount St. Helens, 
which is 14,000 feet high ; the Columbia flows between these 
lofty peaks. Mount Fairweather in latitude 59° has an altitude 
of 14,000 feet, and Mount St. Elias in the 60th parallel at- 
tains to 17,000. These peaks are volcanic, and in the Aleutian 
Islands there is another vulcanic mountain 7000 feet high. The 
Californian Alps are divided into ridges by long narrow valleys, 
and between them and the Rocky Mountains lies an extensive 
prairie tract, 700 miles long, from 100 to 200 wide, destitute 
of water, and very similar in character to those which lie on 
the eastern side of the ridge just named f. Between the forks 
of the Columbia there are also wide prairie lands covered with 
arfemisice, and nourishing several interesting and large species 
of tetrao. 

The mountain system of Russian America is unknown. The 
peninsula of Alaska and the Aleutian Isles, extending toAvards 
Asia, separate from the Pacific the sea of Kamtschatka, which 
nourishes several fish of very peculiar forms and some singular 
cetaceous animals. 


Many precise and long- continued meteorological observations 
are recjuired to be made in various districts of North America 
before a general view of the climate having any pretensions to 
accuracy can be offered. Abstracts of temperatures already 
recorded are expressed in the subjoined table, which is con- 
structed after a model furnished by Humboldt. It is preceded 
by a few remarks, which are either simply explanatorj^, or whicli 
detail facts not readily expressible in a tabular form, yet of im- 
portance to the naturalist who investigates the distribution of 
animals in North America. 

• Dr. Gairclner, an excellent naturalist now employed in a medical capacity 
on the banks of the Columbia b)' the Hudson's Bay Company, has executed a 
map, from which I have extracted the following positions of the most remarka- 
ble peaks of the Californian Alps that have received names. Mount Pit, 
41° ;5C' N.; Mount Shasty, 43° 16' N.; Mount Vancouver, 44° 18' N.; Mount 
Hood, 45° IG' N.; Mount St. Helens, 4G° 05' N.; Mount Rainier, 46° 57' N.; 
and Mount Baker, 48° 27' N. 

t Dr. Coulter states that the Califoniian Alps form an union with the Rocky 
Mountains north of the 42nd parallel, about the summit level dividing the head- 
waters of the (^/olumbia from those which fall into the Bay of St. PVancisco. 
{Geogr. Tr.,v. CS.)The " counterfort" here alluded to, hems in the Snake River 
or south branch of Columbia and limits the range of the bison westwards. The 
difficulty of traversing this connecting ridge'is well described by Washington 
Irving in his recent work of Astoria. 



Writers on climate have remarked that the eastern coasts of 
continents in the northern hemisphere have a lower mean tem- 
perature than the western coasts. This is certainly true in the 
higher latitudes of North America, for the winters are much 
milder and the vegetation more luxuriant to the westward of the 
Rocky Mountains *. On the coast of Hudson's Bay down to 
the 56th parallel the subsoil is perpetually frozen, and further 
inland in the 50th degree of latitude the mean annual heat is 
only 36° F. and the ground is covered with snow for more than 
six months in the year. Even in the 45th parallel on the north 
side of the Canada lakes the frost is continuous for more than 
six months, and the grallatorial and most of the granivorous 
birds can find no means of support during the winter season ; 
consequently the migration of the feathered tribes is much more 
general than in the countries of Eui'ope lying under the same 
parallels. Occasional frosts occur as low down on the Atlantic 
coast as the confines of Florida, where during the late war 
several British soldiers were severely frostbitten; this was 
near the 30th parallel, or that of Morocco, Cairo, and Suez. In 
Mexico and Old California there are also sharp frosts even on 
the low grounds, from local causes. The severity of the winters 
in the 40th parallel and even lower on the Atlantic coast of North 
America destroys many evergreens which flourish all the year 
in Scotland, 18 degrees further noi'th. 

The decrement of mean annual heat on an increase of lati- 
tude is greater in North America than in Europe, and in the 
former country there is a wider difference between the summer 
and winter temperatures ; that is, the isothaeral lines in their 
passage through America curve convexly towards the pole and 
the isocheimal lines towards the equator. 

Vegetation (the growth of forests in particular) is more in- 
fluenced by the amount and duration of heat than by the severity 
of the winter cold. In countries whose mean heat is below 63°, 
spring, or the renewal of vegetation, takes place, as Humboldt 
has shown, in that month which attains a mean temperature of 
33° or 34°; and deciduous trees push out their leaves when the 
mean rises to 52°. It follows from this that the sum of the 
temperatures of the months which attain the latter heat furnish 
a measure of the strength and continuance of vegetation. On 
the eastern coast at Winter Island, lying in latitude 64:^°, no 
month of the year reaches a mean heat of 52°; but in the in- 

* Geologists may find it worth while to inquire how far the superior climate 
of the Pacific coast is influenced by the active volcanos of the maritime Alps, 
No recent volcanos exist in the Rocky Mountains or more eastern ranges. 
VOL. V. 18.J6. K 

130 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

terior at Fort Enterprise and Fort Franklin, in 64i° and 65°, 
there are two such months. In latitude 45" near the middle of 
the continent there are five, in latitude 35° there are nine, and 
towards the southern extremity of Louisiana, in 29^° N. lat., 
there are eleven ; while within the tropics the trees are ever- 

The gradual ascent of the isothseral lines as they recede from 
Hudson's Bay is sho^vn by the direction of the northern termi- 
nation of the woods. On the coast near Churchill trees cease 
about the 60th parallel j but at the distance of sixty miles from 
the sea their boundary line rises rapidly, and then takes nearly 
a straight W.N.W. course, until it reaches Great Bear Lake, 
in latitude 65°: still further west on the banks of the Mackenzie 
the woods run to 68° N. lat. We do not know the course of the 
line of termination of the woods in the interior of Russian Ame- 
rica. In the elevated lands of New Caledonia the snow is said 
to be very deep in winter, and to cause a great scarcity of the 
larger ruminating animals ; but near the mouth of the Columbia 
there are almost constant rains during that season, with little 
frost or snow. There are some peculiarities in the climate of 
Lower California and the adjoining parts of Mexico, which are 
mentioned in the subjoined note'"^. 

In the high latitudes of North America, at some distance 
from the coast, the intense colds of winter have a very consi- 
derable, though indirect influence on the summer vegetation, 
and consequently on the capabilities of the country for main- 
taining animal life: for independent of the accumulation of 

* In a paper by Dr. Coulter, published in the 5th vol. of the Transactions of 
the Geographical Society, the following remarks on the climate of Mexico and 
California occur; — "The mercuiy in a thermometer shaded from the sun, but 
within the influence of radiation from an arid plain, frequently stood at 140° F., 
but this great heat was owing to temporary and local causes. The surface of 
the country, composed of bare mountains or arid plains completely destitute of 
water, does not mitigate the cold winds blowing from the Rocky Mountains 
lying to the north and novth-east ; hence when they blow for any length of 
time it freezes even to the south of Pitis, in latitude 29° N., and in the winter 
of 1829-30 it froze at that place every night for nearly two months. On the 
table land of Mexico similar cases of cold occur more frequently, as may be 
easily conceived from their greater elevation and the same general scarcity of 
water. At Veta Grande, Zatatecas, during the month of December, 1825, it 
frequently froze hard. The condition of the counti-ies on the confines of Sonora 
and California is peculiar, as lying between the summer and winter rains. The 
whole rain of Mexico may be said to fall in the summer months, but in Upper 
California it rains only in the winter. The summer rains reach the lower part 
of Sonora, where they are scanty and irregular, and from Pitis northwards 
across the sands it rarely rains at all ; as is also the case in the northern por- 
tions of Lower California, where the summer rains scarcely prevail to the 
northward of Loretto, the capital." {Lib. cit., p. 70.) 


irritability which may be supposed to take place in trees and 
other plants during their long and complete hybernation, an 
increased eifect is given to the sun's radiation by the clearness 
of the atmosphere, brought about in the following manner. 
During the intense winter colds, which are very seldom inter- 
rupted by a rise of the temperature to the thawing point, the 
solvent power of the air is so much diminished that almost all 
the moisture is deposited in the form of snow*; but in spring 
it is increased by the heating action of a sun that never sets, 
while the ice-covered lakes, bearing so large a proportion to 
the land in America, supply it with moisture slowly. The 
consequence is unusual clearness of the atmosphere, enabling 
the rays of the sun to produce their full effect. On the con- 
fines of the arctic circle an agreeable warmth is often per- 
ceived in the sunsliine during the months of April and May, 
when the temperature of the air in the shade is below zero. 
But for this adaptation of the constitution of the atmosphere to 
circumstances, the short summer of arctic America would be 
insufficient to clear the earth of the accumulated snovvs of nine 
months' winter. Professor Leslie, overlooking the powerful effect 
of direct radiation from the sun, and which indeed he could not 
know from experimenting only in an insular climate, was led 
from theory to fix the mean temperature of the pole at 32° F., 
and to declare that some great error must have pervaded all 
the thermo metrical observations of Sir Edward Parry and the 
other arctic voyagers which showed the mean annual heat of 
places lying near the 70th parallel to be below zero. He has 
also described the whole of arctic America as involved in almost 
perpetual fogs ; but this is true only of the sea-coast, and even 
there merely in some of the summer months, when fogs are 
produced by the intermingling currents of air of different tem- 
peratures, coming from the heated lands, the cooler open water 
or chillit)g masses of ice in the offing. Most of the winter nights 
are beautifully clear, and but for the intense cold, astronomical 
observations could be made nowhere in the northern hemi- 
spliere with more frequency. 

* When air thus deprived of moisture is heated by admission into a warm 
room it causes all the wood-work to shrink in an extraordinary manner, and so 
dries and chops the cuticle of the human body that it readily becomes electric 
by friction with the palm of the hand, till the liairs stand erect, and a peculiar 
odour is evolved, like that which may be perceived when the rubber of an 
electrifying machine presses hard upon the cylinder. 




Name of Place. 





Vera Cruz 

Fort St. Philip (Louis.) 


(! Baton Ilouge 

7 Xalappa 

8 Natcliez 

9 Me.xico 

10 Norfolk (Virginia) 

11 Annapolis 

12 Toluca (Mexico) 

13 Cincinnati 

14 New York 

15 Philadelphia 

16 Detroit 

17 Newport 

18 Council Bluffs 

19 Cambridge 

20 Ft. Constitution (Maine) 

21 Fort Niagara 

22 Portland • 

23 Prairie du Chien.... 

24 Penetanguishene .. 

25 St. Peter's 

26 Green Bay 

27 Eastport 

28 Quebec 

29 Mackinac 

30 Cumberland House. 

31 Fort Chepewyan.... 

32 Nain 

33 Churchill 

34 Fort Reliance 

35 Fort Franklin 

36 Fort Enterprise 

37 Winter Island 

38 Felix Harbour 

39 Port Bowen 

40 Igloolik 

41 Melville Island ... 

42 East Coast of Greenland 

43 Spitzbergen 

44 North of ditto 

10 27 
23 10 
19 11 

29 29 

30 24 
32 26 
19 32 

31 28 
19 26 
36 38 

38 58 
19 16 

39 06 

40 40 
39 57 
42 19 

41 30 

41 25 

42 25 

43 04 
43 15 
43 38 

43 03 

44 48 
44 53 
44 40 

44 44 
46 47 

45 51 
53 57 

58 43 
57 08 

59 02 
62 46 

65 12 
64 28 

66 11 
70 00 

73 14 
69 20 

74 47 
70 to 74° 

79 21 
81+ to 82^ 


65 15 

82 13 
96 01 

89 21 
87 14 
91 18 

98 20 

90 30 

99 05 
76 16 
76 27 
99 21'. 

82 40 
73 58 
75 09 

83 00 
71 18 
95 43 
71 03 
70 49 

79 05 

70 18 
90 52 

80 40 
93 08 
87 00 
67 04 

71 10 
85 05 

102 17 
111 18 

61 20 

92 05 

109 01 
123 13 
113 06 

83 11 
91 53 
88 55 
81 53 

110 48 
10 to 21° W 

10 to 11° E 









Of the 











Of six 
April to 

50 68 
47 91 
29 19 


Of six 
to March 


67 16 
64 87 

61 68 





39 59 
32 65 

34 42 
33 36 
26 901 

24 94 

7 86 


— 1239 

— 16 30 

— 19-68 

NoTF -The table is constructed upon the following : \'l'^fl'}%River' 
10;iT 5, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 20 27 29, ^^^'^J' ^^P''i:''^'-f^^^^^^ 
soiFrarA First and Second Journ , Ed. Phil. Journ., xu p. 1 ;-37, 39, 40, 41, 44, any ^ 



1 33 


1 Number 








Of three 

Of three 

Sums of Means of 

Of three 


ber Oc- 




Of the 

Of the 


have a 



their i their 

tempera, tempera. 

tures. i tures. 


ture re- 



June, July, 

ber, Jan- 



ture of 


April, May. 



uary, Fe. 

520 or 
















































+ 28 























































+ 8 































- 1 















71 16 







































- 7 



















































































— 9 






































34 08 































































































26, 32, 33, Humboldt, Mem. d'Jrciieif, iii. p. 462, and Ed. Phil. Joiirn., iii. p. 1;— 4, 5, 6, 
1825;— 7, Lyon's Mexico, Lond. 1828, ii. p. 196;— 24, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, Richard- 
Voyages] — 38, Ross'i Second For/age ; — 43, Fi&nkVw, Ed. Phil. Journ.; — 42, Scoresby's 

134 SIXTH RliPORT 1836. 

Although the progress of colonization in the Atlantic States 
of North America has considerably restricted the range of the 
indigenous quadrupeds, and also somewhat modified the migra- 
tory movements of several groups of birds, we have no decided 
evidence that any one species has become extinct in that country 
through the agency of man ; and ample opportunities are still 
afforded to the naturalist of making himself acquainted with the 
habits and structure of its ferine inhabitants. Whether we re- 
gard the striking peculiarities of the North American fauna, or 
the remarkable coincidence of most of its generic forms with 
those of Europe and Asia, and the considerable proportion of 
species common to both continents, its study is interesting and 
instructive to the general zoologist. But it is to the resi- 
dent American naturalist that we especially look for a correct 
history of the animals which surround him. He has a field 
before him in a great part untrodden, and where cultivated, so 
overrun with weeds, that the fruit cannot be collected : for the 
early settlers having bestowed familiar European names on the 
specifically and in some cases generically distinct animals which 
they encountered in their new abodes, these were adopted by 
the naturalists of the Old World either without examination or 
after a comparison of dried and distorted exuviae only. Mis- 
takes thus originating are still suffered to encumber our system- 
atic works, and the American zoologist will do good service to 
the branch of science which he cultivates, if, like the immortal 
Ciivier, trusting solely to his own powers of observation, he 
sits down on his own shore to dissect, examine, and reason 
for himself. 

A correct view of the distribution of animals through the 
North American zoological province cannot be given until 
several large districts have been much more thoroughly investi- 
gated. Exclusive of deficiencies in our knowledge of the species 
Avhich frequent the country lying to the eastward of the Rocky 
Mountains, the whole tract to the westward of that ridge, from 
Mexico to the Icy Cape, may be said to be as yet a terra incog- 
nita to zoologists. Of the animal productions of Russian 
America almost nothing has been made public since the days 
of Steller, with the exception of a few species described in 
the Zoologischer Atlas of Eschscholtz, now unfortunately 
brought to an abrupt conclusion by the death of its author. All 
that is known of the zoology of New Caledonia and the banks 
of tlie Columbia is derived from voyagers or travellers who have 
partially described the objects of chase by their poi)ular names — 
the notices occurring in the narrative of Lewis and Clark being 
by far the fullest. The ornilhological portion of the natural 



history appendix to Captain Beechey's voyage by Mr. Vigors 
is our principal authority for the Californian birds; while the 
only professedly complete view of the Mexican fauna is the al- 
most obsolete work of Hernandez. European museums, that 
of Berlin especially, have since the overthrow of the Spanish 
dominion in the New World obtained many specimens from 
Mexico, but we have not been able to procure a complete list 
of species, nor has the Prodromus FauncB Blexicance announced 
by Professor Lichtenstein yet reached England. In the mean 
time we have had recourse to that author's elucidations of Her- 
nandez {Abhandl. der -de. der Wissensch. zu Herlin, 1827) > 
to Deppe's sale list of Mexican specimens collected by himself, 
and M. Schiede, dated 1830; and to a paper by Mr. Swainson 
in the Philosophical Journal for 1827, describing one hundred 
species of Mexican birds: but as these papers do not notice 
the range of tlie species^ they are very imperfect substitutes for 
Professor Lichtenstein's expected work. 

From the geographical position of Mexico on the verge of 
the tropical region, the peculiar physical configuration of its 
surface, and its being the boundary between the northern and 
southern zoological provinces of America, it is the region which 
above all others is likely when properly studied to yield infor- 
mation respecting the laws which influence the distribution of 
animals. This has been well shown by Professor Lichtenstein 
in his paper in the Berlin Transactions already quoted. He 
compares the whole of New Spain to a great mountaiuj, whose 
volcanic summit, attaining an elevation of 17,000 feet, enters 
within the snow line*, while its middle, temperate region 
is traversed by numerous valleys communicating at various 
heights, with wide basins, whose bottoms are little more than 
a thousand feet above the sea level. Hence the traveller jour- 
neying down the deep descent of one of these magnificent ra- 
vines through forests of beeches, oaks, and pines loaded with 
cacti and epidendra, finds himself suddenly on the level shores 
of the Rio Alvarado surrounded by palms, and has an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the animal productions, of the north and 
south, of the alpine regions and tropics, nay of the eastern and 
western hemispheres, mingled together. Wolves of northern 
aspect dwelling in the vicinity of monkeys ; humming birds 
returning periodically from the borders of the frozen zone with 
the northern buntings and soft-feathered titmice to nestle near 
parrots and curucuis ; our common European whistling ducks, 

* The observations of Humboldt place the inferior limit of perpetual snow 
within ten degrees of the equator in America at about 16,000 feet. 

136 SIXTH REPORT —1S36. 

shovellers, gadwalls, and teals swiiniuing in lakes which s'.varni 
with sirens (axolotl), and wherein the nortliern phaleropes seek 
their food in company with Brazilian parras and boatbills ; asso- 
ciations which occur in no other region of the earth. Though 
the Mexican valleys or plains, having various altitudes, furnish 
appropriate stations for peculiar assemblages of animals, and 
by the common practice of the country the different regions are 
distinguished as "cold", temperate, and "hot", yet we know 
too little of the differences of climate to enable us to characterize 
these local faunae with precision. It may be stated, however, 
that the low and hot maritime tract [tierra caliente) and the 
interior valleys nourish forms which have heretofore been con- 
sidered as peculiarly South American, such as howling mon- 
keys, hapales, armadillos, ant-bears, coatis, peccaris, coandus, 
jaguars, ocelots, maccaws, and ibises, though they do not range 
to the northward of the 19th degree of latitude *. This district 
also abounds in genera of birds common in the Brazils, {icterits, 
tanagra, lanius, and inuscicapa\ Linn.,) but on a close exami- 
nation few of the species are found to extend to both continents. 

In the temperate region, where the cerealia are cultivated, 
the animals accord little with those of South America, but re- 
semble closely those of the east coast of North America — deer, 
opossums, skunks, rabbits, squirrels, and other gnawers repla- 
cing the southern monkeys and armadillos ; in place of parrots 
there are party-coloured woodpeckers ; and instead of tanagers 
and hepoazas we meet with thrushes, buntings, hedge-creepers, 
and warblers. The couracous, humming birds, and troupials go 
partially beyond this region to colder districts or higher lati- 
tudes ; and it may be remarked of the couracous that they are 
larger and more brilliant in the elevated Mexican woodlands 
than in the Brazilian forests, while it may be affirmed of the 
troupials that they spread from their most congenial residence 
in the temperate regions of Mexico, northwards to the United 
States, and southwards to Cayenne and Brazil. 

In the elevated cold region the fauna assumes an Europeo- 
Asiatic character. The fields abound with hares, the woods 
with squirrels ; and a destructive sand rat, resembling the Cana- 
dian one, infests the maize grounds. There are also a spermo- 
phile scarcely differing from the Siberian one, the " cacamitzli" 
{bassaris astuta) a beast of prey of a new genus, one or two 

* The Sais, Saguins, Sloths, Tapirs, and Tajasous, also Brazilian, do not 
exist in this district, but there are a few agoutis. — Lichtenstein. 

t The genera Pipra, Todus, Myothcra, Euphone, &c, arc wanting in the 
warm district. — Lichtenstein. 


species of skunk, some pretty weasels, (but no martins,) and a 
wolf very much like the Canadian species, which descends also 
to the warmer valleys. The white-head sea-eagle, the Virginian 
horned owl, the common barn owl*, and a smaller species, with 
sparrowhawks and falcons are the common birds of prey in 
the cold region, where the Brazilian urubitingas and naked- 
headed carrion vultures also come. Snow-birds, buntings, gros- 
beaks, a great variety of finches, and a peculiar kind of long- 
legged ground cuckoos are the chief singing birds, and among 
the water-fowl which cover the extensive alpine lakes there are 
at least ten or twelve of our northern ducks. Terns and gulls 
seldom fail to appear at certain seasons, but they are species 
that have been described by Hernandez alone, and are not yet 
introduced into our systems f. These remarks, though greatly 
abridged from the original, will serve to show how much the 
North American fauna in general would be elucidated by an 
investigation of that of Mexico. 

In the following observations on the Mammalia, the arrange- 
ment of Cuvier's R^gne Animal is adopted. 


One animal of this order {inuus silvanus) ranges in the Old 
World northward to the rock of Gibraltar, lying in the 36th 
parallel, but we are informed by Lichtenstein that no monkey 
has been observed in the New World beyond the 29th degree of 
north latitude. Mr. Ogilby again tells us that there are no real 
quadrumana in America |, none of the monkeys inhabiting that 
quarter of the globe having a thumb truly opposable to the fingers, 
and he has therefore proposed to arrange them in a group named 

• There is reason to believe that many owls which have heretofore been con- 
sidered as only geographical varieties of the Strix flammea are in fact distinct 
species, though closely resembling the European type. 

f The views of Mr. Swainson with respect to the junction of the North and 
South American zoological provinces in Mexico correspond generally with 
those of Lichtenstein, though these authors do not appear to have been 
acquainted with each other's labours on that subject. Lichtenstein's paper is 
of a prior date to the Geographical Dictionary or Mr. Swainson's Treatises in 
Lardner's Cyclopedia. 

X Ogilby, Zool. Proc, No. 39, 1836. " In ateles the thumb is either merely 
rudimentary or entirely absent; in mycete$, lagothrix, aotus, pithecia and 
hapale it is similar to the other fingers and in a line with them ; while in cebus 
and callithrix, though placed a little further back than the other fingers, it is 
weaker, and acts in the same direction with them, never in opposition to them." 
" None of the true quadrumana have prehensile tails." The American mon- 
keys have other peculiarities, of which the most characteristic are their lateral 
nostrils. That they rarely sit erect is indicated by their hairy buttocks. 

138 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

pedimana, which with the exception of the phalangers of the 
Indian archipelago is proper to the New World and to Australia. 
There are no apes nor baboons without tails in the group ; even 
the callosities of the buttocks are wanting, and a large proportion 
of the species have prehensile tails endowed with so great a 
delicacy of touch that they have been compared to the trunk of 
the elephant. This modification of structure evidently indicates 
great capability of travelling from tree to tree in lofty and 
crowded forests, and it is worthy of remark that America excels 
the other quarters of the world in the variety of animals which 
use the tail as an organ of prehension or progression among trees, 
for not only the genera mycetes, hrachi/feles, ateles, lagothrix, 
and cebus among the quadrumana possess this power, but also 
didelpliis among the marsupiata, cercolejjtes* ranking with the 
carnivora, and syntheres and ccqrromys with the rodentia. 

The monkeys which enter the southern provinces of Mexico 
belong to the genera mycetes and hapalef. 

Old. CARNIVORA. Fayn. Cheiroptera. 

The members of this family which have hitherto been detected 
in North America belong to that tribe of the " true or insecti- 
vorous bats" which Cuvier has characterized as possessing only 
one bony phalanx in the index, and two in each of the other 
fingers. This is in fact the only tribe of cheiropterce which is 
distributed generally over the world, and to it all the European 
bats belong, with the solitary exception of the Italian dinops 
Cestonii. The other subdivision of the true bats, comprising 
molossiis, dinops, nyctinomes, cheiromeles, noctilio and phyllo- 
stoma, is chiefly South American, though it has a few represen- 
tatives in the warmer regions of the old continent. Phyllo- 
stoma., the most remarkable of the generic groups, is indeed 
peculiar to the new world; hvA phyllostoma spectrum, placed by 
Geoffroy in a distinct genus named vampirus, is the only 
species which authors have mentioned as ranging northwards to 
New Spain J. 

The following bats have been noted as inhabitants of the 
United States and British America; and though they almost all 
belong to the cosmopolitan genus vespertiiio, none of the Ame- 
rican species have been detected in other countries. 

* The closest affinities of cercoleptes are with the ursiform plantigrada. — 
Owen, Zoo/. Proc. , No. 32, 1835. 

+ " Bmll-affeii " and " Klammcr-affcn." — Licutenstein, op. cit., p. 97. 
X Desmar. Mamm., Griff. Cuv., &-c. 



Rhinopoma carolinensis, Geoff. Mus.* 
Taphuzms ritftis, Wils. Am. Or. 50. 
Vespertilio carolinensis, Geoff. Mus. 47. 

„ arquatus, Say. Long's Exp. 

„ subulatus, Id. Tb. 

„ Audubonii, Harlan. 

„ melanotus, RAFiNEsauE. 

„ calearattts, Id. 

„ cyanopterus, Id. 

Vespertilio monackus, Raf. 

„ phaiops, Id. 
Plecotis megalotis. Id. 
Nycticeiiis noveboracensis, Penn. 31, 2. 

„ humeralis, Raf. 

„ tessellatiis, Id. 

„ pruinosus, Godm. p. 72. f. 3. 
Hypexodon mystax, Raf. 

The first species of the above list is in Geoffroy's opinion not 
a true rhinopoma, and the native country of the only individual 
which has been seen is very doubtful f. The red bat of Penn- 
sylvania is the only American taphozous, the other members of 
the genus being inhabitants of Africa and the East Indies. 
The remaining bats of the list are analogous to those of the 
temperate parts of Europe; but most of the species are still 
imperfectly described, nor have their distinctive characters been 
properly investigated, and consequently nothing certain can 
be stated respecting their distribution. It can scarcely be 
matter of surprise that these nocturnal animals are so little 
known in the New World, when we consider that though Pen- 
nant described only five species as natives of Great Britain, 
seventeen are figured in Mr. Bell's recent work. The American 
bats which have been admitted into systematic works, on M. Ra- 
finesque's authority, have been named rather than characterized; 
and few of the many genera proposed by this author have been 
adopted by naturalists, owing to his want of precision and inat- 
tention to structure. His labours are not, however, to be en- 
tirely disregarded; for he has certainly detected many new 
animals both in Europe and America, being one of the first in- 
vestigators of the natural history of the latter country who was 
not prevented from judging for himself by an overweening de- 
ference to European authority. His genus nycticeius, charac- 
terized by having only two widely separated upper incisors, 
includes a considerable number of species hitherto ranged with 
vespertilio, and according to M. Temminck comprises even the 
genus atalapha, which Rafinesque had incorrectly founded on 
the vespertilio novehoracetisis, from a supposed want of these 
two incisors, which nevertheless exist. The characters of hy- 
pexodon are equally vague, and it is not likely that any one of 
these three genera will be permanently adopted. Nycticeius 
pruinosus has been taken on the Saskatchewan, the Missouri, 
and at Philadelphia ; and vespertilio subulatus, having a range 

• Tlie doubtful species, or those which particularly require further elucidation, 
are in italics. 
f Desniar., I. c. 

140 SIXTH RBi'o ur — 1836. 

of 24 degrees of latitude from the Arkansas to Great Slave 
Lake, is probably the most generally diflfused of the American 

OnL CARNIVORA, cont. Fam. Insectivoua. 

Sorex brevicaudus, Say, Long's exp. Condylura cristata, Godm. j»/. 

parvus, Id. „ longicaiidata, Rich. F.B.A. 

personatus, Geoffr. >/«*. 15, 122. „ macroura, Harjl. Rich. /".fi.y^. 

Forsteri, Rich. F.B.A. 24. 

palustris, Id. /5. „ /;ra«'wa/a, Harris, Less. »zan. 

talfoides, Gapper, Zool. J. 5. Scalops canadensis, Godm. pi. 

In no other family of carnivora do the North American 
members differ so much from the European ones as this, the 
range both of generic forms and of species being more than 
usually restricted within certain geographical limits. None of 
the family are know^ii to inhabit South America ; the European 
genera erinaceus, taljia, and mi/gale have not been detected in 
North America, while condylura, scalops, and all the shrews in 
the above list are peculiar to the latter country. Cladohates, 
centenes, and chrysochloris belong to the East Indies, Mada- 
gascar, and the Cape of Good Hope, the supposed American 
species of the last-mentioned genus {chrysochloris rubra vel 
rufa) having no other authority for its origin than that of Seba, 
upon which very little dependence can be placed. 

The shrews above enumerated closely resemble their Euro- 
pean congeners, with whom they have not been sufficiently 
compared ; palustris in particular is with difficulty distinguish- 
able from fodieyis or Dauhentonii. Little has been done to- 
wards determining the range of the North American species. 
Those which inhabit the Atlantic states were formerly con- 
sidered as identical with European species; but after Mr, Say, in 
his expedition up the Missouri, had detected and described as 
new brevicaudus and parvus., these names were applied to the 
coast shrews, though it is by no means certain that they are 
more appropriate than the older appellations. ^S". brevicaudus 
is said by Mr. Taylor* to be an inhabitant of the Alleghany 
range, at the height of 2000 feet above the sea, where during 
the winter it makes long galleries in the deep snow. S. palus- 
tris and Forsteri have a high northern range, extending within 
the arctic circle to the limit of the woods. The latter differs 
from the description of "S". personatus principally in wanting a 
black mark on the end of the nose and in the colour of the 
under fur, so that without a comparison of specimens they can- 
not be positively pronounced to be distinct. aS". taljjoides, the 

* Mag. Nat. Hist. 



largest of the American shrews, was detected ia Canada by 
Dr. Gapper, who has deposited a specimen in the Bristol mu- 
seum. The distribution of condylura and scalops has been but 
partially traced, but it is probable that they do not extend be- 
yond the 53rd parallel. Mr. Taylor captured the scalops cana- 
densis on the north eastern end of the Alleghanies at an elevation 
of 1.500 feet, while the condylurce were confined to the bottom 
meadow lands. Lichtenstein thinks it probable that the moles 
entirely destitute of sight mentioned by Hernandez as inhabi- 
tants of Mexico, belong to the genus scalops. Authors disagree 
in their accounts of the dentition of the scalopes. Baron Cuvier 
says that they have the teeth of the desmans, and such is the 
case in the specimens which I have examined, the total number 
of teeth being 44. Desmarest enumerates only 30 teeth in all, 
and Dr. Godman, who is followed by Lesson, reckons 36. 
Harlan describes a species {pennsylvanica) , of which he has 
merely the skeleton, possessing 40 teeth. The teeth of the Cana- 
dian species round away by use in a very remarkable manner, so 
as to look like rows of seed pearls. The genus of the animal 
named " black mole," considered by some as a talpa, is uncer- 
tain, but it is most likely a scalops : Mr. Taylor found it on the 
Alleghany range. The condylurcc would form an interesting 
subject for a monograph ; the species are, perhaps, more nu- 
merous than has hitherto been suspected, and their manners are 
as yet almost unknown. The remarkable enlargement of the 
tail, which has given origin to one of the specific appellations, 
is, according to Dr. Godman, merely a sexual peculiarity con- 
fined to certain seasons. 

Ord. CARNIVORA cont. Fam. Carnivora. 
Div. 1. Plantigrada. 

Ursus arctos*? Rich. F.B.A. 

„ ferox, Id. I. c. 1. 

„ americanus, F. Cuv. Hist, des Mam. 

„ maritimus, Ross, 
Procyon lotor, Buff. 8, 43. 

Nasua, species duee, Licht. Hern. 
Meles labradoria, Rich. F.B.A. 2. 
Guloluscus*? Edw. 103. 

„ barbara, Griff. Cuv. /)/. 
Bassaris astuta, Light. Hern. 

Div. 2. Digitigrada. 

Putorius vison, Buff. 13. 43. 

„ vulgaris* ? Penn. Arct. Zool. 

„ erminea* ? Id. lb. 
Mustela canadensis, Gmel. Rich. F.B.A. 
r huro, F. Cuv. Diet, des Sc. 29. 

„ \ martes*} 'Rich. F.B.A. 
Mephitis americana, Sabine, Fr. Voy. 

Mephitis nasua, Benn. Zool. Proceeds 

„ putorius, Catesb. 62. 

„ interrupta, Raf. An. of Nat. 

„ vulpecula, Fisch. Syn. 

„ myotis, Id. lb. 

„ itzqui-epafl, Hernandez, Mex. 

„ conepatl, Id. lb. 



Felis onca, Fr. Cuv. //. des Mam. pi. 
„ discolor, Cuv. 
„ pardalis, Griff. Cifv. pi. y. 
„ rufa, ScHRKB. 109, 13. 
„ milis, F. Cuv. H. des Mam. No. 18. 
„ ciinadensis*? Geoff. 
„ Grijfithsii, FiscH. Syn. Gkiff. Cuv. 

Oeel. 3. 
„ chiliguoaza, Fisch. Syn. Griff. &c. 

Ocel 4. 
„ maculata, Horsf. & Vig. Zool. J. 4, 


Lutra canadensis, Fr. Cuv. B. desSc. 27. 

„ lata.xina*.' Id. lb. 
Enhydra marina*. Cook, Third Voy. 43. 
Lupus occidentalis. Rich. F.B.J. 3. 

„ mexicanus, Lin. Licht. Hern. 

„ latraus, Rich. F.B.A. 4. 

„ ochropus, EscHSCH. Zool. All. 2. 

„ nigrirostris, Light. Hern. 
Vulpes lagopus*, Thien. Nat. Bern. 

„ isaiis, Id. Id. 

„ fulvus, Rich. i^. B.>^. 5. 

„ cinereo-argentatus, Schreb. 
„ velo.x, Say, Lony. Rip. 

It is to this great family that the terrestrial quadrupeds which 
are common to the old and new continents mostly belong. The 
generic forms are those of Europe, with a few exceptions, such 
as 'procyon, nasua, hassaris and mephitis, which seem to be 
stragglers from the South American zoological province. On 
the other hand, the genus lutra, which is a northern form, sends 
a few species to the south of the Isthmus of Darien. 

Plantigrada. — Two bears of the preceding list are peculiar 
to the New World, -n^imeXY fero.v and americanns, the former 
dwelling principally in the Rocky Mountains, but occasionally 
descending to the neighbouring prairies, while the latter inha- 
bits all the wooded districts from Carolina to the Arctic Sea, 
being, however, less numerous near the coast. The maritimiis 
is common to all the northern regions, but it ought in fact to 
be considered rather as a sea animal than a land one : it tra- 
verses the whole of the icy seas from Nova Zembla and Spitz- 
bergen to Greenland, and from thence along Arctic America to 
the shores of Siberia. It is, in fact, the most northern quadru- 
ped, having been seen by Sir Edward Parry in the 82nd degree 
of latitude, and it descends on the Labrador coast to the 55th. 
The males, and females that are not gravid, travel far in the 
winter time over the ice in quest of food*. The'tirsus arctus 
does not range in America much to the south of the Arctic 
circle, being confined to the " bari'en-grounds :" its identity 
with its European namesake has not been been properly esta- 
blished. Lichtenstein, in his observations on the work of Her- 
nandez, mentions two or three species of nasua as existing in 
Mexico, one of them being white with large black spots. The 
raccoon {procyon lotor) ranges from Canada as far south, it is 
said, as Paraguay : on the coast of the Pacific, its skins are ob- 

* Vide App. to Capf. Back's Journey, wherein an instance is quoted of a 
whale having been killed by the crew of a vessel which was beset in the winter 
by ice 60 miles from the land. Next day many bears and arctic fo.xescame to 
feed on the crang ! ! 


tained by the fur-dealers up to latitude 60°, but more correct 
observations as to the identity of the species are I'equired before 
so extensive a range can be ascribed with certainty to this ani- 
mal. Mr. Collie, vi^hen vpith Captain Beechey, saw a small 
ursine animal very abundant on the coast of California, which 
is probably the jn-oci/on caiicrivorus or an allied species. 

The meles labradoria, which is perfectly distinct from the 
European badger, has its northern limit about the 55th parallel, 
where it inhabits the pi'airies only. The meles hudsonius, men- 
tioned by Cuvier in the It^gne Animal as differing very little 
from the meles vidgaris of Europe, is entirely unknown to us. 
The Mexican species, supposed to be indicated by Hernandez, 
is very doubtful. Tlie wolverene {gulo luscus) does not vaiy, 
according to Cuvier, from the European glutton by permanent 
characters 5 next to the polar bear and arctic fox it is the 
most northern carnivoi'ous quadruped, its range extending to 
Parry's Isles in latitude 75° N., if not to a still higher parallel. 
Gulo barbara, enumerated by Lichtenstein in his list of Mexican 
animals, extends southwards through all the warmer districts 
of America. Mr. Gray pointed out to me its closer resemblance 
in external form to the weasels than to the northern glutton, 
and its differences from the latter in the form of its feet, which, 
though plantigrade, are slightly webbed, in its long tail, and 
in its having a tooth fewer in each jaw ; it should therefore be 
separated, together with its allied species, in which case gulo 
would remain entirely a northern genus. . Bassaris astiita is a 
Mexican animal, noticed by Hernandez under the name of tepe- 
maxtlatan, which has characters intermediate between viverra 
and nasua, and is therefore placed in a new genus by Lichten- 

Digitigrada. — The American weasels and martins have greatly 
perplexed naturalists, and their synonyms are involved in much 
confusion ; yet we can pretty confidently assert that five species 
only are known in the fur-countries from latitude 50° N. to the 
Arctic sea. The range of the described species is limited to the 
northern or middle districts of the United States ; but Lich- 
tenstein informs us that some new kinds inhabit the elevated 
lands of Mexico. The ermine has been seen as high as the 73^ 
degree of latitude on the west side of Baffin's Bay*. It is very 
probable that both the ermine and stoat of America are distinct 
species from those of the old continents, the superior quality of 
the fur of the Siberian ermine being one marked difference; 
while there are others, such as the much smaller skull of the 

* Sir J. Ross, Firsi Voyage. 

144 SIXTH REPORT — 1836, 

American animal, whicli will be more readily acknowledged by 
naturalists. Baron Cuvier holds the putoriiis visoii to be a di- 
stinct species from the mustela putorius of Europe, though some 
zoologists confound them* ; it ranges from Carolina to the arc- 
tic sea. The pine-martin of America is also most probably a 
different species from the European one, and in fact the com- 
parisons of Mr. Yarrell have shown that in the form of its skull 
it approaches more closely to the martes foma, or beech mar- 
tin. Most of the American martins noticed by authors we be- 
lieve to be merely nominal species ; thus the huro of Frederick 
Cuvier is the common American pine- martin in its pale summer 
dress, and the same is most probably the case with the lutreo- 
cephala of Hai'lanf, while the zibellina of American naturalists 
is the same animal in its prime dark winter fur. The pine- 
martin ranges northwards to the limits of the woods, and many 
specimens corresponding with the descriptions of huro and lu- 
treocephala were observed at Fort Franklin, where the natives 
considered them, and the darker and often smaller martin sold 
by the furriers under the name of sable, to form only one spe- 
ciesj. The m. vulpina of Rafinesque and m. leucopus of Kuhl 
require further investigation. 

The " fisher", or " wejack" {mustela canadensis), is found up 
to the 60tli parallel. Its synonymy is embroiled in confusion, 
which is attempted to be unravelled in the Fauna Boreali- 
Ainericana ; but on referring to Fischer's synopsis, we discover 
that it has more recently received other appellations, and among 
the rest that of mustela Godmanii, apparently from an appre- 
hension that the animal described in Dr. Godraan's natural 
history is either a distinct species or a well-marked variety. 
Now, on referring to this description, we observe that it is sub- 
stantially the same with that drawn up by Mr. Sabine (in the 
appendix to Sir John Franklin's first journey) of the common 
wejack, or woodshuck, vi'ith the single addition of " tail smallest 
at the end", M'hich is not really the case in the wejac-k. 

The mephitis americana ranges northwards to the 61st paral- 
lel, but its southern limits cannot be ascertained until the 
species are more clearly defined. Some authors consider every 

* Fischer, probably misled by Pennant's miserable figure of the animal in 
the History of Quadrupeds, has named a fictitious species enhydra gracilis. 

f Dr. Godman says that the original specimen described by Dr. Harlan 
under the appellation of lutreocephala is an overstuffed vison, long kept in 
Peale's museum. 

\ V'ide Yarrell's Zool. Jour, for 1836. 

J Vide King's Narrative of Capt. Back's .Journey. Bentley, 1836. 



itidivichial difFerhig in the disti-ibution of its stripes as a distinct 
species, while Cuvier ranks them all as mere varieties, thus at- 
tributing to the animal a most extensive range through North 
and South America. The americana, vphich is the most north- 
ern species, is very uniform in its markings within the limits of 
the fur countries. Kalm describes one differently zoned as an 
inhabitant of Canada; the h4te puante, discovered by Du Pratz 
in Lomsiana, has been named mephitis ? myotis by Fischer ; 
Rafinesque distinguishes the inephitis interrupt a of the same 
country ; and Hernandez points out two Mexican skunks by the 
names of itsqui-epall and cone-epatl. The m. nasua is an in- 
habitant of California. There is, perhaps, an error in the 
statement made by some naturalists, that the South American 
mephitis chincha extends its range to the southern parts of the 
United States, for though the Baron finds the osteological cha- 
racters of all to be the same, the varieties distinguished by the 
number and distribution of their stripes do not usually occur 
together in the same districts, nor range through many degrees 
of latitude. 

According to Baron Cuvier, the Intra canadensis, which ex- 
tends northwards to the vicinity of the polar sea, is the same 
species with tlie brasiliensis ; and the lafaxina has an almost 
equallj'^ extensive range from Great Slave Lake, where it was 
found by Mr. King, to Carolina, where F. Cuvier's specimens 
were obtained, and the Brazils, Avhence the Baron received it. 
The variety of climates inhabited by lataxina will be still more 
remarkable if, as Cuvier seems to intimate, it be specifically 
the same with the European otter, for he says they do not 
differ by any permanent characters. Even the domestic dog 
does not change his abode to the same extent without imder- 
going more sensible alterations of form. Were the otter to 
live entirely in the water, the severity of the seasons would be 
greatly tempered to it ; but it is wont in the high northern lati- 
tudes to travel far through the snow in quest of open water 
when its summer haunts are frozen up. 

With regard to the species of the genus canis nnich difference 
of opinion will most likely continue to prevail among naturalists, 
from the general uniformity of their external forms, the great 
difficulty of characterizing the differences by brief descriptions, 
and the want of a sufficient number of specimens in any one 
collection for comparison, 'i'hc physiognomy of the American 
wolf when contrasted with that of its European namesake is 
very distinct; but a family likeness prevails throughout the 
whole group of American wolves, however much they may dif- 
fer in size, colours, or even in habits. The hipjis oaidentaUs 

VOL, V. 1836. L 

146 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

travels northwards to the islands of the Arctic Sea, but its south- 
ern range cannot be defined until its identity with the com- 
mon wolf of the United States be proved or disproved. Accord- 
ing to Lewis and Clark, the latter crosses the continent to 
Upper California. The Mexican wolf seems to differ from oc- 
cidcntalis chiefly in the black parts of the fur forming bands on 
the flanks; an accurate comparison of the two is still required. 
Canis latrans, or the prairie wolf, is found on the Saskatchwan 
and Missouri, being confined, as its name imports, to the prairie 
lands. It is probable that the Californian ochropus and the 
Mexican nigrirostris are but varieties of latrans. Authors are 
not more decided with respect to the species of foxes. Cuvier 
thinks that the canis fulviis differs from the European vnJj)es 
merely in having more brilliant fur; but, as Mr. Bennett 
has remarked, it is impossible for any one to contemplate 
the two species together in the Zoological Gardens without 
observing their very different aspects : the black, silver, and 
cross foxes of the furriers are mere varieties of fulvus. A no- 
tion exists in the United States that the descendants of Euro- 
pean foxes introduced by the early settlers are now numerous 
in the countiy, but the fact has not been established by a deci- 
sive comparison of specimens, and it is possible that the ani- 
mal of supposed European origin is the Virginian fox {cinereus 
or cifiereo-ai'gentafus oi Schreber), which at certain seasons has 
a reddish hue. The latter ranges from Upper Canada across 
the continent to the banks of the Columbia, southwards to 
the Gulf of Mexico, and, according to Cuviei*, throughout 
tropical America. The kit-fox {velox) is peculiar to the prairies, 
and does not go higher than the 55th parallel of latitude; it is 
very similar in habits to the Asiatic corsac. Thieneman has 
distinguished two species of arctic fox, which wei-e formerly 
confounded under the name of lagopus. One for which he 
has retained this appellation is stated in Fischer's synopsis to 
be an inhabitant of Europe only ; but it is the species which 
frequents the arctic coasts of America as far west as Mac- 
kenzie's River, and descends along the shores of Hudson's 
Bay to the 58th parallel. The other species, named isatis, 
characterized by its acute ears and coloured tip of the tail, 
is said to be an inhabitant of the northern parts of Asia and 
America; but I suspect that its range in the latter country 
is confined to the west side of the Rocky Mountains, as it did 
not fall under my observation to the eastward. On the Pacific 
coast the arctic fox is said to occur as far south as the 58th or 
59th degree of latitude. 

Tlie confusion of synonyms in the genus /e^/5 is not less per- 


plexing than in that of canis, and though the labours of F. 
Cuvier, Temminck, and others have expunged several nominal 
species from the American fauna, no dependance can be placed 
on the accounts which previous writers have given of their dis- 
tribution. Temminck has remarked that there is no proof of 
either /<?/?■* onca or pardalis having been killed in North Ame- 
rica ; but both these and the puma, or cougar {concolor), are 
mentioned by Lichtenstein as inhabitants of Mexico, probably on 
the authority of specimens communicated by Messrs. Deppe and 
Schiede. The puma is decidedly common to North and South 
America: Langsdorff observed it in Upper California, Dr. 
Godman adduces authenticated instances of its having been 
killed in Kentucky and New York, and it is said to have strayed 
occasionally as far north as Canada. The existence of the ja- 
guar (onca) within the limits of the United States is more 
doubtful, though Lewis and Clark say that they saw it on the 
banks of the Columbia, and Dr. Harlan includes both it and the 
ocelot {pardalis) in his fauna of the United States. In neither 
case, however, have we any information respecting the means 
used for identifying the species ; and as felis mitis, now known 
to range northwards to Mexico*, was confounded with jjardalis 
until its peculiar characters were pointed out by F. Cuvier, we 
are not in a condition to say which of the two enter the United 
States, if, indeed, either of them come so far north. According 
to Temminck, felis rufa inhabits every part of the United 
States, but does not exist in Canada : it ranges to the banks of 
the Columbia, and Mr. Bullock found it in Mexico. The pee- 
shew, or felis canadensis, is the most northern of the cat-kind, 
being, in fact, the only species which extends beyond the Ca- 
nada lakes, whence it ranges through the woody districts of the 
fur- countries up to the 66th parallel. Temminck states that it 
is also an inhabitant of the northern parts of the Old World, 
and he has therefore proposed to change its name to horealis. 
The name oi canadensis having been occasionally given to the bay 
lynx by the naturalists of the United States, erroneous impres- 
sions of the southerly range of the former have been produced. 
Felis carolinensis and mexicana of Desmarest, and montana, 
Jioridana, and aurea of Rafinesque, are doubtful species, the 
occurrence of whose names in systematic works shows the ne- 
cessity for extended and correct observations by resident natu- 
ralists. The lynx fasciatus of the latter author is founded upon 
Lewis and Clark's description of a cat killed by them on the 
banks of the Columbia ; but the species requires further eluci- 

• Lichtenstein. It is supposed to be the jngiiar of New Spain of Biiffou. 

L 2 

148 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

dation before it can be considered as established. Lientenant- 
colonel H. Smith has figured two ocelots in Griffitli's Cuvier, 
— No. 3, which came from Mexico, and was preserved in Bul- 
lock's museum, and No. 4, which he supposes to be a native of 
the same country, and to be the species figured by Buffon, 
Supp. 3, IS. The former is named/, Griffithsii, and the latter 
f. c/iibiguaza in Fischer's synopsis. The felis maculata of 
Horsfield and Vigors, figured in the Zoological Journal, was 
brought from Mexico by Captain Lyon. 

Orel. CARNIVORA, cont. Fam. Amphibia. 

Calocephalus vituliniis*, F. Cuv. Otaria jubata, Peron. 

„ foetidus*, Fabr. „ ui'sina, Id. 

„ hispidus*, ScHRoB. „ pusilla, Buff. 13, 53. 

„ gi'benlandicus*, Egede. „ califoniiana, Choris, Voy. 11. 

„ lagui-us, F. Cuv. „ Stelleri, Less. Fisch. Syn. 

„ barbatus*, Fabr. Trichechus rosmarus*, Lin. 
Stemmatopus cristatiis*, Gmel. 

Few of the amphibious carnivora enumerated above are pecu- 
liar to America, for thougli the otarice are found only in the 
Pacific, they range to its Asiatic as well as the American shores ; 
the others are mostly common to t!;e northern seas of Europe, 
Asia, and America. As it is only of late years that the seals of 
Europe have been investigated with any success, there is little 
probability of the American list being either correct or com- 

Captain James Ross states that the smaller seals {lifulina 
foetida and hispida) come into the bays and near to the shores 
of the arctic seas in winter, living under the ice, in which they 
preserve breathing-holes ; while the harp and great seals [groen- 
landica and harhata) keep at a distance from the land among 
the packed ice and partially open water. Calocephalus laguriis 
was sent from Newfoundland by De la Pilaye, and it is px'obable 
that leucoplus (Thiex.), which inhabits Iceland, ranges over to 
Greenland and Davis's Straits, in which case it belongs also to 
the American fauna. The leonine seal {stemmatopus cristatiis) 
descends further southwards on the American coast than else- 
where, one having been captured near New York. This specimen 
has been described as a distinct species under the name of mi- 
trata (Fischer, syti.). Most of the Davis's Straits seals have 
been enumerated by authors as inhabitants also of the sea of 

* All the calocephali of the above list, except foefuhis and lagurus, are men- 
tioned by Graah as inhabitants of the east coast of Greenland, as are also stem- 
matopus cristatiis and trichechus rosmarus. (Vide Exp. to East Coast of Green- 
land, by Capt. W, A. Graah.) 


Kamschatka. Of the otarice which also frequent the sea just 
named, juhata is said, though without satisfactory evidence, to 
exist also in the Straits of Magalhaes. O. Stellerl is very im- 
perfectly known, even the genus to which it belongs being un- 
certain. The existence of the otaria fasciculata, or the " rib- 
bon seal", is surmised merely because a piece of back-skin was 
transmitted from the Kurile islands to Pennant, and figured by 
him in the History of Quadrupeds. 

The trichechus rosmarus is found in all the arctic seas, though 
there are some deep sounds, such as Regent's and Bathurst's 
Inlets, into which it does not enter. It descends along the 
Labrador coast to the Magdalene islands, in the 47th parallel. 


Didelphis virginiana, Griff. Cuv. pi. Didelphis cancrivora, Griff. Cuv. pi. 

„ opossum, Buff. 10, 45, 46. 

As the marsupial animals are now confined to America, New 
Holland, and some parts of the Indian archipelago, and geologi- 
cal researches indicate that they are the earliest mammiferous 
animals whose remains exist in the ancient strata of the earth, 
the study of these zoological provinces must be interesting to 
those who seek to develope the condition of the world at former 
periods. Comparative anatomists have shown that the marsu- 
jiiata are inferior to other mmnmalia in their simple unconvc- 
luted brain, less perfect organs of voice, and lower intelligence ; 
the rodentia are next to them in these respects ; and the exist- 
ence of marsiqnata and the great numbers of rodentia in the 
North American fauna are its chief characteristics when con- 
trasted with that of Europe. It has been said that when the 
ancient marsujriata existed they were exposed to the attacks 
of no enemy having higher intellectual powers than a reptile. 
In the present day the opossums of America and the plialangers 
of India have many enemies of different classes, yet they do not 
seem to be in any immediate danger of extinction ; and the 
more numerous marsupials of Australia are kept sufficiently 
under by carnivorous beasts of their own order, aided by birds 

• Though Cuvier has arranged the marsuptata as an order, lie considers it 
rather as forming a division, or subclass, parallel to the rest of the mammalia, 
and representing all the other orders. Mr. Owen agrees with him in obser- 
ving, that " the marsupials, including the monotremes, form a very complete 
series, adapted to the assimilation of every form of organic matter." M. Des- 
moulins and Mr. Swainson have distributed them among the several orders, 
esteeming what Cuvier supposed to be merely analogies to be in reality affini- 
ties. The didelphidcB being carnivorous, are not, in either view of the matter, 
out of place at the end of the carnivora. 



of prey, and above all by man and his attendant dog. In the 
order rudentia we have an example of productiveness being 
sufficient to ensure the species from extinction, though assailed 
by hosts of foes of all kinds. 

Only one didelphis is common to North America, namely, 
the virginiana, which extends to the Canada lakes, being, 
moreover, like the rest of the genus, an inhabitant of the inter- 
tropical parts of the continent. Mr. Collie saw it in California, 
and Temminck says it inhabits Mexico. Didel2)his cancrivora 
and opossum range, according to Lichtenstein, as far north as 
Mexico, and if one of these be not the " coyopollin" of Her- 
nandez, there is a fourth species in that country. Authors have 
somewhat arbitrarily used the name of coyopollin as a synonym 
of dorsigera and p/)i lander ; but it is by no means certain that 
the latter species reaches Mexico. 


Sciurus cinereus, Buff. 10, 25. 

„ capistratus, Griff. 

„ ? fframmums, Say, Long. Exp. 

„ niger, Rich. F.B.A. 

,, CoUixi, Id. Beech. App. 1. 

„ Clarkii, Smith, Griff. 

„ Lewisii, Id. I.e. pi. 

„ hudsonius. Rich. F.B.J. 17. 
Tamias Lysteri, Id. F.B.A. 15. 
• „ quadrmttatus, Id. F.B.A. 16. 

„ iuecatus, Licht. Deppe's List. 
Pteromys sabrinus, Rich. F.B.A. 

„ alpinus, Id. I.e. 18. 

„ voliicella. Buff. 10, 21. 
Spermophilus lateralis. Rich. F.B.A. 13. 

„ Hoodii, Id. I.e. 14. 

„ Richardsonii, Id. I.e. 11. 

„ Franklinii, Id. I.e. 12. 

„ Beeclieyi, Id. I.e. 12 B. 

„ Douglasii, Id. I.e. 

„ Parryii, Id. I.e. 10. 

„ guttaUis ? Id. I. e. 

„ spilosus, Benn. Zool. Pr., 1833. 

„ ? Ludovicianus, Griff. Cuv. 
Arctomys empetra, Rich. F.B.A. 9. 

„ } brachyurus, Harlan, yauwtf. 

„ ^ pruinosus, Penn. 

„ < ealigatus, Eschsch. Zool. At. 6. 

„ yochanagamis, King, Narr. S{e. 

„ monax, Edw. 104, Griff. Cuv. 
Mus leucopus, Raf. Rich. F.B.A. 

„ .' virginiciis, Reich. Fisch. Sgn. 
Meriones labradorius. Rich. F.B.A. 1 7. 
Neotoma Dnimmondii, Rich. F.B.A. 8. 

„ floridana. Say & Ord. Ae. Sc, 

Sigmodon hispidiun. Say. 

„ ferrugineum, Harl. Sill. Jour. 
Fiber zibethicus, Cuv. 
Anicola riparius, Ord. 

„ xanthognathus. Leach. Zool. M. 

„ pennsylvauicus, Rich. F.B.A. 

„ noveboracensis, Id. I.e. 

„ borealis, Id. /. e. 

„ rubricattis, Id. Beeeh. App. 
Mgnomes prateyisis, Raf. An. Nat. 1820. 
Georychus helvolus. Rich. F.B.A. 

„ trimucronatus. Id. I.e. 

„ hudsonius. Id. I.e. 

„ groenlandicus, Id. I.e. 
Geornys bursaiius, Davies, Liti. Tr. 5, 8. 

„ borealis. Rich. nov. sp. 

„ Douglasii, Id. F.B.A. 

„ bulbivorus. Id. I.e. (diplostoma). 

„ umbrinus. Id. I.e. 

„ talpoides. Id. I.e. 

„ pinetis, Raf. 

„ Drummondii, Rich. nov. sp. 

„ mexicanus, Licht. Herx. 
Saccomys anthophilus, F. Cuv. 

„ Jaseiaf us, JiAF. {Cricetns). 
Apluodontia leporlna. Rich. F.B.A. 18 C. 
Castor fiber* ?, L. 

Eretizon dorsatiun. Griff. Cuv. pl. 
Synetheres prehensilis, F. Cuv. 
Lepus glacialis. Leach. 

„ americanus, Gmel. 

„ virginianus, Harl. 

„ mexicantis, Licht. 

„ cunicularius, Id. 
Lagomys princeps. Rich. F.B.A. 19. 
Dasyproeta carolinensis, F. Cuv. 

North America exceeds the other quarters of the world in the 


number of species and variety of forms of its rodent animals ; 
but they are still very imperfectly known, as their original de- 
scribers have too frequently contented themselves with noticing 
the colour of the fur and the length of the tail, disregarding os- 
teological characters, and rarely noting the dentition, so that 
many of the species enumerated in the American fauna are of un- 
certain genera, and many nominal ones have been introduced. 
The American naturalist who shall sedulously collect rodentia 
from various parts of his country, and describe minutely their 
characters, adding comparative notices of the species of each 
genus, will confer a great obligation on the lovers of science. 
Rafinesque has noticed a considerable number of animals of this 
order, some of them so peculiarly striped that they could not 
easily be mistaken vfere they to come under the observation of 
another zoologist ; but in the instances in which his animals 
have been traced he is found to be so often inaccurate, and his 
generic characters are so generally imperfect, that science would 
sustain little loss if his notices were expunged from our books of 
natural history, were it not that they serve the purpose of inducing 
search in the localities he points out. In the preceding list we 
have omitted most of the doubtful species which have been ad- 
mitted into the systems. 

Sciurus cinereus, which has a multitude of synonyms tacked 
to it, inhabits most parts of the United States, being very abun- 
dant in Carolina and Pennsylvania. Sc. rufiventer of Geoffroy, 
magnicaudatiis of Say, and ludoviciatms of Curtis, quoted by 
Harlan, do not, as far as we can judge by the published descrip- 
tions, differ from certain states of cinereus. A sc. hypoxaiithus 
occurs in Lichtenstein's list of Deppe's Mexican animals ; but 
no character is given, so that we have no means of ascertaining 
in what respect it differs from the fulvous-bellied condition of 
cinereus. The sc. capistratus, or fox-squirrel, is a larger spe- 
cies, which varies greatly in its colours, and inhabits the middle 
and southern states of the Union : it is generally supposed to 
be one of the Mexican squirrels described by Hernandez, and 
named by some authors variegatus, but this wants confirmation. 
Say's sc. grammurus lives in holes, does not voluntarily ascend 
trees, and has very coarse fur ; hence it is most probably a 
spermophile : it was found near the sources of the Arkansa. 
The black squirrels of the United States are generally referred 
to capistratus ; but a smaller and totally black species (having no 
white muzzle) inhabits the northern shores of Lake Huron, and 
to this we have restricted the name of niger in the Fauna Boreali- 
americatia. The larger black kind exists in Canada, and Her- 
nandez mentions Mexican squirrels which are totally black, along 

152 SIXTH UJil'ORT — 1836. 

witli others which are white with yellow tints. Sclurus CoUicei 
from California, figured in the appendix to Beechey's Voyage, 
differs from any species inhabiting the Atlantic states, but 
nearly agrees with Hernandez's account of the Mexican " tlal- 
mofotlf". Sc. Clarkii and Lcivisii, figured by Lieut. -Colonel 
Hamilton Smith in Griffith's Cu\ier, were brought from the 
Missouri by the travellers whose names they bear. The latter 
is supposed by the editor of the work referred to, to be the sc. 
uiainlatiis of Desmarest, whose native country was previously 
unknown. The sciurus hudsonuis, named locally red-squirrel, 
or chickaree, tbe most northern American species, bas a range 
from the arctic extremity of the woods to Massachusetts. 
Though destitute of cheek-pouches, it has been generally ranked 
as a tamias, perhaps on account of the dark line which occa- 
sionally divides the fur of the back from that of the belly ; and, 
indeed, it resembles the tainias in forming burrows at the foot 
of the pine-tree, on which it seeks its food : it is evidently the 
ruhro lineatus of Warden, and probably the riiher of Rafinesque. 
The tamias Lysteri ranges on the eastern side of the Rocky 
Mountains from the 50th parallel down to the Carolinas ; it is 
the tamias americanus described by Kuhl {Beitrage, 69)*. 
Cuvier states, that the t. striatus inhabits both Asia and Ame- 
rica ; but we have met with no American animal that resem- 
bles Bufibn's figure 10, 28, which Cuvier quotes. T. qiiadri- 
vittutus inhabits the fur-countries, and goes southwards along 
the eastern declivity of the Rocky Mountains to the sources of 
the Platte and Arkansa. T. buccatus is a Mexican animal, 
which differs from the other admitted species of tamias in want- 
ing longitudinal stripes and colours on the flanks. We cannot 
help surmising, therefore, that it may be a spermophile, for the 
two genera are very nearly allied, the only material diff"erence 
in the dentition being, that the anterior molar of the upper 
jaw, which falls early in the true squirrels, but remains till old 
age in the tamias, is smaller in the latter than in the spermo- 
philes. The typical species of each differ, indeed, a little in 
the feet ; but /. (/nadrivittatus and sp. lateralis possess inter- 
mediate characters, which imite the two groups very closely, so 
that we may be prepared to find authors differing as to which 
genus or subgenus certain species ought to be referred. Pte- 
romys volucella inhabits Canada, the United States, and, ac- 
cording to Lichtenstein, Mexico also. Pt. sahrinus and alpi- 
nus, which are not yet fully established as distinct from each 
other, and closely resemble the valans of Siberia, frequent the 

* Fischer, xijn. 


forests of Canada, the Rocky Mountains, aiul the fur countries 
up to the 57th parallel. 

The marmots are numerous in North America, particularly 
those which enter the subgenus spermophilus. These animals 
abound in the prairies, which are analogous to the Siberian steppes 
near Lake Aral, that are also overrun by spermophiles ; but the 
only species that can be considered as common to the New and 
Old World is guttatus of North California and New Caledonia. 
This little animal is certainly so similar to the " souslik" of the 
Wolga, that the published figures or descriptions do not afford any 
distinctive marks ; but no satisfactory comparison of specimens 
has yet been made. It is probable that Lichtenstein alludes to 
this species when he says, that there is a spermophile in Mexico 
which cannot be distinguished from the Siberian citiUus : gut- 
tatus was considered by Pallas to be merely a variety of cititlus.' 
Sjj. Parri/ii is the most northern species, being an inhabitant 
of the ai'ctic coasts and the Rocky Mountains down to the58th pa- 
rallel. Spermophilus lateralis resides on the eastern declivity of 
the Rocky Mountains, from the 57th parallel down to the sources 
of the Arkansas. Beecheyi comes from Upper California, and 
Douglasii, which nearly resembles it, and is perhaps only a 
local variety, is from the adjoining district of the banks of the 
Columbia. Franklinii, Richardsonii, and Hoodii abound on 
the prairies of the Saskatchewan, the last ranging southwards 
to Mexico*, and being perhaps the Mexican squirrel of Seba, 
which is described as brown, with five or seven longitudinal 
whitish stripes. The arvtomys griseus of Rafinesque, founded 
on Lewis and Clark's description of a Missouri animal, does 
not appear very different from sp. Richardsonii. Sp. spilosiis, 
described by Mr. Bennett in the Zoological Proceedings, is from 
California. Ludovicianus, the " prairie dog" of the Missouri, 
has not been described as possessing cheek-pouches. Arctomys 
empetra frequents the Avoods of Canada and the fur countries 
up to the 60th parallel, while monax belongs to Maryland and 
the more southern Atlantic states. A. brachyurus is known 
only from Lewis and Clark's description of a Columbia river 
animal. The alpine districts of New Caledonia are the abode 
of a marmot named the "whistler", or perhaps more than one 
species is included under this trivial appellation, for the accounts 
given of it by the traders apply almost equally to the jrruinosus 
of Pennant, the "tarpogan",or e«//g•a?^/5 of Eschscholtz, and the 
ochanaganus described and figured by Mr. King in his recent 

• Mexican specimens exist in the Museum at Frankfort. Dr. Uuppel. 

154 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

narrative of Captain Back's journey. The latter animal agrees 
exactly withEschscholtz's in the remarkable post-auricular black 
bar, in the general colour, and in the relative length of the fur 
on the different parts of the body, but differs in some minor 
points, and particularly in its smaller size, which may, how- 
ever, be owing to its youth. 

The only species of the restricted genus miis which is un- 
equivocally indigenous to North America * is the miis leucopus 
of Rafinesque ; and this so closely resembles mus sylvaticus of 
Europe that there ai*e scarcely grounds for impugning the 
opinion of the older naturalists, who considered it to be the 
same species. In my dissections I did not succeed in detecting 
cheek-pouches, but Dr. Gapper has discovered cheek-pouches 
in a Canadian animal differing in no respect from it in exterior 
appearance, which he has therefore named cricetus mi/oides, 
and figured in the Zoological Journal. The mus leucopus is 
found everywhere, from the arctic circle down to the United 
States, and some authors state that it is common throughout 
the Union ; but Dr. Harris says that it is not found in Massa- 
chusetts. It readily domesticates itself in the habitations of 
man, wherever the mus decumanus, rattus, and musculus, in- 
troduced from the other side of the Atlantic, have not pene- 
trated. The myoxus virginicus of Reich, quoted in Fischer's 
synopsis, seems very closely allied to mus leucopus ; it is an 
inhabitant of the foot of the Alleghanies. The mus nigricans of 
Rafinesque is supposed to be merely the common black rat 

The merio7ies lahradorius inhabits America from the 60th 
parallel to an unascertained distance southwards. We have 
received several examples from different parts of the United 
States, and the canadensis of authors has not been proved to be 
a distinct species. Rafinesque indicates others, viz., soricinns, 
leonurus, hudsonius, megalops, and sylvaticus ; but his notices 
ai'e not sufficiently detailed for scientific purposes. Dr. Mit- 
chell is equally vague in his account of a meriones sylvaticus. 

Neotoma Drummondii abounds in the Rocky Mountains and 
Jloridana in Florida. As these animals resemble the myoxi in 
external form, it is desirable to know whether, like them, they 
are destitute of a cjecum. They build well-protected nests 
above ground, instead of burrowing like the meadow-mice, and 
appear to be omnivorous, like the common rat, than which 
they are even more destructive. Of M. Le Comte's neotoma 

* A species inhabits Port Famine, in the Straits of Magellan, mus magella- 
nicus. (King, Zool. Proc, 1835.) 


gossipiiia, which inhabits the southern states, we know no 
more than the name. The sigtnodoii* hispidum is found on the 
banks of the river St. John, which flows between Georgia and 
Florida. The ferrugineum inhabits cotton-fields on the Mis- 
sissippi. Fiber zibethicus ranges from the Arctic Sea nearly to 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

Though the various species of arvicola differ in size, aspect, 
and in the relative strength of their members, so as to be readily 
distinguishable from each other when brought into apposi- 
tion, it is very diflicult to frame specific characters by which 
they can be recognised when apart; and it is not therefore 
surprising that many nominal species should have been pro- 
posed, and, what is equally adverse to the interests of science, 
that many perfectly distinct animals should have been described 
under a common name. Until a revision of the genus has been 
accomplished, and American and European examples have been 
accurately compared with each other, we cannot admit that any 
one species is common to the two countries, as amjihibius has 
been supposed to be. The majority of arvicolce in our list be- 
long to the fur-countries, though some, as riparius andj-^eww- 
sylvanicus, extend also far into the United States ; the latter is 
the smallest as well as the most common American species. 
A. rubricatus. distinguished by a bright red stripe on the flanks, 
was seen by Mr. Collie in Behring's Straitsf. The georychi, 
or lemmings, distinguished from the true meadow-mice by their 
thumb-nails and extremely short tails, all belong to the north- 
ern extremity of the continent, unless the very doubtful sjialax 
vittatus of Rafinesque, found in Kentucky, shall be hereafter 
discovered to belong to this genus. The mynomes pratensis of 
Rafinesque requires further examination, as do also his lemmus 
talpoides, albovittatus, and noveboracensis, indicated rather 
than characterized in the American Monthly Magazine for 

Though the "gauffres", or pouched rats, abound in all the 
prairie lands and sandy tracts of the United States, their hi- 
story is still very obscure. The species, which are numerous, 
have been mostly confounded with the ticcan of Hernandez,or the 
bursarius of Shaw ; but various generic names have been pro- 
posed, such as geomys, pseudostoma, aseomys, diplostoma, and 
saccophoi'iis. The first figure of the Canada species published 
by Major Davies in the Linnean Transactions, represents the 
very large cheeks as filled from within and pendent externally, 

* This genus requires further examination. 

t yt. NuttalUi appears in Dr. Harlan's list, but we do not know its distinc- 
tive characters nor its habitat. 

156 SIXTH RKPORT — 1836. 

slipping, as it were, from under the common integuments by a 
longitudinal slit, and having their surface covered with short 
hair. Cuvier, however, says of this figure, " // ny a rien de 
semhlahle dans la H«<«re", the true form, in his opinion, being 
that represented in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy, 
1822-3, pi. 3, or in the Fauna Boreali-A)nencana, 18. B., 
where the pouches, running backwards under the integuments 
of the cheek, open extei'nally on each side of the comparatively 
small true orifice of the mouth, producing the appearance which 
is alluded to in the generic appellation, signifying " false", or 
*' double mouth ". If the latter be the true form, the pouches 
can be filled and emptied only by the fore feet, which do not 
seem to be well calculated for such a purpose. Moreover, the 
late Mr. Douglas, whose ability as an observer no one will 
question, informed me that the pouches are filled from within 
the mouth by the action of the tongue, becoming, when fully 
distended, pendulous externally ; but when empty being re- 
ti'acted like the inverted finger of a glove. Mr. Drummond 
also sent me several specimens of different species from various 
parts of the United States, some of them prepared with the 
empty pouches folded beneath the skin of the cheeks, and others 
with them filled and hanging down. Mr. Schoolcraft, on the 
other hand, has given a description of a gauffre from personal 
observation which corresponds with the view of the matter en- 
tertained by Cuvier. To i-econcile these jarring statements, I 
adopted both of Rafinesque's genera, geomys and diplostoma in 
the Fauna Boreali-Americana ; but since the publication of 
that work I have ascertained by the examination of a consider- 
able niunber of specimens that the character of the dentition 
is the same in all ; consequently they form but one genus, and 
Mr. Douglas's account of the cheek-pouches I now consider as 
well supported by the specimens I have examined. Geomys 
Z»ore«//5 inhabits the plains of the Saskatchewan, Douglasii and 
Inilbivorus those of the Columbia ; hursai'ius is from Canada, 
pinetis from Georgia, talpoides from Florida, wnhrinus from 
Louisiana, Drummondii from Texas, and mexicanus, as its 
name imports, from Mexico. Diplostoma fusca and alba of 
Rafinesque were brought from the Missouri; but as the spe- 
cimens were impci'fcct and the descriptions are equally so, they 
must be considered as doubtful*. 

