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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE 




REPORT 



OF THE 



ANNUAL MEETING, 1937 

(107th YEAR) 



NOTTINGHAM 

SEPTEMBER 1-8 



LONDON 

» OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION 
BURLINGTON HOUSE, LONDON, W.J 

1937 



Ill 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Officers and Council, 1937-38 ^' 

Sectional Officers, Nottingham Meeting, 1937 ix 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, Sums Paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes (1831-1937) xii 

Narrative of the Nottingham Meeting xvi 

Report of the Council to the General Committee (1936-37) .... xviii 

General Treasurer's Report and Account (1936-37) xxvi 

Research Committees (1937-38) xliii 

Resolutions and Recommendations (Nottingham Meeting) .... xlviii 

The Presidential Address : 

The History of Evolutionary Thought as recorded in Meetings of 
the British Association. By Prof. Sir Edward Poulton, 
D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S i 

Sectional Presidents' Addresses : 

Noise and the Nation. By Dr. G. W. C. Kaye, O.B.E 25 

Recent Research in Chemotherapy. By Dr. F. L. Pyman, F.R.S. 57 
Pleistocene History of the West Midlands. By Prof. L. J. Wills 71 

The Sex Ratio. By Prof. F. A. E. Crew 95 

The Changing Distribution of Population. By Prof. C. B. 

Fawcett 115 

Economic Research and Industrial Policy. By Prof. P. Sargant 

Florence 129 

Research in Engineering. By Sir Alexander Gibb, G.B.E., C.B., 

F.R.S. 151 

Assam Origins in relation to Oceania. By Prof. J. H. Hutton, 

CLE 161 

Heat Production, Nutrition and Growth in Man — Some New 

Views. By Dr. E. P. Poulton 185 

Tests in Common Use for the Diagnosis of Colour Defect. By 

Dr. Mary Collins 207 

The Modern Study of Plants in relation to Education. By Prof. 

E. J. Salisbury, F.R.S 227 

The Informative Content of Education. By H. G. Wells, 

D.Litt 237 

State Intervention in Agriculture. By J. M. Caie 249 



iv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Reports on the State of Science, etc 265 

Sectional Transactions 333 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 446 

Evening Discourse. By Dr. R. E. Slade 457 

Physiology as a Subject of General Education 474 

Planning the Land of Britain 486 

Radford Mather Lecture. By the Rt. Hon. J. Ramsay MacDonald, 

P.C, M.P., F.R.S 500 

Norman Lockyer Lecture. By Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler . . 512 

References to Publication of Communications to the Sections 519 



APPENDIX 

A Scientific Survey of Nottingham and District i 

Index 113 

Publications of the British Association (At end) 



CORRIGENDA, 

Section G. President's "Address. 

Page 153, lines 17, 18. Read [The National Physical Laboratory] had 
already a total staff of approximately 548. It has now 724. 

Section I. President's Address. 

Further work since Nottingham has shown a discrepancy between 
Benedict's and DuBois's results. Benedict's results (Fig. i, 2) are incom- 
patible with the variable combustion ratio, but are difficult to accept, because 
on the alternative theory of the constant combustion ratio an evolution of 
oxygen would be associated with an evolution of heat. DuBois's results 
are compatible with both theories. 

Calculations on pp. 196, 197 of Cal. per litre of oxygen resulting from 
conversion, at rest, after food and in muscular work also conform to both 
theories so far as they relate to R.Qs. from about 0.72 to i. 

Those results of DuBois, where there is a large change of rectal tempera- 
ture during the experiment, with a resulting large difference between 
' direct calorimetric ' and ' eliminated ' heat are uncertain and these form a 
large proportion of the results outside the theoretical limits for Oo and 
Cal. in Fig. 3, and also account for the apparent similarity of the results of 
DuBois and Benedict mentioned on p. 191. Consequently there is no 
absolute disproof of the variable combustion ratio ; but the constancy of 
the CO2 over the range of quotients among other things makes the constant 
combustion ratio more probable and basal metabolism is still best defined 
and measured by the CO2 alone as indicated on p. 200 and the other deduc- 
tions from p. 200 onwards stand. It is hoped that a final discussion of this 
subject will appear in the Guy's Hospital Reports. 

Section L. President's Address. 
Page 242, line 30. For ' terrestrial ' read ' territorial.' 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



OFFICERS & COUNCIL, 1937-38. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT, 1937. 
Prof. Sir Edward Poulton, D.Sc, IX.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT, 1938. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS FOR THE NOTTINGHAM MEETING. 



Sir Albert Ball, J. P. 

Major T. P. Barber, D.S.O., LL.D., 
T.D., J.P. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Belper, D.L., J.P. 

SirW. J. Board, O.B.E. 

Sir Harold Bowden, Bart., G.B.E. 

Alderman H. Bowles, J.P. 

Sir JULIEN Cahn, Bart., J.P. 

The Very Rev. the Provost of 
. Southwell (Archdeacon W. Cony- 
beare). 

J. H. Cooper. 

Alderman J. N. Derbyshire, J.P. 

The Mayor of Lincoln (J. E. Ford- 
ham). 

Judge G. M. T. Hildyard, K.C, D.L. 

R. G. Hogarth, C.B.E., F.R.C.S., 
LL.D., J.P. 

Alderman E. Huntsman. 



Brig. -Gen. Sir Edward T. Le Mar- 
chant, Bart., C.B.E., D.L., J.P. 

The Bishop of Southwell (The Rt. 
Rev. H. MosLEY, M.A., D.D.). 

Sir Louis Pearson, C.B.E. 

Lt.-Col. N. G. Pearson, D.S.O., M.C. 

The Mayor of Derby (Mrs. Petty). 

J. D. Player, J.P. 

W. G. Player, J.P. 

His Grace the Duke of Portland, 
K.G., G.C.V.O. 

The Lord Mayor of Nottingham 
(Councillor A. E. Purser, J. P.). 

Sir Albion H. H. Richardson, K.C. 

Lady Robinson. 

The Sheriff of Nottingham (Coun- 
cillor A. E. Savage). 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Trent. 

Sir Bernard S. Wright, J.P. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT FOR THE CAMBRIDGE MEETING. 



The Chancellor of the University 
(Rt. Hon. the Earl Baldwin of 
Bewdley, P.C, F.R.S.). 

The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity (Professor H. R. Dean, 
M.D., Master of Trinity Hall). 

The High Steward of the Uni- 
versity and of the Borough (His 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire, 
K.G., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., P.C). 

The Lord Lieutenant of Cambridge- 
shire (C. R. W. Adeane, C.B., J. P.). 

The High Sheriff for Cambridge- 
shire AND Huntingdonshire (T. 
Peake, J. p.). 

The Mayor of Cambridge (E. Saville 
Peck, M.A.). 



Alderman W. L. Briggs, J.P. 

The Chairman of the Cambridge- 
shire County Council (H. 
Franklin). 

The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of Ely 
(Rt. Rev. B. O. F. Heywood, D.D.). 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Fairhaven, D.L. 

W. A. H. Harding, M.A. 

W. W. Pemberton, M.B., B.Ch., J.P. 

Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S 

Sir F. Gowland Hopkins, O.M., F.R.S. 

Sir Albert Seward, F.R.S. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely (Very 
Rev. Lionel E. Blackburne, M.A.). 

Rev. Prof. C. E. Raven, D.D. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Prof. P. G. H. BoswELL, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Prof. F. T. Brooks, M.A., F.R.S. | Prof. Allan Ferguson, D.Sc. 

SECRETARY. 

O. J. R. Howarth, O.B.E., Ph.D. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

D. N. Lowe, M.A., B.Sc. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Dr. F. W. Aston, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. Aveling. 

Prof. F. Balfour-Browne. 

Sir T. Hudson Beare. 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Bledisloe, 

G.C.M.G., G.B.E. 
Prof. R. N. Rudmose Brown. 
Dr. W. T. Calman, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Debenham. 
Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S. 
H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E. 
Prof. A. V. Hill, Sec.R.S. 



Prof. T. G. Hill. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe. 

Prof. T. S. Moore. 

Prof. J. C. Philip, O.B.E., F.R.S. 
P.C, Prof. J. G. Smith. 

W. Campbell Smith. 

Dr. C Tierney. 

Dr. W. W. Vaughan, M.V.O. 

Dr. J. A. Venn. 

Prof. Sir Gilbert Walker, C.S.I., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss, F.R.S. 

Dr. R. S. Whipple. 
J. S. Wilson. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Past-Presidents of the Association, the President for the year, the President and 
Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Annual Meeting, past and present General 
Treasurers and General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries 
for the Annual Meetings immediately past and ensuing. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL vii 

PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Sir T T Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. I Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.S.I., 

(1909). I K.C.I.E., F.R.S. (1929). 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. {1913)- ' P^of. F. O. Bower. F.R.S. (1930). 

Sir Arthur Evans. F.R.S. (1916-18). i ^^^h^^F R s"(i9s/)' ' 

Prof. Sir C. S. Sherrington, O.M., ^.^ ■f.'gowland Hopkins, Pres.R.S. 



G.B.E., F.R.S. (1922) 



1033)- 



H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G., ; g.r James H. Jeans, F.R.S. (1934). 



D.C.L., F.R.S. (1926). 
Prof. Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S. (1927)- 
Prof. Sir William H. Bragg, O.M., 

K.B.E., F.R.S. {1928). 



Prof. W. W. Watts, LL.D.. ScD., 

F.R.S. (1935)- 
Sir JosiAH Stamp, G.C.B., G.B.E., 

D.Sc. (1936). 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Prof J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. Sir Frank Smith, K.C.B., C.B.E., 

Sec.R.S. 
Prof. F. J. M. Stratton, D.S.O., O.B.E., M.A. 

HON. AUDITORS 

Dr. EzER Griffiths, F.R.S. | Dr. R. S. Whipple. 

HON. CURATOR OF DOWN HOUSE. 

Sir Buckston Browne, F.R.C.S. 



LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE NOTTINGHAM MEETING. 

COMMITTEE. 

The General Purposes Committee of the Council of the City of 

Nottingham. 

CHAIRMAN. 
Alderman Sir Bernard S. Wright, Kt.. J. P. 

VICE-CHAIRMAN. 

Alderman H. Bowles, J.P. 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 

J. E. Richards (Town Clerk of Nottingham). 
H. a. S. Wortley, M.A., J.P. (Principal, University College, Nottingham). 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
J. W. Harding, M.B.E. 



viii OFFICERS AND COUNCIL 

LOCAL OFFICERS 
FOR THE CAMBRIDGE MEETING. 

LOCAL HON. SECRETARIES. 



C. H. Kemp. 
A. Tabrum. 



F. P. White. 

E. N. WlLLMER. 



LOCAL HON. TREASURERS. 

R. Ede. I R. H. Parker. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1937 ix 



SECTIONAL OFFICERS. 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

President.— Dt. G. W. C. Kaye, O.B.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. L. F. Bates, Prof. Allan Ferguson, Prof. E. H. Neville, 

Prof. H. T. H. PiAGGio. 
Recorder. — Dr. Ezer Griffiths, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— J. H. Awbery, Prof. W. H. McCrea, Dr. D. M. Wrinch. 
Local Secretaries. — -N. Davy, H. G. Green. 



B.— CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Dr. F. L. Pyman, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. E. Easterfield, Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S., Prof. 

J. W. McBain, Prof. J. C. Philip, O.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. R. Robinson, 

F.R.S., Prof. H. S. Taylor. 
Recorder. — Prof. J. M. Gulland. 

Secretaries. — Prof. J. E. Coates, Dr. H. J. T. Ellingham, T. W. J. Taylor. 
Local Secretary. — Dr. J. B. Firth. 



C— GEOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. L. J. Wills. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. H. H. Bemrose, Prof. J. W. Carr, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, 

A. T. Metcalfe, Prof. V. J. Novak, Dr. R. Richter, Prof. E. W. Skeats, 

Prof. H. H. Swinnerton. 
Recorder. — I. S. Double. 

Secretaries. — B. Hilton Barrett, W. H. Wilcockson. 
Local Secretary. — S. G. Clift. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. F. A. E. Crew. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. W. Carr, Prof. Ross Harrison, Dr. J. S. Huxley, 

Dr. D. G. J. VAN Ogrdt. 
Recorder. — Prof. W. M. Tattersall. 
Secretary. — Dr. G. S. Carter. 
Local Secretary. — E. J. W. Barrington. 



E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Prof. C. B. Fawcett. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. P. W. Bryan, Dr. C. Fenner, Prof. E. G. R. Taylor, 
Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., Principal H. A. S. 

WORTLEY. 

Recorder. — H. King. 

Secretaries. — J. N. L. Baker, Dr. R. O. Buchanan. 

Local Secretary. — K. C. Edwards. 



X OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1937 

F.— ECONOMICS. 

President. — Prof. P. Sargant Florence. 

Vice-Presidents. — -C. Berry, Prof. S. Blythen, Dr. C. R. Fay, A. Radford, 

A. C. Roe, W. Wesson. 
Recorder. — Dr. P. Ford. 

Secretaries . — S. R. Dennison, E. D. McCallum. 
Local Secretary. — A. Radford. 



G.— ENGINEERING. 

President. — -Sir Alexander Gibb, G.B.E., C.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — -Prof. C. H. Bulleid, Prof. H. Cotton, Prof. W. Cramp, 

R. M. Finch, W. H. Haile, Sir E. Jardine, A. D. Philips. 
Recorder. — ^Wing-Commander T. R. Cave-Browne-Cave, C.B.E. 
Secretaries. — -H. M. Clarke, C. W. J. Taffs. 
Local Secretary. — R. G. Robertson. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— PtoL J. H. Hutton, CLE. 

Vice-Presidents. — A. L. Armstrong, Dr. J. Butter, Dr. C. von Furer Haimen- 

dorf, J. Hornell, Prof. A. Low. 
Recorder. — R. U. Sayce. 
Secretaries . — -Miss C. Fell, K. H. Jackson. 
Local Secretary. — A. H. McDonald. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. E. P. Poulton. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Cyril Banks, Dr. L. P. Lockhart, Prof. R. J. S. 

McDOWALL. 

Recorder. — Prof. H. P. Gilding. 

Secretaries . — Prof. R. C. Garry, Prof. A. D. Macdoxald. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. H. H. Barber. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. Mary Collins. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. P. B. Ballard, R. J. Bartlett, Prof. T. V. Moore, Prof. 

H. T. H. PiAGGio, Dr. R. H. Thouless, A. W. Wolters. 
Recorder. — Dr. S. J. F. Philpott. 
Secretaries. — Dr. Hilda Oldham, Dr. P. E. Vernon. 
Local Secretary. — ^W. J. H. Sprott. 



K.— BOTANY. 

President. — -Prof. E. J. Salisbury, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. T. A. Bennet-Clark, Prof. H. S. Holden, J. Rams- 
bottom, O.B.E., Hon. N. A. Orde-Powlett (Chairman, Dept. of Forestr\% 
K*). 

Recorder. — -Dr. B. Barnes. 

Secretaries. — Dr. G. Taylor, T. Thomson, Dr. S. Williams. 

Local Secretary. — Miss D. Bexon. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1937 xi 

L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — H. G. Wells, D.Litt. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. C. M. Attlee, B. W. L. Bulkeley, Prof. F. Clarke, 
G. D. DuNKERLEY, Sir Richard Livingstone. A. H. Whipple, Principal 

H. A. S. WORTLEY. 

Recorder. — A. Gray Jones. 

Secretaries. — S. R. Humby, N. F. Sheppard. 

Local Secretary. — Dr. M. M. Lewis. 



M.— AGRICULTURE. 

President. — J. M. Caie. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. G. A. Currie, Prof. J. Hendrick, Principal H. G. 

Robinson. 
Recorder. — W. Godden. 
Secretary. — G. V. Jacks. 
Local Secretary. — R. N. Dowling. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

President. — Prof. J. Ritchie. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. Tierney. 



Xll 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



TABLE OF 



Date of Meeting 



Where held 



1831, Sept. 

1832, June 

1833, June 

1834, Sept. 

1835, Aug. 

1836, Aug. 

1837, Sept. 

1838, Aug. 

1839, Aug. 

1840, Sept. 

1 84 1, July 

1842, June 

1843, Aug. 

1844, Sept. 

1845, June 

1846, Sept. 

1847, June 

1848, Aug. 

1849, Sept. 

1850, July 

1851, July 

1852, Sept. 

1853, Sept. 

1854, Sept. 

1855, Sept. 

1856, Aug. 

1857, Aug. 

1858, Sept. 

1859, Sept. 
i860, June 

1861, Sept. 

1862, Oct. 

1863, Aug. 

1864, Sept. 

1865, Sept. 

1866, Aug. 

1867, Sept. 

1868, Aug. 

1869, Aug. 

1870, Sept. 

1871, Aug. 

1872, Aug. 

1873, Sept. 

1874, Aug. 

1875, Aug. 

1876, Sept. 

1877, Aug. 

1878, Aug. 

1879, Aug. 

1880, Aug. 

1881, Aug. 

1882, Aug. 

1883, Sept. 

1884, Aug. 

1885, Sept. 

1886, Sept. 

1887, Aug. 

1888, Sept. 

1889, Sept. 

1890, Sept. 

1891, Aug. 

1892, Aug. 

1893, Sept. 

1894, Aug. 

1895, Sept. 

1896, Sept. 

1897, Aug. 

1898, Sept. 

1899, Sept. 



27.. 

19 

25 

8 .. 
10.. 
22 .. 

II.. 
10.. 
26.. 

17 

20 .. 
23.. 
17.. 
26.. 

19 
10., 

23 

9 .. 

12.. 

21 .. 



12.. 
6 .. 
26.. 

22.. 
14.. 
27 
4 .. 
I 

26.. 
13.. 

6 .. 
22 .. 

4 .. 
19.. 
18.. 
14.. 

2 .. 
14.. 
17.. 
19.. 
25.. 

6 .. 
15.. 
14.. 
20., 

25-. 
31.. 

23-. 
19- 
27-. 
9 ■ 
I ., 

31- 

5 • 
II. 

3 • 
19., 

3 • 
13 

8 ., 
II.. 
16. 

18., 

7 .. 
13.. 



York 

Oxfoid 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 



20 1 Liverpool 



Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin.. 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Leeds 

CardiS 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Brittol 

Dover 



Presidents 



Viscount Milton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

SirT. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S. ... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
The Marquisof Northampton, Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut. -General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof . C. G. B. Daubeney, M.D., F.R.S. . 

The Rev. H. Uoyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbaim, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. . 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter* F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. ... 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Dster, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec. R.S. . . . 



Old Ufe 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


to 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


J5 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


II 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


'4 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


3' 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


30 



'■^ Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets nntil 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only . 

{Continued on p. xiv. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



xiu 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Old 


New 


Annual 


Annual 


Members 


Members 



Asso- 
ciates 



Ladies Foreigners Total 



46 

75 

71 

45 

94 

65 
197 

54 

93 
128 

61 

63 

56 
121 
142 
104 
156 
III 
125 
177 
184 
150 
154 
182 
215 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 
3" 
280 

237 
232 
307 
331 
238 
290 

239 
171 

313 

253 
330 
317 
332 
428 
510 
399 
412 
368 
341 
413 
328 

435 
290 

383 
286 
327 
324 



317 
376 
185 
190 

22 

39 
40 
25 
33 
42 
47 
60 
57 
121 

lOI 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 

41 

176 

79 
323 
219 
122 
179 
244 
100 

"3 

92 

152 

141 

57 

69 

31 

139 

125 

96 

68 



33t 

9t 

407 

270 

495 

376 

447 

510 

244 

5IO 

367 

765 

1094 

412 

900 

710 

1206 

636 

1589 

433 

1704 

II19 

766 

960 

1163 

720 

678 

1 103 

976 

937 

796 

817 

884 

1265 

446 

1285 

529 

389 

1230 

516 

952 

826 

1053 
1067 

1985 
639 

1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 

493 
1384 

682 
105 1 

548 



Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 



Sums paid 
on account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Purposes 



Year 



6o* 

331* 

160 

260 

172 

196 

203 

197 

237 

273 

141 

292 

236 

524 

543 

346 

569 

509 
821 

463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 
74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
579 
334 
1^7 

439 

268 

451 
261 

873 
100 

639 

120 






353 






I 


— 


I83I 











— 


1832 


— 


900 






— 


1833 





1298 






£20 


1834 





— 






167 


1835 


— 


1350 






435 


1836 


— 


1840 






922 12 6 


1837 


— 


2400 


— 






932 2 2 


1838 


34 


1438 








1595 II 


1839 


40 


1353 


— 






1546 16 4 


1840 




891 


— 






1235 10 II 


184I 


28 


1315 


— 






1449 17 8 


1842 













1565 10 2 


1843 





— 








981 12 8 


1844 


35 


1079 






831 9 9 


1845 


36 


857 






685 16 


1846 


53 


1320 






208 5 4 


1847 


15 


819 


£707 





275 I 8 


1848 


22 


1071 


963 








159 19 6 


1849 


44 


1241 


1085 








345 18 


1850 


37 


710 


620 








391 9 7 


1851 


9 


1108 


1085 





304 6 7 


1852 


6 


876 


903 








205 


1853 


10 


1802 


1882 








380 19 7 


1854 


26 


2133 


2311 








480 16 4 


1855 


9 


1115 


1098 








734 13 9 


1855 


26 


2022 


2015 








507 15 4 


1857 


13 


1698 


1931 








618 18 2 


1858 


22 


2564 


2782 








684 II I 


1859 


47 


1689 


1604 








766 19 6 


i860 


15 


3138 


3944 








iili 5 10 


1861 


25 


1161 


1089 








1293 16 6 


1862 


1 25 


3335 


3640 








1608 3 10 


1863 


! 13 


2802 


2965 








1289 15 8 


1864 


23 


1997 


2227 








1591 7 10 


1865 


II 


2303 


2469 








1750 13 4 


1866 


7 


2444 


2613 








1739 4 


1867 


45t 


2004 


2042 








1940 


1868 


17 


1856 


1931 








1622 


1869 


14 


2878 


3096 








1572 


1870 


21 


2463 


2575 








1472 2 6 


I87I 


43 


2533 


2649 








1285 


1872 


: II 


1983 


2120 








1685 


1873 


! 12 


1951 


1979 








1151 i5 


1874 


17 


2248 


2397 








960 


1875 


25 


277+ 


3023 








1092 4 2 


1876 


II 


1229 


1268 








1128 9 7 


1877 


17 


2578 


2615 








725 16 6 


1878 


1 13 


1404 


1425 








1080 II n 


1879 


1 12 


915 


899 








731 7 7 


1880 


24 


2557 


2689 








476 8 I 


I88I 


21 


1253 


1286 








1126 I II 


1882 


< 5 


2714 


3369 








1083 3 3 


1883 


:26&6oH.§ 


1777 


1855 








1173 4 


1884 


6 


2203 


2256 








1385 


1885 


II 


2453 


2532 








995 6 


1886 


92 


3838 


4336 








1186 18 


1887 


12 


1984 


2107 








1511 5 


1888 


21 


2437 


2441 








1417 II 


1889 


12 


1775 


1776 








789 16 8 


1890 


35 


1497 


1664 








1029 10 


I89I 


' 50 


2070 


2007 








864 10 


1892 


17 


1661 


1653 








907 15 6 


1893 


77 


2321 


2175 








583 15 6 


1894 


22 


1324 


1 1236 








977 15 5 


1895 


41 


3181 


: 3228 








I 104 6 I 


1896 


41 


1362 


I 1398 








1059 10 8 


1897 


! 33 


2446 


2399 








I2I2 


1898 


1 ^7 


1403 


1328 








j 1430 14 2 


1899 



J Including Ladies. § FeUows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 

[Continued on p. xv. 



XIV 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



TcAle of 



Date of Meeting 



I goo, 
1901, 
1902, 

1903. 
1904, 
1905. 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913. 
1914, 
1915. 
1916, 
1917 
1918 
1919, 



Sept. 5 .... 
Sept. II.... 
Sept. 10.... 
Sept. 9 .... 
Aug. 17.... 
Aug. 15 .... 
Aug. I .... 
JuJy 31 .... 
Sept. 2 .... 
Aug. 25 .... 
Aug. 31 .... 
Aug. 30 .... 
Sept. 4 .... 
Sept. 10.... 
July-Sept. 
Sept. 7 •••■ 
Sept. 5 ■■■■ 



Sept. 9. 



Where held 



Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

Portsmouth 

Dundee 

Birmingham 

Australia 

Manchester 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

(No Meeting) 

(No Meeting) 

Bournemouth 



Presidents 



1920, Aug. 24 Cardiff .... 

1921, Sept. 7 1 Edinburgh. 

1922, Sept. 6 Hull 



1923, Sept. 

1924, Aug. 

1925, Aug. 

1926, Aug. 

1927, Aug. 

1928, Sept. 

1929, July 

1930, Sept. 

1931, Sept. 

1932, Aug. 

1933, Sept. 

1934, Sept. 

1935, Sept. 

1936, Sept. 

1937, Sept. 



12. 
6 . 
26. 

4 • 

31 ■ 

5 • 



3 • 
23- 

31- 

6 . 

5 • 

4 ■ 
9 • 
I . 



Sir William Turner, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Rucker, D.Sc., Sec. R.S. 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J . Balfour, M.P., F.R.S..., 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S, 

Sir David GUI, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S , 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 

\ Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S 

1 

Hon. SirC. Parsons, K.C.B., F.R.S.. 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Sir T. E.Thorpe, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir C.S.Sherrington, G.B.E., Pres. R.S 



, F.R.S 

K.C.S.I. 



Liverpool Sir Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S 

Toronto Sir David Bruce, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Southampton Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S 

Oxford H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G. 

F.R.S 

Leeds Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S 

Glasgow Sir William Bragg, K.B.E. 

South Africa Sir Thomas Holland, 

K.C.I.E., F.R.S 

Bristol Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S 

London Gen. the Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts, P.C. 

C TT F R S 

York Sir AlfrWEwi"ngrK.C.B.,'F.'R!s.'"!!!! 

Leicester Sir F. Gowland Hopkins, Pres. R.S. .. 

-Aberdeen ' Sir James H. Jeans, F.R.S." 

Norwich 1 Prof. W.W. Watts, F.R.S 

Blackpool ' Sir Josiah Stamp, G.C.B., G.B.E 

Nottingham | Sir Edward B. Poulton, F.R.S 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 


117 


13 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 


376 


40 


172 


13 


242 


19 


164 


12 


235 


47 


288 


II 


336 


9 


228 


13 


326 


12 


119 


7 


280 


8 


358 


9 


249 


9 


260 


10 


81 


I 


221 


5 


487 


14 


206 


I 


185 


37 


199 


21 


191 


II 


188 


10 


213 


6 



' Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

* Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

' Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Association Frangaise at Le Havre. 

* Including Students' Tickets, los. 

' Including Exhibitioners granted tickets without charge. 

' Including grants from the Caird Fund in this and subsequent years. 

' Including Foreign Guests, Exhibitioners, and others. 



ANNUAL MEETINGS 



XV 



Annual Meetings — (continued). 
















Old 
Annual 
Members 


Members "^'*^ 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


ToUl 


Amount 
received 

for 
Tickets 


Stmis paid 
on account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 




297 


45 801 


482 


9 


1915 


£1801 





£1072 10 


1900 




374 


131 794 


246 


20 


1912 


2046 





920 9 11 


1 901 




314 


86 647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 





947 


1902 




319 


90 688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 





845 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 





887 18 II 


1904 




1 
937 


411 430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 





928 2 2 


1905 




356 


93 817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 





882 9 


1906 




339 


61 659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 





757 12 10 


1907 




465 


112 I166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 





1157 18 8 


1908 




290' 


162 789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 





1014 9 9 


1909 




379 


57 563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 





963 17 


1910 




349 


61 414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 





922 


1911 




368 


95 1292 


359 


88 


2504 


2349 





845 7 6 


1912 




480 


149 1287 


291 


20 


2643 


2756 





978 17 I 


1913 




190 


4160' 539' 




21 


5044" 


4873 





1861 16 4' 


1914 




287 


116 628* 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 





1569 2 8 


1915 




250 


76 251* 


73 


— 


826 


821 





985 18 10 


1916 










— 


— 


— 




677 17 2 


1917 










— 


— 


— 


— 




326 13 3 


1918 




254 


102 688* 


153 


3 


1482 


1736 





410 


1919 




' 


LDDual Members 








Old 
Annual 




Transfer- 
able 


Students' 






















Regular W 
Members 

I 


eeting 
and 
ieport 


Meeting 
only 


Tickets 


Tickets 
















136 


192 


571 


42 


120 


20 


1380 


1272 10 





1251 13 o' 


1920 




133 


410 


1394 


121 


343 


22 


2768 


2599 15 





518 I 10 


192 1 




90 


294 


757 


89 


235' 


24 


1730 


1699 5 





722 7 


1922 




Compli- 














mentary' 














123 


380 


1434 


163 


550 


308 


3296 


2735 15 





777 18 6* 


1923 




37 


520 


1866 


41 


89 


139 


2818 


3165 19 


0" 


"97 5 9 


1924 




97 


264 


878 


62 


119 


74 


1782 


1630 5 





1231 


1925 




lOI 


453 


2338 


169 


225 


69 


3722 


3542 





917 I 6 


1926 




84 


334 


1487 


82 


264 


161 


2670 


2414 5 





761 10 


1927 




76 


554 


1835 


64 


201 


74 


3074 


3072 10 





1259 10 


1928 




24 


177 


1227" 





161 


83 


1754 


1477 15 





2193 2 I 


1929 




68 


310 


1617 


97 


267 


54 


2639 


2481 15 





631 I 9 


1930 




78 


656 


2994 


157 


454 


449 


5702" 


4792 10 





131Q 9 6 


1931 




44 


226 


I163 


45 


214 


125 


2024 


1724 5 





1218 13 II 


1932 




39 


236 


1468 


82 


147 


74 


2268 


2428 2 





562 19 11" 


1933 




30 


273 


1884 


i8i 


280 


70 


2938 


2900 13 


6 


1423 4 9 


1934 




29 


237 


1444 


142 


197 


70 


2321 


2218 14 





1649 2 4 


1935 




29 


257 


1184 


128 


178 


93 


2067 


2006 14 





I' 98 I I 


1936 




J8 1 


290 


1096 


102 


200 


92 


2027 


1883 12 





720 15 I 


1937 



' The Bournemouth Fund for Research, initiated by Sir C. Parsons, enabled grants on account of 
scientific purposes to be maintained. 

" Including grants from the Caird Gift for research in radioactivity in this and subsequent years 
to 1926. 

" Subscriptions paid in Canada were $5 for Meeting only and others pro rata ; there was some gam 
on exchange. 

" Including 450 Members of the South African Association. 

" Including 413 tickets for certain meetings, issued at 5s. to London County Council school-teachers. 

" For nine months ending March 31, 1933. 

" Sir William B. Hardy, F.R.S., who became President on January i, 1934, died on January 23. 



NARRATIVE OF THE NOTTINGHAM 

MEETING. 



On Wednesday, September i, at 8.30 p.m., the Inaugural General Meeting 
was held in the Albert Hall, Derby Road, when the Rt. Worshipful the 
Lord Mayor of Nottingham (Councillor A. E. Purser) welcomed the 
Association to Nottingham. The President of the Association, Prof. Sir 
Edward B. Poulton, F.R.S., delivered an address (for which see p. i) 
entitled The History of Evolutionary Thought, as recorded at Meetings of the 
British Association. 

Evening Discourses were delivered to the Members as follows : 

(i) Friday, September 3, Great Hall, University College, at 8.30 p.m. 

Dr. R. E. Slade : Grass and the National Food Supply. (See p. 457.) 
(2) Monday, September 6, Albert Hall, Derby Road, at 8.30 p.m.. 

Prof. J. Gray, F.R.S. : The Mentality of Fishes. 

Public lectures were delivered as follows : 
Lincoln. 

Mr. R. Kay Gresswell : Rivers and Waterways. At the New Co-operative 
Hall, Lincoln, on Friday, September 3, at 8 p.m. 

Mansfield. 

Prof. J. Walton : Coal and its Origin. At the Lecture Theatre, 
Technical College, Mansfield, on Friday, September 3, at 7.30 p.m. 

Nottingham. 

Prof. H. Hartridge, F.R.S. : Illusions of Colour. At the Hippodrome 
Picture Theatre, Theatre Square, Nottingham, on Sunday, September 5, 
at 8.15 p.m. 

Derby. 

Sir Gilbert Walker, C.S.L, F.R.S. : The Mechanics of Sport. At the 
Guildhall, Derby, on Monday, September 6, at 8 p.m. 

Newark-on-Trent. 

Mr. T. M. Herbert : The Transport of Food. At the County Technical 
College, Newark-on-Trent, on Monday, September 6, at 7.30 P.M. 

Long Eaton. 

Dr. J. E. R. Constable : Science in Every-day Life. At the County 
Secondary School, Long Eaton, on Tuesday, September 7, at 8 P.M. 

A lecture to school children was given by Dr. Alexander Wood on 
Noise, at the Cottesmore School Hall, Derby Road, Nottingham, on 
Friday, September 3, at 2.30 p.m. 



NARRATIVE OF THE NOTTINGHAM MEETING xvii 

A summary of Sectional Transactions on September 2-8 will be found 
on pp. 333 and following. All Sections had their meeting-rooms, 
together with the Reception Room, in the University College or immedi- 
ately adjacent thereto. 

The Lord Mayor and Corporation of the City of Nottingham enter- 
tained members of the Association at a Reception in the Castle Museum 
on Thursday evening, September 2. 

A Garden Party was given by the Headmaster of Repton School, at 
the School, on Monday, September 6. 

A Garden Party was given by the Council of University College, 
Nottingham, in the College, on Tuesday, September 7. 

On Saturday, September 4, general excursions were arranged : 
(i) To Southwell, Newark, Lincoln (where the Mayor of Lincoln 
entertained the party). 

(2) To Shervvood Forest and the Dukeries. 

(3) Through Derbyshire (His Grace the Duke of Devonshire receiving 
the party at Chatsworth). 

Other excursions and visits devoted to the interests of special Sections 
are mentioned among the Sectional Transactions in later pages. 

A special service was held at St. Mary's Parish Church on Sunday 
morning, September 5, when the preacher was the Vicar (the Rt. Rev. 
Neville S. Talbot, D.D., M.C.). Special services were held in other 
places of worship also. 

At the final meeting of the General Committee, on Wednesday, 
September 8, it was resolved : 

That the British Association places on record its warm thanks for the 
reception accorded to it by the City of Nottingham. The generous co- 
operation of the City Council and the thorough preparations made by the 
local officers have been deeply appreciated. The Association also extends 
most cordial thanks to the commercial, industrial, and educational institu- 
tions in Nottingham and the neighbourhood, which have so generously 
provided accommodation and facilities for meetings, excursions, and visits. 
A special expression of gratitude is offered to the authorities of the University 
College, who have provided the most convenient possible arrangements for 
the Reception Room and for the sectional and other meetings. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37. 



H.M. King George VI, Patron of the Association. 

I. — His Majesty The King has been graciously pleased to confer his 
Patronage upon the Association. 

II. — The following Address has been forwarded to His Majesty : — 

To The King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

May it please Your Majesty, 

We, the President and Council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, humbly submit to Your Majesty and to Her 
Majesty The Queen our heartfelt good wishes on Your Accession. We 
trust that Your Majesty's Reign may mark an era of peaceful progress, 
shared by Your Majesty's peoples with mankind at large ; and that to 
such progress Science may contribute its full share. To assure that end 
will be the constant aim of the Association, inspired thereto by the 
Patronage which Your Majesty has been graciously pleased to confer 
upon it. 

III. — The President, Prof. Sir Edward Poulton, F.R.S., accepted an 
invitation to represent the Association at the ceremony of Their Majesties' 
Coronation in Westminster Abbey. 

Obituary. 

IV. — The Council have had to deplore the loss by death of the following 
ofBce-bearers and supporters : — 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. Sir D. Orme Masson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. W. Borthwick Hon. W. Pember Reeves 

Prof. E. B. Elliot, F.R.S. Mr. J. H. Reynolds 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S. Rt. Hon. Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 

Prof. D. F. Eraser-Harris Prof. Sir G. Elliot Smith. F.R.S. 