* Rafinesque characterized diplostoma as differing from geomys in the total 
absence of a tail, and in having only four toes on each foot ; but Cnvicv says 
that his specimens showed five toes, as in geomys; and it is very probable 
that the tails had been removed by the Indian lauUers in preparing the skins. 
All the species that have conic under our notice had short tapering tails, 


Saccomi/s anthop/tihis of F. Cuvier lias the teeth oi geomys, 
but he has phiced it in a separate genus on account of the sup- 
posed pecuHarity of its pendent pouches ; it is smaller than any 
geomi/s we have seen, and differs from all that we have enu- 
merated in the greater length of its tail. The cricetus fasciatns 
of Rafinesque from Kentucky is probably either a geomys or 
saccomys ; but if so, it is peculiar in having ten transverse 
black streaks on the back, if indeed this appearance was not 
pi'oduced, as is sometimes the case, by cracks in mounting the 
skin. Apkiodontia leporina inhabits New Caledonia and the 
banks of the Columbia, where its skins are used for clothing, 
and form an article of traffic. 

The beaver ranges on the eastern side of the continent, from 
the most northern woods down to the confluence of the Ohio 
with the Mississippi ; and it would appear, from a remark of 
Dr. Coulter's, that on the western side it descends in the 
neighbourhood of the Tule lakes to the 3Sth parallel. The pur- 
pose served in the economy of the animal by the castoreum 
and a fatty substance deposited in the adjoining sacs has not 
yet been made out. The Canada porcupine {erethizon clorsa- 
tum) inhabits the country lying between the 37th and 67th 
parallels. The hoitzlacuatzin of Mexico is identified by Lich- 
tenstein with the synetheres prehensilis* , we do not know 
with what propriety ; but if he be correct, it is, if not a solitary 
instance, at least very nearly so, of a rodent animal being com- 
mon to North and South America. The spotted cavy {coelo- 
genys) and perhaps a species of cavia and one of dasyprocta ex- 
tend from South America to the West Indies and Mexico ; but 
in other respects the animals of this numerous order differ 
greatly in the zoological provinces of North and South America. 
The most northern American hare is lejms glacialis, which 

thinl}' clothed with very short whitish hairs. The incisors are differently 
grooved in different species. Geomys hulbivorus and timhrimis have these 
teeth quite smooth ; borealis and talpoides have a very fine groove close to the 
inner margin of each upper incisor ; Douglasii has fine submarginal grooves 
on all the incisors, viz., next to the inner edges of the upper ones and the 
outer edges of the under ones ; buisarius and Drummondu have a deep rounded 
furrow in the middle of the anterior surface of the upper incisors, in addition 
to the fine inner submarginal one. The under incisors are quite plain in 
Drummondii, and most likely in bursar'ms, also, as no mention is made of their 
being grooved. In all these species the auditory opening is scarcely percep- 
tibly elevated. Geoviys or ascomijs mexicanus of Licbtenstein has short 
round ears, with a single central furrow in the upper incisors. A variety of 
this is mentioned in Fischer's synopsis. Tliey are inhabitants of the Mexican 
uplands, where they lay waste the maize-fields. 

• The island of Cuba nourishes another kind of rodent animal with a prehen- 
sile tail, named caprovuja. 

158 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

frequents the islands of the Arctic Sea, the barren grounds, and 
the Rocky Mountains, down to the 60th parallel. L. america- 
nus inhabits the woods from the Gulf of Mexico to their northern 
limits. L. virginianus is found on the prairie lands of the 
Saskatchewan and Missouri, and it is said also on the Blue 
Mountains of Pennsylvania ; but further investigations are re- 
quisite to prove the existence of the same species in such dif- 
ferent localities. A " marsh hare" from the southern parts of 
the United States has been recently described in the Zoological 
Proceedings, and it may be this that Dr. Harlan has associated 
with the prairie hare imder the name of virginiciis. Lepns 
me.vicaniis is the name bestowed by Lichtenstein on the "citli" 
of Hernandez, and ciinicularitis that by which he designates 
the " tochtli". How far either of these species ranges north- 
wards, or whether they have been compared with the Florida 
marsh hare we know not. Lagomys jiTincejJS has its abode on 
the crests of the Rocky Mountains, where it is probable that 
other species will be hereafter detected. Lichtenstein tells us 
that cavys are common in Mexico, and some authors have 
stated that the common agouti (dusi/procta aciiti) inhabits the 
southern extremity of the United States ; but F. Cuvier has 
separated the latter animal by the specific appellation of cai-o- 
lineiisis. The lijmra Imdsonica of Illiger, or lu/rax Jmdsonius 
of Shaw, must be excluded from the American fauna until we 
receive satisfactory evidence of its origin. 


Dasypus hybridus, Desm. 

This small order may be called South American, the whole 
of the animals composing it belonging to that country, except 
three or four African or Indian species comprised in the genera 
oryctopus and manis. Lichtenstein, at the close of some re- 
marks on the " ayo-tochtli" of Hernandez, says, that the spe- 
cimens brought home b}^ Deppe accorded exactly with the 
tatou inulita of Azzara, which Cuvier refers to the da^/piis 7- 
cinctiis of Linnaeus. By others the ayo-tochtli is considered to 
be the d. peha of Desmarest, and we also find the mexicanus of 
Brisson ranked among the synonyms of (/. Encouhert of Des- 
marest. The latter author informs us that the hybridus is 
common in Paraguay and on the Brazilian pampas. It is the 
only example of an animal of this order that has been ascer- 
tained to enter the North American fauna, though Lichtenstein 
conjectures that a myrynecopltaga may also be found in Mexico, 
namely, the atzca-coyotl or tlal-coyotl oi Hernandez. 



DicotyUs torqvatus, Cuv. 

This order is at once remarkable for the magnitude of the ani- 
mals composing it, the great proportion of extinct species, and the 
small number which now exist in the New World. Two genera 
only, comprising four or five species, are known in America, 
namely, tcqnr and dicotyles, both of which belong to the southern 
zoological province : yet there is one species, the common pec- 
cari or dkotyles torquatus, which ranges northwards to the 
Red River, a'tributary of the Mississippi, where it was observed 
by Nuttall ; this is probably the coyametl of Hernandez. Dr. 
Harlan states that the tapir is also an inhabitant of Mexico, 
without quoting his authority ; but Dr. Roulin, who has 
written a very learned and elaborate treatise on this animal, 
and figured a second American species, is of opinion that the 
tapirus americanus ranges from the 35th degree of south lati- 
tude only to the 12th north, while the new species, t. jiinchachiis, 
is confined to the higher Cordilleras of the Andes, and does not 
advance further to the north than the 10th degree. The very 
remarkable resemblance between the scull of the Indian tapir 
and that of the palceotherium has been pointed out both by 
Cuvier and Dr. Roulin. 

Fossil elephants and mastodons occur in North America, and 
though the present stock of horses, wild and tame, in that 
country are believed to have had an European origin, fossil 
bones of horses were found by Captain Beechey under the cliffs 
of Kotzebue Sound mixed with those of elephants and other 
animals. There is a considerable resemblance in the kinds of 
quadrupeds found in the eocene gypsum quarries of Paris, 
named in Cuvier's list— bat, large wolf, fox, coatis, raccoon, 
genette, dormouse, and squirrel — to those now existing in Mexico. 
The genette may be represented in tropical America by bassaris 
or giilo barharay and the dormouse by neotoma ; while the 
palceotherium and other extinct pachydermata of Montmartre 
are allied to the tapir. The other genera are American, but 
dicotylcs and the felidce, which form so conspicuous a part of 
the existing carnivora, do not occur in Cuvier's list. 


Cervus alces*?, L. Griff. Cuv. pi. Cervus nemoralis, H. Smith, Griff. Cuv. 

„ tarandus*, L. ? Edw. 51. Dicranocerus furcifer, Rich. i='.B.^.^/. 

„ strongylocerus, Schreb. 247. Capra americana, Rich. F.B.A. 

„ macrotis, Rich. F.B.A. 20. Ovis montana* ?, Id. I.e. 

„ virgiiiianus, Buff. 12, 44. Bos americana, Griff. Cuv. fig. 

„ mexicanus, Gmel. Griff. Cuv. „ moschatus, Penn. Jrct. Zool. 

„ leucums, Dougl. Rich. F.B.A. 

160 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

Onlj^ two species of tliis order are common to the old con- 
tinent and America, and tliese have the highest northern range, 
nameljr, Cerims alces and tarumbis. If the ovis mnntcnia be, 
as Cuvier hints, the same with the Siberian argali, it is a third 
common species. The North American deer are still very im- 
perfectly known, and a revision of the species would well repay 
the labour of a naturalist who has an opportunity of seeing 
them in a state of nature ; the deer of the Pacific coast in par- 
ticular require investigation, as they are known only hy imper- 
fect descriptions, no figures of them having been published nor 
specimens brought to Europe*. The reindeer is the most 
northern ruminating animal, being an inhabitant of Spitzbergen, 
Greenland, and the remotest arctic islands of America. On the 
Pacific coast it descends as low as the Columbia river, being, 
however, much less common there than in New Caledonia. On 
the Atlantic it exists as far south as New Brunswick, while in 
the interior its southern limit is the Saskatchewan river. The 
different varieties of reindeer ought to be compared with each 
other, and detailed dissections of the American kinds are still 
wanted. The southern range of the elk is the Bay of Fundj', 
on the eastern coast, though it is said to have existed formerly 
as far south as the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi ; but 
this report is rendered uncertain by the name elk having been 
applied in difterent parts of the country to different kinds of 
deer. It frequents all the wooded districts up to the mouth of 
the Mackenzie, in the 68th degree of latitude, but very seldom 
appears in the prairies or barren grounds. The wapiti, or 
cervus slrongyloceros, does not travel to any distance from the 
prairie lands, on both sides of the Rocky Mountains, and not 
further north than the 54th parallel. C. macrotis and lencurus 
frequent the prairies of the Saskatchewan and Missouri, and, 
according to report, the west side of the Rocky Mountains also. 
C. virginiamis is found from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico ; 
iiemoralis and mexicamis inhabit the latter country, the former 
going southwards to Surinamf . The (mtilope furcifer abounds 
on the prairies of the Missouri, Saskatchewan, and Columbia, 
and is believed to range southwards to Mexico. It differs much 

* The following is a list of the deer of Columbia and New Caledonia fur- 
nished to me by P. W. Dease, Esq., of the Hudson's Bay Company : moose- 
deer (c. alces) ; rein-deer (c. tarandus) ; red-deer, or wawaskeesh (c. slrongy- 
loceros) ; kinwailhoos, or long-tailed deer; mule-deer; juniping-deer, or cabree ; 
fallow-deer, or che^Tellil. The specific names of the last four have not been sa- 
tisfactorily ascertained. The antilope furcifer is named white-tailed c.ibree to 
distinguish it from the jumping-deer, in which neither the tail, nor the rump, 
is white. 

t LieiU.-Colonel 11. Smith, n Griffith's Cuvier. 


from the true antelopes, and, if it be considered as belonging to 
a distinct genus (dicranocerus) , it is the only generic form of 
this order found in North America which does not exist also in 
Europe, unless a second be found in ovihos moschatus, sepa- 
rated from bos. The capra americana and ovis montana in- 
habit the Rocky Mountains from Mexico to the northern ex- 
tremity of the range, and also the maritime Alps of California 
and New Caledonia, the former confining itself to the higher 
ridges. The musk-ox is peculiar to the barren lands, travelling 
in summer over the ice to Parry's Islands ; but though it has 
this high range, it does not exist either in Asia or Greenland. 
The chief residence of the bison {hos Americanus) is on the 
. prairie lands, east of the Rocky Mountains ; it frequents the 
woods also up to the 62iid parallel, but nowhere approaches 
within 600 miles of Hudson's Bay. Though this animal is at 
present rarely ever seen to the eastward of the Mississippi, it 
is said to have formerly frequented Pennsylvania and Kentucky, 
but the authority for its ever having ranged to the Atlantic 
coast is by no means good. It does not exist in New Cale- 
donia, though it has crossed the eastern crest of the Rocky 
Mountains further south, to the headwaters of the south branch 
of the Columbia ; but even in that latitude it does not advance 
towards the coast, a spur of the Californian Alps* (or " a coun- 
terfort" connecting them with the Rocky Mountains), which 
skirts the Snake River, or south branch of the Columbia, oifer- 
ing apparently an effectual barrier to its further progress west- 
ward. In the fur countries it does not go to the eastward of 
the 97th meridianf. 


As the cetacea traverse the depths of the ocean in pursuit of 
their prey, it is highly probable that many species are common 
to the same parallels of the New and Old World. Those that 
frequent the Greenland seas are at least entitled to be enume- 
rated among the animals both of Europe and America ; and in 
like manner the cetacea of the North Pacific and sea of Kam- 
schatka are common to the latter country and to Asia ; but the 
animals of this order are so imperfectly known that we cannot 
give the correct geographical distribution of even a single species. 

* Named the " Blue Mountains". 

t Horned cattle thrive well in America. They were introduced into Upper 
California about 70 years ago, and in 1827 the Missions, according to Dr. 
Coulter, possessed upwards of 300,000 head, 60,000 being annually slaughtered 
to keep down the stock. They are multiplying also very fast on the banks of 
the Columbia, where they have lately been introduced by the Hudson's Bay 

VOL. V. 1836. M 



Dr. Harlan enumerates fourteen of the true cetacea as having 
been detected on the coasts of North America ; but on correcting 
his list, and striking out the synonyms agreeably with the indica- 
tions in the R^gne Animal, the number is reduced to ten. Of 
the herbivoroUvS cetacea two at least enter the North American 
fauna, viz., the stellerus borealis, or rytina, which belongs to 
the Sea of Kamschatka, and a manatee, that frequents the 
mouths of rivers in East Florida. This species lias been named 
latirostris by Dr. Harlan ; but Temminck observes that it is 
'' tres doideuse," meaning thereby, we suppose, that it is not 
distinct from one of the ascei-tained species, sencgalensis or 
americmins ; the latter, which inhabits the tropical coasts, is 
supposed to go as far north as Mexico. 

The following list comprises the cetacea which are enume- 
rated in the R^gne Animal, Desmarest, Fischer's synopsis, &c., 
as extending their range to America; but nothing is less cer- 
tain than their identification witb European species bearing the 
same names. 

Manatus americanus, Cnv. 

„ latirostris, Harlan. 
Rytina horealis*, Nov. Act. Petr. 13, 13. 
Delpbinus delphis*, Lacep. 13, 1. 

„ tursio*, H0NT. Ph. tr. 1787, 

18. {nisarnac, Fabr.) 
„ canadensis, Duhamel, 2, 10,4. 
Phocsena gladiator*, Lacep. 15, 1. 
„ communis*. Id. 13, 2. 
„ intermedia, Harl. Ac. Sc. Ph. 

Delphinapterus leucas*, Scoresb. 14. 
Hyperoodon Dalei*, Hunt. Ph. tr. 77, 19. 

„ anarnichuni*, Fabr. 

Monodon monoceros*, Scoresb. 15. 
Physeter macrocephalus*, Lacep. 10. 
„ tiirsio*, Bayer, Nov. Act. Cur. 
3, 1. 
Balasna mystieetus*, Scoresb. 12. 
„ nodosa, Boxnat. 
„ physalis*, Id. 2, 2. 
„ boops, Id. 3, 2. 

Chamisso, in the Mem. de la Soc. Leopold, &c., v. 12, has 
described nine cetaceous animals which frequent the Aleutian 
islands, founding his species on the figures and reports of the 
natives. (Vide Less. Man.) 

We shall conclude our cursory remarks on the mammalia, 
with a list of the most northern species. 


Monodon monoceros. 81^° N. lat. 

Calocephala foetida. 824° N. 

Phocse aliae. 

Trichechus rosmarus. 80^° N. 

Ursus maritimus. 82§° N. 

Vulpes lagopus. 

Cerviis tarandus. i gQO -^ 

Georychus Hudsonius. 

Mustela .' 

Gulo luscus. 

Lupus occidentalis. 

Lepus glacialis. 

Bos moschatus. 

Mustela erminea. 73i° N. 

Georjchus grcenlandicus. 71° N. 



'67° or 68° N. 

Ursus arctos ? 
Lutra lataxina. 
Georychus trimucronatus 
Anicola i-ubricatus. 
Sorex palustris. -. 
„ Forsteri. 1 

Vespertilio ? 

Lepus americanus 
Fiber zibethicus. I 
Cervus alces. -^ 

Felis canadensis. 66° N. 
Didelphis virginiana. 44° N, 
Dicotyles torquatus. 31° N. 
Dasypus hybridus. 1 «-™-„- 
Pedimana. ^^aextco. 



The species noted as reaching the 80th, or a higher parallel, 
have been observed on Spitzbergen or in the neighbouring seas. 
We are not aware of any rodent animal having been taken alive 
in so high a latitude, but the skeleton of a Lemming was found 
on the ice in 81|° N. by Sir Edvvard Parry on his memorable 
expedition to the northward of Spitzbergen. The same species 
exists on the most northern American Islands, and some small 
gnawers might have been supposed to inhabit Spitzbergen from 
a mustela having been seen there by Captain Phipps's people. 
{Voyage towards the North Pole in 1773, p. 58.) The North 
Georgian or Parry's islands support those marked as reaching 
75° N. with the addition of all the Spitzbergen species, except 
the weasel. We thus see that the orders carnivora, rodenfia, 
ruminantia and cetacea, are represented in the most northern 
known lands or coasts, the felidce reach 66° N., the marsapiata 
44° N., the pachydermata 31° N., and the edentata and qua- 
drumana to Mexico. 

The following table exhibits the number of North American 
mammalia belonging to each order, and two tables, extracted 
from Fischer's synopsis, are inserted in a note to furnish the 
means of comparison ; but it is to be observed that Fischer 
admits many species which still require much elucidation before 
they can be fully established. Temminck considers that there 
are about 930 well-determined species of mammalia, and 140 
doubtful ones. If this estimate be nearly correct, North America 
nourishes about one-fifth of the known species. 

Note. — An (*) is prefixed to the species whose identity with those of 
Europe bearing the same names is not fully ascertained. 

Orders, or Families. 


niunber of 



N. Amer. 

Common to 











2 *7 








Edentata ' 

Pachydermata ■ 






27 *n 

M 2 




The birds, having always been objects of interest to collect- 
ors and artists, are better known than the other animal pro- 
ductions of North America. Edwards at an early period figured 
thirty-eight species from Hudson's Bay ; the natural history 
appendices to the recent arctic voyages contain full lists of 
those which frequent the sea-coasts in the higher latitudes, and 
the second volume of the Faioia Boreali-AmericcDia has made 
known some new species, which, migrating through the great 
central valleys of the Mississippi and Mackenzie, or crossing 
the Rocky Mountains from California, had escaped the notice 
of the ornithologists of the eastern states *. Good lists are still 
wanted of the Labrador and Canadian birds, and also local cata- 

Note. — An (*) is prefxcd to the doultful species. 

Ordines et Familis in Eutopa. 

In toto. 






22 *7 
16 *3 
28 *1 
12 *4 
40 *4 


20 *3 

18 *7 
10 *3 

3 *1 

4 *4 
9 *4 


6 *3 







Amphibia „ 


Edentata "j 


156 *22 

51 *22 


Ordines et Familiee. 


fCarnivora ( 

1 Cheiropt., Fera, Bestite i 

Rodentia {iSlires) 

f Eden., Pachyd., Rumin. 1 
I £ruta, Belluie, Pecora... S 

Orbis priscus. 


Proprie.i aliis 


I I 

*20 -8 *20 

256 *35 225 *31 28 *3 

151 *15'l44 *15 

*loIl44 »I0 


45 *3| 35 *3 

676 *83 626 *79*6 *6j 

68 *12 

1/1 *68 

106 »27 

34 *12 




68 *12 

140 *64 

99 *27 

32 *12 




52 *9 


Cum .P^'na 
aUis >gnota. 

2 *3 
19 *3 

* The natural history of Sir John Ross's first voyage, Sir Edward PaiTy's 
third and fourth voyages, Sir John Franklin's first journey, and Captain Back's 
recent one accompany the respective narratives. Sir Edward Parry's first 


logues for various districts of the United States, to contribute 
towards our knowledge of the geographical distribution of the 
species ; but with regard to the discovery, description, and illu- 
stration of the feathered tribes of that country comparatively 
little remains to be accomplished. When Wilson's admirable 
work appeared, European ornithology could boast of nothing 
equal to it*. The Prince of Musignano's highly valuable cri- 
tical examination of synonymsf, and his publication of new spe- 
ciest, ably supply what Wilson, cut off in the midst of his 
career, left incomplete ; and the magnificent book of Audubon, 
now in the course of publication, surpasses every attempt of the 
kind in any country. Audubon's plates present to us some of 
the finest specimens of art, and his ornithological biographies 
convey the observations of a whole life enthusiastically devoted to 
studying the forms and habits of the feathered inhabitants of the 
air. It is announced that his forthcoming volume will contain 
a synopsis arranged in conformity with the recent improvements 
of science, and also a treatise on the geographical distribution 
and migration of the species ; in short, this grand work will 
henceforth be the standard of reference for the birds which fre- 
quent the Atlantic states from Labrador to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and eastward to the great prairies. 

Of the birds of Russian America and California we have only 
detached notices by travellers, the Appendix to Capt. Beechey's 
voyage by Mr. Vigors containing the only scientific list. Up- 
wards of sixty species are therein noticed ; but it is to be la- 
mented that the collectors have in many instances omitted to 
record the places where the specimens were procured, so that 
even their country is in some instances doubtful §. Lichten- 
stein's promised Mexican fauna, if it be published, has not 
yet reached this country, and there is no other work to which 
we can look for a full enumeration of Mexican birds. One 
hundred species, however, from that country were character- 

and second voyage, and Sir John Ross's second voyage have the natural hi- 
story appendices publislied in separate quarto vohimes; while the Fauna Boreali- 
Americana, of which three volumes have been published, is intended to supply 
the place of an appendix to Sir John Franklin's second journey. The appendix 
to Captain Beechey's voyage, though mostly printed off several years ago, is 
not yet published. 

* Vieillot's " Oiseaux de VAmer. septentr." Paris, 1807, preceded Wilson's 
book, but only two volumes have appeared. 

t Observations on the nomenclature of Wilson's Ornithology, Journ. Ac. Sc. 
Phil, iii. et infra, 1823. — Genera of North American birds, &c.. Lye. of Nat. 
Hist., New York, ii. 1826. — Catalogue of birds of the United States, Maclu- 
rian Lye, No. i. Phil , 1827. 

J Continuation of Wilson's Ornithology, V. Y., 2 vols. 

§ Since this report was read, we learn that Professor Nuttall has returned 
from Upper California with a rich harvest of objects of natural history, and 
among the rest with thirty species of undescribed birds, which will be included 
in Audubon's work. 

16G SIXTH UKl'ORT — 1836. 

ized by Mr. Swainson in the PMlosojihical Magazine for 1827, 
and upwards of one hundred and thirty named by Lichtenstein 
appear in the sale-list of duplicates of the collection made for 
the Berlin Museum by Herren Deppe and Schiede. As the 
authors of these two lists do not appear to have been aware of 
each other's labours, some of the species are probably twice 
named ; and as we have no means of knowing whether many of 
these Mexican birds pass the tropic, or at least frequent the 
elevated table-lands, so as properly to enter the North American 
fauna, all their names are put in italics. The other parts of the 
lists have been compiled chiefly from Audubon's work ; and 
that I might be enabled to refer to the species which will be 
comprised in the fourth volume, he has obligingly furnished me 
with a list of the plates which it will contain. Additions are made 
from the other works already quoted. The arrangement' adopted 
is that proposed by Mr. Vigors, with Mr. Swainson's alterations. 
The extreme range of each species as far as ascertained is noted, 
and the birds which have been actually detected in Mexico or 
California are distinguished by abbreviations of the names of 
these countries. 

The similarity of the North American ornithology to that of 
Europe is evinced not only by the identity or close resemblance 
of the generic forms, but also by a third part of the species 
being common to the two faunae. Europe is visited by a few 
of the meropidcE, jjromeropidce, and struthionidce, families 
which have no members in North America ; the muscicapidce, re- 
presented in Europe by four species, which go pretty far north, 
furnish to the American fauna only the todus viridis and psaris 
cay amis, w\\\c\\ do not ascend higher than Mexico ; butthis family 
is amply replaced in America by the tyrammlce, which, though ar- 
ranged by Mr. Swainson as part of the Z««2arf<^, were considered by 
previous writers as fly-catchers, and scarcely to be separated from 
the Linnean genus muscicapa. North America, on the other hand, 
enumerates in its fauna certain families not found in Europe, viz., 
the trochilidcB, psittacidce, rhamphastidfs, and trogonidce, but 
none of the two latter groups go st* far north as to reach the paral- 
lel of the south of Europe. The subjoined tablehasbeen construct- 
ed to show at a glance the chief points of agreement or difference 
between the two faunae, the terms of comparison being assimi- 
lated by the omission of the American species which do not attain 
the 36th parallel of latitude. The number of species which 
compose the cori-esponding groups of each fauna often coincide 
remarkably, and this occurs even in families which have few or 
no species common to each country. There is a discordance 
with this remark observable in some families of denfirostres, 
which is perhaps owing to my imperfect arrangement of the 
species. The agreement between the faunae is greatest among 



the grallatores and natatores, two thirds of these orders being 
common to the two, while in the aggregate of the other orders 
only between one sixth and one seventh are common. As both the 
waders and water-birds are very migratory, we might be induced 
to infer that it is from this cause that so many of them are iden- 
tical on both sides of the Atlantic, but on investigating the habits 
of the species^ we find that several which do not migrate at all, 
exist in every quarter of the globe, and some owls, which are the 
most resident birds of prey, inhabit very many distant countries 
witliout any appreciable change of form in the gpecies. 

Names of Families. 

Number of 






Names of Families. 

Number of 










1 . 

'% ° 






























J Promeropidae 





























\ FalconidEB 




1 Tetraonidae 

■{ Sylviadae 




< Scolopacidae 


>- Charadriad<e 



* Eight species frequenting 
the Sea of Kamschatka are 


Obs. — In the following lists species which are common to Exirope and America 
are marked by an *. The range is denoted by degrees of latitude. The references 
are to plates, and the followng abbreviations are used : — 

Col, Planches coloriees, Temminck, &c. — Enl., Planches enluminees, &c. — A., 
American Ornithology, by Audubon, &c. — Vig., Ornithological Appendix to Capt. 
Beechey's Voyac/e, by N. A. Vigors, Esq. — King., Birds of Patagonia, Zool. 
Journ., by Capt. King, &c. — Sw., Swainson, Phil. Journ. — Licht., Deppe's Sale- 
List of Birds, ^c, Berlin. — F.B.A., Fauna Bureali-Americana. — Cat., California. 
— Me^., Mexico, &c. 

Mr. Swainson's five genera of faJconidce are falcn, accipiter, aquiUt, cymindis, and 
bufeo, coiTcsponding to the groups denoted by brackets in the succeeding table ; and 
of his five genera of sirigidte, the two first, strix and asio, are indicated by brackets ; 
and the three abeiTant ones, ni/ctea, nyctipeles, and sumia, are each represented by 
a single North American species. 








•s ^ 

CC O Cj 

aj '. _• 

o <»5 

ec o ^ 
<;§ X 

» «j b 



The generic or subgeneric raptorial forms which are peculiar 
to America are sarcoramphus, cathartes* ,ictima, morphfius, and 
polybo7tis : some species of harpya and elanus inhabit Africa, 
one of them,e^. 7;^eZawop#erM5, occasionally appearing in the south 
of Europe. A group of owls, named nyctipetes by Mr. Swain- 
son, is also African, one species only being North Amei-ican, 
viz., cuniculnria, or the singular burrowing owl of the prairies. 
With respect to the distribution of species, no American vulture 
is common to both sides of the Atlantic, and they all belong 
more properly to the tropical fauna, being (with the exception 
perhaps of cathartes californianus) merely summer visitors to 
the north. Indeed, as their food is carrion, their utility in the 
economy of nature is obviously greatest in the warmer latitudes, 
where they accordingly abound : none of them go beyond the 
54th parallel, and they reach that latitude in the interior prai- 
ries only, where the summer-heat is considerable. One European 
vulture [fulvus) ascends to the 51st degree of latitude in Silesia, 
and another {percno2Jfertis) has been occasionally killed in En- 
gland. Nearly one third of the American falconidce belong also 
to Europe ; several of them, as may be seen by inspecting the 
preceding table, range from one end of the New World to the 
other, and some, a& faico j}eregri7ius,pandion haliceetus,aquila 
chrysaeta, and circus cyaneus, may be said to be cosmopolites. 
Three of these widely-spread species are types of three of the 
five generic groups into which Mr. Swainson divides the family. 
The common buzzard of the fur-countries is identical with the 
European one ; but its winter quarters in America are on the 
coast of the Pacific, hence it has not hitherto been enumerated 
among the birds of the United States. Elanus dispar so 
closely resembles melanopterus of Africa and southern Europe, 
that the Prince of Musignano hesitates to agree with Temminck 
in pronouncing them to be distinct. On the other hand, the 
goshawk of the New World, though considered by some orni- 
thologists as identical with the European one, is judged by 
Mr. Swainson to be a peculiar species, for which Wilson's ap- 
pellation of atricajnllus ought to be retained; the differences 
of their plumage are pointed out in Sir William Jardine's edi- 
tion of Wilson. In the same work, the nanclerus furcahis is re- 
corded as having been killed in England. On the authority of 
the Prince of Musignano, also quoted there, we have considered 
the accipiter Statdei of Audubon as identical with Cooperii. 
The owls, as we have already noticed, though much less mi- 

* Cathartes, or neophron percnopterus, of the European fauna, is considered 
by Mr. Swainson to be only a subgeneric fomi of vultur. 



gratory than either the vultures or falcons, are even more 
widely diffused. Two thirds of the North American specie& 
are found in Europe, and Jiammea, otus, and brachyotus, all 
belonging to the typical genus, are spread over the whole 
world. As in the case of the falconidce, the species entering 
the subtypical generic group are mostly confined to particular 
countries, while the aberrant genus nyctipetes, like cymindisy 
is mostly South American, one species only {ciinicularia) ex- 
tending from the 40th degree of south latitude by the valley of 
the Mississippi, to an equal degree north of the equator. Though 
the American ornithologists have all considered their strix otus 
to be actually the same with the European species, Cuvier says 
that the one figured by Wilson, 51, fig. 3, (and 19, fig. 1, 
young), is different, while he considers the mexicana {clamator, 
Vieill., lo7igirostris, Spix,) to be merely a dark variety of th# 
European bird*. Strix cinerea of Latham, Bonaparte, and th' 
Fauna Boreali- Americana is identified by Temminck with hi 

Typ. ord. INSESSORES. 

Sub. typ. tribe, Dentirostres. 


Lanius ludovicianus, A. 57. Mex. Licht. 
Sw. Cal. ViG. 23° N.— 38° N. 
„ excu1)itor*, A. 192. 32° N.— 60° N. 
„ excubitorides.F.BA. 34. ?— 54°N. 
„ elegans, F.B.A. .'—50° N. 
„ nootka, Lath. ? — 50° N. 
Thamnophilus canadensis, enl. 479. 2. Ca- 
nada? ? {turdus cirrhalus,GTA.) 
„ doliatvs, enl. 207. 2. 2°'ii.—Mex. 
Hypothymis mexicana, Licht. Nov. Gen. 
Saiiropkagus sulpkurafus, enl. 296. 25° S. 

— Sw. Licht. 
Pttliogonys cinereus, Sw. Table I. Mex. 
„ nifens, Sw. Mex. 

TjTannus intrepidus, A. 79. Mex. Sw. — 

57° N. 
„ borealis, A. 174. 38° N.— 53°N. 
„ dominicensis, A. 170. Mex. Sw. 

20° N.— 35° N. 
„ cinereus, Vig. Cal. 36° N. — 

38° N. 
„ crinitus, A. 129. 23°N.— 42°N. 
„ verticalis, A. 398. Ar/cans. 36° N. 
„ ferox, enl. 571. f. 1. 2° H.—Mex. 

„ crassirostris, Sw. Mex. table I. 
„ vociferans, Sw. Mex. 
Milviilus savannus, A. 168. 2° N. — 40° N. 
„ forficatiis, A. App. Mex. — 34° N. 

* Though many foreign owls, and, among others, four Australian ones, 
castanops, pcrsonata, cyclops, and delicatuliis, of Gould, were formerly con- 
founded yi\\\\ flammea, causing it to be considered as quite a cosmopolite, its 
range is actually very extensive, there being no difference, according to Tem- 
minck, in the species as existing throughout Europe and Asia, the whole of 
northern and tropical Africa, and iu Japan. The North American barn-owls, 
he says, differ only in a few darker tints of the plumage; but the South 
American ones are distinct. 



Tyranuula wens, A. 115. Mex. Light. 

Cuba. 29° N.— 50° N. 
„ fusca, A. 120. Mex. Light. — 57° 

„ acadica, A. 145. Mex. Sw. — 50° 

„ Richardsonii, F.B.A. 46, 2. ?— 

50°— 60° N. {Labrad. Aud.) 
„ Saya, A. 399. Mex. Sw.— 54° N. 

„ pusilla, A. apj}. Mex. Sw. — 56° N. 
„ coronata, enl. 675, 1. Mex. Sw. 

Light. Ca^. Vig. 2° N.— 38° N. 
„ semi-atra, Vig. Cat. 38° N. 
„ Traillii, A. 45. .'— 36° N. ^r^ans. 

Tyrammla Selbii, A. 9. Louii. ?— 32° N. 
„ cayenensh, enl. 569, 2. 2° N.— 

Mex. Sw. Light. 
„ affinis, Sw. Mex. maritime. 
„ barbirostris, Sw. Mex. 
„ nigricans, Sw. Mex. table I. 
„ musica, Sw. Mex. 
„ ornala, Sw. Mex. 
„ obscura, Sw. Mex. 
„ despotes, Light. Mex. 
„ obsoleta, Light. Mex. 
„ larvata, Light. Mex. 
„ mesoleuca, Light. Mex. 
„ atrata, Light. Mex. 
I, Sw. Mex. 


Cuiclus americanus, A. 374. Mex. Sw. — 

57° N. 
Menila migratoria*, A. 131. Mex. Cal. — 

67° N. 
,, aurorea*, Pall. Kodiak. 58° N. 

„ Wilsonii, A. 164. 25° N.— 57°N. 
„ minor* F.B.A. 36. 25°N.— 54°N. 
„ mustelina, A. 73. Mex. Light. — 

50° N. 
„ soUtaria, F.B.A. 35. 27° N.— 

50° N. 
„ silens, F.B.A. Mex. Sw. table I. 
„ flavirostris, Sw. Mex. table I. 
„ tristis, Sw. Mex. tableland. 

Orpheus nsevius, F.B.A. 38. Cal. NootJca. 
36° N.— 66° N. Vig. Cook. 
„ rufiis, A. 116. 30° N.— 54° N. 
„ felivox, A. 128. Mex. Light. — 

54° N. 
„ polyglottus, A. 21. 25° S. — 44° N. 

Mex. Sw. 
,, leucopterus, Vig. Cal. 38° N. 
„ curvirostris, col. 441. Sw. Mex. 
Turdus* erythrophthalmus, Light. Mex. 
„ deflexus, Light. Mex. 
„ helvolus, Light. Mex. 
Myothera obsoleta, A. 400. ArJcans. 35° N. 
Icteria viiidis, A. 137. 23° N.— 44° N. 

Fain. SYLVIAD^. 

Sa.\icola oenanthe*, Behr. Str. ? Vig. 

Greenl. Sabine, {mnanthoides.) 

Erythaca sialis, A. 113. Mex. Light. W. 

Ind. — 48° N. Sialia Wilsonii. 

„ arctica, F.B.A. 39. New Cal. 44° 

N.— 68° N. 
„ coeruleo-collis, Vig. Cal.. 38° N. 
„ mexicana, Sw. Mex. 
Anthus aquaticus*, enl. 661, 2. Greenl. 
N. Am. Tkm. 
„ ludovicianiis, F.B.A. 44. 24° N. 

—63° N. (ruber, Gm.) 
,, pipiens, A. 80. N.JV. prairies. 
Motacilla leucoptera, Vig. Calif. 
Parus bicolor*, A. 39. Greenl. Lath. 30° 
N.— 70° N. 
„ carolinensis, A. 160. 30° N. — 

36° N. 
„ atricapillus, A. 36° N.— 65° N. 
„ hudsonicus,A.194.44°N.— 57°N. 

Sylvicola vermivora, A. 34. 23° N. — 42° 

N. (sub g. Vermivora, Sw.) 
solitaria, A. 20. Mex.—^\° N. 
cbrysoptera, A. 15, 2. 23° N. 

—50° N. 
protonotaria, A. 3. 23° N. — 

38° N. 
nibricapilla, A. 89. 23° N.— 

55° N. 
peregrina, A. 154. 23° N. — 

55° N. 
celata, A. 178. 24°N.— 50°N. 
Swainsonii, A. 198. 23° N. — 

33° N. 
aestiva, A. 95. Mex. Sw. 20° N. 

—68° N. 
americana, A. 15. Mex. Sw. — 

46° N. 
autumnalis, A. 88. 23° N.— 

48° N. 

• Merula and orpheus of Mr. Swainson correspond with turdus of authors; 
the latter name is retained for Liclitenstein's sjjecies, as we do not know to 
■which of the former to refer them. 



Sylvicola coernlea, A. 48. Mex. — 40° N. 
„ carbonata, A. 60. Kentucky. 

38° N. 
„ castanea, A. 69. 24° N.— 44° N. 
„ discolor, A. 14. 23° N.— 43° N. 
„ formosa, A. 38. Mex.—3S° N. 
„ icterocephala, A. 59. Trop. ? — 

Canada ?. 
„ maciilosa, A. 50, 123. Cuba, 

ViG.— 55° N. 
„ pensilis, A. 85. Cuba.ViG. Mex. 

Sw. LicHT.— 36° N. 
„ rara, A. 49. .'—43° N. 
„ RatLbonia, A. 65. Mississ. 
„ Childi'euii, A. 35. Louis. 
„ Bachmanii, A. 185. S. Car, 
„ Blackbui'niie, A. 135. il/e,r. Sw. 

Cuba. — 54° N. 
„ palmarum, Bon. 10, 2. Tf. Ind. 

18° N.— 48° N. 
„ agUis, A. 138. 23° N.— 44° N. 
„ canadensis, A. 155. Cuba. 20° 

N.— 54° N. 
„ coronata, A. 153. Ctiba. Vig. 
Mea\ LiCHT. Cal. Vig. — 
20° N.— 56° N. 
„ parns, A. 134. 23° N.— 52° N. 
„ petechia,A.145.24°N.— 55°N. 
„ sphagnosa, A. 148. TJ'. Ind. — 

20° N.— 46° N. 
„ striata, A. 133. W. Ind.—M° N. 
„ maritima, A. App. ? — 40° N. 
„ virens, A. 393. Mex. Light. — 

50° N. 
„ tigriua, WiLS. 44, 2. .'—45° N. 
„ inornata, Sw. Mex. 
„ petasodes, Licht. Mex. 
„ eulicivora, Licht. Mex. 
J „ varia,A.90. 3/w. Sw.— 50°N. 
I „ pinus, A. 140. 24° N.— 50° N. 
Setophaga niticiOa, A. 40. 2° N.— 62° N. 
Mex. Sw. 
„ canadensis, A. 103. Cuba, Vig. — 

55° N. 
„ Bonapartii, A. 5. 23° N.— 34° N. 
„ Wilsonii, A. 124. 35° N.— 58° 
N. (muscieapa pusilla, Wils.) 

Setophaga mitrata, A. 110. 23° N. — 
52° N. {cucullata.) 
„ minuta, A. App. 23° N.— 40° N. 
„ picta, Sw. Mex. Zool. III., 2, 54. 
„ miniata, Sw. Mex. table I. 
„ rubra, Sw. Mex. table I. 
„ rufifrons, Sw. Mex. 
Trichas marilandica, A. 23, Mex. Sw. 
Cal. Vig. — 50° N. (personate.) 
„ Philadelphia, A. App. .' — 40° N, 
„ Roscoe, A. 24. Mississ. 
Accentor auricapillus, A. 143. W. Ind. 
Mex. Lath. Sw. table I. — 
55° N. (sub. ff. Seiurus, Sw.) 
„ aqnaticus,WiLS. 23, 5. F.B.A. 43. 
Mex. Sw. — 64° N. 
Cuhcivora coerulea, A. 84. Mex. Licht. 

— 43°N. 
Syh-ia calendula, A. 195. 24° N.— 70° N. 
Greenl. Bon. {sub. g. Regulus.) 
„ Cmierii, A. 55. 40° N. prairies. 
„ tricolor, A. 183. 23° N.— 54° N. 
„ trochilus*, enl. 651, 1. N. Am. 


Bombvcilla carohnensis, A. 43. Mex. 

Licht. 2° N.— 56° N. 
„ gamila*, A. 303. .'—67° N. 
Vireo solitarius, A. 23. Mex. Licht. — 

39° N. 
„ noveboracensis,A.63.Afej!'.LiCHT. 

—45° N. 
„ flavifrons, A. 119. 23° N.— 46° N. 
„ gilvus, A. 118. 23° N. — i6° N. 
„ olivaceus, A. 150. Mex. Sw. — 

55° N. {rmisc.altiloqua,\itilL.) 
„ Bartramii, F.B.A. Braz. S. Car. 

New Caled. — 49° N. 
„ Vigorsii, A. 30. Penns. 


Todiis viridis, enl. 585. W. Ind. Mex. 
Psaris cayanus, enl. 304, 307. 2° N. Mex. 

As the food of the raptorial order of birds, though variable 
in quantity in different localities, must be almost everywhere 
very similar in quality, it excites no surprise when we discover 
that many species are common to different quarters of the 
world, especially those entering the typical and subtypical 
groups which prey on quadrupeds and birds, taking them alive. 
But we arc led to expect that the distribution of birds which 
feed on the fruits of the earth, should be influenced in a greater 
degree by climate, soil, and consequent fertility of the land : 


and as temperature, moisture, and richness of vegetation have a 
manifest connection with the abundance and variety of insects, 
we look to find the insectivorous birds of the several continents 
nearly as different as their floras. Mr. Swainson has indeed 
already remarked that " it is among the insectivorous or soft- 
billed birds that the principal ornithological features of any ex- 
tensive region will be traced." These observations receive a 
general support by a review of the extensive and varied order of 
insesso7-es which in North America form three fifths of the 
birds ; and though the hirimdinidce, which are purely insectivo- 
rous, exhibit in the table a large proportion of species common 
to the two continents, there is, as we shall mention again, reason 
to doubt the identity of the species in the two faunae. Two or 
three species of c&rmw ovoms, corvidce are with more certainty the 
same on both sides of the Atlantic, and also several hard-billed 
granivorous birds {fringiUidcB) that breed in the arctic re- 
gions, the physical conditions of which are almost the same in 
all longitudes, though below 65° N. latitude the aspect of the 
tAVO continents differs greatly. 

Dentirostres. — In the quinarian arrangement of Mr. Vigors, 
this is one of the five tribes into which the insessores, or perchers, 
are divided, each tribe containing five families. Of tlje laniadcc, 
a normal family of the tribe, only one species stands in our list 
as common to the new and old continents, and it is so marked in 
accordance with the opinions of Wilson and Audubon, but con- 
trary to those of Vieillot, Bonaparte, and Swainson. This and 
the other North American lanii are certainly very similar in 
form to their Eui'opean congeners, which may be accounted for 
by their approaching the rapaces in their mode of feeding, and 
being less exclusively insectivorous than the tyraninae, associ- 
ated with them by Mr. Swainson, which are proper to America. 
The merulidcB, the other normal family of the tribe, contains 
three American species which have been enumerated in the 
European fauna, one {mericla migraturia) because of its occa- 
sional appearance in Germany, and the other two, m. aurorea 
and minor, on account of the capture of one or two individuals 
in Saxony and Silesia. Of the numerous family of sylviadce we 
scarcely know more than one species which has an undisputed 
right to be marked as common to both sides of the Atlantic. 
Saxicola oenanthe, hitherto detected only in the higher arctic 
latitudes of America, may prove on further acquaintance to be 
distinct from the more southern European bird bearing the same 
name. Indeed Mr. Vigors has named it oeuanthoides, being 
led to consider it to be a proper species, more from its distant 
habitat than from any peculiar character detected in the speci- 

174 SIXTH UEPOHT — 1836. 

mens from Behring's Straits submitted to him : it was fomid in 
Davis's Straits by Captain Sabine. Two species of cmthus 
existing in America appear to have been confounded under the 
name of aquaticus : one of them identified by Temminck with 
the European species ; the other, having a much more brown 
under plumage, is figured in ihe Fauna Boreali- Americana under 
the name of aquaticus, but, as the author last-named has ob- 
served, it is in reality a distinct species. It was indeed described 
as such by Latham under the appellation of the Louisiana lark, 
and the Prince of Musignano in adopting the specific name of 
hidovicianus, was led to deny the existence of the true aquati- 
cus in America. Opinions vary as to the identity of parus atri- 
capillus with the palustris of Europe. The American and 
European gold-crests {reguli) have also been confounded though 
they are now held to be distinct. It is to be noticed that the 
pari and reguli are typical examples of their respective groups, 
the parlance or titmice-warblers belonging to America chiefly, 
while the sylviance are mostly European warblers. Temminck 
states that the sylvia trochilus belonging to his group of mus- 
civores or to regulus of Cuvier, exists precisely the same in 
North America as in Europe, but it has not as yet found a place 
in the works of the North American ornithologists. Bomhy- 
cilla garrula is the only one of the ampelid(B which is common 
to the two continents, and its manners and the extent of its 
migrations as well as its form and plumage are absolutely the 
same on both sides of the Atlantic. The vireones which feed on 
insects, or, when these are scarce, on the berries of the myrica 
cerifera, are confined to the New World. Of the muscicapidce 
several species belong to the European fauna, but there ai*e no 
typical ones in America agreeably with Mr. Swainson's views of 
the constituents of the family : within the tropics and in Mexico 
we find psaris cat/anus, a typical black-cap, and todus viridis, 
considered by him to be a fissirostral form of the broad-billed 

Tyji. Tribe, Conirostres. 

Aber. fatn. Fringillid^. 

Alauda alpestris*, A. 200. Mex. Sw. — 
68° N. (comufa, Wils.) 
„ fflacialis, Licht. Mex. 
Plectrophanes nivaUs*. A. 189. 38° N.— 
75° N. 81° N. Spifzb. 
„ lapponica*, ^4. 370. 44° N. — 
70° N. {calcarata, Tem.) 
picta, F.B.A. 49. ?— 54° N. 
Eraberiza canadensis, A. 188. Cal. Vig. 
36° N.— 60° N. 

Eniberiza Townsendii, A. 369. Philad. 
40° N. 
pusUla, A. 139. 30° N.— 45° N. 
pallida, F.B.^. .'— 55°N. 
„ socialis, A. 104. Mex. Sw. — 
45° N. 
melodia, A. 25. 30° N.— 50° N. 
„ oonalaschkeusis, Gm. .' — 55° N. 
„ mexicana, enl. 386. 1. Mex. 
,, pusio, Licht. Mex. 



Fringilla palustris, ^.64. 30''N. — 44°N. 
„ iUaca, ^. 108. 30''N.— 68°N. 
„ leucophrys, A. 114. 28° N.— 

68° N. 
„ grammaca, Bon. 5, 3. Mex. — 
AQ°1^. prairies, {strigata, 
„ pennsylvanica, A. 8. 23° N. — 

66° N. 
„ graminea,^.94. 30°N.— 57°N. 
„ hyemalis*, A. 13. Col. Vig. 

30°N.— 57°N. 
„ arctica, Vig. Cal. Unalasch. 

36°N.— 55°N. 
„ meruloides, Vig. Cal. 37° N. 
crissalis, Vig. Cal. 36°, 38° N. 
„ amoena, Bon. 6. f. 5. 37° N. 

„ cvanea, A. 44. Mex. ? — 45° N. 
„ ciris, A. 53, 1. 25° S.— 36° N. 
„ caudacuta, A. 149. 33° N.— 

44° N. 
„ maritima, ^.93. 30° N. — 44° 

„ bimaculata, Sw. Mex. table I. 
„ cinerea, Sw. Mex. 
„ epopcea, Licht. Mex. 
„ rhodocampter, Licht. Mex. 
„ superciliaris, Licht. Mex. 
„ lepida, L.Licht. W. lad. Mex. 
„ hcBmorrhba, Licht. Mex. 
„ melanoxantha, Light. Mex. 
Pipillo erythrophthalma, vi. 29. 23° N. — 
48° N. 
„ arctica, F.S.^.51, 52..'— 55°N. 
„ maeidata, Sw. Mex. 
„ macronyx, Sw. Mex. 
„ fusea, Sw. Mex. 
„ rufescens, Sw. Mex. 
Tanagra mexicana, L. enl. 290. 2, 155. 1. 
„ ignicapilla, Licht. Mex. 
„ gnatho, Licht. Mex. 
,, grandis, Licht. Mex. 
„ auricollis, Licht. Mex. 
„ erythromelas, Licht. Mex. 
„ abbas, Licht. Mex. 
„ rutila, Licht. Mex. 
„ celcBno, Licht. Mex. 
PjTanga sestiva, A. 44. Mex. Licht. 
42° N. {Phcenisoma, Sw.) 
„ rubra, Wils. 11 f. 3, 4. Mex. 

49° N. 
„ ludoviciana, Wils. 20. 1, 2° N. 

—42° N. prairies. 
„ livida, Sw. Mex. 
„ ?tepaiica, Sw. Mex. 
„ bidenfaia, Sw. Mex. 
Euphone jacarina, enl. 224. 3, Braz. Mex. 

Euphone tibieen, Licht. Mex. 

„ rufiventris, Licht. Braz. Cal. 
25° S.— 36° N. {Saltator, 
Tiaris pusilla, Sw. Mex, 
Spermagra erytJirocephala, Sw. Mex. 
Coccothraustes vespertina, F. B. A, 68. 
45° N.— 54° N. 
„ ludovicianus, A. 127. Mex. 

Sw. 56° N. 
„ coerulea, y^.l22.Me^. Sw. 42°N. 
„ cardinaUs, A. 159. Mex. Licht. 

23° N.— 42° N. 
„ ferreo-rostris, Vig. Cal. 36° or 

38° N. 
„ inelanocephala, Sw. Mex. 
„ chrysopelus, Zool. pr. 15. Mex. 

{Linaria frontalis, Bon. 6. f. 1. Mex. Sw. 
38° N. {H(Bmorr/ious, Sw.) 
„ purpurea, A. 4. 30^ N. — 55° N. 
„ tephrocotis, F.B.A. 50. ?— 53° 

N. {sub. g. Leucosticte.) 
„ boreaUs*, Vieil. gal. 65. Roux, 
101. Greenl. Japan, Temm. 
52° N.— 68° N. 
„ americana, A. 354. 1 — 44° N. 
„ passerina, A. 130. 23° N. — 45° 

„ Bacbmanii, A. 165. .'—35° N. 
„ Henslowii, A. 70. 30°N.— 37°. 

„ savanna,^.109. 30°N.— 52°N. 
„ Lincolnii, A. 193. .' 40° N.— 
52° N. 
Carduelis tristis, A. 23. Mex. — 60° N. 
„ pinus, A. 180. 32° N.— 52° N. 
„ psaltria, Bon. 6. f. 3. Mex. ? — 

R. Platte. 
„ mexicana, Sw. Mex. U.St. Ann. 
„ catotl, Gmel. Mex. 
PyrrhiUa enucleator*, A. 358. 50° N. — 
63° N. {Cory thus, Cuv.) 
„ inornata, Vig. Cal. 38° N. 
Loxia curvirostra*, v^. 197. 40°N. — 57°N. 
„ leucoptera*, A. 368. 40° N.— 
68° N. 

Typ.fam. Corvid.;e. 

Corvus corax* A. 101. Cal. Vig. 26° N. 

—74° N. 

„ corone*, ^.156. 26° N.— 55°N. 

„ ossifragus,^.146.24°N. — 40°N. 

„ columbianus, A. 397. 46° N. 

„ mexicanus, L. Mex. Licht. 
„ morio, Licht. Mex. 



Pica caudata*, A. 358. 40° N.— 58° N. 

prairies. {Corvus pica.) 
„ peruviana, enl. 625. Me,r. Licht. 
„ Beechei, Vig. Mes. Montereale. 
„ Collin, Vig. Mex. San Bias. 
Garrulus Biillockii, A. 96. Mex. Cal. 

Bon. 46° N. {ffubematrix, 

col. 436.) 
„ floridanus, A. 87. 25° N. — 

31° N. {Cyanurus, Sw.) 
„ Stelleri, F.B.A. 54. Mex. Bon. 

—57° N. 
„ cristatus, A. 102. 25° N. — 

56° N. 
„ californicus, Vig. Monterey. 

36° N. 
„ coronatus, Sw. Mex. 
„ azuretts, col. 108. Mex. Licht. 
„ formosiis, Sw. col. 436. Mex. 

„ canadensis, A. 107. 42° N. — 

68° N. (Dysomithia.) 

Sub-typ.fam. Sturnid^. 

Molothrus pecoris, .-/.99. Mex. Sw. 56°N. 
Dolichonj'x agripennis, A. 54. Mex. Sw. 

— 54° N. {oryzivora, Sw.) 
Agelaiiis phceniceus, A. 67. Mex. Sw. Cal. 

Vig.— 56° N. 

Agelaius xanthocephalus, A. 396. Mex. 
—58° N. 
„ mexicanus, Edw. 243. Mex. 
„ longipes, Sw. Mex. table I. 
„ Bullockii, Sw. Mex. 
Stumella ludovieiana, A. 136. Mex. Sw. 
Light. Cal. Vig.— 56° N. 
„ holosericea, Light. Mex. 
Xanthomiis baltimore, A. 12. Mex. Sw. 

Light. — 55° N. 
Icterus spurius, A. 42. 2° N. — 49° N. 
„ mexicanus, Leach, Zool.Misc. 2. 

Mex. Sw. 
„ dominicensis, enl. 5. 1. TV. Ind. 

Mex. Sw. 
„ eucullatiis, Sw. Mex. 
„ 7nelanocephalus, Sw. Mex. 
„ crassirostris, Sw. Mex. 
„ gvlaris, Licht. Mex. 
„ calandra. Light. Mex. 
Cassimis coronatus, S^. Mex. 
Quiscalus versicolor, A. 7. W.Ind. 57° N. 
„ major, A. 187. W. Ind. Mex. 

35° N. 
„ dives, Licht. Mex. 
„ palusfris, Sw. Mex. 
Scolecophagus fenngineus, A. 157. 24° N. 
—68° N. 
„ mexicanus, Sw. 

Conirostres. — Most of the North American species of this, 
which is the t3'pical tribe of insessorial birds, belong to the frm- 
gillidce, one of the aberrant families. The two normal families 
also include a tolerable number of species, but the two remaining 
aberrant families {musophagiclce and huceridte) have no members 
in North America. Among the fringillidcE we find one alauda, 
two plectrophmies, onefrbigilluy two linarice, o\ie pi/rrhula, and 
two loxiae, common to the two countries. In addition to these the 
alauda calandra of the south of Europe is noted in the Fauna 
Soreali-Americana as having been taken at Hudson's Bay, but 
as the only authority is a specimen in the British Museum of 
not very certain origin, it is omitted in the preceding list. The 
perfection of ornithological structure is to be found, according 
to Mr. Swainson, in the corvidce, the typical family of the co?z?- 
?-05/re5, or typical tribe of the insessorial or typical order. The 
raven, which is a typical example of the genus corvus, is common 
to the four quarters of the world, and most ornithologists con- 
sider the carrion crow and the magpie of America to be the same 
with those of Europe. Mr. Audubon, however, describes the 
former as a peculiar species under the name of americanus, and 
Mr. Sabine has treated the magpie in a similar manner, though 
he has not been followed by subsequent writers : — it is certain 
that he has failed in pointing out any constant or appreciable 




differences of plumage, but there is something peculiar in the 
habits of the American bird which frequents the interior prairie 
lands, and does not approach the sea coast as in Europe, nor does 
it go to the north of the 58th parallel, though the European bird 
extends to Lapland. Further observations are required to prove 
that the differences in the form and size of the eggs noted in the 
Fauna boreali-americana are constant. The common magpie 
abounds in Japan, as Temrainck informs us. The sturnid<^ are 
more numerous in America than in Europe, and are all proper 
to the country. 

Aber. tribe. Scatisores. 

Typ.fam. VicinM. 

Picus principalis, A. 66. 25° N.— 37°N. 
„ tridactylus* A. 132. 40° N.— 
68° N. (americanus, arctieus). 
'pubescens, ^.112. 30°N.— 58°N. 
viUosus, A. 360. Cal. Vig. 28° N. 
63° N. 
' querulus, ^. 353. 30°N.— 36°N. 
caxolinus,^. 391. 19°N.— 46°N. 
^varius,^. 190. Mex. Sw.— 61°N. 
„ formicivorus, Col. 451. Mea;. 
LiCHT. Sw. Calif. Vig. 36°N. 
„ seapularis, Vig. Mex. San Bias. 
„ ? olegineus, Licht. Mex. 
„ ? poliocephalics, Licht. Mex. 
„ canus*, Edw. 65. N. Am. Temm. 
„ pileatus, ^.111. Mex. 63° N. 
Colaptes auratus, A. 37. 25° N.— 63° N. 
„ mexicanus, Vig. 9. Mex. Cal. 
— 49° N. (collaris, Vig.) 
Melanerpes torquatus, A. 395. 30° N. — 
40° N. 
„ ervthrocephalus, ^.27. 24° N. 

— 50°N. 
„ ruber, Cal. Vig. Nootka. Cook. 

2° N.— 50° N. 
„ ? aurifrons, Licht. Mex. 
„ albifrons, Sw. Mex. Table L. 
„ elegarw, Sw. Mex. marit. 

Sub-typ.fam. Psittacidje. 



Psittaeus meUmocephalus, enl. 527. 
— Mex. 
„ leucorhynchus, Sw. Mex. 
„ autumnalis, Edw. 1G4. 

— Mex. Licht. 
„ strenuus, Licht. Mex. 
PlyctolopJvus mexicanus, Gmel., Licht. 
Macrocercus militaris, Vaill. 4. Mex. 
Table L. Sw. SanBlas.\iG. 
„ pachyrhynckus, Sw. Mex. 
VOL. v. 1836. 

Macrocercus aracanga, enl. 2. 2° N. — 

Mex. Licht. 
Psittacara carolinensis, .-^.26. Mex.liicwr. 

—42° N. 
„ guianensis, Spix. 25. 2° N. — 

Mex. Licht. {Agapomis, 

,, pertinax, enl. 528. 25° S. Mex. 

Psittacula mexicana, Gmel., Light. 

Aher.fam. Ramphastidje. 

Pteroglossuspamninus, Zool. Pr. 34. Mex. 
Rampltastos poecilorhynchus, Licht. Mex. 

Aber. fain. Cuculid.s. 

Coccyzus americanus*, A. 2. ?^-45° N. 
„ erythrophthalmus, A. 32. ? — 

45° N. 
„ seniculus, A. 169. 2° N.— 25° N. 
„ mexicanus, Sw. Table L. 
„ cayanus, en/. 211. 2° N. — Mex. 

„ viaticus, Licht. Mex. 
Crotophaga ani, enl. 182, 1, 2. 2° N. — 
Mex. Licht. 
„ sulcirosiris, Sw. Mex. Table L. 
Leptostoma longieavda, Sw. Mex. {Sauro- 
thera ealifornica, Less. .') 

Aher.fam. Certhiad^. 

Troglodytes hyemalis, A. 365. 40° N. — 

46° N. {Sylv. troglodytes). 
„ furvus, A. 83. Surin. Bon. 5° N. 

— b7°l^.{domestica, aedon). 
„ americanus, A. 179. 32° N. — 

46° N. 
„ spilurus, Vig. 4. Calif. .' or 

Mex. ? 
„ palustris, A. 100. 25° N.— 

55° N. (Thryot horns). 




Troglodytes rBewickii, A. 18. Louis. 

„ ludovicianus, A. 78. 30° N. 

■1 42° N. {carolinianus). 
„ brevirostris, A. 175. 26° N. 

[_ _44° N. 
„ murarius, Licht. Mex. 

„ mexicanus, Licht. Mex. 

„ latifasdatus, Licht. Mex. 

Certhia familiaris*, A. 392. 30° N.— 
50° N. 

Sitta carolinensis, A. 152. Mex. Sw. 
—46° N. 
„ canadensis, .-/. 105. 38°N.— 52°N. 
„ pusiUa, A. 125. 24° N.— 40° N. 
„ pvgmaea, Vig. 4, 2. Calif. Monterey. 
36° N. 
Xiphorynchns leucogastei-, Sw. Mex. 
„ flaviffasfer, Sw. Mex. 

Dendrocolaptes pceciUnotus, Wagl. Mex. 

We may remark of the scansorial birds in general that they 
are very numerous on the American continent, and particularly 
in the intertropical and southern regions, where they find abun- 
dant food in the ancient and interminable forests which they 
inhabit. The North American fauna contains examples of all 
the five families, the typical group being, however, most plen- 
tifully and generally distributed in the middle districts. Three 
species only of the whole tribe are common to the European 
and American faunae, viz. picus tridactylus*, which is the 
northern scansorial bird, and canus {inalacolophus) Sw., which is 
introduced into our list on the authority of Temminck, who says 
that it inhabits the north of Eui-ope, Asia, and America : both 
these belong to the typical family. The third species is certhia 
familiaris, a type of one of the aberrant families. Doubts 
existed as to the difference between troglodytes eiiropceiis and 
hyemalis, but they have been abandoned by the latest writers. 
The European fauna contains no example of the psittacidce or 
ramphastidcJB.) and in America the psittacara carolinensis alone 
passes the parallel of the south of Europe : a species of parrot 
reaches the thirty-second degree of latitude in the north of 
Africa. The coccyzns americanus has been recently added to 
the list of European birds, four individuals having been killed in 
Great Britain, consequently it attains a higher latitude there by 
five or six degrees than it does on the other side of the Atlantic. 
Temminck objecting to the geographical designations of a?neri- 
canus, carolinensis eind dominiais, in which this species rejoices, 
has named it cinerosiis, being a translation of Buffon's epithet 

Aber. trihe, Teniiirostres, 
Typ.f m. TROCHiLiDiE. 

Trochilus f rufus, Jard.6. Real del Monte, 

J Sw. 61°N. {collaris, Lath.) 

„ I montanus, Less. 33, 54. Mex. 

„ \_platycircus, Sw. Mex. 

„ Anna, Less. 74. Cat. 30° N. — 

57° N. 

Trochilus Rivolii, Less. 4. Mex. 
„ melanotus, Sw. Mex. 
„ fulijeixs, Sw. Mex. 
„ laliro.itris, Sw. Mex. 
„ bifurcatus, Sw. Mex. 
„ minimus, Sw. Mex. 

* Mr. Swainson says the European and American diree-toed woodpeckers 
are distinct species. 



Trocbilus tricolor, Sw. Mf.r. 

„ beryllinus, Licht. Mex. 

„ veriicalis, Licht. Mex. 

„ cuculiger, Licht. Mex. 

„ ctirvipennis, Licht. Mex. 

„ hemileucurus, Licht. Mex. 

„ coritseus, Licht. 3Iex. 
Cj-nantlius colubris, ./. 47. W.Ind. 57° N. 

„ lucifer, Less. 5. Mex. Sw. 

„ tricolor, Less. 14. Mex. 

„ Dujnniii, Less. sup. 1. Mex. 

„ thalassinus, Less. 35, 5G, 57. 
sup. 3. Mrx. 

Cnianthus arsinoe, Less. sup. 28. Mex. 
Campijloptcrus Clementicp, Less. 30. Mex. 
Lampornis mango, /I. 184. 23° S. — 23° 
N. Braz. Mex. Flor. 

„ gramineus, Less. col. 12. Mex. 

„ cceligena, Less. tr. 53. Mex. 

„ melanogaster, Vieill. 75. Mex. 

„ puncfafus, Vieill. 8. Mex. 

„ holosericeus, Edw. W. Ind. 
Mex. 4° N.— 20° N. 

„ gidturalis, enl. 671. 4° N. Mer. 

The tenuirostral tribe, containing the five families of trochi- 
lidcv, cinnyridce, mellphagidce., paradisidcs, and jjromeropidcc, 
is represented in Europe only by the hoopoe, one of the prome- 
ropidce, while many trochilides belong to the North American 
fauna, of which, however, but three range northwards to Euro- 
pean parallels. The alpine structure of Mexico, by producing 
a succession of various climates within a short space, adapts it 
admirably to the habitation of the trochilidcB which seek their 
food in the throats of flowers. Mr. Swainson observes, that the 
vast proportion of suctorial birds inhabiting Australia and 
the neighbouring groups of islands, is one of the chax'acteristics 
of that zoological province, the honey-sucking birds forming 
nearly one-fourth of the New Holland perchers, — for that cha- 
racter belongs not only to the meUphagidcp., but also to the 
little green lories {trichoglo.ssi) of the parrot family. The para- 
disidce are natives of New Guinea which is a portion of the Au- 
stralian province. The greater prevalence of this form in South 
America and Australia affords another instance of analogy 
between their faunas, in addition to those noticed in our remarks 
on the mammalia. The cinnyridce and promeropidcB inhabit 
the warmer regions of the old world. 

Aber. tribe, Fissirostres. 
Aber. Fam. Halcyonid.e. 
Alcedo alcyon, A. 77. W. Ind.— 68" N. 
Typ. Fam. Hirundinid^. 

Hirundo purpurea, A. 22. Braz. Sw. 9° S. 

—67° N. 
„ rustica*, ^. 173. iWejc. Light. — 

68° N. (rufa, americana). 
riparia* A. 389. 25° S.— 68° N. 
„ bicolor, A. 98. Mex. Licht. — 

60° N. (viridis). 
„ fulva, A. 68. W. Ind. Vieill. 

Mex.S-w. — 67°N. (lunifrons?) 
„ aoonalaschkensis, Lath., .' — 

60° N. 

Hirundo thalassina, Sw. Mex. 

„ eoronafa, Licht. Mex. 
Chaetura pelasgia, A. 158. .' — 25° N. — 
50^ N. 

Sub. typ.fam. Caprimulgid^. 

Caprimulgus vociferus, A. 82. .' — 25° N. 

—48° N. 
„ carolinensis, A. 52. Mex. — 

37° N. 
„ virginianus, A. 147. ? — 25° 

N.— 68° N. {Chordeiles, 

„ aKieoS»s,LATH.4°N. — Mex. 


N 2 




2° '^.—Mex. 

Trogon viridis, enl. 195 


„ glocitans, Licht. Mex. 
„ pavonirms, col. 372. Mex. 

Trogon niexicanus, Sw. Temiscalt. 

„ resplendens, Zool. pr. 27. Mex. 

„ eleganft, Zool. pr. Mex. 

„ ambigttus, Mex. 

„ Morganii, Sw. Mex. 
Prionites mexicanus, Sw. Mex. Table L. 

The meropidcE, one of the aberrant families of the fissirostral 
tribe, have no members in America, though two species enter 
Europe, the rest of the group being confined to the warmer re- 
gions of the old continent. The trogonidcs again, another aber- 
rant family peculiar to America, though pretty numerous in 
Mexico, send no species so far north as to reach the United 
States.* The third aberrant family, the halcyonidoe, contains 
one European species and one North American one. The two 
normal families are spread over the whole world, and are re- 
presented in Europe and North America by nearly an equal 
number of species, though few are really common to the two 
countries. The chimney or barn swallow of America is consi- 
dered by Audubon as the same with that of Europe ; though pre- 
vious authors, relying upon some differences in the colour of the 
plumage, had named it, as a distinct species, rufa or americana. 
The sand-martin {n'paria) has been described as the same in both 
continents without much question, but also perhaps without a 
correct comparison cf a sufficient number of specimens from 
both continents. The interesting species n&iwed fidva requires 
further investigation ; by Vieillot, who gave it that appellation, 
it is said to have a forked tail, which form is also attributed to 
it in the Fauna boreali- americana, whei*e Say's appellation of 
lunifrons is adopted : Audubon and the Prince of Musignano, 
who inspected Say's specimen, describe the tail as square. It 
remains to be ascertained whether these authors all speak of 
the same species or not. 

Aber. Ord. RASORES. 

Aher.fam. Cracid^. 

Crax koazin, Albin 32. Mex. 
Ourax patixi, enl. 78. 2°N. — Mex. 
Penelope garrula, Wagler, Mex. Licht. 

Aber. /am. Columbid^. 

Columba fasciata, Bon. 8, 3. R. Platte. 
„ leiicocephala, A. 177. JV. Ind. 

Mex. F/oridas.—2b° N. 
„ monilis, Vig. 10. Cal. 36" N. 
Ectopistes migratoria*, ^. 62. 25° N. — 
62° N. Greenl. accid. 
„ carolinensis, A. 17. Mex. 
Licht. — 42° N. L. Super. 
Peristera montana, ^. 167. 2°N. — 25°N. 
zenaida, A. 162. CM*a.— 25° N. 

Peristera jamaicensis, Tem. 10. Mex. 
„ pusilla, Licht. Mex. 
Geophilus cvanocephalus, ^. 172. W. Ind. 

—25° N. Florida. 
ChamcEpelia passerina, J. 182. W. Ind. — 
32° N. Cape Hatteras. 
„ squamosa, Tem. 59. 25° S. — 
Mex. Licht. 


Meleagris gallopavo, A. 1. Mex. — 44° N. 


Tetrao J lunbellus, A. 41. 32° N.— 56° N. 
„ t cupido, A. 186. 36° N.— 46° N. 

• Mr. Swainson has recently indicated a prionites hahamensis. 




'canadensis, A. 176. 44° N. — 

68' N. Moist Woods. 
Franklinii, F.B.A. 61. 50° N.— 

58° N. Rocky Mount. 
obscurus, A. 361. 40° N.— 63° 

mutus*, Leach. 67°N.— 70°N. 
rupestris*, A. 373. 55° N. — 

75° N. Barren Grounds. 
leucurus, F.B.A. 63. 54° N.— 

64° N. Rocky Mount. 
saUceti*, Ed. 72. 45°N.— 70°N. 

Tetrao fiirophasianus, ^. 366. 42°N. — 

J 4S°1^. PrairiesoftheColumb. 

„ 1 phasianellus, A. 367. 36° N.— 

|_ 61° N. 

Ortyx virginiana, A. 76. Mex. — 48° N. 

„ caJjfornica, Shaw. Mis. 345. 36°N. 

— 44° N. 
„ Douglasii, Vig. 9. Cal. 36° N.— 

42° N. 
„ picta, Doug. 38° N.— 45° N. 
„ spilogaster, 15. Mex. Cum. 
„ cristata, enl. 126./. 2° ^.—Mex. 

The families of rasores are capable of being distributed pretty- 
correctly into geographical groups. Thus tlie cracidce belong 
to South America, a few species extending northwards to Mex- 
ico : one genus {megapodms) inhabiting New Guinea, forms 
another link of connection between the Australian and South 
American faunae. The struthionidce belong mostly to the 
warmer parts of the old continent, one form (the New Holland 
emeu) inhabiting Australia, and another {rhed) South America. 
The phasianidce also have their head quarters in the more 
southern parts of the old world, one genus only {meleagris), 
composed of two species, being American. The columbidae, on 
the other hand, are spread generally over the world, though the 
family contains several well-marked minor geographical groups. 
The tetraonklcB are likewise widely diffused, but chiefly in the 
colder or temperate regions; and it is to this family that the only 
rasorial birds common to both continents belong, — they are ptar- 
migans, inhabiting the most northern districts, [tetrao jnutus, ru- 
pestris and saliceti) . On comparing this division of the faunae of 
North America and Europe with each other we find that the for- 
mer wants the partridges so common in the temperate parts of the 
latter, the true pheasants, the genus otis, and the ])terocles 
and hemipodii which have spread to the south of Europe from 
Africa and Asia ; on the other hand it possesses several forms 
of colmnbidcje, not known in Europe ; the magnificent turkey, 
which for culinary purposes ranks as the chief not only of the 
gallinacei but of the whole feathered race ; several singular 
iovm?,.oi tetrao-, and the beautiful californian quails {ortyx) ; be- 
sides the Mexican cracidce, which, as they do not go so far north 
as the southern extremity of Europe, do not fairly come into the 
comparison. In short, the similarity of this portion of the two 
faimce is confined to one group of columhcE, which does not 
reach higher than the southern parts of the United States, to the 
arctic lagopi, and to another group of tetraones, which includes 
canadefisis, but is not generically distinct from the typical 




Aher.fam. Tantalid^. 
Tantalus loculator, A. 216. 25° S.— 38°N. 

Ibis nibra, A. 385. 25° S.— 36° N. 

„ alba, A. 222. Mex. 25° S.— 40° N. 

„ falcineUa*, A. 386. Mex.—A(,° N. 

Cancroma cochlearia, enl. 38 & 369. 30° 

^.—Mex. LicHT. 
.\ramus scolopaceus, A. 331. 2° X. — U. S. 

Sub-typ. fam. Ardeid.e. 
Grus americana, A. 226. Mex. — 68° N. 
Ardea herodias, A. 211. 25° N.— 50° N. 
ludoviciana, A. 217. 24° N. — 30° 

N. C/iarlestotvn. 
occideiitalis, A. 281. Flor. keys. 

26° N. 
" candidissima, A. 242. 24° N.— 

42° N. Massachusetts. 
rufescens, A. 256. Flor. keys. 

26° N. (Pealii.) 
egretta*, A. 378. fV. Ind. Mex. 
2° N.— 43° N. {alba). 
"coerulea, A. 307. Mex: W.Ind. 

2° N. — 44° N. 
virescens, A. 333. Mex. W. Iiul. 
-44° N. 



lentipnosa, A. 337. ?>i>' 
[_ 58° X. (minor). 
e.\ilis* A. 210. W. IiuI. Cat. Vig. 
45° N. 
fnycticoiax*, A.236. Mex.— 40° N. 
J. \iolacea, A. 336. Mex. W. Ind.— 
[_ 2° N. — 44° N. 
Platalea avaia, A. 321. Mex. Licht. 25° 

■ S.— 40° N. 
Hacinatopus palliatiis, A. 223. Mex. Licht. 
54° S. King.— 52° N. 
„ ostralegus*, Wils. 64, 2. Cal. 
Vig.— 50° N. 

Typ.fam. Scolopacid^. 

■Numcnius longirostiis, A.231. Mex.hicvy. 
Cal. Vig.— 42° N. 
„ boreaUs, A. 208. Cal. Vig. 25° S. 

— 70° N. Labrad. Coperm. r. 
„ liudsonicus, A. 237. ? — 60° N. 
„ rufiventris, Vig. Cal. 36° N. 
Tolanus glottis*, A. 269. W. Ind. Flor. 
ieys.—2o° X. 
„ fla\ipes, A. 288. Mex. Licht. 
Cm««.— 68° N. 

Totanus inelanoleucus, A. 308. fF. Ind. — 
60° N. (vociferus, Wils.) 
„ macularius*, Wils. 59. Mex. 

Licht. — 57° N. 
„ Bartramius*, A. 303. ?— 55° N. 
„ r cbloropygius, Wils. 58. Mex. 

< Licht. Cuba. — 68° N. 
„ [ ochropus*, F.B.J. .'—58° N. 

calidris*, F.B.J. ?— 58° N. 
„ fuscus*, enl. 875. N. Jm.T^UM. 
„ r semipalmatus*, A. 274. 23° N. 
J _56° N. 

[candidus, Edw. 139. ?— 58° N. 

Recurvirostra americana, A. 318. Tropics 

—63° N. 

„ occidentalis, Vig. 12. Cal. 38° N. 

Liniosa fedoa, A. 238. 21° N.— 68° N. 

„ rhudsonica, A. 258. 3»°N.— 68°N. 

„ -l melannra* evl. 874. U.S. Box. 

\_ anpreced. ? 
„ Candida, Edw. 139. enl. 873. H. 
Scolopax minor, A. 268. 26°N.— 52°N. 
„ Wilsonii*, A. 243. 28° N.— 55° N. 
„ leucura, i^.ZJ..</. i/w7.?. B. 57°N. 
„ grisea* A. 335. 50° N.— 70° X. 
Phalaropus fidicarius*, A. 255. ? — 75° X. 
„ glacialis. Lath. Behr. St. 69\° X. 
Lobipes byperboreus*, A. 215. .' — 75° N. 
„ Wilsonii, A. 254. Mex. Sw. 5. J7h. 
— 55° X. {finibriatus, TiiM.) 
Triuga islandica*, A. 315. .' — 75° X. 
„ maritima* A.284. 40°X.— 74°X. 
„ Temminckii*, col. 41, 1. Cal. 

Vig. U. S. Bon. 
„ minuta*,XAUM,21, 30. U. 5'.Bon. 
„ pusiUa, A. 320. Mex. Licht. 

Nootka.—(>%° X. 
„ maculosa, ViEiLL. W.Ind. — U.S. 
„ (■ rufescens* A. 265. 30°X.— 70°X. 
„ i subarcuata*, A. 263. ?— 39° X. 
1_ & 41° X. — ? [afrtcana. Lath.) 
„ pygma;a*, X.\um. 10, 22. U. S. 
BoN. (platyrhinca.) 

{pectoralis* A. 294. JV. Ind. 19° 
^— • 
ScWnzii*, A. 278. 25°X.— 55°X. 
alpina* Wils. 56, 2. 57, 3. ?— 
74° X. {cinclus, variabilis.) 
„ f liimantopus, A. 344. ?— 60° X. 
„ \ semipalmata*, A. 350. ?— 60° X. 
„ Depjiii, Licht. Mex. 
Calidris arenaria*, Wils. 59, 4. 63, 3. 
30° X.— 60° X. 



Strepsilas melanocephalus, Vig. Calif. ? 

Charadrius pluvialis*, A. 300. 23° N.— 

75° N. Behr. St. 

„ vociferus, A. 225. W. Tnd.—b6° N. 

„ \Vilsomus,A.209. 24°N. — 44° N. 

„ melodus, A. 220. Cal. 24° N.— 

53° N. {hiatieula, Wils.) 
„ semipalmatus, A. 330. Cal. 24° N. 
70° N. 
Vanellus melanogaster*, A. 334. 26° N. 
— 70° N. (helveticus). 
„ Cayenensis, ml. 836. Mex. ? Vig. 
Himautopus nigricollis, A. 328. ? — 44° N. 
„ nielanopterus*, enl. 878. 25° S. — 
Mex. LiCHT. Brazil, Ei/ypt, 

AbtT.fam. Rallidje. 
Pan-a jacana, enl. 322. 25° S. — Mex. 
Rallus ^drgillianus, A. 205. 24° N.— 50° N. 
„ crepitans, A. 204. 24° N.— 41° N. 
„ elegans, A. 203. 24° N.— 40° N. 
Crex noveboraceiibis, A. 329. ? — 57° N. 
„ cai-olinus, A. 233. Mex. 25° S. — 
62° N. 
Galliuula chloropus*, A. 244. Mex. Cal. — 
40° N. {r/aleata, Bon.) 
„ martinica, A. 305. 18° N.— 35° N. 
Fulica americana, A. 239. Mex. Licht. 
Cal. Vig. — 56° N. (atra). 

Aber.fam. Chakadriad^. 
Strepsilas interjjrcs*, A. 304. 24° N. — 

75° N. 

The principal forms of the grallatorial order are the same 
in the northern divisions of the two continents ; but there are 
live minor genera, viz., ciconia, glareola, porphyrio, and cur- 
sorius in Europe, which do not occur in North America ; and 
three in the latter country, namely, aramus, tantalus, and 
parr a, winch do not belong to the fauna of Europe. The 
forms and very many of the species of the typical family (the 
scolopacidcc) are absolutely the same in both countries, and on 
referring to the table in page 167, it will be seen how nearly 
the number of species of most of the families correspond on 
both sides of the Atlantic ; the numbers would agree still more 
exactly in the principal group but for recent refinements in the 
discrimination of species, by which birds, so closely resembling 
the common snipe as not to be distinguishable by an ordinary 
observer, are described as distinct on account of some differ- 
ences in the tail-feathers. The American coot differs very 
slightly from the European one, and the constancy of these 
differences still requires to be established ; the latter occurs in 
India without change of form. The Rev. Mr. Bachman and 
Mr. Audubon have clearly established the brown crane, grus 
canadeiiais, to be the young of the great hooping-crane, grus 

Aher. Orrf. NATATORES. 


PhcEnicopterus ruber*, Wils. 66, 4. ? — 40° 

N. Bon. 
Anas clyiJeata*, A. 327. Mex. Sw. Licht. 

Cal. ViG.— 70° N. 
„ strepera*, A. 348. Mex. Sw. 68° N. 
„ acuta*, A. 227. Mex. Sw. Cal. 

ViG.— 70° N. 
„ uropliasiauus, Vig. 14. Cal.l 
„ bosclias*, A. 221. Mex. Licht. 

—68° N. 

Anas obscura, A. 302. 25° N.— 45° N. 
„ discors, A. 313. Mex. Licht. Cal. 

—58° N. 
„ crecca*, A. 228. Cal. Vig. 24° N. 

—70° N. 
„ glocitans*, A. 338. 
„ ameiicana, A. 345. Cuba. Cal. 

Vig.— 68° N. (Mareca). 
„ sponsa, A. 206. Mex. Cal. Vig. 

19° S.— 54° N. 
Somaterla mollissima*, A. 246. 39° N. — 

81° N. Greenl. Spitzb. 



Somateria spectabilis*, A. 276. 43° N. — 

81° N. Greenl. Spitzb. 
Oidemia perspicillata*, A. 317. Nootka. 
24° N.— 72° N. 
„ fusca* WiLs. 72. f. 3. 36° N.— 

72° N. 
„ nigra*, Wils. 72. 2. 36° N. ? N. 
„ americana, A. 349. U. 5.-62° N. 
Fuligula valisneria, A. 301. Cal. 38° N.— 
68° N. 
„ ferina*, A. 322. Cal. 38° N.— 
68° N. 
marila*, Wils. 69. 5. 38° N.— 
68° N. Cal. ViG. 
„ labradora, A. 332. 40° N.— 58° N. 
„ rufitorques, A. 234. 26° N.— 68° 

N. {fuUyula, Wils.) 

„ rubida, A. 343. 26° N.— 58° N. 

Clangula \idgaris*, A. 342. 26° N.— 68° 

N. {clangula, Auct.) 

„ Barrovii, F.B.A. A. 70. ?— 5 7° N. 

„ albeola, A. 325. Mex. Cal. Vig. 

— 68°N. {bucephala). 
„ histrionica*, A. 297. Cal. Via. — 
74° N. 
Harelda glacialis*, A. 312. 36° N.— 75° N. 
Mergus cucullatus*, A. 232. 24° N.— 68° 
„ merganser*, A. 331. 38° N.— 

68° N. 
„ sen-ator*, A. 382. 38° N.— 68° N. 
„ albellus* A. 347. 38° N.— ? N. 
Cvgnus buccinator, A. 377. 38°N.— 68°N. 
„ Bewckii*, A. 387. Cal.—7b° N. 
Anser canadensis, A. 201. 26° N. — 70° N. 
Hutchinsii, A. 277. 45° N.— 69° 
N. Melville peninsula. 
„ bernicla*, A. 380. 26° N.— 73° N. 
„ leucopsis*, A. 296. ?— .' U.S. 

„ segetuin*, enl. 985. U. S. Bon. 
„ hyperborea*, A. 376. 26° N.— 
73° N. 


Podiceps carolinensis, A. 248. 26° N. — 

68° N. 

„ cornutus* A. 259. 26° N.— 68°N. 

„ cristatus*, A. 292. Mex.— 68° N. 

„ rubricollis* A. 298. 41°N.— 68° 


Podoa surinamensis, enl. 893. 2° N. — 40° 

N. Bon. 
Colymbus glaciaUs*, A. 306. 26°N.— 70°N. 
„ septentrionalis*, A. 202. 36° N. 

—74° N. 
„ arcticus*, A. 346. .'—70° N. 

Uria Brunnichii* A. 245. 42°N.— 75°N. 

Una grylle*, A. 219. 37° N.— 75° N. 
„ troile*, A. 218. 41° N.— 61° N. 
„ marmorata, Lath. N.W. coast. 

„ alle*, A. 339. 39° N.— 75° N. 
„ hTeviTostns,\iG. Kotzebue Sound. 
Mergulus cirrhocephalus, Vig. Kotzebue 

Fratercula glacialis, A. 293. U.S. Bon. 
Kotzebue Sound. Vig. 70° N. 
„ cirrhata, A. 249. 40° S.— 70° N. 

Kotzebue Sound. Vig. 
„ arctica* A. 213. 32° N.— .' N. 
Phaleris cristatella, col. 200. 50° N.— 70° 
N. Aleut, isles ? Vig. 
„ psittacula, PaU. sp. v. 2. Sea of 
Alca torda* A. 214. 40° N.— 57° N. 

„ impennis*, A. 341. ? — 75° N. 
Cerrorhincha occidentalis, Bon. Behr. St. 


Onocrotalus americanus, A. 311. Mex. 

Vig.— 61° N. 
Pelecanus thajiis, S. 40°. — Mex. Licht. 
Phalacrocorax carbo*, A. 266. 40° N. — 
53° N. 
dilophus, A. 257. 33° N.— 55°N. 
floridanus, A. 252. 24°N.— 35°N. 
graculus*, enl. 974. 40° N. Bon. 
cristatus* col. 322. 40° N. Bon. 
pygmaeus*, Pall. Voy. 1. U. S. 

„ brasilianus, Spix. 106. 25° S. — 
Mex. Light. 
Sula fusca, A. 251. Mex. Vig. 2° N.— 
35° N. Flor. S. Carol. 
„ bassana*, A. 326. 40° N. Bon. 
Tachypetes aquilus, A. 271. Mex. Vig. 

23° S.— 40° N. Bon. 
Phaeton aethereus, A. 262. 30° S. Less. 

— 25° N. AuD. 
Plotus anhinga, Wils. 74. 1 & 2. 25° S. 
— 36° N. (melanogaster). 


Sterna liirundo*, A. 309. 38° N.— 57° N. 
( Wilsonii, Bon.) 
„ arctica*, A. 250. 38° N.— 75° N. 
„ cantiaca*, A. 279. 24° N.— 33° N. 
„ DougalU*, A. 240. ?— 26° N. 
„ cayana, A. 273. 23° N.— 54° N. 
„ fuliginosa, A. 235. 49° S.— 40° N. 
„ nigra*, A. 280. Mex.— 69° N. 
„ aranea*, A. 383. 36° N.— 44° N. 
„ niinuta*, A. 319. .'—44° N. 
„ stolida, A. 275. 25° S.— 24° N. 
,, galericulattt, Mex. Licht. 




Lariis glaucus*, A. 379. ? N.— 75° N. 
„ argentatus* A.291.24°N.— 75°N. 
„ leucopterus*A.282.40°N.— 75°N. 
„ marinus*, A. 24 1 . 28° N.— 5 6° N. 
„ zonorhynchus, A. 212. 36° N. — 

56° N. 
„ canus*, AucT. U. S. — 64° N. 
„ Belcheri, Vig. N. Pacif. coast. 
„ eburneus* A.287.47°N.— 75°N. 
„ fuscus* Frisch. 218. U.S. Bon. 

„ tridactylus* A. 224. 30° N.— 

74° N. 
„ Bonapartii, A. 324. ?— 70° N. 
„ FrankUnii, /^.5.y^. 71. ?— 56°N. 
„ capistratus*, Baf. Bay, Tem. 33° 

N.— 74° N. 
„ atricilla*, A. 314. ?— 45° N. 
„ ridibundus*,NAUM.32,44. Greenl. 

seas. Tem. 
„ minutus*, Falk. Voy. 3, 24. U.S. 

Bon. 65° N. 
„ Sabinii*, A. 285. Cal. Behr. St. 

Vig. Spitzb. 36° N.— 80° N. 
„ Kossii*, F.B.A. Newfoundland, 

Waigatz St. Spitzb., Regt. Inlet. 

?— 82° N. 
Rhynchops nigra, A. 323. ?— 46° N. 
Lestris parasiticus*, A. 267. 24° N. — 75° 

„ pomarinus,A.253.43°N.— 67°N. 
„ Richardsonii*, A. 272. 42° N.— 

75° N. {parasiticus, Auct.) 
„ catai-actes*, Brit. Zool. 50, 6. 

U. S. Bon. 
„ Buffonii*, enl. 762. U. S. Bon. 
Diomedea extilans, A. 388. 35° S. — U. S. 

WiLS. Ca2)e of Good Hope. 
„ fuliginosa, col. 469. Cal. Aleut. 

islands, Vig. 50° S.— 50° N. 
ProceUariaglacialis*, A. 264. U. .S.— 60°N. 
„ puffinus* ere;. 962. tl.&— 60°N. 
„ obscura*, St. degli Ucelli, 538. 

U.S. Bon. 
Thalassidroma Wilsonii* A. 270. 23° N. 

— 55° N. Bon. {pelagica, W.) 
„ Leachii*, A. 260. 40° N.— 55° N. 

„ pelagica*, A. 340. U. S. 
„ BuUockii*, Newfoundland. Aud. 

The natatores, like the cetacea which they represent, in- 
habit the waters, the majority seldom coming ashore except 
for the purpose of nidification ; and they are mostly common 
to the two continents, especially the marine ones. The generic 
groups are almost entirely the same in the same parallels of 
latitude ; and even where the species are peculiar, there is a 
surprising uniformity in the numbers of each group, as may be 
observed on consulting the table in page 167- The common white 
pelican of America is considered as distinct from the onocro- 
talus of the old world by Mr. Audubon, and some occasional 
differences in the bill are pointed out in the Fcnma boreali- 
americana ; but in most other respects the American and Eu- 
ropean pelicans have a very close resemblance. The breeding 
plumage of many of the northern gulls is still very imperfectly 
known, and the exact number of species and their distribution 
will remain uncertain until some ornithologist, who has the re- 
quisite opportunities of observation, accomplishes a revision of 
the genus. The characters of the black-headed gulls especially 
require elucidation. 

In concluding our remarks on North American ornithology, 
made chiefly with a view of pointing out its peculiarities, by 
contrasting it with that of Europe, we may refer the reader to 
the Pi'iuce of Musignano's " Specchio comjiarativo" * , &c., 

• Specchio comparativo delle Orrntologie di Roma e di Filadelfia, di C, 
3NAPARTE, &c., estvutto dal No. 'i'i, del nuovo giornale de' htterati. P 



C. L. 




for an excellent comparison of the birds inhabiting the middle 
parallels of the two zoological provinces. 

The following table, which exhibits to an approximate fraction 
the proportion that each group of birds bears to the whole of 
the known North American species, will require correction as 
our knowledge of the ornithology of Mexico and the northern 
shores of the Pacific imnroves. 












Muscicapidse . . . . 

Fringiliidce .... 






Ramphastidae. . . . 



Tenuirostres. Trochil. 

No. of 
























3 43 
























No. of 


Fissirostres . . . 

Halcyonidse . 

Hirundinidae . 


Trogonidse. . . 


Columbidse . 

Phasianidse . 

Tetraonidas . 
Grallatores . 

Tantalidae ... 


Scolopacidae . 


Charadriadje . , 
Natatores ... 


Colymbidae . 


Pelecanidae . 





































] 1 






The whole zoological region of North America being acces- 
sible, -without much difficulty, to naturalists and collectors, that 
highly interesting subject, the migration of birds, can be studied 
nowhere with greater advantage. The American ornithological 
■works do, indeed, abound with scattered facts respecting the 
periodical flights of some species : and the introduction to the 
second volume of the Fauna horeuli-umericana contains a few 
general remarks on this matter ; but a paper by the Rev. J. 
Bachman, published in Silliman's Journal for April, 1836, is 
the only one written expressly on the migration of North Ame- 
i-ican birds which has ccnne to my knowledge. In this treatise 
the mo\cmcnts of the feathered tribes in America are noticed 


in a very agreeable and popular style ; but there is a want of 
precise numerical data, which we trust Mr. Audubon's forth- 
coming volume will amply supply ; in the mean time the follow- 
ing pages, containing the chief statements made in the works 
referred to, will give some idea of the question as it now stands. 

The primary objectof the migration of birds is generally allowed 
to be the obtaining a due supply of proper food in the various 
seasons of the year ; and it is to be observed that in many 
cases the parents at the epoch of reproduction, and their callow 
young, require a very ditferent kind of nourishment from that 
which the species subsists upon at other times ; thus many, if 
not most of the hard-billed granivorous birds, feed their un- 
fledged brood on soft insects and grubs. 

Three lines of route, marked out by the physical features of 
the land, are pursued by the bands of migrating birds in their 
course through North America ; some species retiring on the 
approach of winter through the eastern states and the peninsula 
of Florida to the West Indies ; others passing down the great 
valley of the Mississippi to the Texas and eastern Mexico ; and 
others again keeping to the westward of the Rocky Mountains, 
and entering the tropical regions by the shores of the Pacific. 
Some more widely-diffused species pursue all the three routes ; 
while others, hitherto detected only in a single tract in the 
southerly part of their journey, spread from one side of the con- 
tinent to the other as they approach their breeding quarters on 
the confines of the arctic circle. Many birds, and more espe- 
cially the soft-billed waders, make their flight northwards in the 
higher latitudes through a different zone of country from that 
which they traverse on their return southwards, being influenced 
in this matter by the different conditions of the surface in 
spring and fall. 

The short duration of summer within the arctic circle, taken 
in connexion with the time necessary to complete the process 
of incubation, the growth of plumage, and, in the case of the 
anatidcB, the moulting of the parent birds, serves to limit the 
northern range of the feathered tribes. The waders, which seldom 
make a nest, and the water-birds, which lay their eggs among 
their own down, and obtain their food on the sea or open lakes 
when the land is covered with snow, breed farthest north. 
The ptarmigans, which bi-eed in very high latitudes, and moult 
during the season of re-production, migrate only for a short dis- 
tance, and by easy flights ; and, their food moreover being the 
buds or tips of willows and dwarf birch, can be obtained amidst 
the snow. When we consider that at the northern extremity of 
the American continent, and on the islands beyond it, the sum- 

188 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

mer heat is already on the decline before the country is even 
partially denvided of its wintry mantle, we should scarcely ex- 
pect to find any granivoroiis birds feeding in such high lati- 
tudes ; but, in fact, by an admirable provision, springing from 
the peculiar severity of the climate, the snow-buntings and Lap- 
land finches are furnished with food on their first arrival, when 
the patches of cleared land are scarcely larger than what suffices 
for the reception of their eggs. In the polar regions, the au- 
tumnal frosts set in so severely and suddenly that the pro- 
cess of vegetation is at once an-ested, and the grass-culms, in- 
stead of whitening and withering as they do more to the south- 
Avard, are preserved full of sap vmtil the spring, the seeds re- 
maining firmly fixed in their glumes ; when the ground is pre- 
pared for their reception by the melting snow, the seeds fall, 
and in a few days, under the influence of continuous light, a 
brilliant, though short-lived, verdure gladdens the eye. These 
grass-seeds, then, and the berries of several vaccinea;, empetrecef 
&c., which remain plump and juicy till the spring, yield food to 
the birds on their first arrival ; and by the time that the young 
are hatched, their wants are supplied by the further melting 
of the snow liberating the larvae of many insects. The nata- 
tores, which feed at sea, find open water early enough for their 
purpose, and it is interesting to observe how well even the 
freshwater anatklcE (the majority of which breed in high lati- 
tudes) are provided for. Long before the ice of the small lakes 
gives way it is flooded to the depth of several feet with melted 
snow, that swarms with myriads of the larvae of gnats and 
other insects on which the ducks feed. The more herbivorous 
of the duck-tribe, viz., the geese, feed much on berries in their 
migrations ; in the spring, before the sprouting of the tender 
grass, which they like, we find their crops filled with the shi- 
ning, white, dry fruit of the eleagnus urgentea; and in the au- 
tumn, when they cross the barren grounds, they banquet at 
their halting-places on the juicy berries of the vaccmium 
idiginosum, vitis idcea, or entpetruin nigrum, which dye their 
crops a deep purple colour. These and other capabilities 
of the lands on the confines of the arctic circle account for 
so many birds entering the arctic fauna. The numbers of 
the fa IconidcE and strigidce are of course proportioned to the 
abundance of smaller birds and rodent animals on which they 

It may be considered as a general rule, that the number of 
species of birds which enter the faunfe of successive parallels of 
latitude, diminishes gradually as we advance from the tropics 
towards the poles ; but if we deduct the birds of passage and 


accidental visiters, and conclude with some authors that the 
species properly belonging to a district are only those which breed 
within its limits, we shall then find that in North America the 
number of breeding birds increases as we go northwards, up to 
the 62nd degree of latitude, where the woods begin to thin off. 
Even on the verge of the barren grounds, near to the arctic 
circle, as many species breed as in the neighbourhood of Phila- 
delphia, though in the latter locality some birds rear two or 
more broods in a season, which is not the case in the north. 
The Prince of Musignano states the number which hatch near 
Philadelphia, near the 40th parallel, at 113, while fourteen de- 
grees farther north, at Carlton-house, on the Saskatchewan, the 
number amounts to 149, and the difference would no doubt be 
greater in favour of the latter place were its ornithology more 
thoroughly investigated ; but all the species included in our 
estimate were detected in tiie course of a single spring by Mr. 
Drummond and myself. 

The amount of species which reside the whole year in any 
one place has no direct relation to the numbers which breed 
there, but is regulated chiefly by the winter temperatures, or, in 
Humboldt's phrase, by the course of the isocheimal lines ; and 
it seems evident that it is the diminution of supplies of food, 
and not the mere sensation of cold, which occasions birds to 
migrate from the high latitudes on the approach of winter. 
After the spring movement, the feathered tribes are often ex- 
posed in the fur countries to much lower temperatures than had 
occurred before their departure in autumn ; and the eagle and 
other kinds which soar above the summits of the highest moun- 
tains, do not appear to be inconvenienced by the rapid change 
of climate to which they thus subject themselves. All the 
birds which feed on winged and terrestrial insects and worms, 
such as the fly-catchers, vireos, and warblers, must migrate 
from the northern regions, as well as most of the aquatic and 
piscivorous tribes, the suctorial tenuirostres, and all the gralla- 
tores, which thrust their bills into soft spungy soil in search of 
food. The wood-peckers, though insectivorous, are more sta- 
tionary, because the larvae of the xylophagous beetles, on which 
they subsist, lodging in trees, are as accessible in winter as in 
summer ; but the colaptes auratus, which feeds mostly upon 
ants, and the picus varius quit the snow-clad fur-countries in 
winter, while they are permanent residents in the more southern 

The only bird seen at Melville Island, in latitude 75° N., 
during winter was a white one, supposed to be the strix nyctea, 
or it may have been a wandering falco islandicus, both these 

190 SIXTH REPORT — 1S36. 

birds preying on small quadrupeds. In the pools of water 
which remain open all the year in the arctic seas, the uria grylle 
and Bnmiiichii are to be found at the coldest periods, the al- 
cadre, consequently, are the most northerly winterers. Many 
individuals, however, of the species just named go far south in 
the winter season, and it has been observed that the old birds 
remain nearer the breeding stations, while the young seek their 
food further afield. This has been ascertained also of birds be- 
longing to other families, and more especially of the falcomdce 
and laridcB, probably because their young are more readilj' 
known by their peculiar plumage. In the extreme northern 
parts of the continent the winter residents arc the/«/co islandi- 
cus and peregrinus, stri.v nyctea Kndifunerea, and the raven, all 
birds of prey, the linaria boreciHs, \\\\\c\\ in the winter time 
inhabits dwarf birch or willow thickets, and picks up a subsist- 
ence from the grass-spikes that overtop the snow, and the 
ptarmigan, whose mode of feeding has already been alluded to. 
The strix lapponica or cinerea and virginiana, corviis ccmadensis, 
tetrao canadensis, and picus tridactylus, inhabit the woods all 
the year up to their northern termination. The tetrao cana- 
densis feeds on the evergreen leaves of the spruce-fii', and the 
corvus canadensis, which is omnivorous, is one of the few birds 
which lays up food for times of scarcity. As we proceed farther 
southwards, to the banks of the Saskatchewan for instance, we 
find large bands of willow ptarmigan {tetrao saliceti), which 
have left their breeding-quarters in the north to winter there, 
and the tetrao phasianellns and nmbellus, which are perma- 
nent residents, also one or two species of parvs, some addi- 
tional woodpeckers, two loxiae, the pj/j^rhula enucleator, the 
corvus cristatus, and two additional owls. The emberiza ni- 
valis, which breeds between the 65th and 75th parallels, spends 
most of the winter on the Saskatchewan, being seldom absent 
more than two or three weeks in the severest weather, at which 
time it retires to the confines of the United States. 

In the neighbourhood of Philadelphia we find 44 permanently 
resident birds, and 71 which come from the north to winter 
there, making together 115 winterers in that locality; in sum- 
mer the 44 residents are joined by 74 species from the south, 
which breed in Pennsylvania, making in the aggregate 118 
breeders ; the rest of the birds enumerated in the Philadelphian 
fauna by the Prince of Musignano consist of 48 species, which 
merely pass through the district in spring and fall, on their 
way from their southern winter- quarters to their breeding- 
places in the north; the amount of species, residents and visit- 
ers, in that district being 281. Dr. Emmons enumerates 241 



species in his list of Massachusetts Inrds, 12G of which breed 
within the limits of the state*. Out of 208 which were de- 
tected by us oil the Saskatchewan, 146 species breed there, 
while the permanent residents and winter visiters do not exceed 
25 or .SO species. 

The following table, which is compiled from the Prince of 
Musignano's " Sj)ecchio comparativo" , Dr. Emmons's list, 
and the Fauna boreali-americana, indicates the number of 
species that breed in three distant localities, the permanent 
residents, and those which come from the south in summer to 
breed being included in this number. A second column un- 
der each head comprises both the birds of passage and ac- 
cidental visiters, these two classes not being easily distin- 
guished in the present state of our knowledge of North Ameri- 
can ornithology. A few observations on the several families 
follow the table. 

Lat. 40° N. 


Lat. 424° N.] 

Lat. 54° N 



Lat. 40° N. 

Lat. 424° N. 


Lat. 54° N. 












r Vultiiridae ... 
•< Falconidae ... 




Ampelidac ... 

Fringillidae ... 


J Stumidae 





































r Columbidae . . 
< Pavonidae ... 
[ Tetraonidae . . 

fTantalidae ... 


■I Scolopacidae . 


[ Charadriadae . 












































Certhiadae .. 
Trochilidae . . 
Halcyonidae .. 
Hirundinidae . 
|_ Caprimulgidae 

Normal groups 







Aberrant groups 







Rapaces. — The vultiiridcE, as we have already mentioned, 
belong properly to the warm latitudes. Four of the five which 

• List of the birds of Massachusetts, prepared by order of the State Legisla- 
ture. By Ebenezer Emmons, M.D. 

+ The inland situation of Cumberland and Carlton-houses on the Saskatche- 
wan excludes the alcadte from their fauna. 

192 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

enter North America are accordingly much more abundant to 
the south of the isthmus of Darien, and o7ie only {cathartes 
aura) breeds as far north on the coast as Pennsylvania; in the 
interior this species reaches the 54th degree of latitude, but it 
is not known to breed there. Of the falconidcs named in our 
list, twelve range to South America, or have their head-quarters 
there, and as many have been detected in Mexico, where they are 
chiefly winter visiters, while the number that breed on the Sas- 
katchewan is twice as great as in Pennsylvania : only two {pere- 
grinus and islandiciis), and these are of the typical group, win- 
ter in the fur-countries. The strigid(s are very partially migra- 
tory : otus and brachyotus, the only species which quit the 
fur-countries in winter, are resident all the year in the United 
States. Five of the North American owls belong also to the 
South American fauna. 

Insessores, Detitirostres. — With a very few exceptions, con- 
fined, or nearly so, to the typical genus lanius, all the North Ame- 
rican laniadee retire in winter to Mexico, the West Indies, or 
South America, agreeing in this respect with the fly-catching syl- 
viadce, which they so closely resemble in their manner of taking 
their prey ; the tyrannulce especially are numerous in Mexico. 
The merulidfB wholly quit the fur-countries in winter, and all of 
them extend their migrations to Mexico, the West Indies, or 
South America, though detachments of some species, as merula 
niigratoria, crpheus 2)olyglotfas,rufus, andj'elivox remain with- 
in the United States all the year: South Carolina is stated by the 
Rev. Mr. Bachman to be the most northerly winter range of 
the last-mentioned bird. The breeding-range of birds of this 
genus is very extensive ; eight species perform that function 
in all parts of the United States, most of them going as high as 
the Saskatchewan. The merula migratoria is known to breed 
from North Carolina to the Arctic Sea ; cinclus americanus 
and orpheus ncevius breed in the higher latitudes only. Mr. 
Swainson has remarked of the American sylviadce that they 
have their head-quarters in Mexico, and that while few species 
migrate towards South America, many go northwards on the 
approach of summer*. It is true that the Mexican fauna in- 

• The Rev. Air. Bachman, speaking of the neighbourhood of Charlestown, 
says, " The yellow-crowned warbler {sylvia coronafa) is the only sylvia out of 
fifty species inhabiting the United States that remains with us in winter ; and 
even this bird could not find subsistence in that season were it not that it 
almost changes its nature and lives on the fruit of the candle-berry myrtle 
{myrlca cerifera). This is also the case with the only fly-catcher that winters 
in Carolina, viz., the peewee {tyrannula fused), which sometimes fattens on the 
seeds of the imported tallow-tree {slylingia cerifera). 


eludes many birds of this family, but many of them are hatched 
in the higher latitudes, to which, therefore, we consider them 
as properly belonging. Compai'atively a small number spend 
the winter within the United States, more than half have been 
ascertained to enter the West India islands or Mexico, yet only 
one (the setophaga ruticilla) is known to pass the isthmus of 
Darien, so that there are few families in which the distinction 
between the North and South American faunae are so evident. 
Of the few ampelidce which belong to the North American 
fauna, hombi/cHla carolinensis and vireo Bartramii are known 
to visit South America. Bomhycilla garrula breeds at the 
northern extremity of the continent, among the woods which 
skirt the Mackenzie ; but its winter retreats are still unknown, 
though they are most probably in the Mexican cordilleras. 

Lisessores, Couirostres. — The frvigillidce is another family 
of which few species pass the isthmus of Darien from the 
northern continent ; the pyranga ludoviciana, which attains 
the 42nd parallel in the interior prairies, and saltator rufiven- 
tns, which reaches the 36th on the coast of the Pacific, are the 
only ones common to the United States and South America. 
The euphonejacarina, also, and most probably some other Mexi- 
can species, enter the southern fauna. Many of the frhigillidce 
that breed in the high latitudes winter within the United 
States ; some go to Mexico, and a few to the West Indies. 
The einberiza nivalis builds its nest on the most northern lands 
thathave been visited, and the alauda alpestris and emheriza lap- 
ponica, likewise breed on the arctic coasts. The corvidce are com- 
paratively little migratory, and the majority inhabit limited 
districts of country, tliough two or three species are very 
widely distributed ; none which enter the North American fauna 
are known to pass the isthmus of Darien. T!ie stunddce, on 
the other hand, form a closer bond of union between the inter- 
tropical and northern faunae ; nearly all the North American 
species winter in Mexico or the West Indies, one, the icterus 
spurius, ranging as far south as Cayenne. The southern parts 
of the United States, however, are within the limits of the 
winter- quarters of molothrus pecoris, scolecophagus ferrugi- 
iiens and quiscalus major, and versicolor. As cultivation ad- 
vances in the fur-countries, the sturnidce attract ev^ery year 
more and more the attention of the settlers on account of the 
havock they make in the corn-fields ; but we are not prepared 
to assert that the range of this family of birds northwards is 
determined by the progress of agriculture. I am rather in- 
clined to suppose that some individuals of the different species 
have always resorted to those latitudes to feed on tlie wild rice 

VOL. v.— 1836. o 

194 SIXTH HEPORT — 1836. 

{zizania) and other grass-seeds, but remained unnoticed in the 
marshes, until the labours of the husbandman providing them a 
more abundant repast, they made their appearance in the vici- 
nity of the fur-posts. Mr. King, in his narrative of Captain 
Back's expedition, mentions that a flock of scolecopharfiis ferru- 
gineus continued feeding on the offal of a fishery on Great Slave 
Lake, lat. 60^°, until late in December. 

Insessores, Scansores. — The jncidce, or typical family of the 
scansores, are, as we have already mentioned, mostly residen- 
tiary, yet some of the species are distributed over forty de- 
grees of latitude. In such cases, many individuals of a species 
may seek a more southern residence in winter, though the fact 
cannot be ascertained by consulting ornithological works, in 
which the migration of a bird is seldom noticed, unless it 
takes place in large flocks or entirely deserts the district ; but 
it is undoubtedly true that near the northern limits of a resident 
species, the individuals are more numerous in summer than in 
winter. None of the North American picidce have been de- 
tected in South America. The aiculidcB do not go to the north- 
ward of the valley of the St. Lawrence, only one species at- 
taining that parallel ; the majority of them certainly, perhaps 
the whole, are common to South America also. The certhiadce 
abound in Mexico, and none of them go far north. The troglo- 
dytes furviis, or aedon, which has the highest range, extends 
also furthest to the south, the species, according to the Prince 
of Musignano, being precisely the same in Surinam. 

Insessores, Tenuirostres. — Of the trochilidce, the only family 
of the tenuirostral tribe which detaches species northwards from 
Mexico, the cynanthus colubris breeds as high as the 57th pa- 
rallel, on the eastern declivity of the Rocky mountains. The 
trochilus anna, according to Lesson, goes equally high on the 
coastof the Pacific, and Eschscholtz informs us that the trochilus 
rufus reaches the 61st degree of latitude on the same shore. 
The lampornis mango, a Brazilian species, has been detected 
recently on the peninsula of Florida in the 25th parallel, and the 
Reverend Mr. Bachman supposes that it is attracted thither 
by certain tubular flowers, lately introduced into the gardens 
in that quarter. This beautiful family of birds is numerous 
in Mexico, the physical conditions of that country ensu- 
ring them a constant succession of tubular flowers by short mi- 
grations from the low tierras calientes, Avhich enjoy a tropical 
heat in winter, to the elevated plains and mountains as spring 
advances. Lichtenstein informs us that many of the Mexican 
humming birds pass the summer near the snow line, thus ob- 
taining by a comparatively short flight a change of climate, which 



their congeners above-named seek by traversing many degrees 
of latitude. Captain King observed some humming birds ho- 
vering over the fuschiiS, which grow plentifully in the Straits of 
Magalhaes, the ground being at the time covered withsnow. 

Insessores, Fissirostres. — The only species of the halcyonidce 
which enters North America, is universally distributed from 
Louisiana up to the 6Sth parallel : its winter being spent in the 
southern parts of the United States and in the West Indies. 
Few birds have given rise to more speculation than the swallows. 
Marvellous stories of their hybernating in caverns or at the bot- 
toms of lakes, were believed even recently by naturalists of repu- 
tation, yet there is scarcely a seaman, accustomed to navigate 
the, Mediterranean, who has not seen these birds migrating in 
large flocks to or from the coast of Africa, accompanied by pre- 
dacious birds of various kinds. Mr. Audubon has skilfully 
availed himself of the great facilities which America offers for 
tracing the migrations of birds, so as to put to rest for ever the 
question of the hybernation of swallows. From his investiga- 
tions, we are assured that the hirundo hicolor winters in the 
neighbourhood of New Orleans, where it roosts at night in 
hollow trees. Mr. Bachman also states, that this bird appears 
in the neighbourhood of Charlestown in winter after a few 
successive warm days. The other species winter in Mexico and 
the West Indies ; and the hirundo purpurea and riparia, which 
extend in summer to the northern extremity of the continent, 
have a range southwards to the Brazils ; the former it is stated 
by the Reverend Mr. Bachman breeding in the latter locality 
during the winter of the northern hemisphere. A conjecture 
that some species of birds might breed twice in the year in dif- 
ferent climates was hazarded in the introduction to the Fauna 
boreali-americana, but I am not aware of any direct testimony 
to that effect having been adduced prior to the publication of 
Mr. Bachman's paper. The caprimulgidce winter to the south- 
ward of the United States. 

Rasores. — This is the least migratory of all the orders of 
birds, yet the species are in general readily acclimated in lati- 
tudes remote from their native haunts, and in fact it is from 
these birds that man derives the greatest advantage in his do- 
mestic economy. Our common poultry were originally brought 
from warmer regions, and this furnishes another evidence of 
abundance of proper food being more important than the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere in regulating the distribution of the 
feathered tribes, the dense covering of their bodies protecting 
them well from the severity of northern winters. There is, 
however, a limit to the range of each species, and it is found 

o 2 


that poultry thrive best in our cliauitcs when their coops are 
artificially lieatcd in winter. The tetrannidce are comparatively 
inliabitiiiits of cold countries, and the ptarmigans, which are the 
most northern of all, are almost the only migratory ones. Most 
of these birds quit the bleak arctic barren lands in which they 
are bred, and retire in winter to the verge of the woods, return- 
ing, however, very early in spring to their former haunts, or as 
soon as the decreasing snow has released the tops of the dwarf 
birches and willows on which they feed, and the crests of a few 
gravelly banks. The passenger pigeon migrates northwards to 
the 62nd parallel, after its breeding season in the United States 
has terminated ; through stress of weather individuals have 
been driven very far north, an instance beirig recorded by 
Sir John Ross, of the capture of one on the coast of Greenland. 
This pigeon visits Carolina in the winter at long and uncertain 
intervals, its arrival being determined, according to the Reve- 
rend Mr. Bachman, not by the severity of the season, but by the 
scarcity of food to the north : when beech mast is plentiful in 
Canada, it remains there in immense multitudes all the winter. 

The grallatores are directly opposed to the rasores in being 
the most migratory order of birds. The scolopaciike and seve- 
ral species of the other families breed in high latitudes, yet they 
winter within the tropics. In their migrations through the fur 
countries they pursue different routes in the spring and fall : thus 
at the time of the noi-thern movement, the lateness of the summer 
on the coast of Hudson's Bay, and the quantity of ice which 
hangs on its shores till late in the year, exclude from that quarter 
the barges, snipes, and curlews which therefore pass by the inte- 
rior prairies, where the melting snow has rendered the soil soft 
and spungy. In autumn again the prairies having been ex- 
posed to the action of a hot and generally very dry sunnner, are 
comparatively arid, but the late thaws on the coast flood the 
neighbouring flats even in August and September, and it is there 
accordingly that the soft-billed waders pass a month or six 
■weeks on their way from their arctic breeding stations to 
the moiht intertropical lands. The marshes and sand-banks in the 
estuaries of Hay, Nelson, Severn, and Moose i-ivers are resorted 
to in the fall of the year by immense flocks of strand birds. 
The following herons are stated by the Reverend Mr. Bachman 
to breed in Carolina, ardea herodias, hidcwicifuia, cundidissima, 
rufescens, ccerulea, vb-esceiis, nyvticnrux, violacea, and exilis. 

Natafores. — The great majority of North American birds be- 
longing to this order, breed to the north of the valley of the 
St. La\Arence, and are merely winterers or birds of passage in 
the middle states. The lakes of Mexico are the chief winter 


resort of the anatidce. The anas hoschas has been found breed- 
ing from the lower part of the Mississippi up to the extremity 
of^the continent, but in greatest abundance beyond the 50th 
parallel ; and the anser canadensis from the 44th parallel to an 
equally high latitude, being also however most numerous in the 
fur countries. The rest of the geese and many of the ducks 
breed only within the arctic circle. The eider and king-ducks 
remain at sea in the high latitudes all the winter, the yoimg only 
going southwards to the coast of Labrador and the United 
States. No others of the family winter higher than the 50th 
parallel in America, though several species remain at that season 
in Europe as high as the 60th degree of latitude. 

The Reverend Mr. Bachman has made some observations on 
the effect of cultivation in influencing the movements of birds, 
but we think that he goes too far when he attributes the recent 
discovery of many new species within the limits of the United 
States solely to the changes produced in the face of the countr}^, 
for the more general diffusion of accurate ornithological know- 
ledge ought not to be overlooked. Thus among the examples 
of birds formerly rare but nov/ common in the middle states, 
he quotes hirundo hinifrons, but this, (if identical with fulva, 
which is generally admitted,) was taken by Vieillot on the coast 
of New York, many years before the history compiled by Go- 
vernor Clinton supposes it to have reached that state in its 
gradual advance from the interior ; and the aborigines of the 
more northern countries have no tradition of a time when it did 
not breed on the perpendicular faces of their rocks. The sin- 
gularity in its history is, that it should have so very recently 
begun to quit the rocks and to put itself under the protection 
of man, by building its nests under the eaves of houses. Ty- 
rannus borealis {muscicapa Cooperii of Nuttall), vireo solitarius 
and tringa himantopus, also newly detected in the United States, 
breed in the uncultivated wastes of the fur countries. 

The migration of the feathered tribes from the " tierras 
calientes" of the Mexican coast to the interior elevated plains 
and peaks, " tierras templadas y frias," presents within a 
smaller geographical range, as we have noticed in speaking of 
the humming birds, all the phenomena that take place in the 
extended flights from the intertropical regions to the arctic so- 


Catesby figured a portion of the North American animals of 
this chiss, but we are indebted to the hibours of living naturalis.ts 

108 SIXTH KKPORT — 1836. 

for the discovery of many more. These are described in the 
" Phihidelphia Journal of Natural Sciences," the " Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York," " Sillimau's Journal," and 
other periodical works, the chief writers being Messieurs Green, 
Say, Harlan, and Gilliams. A summary of the whole is con- 
tained in a paper by Dr. Harlan, entitled " Genera of North 
American Reptilia (including Amphibia), and a synopsis of the 
species," read in 1826 before the Philadelphia Academy, and 
subsequently reprinted, in a separate form with some alterations. 
Still more recently Dr. Holbrook of Charlestown has com- 
menced a " North American Herpetology," which is to be 
completed in four quarto numbers, each containing from 20 to 
30 coloured engravings and 200 pages of letter press. Wieg- 
mann has also published a volume of his " Heiyetologia Mexi- 
cana," embracing both reptilia and atnp/nbia, having previously 
described many species in the Tsis. 

The warm, moist atmosphere of tropical America is very 
favourable to the existence of reptilia, which are more numerous 
there than in any other quarter of the world ; and they occur 
even in North America, in much greater numbers and variety 
than in Europe. In the present imperfect state of North 
American herpetologj^, it would serve little purpose to attempt 
a formal disquisition on the distribution of the reptiles of that 
country, or to compare their numbers with those existing in 
the European zoological province, especially as these tasks may 
be performed with so much more success, when we become ac- 
quainted with the labours of Holbrook and Wiegmann. In the 
mean time we shall merely offer a few brief remarks. With the 
exception, perhaps, of one or two species of sea-turtles, none 
either of the reptilia or amphibia are common to the New and 
Old World ; and it will be observed that the reptilia, though 
fewer in number in Europe, attain higher latitudes there than 
in North America. An eynys inhabits the river Winipec in the 
latter country in the 50th parallel, but the eniys Kuropcea goes 
some degrees further north in Prussia. The crocodilus acnttts, 
which resembles the crocodile of the Nile so closely as to have 
been even mistaken for it, keeps within the tropics ; it is an 
inhabitant of the West Indies and also of the Spanish Main, but 
to no great distance from the equator, for Humboldt believes that 
its northern limit is the peninsula of Yuccatan or the southern 
part of Mexico. Now, though crocodiles do not in the present 
day descend the Nile lower than Upper Egypt, they formerly 
inhabited the Delta at the mouth of that river, lying under the 
314° degree of latitude, where they were wont to pass the three 
winter months in burrows. In this respect they resemble the 



alligator luciiis or Mississippiensis, which attains the 32^'' N. 
latitude, and in Georgia and Carolina winters in burrows. 
The ophidla swarm in the humid equatorial districts of Ame- 
rica, but disappear on the acclivities of the Cordilleras, at 
an altitude of 6000 feet, and a mean annual temperature of 
64° F. In the fur countries they reach the 55th parallel where 
the mean heat is about the freezing point, but where the tem- 
perature of the three summer months, during which only the 
serpents are visible, is at least 66° F. and very little inferior to 
the summer heat of the Mexican table lands. In Europe the 
isothermal line of 32° passes through the North Cape (lat. 71° 
lOV N.), and we find accordingly that some serpents (as the 
coluber berus) reach Norway. In like manner lizards {lacerta 
ocellata) exist in Kamtschatka and Sweden, though none of the 
saurians pass to the north of the 50th parallel in America. The 
following is a list of the genera of European and Egyptian rep- 
tiles, with the number of species noticed in Mr. Gray's synop- 
sis, or the R^gne a7iimalgiven for the purpose of comparison with 
the subjoined table of North American ones. European rep- 
tiles : Chelonia. — Testudo 2 ; cistudo 1 ; emys 1 ; trionyx 1 ; 
sphargis 3. Emydosauri. — Crocodili 2. Saurii. — Monitor 2 ; 
lacerta 14; psammodromus 1 ; algyra 1. Geckotidce, — Platy- 
dactylus 2 ; stenodactylus 1 ; thecodactylus 2 ; hemidactylus 2. 
Iguanidce. — Agamae 6. Sciiicidce. — Scincus 1 ; tiliqua 2 ; 
anguis 1. Zonuridce. — Ophiosaurus 1. Ophidia. — Trigonoce- 
phalus 2 ; vipera 1 ; berus 2 ; pelias 1 ; echis 1 ; naia 1 ; tro- 
pidonotus 5; coluber 6; coronella 3; dendrophis 1. 

Obs. — The following list of American rep f ilia is compiled 
chiefly from Mr. Gray's synopsis in Griffith's translation of 
Cuvier, and will appear meagre and inaccurate after the publi- 
cation of Wiegmann's and Holbrook's works. Species which do 
not range north of Mexico are in Italics. 


Fam. Testudinid^. 
Testudo polyphemus, Bartr. 18. 

Fam. Emyd^. 

Cistudo Carolina, Holb. 1. 
Emys Muhlenbergii, Id. 5. 

„ guttata, ScHCEPF. 31. 

„ iHiiictiita, Holb. 4. 

,, iiicta, ScHCEPF. 5, 

I, speciosa, Id. 

Emys concentrica, Schcepf. 15. 

„ reticularia, Daud. 23, 3. 

„ vittata, 

„ decussata, 

„ scripta, Schcepf. 3, 5. 

„ serrata, 

„ rugosa, 

„ Troostii, Holb. 4. 

,, Le Sueiuii, Gray. 
Kinosternon triporcatum, Wieg. 15. Mex. 

„ seorpioides, Shaw, 15. Me.v. 

„ pennsylvanicum, Edw. 287. 

,, odoratum, Daud. 24, 3. 
Chelydia serpentina, Schcepf. 6. 



Fam. Tkionyciiid.t:. 

Trionyx ferox, Schcepf. 19, 12, 3. 

„ muticus, Le Sueur. Mem. Mm. 
15, 257. 

Fcan. C MELON I AD a:. 

Sphargis imbricata, Schcepf. 18, a. 
„ mydas. Id. 17, 1. 
„ caretta. Id. 1G. 



Crocodilus rhomb if er, Wieg. W.Tnd.Mea: 
Alligator lucius, Cuv. Jn. Mm. X. Georff. 


Chirotes lumbricoides, Lacep. 41. Mex. 


Holoderma horridum, Wagler, 2, 18. 

Fam. GeckotidjE. 

Platydactylus americanus, Gray. New 

Fam. Iguanid.b. 

Iguana tuberculata, Spix. 6, 8. S. Am. 

AmbhjrJiynchiis cristafus, Wieg. Mex. 
Ctenosaura cycluroides, Wieg. Mex. 

„ cyclura, Cuv. Carol. 
Cyclura carinata, Harl. Ph.Jc. Sc. 4, 15. 

„ teres, Id. Tampico. 

„ pectinata, Wieg. Mex. 

„ articulata, Id. Mex. 

„ dentic-ulata. Id. Mex. 
Lamancfus longipes, Wieg. Mex. 
Ophyessa umbra, Daud. Calif. 
Scelephorus luidulatus, Wieg. U. St. 

„ torquatus, Wieg. Isis, 21. Mex. 

„ formosMS, Wieg. Mex. 

„ spinosus, Id. Mex. 

„ horridus, Id. Mex. 

„ grammicus, Id. Mex. 

„ microlejiidotits, Id. Mex. 

„ variabilis. Id. Mex. 

„ emeus, Id. Mex. 

„ scalar is, Id. Mex. 

„ ^;feMro»^«c/(«, Id. Mex. 
PhrMiosoma Dnuglasii, Bell. Lin. Tr. 
N. Calif. 

Phrynosoma coruutum, IIarl. Ac. Sc.Ph. 
20. Jl'esr em prairies. 
„ orbiculare, Wieg. Mex. 
Chammlopsis Hemandesii, Wieg. Mex. 
Anolius podargicus. Cat. 66. IIolb. 7. 
„ bimaculatus, W. Ind. U. S. 
„ bullaris, Lacep. 27. W- Ind. 

„ nebtdosus, Wieg. Mex. 
„ Iceviventris, Wieg. Mex. 
„ biporcatus, Id. Mex. 
„ Schiedii, Id. Mcx. 

Fam. Teid.?e. 

Ameiva cjeruleocephala, Seba. 91, 3. 

„ tessellata, Say. Long. Exp. Ark. 

„ coUaris, Id. Ark. 
Cnemidophorus imdulaim, Wieg. Mex. 

„ Deppii, Id. Mex. 

„ Sackii, Id. Mex. 

„ gutiatm. Id. Mex. 

Fam. SciNCiDiE. 

Tiliqua quinquelineata. Cat. 67. Mex. 
(Wieg.) Carol. 
„ erythrocephala, Gii,h. Ac. Sc.Phil. 

1, 18, 2. 
„ lateralis, Say. HoLBR. 8. fFes^s^. 
„ bicolor, Harl. Ac. Sc. Phil. 4, 
18, 1. 
Bipes angiiinus, Id. I. c. 4, 10. f. 1. Carol. 
Corythaelus vittatm, Wieg. Mex. 

Fam. ZoNURiD^. 

Gerrhonotus Dejyini, Wieg. Is. 21. Mex. 

„ imbricatus. Id. I. c. Mex. 

„ leiocephalus, Id. I c. Mex. 

„ tcmiatm. Id. I. c. Mex. 

„ tessellatus. Id. I. c. Mex. 

„ rudicollis, Id. ;. c. Mex. 
Ophisaurus ventralis, Cat. 59. U. S. 


Crotalus horridus, Cat. 41. & Am. Mex. 

„ dmissus, Spix. 24. S. Am.—ih° N. 

„ miliaris, Cat. 42. Carol. 

„ tergeminus, Say. West. st. 

„ confluentis. Id. R. Mount. 

„ triseriatm, Wieg. Mex. 
Cenchris mockeson. Cat. 45. 
Tisiphone Shausii, Gray. S. Am. Carol. 
Trigonocepbalus cacodeiiia, Cat. 44. Ca- 
Scgtale piscioorm, Harl. 

„ cupreus. Id. 
Het(>vodon constrictor. Cat. 76. Carol. 



Tropidinotus porcatus, Cat. 46. Carol. 

„ ortlinatus, Cat. 53. C'a7-ol. &f R. 

„ proxiraus, Say. Missouri. 

„ parietalis, Id. Missouri. 

„ fasciatus, Shaw. S. Sf. 

„ sirtalis, Penns. 

„ saurita, Cat. 50. 5. Sf. 

„ sipedon, Harl. Mid. Sf. 
Coluber punctatus, Lin. 

„ getulus, Cat. 52. S. Carol. 

„ ol)soletus, Harl. 

„ testaceus, Id. Missouri. 

„ filiformis, Id. Carol. 

„ flagellifomiis, Id. Carol. 

„ flaviveutris, Id. Missouri. 

„ stiiatulus, Id. Carol. 

Coluber amcenus, Harl. Penns. 

„ rigidus, Id. S. St. 

„ septetnvittatiis, Id. Penns. 

„ coceineus, Id. Carol. 

„ a:sti\-us, Id. Carol. 

„ getulus, Id. Carol. 

„ caUigaster, Id. Missouri. 

„ melanoleucas, Id. N. Jersey. 

„ eximius, Id. Penns. 

„ vernalis, Id. Penns. N. Jers. 

„ cauda-schistosus, Id. 

„ doliatus, Id. Carol. 

„ maculatus, Id. Louis. 

„ guttatus, Id. Carol. 

„ molossus, Id. Ca7-ol. 

„ reticularis, Id. Louis. 
Xeuodon punctatum, Latr. 5. Carol. 



Rana pipiens, Cat. Mid. St. 

„ clamitans, Bosc. Ditto. 

„ melanota, Raf. L. Champl. 

„ halecina, Cat. Penn. i; S. St. 

„ flavi-viridis, Harl. Mid. St. 

„ sylvatica, Id. Ditto. 

„ palustris, Id. Ditto. 

„ pumila, Le Conte. 

„ gryllus, Holbrook. Flor.Mid. St. 

„ nigrita, Le Conte. 

„ ocellata, Shaw 34. Mex. Florid. 
Hyla lateralis. Cat. Surin. Carol. 

„ femoraUs, Dacd. S. St. 

„ squireUa, Daud. 5. St. 

„ delitescens, Le Conte. Georgia. 

„ versicolor, Id. Mid. 6f S. St. 
Bufo clamosus, Cat. Ditto. 

„ coguatus. Say. Long's Erp. Miss. 

„ fuscus, Penn, 


Salamandra subviolacea, Cat. 10. Penn. 
„ tigrina, Green, New Jers. 
„ rubra, Daud. 
„ vaiiolata, Gilliams, Ac. Sc. Ph. 

1, 18, 1. 
„ cylindracea, Harl. N. Carol. 
„ frontalis, N. Jers. 

Salamandra fusca, Green. N. Jers. 
dorsalis, Harl. Carol. 
picta, Harl. Penn. 
Beechii, Gray. 
macul"tn, Greex. K. Jers. 
subfusca, Id. Ditto. 
longicauda, Id. Ditto. 
nigra. Id. Penn. 
fla\issima, Harl. Ditto. 
Greenii, Gray. 
erythi'onota. Green. 
cinerea. Green. 
fasciata, Green. 
glutinosa. Green. Neiv Jers, 
sjTnmetrica, Harl. Carol. 
cylindracea, Harl. Carol, 
platydactyla, Cdv. Mex. 
Menobrauchus lateralis, Harl. An. Lye, 
1, 16. L. Champl. Ohio. 
„ alleghanieusis. Say. Griff. Cuv. 
Phyllhydrus pisciformis, Shaw 140. Mex. 
Amphiunia means, An. Lye. 1, 22. Carol. 
„ tridactylum, Cuv. Louis. 
Siren lacertina, Lin. S. St. 

„ intermedia, Le Conte. S. St. 
„ striatus, Id. An. Lye. 1, 2. 
Meuopoma gigantea, Harl. An. Lye. 1, 
17. Ohio 

Note. — In the above list, ra7ia seapulark, Harl., is considered as the J'oung 
of pipiens, and rana gryllus and dorsalis of Le Conte as one species. Sala- 
mandra ruhriventris, Green, is considered the same with rubra ; sinciput- 
albida, Green, the same with frontalis ; intermixla, Green, the same with 
picia, and variegata of Gray with platydacAijlus. Salamandra porphyritica, 
Jeffersoniana, and cirrhigera of Harlan's list, being very doubtful species, are 

202 SIXTH RKPORT 18.36. 

Our remarks on the amphibia will be still more brief than on 
the reptiles. Some amjjhibia are evidently more capable of en- 
during extremes of temperature than the reptilia, and they exist 
in higlier latitudes ; frogs and salamanders reaching the 67th 
parallel on the Mackenzie, where the mean temperature is not 
above 7 or 8 degrees of Fahrenheit, and the winter colds some- 
times descend to more than 90" below the freezing point, 
Spallanzani relates that living frogs have been seen in the ther- 
mal baths of Pisa, which have a temperature of 115° F. In the 
fur countries the pools of melting snow swarm with very noisy 
frogs long before the soil is thawed ; the office of reproduction 
is performed and the pools di'ied up by the time that the ice 
of the lakes is dissolved, and before the earth is sufficiently 
warmed to permit the snakes to crawl forth from their subter- 
ranean retreats. The principal genera rana, hufo, liyla, and 
salamandra occur both in Europe and North America. The 
genera siren and nienopoma belonging to the latter country, are 
perfectly amphibious, the mature animals possessing both lungs 
and gills, and respiring at pleasure either air or water. The 
only analogous animal of the Old World is the proteus anguimcs 
of the lakes of Lower Carniola, and the grotto of Adelsberg, 
between Trieste and Vienna. I observed on the banks of the 
Mackenzie a very singular looking tadpole which swarmed in a 
pool of water in the spring. It was about the size of a man's 
thumb, and its abdomen was greatly distended with fluid, but 
its integuments were quite transparent, and so tender that they 
burst on the slightest touch. Circumstances did not admit of 
my describing it at the time, and the specimens put into spirits 
were destroyed by accident. 


The ichthyology of Noi-th America has not hitherto been at- 
tended to as it merits, and the distribution of the species through 
a very large portion of the northern hemisphere is still almost 
unknown. Catesby, Pennant, and Schcepf are the chief author- 
ities of older date, for the introduction of the American fish into 
the systems, but tlic Linnean genera are so ill adapted for the 
reception of many of the forms peculiar to the New World, 
and the specific descriptions of the old writers are so brief and 
indeterminate, that the labours of these naturalists are often 
altogether unavailable to modern cultivators of science. Le 
Svieur, the most accurate of recent American ichthyologists, has 
described many species in the " Journal of the Academy of 
Sciences of Philadelphia/' in the new scries of the " Trans- 


actions of the Philosophical Society " of the same city, and in 
the " 3fuseiwi d'Histoire Natttrelle" oi Paris. Dr. Mitchill 
published a paper on the New York fish in the first volume of 
the " Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New York," 
but his descriptions are almost always imperfect, and often in- 
accurate, and he has arranged the species wdthout judgement 
in Linnean genera, so that but for the accompanying figures it 
would be difficult to recognise the fish he mentions. Ra- 
finesque-Smaltz gave to the world a crude synopsis of the fish 
of the Ohio, proposing many new genera, but characterising 
them with so little skill, that there is little chance of their being 
adopted by future naturalists. His species are printed in the 
subjoined lists in italic characters, as being doubtful. The 
third volume of the Fcmna boreali-mnericana is devoted to the 
northern fish, and contains a considerable proportion of the 
species which inhabit the fresh waters of the fur countries : it 
is, however, very deficient in marine fish, and even in the fresh 
water ones of New Caledonia and Canada, owing to the author's 
attempts to procure specimens from these countries having 
failed. The admirable Histoire des Foissons by Cuvier and 
Valenciennes embraces all the determinable species noticed by 
preceding naturalists, but it has not yet advanced beybnd the 
acanthopterygii,\hQ\miivi\Q\y death of its great projector having 
retarded its progress. The arrangement of this work is fol- 
lowed in the subsequent lists of species. In it and in the Regne 
animal 16 families of acanthopterygian fishes are indicated. 
All these families are represented by a greater or smaller num- 
ber of species both in Europe and America, with the exception 
of the anahasidece, none of which exist in the waters of either 
country ; of the acanthurideee which do not occur in Europe ; 
and of the tcenioidece, which, as restricted in the Histoire des 
Foissons, have not been detected in America. All the families 
of jnalacopterygii and chondropterygii enter ihefauncs of both 
countries, with the exception of the saiiroidece of Agassiz, which 
do not exist in Europe. The only fresh water fish which is 
unequivocally common to the two continents is the common 
pike, {esox lucius,) and it is curious that this fish is unknown 
to the westward of the Rocky Mountains, on the very coast that 
approaches nearest to the old continent. Several other Euro- 
pean fresh water fish occur in the lists given by American ichthy- 
ologists, but more rigid comparisons are required to sanction 
their application of the names. Some of the anadromous sal- 
monoidece and clupeoidea; are more likely to be common to both 
sides of the Atlantic, but even these require further investiga- 
tion. The curiosity of natu^'alists has been considerably ex- 

i30i' SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

cited by the noises which certain fishes havetlie power of making, 
and some facts are stated in tlie Histoire des Poissons relating 
to this subject in the chapters devoted to the cottoidece, scice- 
iKjidecc, &c. Several kinds of fisli vulgarly named "grunts " in 
America, possess this faculty in an extraordinary degree, and the 
purpose it is intended to serve, and the manner in which the 
sound is produced, are worthy of investigation by naturalists re- 
siding where these fish abound*. Every mariner who has anchored 
early in the spring on the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, 
or Florida, must have been annoyed by a drumming noise, pro- 
duced in the night, apparently on the bottom of the ship, and 
loud enough to deprive a stranger of rest, until habit has ren- 
dered the sound familiar. This noise is said to be caused by ii 
fish of about six pounds weight beating its tail against the vessel 
to relieve itself from the pain caused by multitudes of parasitic 
worms which infest it at that season. 

In dinding the ocean into zoological districts to suit our 
present knowledge of species of fish and their distribution, wc 
have found the nine following divisions to be convenient. 
European seas, — North American Atlantic and Arctic sea, — ■ 
Caribbean sea and South American Atlantic, —African Atlantic, 
— Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Polynesian Sea, — Australian 
seas, — Seas of China and Japan, — Sea of Kamtschatka and 
North-west America, — Pacific coast of South America. In a 
preceding part of the Report we stated that Mr. Swainson had 
justly included the North of Africa in the European zoological 
province, as far as birds were concerned, but the case is dift'erent 
with the fish. The whole of the Mediterranean fish indeed are 
European, but the fish of the Nile have very little resemblance 
to those of the European rivers, while the same species often 
occur on the coast of Senegal and in the Red Sea. The ana- 
dromous fish of the Mississippi and its tributaries are very dif- 
ferent from those which enter the North American rivers falling 
into the Atlantic, in the same parallels of latitude. 

As in the preceding lists, the species whose names or history 
are doubtful are printed in italics, as are likewise the Mexican 
fish which do not range further northwards. 

Fam. Pbrcoide^. 

Perca flavescens, Cuv. NnvY. — L.Huron. 
„ seiTato-grauulata, Cuv. N. York. 
„ grauulata, Cuv. N. York. 
„ acuta, Cuv. L. Ontario. 

Perca gracilis, Cuv. X. Yori. 

,, Plumieri, Cuv. Bahamas. 
Labrax liueatus, Cuv. N. York. 

„ notalus, F. B. A. St Laior. 

* Vide AuDUB. Orn. Biogr. 3, p. 199. 



Labrax mucronatus, Cuv. Carihb. S. — N. 

„ multilineatus, Cvv. Wabash r. 
Pomacampsis nigro-punctata, Raf. Ohio. 
Luciopcrca americana, Cuv. 40° N. — 
58° N. 

„ canadensis, H. Smith, Grif. Cuv. 
Sf. Laicr. 
Huro nigricans, Cuv. L. Huron. 
Serranus fascicularis, Cuv. Braz. — Carol. 

„ mono, Cuv. N. York. 

„ acutirostris, Cuv. Carol. — Bra-. 

„ ? Benx. San Bias. Pacif. 

Centropristes nigiicans, Cuv. JV. York. 

„ tiifurciis, Cuv. Carol. 
Gnstes salmoides, Cuv. Wabash. Rivers 

of Carol. 
S/izostedion salmoneum, Raf. Ohio. 
Centrarchus seneus, Cuv. L. Ontario S^" 

„ pentacauthus, Cuv. Carol. 

„ hexacantlius, Cuv. Carol. 

„ irideus, Cuv. Carol. 

„ gnlosus, Cvv. L. Pontchartr. 

„ viridis, Cuv. Ditto. 
Pomotis vulgaris, Cuv. Philad. — L.Huron. 

„ Raveuelii, Cuv. Charlfstmvn. 

„ llolbrookii, Cuv. Carol. 

Pomotis incisor, Cuv. L. Pontchartr. 

„ gibbosus, Cuv. Carol. 

„ solis, Cuv. L. Pontchartr. 

„ Catesbei, Cuv. Penns. 
Bryttus punctatus, Cuv. Ohio. 

„ reticidatus, Cuv. Carol. 

„ unicolor, Cuv. Carol. Penns. 
Ichthelis cyanella, Raf. Ohio. 

„ melanops, Id. Ohio. 

„ erythrops, Id. Ohio. 

„ aurita, Id. Ohio. 

„ meffahtis, Id. Ohio. 
Pomoxis annularis, Id. Ohio. 
Aplocentris calliops, Raf. Ohio. 
Lepibema chrysops, Raf. Ohio. 
Aphrodedems gibljosus, Lesueur. L. 

Pontch. Peyms. 
Tricliodon Stelleri, Cuv. Unalaseh. Gil- 
liam s. 
Holocentriim longipinne, Cuv. Braz. — 

Uranoscopus anoplos, Cuv. Massach. 

SphjTaena barracuda, Cm'. Bahamas. 
Poljniemus tridigitatus, Cuv. New Y. 

„ approximans, BE>rN. San Bias. 
Upeneus puncfatus, Cuv. Carihb. s. Me.v^ 


Trigla pini*, Bl. New Y. Europe. 
Prionotus strigatus, Cuv. N. York. 

„ caroUnus, Cuv. N. York. Massach. 
„ tribulus, Cuv. N.York. — Carol. 
Dacudopterus voUtans*, Lac. G. of Mex. 

Cottus cognatus, F. B. A. Arct. Am. — 
Greenl. ? 
„ gobio* ? Smith. Massach. 
„ quadricornis ? Id. Do. 
„ polaris, Sabixe, Parry's /«. 75N°. 
„ hexacorms, F.B.A. Polar sea. 
„ octodecim spinosus, Mitch. Virg. 

— N. York. 
„ groenlandicus,/^.fi.^.95,2.iVi?My. 

— Greenl. 
„ polvacanthocephalus, Pall. Cape 

St. Elias. 60° N. 
„ scorpioides, Fabr, Greenl. 
„ MitchiUi, Cuv. N. York, 
ceneus, Mitch. N. York. 
„ porosus, Cuv. Baffin's Bay. 
„ pistilliger, Cuv. Unalaschka. 
Aspidopliorus europaius*, Cuv. Greenl. 
Mass. Smith. 

Aspidophorus accipenserinus, Cuv. Una- 

„ monopten'gius, Cuv. Greenl. 
Hemitripterus americanus, Cuv. N. York. 