Sir Albert Kitson, C.M.G. Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. M. Lowry, F.R.S. Mr. W. Taylor, F.R.S. 

Dr. F. S. Macaulay, F.R.S. Dr. Max Weber 

Prof. J. A. MacWilliam Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S. 



Representation. 

V. — Representatives of the Association have been appointed as 
follows : — 

Coronation of Their Majesties The King 

and Queen, Westminster Abbey, May 12 Prof. Sir E. B. Poulton, 

F.R.S., President. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37 xix 

British National Committee on Geodesy 

and Geophysics .... Dr. H. Jeffreys, F.R.S. 

British National Committee on Geography Prof. R. N. Rudmose- 

Brown. 
Joint Committee of Anthropological Re- 
search and Teaching .... Dr. H. S. Harrison. 
Publications Committee of the Royal 

Society on bibliographical reference . The Secretary. 
Association Frangaise pour I'Avancement 

des Sciences, Paris, May 18-22 . . Lt.-Col. W. Campbell 

Smith, T.D., M.C. 
American Association for the Advancement 

of Science, looth iVIeeting, June 21-26 . Prof. N. V. Sidgwick, 

C.B.E., F.R.S. 
Association Frangaise pour I'Avancement 

des Sciences, Paris, July 24-27 . . Prof. C. S. Spearman, 

F.R.S. 
Buchan Club, Jubilee Meeting, Peterhead, 

August 7 . . . . . . Prof. J. Ritchie. 

Professor Sidgwick accepted the invitation of the American Association 
to deliver the Hector Maiben Lecture at the above meeting. 



Resolutions and Recommendations. 

VL — Resolutions and recommendations, referred by the General 
Committee to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, for action, 
were dealt with as follows. The resolutions will be found in the Report 
for 1936, p. Ixi. 

{a) The following resolution, received from Section B (Chemistry) 
at the Blackpool Meeting, was considered at a special meeting of the 
Council : — 

The members of the Committee of Section B, in agreement with the 
views expressed in their President's address regarding science and 
warfare, request the General Committee to secure all possible publicity 
for the following : (i) The extent to which Chemistry is applied for 
beneficent purposes in connection with the industry of the British 
nation and the health of its citizens, is enormously greater than the 
scope of its employment for purposes of warfare. (2) Whilst the 
individual must remain free to determine his own action in relation to 
national defence, chemists as a body view with grave concern the 
increasing use of science for destructive ends. 

After full consideration, and examination of the wording as affecting all 
Sections, it was resolved by a majority that no action be taken. 

{b) Following upon a resolution of Section C (Geology), the Council 
considered the report of a Committee of that Section on the teaching 
of geology in schools, approved its circulation to authorities con- 
sidering syllabuses about the close of the year 1936, and appointed 
a committee, under the chairmanship of Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S., to 
consider and deal with any further distribution. 

b 



XX REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37 

(c) At the request of the Council, the Geological Society agreed to 
forward to the International Geological Congress the suggestion that 
recent evidence of climatic change should be discussed at the Congress, 
(Resolution of Section C, Geology.) 

(d) A resolution from Section G (Engineering), referring to legal 
procedure in connection with patent actions, was not adopted. 

(e) The Councils for the Preservation of Rural England, Scotland, 
and Wales were informed that the subject of rubbish dumping had 
been brought before the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 
Societies, and that the Council would be pleased to offer the collabora- 
tion of the Association, through its Corresponding Societies, if it should 
appear to the Councils addressed that such collaboration would be 
useful. (Resolution of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 
Societies.) 

(/) The following resolution was received from the Conference of 
Delegates of Corresponding Societies : — 

To request the Council of the British Association to support the 
Council for the Preservation of Rural England in its endeavour to 
stimulate His Majesty's Government to consider and take action upon 
the report of the Government Committee on National Parks. 

This resolution was adopted by the Council, and the Council for the 
Preservation of Rural England were informed accordingly. 



Finance. 

VII. — The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
throughout the year. His account has been audited and is presented to 
the General Committee. 

The Council made the following grants from funds under their 
control : — 

From the Caird Fund, 

£> 

Committee on Seismology . . . . . . . .150 

„ „ Mathematical Tables ...... 150 

„ ,, Zoological Record ...... 50 

„ „ Plymouth Marine Laboratory ..... 50 

From the Bernard Hohson Fund. 

Committee on Brandon Bone-bed . . . . . .25 

„ ,, Reptile-bearing Oolite of Stow-on-the-Wold . 25 

„ ,, Thermal Conductivities of Rocks : such part of the 

grant of £25 as the remaining income of the fund 
will allow. 

From the Leicester and Leicestershire Fund. 

Committee on Perseveration . . . . . . . lo 

„ „ Routine Manual Factor in Mechanical Ability . • 30 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37 xxi 

A maintenance grant of £2° was made from the Leicester and Leicester- 
shire Fund to Mr. H. O. Chaplin, of University College, Leicester, to 
enable him to carry on research into the role of the resonating hydrogen 
atom as a causative factor in molecular association. 

Following upon the resolution reported last year, to use the donation 
of £10$ from the Local Committee for the Norwich Meeting, 1935, for 
grants for researches of special interest in East Anglia, the following 
grants were made from that fund : — 

To the Norfolk Research Committee, for excavation of West £ 

Rudham tumulus ........ 30 

To the same, for investigation of post-glacial deposits of East 

Norfolk .......... 40 

To Mr. A. S. Watt, for investigation of cyclic phenomena in the 

vegetation of Breckland ....... 30 

Vin. — ^A final payment of £24^ ^^^ been received under the Herbert 
Spencer Bequest, bringing the total to ^(^1241. 

As reported last year, the Council adopted a proposal, supported by the 
Down House Committee, that the sum of ;^5oo should be earmarked to 
meet temporarily the cost of repairs and other works on the Down House 
property, and the provision of facilities for scientific work there as occasion 
should arise. This matter is referred to in the Report of the Down House 
Committee, annexed to this present Report of the Council. 

The Council empowered the General Treasurer to expend from the 
Spencer Bequest a sum not exceeding ,Cioo» if necessary, by way of grant 
in aid of travelling expenses for a representative of the Association to 
attend the Denver Meeting of the American Association, June 21-26, 
1937 (see above, § V). 

It may be recorded here that the terms of the bequest, while leaving 
the Council a wide discretion as to the disposal of the money ' for the 
work or objects or purposes ' of the Association, prescribes that no part 
of it ' shall be utilised in any way for purpose of endowment but on the 
contrary shall within the period of five years from the date of payment . . . 
be expended.' The date of receipt of the final payment was November 3, 
1936. 

The Council, on receipt of the final payment, forwarded an expression 
of their thanks to the trustees under the will. 



President (1938), General Officers, General Committee, 

AND Council. 

IX. — The Council's nomination to the Presidency of the Association 
for the year 1938 (Cambridge Meeting) will be announced to the General 
Committee at the Nottingham Meeting. 

X. — The General Officers have been nominated by the Council as 
follows : — 

General Treasurer, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, F.R.S. 

General Secretaries, Prof. F. T. Brooks, F.R.S. , Prof. Allan Ferguson. 



xxii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37 

XI. General Committee. — The following have been admitted as members 
of the General Committee, mainly on the nomination of Organising 
Sectional Committees under Regulation i :— 

Dr. D. A. Allan Prof. T. H. Easterfield 

Lady Briscoe Prof. H. Hartridge, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. O. Bull Mr. M. A. C. Hinton, F.R.S. 

Dr. O. M. B. Bulman Mr. K. P. Oakley 

Prof. D. Burns Mr. S. I. Tomkeieff 

Mr. L. R. Cox Mr. L. H. Tonks 

Miss E. Dix Dr. C. B. Williams 

XII. Council— Tht retiring Ordinary Members of the Council are : 
Sir Henry Dale, F.R.S., Prof. R. B. Forrester, Dr. H. S. Harrison, 
Dr. J. S. Huxley, Prof. R. Robinson, F.R.S. 

The Council have nominated as new members Prof. H. J. Fleure, 
F.R.S., Prof. T. S. Moore and Dr. R. S. Whipple ; leaving two vacancies 
to be filled by the General Committee without nomination by the 
Council. 

The full list of Ordinary Members nominated is as follows : — 

Dr. F. W. Aston, F.R.S. Prof. T. G. Hill 

Prof. F. Aveling Prof. G. W. O. Howe 

Prof. F. Balfour-Browne Prof. T. S. Moore 

Sir T. Hudson Beare Lt.-Col. W. Campbell Smith 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Bledisloe, P.C, Dr. C. Tierney 

G.C.M.G., G.B.E. Dr. W. W. Vaughan, M.V.O. 

Prof. R. N. Rudmose Brown Dr. J. A. Venn 

Dr. W. T. Caiman, C.B., F.R.S. Prof. Sir Gilbert Walker, C.S.I., 
Prof. F. Debenham F.R.S. 

Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S. Prof. F. E. Weiss, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S. Dr. R. S. Whipple 

H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E. J. S. Wilson 
Prof. A. V. Hill, Sec.R.S. 

Future Meetings. 

XIII.— The future places of meeting already determined by the General 
Committee are Cambridge (1938) and Dundee (1939). There have been 
received invitations for the Association to meet in Swansea in any con- 
venient year, in Belfast in 1941 or any year nearly following, and in 1943 
in Birmingham. No invitation definitely for the year 1940 has been 
received. 

Miscellanea. 

XIV. Visit to the Isle of Man. — This visit was paid by a representative 
party of members immediately after the Blackpool Meeting, 1936, and on 
its conclusion the Council forwarded a vote of thanks to the island authori- 
ties and individuals who had kindly collaborated in the arrangements. 

XV. British Science Guild. — Under the arrangement proposed last year 
by the Council and adopted by the General Committee, the British 
Science Guild was incorporated into the Association as from November 30, 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37 xxiii 

1936. In accordance with the agreement of incorporation a British Science 
Guild Committee has been appointed to continue arrangements for lectures 
already initiated by the Guild, and for any others of similar character 
which may be approved by the Council. The Council of the Guild 
appointed to this Committee Lady Lockyer, Commander L. C. Bernacchi, 
and Sir Richard Gregory, Bart., F.R.S. ; and the Council of the Associa- 
tion appointed Prof. A. Ferguson, Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. , and 
Dr. W. W. Vaughan. 

The first of the lectures arranged by the Association under the above 
scheme was the Alexander Pedler lecture, given in Leicester on May 3, 
in co-operation with the University College in that city, by Prof. Ailan 
Ferguson. 

The first Norman Lockyer lecture to be so arranged will be given by 
Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler in the Goldsmiths' Hall, London, by kind 
permission of the Goldsmiths' Company, on November 24. 

XVL Radford Mather Lectures. — The first of the triennial lectures 
under the foundation of Mr. G. Radford Mather will be given by the 
Rt. Hon. J. Ramsay MacDonald, P.C, M.P., F.R.S., in the Royal Institu- 
tion, London, by kind permission of the managers, on October 22. 

XVII. Indian Science Congress Association. — The Council recorded 
their great satisfaction that Lord Rutherford had accepted the presidency 
of the joint Congress of the Indian Science Congress Association and a 
delegation from the British Association in 1938. A committee of the 
Council have been actively engaged in arrangements for this delegation. 

The Council recommend that inasmuch as it is important that the 
visit should be a marked success, a grant of ,^1,000 should be made from 
the funds of the Association to the India Fund. 

XVIII. American Association for the Advancement of Science. — Follow- 
ing upon discussion and correspondence, a scheme has been proposed in 
order to facilitate the attendance of members of the American Association 
at meetings of the British Association and vice versa, and also the receipt 
of the publications of either association by members of the other. 

XIX. Corporation Membership. — The Institution of Professional Civil 
Servants, and Messrs. Macmillan & Co., publishers, have been admitted 
to corporation membership of the Association. 

XX. Armorial Bearings. — The Association has received a grant of 
armorial bearings from the College of Arms, the incidental costs being 
met by the gifts of an anonymous donor and of ex-Presidents of the 
Association. The blazon is as follows : — 

Arms : Azure ten stars, two of six, four of five, and four of four points 
Argent (representing the constellation of Libra) over all a Balance Or. 

Motto : Sed Omnia Disposuisti. 

The motto is taken from Wisdom of Solomon, ii, 20 (' But Thou hast 
ordered all things in measure and number and weight '). 

XXI. U Association frangaise pour Vavancement des Sciences. — The 
Council had the pleasure of entertaining at Down House, on July 29, 



xxiv REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37 

a party of representatives of L' Association franfaise visiting England, 
and including M. Maurain, the President, Mme. Maurain, Dr. Verne, 
the Secretary-general, and Mme. Verne. The party was received by 
Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S., ex-President (in the absence of the President, 
Sir Edward Poulton, F.R.S.), and by members of the Council and others. 
The medal of the French Association was presented by M. Maurain to 
the British Association, and copies thereof to the General Secretaries, 
Lt.-Col. W. Campbell Smith, and the Secretary. 

XXII. Amendment of Statutes. — In view of the occupation of premises 
by the Association at Burlington House and at Down House, the Council 
recommend that Statute VI, 5, where now reading ' The Secretary shall 
be charged . . . (ii) with the control and direction of the office and of all 
persons therein employed,' be amended to read ' The Secretary shall be 
charged . . . (ii) with the control and supervision of all persons in the 
employment of the Association and of premises in its occupation.' 

Down House. 

XXIII. — The following report for the year 1936-37 has been received 
from the Down House Committee : — 

The number of visitors to Down House during the year ending June 6, 
1937. has been 6,148, compared with 7,022 in 1935-6, and an average of 
7,242 per year for five years in 193 1-6. 

The Committee have expressed their gratitude to Prof. F. T. Brooks, 
F.R.S., who, on succeeding to the chair of botany in the University of 
Cambridge, continued the loan of Darwin's library to Down House. This 
loan was originally granted by Prof. Brooks' predecessor. Sir Albert Seward, 
F.R.S., the possession of the library having been vested, under the will of 
Sir Francis Darwin, in the professor of botany in Cambridge for the time 
being. 

A fine plaster model of a seated figure of Darwin has been presented to 
the house by Mr. J. Peacock. Enquiry has not revealed the name of the 
artist. 

Lady Avebury has presented to Down House twelve letters from Darwin 
to John Lubbock (afterwards Lord Avebury), and one from Francis Darwin 
to Lubbock. 

The Committee reported last year that they had obtained an architect's 
report on the structural condition of the house and other buildings on the 
estate. Acting upon this report, the Commiittee have undertaken certain 
repairs (mainly of the cottages and old farm buildings) ; for the rest, the 
report provides the Committee with some guidance as to works which may 
be expected to become necessary in the course of the next few years. The 
Committee deeply appreciate the action of the Council in placing at the 
disposal of the General Treasurer the sum of £500 from the Herbert 
Spencer bequest towards the cost of repairs, renewals, and the provision of 
scientific appliances if required. 

The Committee have enquired into the question of carrying on scientific 
observations at Down, and are grateful to Sir George Simpson, C.B., F.R.S., 
Dr. F. J. W. Whipple, and Dr. R. G. Hatton, for their personal interest in 
this matter. Various possibilities have been considered, but, with the 
exception of the establishment of a standard rain-gauge, no line of enquiry 
which would be both possible and justifiable on the ground of expense of 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1936-37 



XXV 



appliances has as yet been proposed. On the suggestion of Miss Saunders, 
of Goldsmiths' College, the Committee asked a number of heads of depart- 
ments in London colleges whether the fitting-up of the old farm buildings 
for laboratory purposes would be likely to be of use to students engaged in 
field-work in the district or for any other such purpose ; but the response 
was not such as to justify the Committee in pursuing this possibility further 
for the present. 

The following financial statement shows income and expenditure on 
account of Down House for the years ending March 31, 1936 and 1937 : — 

Corresponding 
Income 1936-3? figures, 1935-36 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

By Rents receivable 
,, Income Tax recovered 
,, Interest and Dividends 
„ Donations 

,, Sale of Postcards and Catalogues 
,, Pilgrim Trust Grant . 
,, Instalment of Grant from Herbert 
Spencer Bequest .... 

£1,435 12 3 £1,327 9 9 



141 








141 





168 


I 


6 


168 I 


6 


817 


2 





826 S 


6 


3 


17 


I 


16 7 


2 


23 


8 


4 


25 12 


7 


150 








150 





132 


3 


4 


— 





Expenditure 



To Wages of StafT .... 
,, Rates, Insurance, etc. 
,, Coal, coke, etc. .... 
,, Lighting and Drainage (including oil 

and petrol) .... 

„ Water 

,, Surveyor's Fee .... 
„ Rain-gauge .... 

,, Repairs and Renewals 
,, Garden and Land : Materials and 

Maintenance .... 
,, Donations to Village Institutions . 
,, Household Requisites, etc. . 
,, Transport and Carriage 
,, Accountants' Fees 
., Printing, Postages, Telephone and 

Stationery ..... 
,, Balance, being excess of income over 

expenditure for the year, transferred 

to Suspense Account 



Corresponding 
1936-37 figures, 1935-36 
£ s. d. £ s. d. 

803 19 7 783 15 -TO 

69 5 6 66 =i 8 

138 14 8 86 is 6 



79 4 II 

IS 7 I 

I 7 8 
159 2 4 

45 19 8 

550 

IS 18 10 

I 16 6 

880 

35 7 5 



55 15 I 



76 3 10 

15 16 8 

550 

74 13 9 

72 12 I 
550 

15 19 4 
2 13 II 

18 18 I 

39 o o 



64 



£1,435 12 3 £1,327 9 9 



GENERAL TREASURER'S REPORT, 1936-37 

In 1932 the then General Treasurer, Sir Josiah Stamp, made a report 
to the Council in which he recommended the establishment of a Con- 
tingency Fund to be regarded as ' an insurance against small or very 
unprofitable meetings,' in order to enable grants in aid of research to be 
maintained at a fairly constant figure, and not made ' on a year-to-year 
consideration of available balances.' The Council, on this report, 
recommended to the General Committee, and the General Committee 
approved, a proposal that for a period of five years ' not more than ;£400 
should be spent annually from general funds on grants for research, and 
that an annual sum of ^(^500 should be placed to a contingency fund.' 

The five-years' period is now finished, so that it is my duty to take 
stock of the outcome of these proposals. 

In each of the five years there has been a balance, on general funds, of 
income over expenditure, but in no year has this reached ;£500. The 
actual figures are as follows : 



Year 




i s. d. 


1933 




375 


1934 




394 17 II 


193s 




454 8 3^ 


1936 




273 I 3i 


1937 




443 9 7 


Total 




[,940 17 I 



There is also a debtor sum due this year, although not forthcoming 
until next year, which should properly fall into the Contingency Fund, 
bringing it up to ;£2,ooo or a little more. It was not thought necessary, 
in practice, to credit more than these available balances to the Contingency 
Fund each year, since this would merely have created artificial adverse 
balances on the general accounts of receipts and expenditure. 

As for the resolution that ' not more than ;£400 should be spent annually 
from general funds on grants for research,' the average annual expenditure 
under this head has been approximately ,(^323, on account of grants made 
being unclaimed. 

As I am reviewing the results of the financial report of 1932, I should 
perhaps recall that the Council then expressed the view that ' the true 
function of the Association, in making grants to research committees, is 
the initiation of particular pieces of research rather than their quasi- 
permanent endowment.' The General Committee adopted this view, 
with the proviso that it ' should not be held to preclude [quasi-permanent] 
grants to institutions at which successive researches are to be carried 
on under research committees of the Association.' It does not appear 
that the destination of grants has been materially affected by this expression 



GENERAL TREASURER'S REPORT xxvii 

of policy. A chart which I have caused to be prepared shows that from 
1919 (and in fact earlier) initiation rather than quasi-permanent endowment 
was actually the object of the larger proportion of our grants ; but in 1931 
the sum devoted to quasi-permanent endowment for the first time 
exceeded that of other grants, and this practice has continued each year 
since that date. There seems to be a good case for separate endowment 
of such quasi-permanent research committees, for they are undoubtedly 
doing excellent work. 

I have now proposed, and the Council has recommended, that the 
Contingency Fund should be maintained at a sum of about ^(^2,000, 
except in any year when receipts should be abnormally low, and, 
further, that inasmuch as the existing Contingency Fund is earmarked 
for grants in aid of research, any excess of income over expenditure 
on general account should be used for the creation of a second fund 
for contingencies not connected with such grants. 

The Herbert Spencer Trust was wound up during the past year, and 
the Spencer Bequest to the Association amounted in aggregate to ^1,241, 
as stated in the Report of the Council to the General Committee, par. VIII. 
In that report it is indicated that a sum of ;(J5oo has been definitely 
allocated, and the accounts herewith show that a part has been spent, 
for purposes connected with Down House, while a sum of £100 was 
voted contingently for another purpose during the ensuing financial year. 
The will prescribed the expenditure of the whole bequest within five 
years of the winding-up of the trust, that is to say, by November 1941. 
The purposes for which the bequest may be expended give the Council 
a wide discretion, and for the moment I do not propose to make any 
definite recommendation as to the disposal of the balance. 

On the incorporation of the British Science Guild into the British 
Association, a capital sum of £2>AZ'^ was handed over to the Association, 
and will yield an annual income of about ;(^ioo. Life Fellows of the Guild 
were admitted to life membership of the Association without further pay- 
ment ; but life members of the Guild were offered life membership of 
the Association on payment of the difference of fee {£^ los.), with the result 
that our life membership fund has been augmented by the sum of ^()g. 
We assume the maintenance of the Norman Lockyer and Alexander 
Pedler Lectures, which were founded by the Guild ; and the fees and other 
charges in connection with these, excluding printing, are estimated to 
amount to about ^1$. 

Lastly, I have gratefully to acknowledge the gift of ;£25c from Mr. G. 
Radford Mather, a life member since 1901, for the purpose of establishing 
a Triennial Lecture on Recent Advances in Science and their relation to 
the Welfare of the Community. 

P. G. H. BOSWELL, 

General Treasurer, 



b 2 



XXVUl 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Balance Sheet, 



Oorrespondlng 

Figures 

Slst March, 

1936. 
£ J. d. 



38,687 10 11 



9,790 6 11 



68 14 r 



1,334 5 10 



182 IS 10 



LIABILITIES 



General Purposes : — 

Sundry Creditors .... 
Hon. Sir Charles Parsons' gift 
(;^ 10,000) and legacy (£2,000) . 
The late Sir Alfred Ewing's legacy 
British Science Guild : Capital Fund 
Bequest of Jaakoff Prelooker . 

Tarrow Fund 

As per last Account ;^5,115 6 4 
Less Transferred to In- 
come and Expendi- 
ture Account under 
terms of the gift . 370 10 3 



£ s. d. 
169 12 6 



12,000 

500 

3,431 9 

10 



Life and Corporate Compositions 

As per last Account 2,891 2 2 
Add Received during 
year . . . 277 10 



Lew Transferred to In- 
come and Expendi- 
ture Account 



3,168 12 2 
30 



Contingency Fund 

As per last Account 1 ,497 7 6 
Add Amount trans- 
ferred from Income 
and Expenditure 
Account . . 443 9 7 

Accumulated Fund .... 

Special Purposes : — 
Caird Fund 

Balance at 1st April, 1936 . 
Add Excess of Income over Expendi- 
ture for the year . 

Mathematical Tables Fund 

Balance at 1st April, 1936 . 
Receipts from Sales . 

Cunningham Bequest Fund 

Balance at 1st April, 1936 . 
Add Excess of Income over Expendi- 
ture for the year 



Toronto University Presentation Fund 
Capital .... 
Revenue .... 








4.744 16 1 



3,138 12 2 



1,940 17 1 
16,488 9 



9,790 
1 



6 11 
8 II 



68 
75 



14 
11 



1,354 
41 



5 10 
4 



178 11 
4 7 



£ 



Carried forward 



42,423 15 II 



9,791 15 10 



144 6 3 



1,395 9 10 



182 18 10 



53,938 6 8 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXIX 



31st March, 1937 



Corresponding 

Figures 

31st March, 

1936. 

£ s. (/. 



38,6S7 10 11 



9,790 6 11 



68 14 7 



l^Si 5 10 



182 18 10 



ASSETS 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

General Purposes : — 

Investments as scheduled with Income 
and Expenditure Account, No. 1 . 41,961 12 1 



Sundry debtors and payments in ad- 
vance ...... 

Cash at bank ..... 

Cash in hand . . . . • 



94 9 8 

347 7 3 

20 6 11 



Special Purposes : — 
Caird Fund Account 

Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 2) . 

Cash at bank . . . . 

Mathematical Tables Fund Account 

Cash at bank .... 

Sundry debtors .... 

Cunningham Bequest Fund Account 

Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 3) . 
Cash at bank .... 

Toronto University Presentation Fund Account 
Investments (sec Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 4) . 
Cash at bank .... 



9,582 16 3 
208 19 7 



70 19 7 
73 6 8 



1,305 7 2 
90 2 8 



178 11 4 
4 7 6 



42,423 15 U 



9,791 15 10 



Carried forward 



144 6 3 



1,395 9 10 



182 18 10 

53,938 6 8 



XXX 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



Balance Sheet, 



Corresponding 

Figures 

Slst March, 

1936. 

£ «. d 



1,030 2 2 



1,065 8 4 



20,068 9 7 



72,247 17 2 



LIABILITIES (continued) 



Brought forward 
Bernard Hobson Fund 
Capital 
Revenue — Balance per 

last Account . . 30 2 2 

Add Excess of Income 

over Expenditure for 

the year . . 27 19 1 

Leicester and Leicestershire Fund, 1 933 

Capital ..... 
Revenue — Balance per 

last Account . . 65 8 4 

Less Excess of Expendi- 
ture over Income for 
the year . . .23510 



£ s. d. 
1,000 

58 1 3 



1,000 



Herbert Spencer Bequest Fund 

Less Amounts Expended during 
year ..... 

Norwich Fund, 1935 . 

Radford Mather Lecture Fund 

Indian Science Congress Delegation Fund 

Subscriptions received to date 
Down House 

Endowment Fund 
Sundry Creditors and Credit 
Balances .... 

Suspense Account 

Balance per last Account 24 18 8 
Add Excess of Income 
over Expenditure for 
the year . . .55151 



42 2 6 

1241 

133 11 



20,000 
12 11 



80 13 9 



NOTE. — ^There are contingent Liabilities in respect of grants voted 
to Research Committees at Blackpool and by Coimcil in 
1936 but not claimed at 31st March, 1937, amounting to 
£579 7s. bd. 

The amount which should, in accordance with Council's resolu- 
tion, have been in the Contingency Fund at Slst March, 1937, 
was £2,375, but the surplus income available for this purpose 
has been insufficient by £434 2s. lid. to meet the full annual 
amounts transferable. 



53,938 



d. 
8 



1,058 1 3 



1,042 2 6 



1,107 


9 





105 








250 









278 5 



20,093 5 5 



£17,872 9 10 



I have examined the foregoing Account with the Books and Vouchers and certify 
and the Investments, and the Bank have certified to me that they hold the 

Approved. "] 

EzER. Griffiths [ Auditors. 
R. S. Whipple ) 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXI 



31st March, 1937 (continued) 



Correspond 
Figures 
31st Marc 
1936. 
£ t. 

1,030 2 
1,065 8 


ing 
b, 
d. 

2 
4 

7 


ASSETS (CO) 

Brought forward . 

Bernard Hobson Fund Account 

Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 6) 
Cash at bank .... 

Leicester and Leicestershire Fund, 1933 Acco 
Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 6) 
Cash at bank .... 

Herbert Spencer Bequest Fund Account 
Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 7) 
Cash at bank .... 

Norwich Fund, ig35 Account 

(Income and Expenditure Account, 

No. 8) 

Cash at bank .... 
Radford Mather Lecture Fund Account 
Investments (see Income and Ex- 
penditure Account, No. 9) 
Itulian Science Congress Delegation Fund Act 

Cash at bank .... 
Down House Account 
Endowment Fund Investments (see 
Income and Expenditure Account, 

No. 10) 

Cash at bank .... 
Cash in hand .... 
Sundry debtors and payments in 
advance ..... 
Stock of catalogues 


itinued) 

£ 
1,000 

58 


s. 



1 


d. 


3 


£ 

53,938 

1,058 

1,042 

1,107 

105 

250 
278 

20,093 


s. 
6 

1 

2 

9 





5 

5 


d. 
8 

3 

6 








5 


unt 

1,000 
42 



2 



6 


741 
366 




9 







8 

11 

9 
1 




■ount 

20,000 

36 

7 

22 
26 




12 

9 

6 
16 










72,247 17 


2 


;{:77,872 


9 


10 



the same to be correct. 
Deeds of Down House. 



I have also verified the Balance at the Bankers 

W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant. 

23 Queen Victoria St., London, E.G. 4. 
4th June, 1937. 



XXXll 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



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GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT xxxiii 



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XXXIV 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 






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GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXV 



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XXXVl 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



CO 



o 
o 

CD 

CD 



ro CO SS 

SJio — 2 

CO CJ ■* 



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GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



xxxvu 





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XXX VIU 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



■3 8 

O u 

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To Grant paid . 
„ Balance, being et 
penditure for th 




Grants to resear 
yet claimed 
amount to 



bo 

.s ^ ^ 

--0)1-' - 
S H (S CD , 
? 3geo to 

s*- +JI-t 
bCx4 iG q) 






GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



XXXI X 



S3 o 

u u 
u u 
3 ^ 

Q, U 

a rt 

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<u o 
■o 



u 



t3 

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to 
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c 




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si 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



J2 O 



b 



2 I 



w 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 



xli 



I t 



Si= 



:-'0 g 



§§•3 
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BJ - C 

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RESEARCH COMMITTEES, Etc. 



APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, MEETING IN 

NOTTINGHAM, 1937. 

Grants of money, if any, from the Association for expenses connected 
with researches are indicated in heavy type. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

Seismological investigations. — Dr. F. J. W. Whipple [Chairman), Mr. J. J. Shaw, 
C.B.E. {Secretary), Miss E. F. Bellamy, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., 
F.R.S.. Dr. E. C. Bullard, Dr. A. T. J. Dollar, Sir Frank Dyson, K.B.E., 
F.R.S., Dr. A. E. M. Geddes, O.B.E., Prof. G. R. Goldsbrough, F.R.S., 
Dr. Wilfred Hall, Mr. J. S. Hughes, Dr. H. Jeffreys, F.R.S., Mr. Cosmo Johns, 
Dr. A. W. Lee, Prof. E. A. MUne, M.B.E., F.R.S., Prof. H. H. Plaskett, 
F.R.S., Prof. H. C. Plummer, F.R.S., Prof. J. Proudman, F.R.S., Dr. A. O. 
Rankine, O.B.E..F.R.S,,Rev. C. Rey, S.J., Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. 
R. A. Sampson, F.R.S., Mr. F. J. Scrase, Capt. H. Shaw, Sir Frank Smith, 
K.C.B., C.B.E., Sec. R.S., Dr. R. Stoneley, F.R.S., Mr. E. Tillotson, Sir G. T. 
Walker, C.S.I., F.R.S. £100 (Caird Fund grant). 

Calculation of mathematical tables. — Prof. E. H. Neville {Chairman), Dr. J. 
Wishart {Secretary), Prof. A. Lodge {V ice-Chairman), Dr. W. G. Bickley, 
Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S. , Dr. J. Henderson, Dr. E. L. Ince, Dr. J. O. 
Irwin, Dr. J. C. P. Miller, Mr. F. Robbins. Mr. D. H. Sadler. Mr. W. L. 
Stevens, Dr. A. J. Thompson, Dr. J. F. Tocher. £200 (Caird Fund grant). 

SECTIONS A, B, I.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 
CHEMISTRY, PHYSIOLOGY. 

To co-ordinate the activities of Sections A, B, I, as regards joint symposia, etc., 
in so far as these relate to the Sciences lying on the border-lines between 
Physics, Chemistry, and Physiology.— Prof. David Burns, Dr. P. B. Moon, 
Prof. H. S. Raper, C.B.E. , F.R.S., Prof. S. Sugden, F.R.S., Dr. D. M. 
Wrinch. 

SECTIONS A, C— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 

GEOLOGY. 

The direct determination of the thermal conductivities of rocks in mines or 
borings where the temperature gradient has been, or is likely to be, 
measured.- — Dr. Ezer Griffiths, F.R.S. {Chairman), Dr. D. W. Phillip 
{Secretary), Dr. E. C. Bullard, Dr. H. Jeffreys, F.R.S. {from Section A) ; 
Dr. E. M. Anderson, Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S., Prof. G. Hickling, F.R.S., 
Prof. A. Holmes, Dr. J. H. J. Poole {from Section C). £40. 

SECTIONS A, J.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES, 

PSYCHOLOGY. 

The possibility of quantitative estimates of sensory events. — Prof. A. Ferguson 
{Chairman), Dr. C. S. Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S. {Vice-Chairman), Mr. R. J. 
Bartlett {Secretary), Dr. H. Banister, Prof. F. C. Bartlett, F.R.S., Dr. Wm. 
Brown, Dr. N. R. Campbell, Prof. J. Drever, Mr. J. Guild, Dr. R. A. 
Houstoun, Dr. J. O. Irwin, Dr. G. W. C. Kaye, Dr. S. J. F. Philpott, 
Dr. L. F. Richardson, F.R.S., Dr. J. H. Shaxby, Mr. T. Smith, F.R.S., 
Dr. R. H. Thouless, Dr. W. S. Tucker, O.B.E. 



xUv RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 

To excavate critical geological sections in Great Britain. — Prof. W. T. Gordon 
(Chairman), Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S. (Secretary), Prof. E. B. Bailey, 
F.R.S., Mr. H. C. Berdinner, Mr. W. S. Bisat, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., 
F.R.S. , Prof. W. S. Boulton, Prof. A. H. Cox, Miss M. C. Crosfield, Mr. E. E. L. 
Dixon, Dr. Gertrude Elles, M.B.E., Prof. E. J. Garwood, F.R.S., Mr. F. 
Gossling, Prof. H. L. Hawkins, Prof. G. Hickling, F.R.S., Dr. R. G. S. 
Hudson, Prof. V. C. filing. Prof. O. T. Jones, F.R.S., Dr. Murray Macgregor, 
Dr F. J. North, Dr. J. Pringle, Dr. T. F. Sibly, Dr. W. K. Spencer, F.R.S., 
Prof. A. E. Trueman, Dr. F. S. Wallis, Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S.. Dr. W. F. 
Whittard, Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. £50 (£25 Bernard Hobson Fund ; £25 
contingent, Caird Fund). 

To investigate the reptile-bearing oolite of Stow-on-the-Wold, subject to the con- 
dition that suitable arrangements be made for the disposal of the material. — 
Sir A. Smith "Woodward, F.R.S. (Chairman), Mr. C. I. Gardiner (Secretary), 
Prof. S. H. Reynolds, Mr. W. E. Swinton. £25 (Bernard Hobson Fund grant). 

To consider and report upon petrographic classification and nomenclature. — 

Mr. W. Campbell Smith (Chairman and Secretary), Prof. E. B. Bailey, F.R.S., 

Dr. R. Campbell, Dr. W. Q. Kennedy, Mr. A. G. MacGregor, Dr. S. I. 

Tomkeieff, Dr. G. W. Tyrrell, Dr. F. Walker, Dr. A. K. Wells. £10. 
To investigate the bone-bed in the glacial deposits of Brundon, near Sudbury, 

Suffolk. — Prof. W. B. R. King, O.B.E. (Chairman), Mr. Guy Maynard 

(Secretary). Mr. D. F. W. Baden-Powell, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E.. 

Mr. J. Reid Moir, Mr. K. P. Oakley. Mr. C. D. Ovey, Dr. J. D. Solomon, 

Sir A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S. £3. 
To consider and report on questions affecting the teaching of Geology in schools. — 

Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. A. E. Trueman (Secretary), 

Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., Mr. C. P. Chatwin, Prof. A. H. 

Cox, MissE. Dix, Miss G. Evans, Prof. W. G. Fearnsides. F.R.S.. Prof. A. 