Hemilepidotns Tilesii, Cuv. Unalaseh. — 

„ asper, F.B.A. 93, 1. Columbia R. 
Temnistia ventricosa, Esch. 13. Norfolk 

sotcnd Pacif. 
Scorpasua porcus*, L. N. York. — Europe. 

„ biifo, Cuv. Braz. — Neuf. Aud. 
Sebastes nor\'egicus*,Cu v.iViw/J/^ — Greenl. 

„ variabilis, Cuv. Unalaseh. 
Blepsias tiilobus, Cuv. N. W. Coast. 
Gasterosteus concinnus, F.B.A. AreticAm. 

„ uoveboracensis, Cuv. N^ew Y, 

„ niger, Cuv. Netif. 

„ biacideatus, Pe>x. New Y. 

„ occidentalis, Cuv. Neuf. 

„ quadracns, Mitch. N. York. 

„ apeltes, Lesueur, U. St. 

„ kakilisak, Fabr. Greenl. 


SIXTFi REPORT — 1836. 

Fam. Sci^NoiDE.'E. 

Otolithus regalis, Cuv. Carrib, s. — N. 

„ Dnimmondii, F.B.A. Texas. 

„ carolinensis, Cuv. Carol. 
Corvina ai'gyroleuea, Gov. 

„ Riciiardsonii, F.B.A. 1 7. L.Huron. 

„ oscula, Cuv. L. Ontario. 

„ grisea, Le Sueur, Ac. Sc. Ph. 2, 
251. Ohio. 

„ multifasciata, In. I. c. Florida. 
Lepomis pallida, Raf. Ohio. 

„ trifasciata. Id. Do. 

„ flexuolaris, Id. Do. 

„ salmonea, Id. Do. 

„ notafa, Id. Do. 

„ ichtheloides, Id. Do. 
Leiostoma humeralis, Cuv. Penns. — N. 

„ xanthurus. Cuv. CanJ. s. — Carol. 
Amblodon grunniens, Raf. Ohio. 

Etheostoma calliura, Raf. Ohio. 

„ flahellata, Id. Ohio. 

„ nigra, Id. Ohio. 

„ blennioides, Id. Ohio. 

„ caprodes. Id. Ohio. 

„ fondnalis, Id. Ohio. 
Unibrina albunia, Cuv. G. of Mex. — 

N. York. 
Pogonias chromis, Cvv.Montiv. — N.York. 

„ fasciatus, Lacep. N. York. 
Pogostoma Umcops, Raf. Ohio. 
Micropogon lineatus, Cuv. Montiv. — N. 

„ undulatus, Cuv. G. of Mex. 
Haemulon arcuatiim, Cuv. Carol. 

„ cVirysopteron, Cuv. N. York. 
Pristiporaa fasciatum, Cuv. N. York. 

„ rodo, Cuv. N. York. 

Lobotes surinamensis,Cuv.5«r. — N. York. 

Fam. Sparoide^. 

Sargus ovis, Cuv. G. of Mex. — N. York, i Pagrus argyrops, Cuv. Carol. N. York. 

„ rhomboides, Cuv. Do. J?o. Dentex ? Benn. Saw iJ/fl*. Paci/. 

Chrysophrys aculeata, Cat. 31, 2. U. St. \ 

Gerres aprion, Cuv. Carib. s. Mex. — Carol. 

Fam. Ch^todontoide.e. 

Ephippus fabcr, Cuv. A''. York. 

„ gigas, Cuv. Do. 
Holocanthus ciliaris, Lacep. Mex. Ca- 
rib. s. — Carol. 

Pimelepterus Boscii, Lacep. Carol. 


Scomber grex*, 1 ^^^^^ ^_ y^j^_ ^^^^_ 

„ vemahs, J 

„ scomber. Smith. Massach. ? 
Thynnus vulgaris^, Cuv. Mass. ? Smith. 
Pelamys sarda, Cuv. N. York. 
Cybium maculatum, Cuv. Mex. — Mass. 
Tricliivirus leptunis, Cuv. Braz. — A''. York. 
Xiphias gladius. Smith. Mass. .' 
Naucrates ductor*, Cuv. N.York. Mass. 

— Eur. 
Elecate atlantica, Cuv. Braz. — N. York. 
Trachinotus jrfaiM^iis, Cuv. Carib. s. — Mex. 

„ fusus, Cuv. Braz. — N. York. 

„ argenteus, Cuv. N. York. 

„ pampanus, Cuv. Mex. — Carol. 

Notacanthus nasus, Cuv. Greenland. 
Caranx punctatus, Cuv. Carib. s. — A''. 
„ chrysos, Cuv. Massach. ? Smith. 
„ fasciatus, Cuv. Mex. 
ArgATCyosus vomer, Lacep. Braz. — A^. 

York. 35°S.— 45° N. 
Vomer Brownii, Cuv. Braz. — A''. York. 

35° S.— 45° N. 
Seriola Boscii, Cuv. Carolina. 
„ fasciata, Cuv. Do. 
„ leiarcha, Cuv. Penns. 
„ zonata, Cuv. N. York. 
„ cosmopolita, Cuv. Braz.^-Neu- 

„ falcata, Cuv. Carib. s. — Mex. 



Segerinua alepidotus, Massach. ? Smith. 
Temnodon saltator*, Cuv. Braz. — Mass. 

— Eur. 
Coryphasna Sueurii, Cuv. Penns. 
Pteraclis carolinus, Cuv. Carol. 

Rhombus longipinnis, Cuv. Carol. — N. 
„ cryptosus, Cuv. JV. Yori. 
Zeusfaber, Massach. ? Smith. 
Lamprisguttatus*, Retz. Greenl. — Mass.? 


Acatithurus phlebotomus, Cuv. Carib. s. 
N. York. 

Acanthurus cceruletts, Cat. 2, 10, 1. Ba- 

Atherina Carolina, Cuv. Carol. 
„ Boscii, Cuv. Do. 
„ moenidia, L. N. York. 
„ HumboMtiana, Cuv. Mex. 


Atherina vomerina, Cuv. Mex. 
„ mordax, Mitch. N. York. 
„ viridescens, Id. Bo. 

Mugil Plumieri, C. & V. Braz. 

„ albula, L. A''. York. Mitch. Mass. 

Fam. MuGiLoiDE^ 


Mugil petrosus, C. & V. 
Mex. N. York. 
Mugil lineatus, Mitch. A''. York. 
,, ? Benn. San Bias. 

z.-G. of 


Blennius geminatus. Wood. Ac. Sc. Ph. 
„ punctatus, Wood. I. c. Carol. 
Pholis carolinus, C. & V. Carol. 
Chasmodes Bosquianus, C. & V. N. York. 
„ quadrifasciatus, "Woov.Ac.Se.Ph. 

„ novemlineatus, Wood. I. c. Carol. 
Clinus ? hentz, Le Sueur. Carol. 
Gunnellus vulgaris*, C. & V. Greenl. Eur. 
„ mucronatus, C. & V. N. York. — 

„ punctatus, C.&V. New/. — Greenl. 
„ Fabricii, C. & V. Greenl. — Fabr. 
„ anguillaris, C. & V. Kamtsch. — 

N. W. Am. 
„ dolichogaster, C. & V. Aleut. Isl. 

Gunnellus groenlandicus, C. & V. Greenl. 
Zoarces labrosus, C. & V. N. York. Mitch. 
„ fimbriatus, C. & V. Do. Id. 
„ Gronovii, C. & V. N. Am. 
„ polaris*, Rich. Polar seas. 
Anarhichas lupus*, L. Greenl. — Eur. 
Gobius Boscii, Lac. Carol. N. York. 

Philyprinus dormitator, C. & V. W.Ind. — 

Chirus monopterygius, Cuv. Mem. Pef. 
2, 23, 1. Unalasch. 
„ decagraramus, Cuv. I. c. 2, 22, 2. 

C. St. Elias. 
„ octogramraus, Cuv. I. c. 2, 23, 2. 

Aleut. Is. 
„ superciliosus, Cuv. I. c. 2, 23, 3. 

Fam. Batrachoide.^. 

Malthsea notata, C. & V. N.York. 
Batrachus tau, C. & V. G. of Mex.— N. 

„ Gronovii, C. & V. C. of America. 

„ ffrunniens, Schcepf. N. York. 

Lophius americanus, C. & V. Penns. — 

N. York. Mitch. 
Chironectes lae\figatus, C. &V. Carol. — N. 

York. Mitch. 
Malthaea vespertUio, C. & V. Carib. s. — 

„ cubifronsf, F.B.A. 96. Neuf— 


f M. Valenciennes considers this species to be identical with one figured by 
Seba, and named by Cuvier malthcea nasuta ; but I can scarcely conceive that it 
could be possible for any painter to err so far as to give a tapering snout to a 
fish like cubifrons, which has nothing like a snout at all, but merely a round tu- 
bercle, like a grain of shot in the middle of a square forehead. 

208 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

Fam. Labroide^e. 

Labrus americanus, Bl. N. York. Mitch. 
Mass. Sm. 

„ coricus, Smith. Mass. 

„ pallidus, Mitch. A''. York. 

„ hiatula, L. Carol. Garden. 
Cheilinus radiatus, Bl. Schn. 56. U. St. 
Lacknolaimus suilltts, Cat, 2, 15. Baltam. 

Crenilabnis burgall, Mitch. 3, 2. N. York. 

„ meriila, Smith. Massach. 

„ exoletus, L. ? Greenl. ? Fabr. 
Xirichthys psittacvis, Cuv. Carol. 

„ lineatus, Cuv. Do. 
Scarus Catesbei, Cat. 2, 29. Bahamas. 

„ coeruleus, Cat. 2, 13. Do. 


Fistularia tabacaria, Bl. 387, 1. N. York. 
„ sen-ata, Cat. 2, 17. Baham. U. S. 

Fisfularia neo-ehoracensis, Mitch. 3, 8. 
A'. York. 

Percoidete. — Of 500 species belonging to this family, which 
are described in the Histoire des Poissons, two-thirds inhabit 
the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and warmer latitudes of the 
Pacific ; 49 belong to the Mediterranean and eastern side 
of the North Atlantic, and 118 have been detected on the Ame- 
rican side of that sea. The North American famia embraces 
one-ninth of the species composing the family, all, with the 
slight exceptions we shall mention, peculiar to that country, not 
one of them ranging to Europe. The exceptions are holocentnim 
longiphuie, w^hich goes as far north on the American side as Ca- 
rolina, but crosses the Atlantic within the tropics to Ascension 
and St. Helena ; and trichodo7i Stelleri, which is found both 
on the Asiatic and American shoi*es of the sea of Kamtschatka. 
The last-named fish is the most northerly of the known Ame- 
rican percoidece ; and the lucioperca Americana, which inhabits 
fresh waters up to the 58th parallel, stands next to it in that 
respect. The perca vulgaris being an inhabitant of the Sibe- 
rian rivers, which fall into the Icy sea, is one of the most northerly 
of the family, though the very nearly allied American species 
have not hitherto been detected in a higher latitude than the 
45th. With respect to the distriJmtiou of generic forms, 
Europe nourishes nine, which are not known to exist in North 
America, viz. lates, apogon, jwmatomiis, aspro, acerina, poly- 
prion, traclnnus, sphyrcBna, andparalepis ; and North America 
ten, which are not found in Europe, viz. huro. cenfropristes, 
grystes, ce)itrarchus, jjomotis, hryttus, aphrodederus, trichodon, 
holocentrum, ?c!\d polynemns., besides the doubtful genera propo- 
sed by M.Rafinesque : only five are common to the two faunae, viz. 
perca, lahrax, lucioperca, serraniis <x\\A uranoscopus. Grystes, 
containing onlj^ two described species, forms another link con- 
necting the American and Australian faunae ; one of the species 




inhabiting the rivers of Carolina, and the other those of New 
Soutli Wales. There is a greater variety of forms, as well as a 
greater number of species of fresh water percoidese in North 
America than in any other quarter of the globe ; indeed no other 
quarter possesses such an extent of fresh waters. 

Cottoidece. — This being a more northern family than the 
preceding one, we find, as in the higher orders of animals, a 
greater proportion of its generic foinns common to the New and 
Old World; — the condition of the waters as well as of the land and 
atmosphere of the arctic regions of the two hemisphei'es is 
more alike than in the more temperate parallels. Prionotus and 
/temitriptertis are the only two cottoid genera which frequent 
the Atlantic coasts of America, and do not also occur in Europe. 
On the north-west coast, however, there are three genera which 
are unknown in the European seas, viz. hemilepklotus, blepsias, 
and temnistia. The Mediterranean produces peristedioii and 
/loplostethus, of which no species has been detected on the 
American coast. Five genera are common to both sides of the 
North Atlantic, as are also several species, viz. trigla pini, dac- 
tylopterus voUtans, aspidophorus europcens, scorjiccna porciis, 
undsebastes norvegiciis, all marine fish ; there are moreover some 
fresh water cotti and gasterostei in America, which are with 
great difficulty distinguishable from their European representa- 
tives. The family contains in all about 170 species, of which 
one-fifth are North American, and between one-fifth and one- 
sixth European. 

Scicenoidece. — Thefish of this family, more closely related to the 
percoidecehy external form than the preceding, are also intimately 
comiected with them by internal structure. The scia;noidece are 
more American than either of the preceding families, one-third of 
the genera being proper to the Atlantic coast of that continent, 
and several of tlie remaining genera being represented there by 
one or more species. There are alsofouror five times as many spe- 
cies in the North American seas as in Europe; while the intertro- 
pical seas nourish four-fifths of the whole family. None are com- 
mon to both sides of the Atlantic. Several of the American scicB- 
noidecB make a remarkable grunting noise in the water, which is 
thought by Cuvier to be connected with the cavernous recesses in 
the skulls of fish of this family. The noise made by several of the 
cottoidece when handled is evidently produced by the sudden 
escape of a quantity of air from their distended branchial mem- 
branes. The total number of ascertained species of the family 
is about 260. 

Sparoidecc. — This family, of which 150 species are known, 

VOL. v.— 1836. p 


has few representatives in North America, their number not 
exceeding one-thirtieth of the whole, while the European seas 
nourish nearly one-fifth; the majority of the species, as in 
most other acanthopterygian families, belong to the Indian and 
South Seas. 

M(snoidecB. — Of this very small family, comprising only 42 
species, about one half belong to the Indian and Polynesian 
seas, one fourth frequent the seas of Europe, and only one 
species, gerres aprion, has been detected on the shores of Caro- 
lina, to which it ranges from between the tropics. 

Chcetodontoidccs . — This family, named also squammipennce , 
contains about 150 species, of which the greater part are inha- 
bitants of the Indian and Polynesian seas. One species only 
{brama Rail) frequents the European coasts, while four are 
North American, and one seventh of the whole exist on the 
Atlantic coasts of North and South America. The pempheris 
mexicanns is found at Acapulco ; the remaining species of that 
genus inhabit the tropical, Pacific, and Indian oceans. 

The next family in Cuvier's arrangement is that of the ana- 
hasidecB or polyacanthoidecE, containing only 40 species, all of 
which belong to Southern Asia, except a spirohranchus, which 
inhabits the rivers of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The preceding acanthopterygian families, with the addition of 
the fistularoidece, hereafter mentioned, and the platessoidea:^ 
anged by Cuvier with the malacopterygii, constitute Agassiz's 
order Ctenoidei, so named from the pectinated laminae of their 
scales. About 1400 recent ctenoideans have been described. 

Scomheroidece. — This family, included by Agassiz in his or- 
der Cycloidei, is, next to the jiercoideoe, the most numerous 
of Cuvier's acanthopterygii, the described species amounting 
to more than 320. The scomber aiders, more than any other 
group of fish of equal magnitude, affect the surface of the ocean 
especially in the warm latitudes, and a considerable number of 
the species i-oam from one side of the Atlantic to the other, 
among which are the scomber grex, pelamys sarda, trichiurus 
lepturus, elecate atlantica, lichia glauca, caranx carangus, 
and nomeus Mauritii. Of sixteen genera, actually ascertained 
to be North American, only seven enter the European fauna, 
viz., scomber, pelamys, naucrates, caranx, seriola, temnodon, 
and coryphcena ; but five of the remainder occur also on the 
African shores of the Atlantic, viz., cyhium, trichiurus, elecate, 
trachinntus, temnodon, and vomer, leaving only two of the 
North American genera peculiar to the western side of the At- 
lantic, viz., argyryosus and rhombus. The forms peculiar to 


Europe are, lepidapus, astrodermus, luvarus, seserinus, and 
perhaps lampris ; while its seas nourish also thynnus, auxis, 
xiphias, tetrapturus, lichia, mastacemblns, scyris, gallichthys, 
lampiigus, centrolophus, stromateus, and zeus, common to other 
seas, and some of these to tropical America. Two or three 
of these are enumerated by Dr. Smith in his list of Massa- 
chusetts fish ; but as he has not given any details by which 
we can judge of the correctness of his nomenclature, they are 
put in italics in the foregoing table. Scomber grex and tem- 
nodon saltator have a most extensive range from the Cape of 
Good Hope across the Atlantic to the coasts of the United 
States. The latter is also known eastward to Madagascar and 
along the whole western coast of Africa to the Mediterranean 
and Egypt, while the former is scarcely distinguishable from 
the Meditei-raneau scomber pneumatophorus. There are several 
of the scomberoidea; which, inhabiting oidy the middle longi- 
tudes of the Atlantic, belong as much to the New as to the Old 
World : they pursue the flying-fish over the Atlantic wastes 
as the herds of wolves do the bison on the prairies of America. 

AcanthuroideoE. — Of this family about ninety species are 
kno^vn, inhabiting the warmer districts of the ocean and feed- 
ing on fuci, being furnished with cutting-teeth instead of pre- 
hensile ones, like those of most other fish. Except three species 
which frequent the Caribbean Sea, the family belongs to the 
Polynesian and Indian oceans and the Red Sea ; one species 
follows the gulf-stream to New York, another reaches the Ba- 
hamas : none visit Europe. 

Atherina. — This isolated genus contains about thirty species, 
of which six or seven are European, and five, exclusive of two 
or three doubtful ones, have been described as North American, 
but none are common to both sides of the Atlantic. 

Mugiloidece. — Of four generic forms which belong to this 
family, three are peculiar to the intertropical seas, while the 
typical one, mugil, is knovm in all the temperate as well as in 
the warmer districts of the ocean. None of the species cross 
the Atlantic, but some of them have a considerable range coast- 
ways ; ^hus, two of the American mullets extend from the Bra- 
zils to New York, while the mugil capifo ranges from Norway 
to the Mediterranean. The genus contains fifty- three described 
species, the whole family about sixty ; several are confined to 
fresh waters. 

Gobioides. — This family contains nearly 300 species, of 
which about one half are inhabitants of the Indian and Poly- 
nesian seas ; sixty exist in the European waters, and eighteen 
or nineteen j3n the American side of the northern Atlantic, 

p 2 

212 SIXTH REPORT — 183G. 

there being only forty-two known on the whole eastern coast of 
both North and South America. The North American and 
European genera are mostly the same ; yet among the former 
we have chasmodes and phih/primis which range from within 
the tropics to the United States, but do not visit Europe ; 
while tripferi/gion and calUonymiis of the Mediterranean and 
British Channel are unknown in the American seas. The only 
species perhaps common to both countries are those which fre- 
quent the Greenland seas. Dr. Smith, indeed, enumerates 
anarrhichus lupus among the fish of Alassachusetts, but his 
determination of the species must be considered as doubtful 
until we have some evidence of a proper comparison having 
been instituted between American and European examples. 
The gunnellus vulgaris is also described as a Labrador fish in 
the Fauna BoreaU-Amei-icaiia, on the authority of a single 
injured specimen which differed slightly from the English fish. 
Zoarces poluris, according to Capt. James Ross, is the most 
northern known fish, having been taken on the ice to the north 
of Spitzbergen, or within nine degrees of the pole ; it ranges 
westward to Regent's Inlet. 

Batrachoidece. — The only species of this family which exists 
in Europe is the well known lophius piscatorius, while the 
North American seas contain four out of five of the generic 
forms and seven or more species, there being about fifty in the 
family. Sixteen belong to the Caribbean Sea and South Ame- 
rican Atlantic, and the comparatively small proportion of fifteen 
have been detected in the Indian and Polynesian seas. 

Lahroidece. — As the publication of the Histoire des Poissons, 
the only trustworthy guide for general ichthyology, has ad- 
vanced no further than the hatruchoidea^ our observations on 
the succeeding families must necessarily be imperfect, and we 
shall therefore make them as brief as possible ; indeed, our 
American lists cannot be otherwise than very defective, being 
founded on Cuvier's notes in the R^gne Animal, relating almost 
solely to figured species. We have ventured to enumerate only 
thirteen lahroidea as inhabitants of the North American seas, 
and the nomenclature of fully one half of these is doubtful. 
The European seas nourish about fifty species belonging to the 
genera labrus, julis, crenilahrus, coricus, Airichthys, chromis, 
and scarus. 

Fistiilaroidecc. — The members of this small family are mostly 
deni/ens of the warmer seas. One npecies only is well known 
as European, viz., the centriscus scolopax, which is common 
enough in the Mediterranean, but rare in the Atlantic, though 
it has been found as far north as Mount's Bay. This family 



closes the list of Cuvier's acanthopterj'gian fishes. The total 
number of described species belonging to the order amounts 
nearly to 2400. 



Barbus, spec, novae, Cuv. Reg. An. 
Abraniis balteatus, F.B.A. 3. 301. Columb. 

„ Smithii, Id. 3. 110. St. Lawrence. 

„ chrysopterus, Smith, Massach. 
Labeo cyprinus, Le Sueur, Ac. Sc. Ph. 

„ maxilingua, Id. I. c. Maryland. 

„ .' macropterus, Raf. Ac. Sc. Ph. 1. 

„ ? annulatus, Id. I.e. 17.4. N. York. 

„ ? nigrescens. Id. /. c. L. Champl. 
Catastomus gibbosus, Le Sueur, I. c. 
Connect. R. 

„ tuberculatus, Id. /. c. Perms. 

„ macrolepidotus. Id. Delaware R. 

„ aureolus, Id. L. Erie. 

„ communis, Id. Delaware R. 

,, loiigirostris. Id. Vermont. 

„ nigricans, Id. L. Erie. 

„ maculosus, Id. Maryland. 

„ elongatus, Id. Ohio. 

„ vittatus. Id. Penns. 

„ Dusquesnii, Id. Ohio. 

„ Bostonieiisis, Id. N. Engl. 

„ oblongus, Id. N. York. 

„ sucetta. Id. S. Carol. 

„ teres, Lacep. v. 15. 2. N. York. 

„ Hudsonius, Forst. Ph. Tr. 63. 6. 
F.B.A 46° N.— 68° N. 

„ Forsterianus, F.B.A. Back's Voy. 
fig. 48° N.— 68° N. 

„ reticulatus, Id. Back's Voy. fig. 
40° N.— 50° N. 

„ anisurus, Raf. Ohio. 

„ anisopterus, Id. do. 

„ bubalus. Id. do. 

„ niger, Id. do. 

„ carpio, Id. do. 

„ velijer, Id. do. 

„ xanthopus. Id. do. 

„ melanops, Id. do. 

„ melanotus. Id. do. 

„ fasciolaris. Id. do. 

„ erythrurus, Id. do. 

„ flexuosus, Id. do. 

„ megastomus, Id. do. 

Cyclei)tes nigrescens, Raf. Ohio. 
Leuciscus gracilis, F.B.A. 78. Saskat. R. 

„ chrysoleucus, Mitch. 40° N. — 
46° N. 

„ caurinus, F.B.A. 3. 304. Columb. 

„ oregonensis, Id. 3. 305. do. 

„ species nova, Cuv. Reg. An. 

„ atronasus,Mircn. N. York. Mass. 
Semotilus dorsalis, Raf. Ohio. 

„ cephahis. Id. do. 

„ diplemia. Id. do. 

„ notatus, Id. do. 
Minniltts dinemus. Id. do. 

„ notatus, Id. do. 

„ microstormis. Id. do. 
Luxilus erythrogaster, Id. do. 

„ chrysocephalus, Id. do. 

„ Kentuckiensis, Id. do. 

„ interruptus. Id. do. 
Rutilus plar gyrus. Id. do. 

„ compressus. Id. do. 

„ amblops, Id. do. 

„ melanurus, Id. do. 

„ anomalies, Id. do. 

„ ruber, Id. do. 
Pimephales promelas. Id. rfo. 
Ilypentelium macropterum. Id. rfo. 
Hydrargyra diaphana, Le Sueur, ^e. &. 
PA. Saratoga lake. 

„ midtifasciata. Id. /. e. tfo. 

,, omata, Id. /. e. Delaware R. 

„ nigrofasciata. Id. /. c. Rhode Is. 
Pcecilia mvdtilineata, Le Sueur, /. c. 

„ Schneideri, Valenc. Obs. Zool. 
Lebias eUipsoidea, Le Sueuk, I. c. Ar- 
kansas R. 
Fundulus fasciatus, Valenc. I. c. N. York. 

„ coenicolus. Id. I. c. N. York. 
Molinesia latipinna, Le Sueur, I. c. N. 

Cyprinodon flavulus, Valenc. /. c. N, 

„ ovinus, Mitch. N. York. 



Fam. EsociD^. 

Esox lucius*, L. 38° N.— 68° N. East of 
Rocky M. only. 
„ estor, Le Sueur, Ac. Sc. Ph. L. 

Erie &^ Huron. 
„ reticulatus, Id. I. c. Connect. R. 
„ phaleratus, Id. I. c. Florida. 
„ niger, Id. /. c. L. Saratoga. 
„ vittatus, Raf. Ohio. 
„ salmoneus, Id. do. 
Belone — ? Smith, Massach. 
Scomberesox equirostris, Le Sueur, A/as- 

Scomberesox scutellatus, Le Sueur, New- 
Sarchirus vittatus, Raf. Ohio. 

„ aryenteus, Id. do. 
Exocoetus exiliens, Bl. 397. Trop. seas. — 
N Y.8f Pad/. 
„ furcatus, Mitch. G. of Mex. — 

N. York. 
„ couiatus. Id. N. York. 
„ mesogaster, Id. do. — Massach. 

„ volitans, Bl. 398. Trop. seas, Atl. 
8( Pa«/.— 30° N. 

Fam. SiLURoiDE^. 

Bagnis marinus, Mitch. A''. York. 

„ ? hompout,%iiiiTn,Massach. — ? 

„ — ? Benn. Mazatl. Pacif. 
Pimelodus catus, Cat. 2, 23. U. S. 

„ albidus, Le Sueur, Mem. Mus. 

„ nebulosus, Id. I. c. do. 

„ seneus, Id. I. c. do. 

„ Cauda furcata. Id. I. c. do. 

„ nigricans, Id. L. Erie. 

„ natalis, Id. U. S. 

„ insigne. Id. U. S. 

„ caenosus, F.B.J. 3, 1 22. L. Huron. 

„ lorealis. Id. Saskatch. R. 

„ maculatus, Raf. Ohio. 

Pimelodus carulescetis, Raf. Ohio. 

„ pallidus. Id. do. 

„ argyrus. Id. do. 

„ viscosus. Id. do. 

„ nebulosus, Id. do. 

„ cupreus. Id. do. 

„ lividus. Id. do. 

„ melas. Id. do. 

„ xanthocephalus, Id. do. 

„ limosus. Id. do. 
Pylodictls limosus. Id. do. 
Noturm flavus, Id. do. 
Doras costafus, Cat. Sup. 9. U. S. 
Callichthys — } Bl. 397, 1. do. 
Aspredo Icevis, Seba, 29, 9, 10. do. 


Salrao salar*, F.B.A. Connect. R. to Labr. 
„ Scouleri, Id. 93. New Caled. 
„ Rossii, Id. 80, 85, 2. Arct. sea. 
„ Heamii, Id. do. 
„ alipes, Id. 81,86, 1. do. 
„ nitidus, Id. 82, 1. 86, 2. 52° N.— 

72° N. 
„ Hoodii, Id. 82, 2. 83, 2. 87, 1. 

52° N.— 72° N. 
„ fontinalis, Id. 82, 1. 87, 2. N. 

York. — L. Huron. 
„ namaycush. Id. 79, 85, 1. 44° 

N.— 68° N. 
„ quinnat, Id. Columb. R. 
„ Gairdneri, Id. do. 
„ paucidens. Id. do. 
„ tsuppitch. Id. do. 
„ Clarkii, Id. do. 
„ carpio, Fabr. Greenl. 
„ alpinus, Id. do. 
„ stagnalis, Id. do. 
„ rivalis, Id. do. 
„ aUeghaniomis, Raf. Ohio. 

Salnio nigresce^u, Raf. Ohio. 

Stenodus Mackenzii, F.B.A. 84, 94, 1. 

Back's voy. Mack. R. 
Osmerm ejiei'lanus*, Arted. Massach. — 

St. Lawr. 
Mallotus villosus, Cuv. Arct. S. — Neuf. Hf 
„ pacificus, F.B.A. Columb. R. 
Coregoniis albiis, Id. 89, 2. 94, 2. 44° N.— 
72° N. 
„ tullibee, Id. 50° N.— 54° N. 
„ Artedi, Le Sueur, Ac. Sc. Ph. 

L. Erie. 
„ lucidus, F.B.A. 90, 1. Gr. Bear L. 
„ harengus, Id. 90, 2. L. Huron. 
„ quadrilatcralis. Id. 89, 1. 60°N.— 

72° N. 
„ labradoricus. Id. G. of St. Law- 


Thymallus signifer, F.B.A. 88. 62° N.— 
68° N. 
„ thymalloides, Id. lat. 64^° N. 
Saurus mezicanus, Cuv. L. of Mex. 



Fam. Clupkoidejs. 

€lupca harengus*, Auct. 40° N.— 75° N. 
Pacif. Atl. (^ Arct. Seas. 

„ humeralis, Cuv. G. ofMex. 

„ fasciata, Lb Sueur, Ac. Sc. Ph. 

„ elongata, Id. Marble head. 

„ halec, Mitch. N. York. 

„ pusilla, Id. do. 

,, parvula, Id. do. 

„ indigena, Id. do. 

„ vittata, Id. do. 

„ ccerulea, Id. do. 
Alosa vernalis, Mitch.v. 9. N. York, Mass. 

„ aestivalis, Id. N. York. 

„ menhaden. Id. v. 7. do. Massach, 

„ matowalta. Id. v. 8. do. 

„ alosa*, Id. iV. York. Mass. 

„ mediocris, Id. <fo. 

„ minima, Smith, Massaeh. 
Pomolobtis ehrysochloris, Raf. OA?'o. 
Dorosoma notata, Raf. OAeo. 
Notemigonus auratus. Id. <fo. 

Chatoessus oglina, Le Sueur, Ac. Sc. Ph. 
Rhode Is. 
„ Cepedianus, Id. I. c. Pennsylv. 
„ thrissa, Cuv. G. of Mex. 
„ notata, Id. do. 
EngrauUs sadina, Mitch. N. York. 

„ encrasicholtis*, Bl. 302. GreenL 

„ edentulus, Cuv. G. of Mex. 
Elops saurus, Lacep. v. 398. W. Ind. — 

Carol. Calif. Benn. 
Butirinus vulpes. Cat. 1, 2. Braz. — U. S, 
Hiodon tergisus, Le Sueur, I. c. L. Erie. 
„ clodaUs, Id. Ohio. 
„ chrysopsis, F.B.A. 91, 3. 52° N. 

—54° N. 
„ vernalis, Raf. do. 
„ heterurus. Id. do. 
„ alosoides. Id. do. 
Amia calva, Bl. Schn. 80. CaroL 
„ ocellicauda, F.B.A. L. Hwon. 

Fam. Sauroidk^. (Agassiz.) 

Lepisosteus osseus, L. U. S. 

„ huronensis, F.B.A. L. Huron. 
„ gracilis, Agass. Zool. Pr. 
„ longirostris, Raf. Ohio. 
„ oxyurus, Id. do. 

Lepisosteus alius, Raf. Ohio, 

„ platostomtis. Id. do. 

„ ferox. Id. do. 

„ spatula, Lacep. 5, 6, 2. Ohio. 
Litholepis adamantinus, ? Raf. Ohio. 

The second division of the fish, according to Cuvier's arrange- 
ment, or the Malacopterygii, includes the bulk of Agassiz's 
Cycloidei, together with some families belonging to the other 
orders of the latter naturalist, as the siluroidei and sauroidei 
which rank with his Ganoidei, and the platessoidece or j)leuro- 
nectoidecs which he places among his CTENoroEJE : on the 
other hand, we have already noticed that Agassiz's Ctenoide^ 
include the scomber oidece, atherincB, mugiloidece, and lahroidece, 
considered by Cuvier as Acanthopterygians. 

The Malacopterygii abdominales embrace the greater 
part of the fresh water fish, and though few species are common 
to Europe and North America, there is much similarity between 
the generic forms existing in the waters of the two continents. 
As the lakes and rivers, however, occupy more space in propor- 
tion to the land in North America than in any other quarter of 
the world, so the number and variety of fresh water fish is 
greater than in Europe, or any other extra-tropical country. 

216 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

Ci/pri/wi(!ca\ — Europe nourishes 32 species of this family : it 
possesses, in common with America, tlie forms of harbiis, ahra- 
niis, and leuviscus ; labeo, existing in the Nile, is also American ; 
ci/prinus, go/no, tinea, and cohitis, which are European, have 
not yet been proved to exist on the other side of the Atlantic : 
while North America possesses catastoimis,/ii/drai'gi/ra,j)a'cilia, 
lehias, fiinduliis, molhiesia and cyprinodon, unknown to Euro- 
pean waters, besides the imcertain genera proposed by M. Ra- 

Esocidce. — The fresh waters of America contain a greater 
nmnber of species of this family than those of Europe, the only 
one in fact in the latter country being the common pike or csox 
Indus, which exists also abundantly in North America, tliough 
it is confined to the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. North 
Africa is more productive, the Nile producing many vwrinyri, 
and the Mediterranean yielding a single species each of alocepha- 
lus, microstoma, stomias, and chauliodus, forms which have not 
been detected on the western side of the Atlantic. Belone, 
scomheresox and exoca-tus, are common to both sides of that 
sea, and it is highly probable that some of the hemirumplii of the 
Caribbean sea may follow the gulf stream further north : one 
was taken this year on the coast of Cornwall*. 

SiluroidecB. — Though a considerable number of fish of this 
family have been already discovered in North America only one 
is known in Europe, viz., the silunts glanis, which inhabits the 
rivers of Europe as far north as Sweden and Norway, as well as 
those of Asia and North Africa. The ])imelodns horealis, the 
most northerly of the family in America, goes no higher than the 
54th parallel. The waters of Egypt nourish many species of 
silurus, schilhus, bagriis, ^>«;»(?/o(/m«, synodoiitis, clarias, and 

Salmonuideee. — Upwards of thirty described species of this 
family belong to Europe, which possesses all the generic forms 
mentioned in our North American list, with the exception of 
sfe?iodif.sf, and the addition of argentina and scojje/us, found in 
the Mediterranean. Egypt produces two or three other forms, 
one of them, niyletes, being common also to tropical America. 
Some of the salmonoidece are the most northei'l}' of fresh water 
fish. Several of the trouts of North-west America are probably 
identical with Kamtschatka species, to which other names had 
been previously given. This point, with many others, \vill 

* Yarkei-l, Br. Fishes, p. 397. 

\ Tliis gfiiiis or sub-geims, wliicli tliflcvs fiom tlie oihev suhnoncn in tlic teeth, 
was first iiaiiicd in tlic Appendix to CajiUtin Back's narrative of his journey to 
he niouth of the Thlevvccchoh. 




doubtless be cleared up in the ensuing volumes of the Histuire 
lies Polssons. The identity of the salmo salar itself on both 
sides of the Atlantic has not been satisfactorily settled, and some 
interesting facts in the history of the fish as an inhabitant of Lake 
Ontario require to be ascertained ; for instance, whether it de- 
scends to the sea after spawning, or whether, like the salmon 
of Lakes Wenern and Wettern, in Sweden, it passes its whole 
life in fresh water f, recruiting in the depths of the lake, and 
spawning in the feeding streams. The truth of the report, that 
none of the salmon which ascend the Columbia, or the rivers of 
New Caledonia, return again to the sea, deserves to be inquired 
into : — the same thing has been asserted of the salmon of North- 
ern Asia. 

ClupeoidecB. — This family is also more numerous in North 
America than in Europe, the latter country yielding only nine 
or ten species belonging to the genera clupea, alosa, and en- 
graulis. Hiodon, a genus peculiar to America, has much affinity 
to the salnionoidece . 

Sauroide(E. — This family contains only two existing genera, 
lepisosteus, peculiar to America, and jjoli/pterus to Africa J. 

Fam. Gadoidk^. 

Gadus morrhua*, L. Polar s. Nevrf. N. 

York. S. of Kamtsch. 
„ callarias*, L. N. York, Mitch. 

Greenl. Fabu. 
„ rupestris, Smith, A'^ York. Mas- 

„ arenosus, Id. do. do. 
„ tomcodus, M itch. do. do. Smith. 
„ (er/lefiniis, Penn. do. Mitch. 
„ Jasciahis, Id. do. Mitch. Mas- 

sach. Sm. 
„ blennoides, Mitch, do. 
„ barbatus*, Bl. 166. Massach. Sm. 
„ Fabricii, F.B.J. Greenl. Fabr. 
„ ogac, Id. Greenl. Fabr. 
,, luscus*, Penn. S. of Kamtsch. 

„ macrocephalus, Tiles. M. Peir. 

2, 16. S. ofKamts. 
„ gracilis, Id. 18. do. 
Merlangus carlionarius*, Bl. 66. Davis' S. 


Merlangiis polaris, Sabine, Parry's App- 
Polar s. Spitz. 
„ vulgaris*, Smith, Massach. 
„ alhidus, Mitch. N. York. 
„ purpureus. Id. do. 
„ pollachius*, Smith, Massach. 
Merluccius aseUus*, Bl. 164. N. York. — 

Lota maculosa, Le Sueur, Ac. Sc. PA. 
L. i'rze.— 68° N. 
„ coicpressa, Id. I. c. Connect. R. 
Brosmius flavescens, Id. M. Mus. 5, 16.2. 
„ vulgaris*, Penn. Massach. Smith. 
„ lub*, Mem. Stockh. 15,8. Greenl. 
Phycis chuss, Schcepf. N. York. 
„ tenuis, Mitch. N. York. 
„ punctatus. Id. F.B.A. 3, 253. N. 
York, Nova Scotia. 
Raniceps blennoides, Smith, Massach. 
Macrourus rupestris*, Bl. 26. Greenl. 
North s. 

•j- NiLSsoN, Pisces Scand. 

X The Ganoidei of Agassiz are composed of the sauro'idece, lepiduidetB 
(fossil), pycnodontes, plecloguathi, lophobranchii, goniodontes, siluroidea:, and 




Platessa plana, Mitch. iV. York. 

„ stellata, Pall. Polar s. S. of 

„ dentata, L. A^. York, Schcepf. 
„ americana, Schcepf. Rhode Is. 
„ melanogaster, Mitch. A''. York. 
„ ohlonga, Id. do. 
Hippoglosmis communis'^, Bl. 47. A''. York. 
Mass. Sm. Pacif. Eschscholtz. 

Rhombus argus, Cat. 27. Bafiamas. U.St. 

„ glacialis, Pall. Awatska. Polar s. 

„ maxitmis*, Smith, Massach. 

„ aguosus, Mitch. N. York. 
Solea vulgaris*, Penn. Massach. Smith. 
Achirus lineatus, Sloane, 346, Carib. *. 
N. York. Mitch. 

„ plagiurus, L. Carib. s. — Carol. 

Fam. Discoboli. 

Cgclopterus lumpits*, Bl. 90. N. York.- 
Greenl. Eur. 
„ minutus. Pall. Mass. Smith.- 
Greenl. Ross. 

Cgclopterus spinosus, Fabr. Greenl. 

„ ventricosus,P Ai,h. S. oj" Kamtsch. 
Liparis communis*, Artedi, Eur. Polar s. 

„ gelatinosus, Pall. S. of Kamtsch. 


Echeneis remora*, Bl. 172. N. York. Mass. Eeheneis species aUce, U. S. Pacif. Benn. 
„ naucrates*, Id. 171. Massach. 
Newf. Pacif. 

Malacopterygii sub-brachiales. — Most of the fish of this 
order feed on or near the bottom, and a very considerable num- 
ber of the species are common to both sides of the Atlantic, par- 
ticularly in the higher latitudes, where they abound. It does 
not appear that their general diffusion ought to be attributed to 
migration from their native haunts, but rather that in this respect 
they are analogous to the owls, which, though mostly stationary 
birds, yet include a greater proportion of species common to the 
Old and New Worlds than even the most migratory families. Se- 
veral of the scomberoidece which feed on the surface have been 
previously noted as traversing many degrees of longitude in the 
Atlantic, but the existence of the ground- feedhig gadoidees in 
very distant localities must be attributed to a different cause, as 
it is not probable that any of them wander out of soundings, or 
ever approach the mid-seas. 

Gadoidece. — About twenty-one species of this family frequent 
the European seas, most of which, and all the generic forms, have 
been enumerated by authors as existing also on the North Ame- 
rican coast. More exact comparisons will probably diminish 
the number of species supposed to be common to the two coun- 
tries, but still a sufficient number will remain to justify the pre- 
ceding remarks. 

Pleuronectoidece. — Upwards of thirty- six species of flat-fish 
belong to Europe, two or three of which, and all the generic 
forms, except monochir, occur in the lists of American ichthyo- 



legists. Many more will doubtless be detected hereafter on the 
coasts of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Labrador. 

Discoboli. — About eight species of this family, belonging to 
the genera lepadogaster, gobiesox, cyclopterus, and liparis have 
been described as European. The American discoboli are almost 
entirely unknown. 

Echeneideae. — ^The singular fish belonging to this family, 
though they swim rapidly for a short time, do not appear ca- 
pable of long- continued exertion. The necessity for this is indeed 
obviated by the adhesive apparatus on the head, by which they 
can attach themselves to the larger fishes, and especially to the 
sharks. In this way they are carried about, and are always at 
hand to feed on any morsels that may be detached when the 
monster closes his saw-like teeth on his prey. They also stick 
to the bottoms of ships, being attracted by the greasy washings 
of the coppers thrown overboard by the cook, and thus they are 
often carried beyond the warmer seas in which they are produced. 
The two species which are best known have been taken on both 
sides of the Atlantic, as well as in the Pacific. They range occa- 
sionally northwards to England and the banks of Newfoundland. 


Fam. Anguilliformes. 

Muraena xanthomelas, Raf. Ohio. 

„ lutea, Id. do. 

„ helcsna, Cat. 20. Bahama*. 
Mursenophis moringa, Cat. 21. do. 

„ meleagris, Mitch. U. S. 
Saccophaiynx ampullaceus, Harwood, 
Ph. Tr. Davis' Straits. 

„ chordatus, Mitch. 52° TV. lat. 
Ammodytes lancea*, Cuv. Greenl. Fabr. 

„ fobianus*, Penn. N. York. Newf. 
Ophidium stigma, Benn. Kotzebtie Sound. 

Muraena rostrata, Le Sueur, L. Cayuga 
and Seneka. 
bostoniensis, Id. Massach. 
serpentina, Id. Lonff. Is. 
argentea, Id. Boston Bay. 
macrocephala. Id. Saratoga, 
vulgaris*", Smith, Mass. N. York. 


conger*, Mitch. Surinam, do. do. 
oceanica. Id. N. York, 
latieauda, Raf. Ohio, 
aterrima, Id. do. 

Anguilliformes. — From 25 to 30 species belonging to the 
single family forming this order have been detected in the Eu- 
ropean Seas. They are arranged by Cuvier in the genera an- 
guilla, conger, ophisurirs, miircena, sphagebranchus, leptoce~ 
jihalus, ophidium and ammodytes. The Nile supports another 
generic form mxaeAgymnarchus. One of the species of sacco- 
pharyn.v having been caught in mid-seas belongs as much to 
Europe as to America. The members of the family existing in 
the American waters are very imperfectly known. 




Syynathns typhle, Bl. 91, 1. N. York, 
Mass. Mitch. Sm. 

Syynathus acus, Bl. 91, 2. U. S. Pbnn. 
Hippocampusbrevirostris? N. York.MncYi. 

Of this order, consisting, like the preceding one, of only one 
natural family, there are about 15 European species. The Ame- 
rican naturalists have mentioned the same generic forms as ex- 
isting in their seas, but no correct details of the species of the 
northern part of the New World have yet been published. 


Fam. Gymnodontes, 

Diodon imnctatus, Bl. 125, 126. Braz. — 
N. York. ScHffiPF. 
„ riviilatus, Cuv. N. York. Mitch. 

„ pilosus, Mitch. 6, 4. N. York. 
Tetraodon geoiuetricus. Cat. 28. Bah. — 
„ lineatm, Bl. 141. Nmo York. 


Tetraodon hispidus, Schcepf. A''. York. 

„ turgidus, Mitch. 6, 5. do. Mas- 

„ loevigatus, Will. I. 2. 

„ curvus, Mitch. N. York. 

„ niatheniaticus, Id. do. 

„ lagoceiilialus, Cat. 28. Virr/. 
Orthagoriscus niola, Bl. Schn. U. S. 

„ brevis, Mitch. N. York. 


Batistes aurantiacus, Mitch. 6, 1 

„ brocms, Id. N. York. 
Ostracion triqueter, Bl. 130. Mass. Sm 

„ bieaudalis, Smith. Mass. 

„ quadricornis, Bl. 134. U. S. 


Balistes tomentosus, L. Seba, 24, 18. U. S. 
„ vctula, Bl. 150, Cat. 22. Baha- 
mas. — U.S. 
„ hispidus, L. Seba, 24, 2. U. S. 
„ monoceros, Cat. 19. Bah. Mass. 

„ sufflamen, Mitch. 6, 2. N. York. 

Gymnodontes. — This family of plectognathi belongs chiefly 
to the warmer seas, and the species have not yet been satisfac- 
torily discriminated, especially the American ones. The tetrao- 
don PennantijY ARR., (termed by Pennant Icevigatus and lagoce- 
jihaliis.) and orthagoriscus niola and ohlongus extend north- 
wards to the English coast. The tetraodon lineatus inhabits 
the Nile. This species, and several others which exist on the 
eastern side of the Atlantic, occur in the lists of American ich- 
thyologists ; but in the absence both of good descriptions and 
figures there is i*eason to fear that much error exists in their de- 

Sclerodennata. — This family also abounds within the Tropics, 
haunting coral banks and other rocky places. Many frequent 
the shores of the Bahamas, the Florida Keys and the Bermudas, 
but the species have not been fully described. The balistes ca- 
priscus of the Mediterranean and British Channel is the only 
European one. 





Fam. Sturionidk^. 

Acipeiiser transmontanus, F.B.J. 97./. 2. 

Colnmb. R. 
„ nipertiauus, F.B.J. 97, 1. Sas- 

katch. «.— 30° N.— 55° N. 
„ brevirostris, Le Sueur, Jm. 

Phil. Tr. N.S. Delaware R. 
„ maculosus, Id. Ohio. 
„ oxyi-hynchus, Mitch. Delaw. N. 


Acipenserrubicundus,LE Sueur, /. c. 12. 
Canada lakes. 

„ platyrhynchus, Raf. Ohio. 

„ serotinus, Id. Ohio. 

„ ohienm. Id. Ohio. 

„ macrostomus, Id. Ohio. 
Platirostra edenlula, Le Sueur. Ohio. 
Polyodon folium, Lac. 13, Z.Ohio, Mississ. 

Fam. Chim^roide/e. 

Chiraaera CoUaei, Bann. N. Pacif. I Elephant fish, YAVCOvvEn. Straits of Da 

I Ftica. 

SturionidecE. — The western European waters produce only one 
species of this family, but several exist abundantly in the Da- 
nube and other rivers flowing into the Black Sea, and also in the 
rivers of Northern Asia. The species are still more numerous and 
various in Noi*th America and the Mississippi, and its tributaries 
nourish some curious forms found nowhere else. We are chiefly 
indebted to M. Le Sueur for our knowledge of the sturgeons of 
the United States, but a monograph of the family is much 
needed, the species both of the Old and New Worlds are as yet 
but badly determined. 

CMmoBroidecB. — Only two species of this family have been figu- 
red, viz. , the chimoera monstrosa, an inhabitant of the North Atlan- 
tic, and the callorhynchiis antarcticus frequenting the southern 
parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. On Captain Beechey's voyage at 
least two others were discovered, one on the coast of Chili, and 
another, named by Mr. Bennett chimccra CoUicci, in the Bay of 
Monterey. Vancouver took one in the Straits of Juan daFuca, 
but he has given no description of it whatever whereby we may 
judge of the species. 


(Placoidei, Agassiz.) 


Scyllium Edwardsii, Cuv., Edw. 289. 

„ canis, Mitch. N. York. 

„ canicula, Smith. Mass. 

„ caiulus. Id. Mass. 
Carcharias ol)sciirus, Le Sueur, Jc. Sc. 
Ph. 9. 

Carcharias Uttoralis, Le Sueur, N. York. 

„ terrsenovK, F. B. A. 3, 289. 

„ vulgaris, Belon, 60. N. York. 

Mass. Penn. Mit. Sm. 
„ vulpes, Sm. Mass. N. York. 
„ glaucus, Mitch. A''. York. Mass. 



Carcharias punctafus, Mitch. N. York. 
Selache maximus, Id. A'^ York. Mass. 

„ Amcricanus. Id. N. York. 
Somniosus brevipinna, Le Sueur, Ac, Sc. 

Ph. Mass. 
Zygsena malleus, Valen. Mass. N. York. 

„ tiburo, Penn. Sm. Mass. 
Squatina Dumerilii, Le Sueur, I. c. 1, 

Pristis antiquorum, Cuv. U. S. Penn. 

Fam. Raiide^. 

Torpedo sp. — Benn. Monterey. 

„ — ? Mitch. N. York. 
Raia Sayii, Le Sueur, N. Jersey. 

„ Desmarestii, Id. Florida. 

„ eglanteria. Id. Carolina. 

„ Chantenay, Id. Pennsylv. 

„ fiillonica, Fabr. Greenland. 

„ ocellafa, Mitch. N. York. 

„ diaphana, Id. Do. 

„ ceniroura, Id. Do. 

„ bonasus, Id. N. York. 

Raia batis, Smith. Massach. 

„ clavata, Id. Do. 
Trygon sabinum, Cuv. Florida. 

„ micrura, Cuv. N. Jersey. Le 


Myliobatis Fremenvillii, Le Sueur. Rhode 

„ quadrOoba, Cuv. N. Jersey. Le 

„ narinari, Marcgr. San Bias. 
Cephaloptera mobular, Duh. 17. Dela- 
ware. Le Sueur. 

„ vampirus, Mitch., Penn. N. 

Fam. Cyclostomata. 

Petromyzon tridentatus, F. B. A. 3, 293. 
Columb. R. 
„ fluvialis, Id. & Mitch, N. York, 
Mack. R. 
Petromyzon marimts, Mitch. N. York, 
„ niffer, Raf. Ohio. 

Selachiidece. — The European seas nourish about thirty mem- 
bers of this family, belonging to the genera scy Ilium, carcharias, 
lamna, galeus, mustelus, notidanus, selache, spinas, centrina, 
scymmis, zygcena, squatina, and ])ristis. The sharks of the 
American seas have been very imperfectly investigated ; but 
since the food provided for them is much the same as on the 
east side of the Atlantic, we may expect to find them exhibiting 
the same generic forms, and their analogy to the birds and 
beasts of prey would also lead us to the same conclusion. 

RaiidecB. — Cuvier, in speaking of the Rays, observes that no 
confidence whatever can be reposed on the synonymy of Artedi, 
Linnaeus, and Bloch, since these authors have taken their spe- 
cific characters chiefly from the number of spines, which vary 
with the age and sex of the individual. Hence as the Linnaean 
names have been imposed on many of the American rays, our 
list is without doubt erroneous as well as defective. About 
twenty species have been described as inhabitants of the Euro- 
pean seas ; they are distributed by Cuvier into the following 
genera ; rhinohatis, torpedo, raia, trygon, myliobates, and 

Cyclostomata. — Of this family, which contains the most 
simply organised fishes, the European seas nourish only about 
seven species belonging to the genera petro)7iyzon,gasterobran- 
chus, ammocoetics, and amj)hioxus (Yarrell), but there is reason 
to believe that the family is more numerous in the American 
waters. The petromyzon tridentatus which inhabits the estu- 


ary of the Columbia, resembles p. Planeri in its fringed lips, 
and Jluviatilis in the strength and form of its teeth, but not in 
their arrangement. Lampreys exist in the Mackenzie river 
which joins the Arctic sea in the 68th parallel. 

The preceding report occupies a greater portion of the Soci- 
ty's valuable volume than I could have wished, but I was unable 
to compress it fm-ther without departing entirely from the plan 
that I have adopted. The list of species, though they might 
have been omitted had the paper referred only to a countiy like 
Europe, whose natural productions are fully enumerated in ac- 
cessible treatises, are in fact essential to a view of the present 
state of our knowledge of the ferine inhabitants of a continent 
which confessedly nourishes many species still undescribed j 
and being moreover the data for our remarks on the geographical 
distribution of animal forms, they are necessary to enable the 
naturalist to judge of the value of the statements collected from 
the various authors referred to, and of the opinions offered upon 
them. The comparison between the faxince of North America 
and Europe which runs throughout the paper, contributes to 
indicate not only the variations of animal life in different loca- 
lities, and in different circumstances, under the same parallels of 
latitude, but also, though more obscurely and merely by analogy, 
the tribes of animals of which new species will be most pro- 
bably hereafter detected in North America. 

Zoology, as Cuvier has remarked, is now and must continue 
to be for many years, a science of observation only, and not of 
calculation ; and no general principles hitherto established will 
enable us to say what are the aboriginal inhabitants of any 
quarter of the world. It seemed therefore hopeless to attempt 
to elicit the laws of the distribution of animal life from results 
yielded by a fauna so very imperfectly investigated as that of 
North America ; consequently in the preceding report, the 
ranges of the species have been generally stated, as recorded by 
observers, and without any reference to the opinions which have 
been heretofore advanced by theoretical writers. Buffon ha- 
zarded the remark that none of the animals of the Old World 
exist in the New, except the few which are capable of propagating 
in the high northern latitudes. Temminck adduces circum- 
stances which favour a modern opinion almost directly opposed 
to Buffon's ; namely, that all the genera which people the earth 
(a small number belonging to the polar regions only excepted) 
are to be found in the equatorial zone, or at least within the 
tropics ; and that the genera are spread abroad by means of 
analogues or species possessing exactly similar generic cha- 

224 SIXTH RErORT — 1836, 

ractcrs, which range in tlie same parallels of latitude, through 
all the degrees of longitude, and that notwithstanding the har- 
rier which a wide ocean may be supposed to interpose*. The 
comprehensiveness of this law will evidently be modified by the 
number of generic divisions admitted by naturalists, and it will 
be scarcely tenable if the geographical groups of species be 
raised to generic rank as has been of late frequently done. 

The report includes only the vertkbrata, but the fourth 
volume of the Fauna Boreali-^mericana, by the Reverend 
William Kirby, now in the press, will give a complete review of 
the present state of North American Entomology. Almost 
all that is known of the crustace.e, molluscs, and zoo- 
PHYTA of that country, is owing to the labours of Messrs. Say 
and Le Sueur, whose original papers are contained in the Journal 
of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia, so often quoted. 
Dr. S. G. Morton, in an able synopsis of the organic remains of 
the cretaceous group of the United States, lateh^ republished 
fromSilliman's Journal, gives the following list of recent shells 
common to the European and American coasts of the Atlantic. 

Purpura lapillus. 
Bucciinim undatum. 
Natica carena. 
Fiisus islandicus. 
Cyjirina islandica. 
Saxicava nigosa. 
Lucina divaricata. 
Pholas crispata. 
" costata. 
Solen ensis. 
Mya ai'enaria. 
Mvtilus edulis. 

Modiola papuaiia. 
Mactra deaurata. 
Spirorbis nautuloides. 
Thracia convexa. 
Soleciutiis fragilis. 
Glycimcris siliqua. 
Cardium gi-oenlandicum. 

" islandicuni. 
Strigilla carnaria. 
Tellina punicea. 
Pecten islandicus. 
Balanus ovularis. 

A list of the fresh-water shells of the fur countries occurs in 
the third volume of the Fauna BoreaU-Americuiia. 


In page 1G8, line 9, for 85, read 75. The same error occurs in Audubon's Ornitho- 
logical Biography, vol. i. p. 381. 

Mr. Swainson's 2d vol. of the Natural History of Birds ha\-ing been published while 
this paper was passing through the press, we followed it in making some changes in the 
arrangements of the yrallatnres, in consequence of which the following alterations re- 
quire to be made in the columns of numbers of the table in pnge 177. Tantalidic 5, 1, 
1. Ardeul(ji,\\,\\, \. Scolojiacidie, ib, ^il, 2i. Hallidw, 7, 1,1. Charadriadte, 8, 

We have followed the common practice in arranging the phalaropes with the sco- 
lojmcidie ; but they are, asTemminck has remarked, decidedly natatorial in their habits ; 
and we may add, resemble the ducks in their under plumage and bills : on the other 
hand, the flamingo is, as Dr. Smith has observed, a true wader in its manners, and has 
been classed as siicli bv all ornithologists except Mr. Swainson. Vide Swains. Birds, 
ii. p. 190. 

• Munogr. Sic. 


Supplementary Report on the Mathematical Theory of Fluids, 
By the Rev. J. Challis, Plumian Professor of Astronomy 
in the University of Cambridge. 

The object of the first Report which 1 read before the Associ- 
ation was to sketch out the processes of calculation, and exhibit 
the results obtained in the applications of analysis to fluids which 
were supposed either to be incompressible, and therefore of uni- 
form density ; or compressible in such a manner that the density 
is, under all circumstances, the same where the pressure is the 
same. Such fluids do not exist in Nature. All liquids are com- 
pressible in some degree, and the pressure in every aeriform fluid 
varies as well with the temperature as with the density; yet these 
hypothetical fluids are in a mathematical sense intimately allied 
to existing fluids. The results which calculation gives on the 
supposition of incompressibility admit of comparison with facts 
observed in the equilibrium and motion of water ; and the laws 
of pressure, motion, and propagation of motion, arrived at in the 
mathematical treatment of the imaginary fluid, whose pressure is 
conceived to depend on the density alone, are first approxima- 
tions towards a knowledge of w^hat actually takes place in air. 
The comparison of the calculated results with fact and experi- 
ment, in these normal cases, serves to show the degree of influence 
to be attributed to the modifications which the fundamental pro- 
perties of the imaginary fluids must undergo, to make them agree 
more nearly with those of real fluids. Of late years mathema- 
ticians have introduced such modifications into their theories, 
by reasoning from certain hypotheses, respecting the interior 
constitution of bodies, and the mechanical action of their mole- 
cules, for the purpose of treating mathematically of matter as it 
exists in Nature, and tracing to causes beyond the reach of di- 
rect observation and experiment the various sensible phaenomena 
which it presents. I endeavoured in a second Report to give 
some account of the general principle of such theories, and to 
explain how they serve, by a satisfactory comparison of the the- 
oretical results with experiments, to establish the truth of the 
hypotheses on which the mathematical reasoning is based, and 
so to make known, respecting the intimate constitution and un 
seen conditions of bodies, something which could not be ascer- 
tained by observation alone ; as, in an instance in some respects 
analogous, mathematical calculations applied to electrical phae- 
nomena are considered to prove the existence of fluids whose 
VOL. V. — 1836. . Q 

226 SIXTH RKI'OUT — 1836. 

nature is such that they cannot be shown to exist by the evidence 
of the senses alone. The phfenomena of capiUury attraction ap- 
pear to have principally led to hypotheses respecting the consti- 
tution and molecular action of liquids. The first ^vl•iters on the 
subject considered it sufficient to treat the liquid as incompres- 
sd)le, and attribute to its molecules, and to those of the contain- 
ing solids, an attracting force, sensible only at insensible distances 
from the attracting centres; on which supposition the problem 
does not materially differ from those that belong to the common 
theory of inelastic fluids. Poisson conceived it necessary to 
treat the question with more distinct reference to the molecular 
constitution of bodies, and to the repulsive, as well as attractive, 
forces which keep the molecules separate from each other in 
jjlaces of equilibrium. The views of this eminent mathematician 
respecting the constitution of fluid bodies, particularly as applied 
in his New Theory of Capillary Action, formed, together with 
an exposition of the theories of preceding writers, the main sub- 
ject of my second Report. I propose, in the present essay, to 
speak of some other instances of the application of mathematics, 
in explanation of the phaenomena of rest or motion of fluids, and 
carefully to distinguish, as heretofore, the calculations derived 
from hypotheses merely from those that set out from experi- 
mental facts. The mechanical theory of the atmosphere, and 
of the propagation of sound in it, as affected by the development 
of heat, will principally claim our attention. In conclusion, I 
shall take occasion to add some supplementary remarks on sub- 
jects contained in the preceding Reports, and to notice any ad- 
ditions that may have been very recently made to this depart- 
ment of science. 

Mechanical 27teori/ of the Atmosjihere. — The pressure of a 
perfectly elastic fluid when at rest, and everywhere of the same 
temperature, varies in the same proportion as its density. This, 
the well-known law of Boyle and Mariotte, was recently proved 
to be true, for pressures amounting to twenty-seven times the 
mean atmospheric pressure, by a committee of the French In- 
stitute appointed for ascertaining the elastic force of steam, in 
some preliminary experiments for executing the purpose of the 
commission*. The modification this law must receive to take 
in the effects of change of temperature (the fluid still remaining 
at rest) was first stated by Dalton as a result of experiment, and 
confirmed very shortly after by the experiments of Gay-Lussac t« 

• Memoires de I'Academie des Sciences, torn. x. p. 207. 

t The paper of Dalton was read before the Manchester Philosophical Society 
in October, 1801, and was published in 1802. Gay-Liissac's experiments ap- 
peared iu the Anmdes de C/iimie, 1802, torn, xliii. p. 137. 


It was ascertained by the independent labours of these two emi- 
nent philosophers, that different aeriform bodies, submitted to the 
same constant pressure, receive equal increments of volume for 
the same increment of temperature ; so that if the masses of any 
two be of equal size at one temperature, they will be of equal 
size at any other temperature, provided the pressure to which both 
are submitted, be the same and constant. It was also found by 
Gay-Lussac, that from the temperature of melting ice to that of 
boiling water, a mass of air, the size of which at the former tem- 
perature is expressed by unity, expands to a size expressed by 
1'375. If the augmentation 0*375 be divided into 100 equal 
parts, and each of these parts be assumed to measure a degree 
of temperature, it will follow, from the theory enunciated above, 
that every gas dilates by the fractional part 0*00375 of its size 
at the temperature of melting ice for each degree of the centi- 
grade air thermometer. Thus, v' being the volume when the 
temperature is 6° above zero, and v the volume when the 
temperature under the same pressure is at zero, the relation be- 
tween the volume and temperature is expressed algebraically by 
the efjuation, 

/ = V (1 + 0*00375 fl). 

Also if D', D be the densities corresponding to v', v, we have 
D' v' = D V, as the quantity of matter is constant. If now the 
pressure on a unit of surface be changed, without altering the 
temperature, from the constant. Vcilue it has hitherto been sup- 
posed to have, which we will call tsr, to the value jh the density 
at the same time changing from D' to p, the law of Mariotte gives 

— = Y\r These three equations easily conduct to the following 

relation between p, p, and d ; 

where « is put for 0*00375. This formula is considered to ap- 
ply to gases, to vapours, and to compoimds of both, or either. 

The value of « is the same for all, but yy differs for different fluids. 

If the unit of density for atmospheric air be assumed to be that 

at a particular place on the earth's surface at 0° centigrade, yr will 

plainly be the pressure there at that temperature. MM. Biot 
and Arago found I he ratio of the specific gravity of mercury to 
that of air at the temperature of melting ice, and under the ba- 


228 SIXTH RKI'ORT 1836. 

rometric pressure of 0»-76 (= 29-922 inches) to be 10462. From 
which it appears that if G be the measure of gravity at the place 
where this experiment was made (the Observatory of Paris), the 

value of ~ is 0°i'76 x 10462 G, oi- 7951-12 x G. For any 

other place this quantity must be multiplied by the ratio of the 
force of gravity at that place to the force represented by G. The 
numerical value of G is 9'^-80896, equivalent to 32-1824 English 
feet. The above coefficient of G is obtained on the supposition 
that the air is perfectly void of moisture. It has been ascertained, 
by a process wliich will be touched upon at a subsequent part of 
the Report, that the ratio of the density of air completely satu- 
rated witli vapour, to air perfectly dry under the same pressure, 
is 0-99749. On multiplying 795*1 ""-1 2 by this factor the result 
is 797l™"09, which applies to air containing its maximum quan- 
tity of humidity. The mean of the two values, 7961°*- 10, may 
be supposed to apply to the usual state of the atmosphere. Its 
equivalent in English fathoms is 4353-26. A correction should 
also be given to the factor 0-00375, on account of the effect of 
vapour. When the temperature increases the quantity of vapour 
in the atmosphere augments at the same time, and as the density 
of vapour under the same pressure is greater than that of air, a 
given quantity of humid air will dilate more than an equal quan- 
tity of dry air : it has been usual in consequence to change the 
above factor to 0-004. As the temperature hitherto spoken of 
is always that indicated by the air thermometer when a mercu- 
rial thermometer is employed, a correction may be thought ne- 
cessary, on account of the different rates of expansion of mercury 
and air. The experiments, however, of MM. Petit and Dulong 
show that this correction is insensible between 0° and 100° cen- 
tigrade, and only begins to be of considerable magnitude at a 
temperature of 300° centigrade*. Within the same limits the 
increase of elastic force was found to be proportional to the in- 
crease of temperature, the volume being constant f. 

By the means above indicated, one relation between the press- 
ure, density, and temperature of an aeriform body has been ex- 
perimentally assigned, and the two constants which the equation 
expressive of this relation involves have been determined with 
great exactness. But in addition to this equation the mathe- 
matician requires another for the solution of any question in 
which the effect of variation of temperature is to be taken into 
account. For instance, if it were proposed to determine the 

♦ Memoir on the Dilatation of Gases. Jotirnal de I'Ecole Poll/technique, 
call. 18. p. 213. t p. 200 of the same Memoir. 


pressure of the atmosphere at any assigned altitude above the 
earth's surface, in other words, to solve the problem of the ba- 
rometric measurement of heights, a second equation, expressing 
the relation of the temperature to the density or the pressure, 
would be required. For want of such an equation, Laplace as- 
sumes, in investigating his formula for the determination of 
heights by the barometer*, that the temperature is uniform, and 
equal to the mean of the observed temperatures at the higher 
and lower stations. This supposition^ as Mr. Ivory has shown f, 
conducts to the same barometric formula as would result from 
supposing the decrements of atmospheric temperature to be 
equal for equal increments of height above the eai-th's surface. 

The only attempt I know of which has been made to collect 
the law of vai-iation of temperature at different heights in the 
atmosphere from observations, is that by Mr. Atkinson in his 
Memoir on Astronomical Refractions contained in the second 
volume of the Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
His object is to arrive at the law by a consideration of as many 
recorded observations as could be procured of temperatures in 
different latitudes and different elevations (principally those of 
General Roy J and Baron Humboldt §), by a discussion of which 
he comes to the conclusion, that for equal decrements of tem- 
perature the increments of height are in arithmetic progression. 
The following is the table of results given at p. 189 of the Me- 
moir, from Humboldt's Observations in South America : 

Height. Depression of Therm. 

3724 Feet 14°-070 Fahr. 

6740 23°-310 

9029 30°-070 

10790 34°-7l5 

15744 49°-620 

19286 57°-380 

The same arithmetic progression results from the observations 
in Europe as from those in South America, and the general em- 
pirical formula connecting the height h (expressed in feet) and 
the depression n (expressed in degrees of Fahrenheit) below the 
temperature at the earth's surface, is the following : 

h = ^251-3 + I (« - 1)}«. 

'este, liv. x. chap. iv. §. 14. 
Transactions, 1823, p. 455. 
'77, part ii. p. 653. 
§ Memoir on Isothermal hmes, in the Memoires d'ArcueU, iom. in p 46'>. 
translated m Edin. Phil. Journ., vols, iii., iv., v. ^ ' ' 

* Mecanique Celeste, liv. x. chap. iv. §. 14. 
t Philosophical Transactions, 1823, p. 455. 
X Phil. Trans. 1777, part ii. p. 653. 

230 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

If this law, which requires confirmation by observations more 
in number, and extended over a greater portion of the earth's 
surface, should be finally established, the usual formula for the 
barometric determination of heights will require some modifica- 
tion. The mathematical reasoning in this problem ought also 
in strictness to proceed on the supposition that the atmosphere 
is in motion, and not, as is always supposed, at rest ; but this 
improvement in the theory is not likely to be effected till at the 
same time a mathematical theory of the periodic oscillations of 
the barometer can be given. 

It remains to notice the attempts of a purely theoretical cha- 
racter which liave been made to furnish the second equation 
above spoken of, and by it to assign a relation between the tem- 
perature, pressure, and density of the air at different elevations. 
If we conceive the atmosphere to be at rest, and every point of 
it to be in its mean state with respect to temperature, there will 
be a certain temperature corresponding to a certain density ; in 
other terms, the density will be a function of the temperature. 
Now by experiment it is found that when a given mass of air is 
suddenly rarefied by mechanical means, at the first instant, before 
it receives any accession of heat from surrounding bodies, its 
temperature is lowered, and it is supposed to absorb a quantity 
of heat equal to the diminution of temperature. The heat that 
has disappeared is conceived to become latent, while the total 
quantity of heat, consisting of the latent heat, and that indicated 
by the thermometer, remains the same in the given mass, till 
the temperature is raised by the position of the mass in the midst 
of bodies of a higher temperature. Dr. Dalton conceived the 
condition of the air in this experiment at the first moment of ra- 
refaction to be analogous to that of air of the same state of ra- 
refaction in the atmosphere, and consequently infers that to the 
same quantity of atmospheric air the same quantity of heat is 
always attached, a loss of temperature being compensated for by 
an increase of latent heat, or, as it is also called, heat of combi- 
nation, and an increase of temperature being due to a develop- 
ment of latent heat. Admitting, therefore, that the density of 
the atmosphere is a function of the temperature, it will follow 
from this hypothesis that it is also a function of the latent heat . 
The truth of this theory can be judged of only by its forming a 
basis for mathematical calculation, and so allowing us to compare 
the consequences that flow from it with experience. Mr. Ivory 
has enabled us to judge of it in this manner by a series of valu- 
able papers on this subject contained in the fiGth volume of the 
Philosophical Magazine*. Mr. Ivory admits with Dr. Dalton 
* pp. 12, 81, 241. 


that the density is a function of the heat of combination, with- 
out allowing that the loss of tenipei-ature is exactly equal to the 
heat that enters into combination in the latent form. His rea- 
soning is in fact conducted on the supposition that the loss of 
temperature is equal to the heat of combination, diminished by 
heat from extraneous bodies. To ascertain the function that 
the density is of the latent heat, he avails himself of a well-known 
experiment, first made by MM. Clement and Desormes, and re- 
peated afterwards by MM. Gay-Lussac and Welter, which de- 
termined the ratio of the specific heat of air submitted to a 
constant pressure to its specific heat when retained in a con- 
stant volume. This ratio Gay-Lussac found to be nearly of con- 
stant value between the temperatures — 20° and 40° of the cen- 
tigrade thermometer, and between the pressures 0'"*144 and 
l'^'46. By assuming it to be constant, Mr. Ivory arrives at the 
function he is seeking for, and further, supposing the heat from 
extraneous sources to vanish, i. e. by returning to theDaltonian 
hypothesis, he is conducted to a very simple relation between the 
pressure and the density expressed algebraically by the equation 
p = p*", where j} is the pressure relative to a unit of pressure, p 
the density relative to a unit of density, and m the ratio just 
spoken of. This same eqviation M. Poisson had previously ob- 
tained* by means of the same experimental results, but without 
the consideration of latent heat, as I shall afterwards have oc- 
casion to mention. As the efifect of heat in determining the at- 
mospheric density and pressure is taken into account in this 
equation, if it be a true equation, it will be that additional one 
which is required for the complete solution of problems, such as 
the barometric measurement of heights. It is, therefore, im- 
portant to inquire whether the equation p = p'" expresses the 
law of nature. By pursuing the investigation, on the supposition 
that the total heat of a mass of air is made up of the latent heat, 
the heat of temperature, and extraneous heat, and joining to ex 
pressions previously obtained for ]j and p, the usual differential 
equation dp = — g pd z relative to the pressure, density, and al- 
titude (z), Mr. Ivory arrives at an equation (Phil. Mag., vol. Ixvi. 
p. 242) by which the hypothesis of Dalton may be put to the 
test. He finds that there are an unlimited number of supposi- 
tions all equally leading to an equation of the form p = p'", m 
being different for each, and all indicating diffei'ent atmospheres, 
which possess the common property of decreasing in tempera- 
ture, at a rate proportional to the increase of altitude. If w = 1, 
and consequently/; = p, the decrement of temperature is infi- 

* Connuhsance des Terns for 1826, published in 1823. 

232 SIXTH REPORT 183fi. 

nitely slow, or the temperature is uniform. If m = 1*375, 
which is the ratio of the specific heats in Gay-Lussac's experi- 
ment, and consequently the value of m on Dalton's hypothesis, 
because the air on this supposition possesses the greatest possible 
degree of co'd that can be produced by rarefaction, the calcu- 
lated amount of decrement of temperature is 1° centesimal for 
an altitude of 67| fathoms, and the total height of the atmosphere 
is 20 miles. But according to Mr. xVtkinson's memoir, 1° is the 
real amount of depression in the first 80 fathoms of ascent. 
Mr. Ivory adopts 90 fathoms from the temperature observed in 
Gay-Lussac's balloon ascent, and derives | for the cori'esponding 
value of m. From all this it appears that the theory we are ex- 
amining, being pursued by mathematical reasoning to its con- 
sequences, is shown to be an approximation to fact, but not 
accurately true, because it assigns too large a rate of decrement 
of temperature to the lower strata of the atmosphere ; and, if 
Atkinson's formula be correct, it errs also in giving a uniform 
instead of a decreasing rate of decrement in ascending to the 
higher regions. 

Mr. Ivory, in his celebrated paper* on astronomical refrac- 
tions, has pursued a different train of reasoning with reference 
to this subject. He there sets out with supposing the decre- 
ments of temperature to be equal for equal increments of height, 
and is readily conducted (p. 4.J7) to an equation equivalent to 
p = p"'. When the value |, derived from Gay-Lussac's ascent, 
is substituted for ?h, this equation answers very well the purpose 
of calculating a table of refractions, and gives them with great 
accuracy for altitudes very little above the horizon. It does not 
come within the province of this Report to speak of the problem 
of astronomical refraction, excepting so far as it bears upon 
the constitution of the atmosphere ; I shall therefore only remark 
that a comparison of refractions, determined by astronomical 
observations with refractions calculated on any theory of the 
constitution of the atmosphere, does not serve as a good test of 
the truth of the theory. It results from the reasoning in the 
M^canique C^lesfef, that as far as 74° of zenith distance the 
calculated amount of refraction agrees very nearly with the ob- 
served, independently of any assumed law of decrease of density. 
Dr. Brinkley showed the same thing in a more direct manner J, 
and obtained a formula, the error of which at 80° 45' of zenith 
distance does not amount to half a second, whatever be the va- 
riation of density in the atmosphere. When the comparison is 

• Phil. Trans., 1823, p. 409. f 'iv- x. c. i. 

I Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 1815, vol. xii. p. 7?. 


made for altitudes nearer the horizon, the differences between the 
calculated and real refractions are of considerable amount, in 
cases where the calculations have proceeded on suppositions re- 
lative to the constitution of tlie atmosphere very remote from 
the truth, and suffice to detect their inaccuracy. But it appears 
fi-om Mr. Ivory's reasoning, that if p be assumed proportional 
to p^, and the refractions be calculated accordingly, they come 
out very nearly true quite close to the horizon. It would, however, 
be wrong to conclude from this that the equation p — p^ repre- 
sents the law of iiature, for the whole height of the atmosphere 
calculated by this formula is found to be twenty-five miles, which 
in all probability is far below the truth*. The fact is, astro- 
noxnical refractions are very little influenced by the higher parts 
of the atmosphere, so that supposititious atmospheres agreeing 
with the existing atmosphere in the lower strata, and widely dif- 
fering in the upper, may yet produce the same amount of refrac- 
tion f. 

For the reasons given above no definite relation between the 
pressure, density, and temperature of the air can be extracted 
either from the observation of astronomical refractions or from 
the theory of them. The only method that seems to be open 
for increasing our knowledge of the constitution of the atmo- 
sphere (and by consequence of elastic fluids in general) is to 
multiply thermometrical observations at various heights and dif- 
ferent stations, for the purpose of determining the law of the 
mean distribution of temperature, and how far the variation 
from one point to another depends on the variation of density 
alone. Something in this respect may possibly be gathered from 
the subject which next claims our attention. 

Theory of the Velocity of Sound. — The difference between 

* In place of the equation ^; = g'», Mr. Ivory assumes another, viz., 

/)= (1 — /) g " +/g2, /being an arbitrary quantity, which may have such 
values assigned to it that the rate of decrease of temperature shall be slower as 
the height increases, and the total height of the atmosphere be of any value 
from twenty-five miles to infinity. This formula he employs in calculating 
refractions, and finds them sufficiently accurate by taking/= ^ and n infinitely 
great, which corresponds to an unlimited atmosphere, supposing the force of 
gravity to be the same at all heights. 

t The memoir of M. Biot on astronomical refractions, read before the Paris 
Academy, Sept. 5, 183G, and printed in the additions to the Connaissance des 
Terns for 1839, treats the problem with all the generality and precision that 
may be hoped for on a subject of this nature. 1 advert to the memoir here, 
chiefly because its first part, on the conditions of the equilibrium of the atmo- 
sphere, contains a lucid exposition of the mode of mathematically estimating 
the effects of temperature, and of the mixture of aqueous vapour in the air. 

234 SIXTH KEPORT — 1836. 

the observed velocitj' of sound and that which Newton derived 
from the law of Mariotte (amounting to nearly a sixth of the 
whole), has given rise to researches and experiments of a very 
interesting nature, in which the philosophers of France have 
chiefly signalized themselves. The first attempts to account for 
this difference were unavailing. Newton did not succeed. Euler 
supposed that as the Newtonian formula was obtained by neg- 
lecting powers of the velocity of the aerial particles higher than 
the first, the difference was attributable to an imperfect approxi- 
mation. But Lagrange showed that the velocity of propagation 
in the hypothetical fluid, of which the pressure varies in the 
same proportion as the density, is the same for large excursions 
of the vibrating particles as for small. Lagrange also remarked 
that he could explain the discordance between the theory and 
experiment by supposing the pressure of the air to increase 
more rapidly than its density, but was deterred from arguing on 
this supposition, as he considered it contradicted by the law of 
Mariotte. The true solution was reserved for Laplace, who 
first remarked that the excess of the experimental velocity above 
the theoretical was owing to the development of heat and pro- 
duction of cold which accompanies every very sudden compres- 
sion and dilatation of the air, and which was not taken into ac- 
count in the theory. This may perhaps be considered the most 
successful explanation of a natural phaenomenon that has been 
given in modern times. The cause assigned was a vera causae 
one that may be presented to our senses, and therefore perfectly 
intelligible. A very common experiment by which a combus- 
tible substance is inflamed by the sudden compression of air, 
leaves no room to doubt of the reality of the development of 
heat under the circumstances contemplated in the theory. This 
explanation was known to be Laplace's a considerable time be- 
fore its author published anything expressly in writing respect- 
ing it. An article by M. Biot in the Journal xle Physique, 
1802, and the memoir of M. Poisson on the Theory of Sound*, 
which was written in 1807, contain, I believe, the first applica- 
tions of analysis to Laplace's Theory. Anterior to such appli- 
cation it is necessary to make some supposition for the purpose 
of connecting the effect of the developed heat with the other 
elements of the problem. That which Biot and Poisson adopte<l 
is thus expressed by the latter : — " In the propagation of sound, 
the compression or dilatation which takes place successively in 
the whole extent of the mass of air being very small, we may re- 
gard the augmentation or diminution of temperature due to this 

• Journal (Ic I'Ecole Pohjtechniqiie, cah. xiv. 


change of density as being^ proportional to it." By aid of this 
consideration he arrives at the following equation : 


1 + T- 

(1 + «9)y/ 

in which a is the velocity of sound, g the force of gravity, g h 
the pressure of the air on a unit of surface, when its density is D 
and temperature 9, and «; the increment of temperature caused 
by the sudden condensation y. At the time this memoir was 
written no experiments had been made by which the rise of 
temperature, caused by a given small and sudden condensation, 
could be determined. M. Poisson therefore reverses the ques- 
tion, and infers the increment of temperature fi-om the observed 
velocity of sound. He finds that if the dilatation or compression 
were ^\-^ of the M'hole volume, the temperature would be de- 
pressed or elevated one degree of the centigrade thermometer. 
In the volume of the Annales de Physique et de Chhnie for the 
year 1816, Laplace published the following theorem without the 
demonstration : " The velocity of sound is equal to the pi'oduct 
of the velocity which the Newtonian formvila gives, by the square 
rootof the ratio of the specific heat of air when the pressure is con- 
stant to its specific heat when the volume is constant." The proof 
was first given in the Connaissance des Terns for 1825, and after- 
wards in the fifth volume of the M^canique Cdleste ; jjrevious 
to which the experiment* of Clement and Desormes, before men- 
tioned, had furnished the means of instituting a numerical com- 
parison between the theoretical and the observed velocity of 
sound. This experiment was in fact a practical imitation, as 
near as could be, of what was supposed to take place in aerial 
vibrations. If specific heat be defined to be the quantity of heat 
required to raise the temperature 1° under given circumstances, 
the datum furnished by the experiment is the ratio of the spe- 
cific heat under a constant pressvu-e to the specific heat under a 
constant volume. It is convenient to speak of it in these terms 
though the consideration of specific heats is not absolutely ne- 
cessary in this question, as we shall presently see. By whatever 
terms it be denoted the datum is one which experiment alone can 
furnish, and without it no numerical comparison can be made 

* See the Memoir in \he^ Journal de Physique, im'^o^emh^x, 1819. This 
memoir, wliich was composed in competition for the prize awarded by the 
French Institute in 1813 to MM. Delaroche and Berard, contains in addition 
to the detail of experiments made with reference to the subject proposed by 
the Institute, viz., the specific heat of gases, the views of the authors respecting 
the absolute caloric of space and the absolute zero of caloric. 


between the theoretical and observed velocities of sound. The 
result of the compai'ison, first made by Laplace, was, that the 
theoretical determination fell short of the observed value by 
7"'*5. A difference of this kind was to be expected, as it was 
impossible to perform the experiment so rapidly that some of 
the developed heat would not escape througii contact of the air 
with the containing substances. The ratio of the specific heats, 
as obtained by MM. Clement and Desormes, is 1-354. Gay- 
Lussac, on repeating their experiment with great care, and un- 
der circumstances a little different, fovmd 1*37'', which brings 
the observed and theoretical velocities something nearer, but 
the latter still falls short of the other. 

The mathematical theory* of Laplace is prefaced by certain 
theoretical considerations respecting free and latent heat, and 
the mutual action of the molecules of bodies and their caloric ; 
which are subsequently introduced into the investigation for de- 
termining the velocity of soundf . It is proper, however, to 
observe that the solution of this problem is not necessarily con- 
nected witii any considerations either of latent heat or of speci- 
fic heats. This is sufficiently apparent from what M. Poisson 
has written on the subject. In the first of two excellent papers 
(contained in the volume of the Amiules de Chimie et de Phy- 
sique for 1823), which place in a simple point of view all that 
has been most satisfactorily established with reference to the 
question before us, this autlior deduces the velocity of sound, 
by means of the usual experimental data, from the formula ob- 
tained in his Memoir on the theory of soimd, which, as was 
said before, rests on the single assumption that the increment 
of temperature is proportional to the condensation, without em- 
ploying any additional hypothesis whatever, and without any 
mention of specific heats or of latent heat. In the same paper 
lie goes on to show, by adopting the definition of specific heat 
stated above, and by further supposing that for small changes 
of temperature the absolute quantity of heat gained or lost is 
proportional to the rise or fall of the thermometer, that tlie 

* Mecanique Celeste, liv. xii. chap. iii. 

f Laplace has also supposed (liv. xii. chap. iii. art. 7,) that LL 

d ^^ 

= (1 — /3) —S. , g being the density of the gas, c the free caloric which has a 

sensible effect on the thermometer, and /3 a positive constant. This equation is 

not deduced from anterior considerations. It follows from it that — = — fi ~i 

c - ' 

and consequently that the free caloric increases as the density diminishes. 



quantity expressed by 1 + - — "- -at— is equal to the ratio of 

the specific heat under a constant pressure to the specific heat 
under a constant volume. From the reasoning of M. Poisson 
we may therefore infer, that for the theoretical explanation of 
the excess of the velocity of sound over the Newtonian determi- 
nation one assumption only is absolutely necessary, viz., that 
the changes of temperature produced by sudden small variations 
of density are, for a given temperature of the air, proportional 
to those variations ; but if the consideration of specific heats be 
introduced, that it is necessary also to suppose the small varia- 
tions of absolute heat to be proportional to the corresponding 
variations of temperature. 

Mr. Ivory has written on this question some things well de- 
serving of notice. In a paper before referred to* he deduces 

the velocity of sound from the formula ^. ~ "^ , which 

P "^ P 

he had previously arrived at by considerations already stated, 
and finds it equal to V V m^ ^ being the velocity obtained ac- 
cording to the law of Boyle and Mariotte. This is the same 
value that is given by other methods, since the index ?« is the 
ratio of the specific heats. When the above equation is em- 
ployed with reference to the variation of density in the atmo- 
sphere and to astronomical refractions, the value of in that best 
accords with phfenomena is nearly r25, as we have seen, in- 
stead of 1'375. This seems to prove that the law of nature is 
not expressed under all circumstances by the same formula, and 
that one which applies very well to sudden changes of density 
of the air in motion is inapplicable to those that are permanent, 
like the variations of density of the atmosphere at rest depend- 
ing on the height above the earth's surface. 

Afterwards, in 1827t, Mr. Ivory applied to the problem a 
different kind of reasoning on the following principles. First, 
it was admitted that equal quantities of absolute heat produce 
equal increments of volume : secondly, that the rise of tempe- 
rature is proportional to the increment of volume according to 
the indications of the air thermometer : thirdly, that the abso- 
lute heat is etjual to the sum of the latent heat, and the heat of 
temperature. From which it follows that the increment of 
latent heat is also proportional to the increment of volume ; 
hence if v be the volume when the temperature is 0, v' the volume 

* Phil. Mag., vol. 66, p. 12. 

t Phil. Mag. and Annals, vol. i. pp. 91 and 251. 

238 SIXTIJ REPORT — 183G. 

when the temperature is t, i the increase of latent heat accom- 
panying the change of volume from v to v', and u, /3, two con- 
stants, it will be seen that 

V = v' (1 + « t), and v = v' (1 + (3 ?'). 
Hence a t = /3 i, or -^ = — . The first of the expressions 

for V supposes the volume to change under a constant pressure ; 
the other obtains in whatever way the change of volume takes 
place. The ratio of i to t is the ratio of the heat absorbed by a 
mass of air, or become latent, by a given sudden rarefaction, 
to the heat of temperature required to expand the mass to the 
same degree of rarefaction. This ratio can therefore be in- 
ferred from the experiment of Clement and Desormes, so often 
cited ; and as a is known, /3 may also be found. The absolute 
heat requii'ed to produce a rise of temperature t under a con- 
stant pressure is, according to this theory, t + ^ ; and that re- 
quired to cause the same rise of temperature when the volume 

is constant is t. Hence is the ratio of the specific heats ; 


and admitting Laplace's theorem, the factor by which the 
Newtonian velocity of sound must be multiplied is a / i + - 

1 ^- " . Mr. Ivory finally observes* that the main ele- 


ment on which the solution of the problem must turn, by what" 
ever process the result is brought out, is the quantity of heat 
extricated from air condensed in a given degree ; and accord- 
ingly he proceeds to investigate in an independent manner, 
the relation between the elasticity and density of a mass of air 
that varies its temperature as it dilates or contracts, without 
losing or receiving any heat by means of the suiTounding me- 
dium. This investigation conducts to the following relation 
between the pressure and the density 

from which the velocity of propagation of sound is arrived at by 

the usual process, the factor being a / 1 + — as before. From 

V /3 

* Pliil. Mag. and An., vol. i. p. 252. 


the above relation between ji and p, Mr. Ivory infers (p. 255) 
that the ratio of the specific heats is not a constant ratio for 
large variations of density and temperature*. 

The principle on which the effect of moisture contained in the 
air is introduced into the theoretical determination of the velocity 
of sound, is derived from Dalton's theory of mixed gases. If 
two quantities, v, v', of two gases under the same pressure p, 
and of the same temperature 9, be put into a space v + v', the 
gases will penetrate into each other and become perfectly mixed , 
so that the proportional parts will be everywhere the same in 
the same space. Also the temperature and pressure of the mix- 
ture will be jy and 9, the same as those of the constituents. 
From these facts, established by experience, may be derived by 
reasoning as Poisson has done in the second of his papers in vol. 
xxiii. of the Annates de Chi?n. et Phys., p. 348, the following 
law, which experience also confirms : — '* The pressure of a mix- 
ture of gases and vapours will always be the sxim of the pres- 
sures which these fluids would support separately at the same 
temperature, and the same in volume as the mixture." The 
atmosphere in its usual state is a mixture of dry air and vapour 
of water. It is found that the maximum of aqueous vapour 
formed in a vacuum at the temperature 18°" 75 C, is measured 
by the barometric height O^'OIG, and by the preceding law the 
same height of the barometer would measure the elastic force of 
vapour formed at the same temperature in diy air of the ordinary 
pressure 0'"'76, and increase the pressure to 0°'*776, since the 
maximum of vapour, that is, the greatest quantity which the 
given temperature allows to be formed, is the same in the two 
cases. Gay-Lussac has inferred from his experiments, that if 
aqueous vapour covild be raised from the tension 0™*016 to 
0'"'76 without liquifying, its density would be to that of dry air, 
under the same pressure and at the same temperature, as 5 to 8. 
Hence in general, if D be the density of dry air, D' that of moist 
air under a given barometric pressure h, and at a given tempe- 

* An equivalent relation between^ and q may be obtained in another man- 
ner, which I have adverted to in a communication to the No. of the Phil. Mag. 
and Annals for May, 1S30, and have since developed more fully in a paper re- 
cently read before the Cambridge Philosophical Society ; viz. by assuming the 
velocity of propagation of sound to be constant when the temperature is given, 
and then joining with the usual equations of fluid motion, a general expression 
for uniform propagation, which may be arrived at independently of the consi- 
deration of temperature. When the resulting equation between p and q is used 
for finding the velocity of propagation, it gives an expression agreeing with that 
obtained on the supposition of a constant ratio of the specific heats, when the 
condensations and rarefactions are small, but diverging from it as they become 

240 SIXTH REPORT — 183G. 

rature, and ii be the tension of the vapour which the moist air 
contains, the density of the air in the mixture will be D I I — A 

that of the vapour D — * , and consequently the density of the 


compound D' is equal to D (l — ^)- Thus the actual density 

is given in terms of the density of dry air under the same pres- 
sure. In any instance to which this expression is applied, the 
quantity n will have to be determined by observation of the hy- 

The manner in which the theoretical formula for determining 
the velocity of sound is brought to the greatest possible degree of 
perfection having been now exhibited, it will be interesting to 
compare the result it gives with the most accurate experiments. 
Those which claim the greatest confidence in this respect are the 
experiments undertaken by Professor Moll, of Utrecht, and Dr. 
Van Beek in June 1823, a detail of which is contained in the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society for 1824 (p. 
424.) Measures were taken to secure that the firing of the guns 
at two stations should take place as nearly as possible at the 
same instant, which was effected with much greater precision 
in these experiments than in those of the French Academicians 
in 1822. By this precaution the cause of error arising from the 
wind is removed, the velocity of propagation in still air being 
assumed to be the arithmetic mean between the velocities in- 
ferred from the observations at the two stations, as in fact it 
might be shown to be theoretically. The difference between 
two determinations on different days, when this precaution was 
attended to, was only 2*166 feet, whereas two other determina- 
tions on different days, when the shots were not reciprocal, 
differed by 20*84 feet. The mean velocity which the experiments 
gave for dry air atO° of temperature was 332"-05 ( = 1089*744 
English feet). The mean excess of the experimental determina- 
tion over the theoretical, supposing the ratio of the specific 
heats to be 1*3748*, was 4™*58 ( = 15*032 feet). 

In Dr. Gregorys experimentsf, made in 1823, an anemometer 
was employed whose indications were found to agree with the 
velocity of the wind, as inferred from the difference of the velo- 

* It is shown by Dr. Simons (Phil. Trans., 1830, p. 213.) that the mean value 
of this ratio as derived from the experiments of Drs. Moll and Van Beek is 

t Cambridge Philosophical Transactions, vol. ii. p. 119. 



cities of sound when aided, and when opposed by the wind. 
The experiments were made with intervals between the stations, 
varying from less than half a mile to 2^ miles, and in tempera- 
tures varying from 27° to 66° Fahr. The mean of eight results 
reduced to the temperature of freezing is stated by Sir John 
Herschel (Art. Sound, Encij. Metro]}.) to be 1088-05 feet. The 
velocity observed at the temperature of freezing was 1090' 17 

A valuable series of experiments was made byMr.Goldingham, 
at Madras, in 1820, extending through every month of the year. 
The following is a table of the mean temperature and mean de- 
termination of velocity for each month. 

Mean Height 


Mean Height 




in a 



in a 





January . . 



July .... 

86"- 65 


February. . 



August . . 

85 02 








April .... 



October . . 



May .... 












It is interesting to observe, as the author remarks, " how re- 
gularly the mean velocity proceeds to a maximum about the 
middle of the year, and afterwards retraces its steps, giving us 
a velocity in one case of 1164 feet in a second, and in the other 
of only 1099 feet. This regularity would, no doubt, be still 
greater with the mean of the observations of several years." In 
these experiments (which have been compared with theory by 
Mr. Galbraith*) the indications of the barometer and hygro- 
meter were noted ; and though the experiments were not made 
by simultaneous reports, the effect of the wind may be consi- 
dered to be completely eliminated in the mean of the observa- 
tions of the whole year. It is worthy of remark that the differ- 
ence between the greatest and least velocities is much more 
considerable than, according to theory, would be due to the 
corresponding difference of temperature. The greatest and least 
indications of the hygrometer were 27*85 and 1*43, the former in 
July and the other in December, the two months in which the ve- 
locity of sound was greatest and least. Sir John Herschel gives 
as the mean determination from the total of Mr. Goldingham's 
experiments reduced to the temperature of freezing, a velocity of 

• See Phil. Mag. vol. Ixvi. p. 109, and vol. Ixviii. p. 214. 
VOL. V. — 1836. R 



1086*7 feet. This must be considered as applying to the mean 
state of the hygrometer, the nature of which not being stated, 
its indications could not be made use of. 

Experiments were made by Captain Parry and Lieut. Foster 
expressly to determine the effect of low temperatures on the 
velocity of sound*. The following is a mean of results. 


- 41°-3 

— 33°-3 

- 27°-2 

- 21°-0 

- 20°-0 

+ 33°-3 


in feet per 








A comparison of the velocities at the highest and lowest tem- 
peratures differing by 74°'6, gives an increase of velocity of 
1*126 feet for each increase of temperature by 1° of Fahren- 
heit. A like comparison of the velocity at the lowest tem- 
perature, — 41°*3, mth the velocity in Mr. Goldingham's 
experiments at the temperature 87°, gives an increase of 1*35 
feet for each degree of Fahrenheit. 

The experiments of Captain Parry and Lieut. Foster at Port 
Bowen in 1824 — 1825 have been compared with the theory by 
Professor MoUf. On using the coefficient 1*375, the velocity 
given by the theory falls short of the experimental value by 
17"47 feet, a difference exceeding that resulting from a like 
comparison of the experiments in the Netherlands by something 
less than 2^ feet. In the arctic experiments the state of moi- 
sture in the air was not noted; but Professor Moll shows that 
this omission is productive of a very small error in very low 
temperatures. The near agreement of experiments made under 
circumstances so widely different, must lead us to suspect, as 
Professor Moll justly observes, that the difference which still 
remains between the results of computation and observation are 
to be ascribed to some imperfection in the theoretical formula, 
and not to any fault in the observations;}:. 

In 1828 M. Dulong§ read a memoir on the specific heats of 
elastic fluids, which requires to be noticed in conjunction with 

* See p. 235 of the Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry's Voyage 
in 1819—1820. 

+ Phil. Trans. 1823, p. 97. 

X For a synoptical view of the results obtained by different observers, the dates 
of their observations, and the circumstances under which they were made, I 
may refer to a table in Art. 16 of Sir John Herschel's Treatise on Sound in 
the Encyclopesdia Metropolitana. 

§ Memoires de I'Institut, torn. x. p. 147. 


the subject before us. M. Dulong takes foi' demonstrated that 
the square of the quotient of the real velocity of sound in any- 
elastic fluid whatever, divided by the velocity calculated accord- 
ing to the formula of Newton, is equal to the ratio of the speci- 
fic heat for a constant pressure to the specific heat for a constant 
volume. His object is to find this ratio for different elastic fluids, 
which, it is plain, may be inferred, according to this theoi'em, 
from the real velocity with which sound is propagated in them. 
It is not possible to obtain these velocities for any other elastic 
fluid than atmospheric air, excepting by indirect means. M. 
Dulong avails himself of a method which had been previously em- 
ployed by various experimenters, but not with complete success, 
as was evident from the discordant results they obtained. The 
method consists in determining the velocity of propagation from 
the musical note rendered by a given cylindrical tube, and from 
the measured distance between two consecutive nodal sections 
or positions of minimum vibration, which interval he calls the 
length of a concameration. The pitch of the note gives the 
number of vibrations in a given time, and consequently the time 
of propagation over the measured interval, and therefore the ve- 
locity of the sound. By pursuing a process different from any 
that had been adopted before, M. Dulong is enabled to give 
great precision to this method. He first operates on atmo- 
spheric air, with the view of ascertaining the accuracy which the 
method admits of. By various trials, each more exact than the 
preceding, he obtains results, all of which fall short in a small 
degree of the velocity obtained by direct observation, and ac- 
cordingly comes to the conclusion that the relation indicated by 
theory between the velocity of sound in free air, and the length, 
such as it can be observed, of the concameration s that are formed 
in a flute-tube, is not verified exactly. He hints at some experi- 
ments proper for making evident the cause of this discordance, 
but I am not aware that any such have been published. 

As this method fails in giving exactly the ratio of the specific 
heats of atmospheric air, M. Dulong adopts a ratio (viz. 1'421) 
which he says " is the mean of a great number of direct obser- 
vations made in free air by different observers." I mention this 
particularly, as it seems to have been supposed* that Dulong 

" M. Poisson's excellent Treatise on Mechanics is a work so extensively used 
that it is desirable to point out any error that may have inadvertently crept 
into it. I do not therefore scruple to advert to an inaccuracy in p. 716, torn. ii. 
(2nd ed.), where the author asserts that the ratio 1"421 is deduced from obser- 
vation of the sound produced by air inclosed in a tube, and endeavours to ac- 
count for the excess of this value above another derived from the propagation of 
sound in free air, by the different radiation of heat in the two circumstances. 
This is contradicted by the assertion quoted above from Dulong's Memoir. 


244 SIXTH RKPORT — 1830. 

obtained this ratio from his own experiments. In the next place 
he establishes, contrary to an opinion previously expressed by 
M. Biot, that with gases very different in their physical proper- 
ties, such as hydrogen gas and carbonic acid gas, the nodal 
sections are exactly in the same positions in the same tube. This 
is an important fact with reference to the theory of vibrations 
of aeriform fluids in tubes, from which it readily follows that 
the relative velocities of propagation of different elastic fluids 
may be inferred from the musical notes they give out from the 
same tube ; and taking the ratio of the specific heats of air to be 
that determined by direct observations on sound, the ratios for 
the other fluids will be inunediately deduced from these veloci- 
ties. Representing in general the ratio of the specific heats by 
1 + /, the quantity/ is taken by Dulong to be the measure of 
the thermometric effect produced by sudden and equal changes 
of density of the several fluids ; then assuming the thermometric 
effects thus developed to be inversely as the specific heats under 
a constant volume, he is furnished with numbers to express these 
specific heats, that of air being expressed by unity. Hence by 
means of the ratios of the specific heats obtained as above men- 
tioned, numbers expressive of the specific heats under a constant 
pressure are also arrived at, that of air being again taken for the 
unit. These last numbers, compax'ed with those which Berard 
and Delaroche* obtained by direct experiment, are found to 
agree with considerable accuracy. In concluding this part of 
the subject I cannot forbear remarking, in the words of Dulong, 
" how much science owes to the natural philosophers who direct 
their labours towards giving more and more precision to the de- 
termination of the numerical coefficients which become theo- 
retical elements of constant use. ' ' Such are the numerical measure 
af the force of gravity ; the ratio of the density of mercury to 
that of air ; the coefficients of the dilatation of mercury and of the 
gases ; the ratios of the densities of elastic fluids ; the actual 
velocity of sound in air. All these constants, together with the 
exact length of the aerial vibrations corresponding to a given 
musical note, have been employed in arriving at the principal 
conclusion contained in the valuable memoir which has been the 
subject of the preceding remarks. 

Propagation of Sound through Liquids. — The experiments 
of Canton, of CErsted, and Colladon and Sturm have ciscertained 
the degree in which water is compressible, and proved that for 
small changes of volume the compi-essions are proportional to 
the compressing forces. This law seems to indicate thcit the 

* Annales de Chim'te, fom. Ixxxv. pp. 72 and 113. 


pressure in the interior of liquids is a function of the density, 
(at least at distances from their surfaces greater than the radius 
of the spiiere of the molecular action). For admitting this to 
be the case, it will be a simple analytical consequence, that the 
small variations of pressure are proportional to the correspond- 
ing variations of density, whatever be the form of the function 
which connects the pressure and density together*. The know- 
ledge of the degree of compressibility of water or of any other 
liquid, furnishes the means of determining the velocity with 
which sound is propagated in it. This application of the expe- 
rimental determination of compression has been made by Dr. 
Youngt and Laplace, who have each given a formula by which, 
when the contraction is known for a given pressure, the velocity 
of propagation can be calculated. Poisson has also given a de- 
monstration of the formula in question^, which, it appears, applies 
as well to solids as to liquids. If D be the density of the solid 
or liquid, k the length of a cylindrical column of it under a 
known pressure, e the small diminution of this length by a given 
increase of pressure P, then the velocity of pi'opagatiou will be 

-jj- . This formula has been put to the test by experiments 

made in the lake of Geneva by M. Colladon in 1826§. On ob- 
serving that the sound of a bell struck a little below the surface 
of the water was not audible out of the water at considerable 
distances from the point of disturbance, but appeared to be de- 
flected downwards when it fell very obliquely on the water sur- 
face, it occurred to him to place a little below the surface a metallic 
plate, with its plane vertical and perpendicular to the direction 
of the sound, surmounted by a conical tube, to the end of which 
when the ear was applied the sounds caught by the metal plate 
were audible when they came from a distance of 13487 metres. 
The sound traversed this distance in 9*4 seconds, consequently 
the velocity was 1435 metres in a second. By calculating the 
velocity given by the formula with due attention to all the cir- 
cumstances that might affect the accuracy of the result, M. Col- 
ladon finds 1428 metres. The difference between this and the 
experimental value falls within the limits of the possible errors 
of observation, and the accordance of the theory with fact may 

* Experiments on alcohol and sulphuric sether show a sensible diminution of 
contraction for high pressures. See the Essay of MM. Colladon and Sturm, 
An. de Chim. et de Phys., torn, xxxvi. p. 144 — 147. 

t Lectures on Natural Philosophy, vol. ii. p. 69. 

X Memoires de I'Inslitut, An 1819, j). 3'J6— 400. 

§ An. de Chim. et de Phys. lorn, xxxvi. p. 242, 

246 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

therefore be pronounced to be satisfactory. As the formula was 
obtained without taking into account the effect of the develop- 
ment of heat, we may infer from the small difference between the 
above results, that this effect, if not wholly insensible, is of very 
small amount. M. Colladon remarks respecting the nature of 
the sound transmitted through the water, that when caused by 
the striking of a bell, it was heard as a sharp and dry sound, 
resembling the striking of two knife-blades against each other. 
This fact seems to prove with respect to liquids, what is also 
most probably true of solids, that the relation between their 
density and pressure is such as not to allow the condensations 
arising from any disturbing cause to be transmitted to great di- 
stances exactly in the order and proportion in which they are 
originally impressed, in the same manner as when the pressure 
varies in the simple ratio of the density. On this account pro- 
bably, as well as by reason of their great density, liquids and 
solids are not vehicles so proper for conveying vocal sounds as 
aeriform fluids. 

Theories of Elastic Fluids. — A few words must now be said 
on those refined theories respecting elastic fluids, which, pro- 
ceeding upon certain hypotheses of their ultimate constitution 
and the action of molecular forces, are directed to the purpose 
of accounting by mathematical reasoning for certain of their 
fundamental properties, with which we have originally become 
acquainted by experience only. Such a theory is that at the 
commencement of the 12th book of the M^canique Celeste, to 
which allusion has already been made. The leading principles 
of this theory are of the following nature. Each molecule of a 
body, whether in the solid, liquid, or aeriform state, is submitted 
to the action of three forces : 1°. The repulsion of its caloric by 
the caloric of the other molecules. 2°. The attraction of its 
caloric by these molecules. 3°. The attraction of the molecule 
itself, either by the caloric of these molecules or by the molecules 
themselves. The caloric of each particle is supposed to be 
attached to it by the attraction of the particle. In aeriform 
bodies, the two latter, the attractive forces, are considered to be 
insensible, and the only action the molecules are subject to is 
that arising from the mutual repulsion of their caloric. This 
action is conceived to be independent of the nature of the mole- 
cules. From these principles Laplace derives, by no very com- 
plex mathematical reasoning, the fundamental properties of 
elastic fluids, viz., the law of Mariotte, the law of Dalton and 
Gay-Lussac, (which are shown to be true of mixed as well as 
simple gases,) and the law of the pressure of mixed gases. The 
same principles, together with the consideration of sensible and 


latent heat and of specific heats, are employed in solving the 
problem of the velocity of sound, the solution of which, as vras 
before remarked, Poisson has derived from the fundamental 
properties of elastic fluids considered as data of observation. 

With reference to the preceding theory it may be remarked, 
that although it conducts by simple analysis to the fundamental 
properties of elastic fluids, and would seem on that account to 
possess the character of truth, yet it does not appear to have 
been very generally received, and by some is considered to be 
not sufficiently natural. I will venture to suggest a reason for 
this, which is equally applicable to some other of the more abs- 
tract physical theories, viz. that after we have gone through 
the mathematical reasoning, and been satisfied of its correctness, 
on recurring to the original hypotheses, there is some difficulty 
in judging of them or comprehending them by comparison with 
anything we see or know by experience. They are too little 
analogous to facts of observation. If a theory cannot rest on 
experimental facts, it ought at least to contain no hypotheses 
which may not be distinctly understood from our experimental 
knowledge : possibly it is not otherwise a view of the real facts 
of nature. In short, the evidence for the truth of hypotheses 
which from their nature do not admit of immediate verification 
by experiment, must depend as much on the facility with which 
they are conceived in the mind, and can be expressed in terms 
of acknowledged import, as upon the accordance of the mathe- 
matical results they lead to with experience- 
In one* of the volumes of the Journal of the Polytechnic 
School there is an elaborate memoir by M. Poisson, which com- 
prises the substance of two preceding memoirs on the equili- 
brium and motion of elastic bodies, and on the equilibrium of 
fluids, and concludes with calculating, according to the principles 
of the reasoning contained in the preceding part, the pressure of 
fluids in motion. Throughout this work the reasoning is con- 
ducted on the hypothesis that bodies are formed of disjoined 
molecules, separated fi*om one another by spaces void of ponder- 
able matter, which is considered to be " actually the case in 
nature;" and the chief object in view is to form the general 
equations of the equilibrium and motion both of elastic bodies 
and of liquid and aeriform bodies, according to this hypo- 
thesis, in a manner as simple and as free from difficulty as 
possible. By taking account of the void spaces separating 
the atoms, it is found that the pressure is expressed, not by 
an integral, but by a sum, which, on the supposition that the 
intervals between th« molecules are small compared to their 
* Tom. xiii. call, 20, p. I. 

S48 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

radius of activity, is reducible to a very converging series, the 
terms of which depend on the density. In this manner the 
following equation, containing two terms of the series, and ap- 
plicable to solids not crystallized, to liquids, and to gases, is ob- 
tained : 

p = a p'^ + b p §, 

in which p is the pressure, equal in all directions, p the density, 
and a and b constant coefficients depending only on the nature 
of the body and the quantity of heat. This equation applies 
without any consideration of latent heat. Laplace in his specu- 
lations arrived at an equation of the form p = a p'^. But as it 
appeared from the phaenomenon of the propagation of sound that 
for a given quantity of caloric, and consequently a constant 
value of a, the pressure varied nearly as p ^, to account for this 
difference the supposition of latent heat was introduced, which 
is avoided by the more general formula consisting of two terms. 
M. Poisson shows how his formula indicates tliat in solids and 
liquids the mutual attraction of the molecules extends further 
than their repulsion, and may be sensible at distances where the 
latter has altogether disappeared. In this and other of his 
writings M. Poisson considers the characteristic property of 
fluids, or the condition of fluidity to be, that the molecules ar- 
range themselves alike in all directions from any fixed point, 
and with this property, that of pressing equally in all directions 
to be intimately connected. Probably few will be disposed to 
dissent from this view. But when he proceeds to assign as an 
a priori reason for this property the perfect mobility of the par- 
ticles, and considers this mobility to result from their spherical 
form, or from their being so remote from each other that their 
form has no sensible influence on their mutual action, we cannot 
but feel that the cause assigned is not such that we can judge 
of it by any previous knowledge or experience. It would be 
more in conformity M'ith the rule Newton laid down of referring 
cftects to ultimate mechanical causes, if the mobility of the par- 
ticles of fluids and the property of similar distribution in all 
directions about a given point, were ascribed to a particular ac- 
tion of the molecular forces resulting from a particular laAV of 
variation. If, for instance, the molecular repulsion from a single 
particle, or rather the resultant of the repulsions from an aggre- 
gate of particles, decreased very rapidly at a certain small di- 
stance from the centre to which it is directed, and then after 
becoming attractive, extended to a much larger distance without 
ever becoming of large magnitude, it seems demonstrable that 


from such a law the above-mentioned properties would result ; for 
the state of things would thus be nearly the same as if the fluid 
were supposed to consist of perfectly smooth spherical balls in 
contact, whose radii are all equal to the radius of the sphere of 
activity of the molecular repulsion, and whose centres conse- 
quently in the state of equilibrium are equidistant. This mode 
of accounting for the characteristic property of fluids is not in- 
consistent with the principal inference M. Poisson draws from 
his calculation of the pressure of fluid in motion, viz., that the 
pressure is not the same in all dii-ections from a given point. 
For this deviation from the law of equal pressure may be reason- 
ably ascribed to the circumstance that the molecules take titne 
to fulfil the condition of similarity of arrangement, being made 
to assume their positions relatively to each other by the action 
of the repulsive and attractive forces. I may here observe that 
although the inequality of pressure of fluids in motion is a legi- 
timate deduction from the molecular hypotliesis, yet as theoi'y 
cannot determine the amount of error committed by considering 
the pressure equal, it seems unnecessary to take account of the 
inequality unless some error should be detected by experiment, 
especially as we know beforehand that the amount must be very 

In closing this communication, I beg leave to add a few no- 
tices respecting subjects contained in my former reports ; and 
first, with regard to capillary attraction, it will be right to ob- 
serve that some remarks made in the last report, in accordance 
with the strictures of Dr. Young on the equation in art. 12 of 
Laplace's Theory, I afterwards saw reason to conclude were in- 
correct, and in a communication to the Philosophical Magazine 
and Journal of Science for February 1836, explained that the 
proper inference from that equation, though Laplace omits to 
draw it, is, that the angle of actual contact of two fluids, or of a 
solid and fluid when the specific gravities are not very diff'erent, 
is an exceedingly small angle*, if the contact be perfect. It does 
not appear that any exception can be taken to the reasoning in 
any part of Laplace's Theory. The principles may indeed be 
objected to on the ground that Poisson takes up, viz., that if 
the molecular constitution of bodies be admitted, there must be a 
superficial variation of density which that theory takes no ac- 
count of : as, however, experiment has not yet detected any such 
variation, and we have no means of assigning the amount of its 

* A phasnomenon I clianced to observe presented by oil floating on water 
seems to favour this inference. See Phil. Mag. and Journal of Science for 
April 1836. 

250 SIXTH KKPORT — 1836. 

influence, it would be premature to reject the theory on that 
ground, especially as the probability is that the effect which 
this consideration has on the numerical results of the calculations 
will at all events be small. In the paper just referred to I have 
given I'easons for thinking that the law of molecular forces which 
will account for the fluidity of liquids is also that for which the 
effect of the superficial variation of density would be small in 
capillary phsenomena. 

Subsequent to the experiments by M. Link, which are noticed 
in the report on capillary attraction, others* were made by 
the same author not agreeing in their results with the former. 
After taking the precaution of freeing the solid plates against 
which the fluid ascended from the effects of greasiness contracted 
in polishing, it was not found as before, that different fluids 
ascended to the same height between the same plates ; and the 
experiments only partially confirmed the law to which theory 
leads, of equal ascents of the same fluid between plates of differ- 
ent material thoroughly moistened. The deviation from this 
law is probably owing to the influence of particular affinities 
between the solids and fluids which the theory cannot take into 

More recently have appeared the results of experiments by 
M. Frankenheim of Breslau, on the ascents of a great variety 
of fluids in capillary glass tubesf. These were made for deter- 
miningthecohesion,or as M. Frankenheim calls it, the synaphia 
of fluid bodies. If h be the height of ascent, and r the radius 
of the tube, the specific synaphia he considers to be proportional 

to \/ r ( h + -\. It is worthy of remark that the height of 

ascent of water in these experiments exceeds that of any of the 
other fluids, and that the mixing of water with other fluids has 
a very sensible effect in increasing their heights of ascent. It 
also appears that an increase of temperature sensibly diminishes 
the height of the ascending column. Similar experiments made 
some years sincej by Mr. Emmett, assigned the highest ascent 
(except in one instance) to water, and clearly showed also the 
effect of an increase of temperature in diminishing the height. 
Mr. Emmett has made the remark that to produce this diminu- 
tion of height it is necessary merely to increase the temperature 
of the upper surface of the fluid column. 

* Animlen tier Physik und Chemie, 1834, No. 38. 

+ Jnnalen der Pliy.s. und Chem., 1836, No. 2, p. 409. 

X Phil. May. and Annals, vol. i. 1827, p. 115 and 332. 


The circumstance of floating bodies rising vertically when 
drawn with considerable velocities along the surface of water, 
having attracted attention a few years ago, induced me to try to 
explain the fact on mechanical principles, and accordingly, in a 
paper published in the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions*^, 
I have entered on a mathematical investigation which accounts 
for such a fact, and shows in the instance taken, that when the 
velocity of di-aught is uniform the rise is proportional to the 
square of the velocity, in accordance with an experimental re- 
sult obtained by Mr. Russellf. The inquiry is not pursued 
further in that paper (though I believe it maybe done according 
to the method there employed), the immediate object in view 
being to gain confidence for the particular process of reasoning 
adopted, which differs in some respects from that of previous 
writers on fluid motion, by explaining to a considerable extent 
a fact which had not before been shown to depend on received 
mechanical principles. 

The problem of the resistance of the air to a ball pendulum 
has been undertaken by M. Plana in a Memoir on the Motion 
of a Pendulum in a resisting medium, {Turiii, 1835,) in which 
the resistance of an incompressible fluid is first considered, and 
then that of an elastic fluid; and in both cases the author finds, 
as Poisson had done, that the loss of weight of the sphere 
exceeds by just one half, the weight of the fluid it displaces. 
The question, however, has not yet received a satisfactory solu- 
tion, since theory has hitherto failed to account for one of the 
leading circumstances of the case, viz., that the coefficient of 
resistance is different for small spheres of different diameters. 
This difference it appears would equally exist whether the balls 
vibrated in a confined apparatus or in free air. 

The above particulars are mentioned for the purpose of calling 
attention to parts of the theory of fluids which are still open to 
improvement, and I may here state that one of the objects I 
have chiefl)'^ had in view in this communication to the Associa- 
tion, and in those preceding it, has been to bring into more notice 
the mathematical theory of fluids and place it in its proper rank 
among applied sciences. Judging from the very few contribu- 
tions which have been made by Englishmen to this department 
of science, it would appear to have been held by us in disesteem. 
From the time of Newton till within these few years scarcely 
anything was written upon it in this country. This neglect is 
the less to be defended as there are few subjects in natural phi- 
losophy which are not connected in some manner or other with 

• Vol. V. Part ii. p. 173. 

t Fourth Report of the British Association, p. j33. 

252 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

the properties of fluids. It is even possible that the present 
inquiries i*especting the nature of the imponderable agents, which 
have given rise to such long-continued and widely extended 
experiments, may be waiting to receive satisfactory answers 
until greater perfection shall be given to the application of ma- 
thematics to the determination of the laws of fluid motion and 


Comparative View of the more remarkable Plants which cha- 
racterize the Neighbourhood of Dublin, the Neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh, and the South-west of Scotland, 8fC. ; draivn 
up for the British Association, by J. T. Mackay, M.R.I.A., 
A.L.S., ^c, assisted by Robert Graham, Bsq., M.D., 
Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. Read 
at the Bristol Meeting, August 1836. 

Contractions. — N. & S., North and South of Ireland. S. of I., 

South of Ireland. 

W. of I., West of ditto. S. N. & W., Sou 

th, North, and West of ditto. S. & W., 

South and West of ditto. S. & N. of I., South and North of ditto. N. & W., North 

and West of ditto. S. Arran, South Arra 

in. S. W. of I., South-west of Ireland. 

N. of I., North of ditto. 


Edinburgh . 






Thalictrum minus * 



Barharea prsecox * 


„ flavum * 


Arabis cUiata, W. of I. 

Ranunculus parviflorus* 

„ hirsuta * 


„ hirsutus N. & S. 


Cardamine Amara * 



„ arvensis 


* Naturalized 

Thlaspi arveuse * 
Sisymbrium Iris * 


Aquilegia vulgaris * < 

as it probably 
is near Dub- 

„ Sophia * 




Coronopus Ruelli * 



Trollius europseus 


Lepidiuni ruderale * 


„ campestre * 




„ Smithii * 



Papaper somniferum * 
„ hyhridum * 
„ AJgemone * 

Meconopsis camhrica * 


Brassica monensis 

Crambe maritima * 
Teesdalia nudicauUs .... 




Raphanus maritimus ... 


Glaucium luteum * 





Viola hirta * 


Corydahs claviculata * 


„ odorata * 
„ palustris * 
„ flavicornis 


„ densiflora, D.C. ? 



„ Curtisii * 


Nasturtium sylvestre * 



„ terrestre * 


Helianthemum vulgare, 

} • 


Alyssum calycinumf ... 


S. Arran 

t This now appears 

to be the i 

ame plar 

t which was published 

in mv Ca 

talogue of 

Irish Plants under the name of Clypeola lonthlaspi, but as it is a doubtful native 
and has probably been introduced, 1 have for the present expunged it from the Irish 




Edin bnrgh . 





Drosera longifolia,N.&S. 
„ angUca, S.N. & W. 


Malva rotundifolia * 

„ moschata * 

AlthJca officinalis S.&W. 

Lavatera arborea * 

Hypericum Androsae- \ 
mum *J 
„ dubium * 
„ liirsutiun * 
„ elodes * 
„ montanum 


Dianthus Armeria 

„ deltoides, lately "1 

found near Cork J 

Saponaria officinalis * 

Silene anclica, S. & N. 1 





















„ reflexum * 
„ rupestre * 






Saxifraga Hirculus 

„ granulata * 
„ tiidactylites * 



Ulex nanus * 
Genista tincloria * 

Ononis reclinata 

Astragalus glycyphyllus 

„ hypoglottis 1 

S. Arran J 




















Orobus sylvaticus 

MeElotus officinalis * 
„ leucantha S. of I. 

Trifolium ornithopo- "1 

dioides * j 

„ maritimum * 

„ scabrum * 

„ striatum 

„ noctiflora 

Lychnis dioica a & /3* 

Sagina maritima * 
Arenaria ciliata N. & W. 
„ verna N. & S. 
Cerastium arvense * 
Stellaria glauca * 

Linum angustifolium * 

Geranium sanguineum* 

„ fragiferum * 
Oxytropis uralensis 

Medicago maculata ... 

Spiraea Filipendula ... 

„ Chama;marus .... 

Potentilla fruticosa 1 

S. W. of I. J 

„ argentea * 

„ verna 

„ pyrenaicum * 
„ lucidum * 

Rosa tomentosa * 
„ micrantha * 
„ an'ensis * 

PjTUS pinnatifida 

Tormeutilla reptanS ... 


Epilobiura angustifo- 1 
limn *J 

„ columbinum * 

Erodium moschatiun * 

„ maritimmn * 

Cotyledon umbilicus * 




of Scotland. 





Crithmum maritiraum * 

Silaus pratensis N. of I. 

CEnanthe pirapinel- 

loides *J 

„ PheUandrium * 

Helosciadium repens... 

Pimpinella magna 1 

S. of I. ; 

Carum verticillatum "1 

N. &S./ 

Apium graveolens * 

Ligusticum scoticum... 


Galium Mollugo * 

„ pusillum S. &W. 

Asperula CynancHca, 

S. &W. 

Rubia peregrina * 









Hypochferis glabra 

Tragopogon pratensis * 











* Probably 



Lithospermum mari-l 
timum * J 
„ officinale * 
Symphytum officinale* 
Cynoglossum officinale* 
Aspenigo procumbens.. 

Convolvulus soldanella* 

Polemonium cceruleum* 


Statice Limonium * 

„ spathulata * 


Andromeda polifolia * 

Menziesia polifolia, 1 

W. ofl./ 

Erica mediterranea, 1 

W. ofl.J 

„ Mackaiana, W.ofl. 

Arbutus Unedo, S. ofl. 


Pyrola media, Down 1 


„ minor. Northern 1 

Counties and V 

Mayo J 

„ secimda, Derryl 

and Antrim... J 

Monotropa hypopitys * 

Exacum filiforme, Kerry 
Gentiana verna, W. of I. 
Chlora perfoKata * 


Solanum Dulcamara * 

„ nigrum 






» Perhaps 



Campanula rapuncu- 1 

loides J 

„ latifolia, Mid. C. 




„ Trachelivun * < 

„ hederacea * 
„ hybrida 


Jasione montana * 


Fedia dentata * 

„ auricula, W. of 1 

I. Bab. ; 

Valeriana rubra * 


Limbarda crithmoides * 
Erigeron acris * 

Artemisia gallica 

„ maritima * 
Carduus nutans, N. &W. 
„ tenuiflorus * 
„ marianus * 
Crepis biennis * 
Helminthia echioides * 
Picris hieracioides,>'a/'c* 




SIXTH REPORT — 188(), 








Primula elatior * 
„ veris * 










Reseda lutea * 
" fruticulosa * 


Euphorbia hiberna, "1 

S. &N. ofl./ 

„ paralia * 

„ Portlandica * 

„ Ezula 







Centunculusniiuimus, \ 
N. &S. of I./ 
Lysimachia thyrsiflora.. 
Hottoiiia paliistris, "I 
near Downpatrick J 
Trientalis eiiropcea 

Pinguicula grandiflo- "1 
ra, S. of I. / 
„ lusitanica * 


Veronica Buxbaumii .. 

Bartsia viscosa, S. of I. 

Sibtliorpia europica, ' 

S. of I. / 

Limosella aquatica 

Scrophularia vemalis... 


Orobanche minor * 

„ rubra, N. of I. 

Lathraea squamaria, "1 



Verbena officinalis * 


Salvia verbenaca * 





* Probably 

„ amvgdaloides, ") 

S. of I. j" 

Mercurialis annua * 

Taxus baccata.var. fruc- 
tu flavo, lately ob- 
sei-ved near Dublin 
in cultivation. 


Arum maculatum * 
Acorus calamus 

Ty]iha angustifolia... <. 
„ j3 minor * 

Alisma natans * 


Orchis pyramidalis * 
Gymnadenia couopsea* 
Habenaria Chlorantha* 

„ bifolia 

Ophrys apifera * 
Neottia spiralis * 
Corallorhiza innata ... 
Listera cordata * 











Galeobdolon luteum * 

Betonica officinalis 

Nepeta cataria * 
Galeopsis Ladanum * 

Thymus Calamintba * 
Origanum vulgare * 
Laniium intermedimn 

Epipactis palustris * 
„ latifolia * 

Polygonum Raii * 

Malaxis paludosa * 

Narcissus biflorus * 

Album arenarium * 





Chenopodium olidum * 
Atriplex portulacoides * 




of Scotland. 




Allium carinatum * 
Scilla verna * 

Paris quadrifolia 

Butomus umbellatus * 


Juncus acutus * 
„ maritimus * 


Calamagrostis epigejos. 

Avena planiculmis 

Hordeuni mai-itimum * 

„ pratense * 

Triticum loliaceum * 

Rottbollia filiformis * 

Rynchospora fusca, \ 

S. & w. 1 

Blysmus rufus * 

„ compressus 

Schoenus nigricans * 

Scirpus Savii * 

Eriophorum pubescens* 

Cladium mariscus, "I 

S. & W. / 

Carex curta, N. & S. 

„ axillaris * 

„ strigosa * 








* John 

Carex extensa * 
„ distans * 
„ limosa N. 







Polypodium vulgare " 

var. * J 

Aspidium angulare * 

,, lobatum * 
Asplenium mariniun * 

„ septentrionale ... 


,, alternifolium 

Trichomanes brevise- ' 
turn,* raie ; more 
plentiful at Killar- 
ney. J 

HymenophyllumWil- \ 
soni * J 
„ Tunbridgense * 

Ophioglossum vulgatum 

Lycopodium inundatum 


Isoetes lacustris * 
Pilulaiia globulifera .... 


Equisetum variegatum* 

„ Drummondii 








Comparative geographical notices of the more remarkable 
Plants which characterize Scotland and Ireland. Read at 
the Bristol Meeting of the British Association, August^ 
1836. By J. T. Mackay, M.ll.I.A., A.L.S., Sfc. 

Although the Flora of Ireland cannot boast of so great a 
number of species as the neighbouring island, still there are 
several very remarkable circumstances which attract our atten- 
tion when we contrast the vegetation of Ireland with that of 
Great Britain. 

VOL. V. — 183G. s 



If, in the first place, we compare the vegetation of Ireland 
with that of Scotland, we find that climate has exercised a power- 
ful influence. Ireland is situated more to the south than Scot- 
land, and its mountains are not so high; it is also more exposed 
to the Western Ocean, hence its climate is more characterized hy 
moisture : Scotland is therefore much more rich in Alpine plants 
than Ireland, as the following list of those found in Scotland 
and not in Ireland will show. On the other hand the mildness 
of the Irish climate is perhaps the cause why plants are found 
on the western coast whose relative habitats are the mountains of 
Spain and Portugal. It is, however, difficult to account for the 
loccdities of a few plants as they occur in Ireland. Thus Heli- 
anthenmm vulgare, so common in Scotland and England, al- 
though one of the first plants that presents itself to our view 
on the rocks about Portpatrick, has not yet been found in Ire- 
land unless in the Island of Arran on the western coast ; and 
Astragalus hypoglottis, so common about Edinburgh and else- 
where in Scotland, is in Ireland confined to the same locality. 

It may also not be unworthy of remark, that Arenaria venia, 
which grows on the basaltic rocks of Arthur's Seat, is found on 
the same kind of rock at Magillegan, County of Derry. I have, 
however, specimens of the same plant from the west coast of 
Clare, where the rocks are, as far as I have observed, composed 
of limestone. 

List of some of the more remarkable Alpine and other plants 
of Scotland which are not found in Ireland : 

Veronica alpina 
„ saxatilis 

Eriophorum capitatum 

Alopecurus alpinus 

Phleum alpinum 
„ Michelii 

Aira alpina 

Hierochloe boreal is 

Avena planiculmis 

Poa laxa 

Cornus suecica 

Myosotis alpestris 

Primula scotica 
„ farinosa 

Azalea procumbens 

Gentiana nivalis 

Sibbaldia procumbens 

Meum Athamanticum 

Juncus balticus 

Juncus filiformis 

„ biglumis 

„ triglumis 

„ trifidus 

„ castaneus 

„ tenuis 
Luzula arcuata 

„ spicata 
Trientalis europsea 
Menziesia ccerulea 
Vaccinium uliginosum 
Epilobium alpinum 

„ alsinifolium 

Polygonum viviparum 
Pyrola uniflora 
Arbutus alpina 
Saxifraga nivalis 
„ cernua 
„ rivularis 


Saxifraga pedatifida I Draba rupestria 

Arenaria rubella Arabis petraea 

„ fastigiata j Sonchus alpinus 

Cherleria sedoides 
Lychnis alpina 

„ viscaria 
Cerastium alpinum 

), latifolium 
Nuphar minima 
Bartsia alpina 
Linnsea borealis 

Hieracium alpinum 
„ Halleri 
Erigeron alpinum 
Astragalus alpinus 
Oxytropis campestris 
„ Uralensis 
Ononis reclinata 

Geographical notices of several plants found in Ireland, most 
of which have not yet been found in England or Scotland : 

Pinguicula grandiflora. South of Ireland, South of France. 
Erica mediterranea, West of Ireland, Western Pyrenees. E. Mackaiiy 
Hooker in Companion to Botanical Magazine* 
„ Mackiana, Bab. West of Ireland, Spain. 
Arbutus unedo. South of Ireland, South of Europe. 
Menziesia polifolia, West of Ireland, Spain, Pyrenees and Portugal. 
Arenaria ciliata, Sligo Mountains, Swiss Alps. 
Saxifraga Geum, South of Ireland, Western Pyrenees. 
„ hirsuta. South of Ireland, Western Pyrenees. 
„ umbrosa, 2 varieties, South, West and North of Ireland, 

„ eiegans, El. Hib,, South of Ireland, rare. 
„ affinis, Fl. Hib., South of Ireland. 
„ hirta, Fl. Hib., South of Ireland. 
Rosa Hibemica, North of Ireland. 
Arabis ciliata, West of Ireland, Switzerland. 
Hypericum calycinwn. South of Ireland near Killarney, and coast of 

Clare, in hedges ; South of Europe. 
Ulex strictus, (v/hich is probably only a variety of U. europcBus,") North 

of Ireland, sparingly. 
Neottia gemmipara. South of Ireland, rare, Drummond. 
Taxus baccata, var. Jiibernica, ( Taxus fastigiata, Lindley,) North of 

Ireland and Florencecourt, cultivated. 
Carex Buxbaumii, North of Ireland, North of Europe, North 

Eriocaulon septangulare, West coast of Ireland, Island of Sky, Scot- 
Trichomanes brevisetum. Found in several places near Killarney 
in considerable abundance, and very sparingly in the 
County of Wicklow. I have specimens of this Fern col- 
lected in Madeira by the late Doctor Shuter. 


Report of the London Sub- Committee of the British Associa- 
tion Medical Section, on the Motions and Sounds of the 

The Committee of Members of the British Association resident 
in London who have been charged with the investigation of the 
motions and causes of the sounds of the heart, have held nu- 
merous meetings, and performed a considerable variety of expe- 
riments, on living and on dead subjects, with a view to the ends 
of their appointment. They have also taken pains to inform 
themselves of the facts and reasonings published by preceding 
inquirers, and have now the honour to submit to the Section 
the results at which they have hitherto arrived, together with 
such particulars of their experiments as they consider necessary 
to substantiate their conclusions. 

Before entering, however, upon the statement of their experi- 
ments or of the conclusions to which they lead, they beg leave 
to say a few words with regard to the scope and plan of their 
inquiries, and the spirit in which they have entered on them. 
The Committee would first remark, that though in their in- 
quiries they did not neglect to take note of any phaenomena 
which might illustrate the action of the diseased heart, yet 
they have felt it their especial duty to investigate the physiolo- 
gical branch of the subject, and have principally occupied them- 
selves with that part which includes the normal sounds of the 
heart. In thus limiting the field of research, it will be sufficient 
perhaps to remind the Section that they have pretty closely fol - 
lowed the example of the Dublin Committee of last year. 

With regard to the spirit and general views by which they 
have been guided they wish to observe, that in entering upon the 
investigation it seemed to them possible d, priori that each sound 
of the heart might have a single peculiar cause, or several co-ope- 
rating causes ; and if several co-operating causes should be found 
more probable, that then some of such causes might be only con- 
tingent or occasional, and others constant and invariably present; 
also, upon the supposition of a plurality of causes of one or both 
sounds, that some causes might be common to both sounds, or 
that each sound might have its own set of causes exclusively. 
Keeping in view those several possible d, priori positions, the 
Committee made an enumeration of the circumstances attending 
the heart's action that had been, or might be, supposed capable 
of producing sound, and endeavoured so to vary their experiments 
as to exclude in turn each of those circumstances, with a view 

262 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

to isolate or at least to bring sufficiently into relief the essen- 
tial cause or causes of each sound. To the execution of the 
plan of experimental inquiry thus glanced at, the Committee 
have devoted some time during the summer, in the course 
of which they have had to encounter numerous difficulties, 
especially from the want of sure means of destroying the sensi- 
bility of the animal, without suspending or greatly impairing 
the action of the heart. And in this respect they have been 
much less fortunate than several preceding experimentalists, 
having in no one of the numerous subjects on which they have 
operated, been able to continue their observations for a longer 
period than forty-five minutes, notwithstanding the utmost care 
to avoid unnecessary loss of blood and to maintain artificial 
respiration. It is proper to add, that the subjects of these ob- 
servations were in most instances young asses from three to six 
months old, in apparently good health, and that the mode of 
preparation was in a few instances poisoning with woorara, in 
others stunning by a blow on the head, but in a majority of 
the experiments the animal was pithed. Other animals were 
tried as well as young asses, viz. the horse, the dog, and the 
domestic fowl ; but for various reasons these trials were not 
attended ^vith results recommending their repetition. 

The Committee consider the most convenient order in which 
to state the facts in their possession, and their inferences from 
those facts, to be, to describe first succinctly, and from the origi- 
nal notes taken on the spot, such of their experiments as gave 
available results; then briefly to arrange, under the head of each 
supposed or possible cause, such points in the experiments as 
may seem to the Committee to make decidedly in favour of or 
against the claims of each of such possible causes ; and lastlj-, 
to give a summary of the conclusions which the Committee 
have adopted from the whole of their inquiries. 

Memoranda of Experiments, &)C. — ^The Committee made 
some observations in the first instance on their own persons. 
To satisfy themselves fully as to how far the sounds might be 
modified by circumstances, such as the state of the lungs, 
whether distended or collapsed ; the state of the circulation, 
whether excited or tranquil ; and the position of the body ; the 
Committee examined the heart in their own persons under all 
those varieties of circumstance, and found, that when the sub- 
ject of observation is supine or leaning a little backwards to- 
wards the right side, the first sound is uniform, dull, and ^vith- 
out any easily perceptible impulse ; but the subject leaning 
forwards, and especiaJly if inclining much to the left side, the 


first sound is louder and fuller-toned, and accompanied by strong 
impulse. They found also that fixll inspiration operated like 
leaning to the right, or the supine position, by diminishing 
sound and impulse, while full expiration like leaning forwards, 
or to the left side, rendered the sounds and impulse more di- 
stinct, the former louder, the latter stronger and more dif- 
fused. When the heart's action is excited by exertion they 
found, as might be anticipated, the systolic sound and impulse 
at their maximum of tone and force. Moderate exertion they 
observed to increase the intensity of both sounds ; whereas sud- 
den exertion, sufficiently violent greatly to accelerate the action 
of the heart, they found impaired the distinctness of the second 
sound, the first continuing loud, short, and with strong impulse. 

The indistinctness of the second soimd in rapid pulsation of 
the heart, seemed to depend in part on its following so closely 
on the loud first sound as to be masked by it. 

Experiment 2. — The Committee made experiments likewise 
on muscular contraction in their o\vn persons, with a view to 
ascertain how far that act is accompanied by sound. The mus- 
cles operated on with the best effect were the buccinator and 
masseter, the muscles of the neck and fore-arm, and of the pa- 
rietes of the abdomen. In all those the flexible ear- tube, care- 
fully applied so as to prevent friction, yielded sounds more or 
less striking ; but the most striking results were obtained from 
the last-mentioned parts. From the abdominal muscular con- 
tractions, sounds of a " systolic " character (if the expression is 
admissible) in all respects, and as loud or louder than those of 
the heart, were with facility obtained : the sounds were excited 
by sudden expiratory efforts made with force, and with the 
mouth closed, and were obtained from various parts of the pa- 
rietes. The sound of muscular contraction seems in the case 
of the abdonunal muscles to be exaggerated by the hoUowness 
of the subjacent parts. 

At the time the sound was heard the muscle under observa- 
tion always felt to the finger tense and hard, but the loud sound 
ceased at the moment that the fibres had attained their maxi- 
mum of tightness and hardness, and was not renewed except by 
a repetition of the contractile effort after pre^dous relaxation. 

Experiment 3. — Subject, a young ass poisoned with jvoorara 
introduced into an incision in the flank. 

The animal died sixteen minutes after the introduction of the 
woorara ; much blood was lost in opening the chest ; the heart 
was acting at the moment of exposure, but not strongly. Its 
action became more regular after inflation was made more re- 

264" SIXTH REPORT— 1836. 

Both Bounds were heard with the instrument applied to the 
great arteries ; but the sound with impulse or first sound alone 
was heard on the ventricles. 

The heart could not, the Committee were satisfied, strike 
against the chest's walls, or any other hard object. 

After opening the pericardium the sounds were weaker ; 
but both sounds were heard with the slethescope applied to 
the roots of the great arteries. Both sounds were heard also 
on the great arteries where a portion of lung was interposed be- 
tween the instrument and the vessels. 

The heart continued to act for forty minutes. 

Experiment 4. — Subject, a young ass prepared as the last. 
Death twenty- six minutes after poisoning. 

At the roots of the great arteries the two sounds were di- 
stinctly heard, but after the introduction of two ciirvedawls into 
the arteries (for the purpose of hooking up one lamina of each 
sigmoid valve) the second sound was wanting, the first being 
still distinct ; on withdrawing the awls two sounds were heard, 
and soon after the heart ceased to act, twenty minutes after the 
death of the animal. At each systole while the heart acted 
vigorously, the ventricles felt to the finger as hard as cartilage. 

The heai-t being cut out and plunged in warm salt and water, 
a slight undulatory contractile motion pervaded the substance 
of the ventricles and columns carnefs and contiimed for some 
time. In this and every other observation the vermicular or 
undulatory motion supervened upon the cessation of the normal 
action of the organ, and never before the organ had ceased to 
act as a whole. 

Experiment 5. — Subject, a donkey seven months old, which 
expired forty-three minutes after being poisoned with woorara. 

The heart just before death was heard with short loud pulsa- 
tions ; when the chest was opened, it ceased to beat, and was 
very much distended with blood. When part of the blood was 
let out by cutting the pulmonary artery, the ventricles began 
again to pulsate feebly, but without sound. When the heart 
was cut out it presented the undulatory motion, which was in- 
creased by immersion in cold water. The two ventricles being 
opened by cuts at the apex at right angles to the septum, and the 
heart being drawn with the apex upwards through water, the 
laminae of the mitral and tricuspid valves were seen to close to- 
gether each time the heart was so drawn upwards through the 

Experiment 6. — Subject, a young ass destroyed by pithing. 

On opening the chest the heart acted regularly, producing 
both sounds distinctly : curved awls were then introduced into 


the aorta and pulmonary artery to hook back the valves, when 
the second sound was replaced by a sucking or bellows sound. 
The awls being withdrawn both sounds were again heard, the 
heart acting feebly. 

Experiment 7- — Subject, a young ass. A small quantity of 
woorara was introduced into the flank, but without destroying 
life, and the animal was despatched by a blow on the head. 

Heart acting very quickly and strongly when the chest was 
opened ; first sound only audible. 

The auricles being pushed in by the fingers into the ventricles 
so as to keep the valves open, the first or impulse sound only 
heard ; the second sound wanting. On withdrawing the fingers 
from the auricles both sounds were audible, the heart acting 
more slowly but yet strongly. The roots of the arteries being 
compressed between the fingers and stethescope, the first or im- 
pulse sound only heard, accompanied by a loud bellows or rasp 
sound. On removing the pressure (from the arteries) both 
sounds again audible. An incision being then made into the 
left auricle, a finger was passed through the auriculo-ventricular 
orificeto the bottom of the left ventricle, and the fingers of the 
other hand being placed under the right ventricle, and the heart 
compressed between the hands so as to obliterate the cavity, the 
first or impulse sound was still distinctly heard by all, but weak. 

Experiment 8. — Animal, a young ass destroyed by stunning. 
The heart at first acted convulsively, as from great exertion, 
but afterwards nearly normally slowly for a short time. While 
the heart's action was quick no second sound was heard, but 
after it became slow both sounds were heard, and shortly after 
its action became too feeble and irregular for observation. 

Experiment 9. — Subject, a young ass. Poisoning by intro- 
duction of twenty-four drops of an inefficient preparation of 
coneia into the peritoneum : unsuccessful. Animal ultimately 
pithed. On opening the chest the heart distinctly audible as to 
both sounds, and in vigorous action. The fingers were pushed 
into the auricles and through the auriculo-ventricular orifices, 
when a first sound was heard prolonged by a whizzing sound. 

On withdrawing the fingers both normal sounds were heard ; 
needles were then introduced to hook up a lamina of the sigmoid 
valves of the aorta, when the second sound was heard by two 

The pulmonary sigmoids were also attempted to be so treated 
(the aorta valves being continued under the needle), when two 
observers heard the two sounds, but not the third observer. 

Note. — The Committee were uncertain how far the hooking 
up of the valves was really effected owing to want of strength in 

2C6 SIXTH RKPOttT — 1836. 

the needles. They were not afterwards able, as in other cases, 
where curved awls were used, to find the marks of the needles 
so as to ascertain the direction in which they had passed. 