Gilligan, Prof. G. HickHng. F.R.S.. Prof. D. E. Innes. Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, 

O.B.E., Prof. W. S Pugh, Mr. J. A. Steers, Prof. H. H. Swinnerton, Dr. A. K. 

Wells. 
The collection, preservation, and systematic registration of photographs of 

geological interest. — Prof. E. J. Garwood, F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. H. Ashley, Mr. G. Macdonald Davies, Mr. J. 

F. Jackson, Mr. A. G. MacGregor, Dr. F. J. North. Dr. A. Raistrick, Mr. J. 

Ranson, Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S. 

To consider and report on erosion in part of the coast of Norfolk. — Prof. P. G. H. 
Boswell, O.B.E. , F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. W. T. Gordon (Secretary). 
Dr. Burton, Mr. F. Leney, Rt. Hon. E. Lyttelton, Mr. L. M. van Moppes, 
Mr. J. E. Sainty, Mr. G. Slater. Mr. J. Solomon. Mr. J. A. Steers. Mr. J. S. 
Wilson. Dr. S. W. Wooldridge. 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 

To nominate competent naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the 
Marine Laboratory. Plymouth. — Dr. W. T. Caiman. C.B.. F.R.S. (Chairman 
and Secretary), Prof. H. Graham Cannon, F.R.S., Prof. H. Munro Fox, 
Dr. J. S. Huxley, Prof. H. G. Jackson, Prof. C. M. Yonge. £50. 

To co-operate with other sections interested, and with the Zoological Society, 
for the purpose of obtaining support for the Zoological Record. — Sir Sidney 
Harmer, K.B.E., F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Caiman, C.B., F.R.S. (Sec- 
retary), Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S., Prof. D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S. £50. 

To investigate the adaptations of freshwater animals to waters of very high 
salinity in Algeria. — Prof. P. A. Buxton (Chairman), Mr. L. C. Beadle 
(Secretary), Dr. G. S. Carter, Dr. E. B. Worthington. £50. 

To investigate the social behaviour of the grey seal. — Prof. J. Ritchie (Chair- 
man), Dr. Eraser Darling (Secretary), Prof. E. A. E. Crew, Dr. J. S. Huxley, 
Dr. E. S. Russell. £50. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. xlv 

The progressive adaptation to new conditions in Artemia salina (Diploid and 
Octoploid, Parthenogenetic v. Bisexual). — Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S. (Chair- 
man), Mr. A. C. Faberge (Secretary), Dr. F. Gross, Mr. A. G. Lowndes, 
Dr. K. Mather, Dr. E. S. Russell, O.B.E., Prof. D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S. 
£20. 

To investigate British immigrant insects. — Sir E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. (Chairman), 
Dr. C. B. Williams (Secretary), Prof. F. Balfour-Browne, Capt. N. D. Riley. 

To consider the position of animal biology in the school curriculum and matters 
relating thereto. — Prof. R. D. Laurie (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. P. 
Ainslie, Mr. Cousins, Dr. J. S. Huxley, Mr. Percy Lee, Mr. A. G. Lowndes, 
Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., Dr. W. K. Spencer, F.R.S., Prof. W. M. 
Tattersall, Dr. E. N. Miles Thomas. 

To confer with the Museums Association on matters concerning the place and 
function of the Museum in Zoology. — Dr. J. S. Huxley (Chairman), Dr. A. C. 
Stephen (Secretary), Dr. W. T. Caiman, C.B., F.R.S., Prof. W. M. Tattersall, 
Prof. C. M. Yonge. 

SECTIONS D, I, K.— ZOOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BOTANY. 

To aid competent investigators selected by the Committee to carry on definite 
pieces of work at the Zoological Station at Naples.- — Prof. E. W. MacBride 
(Chairman and Secretary), Prof. Sir J. Barcroft, C.B.E., F.R.S., Dr. Margery 
Knight, Dr. J. Z. Young. £50. 

SECTIONS D, K.— ZOOLOGY, BOTANY. 

To aid competent investigators selected by the Committee to carry out definite 
pieces of work at the Freshwater Biological Station, Wray Castle, Winder- 
mere. — Prof. F. E. Fritsch, F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. E. B. Worthington 
(Secretary), Prof. P. A. Buxton, Miss P. M. Jenkin, Dr. C. H O'Donoghue 
(from Section D) ; Dr. W. H. Pearsall (from Section K). £75. 

Co-ordinating committee for Cytology and Genetics. — Prof. Dame Helen 
Gwynne-Vaughan, G.B.E. (Chairman), Dr. D. Catcheside (Secretary), 
Prof. F. T. Brooks, F.R.S., Prof. F. A. E. Crew, Dr. C. D. Darlington, Prof. 
R. A. Fisher, F.R.S., Mr. E. B. Ford, Prof. R. R. Gates, F.R.S., Dr. C. 
Gordon, Dr. J Hammond, Dr. J. S. Huxley, Dr. T. J. Jenkin, Mr. W. J. 
C. Lawrence, Dr. K. Mather, Dr. F. W. Sansome, Dr. W. B. Turrill, Dr. C. 
H. Waddington, Dr. D. Wrinch. £5. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

To inquire into the present state of knowledge of the human geography of 
Tropical Africa, and to make recommendations for furtherance and develop- 
ment. — Prof. P. M. Roxby (Chairman), Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, O.B.E. (Secretary), 
Dr. A. Geddes (Assistant Secretary), Mr. S. J. K. Baker, Miss D. M. Doveton, 
Prof. C. B. Fawcett, Mr. W. Fitzgerald, Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., Prof. 
C. DarvllForde, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, Mr. J. McFarlane, Brig. M. N. MacLeod, 
D.S.O.', Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A., Mr. R. A. Pelham, Mr. R. U. Sayce, 
Rev. E. W. Smith, Brig. H. S. L. Winterbotham, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. £2. 

To co-operate with bodies concerned with the cartographic representation of 
population, and in particular with the Ordnance Survey, for the production 
of population maps. — (Chairman), Prof. C. B. 

Fawcett (Secretary), The Director General of the Ordnance Survey, Col. Sir 
Charles Close, K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G., F.R.S., Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., 
Mr. A. C. O'Dell, Mr. A. Stevens, Mr. A. V. Williamson. 

To consider and report upon ambiguities and innovations in geographical 
terminology. — (Chairman), Dr. S. W. Wooldridge 

(Secretary), Mr. H. King, Mr. R. H. Kinvig, Prof. E. G. R. Taylor. 



xlvi RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Chronology of the world crisis from 1929 onwards. — Prof. J. H. Jones {Chairman), 
Dr. P. Ford (Secretary), Mr. McDougall {Assistant Secretary), Prof. G. C. 
Allen, Mr. H. M. Hallsworth, C.B.E., Mr. R. F. Harrod, Prof. J. G. 
Smith. £25. 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

To review the knowledge at present available for the reduction of noise, and 
the nuisances to the abatement of which this knowledge could best be 
applied. — Sir Henry Fowler, K.B.E. {Chairman), Wing-Commander T. R. 
Cave-Browne-Cave, C.B.E. {Secretary), Mr. R. S. Capon, Dr. A. H. Davis, 
Prof. G. W. O. Howe, Mr. E. S. Shrapnell-Smith, C.B.E. £10 (Contingent, 
Caird Fund). 

Electrical terms and definitions. — Prof. Sir J. B. Henderson {Chairman), Prof. 
F. G. Baily and Prof. G. W. O. Howe (Secretaries), Prof. W. Cramp, Prof. 
W. H. Eccles, F.R.S., Prof. C. L. Fortescue, Prof. A. E. Kennelly, Prof. 
E. W. Marchant, Prof. J. Proudman, F.R.S.. Sir Frank Smith, K.C.B., 
C.B.E., Sec. R.S., Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To co-operate with a Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the 
exploration of caves in the Derbyshire district. — Mr. M. C. Burkitt (Chair- 
man), Mr. A. Leslie Armstrong (Secretary), Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., Miss 
D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. J. WUfred Jackson. Prof. L. S. Palmer, Mr. H. J. E. 
Peake. £25, 

To conduct anthropometric work in Cyprus. — Prof. J. L. Myres (Chairman), 

Mr. L. Dudley Buxton (Secretary), Dr. G. M. Morant, Miss M. L. Tildesley. 

£25. 
To conduct archaeological excavations in the Fens. — Prof. J. H. Hutton, CLE. 

(Chairman), Mr. K. H. Jackson (Secretary), Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Dr. J. D. G. 

Clark, Miss Eleanor Hardy, Mr. T. C. Lethbridge. £25 (Leicester and 

Leicestershire Fund). 

To investigate early mining sites in Wales.— Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), 
Mr. Oliver Davies (Secretary), Prof. "V. Gordon Childe, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
F.R.S., Mr. E. Estyn Evans, Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., Prof. C. DaryllForde, 
Sir CyrU Fox, Dr. Willoughby Gardner, Dr. F. J. North, Mr. V. E. Nash 
Williams. £8. 

To investigate blood groups among primitive peoples. — Prof. H. J. Fleure 
(Chairman), Prof. R. Ruggles Gates, F.R.S. (Secretary), Dr. F. W. Lamb, 
Dr. G. M. Morant. £7. 

To co-operate with a committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in 
assisting Miss G. Caton-Thompson to investigate the prehistoric archaeology 
of the Kharga Oasis. — Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E. (Chairman), Miss G. 
Caton-Thompson (Secretary), Dr. H. S. Harrison, Mr. H. J. E. Peake. 

To report on the probable sources of the supply of copper used by the Sumerians. 
— Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S. (Secretary), 
Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S., Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, Prof. V. Gordon Childe, 
Mr. O. Davies, Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., Dr. A. Raistrick, Dr. R. H. Rastall. 

To co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian Society in investigating Kent's 
Cavern.— Sir A. Keith, F.R.S. (Chairman), Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E. , F.B.A. 
(Secretary), Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Mr. A. D. Lacaille. 

To carry out research among the Ainu of Japan.- — Prof. C. G. Seligman, F.R.S. 
(Chairman) , Mrs. C. G. Seligman (Secretary), Dr. H. S. Harrison, Capt. T. A. 
Joyce, O.B.E., Rt. Hon. Lord Raglan. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, ETC. xlvii 

To report on the classification and distribution of rude stone monuments in the 
British Isles. — Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Chairman), Dr. Margaret A. Murray 
(Secretary), Mr. A. L. Armstrong, Mr. H. Balfour, F.R.S., Mrs. E. M. Clifford, 
Sir Cyril Fox, Mr. T. D. Kendrick. 

To conduct archaeological and ethnological researches in Crete. — Prof. J. L. 
Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A. (Chairman), Dr. G. M. Morant (Secretary), Mr. L. 
Dudley Buxton, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth. 

To report to the Sectional Committee on the question of re-editing ' Notes and 
Queries in Anthropology.' — Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S. (Chairman), Mr. Elwyn 
Davies (Secretary), Dr. H. S. Harrison, Dr. G. M. Morant, Prof. C. G. Seligman, 
F.R.S., Mrs. C. G. Seligman. 

SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

To deal with the use of a stereotactic instrument. — Prof. J. Mellanby, F.R.S. 
(Chairman), Prof. R. J. S. McDowall (Secretary). 

SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 

To develop tests of the routine manual factor in mechanical ability. — Dr. C. S. 
Myers, C.B.E., F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. G. H. Miles (Secretary), Mr. H. Binns, 
Prof. C. Burt, Dr. F. M. Earle, Dr. LI. Wynn Jones, Prof. T. H. Pear. £50. 

The nature of perseveration and its testing. — Prof. F. Aveling (Chairman), 
Dr. W. Stephenson (Secretary), Prof. F. C. Bartlett, F.R.S., Dr. Mary Collins, 
Prof. J. Drever, Mr. E. Farmer, Prof. C. Spearman, Dr. P. E. Vernon. 
£10 (Contingent grant, Caird Fund). 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

Transplant experiments. — Sir Arthur Hill, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. 
W. B. Turrill (Secretary), Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S., Prof. E. J. Salisbury, 
F.R.S., Prof. A. G. Tansley, F.R.S. £5 (Leicester and Leicestershire Fund). 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To consider and report on the possibilities of organising and developing research 
in education. — Prof. F. Clarke (Chairman), Miss D. Bailey, Mr. A. Gray 
Jones, Dr. M. M. Lewis, Mr. W. H. Robinson, Mr. J. Sargent. £5 
(Leicester and Leicestershire Fund) . 

To consider and report on the gaps in the informative content of education, with 
special reference to the curriculums of schools.- — Sir Richard Gregory, Bart., 
F.R.S. (Chairman), Mr. G. D. Dunkerley (Vice-Chairman), Mr. A. E 
Henshall (Secretary), Prof. C. M. Attlee, Miss L. Higson, Mr. H. G. Wells. 
£10 (Leicester and Leicestershire Fund). 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — The President of the Association (Chairman 
ex-officio). Dr. C. Tierney (Secretary), the General Secretaries, the General 
Treasurer, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Mr. T. S. Dymond, Prof. W. T. Gordon, 
Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Prof. J. Ritchie, Dr. G. F. Herbert Smith. 



RESOLUTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS. 



The following resolutions and recommendations were referred to the 
Council by the General Committee at the Nottingham Meeting for con- 
sideration and, if desirable, for action : 

From Section A {Mathematical and Physical Sciences). 

That Section A, on the occasion of a visit to the grave of George Green, 
the world-famous mathematician of Nottingham, viewed with some concern 
the deterioration that is taking place in the tombstone, and would respect- 
fully suggest that representations be made to the proper authorities to take 
such steps as seem fit to maintain in good condition the resting-place of this 
renowned man. 

From Section D {Zoology). 

That the Committee of Section D, having learned from the public press 
that the buildings and collections of the Museum established at Tring by 
the late Lord Rothschild have been bequeathed to the nation on condition 
that the Trustees of the British Museum undertake their custody and 
maintenance, desire to record their opinion that the continuance of the 
Tring Museum as an active centre of scientific research is a matter of the 
utmost importance from a national, and indeed from an international, point 
of view. For many years the collections preserved there, more particularly 
the vast and unequalled collection of Lepidoptera, have attracted research 
workers from all over the world and have been the means of adding largely 
to our understanding of the problems of geographical variation. The 
Sectional Committee earnestly desire that the permanent conservation of 
these collections and the continuance of the facilities for their study provided 
by the munificence of the late Lord Rothschild will be ensured by their 
being placed in the custody of the Trustees of the British Museum. 

The Committee request the Council of the British Association to bring 
this expression of opinion to the notice of the Trustees of the British 
Museum. 

From Section E {Geography). 

That the Sectional Committee of Section E learn with great regret of the 
discontinuance by the Ordnance Survey of the fifth (relief) edition of the 
one-inch map. This map marked an advance in the cartography of the 
country in that it gave, for the first time, invaluable data for the study of 
land forms. Much geographical work has been done in those areas for 
which sheets have been published, and the Committee view with grave 
concern the prospect of having to abandon work in other areas, or to 
postpone it indefinitely, in consequence of the suspension of this edition. 

Further, the Committee feel that the issue of special relief printings 
without names and other detail, which was initiated with this edition, 
provided for the first time an adequate base map for studies in land forms 
and regional geography ; and it would urge that, whether the fifth (reUef) 
edition be proceeded with or not, sheets showing relief and water features 
only in the style of the fifth (relief) edition should be available. 



RESOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS xUx 

From Section G (Engineering). 

That following the Presidential Address delivered to Section G by 
Sir Alexander Gibb, the Sectional Committee considered what action could 
best be taken by the British Association to assist in improving and co-ordin- 
ating the various forms and channels in which new engineering knowledge 
is now published. Improvement is urgently required and the Institution 
of Civil Engineers is already taking action to this end. The Engineering 
Section of the British Association, however, is in touch with such an 
exceptionally wide range of engineering that it sees the importance and 
also the difficulty of co-ordinating all branches of engineering in the matter 
of publications . 

It is therefore recommended that letters be written on behalf of the 
Council to the Institution of Civil Engineers and to the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research, drawing attention to the great im- 
portance of improving the co-ordination of arrangements for publishing 
and indexing new engineering knowledge and the results of engineering 
research, and expressing a hope that any new system which is being developed 
may be made to cover the widest possible range. 

From Section H (Anthropology). 

That in view of the importance of anthropology as a means of promoting 
concord and understanding between men of different traditions, the British 
Association earnestly recommends to H.M. Government that anthropology 
should be made a compulsory subject of study in the training of all 
probationers appointed to proceed to India or Burma. 

From Section L (Educational Science). 

That in view of the great contribution that an extended system of adult 
education might make to the political and cultural life of the nation, it be 
urged that H.M. Government be asked to refer the question of developing 
adult education either to the Consultative Committee of the Board of 
Education or to any other appropriate Committee. 

From the Coyiference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies, supported 
by Section D (Zoology). 

That the Council of the British Association be requested to represent to 
His Majesty's Minister of Agriculture and to His Majesty's Secretary of 
State for Scotland, the necessity of instituting an inquiry to ascertain the 
effects, in respect of efficiency, economic reactions, and humaneness, of 
available methods of dealing with rodents and other wild mammals that 
affect agriculture. 

From the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

That the Conference recommend to the Council of the British Association 
the desirability of establishing through its Corresponding Societies' Com- 
mittee a close liaison with the Association for the Study of Systematics in 
Relation to General Biology with a view to the Corresponding Societies 
undertaking work bearing upon systematic problems. 







23 FEB 1958 



ISritisIj %sBatiRi\0n fax tl^t ^trbanrtmcnt 

0f Sci^ita. 

NOTTINGHAM: 1937 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



THE HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY 

THOUGHT 

AS RECORDED IN MEETINGS OF THE 
BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

BY 

Prof. Sir EDWARD B. POULTON, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford 

PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir William Thomson, in his Address at Edinburgh in 1871, said 
that ' the real origin of the British Association ' was given in the 
words of a letter written by David Brewster to John Phillips on 
February 23, 1831, a few months before the first meeting : ' The 
principal object of the Society would be to make the cultivators of 
science acquainted with each other, to stimulate one another to new 
exertions, and to bring the objects of science more before the public 
eye, and to take measures for advancing its interests and accelerating 
its progress.' That the time was fully ripe for the birth of the 
Association is made very clear by the words written by John Keble 
to a friend, referring to the D.C.L. degrees conferred, at the Oxford 
meeting in 1832, on David Brewster, Robert Brown, John Dalton 
and Michael Faraday : ' The Oxford Doctors have truckled sadly 
to the spirit of the times in receiving the hodge-podge of philosophers 
as they did ' — an opinion on which Lord Salisbury commented at 
the Oxford meeting in 1894 : ' It is amusing at this distance of time, 
to note the names of the hodge-podge of philosophers whose 
academical distinctions so sorely vexed Mr. Keble 's gentle spirit.' 
It is not only amusing but pathetic that such words should have 
been used by a revered member of a University which had done 



2 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

splendid service for science, as has been so well shown in Dr. R. T. 
Gunther's volumes.^ 

Faced by the serious duty of preparing this address, I felt that the 
best hope of interesting you would be to choose a subject which has 
received special attention at our meetings. I have selected the 
progress of thought on Organic Evolution as it may be followed in 
addresses, papers, and discussions, mainly restricting myself to the 
series of meetings which began with the Jubilee at York in 1881, the 
first of many that I have had the pleasure of attending. 

The British Association provides a very favourable field for the 
discussion of many-sided subjects such as Evolution — subjects 
which attract members from very different as well as from closely 
related Sections. Hence a wide range of varied experience is open 
to one who can look back over more than half a century ; and I do 
not propose to exclude some of the humorous sayings and incidents 
which, from time to time, have enlivened our meetings and con- 
tributed to their success. Some of them certainly deserve to be 
rescued from oblivion, although to perform this pious duty I must 
risk the enmity of the Goddess of Folly, who as Erasmus tells us, 
proclaimed : ' I hate a man who remembers what he hears.' 

The Fiftieth Anniversary at York was a memorable meeting, with 
Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury) as President, and the Chair of 
every Section except Economics, under Grant Duff, taken by a 
Past-President of the Association. 

I then enjoyed to the full one of the chief benefits conferred by 
our Association upon its younger members — the opportunity of 
meeting older men, up to that time only known to them by the fame 
of their discoveries. Prof. O. C. Marsh had come over from Yale, 
his main object being to buy for his University Museum the second 
and more perfect fossil of the wonderful ancestral bird Archaeo- 
pteryx, with teeth and a long, lizard-like tail — clear evidence of 
Reptilian origin. The earlier example had been bought for the 
British Museum at a price which was said to have provided the 
dowry for a professor's daughter, and Marsh soon realised, as he 
told me, that the second was not for sale on any terms. ' We let 
the other go and I believe they would kill me if this were sold ' was 
the reply given to him by the authority in Munich. He was 
able, however, to study the fossil, and his description and drawings 
of the teeth, in the Geological Section, followed the only attack on 
Evolution itself, as distinct from its causes, which I have ever 
witnessed at any of our meetings. It was the exhibition by H. G. 
Seeley of his reconstruction of Archaeopteryx from this fossil, 

1 Early Science in Oxford, vols. i-xi. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS , 3 

which aroused the fury of the palaeontologist, old Dr. Thomas 
Wright of Cheltenham : ' Archaeopteryx hasn't got a head, how 
can it possibly have teeth ? ' he growled, knowing nothing of the 
latest find or of the fact that Sir John Evans, our President at Toronto, 
had discovered a detached head and scattered teeth on the slab in 
which the older specimen was embedded . In spite of Prof. Newton 's 
positive statement and the form of the teeth, drawn by Prof. Marsh 
at the request of the Chairman, Dr. Wright, quite unconvinced, con- 
tinued muttering ' Archaeopteryx is a very good bird,' its virtue in 
his opinion entirely un contaminated by any taint of Reptilian affinity. 
Prof. Marsh also read a paper in the Zoological Section on his own 
wonderful discoveries of toothed birds from the rocks of the western 
United States. Richard Owen, President of the Section, was in the 
Chair and, with the memory of old and embittered controversies in 
his mind, the author told me that he had felt rather anxious in 
bringing this communication forward. But in that friendly atmo- 
sphere there was no reason for alarm. Owen welcomed the paper 
warmly and in confirmation told us, in the most charming manner, 
of the traces of teeth found in an embryo parrot. 

The event which stands out most clearly in my memories of the 
Jubilee meeting is Huxley's evening lecture on ' The Rise and 
Progress of Palaeontology ' — the science which provides an essential 
part of the foundation on which Geographical, Geological and 
Biological evolutionary history has been built. The insuperable 
difficulty felt by the older naturalists was to believe that the land 
had been for the most part deposited under the sea, and to account 
for the presence of fossils, or as they were called, ' formed stones.' 
The true solution, Huxley explained, was found and published in 
1669 by Nicholas Steno, a Danish Professor of Anatomy at Florence, 
who carefully studied certain fossils, known as ' glossopetrae,' which 
abounded in the Tuscan rocks and were believed to be fossil 
fig-leaves. Steno, who was not satisfied with this interpretation, 
dissected a shark's head and showed that the * glossopetrae ' exactly 
corresponded in every particular with the teeth — ' that in fact they 
were shark's teeth.' The emphasis with which Huxley made this 
statement comes back to me after the lapse of nearly sixty years. 
From this Steno was led to conclude that they were the teeth of 
shark-like fishes living in the Tuscan sea and later embedded, with 
other remains, in the strata which had there accumulated. 

I have not noticed the fanciful suggestion of ' fossil fig-leaves ' in 
any published version or account of Huxley's lecture that I have 
seen, but he certainly told us of it and it is an interesting example of 
the attempts made by the naturalists of the day to explain the fossils 
embedded in rocks then believed to be of terrestrial origin. I 



4 I THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

cannot resist the temptation of quoting Plot's ^ more ingenious and 
amusing effort to account for the well-known layer of oyster-shells 
(Ostrea bellovacina) found * ... at some places here in England, 
particularly at Cats-grove [now Katesgrove] near Reading . . . ; 
which how they should come here without a Deluge, seems a difficulty 
to most men not easily avoided.' 

Plot was, however, helped ' to a salvo ' for his own objection by 
remembering that Reading was ' a Town of very great action during 
the Invasions of the Danes, who cutting a deep trench cross between 
the Kennet and Thames, and inclosing themselves as it were in an 
Island, held it against King Ethelred, and Alfred his Brother a 
considerable time ; from whence in all probability, the Saxons 
having removed their Cattle and other provisions before the Danes 
arrival, 'tis likely they they might be supplyed from their Navy with 
Oysters, which during the time of the aboad of the Army on Land, 
might be a very suitable employment for it : Which conjecture, if 
allowed, there is nothing more required to make out the possibility 
of the bed of Oysters coming thither without a Deluge, but that 
Cats-grove was the place appointed for the Armies repast.' 

The probability of this suggestion may be inferred from the age 
of the ' Woolwich and Reading ' beds in which the oysters are 
found — estimated by my friends Prof. Watts and Prof. Hawkins at 
about 50 to 60 million years. 

Dr. Plot's explanation of fossils in general as well as of flowers 
was of a very different kind. To account for their existence he 
appealed to ' the wisdom and goodness of the Supreme Nature, by 
the School-men called Naturans, that governs and directs the Natura 
naturata here below, to beautifie the World with these varieties ; 
which I take to be the end of such productions as well as of most 
Flowers, such as Tulips, Anemones, &c. of which we know as little 
use as of formed stones.' 

The modest and withal amusing paragraph which follows I 
venture to quote in full as an example to be followed in scientific 
controversy : 

' And thus I have given the grounds of my present opinion, which 
has not been taken up out of humor or contradiction, with intent only 
to affront other worthy Authors modest conjectures, but rather 
friendly to excite them, or any others, to endeavor collections of 
shell-fish, and parts of other Animals, that may answer such formed 
stones as are here already, or may hereafter be produced : Which 
when ever I find done, and the reasons alleged solidly answered, I 

2 The Natural History of Oxfordshire, being an Essay toward the Natural History 
of England, by Robert Plot, D.D. Printed at the Theater in Oxford. 1677. 
Dedicated To the most Sacred Majesty of Charles the Second, King of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. (pp. 1 18-122). 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS S 

shall be ready with acknowledgment to retract my opinion, which 
I am not so in love with, but for the sake of Truth I can chearfully 
cast off without the least reluctancy.' 

One chief object which, as I believe, Huxley had before him was to 
bring forward a calm, clear statement of the evidence on which 
alone it was possible to achieve that ' reconstruction of an extinct 
animal from a tooth or bone,' which had made so deep an impression 
on the imagination. The reconstruction was in fact a simple 
inference based on anatomical experience such as that gained by 
Steno when he dissected the shark and concluded that the ' glosso- 
petrae ' were the teeth of shark-like fishes. But this reasoning — 
that a fossil tooth or bone on the surface of a rock, cannot by itself 
enable the geologist to predict that a skeleton of a certain type lies 
hidden beneath — seeming to diminish the glory of Cuvier's splendid 
work, was resented by Owen who had replied with the bitter taunt 
that a tooth can tell us a great deal — a donkey can kick his master 
but he cannot eat him. This may have been the encounter referred 
to by Huxley when he wrote of a friendly meeting with Owen at the 
Zoological Section of the Association in Leeds (1858) : ' so that 
the people who had come in hopes of a row were (as I intended they 
should be) disappointed.' ^ In the same spirit, I think, Huxley 
was glad to speak of the ' glossopetras ' at the Jubilee meeting, where 
Owen was President of a Section, and calmly and simply, to reaffirm 
conclusions which are unassailable. 

Huxley then passed on to Steno 's further study of fossils and his 
proof of their relationship to terrestrial freshwater and marine 
organisms, and to his application of this evidence to the past condi- 
tion of Tuscany — all discussed ' in a manner worthy of a modern 
geologist ' and later extended by Buffon to all parts of the world 
then known to be fossiliferous. These conclusions, ' which almost 
constitute the framework of palaeontology,' only required one 
addition, made towards the end of the eighteenth century by William 
Smith, who showed that geological strata contained characteristic 
fossils so that rocks of the same age could be identified in all parts of 
the world, while the biologist could follow the changes in the living 
population of the globe — a record of constant extinction and con- 
tinual generation of new species. We were then led to three general 
conclusions : (i) the vast length of time during which life has 
existed on the earth — ' certainly for millions of years ' ; (2) the 
continual changes which living forms have undergone during this 
period ; (3) the successive changes in the best-known fossil groups 
are such as we should expect if each series ' had been produced by 
the gradual modification of the earliest form. . . .' This last 
conclusion meant evolution which so completely accorded with 

^ Life and Letters, vol. i, p. 157. 



6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

recent discoveries that * if it had not existed, the palaeontologist 
would have had to invent it.' 

I can never forget the words spoken to me after the lecture by a 
dear friend of my youth, the late Viriamu Jones, Principal of 
University College, Cardiff : ' At every sentence I felt myself 
bowing to Huxley and saying " you are the greatest man here ; no 
one else could have said that as you have said it." ' 

As Huxley's lecture continued in a calm spirit an embittered 
controversy, so his thoughts on the immensity of past geological 
and biological time lead naturally to another controversy on the age 
of the earth conducted intermittently at our meetings between 1892 
and 1921. It is, I think, a good example of the invaluable help 
which the British Association brings to discussion when there 
appears to be a difficulty in reconciling the conclusions reached by 
the followers of different sciences. Lord Kelvin's estimate of a 
hundred million years as the period during which the earth had been 
cool enough to permit the existence of life upon its surface — a period 
reduced by Prof. Tait to ten million — was a great difficulty to 
geologists and biologists who believed that an immensely longer 
time was required for the history of the fossiliferous rocks and the 
evolution of animals and plants. Thus, to quote only one instance, 
Darwin writing to Wallace in 1871 and referring to ' missing links,' 
said, ' I should rely much on pre-Silurian time ; but then comes 
Sir William Thomson, like an odious spectre.' The geologists 
resisted more firmly. Thus Sir Archibald Geikie, in his Presidential 
Address at Edinburgh in 1892, concluded his discussion of the sub- 
ject with these words : ' The geological record furnishes a mass of 
evidence which no arguments drawn from other departments of 
Nature can explain away, and which, it seems to me, cannot be 
satisfactorily interpreted save with an allowance of time much 
beyond the narrow limits which recent physical speculation would 
concede.' At the Leeds meeting in 1890 I had many opportunities 
of meeting Prof. John Perry, and when we were walking together on 
the Sunday afternoon I asked him to tell me something of the Kelvin- 
Tait conclusions and how far they must be accepted. He had been a 
demonstrator under Kelvin and spoke of the intense interest with 
which he had followed his lectures at Glasgow, and he gave me no 
hope of escape. His change of opinion, throwing a most interesting 
light upon the influence of the British Association, was the result of 
the Presidential address at Oxford in 1894, when Lord Salisbury 
chaffed the believers in natural selection, telling them that he did not 
wonder that they required many hundred million years for so slow 
a process, but that ' if the mathematicians are right, the biologists 
cannot have what they demand. . . . The jelly-fish would have 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 7 

been dissipated in steam long before he had had a chance of dis- 
playing the advantageous variation which was to make him the 
ancestor of the human race.' When Perry read this pronouncement, 
sweeping aside the firm convictions of biologists and geologists, he 
was led to re-examine the evidence and soon found a flaw. The 
heat of the earth had been calculated on the assumption of a con- 
ductivity uniform through the whole mass, but Perry showed that 
with a conductivity becoming higher with increasing depth the 
Kelvin-Tait estimate of the time required for cooling to the existing 
temperature — on which the age of the habitable earth had been 
based — must be immensely lengthened. Perry told me of this 
destructive criticism and very kindly helped me to make use of it 
in the address to Section D at Liverpool in which I replied to Lord 
Salisbury's amusing attack on the evolutionists. 

Lord Lister was our President at Liverpool in 1896, and I cannot 
resist the temptation to digress for a moment and recall the address 
in which one of the greatest benefactors of mankind told us, with the 
utmost simplicity and modesty, the story of his life's work and the 
success which, in spite of all opposition, had been achieved. To 
hear him was an enduring inspiration. 

The year 1896 was also the Jubilee of Lord Kelvin's wonderful 
half-century of achievement in research and teaching, and I could 
not help feeling some regret that any criticism of his work 
should appear at this particular time. But in the kindly spirit 
of our Association such doubts were quite unnecessary. I well 
remember how he came one day to our Sectional Committee-room 
to bring me some volumes of his works, and how, as I have recorded 
before, in the following year as we were travelling across Canada 
after the Toronto Meeting and the chance of collecting insects for 
a few minutes at each station could not be resisted, Lord Kelvin 
said to his wife, ' My dear, I think we must forgive Poulton for 
thinking that the earth is so very old when he works so hard in one 
day out of all the endless millions of years in which he believes 1 ' * 

The one line of evidence which left some anxiety in 1896, was 
suggested by Helmholtz who allowed the sun only eighteen million 
years to have been giving out radiant heat at the present rate — a 
period Lord Kelvin was willing to extend to 500 million — and this 
estimated maximum was also accepted by Sir George Darwin, who, 
in his address ^ at Cape Town in 1905, spoke of the new evidence 
obtained by M. and Mme. Curie in their proof that radium gives 
out heat, and, quoting in confirmation the work of R. J. Strutt, 
W. E. Wilson, and G. H. Darwin, finally concluded that ' the 
physical argument is not susceptible of a greater degree of certainty 

* Report, British Association, Centenary Meeting, 1931, p. 78. 
5 Report, British Association, 1905, pp. 514-518. 



8 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

than that of the geologists, and the scale of geological time remains 
in great measure unknown.' The light thrown by radium upon 
the Helmholtz estimate was also referred to in the Presidential 
Address of Ray Lankester at York in 1906, of J. J. Thomson, quoting 
the work of Strutt, Joly and Rutherford, at Winnipeg in 1909, and 
became a predominant subject in the Joint Discussion on the Age 
of the Earth, between Sections A, C, D and K, at Edinburgh in 
1 92 1.* Lord Rayleigh in opening this discussion concluded ' that 
radioactive methods of estimation indicate a moderate multiple of 
1,000 million years as the possible and probable duration of the 
earth's crust as suitable for the habitation of living beings. . . .' 

Even in the present year Sir Ambrose Fleming, in his address to 
the Victoria Institute, is reported in The Times of January 12 to have 
maintained that ' We were not in possession of any generally agreed 
scientific modes of geological time measurement, but only with 
estimates which were based for the most part on personal predilec- 
tion or guesses at truth.' It is to be regretted that the conclusions 
of scientific colleagues should be attributed to ' personal predilec- 
tion,' and as for ' guesses at truth ' — ^what are these but hypotheses ; 
and surely the discoverer whose imaginative effort led to the therm- 
ionic valve and did so much to endow the world with the infinite 
possibilities of wireless — surely he has little cause to choose for the 
serious efforts of others the word which in this connection carries a 
suggestion of shallow irresponsibility. 

Geologists and biologists do not profess to know the age of the 
earth as the abode of life, but they are sure that, in the words used 
by Sir William Turner at Bradford in 1900, its birth ' must have 
been in the far-distant past, at a period so remote from the present 
that the mind fails to grasp the duration of the interval.' 

I fear that too much of our time has been occupied by the attempt 
to show that the field is clear for the discussion of Organic Evolu- 
tion, but, until this could be done, any such discussion appeared to 
be well-nigh useless. 

It is, I think, a mistake to emphasise too strongly the very 
natural shock received by many who read the Origin or heard of 
its teaching for the first time and without any preparation ; and I 
believe an even greater mistake to criticise the clergy for the time that 
elapsed before their acceptance of the new teaching. I shall never 
forget the reception of Aubrey Moore's paper, ' Recent Advances in 
Natural Science in their Relation to the Christian Faith,' by the 
Church Congress at Reading in 1883.' No speaker could have 
carried his audience with him more thoroughly : there was not a 
single protest or indication of dissent — nothing but enthusiastic 

' Report, British Association, 1921, pp. 413-415. 

' Science and the Faith, London, 1889, pp. 222-235. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 9 

applause. The Bishop of Oxford, Dr. Mackarness, was in the chair 
when the paper received this unanimous welcome- — only twenty- 
three years after the Oxford meeting at which another Bishop of 
Oxford put his rude and foolish question to Huxley. It is pleasant 
to know that their celebrated encounter left no bitterness, for 
Huxley wrote in 1891 to Francis Darwin — ' In justice to the Bishop, 
I am bound to say that he bore no malice, but was always courtesy 
itself when we occasionally met in after years.' 

I remember as a youth receiving a gentle parental warning against 
committing myself too entirely to a belief in evolution^ — a very 
different experience from that of our President at Hull in 1922, my 
friend Sir Charles Sherrington, who in 1873 was persuaded by his 
mother to take the Origin with him on his summer holiday, with the 
inspiring words- — ' It sets the door of the Universe ajar ! ' 

I have already recalled Dr. Wright's indignation at York in iSSi 
as my only experience of opposition to a belief in Organic Evolution 
at any of our meetings, and the published Proceedings confirm this 
impression of unanimity. Thus, R. H. Traquair, addressing the 
biologists at Bradford in 1900, said, ' I hardly think that we should 
now find a single scientific worker who continues to hold on to the 
old special creation idea ' ; and Lord Salisbury at Oxford in 1894, 
referring to Darwin, said, ' He has, as a matter of fact, disposed of 
the doctrine of the immutability of species. It has been mainly 
associated in recent days with the honoured name of Agassiz, but 
with him has disappeared the last defender of it who could claim 
the attention of the world.' The mention of this great American 
naturalist recalls Tyndall's fine address at Belfast in 1874 ^^"^ ^^^ 
memories of Agassiz's words, ' I was not prepared to see this theory 
received as it has been by the best intellects of our time. Its success 
is greater than I could have thought possible.' 

Huxley, who had seconded the vote of thanks to Lord Salisbury, 
wrote to Hooker a few days later : ' It was very queer to sit there 
and hear the doctrines you and I were damned for advocating 
thirty-four years ago at Oxford, enunciated as matters of course — 
disputed by no reasonable man ! — in the Sheldonian Theatre by 
the Chancellor. . . .' ^ 

A letter written two days earlier to Boyd Dawkins records Huxley's 
opinion of another part of the address. * Lord Salisbury gave him- 
self away wonderfully, but he was so good about Darwin himself 
that I shut my eyes to all the nonsense he talked about Natural 
Selection.' ® 

* Life and Letters, 1900, vol. ii, p. 379. 

• From a letter of August 10, 1894, printed in the Jesus College {Oxford) 
Magazine, for Lent Term, 1928 ; and reprinted in Hope Reports, vol. xvi, 1929, 
No. 3, p. 6. (Privately circulated to many scientific libraries.) Huxley's letter 
of August 18, 1894, to Lewis Campbell {Life and Letters, vol. ii, p. 379) refers to 
the same subject. 

B 2 



lo THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

Leaving now the subject of Organic Evolution itself, as generally 
accepted, I wish to speak on the difficult question of its motive 
causes which for many years have formed the subject of addresses, 
discussions and papers at our meetings. The great division into two 
opposed theories of causation became clear in 1887 when Weismann 
attended the meeting at Manchester, and a discussion on ' The 
Hereditary Transmission of Acquired Characters ' was held in 
Section D. From that time evolutionists attending our meetings 
have been either ' Lamarckians,' following Erasmus Darwin, 
Lamarck, Buffon and Herbert Spencer, or ' Darwinians ' who 
followed Darwin and Wallace. Darwin himself, however, included 
the Lamarckian conception of ' use-inheritance ' as a motive cause, 
although believing it to be far less important than Natural Selection. 
The term ' Neo-Darwinian ' has therefore been applied to those 
who, accepting Weismann 's teaching, reject ' use-inheritance ' 
altogether. 

It must always be remembered that, apart from any theory of 
causes, the world owes its belief in organic evolution to all the great 
men whose researches and teaching have, founded the two schools, 
and perhaps chiefly, at any rate among the English-speaking nations, 
to Herbert Spencer. I was first led to realise the extent of his 
transatlantic popularity when I learned from an American story 
greatly .enjoyed in those far-off undergraduate days, that his books 
were keenly appreciated by a bashful hero, who was so far from 
sharing the sublime confidence of their author, that he was only led 
to perform the most fateful action in life by the pressing advice of 
a very young nephew who assured him, in the presence of the lady, 
that if he was fond of her, the proper thing to do was to kiss her. 
Herbert Spencer's infallibility certainly lent itself to such stories as 
that of his supposed reply to an argument — ' That can't be true, for 
otherwise First Principles would have to be re-written — and the 
edition is stereotyped ' ; or how Darwin said that to read Spencer 
always made him feel like a worm, but that he retained the worm's 
privilege of wriggling, and at another time ' wonderfully clever, and 
I dare say mostly true.' But, allowing for a style which provoked 
these and other amusing comments, we must never forget that 
believers in the doctrine of Organic Evolution owe an immeasurable 
debt to Herbert Spencer. 

James Russell Lowell's amusing lines in the Biglow Papers ^° 
appear to prove that Lamarckism was prevalent in America many 
years before the Origin : 

' Some flossifers think thet a fakkilty's granted 
The minnit its proved to be thoroughly wanted, 

1" The lines are quoted from the First Part, published 1846-48. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS n 

Ez, fer instance, thet rubber-trees fust begun bearin' 
Wen p'litikkle conshunces come into wearin', — 
Thet the fears of a monkey, whose holt chanced to fail, 
Drawed the vertibry out to a prehensile tail.' 

The year of the Manchester meeting, 1887, was the fiftieth anni- 
versary, and we are now celebrating the Centenary, of the entry in 
Darwin's pocket-book : 

' In July opened first note-book on Transmutation of Species. 
Had been greatly struck from about the month of previous March 
on character of South American fossils, and species on Galapagos 
Archipelago. These facts (especially latter), origin of all my views.' 

It is especially interesting to recall that these views, as Professor 
Newton told us in his address to D, the Biological Section, did not 
include Natural Selection which only came into Darwin's mind 
when he read Malthus, On Population, in October, 1838. Newton, 
who had read the proof-sheets of the great Life of Darwin, pub- 
lished later in 1887, then spoke of Wallace's independent discovery, 
made twenty years after Darwin's, a discovery suggested to him also 
by reflecting on Malthus, and of the friendship between the two 
great men to whom this fruitful conception had come, referring the 
cynic who would ' point the finger of scorn at the petty quarrels in 
which naturalists unfortunately at times engage ' to this ' greatest 
of all cases, where scientific rivalry not only did not interfere with, 
but even strengthened, the good-feeling which existed between two 
of the most original investigators.' And here I cannot resist the 
desire to quote a part of the speech made by Wallace at the most 
thrilling scientific gathering I have ever attended — the fiftieth 
anniversary of the Darwin-Wallace Essay read before the Linnean 
Society on July i, 1858, only twelve days after the arrival of Wallace's 
letter and manuscript from the Moluccas. Wallace then said, on 
July I, 1908 : 

' The idea came to me, as it had come to Darwin, in a sudden flash 
of insight : it was thought out in a few hours . . . and sent off to 
Darwin — all within one week, /was then (as often since) the " young 
man in a hurry " : he, the painstaking and patient student, seeking 
ever the full demonstration of the truth that he had discovered, 
rather than to achieve immediate personal fame. ... If the per- 
suasion of his friends had prevailed with him, and he had published 
his theory, after ten years'^ — fifteen years' — or even eighteen years' 
elaboration of it — / should have had no part in it whatever, and he 
would have been at once recognised, and should be ever recognised, 
as the sole and undisputed discoverer and patient investigator of the 
great law of " Natural Selection," in all its far-reaching con- 
sequences.' ^^ 

*^ Darwin-Wallace Celebration of the Linnean Society of London, 190S, pp. 6, 7. 



12 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

Amusing evidence of the difficulty with which this ' great law ' was 
understood is afforded by a verse written by Lord Neaves and dated 
May, 1861 : 

' A deer with a neck that was longer by half 
Than the rest of its family's (try not to laugh), 
By stretching and stretching, became a Giraffe, 
Which nobody can deny.' ^^ 

Yet Wallace, referring to Lamarck's hypothesis and * that now 
advanced,' had written in his Section of the Joint Essay : 

* Neither did the giraffe acquire its long neck by desiring to reach 
the foliage of the more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its neck 
for the purpose, but because any varieties which occurred among its 
antitypes with a longer neck than usual at once secured a fresh range 
of pasture over the same ground as their shorter-necked companions, 
and on the first scarcity of food were thereby enabled to outlive them.^ 

There were fortunately others who did not launch such ill-aimed 
criticism. Thus Professor Newton, reminding the Section that the 
new teachings had been at once accepted by Canon Tristram ^^ before 
the appearance of the Origin of Species (on November 24, 1859), 
expressed, with all the enthusiasm of one who was devoted to the 
same delightful branch of natural history, ' the hope that the study 
of ornithology may be said to have been lifted above its fellows.' 
It was indeed very fortunate that the Darwin-Wallace Essay should 
have been read so soon after its appearance by a naturalist who looked 
on the species question as did Tristram — a great traveller and observer 
who studied indefatigably the birds he loved, as living creatures and 
in as many countries as he could visit. 

At the last meeting of the British Association in Nottingham (1893) 
Canon Tristram was President of Section D and, in his address, 
gave an account of the observations referred to by Newton at Man- 
chester. The historic interest of this early acceptance of Natural 
Selection is such that I have prepared a brief abstract of his chief 
conclusions : 

During a visit of many months to the Algerian Sahara in 1857-58, 
he ' noticed the remarkable variations in different groups, according 
to elevation from the sea, and the difference of soil and vegetation.' 
On his return he read the Darwin-Wallace Essay and wrote, ' It is 
hardly possible, I should think, to illustrate this theory better than 
by the larks and chats of North Africa.' He then explained how the 
colours arose by selective destruction of birds which harmonised 
less well than others with the surface of the desert. And similarly 
with other larks having ' differences, not only of colour, but of 

*^ The Origin of Species . A new song. In. Songs and verses, social and scientific, 
by an old contributor to Maga. Edinburgh, 1868, 2nd Ed. 
1' Ibis, October, 1859, pp. 429-433. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 13 

Structure,' chiefly ' marked in the form of the bill.' He took as 
instances a very long-billed lark {Galerita arenicold), resorting 
exclusively to the deep, loose, sandy tracts, and a very short-billed 
allied species (G. isabellina), haunting the hard and rocky districts. 
He then pointed out that there is individual variation in the bills 
of larks and that the shorter-billed birds would be at a disadvantage 
in obtaining food from sandy areas but at an advantage among the 
rocks where strength is required. He concluded, ' Here are only 
two causes enumerated which might serve to create, as it were, a new 
species from an old one. Yet they are perfectly natural causes, 
and such as I think must have occurred, and are possibly occurring 
still. We know so very little of the causes which, in the majority of 
cases, make species rare or common that there may be hundreds of 
others at work, some even more powerful than these, which go to 
perpetuate and eliminate certain forms " according to natural means 
of selection." ' 

The temptation to record an amusing incident which happened 
at one of the meetings of Section D at Manchester, cannot be 
resisted. Work was proceeding smoothly under the genial guidance 
of Prof. Newton when, suddenly, Dr. Samuel Haughton of Dublin 
entered and from the back of the room announced in arresting tones 
that he had an important communication to make about the animals 
preserved from the Flood. He believed that Mrs. Noah strongly 
objected to her husband's intention to take the elephants on board, 
fearing that their weight would cause a dangerous displacement of 
the Ark's metacentre. How this domestic difference was composed 
we had no opportunity of learning, for as the Chairman, whose 
expression combined sympathetic amusement with mild deprecation, 
was rising and about to protest, Dr. Haughton, anticipating the 
result, had already turned towards the door, telling us over his 
shoulder that he was on his way to make a fuller commimication 
on the subject to the Anthropological Section. 

After this brief description of an event, which I hope you will agree 
ought not to be forgotten, we must return to Organic Evolution and 
to one of the most important subjects debated at any time before a 
meeting of the British Association — the question, 'Are Acquired 
Characters Hereditary ? ' — brought before the world by Prof. August 
Weismann, who was present at Manchester and spoke in the dis- 
cussion (unfortunately not reported), introduced by Ray Lankester, 
in which Dr. Hubrecht, Patrick Geddes, Marcus Hartog and the 
present speaker, took part. Weismann 's conclusion that ' Acquired 
Characters ' are not inherited, was held by Prof. Goodrich, in his 
address to Section D at Edinburgh in 1921, to be ' the most important 



14 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

contribution to the science of evolution since the publication of Dar- 
win's Origin of Species,^ an opinion with which the great majority of 
biologists will agree, although the terms employed for the two classes, 
the Inherited and the Non-inherited, together with the ideas under- 
lying them, were shown by Adam Sedgwick, at Dover in 1899, 
Archdall Reid, and others, as well as by Goodrich himself, to be 
incorrect. Nevertheless it will probably be impossible to abandon 
the word ' acquired,' employed by Erasmus Darwin (1794), Lamarck 
(1809), and Prichard (1813) as well as by later authorities. Whenever 
environmental conditions are followed by characteristic changes, 
absent when these conditions are absent ; or when such changes 
follow the use or disuse of the parts of an organism, or the education 
it has received, then we have before us the ' acquired ' characters 
maintained by Weismann to be incapable of hereditary transmission. 
This vital conclusion, accepted, as I believe it is, by nearly all 
biologists, is not appreciated as it ought to be by the general public. 
A brief statement of a single piece of evidence may convince some 
who are doubtful about a conclusion with which human life is very 
deeply concerned. 

My old friend the late A. A. Macdonell, Professor of Sanskrit at 
Oxford, spoke two languages, English and German, as they are 
spoken by native Englishmen and Germans. I asked him whether he 
thought it was possible for any mature person to learn a foreign lan- 
guage so perfectly that he would be mistaken for a native. He replied 1 
that he was sure it could not be done and that his own ability 
to speak the two languages as he did had been only made possible 
because as a small child he had been continually taken backwards 
and forwards between the two countries. Yet any human being trans- 
ported as a baby from his own country to another and brought up 
there among the natives will learn to speak as they speak. All the 
past generations, however many, during which his ancestors spoke 
the language af his birthplace, will count for nothing, will not retard 
his acquisition of another tongue or modify it in any way. 

An interesting and amusing example is provided by the futile 
striving of an Englishman to pronounce the Welsh double-1, generally 
attempted by the substitution of ' th.' And even the advice given 
by a Welsh clergyman to the English Bishop of his diocese is unlikely 
to bring success : ' You must put the tip of your Right Reverend 
tongue against the roof of your Right Reverend mouth, and hiss like 
a goose.' 

The result of education as an ' acquired ' character in the Weis- 
mannian sense is of such special importance that I think it is well 
to quote the conclusions stated by Sir Ray Lankester in his address to 
the seventy-fifth meeting of the Association at York. He then main- 
tained that the ' power of building up appropriate cerebral mechanism 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 15 

in response to individual experience, or what may be called " educa- 
bility," is the quality which characterises the larger cerebrum, and 
is that which has led to its selection, survival, and further increase 
in volume '...'" Educability " can be transmitted ; it is a 
congenital character. But the results of education can not be 
transmitted. In each generation they have to be acquired 
afresh. . . . On the other hand, the nerve-mechanisms of instinct 
are transmitted, and owe their inferiority as compared with the 
results of education to the very fact that they are not acquired 
by the individual in relation to his particular needs, but have 
arisen by selection of congenital variation in a long series of 
preceding generations.' ^* 

Lankester was led by these conclusions to reject altogether the 
theory of G. H. Lewes, G. Romanes, and others, * that instincts are 
due to lapsed intelligence,' a theory also disproved by Lloyd Morgan's 
observations on young birds described by him at the Ipswich meeting 
in 1895.^^ Another very important subject brought forward by 
Lankester was the evidence, originally published by him in 1894, '^^ 
that Lamarck's first and second laws of heredity ' are contradictory 
the one of the other, and therefore may be dismissed.' His state- 
ment may be briefly summarised as follows : 

The first law assumes that in spite of thousands of generations 
during which a normal environment has ' moulded the individuals 
of a given species of organism, and determined as each indi- 
vidual developed and grew " responsive " quantities in its parts 
(characters) ; yet, as Lamarck tells us, and as we know, there is in 
every individual born a potentiality which has not been extinguished. 
Change the normal conditions . . . and (as Lamarck bids us observe), 
in spite of all the long-continued response to the earlier normal 
specific conditions, the innate congenital potentiality shows itself. 
The individual . . . shows new responsive quantities in those parts 
of its structure concerned, new or acquired characters.' 

' So far, so good. What Lamarck next asks us to accept, as his 
" second law," seems not only to lack the support of experimental 
proof, but to be inconsistent with what had just preceded it. The 
new character which is ex hypothesi, as was the old character . . . 
which it has replaced — a response to environment . . .is, according 
to Lamarck, all of a sudden raised to extraordinary powers. The 
new or freshly acquired character is declared ... to be capable of 
transmission by generation ; that is to say, it alters the potential 
character of the species. It is no longer a merely responsive 

1* Report, British Association, 1906, pp. 26-27. The conclusions here quoted had 
been communicated to Sociiti de Biologie of Paris, in 1899 (Jubilee Volume) and 
were reprinted in Nature, vol. Ixi, 1900, pp. 624-625. 

^* Report, British Association, p. 734. 

i« Nature, vol. li, 1894, p. 127 ; Report, British Association, 1906, pp. 29, 30. 



i6 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

or reactive character, determined quantitatively by quantitative 
conditions of the environment, but becomes fixed and incorporated 
in the potential of the race, so as to persist when other quantitative 
external conditions are substituted for those which originally 
determined it.' 

The effect of Lamarck's laws on the hereditary transmission of 
acquired characters would be this : ' A past of indefinite duration 
is powerless to control the present, while the brief history of the 
present can readily control the future.' 

After hearing a very condensed statement of conclusions so 
essentially bound up with the progress of Organic Evolution, I feel 
sure that you will wish to be reminded of Prof. Ewing's words which 
followed the address at York : 

* Now is the winter of our discontent made glorious summer by 
this Ray of Lankester.' 

Returning to the unreported discussion on the inheritance of 
acquired characters at Manchester, I venture to bring forward 
certain observations opposed to a belief in Lamarckian evolution by 
means of inherited experience — observations which I then described 
and have not known to be answered. In the relationship between 
enemy and prey there is very commonly no opportunity for the 
latter to learn by experience. The wonderfully elaborate adapta- 
tions by which sedentary insects are hidden from enemies have been 
evolved, not by experience of enemies but by avoidance of enemies. 
In these examples, and they are numberless, we are driven to accept 
Weismann's conclusion and with him to invoke ' the all-sufficiency 
of Natural Selection.' When one of the twig-like caterpillars, of 
which there are so many in this country, is detected by an insecti- 
vorous bird it can do nothing and is devoured at once. Its one 
defence is the astonishingly perfect resemblance to a twig of the 
bush or tree on which it lives. It is firmly fixed and its weight also 
supported by an almost invisible thread so that it cannot escape as 
many caterpillars do by dropping to the ground and sheltering in 
the grass or among dead leaves. Its one chance of survival is to 
gain so perfect a disguise that it will not be seen, and to attain this 
end the adaptive devices are most elaborate and wonderful : its 
twig-like shape and colours with the power of gradually adjusting 
these so as to resemble the bark of the bush or tree on which the 
parent moth laid the egg from which it came, even the power to 
reproduce exactly the appearance of lichen, the rigid stick-like 
attitude maintained during the hours of daylight. Finally there is 
the evidence, recently obtained by Robert Carrick,!''' that the disguise 
does protect ; for examples of one of these caterpillars, resting on 

i' Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc, Lond., vol. 85, part 4 (May, 1936), p. 131, 3 pis. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 17 

a branch of its food-plant fixed over a wren's nest containing young, 
were unnoticed by the parent bird which used the same branch as 
a convenient perch ; yet seen and at once taken when placed on a 
white surface below. 

One of the best examples of a prophetic instinct is to be found in 
the larva of an African Tabanid fly (T. biguttatiis) . This maggot 
lives and feeds in soft mud which, during the dry season when the 
chrysalis stage has been reached, will be traversed in all directions 
by wide and deep cracks in which insectivorous animals can search 
for prey. But the maggot, while the mud is still soft, prepares for 
this danger. By tunnelling spirally up and down it makes a line of 
weakness which will cause a pillar to separate from the mass when 
the mud hardens and contracts. It then tunnels into the still soft 
pillar and becomes a chrysalis in the centre of its deeper end. How- 
ever wide the cracks which appear in the mud, the maggot has 
arranged beforehand that they will not invade its cylinder. Dr. 
W. A. Lambom, who made this most interesting discovery, observed 
that the summits of the pillars, forming circular discs of about the 
size of a penny, scattered here and there over the surface, were never 
thus traversed, but that an empty shell was protruding from the 
centre of each when the fly had emerged. ^^ My friend the late Prof. 
J. M. Baldwin, the distinguished American psychologist, well 
remembered at many of our meetings, wrote when he heard of this 
discovery : ' it seems complete — one of those rare cases of a single 
experience being sufficient to establish both a fact and a reason for 
the fact ! It is beautiful.' 

I would ask any believer in Lamarckian evolution, or in Hering's 
and Samuel Butler's theory of unconscious memory residing in the 
germ-cells, how it would be possible to explain these prophetic 
instincts, adapted not to meet but to avoid future experience, except 
by the operation of natural selection. 

The appeal to Orthogenesis, or internal developmental force, as 
the motive cause of evolutionary progress has often been made — 
generally by palaeontologists rather than by the observers of living 
forms. Any such belief in the potency of an internal tendency is, 
I think, open to the criticism made by Thiselton Dyer in his address 
to Section D at Bath in 1888 : ' This appears to me much as if we 
explained the movement of a train from London to Bath by attri- 
buting to it a tendency to locomotion. Mr. Darwin lifted the 
whole matter out of the field of mere transcendental speculation by 
the theory of natural selection, a perfectly intelligible mechanism 
by which the result might be brought about. Science will always 

1* Proc. Roy. Soc, B, vol. 106, 1930, p. 83, pi. v ; Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., vol. v, 
1930, p. 14. 



i8 ' THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

prefer a material modus operandi to anything so vague as the action 
of a tendency.' 

It is not necessary for me to speak on the rediscovery of Mendel's 
great work and all that it has meant to our Biological Sections in the 
early decades of the present century. The recent developments, 
following the work of Haldane, R. A. Fisher, and others, and the 
vitally important relationship between Mendelism and Natural 
Selection were brought before us last year in Julian Huxley's 
illuminating address to Section D. The older belief that only 
large variations, or mutations as they then began to be called, were 
subject to Mendelian inheritance, and that small variations were 
not inherited at all, disappeared when further researches proved 
that extremely minute differences were ' heritable in the normal 
Mendelian manner,' ^^ and, with this, the foundation of Darwinian 
evolution became immensely strengthened. It is also right to 
remember that Bateson, the leader of Mendelian research in this 
country, always believed in Natural Selection, regarding it indeed 
as self-evident and not very interesting. Also that Ray Lankester, 
as long ago as his 1906 address at York, maintained that however 
far Mendelism was advanced it ' would not be subversive of Mr. 
Darwin's generalisations, but probably tend to the more ready 
application of them to the explanation of many difficult cases of the 
structure and distribution of organisms.' 

The relationship between the germinal foundation of Mendelian 
and Weismannian heredity was considered in a paper by L. Doncaster 
read before Section D at the South African meeting in 1905. He 
then maintained that Weismann's ' hypothesis that the material 
bearer of hereditary qualities is the chromatin of the nucleus ' of 
the germ-cells had been confirmed by recent work on their matura- 
tion which ' has shown that they contain a mechanism which seems 
precisely adapted to bring about that segregation of characters which 
forms the most fundamental part of the Mendelian theory, and 
it seems hardly possible that the two things are unconnected.' 
MacBride also, in his address to the same section at Newcastle in 
191 6, spoke of the ' great epoch-making discovery of experimental 
embryology, viz. the existence of specific organ-forming sub- 
stances.' These fundamental discoveries bring to mind a conversa- 
tion with Weismann when he had been finally driven to frame and 
elaborate this hypothesis, and was so appalled by the number and 
minuteness of the material bearers of hereditary qualities contained in 
a single germ-cell that, as he told me, he could not believe that the 
physicists and chemists were correct in their conclusions about the 
size of the atom. He admitted that diverse lines of evidence led to 
1' Report, British Association, 1931, p. 77 and references quoted. 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 19 

the same result, but even so, he believed the future would prove 
that physicists were mistaken and that the atom was far smaller. 

It is impossible to say more than a few words about the very 
interesting and important discussion on ' The present state of the 
Theory of Natural Selection ' held at the Royal Society on May 14 
last year. The subject was approached from many points of view 
by both zoologists and botanists, and their conclusions were very 
welcome to Darwinians who remembered the earlier opinions 
expressed when Mendel's great work was rediscovered. I think, 
however, that Prof. D. M. S. Watson, in the opening address, was 
inclined to underestimate the value of the existing evidence for a 
* selective death rate,' although everyone will agree that ' any new 
evidence ... or indeed any suggestion of cases which might be 
capable of investigation,' would be most desirable. 

I may briefly mention a few experiments brought before Section D 
at the Bristol meeting in 1898 beginning with the work of Weldon 
and Thompson on the Common Shore Crab, showing that the 
effect of china clay and other impurities in the sea at Plymouth was 
selective and promoted changes of shape which ensured that the 
water flowing over the respiratory surface was more efficiently 
filtered. 

Then, on the subject of chance, the heroic help rendered by Mrs. 
Weldon, who four times recorded the result of 4,096 throws of dice, 
showing that the faces with more than three points were on the 
average, uppermost slightly more often than was to be expected. 
It comes back to me very clearly because of the interesting explana- 
tion — that the points on dice are marked by little holes scooped out 
of the faces, and that points 6, 5, and 4, respectively opposite 1,2, 
and 3 are somewhat lighter, more of the ivory having been removed ; 
also because of Francis Galton's delight and his humorously 
expressed wonder whether the facts had been realised by those 
who had an interest other than scientific in the throwing of dice. 

Experimental evidence was also submitted by Miss Cora B. 
Sanders (Mrs. C. B. S. Hodson) and myself, proving that when the 
rough, angular pupa of the small tortoiseshell butterfly ' is sus- 
pended from a surface against which it stands out conspicuously, 
it is in far greater danger than when it is fixed to one upon which it 
is concealed.' 

To the observer of living creatures, however, the most convincing 
evidence is provided by animals themselves. When a wild bird is 
seen to capture some conspicuous butterfly or moth and then 
immediately to reject it the association between inedibility and a 
warning colour is more convincingly suggested than when insects 
are offered to animals in confinement, although such experiments 



20 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

are of great value and often provide the only available evidence. 
There are, however, instances in which abundant data for statistical 
investigation are furnished by the wild animals themselves. Thus 
the long-eared bat has the convenient habit of eating moths — its 
regular food — while it hangs suspended from a surface to which it 
returns after each capture ; and as the wings are rejected, these may 
be collected in large numbers, yielding valuable information on the 
significance of concealing and warning patterns. 

In the attempt to determine the motive causes of organic evolu- 
tion, the work of the naturalist, the student of living nature, is 
essential. His task is to do what Lyell did for geology by directing 
attention to the forces now in operation and seeking with their help 
to interpret the past. By the death of Lord Rothschild, on 
August 28, the world has lost a great naturalist who devoted his life 
to the creation of a splendid museum offering unique opportunities 
for the study of modifications which arose as the species of an 
important Insect Order (Lepidoptera) gradually spread over the 
areas which they now occupy. It was his wish that this immense 
field for research upon these latest phases of evolutionary change 
should become the property of the Nation, forming a magnificent 
addition to the British Museum. I feel confident that it is the 
earnest hope of us all that Lord Rothschild's wish may be realised 
and that this great memorial of a life devoted to Natural History 
will provide constant inspiration to many workers in the same 
branch of science. 

Associated with these researches is the study of adaptations 
which have been developed in recent times and can, in certain 
instances, be proved to undergo changes even now. Thus the 
interesting observations of H. Lyster Jameson showed that a pale 
local race of the common mouse had been formed, although in- 
completely, in from 100 to 125 years, by the selective attacks of owls 
and hawks on sandhills near Dublin.^" I have long believed that 
the colours of animals provide one of the most fruitful fields in 
which to pursue these investigations, and I regret that this work has 
been recently attacked by an American zoologist who, referring to 
the recent revival of natural selection, continues — ' if the doctrine 
can emerge minus its sexual selection, its warning colors, its 
mimicry and its signal colors, the reaction over the end of the century 
will have been a distinct advantage.' ^^ It is of course impossible 
to discuss, on the present occasion, this confident attempt to de- 
preciate the value of work associated with the names of Darwin, 
Bates, Wallace, Trimen and Fritz Miiller. I will only point out 

^0 Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), vol. 26, 1898, p. 465, pi. 30. 
2' Evolution. A. Franklin Shull. (New York, 1936.) 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS ai 

that the conclusions on warning colours and mimicry have been 
immensely strengthened and confirmed by the later observations of 
Guy Marshall, W. A. Lamborn, St. Aubyn Rogers, Hale Carpenter, 
V. G. L. van Someren, C. F. M. Swynnerton and others in Africa ; 
by the experiments conducted by some of these naturalists, and also 
by H. B. Cott and R. Carrick, and in the United States by Morton 
Jones, 

It is interesting to remember that a paper by two American 
entomologists ^^ was among the first to accept and support by fresh 
observations the conclusions brought forward by H. W. Bates in 
his great memoir on the mimetic butterflies of the Amazon Valley ,^^ 
and that one of the authors treated the same subject more completely 
in a later paper 2* much appreciated by Darwin. ^^ 

It is also important to remember that the above-mentioned con- 
clusions have been reached by the study of marine animals no less 
than terrestrial, as was shown by Herdman in his address to Sec- 
tion D at Glasgow in 1901, and by his experiments communicated 
to the same Section at Ipswich in 1895 ; also that Garstang, with his 
very long and intimate experience of marine life, adopts the same 
interpretation of colour and form with the associated attitudes and 
movements. 

If time permitted it would be possible to speak of numerous 
papers on mimicry and the related subjects which have been brought 
before our meetings. It is impossible to attempt this now, but 
many will feel with me that the name of the late Dr. F. A. Dixey 
should not be forgotten — one who attended so regularly, so often 
read papers at our meetings, presided over Section D at Bournemouth 
in 1919, lectured at Leicester in 1907, always giving the results 
yielded by the study of his favourite insects, and their interpretation 
by the theory of natural selection ; also one who delighted in the social 
gatherings of his Section, where his rendering of Widdicombe Fair 
will be long remembered. 

In my concluding remarks I am anxious to refer to a very 
interesting and encouraging subject — the feeling for animals and 
the care for their welfare to-day, as contrasted with the treatment 
they received a hundred years ago and even in the youth of many 
among us. Only last autumn The Times of October 12, reported 
that 1 ,000 swallows had arrived at Venice ' sent there by bird-lovers 
from Vienna and Munich in order to save them from the effects of 

22 Walsh and Riley: The American Entomologist, St. Louis, Mo., 1869, vol. i, 
p. 189. 

*' Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. xxiii, 1862, p. 495. 

*' Riley: Third Annual Report on the Noxious . . . Insects of . . . Missouri, 
1871, p. 142. 

^' Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection (Poulton, 1896), p. 202. 



22 THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

the cold weather. Soon after their arrival they were set free and 
flew south along the Adriatic coast.' And a little earlier the writer 
of the amusing ' Fourth Leader ' referred to a meeting of the Society 
for the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire at which the care 
of the opossum was discussed, comparing this with the report of 
happenings a hundred years earlier when there was a ' humorous 
debate ' at the Zoological Society ' about puffing cigar-smoke into 
the cages of the monkeys,' to their evident discomfort. The writer, 
yielding too far, we hope, to the depression of the present day, con- 
cludes : ' The world, it may be, is " man-sick " and yearning to 
be rid of a bad mistake. But the creature cannot be wholly vile 
when instead of torturing monkeys it takes thought for the opossum.' 
It would not be right to quote from a century-old report without 
speaking of all that is done and has been done during many years for 
the care and health of animals by the great London Society and its 
branch at Whipsnade, and in doing this, for the education and 
happiness of our people. But the change of which I have spoken 
is most deeply impressed on those who remember, as many of us do, 
the misdirected hours in youth when birds were shot in our gardens 
and brick traps made to catch them. I feel sure that those who did 
these things are not essentially different from their children and 
grandchildren who have grown up in a kinder atmosphere. I must 
not occupy more time on a subject which to some may seem in- 
appropriate, but it is bound up with education in its true sense — 
the detection and training of unrecognised ability — and if, as Sir 
Ray Lankester said at York, and we are all coming to believe, the 
hidden powers within are inherited while the results of their develop- 
ment are not, theft there is no easing of the burden with the passage 
of time, but each generation afresh must bear the heavy responsi- 
bility of conducting this development in the best way so that its 
successor may be able to meet the changing and, at this time, the 
increasing needs. The relationship between the powers within and 
their development was suggested in arresting words by the late 
Prof. Scott Holland : ' To say that a man cannot be made good by 
Act of Parliament is such an obvious truth that people forget what 
an outrageous lie it is ! ' 

Thoughts on the development of these hidden powers by the 
educating influence of social environment, suggest the greatest of 
the problems by which we are faced — the end of international war. 
Sir Michael Foster, in his Address at Dover in 1899, after speaking of 
progress in the material of warfare was led to believe that, ' happily, 
the very greatness of the modem power of destruction is already 
becoming a bar to its use, and bids fair — may we hope before long ? — 
wholly to put an end to it ; in the words of Tacitus, though in another 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 23 

sense, the very preparations for war, through the character which 
science gives them, make for peace.' And in his concluding pages 
he expressed the hope that the brotherly meeting between the 
English and French Associations at Dover and Boulogne might be 
looked upon as a sign that science, by nobler means than the develop- 
ment of armaments, was steadily working towards the same great end. 
And, in a time of still greater need and perplexity, may we not, in 
the same hopeful spirit, look upon the recent visit by which members 
of the French Association have honoured us, and feel strengthened 
in the belief that the great end will be reached. 

There are, I know, very many people who look upon the Great War 
with later wars and rumours of wars as the close of Sir Michael Foster's 
dream. The words in which Sir Arthur Schuster concluded his 
address at Manchester in 191 5, and Sir Edward Thorpe at Edin- 
burgh in 1921, indicate, I hope, that the British Association does not 
thus despair, and in this belief I bring before you a passage from the 
far earlier address which Sir Richard Owen delivered to the 
Twenty-eighth Meeting at Leeds in 1858 — a passage which makes 
a special appeal at a time when the British and American Associa- 
tions are confidently hoping to strengthen still further the bonds of 
sympathy and mutual appreciation by which they have been happily 
united for so many years. 

Referring to the transatlantic telegraph Sir Richard said : 

' We may confidently hope that this and other applications of 
pure science will tend to abolish wars over the whole earth ; so that 
men may come to look back upon the trial of battle between mis- 
understanding nations, as a sign of a past state of comparative 
barbarism ; just as we look back from our present phase of civilisation 
in England upon the old border warfare.' 

Confident words inspired by the forging of a new link between 
the two great English-speaking nations. Nearly eighty years have 
passed since they were spoken, but with all the terrible disappoint- 
ments there has been great progress, and a time will surely come, 
and may it come quickly, a time which shall prove that the visions of 
the young and the dreams of the old were prophetic of a glorious 
reality. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



NOISE AND THE NATION 

ADDRESS BY 

G. W. C. KAYE, O.B.E., M.A., D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Applied Physics and related Matters 
Acoustics and the British Association 
Noise and the Nation. 
The Measurement of Noise. 
The Decibel and the Phon. 
Noise Meters. 

(i) Subjective Noise Meters. 
(ii) Objective Noise Meters. 

The Analysis of Noise. 
Noise Level Measurements. 
Noise on the Railway. 
Noise in the Air. 
Noise on the Road. 

(i) Ministry of Transport Tests. 

(ii) Tests on New Motor Vehicles. 

(iii) Tests on ' Used ' Motor Vehicles. 

(iv) Summary of Tests. 

(v) Motor Horns. 

(vi) Pneumatic Road Drills. 