Experiment 10. — Subject, a young ass pithed. Chest imme- 
diately opened, when the heart was acting slowly, but forcibly. 
At first no second sound was heard, but a bellows sound (instead); 
then a violent action was attended with a single sound, accom- 
panied by a bellows sound, which (latter) ceased as the heart 
became more slow in action, after which both sounds became 
distinct ; then, the arteries being pressed with the fingers at their 
origins, a first sound was heard, with a blowing murmur accom- 
panying and another (murmur) following, but no flapping (or 
second) sound. On removing the pressure (from the arteries) 
the second sound was heard and the murmur ceased. Imme- 
diately after the systole a flapping or jerking sensation was sen- 
sible to the finger applied to the arteries at their roots. 

The inversion of the auricles was accompanied by a sensation of 
thrilling in the finger of the operator. The auriculo- ventricular 
valves were found to act in water after the removal of the heart from 
the body, closing on its being drawn apex upwards through water. 

Experhnent 11. — Subject, a young ass poisoned with oil of 
bitter almonds. 

A small opening was made in the cartilages opposite the 
heart, when the stroke was perceived, and felt by the finger in- 
side and outside the sternum at the same time, with souiid, and 
with considerable pressure upwards against the finger placed 
between the heart and cartilages. 

The chest and pericardium were then opened, which latter had 
a little serum in it. After turning over the animal on its left side, 
so as to make the heart hang vertically (out of the chest), a first 
sound was heard through the tube applied to the ventricles, but 
no second sound by either observer. The same sound was 
heard on the right auricle posteriorly without the second sound : 
the heart acted both times weakly. The tube being applied to 
the roots of the arteries gave the same result to one observer, i. e., 
a first without a second sound. The animal being again laid on 
his right side the first sound was heard by two observers. Cir- 
cumstances prevented the third member of the Committee from 
ausculting during this experiment, which was not repeated. 

Experiment 12. — Subject as above, and pithed. 

Heart acted thirty-three minutes. On opening the chest the 
two sounds were heard, the heart acting slowly and with tole- 
rable force. 

The auricles were then inverted by the fingers, and the first 
,80und, continued into a bellows murmur, was heard. The nmr- 


mur was accompanied by a thrilling motion, sensible to the 
finger of the operator, and synchronous with the impulse. A 
lamina of each sigmoid valve was then hooked up (with dissect- 
ing hooks), when a sound was heard not followed by a second 
sound, but on removing the hooks the second sound was again 

On inverting the auricles again the chordae tendineae of the 
mitral valve alone were felt to become tense in systole and lax 
in diastole. A finger being introduced into the left ventricle 
through the auricle, the first sound was heai'd with a murmur. 

Experiment 13. — Subject, a young ass, pithed. On opening 
the chest, and then the pericardium, both sounds were distinctly 
heard, but feeble. On touching the arteries in the vicinity of 
the valves, a sensation of flapping (or jerking) observed by all, 
commencing immediately after the systole, and accompanying 
the second sound. 

The awls being introduced into the arteries (so as to hook up 
the valves), the second sound was wanting. After removing the 
awls, at first but the systolic sound was heard, but after a short 
time both were heard by all. 

On opening the heart (at the close of the experiment), the 
valves were found to have been sufficiently hooked up in both 

Experiment 14. — Subject, a young ass, pithed. After open- 
ing the chest the pericardium was opened, and a thick layer of 
tow was interposed between the heart and surrounding parts, 
the heart continuing to act. At first the systolic sound was 
heard, followed by a bellows murmur ; but afterwards the flap- 
ping sensation and second sound very distinct also. 

The finger being introduced into the left ventricle by inver- 
sion of the auricle, was felt to be gently embraced and pushed, 
as if by a membrane distended with blood. On the right side 
nothing similar uneqviivocally observed. On pressing the aorta 
or pulmonary artery between the finger and thumb gently, a 
*'to and fro" thi'illwas felt accompanying the systole and dia- 
stole of the ventricles, and terminated by a flap. The sensation 
of flapping (or jerking) was felt to be synchronous in the two 

The tension and hardness of the ventricles during their systole 
was very remarkable. 

The pulmonary artery being cut across, the first sound was 
still loud, and the aorta being then cut across (likewise), the same 
result was obtained (viz. a first, without a second sound). The 
heart was then severed from its other attachments, and the (first) 
sound was still heard distinctly. 

268 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

The heart was then grasped titroiigly under blood, and it con- 
tinued to contract vigorously, and the first sound was heard (but 
not loud) with the flexible tube as well as the common stethe- 
scope. The heart was then taken out and held in the hand of 
one of the Committee, when the first sound was distinct, but 

On opening the right ventricle the columneee carnese were 
distinctly seen contracting simultaneously with the ventricle. 

Such are the particulars of all the more successful experi- 
ments of the Committee, with regard to those possible causes of 
the normal sounds of the heart which have been investigated by 
the Committee ; the principal of them are as follows. The first 
sound has been attributed to 

1 . Impulse, or the beating of the heart against the parietes of 
the chest. 

2. Muscular sound, or the resonance attending sudden mus- 
cular contraction. 

3. Collisions of the particles of the blood amongst each other, 
or against the parietes, valves, &c. of the heart's cavities. 

4. The action of the auricula-ventricular valves during sy- 

5. And the collisiofi of the opposite interior surfaces of the 
ventricles in the same state. 

The normal or second sound has been attributed to 

1. Impulse of the heart against the thoracic jiarietes, owing 
to its rapid expansion during diastole. 

2. ^n intrinsic sound attending the diastole, analogous to that 
which the observations of the Committee prove to attend the 
systolic action of the ventricles. 

3. Flapping of the atiriculo-ventricular valves during dia- 
stole against the sides of the ventricles. 

4. The rushing of fluids into the great arteries after the sy- 

5. The rushing of the fluids from the auricles into the ven- 
tricles during diastole. 

6. Sudden tension and flapping of the sigmoid valves after 
the systole. 

Of the causes to which the first sound has been attributed, the 
Committee feel it necessary to notice each separately, except the 
last. With regard to the alleged causes, however, of the second 
sound, they will feel themselves justified in being less minute, 
partly to avoid tiresome repetitions, but principally on account 
of the obvious preponderance of evidence, us the Committee con- 
ceive, in favour of the theory last mentioned. 

First Sound — Valvular Tensioji. — To bctcin with the first 


sound. It is well known that several eminent writers have at- 
tributed it to the sudden closure and tension of the auriculo- 
ventricular valves during the systole. With reference to that 
question, the Committee have made the following observations : 

1. Inverting the auricles, and passing the finger into the au- 
riculo-ventricular orifices, does not prevent the first sound, though 
it must prevent the action of the valves. Experiments 5, 8, &c. 

2. In the experiments just referred to, the action of the mi- 
tral valve, as felt by the finger, was of too gradual and feeble a 
kind to be capable of producing sound; while on the right side 
the tightening of the tricuspid was not strong enough to be sen- 
sible to the finger at all. 

3. Various instances where the ventricles were treated so as 
to obliterate their cavities by pressure, and render valvular ac- 
tion impossible, gave, nevertheless, the first sound. Experi- 
ments 6, 7j &c. 

From these facts the Committee conclude that valvular action 
is not a cause of the first sound. 

First Sound — Collision in the Fluids, Sfc. — The following are 
the facts observed by the Committee with regard to the alleged 
resonant collisions of the particles of blood amongst themselves, 
or against the parietes, valves, &c. of the ventricles. 

1. The obstruction of the auriculo-ventricular orifices by the 
fingers introduced by inverting the auricles does not materially 
modify the first sound. Experiments 5, 8, &c. 

2. The heart being pressed between a finger introduced through 
the auricle to the bottom of the left ventricle, and the other hand 
placed outside the right ventricle, continued still to emit the first 
sound. Experiments 5 and 12. 

3. The heart being grasped firmly in the hand, after separation 
from its attachments, and while immersed in blood, gave the first 
sound distinctly. The pressure in this case must, in the opinion 
of the Committee, have prevented collision between the opposite 
interior surfaces of the organ. 

4. The division of the aorta and pulmonary artery, and even 
the extraction of the heart, does not prevent the first sound. 
Elxperiment 12. 

5. The Committee made also various experiments in order to 
ascertain the power of fluids to produce sound when in contact 
with solids. 

On compressing by the stethescope the gum elastic bottle 
filled with water, and under water, they could not succeed in 
producing any other sound than a bellows sound. The power of 
obstructed currents of liquid to produce the various modifica- 
tions of the bellows sound was further illustrated to the Com- 

270 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

mittee in several experiments on animals, in which pressure of 
the arteries, partial obstruction of the auriculo-ventricular ori- 
fices, and suspension of the action of the sigmoid valves, were 
repeatedly accompanied by this phaenomenon. The thrill ac- 
companying this sonorous passage of liquid was in every case 
sensible to the finger. 

6. To this we may add that the experiments of MM. Pigeaux 
and Piorry have been repeated by the Reporter in the presence 
and with the assistance of Dr. Edwin Harrison, and other gen- 
tlemen not of the Committee ; but in no instance of several trials 
was anything like the first sound produced. 

From the preceding facts the Committee conclude that the 
normal first sound of the heart is in no degree referable to any 
collisions of the particles of the fluids amongst themselves or 
against the parietes, &c. of the ventricles. 

First Sound — Impulse. — The facts relating to the connexion 
of impulse with the first sound that are contained in the pre- 
ceding experiments, are the following : 

In a variety of circumstances in which it is difficult to see 
how impulse could occur to cause sound, the systolic sound was 
distinctly audible, viz. 

1. When the heart lay exposed, deprived of its pericardium, 
and supported by the mediastinum alone, as in Experiment 1. 

2. When the heart was held between the fingers with some 
force of pressure, the left side cavities being empty, or nearly 
so, as in Experiment 5. 

3. When the heart was imbedded in tow. Experiment 14. 

4. When the heart hung out of the thorax by its vessels, re- 
moved from all contact to which sound might be referred, as in 
Experiment 9. 

Note. In the four experiments just referred to the instrument 
was applied to the arteries near their roots. 

5. When the heart was severed from all its attachments, and 
grasped strongly in the hand, as in Experiment 12. On the 
other hand, several facts show that the impulse against the ribs 
may produce sound. 

6. In Experiment 11, and in others in the memoranda of 
which the fact has been omitted, the heart during systole was 
felt, both outside and inside the chest, to press with force against 
the sternum and cartilages. 

7. In our observations on the effects of posture we remarked 
that leaning to the left or forwards gave additional force to the 
impulse and loudness to the sound; while inclination of the body, 
such as to cause the heart to gravitate away from the ribs, di- 
minished at once the sound and impulse. 


8. To those we may add the facts pointed out by Dr. Spittal, 
which have been repeated and verified by the Reporter, assisted 
by Dr. Edwin Harrison and other gentlemen not of the Com- 
mittee, and which seem to prove that if the living heart impinge 
with any force upon the walls of the thorax sound must result. 

From the whole of those facts, the Committee conclude that 
impulse is not the principal cause of the first sound, but that it 
is an auxiliary and occasional cause, nearly null in quietude and 
in the supine posture, but increasing very considerably the sound 
of the systole in opposite circumstances. 

M7-st Sound — Muscular Tension. — The facts ascertained by 
the Committee relating directly to muscular tension as a pos- 
sible cause of the first sound, are few but striking, and in their 
judgement decisive. 

1. The heart in systole becomes suddenly, from a compara- 
tively soft and flaccid body, extremely tense, and to the touch 
hard as cartilage. Experiments 2 and 12, and many others, in 
which the fact was not recorded. 

2. The unvarying and uniform character of the systolic sound, 
however diversified the circumstances in which the heart was 
placed, furnishes a strong argument in favour of its intrinsic 

3. The voluntary muscles, when suddenly contracted, become 
tense and hard, and emit sounds resembling strikingly the first 
sound of the heart. This is especially observable in the action 
of the abdominal muscles. Experiment 14. 

4. From those experimental facts, taken along with the self- 
ev-ident fact, that the muscular tension thus experimentally 
proved to be sonorous is an essential part, and, as it were, the 
first stage of full muscular contraction, the Committee conclude 
that the first sound of the heart is, for the most part, a physical 
result of the sudden transition of the ventricles from a flaccid 
condition to a state of extreme tension ; that in a word the first 
sound is essentially a muscular sound. 

Second Nonnal Sound of the Heart. — ^We now proceed to 
the consideration of the normal second sound, and of the hypo- 
theses that have been or might be advanced respecting it, and 
the facts we possess that throw light on its causes and mechanism. 

The Committee had proceeded but a short way in their expe- 
rimental inquiries when they found the conclusion forced on 
them that the majority of the hypotheses (above enumerated) 
regarding the second sound were wholly untenable. In some of 
their first experiments they found that the second sound might 
be absent, although the first soimd was present, and the systolic 

273 SIXTH REPORT — 183C. 

and diastolic actions were quite normal. The second sound, for 
example, was suppressed by 

1. Pressure on the roots of the arteries. 

2. By hooking up a valve of each set of sigmoids. 

3. By suspending the heart out of the chest, 

4. By inverting the auricles, &c. (see Exp. passim), the first 
sound and alternate ventricular actions continuing unaffected in 
any material degree in each case. Such facts, of which there 
are many in the account of the experiments, seemed to the Com- 
mittee quite incompatible with any other hypothesis respecting 
the second sound than the last, viz. that which refers it to the 
action of the semilunar valves. Besides, several of those hy- 
potheses appeared liable to the weighty preliminary objection 
that they are wholly arbitrary, and without any foundation, so 
far as the Committee have been able to ascertain, in accurate 
observations or experiments. Under those impressions the 
Committee think it best to proceed at once to state the facts 
which in their opinion tend to establish the action of the sigmoid 
valves to be the cause of the normal second sound. In this some 
repetition perhaps may be necessary, but will, it is hoped, be ex- 

The following experiments were made mth especial reference 
to the mechanism of the second sound. 

1. Pressure with the finger and thumb was exerted on the ar- 
teries close to the sigmoid valves, so as to flatten the tubes a 
little, and the second sound, previously clear, and in every re- 
spect normal, was immediately suppressed, and a bellows mur- 
mur was heard instead : this murmur ceased, and the normal 
sound returned instantly on the removal of the fingers. Eperi- 
ments 7 and 10. 

2. A degree of pressure sufficient, it was conceived, to change, 
but very slightly, the shapes of the vessels, gave to the finger 
sensations of currents moving in opposite directions ; the one 
current more striking, and coinciding with the systole ; the other 
less forcible and synchronous with the diastole, and ending 
suddenly by a sensation of flapping or jerking. Experiment 14. 

3. The fingers being applied gently to the region of the sig- 
moid valves, and the ear-tube applied to the heart, the flapping 
sound was heard, and a sensation of a gentle tap was felt by the 
finger, in coincidence with the diastole and second sound. Ex- 
periments 10 and 14. 

4. One valve of each set of sigmoids was hooked up in each ar- 
tery successively, and the jerking motion invariably ceased, with 
one apparent exception only, and continued suppressed in the 



artery in which a valve had been so hooked up. If a valve in 
one artery only was so engaged, the second sound was weakened ; 
but if a valve of each set of sigmoids was fixed, then the second 
sound wholly disappeared. In some instances there was a mur- 
mur of the sucking or blowing kind following the systole during 
the suspension of the valve ; in other instances there was absence 
of sound simply. Experiments 4, 6, 12, 13. 

5. The arteries were cut across close to the sigmoid valves, 
the veins being left entire, and the heart beating with consider- 
able force ; the ear-tube was then applied, but gave only one 
sound, and that one coincident with the systole. Experiment 14. 

6. In the separated heart the first sound was repeatedly ob- 
served, but the second sound never. 

Summary of Conclusions. — 1. The first sound of the heart, as 
heard in the chest, is generally complex in its nature, consisting 
of one constant or essential sound, and one perceptible only under 
certain circumstances ; this constant element of the first sound 
may be considered as intrinsic, appearing to depend on the sud- 
den transition of the ventricles from a state of flaccidity in dia- 
stole to one of extreme tension in systole ; while the extrinsic or 
subsidiary sound, which generally accompanies and increases the 
intrinsic sound, arises from the impulse of the heart against the 
parietes, chiefly of the thorax. 

2. The collisions of the particles of the blood amongst each 
other, or against the interior parietes, valves, &c. of the heart, 
do not appear to have any share in the normal first sound of the 
heart ; neither do the motions of the auriculo-ventricular valves ; 
and the attrition of the opposite interior surfaces of the heart's 
cavities seems purely hypothetical. 

3. The principal, and apparently only, cause of the second 
normal sound of the heart, is the sudden closure of the sigmoid 
valves by the columns of blood that recoil back on them during 
the diastole, impelled by the elastic contraction of the arteries. 

4. The columnae carnese appear to act simultaneously with the 
parietes of the ventricles, and in such a manner as to make it 
apparently impossible that the auriculo-ventricular valves should 
close with a flap, in the same manner as the sigmoid valves. 

Note. An opinion which is further confirmed by the anatomy 
of the heart of the domestic cock, in which M. Bouillard appears 
to have heard both sounds with the naked ear. In that animal 
there is no tricuspid valve resembling that of man, but the val- 
vular office is discharged by laminar extensions of the substance 
of the pai'ietes of the ventricle, which meet in the middle, so as, 
during the systole, to cover the auriculo-ventricular orifice. 

To conclude, — The Committee feel strongly that the subject 
VOL. v.— 1836. T 

274 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

of the heart's motions and sounds requires further investigation, 
more especially in their pathological relations, and a wider 
range and greater variety of experiments than have hitherto been 

(Signed) C. J. B. Williams, M.D. F.R.S. 

R. Be Todd, M.D., Oxon, Professor 
of Physiology, King's College, 

John Clendinning, M.D.,Edin.and 
Oxon, Fellow of the R. C. of 
Physicians, Hon. Sec. Royal Med. 
Chir. Society, Physician to the 
Marylebone Infirmary, and Re- 


Second Report of the Dublin Sub-Cotnmittee on the Motions 
and Sounds of the Heart. (See vol. iv. p. 243.) 

§ I. — The Dublin Committee for investigating the motions 
and sounds of the heart, re-appointed by the British As- 
sociation at their last Meeting, have considered tlie following 
questions submitted to them by the General Committee of the 

1. Whether the muscular fibres of the columnae carnese con- 
tract at the same precise moment as the mass of muscular fibres 
of the ventricle ? 

2. What is the precise mode in which the tricuspid and mitral 
valves prevent the reflux of blood ? Are they floated up and 
stretched across the auriculo- ventricular orifices, or drawn to- 
gether to a point within the cavity of the ventricle by the action 
of the columnae carneae ? 

In order to solve the former of these questions the Committee 
have several times repeated the experiment of opening the heart, 
either while within the body of the newly killed animal, or sud- 
denly removed from it and placed in tepid water, in the expec- 
tation that the movements of the fleshy columns and of the 
general mass of the ventricles might be compared by inspection 
and their relations as to time thus ascertained. But in every 
instance it was found that the injury thus inflicted upon the 
heart caused its death so rapidly that no satisfactory conclusion 
could be drawn from these experiments. 

Independently of any direct experiment on this subject there 
are many considerations which, in the opinion of the Committee, 
serve to prove that the question now under view should be an- 
swered in the afiirmative. 

The fleshy columns which are attached to the valves, and 
which have, for the sake of distinction, been called by some 
^'papillary muscles," differ from the other fleshy columns in the 
circumstance of being connected to the svibstance of the ven- 
tricle only at one of their extremities, while the otheris conjoined 
to the " chordae tendineae," but their fibres are, equally as those 
of the ordinary fleshy columns, continuous with the fibres of the 
general mass of the ventricles. That the ordinary fleshy columns 
contract simultaneously with the systole of the ventricles there 
can be no doubt, as the shortening of those columns is neces- 
sary to the completeness of the systole ; and as the papillary 
muscles resemble the ordinary fleshy columns in the continuity 
of their fibres with those of the ventricles, it is reasonable to 

T 2 

276 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

suppose that the contractions of the former as of the latter class 
of fleshy columns are synchronous with those of the general 
mass. In the second place it is to be considered that if the 
papillary muscles were not in a state of contraction during the 
whole of the ventricular systole, the valves to which they are 
attached would be driven up by the impulse of the blood into 
the auriculo-ventricular openings, and thus become unfitted for 
their of&ce, as is seen in the dead heart, in which a stream of water 
injected into either ventricle by its artery, drives the valves 
towards the auricle until the water escapes between their edges. 
It is to be observed also that in many quadrupeds, and to a cer- 
tain extent in the human subject, some of the tendinous cords 
attached to a valve are connected to papillary muscles, while the 
remainder are inserted directly into the surface of the ventricle : 
but it cannot be supposed that the former set of tendons are at 
rest while the latter are acted upon by the general ventricular 

To the solution of the second question a consideration of the 
manner in which the mitral and tricuspid valves are connected 
with their respective papillary muscles, and of the relation of 
these to the rest of the substance of the heart is necessary. 
Each of these valves may be regarded as a portion of a hollow 
membranous cylinder, attached by one edge around the auriculo- 
ventricular opening, the other edge projecting into the ventricle 
and connected to certain of the tendinous cords. The greater 
number of these, however, are joined to the valve, not at its edge, 
but at various points of its ventricular surface. The ventricular, 
or moveable edges of those valves are extremely irregular in their 
outline, being deeply notched in some parts and projecting in 
others ; but as to their mode of operation each valve may be con- 
sidered as consisting of two flaps, a larger and a smaller one, by 
the application of which to each other during the ventricular 
systole the blood is prevented from regurgitating into the auricles. 
The large flap of the mitral valve is placed between the orifice 
of the aorta and the left auriculo-ventricular opening, nearly in 
a horizontal plane, the heart being supposed to be in its natural 
position, and the person in the upright posture, and may bo 
described in reference to the smaller flap as superior, somewhat 
anterior, and a little to the right side. The smaller flap is placed 
opposite to the larger, and is, with regard to it inferior, some- 
what posterior and a little to the left. When these flaps are in 
opposition during the systole of the ventricle, the line of their 
contact is of a somewhat semilunar form, and in the transverse 

The larger flap of the tricuspid valve is attached to that part of 


the margin of the auriculo-ventricular opening which corresponds 
to the portion of the ventricle not formed by the septum, and 
may be desci'ibed, with reference to the smaller flap, as being 
placed externally to it, and to its right side : the smaller flap is 
connected to that portion of the margin of the opening which 
corresponds to the septum, and is, with regard to the larger flap, 
internal and to the left side. When these flaps are in contact 
with each other during the ventricular systole, the line of their 
junction is vertical, being very nearly at right angles to the ana- 
logous line as described in the mitral valve. 

The papillary muscles of the mitral valve vary in number in 
different subjects, but there are always two larger than the others, 
arising from the posterior wall of the ventricle, about midway 
between the apex and the base, one of which is situated close to 
the septum, and the other at the external edge or part of the 
posterior wall. They are somewhat flat-shaped, and are nearly 
parallel to each other and to the axis of the ventricle. Each 
of these papillary muscles terminates in two or three papillae of 
nearly equal length, and whose summits are about one-fourth 
of an inch asunder. From these summits proceed, in a radiating 
form, a great number of tendinous cords, which are distributed 
to the flaps of the valve in the following manner : those cords 
which arise from the superior papilla on each side are connected 
to the superior or larger flap ; those from the papilla on each 
side, situated between the superior and inferior, are distributed 
partly to the larger flap, and partly to that portion of the valve 
where the lai'ger and smaller flaps are conjoined; and the cords 
arising from the lowest papilla on each side are connected chiefly 
to the smaller or inferior flap. Besides the two papillary mus- 
cles just described there are others smaller, which arise from the 
posterior wall of the ventricle, nearer its base, at a situation 
corresponding to the attachment of the smaller flap, to which 
flap the tendons proceeding from these muscles are distributed. 

In the I'ight ventricle the papillary muscles connected with 
the larger flap are three or four in number, and arise near the 
apex of the ventricle by footstalks proceeding generally both 
from the septum and from the external wall of the ventricle. 
They are somewhat flat in shape, nearly parallel in their direc- 
tion to the axis of the ventricle, and placed at intervals of half 
or three quarters of an inch from each other, measured along the 
external wall of the ventricle, M'hich is of a curved form, and 
seems to be wrapped round the septum. From the papillae by 
which these muscles are terminatedproceed a number of tendinous 
cords, which are distributed in a radiating manner to the surface 
and margin of the larger flap. The superior part of this mar- 

278 SIXTH RHl>ORT— 18.^6. 

gin, just where the larger and smaller flaps are about to conjoin, 
receives one or two tendinous cords, which proceed directly from 
the septum, without the intervention of any papillary muscle. 
The smaller flap receives one or two of its tendons from the 
lowest in position of those papillary muscles which have been 
described as supplying the larger flap ; but all the others which 
it receives, to the number of 12 or 14, proceed to it directly 
from the surface of the septum, near the base, no papillary 
muscle intervening^. 

From an inspection of the arrangement now described it is 
manifest that the papillary muscles, when they contract, draw 
the tendinous cords more or less towards the axis of the respect- 
ive auriculo-ventricular openings ; and if it be supposed that 
by any cause the flaps have been laid against the sides of the 
ventricles, the contraction of the papillary muscles will remove 
from such situation, or adduct towards the auriculo-ventri- 
cular axis, those portions of the valves to which they are con- 

It is also clear that the contraction of the papillary muscles 
cannot, in any instance, close the valves, or bring their flaps 
into contact with each other. For when the contraction of the 
papillary muscles is at its greatest, as at the end of the ventri- 
cular systole, if it be assumed that the cords and flaps of the 
valves have been rendered tense by their action, leaving al- 
together out of view, for the present, the influence of the blood 
upon the valves j and further, if it be supposed that the numerous 
summits of papillae, whence the cords proceed, have been 
gathered in each ventricle into a single point ; in such a state 
of things each valve and its cords will have assumed a form 
resembling an irregular funnel, of which the base is at the auri- 
culo-ventricular opening, and the apex at the point of conjunc- 
tion of the summits of the papillae : and it is evident that the 
opposite points of the moveable edge of each valve will be sepa- 
rated from each other by spaces equal to corresponding dia- 
meters of the funnel. The assumption that the summits of the 
papillae are congregated into a single point at the latter part of 
the systole is manifestly incorrect, as the swelling of the papil- 
lary muscles, during contraction, will tend rather to separate 
from each other those summits which arise from the same pa- 
pillary muscle 5 but in order that the edges of the valves should 
be brought into contact by the action of the papillary muscles 
alone, such an arrangement of those muscles would be necessary 
as should cause the tendons of the opposing flaps to cross each 
other during the systole, an effect totally incompatible with the 
present construction of the organ under consideration. 


It is also an erroneous assumption that the valves are ren- 
dered tense by the action of the papillary muscles, unaided by 
the influence of the blood upon the surfaces of the valves : for, 
were it true, by the time when the contraction of these muscles 
is at its greatest, and for some time previous, the valves would 
be held by them in an open state, as has just been proved ; and 
thus during a portion of the systole, towards its end, the closing 
of the passages into the auricles would be rendered incomplete. 
It is accordingly inconsistent with the functions of the heart 
that the papillary muscles, in their state of greatest contraction, 
should render the valves tense : it follows that they cannot ren- 
der them tense at any previous stage of contraction. 

The valves are closed by the impulse communicated to them 
through the blood at the commencement of the systole; and 
are prevented from separating during its continuance by the 
same cause. The papillary muscles have for their office to re- 
gulate the position of the valves, and to prevent them from 
being driven so far towards the auricles as to render incomplete 
the closing of their orifices. It does not appear that the action 
of the papillary muscles is at all necessary for the removal of 
the flaps from the sides of the ventricles, in order that the blood 
may be admitted between them at the commencement of the 
systole : for in the dead heart, if water be injected into either 
ventricle, through its corresponding artery, or through a hole 
made in its apex, it never fails to float the valves towards the 
auricles, and to bring their respective flaps into close contact. 
If force be used in this experiment the valves are driven into 
the auriculo-ventricular openings, and the water escapes between 
their edges. In this experiment it is seen also that the tricus- 
pid valve performs its office as completely as the mitral, op- 
posing a perfect obstacle to the flow of blood until force is em- 

It is probable that in the living heart the valves are not 
applied close to the sides of the ventricles, when these are in their 
diastole, and full of blood ; but that an interval exists between 
them occupied by this fluid. The central position of the papil- 
lary muscles of the larger flaps, and the shortness of their ten- 
dons are favourable to this supposition ; and, in the right ven- 
tricle, the mode in which the smaller flap is connected to the 
septum, by tendons inserted directly, and without papillary 
muscles, requires for the closing of this portion of the valve, 
that the blood should have insinuated itself between it and the 
adjacent surface, previously to the commencement of the systole^ 
inasmuch as the mei'e muscular contraction of the ventricle is 

}<>80 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

incapable of drawing this flap from the adjoining surface ; and 
were tlie s5Stole to commence while this portion of the valve 
was applied to the side of the ventricle, the impulse of the 
blood would be expended upon its auricular, instead of its ven- 
tricular surface. In many quadrupeds, for instance, in the calf, 
the papillary muscles are almost altogether wanting in both 
sides of the heart : the tendons of the valves are inserted direct- 
ly into the surfaces of the ventricles, and are so short that it is 
manifestly impossible that the flaps can be laid against the 
sides of those cavities when they are distended with blood. 

In the dead heart, placed in water, the valves do not hang 
down in the fluid, but assume a cup-like form, and their free 
edges are puckered together ; thus manifesting a disposition to 
acquire, without the aid of the muscles, that figure and position 
which are most favourable for receiving the impulse of the 

When the ventricular systole begins, the valves are closed by 
the nmscular power of the ventricles transmitted to them 
through the blood, and the papillarj^ muscles, commencing their 
contraction at the same moment, are enabled to resist the im- 
petus by which, but for their aid, the valves would be driven 
unduly towards the auricles. The valvular flaps are now in 
contact with each other by a portion of their auricular surfaces 
adjacent to their free edges, and their form is curvilinear like 
that of a sail distended by the wind ; a form of surface which, it 
may be observed, enables the papillary muscles to resist the 
impetus of the blood by a much less expenditure of their power 
than had the valves been rendered tense in the first instance, 
and drawn to a point by the action of these muscles alone. As 
the systole proceeds, all the parts of the ventricles approach, 
more or less, to the base ; and thus the distance which at the 
beginning of the systole intervened between the auriculo-ven- 
tricular openings and the more remote extremities of the papil- 
lary muscles, is gradually abridged. The gradual contraction 
of these muscles serves to compensate for the diminution of 
this distance, and thus the valves are retained in an unaltered 
position from the beginning till the end of the systole. 

This view of the purpose which the contractile power of the pa- 
pillary .muscles is intended to fulfil, is strengthened by observing 
that those papillary muscles are the longest which have their 
origin from the substance of the ventricles most remote from 
the base of the heart, and that they are found to be shorter in 
proportion as their origins are nearer to that part ; and the ten- 
dinous cords of the smaller flap of the tricuspid valve, which 


arise from the septum very near the base, proceed from its sur- 
face to the margin of the valve without the intervention of any 
papillary muscle. 

This method of arrangement evidently depends upon the 
general law of muscular contraction, according to which the 
shortening of a fibre bears a definite ratio to its length in the 
uncontracted state. The parts of the ventricle most remote 
from the base receive the longest fibres, and accordingly make 
the greatest degree of approach to it during their period of 
contraction . 

§ II. — ^The Committee have repeated many of their former ex- 
periments with regard both to the motions and sounds of the 
heart, and have derived from them a confirmation of the views 
detailed in their last Report. In order to elucidate the cause of 
the sounds of the heart the following new experiments have 
been performed. 

Experiment 1. — In a calf, pi'epared in the manner described 
in the former Report, the thorax was opened, and the apex of the 
heart cut off, so that the blood, during the contraction of the 
ventricles, flowed into the chest, instead of passing into the 
large arteries. An ear-tube being applied to the body of the 
ventricles, one sound only was heard, resembling the first sound 
of the heart, and coinciding with the ventricular systole. When 
the blood had ceased to flow, a finger was inserted into the left 
ventricle, by which it was firmly grasped at each contraction, 
and the ear-tube being again applied to the surface, a sound, 
which may be described as a dull thump, was heard simultane- 
ously with the grasp of the finger by the ventricle. 
, JExperimetit 2. — A stop-cock, communicating at one end with 
a large bladder full of water, was inserted into the right auricle 
of a human heart, and secured by a ligature. A glass tube, 2f 
feet long, and ^ inch in bore, v/as tied into the pulmonary artery, 
one inch above the semilunar valves. The bladder pressed upon 
so as to fill the right ventricle, which was then compressed at 
intervals by the hand, and thus the fluid was sent into the tube 
by jerks, in imitation of the natural action of the heart. An ear- 
tube being applied to the surface of the heart, two sounds were 
heard, one prolonged, the other abrupt, very closely resembling 
the natural sounds of the beating heart. The former sound was 
heard during the contraction of the hand, the latter immediately 
upon its relaxation. During the first sound the fluid ascended 
in the tube, and descended a little when the second sound was 
heard. The tube was now taken out of the artery ; the semi- 
lunar valves were completely removed, and the tube was rein- 
serted and fixed as before. The alternate compression of the 

282 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

ventricle by the hand, and relaxation being renewed, two sounds 
were heard, both prolonged, the second having lost the abrupt- 
ness by which it had been previously characterized. 

Experiment 3. — The experiment now to be described was 
first made by M. Rouanet, and is detailed by M. Bouilleaud, in 
his work on the diseases of the heart. It consists in attaching 
hy one end, a glass tube a few inches in length, and about an 
inch wide, to a bladder holding water, and by the other to the 
aorta, close beneath the semilunar valves, but so as not to inter- 
fere with their movements ; the muscular substance of the heart 
having been previously removed. Another glass tube, some 
feet long, and of equal diameter with the former, is tied into 
the aorta at a distance of two or three inches above the semilu- 
nar valves. The bladder is compressed by the hand so as to 
raise the water in the tube to a considerable height; and the 
hand being suddenly relaxed, the column of water in the longer 
tube, deprived of support, descends until it is arrested by the 
closing of the semilunar valves. At this instant, if the ear have 
been applied to the lower part of the longer tube, an abrupt 
sound is heard, resembling the second sound of the heart. If 
the semilunar valves be now removed, and the experiment with 
this alteration, be repeated, the sound, which is heard to ac- 
company the relaxation of the heart, is no longer abrupt, but 

The conclusions which the Committee have drawn from these 
experiments, as to the causes of the ordinary sounds of the heart, 
are similar to those detailed in their former Report, to which 
they beg leave to refer. 

It appears to the Committee that many writers upon the sounds 
of the heart have not sufficiently distinguished the characters of 
those sounds, the prolongation of the first, and the abruptness 
of the second; and the term " tic-tac" which has been em- 
ployed to express their rythm, is likely to mislead inaccurate 
observers by representing the sounds as of equal length. 

The first sound, of a homogeneous character, beginning and 
ending with the ventricular systole, which is a prolonged action, 
coincides with it in duration ; and the observation of this fact 
has enabled the Committee to exclude fr(»m the causes of the 
first sound, all those which are of a momentary nature, as the 
closing of valves, and those possessing the character of im- 

In concludhig their second Report, the Committee wishtostate 
their opinion that the motions and sounds of the heart have 
been now, by themselves and others, investigated nearly as far 


as can be done by mere experiment ; but that much light can be 
thrown upon the subject, and the trutli of theories tested, by the 
observation of disease. To this part of the subject, the Dublin 
Committee propose to apply themselves during the ensuing 
year, if it be the wish of the Association that their inquiries 
should be continued. 

(Signed) James Macartney, M.D., F.R.S. 

Robert Adams, A.M., T.C.D. 

EvoRY Kennedy, M.D. 

George Greene, A.B., M.D. 

John Hart, M.D. 

Wm. Bruce Joy, A.M., M.B. 

John Nolan, M.D. 

Robert Law, M.D. 

H. Carlile, A.B., T.C.D. 
August I9th, 1836. 

Report of the Dublhi Committee on the Pathology of the 
Brain and Nervous St/stan. 

The Committee appointed in Dublin to investigate the '^ Patho- 
logy of the Brain and Nervous System," feel compelled, on the 
present occasion, to confine themselves to an analysis of the 
cases of nervous affections which have come under their obser- 
vation, during the short period which has elapsed since they have 
considered themselves to be regularly appointed. 

They are of opinion that in order to arrive at accurate patho- 
logical conclusions on a subject so extensive and complicated, 
and on Avhich the most eminent authorities are found to disagree, 
a very great number of cases should be first submitted to their 
examination — then, the symptoms of each case carefully regi- 
stered — and, subsequently accurate post mortem examinations 
made, in the presence of the Committee, to ascertain the struc- 
tural lesion or lesions with which the symptoms co-existed. 

As far as their investigations have as yet extended, they see 
that the subject, if considered in all its details, will require a 
considerable length of time before they can accumulate such a 
number of cases and matured observations as would justify 
them in drawing general conclusions. 


They have collected some valuable facts relating to injuries 
and diseases of the nerves, which seem to throw light upon the 
disputed points of the physiology and pathology of this portion 
of the nervous system. They are of opinion, however, that 
more extended observations on this branch of the subject are 
required to be made. They would also submit the necessity of 
repeating those experiments, upon which so many rely as a 
foundation for then: doctrines. , ■ 

Thev have been for some time engaged in registering the hi- 
story and symptoms of cases of nervous affections in the \^ ards 
of the Houce of Industry, Dublin, and the different Hospitals 

belonging thereto. . • ^ c „ 

They find that this Institution presents ample materials tor a 
future report, should they be re-appointed, the number of cases 
of mental and nervous diseases which it contains being, in- 
dependently of about 150 cases of paralysis, as follows, viz. 

Males. Females. 

Chronic Insane 74 179 

Epileptic Insane 21 33 

Congenital Idiots 69 62 

Epileptic Idiots 14 ^^ 

178 294 Total 4/2 
The number of cases which the Committee have been enabled 
to examine with sufficient accuracy, amounts to forty-one. Ut 
these thev have made an analysis %vhich is attached to their 
Report. They also affix an index referring to seventeen cases of 
affections of individual nerves, but regret that they have not had 
sufficient time to make either as full and accurate as they could 

wish. ^,_. Ajr T-v 

(Signed) James O Beirxe, M.D. 
George Greene, M.D. 
John ^Macdonnell, M.D. 
Robert Adams, A.M., T.C.D. 

Dublin, August Mth, 1836. 


Account of the recent Discussiotis of Observations of the Tides 
which have been obtained by means of the grant of Money 
which was placed at the disposal of the Author for that jnir- 
pose at the last Meeting of the Association. By J. W. 
Lubbock, Esq. 

I WISH to lay before the Section tlie points to which I have 
chiefly directed my attention on the subject of the tides since 
the last meeting of the Association, aided by the grant of money 
which was placed at my disposal, and for which I beg to offer 
my warmest acknowledgements. 

In the first place I requested Mr. Dessiou to separate into 
different categories his discussion of the Liverpool tides for the 
calendar months, so as to ascertain the difference between the 
morning and evening tides on the same day, or the diurnal ine- 
quality. This inequality is extremely sensible at Liverpool in 
the height, as may be seen in the diagram and tables which I 
prepared, with Mr.Dessiou's assistance, and which are published 
in the Phil. Trans. 

Mr. Dessiou also, at my request, classified the errors of pre- 
diction for a year at Liverpool, and also of a year at London, in 
order to deduce the influence upon the tide of variations in the 
atmospheric pressure. I have thus succeeded in confirming the 
result first obtained by M. Daussy from the observations at Brest, 
namely, that the height of high water is less when the barometer 
is high, and vice versa. In the Report which I had the honour 
formerly to present to the Association, I expressed the opinion 
that the tides in the river Thames did not warrant this infer- 
ence ; this opinion was founded upon the rough examination of 
a year's observations, and it is now completely disproved. 

I have also been enabled to procure the assistance of Mr. Jones 
and Mr. Russell, two excellent computers. These gentlemen, 
vmder my guidance, have discussed the observations of 19 years 
at the London Docks. These observations were formerly dis- 
cussed by Mr. Dessiou with reference to the moon's transit im- 
mediately preceding. But upon examining the results thus ob- 
tained I saw that for the interval no satisfactory comparison with 
theory could be obtained for the moon's parallax and declination 
corrections in this manner, and that it was indispensible to re- 
fer the phsenomena to the tide-producing forces at a period more 
remote. The law of the intervals, when the discussion is insti- 
tuted with reference to the transit immediately preceding the 
time of high water, whether at London, Liverpool, or Brest, de- 

286 SIXTH REPORT— 1836. 

pends partly upon the phfenomena as deducible from Bernoulli's 
equilibrium' theory, and partly upon the law of the intervals be- 
tween the moon's successive transits. I therefore directed Mr. 
Jones and Mr. Russell to discuss the observations with reference 
to the iifth transit preceding, or that two days before the high 
M'ater under consideration. 

The results which we obtained, and the comparisons with 
theory which I instituted, are printed in the Phil. Trans. The 
observations of 19 years amount to 13,370 ; but notwithstanding 
their multiplicity, wlien they come to be separated into numerous 
categories, as for the purpose of ascertaining the diurnal inequa- 
litjr, the irregularities which the results present show clearly that 
even a greater number is required in order to arrive at averages 
which can be sufficiently depended upon. Still the general con- 
clusion to which my discussions lead is that the equilibrium 
theory of Bernoulli satisfies the phsenomena nearly if not quite 
within the limits of the errors of the observations, and that it 
leaves very little, if anything, to be accounted for otherwise. 

This question is extremely interesting, and seems to me to 
deserve the fullest investigation which the materials within our 
reach can justify. If the discussion were extended by taking in 
all the observations which have been made at the London Docks 
(which would give us about 16 years more, or nearly double the 
number), I have no doubt that the results would be much more free 
from irregularity. It would also be worth while to brinj^ up the 
interval and the height to what they ought to have been in 
Tables* I. and X. if the moon's parallax had been exactly 57', and 
in Table VI. to what they ought to have been if the moon's de- 
clination had been exactly 15°. I have hitherto neglected the 
minute quantities, which would thus have given a second ap- 
proximation on account of the great additional labour which 
they would have occasioned, but I have no doubt that sometliing 
would be gained by supplying this cori'ection. 

Besides all the work which I have detailed, the grant of the 
Association has enabled me to employ Mr. Jones to effect a dis- 
cussion of the Liverpool observations for 19 years, also with 
reference to a back transit in order to obtain the calendar month 
and diurnal inequalities. It would be desirable to complete this 
discussion, in order to obtain in the same manner the moon's 
parallax corrections. It would also be desirable to extend the 

* Phil. Trans. 1836. The correction for the difference of the moon's de- 
clination from 15° is, I apprehend, insensible, and that for the difference of the 
moon's parallax will seldom, if ever, exceed one minute for the interval, and 
one tenth of a foot in the height. 


discussion of the Liverpool tides by employing more of the 
Hutchinsonian observations. 

If the Brest observations vpere published it might be better to 
proceed at once with their discussion, abandoning, if necessary, 
for the present our Liverpool and London investigations. The 
observations there have no doubt been carefully made, and the 
situation of the port may appear to some to present advantages. 
These advantages I am convinced have been much overrated, 
and I attribute the extreme apathy which has been evinced on 
the subject of the tides in this country until lately to the erro- 
neous idea that little could be reaped from observations at places 
so far removed from the open ocean as London. However I feel 
much regret at being deprived of the opportunity of recurring to 
the Brest observations, particularly as I am informed they have 
long since been printed. 

288 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

A Paper tva^ communicated entitled Observations for deter- 
mining the refractive Indices for the Standard Rays of the 
Solar Spectrum in various media. By the Rev. Baden 
Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry 
in the University of Oxford. 

This paper contained the details of the observations in a ta- 
bular form, printed copies of which were distributed. The 
author prefaced them by a brief statement of the circmnstances 
which had led to them, and of their nature. The determination 
of the refractive indices for definite rays of the solar spectrum 
marked by the dark lines, from the direct observations of their 
deviations produced by prisms of different substances, first pro- 
posed and executed by Fraunhofer, for ten media solid and liquid, 
was carried on by M. Rudberg for ten more cases. The neces- 
sity for an extended series of such determinations was pointed 
out and strongly insisted on by Sir J. Herschel, as well as by 
Sir D. Brewster ; and was further urged by a special recom- 
mendation from the British Association. [Third Report, p. 
319.) Not being able to learn that anything has been done 
towards supplying the deficiency in other quarters, the author 
took up the inquiry; and the tabular statements contain the 
results of observations, in which he has attempted to ascertain 
the refractive indices belonging to each of the standard primary 
rays for various media : comprising in the present instance the 
only highly dispersive substances he has been as yet able to pro- 
cure in a condition capable of prismatic observation ; together 
with some other liquids of different natures : this being a first 
contribution only towards a series of such determinations, which 
he hopes to continue. 


Provisional Report on the Communication between the Arteries 
and Absorbents on the part of the London Committee. By 


Dr. Hodgkin read to the Medical Section a provisional Report 
on behalf of the London Committee appointed to investigate the 
communications between the arteries and absorbents. As the 
Committee is continued to pursue the inquiry, the author has 
not transmitted the Report for publication in the present volume. 
The following are the outlines of the Report. 

The Committee had added to its number Mr. Francis Sibson, 
jun.j an expert and practised anatomist then engaged at Guy's 
Hospital, where it was found most convenient for the inquiry to be 
conducted. Numerous examinations were made of the lacteals 
in man and other animals, in which these vessels were either 
filled with chyle, or artificially injected with mercury, but no 
positive instance of a lacteal communicating with the veins was 
discovered. Two instances were mentioned in which an efferent 
vessel from a mesentei'ic gland entered a large vein, but there 
was reason to suspect that the vessels, which appeared to be- 
long to the lymphatic system, were really veins. The commu- 
nication between the absorbents and veins in the substance of the 
mesenteric glands was confirmed in numerous instances, and un- 
der circumstances which induced the reporter to believe that no 
rupture or extravasation had taken place. Although the views 
of Professor Lippi had not been confirmed by the examiners, 
the reporter did not conclude that they were to be whoUy rejected, 
and the thoracic duct and right trunk regarded as the sole com- 
munications between the absorbent and venous systems, since nu- 
merous anatomists had seen and described other instances of ab- 
sorbents entering veins. He had himself seen the absorbents from 
a lung entering the vena azygos, and his friend Mr. Bi-acy Clark 
had found the receptaculum chyli emptying itself into a lumbar 
vein. He was inclined to believe that such communications oc- 
curred as anomalies and variations analogous to other varieties in 
the distribution of vessels. This view derived some support from 
the fact that such communications occurred chiefly in or near the 
neck, and in the pelvis, where they resembled the normal distribu- 
tion observed in birds and reptiles. There was then an analogy be- 
tween these irregularities of the absorbent system, and the most 
frequent varieties in the arterial, which also, for the most part, 
resemble the normal distribution in some of the inferior animals. 
It did not appear that Lippi was able to demonstrate the com- 
voL. v.— 1836. • u 

290 SIX.TH REPORT — 1836. 

munications for which he contended, in every subject, and the 
care which he had taken to describe and delineate them when 
met with seemed to indicate that they were comparatively rare, 
even amongst his numerous examinations., Amongst the facts 
connected with the inferior animals, the author remarked that 
in the kangaroo he had found that the thoracic duct was double, 
aflfording another instance of similarity between the circulation 
in that animal and in birds, and noticed the very considerable 
dilatation of the receptaculum chyli which he had met with in 
a foetal pig. The Report also contained some notice of the la- 
bours of Miiller, Arnold, Fohmann, Panizza, and Drs. Thomson 
and Sharpey on this subject, as well as the recently published 
thesis of Professor Brechet. In relation to the origins of the lym- 
phatics, he noticed the fact observed by Mr. T. King, that the 
lymphatics of the thyroid gland were found filled with the very 
peculiar secretion proper to the cells of that organ, and that he 
had himself seen the lymph in the thoracic duct of the pig flow- 
ing alternately colourless and highly sanguinolent, which, as 
no violence had been done to the abdomen, appeared to indicate 
some natural but unexplained communication between the san- 
guiferous and lymphatic systems. The Report concluded with 
some observations respecting the formation of vessels, in which 
the author endeavoured to account for the exact correspondence 
which often exists between arteries and veins, and also for the 
production of valves in the latter vessels and in absorbents. 


Report of Experiments on Subterranean Temperature, under 
the direction of a Committee ; consisting of ProfessorFonBESf 
Mr. W. S. Harris, Professor Powell, Lieut. -Col. Sykes, 
and Professor Phillips (Reporter). 

Having noticed the principal causes of error in experiments 
on the temperature of the air, water, rocks, and metallic veins 
below the surface, the author described the methods and instru- 
ments of research recommended by a Committee of the Associa- 
tion to eliminate the known and neutralize the unknovm sources 
of fallacy. The instruments constructed for this purpose were 
properly placed in many situations, under the direction of com- 
petent persons, and satisfactory results had already been obtained, 
which in every instance agreed with the general results of foreign 
inquiries in proving a continual augmentation of heat below the 
surface of invariable temperature. At the Lead Hills Professor 
Forbes had placed thermometers under the care of Mr. Irvine j 
Mr. Buddie had established registers at Newcastle; Mr. Ander- 
son, at Monk Wearmouth ; Mr. Hodgkinson, near Manchester j 
and withina few days Professor Phillips had been enabled through 
the kindness of a friend to place a thermometer in a deep coal 
mine at Bedminster, near Bristol. Similar instruments have since 
been extensively distributed, and the following general instruc- 
tions and form of register have been prepared for the assistance 
of observers. 

Instructions for conducting experiments on the Temperature of 
the Earth, at various depths, upon a plan and with instru- 
ments recommended by a Committee of the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. 

The general interest and importance of inquiries into the 
interior temperature of the earth render it proper to explain, to 
those who may be engaged in conducting the experiments, that 
for the purpose of obtaining results really valuable, and capable 
of being combined in philosophical investigations, it is essential 
that the same object of research should be proposed, — the same 
planof experimentfollowed,— and similar instruments employed; 
— it is convenient that the results obtained should be recorded in 
tables of one form, and transmitted to one person, named by the 
Association, for the examination of the Committee. 

(«.) The object proposed to be accomplished, by the experi- 
ments contemplated, is the acquisition of satisfactory data, for 
the establishment of undoubted conclusions concerning the real 

u 2 

292 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

temperature of the interior of the earth, from the surface to the 
greatest depths yet reached by human enterprise. 

(b.) The plan of experiment pi'oposed for general adoption, 
and specially required to be followed by those who undertake 
to use the instruments furnished by the Association, is intended 
to reduce the effect of known and equalize those of unknown 
sources of fallacy. 

For this end certain precautions must be observed, suited to 
experiments in air, water, androck respectively; for none of these 
are wholly free from the influence of sources of serious error. 

The temperature of the air in the gallery of a mine varies ac- 
cording to the place of the observation as compared with the 
entrance and exit of the current ; according to the rate of this 
current as it passes through a confined, open, or complicated 
passage ; according to the place of the thermometer in the sec- 
tion of the air passage ; according to lights, respiration, and 
other local conditions. 

On all these accounts the experiments in air are the least ac- 
curate indications of subterranean temperature : however care- 
fully made there is in the result always too much of the effect of 
local influences which cannot be estimated. (They are however 
extremely valuable in combination with those hereafter noticed.) 

The water of a mine offers a less exceptionable subject of ex- 
periment. If it be a small continuous subterranean spring, 
discovered at a known depth, without any sign of efflux under 
violent pressure, its temperature carefully taken will be found 
to be nearly constant. The composition and specific gravity of 
the water may be of importance in the combination of the re- 
sults. It should therefore be correctly stated. But water merely 
lying in the galleries of a mine, or collected from the sides of 
the shafts, is never to be referred to as a standard of subterra- 
nean temperature. 

It is however in the solid rock that the best observations, and 
those most suited to the purpose of philosophical reasoning, are 
to be obtained. The principal sources of fallacy in this class of 
experiments arise from the unequal and varying influences of 
the air-currents, moisture, &c., on the surface of the rock ; local 
chemical actions and electric currents may also be noticed as 
affecting the precision of the result, and if known should be re- 
corded. The only experimental caution, however, available in 
this case, is to sink the thermometer to a sufficient depth from 
the surface, in a hole very little larger than itself, and to record 
the observations after moderate intervals of time. 

(c) The instruments furnished have been compared with one 
known standard, and all that is required of the observer is to re- 



cord exactly their indications under the conditions mentioned m 
the following table ; of which separate copies have been furnished, 
so as to have all the entries as uniform as possible, and duph- 
cates to enable the observers to retain a copy. The original 
is to be folded and forwarded to " Professor Phillips, Assistant 
General Secretary to the British Associatio7i, York. 

Weekly Register of Observations on Subterranean Temperature 
at in Lat. , Long. 

Elevation of the surface above the sea in feet*. 
Mean annual temperature of the air at surface. 
Mean temperature of permanent springs issuing from rock. 

Thermometer (No. ) exposed for half an hour in the fol- 
lowing situations, and in the foUowing order of succession. 


(No. ). 


(No. ). 

Year, Month, 
and Day. 

In air : in the 

shade i feet 

above the 


In air : in the 
mine or col- 
liery near the 

base of the 
cold.air shaft. 

( )• 

In air : In the 
mine or col- 
liery near the 
base of the 
hot-air shaft. 

( ). 

Immersed in 
a subterra- 
nean spring : 
if constantf. 

( )• 

In a hole of 
rockt 3 feet 
deep. Depth 
from surface. 

( )• 

In another 
hole of 

rockt 3 feet 
deep. Depth 
from surface. 
( )• 



* The half-tide level is supposed to be the best standard of sea level : the elevation 
of the suiface may be found by levelling, trigonometry, the barometer, or by com- 
parison -with navigations or railways. The method of determination should be stated. 

t The quality of water should be stated, as salt, chalybeate, ordinary. 

t State whether the rock be argillaceous, calcareous, or arenaceous. If experiments 
be made in rock dykes or mineral veins, another thermometer should be placed at the 
same depth in the neighbouring rock. 


Inquiry into the Validity of a Method recently proposed by 
George B. Jerrard, Esq., for Transforming and Resolving 
Equations of Elevated Degrees : undertaken at the Re- 
quest of the Association by Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton. 

[1.] It is well known that the result of the elimination of Xy 
between the general equation of the m^^ degree, 

X = ^"^ + A a;™-' + B a;'»-2 + C x""-^ + D ^'"-^ 

+ Ea-'"-^ + &c. = 

and an equation of the form 

y = f{^), (2.) 

(in which / {x) denotes any rational function of x, or, more ge- 
nerally, any function which admits of only one value for any 
one value of x,) is a new or transformed equation of the m**" de- 
gree, which may be thus denoted, 

{y -/(^i)} {y -/(^.)} -"{y -/W) = o, . . (3.) 

x^, x^, . . . x^ denoting the m roots of the proposed equation j 
or, more concisely, thus, 

Y = y"* + A'^'"-^ + B'j/"'-2 + C'y'"-^ + D'y'"-'* 

+ E'^/"*-^ + &c. = 0, 

the coefficients A', B', C, &c., being connected with the values 
f{x-^,f{x^, &c., by the relations, 

-A' =/(^i) +/(^,) + &c. +/U-J, 

+ B' =/(^i)/(^2) +/(^x)/(a^3) +/(^2)/(-^3) + &C. 
-C'=/(^l)/(a;2)/(^3) +&C. 

And it has been found possible, in several known instances, to 
assign such a form to the function / ix) or y, that the new or 
transformed equation, Y = 0, shall be less complex or easier to 
resolve, than the proposed or original equation X = 0. For ex- 
ample, it has long been known that by assuming 

y=/(-^)=^^+^> (^0 


296 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

one term may be taken away from the general equation (1) ; that 
general equation being changed into another of the form 

Y = y + B'y-2 + Q)y^-^ -t- &c. = 0, . . . (7.) 

in which there occurs no term proportional to y'"^~^ , the condi- 

A' = (8.) 

being satisfiedj and Tschirnhausen discovered that by assuming 

y=zf{x) = V-\-Qix + x\ (9.) 

and by determining P and Q so as to satisfy two equations 
which can be assigned, and which are respectively of the first 
and second degrees, it is possible to fulfil the condition 

B' = 0, (10.) 

along with the condition 

A' = 0, . . (8.) 
and therefore to take away two terms at once from the general 
equation of the m* degree ; or, in other words, to change that 
equation (1) to the form 

Y = 3/'"+C'y""' + D>"'"* + &c. = 0, . . (11.) 

in which there occurs no term proportional either to y™~ or to 
y^~^. But if we attempted to take away three terms at once, 
from the general equation (1), or to reduce it to the form 

Y=3/'" + D'3/'"-^+ E'^/"'-^ + &c. = 0, . . (12.) 

(in which there occurs no term proportional to 3/'""^ y™~^j or 
y^~^,) by assuming, according to the same analogy, 

,y = P + Ua; -f Rx^ + a;3, .... (13.) 

and then determining the three coefficients P, Q,, R, so as to 
satisfy the three conditions 

A' = 0, . . (8.) 

B' = 0, . . (10.) 


C' = 0, (14.) 

we should be conducted, by the law (5) of the composition of 
the coefficients A', B', C, to a system of three equations, of the 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd degrees, between the three coefficients P, Q,R ; 
and consequently, by elimination, in general, to a final equation 
of the 6th degree, which the known methods are unable to re- 
solve. Still less could we take away, in the present state of 


algebra, four terms at once from the general equation of the m^ 
degree, or reduce it to the form 

¥=3/"' + £'3/"*-^+ &c. = 0, .... (15.) 

by assuming an expression with four coefficients, 

because the four conditions, 

A' = 0, . . (8.) 

B' = 0, . . (10.) 

C' = 0, . . (14.) 

D' = 0, (17.) 

would be, with respect to these four coefficients, P, Q, R, S, of 
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th degrees, and therefore would in ge- 
neral conduct by elimination to an equation of the 24th degree. 
In like manner, if we attempted to take away the 2nd, 3rd, and 
5th terms (instead of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th) from the general 
equation of the wP^ degree, or to reduce it to the form 

^m ^ Qlym-S ^ ^,ym-5 ^ ^^^ = Q, . . . (18.) 

so as to satisfy the three conditions (8), (10) and (17)> 

A' = 0, B' = 0, D' = 0, 
by assuming 

3, = P + Q A- + R.r2 + x3, . . (13.) 

we should be conducted to a final equation of the 8th degree ; 
and if we attempted to satisfy these three other conditions 

A' = 0, . . (8.) 
C^ = 0, . . (14.) 

D' - a B'2 = 0, (19.) 

(in which a is any known or assumed number,) so as to trans- 
form the general equation (1) to the following, 

Y = ^"^ + B'y"-2 + «B'2^'"-^ +E'?/'"-^ + &c. = 0, (20.) 

by the same assumption (13), we should be conducted by elimi- 
nation to an equation of condition of the 12th degree. It might, 
therefore, have been naturally supposed that each of these four 
transformations, (12), (15), (18), (20), of the equation of the m^^ 
degree, was in general impossible to be effected in the present 
state of algebra. Yet Mr. Jerrard has succeeded in effecting 
them all, by suitable assumptions of the function 3/or/(a:), with- 

298 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

out being obliged to resolve any equation higher than the fourth 
degree, and has even eflfected the transformation (12) without 
employing biquadratic equations. His method may be described 
as consisting in rendering the problem hideterniinate, by as- 
suming an expression for y with a number of disposable coeffi- 
cients greater than the number of conditions to be satisfied j and 
in employing this indeterminateness to decompose certain of the 
conditions into others, for the purpose of preventing that eleva- 
tion of degree which would otherwise result from the elimina- 
tions. This method is valid, in general, when the proposed equa- 
tion is itself of a svjfficiently elevated degree ; but I have found 
that when the exponent m of that degree is heloiv a certain 
minor limit, which is different for different transformations, (be- 
ing = 5 for the first, = 10 for the second, = 5 for the third, 
and = 7 for the fourth of those already designated as the trans- 
formations (12), (15), (18) and (20),) the processes proposed by 
Mr. Jerrard conduct in general to an expression for the new 
variable y which is a multiple of the proposed evanescent poly- 
nome X of the m"^ degree in x ; and that on this account these 
processes, although valid as general transform,ations of the 
equation of the m^^ degree, become in general illusory when they 
are applied to resolve equations of the fourth and fifth degrees, 
by reducing them to the binomial form, or by reducing the 
equation of the fifth degree to the known solvible form of De 
Moivre. An analogous process, suggested by Mr. Jerrard, for 
reducing the general equation of the sixth to that of the fifth 
degree, and a more general method of the same kind for re- 
solving equations of higher degrees, appear to me to be in ge- 
neral, for a similar reason, illusory. Admiring the great inge- 
nuity and talent exhibited in Mr. Jerrard's researches, I come 
to this conclusion with regret, but believe that the following 
discussion will be thought to establish it sufficiently. 

[2.] To begin with the transformation (12), or the taking away 
of the second, third and fourth terms at once from the general 
equation of the »*'*' degree, Mr. Jerrard effects this transforma- 
tion by assuming generally an expression with seven terms, 

J/ = / {x) = A' x"-' + A" x"-" + A"' x"-'" 

+ M'a:^' -H W n^" + W» xf'" + W af"^^ .. (21.) 

the seven unequal exponents x' A" x"' ju.' /x" ju,'" /x'^ being chosen 
at pleasure out of the indefinite line of integers 

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. . . . . . . (22.) 

and the seven coefficients A' A" A'" M' M" M'" M'^, or rather 
their six ratios 


A' A" M' M" M;^' a'" _ ,23.) 

A^" A^" nP^' M^v M'V' M^'^ 
being determined so as to satisfy the three conditions 
A' = 0, . . (8.) 
B' = 0, . . (10.) ' 
C = 0, . ■ . (14.) 
without resolving any equation higher than the third degree, by 
a process which may be presented as ^o\\o^^. 

In virtue of the assumption 21 and of the law (5) of the 
compoSL of the coeffidents A', B', C t is easy to perceive 
Shose three coefficients are rational andintegra^^^^^ 
neous functions of the seven quantities AAA M MM M . 
of the dimensions one, two, and three respectively ; and there- 
fore that A' and B' may be developed or decomposed into parts 

as follows : , k> ('}A\ 

A' = A'i,o + A'o,i, (^^-^ 

B =:B',.o + BVi+BV, . • • • (25.) 

the symbol A',, or B',, denoting here a rational and integral 

c S r.f A' A" M" M' M" M'", Miv, which is homogeneous 
function of A , A , A , ivi , m , i*i , , ^ppree i 

^^f 'rt%o Tm^W'V< ^f then^'e arSt detfmin: 
S^'tr^SU^of"!': A< A^ 'so as to satisfy the two conditions 

A',o = 0, (26.) 

B',.o=0, (270 

and afterwards determine the three ratios of M', M", M'", M^^ 
so as to satisfy the three other conditions 

A'o.i = 0, 28. 

B\, = 0, (290 

bC = 0, (3O0 

we shall have decomposed the two conditions (8) and (10), 
namely, ^ ^ ^^ ^, ^ ^^ 

into five others, and shall have satisfied these five by means of 
the five first ratios of the set (23), namely 

A' A" M' M" H: . . . . (310 

A^" X^" W M^' M^^' 
without having yet determined the remaining ratio of that set, 

300 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

MlvJ (^2.) 

which remaining ratio can then in general be chosen so as to 
satisfy the remaining condition 
C' = 0, 
without our being obliged, in any part of the process, to resolve 
any equation higher than the third degree. And such, in sub- 
stance, is Mr. Jerrard's general process for taking away the 
second, third, and fourth terms at once from the equation of the 
wi"* degree, although he has expressed it in his published Re- 
searches by means of a new and elegant notation of symmetric 
fimctio7is, which it has not seemed necessary here to introduce, 
because the argument itself can be sufficiently understood with- 
out it. 

[3.] On considei'ing this process with attention, we perceive 
that it consists essentially of two principal parts, the one con- 
ducting to an expression of the form 

3,=/(^) = A'" 4i(^) + M^^X (•*•), . . . (33.) 
which satisfies the two conditions 

A = 0, B' = 0, 
the functions (^ (.r) and ^ (^) being determined, namely, 

A' X' A" X" , X'" ... . 

^ W =-i^' ^ "•" A'" '^ ■•" "^ ' ' • • ^^ ^^ 

M' ^' M" u" M" f^>" ^iv 
X \^i — j^Jrv •*■ + jjjrv ^ + -^iv "^ + * j • • \9^') 

but the multipliers A'" and M'^ being arbitrary, and the other 
part of the process determining afterwards the ratio of those two 
multipliers so as to satisfy the remaining condition 

C' = 0. 

And hence it is easy to see that if we would exclude those use- 
less cases in which the ultimate expression for the new variable 
y, or for the function fix), is a multiple of the proposed eva- 
nescent polynome X of the m"* degree in x, we must, in general, 
exclude the cases in which the two functions cji (x) and ;^ (jt), 
determined in the first part of the process, are connected by a 
relation of the form 

X(.r) = «(f»(^) + XX, (36.) 

a being any constant multiplier, and A X any multiple of X. 


For in all such cases the expression (33), obtained by the first 
part of the process, becomes 

y=f{x) = (A'" + a Miv) (^ (^) + xM'vx ; . . (37.) 
and since this gives, by the nature of the roots Xy, . . s^, 

we find, by the law (5) of the composition of the coefficients of 
the transformed equation in y, 

C' = c(A'"+«MiV)3, (39.) 

the multiplier c being known, namely, 

c= -(p (.rj <p (x^) <p (xg) - <p (a-i) <f) (^2) <p {x^) - &c. (40.) 

and being in general different from 0, because the three first of 
the seven terms of the expression (21) for y can only accident- 
ally suffice to resolve the original problem ; so that when we 
come, in the second part of the process, to satisfy the condition 

C' = 0, 

we shall, in general, be obliged to assume 

(A'" + a Miv)3 = 0, (41.) 

that is, 

A'"+aMiv=0; (42.) 

and consequently the expression (37) for t/ reduces itself ulti- 
mately to the form which we wished to exclude, since it becomes 

y = AMivX. . (43.) 

Reciprocally, it is clear that the second part of the process, 
or the determination of the ratio of A'" to M^^ in the expression 
(33), cannot conduct to this useless form for y unless the two 
functions <p (x) and p^ {x) are connected by a relation of the kind 
(36) ; because, when we equate the expression (33) to any multi- 
ple of X, we establish thereby a relation of that kind between 
those two functions. We must therefore endeavour to avoid 
those cases, and we need avoid those only, which conduct to 
this relation (36), and we may do so in the following manner. 
[4.J Whatever positive integer the exponent v may be, the 

power x' may always be identically equated to an expression of 
this form, 

X' = s,^'^ + */') X + s,^'^ x^+...+ s^'^ x^- ' + L^') X, (44.) 

V 5 *i 5 «2 5 • • • * being certain functions of the expo- 

nent v, and of the coefficients A, B, C, . . . of the proposed po- 



lynome X, while L^'^ is a rational and integral function of x, 
which is = if V be less than the exponent in of the degree of 
that proposed polynome X, but otherwise is of the degree 
V — m. In fact, if we divide the power x' by the polynome X, 
according to the usual rules of the integral division of polynomes, 
so as to obtain an integral quotient and an integral remainder, 
the integral quotient may be denoted by L*^* , and the integral 
remainder may be denoted by 

w + ./'^- 

+ J'^;i-^ + 

m— I 

and thus the identity (44) may be established. It may be no- 
ticed that the 7n coefficients s^'\ «/'^, . . . s^^-V "^^^ ^^ consi- 
dered as symmetric functions of the m roots x^, x^, . . • ^^ of 
the proposed equation X = 0, which may be determined by the 
in relations. 

-1 1 

\ (45.) 

These symmetric functions of the roots possess many other 
important properties, but it is unnecessary here to develop 

Adopting the notation (44), we may put, for abridgement, 

A' So'-'-'^ + A" *o^^"^ + A"' ^0^^'"^ = Po, 

m—\ m—l 711—1 ■* m—1 

W sy^ + M" .0^""^ + M'" .0^'*'") + M'^ .0^""^ = p\ 



m — 1 m—l m — 1 wt— 1 ■• m — 1' 

A'L^^'^ + A"L^^") + A"'L(^"'^ = A, .... (48.) 
M' L^'*'^ + M" L^'*"^ + M'" L^'*"') + M'v L^''"') = M, (49.) 


'"-^ T. Y. ( • ' (^^') 

A + M = L (50.) 

and then the two parts, of which the expression for 1/ is com- 
posed, will take the forms 

A/ A. , . // A. , A /// A . 

a- + A X + A a; = Po + Pi 'f! 

M' x''' + M" oT" + M'" x''"' + Miv a^'" =;/^ ^j/^ ^ 

and the expression itself will become 
y =/(.r) =;^o+i?o+ {P\ +/>'!)* 

At the same time we see that the case to be avoided, for the 
reason lately assigned, is the case of proportionality of j^'oi p'm 
' • • P'm-v ^l^o->Pii ' ■ •Pm-v ^^ ^^ therefore convenient to 
introduce these new abbreviations, 

irrr" ^=^-» 

^ wi— 1 


P'o -PPo = 9o, P\ -PPl = 9l, - P'm-2-PPrn-2 = 9ra.i', (55.) 

for thus we obtain the expressions 

p'o = ?0 +PPo^ P'x = q\+PPi, '" K„_2' 
= Ira-^ + PPm-2^P'm-l = PPm-V 


y =/(•*•) = (1 + P) iPo+Pi'^' + —Pm-i •*"'"~^) 



and we have only to take care that the w — 1 quantities, 
qQ, q^, ... 9'^_2 shall not all vanish. Indeed, it is tacitly sup- 
posed in (54) that P^_y does not vanish 3 but it must be ob- 
served that Mr. Jerrard's method itself essentially sujjposes that 
the function A' x + A" x + A"' x is not any multiple of 
the evanescent polynome X, and therefore that at least some 
one of the m quantities Po, Pi, "• P^_i is different from 0; 
now the spirit of the definitional assumptions here made, and of 

sot SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

the reasonings which are to be founded upon them, requires only 
that some one such non-evanescent quantity ]). out of this set 

Poi Pi} ••• Pm-i should be made the denominator of a fraction 


like (54), — = p, and that thus some one term q. x^ should be 


taken away out of the difference of the two polynomes p'o + p'] •*' 
+ ... and p {poX + Pi'V + ...) ; and it is so easy to make this 
adaptation, whenever the occasion may arise, that I shall retain 
in the present discussion, the asssumptions (54) (55), instead of 
writing p. for p ,. 

o .Tz 1 rn.— \ 

The expression (57) for f{x), combined with the law (5) of 
the composition of the coefficients A' and B', shows that these 
two coefficients of the transformed equation in y may be ex- 
pressed as follows, 

A'=(l +;^)A\o + A\i, (58.) 


B'=(l+^)2B\o+(l+_^)B\i + B\,; . (59.) 
A"^ J and B"^^ . being each a rational and integral function of the 
2m - 1 quantities p^, p^, ... p^_^, q^, q^, ... q^_^, which is 

independent of the quantity p and of the form of the function 
L, and is homogeneous of the dimension h with respect to 
Po3 P\} ••• Pm—v ^"^ ^^ ^^^ dimension i with respect to 
q^, qi, ... q^_2' Comparing these expressions (58) and (59) 
with the analogous expressions (24) and (25), (with which they 
would of necessity identically coincide, if we were to return 
from the present to the former symbols, by substituting, for 
PiPoiPiy-'Prn-V'-'loiqi} ••• 9„i_2' ^^^^'* values as functions of 
A', A" A'", M', M", M'", M'v, deduced from the equations of 
definition (54) (55) and (46) (47),) we find these identical equa- 
tions : 

A',,0 = A"i^o ; A'o^, = p A",_„ + A\i ; . . (60.) 

B',,0 = B",_o ; B',,, = 2 p B"2,o + B",,, ; B',,,-1 

> . . (61.) 