The Abatement of Noise. 
Quiet Housing. 

(i) The Insulation of Walls and Windows. 

(ii) The Insulation of Floors. 

(iii) Sound Absorbent Treatment of Rooms. 

Applied Physics and related Matters. 

There is a feeling, which of late years has been gathering strength, that 
the primary concern of the British Association should be to bring home 
to the community how much its welfare and its interests owe, and are 
likely to owe in the future, to science and its developments. Our 
President at Blackpool last year emphasised this outlook in his address 
on ' The Impact of Science on Society ' ; and we in Section A have 
thought it well this Coronation year to devote the greater part of our 
proceedings to some of the beneficent influences of applied physics on 
the complex social and industrial life of the nation. We feel that in 



26 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

these disturbed days science should have a message of goodwill to the 
world ; and to such a message, fortified at each of our sessions by practical 
demonstration, we have put our hand at this sectional gathering, now 
meeting for the third time in the great industrial city of Nottingham. 

A generation ago it was fashionable to draw a working distinction 
between the applied and pure physicist, it being considered that when 
given a piece of research to carry out, the former consciously or un- 
consciously applied Benjamin Franklin's stock question ' What is the use 
of it ? ' Nowadays it is appreciated that any such distinction can only 
be largely artificial, for there have been many outstanding illustrations 
during the last half century of how speedily and inevitably results of no 
preconceived practical value may glide into widespread industrial utilities. 
For example, when only forty years ago Sir. J. J. Thomson discovered 
the electron, no one could ever have imagined that, as Dr. K. T. Compton 
recently informed us, an industrial business amounting to some hundreds 
of millions of pounds a year would now owe its existence to electronic 
devices. Already, both neutrons and radio-sodium are being experi- 
mented with in radiation therapy ; and furthermore, some of the artificial 
radioactive elements have found an important field of use in biological 
processes, both in animals and plants, providing, as they do, by their 
characteristic radioactive decay, a method of identifying migrating atoms 
a million times more sensitive than any that analytical chemistry can off"er. 
Again, to judge by the 1936 report of the Comptroller-General of the 
Patent Office, technical applications are also being sought for the trans- 
mutation of elements by bombardment with short-wave radiation or 
high-speed particles. 

Thus even the most practically minded among us need find no difii- 
culty in appreciating the profound fascination and basic significance of 
some of the present-day developments of modern physics, and recog- 
nising the driving genius behind them. But applied physics has its 
victories no less than pure physics ; and speaking as one who has spent 
some thirty happy years in both the pure and applied schools of physical 
research, I can testify that dealing with materials which are neither 
intangible nor ephemeral, does not necessarily cramp outlook or stifle 
enthusiasm ; and applied workers are no less able to share the stimulus 
of conquering a stubborn investigation, and with it all, enjoy the satis- 
faction of seeing many of their labours turned to early account in the 
interests of the community. Perhaps some day they will also take to 
heart some of the social implications of their work. 

There must be many of us, both workers and onlookers, who at times 
feel a little overwhelmed by the way the ramifications of physical research 
year by year continue to extend. Not uncommonly, the methods of 
attack are so involved and the technique so formidable, that despite the 
great all-round improvements in equipment, the calls on the pertinacity 
and patience of the worker are no less than in the past. Incidentally, 
while present-day equipment is often much more elaborate and efficient, 
it is also apt to be much more costly than that of a generation ago, as 
those who direct physical laboratories are well aware. This applies alike 
to the pure and the applied physics laboratory ; and although their 



A— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 27 

immediate objectives are usually very different, one finds, for example, 
in both the Cavendish and National Physical Laboratories, ample 
illustration of how large-scale and expensive apparatus has entered into 
both classes of physical investigation. Such apparatus is likely to be 
beyond the compass of the private research worker, who at one time cut 
a conspicuous figure in the scientific annals of this country, but who, 
with a few noteworthy exceptions, has now regrettably disappeared. 
Progress in industrial research, at any rate, seems to be more and more 
bound up with specialised team attack, whether to solve a specific problem 
or to develop a new invention or product. 

There is one other matter to which I would like to refer. It has been 
claimed in some quarters that man's qualities of leadership are more 
likely to be developed by the older humanitarian studies than by the 
natural or mechanical sciences The dictum has doubtless the defects 
of all such generalisations, and more to the point, perhaps, is the sum- 
ming up of John Drinkwater, that ' the minds of men mostly belong to 
one or other of two kinds — the kind that wishes to dominate, and the 
kind that desires to understand.' Experience tempts one to hazard 
the view that the proportion of men who naturally seek leadership or 
administrative responsibility is small, possibly one in twenty or even less. 
Provided, however, the germs of initiative and common sense are there, 
the value of research in getting a man into the way of thinking for him- 
self and developing a courageous and discriminating outlook is not to 
be questioned. It is to be hoped that the penetration into the major 
industries of scientifically trained young men, whose mental equipment 
is such as to fit them later on for responsible administrative jobs, is some- 
thing which the Universities regard as of high national importance. In 
its turn,, industry must play a part by recognising the advantages of 
admitting the pick of such men into the Board room more commonly 
than in the traditional past. Power without knowledge is a well-worn 
and discredited experiment in this country ; and the conception that 
technical or scientific workers invariably require to be mothered by 
full-blooded non-scientific or quasi-scientific administrators is manifestly 
so much moonshine. 

Before leaving the subject, I may perhaps comment on what I believe 
to be a weakness of a good many thoroughly capable men who come to 
an appointment fresh from a University and armed with an Honours 
science degree and perhaps a little research experience ; that is, a diffi- 
culty in setting down their ideas and conclusions on paper concisely and 
logically and in reasonably good English, whether in letter or report. 
We must not, of course, expect to find old heads on young shoulders, 
but I feel sure that some sort of intensive course to cover these points 
ought to form a part of young people's University training ; or perhaps 
we ought to insist on a more thorough grounding, particularly in English, 
before specialisation in science is allowed to begin. As it is, the drafting 
of a scientific paper by a beginner is liable to be an ordeal which is, I 
think, best tempered by the system of joint publication with a senior man, 
the experience being not only valuable educationally but often an eye- 
opener for both parties. 



28 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Acoustics and the British Association. 

In passing to the subject matter of this Address, I may perhaps mention 
that a search through the Reports of the Association reveals that through- 
out its entire existence of over a hundred years, no previous Presidential 
Address in Section A has dealt with acoustical matters. Neither can I 
find a precedent for an experimental address such as I am venturing 
to offer you to-day. It is fitting that the subject of acoustics should 
occupy us in this lecture theatre, which was one of Prof. Barton's last 
achievements. 

During the course of the search, one could not fail to be impressed by 
the galaxy of distinguished mathematicians and physicists who have 
presided over our Section in the past. Here is a random selection of 
pre-war names : Brewster, Herschel, Forbes, Stokes, Airy, Rankine, 
Cayley, Wheatsone, Tyndall, Maxwell, Tait, Balfour Stewart, Lord 
Kelvin, Carey Foster, Johnstone Stoney, the late Lord Rayleigh, Chrystal, 
G. H. Darwin, Fitzgerald, Sir Oliver Lodge, Schuster, Glazebrook, 
Riicker, Hicks, Sir J. J. Thomson, Prof. Forsyth, Poynting, Larmor, 
Sir Chas. Boys, Lamb, Sir Napier Shaw, Lord Rutherford, Hobson, 
Turner, Callendar, Baker, Sir Frank Dyson and Prof. Whitehead. 

Except for two war years (1917 and 191 8), the British Association has 
never failed to meet annually, nor has the Section omitted to play its 
part. Since the war, we find further names no less eminent : Andrew 
Gray, Prof. O. W. Richardson, Prof. G. H. Hardy, McLennan, Sir Wm. 
Bragg, Sir George Simpson, Prof. Porter, Prof. Whittaker, Prof. A. 
Fowler, Lord Rayleigh, Sir Frank Smith, Sir J. J. Thomson, Prof. 
Rankine, Sir Gilbert Walker, Macdonald, Dr. Aston and Prof. Ferguson. 

It was not until 1843 (twelve years after the inaugural year of the 
British Association) that the first Presidential Address was given to the 
Section of Mathematics and Physics by M'CuUagh. His lead was by 
no means always followed in subsequent years, and even when it was, 
the address had clearly assumed no particular moment. Stokes's 
Sectional address in 1862 seems to have occupied about four minutes, 
while Whewell, the renowned Master of Trinity, in the course of a brief 
address four years earlier at Leeds, lamented the small size of the meeting 
room, but on reflection thought it might suffice, as ' we in this Section 
are very much in the habit of treating our subjects in so sublime a manner 
that we thin the room very speedily.' Since about 1868, the Sectional 
programme has invariably included a Presidential Address, though over 
a long period it was given no title. Lord Kelvin, ever a stalwart supporter 
of the British Association, was the first to supply a title (in 1876) and kept 
up the practice in his later addresses, his example being followed by Sir 
Robert Ball in 1887. But the innovation found no other supporters, and 
it was not until 1911 that Prof. Turner adopted a title ; since 1920 the 
Presidential Addresses in Section A have all borne titles. 

As regards the two previous Nottingham meetings, at the first of these 
in 1866, Wheatstone apparently dispensed with a Sectional Address ; 
while at the second meeting in 1893, the late Sir Richard Glazebrook 
gave an address on optical theories and the ether. Those who then 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 29 

contributed papers included Fitzgerald, the late Lord Rayleigh, Oliver 
Lodge, Lord Kelvin, Barton, Larmor, Carey Foster, Viriamu Jones, and 
J. J. Thomson. 

During the first fifty years of the Association, it was not uncommon 
for the Sectional Presidency to be held on more than one occasion by the 
same man, viz. Whewell and Lord Kelvin were each elected President 
on five occasions while Brewster, Herschel, the Earl of Rosse, Forbes, 
Stokes and the then Dean of Ely each held the office twice. Since 1884 
it has become the practice for the Sectional Chair to be occupied by a 
newcomer. To this, there has been only one, though a very notable 
exception, namely Sir J. J. Thomson, who presided in 1896 and again at 
the memorable Centenary meeting in London in 1931. 

That acoustics was long the Cinderella of the physical sciences is 
apparent from the sustained Presidential cold-shoulder, though even in 
the very earliest meetings the subject was not without its supporters. At 
the second meeting, at Oxford in 1832, Wheatstone read two papers on 
acoustics, one of them experimental. The Rev. Mr. Wills also gave 
* An Account of the Recent Additions to our Knowledge of the Phaeno- 
mena of Sound,' though it is recorded that the printing of the paper was 
deferred ; which seems to have been a polite way of shelving it 1 

At the 1834 meeting, there was a paper by Addams on ' A New 
Phaenomenon of Sonorous Interference ' which was accompanied by 
an experimental demonstration. In the following year at Dublin, there 
were no fewer than four acoustical papers, including one by Wheatstone 
' On the various Attempts which have been made to imitate Human 
Speech by Mechanical Means,' while in a remarkably penetrating paper 
' On the Construction of Public Buildings in reference to the Com- 
munication of Sound,' Dr. Reid of Edinburgh recognised reverberation 
as the most prevalent acoustic defect of large rooms and explained how 
it could be reduced by excluding superfluous space by hanging draperies, 
or by making the walls more absorbent through greater roughness or 
irregularity. He also condemned concave surfaces as promoting uneven 
distribution of sound. Thus the prime and vital factors of good archi- 
tectural acoustics were clearly recognised as long as a century ago, but 
did not reach the ear of the architectural profession, so that countless 
halls with poor acoustics have since been, and still are being erected. 
The British Association of to-day aims at a more effective publicity in 
all such matters of general concern. 

Tyndall, during his Sectional Presidency in 1868, gave evidence before 
a Select Committee on the acoustics of the House of Commons, stressing 
the value of a low ceiling as a reinforcing device, and the beneficial 
influence of an audience (as in the Cambridge Senate House) or of 
draperies in quenching the after-sound in a room. Again, Johnstone 
Stoney, who was Sectional President in- 1879, described in 1885 a method 
of treating walls to free concert halls or public rooms from echo effects. 

It was the late Lord Rayleigh, our Sectional President in 1882, to 
whom with Helmholtz we owe the enduring foundations of a great deal 
of modern acoustics. Kelvin never said a truer thing when he remarked 
that progress in a science hinges on measurement ; this indeed is the 



30 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

keynote of the new motto of the British Association ' Bed omnia dis- 
posuisti ' (But Thou hast ordered all things in measure and number and 
weight.) Rayleigh was almost alone in his day in improvising with rare 
simplicity and skill measuring devices in acoustics. But in many ways 
his voice was one crying in the wilderness, for until the telephone came 
into general use, acoustics had been of little service to the people, and 
there was small interest in the subject at either schools or Universities. 
Many of us will recall the shabby treatment meted out to sound in the 
physics curricula of those days. 

The touchstone came with the thermionic valve, which led to electrical 
methods of measurement and so to higher precision, as elsewhere in 
physics. The gramophone, wireless, broadcasting and the talking 
pictures followed each other in succession ; and now acoustics, far from 
being a Cinderella, has become a radiant Princess of physics in whose 
career the public interest has become completely enchained. Her ' open 
sesame ' revealed the interior of the Abbey last May to countless millions, 
who were vouchsafed a vivid acoustic imagery of the Coronation cere- 
mony. For such technical miracles, no praise can be too high for the 
skilled army of technical and industrial workers who see to it that 
developments in invention, equipment and technique follow each other 
like a river in spate. The literature is immense, and I can only surmise 
that the commercial value of applied acoustics must run into many 
millions of pounds. At any rate, I can testify, as its Chairman, that a 
Committee of the British Standards Institution was occupied for nearly 
two years in the careful scrutiny and compilation of a glossary of the 
large and steadily expanding acoustical terminology. So much acoustical 
research is now being carried out, that an authoritative glossary, par- 
ticularly in the matter of units, is manifestly of the first importance in 
the comparison of experimental results from different laboratories and 
the application of such data to engineering acoustics. Sound has become 
a marketable commodity the cultural and political developments of which, 
particularly in regard to broadcasting, are not easy to envisage. 

Noise and the Nation. 

Simultaneously with these developments in applied acoustics, there 
has gradually developed in this country a public consciousness of the 
insidious growth of the social evil of needless noise — a pernicious by- 
product attributable in great part to an increasingly mechanised civilisa- 
tion. With this growing realisation, the nation is beginning to demand 
and to receive protection against the nuisance of outrageous noise whether 
generated by private or public bodies. It is looking for ways and means 
of mitigating excessive transport noises particularly on the road and in 
the air, and it is seeking to know why in modern houses or flats it should 
not be accorded adequate privacy against the natural though sometimes 
unreasonable noises of neighbours. 

All this is not to say that John Citizen cherishes the ideal of a completely 
silent world, for due noise in due season unquestionably contributes to 
the spice of life. It should indeed be emphasised that in this matter he 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 31 

is not crying for the moon. The most he needs ask of a particular locality 
is that its background of noise, whether by day or night, shall be suited 
to the environment and the reasonable habits of a majority of its occupants. 

In this matter of noise abatement, the British Association has played a 
leading part, through the intermediary of both this Section and the 
Engineering Section which set up a Noise Committee in 1933. The 
subject has since become one of international concern, as is evidenced by 
the formation of a League of Nations Commission which held its first 
meeting at Geneva in June this year, and over which I had the honour 
to preside. 

On the question of what constitutes a noise, it is difficult to generalise. 
The countryman votes the noises of the city as disturbing to a degree, 
nor does the townsman necessarily find a lullaby in the noises peculiar 
to the countryside. Many offending noises owe their origin to ill-timed 
activities or pure thoughtlessness. The young person hearing the 
raucous horn with which a friend announces his arrival has no doubt as 
to its character : neither has the invalid next door. A hearer is in fact 
patently influenced by psychological and other factors such as back- 
ground, environment or force of association. There are those, moreover, 
who have no hesitation in regarding any sound made by some one else 
as an objectionable noise, while in contrast there are others who seem 
quite immune to noise and incidentally behave as if they find silence 
intolerable. Healthy children obviously revel in noise, at any rate of 
their own making, and the observation appears to apply to many of a 
larger grovvth who are in exuberant health, not excluding the Latin races. 

The prejudicial effects of certain extremely noisy occupations on the 
hearing are recognised, but it would appear that the noises encountered in 
ordinary everyday life are unlikely to impair the hearing, though there 
is some evidence that in certain types of work they may adversely affect 
human efficiency. Most mental workers and particularly mathematicians 
would agree, I think, that noise is an impossible environment to work in. 
But while many forthright statements have been made about the effects 
of noise — and no one would withhold sympathy from those unfortunates 
whose sleep is regularly violated by noise — the root of the matter is 
probably that for a good many people noise aggravates rather than 
initiates psychological distress, being a sort of ' last straw ' for the sick, 
the fatigued, or the highly strung. The emotionally stable, on the other 
hand, have clearly a considerable power of accommodation and can get 
so used to certain classes of noise as never to notice them, though, were 
the noises arrested, they would not only quickly miss them but might 
even, on occasion, confess to an unexpected feeling of relief. 

Without doubt then, while there are noises in the world so inappropriate 
or outrageous as to raise protest alike from the average hearer, the relatively 
immune, or the hypersensitive, there are equally many border-line sounds 
on which we should expect them to express very different opinions. 
In some recent annoyance tests on motor horns at the National Physical 
Laboratory, in which some two or three hundred observers were employed, 
it was interesting to note the divergency of views under like conditions of 
hearing. There was, it is true, a considerable consensus of opinion in 



32 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

most cases, but a proportion of the observers would as blithely vote the 
noise of a particular horn as very objectionable as others would just as 
cheerfully class it as tolerable or agreeable. The experiments, in fact, 
supported the view that the appraisement of noise is a matter of personal 
opinion ; and this aspect is endorsed by the British Standard Glossary 
which defines noise as ' sound undesired by the recipient.' Small blame 
then if some of us find it difficult to distinguish between noise and certain 
modern music. 

Complaints against noise are of course an old story, probably as old as 
civilisation itself. While the acoustic conditions in the Ark do not appear 
to have been put on record, there are numerous later Biblical references 
to noise : Moses speaks of the ' noise of them that sing,' David refers to 
' the noise of water spouts ' and elsewhere enjoins us to ' sing and make 
a joyful noise,' while Jeremiah bemoans that ' The noise is come ... to 
make the cities of Judah desolate and a den of dragons.' Juvenal wrote 
(a.d. 47) of the cost of buying sleep in Rome owing to the noise of herds 
of cattle and rumbling waggons in the narrow winding streets. The 
Oxford Dictionary gives a reference to ' noyse ' dating from 1297 : ' Of 
trompes and of tabors ye sarazins made here so gret noyse that cristinemen 
al destourbed were.' 

The clatter of the medieval town provoked restrictive regulations ; 
we find embargoes on nocturnal horn blowing and wife beating in 
Elizabeth's reign. The tumult of the streets is well illustrated by a 
picture painted by Hogarth in 1741. In some towns in Germany noisy 
occupations were zoned, though it is on record that Christian Thomasius 
(born 1655) objected to the privilege of the learned professions of driving 
from the neighbourhood noisy craftsmen, e.g. blacksmiths and musicians : 
he held the view that those living in a city should accustom themselves 
to its noise. Frederick the Great's famous and unsuccessful protest 
against the noise of the Mill of Sans Souci will be recalled. A hundred 
years ago, Jane Austen was graphically describing the traffic bedlam of 
Bath. Complaints from City churches of the noise of stage coaches were 
common in those days ; many of us are of course well aware of how 
noisy steel tyres and horse shoes can be on cobbles or stone or granite 
setts, and how great was the measure of relief which came with the 
introduction of the pneumatic tyre. 

The Measurement of Noise. 

It is common knowledge that most noises are complex in character, 
containing a variety of components which may be distributed over the 
entire auditory ranges of frequency and intensity. Such a physical 
constitution lends itself to objective measurement and analysis, but there 
are, in addition, subjective factors of prime importance to the listener, 
viz. pitch, timbre and loudness, and these sensations are not readily 
appraisable. Experience indicates, however, that while the composition 
of a noise is not to be ignored, sheer loudness is the determining factor in 
most cases of annoyance caused by noise, so that the problem largely 
resolves itself into the correlation of the sensation of noisiness (as assessed 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 33 

by the ear) with the associated energy, which can be quantitatively 
measured by physical instruments. 

Let us first consider the measurement of acoustical energy. For the 
purpose, we need an intensity meter, this commonly consisting of a 
microphone and amplifier together with a suitable rectifier and indicator. 
Moving-coil or ribbon microphones are sometimes employed, though for 
fundamental work the condenser or the crystal microphone is preferred 
despite the lower sensitivity. Whatever the microphone used, it is 
usually calibrated by direct interchange comparison under appropriate 
conditions with a standard (pressure) microphone of the condenser type 
which in turn has been fundamentally calibrated in absolute units by 
means of either the Rayleigh disc or the pistonphone. 

The Rayleigh disc depends for its operation on the tendency of a small 
thin glass disc suspended from its edge by a fine fibre to set itself at right 
angles to a sound field. The torsional constants of the system and the 
degree of deflection of the disc aflford the sound particle velocity, the 
corresponding sound pressure being calculable from the known relations 
in the field. The measurements are made either in a stationary- wave 
pipe or in a room with highly absorbent walls. 

The piston-phone, which measures sound pressures directly, consists 
essentially of a small cavity, one face of which is closed by the diaphragm 
of the standard microphone, the opposite face consisting of a small piston 
connected to the moving coil of a loudspeaker unit. The amplitude of 
motion of the piston, when it is set in vibration, is measured optically 
and enables the corresponding sound pressures in the cavity to be 
calculated. 

So much for intensity measurements. As regards the associated 
loudness levels, we turn to auditory diagrams of the ear, such as those of 
Fletcher and Munson (1933). The various loudness contours for pure 
tones of diff'erent frequencies show that while loudness and energy are 
manifestly related, the two do not normally keep in step, particularly 
for notes of very high and very low frequencies. At feeble intensities, 
the ear exercises pronounced selective preference for notes of medium 
frequency and it is only at high intensities that equal increments of 
energy produce even approximately equal increments of loudness. 
Furthermore, the thresholds of hearing are much higher for high and low 
frequencies, so that the corresponding ranges of intensity with which the 
ear can deal, are more restricted than for notes of medium frequency. 
The situation is worsened in the case of complex sounds or noises 
since the loudness is aff'ected by their character, there being in general 
no simple relation between the loudness of a noise and the energy- 
loudness characteristics of its several components. It is evident that 
an energy meter, such as a microphone system, cannot unreservedly be 
used as a direct measurer of loudness. 

The Decibel and the Phon, 
The next step in the measurement of noise is to equip ourselves with 
units and standards of loudness. In this connection, we have to cater for 
the enormous intensity range of the ear, particularly for notes of medium 



34 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

frequency, where the greatest intensity that can be tolerated (the threshold 
of pain) is some lo million million (lo^^) times that corresponding to 
the threshold of hearing. In such circumstances, we turn, as always, to 
a geometrical rather than an arithmetical scale, and the unit adopted 
for the purpose is the bel, which is a ratio signifying a lo-fold increase 
in intensity, power, or energy. Two bels signify a loo-fold increase, 
three bels a looo-fold increase, and so on. 

Equipped with such seven-league boots, and starting at a zero approxi- 
mating to the threshold of hearing, we can traverse the entire auditory 
intensity range for a medium-frequency note, in as few as thirteen 
geometrically progressive steps. But the steps are too big for practical 
convenience, and so it is usual to speak of a range of 130 decibels, which 
provides a serviceable energy scale. Arithmetically, a decibel (db) 
denotes approximately a 5/4 energy increase (i.e. antilog i/io), two decibels 
a (5/4)^ increase, three decibels a (5/4)' = a 2-fold increase, ... 10 
decibels a (5/4)^° = a lo-fold increase, i.e. a bel. More generally, two 
similar sounds of intensities / and /q and corresponding acoustical pressures 
p and pQ are said to differ in intensity by n decibels when 

« = 10 log 10 {Ijh) 
or « = 20 log 10 (plPn) 

If /q or pQ corresponds to some selected zero, then n becomes the number 
of decibels above that zero level. 

Thus provided with an acoustical intensity scale, we can proceed to 
set up a loudness scale which is based on the accepted ability of the average 
individual to compare and match loudness. To this end (just as in 
photometry we make use of a standard candle) we need a standard sound ; 
and for the purpose a pure reference tone is chosen which, on the British 
Standard Scale, has a frequency of 1000 cycles per second. We also 
require a zero of loudness at or near the threshold of hearing, and this is 
arbitrarily adopted as corresponding to a pressure of 0-0002 dyne per 
sq. cm. If now we operate the reference tone by successively increasing 
decibel steps of energy, the associated changes of loudness are expressed 
in numerically identical steps on a scale ofphons. That is, if the reference 
tone is excited by an intensity of n decibels above the zero, the loudness 
is n phons. The equivalent loudness of any other sound or noise is 
evaluated by matching it by ear under specified conditions against the 
suitably adjusted reference tone, the numerical value of the latter in 
phons then giving the equivalent loudness of the sound to be measured. 
Thus by this procedure we have set up a subjective scale of equivalent 
loudness, the unit being the phon. 

It happens that a phon corresponds roughly to the smallest difference 
of loudness which can be detected by alternate listening, in the case of a 
sound of medium frequency and moderate loudness. Experience shows, 
too, that for many loud noises of common occurrence the loudness level 
in phons is approximately equal to the intensity level in decibels — a 
convenient relation for many purposes. 

A number of different zeros of loudness have unfortunately been 
employed in the past, e.g. i millidyne per sq. cm., which results in 



A— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 35 

numerical values of loudness some 14 phons less than with the British 
Standard zero. In Germany the phon is based on a zero of 0-0003 dyne 
per sq. cm. which is equivalent to a 4 db. difference from the B.S. zero. 
As, however, a different method of listening is employed, the slight 
discrepancy between the two scales is not known exactly. The American 
scale agrees with the British, except that in the States it is customary to 
use the decibel not only for expressing intensity measurements, but also 
for loudness levels, it being implied in the latter case that the decibel 
figure quoted refers to the energy level (above the arbitrary zero) of the 
standard tone when it matches the sound to be measured. As already 
mentioned, the British Standards Institution recommends that for greater 
clarity the decibel should be restricted to energy ratios ; and in its defini- 
tion of the phon, the Institution kept open the way for eventual inter- 
national agreement on the unit of equivalent loudness. 

Happily such agreement came about at an international conference held 
in Paris last July, when it was unanimously agreed that the decibel and 
the phon should be adopted respectively as international units of intensity 
level and equivalent loudness, full agreement being secured on questions 
of the reference tone (1000 cycles per second), the reference zero (0-0002 
dyne per sq. cm.) and the technique of listening. All these matters are in 
accord with the definitions in the acoustical glossary of the British 
Standards Institution. 

The phon, which has already proved of great service in many classes 
of noise measurement in this country, came in the nick of time to meet 
the present demand for noise abatement : the ability to measure is of 
course vital to such a movement. I may perhaps refer to the public 
interest which was excited when the decibel and the phon were introduced 
into everyday language. Mr. Punch made play with the decibel, anxiously 
enquiring ' how many decibels it took to talk the hind leg off a donkey ' ; 
while W. R. in the Observer was moved to welcome the phon in the 
following terms : — 

' Hail ! newest unit, welcome to the host 

Of ergs and amperes, kilowatts and therms, 
Best of the lot, you shall be valued most 
Among these unintelligible terms. 

For you alone can make men realise. 

In figures plain, the awful din they make. 

So that at last some genius may devise 
A means of curbing it, for Reason's sake.* 

The experimental realisation of the fundamental scale of phons is one 
for the standardising laboratory, as will be appreciated from the subjoined 
definition of the phon taken from the British Standard Glossary of 
Acoustical Terms and Definitions, 1936 (No. 661). For example, the 
specification of a free progressive wave postulates an acoustical environ- 
ment corresponding to infinite space, which in practice can only be 
conveniently simulated by placing the ' normal observer ' (in practice 



36 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the average of a trained group of observers) in an experimental chamber 
with highly absorbent walls. Furthermore, while it may be possible in 
the fundamental evaluation of the equivalent loudnesses of sounds or 
noises in phons, for certain sources to be accommodated in the lagged 
test chamber, it may not be practicable in other cases, whether on the 
score of size or the impossibility of quickly starting and stopping the 
source, so as to permit alternate listening with the reference tone. In 
such cases, the sources have to remain outside the chamber and the 
sounds are transmitted at will to the observer inside by means of a micro- 
phone and loudspeaker system. A closer specification of the measuring 
technique is at present being developed by the British Standards 
Institution. 

' Phon {B.S.). A unit of equivalent loudness, defined as follows : 
The standard tone shall be a plane sinusoidal sound wave train 
coming from a position directly in front of the observer and having 
a frequency of looo cycles per second. The listening shall be done 
with both ears, the standard tone and the sound under measurement 
being heard alternately and the standard tone being adjusted until it 
is judged by a normal observer to be as loud as the sound under 
measurement. The intensity level of the standard tone shall be 
measured in the free progressive wave. The reference level shall be 
taken to be that corresponding to an R.M.S. sound pressure of o- 0002 
dyne per sq. cm. When, under the above conditions, the intensity 
level of the standard tone is n decibels above the stated reference 
intensity, the sound under measurement is said to have an equivalent 
loudness of n phons (B.S.).' 

Reference may here be made to the criticism to which the phon scale 
has been subjected in some quarters, in that it does not interpret 
numerically one's sensations of loudness, a phon near the top of the 
scale admittedly signifying a much bigger step than it does near the 
bottom. Some workers in this country and the States have accordingly 
attempted to set up a subjective scale of loudness units in which the 
assumption is made that fractional estimation by an observer is possible, 
so that, for example, it is claimed he can say when one sound is twice as 
loud as another. A comparison of the mean scale so derived with the 
phon scale suggests that such an estimated doubling of loudness is 
equivalent to an increase of about 10 phons for moderately loud sounds. 
While, however, the scale of equivalent loudness in phons may not be 
subjectively ideal, it does rest on sound physical foundations and accepted 
subjective principles. Furthermore the connection of the phon scale with 
the decibel scale is of great practical value to the acoustical engineer, for 
example in dealing with the transmission of air-borne sounds by walls. 

Noise Meters. 

It will be appreciated that the experimental conditions laid down for 
the fundamental evaluation of sounds or noises in phons, are rarely likely 
to be available for noise measurements in everyday circumstances, and 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 37 

simpler techniques have accordingly been evolved which make portable 
noise meters feasible for field conditions. There are two main types of 
meter on the market, namely subjective meters, which were first developed 
by Barkhausen, and objective meters utilising a microphone and amplifier 
system. At the National Physical Laboratory, the calibration of such 
meters in phons is effected in lagged chambers by means of sounds of 
known phon values, for example, pure tones of various frequencies, and 
gramophone, synthetic or other reproductions of a variety of noises such 
as the meter may be called upon to measure in practice. The British 
Standards Institution is at present engaged in developing specifications 
of noise meters designed to conform to the B.S. scale of phons, and, in 
the meantime, purchasers of noise meters would do well to demand a 
calibration certificate by an accepted testing authority. 

(i) Subjective noise meters. — Subjective noise meters depend on the 
equality matching of the loudness of a noise, as heard by the ear, with a 
reference tone (usually a pure tone of specified frequency and of graduated 
intensity) as heard in a telephone earpiece held tightly against one ear. 
The reference tone may be produced by an electric buzzer, valve oscillator 
or other means, various frequencies (e.g. 1,000 or 800 cycles per sec.) or 
mixed tones being used in commercial instruments. The usual 
Barkhausen technique involves simultaneous listening of the noise and 
the reference tone, but experience indicates that inconsistencies which 
are found to arise in aural measurements under such conditions are largely 
resolved when the two sounds are heard alternately for periods of not less 
than a second. Such a technique has been facilitated by Churcher in a 
subjective meter employing two earpieces, so that either the noise or the 
reference tone can be heard in turn using both ears simultaneously. 

Subjective meters are useful for certain purposes, but the aural judging 
of equality of loudness of the reference tone and of a noise very diff'erent 
in character is not always easy. Observers are found to differ widely 
in their judgments and the same individual is not always consistent. 
The accuracy of appraisement of a single observer is normally low (say 
5 phons) and a team of trained observers is essential for higher precision 
(say 2 phons). In the case of unexpected or single impulsive sounds, the 
aural assessment presents great difficulties to the average observer. 

(ii) Objective noise meters. — The problem of the designing of objective 
sound and noise meters, which has received much attention both in this 
country and abroad, is of considerable complexity. The ideal aimed at 
by objective meters is to be able to measure every type of sound and noise 
on the subjective scale of phons, that is to simulate the selectiveness and 
response of the average ear in all circumstances. 

The various objective meters on the market all consist essentially of a 
pressure microphone connected to an amplifier provided with calibrated 
control, followed by some type of rectifier and an output indicator. As 
a first essential, objective meters are constructed to give the same reading 
for a range of steady pure tones which sound equally loud to the ear 
whatever the frequency. This is achieved by introducing into the 
amplifier electrical networks designed to modify the shape of the frequency 
characteristic so that it imitates the ear sensitivity at selected loudness 



38 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

levels. If the network is omitted, the meter measures intensity levels. 
Objective meters should be further designed to simulate the salient 
characteristics of the ear in dealing with either steady or impulsive sounds. 
For example, the ear does not record full strength until a steady sound has 
persisted for about one-fifth of a second, and in the case of pulsating 
sounds, the inertia of the instrument has to be of the right order to give 
readings corresponding to average aural appraisement. 

The practice has developed in certain countries of constructing 
objective meters to arbitrary specifications (which include quadratic 
rectification and certain instrumental requirements), the meters being 
ostensibly designed to deal with pure tones and certain common types of 
sound. The readings, which are sometimes referred to as ' sound levels,' 
are not claimed as conforming necessarily to subjective equivalent loud- 
nesses. Experimental calibrations of such meters show, however, that 
while they may give results in reasonable agreement with subjective 
measurements in the case of steady pure tones or other sounds, they 
afford readings in the case of particular types of intermittent noise (such 
as certain machinery or traffic noises) which are considerably lower than 
equivalent loudnesses as measured by the fundamental method. It was 
agreed at the international acoustical conference in Paris last July that it 
was undesirable that a meter should be used for measuring the equivalent 
loudness of sounds unless it has been shown, by calibration in an accepted 
standardising laboratory, to give results, for the particular sounds in ques- 
tion, which are in reasonable accordance with the subjective scale of phons. 

The difficulty of dealing with intermittent sounds can, it appears, be 
met by replacing the quadratic rectifier by one of the leaking peak variety. 
Portable objective meters of this type have been designed by Davis at 
the National Physical Laboratory and independently in Switzerland. 
The former instrument has recently emerged successfully from a pro- 
longed series of tests on the equivalent loudness of a wide variety of noises, 
including continuous, warbling, and impulsive short-duration sounds 
(recurring at rates of from 12 to 50 per second), as well as the noises of 
motor cars, motor cycles and motor horns. For moderate or loud noises, 
the measurements were found to agree more closely with the average aural 
appraisements of a group of observers than did those of any one of the 
observers. The leaking peak rectifier enables the rates of integration 
and decay to be adjusted empirically so that the meter simulates the 
response of the ear in giving higher results for rapidly recurring impulses 
than for slowly recurring or single impulses. For example, the loudness 
of a single impulse may be nearly 10 phons less than if 30 to 50 such 
impulses occur per second. Experiments designed to formulate a 
specification of the physical behaviour of the meter are not yet complete 
and, at present, the meter is not designed for levels lower than about 
65 phons. 

While, however, a * universal ' objective meter is not yet speci- 
fiable, there can be little doubt that the future of sound or noise 
measurement, from a practical point of view, lies with the objective meter. 
Even in its present state of development, its practical convenience often 
outweighs its limitations. It is free from personal bias, rapid in action 



A— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 39 

and direct reading, and can be put into the hands of an untrained observer. 
Furthermore, as a dial instrument, it is well adapted to the enforcement 
of regulations or specifications. 

The Analysis of Noise. 