= ;^"-B",,o + ;>B"i,, -HB",^^; / 

observing that whatever may be the dimension of any part of 
A' or B', with respect to the m new quantities p, q^, q^, ... 
9'^_2, the same is the dimension of that part, with respect to 
the four old quantities M', M", M'", M'^. 

The system of the five conditions (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) may 
therefore be transformed to the following system. 


A",,o = 0, B\o = 0, (62.) 

A\i = 0, B"i,, = 0, B\^ = ; . . . (63.) 

and may in general be treated as follows. The two conditions (62), 
combined with the m equations of definition (46), will in gene- 
ral determine the m + 2 ratios of the m + 3 quantities j^o^Pu ••• 
jOj^_p a', a", a'"; and then the three conditions (63), com- 
bined with the m equations of definition (47), and with the m 
other equations (56), will in general determine the 2m + 3 ra- 
tios of the 2m + 4 quantities g^, q^, ... q^_^,pp^^_^, p'o^P'u 
"•p'^_i, M', M", M'", M'Vj after which, the ratio of A'" to 
M^^ is to be determined, as before, so as to satisfy the remain- 
ning condition C = 0. But because the last-mentioned system, 
of 2 m + 3 homogeneous equations, (63) (56) (47), between 
2m + 4 quantities, involves, as a part of itself, the system (63) 
of three homogeneous equations (rational and integral) between 
m— 1 quantities, q^, q-^, ... q^^^, we see that it will in general 
conduct to the result which we wished to exclude, namely, the 
simultaneous vanishing of all those quantities, 

9o=0, ?, = 0, ... y^_2 = 0, . . . . (64.) 

unless their nwnber m — 1 be greater than 3, that is, unless 
the degree m of the proposed equation (1) be at least equal to 
the minor limit five. It results, then, from this discussion, 
that the transformation by which Mr. Jerrard has succeeded in 
taking away three terms at once from the general equation of 
the ?n* degree, is not in general applicable when that degree is 
lower than the 5th ; in such a manner that it is in general inade- 
quate to reduce the biquadratic equation 

.r^ + A ^ + B .«2 + C a;3 + D = 0, . . . (65.) 
to the binomial form 

2^ + D' = 0, ...... (66.) 

except by the useless assumption 

y = 1, {x^ + Aa^ + B x^ + C x^ + B), . . (67.) 
which gives 

y = (68.) 

However, the foregoing discussion may be considered as con- 
firming the adequacy of the method to redtice the general equa- 
tion of the 5th degree, 

.r^ + A cr* + B x3 + C A-* + D X + E = 0, (69.) 

to the trinomial form 

VOL. A^^1836. X 

30G SIXTH REPOUT — 1836. 

3,5 + D> + E'=0; (70.) 

and to effect the analogous transformation (12) for equations 
of all higher degrees : an unexpected and remarkable result, 
which is one of Mr. Jerrard's principal discoveries. 

[5 .] Analogous remarks apply to the process proposed by the 
same mathematician for taking away the second, third and fifth 
terms at once from the general equation (1), so as to reduce that 
equation to the form (18). This process agrees with the fore- 
going in the whole of its first part, that is, in the assumption of 
the form (21) ioiif{x), and in the determination of the five ratios 
(31) so as to satisfy the two conditions A' = 0, B' = 0, by sa- 
tisfying the five others (26) (27) (28) (29) (30), into which those 
two may be decomposed ; and the difference is only in the se- 
cond part of the process, that is, in determining the remaining 
ratio (32) so as to satisfy the condition D' = 0, instead of the 
condition C = 0, by resolving a biquadratic instead of a cubic 
equation. The discussion which has been given of the former 
process of transformation adapts itself therefore, with scarcely 
any change, to the latter process also, and shows that this pro- 
cess can only be applied with success, in general, to equations 
of the fifth and higher degrees. It is, however, a remarkable 
result that it can be applied generally to such equations, and 
especially that the general equation of the fifth degree may be 
brought by it to the following trinomial form, 

2,5 + c>2 + E' = 0, (71.) 

as it was reduced, by the former process, to the form 
y5 + D'j/ + E' = 0. . . (70.) 
Mr. Jerrard, to whom the discovery of these transformations 
is due, has remarked that by changing y to — we get two other 

trinomial forms to which the general eqtiation of the fifth de- 
gree may be reduced ; so that, in any future researches respect- 
ing the solution of such equations, it ivill be jicrmitted to set 
out xoith any one of these four trinomial forms, 

^5 + A .r-* + E = 0, "] 
St" + B a^ + Ya = 0, 
^5 + C ^2 ^ E = 0, 
x^ + !> X + E = 0, 

in which the intermediate coefficient A or B or C or D may evi- 
dently be made equal to unity, or to any other assumed number 
different from zero. We may, for example, consider the diffi- 
culty of resolving the general equation of the fifth degree as re- 



duced by Mr. Jerrard's researches to the difficulty of resolving 
an equation of the form 

x^ + x + 'E-O; (73.) 

or of this other form, 

x^ -x + 'E = (74.) 

It is, however, important to remark that the coefficients of 
these new or transformed equations will often be imaginary, even 
when the coefficients of the original equation of the form (69) 
are real. 

[6.] In order to accomplish the transformation (20), (to the 
consideration of which we shall next proceed,) Mr. Jerrard as- 
sumes, in general, an expression with twelve terms. 

1 '/ „^ 

p =f{x) = A' x^ + A".r + A'"x'' 

+ M'^ + M"^"+M'"X'+ Mi^o;''" j- (75.) 

+ N' / + N" x" + W x'" + Niv x''^ + N^ x'^ ; . 
the twelve unequal exponents, 

X', X", A-, ,*', f.", f.'", ^.^^ /, v", /", v^ vV, . . (76.) 

being chosen at pleasure out of the indefinite line of integers 
(22) ; and the twelve coefficients, 

A', A", A'", M', M", M'", M^^ N', N", N'", W, N^, (770 
or rather their eleven ratios, which may be arranged and grouped 
as follows, 

M' M" m;;^ ,^ . 

Miv> M»^' M^v' ^' ^^ 


V. (81-) 


^. (82.) 

being then determined so as to satisfy the system of the three 

A' = 0, . . (8.) 

C' = 0, . . (14.) 

D'-«B'2 = 0, (19.) 

308 SIXTH UEPORT — 1836. 

by satisfying another system, composed of eleven equations, 
wliich are obtained by decomposing the condition (8) into three, 
and the condition (14) into seven new equations, as follows. By 
the law (5) of the formation of the four coefficients A', B', C, D', 
and by the assumed expression (75), those four coefficients are 
rational and integral and homogeneous functions, of the first, 
second, third, and fourth degrees, of the twelve coefficients (77) ', 
and therefore, when these latter coefficients are distributed into 
three groups, one group containing A', A", A'", another group 
containing M', M", M'", M'^, and the third group containing 
N', N", N'", N''^, N^, the coefficient or function A' may be de- 
composed into three parts, 

^ = -^ 1,0,0 + -^'0,1,0 + A'o,o,i> .... (83.) 

and the coefficient or function C' may be decomposed in like 
manner into ten parts, 

^ ~ ^3,0,0 "^ ^2,1,0 + ^2,0,1 I 

+ c'j,2,o + c',,,,! + cv, r • ■ ■ ^^^'^ 

+ C/ 0,3,0 + ^0,2,1 + ^0,1,2 + Co,0,3>J 

in which each of the symbols of the forms A'^ . ^ and C'^ . j^ de- 
notes a rational and integral function of the twelve quantities 
(77) ; wliich function (A'^ ^ ^ or C'^^ . j^) is also homogeneous 
of the dimension h with respect to the quantities A', A", A'", of 
the dimension i with respect to the quantities M', M", M'", M^^, 
and of the dimension k with respect to the quantities N', N", 
N"', N^^, N^. Accordingly Mr. Jerrard decomposes the condi- 
tions A' = and C = into ten others, which may be thus ar- 
ranged : 

A',,0,0 = 0, C'3,0,0 = ; (85.) 

Ao,i,o = Oj C 2,1,0 = 0, C,_2 = 0; (86.) 

A'0,0,, = 0, C'2,0,, = 0, C'.,,,, = 0, C.o.c = 0; . . (87.) 

^0,3,0 + C 0,2,1 + Co, 1,2 + C g_o,3 = ; (88.) 

nine of the thirteen parts of the expressions (83) and (84) being 
made to vanish separately, and the sum of the other four parts 
being also made to vanish. He then determines the two ratios 
(78), so as to satisfy the two conditions (85) ; the three ratios 
(79), so as to satisfy the three conditions (86) ; the four ratios 
(80), so as to satisfy the four conditions (87) ; and the ratio 
(81), so as to satisfy the condition (88); all which determina- 
tions can in general be successively effected, without its being 


necessary to resolve any equation higher than the third degree. 
The first part of the process is now completed, that is, the two 
conditions (8) and (14), 

A' = 0, C = 0, 

are now both satisfied by an expression of the form 

y=f{,v) = A"'<p{x)+^''xi^)> . • • . (89.) 
which is analogous to (33), and in which the functions <p {x) 
and X {^) are known, but the multipliers A'" and N"^ are arbi- 
trary; and the second and only remaining part of the process 
consists in determining the remaining ratio (82), of A'" to N^, 
by resolving an equation of the fourth degree, so as to satisfy the 
remaining condition, 

D'-aB'2 = 0. . . (19.) 

[70 Such, then, (the notation excepted,) is Mr. Jerrard's ge- 
neral process for reducing the equation of the m^^ degree, 

X = x"' + AoT-^ + B x'"-^ + C oT-^ + D ^"'"^ + E oT'^ 

+ &c. = 0, . . (1.) 
to the form 

Y = y'" + B'j/™-^ + aB'^y"'-* + E'y"*-^ + &c. = 0, (20.) 

without resolving any auxiliary equation of a higher degree than 
the fourth. But, on considering this remarkable process with 
attention, we perceive that if we would avoid its becoming illu- 
sory, by conducting to an expression for y which is a multiple 
of the proposed polynome X, we must, in general, (for reasons 
analogous to those already explained in discussing the transfor- 
mation (12)j) exclude all those cases in which the functions 
<f) {x) and X i^)) ^^ the expression (89), are connected by a re- 
lation of the form 

X(^) =«<;>(^) + aX; . . (36.) 

because, in all the cases in which such a relation exists, the first 
part of the process conducts to an expression of the form 

y = (A'" -I- a NV) (|> (a?) -h X N^X, . . . . (90.) 

and then the second part of the same process gives in general 

(A'" + a NY = 0, (91.) 

that is 

A'" + a N^ = 0, (92.) 

and ultimately 

y = A N^ X (93.) 



On the other hand, the second part of the process cannot 
conduct to this useless form for y, unless the first part of the 
process has led to functions, 4> {x), x (^)3 connected by a rela- 
tion of the form (36.). This consideration suggests the intro- 
duction of the following new system of equations of definition. 

N' sy^ + N"*,^'"^ + N'" *„(•"') + Ws^^ + N^ s^^ 

= P\, 

N' .('') + N" s^''^ , + N"' s^'"\ + N'v ,(v'^') + Nv ^(.^) 

— 1)" 

— J^ m-V 


N' L^''^ + N" L^*^'^ + N'" L^'"'^ + N»vl('") + N^ L^'''^ = N, (95.) 

= p; {9^-) 


P\ - P'P, = 9'o» V\ -P'pl = H\, "• P\-2 -P' Pm- 

OT— 2 



to be combined with the definitions (46), (47), (48), (49), (54), 
(55), and with the following, which may now be conveniently 
used instead of the definition (50), 

A + M + N = L 

In this notation we shall have, as before, 

P'o = 9o + PPo^ P'x = 9\+ PP\> '"P'm-2 - qm-'. 
+ PPm-2> P'm-\= PPm-\> 

and shall also have the analogous expressions 

P"o = ?'o + P'Pq^ P\ = Q\ + P'P\ » —fm-'i = ?'»«-2 
+ P'Pm-^^ P"m-\ -P'Pm-\> 

the expression (75) for y will become 

y=f{x)=Po+ p'o + P"o + iPl + P\ + P"l) ^ + 
+ iPr, 

tl At Is, by (56) and (99), 

+ L X :. 

'} (56.) 
'} (99.) 

+ p'o + p"o + iPi + P\ + P\) ^ + '•'\ noo ) 


and the excluded case, or case of failure, will now be the case 
when the sums ^o + P"o^ P'l + ;^"i> — P'm-i + P"m-i are 
proportional to /?o) Pi> ••• Pm-i^ ^^^^^ ^^> Avhen 

9o + q'o = 0,q,+ q\ = 0, ... q^_^ + j'„,_2 = 0. . . (102.) 

Indeed, it is here tacitly supposed that jo„(_i does not vanish; 
but Mr. Jerrard's method itself supposes tacitly that at least 
some one, such as ;?•, of the m quantities p^, ... P„i_ij is dif- 
ferent from 0, and it is easy, upon occasion, to substitute any 
such non-evanescent quantity p^ for p^_i, and then to make 
the few other connected changes which the spirit of this discus - 
sion requires. 

The expression (101) for f {x), combined with the law (5) of 
the composition of the coefficients A' and C, gives, for those 
coefficients, expressions of the forms, 

A' = (1 + jD + ;/) A"i,o,o + A"o,,,o + A'Vn (103.) 


c'=(i +7.+;y)«cVo+(i +;^+yr(c\i,o+c%,o] 

+ (1 + jt> + p') (C"i,,,o + C"i,i,i + C\o,2) X104.) 

4- r," 4. P" 4. P" 4- P" 

' ^ 0,3,0 "^ ^ 0,2,1 ^ ^ 0,1,2 1^ ^ 0,0,3? J 

A"^ ■ ^. and C";^ ^ ^ being rational and integral functions of the 
3 m - 2 quantities ;jo,^Ji, ...iJ^_i, go, 9i, — 9^-2, g'o' I'u — 
9'm—2> which functions are independent of ]), p', and L, and are 
homogeneous of the dimension h with respect to Pq, ... p^_\i 
of the dimension i with respect to q^, ... q„i_2y ^"'^ ^^ *''^ ^^~ 
mension k with respect to q'^, ... q'm-2'> ^^^V '"^^^ '^^^^ such 
that the sums 

A"o,,,o + AV,i (105.) 


C\i,o + C%,, ...... (106.) 

are homogeneous functions, of the 1st dimension, of the m — 1 
sums q^ + q'o, ... q„^_^ + q'm-2> ^^hile the sum 

C%,o + C"i,i,i + C"i,o,2 (107.) 

is a homogeneous function, of the 2nd dimension, and the sum 

C'o,3,0 + ^"o,2,l + ^"o,l,2 + C 0,0,3 * ' • (108.) 

is a homogeneous function, of the 3rd dimension, of the same 
m — 1 quantities. These new expressions, (103) and (104), for 



the coefficients A' and C, must identically coincide with the 
former expressions (83) and (84), when we return from the pre- 
sent to the former notation, by changing p, p\ p^, p^, ... 
Pm-v 5'05 9i, — ^m-Qy ?'o> ^'iJ •- 9'm-2' ^o their values as 
functions of A', A", A'", M', M", M'", M'^, N', N", N"', N^^ N^ ; 
and hence it is easy to deduce the following identical equations : 

-^ 1,0,0 = -^ 1,0,0 5 I 

A'o,i,o=i?A%^o + A"o,,,o; V (109.) 

-A 0,0,1 = /> A j^o^o 4- A o^o^i ; J 


P' — cii • ^ 

^ 3,0,0 — ^ 3,0,0 > 

*^ 2,1,0 = op L> 30Q 4- C 2j^o5 

*^ 2,0,1 =op\^ 300 + C 2 0,1 ; 

C',,.,0 = 3p^ C%,o + 2p c\i,o + C",,2,o ; 

C'm,, = 6;,^'C"3,o,o + 2y CV,o + 2^C%,i + C\,,,; j^ ^^^^^^ 

^ 1,0,2 = ^i*^ C'3,0,0 + 2/)' C"2,o,i + C"i^o,2 J 

^0,3,0 + ^0,2,1 + ^'0,1,2 + ^0,0,3 — iP + P^^ 3,0,0 

+ {p+pr{c\uo + c\o,^) 

+ (2>+y)(C\2,o+C%,, + C%,2) 

+ C 0,3,0 + ^ 0,2,1 + ^ 0,1,2 + ^ 0,0,3- 

The system of the ten conditions (85), (86), (87), (88), may 
therefore be transformed to the following : 

. (111.) 

. (112.) 

. (113.) 

• (114.) 

■^ 1,0,0 — ^} ^ 3,0,0 — ^ } 

A 0,1,0 ^ 0, L- 2,1,0 = 0, iu 1^2,0 ^^ 5 . • . • 

\ii — o c," — C." — n C" — O • 

^ 0,0,1 — "Jj ^ 2,0,1 — ^•'j ^ 1,1,1 — 'Jj ^ 1,0,2 — " J 

C 0,3,0 + C 0,2,1 + ^ 0,1,2 + ^ 0,0,3 = 5 • • 

and may in general be treated as follows. The two conditions 
(111) may first be combined with the m equations of definition 
(46), and employed to determine the m + 2 ratios of the m + 3 
quantities /)o, -"Pm-ii ^'> ^"y ^"' i ^^^^ therefore to give a re- 
sult of the form 

A' x"-' + A" x"-" + A'" x"-'" = A"' <p (x), . 


the function (p {x) being known. The three conditions (112), 
combined with the 2 m equations (47) and (56), may then be 


used to determine the 2 m + 3 ratios of the 2 m + 4 quantities 
9o> '" ?»-2> PPm-i, P'o, - P'm-i^ M', M", M'", M^^, and 
consequently to give 

^ {x) denoting a known function. The four conditions (113) 
may next be combined with the 2 m equations (94) and (99), so 
as to determine the 2 m + 4 ratios of the 2 m + 5 quantities 
9'o, ... 9'n.-i,p'Pm-i,P"o, ...y'^_,, N', N", N'", N^v^ Nv. 
and thus we shall have 

N' x"' + N" x'" + N'" x'"' + W x''"' + N^ x''' = Ww (x), (117.) 

the function w (x) also being known; so that, at this stage, 
the expression (75) for^ will be reduced to the form 

3/ =/(^) = A'" <p (x) + M^v ^ (^) + N^o, (^), . . (118.) 

the three functions <f) (x), \J; (a;), w (x) being known, but the 
three coefficients A'", M^^, N^, being arbitrary. The condition 
(114) will next determine the ratio of any one of the quantities 
9o> '" 9m-2 to anyone of the quantities q'^, ... q'^_2, and 
therefore also the connected ratio of M^^ to N^, and conse- 
quently will give 

M^''^{x) + -N^c{a;) = -N^'xi^), ■ ■ • (119.) 
X (x) being another known function ; and thus we shall have 
accomplished, in a way apparently but not essentially different 
from that employed in the foregoing article, the first part of Mr. 
Jerrard's process, namely, the discovery of an expression for y, 
of the form 

y=f{x) = A'" <^ {x) + Wx{^), ... (89.) 
which satisfies the two conditions 

A' = 0, C' = 0, 
the functions 4) [x) and x (^) being determined and known, but 
the multipliers A'" and N^ being arbitrary : after which it will 
only remain to perform the second part of the process, namely, 
the determination of the ratio of A"' to N"^, so as to satisfy the 
remaining condition 

D' - a B'2 = 0, 
by resolving a biquadratic equation. 

[8.] The advantage of this new way of presenting the first part 
of Mr. Jerrard's process is that it enables us to perceive, that if 
we would avoid the case of failure above mentioned, we must in 
general exclude those cases in which the ratios 

314 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

y'o g'' ... g'"'-3 /,<,^x 

determined, as above explained, through the medium of the 
conditions (113), coincide with the ratios 

-i^, -J^,,..l^, (i.l.) 

determined, at an earlier stage, through the medium of the con- 
ditions (112). In fact, when the ratios (120) coincide with the 
ratios (121), they necessarily coincide with the following ratios 

go + 9'o 9l + g'l 9m-3 + 9'm-3 - 

9m-r'2 + 9'm-2 9m-2 + 9'm-2 '" y,„_2 + 9' m-'l' ' ' ^"'^ 

and unless the ratios, thus determined, of the m — 1 sums 
go + g'oj ••• 7w— 2 + 'im—ii ^^^ accidentally such as to satisfy 
the condition (114), which had not been employed in determi- 
ning them, then that condition, which is a rational and integral 
and homogeneous equation of the third degree between those 
quantities, will oblige them all to vanish, and therefore will con- 
duct to the case of failure (102). Reciprocally, in that case of 
failure, the ratios (120) coincide with the ratios (121), because 
we have then 

g'o = - go> g'l = - ?n — g',«-2 = - 9m-i- • • • (123.) 

The case to be excluded, in general, is therefore that in which 
the in — 1 quantities g'o? '•• ?'m-2 ^^"^ proportional to the m —\ 
quantities q^, ... 9^_Q.i ^'^^ ^^^^ consideration suggests the in- 
troduction of the following new symbols or definitions, 

9 m — 2 /t rtj \ 

=<?> (124.) 

g'o-ggo=^o>g'i-?gi = '-u — ?'m-3-g?m-3=^»^-35 (125.) 

because, by introducing these, we shall only be obliged to guard 
against the simultaneous vanishing of the m — 2 quantities 
*'o5 *'i5 ••• ^'tw-S' *^^^* ^^' ^^ shall have the following simplified 
statement of the general case of failure, 

ro=0, r, = 0, ... r,„_3=0 (126.) 

Adopting, therefore, the definitions (124) and (125), and con- 
sequently the expressions 


which give 

?m-3+?'»*-3 = (!+?) ?m-3 + ^m-3»?m-2+?'m-2 ^ (128.) 
= (l+?)?m-2> J 

we easily perceive that the three homogeneous functions (105) 
(106) (107), of these m - \ sums q^ + q'o, ... qn-i^^m-i^ 
may he expressed in the following manner : 

A"o,i,o + A'Vi = (1 + ?) A"'o,,,o + A'V, ; . . (129.) 

C"2,,,o + C%,i = (1 + ?) C'\,,o + C%,, ; . . (130.) 

C",..,o + C",,,,, + C'\,o,3 = (1 + qY C"',,,,o n ..... 

+ (i + ?)CV, + c'%,.;J ' • ■ ^ '' 

the synihol A'"^ ^ ^j. or C'"^ ^ ^ denoting here a rational and inte- 
gral function of the 3 w — 3 quantities p^^ ... Pm—D 9o> ••• 
S'm-SJ 'oj — ^»j-3» ^^^licli is, like the function A\,-_;t oi" C"h,i,k, 
homogeneous of the dimension k with respect to^o> '"Pm— 1j ^^^ 
of the dimension i with respect to q^, ... qm—'z^ I'^t is homo- 
geneous of the dimension k with respect to r^, ... /"^^.s, and is 
independent of q'^, ... 5f',„_2 and of^,y, g'; whereas A";^;;.. or 
C"^ ! k '^^s homogeneous of the dimension k with respect to 
ff'oj •••?'»»— 25 ^"<i ^^^s independent of r^,, ... r^_3. The three 
identical equations (129) (130) (131) may he decomposed into 
the seven following, which are analogous to (60) (and (61) : 

A 0,1,0 — A 0,1,0 J A 0^0,1 = S' A 'o,i,o + A QQ^■^^ ; . . . (132.) 

^ 2,1,0== C 2,1,0 5 C 2,0,1 = 9'^ 2,1,0 + ^ 2,0,1 J • • * (133.) 

C" — P'" • P" —On r'l' 4- P'" • "1 

1,2,0 — ^ 1,2,0 > ^ 1,1,1 — ■^ q ^ 1,2,0 ~ ^ 1,1,1 J I Cl«}4 

Cf _ ^2 cm 4- « P"' a. P"' • 1 ' 

1,0,2 — ? ^-^ 1,2,0 +9^ 1,1,1 + ^ 1,0,2 > -J 

and, in virtue of these, the seven conditions (112) and (113) may 
be put under the forms, 

A'Vo = 0, C", 1,0 = 0, C'Vo=0, (135.) 


A"'o,o,, = 0, C"'„o,i = 0, C"',,,,i = 0, C"',,o,2 = 0. . (136.) 

316 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

The three conditions of the group (135) differ only in their no- 
tation from the three conditions (112), and are to be used ex- 
actly like those former conditions, in order to determine the 
ratios of 90, ... 9^_2) after the ratios oi j)o> ••• Pm—\ have 
been determined, through the help of the conditions (111) ; but, 
in deducing the conditions (136) from the conditions (113), a 
real simplification has been effected (and not merely a change of 
notation) by suppressing several terms, such as q A."'q j q, which 
vanish in consequence of the conditions (112) or (135). And 
since we have thus been led to perceive the existence of a group, 
(136), of four homogeneous equations (rational and integral) be- 
tween the m — 2 quantities r^, r^, ... rjjj_3,we see, at last, that 
we shall be conducted, in general, to the case of failure (126), 
in which all those quantities vanish, unless their number m — 2 
be greater than four ; that is, unless the degree of the proposed 
equation in x he at least equal to the minor limit seven. It 
results, then, from this analysis, that for equations of the sixth 
and loiver degrees, Mr. Jerrard's process for effecting the trans- 
formation (20), or for satisfying the three conditions (8) (14) 
and (19), 

A' = 0, C = 0, D' - « B'2 = 0, 

will, in general, become illusory, by conducting to an useless 
expression, of the form (93), for the new variable y ; so that it 
fails, for example, to reduce the general equation of the Jifth 

a;5+A^4^B^+Ca,2 + D^ + E=0, . . (69.) 

to De 3Ioivre's solvible form, 

3,5 + B' ^ + 3- B'^y -f E' = 0, . . . . (137.) 

except, by an useless assumption, of the form 

3/ = L(a?5 + Aa?'»+ Ba^+ Ca?^ + D<r + E), . . (138.) 

which gives, indeed, a very simple transformed equation, namely, 

y' = 0, (139.) 

but affords no assistance whatever towards resolving the pro- 
posed equation in x. Indeed, for equations of ihe fifth degree, 
the foregoing discussion may be considerably simplified, by ob- 
serving, that, in virtue of the eight conditions (112) (113) (114), 
the four homogeneous functions (105) (106) (107) (108), of the 
m — 1 sums Jo + ?'o> ••• S'm-i +9'»n-2 5 are all = 0, and there- 
fore also (in general) those sums themselves must vanish (which 
is the case of failure (102),) vvhen their number w — 1 is not 


greater than four, that is, ivhen the proposed equation is not 
higher than the fifth degree. But the foregoing discussion 
(though the great generality of the question has caused it to be 
rather long) has the advantage of extending even to equations 
of the sixth degree, and of showing that even for such equations 
the method generally fails, in such a manner that it will not in 
general reduce the equation 

a?« + Aa?^ + B^'^ + C^+Da?^+Ea:+F = (140.) 
to the form 

/ + B'7/4 + aB'^?/^+ E'y + F' = 0, . . (141.) 
except by the assumption 

^ = L(^« + A^ + Ba;-^ + Cr" + D ^-^ + E.r+ F); (142.) 
which gives, indeed, a very simple result, namely, 

y = 0, (143.) 

but does not at all assist us to resolve the proposed equation 
(140.). However, this discussion may be regarded as confirming 
the adequacy of the method to transform the general equation 
of the seventh degree, 

a:7 + Aa;«+ Bjr^ + Ca:4 + Dj?^ + Ex2 + Fa; + G = 0, (144.) 
to another of the form 

y + BUf + a B'V + E'/ + F'3/ + G' = 0, . . (145.) 
without assuming y — any multiple of the proposed evanescent 
polynome x^ + Ax^ + &c. ; and to effect the analogous trans- 
formation (20), for equations of all higher degrees ; a curious 
and unexpected discovery, for which algebra is indebted to Mr. 

[9.] The result obtained by the foregoing discussion may seem, 
so far as it respects equations of the sixth degree, to be of very 
little importance; because the equation (141), to which it has 
been shown that the method fails to reduce the general equation 
(140), is not itself, in general, of any known solvible form, what- 
ever value may be chosen for the arbitrary multiplier u. But it 
must be observed that if the method had in fact been adequate 
to effect that general transformation of the equation of the sixth 
degree, without resolving any auxiliary equation of a higher de- 
gree than the fourth, then it would also have been adequate to 
reduce the same general equation (140) of the sixth degree to 
this other form, which is obviously and easily solvible, 

y + B'y + D'y2 + Y' = 0, . . . . (146.) 
by first assigning an expression of the form 

2,=f{x) = A'" c^ {x) + W X (■*•), . • (89.) 

318 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

which should satisfy the two conditions 
A' = 0, . . . (8.) 
C' = 0, . . . (14.) 

and by then determining the ratio of A'" to N^, so as to satisfy 
this other condition, 

E' = 0, ...._.. . (147.) 
which could be done without resolving any auxiliary equation of 
a higher degree than the fifth ; and this reduction, of the diffi- 
culty of the sixth to that of the fifth degree, would have been a 
very important result, of which it was interesting to examine the 
validity. The foregoing discussion, however, appears to me to 
prove that this transformation also is illusory ; for it shows that, 
because the degree of the proposed equation is less than the mi- 
nor limit 7) the functions ^ {x) and x (•*') i'l (^9) are connected 
by a relation of the form (36) ; on which account the expression 
(89) becomes 

y = f{x) = (A'" + a N^) cf> {x) + A N^ X, . . (90.) 

and the condition 
gives, in general, 
that is, 

E' = 0, . . (147.) 

(A"'+ aNV)'^ = 0, ..... (148.) 

A"' + aNV = 0; . . (92.) 
so that finally the expression for y becomes 

y = \l^X, . . . . (93.) 
that is, it takes in general the evidently useless form, 
^ = L (a;6 + A x^ + B ^-4 + C .r^ + D .r^ + E .r + F). (142.) 

[10.1 Mr. Jerrard has not actually stated, in his published Re- 
searches, the process by which he would effect in general the 
transformation (15), so as to take away four terms at once from 
the equation of the m^^ degree, without resolving any auxiliary 
equation of a higher degree than the fourth ; but he has suffi- 
ciently indicated this process, which appears to be such as the 
followino-. He would probably assume an expression with 
twenty-one terms for the new variable, 

y=f{x)=A' A-"-' + A" x"-" + A'" X "■'" 

+ M' x''' + M" x^" + W" xf"'" + M'^ xf"'^ 
+ N' x"' + N" x'" + N'" x'"' + Niv ^''^ 

+ S' x^' + S'' x^" + S'" x^" + S"' *^" + S^ x^^ 





and would develop or decompose the coefficients A', B', C, of 
the transformed equation in y, considered as rational and inte- 
gral and homogeneous functions of the twenty-one coefficients, 

A', A'', A'", (150.) 

M', M", M'", W-^, (151.) 

N', N", N'", N^^ W, W\ (152.) 

S', B", S'", S^v, S^ S^i, «vn^ gviii^ , . 

into the following parts : 

■^ — -^1,0,0,0 + -^0,1,0,0 + -^0,0,1,0 + -^0,0,0,1 5 

" ~ ■" 2,0,0,0 + " 1,1,0,0 + -° 1,0,1,0 + -B 1,0,0,1 

4- Tl' 4- R' -4- Tl' 

^ -" 0,2,0,0 ^ -"0,1,1,0 ^ -° 0,1,0,1 

+ ■" 0,0,2,0 "*" ■" 0,0,1,1 + ■" 0,0,0,2 J 

^ — ^ 3,0,0,0 ^ ^ 2,1,0,0 "r ^ 2,0,1,0 "i" ^ 2,0,0,1 
' ^ 1,2,0,0 + ^ 1,1,1,0 + ^ 1,1,0,1 
"I" ^ 1,0,2,0 "'" ^ 1,0,1,1 "I" ^ 1,0,0,2 
■t" ^ 0,3,0,0 + ^ 0,2,1,0 + ^ 0,2,0,1 
+ *-" 0,1,2,0 "f" '^0,1,1,1 "^ ^0,1,0,2 
"'■ ^ 0,0,3,0 "t" ^ 0,0,2,1 + ^0,0,1,2 + C 0,0,0,3 5 . 

each part A';, -it, ; or B',^.^^^; or C';, • ;, ^ being itself a rational 

and integral function of the twenty-one quantities (150) (151) 
(152) (153), and being also homogeneous of the degree h with 
respect to the three quantities (150), of the degree i with re- 
spect to the four quantities (151), of the degree k with respect 
to the six quantities (152), and of the degree I with respect to 
the eight quantities (153). He would then determine the two 
ratios of the two first to the last of the three quantities (150) 
(that is, the ratios of A' and A" to A'") so as to satisfy the two 

A'i,o,o,o = 0, B'2,0,0,0 = ; . . . . (157.) 
the three ratios of the first three to the last of the four quanti- 
ties (151), so as to satisfy the three conditions 

A'0,1,0,0 = 0, B'1,,^0,0 = 0, B'0,2,0,0 = ;' . . . • (158-) 

the ratio of the last of the quantities (150) to the last of the 
quantities (151), so as to satisfy the condition 

^ 3,0,0,0 + C/ gj^QO + C 1^2,0,0 + C 0,3,0,0 ~ 5 • • • (159.) 


320 SIXTH REPORT— 1836. 

the five ratios of the five first to the last of the six quantities 
(152), so as to satisfy the five conditions 

•^0,0,1,0 = 0> "] 

B'iAi.o+B'o,i,i.o = 0, j 

B'o,oAo=0^ V. . . . (160.) 

^2,0,1,0 + C 1,1,1,0 + C'o,2,i,o = Oj 

^ 1,0,2,0 + C 0,1,2,0 = ; J 

the seven ratios of the seven first to the last of the eight quan- 
tities (153), so as to satisfy the seven conditions 

■^0,0,0,1 = 0, 

B 1,0,0,1 + -"0,1,0,1 = 0, 

B'o,0,l,l = <^J B'ooo 2 = 0, 

*^ 2,0,0,1 + ^-^ 1,1,0,1 + C'o,2,0,l = 0, 

C 1,0,1,1 + ^0,1,1,1 = 0, 

^ 1,0,0,2 "^ ^ 0,1,0,2 = ; 
and the ratio of the last of the quantities (152) to the last of 
the quantities (153), so as to satisfy the condition 

C'o,o,3.o + C'o,o,2,i + C'o,o,,,2 + C'o,o,o,3 = : • • • (162.) 
all which determinations could in general be successively ef- 
fected, without its being necessary to resolve any equation of a 
higher degree than the fourth. The first part of the process 
would be now completed ; that is, the assumed expression (149) 
for y would be reduced to the form 

y=/(a?) = Miv^(^) + SVi";)^(a7), .... (163.) 

the functions <p (a?) and x (^) being determined and known, but 
the multipliers M'^ and a^'" being arbitrary, and this expression 
(163) being such as to satisfy the three conditions (8) (10) and 

A' = 0, B' = 0, C = ; 

nineteen out of the twenty ratios of the twenty-one coefficients 
(150) (151) (152) (153) having been determined so as to satisfy 
the nineteen equations (157) (158) (159) (160) (161) (162), into 
which those three conditions had been decomposed. And the 
second and only remaining part of the process would consist in 
then determining the remainhig ratio of M'^ to S^'"^, so as to 
satisfy the remaining condition 

D' = 0, , . . (17.) 


and thereby to reduce the general equation of the m"* degree, 

X = a7"' + Aa?'»-^ + 60?"*-^ + C ^'"-^ + D ^'"-^ 
+ E o?*"-^ + &c. = 0, 


to the form 

Y = ^'" + E'^'"-^ + &c. = 0. . . (15.) 

It is possible, of course, that this may not be precisely the same 
as Mr. Jerrard's unpublished process, but it seems likely that 
the one would not be found to differ from the other in any essen- 
tial respect, notation being always excepted. It is, at least, a 
process suggested by the published researches of that author, 
and harmonizing with the discoveries which they contain. 

But by applying to this new process the spirit of the former 
discussions, and putting, for abbreviation, 

A>sJ.^') + A" VO + A"'5o(^"') + M'.^o^''') -f ... 

a'/ \ 


m— I 

+ M' 





N'*o('') + ... + Nvi^o(''')=yo, 


■'Vr) + .. 


m—l m—l ■» m—l, 

+ N'L('') + ... + N^i L^'"") + S'L(?') + ... 
+ gviiiL(?v.")^L, 




we may change the expression (149) to the form (100), through 
the theorem and notation (44) ; and in order to avoid the case 
of failure, in which the functions <p {x) and x (^) in (1^3) are 
VOL. V. — 1836. Y 

322 SIXTH REPORT 1836. 

connected by a relation of the form (36), we must avoid, as 
in the discussion given in the seventh article, the case where the 
m svimsp'Q+p"Q,...p'^_x + p"m-\ are proportional to the m 
quantities /?<,, ... Pm-u that is, the case 

?o + Q'o = 0, ... ?^_2 + q'm-a =0, ... (102.) 

if we adopt the definitions (54) (55) and (96) (97), so as to in- 
troduce the symbols p, q^, q^, ... q^^^^ and^, j'q, q\,"'q'm-2 • 
With these additional symbols it is easy to transform the condi- 
tions (160) into others, which (when suitably combined with the 
equations of definition, and with the ratios of p^, ... /'^_i al- 
ready previously determined through the help of the conditions 
(157) (158) (159),) shall serve to determine the ratios (121) of 
S'oj ••• ?7n-2 5 ^"^ *hen to determine, in like manner, with the 
help of the conditions (161), the ratios (120) of j'q, ..'q'^^^'i 
after which, the condition (162) may be transformed into a ra- 
tional and integral and homogeneous equation of the third degree 
between the sums q^ -f- q'^, ... 9^_2 + 9'm-'i> and will in gene- 
ral oblige those sums to vanish, if their ratios (122) have been 
already determined independently of this condition (162), which 
will happen when the ratios (120) coincide with the ratios (121), 
that is, when the quantities q^, ... q'^_\ are proportional to 
the quantities go, ... 5',„_i • We must, therefore, in general 
avoid this last proportionality, in order to avoid the case of 
failure (102) ; and thus we are led to introduce the symbols 
ffj **o> *'iJ ••• ^M-S'*^^^"*^^ hy the equations (124) (125), and to 
express the case of failure by the equations 

,-0 = 0, r, = 0, ... 7V«_3=0. . . . (126.) 

With these new symbols we easily discover that the seven con- 
ditions (161) may be reduced to seven rational and integral and 
homogeneous equations between the quantities »•(,, rj, ... »*„j_3, 
which will in general oblige them all to vanish, and therefore 
will produce the case of failure (126), unless the number m — 2 
of these quantities be greater than the number seven, that is, 
unless the exponent m of the degree of the proposed equatioji be 
at least equal to the minor limit ten. It results, then, from 
this discussion, that the process described in the present article 
will not in general avail to take away four terms at once, from 
equations lower than the, tenth degree, and, of course, that it 
will not reduce the general equation of the fifth degree^ 

a?^ + A a?" + B a^ + C .z"2 + D a- + E = 0, . . (69.) 


to the binomial form 

/+E' = 0, (168.) 

except by the useless assumption 

y = L(a^ + A^'' + B^' + Ca?' + D<» + E), . . (138.) 

which gives 

y = 0. . . . (139.) 
[11.] A principal feature of Mr. Jerrard's general method is 
to avoid, as much as possible, the raising of degree in elimina- 
tion ; and for that purpose to decompose the equations of con- 
dition in every question into groups, which shall each contain, 
if possible, not more than one equation of a higher degree than 
the first ; although the occurrence of two equations of the second 
degree in one group is not fatal to the success of the method, 
because the final equation of such a group being only elevated 
to the fourth degree, can be resolved by the known rules. It 
might, therefore, have been more completely in the spirit of this 
general method, because it would have more completely avoided 
the elevation of degree by elimination, if, in order to take away 
four terms at once from the general equation of the mth degree, 
we had assumed an expression with thirty-three terms, of the 

y =f{x) = M x^' + A" x"-" + A'" x^'" 

+ W x/*' + 
+ N' x'' + . 
+ S'x^' + . 
+ O' x"' + . 
+ W x'°'' + 

. + M^v xf' 


. + OvnX" 

and had determined the six ratios of A', a", A'", M', . . . MP^) 
and the twenty-five ratios of N', . . . TI^"!, so as to satisfy the 
thirty-one conditions 

■^1,0,0,0,0,0 — ^> -"2,0,0,0,0,0 = "i (1/0.) 

•^0,1,0,0,0,0 = 0, a 1,1^0,0,0,0 — 0, Bq2oqq(j = 0, . . 

^ 3,0,0,0,0,0 + ^ 2,1,0,0,0,0 + ^ 1,2,0,0,0,0 + ^ 0,3,0,0,0,0 ^* 0, 

•^0,0,1,0,0,0 = 0, j 

■^1,0,1,0,0,0 + B 0,1,1,0,0,0 =0, I 

B 0,0,2,0,0,0 ^= 0, I 

^ 2,0,1,0,0,0 + C 1,1,1,0,0,0 + ^0,2,1,0,0,0 = 0, J 
Y 2 



3^4 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

■^0,0,0,1,0,0 — Oj "I 

■" 1,0,0,1,0,0 + -B 0,1,0,1,0,0 =' ^> 

B' — o 

-"0,0,1,1,0,0 — "> 

B' — n 

-"0,0,0,2,0,0 — "> 

^2,0,0,1,0.0 + C'l^i^o^joo + C'o,2,0,l,0,0, = 0, J 

C 1,0,2,0,0,0 + C'i,o,l.l,0,0 + C'i,o,0,2,0,0 1 

+ C 0,1,2,0,0,0 + C'o,i,i,i,o,0 + C'o^l,0,2,0,0 = 0, j 

•^0,0,0,0,1,0 ^ 0, 

^ 1,0,0,0,1,0 + B 0,1,0,0,1,0 = 0, 

■"0,0,1,0,1,0 + -"0,0,0,1,1,0 = ^} 

-" 0,0,0,0,2,0 — 0> 

^ 2,0,0,0,1,0 + C'l 1 J + C'o 2,0,0,1,0 = 0, 

C 1,0,1,0,1,0 + C'i^o,0,l,l,0 + C'o,i,i,o,l,0 + C'o,i,o,l,l,0 = 0* 

■^0,0,0,0,0,1 = 0, 

■" 1,0,0,0,0,1 + B 0,1,0,0,0,1 = 0, 

■"0,0,1,0,0,1 + -"0,0,0,1,0,1 = ^> 

B' - n 

-"0,0,0,0,1,1 — ^} 

B' — 

-"0,0,0,0,0,2 — ^) 

^2,0,0,0,0,1 + C 1,1^0^0,0,1 + Co,2,0,0,0,l — ^J 

^ 1,0,1,0,0,1 + C 1,0,0,1,0,1 + ^'0,1,1,0,0,1 + ^0,1,0,1,0,1 = 0, 

^ 1,0,0,0,2,0 + ^ 1,0,0,0,1,1 + C 1,0,0,0,0,2 ^ 

+ ^ 0,1,0,0,2,0 + ^ 0,1,0,0,1,1 + Co,l,0,0,0,2 = Oj J 

^0,0,3,0,0,0 + C 0,0,2,1,0,0 + C 0,0,2,0,1,0 + C'o,o,2,0,0,l 

+ ^0,0,1,2,0,0 + ^0,0,1,1,1,0 + C 0,0,1,1,0,1 

+ ^-^ 0,0,1,0,2,0 + C 0,0,1,0,1,1 + ^0,0,1,0,0,2 

"I ^ 0,0,0,3,0,0 + ^0,0,0,2,1,0 + ^0,0,0,2,0,1 

+ ^0,0,0,1,2,0 + C 0,0,0,1,1,1 + ^0,0,0,1,0,2 

+ ^ 0,0,0,0,3,0 + C 0,0,0,0,2,1 + C 0,0,0,0,1,2 + C'o,o,o,0,0,3 = ^) 

into which the three conditions 








A' = 0, B' = 0, C = 0, 
may be decomposed ; the symbol A'^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ;, or B'^ ^ ^ j-^ /j.^ p or 
C'^ „ ^ i jt I denoting here a rational and integral function of the 
thirty-three coefficients A', . . . n"^", which is homogeneous of 
the degree/ with respect to A', A", A'", of the degree^ with 
respect to M', . . . M^^, of the degree h with respect to N', . . . N^, 
of the degree i with respect to B',... ff^, of the degree k with re- 
spect to O', . . . Ovn, and of the degree I with respect to n', . . . 
nvill : while the remaining ratio of MIV ^^ n^ni, shoiUd after- 
wards be chosen so as to satisfy the remaining condition 

D' = 0. 
But, upon putting, for abridgement. 



m — I TO — 1 TO — 1 

TO — 1 ' TO — 1 

TO — 1 TO — 1 « 


TO— 1 TO — 1 -f 

Af l(^') + A" L^^") + A'" l(*"') + M' L^f"'^ + ... 

+ N' L('') + . . . + N^L('^) + S' L(?') -I- . . . 

+ O' L('') + . . . + O^" L^-''") + n' L^-O + . . . 
+ 11^ 

tViii l(-^'") = L, 





326 SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

^_^_i = p'l, (184.) 

Po'" - P>0 = W. • • • P"'m - 2 - fPm 2 = i'\n - 2. (185.) 

^'"-^ = y', (186.) 


"""'-^ = r, (188.) 


V - *• ^^O = 'o» • • • ^»» 4-^^'m 4 = '», 4. • • • (189.) 

and retaining the analogous expresssions (164.) (54.) (55.) (96.) 
(97.) (124.) (125.), we find, by a reasoning exactly analogous to 
that employed in the former discussions, that the final expres- 
sion for y will in general be of the useless form 

y = L X, (190.) 

ill the following case of failure, 

^o = 0,^, = 0,...^^_4 = 0; (191.) 

and on the other hand that the seven conditions (1770 '^^y ^^ 
reduced to the form of seven rational and integral and homoge- 
neous equations between these m — 3 quantities t^, t, ... tm — Ai 
so that the case of failure will in general occur in the employ- 
ment of the present process, unless the monher m — 3 be greater 
than seven, that is, unless the degree m of the ])roposed equation 
in X be at least equal to the minor limit eleven. 

It must, however, be remembered that the less complex pro- 
cess described in the foregoing article, (since it contained no 
condition, nor group of conditions, in which the dimension, or 
the product of the dimensions, exceeded the number four,) agreed 
sufficiently with the spirit of Mr. Jerrard's general method; 
and was adequate to take away four terms at once from the ge- 
neral equation of the tenth, or of any higher degree. 

[12.] The various processes described in the 2nd, 5th, 6th and 
11th articles of this communication, for transforming the ge- 
neral equation of the mth degree, by satisfying certain systems 
of equations of condition, are connected with the solution of this 
far more general problem proposed by Mr. Jerrard, " to dis- 
cover m — 1 ratios of m disposable quantities, 

«,, ^2, ...«„„ (192.) 


which shall satisfy a given system of h^ rational and integral 
and homogeneous equations of the first degree, 

A' = 0, A" = 0, . . . A(*'^ = ; (193.) 

Aj such equations of the second degree, 

B' = 0, B" = 0, . . B^-^) = ; (194.) 

^3 of the third degree, 

C = 0, C" = 0, . . C^-^') = ; . . . . . . (195.) 

and so on, as far as hf equations of the /th degree, 

1^ = 0, T" = 0,..TW = o, (196.) 

without being obliged in any part of the process, to introduce 
any elevation of degree by elimination." Mr. Jerrard has not 
published his solution of this very general problem, but he has 
sufficiently suggested the method which he would employ, and 
it is proper to discuss it briefly here, with reference to the ex- 
tent of its application, and the circumstances under which it 
fails ; not only on account of the importance of such discussion 
in itself, but also because it is adapted to throw light on all the 
questions already considered. 
If we asume 

o, = a\ + a\, a^ = a\, + a%, • • • «^ = a'^ + a"^, . . (197.) 

that is, if we decompose each of the m disposable quantities 
a^ into two parts, we may then accordingly decom- 

«,, «, 

15 ""gJ 

pose every one of the Aj proposed homogeneous functions of 
those m quantities, which are of the first degree, namely, 

A',A", ..A«, ..a(*>); (198.) 

every one of the h^ proposed functions of the second degree, 

B',B",..bW, ..B(*=); (199.) 

every one of the hg functions of the third degree, 

c',c",,..c(*3)j (200.) 

and so on, as far as all the first h^ — 1 functions of the tth de- 

T', T", ..tW ..T(*t-i). (201.) 

(the last function T^*') being reserved for another purpose, which 

3:28 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

will be presently explained,) into other homogeneous functions, 
according to the general types, 

c(r) = c('')3,o + cM^^^ + c(y\,, + C(\„ \- . 


^0 ^ - 1, 1 * " o,t 

each symbol of the class 

A«,B(''),CW, ...tW, (203.) 

P'9 P,9 P<9 p,g 

denoting a rational and integral and homogeneous function of 
the 2 m new quantities, 

a\, f4, . . . a'^, (204.) 


a\,a\,...a\, (205.) 

which function is homogeneous of the degree jo with respect to 
the quantities (204), and of the degree q with respect to the 
quantities (205). By this decomposition, we may substitute, 
instead of the problem first proposed, the system of the three 
following auxiliary problems. First, to satisfy, by ratios of the 
m quantities (204), an auxiliary system of equations, containing 
Aj equations of the first degree, namely, 

A% = 0,A% = 0, ...A('^>),,o = 0; (206.) 

^2 equations of the second degree, 

B'2,o = 0,B\o = 0,...B(H,o = Oj .... (207.) 
A3 of the third degree, 

C'3,o = 0,C\o = 0,... 0(^3)3^0 = 0; (208.) 

and so on, as far as the following hf — I equations of the ith 

T',,o = 0,T% = 0,...T(^j^-i) = (209.) 

Second, to satisfy, by ratios of the m quantities (205.), a sy- 
stem containing /i^ + h^ + ftg + . . . + h( — I equations, which 
are of the first degree with respect to those ?h quantities, and 
are of the forms 


AW = 0, B^*^) = 0, C(^> = 0, . . . TW^ ^ = ; . . (210.) 

h^ + hg + . . . + hf — 1 equations of the second degree, and of 
the forms 

B^'^) = 0, C^'') = 0, . . . TW =0; (211.) 

0,2 ' 1,2 ^-2,2 ^ ; 

hg + . . . + hf — l equations of the third degree, and of the forms 

CW=o, ...TW =0: (212.) 

0,3 ' t-s,s 

and so on, as far as A^ — 1 equations of the tih degree, namely, 
TV, = 0,T"o,, = 0,...T^yi) = (213.) 

And third, to satisfy, by the ratio of any one of the m quanti- 
ties (205.) to any one of the m quantities (204.), this one remain- 
ing equation of the tth degree, 

T(*') = . (214.) 

For if we can resolve all these three auxiliary problems, we shall 
thereby have resolved the original problem also. And there is 
this advantage in thus transforming the question, that whereas 
there were hf equations of the highest (that is of the ^th) degree, 
in the problem originally proposed, there are only h^ — 1 equa- 
tions of that highest degree, in each of the two first auxiliary 
problems, and only one such equation in the third. If, then, 
we apply the same process of transformation to each of the two 
first auxiliary problems, and repeat it sufficiently often, we shall 
get rid of all the equations of the tih degree, and ultimately of 
all equations of degrees higher than the first j with the excep- 
tion of certain equations, which are at various stages of the pro- 
cess set aside to be separately and singly resolved, without any 
such combination with others as could introduce an elevation of 
degree by elimination. And thus, at last, the original problem 
may doubtless be resolved, provided that the number m, of quan- 
tities originally disposable, be large enough. 

[13.] But that some such condition respecting the magnitude 
of that number m is necessary, will easily appear, if we observe 
that when m is not large enough to satisfy the inequality, 

w > Ai + Ag + ^3 + • • • + ^^? • • • • (215.) 
then the original h^ + h^ + h^ + . . . + hf equations, being ra- 
tional and integral and homogeneous with respect to the original 

330 SIXTH REPORT. 1836. 

m quantities (192.), will in general conduct to null values for all 
those quantities, that is, to the expressions 

a, = 0, a, = 0, . . . «^ = 0, (216.) 

and therefore to a result which we designed to exclude ; because 
by the enunciation of the original problem it was by the m — \ 
ratios of those m quantities that we were to satisfy, if possible, 
the equations originally proposed. The same excluded case, or 
case of failure (216.), will in general occur when the solution of 
the second auxiliary problem gives ratios for the in auxiliary 
quantities (205.), which coincide with the ratios already found in 
resolving the first auxiliary problem for the m other auxiliary 
quantities (204.) ; that is, when the two first problems conduct 
to expressions of the forms 

a!\ = a a\, a"^ = a a'g, . . . a\ = aa'^, ... (217.) 

a being any common multiplier ; for then these two first pro- 
blems conduct, in virtue of the definitions (197.), to a determined 
set of ratios for the m original quantities (192.), namely. 

l,...^2LZLi = !l^3 ..... (218.) 

and unless these ratios happen to satisfy the equation of the 
third problem (214), which had not been employed in determining 
them, that last homogeneous equation (214.) will oblige all those 
m quantities (192.) to vanish, and so will conduct to the case of 
failure (216). Now although, when the condition (215) is satis- 
fied, the first auxiliary pi'oblem becomes indeterminate, because 
m — 1 > ^1 + Aj + A3 + . . . + A< — 1, 

so that the number m — I of the disposable ratios of the m 
auxiliary quantities (204) is greater than the number of the ho- 
mogeneous equations which those m quantities are to satisfy, 
yet whatever system of m — 1 such ratios 

a'l a' 2 "-'m - 1 


we may discover and employ, so as to satisfy the equations of 
the first auxiliary problem, it will always be possible to satisfy 
the equations of the second auxiliary problem also, by employ- 
ing the same system of m — 1 ratios for the m other auxiliary 
quantities (205), that is, by employing expressions for those 
quantities of the forms (217); and, reciprocally, it will in ge 
ncral be impossible to resolve the second auxiliary problem 


otherwise, unless the number of its equations be less than m — 1. 
For if we put, for abridgement, 



a",_aa',= &j,a"2-aa'2 = Z»2,.-«"w_i-«a'«_i = *„,_!> (221-) 

we shall have, as a general system of expressions for the m 
quantities (205.), the following. 

a'\ = aa\ + b^, a"^ = aa'c^ + b^ 

+ *m-l> «"m= ««'».; 

m-l = ««'«,-! 



a"^ = a a: 
and therefore by (197), 
ai = (1 + a) a\ + b^, . . . a^_i = (!+«) a'^_i 

+ *m-l5 «m = (l + «)«'m5 

so that the homogeneous functions A^"\ B*^'^), . . . T^'') may be, 
in general, decomposed in this new way, 

AW = (1+«)A^W+A^W; 

BC^) = (1 + ar B<^1 + (]+«) B<^^ + B^W 

> . (224.) 

tw = (1 + ay rw + (1 + a)^-i rw + 

each symbol of the class 

A<«), B^^'^), . . . T<^^ , . . (225.) 

P>9 P'9 P'9 

denoting a rational and integral function of the 2 m — 1 quan- 
tities a\, . . a'^, Aj, . . b^_i, which is homogeneous of the di- 
mension p with respect to the m quantities 

«'„..<, (204) 

and of the dimension q with respect to the m — J quantities 

*„--A^-l, (226.) 

but is independent of the multiplier a. And the identical equa- 
tions obtained by comparing the expressions (202) and (224), 
resolve themselves into the following : 



A(-) = A<*) ; A(«) = a A<'-) + A<«) ; 

1,0 1,0 0,1 1,0 0,1 ' 

B(^) = B<^) ; B^'^) = 2 a B<^) + B^(^) : 

2,0 2,0 ' 1,1 2,0 1,1 ' 

^/,o~ ^^,0' ^/-i.i-^^^^.o"^ ^^-1,1' J.. (227.) 

^/-2,2 2 ^0^^ ^^"^^-1,1 

+ ^ if - 2, 2 ' 

0,< ^,0 (--l.l 0,/' 

so that the first system of auxiliary equations, (206) . . . (209), 
which are of the forms 


1^^ = 


tW = 0, . . (229.) 

AS = 0,Bg = 0,C^^ = 0,.. 

may be replaced by the system 

A'S = «.B* = 0,C«=0,. 

the change, so far, being only a change of notation ; and, after 
satisfying this system by a suitable selection of the ratios of the 
quantities (204), the second system of auxiliary equations, (210) 
... (213), may then be transformed, with a real simplification, 
(which consists in getting rid of the arbitrary multiplier a, 
and in diminishing the number of the quantities whose ratios 
remain to be disposed of,) to another system of equations of the 


A^W = o,B<^ = 0,C^^^) = 0, 

<2 = 0'^t2 = «'---'r1- 2,2 = 0; 

C<^ = 0,...rW 3^3 = 0; 

W ^n.1 



. (230.) 


T- = 0; 



which are rational and integral and homogeneous with respect 
to the m — 1 quantities (226), and are independent of the mul- 
tiplier a. Unless, then, the number of the equations of this 
transformed system (230), which is the same as the number of 
equations in the second auxiliary problem before proposed, be 
less than the number m — 1 of the new auxiliary quantities 
(226), we shall have, in general, null values for all those quanti- 
ties, that is, we shall have 

Z», = 0,A2 = 0, ...Z.^_i = 0; (23L) 

and therefore we shall be conducted, by (222), to expressions of 
the forms (217), which will in general lead, as has been already 
shown, to the case of failure (216). We have therefore a new 
condition of inequality, which the number m must satisfy, in 
order to the general success of the method, namely the follow- 

m - 1 > A\ + A'a + A'a + . . . + A^; • • • • (232.) 
in which, h\, h'^, h'^, " • h'^. denote respectively the numbers of 
the equations of the first, second, third, . . . and rth degrees, in 
the second auxiliary problem ; so that, by what has been already 

h't = A, - 1, 

h't-2 = ^t-2 + ^t-l + ^t-h ,^33.) 


h'^ = h^+ ... + hf- 1, 
h\ = h^ + h^... + hf—1. 

These last expressions give 

h\ + h>^ + h'^ + ... + h'f = h, + 2h^ + Sh^ + 

+ thf-t; ^ 

so that the new condition of inequality, (232), may be written 
as follows, 

m-l>hi + 2h^ + 3hs+ ... + f{hf- l)i . . . (235.) 

and therefore also thus, 

m^ h^ + h^ + h^ + . . . + h( 

+ fi^ + 2 hs + . . . + {t - l){hf - 1). 

I . . . (236.) 

334 StXTH REPORT — 1836, 

It includes, therefore, in general, the old inequality (215) ; and 
may be considered as comprising in itself all the conditions re- 
specting the magnitude of the number m, connected with our 
present inquiry : or, at least, as capable of furnishing us with 
all such conditions, if only it be sufficiently dev'eloped. 

[14.] It must, however, be remembered, as a part of such de- 
velopment, that although, when this condition (232) or (235) or 
(236) is satisfied, the three auxiliary problems above stated are, 
in general, theoretically capable of being resolved, and of con- 
ducting to a system of ratios of the m original quantities (192), 
which shall satisfy the original system of equations, yet each of 
the two first auxiliary systems contains, in general, more than 
two equations of the second or higher degi*ees ; and therefore 
that, in order to avoid any elevation of degree by elimination 
(as required by the original problem), the process must in ge- 
neral be repeated, and each of the two auxiliary systems them- 
selves must be decomposed, and treated like the system originally 
proposed. These new decompositions introduce, in general, 
new conditions of inequality, analogous to the condition lately 
determined ; but it is clear that the condition connected with 
the decomposition of the first of the auxiliary systems must be 
included in the condition connected with the decomposition of 
the second of those systems, because the latter system contains, 
in general, in each of the degrees 1, 2, 3, ... ^ — 1, a greater 
number of equations than the former, while both contain, in the 
degree t, the same number of equations, namely, h^— \. Con- 
ceiving, then, the second auxiliary system to be decomposed by 
a repetition of the process above described into two new auxiliary 
systems or groups of equations, and into one separate and re- 
served equation of the rth degree, we are conducted to this new 
condition of inequality, analogous to (232), 

m-2>h!\ + h\+h\^... + h!\', . . . . (237.) 

A"j, h'\, h"^, . . . h"f denoting, respectively, the numbers of 
equations of the first, second, third, . . . and tth degrees, in the 
second new group of equations ; in such a manner that, by the 
nature of the process. 

h"t = h', - 1, -) 

A", = h\ + h'^+ . . + h't - 1. 



Repeating this process, we find, next, the condition, 

m-3> h'\ + h'\ + A"'3 + . . . + h'\, . . . (239.) 
and generally 

m-e>M') + aW + A(») + ... + A^'); • . . (240.) 

each new condition of this series including all that go before it, 
and the symbol A^*) being such that 

h(^ = h, 





t — n t — n t — n -\- \ 

Integrating these last equations as equations in finite differences, 
we find 

= A,_2 + i A,-i + i . ^i . {ht - '-^) 

^t-2 - "t-2 

f'f_. = K-3, + i ht_2 + i ^- A^_i 

+ 1 

1±J:L±J (} 
2 3 V 

i + 3'' 


> (244.) 

hf = ^ + ^ A, + i L±i A3 + e ^-1 ^l±-2 A, + . . , 

■ ^•+l^^ + 2 ^• + ^-2/ z + Z-i y 

2 3 ^— 1 V ^ t J _ 

And making, in these expressions, 


so as to have 


and putting, for abridgement, 

h^\) = ^Ai, Ip = ^Ag, . . . A;^)^= ^A,_i, 






we find that at the stage when all the equations of the tth degree 
have been removed from the auxiliary groups of equations, we 
are led to satisfy, if possible, by the ratios of ?« - h^ auxiliary 
quantities, a system containing '^, equations of the first degree, 
'^2 of the second, '^g of the third, and so on as far as 'A^_i of 
the degree ^ — 1 ^ in which 

'/,, = h, + hfh^ + i(kf+ \)hth^ 
■^\{ht-\-2){k,+ l)h,h^+ ... 

+ 2.3.4. .\<-2)^ ^^^+^~^)(^^ + ^~^)--^<(^^~^)^ 

so that, at this stage, we arrive at the following condition of in- 

m - hf> 'Ai + 'Ag + 'A3 + • • + '^^ _ 1, • . . . (249.) 
'h^,' Agj ' -^hf -I having the meanings (248). In exactly the 
same way, we find the condition 

m — ht-'hf_-^y "Aj + "Ag + "A3 -I- . . . + "A^ _ 2, • • (250.) 
in which, 

"'''< - 2 = ''*/- 2 + ^ ^^t _ 1 C^/ _ 1 — 1), 

"-^z _ 3 = '^/ - 3 + '^< - T'^^ - 2 


by clearing the auxiliary systems from all equations of the de- 
gree t — \; and again by clearing all such auxiliary groups 
from equations of the degree t — 2, we obtain a condition of the 


U - 3» 

m — hf — ^hf _ J — "A^ - 2 7 '"^1 + • • • + '"^/ 
in which 

"^^ _ 3 = "^< _ 3 + ? "^/ - 2 C^t - 2- l)j &c- 



SO that at last we are conducted to a condition which may be 
thus denoted, and which contains the ultimate result of all the 
restrictions on the number m, 

m--^^-Vl-"A,_2-"^V3-----^'~^^^2>^'"%» (254.) 
that is, 

m>A^+^/i,_i + "A,_2 + "V3 + --+^'"^^'^2 + ^'~^^^i- (255.) 
The 7iumber m, of quantities originally disposable, must there- 
fore in general be at least equal to a certain minor limit, which 
may be thus denoted, 

m (^1, /ia, /?8, ...hf)-h^ + 'hf_^ + "A^_2 + • • • 1 ^^^^ ^ 

+ «-.)„ + ('-.)^, ^ 1, I <"^-' 

in order that the method may succeed; and reciprocally, the 
method will in general be successful when m equals or sicrpasses 
this limit. 

[15.] To illustrate the foregoing general discussion, let us 
suppose that 

t = 2; (257.) 

that is, let us propose to satisfy a system containing Aj equa- 
tions of the first degree, 

A' = 0, . . A^») = 0, . . A^'^') =0, . . (193.) 
and Ag equations of the second degree, 

B' = 0, . . B^^) = 0, . . B(*2) = 0, . . (194.) 

(but not containing any equations of higher degrees than the 
second,) by a suitable selection of the m — 1 ratios of m (quan- 

«i. •••««, (192.) 

and without being obliged in any part of the process to intro- 
duce any elevation of degree by elimination. Assuming, as 

«i = a\ + a\, . . . a^ = <„ + «"^, . (197-) 

and employing the corresponding decompositions 

A' = A'^^^ + A'„^^,...a(*«) = A^;;') + A^^;), . . . (258.) 


B' = B',,o+B\,, + B'o,„.... 

T3(/'2 - 1) _ -0(^2 - 1) , Ti^' - 1) , T,{h, - 1) r • • (259.) 

^ ~ -^2,0 "'' -^1,1 ^ 0,2 ' 

we shall be able to resolve the original problem, if we can re- 
solve the system of the three following. ^ 
VOL. v.— 1836. z 

3o8 SIXTH RKPORT— 1836. 

First : to satisfy, by ratios of the m auxiliary quantities 
«'n • • • «'m' (204) 

an auxiliary system, containing the h^ equations of the first de- 

A'i,0 = ^'---Am =0' • • • (206) 
and the h,^ — \ equations of the second degree 

Second : to satisfy, by ratios of the m other auxiliary quantities 
«V.--«"m. (205) 

another auxiliary system, containing A, + /<2 — 1 equations of 
the first degree, 

A'oi = 0,...A^V = 0, ] 

K (261.) 

and ^2 — 1 equations of the second degree. 

Third : to satisfy, by the ratio of any one of the m quantities 
(205) to any one of the 7n quantities (204), this one remaining 
equation of the second degree 

B(*-^) = (263.) 

The enunciation of the original problem supposes that 

m7h^ + K\ (264.) 

since otherwise the original equations (193) and (194) would in 
general conduct to the excluded case, or case of failure, 

«, = 0, ...«^ = (216.) 

In virtue of this condition (264), the first auxiliary problem is 
indeterminate, because 

»i- 17^1 + ^2-1 (265.) 

But, by whatever sj-^tem of ratios 

-7^,...-^^^ (219.) 

a' a' 

we may succeed in satisfying the first auxiliary system of equa- 
tions, (206) and (260), we may in general transform the second 


auxiliary system of equations, (261) and (262), into a system 
which may be thus denoted. 


and which contains h^ + hc^ — 1 equations of the first degree, 
and Ag — 1 equations of the second degree, between the m — 1 
new combinations, or new auxiliary quantities following, 

b, = a",^^a"^,...b^_, = a\_,-<L;zla"^; (267-) 

so that the solution of the second auxiliary problem will give, 
in general, 

*i=0, ...Z»^_i = 0, (231.) 

and therefore will give, for the m auxiliary quantities (205), a 
system of ratios coincident with the ratios (219), 

-^ = -^, ^ = ^y_l, 268.) 


m - 1 7 Ai + 2 (^2 - 1) (269.) 

When, therefore, this last condition is not satisfied, the two first 
auxiliary problems will conduct, in general, to a system of de- 
termined ratios for the m original quantities (192), namely 

——,... j , . . . ^^IS.} 

^m a'm ^m ^ m 

and unless these happen to satisfy the equation of the third 
auxiliary problem, namely 

BW = 0, (263.) 

which had not been employed in determining them, we shall 
fall back on the excluded case, or case of failure, (216). But, 
even when the condition (269) is satisfiied, and when, therefore, 
the auxiliary equations are theoretically capable of conducting 
to ratios which shall satisfy the equations originally proposed, 
it will still be necessary, in general, to decompose each of the 
two first auxiliary systems of equations into others, in order to 
comply with the enunciation of the original problem, which re- 
quires that we should avoid all raising of degree by elimination, 

z 2 

340 SIXTH REPORT — 1S36. 

in every part of the process. Confining ourselves to the consi- 
deration of the second auxiliary problem, (which includes the 
difficulties of the first,) we see that the transformed auxiliary 
system (266) contains h\ equations of the first degree, and Ag 
of the second, if we put, for abridgement, 

h'i = hi-l, 1 ^270.) 

A', = A, + ^2 - 1 ; J 
which new auxiliary equations are to be satisfied, if possible, by 
the ratios of m — 1 new auxiliary quantities ; so that a repeti- 
tion of the former process of decomposition and transformation 
would conduct to a new auxiliary system, containing h'\ equa- 
tions of the first degree, and h"^ of the second, in which 

h\=zh'^-l, 1 .271.) 

h\ = A', + h'^ - 1, J 
and which must be satisfied, if possible, by the ratios of m — 2 
new auxiliary quantities ; and thus we should arrive at this new 
condition, as necessary to the success of the method : 

m-2>A', + 2(A'2-1); (272.) 

or, more concisely, 

m-2> h\ + h\ (273.) 

And so proceeding, we should find generally, 

m-i>h,^'^ + h^^, (274.) 

the functions A/'\ A^W being determined by the equations 

A w = h„ ^('') = h„ (275.) 

Ag^'+^^-Aa^ = -1, (276.) 

A/i+i)_A,(0 = A^(i + i); (277.) 

which give, by integrations of finite differences, 

Thus, making 

i = K (279-) 

and putting, for abridgement, 

^h, = /i,^^^^ = h, + ^h^{f>^-l), .... (280.) 

we arrive at last at a stage of the process at which we have to 
satisfy a system of ^h^ equations of the first degree by the ratios 
of m — A2 quantities ; and now, at length, we deduce this final 


condition of inequality, to be satisfied by the number m, in order 
to the general success of the method (in the case t = 2), 

' m- hz>'h^; (281.) 

that is, 

m>h, + h{K-\- \)K', (282.) 

or, in other words, m must at least be equal to the following 
minor limit, 

m (A,, ^a) = A, + 1 + i {K + 1) V • • • (283.) 
For example, making Aj = 1, and Ag = 2, we find that a system 
containing one homogeneous equation of the first degree, and 
tivo of the second, can be satisfied, in general, without any ele- 
vation of degree by elimination, and therefore without its being 
necessary to resolve any equation higher than the second de- 
gree, by the ratios of m quantities, provided that this number 
m is not less than the minor Yimit Jive : a result which may be 
briefly thus expressed, 

w(l,2) = 5 (284.) 