The wave-form of the microphonic current of a sound can be readily 
displayed by means of a cathode-ray oscillograph, but the analysis of 
such wave-forms is usually troublesome, and the composition of a sound 
or noise is determined more conveniently by other means. The methods 
of spectrum analysis in optics are not convenient in the case of sound, 
by reason of the much longer wave lengths of sound and their wider 
range, the visible spectrum covering a range of only about one octave, 
whereas the range of sound to which the ear responds extends over about 
ten octaves. A diffraction grating of the order of size of a garden fence 
would in fact be required to deal directly with a normal acoustic spectrum. 

For the analysis of sound, the earlier experimenters used acoustical 
resonators which were tuned to respond to the different components 
present in the complex sound. In present-day methods, the oscillatory 
pressure variations which constitute the sound are first converted, by 
means of a microphone, into corresponding electrical oscillations ; and 
the problem is reduced to the analysis of a complex electrical oscillation, 
a process which may be effected by tuning or filtering circuits or by the 
use of a search or heterodyne tone. Such filters may be either of the 
high-pass or low-pass type, or alternatively may be arranged to pass bands 
of frequencies extending over, say, an octave or a fraction of an octave. 
This latter method is particularly valuable in the case of noises which 
are not of a steady nature or composition, for example, traffic noise. 

Steady sounds or noises readily lend themselves to analysis and yield 
typical line spectra, but the matter is less simple with transients, that is, 
acoustical impulses which start suddenly and die away rapidly. Examples 
of transients are speech (and in particular certain consonants like p and 
b), whip cracks, rifle shots, blows, footsteps, hand-clapping, percussion 
instruments, e.g. the piano, drum, and most musical instruments. All 
such sounds prove to be largely of the band-spectrum type with super- 
posed line spectra and nearly all contain very high frequencies. 

Sound analysis may be of particular service in studying machine noises 
as a means of tracking the source of major components. Synthesis of 
sounds is sometimes resorted to for particular purposes. Much progress 
has been made of late in the commercial development of instruments for 
acoustic analysis and synthesis. Here is an analyser which will alniost 
instantaneously reveal the composition of a noise, while here also is a 
synthesiser, kindly lent me by Messrs. Comptons the famous organ 
builders, in which pure harmonics of controllable intensity can be so 
blended as to simulate, for example, church bells with a fidelity which 
is very arresting. 

Noise-level Measurements. 
In connection with problems of noise abatement, the National Physical 
Laboratory has made measurements and analyses of many noises of very 



4° 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



varied origin. The positions which some of these noises occupy in a 
scale of phons are shown in Fig. i, the upper half of which includes 
various noises whose abatement would be acceptable in many circum- 
stances. This is illustrated by the homely test which most of us apply 
as a test of background of noise, i.e. the ease with which conversation is 

Approximate Loudness Levels of common noises. 

B.S. Loudness scale of phons. 



Phons 

ralEffilci 



Praximiti/ of aeroplane engine 

Proximity of riveting 
or loud pneumatie drill 

Proximitu of loud, motor horn 

Noisy lorrt^ (50 m p.h.) at ZOfl 

Quttt ear {50 mp.h.)a.t ZO ft 

Loud conversation 

Quiet conversation 

Quiet electric motor at 3 ft 

Tearing of paper at 5ft 

Tickmq of watch at 3ft 



1000. eijcles per sec ; 

zero 0002 dyne 

per stf. cm. 



5701 

■60- 

■50- 

•40- 

•30- 

•20- 

■10- 

FiG, 



Near tfjreshold of pain 



In printing press room 

In busg machine shop, pump house etc. 

In tube train ; ioi,ndow open 

In busi^ tipping room 

In express train ; ujind-otu open 

In busg main street 



In guiet saloon car (SOm.p.h.) 
In suburban train ; wlndotu open 
In guiet residential street 

In verg guiet room 

In exlremelu guiet room 

Near threshold of hearing 



possible. At 60 phons, conversation is ' comfortable ' ; at 90 phons, 
difficult ; and at no phons, virtually impossible. 

Among the noise problems on which the Laboratory has been con- 
sulted in recent years, are the mitigation of the noises associated with 
aeroplane-cabins and engine-testing factories, trains, ships, tube-railways, 
buses, motor horns, pneumatic drills, printing works, transformer sub- 
stations, cathedrals, assembly halls, business offices, flats, miniature rifle 
ranges, building operations, and so on. Assistance is also being given in 
connection with the Home Office experiments on air-raid warnings. 



A— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 41 

The loudness of a noise depends of course on its remoteness and to a 
less degree on its environment. The inverse-square law appears to be 
followed fairly exactly in the open for average sounds such as those of 
motor vehicles. In a room or a tunnel, the law does not hold and a noise 
sounds louder than it would outside, owing to the building up of the 
sound level by multiple reflection. Similar conditions prevail in a narrow 
busy street and contribute to the noise discomfort of the occupants in 
the upper stories, though to a pedestrian, the noise of, say, a passing car 
is but little louder than in an open space. Incidentally, drivers of cars 
are familiar with the sudden access of high-pitched components from the 
. engines, exhausts or tyres of their cars as they pass reflecting walls or 
fencing or even minor way-side objects such as tree trunks or telegraph 
poles. 

One has also to remember that the path of a sound may appreciably 
modify its composition. For example, the high-frequency components 
may be abnormally reflected or absorbed as compared with lower notes 
which tend to pass through or round obstacles. Even in the open, a 
hedge row or a barrage of trees may, to a limited extent, so serve as a 
muffler of traffic noise. The high-pitched components of a sound may 
further be selectively enfeebled in passing over different types of ground, 
for which the sound absorption may be three or four times as much for 
high notes as for low. To judge by experience, the absorption figures for 
newly fallen snow must be rather high, though I am not aware that they 
have been measured. High-frequency components may also be selectively 
absorbed by the air itself if it is humid. Knudsen has shown that the 
eff'ect is due to interaction between the oxygen and water molecules, the 
nitrogen playing no part. Incidentally, he estimates that if we lived in 
an atmosphere of oxygen at a humidity of about 20 per cent., the high 
notes of the violin and piccolo would be completely inaudible 50 yards away. 

Noise on the Railway. 

The background of noise (70-90 phons) which prevails in the com- 
partments of most express trains is normally so near the borderline that, 
even with the windows closed, conversation between ' diagonal-wise ' 
passengers, though possible, is not ' comfortable.' The noise patently 
originates from the rapid intermittent pounding of the steel tyres against 
irregularities in the steel rail, largely supplemented by recurrent rail- 
joint impacts. Much of the noise is of low pitch, and, as simple observa- 
tion shows, it enters the coach partly through the floor, but mainly through 
the glass of the windows. The remainder of the noise, which is of some- 
what higher pitch and more directional, forces its attention on us whenever 
the train passes a reflecting surface such as a platform, wall, or another 
train, on which occurrence, the normal background of noise in a com- 
partment is supplemented by a burst of higher-pitched noise deflected 
through the windows. The conditions are aggravated (by as much as 
10 phons) when a train is passing at high speed under a bridge or through 
a cutting or tunnel, so that conversation then becomes difficult. 

An obvious palliative for rail-joint tap takes the form of longer rails : 

c 2 



42 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

I20 feet lengths are now being employed on the L.N.E.R., while it is 
stated that lengths as long as 2,700 feet have been welded together on 
German main lines. Rail monocars with pneumatic tyres, now used 
for certain local services in chis country, extinguish rail noises to such a 
degree as to be almost uncanny, particularly from outside. Express-train 
travel in this country may be experienced in its most comfortable form 
on such trains as the ' Silver Jubilee,' with its generous use of absorbent 
in the coaches, permanently-closed double windows and air-conditioned 
ventilation, conversation being readily possible at all speeds. 

Whatever the acoustic difficulties may be in trains above ground, they 
are multipled many times in an underground railway system. The 
London Passenger Transport Board have achieved considerable success 
in their experiments on the acuie problem of noise which is presented by 
the tube railways. Rail-joint noise is lessened by the use of 90 feet instead 
of 42 feet rails, which are then welded together in position. Further 
improvement comes from the employment of a rail-grinding car, which 
removes dents and imperfections from the rails and leaves them smooth. 
In addition, the experiment is being tried of continuous shields, made of 
asbestos and other materials, which project from the sides of the tunnel 
almost to the footplates of the train, so trapping and absorbing the noise 
coming from underneath. 

It is stated that these several measures result in an 80 per cent, diminu- 
tion of the noise, which presumably corresponds to a reduction of about 
7 phons. Incidental noises such as wheel, gear and motor noise are 
reduced by the use of asbestos pads. Asbestos brake-blocks advantage- 
ously replace cast iron, while thicker glass windows help to reduce rattle. 
Seats of absorbent rubber or similar material, instead of cane, assist in 
lowering the noise level particularly in relatively empty coaches. A 
persistent type of noise in tube railways is the grating of wheel flanges 
in passing round sharp curves. 

Noise in the Air. 

The degree of silencing which has been achieved in aircraft serves as 
an outstanding illustration of what can be done in the case of a gross noise 
problem under conditions so discouraging that only a few years ago it 
was commonly regarded as unlikely to find a satisfactory solution. It 
was important that ways and means should be found, for the noise of the 
engine had become the most serious deterrent to areoplane travel, 
conversation in the cabin being quite impossible. 

Since 1929 an extensive programme has been undertaken by the 
National Physical Laboratory for the Aeronautical Research Committee 
of the Air Ministry. There are three main sources of aeroplane noise : 
propeller noise, exhaust noise and engine clatter. The attack on the 
problem came in a variety of ways, for example, by using propellers with 
lower tip speeds, by better positioning of the engine exhausts, by more 
effective exhaust silencing, by enclosing the engines so as to reduce engine 
clatter, by increasing the relative isolation of the engine and cabin, by a 
better placing or shielding of the cabin with reference to the propellers, 



A— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 43 

by constructing cabins of double walls containing a suitable filler, by the 
damping of ' drumming ' panels, etc., and by increasing the amount of 
absorbent in the cabin. Measurements have been made in aeroplanes 
in flight and on the main individual sources of noise under experimental 
conditions. 

The present position is that the noise in the passenger cabins of some 
of the latest air liners or flying boats is little more than that in a train. 
This is very well for the passengers ; from the point of view, however, 
of those who live near aerodromes or on busy air routes the noise of air- 
craft is still a nuisance which awaits a solution. 

Noise on the Road. 

(i) Ministry of Transport tests. — The growing volume of road traffic, 
and the ever-increasing speed and acceleration of individual vehicles, are 
potent contributory factors to the problem of road transport noise. 
There have, it is true, been certain counterbalancing changes, to wit, the 
steady gain in quietness of the newer models of the motor bus and motor 
coach, and the introduction of the trolley bus in place of the much noisier 
tram car. But these are only drops in the bucket. Backed by the force 
of public opinion the then Minister of Transport, Mr. Hore Belisha, who 
proved himself a great ally of quietness on the road, set up in 1934 a 
Departmental Committee for the purpose of studying the question of 
motor- vehicle noises. The Committee included representatives of the 
motor and motor-cycle industries ; and as Chairman of the Committee, 
I hope I may be permitted to refer to some of its proceedings and 
recommendations which are contained in the three interim reports ^ so 
far published. These reports, which may be consulted for fuller informa- 
tion, are based on an elaborate series of tests, comprising many thousands 
of observations, which were carried out on behalf of the Committee by 
National Physical Laboratory. 

(ii) Tests on new motor vehicles. — The first two reports deal with tests 
on a representative selection of nearly 100 mechanically-propelled 
vehicles, comprising saloon motor cars, sports cars, motor cycles, goods- 
and passenger- carrying vehicles, most of which were kindly lent by the 
industry. It was decided to begin the work by a survey of newly manu- 
factured vehicles, both of home and foreign origin, which were intended 
to operate on the roads in this country. 

After careful consideration, the Committee decided to confine their 
first attention to the ' overall ' noise of vehicles, as representing the aspect 
of major public interest, and one which might be expected to afford, 
without undue delay, information which would serve as a trustworthy 
basis for possible legislative action. No systematic attempt was made to 
study the composition of the noise, the major components of which in- 
clude those from the engine, transmission and exhaust, although a partial 
separation of the ' fore ' and ' aft ' components was possible without 
difficulty. It was rather felt that further steps could best be left to 

^ " Noise in the operation of mechanically propelled vehicles." O.H.M.S. 
1935. 1936 and 1937. 



44 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the initiative and efforts of the industry itself which, as a whole, merits 
high praise for its substantial contributions to the silence of motor 
vehicles, for example the flexible mounting of engines, the counter- 
balanced crank shaft, silent gearing, the straight-through type of exhaust 
silencer, and the development of car bodies which are sound insulated 
and sound absorbent. In the matter of both exhaust and general silencing, 
certain motor car manufacturers have achieved remarkable perfection. 
It is a notable comment on the success of the general quietening of cars 
that tyre noise (about 75 phons) has become conspicuous at moderate 
speeds, especially on particular road surfaces on wet days. Even in the 
matter of certain motor cycles and sports cars, it must be conceded that 
their acoustic blemishes have been largely stimulated by a section of the 
public which happily now finds itself in a small and dwindling minority. 

The Ministry of Transport tests were carried out under conditions of 
both use and abuse, with the object of arriving at a measure of the noise 
potentialities of a vehicle in the hands of a driver who is prepared, on 
occasion, to misuse it and so give rise to an objectionably large output 
of noise, for example, by racing a stationary engine at high speed, or 
travelling at high acceleration in a low gear. 

The Committee, while appreciating that the effect of noise on the 
human being is partly psychological, satisfied itself that the problem 
before it was one mainly of loudness, and that the N.P.L. objective noise 
meter, which was used throughout the tests, provided a trustworthy 
index of the average noise levels experienced by the observers present. 

Measurements were first conducted on stationary vehicles with racing 
engines. These were followed by tests on running vehicles in various 
gears at a variety of steady speeds and also when accelerating under full 
throttle, both on the level and when climbing hills. Each vehicle was 
driven either by the firm's driver or the owner during the tests, and the 
goods- and passenger-carrying vehicles were tested fully laden. Some 
of the tests were carried out on Brooklands Track, others in various parts 
of Middlesex and Surrey under a wide diversity of favourable and un- 
favourable weather conditions. 

In general, the measurements showed that, omnibus paribus, a vehicle 
emits most noise at its highest speed, so that the gain in quietness from 
the imposition of the 30 m.p.h. speed restriction in built-up areas would 
seem to be worth while. In the case of the tests on cars and motor 
cycles when running on the level in top gear, the average noise emission 
at steady road speed was found to increase by about 4 phons for each 
10 m.p.h. increment of speed, while at full throttle the corresponding 
figure was of the order of 2 or 3 phons. In the case of cars or motor 
cycles, the noise at 30 m.p.h. steady speed was on the average about 
5 phons less than when accelerated at full throttle at that speed. It 
was also established that when a vehicle was travelling at full throttle at a 
specified speed in a given gear the noise was substantially the same whether 
the vehicle was accelerating on the level through the instantaneous speed 
in question, or climbing a hill at the same steady speed. 

A few tests were conducted with cars and lorries free-wheeling, i.e. 
with the engine stopped and the gear in neutral. The loudnesses measured, 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 45 

which naturally set a limit to the quietness attainable, ranged between 
70 and 80 phons at 30 m.p.h. 

The noise levels recorded during the various running and racing engine 
tests extended over a wide range — in round figures, 40 phons, i.e. from 
75 to 115 B.S. phons, at a distance of 18 feet sideways or 25 feet to the 
front or the rear. A consensus of opinion among the observers present 
at the tests suggested that a transition point between tolerably noisy 
vehicles and unduly noisy ones was in the region of 90 B.S. phons. 

In general, the following conclusions emerged from the tests on new 
vehicles : — • 

(a) Confirming the common impression, the average present-day 
' ordinary ' motor car is not offensively noisy, except at high engine 
speeds. 

(b) Certain ' sports ' cars (though not all) are too noisy but can clearly 
be improved without much difficulty. 

(c) Except at moderate steady speeds, many motor cycles make far too 
much noise. 

(d) Certain commercial vehicles are somewhat noisy but could probably 
be substantially improved without a great deal of trouble. 

The Committee were therefore led to make the following recommenda- 
tions for new vehicles which, while designed to ameliorate traffic noise in 
all localities, take particular cognisance of ' built-up ' areas, in which regions 
the effects of excessive noise are undoubtedly the most disturbing : — 

(i) ' No new motor cycle, motor car, heavy motor car or motor tractor, 
as defined in Section 2 of the Road Traffic Act, 1930, shall be offered 
for sale or for use on the public highway unless it complies with the 
requirements stated below, the specified tests of which must be con- 
ducted in an open space free from the proximity of buildings, etc. 

(a) ' Normal running test. — When the vehicle is running at a road 
speed of 30 m.p.h. (or at such lower maximum speed as is 
attainable by the vehicle or is legally prescribed for it) with the 
engine at full throttle and using the gear preferred by the driver, 
then the loudness at a point distant laterally 18 feet from the 
midpoint of the vehicle shall not exceed 90 phons (B.S.). 
Measurements shall be made on each side of the vehicle and the 
mean taken. The running conditions specified may be realised 
either on the level or on an incline, using appropriate accelera- 
tion, braking, loading, etc. 

(b) ' Racing engine test. — When the vehicle is stationary and the 
engine is running at the speed at which it would give its 
maximum power, the loudness at a point distant 25 feet behind 
the open end of the exhaust pipe shall not exceed 90 phons 
(B.S.). 

(2) ' A latitude of 5 phons on the above noise limits shall be allowed 
for a period of two years on the following classes of vehicles : — 



46 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

' In respect of the " normal running test " : motor cycles, 
heavy motor cars and motor tractors. 

* In respect of the " racing engine test " : motor cycles. 

' After two years the normal limits shall prevail. 

(3) 'As it is obvious that finality has not been reached in the art of 
quietening mechanically propelled vehicles, the Minister should 
reserve the right to amend in the future the above noise limits in 
the light of further developments. 

(4) ' The Minister should by regulation make it an offence to cause or 
permit the engine of a stationary vehicle to be run at excessive 
speeds.' 

With regard to cars, both sf the ordinary and sports types, there can 
be little doubt that conformity with the suggested limits is either already 
attained or readily can be. The difficulties are doubtless greater in the 
case of motor cycles and commercial vehicles, where it may be that an 
acceptable degree of quietness is only attainable by a sacrifice of power 
and an increased cost. It was felt, however, that given time the problem 
was not insoluble, and a tolerance period of two years was accordingly 
suggested to meet the situation. 

Polar diagrams which were obtained by exploring the sound distribu- 
tion round a vehicle, indicate that ordinary cars and commercial vehicles 
owe their loudest noise to their engines, while in the case of motor cycles 
and certain sports cars, the loudest noise is in the direction of the exhaust 
pipe. Extreme examples of the latter occur, and it was to meet these that 
the racing engine test was introduced, as such cases may not reveal 
themselves in the lateral noise measurements associated with the normal 
running test. 

As regards the racing engine test, the engine speeds proposed are 
those at which the maximum power is developed, and though the speeds 
are high, they are not abnormally so. Still higher engine speeds may 
produce a considerable increase in loudness — as much as 10 phons — and 
the Committee felt that such misuse of a vehicle, for example in a quiet 
street, would be best met by a regulation on the lines of recommendation 
No. 4. 

(iii) Tests on ' used ' motor vehicles. — Having thus dealt with vehicles 
fresh from the manufacturers, the Committee passed on to ' used ' or 
' old ' vehicles, and in their third report published a few months ago they 
deal with this matter. Experience suggests that the noise from used 
vehicles will normally be higher than from newly manufactured ones, 
whether by reason of development in design, or as the result of normal 
wear and tear, or unsatisfactory maintenance. The ultimate object of the 
investigation on used vehicles was to study the feasibility of a common noise 
limit for all classes of vehicles on the roads to-day, irrespective of their age 
or circumstances of use. 

Accordingly a series of tests, on the lines of those in the earlier reports, 
were undertaken on some 40 representative vehicles, including motor 
cycles, motor cars and commercial vehicles, of various ages up to 13 years. 
These tests were supplemented by random observations on some 600 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 47 

vehicles in normal traffic on a variety of roads, some speed-restricted and 
others unrestricted. 

The results were in general harmony with the previous conclusions, 
and it appeared that a difference of about 5 phons between new and old 
vehicles is an all-round representative figure which takes cognisance of 
the many factors involved such as type, design, power, age and state of 
repair. The evidence was, however, not sufficiently definite to indicate 
that the noise was dependent on the age of the vehicles to any outstanding 
degree. 

The measurements on normal traffic on the road were spread over a 
range of approximately 70 to 105 phons, and from a study of the results, 
it appeared that a general limit of 95 phons (B.S.) for the various classes 
of vehicles was a reasonable figure, which would rule out the chief 
offenders and would not be incompatible with the limit of 90 phons 
proposed for the tests on newly-manufactured vehicles. If such a limit 
were brought into force, the Committee was of opinion that the case of 
vehicles already licensed on the roads could be met by a tolerance period 
of two years. 

The tests indicated that greater progress had been made in the silencing 
of sports cars than of motor cycles, many of which constitute at high speeds 
the noisiest traffic on the road to-day. The Committee took the view that 
the temporary figure of 95 phons suggested for the tolerance period in the 
case of new motor cycles, should also suffice for motor cycles on the road 
which are run at reasonable speeds. The Committee therefore submitted 
to the Minister of Transport the following recommendations dealing 
with used vehicles : — 

(i) ' When a vehicle is used on the public highway the loudness of the 
noise emitted when measured at a point distant laterally 18 feet 
from the mid-point of the vehicle, or 25 feet behind the open end 
of the exhaust pipe shall not exceed 95 phons (B.S.). 

(2) ' A vehicle shall be regarded as complying with the above require- 
ment if it can pass the following tests : ' — 

[Here follow the specifications for the ' normal running test ' 
and the ' racing engine test ' as for new vehicles (pp. 59 and 60), 
with the exception that ' 95 phons ' replaces ' 90 phons '.] 

(3) ' The noise limit of 95 phons (B.S.) for vehicles on the public 
highway shall operate in the first case only in respect of vehicles 
registered on or after the prescribed date, but shall come into 
general application for vehicles of any age after two years have 
elapsed from that date. 

(4) ' The Minister should reserve the right to amend in the future 
the above noise limit in the light of further developments.' 

(iv) Summary of Ministry of Transport's reports.— To summarise the 
three reports of the Ministry of Transport Committee, the position is 
that for the first time in this country a comprehensive attack has been made 
on the problem of road traffic noise. To this end, loudness measurements, 
many thousands in number, have been conducted under widely differ- 
ent working conditions, on the over-all noise of some 800 motor vehicles, 



48 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

both new and old, representing all the main types on the roads to-day. 
The results (at a distance of i8 feet sideways or 25 feet to the rear) mostly 
ranged between about 70 and 105 phons (the latter value corresponding 
to a noisy road drill). The Committee were led to propose simple 
running and racing engine tests which are associated, under specified 
conditions, with an ' over-all ' noise limit of 95 phons, which is roughly 
equivalent to the noise in a tube train) for all vehicles in use on the road, 
and of 90 phons for new vehicles leaving manufacturer's works. 

The adoption of these noise limits, while making very moderate demands 
on most types of vehicles would, by ruling out the arch offenders, constitute 
a substantial contribution to the amenities of the road. In the meantime, 
the industry, which has already discovered that ' silence is saleable,' has the 
matter well in hand and indeed it is not unlikely that future developments 
will not only enable manufacturers to meet the proposed requirements 
with comparative ease, but may indeed enable the limits to be lowered as 
time goes on. Certain types of vehicles, such as most ordinary cars, are 
already agreeably quiet, but others, notably motor cycles, have lee-way to 
catch up ; and the Committee has accordingly suggested breathing space 
in the shape of periods of grace to meet these and other aspects of the 
problem of noise as it is on the road to-day. The Committee's task has 
not been easy, but I trust the limits of noise which it has proposed will, 
in one way or another, help to ensure a standard of acoustical decency 
on the roads of this country. 

Following the publication of the Committee's reports, the Minister of 
Transport received assurance from the manufacturers of motor cycles and 
sports cars that they will not in future put on the market any new vehicle 
the noise of which could be regarded as offensive. To assist the motor 
industry in this laudable object, the Ministry recently set up four noise- 
testing stations in different parts of the country. At each of these stations 
an N.P.L. noise meter is installed, and manufacturers are enabled to 
submit types of their products and so ascertain for themselves how the 
noise levels compare with the limits proposed. 

The whole question will be further facilitated when the simplified 
objective noise meter, which has recently been developed by the National 
Physical Laboratory for the Ministry is put on the market. Such meters, 
which will be checked against the Laboratory standard meter, should, 
when available in quantity, be of great assistance at such time as it may 
be decided to bring into force regulations for dealing with noise on the 
road. 

As regards the outstanding problem of the abatement of motor-cycle 
noise, I may mention that the British Cycle & Motor Cycle Manufacturers 
& Traders Union Ltd., together with the Institution of Automobile 
Engineers, have recently instituted a programme of research which is to 
be carried out largely at the National Physical Laboratory. 

(v) Motor horns. — Motor horns, if unduly loud or improperly used, 
have come to be regarded as a very unnecessary nuisance on the road. 
In this connection it is generally appreciated that the Ministry of Trans- 
port's beneficent suppression of horn hooting at night has not only led 
to no increase in accidents but has taught many people to drive more 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 49 

quietly in the day time also. Most of us have come to agree that a strident 
horn rarely, if ever, makes for safety but more frequently leads to in- 
decision or fear on the part of other road users. The National Physical 
Laboratory has carried out measurements on motor horns for the Depart- 
mental Committee of the Ministry of Transport, vs^ith the object of deter- 
mining the scope and effectiveness of such warning devices and, if 
possible, of correlating annoyance with some measurable physical factor. 
The report of the Committee is not yet available. Incidentally it is 
common experience that a reasonable driver seldom finds it necessary 
to employ a horn at all, a doctrine to which it is evident that Paris and 
some other Continental cities do not subscribe. 

(vi) Pneumatic road drills. — Before leaving the subject of road noises 
I ought to refer to that sporadic producer of undue noise — ^the pneu- 
matic road drill. Much attention has been given to the question of its 
silencing : possibly the problem of impact silencing will remain until rotary 
drills come into use. That there are grounds, however, for believing 
that some progress is being effected in regard to exhaust silencing would 
appear from some comparative tests carried out last year under the 
auspices of the Westminster City Council. Equivalent loudness measure- 
ments made by the National Physical Laboratory gave an average figure 
of 102 phons (B.S.) for the unsilenced drills, while the corresponding 
figures for the silenced drills ranged from 91 to loi phons, the lower 
values thus bringing the noise nearer to that of general traffic noises in a 
busy street, say 80 phons. Unfortunately it appeared that, roughly- 
speaking, the drills making the least noise took the longest time to break 
a given amount of concrete, though the relative skill and experience of 
the different operators and labourers in the competing teams must not 
be lost sight of in comparing the efficiencies of the different drills. 

The Abatement of Noise. 
While in some European countries there are now severe legal pro- 
hibitions against noise, the position in this country is rather that of legally 
identifying a noise with a nuisance. Under the provisions of the Public 
Health Act of 1936, it is the duty of a local authority, if satisfied of the 
existence of a nuisance, to serve a notice requiring its abatement, and, 
in default, to take proceedings in court for abatement or prohibition of 
the nuisance. There are, moreover, numerous precedents in local Acts 
already in force, according to which a noise nuisance exists if any person 
makes or causes to be made any excessive or unreasonable or unnecessary 
noise which is injurious or dangerous to health. Such noise nuisances 
often arise from plant and machinery which are operated during the night 
or early morning, but there are other circumstances which appear to 
demand a working definition of a noise nuisance. It should be added 
that if a noise occurs in the course of any trade, business or occupation, 
it is a good defence that the best practicable means of preventing or 
mitigating it, having regard to the cost, have been adopted. As regards 
the noise of motor vehicles, much information concerning legislation will 
be found in the First Report of the Ministry of Transport Departmental 
Committee on Noise. 



50 . SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

In the meantime the law is doing its best. A London magistrate was 
recently courageous enough to describe that which is emitted from a 
Scotsman's bagpipes as noise. A stipendiary ruled not long ago that a 
violin and piano-accordion are ' noisy instruments,' and so is the human 
voice, but only if used in a concerted piece with other instruments. A 
firm of Galton-whistle manufacturers advertises ' silent dog-whistles ' 
and so avoids any possibility of legal interference. 

There are two guiding principles when the question of noise abatement 
is being considered. The one is that the degree of abatement of a noise 
in a particular locality need be no more than will conform to the back- 
ground of noise which obtains in that locality. The other is that in 
a medley of noises, the loudest .must be tackled first to achieve any 
appreciable benefit, after that the next loudest, and so on. This is illus- 
trated by the fact that if there are two similar components and one is 
ID decibels less intense than the other, the weaker one will contribute 
only half a phon to the over-all loudness. 

I am reminded that to illustrate the somewhat meagre additive effect 
of two equally intense sources, I was guilty a few years ago of perpetrating 
an analogy based on crying twins. I now realise that the subsequent 
march of events demands a more extended treatment, and so, for the 
benefit of those who may be interested, I should add that ' quins ' 
chattering simultaneously are 7 phons louder than one by herself, and 
that the corresponding figure for ' quads ' is 6 phons, triplets 5 phons, 
and twins 3 phons. 

The first line of attack on noise abatement, and in general much the 
most eff^ective and economical, is to tackle an objectionable noise at the 
source, and find the best means of reducing the output as much as possible. 
The next step, possibly as a confession of failure, is to find a feasible 
method of confining or ' smothering ' the noise in the place where it is 
generated. In either case we turn to the engineer for help, and we may 
anticipate that he is likely to be the more interested if he can see a potential 
demand from the public. Fortunately the public is becoming sufficiently 
noise-conscious to query the need for noises which it stigmatises as a 
nuisance, so that there is now a goodly list of ' silent ' appliances in every- 
day, life, though as regards many commercial machines and processes, it 
is realised that the millennium is not yet and we must put up with second- 
best expedients for the present. 

The path of a noise in its journey from source to hearer, may be either 
via the intervening air, or via a sequence of solid materials or structures. 
Experience has shown that the two effects require very different remedies 
for abatement. The study of the general problem of noise transmission 
is more complex than might be imagined, and some of the major diffi- 
culties are not as yet completely resolved. For the practical elucidation 
of the various factors involved, specially designed ' sound-proof ' 
laboratories, such as those at the National Physical Laboratory, have 
proved to be necessary. Parenthetically, it may be mentioned that the 
N.P.L. acoustics laboratory, since its erection four years ago, has been 
so fully engaged in transmission and absorption work, mainly for the 
architectural profession and the building industry, that extensions are 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 51 

now in hand and should be available for use by the end of the year. 
Much research work on building acoustics is also being carried out for 
the Ministry of Health in connection with slum clearance, and for the 
Architectural Acoustics Committee of the National Physical Laboratory 
and the Building Research Station. 

To revert to the case of a non-suppressible noise, if most of the noise 
is transmitted by air, the best remedy, should circumstances render it 
practicable, is some sort of sound-proof enclosure, the design of which 
may need careful attention both as regards weight and discontinuity of 
structure. There is, of course, no such thing as a sound-proof material, 
and success in sound insulation is largely a matter of design. 

Certain large-scale operations may require ' sound-proof ' buildings to 
mask them, the doors and windows of which should be heavy and close- 
fitting and preferably situated on the side remote from that where the 
noise is liable to be regarded as a nuisance. Doors and windows, 
particularly high windows and skylights, may require to be doubled 
and, in extreme cases, it may be necessary to employ double walls 
mounted on independent foundations. Buildings in which noisy 
operations are carried on should, if possible, be put under the lee of 
larger buildings, which may afford advantageous shielding to the locality. 
In the interior of noisy buildings, it is usually beneficial to the workers 
to divide groups of noisy machinery, as far as may be possible, into 
smaller units, each in its own enclosure. Appreciable benefit may also 
result from lining walls and ceilings with acoustical absorbent, so pre- 
venting the noise level from building up unduly. 

In the case of structure-borne noises, the remedy is discontinuity 
somewhere in the structure either in the form of an air gap or as resilient 
material, for example, under the foundations of noisy or vibrating 
machinery. 

As an illustration of the abatement of extreme noise, near a residential 
area, reference may be made to the new Alvis works at Coventry, in the 
design of which the National Physical Laboratory co-operated. These 
works are devoted to the excessively noisy operation of testing aero 
engines on the bench. The entire building, which has double walls, and 
through which a high wind passes, is fitted, so to speak, with an exhaust 
pipe and silencer, which takes the form of a horizontal brick tunnel 100 
feet long, 12 feet high and 10 feet wide, lined with 4 inches of mineral 
wool and asbestos cloth. This not only serves as an outlet for the wind 
but reduces the objectionably high noise of the engines to an acceptable 
figure as heard in the neighbourhood. 

Quiet Housing. 

Those of us who seek isolation in an endeavour to protect themselves 
from noise, should first of all choose a naturally quiet site for the building 
they propose to occupy, and then select a room as remote as possible from 
such noises as there may be, whether from traffic or other sources. That 
the sound shadows cast by buildings are sufficiently pronounced to be 
beneficial finds ample illustration in the quiet gardens of busy cities often 



52 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

only a stone's throw from heavy traffic routes. Such screening by inter- 
vening buildings is often much more pronounced than the fading with 
distance, which latter, on the inverse-square law, is at the rate of 6 phons 
for a doubling of the distance. 

Not all of us are free, however, to pick and choose our locations and, 
in some cases, the noise from both within and without a building is such 
that only by the most careful planning can quiet conditions be secured 
for a reasonable outlay or indeed at all. For the rest, the remedies depend 
on the circumstances, but are much the same as those for the noisy source 
viz. double windows and doors and possibly walls ; double floors, the 
upper one resting on resilient supports ; as much discontinuity of 
structure as is practicable, and acoustic absorbents on the walls and 
ceilings. The success of remedial measures in a building already erected 
is likely to be limited. 

It has to be recognised that modern building design and materials do 
not provide protection from noises, whether from inside or outside, like 
the more solid houses of a generation ago. Many people can no longer 
escape from the noise of their neighbour's wireless, gramophone, vacuum 
cleaner, bathroom or even his conversation. It is a common complaint 
that noises such as banging or tapping can be heard throughout the length 
and breadth of large buildings constructed oh modern lines. 

The noise problem is accentuated in the case of the large blocks of 
flats which are being erected in all quarters, and which apparently are 
mainly adapted for quiet tenants who are prepared to conform in this 
respect to a landlord's reasonable requirements. But there are those who 
contend that in communal housing, the acoustic conditions should be 
such that noise is automatically confined within the room in which it is 
made, so that a slogan of ' more cry, little noise ' should represent the 
situation. They desire to order their own home life, even if it takes the 
form of leaving the wireless on all day and most of the night, the gramo- 
phone being there to fill up any gaps. They are opposed to curbing the 
natural inclination of their children to play vociferously, bang doors and 
run about. On the other hand, they feel that they ought not to be put 
in the position of involuntarily annoying their neighbours, even if they 
should be invalids, or night workers trying to sleep by day, or who have 
children trying to do homework or who go to bed early. 

The situation lies largely with local authorities, who should lay down 
building bye-laws, setting forth minimum standards of acoustic insula- 
tion. The architect and builder have of necessity been driven from 
traditional methods of construction to meet the economic requirements 
and closer scientific designing of to-day. Discontinuity of structure and 
the use of massive and poorly conducting materials formerly provided 
defence against sound, but instead we now have monolithic structures 
which are not only thinner and lighter than the old, but are composed of 
good conducting materials. The steel-framed and ferro-concrete build- 
ing, cement mortar, hard bricks and plaster, to say nothing of a general 
ramification of central-heating, running water and other piping, have 
replaced the softer brickwork, lime mortar and plaster, wooden beams, 
joists and studding, and the localised piping of the older houses. No 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 53 

one pretends, of course, that we can go back to the old methods, but if 
we are to mitigate the noise nuisance in modern buildings, we must adopt 
measures which are best incorporated during the designing stage. 

There is, too, another aspect which should be clearly appreciated and 
that is if sound insulation in buildings is desired, it has to be paid for. 
The public, at present enticed with a plethora of labour-saving devices 
by landlords of flats, has yet to learn that reasonable acoustic privacy is 
obtainable provided it is prepared to face a small proportionate increase 
in the rent. 

(i) The insulation of walls and windows. — In the case of walls, par- 






3 

■« 







0/ 2 OS 10 2 SO 10 20 

Weight of partition ( Ibi per square foot) 

Dependence, of the sound reduction of single homogeneous 
partitions upon their weight. {Sound reduction averaged 
for freguencies 200,500,500, 700, 1000, 1600 s. 2000 cgcLes per second) 

Fig. 2. 

titions and windows, we have to provide defence primarily against 
air-borne rather than structure-borne sounds. It is established that the 
insulating value for air-borne sounds can be expressed in terms of the 
extent to which an incident sound is reduced in intensity. A single 
solid (or hollow-block) wall tends to behave like a piston which is lightly 
held round the edges, so that the mean insulating value is governed by 
weight alone, being roughly proportional to the logarithm of the super- 
ficial weight, no matter what the material (see Fig. 2). High notes are 
easier to stop than low, that is apart from vagaries caused by resonance 
effects which occur at certain frequencies : these have been recently 
explored by Constable. A window is usually the most vulnerable part 
of a wall from the point of view of acoustical insulation. The weight 



54 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

relation is, of course, impaired by the presence of cracks or badly fitting 
joints ; a surprisingly large amount of sound can be so trarismitted. 

Measurements show that to increase appreciably the insulating value 
of a single wall, involves a prohibitive addition to the weight ; for 
example, doubling the weight only adds rather less than 5 decibels to 
the insulation. The minimum standard of acceptable insulation for a 
party wall against air-borne sounds is commonly adopted as being that 
of a plastered 9-inch brick wall (about 55 db). The main escape from 
the weight relation lies in the use of double or composite partitions free 
from rigid couplings. Double air-spaced partitions may be divided 
conveniently into two classes : — 

(a) Those using light flexible materials in which the mechanical linkage 
via the edges is small ; and 

(b) Those using heavy rigid components, in which case linkage via 
the edges is likely to be substantial. 

The first class has been shown by Constable to exhibit resonance eflFects 
due to coupling by the air in the interspace, so that the insulating value 
depends on the spacing and incidentally displays a minimum. The 
insulation is improved by introducing sound absorbent material in the 
interspace in such a manner that it does not act as a link between 
the components. As a practical illustration of these observations, it is 
recommended for good insulation that double windows should have a 
sound-absorbent lining at the boundary of the interspace, and that the 
spacing should exceed a certain minimum, e.g. 4 inches for 21 oz. glass, 
a properly constructed double window being as sound proof as a 9-inch 
brick wall. For thicker glass the separation can be reduced. Double 
windows conforming to these requirements are now commercially avail- 
able, some of which permit the windows to be opened and still afford an 
acceptable degree of insulation. 

In the case of double partitions constructed from heavy rigid materials, 
coupling via the edges dominates that due to the air, so that the insulating 
value can be increased appreciably by framing the components with 
insulation, e.g. cork strip, round their margins. For example, a cavity 
partition consisting of two 2-inch clinker slabs separated by a 2-inch air 
gap and marginally insulated by cork is acoustically as effective as a solid 
9-inch brick wall and costs appreciably less, though if the insulation is 
omitted, the partition is little better than a single wall of the same total 
weight. 

Recent tests show that the insulating value of a single solid wall benefits 
by the application to both sides of plastered building-board fixed to 
battens secured by insulating clips. It is of considerable interest to note 
that the traditional partition of lath and plaster on each side of wooden 
studding (or a similar partition with fibre board) is definitely superior to 
a single partition of the same weight. A fire-resisting version consisting 
of plastered expanded metal on concrete studding affords insulation equal 
to that of a plastered 9-inch brick wall (of three times the weight). 

It should be noted that the insulating value of a wall (or floor) against 
air-borne sounds originating in a room is often set a limit by the fact 



A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES 55 

that the sound also falls upon flanking walls (or floors) and is so conducted 
to other rooms. The effect, which may be appreciated by putting the 
ear against the flanking surfaces, is likely to be of only minor importance 
unless the walls or floors have insulating values appreciably greater than 
that of a 9-inch brick wall. 

(ii) The insulation of floors.~The problem is more difficult in the 
case of floors, for which the important aspect of acoustical insulation is 
that of reducing the transmission of impact sounds such as footsteps. 
To measure the insulation of a test floor, it is subjected to blows from a 
set of mechanically driven hammers designed to simulate heavy footsteps. 
The noise heard below the floor is measured subjectively by a team of 
observers. Since no satisfactory method of determining absolute values 
for insulation against impact sounds has yet been developed, the results 
are necessarily comparative and show the amount by which the insulation 
of the test floor exceeds that of some floor of ordinary construction which 
is accepted as a standard. 

It appears that for floors, as for walls, a composite structure is a 
necessary concomitant of good insulation. Three general methods of 
providing such a structure have been investigated, viz. : — 

(a) To lay on the floor a soft material such as carpet on underfelt, or 
linoleum with a sponge rubber or similar backing ; 

(b) To lay a ' floating floor,' i.e. a supplementary floor supported on 
insulating material on the structural floor ; 

(c) To mount an insulated false ceiling below the floor, for example, 
on insulating hooks. 

The first method provides better insulation for sharp blows than for 
dull blows (such as heavy footsteps), but may be unacceptable on the 
ground of expense and, in the case of working class dwellings, on account 
of the unsuitability of the material. The second method is capable of 
providing good insulation together with a hard upper surface at not 
too great a cost. So far, two classes of floating floor have been examined, 
viz. a concrete floor standing upon a number of suitably proportioned 
rubber blocks ; and a wooden " raft " floor resting upon a continuous 
layer of soft cushioning material such as eel-grass or glass-silk blanket. 
Both are examples of successful floor treatment, though the underlying 
factors are not as yet completely investigated. Experiments with the ' 
concrete and rubber-block construction have shown that such leakage of 
sound as occurs from the floating to the structural floor is partly through 
the rubber supports and partly through the air interspace. A suspended 
ceiling alone is not usually as effective as the floor treatments, but may be 
used in combination with them to obtain a greater insulation when 
necessary, the effects being additive. Neither does a suspended ceiling 
isolate an impact sound and so prevent transmission to other parts of a 
building as does a floating floor. 

The standard of acceptable insulation for a floor is commonly taken 
as at least 15 to 20 phons better than that of a bare solid or hollow-tile 
concrete floor for a test impact which simulates heavy footsteps. It 



S6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

may be noted that the noise of such impacts heard below a concrete floor 
is practically as loud as that heard above. 

(iii) Sound - absorbent treatment of rooms. — As already mentioned, it 
is often expedient to subject the surfaces of noisy rooms to treatment 
with sound-absorbent. This serves a double purpose. It is firstly a 
necessary adjunct of a sound-insulating wall if it is to operate to advantage, 
and secondly it serves to reduce the amount of noise built up by repeated 
reflections at the room surfaces. The extent of the quietening value is, 
however, limited, as that part of the sound heard directly is not ordinarily 
affected. 

There is a great variety of sound-absorbent materials on the market, 
ranging from stone and tiles with structural properties to soft flexible 
materials. Some of the latter are of a fluffy porous nature, so that covers 
of open texture, or perforated, or even pin-pricked are commonly pro- 
vided. Some acoustic absorbents have coefficients as high as 90 per 
cent, and most of them absorb high notes better than low. Meyer has 
recently developed a non-perforated cover, which may have hygienic 
advantages, e.g. for hospital purposes. This consists, for example, of 
thin metal sheets mounted on a wooden framework so that they are spaced 
an inch or two from a. wall to which is attached absorbent material. 

Finally, there are two or three other points which may require attention 
when plans are being made for sound-insulating a building. The first 
is machinery noise which is liable to be conducted through the structure 
of a building unless the machinery is properly insulated. For the pur- 
pose, it should be mounted upon an undamped elastic support so weighted 
and proportioned that the frequency of vibration of the machinery on 
this support is low compared'with the frequency of the noise generated. 

The second point concerns noise conducted through metal pipes, for 
example, water pipes. While some of the noise originating in a tap or 
a circulating pump travels through the water, much of it is directly con- 
ducted by the piping itself. It has been found at the National Physical 
Laboratory that a beneficial reduction (10-15 ^b) in the noise transmitted 
along a water pipe can be achieved by replacing a few feet of the pipe 
with rubber hose. 

A third point is the noise of ventilating fans forming part of a system 
of artificial ventilation which is likely to be an essential accompaniment 
of a sound-insulated building. Care should be taken that the tip speed 
of ventilating fans does not greatly exceed 50 feet per second. Ventilating 
ducts should be lined with sound-absorbent, and a length of canvas hose 
may advantageously be inserted at some point in a duct. ' 

The foregoing will, I hope, afford a notion of some of the organised 
steps which are being taken in this country to combat the evil of un- 
necessary noise. To find practicable solutions to the many ramifications 
of the problem is, I submit, of material significance to every section of 
the community. 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY. 



RESEARCHES IN CHEMOTHERAPY 



ADDRESS BY 

Dr. F. L. PYMAN, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Chemotherapy may be regarded as the treatment of disease by chemical 
substances, which have been shown by biological methods to be relatively 
much more toxic to pathogenic organisms than to human or other animal 
hosts. 

Chemotherapy was developed by Paul Ehrlich, and its most out- 
standing achievement has been the introduction of the arsenic group of 
spirochaeticides. Very early on, Ehrlich noticed that when certain dye- 
stuffs were injected into the living animal, they selected certain tissues 
which were intensely stained, whilst others were left practically free from 
colour, and as long ago as 1891, he observed that the malarial parasite 
was strongly stained by methylene blue and thus differentiated from the 
tissue of the host. It then occurred to him that it might be possible to 
discover dyestuffs or other drugs whose chemical affinity for disease 
organisms was so great that the organism might be killed without damage 
to the tissues of the host. 

Successful results were obtained in the laboratory with dyes such as 
methylene blue, Trypan-red, and Trypan-blue, but the practical value 
of these dyes has been slight. 

In the course of his studies Ehrlich soon found it necessary to find 
some means of expressing the chemotherapeutic activity of compounds 
for purposes of comparison. He therefore determined for each new 
substance the ratio of the minimum curative dose to the maximum 
tolerated dose, which he called the Chemotherapeutic Index. 

The ideal compound would obviously be the one which would destroy 
the parasitic agents of disease without in any way injuring the cells of 
the body. Such a compound has yet to be discovered, for every known 
substance which is toxic to parasites is also toxic to a greater or lesser 
extent to body tissues. For practical purposes the chemotherapeutic 
index should be as favourable as possible. 

Chemotherapeutic research postulates co-operation between clinicians, 
biologists and chemists. The first step is the discovery by the biologist 
in co-operation with the clinician that some parasite is responsible for a 
given disease. Then methods must be found by which the parasite can 
be isolated, cultivated and studied. Sometimes this can be done in the 
test-tube, as in the case of the researches on bactericides and amcebicides, 



58 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

to which I shall refer in detail later. In other cases, the particular disease, 
or one closely related to it, may be induced and studied in animals. 

Schulemann (1932) has traced the stages in the development of a 
laboratory method for evaluating antimalarial drugs in the following 
words : ' In 1880 Laveran discovered the malarial parasite, and in 1891 
Grassi and Feletti found in birds a parasite similar to that of human 
malaria. In 1895, Ross, stimulated and directed by Manson, discovered 
the role played by the mosquito in transmitting the disease. How bird 
malaria might be used for the study of malarial treatment in man was 
investigated by Kopanaris and the brothers Sergent, but it was not till 
1924 that a satisfactory technique was evolved ' by Roehl, who * worked 
out a method of using canaries for experiments on lines closely approach- 
ing the conditions of practical therapy, so that it was possible to try out 
and assess in the laboratory many groups of drugs.' 

On the chemical side, researches in chemotherapy start from the 
discovery that some drug, whose constitution is wholly or partly known, 
is of clinical benefit in a given disease or is toxic to certain organisms. 
Once some knowledge of the chemical constitution of the drug has been 
obtained, substances more or less closely related to it can be synthesised 
and tested for their chemotherapeutic properties. 

Traditional knowledge of the value of cinchona bark in malaria, 
followed by the isolation of quinine and the associated alkaloids, the 
recognition that the medicinal value of the bark was due to these, and the 
determination of their chemical constitutions, made possible the chemo- 
therapeutic researches which led to the discovery of plasmoquin and 
atebrin. 

Bactericides. 

The introduction of phenol or carbolic acid for the prevention of sepsis 
by Lister in 1867 formed the starting-point in research on bactericides. 
A very large number of derivatives of phenol have since been made and 
tested for their bactericidal properties. The efl^ect of substituting one 
or more alkyl groups in the benzene ring has been studied, and it has 
long been known that many alkyl-phenols exceed phenol itself in 
bactericidal value. One method of determining the phenol coefficient 
of bactericides is the Rideal Walker test, comparing their efficiency with 
that of phenol in destroying B. typhosus. By this test the cresols — methyl- 
phenols — have phenol coefficients of 2 to 2-5, whilst thymol — a 
methylwopropylphenol — has a phenol coefficient of about 25. 

In recent years, systematic studies have been made of several homo- 
logous series of phenols. An early example of the investigation of a 
homologous series was made in another field by Morgenroth and his 
collaborators (1911-1917). They studied the homologous series of 
alkylhydrocupreines, and showed that peak activity was obtained at the 
ethyl member (optoquin) for pneumococci, and at isooctyl (vuzin) for 
B. diphtheriee. In clinical use optoquin proved to be unsatisfactory for 
the treatment of pneumonia, but vuzin was used in the treatment of 
wounds. 

American chemists demonstrated the profound effect of the length of 



B.— CHEMISTRY 59 

the side chain upon the bactericidal properties of substituted resorcinols. 
Johnson and Lane (1921) showed that the phenol coefficients of 4-w- 
alkylresorcinols rose steadily in the series methyl, ethyl, propyl and 
butyl, whilst Dohme, Cox and Miller (1926), continuing the series, found 
a maximum at 4-«-hexylresorcinol, which had a phenol coefficient of 50, 
the values for w-amyl- and n-heptyl-resorcinol being 33 and 30 respec- 
tively. They also showed that the antiseptic value of the w-alkylresor- 
cinols were greater than those of branched chain alkylresorcinols having 
the same number of carbon atoms. 

Coulthard, Marshall and Pyman (1930) studied the variation of phenol 
coefficient with increase in the n-alkyl-side chain in the 4-n-alkylphenols, 
4-«-alkylguaiacols and in four series of n-alkyl-cresols, of which the 
4-n-alkyl-OT-cresols are the most important. In all cases the maximum 
effect was shown where the side chain was a n-amyl group. The alkyl- 
cresols had higher phenol coefficients than alkylphenols containing the 
same alkyl group, whilst the alkylguaiacols were far less active. 

Phenol Coefficients. 
/)-n-Alkylphenols. 4-«-Alkyl-m-cresols. 4-«-Alkylguaiacols. 
R R 

/\Me 

OH OH 

R-CH3 2-5 — 

C2H5 75 12-5 

n-C3H7 20 34 

n-C4H9 70 100 

w-CgHn 104 280 

n-CgHij 90 275 

n-C^Hjs 20 30 — 

4-w-Amyl-OT-cresol, which had a phenol coefficient of 280 against 
B. typhosus, proved to be highly bactericidal when tested against many 
other species of bacteria. This is shown in the following table : 

Concentration lethal in Ritleal 

7I mins. not in 5 mins. Walker. 

Test Organism (i) Amyl-m-cresol. (2) Phenol. Coefficient. 

B. coli . . . 1-16,250 1-80 200 

Staphylococcus aureus . 1-20,000 1-90 220 

Streptococcus fcecalis . 1-15,000 1-75 200 

Pharmacological experiments having shown that it had less than one- 
half of the toxicity of hexylresorcinol, and that it was non-toxic in 
medicinal doses, further work was carried out to determine its suitability 
for use in a mouth wash. In order to test its efficiency in this respect, 
different dilutions of amyl-w-cresol, compared with plain water as a 
control, were added to 5 c.c. of a mouth washing. The mixture was 





lonies after 


Colonies after 


5 mins. 


15 tnins. 


4,700 


5,000 


4 


2 


50 


4 


1.925 


2,169 



60 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

shaken thoroughly, and the bacteria left alive after 5 and 15 minutes were 
then estimated, with the following results : 

Tube Solution added 

1. 5 c.c. water 

2. 5 c.c. I : 10,000 amyl-w-cresol 

3. 5 c.c. I : 20,000 „ „ „ 

4. 5 c.c. I : 30,000 „ „ „ 

It was therefore suitable for use as an antiseptic in the oral cavity, 
and has been successfully introduced into medicine for this purpose. 

Clinical trials of 4-n-amyl-w-cresol as a urinary antiseptic, however, 
gave disappointing results, but this is true of phenolic bactericides 
generally. 

Fortunately, a new treatment of urinary infections was introduced by 
M. L. Rosenheim (1935) two years ago, which is giving excellent results. 
Previously, urinary infections had been treated successfully by giving 
patients a particular diet, known as the ketogenic diet, which was very 
unpleasant to take. It was also known that the principal factor inhibiting 
the growth of bacteria in the urine of patients receiving this diet was 
j8-hydroxybutyric acid. This acid, however, if given orally would not 
be effective, because it would be oxidised in the body. Rosenheim, 
therefore, studied the bactericidal properties of a number of hydroxy-acids 
and found in mandelic acid a substance which was not oxidised in the 
body, was non-toxic in therapeutic doses, and was excreted unaltered in 
the urine, where it exerted its bactericidal effect, the degree of this 
increasing with increased acidity of the urine. 

Specific treatment of streptococcal infections has made much progress 
since the discovery of the properties of particular aromatic sulphonamides 
by the I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., and we are lookijig forward to an 
account of investigations in this field from Prof. Dr. H. Horlein, whom 
we are very glad to welcome here to-day. 

Amcebicides. 

Research on amcebicides was greatly facilitated by the technique 
developed by Dobell and Laidlaw (1926), and Laidlaw, Dobell and Bishop 
(1928) for testing amcebicides in vitro. Emetine (I) has for long been 
the principal drug used in the treatment of amoebic dysentery, but it has 
some undesirable by-effects, amongst others a nauseating effect. In a 
search for substances having the amoebicidal action of emetine without 
its nauseating effect, a number of alkaloids very closely related to emetine 
in chemical structure were made at an earlier period. When tested by 
Dale and Dobell (1917), by an early laboratory method several of them, 
0-methylpsychotrine (a substance which differs from emetine structurally 
only in containing two hydrogen atoms fewer) and iV-methylemetine, 
for instance, were found to be more toxic to Entamoeba histolytica than 
emetine itself. Clinical trials of O-methylpsychotrine (Jepps and 
Meakins, 19 17) and A^-methylemetine, however (Low, 1915 ; Wenyon 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



6i 



and O'Connor, 1917), showed them to be of little or no value in the 
treatment of amoebic dysentery. 

The method of Dobell and Laidlaw, however, depending on the cultiva- 
tion of amoebae in a medium consisting partly of solid (inspissated fresh 
horse-serum) and partly of liquid (egg-white diluted with Ringer's fluid) 
with a little starch, gave results which fell into line with the clinical results. 
Emetine was found to be fifty times as toxic to amoebae in vitro as N- 
methylemetine, woemetine, and 0-methylpsychotrine, which are clinically 
inactive. The clinical inactivity of woemetine (Low, 19 18), a stereo- 
isomeride of emetine, is interesting and reminiscent of the difference 
between d- and /-stereoisomerides in the cases of adrenaline and hyos- 
cyamine. Later, Laidlaw, Dobell and Bishop described a simpler 
medium, consisting of i part of sterile horse-serum, 8 parts of Ringer's 
fluid with a small quantity of sterile solid rice-starch, disodium hydrogen 
phosphate being added as a buflFer. In this medium, they found that the 
amoebae were destroyed in four days by emetine i in 5,000,000, provided 
that the medium did not become too acid. We have made use of this 
method in the work which I am about to describe. 

In 1927 Brindley and Pyman suggested a constitutional formula for 
emetine, and in 1929 Child and Pyman synthesised a series of compounds 
(II) having similar constitutional features in that they contained two 
6 : y-dimethoxytetrahydrowoquinoline nuclei united through the 1:1' 
positions by chains of methylene groups. 

CH2 CHg 

/\ /\ 
MeCH CH CH, 



CH3O 



CH3O 



CH3O 



CH3O 



CH CH, 



CH 



N 



HN 



CH2 H2C 



CH, 



OCH, 



OCH, 



CH, 



(I) 



I (CHa)™ j 
CH CH 



NH HN 



CH, 



CH2 H2 



OCH, 



OCH, 



CH, 



(11) 



When tested by Mr. Tate and Miss Vincent, working under Prof. 
Keilin's direction, at the Molteno Institute at Cambridge, using the 



62 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



methods employed by Laidlaw, Dobell and Bishop, none of these sub- 
stances prevented the growth of Entamoeba histolytica in culture at a 
dilution of i in 5,000, whereas the control substance, emetine, was effective 
at a dilution of i in 500,000. For the purpose of testing a further series 
of woquinoline derivatives, prepared by Child and Pyman (193 1), the 
method of Laidlaw, Dobell and Bishop was used in our own bacterio- 
logical department by Mr. Couhhard with the help of strains kindly given 
to us by Dr. Dobell. This further series was designed to find out 
whether the reduced benzpyridocoline ring (which is a feature of Brindley 
and Pyman's formula for emetine), or other systems in which the tertiary 
nitrogen atom of emetine is common to two rings conferred amcebicidal 
properties or not. This group of compounds, which included 10: 11- 
dimethoxy-i : 2 : 3 : 4 : 6 : 7-hexahydrobenzpyridocoline (III), proved to 
be but feebly active compared with emetine, for the most highly amcebi- 
cidal member of the series 9 : io-dimethoxy-3-phenyl-5 : 6-dihydro- 
benzglyoxalocoline (IV) only prevented the growth of Entamoeba histoly- 
tica in cultures at a dilution of i in 25,000, whereas the control substance, 
emetine, was effective in a dilution of i in 500,000. 



CH3O 



CH3O 



CH, 



HoC CHo 



CH CH, 



N 



CH, 



CH, 



(HI) 




CH3O 



CH.OK^y^y 



CH, 



(IV) 



The fact that we had now suitable strains and a technique for carrying 
out amcebicidal tests in vitro led us to test a series of compounds, originally 
prepared for another purpose, with interesting results. 

This investigation had its origin in Gunn and Marshall's (1920) dis- 
covery, that harmine and harmaline had some therapeutic action in malaria. 
Further clinical trials of these compounds, however, failed to establish 
their practical worth as antimalarial agents. Since harmine and harmaline 
are readily accessible in quantity by extraction from Peganum harmala, 
and their chemical constitution has features in common with those of 
known antimalarial agents such as quinine and plasmoquin, we thought it 
of interest to prepare a number of derivatives of these alkaloids in order 
that they might be tested for antimalarial action. Our attention had 
previously been focused on studies of homologous series in the course 
of the work on 4-M-amyl-w-cresol to which I referred earlier. This 
suggested to us that perhaps replacement of the methoxy-group of harmine 
or harmaline by higher alkyloxy-groups might yield substances of in- 



B— CHEMISTRY 



63 



creased antimalarial action and the homologous series of normal alkyl- 
harmols from methylharmol (harmine) up to dodecylharmol was prepared. 



CH3O 



N 



NH CH, 



Through the courtesy of the Chemotherapy Committee of the Medical 
Research Council, some members of the series — for example, O-n-butyl- 
harmol and 0-w-heptylharmol — were tested for activity against bird-malaria 
under the direction of Prof. Keilin, of the Molteno Institute, Cambridge, 
but were found to be inactive. 

The possibility that some members of these series might have other 
chemotherapeutic uses was then examined, and it was found that both 
bactericidal and amoebicidal activity increased, on ascending the homo- 
logous series, up to a point and then started to fall. Peaks of bactericidal 
activity were reached at butyl for B. typhosus and at amyl for S. aureus, 
whilst the peak of amoebicidal activity was reached at 0-w-nonylharmol. 

R.W. Coefficients. Minimum concentration lethal 

to Entamoeba histolytica. 
I in 40,000 to I in 80,000 

I in 80,000 

I in 80,000 to I in 120,000 

I in 20,000 to I in 80,000 

I in 100,000 to I in 200,000 

I in 100,000 to I in 200,000 

I in 200,000 

I in 200,000 to I in 300,000 

I in 200,000 to I in 500,000 

I in 100,000 

I in 100,000 not lethal 

The salts of this and other high members of the series were very sparingly 
soluble in water, and consequently a further series of compounds was 
prepared, with the hope of obtaining more readily soluble compounds. 

The method adopted was to add a further salt-forming group to the 
molecule in the form of a terminal dialkylamino-group, such as is employed 
in the antimalarials, plasmoquin (VI) and atebrin (VII). 

CH3CH.CH2.CH2.CH2.N(C2H5)2 CH3.CH.CH2.CH2.CH2.N(C2H5)2 



Compound. B 


. typhosus. 


S. aureus 


Harmol 


I 


— 


Harmine 


I 





0-Ethylharmol 


25 


— 


0-«-propylharmol 


225 


75 


0-«-butylharmol 


350-400 


150 


0-«-amylharmol 


35° 


250-300 


O-w-hexylharmol 


50 


45-50 


0-w-heptylharmol 


30-35 


45-50 


0-«-octylharmol 


15 


35-40 


0-«-nonylharmol 


10-15 


15 


0-w-decylharmol 


10 




0-w-dodecylharmol 


5 





NH 



NH 



CH3O 




CaH.O 




64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

In this way there were made a series of derivatives of harmol having the 
general formula (VIII) given below, the salts of which proved, as had been 
expected, to be readily soluble in water. 

/\ v\ 

NH CH3 
(VIII) 

The size of both R (the N-alkyl groups) and x the number of carbon 
atoms in the chain separating N from O was varied, and the results may be 
illustrated by reference to a series in which the decyl group (x = 10) was 
a common factor, whilst the dialkylamino group was varied. 

Minimum concentration lethal 
Compound. to Entamoeba histolytica. 

0-x-Dimethylaminodecylharmol . i in 300,000 to i in 500,000 

O-x-Diethylaminodecylharmol . . i in 200,000 to i in 500,000 

0-x-Di-n-butylaminodecylharmol . i in 750,000 to i in 2,000,000 
0-x-Di-«-amylaminodecylharmol . i in 750,000 to i in 3,000,000 

0-X-Di-w-butylaminoundecylharmol . i in 750,000 to i in 4,000,000 

0-«-Nonylharmol . . . . i in 200,000 to i in 500,000 

Emetine hydrochloride . . . i in 2,000,000 to i in 10,000,000 

It was thus found that the activity of members at the peak of the series, 
such as 0-X-di-w-butylaminoundecylharmol, was many times that of 
0-n-nonylharmol, and this fact led us to suspect that the harmol residue 
might not be an important contributor to the amoebicidal properties of the 
molecule. 

A number of compounds were then prepared in which dibutylaminodecyl 
(or undecyl) groups were introduced into molecules of varying structures. 
The last columns in the following tables show the limits of the range of the 
minimum concentration found lethal to Entafnoeba histolytica in three 
days, under the conditions laid down by Laidlaw, Dobell and Bishop 
(loc. cit.). 

Minimum concentration lethal to 
Compound. Entamoeba histolytica. 



(C,H,),N.(CH,),i.O-[^^J^^^N 



I m 750,000 to I m 4,000,000 



NH CH3 



I m 100,000 



(C,H,),N.(CH,),i.O-l^^^l 

(C4H9)2N.(CH2)ioO.CO.CH3 . . i in 100,000 

(C4H9)2N.(CH2)ioO.CO.C6H5 . . I in 100,000 

(C4H9)2N.(CH2)ioN.(C4H9)2 . . I in 2,000,000 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



6S 



It was thus shown that the attachment of the group (C4H9)2N.(CH2)io 
to a simple substituted amino group gave very high efficiency. • 

A long series of tetraalkyldiamino parafRns of the general formula 
NRR'.(CH2),,.NRR' was then prepared, and the minimum amoebicidal 
concentration under the optimum conditions for emetine determined. 

In the first place, derivatives of heptane and decane were examined ; 
of the heptane series the tetraethyldiamino and tetra-«-butyldiamino 
compounds were prepared and tested. The tetrabutyl member of the 
series was superior as an amoebicide to the tetraethyl one, but neither 
showed more than a fraction of the efficiency of the best harmol derivative. 
More promising results were obtained with the corresponding decane 
derivatives and ultimately the efficiency of dibutylaminoundecylharmol 
was equalled or even, in some of our tests, surpassed. 

The following table shows the results of a test in which a number of 
decane derivatives of the general formula, R2N.(CH2)ioNR2, were examined 
simultaneously, so that the ' peak ' of the series could be ascertained. 
This was found at ax-tetra-M-amyldiaminodecane, which was used as a 
standard of comparison in later work. For brevity, it is referred to 
below as T.A.D.D. 



Compound. 
oLx-Decanes 

Tetra-n-propyldiamino 
Tetra-n-butyldiamino 
Tetra-«-amyldiamino 
Tetra-«-hexyldiamino 



Minimum concentration lethal 
to E. histolytica. 
I in 250,000 not lethal 
I in 1,500,000 
I in 3,000,000 (or less) 
I in 1,000,000 
I in 250,000 not lethal 



Tetra-«-heptyldiamino 

A similar test indicated that the corresponding series of undecane 
derivatives also showed the peak with the tetraamyldiamino member. 

Next, keeping a tetrabutyl or tetraamyl group constant, the hydrocarbon 
residue was varied. The following table shows the results of two tests 
on these series of compounds. 



Compound. 


Minimum concentration lethal 




to E. histolytica. 




Test I. 


acj-Tetra-n-butyldiamino- 




nonane . 


. I in 800,000 


decane . 


. I in 1,000,000 


undecane 


I in 2,000,000 


dodecane 


I in 1,500,000 


tridecane 


I in 1,000,000 




Test 2. 


aw-Tetra-«-amyldiamino- 




octane . 


I in 400,000 


nonane . 


. I in 1,000,000 


decane . 


I in 2,000,000 


undecane 


I in 1,500,000 


dodecane 


. I in 200,000 



66 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



A number of variants on tetraamyldiaminodecane were then made in 
whi<:;h in the place of the symmetrical tetraamyl group various other 
combinations were tried, with the results shown in the following table. 









Approximate amcebicidal efficiency 




Compound. 


in comparison with T.A.D.D. 


CM-Decanes. 




Per Cent. 


NBu2 


NAma^ . 


100 


NBuAm 


NBuAm . 








100 


NtsoArn.^ 


NwoAmj . 








100 


NAm2 


NC5H10 . 








5° 


NMeBz 


NMeBz . 








30 


NEtBz 


NEtBz . 








25 


NPrBz 


NPrBz . 








20 


NEtDodec 


NEtDodec 








10 


NBuDodec 


NBuDodec 








Rather under 10 


NC5H10 


NC5H10 (Dipiperazino) 




. Not 10 


NAm2 


NMePh . 






10 


NHBu 


NHBu . 






. Not ID 


NHNon 


NHNon . 






Rather under 10 


Undecanes. 










NHAm 


NHAm . 






10 


NAmg 


NHo 








15 


NAmj 


NHBu 








' . . 100 


NAmj 


NHAm . 








Over 100 


NAm, 


NHHx . 








100 



A number of compounds were then prepared in order to test the 
amcebicidal properties of related classes of compounds. 

(i) Long chain monamines. 

(2) Quaternary benzylammonium chlorides containing a long chain 
member, since members of this class have been shown by the 
LG. Farbenindustrie A.G. to have marked bactericidal properties, 
and quaternary salts of the corresponding diamines. 

(3) Long chain mono- and di-amidines. 

(4) Compounds in which the 10 aliphatic carbon atoms of decane are 
replaced in part by 4 carbon atoms of a benzene ring, and in part 
by 2 atoms of oxygen. 

None of these approached tetraamyldiaminodecane in amcebicidal 
efficiency in vitro, as will be seen from the individual results given below : 

Approxitnate amcebicidal efficiency 
in comparison with T.A.D.D. 

Per Cent. 

. ID 

Not 10 
. 25 



Compound. 

Group I. 

Hexadecylamine ..... 

' Octon ' (methylamino-6-methyl-2-heptene-2) 
Dibutylnonylamine . ... 



^ All radicles are of the normal series except where stated otherwise. 



Per Cent 


, 


lO 


Not 


lO 


• 


30 


Not 


10 


, 


10 


Not 


10 


• 


15 


• 


33 



B.— CHEMISTRY 67 

Group 2. 

Dimethyldodecylbenzylammonium chloride . 

Decane-i : io-Z)w (benzyldimethylammonium chloride) . 

Decane-i : lo-bts (benzyldiamylammonium chloride) 

Group 3. 

Lauramidine ........ 

Sebacamidine ........ 

Decane-i : lo-diamidine ...... 

Group 4. 
^-pP-Tetrabutyldiaminoethoxybenzene 
/)-PJ3-Tetra-amyldiaminoethoxybenzene 

In considering the results of the foregoing tests, it must be recollected 
that there is a large margin of error, and in the results given previously 
we have quoted the minimum concentrations found lethal in a number of 
tests ; in the case of compounds which appeared promising we have 
usually carried out six or more tests. In our hands, the test of Laidlaw, 
Dobell and Bishop easily distinguished between compounds in the ' peak ' 
area and those at each extremity, but comparison between the members 
of a series near the peak of efficiency was difficult. This fact may be 
illustrated well by reference to the table (see p. 69) recording the direct 
comparison of the amoebicidal properties of tetra-n-butyl- and tetra-w- 
amyl-diaminoalkanes. 

As the result of the foregoing experiments ax-tetra-n-amyldiamino-«- 
decane (T.A.D.D.) was selected for further study. The conditions of 
all the amoebicidal tests described above were those most favourable for 
emetine, that is, in a faintly alkaline medium. It is well known (Laidlaw 
and others ; Henry and Brown, 1923) that the exceedingly high efficiency 
of emetine in vitro, of the order of i in 5,000,000, is only found in alkaline, 
neutral or only very faintly acid media. Our results afford abundant 
confirmation of this fact. When endeavouring to assess the value of an 
amoebicide in the treatment of amoebic dysentery by comparison with 
emetine in vitro it appears therefore necessary to consider carefully the 
hydrogen ion concentration likely to be met with in the areas infested with 
amoebae. 

We have been unable to find any reference to the actual hydrogen ion 
concentration in the amoebic ulcer, but Knowles and others (1923) found 
that the pH of a number of stools containing motile amoebae averaged 
6-22. They also reported the results of experiments on kittens artificially 
infected with E. histolytica in which the colon and rectum of the animals 
were minced in saline and the hydrogen ion concentration of the sus- 
pension determined. The average ^H value obtained in these experi- 
ments was 6-33, and the livers when similarly treated showed an average 
^H value of 6-34. 

Furthermore, a considerable amount of work has been carried out upon 
the reaction of living, dead and diseased body cells, and the work of 
Rohde (1927) and Chambers and others (1927) suggests that the contents 
of the ulcers may have a hydrogen ion concentration more acid than 
pU 7-0. 



68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

A consideration of these papers suggested that in any comparisons of 
amoebicides with emetine in vitro the effect of acidity should be studied, 
particularly when the amcEbicides are to be administered orally, and that 
tests should be carried out at a^H value of 6-2 or 6-3. 

Under these conditions T.A.D.D. is three to five times as efficient as 
emetine. Moreover, when blood is added to the medium even at p\i 
values otherwise favouring emetine, T.A.D.D. and emetine are of very 
similar amcebicidal value, the former at times showing a definite 
superiority. 