[16.] Indeed, it might seem, that in the process last described, 
an advantage would be gained by stopping at that stage, at 
which, by making i = Ag — 1 in the formulae (278), we should 


^ (A, - 1) ^ 1 1 
* ^' \ (285.) 


m-i = m-h^+l', (286.) 

that is, when we should have to satisfy, by the ratios of m — Ag 
+ 1 quantities, a system containing only one equation of the 
second degree, in combination with h^^ + | Ag [h^ — 1) of the 
first. For, the ordinary process of elimination, performed be- 
tween the equations of this last system, would not conduct to 
any equation higher than the second degree ; and hence, without 
going any furthei*, we might perceive it to be sufficient that the 
number m should satisfy this condition of inequality, 

m - Ag + 1 7 Ai + I Ag (A^ - 1) + 1. • • • (2870 
But it is easy to see that this alteration of method introduces no 
real simplification ; the condition (287) being really coincident 
with the condition (282) or (283). To illustrate this result, it 
may be worth observing, that, in general, instead of the ordi- 
nary mode of satisfying, by ordinary elimination, any system of 
rational and integral and homogeneous equations, containing n 
such equations of the first degree, 

342 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

'A' = 0, ^A" = 0, . . . VV^") = 0, (288.) 

and one of the second degree, 

'B' = 0, . . . . (289.) 

by the n + 1 ratios of w + 2 disposable quantities, 

«1J «2J •••«« + 2» • • • (290,) 

it is permitted to proceed as follows. Decomposing each of 
the first n + 1 quantities into two parts, so as to put 

a, = a', + a"„ a^ = a\ + a\, ...«„ + 1 = <+ i + a"„ + i, (291 .) 

we may decompose each of the given functions of the first de- 
gree, such as 'A^*^, into two corresponding parts, 'A^*^ and'A^*^, 

of which the former, 'A^"). is a function of the first decree of the 
' 1,0 ° 

n -\- 2 quantities, 

«'„a'2, ..a'„^l, a'„^2' (292.) 

while the latter, 'A^*), is a function of the first degree of the 
n -\- \ other quantities 

a!\,a\,..a\^^', ....... (293.) 

and then, after resolving in any manner the indeterminate pro- 
blem, to satisfy the n equations of the first degree, 

^A'j,0=0,WYo = 0, ...^AW = 0, .... (294.) 

by a suitable selection of the n -\- \ ratios of the n -{■ 2 quan- 
tities (292), (excluding only the assumption a^^ _|^ g = 0^) we may 
determine the n ratios of the n + \ quantities (293), so as to 
satisfy these n other equations of the first degree, 

Wo,l = 0, Wo,i = 0, . . . ^AW = ; . . . . (295.) 

after which it will only remain to determine the ratio of any one 
of these latter quantities (293) to any one of the former quan- 
tities (292), so as to satisfy the equation of the second degree (289), 
and the original problem will be resolved. 
[17.] Again, let 

< = 3j (296.) 

that is, let us consider a system containing A, equations of the 
first degree, such as those maiked (193), along with h^ equations 


of the second degree (194), and h^ equations of the third de- 
gree (195), to be satisfied by the ratios of m disposable quanti- 
ties (192). After exhausting, by the general process already 
sufficiently explained, all the equations of the third degree in all 
the auxiliary systems, we are conducted to satisfy, if possible, 
by the ratios of m — /i^ quantities, a system containing 'Aj equa- 
tions of the first, and h^ of the second degree, in which. 

'^2 = ^2 + i ^3 (^3 — ')j 

'A, = A, + A3A2 + ^ (^3 + 1) ^3(^3 

-„> } • • w.) 

and after exhausting, next, all the equations of the second degree 
in all the new auxiliary systems, we are conducted to satisfy, by 
the ratios of w — Ag — 'Ag quantities, a system of "Aj equations 
of the first degree, in which, 

-h, = \ + yh^{\-l) (298.) 

We find, therefore, that the number m must satisfy the follow- 
ing condition of inequality, 

m — h^ — "h^7 "Ai, (299.) 

that is, 

m 7 A3 + '^2 + "^1 (300.) 

On substituting for "Aj its value (298), this last condition be- 

»i7A3+ i'A2CA2+ 1) + Vij; (301.) 

that is, in virtue of the expressions (297), 
W27Ai+|(A2+l)A2 + i(A2+l)(A3+l)A3 1 ,3Q2. 

+ i(A3+l)^3(^3-l)+i(A3+l)'*3(^'3-l)(/*3-2.)i '^ 

The number m must therefore equal or surpass a certain minor 
limit, which, in the notation of factorials, may be expressed as 
follows : 

m < [h, + 1) + i [_K + 1]' + i {K + 1) [^3 + m ,3 . 

+ i[^3+i? + i[A3+i?; J • • ^ '^ 

the symbol [>)]" denoting the continued product, 

[>)]« = ,,(,,_ 1) (,_ 2) ...(«- w + 1). o . . (304.) 

So that when we denote this minor limit of m by the symbol 
m (Aj, Ag, A3), we obtain, in general, the formula 

m (Ai, A2, A3) = .), + i [rja]^ + hn^ bzf + i [I3]' + B \yi-^\ (305.) 

344 SIXTH RBPORT — 1836. 

in which, 

*li = ^1 + 1, >)j = A^ + 1, »,3 = //g -f 1 (306.) 

For exumplc, 

m{l,l,l) = 5 (307.) 

[18.] When 

t = 4, (308.) 

that is, when some of the original equations are as high as the 
fourth degree, (but none more elevated,) then 

'^3 = ^3 + 1^4(^4 -I), 

\ = ^^ + ^4^ + ^ [K + 1) K (^4 - 1), 

+ i(^4 + 2)(7/4+l)//,(>^,_l)j J 
''K = \ + yh{h,-\), -I 

'\=^'h, + 'h^'h, + ^i:h., + \Yh,(:h,-i)',] • • ^ "-J 

''\ = ''fh^y\('K-^); (311.) 

and the minor limit of m, denoted by the symbol m (Aj, Ag, ^3, h^, 
is given by the equation 

m {h„ h^, 7/3, 7/4) = ^,j +^^3 + "7/2 + ''\ + 1 ; . . (312.) 

which may be thus developed, 

m (Ai, Ao, A3, A4) = ,j + -L [,J^ + ^% b-sT ^ 






+|m-'' b,V + W^{4 W^ +1 W^ 4-^ [,j4| 

+ I [14]* + I [.j** + p [»4]'^ + -^ W V -j^ [>,4]S 

if we employ the notation of factorials, and put for abridgement, 

>), =Ai + 1,....J4='^4+ 1 (314.) 

In the notation of powers, M'e have 


m (A„ h^, h^, h^) = \ + /*! 

+ — ^2 (12 + to h, + 9 V + 2 V + S V) 

+ lh^hs{\ + h, + h-) +lh^h,^+ Ih, 

+ ± h^ (20 + 22 ^4 + 25 A/ + 9 V 

+ 8 ^4^ + 5 ^4" + 3 ^4^ 

+ 1. h^^ (18 + 10 A4 + 15 A42 + 14 A43 + 9 A44) 

+ 1^V(1 +3A4 + 3A4^) + -^A34 

+ _L (432 A4 + 364 A42 4- 108 ^4^ + I69 h^^ 

)> . (315.) 


+ 24 A4* + 34 A4« + 12 h^' + 9 hi). 
As examples, whichever formula we employ, we find 




m(l, 0, 1, 1) = 7; 

m(l, 1, 1, 1)= 11; .... 
m(l, 1, 1, 2) = 47; .... 
m {5, 4, 3, 3) = 922 (319.) 

[19.] In general (by the nature of the process explained in 
the foregoing articles) the minor limit (256) of the number m, 
which we have denoted by the symbol 

7n(Ai, Ag, . . . A^), 
is a function such that 

m (Ai, Ag, . . . A^) = 1 + m (A'„ A'^, . . . A'^), . . . (320.) 
A'l, . . /I'f being determined by the formulae (233). This equa- 
tion in finite differences (320) maybe regarded as containing the 
most essential element of the whole foregoing discussion ; and 
from it the formulae already found for the cases t = 2, t = 3, 
f = 4, might have been deduced in other ways. From it also 
we may perceive, that whenever the original system contains 
only one equation of the highest or rth degree, in such a man- 
ner that 

A,= l, (321.) 

then, whatever t may be, we have the formula 

346 SIXTH REPORT — 1836. 

= 1 + 7«(A, + 7^2 + . . + ^^ _ j,^2 + ..+^t-V"^'t-i)>l 

so that, for example, 

7n(l,l,l,l,l) = 1 +m(4,3,2,l); (323.) 

m (4, 3, 2, 1) = 1 + m (9, 5, 2) = 46 ; (324.) 

m(l,l,l,l,l,l) = l +m(5, 4,3,2,1); . . . (325.) 
?n(5,4,3,2, 1) = 1 + m(14,9,5,2) = 922; . . (326.) 

and therefore 

m(l,l,l,l,l) = 47, (327.) 


m (1,1, 1,1, 1,1) = 923 (328.) 

[20.] The formula 

w(l,l,l) = 5, (307.) 

may be considered as expressing, generally, that in order to 
satisfy a system of three homogeneous equations, rational and 
integral, and of the forms 

A' = 0, B' = 0, C = 0, (329.) 

that is, of the first, second, and third degrees, by a system of 
ratios of m disposable quantities 

a„...a^, (192.) 

which ratios are to be discovered by Mr. Jerrard's method of 
decomposition, without any elevation of degree by elimination, 
the number m ought to be at least equal to the minor limit ^i;e; 
a result which includes and illustrates that obtained in the 4th 
article of the present communication, respecting Mr. Jerrard's 
process for taking away three terms at once from the general 
equation of the mth degree : namely that this process is not gene- 
rally applicable when m is less than /^we. Again, the process de- 
scribed in the eleventh article, for taking away, on Mr. Jerrard's 
principles, four terms at once from the general equation of the 
Tilth degree, without being obliged to eliminate between any two 
equations of condition of higher degrees than the first, was 
shown to require, for its success, in general, that ?n should be 
at least equal to the minor limit eleven ; and this limitation is 
included in, and illustrated by, the result 

»i(l, 1, 1, 1)=11, .... (317.) 
which expresses generally a similar limitation to the analogous 
process for satisfying any four homogeneous equations of con- 


A' = 0, B' = 0, C = 0, D' = 0, (330.) 

of the first, second, third, and fourth degrees, by the ratios of 
in disposable quantities, Oj, a^, . . a^. In like manner it is 
shown by the result 

m(l, 1, 1, 1, 1) = 47, .... (327.) 

that Mr. Jerrard's general method would not avail to satisfy 
the five conditions 

A' = 0, B' = 0, C = 0, D' = 0, E' = 0, . . (331.) 

and so to take away^ve terms at once from the equation of the 
?nth degree, without any elevation of degree being introduced in 
the eliminations, unless m be at least = 47, that is, unless the 
equation to be transformed be at least of the 47th degree ; and 
the result 

7w(l, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) = 923, .... (328.) 

shows that the analogous process for taking away six terms at 
once, or for satisfying the six conditions 

A' = 0, B' = 0, C = 0, D' = 0, E' = 0, F = 0, . (332.) 

is limited to equations of the 923rd and higher degrees. 
Finally, the result 

m (1,0, 1,1) = 7, (316.) 

and the connected result 

m(l,0, 1,0, 1) = 7, (333.) 

show that it is not in general possible to satisfy, by the same 
method, a system of three conditions of the first, third, and 
fourth degrees, respectively, such as the system 

A' = 0, C = 0, D' - a B'2 = 0, (334.) 

nor a system of 3 conditions of the first, third, and fifth degrees, 

A' = 0, C = 0, E' = 0, (335.) 

unless m be at least = 7 j which illustrates and confirms the 
conclusions before obtained respecting the inadequacy of the 
method to reduce the general equation of the fifth degree to 
De Moivre's solvible form, or to reduce the general equation of 
the sixth to that of the fifth degree. 

[21.] Indeed, if some elevation of degree be admitted in the 
eliminations between the auxiliary equations, the minor limit 
of the number m may sometimes be advantageously depressed. 
Thus, in the process for satisfying the system of equations (330), 
we first reduce the original difficulty to that of satisfying, by the 
ratios of ;« — 1 quantities, a system containing three equations 

348 SIXTH REl'ORT — 1836. 

of the first degree, two of the second, and one of the third ; and 
we next reduce this difficulty to that of satisfying, by the ratios 
of m — 2 quantities, a system containing five equations of the 
first, and two of the second degree. Now, at this stage, it is 
advantageous to depart from the general method, and to have 
recourse to ordinary elimination ; because we can thus resolve 
the last-mentioned auxiliary system, not indeed without some 
elevation of degree, but with an elevation which conducts no 
higher than a biquadratic equation j and by avoiding the addi- 
tional decomposition which the unmodified method requires, we 
are able to employ a lower limit for m. In fact, the general 
method would have led us to a new transformation of the ques- 
tion, by which it would have been required to satisfy, by the 
ratios of m — 3 new quantities, a system containing six new 
equations of the first, and one of the second degree ; it would 
therefore have been necessary, in general, in employing that 
method, that ?n — 3 should be greater than 6 + 1, or in other 
words that m should be at least equal to the minor limit eleven ; 
and accordingly we found 

m (1,1, 1,1) = 11. . . . (317.) 

But when we dispense with this last decomposition, we need 
only have m — 2 > 5 + 2, and the process, by this modifica- 
tion, succeeds even for m = ten. It was thus that Mr. Jerrard's 
principles were shown, in the tenth article of this paper, to 
furnish a process for taking away four terms at once from equa- 
tions as low as the tenth degree, provided that we employ (as 
we may) certain auxiliary systems of conditions, (160) and (161), 
of which each contains two equations of the second degree, but 
none of a degree more elevated. But it appears to be impos- 
sible, by any such mixture of ordinary elimination with the ge- 
neral method explained above, to depress so far that lower limit 
of m which has been assigned by the foregoing discussion, as to 
render the method available for resolving any general equation, 
by reducing it to any known solvible form. This Method of 
Decomposition has, however, conducted, in the hands of its in- 
ventor Mr. Jerrard, to several general transfurmatiojis of equa- 
tions, which must be considered as discoveries in algebra j and 
to the solution of an extensive class of problems in the analysis 
of indeterminates, which had not before been resolved : the 
notation, also, of symmetric functions, which has been employed 
by that mathematician, in his published researches* on these 
subjects, is one of great beauty and power. 

• Mathematical Researches, by George B. Jerrard, A.B., Bristol; printed 
by William Strong, Clare Street ; to be had of Longman and Co., London. 











The Editors of the following Notices consider themselves respon* 
sible only for the fidelity with which the views of the Authors are 





Mr. Talbot's brief Account of some Researches in the Integral Calculus 1 

Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton on the Calculus of Principal Relations 4 

Professor Stevelly's Illustration of the Meaning of the doubtful Algebraic Sign 

in certain Formulae of Algebraic Geometry 5 

Professor Stevelly on " The Mathematical Rules for constructing Compensating 

Pendulums." 7 

Mr. J. W. Lubbock on the Importance of forming new Empirical Tables for find- 
ing the Moon's Place 12 

Sir David Brewster on the Action of Crystallized Surfaces upon Common and 

Polarized Light 13 

Sir David Brewster on a singular Development of Polarizing Structure in the 

Crystalline Lens after Death 16 

Mr. J. M'CuLLAGH on the Laws of Double Refraction in Quartz 18 

The Rev. Edward Craig on Polarization 19 

Mr. Wm. Snow Harris on some Phaenomena of Electrical Repulsion 19 

The Rev. J. W. M'Gauley's Series of Experiments in Electro-magnetism, with 

Reference to its AppUcation as a Moving Power 24 

The Rev. W. Scoresby on a New Compass Bar, with Illustrations, by means of 

a recent Instnunent, of the Susceptibility of Iron for the Magnetic Condition 28 
Professor Forbes's Experiments on Terrestrial Magnetic Intensity, especially in 

relation to the Influence of Height 30 

Professor Phillips on the Direction of IsocUnal Magnetic Lines in Yorkshire... 31 

Professor Lloyd on the Direction of the IsocUnal Lines in England 31 

Mr. Wm. Herafath on the Aurora Borealis 32 

Dr. Traill on the Aurora Borealis of 11th August, 1836 32 

Mr. W. Ettrick's Notice of an Instrument to observe minute Changes of Terres- 
trial Magnetism 33 

Mr. W. Ettrick's Notice of a new Rubber for an Electrical Machine 33 

Dr. James Apjohn on a new Method of Investigating the Specific Heats of Gases 33 

The Rev. B. Powell on the ImpermeabiUty of Water to Radiant Heat 36 

Mr. R. Addams on the Vibration of BeUs 36 

Dr. Charles J. B. Williams on an Improved Ear-Trumpet... 36 

Dr. Samuel Rootsey on the higher Orders of Grecian Music 37 



Dr. Samuel Rootsey on Mnemonical Logarithms 38 

Professor Forbes's Experiments on the Weight, Height, and Strength of Men at 

different Ages 38 

The Rev. W. Whewell's further Account of his Anemometer 39 

Mr. G. Webb Hall on the Connection of the Weather mth the Tide 41 

The Rev. L. Carpenter on Lucas's i\Iethod of Printing for the Blind 41 

Mr. J. S. Russell on the Ratio of the Resistance of Fluids to the Velocity of 

Waves 41 

Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton's Calculus of Principal Relations 41 


Dr. R. Hare on the Chemical Nomenclature of Berzelius 44 

Dr. R. Hare on a Calorimotor for Igniting Gases in Eudiometrical Experiments, 

and Gunpowder in Rock-blasting 45 

Dr. R. Hare on the Aqueous Sliding-rod Hydrogen Eudiometer 46 

Mr. Andrew Crosse's Electrical Experiments 47 

Mr. Henry Hough Watson's Remarks on the Results of some Experiments on 

the Phosphate and PjTo-Phosphate of Soda 48 

Mr. Thomas Exley's Extracts from a Paper " on Important Facts obtained Ma- 
thematically ^fromJTheory, embracing most of those Experimental results in 

Chemistry, which are considered as ultimate facts." 50 

Dr. Charles Henry on Gaseous Interference 54 

Dr. Thomas^Thomson's Experimental on the Combinations]_of Sulphuric Acid 

and Water 56 

Mr. Wm. Black on a Method of ascertaining the Strength of Spirits 61 

Mr. Edmund^Davy's Notice of a new Gaseous- Bicarburet of Hydrogen 62 

Mr. Edmund Davy's Notice of a peculiar Compound of Carbon and Potassiiun, 

or Carburet of Potassium, &c 63 

Mr. Mushet on Iron-ore 64 

Dr. James Inglis on the Conducting Powers of Iodine 66 

Mr. J. F. W. Johnston on Paracyanogen, a new Isomeric Compoimd 67 

Mr. W. Herapath on Arsenical Poisons 67 

Mr. W. Herapath on Lithiate of Ammonia as a Secretion of Insects 70 

Mr. W. Herapath's Analj'sia of the Water of the King's Bath, Bath 70 

Mr. W. C. Jones on the Analysis of Wheat, a peculiar Volatile Fluid, and a So- 
luble Modification of Gluten, Nitrogen in Lignin, &c 74 

Dr. Daubeny's Notice of Experiments respecting the effects which Arsenic pro- 
duces on Vegetation 76 

Mr. R. Scanlan on a new substance (Eblanine) obtained from the Distillation 

of Wood 76 

Mr. Knox on the Insulation of Fluorine 77 

Mr. Wm. Ettrick on a modification of the common Bellows Blowpipe 77 

Mr. Wm. West on a means of detecting Gases present, in small proportions, in 

Atmospheric Air 77 



Mr. Wm. Hopkins on certain points in Physical Geology 78 

Lord Nugent's Notes on the Sea Rivulets iu Cephalonia 81 

Dr. C. Daubeny on the State of the Chemical Theory of Volcanic Phaenomena. 81 

Mr. R. W. Fox on Voltaic Agencies in Metalliferous Veins 81 

Professor Fobbes's Remarks illustrative of the Physical Geography of the Pyre- 
nees, particularly iu relation to Hot Sprmgs 83 

Mr. H. T. De la Beche on certain Phaenomena connected with the Metalliferous 

Veins of Cornwall 83 

Mr. Edwakd Charlesworth's Notice of the Remains of Vertebrated Animals 

found in the Tertiary Beds of Norfolk and Suffolk 84 

Mr. E. Charlesworth on the Fallacies involved in Mr. Lyell's Classification of 
Tertiary Deposits according to the proportionate number of recent Species of 

MoUusca vfhich they contain 86 

Professor Phillips on certain Limestones and associated Strata in the Vicinity 

of Manchester 86 

Professor Phillips on the Removal of large Blocks or Boulders from the Cum- 
brian Mountains in various directions 87 

Mr. R. I. MuRCHisoN on the Ancient and Modern Hydrography of the River Severn 88 
Mr. J. E. Bowman on the Bone Cave in Carboniferous Limestone at Cefn, in 

Denbighshire 88 

Dr. Henry Riley and Samuel Stutchbury on an additional Species of the 
newly-discovered Saurian Animals in the Magnesian Conglomerate of Durd- 

ham Down, near Bristol 90 

Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison's Classification of the old Slate Rocks 
of the North of Devonshire, and on the true position of the Culm Deposits in 

the central portion of that County , 95 

Marquess Spineto on the Site of the Ancient City of Memphis 96 


Dr. James Macartney's Account of the Organ of Voice in the New Holland 

Ostrich 97 

Dr. Henry Riley on the Foot of the " Two-toed" Ostrich {Stnithio Cameius) . 97 
Dr. John Hancock on the Manati or Cowfish of the Inland Waters of Guiana. . 98 

Dr. RooTSEY on Aratiea Avieularia 98 

Rev. F. W. Hope on the Probabihty that some of the early Notions of Antiquity 

were derived from Insects 98 

Mr. FoRBEs's Notice of Sixteen Species of Testacea new to Scotland 99 

Mr. W. Carpenter's Abstract of Dr. Pritchard's Views of the Criteria by which 

Species are to be distinguished in Zoology and Botany 99 

Dr. James Macartney on the Means of Presening Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances 99 

VOL. v.— 1836. 2 a 


Mr. J. E. Bowman on the Longevity of the Yew, and on the Antiquity of Plant- 
ing it in Churchyards 101 

Dr. G. Lloyd's Abstract of Observations on the Marsiliacees 102 

Mr. Thomas Bridgin Teale's Abstract of a Paper on Alcyonella Stagnorum.... 104 
Dr. John Hancock on a nevF and scandent Species of the Norantia, or Ascium 

of Guiana 104 

Dr. C. Daubeny's Notice of Experiments, now in progress at Oxford, on the Ef- 
fects produced by Arsenic on Vegetation 104 

Professor Royle on Caoutchouc 105 

Mr. G. Webb Hall on the Acceleration of the Growth of WTieat 106 

Professor Henslow's Notice of Crystals of Sugar found in Rhododendron pon- 

ticum 106 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes on the Fruits cultivated and Wild, of the Deccan, in the East 

Indies 106 

Dr. S. RooTSEY, on Sugar, Malt, and an Ardent Spirit extracted from Mangel 

Wuizel 107 

Mr. Phelps on the Formation of Peat (illustrated by specimens) 107 

Dr. Corbet on Imbibition of Prussiate of Potash by Plants 107 


Dr. J. C. Prichard on the Treatment of some Diseases of the Brain 107 

Dr. James O'Beirne's Abstract of an impublished Work on Tetanus 109 

Sir D. Brewster on the Cause, the Prevention, and the Cure of Cataract Ill 

Mr. R. Carmichael on the Nature and Origin of Cancerous and Tuberculous 

Diseases 112 

Dr. James Macartney on the Structure of the Teeth, vrith an Account of the 

process of their Decay 115 

Dr. Robert D. Thomson on the Chemistry of the Digestive Organs 117 

Dr. Robert Reid's Exposition of the Functions of the Nervous Structure in the 

Human Frame 119 

Dr. Carson on Absorption 119 

Mr. Augustus F. A. Greeves on the Gyration of the Heart 120 

Mr. John Walker on the Functions of the Muscles and Ner\'es of the Eyeball.. 121 
Dr. W. F. Montgomery's Notice of a newly-discovered Peculiarity in the Struc- 

ture of the Uterine Decidua, or Decidua Vera 121 

Dr. John Houston's Account of Human Twin Foetuses, one of which was de- 
void of Brain, Heart, Lungs, and Liver ; -with Observations on the Nature and 

Cause of the Circulation in such Monsters 122 

Mr. R. Adams on the Pathological Condition of the Bones in Chronic Rheuma- 
tism 123 

Mr. R. Adams on the state of the new Circulating Channels in the case of double 

PopUteal Aneurism 123 

Sur David J. H. Dickson's Case of extensive Aneurism of the Arteria Innomi- 
nataand Thoracic Aorta 124 



Mr. Alcock on the Question whether the Sense of Taste is dependent on Nen'es 
from the Spheno-palatine Ganglion 124 

Mr. Alcock on some particulars in the Anatomy of the Fifth Pair of Nerves 124 

Mr. William Hetling on a new Instrument for the removing of Ligatures at 
pleasure 124 

Dr. Marshall Hall and Mr. S. D. Broughton on the Sensibility of the Glosso- 
pharyngeal Nerve 125 


Mr. Henry Chatfield on the Theory of British Naval Architecture 129 

Mr. Henwood on certain points in the Theory of Naval Architecture 130 

Rev. W. Whewell on the Tides 130 

Mr. J. S. Russell on the Application of our Knowledge of the Phaenomena of 

Waves to the Improvement of the Navigation of Shallow Rivers 130 

Professor Moseley on certain points connected with the Theory of Locomotion, 130 

Mr. John S. Enys on the Performance of Steam-Engines in Cornwall 130 


Baron Dupin's Researches relative to the Price of Grain, and its Influence on 

the French Population 132 

Report on the State of Education in the Borough of Liverpool in 1835 — 1836.... 133 

Mr. C. B. Fripp on the Statistics of Popular Education in Bristol 136 

Dr. Cleland's Extracts from Statistical Documents relating to Glasgow 140 

Mr. John Taylor on the Comparative Value of the Mineral Productions of Great 

Britain and the rest of Europe 144 

Dr. Robert Collins's Observations on the Periodicity of Births, showing the 
total number bom in each Month ; the Number of Premature Children ; the 
Sex, &c. &c. ; the Number of Stillborn Children, and Children Dying ; also 
with regard to the Death of the Mothers, and the most important CompUcations 

met with in DeUvery, deduced from the Experience of 16,654 Cases 146 

Mr. W. Felkin's Facts and Calculations on the present State of the Bobbin Net 

Trade, and the past and present State of the Hosiery Trade 148 

Colonel Sykes on the Utility of Co-operating Committees of Trade and Agricul- 
ture in the Commercial and Manufactiuing Towns of Great Britain, &c. as pro- 
jected by Mr. Holt Mackenzie and Mr. Forbes Royle, and advocated by Sir 
Alexander Johnston and Sir C. Forbes, for investigating more exclusively the 

Natural and Artificial Products of India 149 

Dr. Yelloly on Spade Husbandry in Norfolk 150 

Dr. Lardner on the Effect of Railroads on Intercommunication 150 

Mr. W. R. Greg's Outlines of a Memoir on Statistical Desiderata 151 

Mr. Jeffries Kingsley's Formula of Returns of the gross Receipts of the Re- 
venues of Great Britain, and of Savings Banks Returns 151 





A brief Account of some Researches in the Integral Calculus. By 
H. F. Talbot, Esq. 

Having been asked to lay before the British Association a notice of 
my researches in the Integral Calculus, so far as they have been 
published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year, I 
have drawn up a short account of this subject. 

Upwards of one hundred years ago, an Italian geometer, Fagnani, 
discovered that the difference of two elliptic arcs is in some cases 
accurately equal to a straight line, whose length is known ; although 
neither of the arcs, taken separately, can be so expressed. Thus he 
found, for example, that the quadrant of every ellipse is capable of 
being so bisected that the difference of the parts is equal to the 
difference of the major and minor axis of the curve. He also found 
that the hyperbola possesses similar properties, and also the lemni- 
scate, and several other curves. He thus with great ingenuity and 
sagacity opened a new track in the regions of analysis, the existence 
of which had until his time remained unknown. 

The next considerable step was made by Euler, who showed 

generally that the sura of the two integrals / — ^ + / J^ 

»/ VX ./ V Y 
may be always rendered equal to a constant, by assuming a proper 
equation between the variables x and y, provided that X was a poly- 
nomial in X not exceeding the fourth degree. But if X contained 
the fifth or higher powers of x, he was unable (except in very special 
cases) to find any solution of the problem. 

Lagrange, who also endeavoured to remove this difficulty, met 
with no better success. 

The reason of the failure appears now to be manifest, that the 
solution of the problem was sought for in the wrong direction. It 
was attempted always to combine two integrals into an algebraic 

Vol. v.— 1836. b 

2 SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

sum, which can only be done successfully in certain cases. In all 
other cases it is requisite to combine three or more integrals, and 
the idea of doing this seems not to have occurred to these illustrious 

Thus, for instance, they tried in vain to find the algebraic integral 
of the equation P ^ ^^ , f ^V _ q 

But if they had sought for the algebraic integral of 

/ ' dx r dy r I 

Vi + x^ J Vi + y* J vr 

= 0. 

they would have found that such a solution really exists. 

However, the theorem which Euler gave, although limited in its 
extent, yet jjroved to be of great importance, and may be considered 
the foundation of the theory of elliptic functions given by Legendre, 
the different properties of which are implicitly contained in Euler's 
solution, although Legendre's talents and industry were requisite 
to draw them forth, and develop them with clearness and precision. 

While examining this subject in the year 1825, 1 met with a new 
property of the equilateral hyperbola, which appeared to me to be of 
great importance, as it gave the algebraic sum of three arcs of that 

If the abscissae of the three arcs are the roots of a cubic equation, 

of this particular form, viz. :a?' x — r=0, I found that the 

sum of the arcs was an algebraic quantity. In this equation the 
letter r is arbitrary. Each particular value which is attributed to it 
furnishes a solution of the problem, that is, it gives three arcs whose 
sum is algebraic. 

I verified the truth of this theorem by numerical computations of 
different examples of it, but in so doing I met with two difficulties 
of a novel nature. The first was, that by attributing certain values 
to r, the cubic equation had two impossible roots, and the theorem 
then apparently ceased to have any real meaning. (At that time 
Legendre had not yet demonstrated the fact, that two imaginary in- 
tegrals can make a real integral by their addition.) 

The other difficulty was this, that in making the addition of the 
three integrals, I found that it was necessary to attribute a negative 
sign to one of them, and although by making actual trial in each 
numerical example, it was easy to see which of the integrals had 
this sign, yet it was by no means so easy to assign a convincing 
reason why this ought to be the case. 

The method which had conducted me to this theorem respecting 
the equilateral hyperbola, would, as I saw, furnish a multitude of 
other theorems equally curious ; but the field of inquiry was so new, 
and the results which it afforded at every step so ample, that I was 
at a loss how to classify them, or reduce them into a clear and con- 
nected theory. For instance, I perceived that I might consider n 


variables instead of only three, and that I might suppose them con- 
nected by the general equation, 

x" -^ a x"~^ + b x"~- 4- . . . . =0, 
whose coefficients a, b, &c. are all different functions of an arbitrary 
quantity r. Then, when any particular value is given to r, the n 
roots of the equation (or in other words the n variables) become de- 
termined as to their numerical value. 

And if r changes its value to another value, the n variables seve- 
rally undergo a corresponding change. Therefore they all vary 
simultaneously, and the variation of any one of them is a determinate 
function of the variation of any of the others. 

The n variables being connected in this manner, I found that the 
' values of certain integrals which depend upon them might frequently 
be shown to have an algebraic sum. That is to say, the equation of 
condition between the variables being given, new properties of various 
integrals were found to be deducible therefrom. But the inverse 
problem was found to be much more difficult, namely, " When the 
form of the integral was given, to discover the equation which ought 
to be assumed between the variables." 

This problem is the more important one because it is what occurs 
in practical applications of the calculus. The solution of it, which 
I have given in the Transactions of the Royal Society for 1836, ap- 
pears to me to be as simple as the nature of the problem admits of, 
and it conducts readily and rapidly to the form of equation which 
ought to be assumed in any particular instance. And the form of 
that equation being known, the properties of the integral frequently 
flow from it with a facility which is surprising, considering the na- 
ture and difficulties of the inquiry. 

While I was occupied in this investigation, that distinguished ma- 
thematician Mr. Abel published a very remarkable theorem, which 


gives the algebraic sum of a series of integrals of the form / — ■, 

t/ V R 
when P and R are polynomials in x of any degree. 

The methods of reasoning by which he arrived at this theorem 
appear to have been quite different from those which I pursued, and 
the form of his solution is altogether different from mine, although 
in all those instances which I have tried the results ultimately con- 
cur (as might be expected) . But it will be observed that this cele- 

brated theorem is limited to those forms of integral / — j=, where 

V the polynomial R has a quadratic radical. 

m My method, on the contrary, applies with equal facility to the Cu- 

K bic Radicals and to those of all higher degrees, as well as to a great 

B many other integral forms of a more complicated nature. 

WL I have therefore proposed to drop the name which Legendre has 

^L given, of Ultra- Elliptic Integrals, since it appears that no line of di- 

^^k stinction can be drawn between them and integi'als in general, which 

^^B possess similar properties to an extent so much greater than has been 

^^H hitherto imagined. 



4 SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

In prosecuting further inquiries it will be desirable to considef 
which are the forms of transcendents which ought to be reckoned as 
next in order to those whose properties have been hitherto most in- 
vestigated, viz., to the Circular Logarithmic and Elliptic functions. 

It appears to me that the transcendents might be divided and 
classed according to the number of them which it is requisite to com- 
bine in order to obtain an algebraic sum. Thus the transcend- 
ent /— r is of a more complicated nature than / 

J Vl_+A'' J Vn-^* 

because it is requisite to unite three terms of the former to obtain an 
algebraic sum, while it suffices to add two terms of the latter one. 

According to this view the transcendent / — ^ will be the 

representative of a class whose properties are to be examined by 
themselves, and which are probably irreductible to transcendents of 
a lower class. Before, however, occupying ourselves with these, it 
is well to inquire what results these new methods give when applied 
to the arcs of the Conic Sections, a subject which was supposed to 
have been almost exhausted by the labours of Legendre, but which 
the researches of Jacobi, Abel, and others have shown to be far from 
being so. 

I have found, with respect to my own method, that besides the 
theorem which I originally met with concerning the sum of three 
arcs of the Equilateral Hyperbola, it likewise gives a number of other 
theorems respecting the sums of the arcs of the Conic Sections. 

But which of all these theorems are essentially different from each 
other it requires much time to thoroughly examine. And since it is 
desirable for the sake of verification, and to avoid falling into errors, 
to accompany the processes of analysis with numerical examples, 
these examples, if calculated to six or seven places of decimals, often 
run into extreme prolixity, and would be best accomplished by the 
assistance of several independent calculators. 

On the Calculus of Principal Relations. By Professor 
Sir W. R. Hamilton. 

The method of principal relations, of which Sir W. Hamilton 
gave a short explanation, is still more general than the analogous 
researches in optics and dynamics presented to former meetings of 
the Association. By it the author proposed to reduce all questions 
in analysis to one fundamental equation or formula, no matter how nu- 
merous the conditions, or the independent variables might be. He 
has found the following relation, which he has termed principal, to 
subsist between all differential functions, no matter how numerous, or 

independent the variables, viz. : — — - =-r — 

S d X a X 


Illustration of the Mean'mg of the doubtful Algebraic Sign in certain 
FormultE of Algebraic Geometry. By Professor Stevelly. 

The author had been led some years since to see the importance 
of the present question as bearing upon the determination of geo- 
metric positions by algebraic symbols, by finding that, when trans- 
forming the axes of coordinates, it was sometimes requisite to use 
the positive sign for the perpendicular let fall from a given point 
upon a given line, and at other times the negative sign, although no 
intelligible reason for the difference was assigned in the books, nor 
could he for a long time give any reason that was satisfactory to his 
own mind, or which would lead to an unvarying rule. At length, 
while reflecting upon the origin of this doubtful sign, he was led to 
a conclusion which was quite satisfactory to himself, and which fur- 
nished, he conceived, a complete key to the interpretation of this 
and many similar cases. 

A' P 

It is well known that if A A^ and B B' be the axes of coordi- 
nates, O being the origin, and it be arbitrarily determined to con- 
sider distances measured from O towards B^ as i)ositive, it is nfe- 
cessary, by the connection between algebraic addition and subtrac- 
tion, and the increasing and diminishing of such distances, to distin- 
guish by the negative sign all distances measured from O towards B. 
A similar rule holds for the axis A A\ and for every other axis 
passing through O ; from hence it can be readily shown that all 
lines drawn parallel to any fixed line, such as A A\ and falling 
upon and terminated by B B\ must be similarly distinguished ; 
those that fall upon the upper side or face, for example, being sup- 
posed to be positive, these falling upon the under side or face, must 
be marked as negative. A similar rule can be easily shown to hold 
for any line in the plane of these axes. And this being attended to 
will inform us why algebra ought to mark with the sign + , the per- 
pendicular let fall from a point (p) whose coordinates are (a?^ y') 
upon a line whose equation is y=aa;+ b. Although at first we 
should think that as but one point can have these coordinates, and 
one line only have that equation, there can be but one perpendicular 
to whose value we ought to be led ; yet, in fact, we find the per- 
pendicular to be + y —(tx ,j,j^^ reason why algebra leads 
— V 1 + a- 

6 SIXTH REPORT. 1836. 

US to this double value is obvious when we consider that all perpendi- 
culars upon one side or face of the given line being considered as posi- 
tive, all on the opposite side or face must be marked as negative; for if 
the given line be supposed to revolve in the plane of the coordinates, 
any point of it being fixed as soon as it has passed through a semirevo- 
lution, it will teike a position in which the very same equation as at first 
will belong to it, and in wliich the perpendicular upon it from the 
given point p will have exactly the same length ; and indeed be the 
very same line that was perpendicular to it in its first position. 
In the first position the perpendicular from P falls upon the face of 
the line which is then turned towards it ; but after the semirevolu- 
tion, the perpendicular from P falls upon the face of the line which, 
in its first position had been averted from P ; and hence one of 
these perpendiculars is presented to us by the analytic investigation, 

y jj ^ J) 

as + <- — ■ while the other from the same point, P, upon 


the line expressed still by the same equation, y — ax — J = o, is 

y' — ax' — h 
brought under our notice, as, — — , . 

That this is the true origin of the double sign found in the in- 
vestigation of the length of the perpendicular, will be still more 
clearly seen by tracing the varying length of the perpendicular, as 
the line D^ C D revolves from its first position. Let us suppose, 
(in order to fix our ideas) round some point, as C, which we may 
suppose to hold its place. Then as the revolving line approaches 
P the length of the perpendicular diminishes ; when it reaches P 
that length vanishes ; when it passes P the perpendicular now 
falling on the face that had been at first averted from P, becomes 
negative ; or, rather, has a sign opposite to that which we first at- 
tributed to it ; and this sign it retains as long as the perpendicular 
continues to fall on the same face ; and therefore, when it has passed 
through its semirevolution, it retains that contrary sign ; but at the 
end of the semirevolution, the perpendicular is the very same as it was 
at first, and the line in the new position has the same equation that at 
first belonged to it ; the face alone on which that perpendicular falls 
has changed, and algebra marks that change by the change of sign 
of the value of the peri^endicular. Indeed, it is easy to see that 
after the semirevolution is completed, a perpendicular P* A^ at an 
equal distance from C\ and similarly situated on the other side 
from P A, and erected upon the opposite face of the given line, 
will have come round to the portion of P A, and will then coincide 
with it, if it be supposed to accompany the revolving line, and to be 
inflexibly attached to it. 

An account nearly the same can be given of the double sign of 
the distance between two points (.r\v') and (.^^^V")' which, as is well 
known, is = -f i/(x^ — ^^*)'- + (y^— y")-. If we at first arbitrarily as- 
sume the + value as belonging to the distance : then if a point be 
made to move from that given point, which is nearest to the origin of 


the coordinates, suppose from the point (.r" y*) toivards the other point, 
it will, by motion in that direction, describe and increase positive 
distances ; but, by a motion in the contrary direction it would de- 
scribe or increase negative distances. If we then suppose the in- 
definite line joining (o^^y^*) and {x\/) to revolve slowly round one of 
these points as a centre, suppose round {x''' y") the law of continuity 
will compel us to consider a point moving the same way from the 
fixed point as describing and increasing negative distances ; now, 
when the revolving line has completed a semirevolution, it will again 
pass through the second point, {x'y''); but a moving point setting 
off from (ar"y") must, in order to reach (x'y), move along the inde- 
finite line after its semirevolution, in precisely an opposite direction 
to that which led to the same point in its first position, and, there- 
fore, the same identical distance must, in this last position, be con- 
sidered as negative, if, in the first position, we assumed it to be po- 
sitive ; and hence the double sign to which the analytic value directs 
our attention. 

In a similar way we can explain the double sign of the secant of 
an arch, the opposite sign of the secant of an arch, and of its sup- 
plement, and of the same arch increased by a semicircle. We may 
also see the reason for the double sign of the analytic value of the 
radius of curvature ; and thus many symbols which were formerly 
not perceived to have any relation to position, will ajipear to have a 
very direct and intelligible relation to it ; and thus, much that was 
formerly arbitrary will be rendered subject to precise rules. 

On " The Mathematical Rules for constructing Compensating Pendu- 
lums." By Professor Stevelly. 
Accident led the author to the discovery of an error of serious 
consequence which he had previously never suspected, in the principle 
of calculating the dimensions of the several parts of compensating pen- 
dulums adopted by Captain Kater, and detailed by him in the latter 
part of the volume on Mechanics in Lardner's Cyclopaedia. Doctor 
Templeton, of the Royal Artillery, had kindly undertaken to find a 
meridian line at the apartments of the Museum of the Belfast Natu- 
ral History Society. When doing so he had used a well-made eight- 
day clock furnished with a pendulum with a deal rod, which although 
carefully made had not been intended to compensate for changes of 
temperature. This pendulum had gone in a room immediately under 
a leaden roof during a very cold winter, and afterwards during a very 
hot summer, and yet had not varied more than a very few secorids 
from mean time, and even that variation had not taken place with 
any considerable departure from a mean rate of gaining. Surprise 
at this fact led Mr. Stevelly to perceive that a common deal rod pen- 
dulum, with a large lenticular leaden bob resting on a nut, and trans- 
fixed by the deal rod, must be to a certain extent compensating. He 
then proceeded to calculate the exact dimensions for perfect compen- 
sation ; but upon applying the mathematical principle upon which he 
had made the calculation to some of the examples given by Captain 


SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

Kater, he arrived at dimensions differing so much from those given 
b}' that eminent author as to lead him to fear that he had made some 
gross error in applying the differential calculus to the investigation. 
A little consideration, however, convinced him that the fundamental 
principle of Kater's calculation was erroneous. 

The erroneous principle virtually adopted by Captain Kater is, that 
the centre of oscillation of the heavy metallic part of the pendulvun re- 
tains constantly its relative place in the mass ; so that its distance from 
the lowest part where it is supported by the pendulum rod is to be 
taken as the length of metal whose expansions and con- g 
tractions are to compensate those of the rod. Now it is 'p ^ 

almost obvious that the position of that centre in the mass 
changes, on two accounts : first, the moment of inertia 
of the mass which is the numerator of part of the value 
of the length of the pendulum is changed by the chan- 
ging of the dimensions of the several parts of the pendu- 
lum by changes of temperature ; secondly, the distance 
of the centre of gravity of the mass from the axis of sus- 
pension changes also, and it enters as a denominator into 
the same value. These combined causes produce a 
change of great practical consequence in the position of 
the centre of oscillation during alterations of temperature. 

Time permitted Mr. Stevelly to exemplify these re- 
marks only in the pendulum composed of a deal rod sus- 
pended by a steel spring, and a leaden tube. This pendu- 
lum is perhaps the cheapest, simplest, and best that can 
be made. 

Let the annexed figure represent a deal rod and leaden 
tube pendulum ; S P = 2 inches of steel spring ; P D the 
length of the deal rod to be calculated ; L D = 2 z = 
length of leaden tube ; B a deal circular bracket, either turned and 
fastened upon the end of the deal rod or made out of the same solid 
piece of white deal wood with the rod, its use being to give a firm 
support to the leaden tube. Let 2 r = the outside diameter of the 
leaden tube, and 2 r' equal the diameter of the cylindric hole along 
its axis which receives the deal rod ; let G be the centre of gravity, 
and O the centre of oscillation. Let S G = \ and S O = (for a royal 
seconds pendulum) 39" 13929 inches : denote this by /. 

It can then be easily shown by the formulae for centre of oscilla- 
lion, that 

, 4 3 , 4 3 .„s 


A X 

By applying the differential calculus to find the change of po- 
sition of O for changes of temperature, we shall see that since / is 

d(/-A)= -dA = 

'2rdr+2r'dr' 2zdr / r"^ + r" ^ _^ ^\ ^^ 
_ 4 "•" 3 V 4 3/ ■ 




(r^+r''^ z"A ^rdr-\-2r'dr' , 2 
x^ /= K 

( 2rdr+ ^r'dr' 2zdz 
4 "'■ 3 \ 
7~r~r. — ^ — I 

Now if we denote hj dm the change of length which the unit 
length of the metal of which the tube is formed, suffers from 
the change of temperature to which the pendulum has been sub- 
jected, then dr = rdm: dr' =^ r' dm: and dz = z dm; and substi- 
tuting these, we have 

/<2 ^_ ^.'2 2 «« 

<!('-*)=( ..4-.. .2 ''"'' 

ITie height of the point O, above the bracket which supports it 
is, = 2 — (/ — X) . Hence the change of place of O, upwards or 
downwards in relation to the bracket, is the differential of this, and 
is therefore equal to 

/r^-l-r'a 2z^\ 


4~ ~ 

Now the coefficient of dm in this expression is manifestly the length 
of the metallic part of the pendulum, whose changes for tempera- 
ture are to compensate the changes of the suspending rod ; whereas 
the length of that metal, according to Kater, is the height of o above 
the bracket, which is 

— -^- — -H — 
., s 4 3 

In other words, this is Kater's coefficient for dm; and since 

r'2 2 z"-\ r« -f- r'^ 

/r"--|-r'2 2z"-\ r* -f- r'2 

4 3 r^ + r'- z^ /v 

^- 4 T 

Consequently, for any given z, Kater's coefficient will be greater 
than the true coefficient ; therefore, it hence appears that he will 

10 SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

be led to use a less z, or a less length of metallic tube than that 
which will truly compensate the changes of the suspending rod. 

But to proceed with the investigation, — if d s and dji respectively 
denote the alterations of the unit length of steel and of white deal 
for the same change of temperature that causes dm in the unit length 
of the metal used for the compensating tube, then the measures 
being expressed in inches we shall have 

2ds-\-{\-2 + z)dp=\z- ^ , , '! . \dm 

^ /I o / 


Since we have supposed the steel spring to be two inches long, 
and the length of the deal rod is X — 2 + z inches ; or, 

(r2±r^ z2\^ 
\ 4 ^ 3 / dm... 
2{ds-dp) +Xdp-z(dm-dp) = -2 ■.,,„„ .0 

4 3 ....(b) 

But from (a) it will appear that A' — — — = 2X^ — l\ 

And solving (a) for A, we get A = — + \ /i! _ ^'"'" ^'" _ f! 

2 V 4 4 3 • 

the value of A, found with the negative radical, being the intercept 
between the centre of gravity and centre of oscillation. Now if we 
denote by R the radical in the value of A, and substitute these 
quantities in {b), we shall have 

l \ 4 

2(ds—d2:i)+-^dp -\-'B.dp —z(dm—dp) = — 

or, by reducing, substituting for R* its value, and dividing by 
dm — dp 

/'2(ds-dp) +ldp ^ ,2 7> J 

\ dm — dp y 3 A dm — dp 4 

According to the table given by Kater, rf* = -0000063596, 
dp= -0000022685, and if the material of the tube be lead, dm 
= •0000159259; also, Z = 39-13929. If we assume the dia- 
meter of the leaden tube to be an inch and a half, and the hollow 
along its axis to be six tenths of an inch, then write r = "75, and 
r' = -3, and substituting these respective values in the foregoing 
equation, and changing the signs of all the terms, we shall have 

(X- 3-84963) (382-807880426025 - ^y -j= 63-774774 ..(c) 


Now by a well-known method, it is easy to find that z = 8'48252 
will very nearly satisfy this equation ; so nearly that the change of a 
unit in the fifth decimal place will make the side of the equation 
upon which z lies differ from the other constant side in the fourth 
decimal place by nearly two units. This is an accuracy quite un- 
necessary in practice, but Mr. Stevelly resorted to it, lest in quan- 
tities depending for their values upon such minute fractions as dp, 
ds, and dm, there should be any source of fallacy in the mode of 
calculating which did not readily appear ; and this course he was the 
rather led to adopt as the length of z which he arrived at differs so 
materially ft'om that assigned by Captain Kater, and also by Mr. 
Baily, if the latter be correctly quoted by Kater, in Lardner's Me- 
chanics. Mr. Baily's paper in the Astronomical Memoirs, Mr. 
Stevelly had no opportunity of seeing. The length oi 2 z according 
to Kater should be 14'44 inches, and according to Baily, as quoted 
by him 14"3. Now if either of these values be assigned to2 z; z will 
be far from satisfying the equation (c) which has been above de- 

The dimensions of the several parts of the pendulum according to 
Mr. Stevelly will be as follows : — A steel spring two inches long, 
measured from the cock to the upper edge of the (iron) rivet which 
attaches it to the deal rod ; a deal rod furnished with a circular bracket 
at the bottom, diameter of deal rod = 0*6 inch. ; length from upper 
edge of the rivet above, to the upper surface of the bracket upon which 
the leaden tube rests, = 44'995 inches. Tlie bracket may be easily 
made of such a shape, while its upper circumference is nearly equal 
to that of the leaden tube, as that the wooden part of the pendulum 
alone shall swing in a second. The leaden tube is then to be 16-965 
inches long; external diameter = 1"5 inch; diameter of the space 
along its axis, through which the deal rod passes, six tenths of 
an inch : the leaden tube wiU weigh about ten pounds avoir- 

If the numbers assigned by Kater be more correct than these, it 
can only arise from the values olds, dp, and dm not having been as 
yet ascertained with sufficient accuracy, and perhaps an examination 
of the rates of pendulums made of tubes and rods of various mate- 
rials would furnish the best possible method of examining the re- 
lative expansibilities of bodies under various temperatures. 

Mr. SteveUy thinks a bracket of wood firmly attached to the 
lower part of the pendulum rod a method of suspending the 
leaden tube much to be preferred to the method in use by a nut and 
screw, for many reasons ; and thus mounted it becomes necessary to 
have, at the upper part or suspension of the pendulum, some con- 
trivance for adjusting its length, so as to make the rate correct. Mr. 
Stevelly exhibited to the section a nut and screw worked by a mi- 
crometer screw, the index of which may come out at the side of the 
clock-case, and there point to a graduated circle ; and he stated that 
so nice an adjustment may be effected by this, that upon a circle of 
about three inches in diameter, each division ; being the tenth of an 
inch in length ; would correspond to an alteration of the length of the 


pendulum equal to the 140,000dth part of an inch ; while the entire 
suspending apparatus may be firmly screwed to the stone back of 
the clock-case, and thus afford a very steady means of suspension, 
quite independent of the clockwork. By this means an alteration 
of the rate of the clock may be effected without stopping it ; and an 
alteration to any required amount may be at once effected, after it 
has been ascertained by experiment what change is made in the rate 
by moving the micrometer index through a given number of the 
degrees of its circle. 

A leaden tube, such as here described, can be very easily drawn 
at any place where leaden tubes are manufactured, and is the cheapest 
and best material for the purpose. It will be pro2)er to prepare 
the deal rod by baking ; then by passing it through a cork in the 
upper part of the receiver of an air pump, the ends of it can be 
dipped into melted shell lac after the air has been extracted ; the 
readmission of the air will drive the lac into the pores ; its outside 
surface should also be made of the colour of lead by rubbing it with 
black lead, a matter well known to be of considerable importance ; 
and when the parts of the pendulum are put together, all may be 

On the Importance of forming new Empirical Tables for finding the 
Moon's Place. By J. W. Lubbock, Esq. 

During the last and the present century the tables for finding the 
places of the moon and planets have been so much improved that 
they may now be considered as sufliciently accurate for the purposes 
of navigation. If therefore astronomical tables were to be viewed 
merely with reference to the facilities which are obtained through 
their means for long voyages, astronomers might be said to have ac- 
complished all that was expected from them. Astronomers, how- 
ever, have never been satisfied with this view of the question, but they 
have constantly endeavoured to reach by calculation and theory the 
same degree of accuracy as that which is obtained in fixed observa- 
tories with the best instruments. This being the case much remains 
to be accomplished. The expressions for the longitude and latitude 
of the moon, to which I shall confine myself in the following re- 
marks, have not yet arrived at the desired precision, although the 
difficulties which remain to be overcome are by no means insur- 

The most remarkable works on the theory of the moon, on account 
of their extent, are those of MM. Damoiseau and Plana. 

M. Damoiseau's work, to which a prize was adjudged by the 
French Institut, was published by that learned body in the Mdmoires 
lies Savans Etrungers. M. Damoiseau has pushed to an almost in- 
credible extent the approximation, following closely the method 
given by Laplace in the Mt'c. Cel., and originally chosen by Clairaut. 
But M. Damoiseau's calculations are so conducted and are presented 
in such a shape, that it would be next to impossible to verify them, 
nor do I think that such a verification will ever be attempted. 


The publication of M. Plana's work constitutes a new era in the 
question, from the circumstance that the results are therein deve- 
loped by M. Plana according to powers of the eccentricities, inclina- 
tions, &c., and also of the quantity m, which denotes the ratio of 
the sun's mean motion to that of the moon. The methods employed 
by M. Plana are otherwise similar to those of M. Damoiseau, but 
M. Plana's results possess the inestimable advantage of permitting 
each term of which a coefficient is composed to be verified sepa- 
rately. The form in which M. Plana's results are presented also 
enables us to examine them with facility and to judge of their con- 
vergence. Unfortunately we soon find that the expressions for the 
coefficients in many cases do not converge, so that it will be difficult, 
if not impossible, to push the approximation so far as to arrive d, 
priori at expressions upon which reliance can be placed for the prin- 
cipal inequalities, such for example as the annual equation in longi- 

In consequence of this difficulty I wish to call the attention of the 
Section to the importance of deducing the numerical values of these 
coefficients from the best observations empirically , and of thus con- 
structing new Lunar Tables, which may serve to check the results 
obtained by theory, and which may be inform unobjectionable. The 
Tables of Burckardt, otherwise of great merit, and the best empiri- 
cal Tables of the Moon at present in existence, were constructed 
before theory had been brought to its present state ; and their form 
is such that it would be difficult to render them available in the 
manner I have pointed out. 

M. Plana has pushed the approximation to so great an extent that 
if his figures could be depended upon the subject might perhaps be 
considered as exhausted practically ; but notwithstanding M. Plana's 
great skill and care, of which I am well convinced, it is unlikely that 
calculations of such prodigious difficulty and complexity should be 
free from errors. 

The construction of empirical Lunar Tables such as I have recom- 
mended resolves itself into a question of expense ; for we have com- 
puters in this country who are competent to undertake a work of 
this nature under proper guidance. 

On the Action of Crystallized Surfaces upon Common and Polarized 
Light. By Sir David Brewster, K.G.H., V.P.R.S.Ed. 

In the year 1819 I submitted to the Royal Society a series of ex- 
periments on the action of crystallized surfaces on common and 
polarized light. These experiments established in the clearest man- 

* According to M. Plana this coefficient contains the following terms : 
,735 , , 1261 , , 142817 

3257665 , 964470235 , . 

J _ Tifi -A ■ m' -+■ &c. 

^ 576 ^ 55296 ^ 

14 SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

ner that the interior forces, which produce double refraction, extend 
within the sphere of the ordinary reflecting force, and modify its ac- 
tion not only in polarizing common light and changing the planes 
of polarized light, but in reflecting diflferent quantities of light at 
dift'erent angles of incidence. 

These experiments excited no attention among those who were 
studying the theories of light till 1835, when they attracted the no- 
tice of Mr. MaccuUagh, of Trinity College, Dublin, who was then 
engaged in investigating the laws which regulate the reflexion and 
refi'action of light at the separating surface of two media. 

From principles analogous to those employed by Fresnel, Mr. 
MaccuUagh has anticipated eflTects quite the reverse of those de- 
duced from my experiments ; and in order to account for the latter 
he was obliged to abandon to a certain degree the physical ideas of 
Fresnel in so far as to make the vibrations of the wave parallel to 
its plane of polarization, in place of perpendicular to it. From the 
theory thus modified Mr. MaccuUagh has shown that when a ray is 
polarized by reflection from a crj'stal the plane of polarization de- 
viates from the plane of incidence, except when the axis lies in the lat- 
ter plane. The formula which expresses this deviation represents 
\'ery accurately the measures of the polarizing angles in diflFerent 
azimuths, which I have obtained in the only surface in which the 
exception is true ; but at all other inclinations of the reflecting plane 
to the axis, the formula and the theory are in fault, as there is a 
large deviation when the axis or principal section of the crystal is in 
the plane of reflexion. 

After the publication of my paper of 1819 I had more than once 
resumed the subject ; but the difficulty of obtaining highlj'^ polished 
surfaces of calcareous spar at diff^erent inclinations to the axis forced 
me to abandon the inquiry. When I found, however, that Mr. 
MaccuUagh had succeeded in deducing from theory the general fact 
of a deviation increasing as the refractive power of the medium ap- 
proached to that of the spar, I had no doubt that he would bring the 
more complex phenomena under the dominion of theory, provided I 
could furnish him with their physical law. In this expectation I 
devoted my whole time to the inquiry during the last winter, with 
more knowledge of the subject and better means of observation ; and 
I should have made much greater progress than I have done had I 
been able to procure crystals of calcareous spar suited to my pur- 
pose. In this difficulty I applied to the British Museum through 
Mr. Konig, for some useless fragments of their specimens, but I 
was mortified to find that an Act of Parliament prohibited even the 
dust of a ciystal from being removed from its walk. 

The difficulty which I experienced in obtaining crystals with 
planes sufficiently regular and polished, obliged me to work with 
artificially polished surfaces ; and I have to express my obligations 
to Mr. Nicol, of Edinburgh, for the kindness and the love of science 
which led him to polish with his own hands the surfaces which I 


In attempting to give the Section some idea of the nature and 
singularity of the results which I obtained, I shall omit all details 
and confine myself to the statement of the general phenomena. 

When light is reflected at the separating surface of two media, 
the lowermost of which is a doubly refracting one, the reflected ray 
is exposed to the action of two forces, one of which is the ordinary 
reflecting force, and the other a force which emanates from the in- 
terior of the doubly refracting crystal. When the first medium is 
air, or even water, the first of these forces overpowers the second; 
and in general the effects of the one are so masked by the effects 
of the other that I was obliged to use oil of cassia, — a fluid of high 
refractive power, — in order that the interior force of the calcareous 
spar, which I wished to examine, might exhibit its eftects independ- 
ently of those which arise from ordinary reflexion. The separating 
surface therefore which I used had a small refractive power, and the 
reflecting pencil is so attenuated, especially in using polarized light, 
that it is almost impossible to use any other light than that of the sun. 

When a pencil of common light is reflected from the separating 
surface of oil of cassia and calcareous spar, the general action of the 
spar is to polarize a part of the ray in a plane perpendicular to that 
of the reflexion, and thus to produce hy reflexion the very same effect 
that other surfaces do by refraction. 

On the face of calcareous spar perpendicular to the axis of the cry- 
stal the effect is exactly the same in all azimuths, but in every other 
face the eff'ect varies in diff"erent azimuths and depends upon the in- 
clination of the face to the axis of double refraction . On the natu- 
ral face of the rhomb common light is polarized in the plane of re- 
flexion in 0° of azimuth, or in the plane of the principal section ; 
but at 38° of azimuth the whole pencil is polarized at right angles 
to the plane of reflexion, and in other azimuths the effect is nearly 
the same as I have stated in my printed paper. 

In order, however, to observe the change which is actually pro- 
duced upon light it is necessary to use two pencils, one polarized 
-f- 45°, and the other — 45° to the plane of incidence. The planes 
of polarization of these pencils are inclined 90° to each other, and 
the invariable effect of the new force is to augment that angle in the 
same manner as is done by a refracting surface, while the tendency 
of the ordinary reflective force is to diminish the same angle. Hence 
I was led to make an experiment in which these opposite forces 
might compensate one another. I mixed oil of olives and oil of cassia 
till I obtained a compound of such a refractive power that its action 
in bringing together the planes of polarization should be equal to the 
action of the new force in separating them. Upon reflecting the com- 
pound pencil from this surface I was delighted to find that the incli- 
nation of the planes was still 90°, and I thus obtained the extraor- 
dinary result of a reflecting surface which possessed no action what- 
ever upon common or upon polarized light. 

The action of the new force when the plane of reflexion coincides 
with the principal section of the crystal is obviously inexplicable by 

16 SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

any theory of liglit, though I have no doubt that the undulatory 
theory will ultimately accommodate itself to this as well as to other 
classes of phenomena which it does not at present embrace. The 
difficulty, however, is increased by another result of my experiments 
which it is important to notice. On the faces of the spar which are 
inclined 0°, 45°, and 90° to the axis of double refraction, the action 
of the new force is symmetrical upon the two pencils of polarized 
light, whose planes are inclined + 45°, and — 45° to the plane of in- 
cidence, whereas in all intermediate faces whose inclination to the 
axis is 2'2i° and G7^", the plane of one of the polarized rays remains 
stationary, while that of the other is turned round 15°. 

This effect is undoubtedly a very extraordinary one, and indicates 
some singular structure in calcareous spar, the nature of which it is 
not easy to conjecture. 

1 have examined these phenomena by using in place of oil of cassia 
various fluids whose refractive powers descend gradually to that of 
water ; but it would be a waste of time to give any detailed account 
of them at present. I shall only state that the action of the new 
force becomes weaker and weaker as the force of ordinary reflexion 
is increased by diminishing the refractive power of the oil which is 
placed in contact with the spar. With an oil of the highest refractive 
index the action of the new force predominates over the feeble power 
of the ordinary force of reflexion. With an oil of a lower index the 
two forces exactly balance each other, while with oils of still lower 
indices of refraction the ordinary force overcomes and conceals the 
action of the new one. 

Although I have obtained pretty accurate measures of the amount 
of the deviations produced by the new force on eight surfaces diff^er- 
ently inclined to the axis, and in various azimuths on these surfaces, 
yet many experiments are still necessary before we can hope to dis- 
cover the physical law of the phenomena ; and if this should be done 
I have no doubt that Mr. MaccuUagh will be equally successful in 
the higher attempt of accounting for them by some modification of 
the undulatory theory. 

On a singular Development of Polarizing Structure in the Crystalline 
Lens after Death. By Sir David Brewster, K.G.H., V.P.R.S.Ed. 

In exatnining the changes which are produced by age in the 
polarizing structure of the crystalline lenses of animals, I was in- 
duced to compare these changes with those which I conceived might 
take place, after death, when the lens was allowed to indurate in the 
air, or was preserved in a fluid medium. After many fruitless ex- 
periments I found that distilled water was the only fluid which did 
not aflfect the transparency of the capsule, and my observations were 
therefore made with lenses immersed in that fluid. The general 
polarizing structure of the crystalline in the sheep, horse, and cow, 
consists of three rings, each composed of four sectors of polarized 


light, the two innermost rings being positive like zircon, and the 
outermost negative, like calcareous spar. In other cases, especially 
when the lenses were taken from older animals, four rings were 
seen, the innermost of which was positive as before, and the rest ne- 
gative and positive in succession. 

I now placed a lens which gave three rings, in a glass trough con- 
taining distilled water, and I observed the changeswhich it experienced 
from day to day. These changes were such as I had not anicipated ; 
but though I have observed and delineated them under various modi- 
fications, I shall confine myself at present to the statement of the ge- 
neral result. There is a black ring between the two positive structures 
or luminous rings. After some hours' immersion, in distilled water, 
this black ring becomes brownish, and on the second day after the 
death of the animal, a faint blue ring of the first order makes its 
appearance in the middle of it, and its double refraction, as exhibited 
by its polarized tint, increases from day to day, till the tint reaches 
the white of the first order. Simidtaneously with this change of 
colour, the breadth of this new ring gradually increases, encroaching 
slightly upon the inner positive ring, but considerably upon the 
second positive ring ; so that the black or neutral ring which sepa- 
rates the two positive structures, and in the middle of which a new 
luminous ring is created, divides itself into two black neutral rings, 
the one advancing outtvards, and diminishing the breadth as well as 
the intensity of the second series of positive sectors, and the other 
advancing inwards, and diminishing the breadth and intensity of the 
inner or central sectors. While these changes are going on, the 
outer luminous or negative ring advances inwards, encroaching also 
on the second positive ring. 

Upon examining the character of the new luminous ring, the de- 
velopment of which has produced all these changes, I found it to be 
negative, so that at a certain stage of these variations we have a posi- 
tive and a negative doubly refracting structure succeeding each other 
alternately, from the centre to the circumference of the lens, such 
as I have often observed in lenses taken from animals of greater age, 
and examined immediately after death. 

After this stage of perfect development, when there is a marked 
symmetry both in the relative size and polarizing intensities of the 
four series of sectors, the lens begins to break up. The new negative 
ring encroaches so much on the two positive ones, which it separates, 
that the outer one is sometimes completely extinguished, while the 
breadth and tint of the inner sectors are greatly diminished, so that 
the highest double refraction exists in the newly developed ring. In 
a day or two this ring also experiences a great change of distinctness 
and intensity, and the lens commonly bursts on the fifth or sixth day, 
sometimes in the direction of the septa or lines where its fibres have 
their origin and termination, and sometimes in other directions. 

In order to give a general idea of the cause of these singular 
changes, I may state that the capsule which incloses the lens is a 
highly elastic membrane — that it absorbs distilled water abundantly 

Vol. V. 1836. c 

18 SIXTH REPORT. — 183G. 

— and that, in consequence of this property, the lens gradually In- 
creases in bulk, and becomes more globular, till the capsule bursts 
with the expansive force of the overgrown lens. That the reaction 
of the elastic capsule contributes to modify the polarizing structure 
of the interior mass, cannot admit of a doubt, as it is easy tc prove 
that that structure is altered by mechanical pressure ; but I cannot 
conceive how such a reaction could create a new negative structure 
between two positive ones, and produce the other pheenoraena which 
I have described. I have been led therefore to the opinion, that 
there is in the crystalline lens the germ of the perfect structure, or 
rather the capability of its being developed by the absorption of the 
aqueous humour ; that this perfect structure is not produced till the 
animal frame is completely formed ; and that when it begins to 
decay the lens changes its density and its focal length, and some- 
times degenerates into that state which is characterized by hard and 
soft cataract. 

The results of which I have now given an exceedingly brief notice, 
appear to me to aiford a satisfactory explanation of those changes 
in the lens which terminate in cataract, a disease which seems to be 
more prevalent than in former times. Accidental circumstances 
have led me to study the progress of this disease in one peculiar 
case, in which it was arrested and cured ; and I am sanguine in the 
hope that a rational method of preventing, and even of stopping the 
progress of this alarming disease, before the laminae of the lens have 
been greatly separated or decomposed, may be deduced from the 
preceding observations. 

As the experiments, however, and views upon which this ex- 
pectation is founded, are more of a physiological than of a physical 
nature, 1 am desirous of submitting an account of them to the Me- 
dical Section, that they may undergo that strict examination which 
they could receive only from the experience and science of that di- 
«tinguished body. 

On the Lmvs of Double Refraction in Quartz. By J. M'Cullagh, 
Fellow of Ti-inity College, Dublin. 

Among the desiderata of optical science, one of the most remark- 
able is a mechanical theory of the laws of double refraction in quartz, 
or rock-crystal. These laws, which, as far as we know, are pecu- 
liar to that crystal, were made out by the successive labours of Ara- 
go, Biot, Fresnel, and Airy ; of whose researches a full account 
has been given in the Report on Physical Optics, drawn up for the 
Association by Professor Lloyd*. But the laws so discovered were 
merely isolated facts ; no connexion had been traced amongst them, 
if we except Fresnel's beautiful explanation of the rotatory phaeno- 
mena. It was the object of Mr. M'CuUagh's communication to 

* Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, vol. iii. 
p. 405—409. " 


prepare the way for a mechanical theory, by showing that all the 
phsenomena may be grouped together by means of a simple geome- 
trical hypothesis, which consists in the addition of certain terms 
(involving only one new constant,) to the ordinary differential equa- 
tions of vibratory motion. ITie ordinary equations contain two se- 
cond differential coefficients of the displacements — one with respect 
to the time, the other with respect to the coordinate z, perpendicular 
to the wave. The additional terms may be any odd differential co- 
efficients (with respect to z) of the alternate displacements, these 
coefficients being multiplied by a proper function of the length of a 
wave. The third differential coefficients are chosen for simplicity, 
because then the midtiplier is a constant quantitj''. Setting out from 
this hypothesis, we arrive immediately at all the known laws, and 
obtain at the same time a law that was previously unknown, and 
which is tecbnically called the law of ellipticity. This law is ex- 
tremely simple, being expressed by a quadratic equation. Two 
sets of experiments, made long ago by different observers, and re- 
lative to two classes of phenomena, between which no connexion 
was hitherto perceived, are now, by the law of ellipticity, connected 
in such a way, that the one may be comj)uted solely from the data 
furnished by the other ; the ellipticities observed by Mr. Airy in rays 
inclined to the axis of quartz, being computed from the angles of 
rotation obser\'ed by M. Biot in rays parallel to that axis, and a 
strict agreement being found between calculation and experiment. 
The discontinuous form of the wave-surface in quartz is also ex- 
plained, and its equation for the first time determined. The parti- 
culars of the investigation will be published in Vol. XVII. of the 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 

On Polarization. By the Rev. Edward Craig. 

The Rev. Mr. Craig read a paper to show that the phsenomena of 
polarization are consequences and indications of the molecular struc- 
ture of refracting substances, and explicable by it ; illustrating his 
views by some uniaxal crystals, and particularly the Iceland spar. 

On some Phenomena of Electrical Repulsion. By Wm. Snow Harris, 

The only connected and extensive series of experiments in statical 
electricity which have ever appeared are those of Coulombe, com- 
municated to the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris so long since 
as the years 1782 and 1789; since which time, if we except the 
valuable contributions of Professor Robison of Edinburgh, little 
has been effected in this department of science. Coulombe's highly 
important researches, however, altogether rest upon the principle of 
electrical repulsion, employed as a quantitative measure, through the 
agency of the proof plane and the torsion balance. The author 
therefore considers, that some further verification of the experi- 
mental processes resorted to by this distinguished philosopher is still a 

c 2 

20 SIXTH REPORT. — 1836. 

desideratum in common electricity, more especially as it may be 
shown that the divergence of similarly electrified bodies is, in its 
application to quantitative processes, liable to much discrepancy. 

The author exhibited his new species of balance, some account 
of which he had already submitted to the Physical Section at 
the last Meeting of the Association ; since this however it had 
undergone considerable revision. The reactive force of this in- 
strument, termed a biple balance from the peculiar principle of its 
action, is not derived from elasticity as in the balance of torsion of 
Coulombe, but is altogether dependent on gravity ; it seems ex- 
tremely well adapted to the measurement of small forces generally, 
and to researches in electricity and magnetism, and may be con- 
verted if required into a balance of torsion, free from many difficul- 
ties of a mechanical kind, generally attendant on the employment of 
that instrument. 

In examining the operation of the repulsive force between two 

small insulated discs of "4 of an inch in diameter, the author 

finds that the repulsion is not always in the ratio of the quantity of 

electricity with which either, or both the discs is charged ; or as the 

squares of the distances inversely, according to the general expres- 

sion yT^ deducible from Coulombe's researches. That hence the 

two constants R R of which we may suppose the force F to be 
made up, do not necessarily enter into the composition of the result, 
so as to cause the total force to increase or diminish with the elec- 
tricity contained in either. The author here referred to the tabulated 
results of above five hundred experiments, taken in a good insulating 
atmosphere. In these experiments the discs were both equally and 
unequally charged with electricity in known proportions, and placed 
at various distances apart. From these results it appeared. 

First, that the forces were only as the squares of the distances 
inversely when the repelling bodies were equally charged, and to a 
moderately high intensity, and even then this law did not alwaj's ob- 
tain at all distances; when the discs began to closely approximate 
the law was observed to vary, and at last to approach that of the in- 
verse simple distance. 

Second, the deviations from the general law deducible fi'om Cou- 
lombe's experiments are more apparent as the intensity of the charge 
is diminished, the inequality of the respective quantities with which 
each body is charged greater, and the distance less; under any or all 
of these conditions, the rate of Increase of the repulsive force dimi- 
nishes, and the repulsion is at length superseded by attraction. 

Third, the quantity of electricity contained in either of the re- 
pelling bodies