The toxicity of T.A.D.D. to mice has been compared with that of 
emetine with the following results : 

Median Lethal Dose mg.jg. 
Oral. Subcut. Intraven. 

ax-Tetra-«-amyl- 

diaminodecane 

dihydrochloride . 0-45 0-35 0-04 

Emetine 

dihydrochloride . 0-04 c-o6 0-013 

It has thus only one-tenth of the toxicity of emetine when administered 
orally to mice, and one-sixth on subcutaneous injection. Its therapeutic 
index is therefore much more favourable than that of emetine, and it 
appeared to be an exceptionally promising compound for clinical trial 
in conditions of ill-health due to infestation with Entamoeba histolytica. 
At this point, it was recommended to and accepted by the Therapeutic 
Trials Committee of the Medical Research Council for clincial trial. It 
was tried clinically by Prof. Warrington Yorke, F.R.S., who has 
kindly allowed me to state his results. He finds that T.A.D.D. has some 
action in amoebic dysentery, when administered orally, but is not suffi- 
ciently active to be of any real value. Unfortunately, it cannot be given 
intramuscularly, subcutaneously or intravenously as it is intensely 
irritating. 

It appears, therefore, that the comparison of the amcebicidal values of 
emetine and T.A.D.D. with a faintly alkaline medium gives a better 
indication of their relative clinical value than the comparison in a slightly 
acid medium. This knowledge will be of value in further work on the 
subject. 

The foregoing account of investigations in chemotherapy indicates the 
enormous amount of chemical and biological work involved in attempts 
to evolve new drugs for the treatment of disease. Investigations of this 
type involve the team-work of a group of chemists and biologists before 
the selected product reaches the clinicians, and in the present case I 
should like to pay special tribute to the parts taken in it by Mr. Coulthard 
on the bacteriological side and Mr. Levene on the chemical side. Only 
a limited number of private concerns have the facilities for such co- 
operation, and it is therefore very satisfactory to know that work of this 
character is being carried out under public auspices, such as the in- 
vestigations into anti-malarials directed by Prof. Robinson under the 
Chemotherapy Sub-committee of the Medical Research Council, and those 



B.— CHEMISTRY 



69 



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70 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

on arsenicals directed by Sir Gilbert Morgan under the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research. 

References. 

Brindley and Pyman : /. Cheni. Soc, 1067 (1927)- 

Chambers (and others) : /. Gen. Physiol., 10, 739 ; Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 

24, 760 (1927). 
Child and Pyman : /. Chem. Soc, 2010 (1929)- 

• /. Chem. Soc, 36 (1931)- 

CouLTHARD, MARSHALL and Pyman : /. Chem. Soc, 280 (1930)- 

Dale and Dobell : /. Pharm. Exp. They., 10, 399 (1917)- 

DoBELL and Laidlaw : Parasitology, 18, 206 (1926). 

DoHME, Cox and Miller : /. Amer. Chem. Soc, 48, 1688 (1926). 

GuNN and Marshall : Proc Roy. Soc. Edin., 40, 140 (1920). 

Henry and Brown : Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 61, 17 (1923). 

Jepps and Meakins : B.M.J ., ii, 645 (1917)- 

Johnson and Lane : /. Amer. Chem. Soc, 43, 348 (1921). 

Knowles (and others) : Ind. Med. Gaz., 58, 151 (1923)- 

Laidlaw, Dobell and Bishop : Parasitology, 20, 207 (1928). 

Low: S.M./., ii, 715 (1915)- 

(reported by Pyman) : /. Chem. Soc, 113, 222 (1918)- 

Rohde : Zentr. Chir., 2134 ; Deut. med. Woch., 53, 352 (1927). 

Rosenheim, M. L. : Lancet, i, 1032 (1935). 

Schulemann : Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 25, 897 (1932)- 

Wenyon and O'Connor : /. Roy. Army Med. Corps, 28, 473 (1917)- 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY. 



THE PLEISTOCENE HISTORY OF 
THE WEST MIDLANDS 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. LEONARD J. WILLS, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Before I turn to the substance of my Address, I feel that I must avail my- 
self of my privilege as a president to wander from my subject, and speak 
briefly of a matter that is very much in my mind. I refer to the recruiting 
of the amateur geologist and to the training required to fit him to under- 
take original research. As a field of activity for the amateur, geology is 
unique among the sciences ; for its laboratory is the countryside, and 
the equipment required for many sections of the subject is simple and 
inexpensive. 

When we ponder over the wonderful foundations that were laid in all 
the principal branches by the early workers who were nearly all amateurs, 
and when we consider the value of research still in progress or recently 
completed by present-day enthusiasts, such for example as Cobbold, 
Wickham King, Green or Bisat, it would be a thousand pities were the 
species to be added to our list of extinct monsters. Yet I think it will be 
agreed that, whereas the number of professionals is perhaps increasing, 
there is a dearth of men and women who are at once capable of research 
and ready to undertake it in their spare time and on their holidays. 

First, as to the recruitment of amateurs : some are caught young, others 
are driven to it, may be, by unemployment ; but the underlying reason 
for taking up the subject is usually found to be the same, namely that the 
man has been attracted in the first place by the broader interests of the 
science, such as its explanation of scenery, its interrelation to man's 
activities, its view of Time, its evidences of how life has proceeded in the 
past, and its lessons for the future. The fact that geology is a science 
that can be pursued out-of-doors is also undoubtedly an additional 
attraction. 

Having found our recruit, he has to undergo training before he can be 
of real value as an observer, recorder and interpreter. The most essential 
thing is that he should acquire a broad foundation of basic principles. 
Without this he will never have the vision to see how any specialisation he 
may later indulge in or any contribution he himself may make, falls into 



72 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

place as part of the whole edifice of the science. Without this also he 
may fail to recognise the distinction between the methods and the purpose 
of research. Yet this breadth of outlook is not easily come by. On the 
one hand, it involves the acquisition of a certain modicum of first-hand 
knowledge of minerals, rocks and fossils as entities, and as they occur in 
the field ; on the other hand, it demands wide reading. It is the diffi- 
culties of the latter that I wish to stress. At the very beginning the recruit 
is confronted by half a dozen or more aspects of the science — -petrology, 
palaeontology, tectonics, seismology, and so on — each a regular and com- 
plex study of its own, and yet all wanted for the proper understanding of 
the whole. The textbooks on each subject, in so far as they exist, have 
generally been designed for the use of the specialist rather than to show 
the beginner what place that branch occupies within the framework of 
our science. He is perhaps advised to supplement his textbook by reading 
recent papers. These he finds are in various languages and scattered 
through a number of journals that are rarely to be found in any ordinary 
library. Though it is no doubt salutary for a man at an early stage to go 
to some of the original sources, there is a limit to the time available ; and 
we must also be sure that he can find the treasure we send him to look for 
among all the lumber it is hidden away with. 

It seems to me that one of the crying needs of the day is for up-to-date 
books on each aspect of geology. It has been said, I believe, that every 
textbook is out of date before it is printed. Certainly knowledge is always 
increasing and interpretation always changing ; but surely each of the 
sections of geology has now been sufficiently explored for the leaders in 
that particular branch to be able to distinguish and segregate the essen- 
tials, so far as we know them, and to present them with a reasoned digest 
of the evidence as the present-day outlook on the subject. Were this 
done, one of the greatest of the beginner's needs would be supplied, for 
he would have access to the main results so far achieved for that special 
science. Such books would be a boon not only for the beginners, but for 
the researchers and specialists in other branches, and I venture to predict 
for the workers in other sciences, and even for our friend the ' man-in- 
the-street.' 

The books I have in mind would not be the so-called ' popular intro- 
ductions to geology,' but small textbooks, each dealing with the attain- 
ments of some section of the subject and written in language that should 
be understandable by any intelligent person who has had a good school 
education. A natural and very necessary sequel would be attempts to 
correlate the results of all the branches, and to show how they unite to 
give an idea of the present state of geology as a whole. These would be 
general treatises written from various angles, and would therefore demon- 
strate the multiplicity of the lines of approach, the recognition of which 
might well induce a man to take an active part in some section who is at 
present daunted by the magnitude of the whole. 

Having unburdened myself of these remarks to which I have been 
impelled by a haunting fear that with the next generation we may no 
longer see men devoting themselves to our science for the love of it, I will 
turn to the main theme of my address, The Pleistocene History of the 



C— GEOLOGY 73 

West Midlands, a study which owes nearly all its data to the work of 
amateurs. I will name the most outstanding that all may know our 
indebtedness to them : Strickland, Lucy, Crosskey, F. W. Martin, Jerome 
Harrison, Mantle, Codrington, Deeley, Harmer, Gray, Linsdall Richard- 
son, Miss Tomlinson, and many others. 

For the purpose in hand I also want to record my appreciation of the 
work of many professionals, especially members of the Geological Survey, 
in particular Fox Strangways, Barrow, Gibson, and Cunnington, among the 
older workers, and Whitehead, Dixon and Dines among the present 
officers. 

A few years ago at the York meeting in 1932, we listened to Prof. Bos- 
well's wonderful synopsis of our knowledge of East Anglian Drifts, and 
his attempt at their correlation with others in various parts of the country. 
He would probably agree with me that perhaps the weakest links in his 
chain of evidence are those that connect the Midlands with other glaciated 
areas. Here, the drifts are very denuded and for the most part belong to 
the Older Series, the area is extensive, and despite a large number of rather 
disconnected investigations a clear view of the whole is lacking. In my 
attempt to rectify this deficiency, I have been forced, like my predecessors, 
to limit the size of the area in which I could acquire a real intimacy with 
the drifts. I have, however, drawn widely on published accounts of other 
districts. In addition, I have employed a new line of approach by studying 
the river deposits as an aid to the dating of the glacial drifts. Since much 
of the region was, perhaps for the greater part of the Pleistocene, outside 
the limits of the ice sheets, an understanding of the river development is 
essential to any interpretation of the history of events. 

What Boswell essayed for East Anglian glacials. King and Oakley have 
attempted for the Thames river deposits. The close correspondence 
between the movements of sea level suggested for the Thames and those 
which appear to have taken place in the Somme and the Severn, serves to 
reinforce the interpretation of the very complex evidence presented by the 
Thames which these authors have put forward. It encourages me also to 
feel some confidence in my reading of the Severn evidence. In the sequel 
I try to show how the river history helps to clear up the story of the 
glaciation of the Midlands. 

At this point I wish to insert a warning. Syntheses, such as Boswell's, 
and King and Oakley's, read so convincingly that beginners and even 
maturer students accept the conclusions, gladly but uncritically ; whereas 
the authors themselves are very conscious that their heroic attempts at a 
general theory are little better than a number of working hypotheses put 
up, like Aunt Sallies, for anyone to shy at. I, at any rate, regard this 
attempt of mine in that light. 



The Different Types of Drift and Their Distribution. 

The region I propose to deal with is bounded on the west by the north- 
south line of hills from the Glees in Shropshire to Malvern ; on the south 
by the Cotteswold escarpment ; and on the east by the watershed 

' D 2 



74 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



surrounding the headwaters of the Avon (Fig. i). Its northern limit may 
be defined by a line from Iron Bridge to Wolverhampton, Lichfield, Tam- 
worth, Nuneaton, Rugby. Within these boundaries there are the two 
great vales of Severn and Avon embracing on the west, south and east a 
triangular plateau drained by the Cole, Blythe and Tame which carry its 
waters away northwards to the Trent. In this ' Midland Plateau ' is the 
high ground of the South Staffordshire Coalfield reaching via the Lickey 
Hills into East Worcestershire and West Warwickshire, and into the 
high ground of the East Warwickshire Coalfield : the lower ground of 




Fig. I. — Outline map of the Midlands with (3) the supposed pre-Glacial courses 
of the Severn and Avon, (i) the present watershed of England, (2) the 
pre-Glacial watershed from the Longmynd through Iron Bridge and 
Oakengates to Wolverhampton, (4) Ground above 400 O.D. 

the Cole and Blythe valleys between these heights is itself elevated — an 
upland rather than a vale. 

The greatest anomaly in the topography is the valley of the Severn which 
is cut, first as a gorge through what should be a major watershed at Iron 
Bridge, and later as a sort of groove along the west side of the great vale- 
like depression whose centre-line lies a few miles to the east. It is prob- 



C— GEOLOGY 75 

able that in pre-Glacial times the upper Severn went to the Irish Sea, that 
the watershed of England separated it at Iron Bridge from the middle and 
lower Severn, which then had its source where now the Worfe rises. 
From here, as indicated diagrammatically on Fig. i, it may have followed 
the line of the great depression now occupied by the valleys of the Worfe 
and Claverley Brook, the Lower Stour, the Elmley Brook and Salwarpe, 
and the Bow and Piddle Brooks. 

In throwing our minds back to this distant period, however, it is essen- 
tial to remember that a study of the sub-drift surfaces and of the river 
terraces makes it abundantly clear that the whole river system of the 
Severn and Avon was then at a considerably higher level than it is to-day, 
though naturally the differences in level between the present and the pre- 
Glacial valley-floors decreases almost to the vanishing-point as the water- 
sheds are approached. These relationships do not obtain, at any rate on 
the same scale, in neighbouring drainage basins, particularly in those 
draining to the Humber and Wash. The difference in behaviour is in 
my opinion due primarily to the fact that the Severn and Avon were, all 
through the Glacial period, principal lines of drainage from the ice front, 
and in the later stages also received from the Upper Severn water that 
should have gone to the Dee and Mersey. Thus they carried far more 
water then than they did in pre-Glacial times and than they do to-day. 
The overdeepening of their valleys is more the outcome of increased 
volume than of increased velocity due to elevation. This hypothesis 
explains the differences between the Severn and the other rivers without 
having to invoke differential uplift. 

A thorough appreciation of the vast extent to which erosion has gone 
on, and of the enormous length of time involved at once helps us to under- 
stand the apparently anomalous distribution of Glacial drifts in this region, 
in which, as a rule, the vales and lower ground are free from Glacial 
deposits, whereas the higher country and the watershed areas are exten- 
sively and often heavily drift-covered — a disposition that is the exact 
converse of the usual arrangement in a glaciated region. I shall attempt 
to show in the sequel that the drifts formerly extended beyond the regions 
where they now form large outcrops and that their absence from an area 
need not be taken as an indication that it was never under ice. 

It is advisable that at this point a brief statement be made of the geo- 
graphical distribution of the areas that may be termed drift-covered. In 
some cases the Glacial deposits are thick and continuous, in others they 
may be more scattered and are often thinly developed. The term ' drift- 
covered ' is nevertheless appropriate when comparison is made with the 
rest of the region which can fitly be called ' drift-free,' though here again 
the description is not literally true. The drift-covered areas may be 
grouped in relation to the major watersheds, as follows : 

I. Watershed between the Tern and Penk on the north and the Severn, 
Worfe and Smestow on the south, and between the Penk and the 
Shenstone Brook. This area extends over high ground from the 
Wrekin towards Wolverhampton, and thence north-east towards 
Cannock Chase. It also covers lower ground in the Worfe basin 



76 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

and at the head of the Smestow Brook. Towards the north-west it 
is continuous with the heavily drift-covered plain of North Shrop- 
shire. 

2. Watershed between the Tame on the north and the Penk, Severn and 
Avon. This contains most of the Midland Plateau, as defined above 

(P- 74)- 

3. The watersheds between the Avon, Anker and Soar. This area 

extends over comparatively low ground from the Leicestershire 
Coalfield and Charnwood past Market Bosworth and Hinckley to 
Coventry and Rugby. 




Fig. 2. — The Spheres of Influence of the glaciers that invaded the Midlands : — 
1. Little Welsh glacier or ' Welsh Re-advance ' ; 2. Main Irish Sea glacier; 
3. Stratford Stage of, and 4, Supposed maximum of Great Eastern glacier ; 
5. Maximum of First Welsh glacier ; 6. Possible southern limits of a very 
early Eastern glacier. 

Each of these three areas is characterised by a particular type of drift 
(Fig. 2). Yet each type is by no means confined to one district, but as a 
rule has had a wider distribution, evidence for which may in some cases 
be found in the intervening vales (Fig. 3). 

In the first or north-westerly district the drifts belong, perhaps exclu- 
sively, to the Main Irish Sea glaciation. They are full of Scottish and 



C— GEOLOGY 



77 



Lake District erratics, and contain fragments of shells picked up from the 
floor of the Irish Sea. In addition, there is material from Wales, but this 
for the most part has probably been incorporated from the deposits of 
earlier glaciations. There seems very little evidence of such older deposits 
still in their original positions, though the Survey record Irish Sea drifts 
at very different heights within a small area of the Trent valley south and 
east of Stone, and again on and near Cannock Chase. At Wombourne 
too, red boulder clay without Irish Sea material and with solifluxion 
contortions may belong to an older series. 






1 
z 

3 

4 



Fig. 3. — Directions of ice-flow deduced from the distribution of Midland erratics, 
i.e. excluding all far-travelled erratics. Cr., Croft Granophyre ; Mt. S., Mount 
Sorrel Granite. In the south-west corner, i, 2, first and second stages of the 
First Welsh maximum ; 3, the Woolridge Terrace rivers of Leadon and 
Severn valleys. 

The Irish Sea glacier advanced inland counter to the drainage, and in 
our district surmounted the watershed and spread a short distance down 
the valleys of the Severn, Worfe, and Smestow on the south, and entered 
the valleys draining eastwards to the Tame and even advanced some way 
down the Main Trent valley (Fig. 2). Its drifts reach to 800 CD. at 
Castle Ring on the east side of Cannock Chase. 



78 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

It is significant that its deposits occur on the watersheds, and at the 
same time reach into the valleys. 

The southern limit of the Main Irish Sea drifts is shown on Fig. 2. It 
is generally marked by a great concentration of boulders. In some places 
they are so numerous that all the garden walls in a hamlet may be built of 
Scottish and Lake District granites. Most of the line between Bridgnorth 
and Walsall on Fig. 2 is to appear on the forthcoming Dudley sheet of the 
Geological Survey. I have the Director's permission and Mr. White- 
head's consent to publish it. It was traced partly by myself, but chiefly 
by Mr. Whitehead, to whom I am indebted for much help in this and other 
matters. The continuation east of Walsall is based on earlier work by 
the late F. W. Martin, H. G. Mantle and others. As shown by the alter- 
native lines on Fig. 2, there is considerable doubt here as to the exact 
limits. The same is true in the Trent and Shenstone valleys. 

It is now generally accepted that we can divide our British Glacial 
deposits into ' Older ' and ' Newer Drifts.' The Newer can be recognised 
by reason of the freshness and unaltered state of their surface features 
which exhibit clearly original forms like kames, asar, kettle-moraine, 
moraine-lakes, and so on. Their obvious influence on, and relation to, 
the present drainage is another characteristic feature. On both these 
counts, the Irish Sea Drifts of this north-western area must be regarded 
as part of the Newer Drifts. Outside the line marking their limits the 
rest of the Midlands belongs to the realm of the Older series, and has 
remained extra-glacial since the time of the deposition of the latter. As 
might be expected under these circumstances, the Irish Sea Drifts have 
not undergone the extensive denudation to which the rest of the region has 
been subjected. 

It is fortunate that the Irish Sea Glacier brought with it a great influx 
of Scottish and Lake District erratics, for such vast numbers of them 
found their way into the Severn via the Worfe and Smestow as to give a 
characteristic lithology to the Main and Worcester Terraces, by which they 
can be recognised with certainty as later than the terraces which belong to 
the time of the ' Older Drifts.' In the latter such rocks are conspicuous 
by their absence. 

The other two districts belong to the domain of the ' Older Drifts.' 
We may consider next the eastern area. Here the most characteristic 
drift is the Chalky Boulder Clay and its associated flinty gravels and sands. 
Though there are other drifts present, these deposits are proved by super- 
position to be the most recent. As is well known, the Chalky Boulder 
Clay was the product of a mighty ice sheet to which Harmer gave the title 
of the Great Eastern Glacier. In addition to chalk and flints, it always 
contains much Jurassic material which varies with the outcrops over which 
the ice had passed. The distribution of boulders of Charnwood and 
Leicestershire igneous rocks and of Jurassic erratics shown on Fig. 3 
allows us to trace the trend of its movements. 

The limits of the Great Eastern Glacier are indicated on Fig. 2. In 
the main area, which is that lying east of the Tame and lower Anker, and 
round Nuneaton, Coventry and Rugby, the drifts are the westward con- 



C— GEOLOGY 79 

tinuation of the great spreads of Rutland and Northamptonshire so clearly 
delineated on Harmer's famous map of English Erratics. From the Soar 
and Anker valleys there is an extension into the Trent valley which is 
overlapped by the sphere of the Irish Sea glaciation. More evidence is 
required here before a boundary can be drawn with certainty, but it seems 
probable that the Eastern ice extended across Needwood Forest. South- 
wards, the ' Main Eastern ' drifts (of Miss Tomlinson) near Stratford-on- 
Avon appear also to belong to the Chalky Boulder Clay Series. The same 
is true of the ' Moreton Drift ' of the same author, though this can only 
be linked with those of Stratford by a series of hill-top occurrences in the 
otherwise drift-free vale of Avon. 



In the last of our three drift-covered areas, the Midland Plateau, it is 
not easy to generalise about the distribution, composition and origin of 
the drifts. Often they consist of 10-20 feet of pebbly clay, sands and 
coarse gravel, but there are several districts where far thicker deposits 
occur. In such cases the drifts may be sometimes sand and gravel, as, for 
example, at Moxley near Wednesbury, Bustleholm near West Bromwich, 
Moseley, in the Cole valley, at Rowney Green near Alvechurch, near Barnt 
Green, at Wildmoor east of Belbroughton, and near Kingswinford. At 
Moxley and Kingswinford the sands lie in channels. At other places 
boulder clays come in in force, as at the new Hospital Centre at Edgbaston, 
where there are three boulder clays with intervening sands and bedded 
silts ; California, where the general section is pebbly drift on thick ' india- 
rubber clays ' (probably lake deposits) which in turn overlie coarse sands 
and gravel and a lower stony boulder clay ; Lower Frankley where Cross- 
key first proved high level (800 O.D.) glacial clay with Welsh erratics ; 
and Blackwell where typical stony till is at least 25 feet thick. Except the 
California ' indiarubber clay ' all these boulder clays appear to be true 
ground-moraine. 

Farther south most of the Warwickshire Plateau has a covering of 
clayey gravel, sand and sometimes coarse gravel. The high-level drifts 
of the Ridgeway and of the hill-tops of Worcestershire are chiefly sands 
and gravels, ' fringe ' deposits as Jerome Harrison termed them, implying 
that they were mainly periglacial in origin. On the Ridgeway there are 
also areas of clayey ground-moraine. 

The composition of the drifts varies somewhat, but they always include 
a great deal of Bunter material, both pebbles from the Middle Bunter and 
quartz grains from the sandstones. Next perhaps in number are erratics 
from the coalfields and from the Wrekin area (see Fig. 3). North Welsh 
rocks are often common, many coming from the Berwyns and the Den- 
bighshire Silurian country. Large boulders of Arenig (and ? Aran) origin 
are common in the district stretching from Walsall through Birmingham 
and Harborne, and over the Lickeys and Frankley to Bromsgrove. North 
Welsh material is therefore the most striking of the common far-travelled 
erratics, and for this reason it is appropriate to term these deposits the 
Welsh Drifts. To them, however, an Irish Sea Glacier contributed 
Scottish and Lake District erratics on an exiguous scale. The map 



8o 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



(Fig. 4) gives an indication of where these few wanderers have been met 
with. We may perhaps infer from their distribution that they belong to 
a later stage in the glaciation than that which was responsible for the more 
southerly Welsh Drifts, these being devoid of the Northern elements. 
It is important to realise that various lines of evidence point to the fact 
that it was not the Main Irish Sea Glacier, but an earlier one that intro- 
duced these few boulders. 



v^/; 




V B i 




«^e^ 




^x^ 




^ h7\ 








w >ov 


/ r^. 


A\ 


r 


^ 


«S*° 



..'X- 




l.'^-" 





- ScoIa of MtUs - 



J 


1 


00 eo. 
00 o<> 


5 










Wl^ 


z 


* * 
* * 


6 










\y 


3 


^ 


7 












4 


m 


8 


p 


>• 


striae 





Fig. 4. — Distribution of Drifts : — 

(i) Welsh Re-advance maximum ; (2) Main Irish Sea maximum ; (3) Welsh 
maximum ; (4) Older Drifts, Welsh and local ; (5) Older Drifts with Pennine 
boulders ; (6) Irish Sea boulders (rare) in older drifts. Those in the Salwarpe 
valley may be water-borne ; those in the Main and Worcester Terraces are 
omitted ; (7) Very ancient boulder clay with north-eastern erratics and 
overlain by ? Interglacial sands and gravels ; (8) Interglacial gravels, ' Jurassic 
gravels ' and ' Ditchford gravels.' 

The deposits of the Great Eastern glacier omitted. 

Owing to its position between the spheres of influence of the Irish Sea 
and the Great Eastern glaciers this central area with predominantly 
Welsh drifts offers borderline cases where it is difficult to decide to 
which glaciation a particular deposit belongs. The Kingswinford Esker 
described by Boulton, and the gravels with many northern boulders at 



C— GEOLOGY 8 1 

Maney near Sutton Coldfield provide two examples where it is a question 
of distinguishing between a Main Irish Sea and a Welsh origin ; whereas 
the drifts of the Ridgeway in East Worcestershire seem to be compounded 
of Welsh and Eastern elements. This long ridge, ranging in height 
from 550 CD. in the north to 350 CD. in the south, bounds the Arrow 
valley on the west. It is capped for a distance of 11 or 12 miles from 
near Blackwell to 3 miles south-west of Alcester by a narrow outcrop 
of sands, gravels and boulder clays. In its northern part a few Irish Sea 
erratics occur in the clay, but farther south there have been found at 
Crabbs Cross an Oxford Clay ammonite {Gulielmiceras) ; and at Weethley 
flints and a Leicestershire granophyre, all indicating that some of its 
material came from the north-east. As the Ridgeway lies outside the 
region of those well-developed Eastern drifts, whose distribution in the 
Avon valley has been described by Dr. Tomlinson in 1935, two explana- 
tions appear possible. Either its eastern elements are relics of a very 
early Eastern glaciation or they provide a record of a temporary advance 
of the Main Eastern glacier down the Avon, perhaps as far as Tewkesbury, 
during which a side-lobe was thrust up the Arrow valley. Other evidence 
in favour of this latter view is the presence of flint-bearing deposits 
resembling boulder clay at Harvington (Tomlinson), at Evesham (Dines), 
at Besford, and on top of the Bushley Green Terrace deposits at Bushley 
and Apperley near Tewkesbury. For these reasons I have on Fig. 2 
adopted the latter explanation, though I realise the slender nature of 
the evidence. 

Over much of that part of the Warwickshire-Staffordshire Plateau 
which is drained by the upper waters of the Tame, Cole and Blythe, the 
mantle of drift is comparatively intact, and frequently forms the valley 
floors ; but on the Severn- Avon side of the watershed of England it becomes 
very ragged, projecting outwards as promontories or forming outliers on 
the highest hills (Figs, i and 4). As we go towards the Severn and Avon 
these outliers become less frequent and usually smaller, and in some cases 
a mere skin of pebbles is all that remains. Doubtless the large isolated 
boulders sometimes met with in otherwise drift-free areas, represent the 
final fate of such high level drifts. 

That the highest points are surmounted by drift is so far a rule that one 
is forced to view the capping as remnants of a more or less continuous 
sheet which once stretched far into the vales of Severn and Avon. Here 
it has in most places been completely destroyed. Evidence of its presence 
must be sought for on the hill-tops and not in the valleys, all of which in 
their present state are younger than the glaciation. This statement 
perhaps needs qualification, for fluvio-glacial deposits occur at fairly low 
levels near the Piddle Brook and in the Salwarpe and Stour valleys. 
These, however, appear to belong to the waning phases of the glaciers 
when the lower parts of the vales, freed from ice, had become subjected 
to river erosion. The new valley floors thus formed then received 
deposits from the glaciers which still occupied the country further 
north. 

It is, I think, fair to conclude that the ice sheets at their maxima occu- 
pied the vales, and that these were far shallower then than now. This 



82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

hypothesis sounds very speculative, but there are some remarkable pieces 
of evidence in its favour. 

1. Near Gloucester and adjacent to the rivers Severn and Leadon, 
coarse gravels, probably fluvio-glacial in origin, cap hills at about 
200-280 O.D., the present valley floor being about 25 O.D. 

2. Three drift-capped hills, Dripshill {ca. 240 O.D.) between Worcester 
and Upton, and Leopards Grange (320 O.D.) and Crookbarrow 
(280 O.D.), both near Worcester, are all quite close to the river 
which floods at about 40 O.D. Sands occur at 200 O.D. near 
Peachley north-west of Worcester. In the Salwarpe basin near 
Elmbridge boulder clay caps the hill at 231 O.D. This is in the 
pre-Glacial depression referred to above as lying east of the present 
Severn valley. 

3. In the Avon vale supposed Welsh drift occurs at Wolford (ca. 350 
O.D.), and at the Campden Tunnel (520 O.D.),^ both near 
Moreton-in-the-Marsh. In the same district, as already mentioned, 
the Moreton Chalky drifts lie at a level of 449 O.D. and actually 
form the water-shed between the Thames and Avon. All these 
occurrences are on the south side of the vale, and are only con- 
nected with the South Warwickshire. Plateau by a few hill-top 
outliers, such as Idlecote Hill (435 O.D.), Long Hill near Loxley 
at 415 O.D., and the hill-tops at 415 and 446 O.D. near Eatington. 

Welcombe Hill (350 O.D.) and Cracombe Hill (377 O.D.), both 
capped by thick drift, are close to the Avon, which is about 125 O.D. 
and 70 O.D. in their respective neighbourhoods. 

These facts tend to show that at the time of the glaciation the valley 
floor was much higher than now. 

4. On the south-west slopes of the Clent-Lickey range, there are at 
Money Lane, Wildmoor, sixty feet of horizontally bedded sands 
capped by thirty feet of horizontal coarse bouldery gravels which reach 
to about 730 O.D., the whole banked against a steep slope of Bunter. 
Similar confirmatory sections can be seen near-by and also at Combe 
Hill, Barnt Green. It seems impossible for such horizontally 
bedded sands to have originated except in a lake, and equally im- 
possible for a lake to be held up in this position except by means 
of a large glacier in the lower ground to the west. Out in this 
direction there are a number of hills near Bromsgrove, Chaddesley 
and Belbroughton, the drift capping on which proves that they, 
too, were once under the ice sheet. Here it varies in height from 
350 to 519 O.D. 

5. The great sand mounds of the Stour valley and the sands and gravels 
at high levels near Churchill seem to demand a large lobe of ice to 
account for their presence there ; and the composition of these 
drifts, which are practically free from northern erratics, makes it 
clear that they are unconnected with the Main Irish Sea glaciation. 

* The ' Campden Tunnel Drift ' as now exposed above the Tunnel contains 
north-eastern elements. 



C— GEOLOGY 



83 



6. The presence of a great lobe of ice down the Stour and down the 
depression (referred to above), east of the present Severn gorge, 
could supply a reason for the anomalous way in which the River 
Severn selects the high Palaeozoic ground in preference to the wide 
Triassic depression ; for the river might have taken this course 
when it consisted of the marginal drainage off the west side of 
the glacier. As such it might have cut a large marginal channel 
which on account of its depth was permanently retained in later times. 

The River Terraces as Evidence of the Stages in the Erosion. 

If we are right in claiming a former far wider distribution of the drifts 
than the areas where they now occur in force, the river valleys should 
provide a great deal of evidence concerning the way in which their de- 
struction has been brought about. In the present case this is certainly so ; 
for we have in the Severn and its tributaries a wonderfully developed 
system of river terraces and of deposits that originated under the rigorous 
conditions of glacial climates, the so-called taele gravels and meh- water 
flood gravels. A study of these has thrown much light on our problem. 

The farther we go from the plateau and from the drift-covered ground 
on its north-west and eastern sides the greater the number of high level 
terraces. In some cases the geographical distribution and the lithological 
composition enable us to relate a terrace to a particular set of glacial 
deposits. 

Table 







Height at 


Upstream limit 


Compo- 


Severn 


Avon 2 


mouth of 










Severn ^ 
? about 200 


Severn 


Avon 


OlLlWil 


Woolridge 




Tewkesbury 





B, PW.M,* 






O.D. 






a few F 


Bushley 


No. 5 


110/75 O.D. 


Tewkesbury 


Stratford ' Do. 

] 


Green 










Kidder- 


No. 4 


65/35 O.D. 


Bewdley 


Stone- Do. 


minster 






(goes up 
Stour) 


leigh near 
Kenil- 
worth 


Main 


Nos.2 & ?3 


35?/i5? O.D. 


Coalport 


Church ; Do. and S 








(goes up 


Lawford 










Worfe) 


near 
Rugby 




Worcester 


? No. I 


?-25 O.D. 


Shrewsbury 


? 


Do., Do. 



* Miss Tomlinson's nomenclature. * Height of top/height of base. 

* B, Bunter Pebbles ; W, Welsh ; F, Flints ; M, Malvernian ; S, Scottish and 
Lake District. 



84 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The table illustrates this (see also Fig. 5) and makes it clear that : (i) the 
highest or Woolridge Terrace is only recognizable below Tewkesburj'. 
(2) The next or Bushley Green Terrace goes up the Avon as Avon No. 5 
to Stratford, and ends just where the Main Eastern glacials begin to appear 
in force. (3) The next, the Kidderminster Terrace or Avon No. 4, is met 
with throughout the area, but it leaves the Severn to go up the Stour and 
not up the Bridgnorth and Iron Bridge gorges ; (4) the Main (Avon No. 2) 
is met with in the Avon throughout our area, and in the Severn it reaches 
to the Iron Bridge gorge and into the Worfe valley. Here, as already 
pointed out, it clearly ties on to Irish Sea glacial deposits. It is also 
recognised in all the tributaries, and by its distribution and relation to 
the taele gravels, reinforces the arguments that have already been used 
to show that the north-western section of the region was the only part 
under ice during the time of the Newer Drifts. (5) The Worcester 
Terrace is poorly developed up the Avon, but extends up the Severn from 
near Tewkesbury through the Iron Bridge gorge to Shrewsbury where it 
appears to link on with the Welsh Re-advance. Its distribution shows 
that the Iron Bridge gorge was then functioning, but at a height of about 
sixty feet above the present level. 

I have elsewhere discussed the extremely ambiguous evidence bearing 
on the question whether there was an interglacial episode between the 
time of the Main and Worcester Terraces, without being able to obtain an 
assured answer. On the other hand, the fauna of Avon No. 4 is a warm 
climate one, which makes it probable that both it and its correlative, the 
Kidderminster Terrace, are interglacial. The position of Avon No. 4 
Terrace below Avon No. 5 which connects with the Great Eastern 
glaciation, and above the terraces, Avon No. 2 and ? No. 3, which 
correlate with the Main Terrace of the Severn and so with the Irish 
Sea glaciation, forces us to conclude that these two glaciations were not 
contemporaneous . 

Various lines of evidence converge therefore towards the following 
conclusion : that the Bushley Green- Avon No. 5 Terrace and the still 
higher Woolridge Terrace are to be correlated with the ' Older Drifts ' ; 
that the Main, the Worcester, and Avon No. 2, and possibly Avon No. 3, 
Terraces, belong to the ' Newer Drifts ' ; and that the Kidderminster- 
Avon No. 4 Terrace records the intervening * Great Interglacial.' The 
question whether the older drifts of the Midlands bridge more than one 
glacial epoch is dealt with in the sequel. 

The Older Drifts. 

The most outstanding problem is that of the Older Drifts. It may 
be a long time before a correct solution of this is achieved. At the 
moment I can offer only a brief synthesis of the results obtained by other 
workers compounded with ideas that I have accumulated during my 
study of the drifts of the Western Midlands. Those of the Eastern 
Midlands I scarcely know ; but luckily some parts of that area have been 
carefully described by the Geological Survey (in particular by Fox 
Strangways, Gibson and Barrow), and there are illuminating accounts of 



C— GEOLOGY 8s 

some other parts by Deeley, Wilson, Beeby Thompson, Jerome Harrison 
and Shotton. 

The ' Older Drifts,' as already pointed out, are essentially either 
north-western (or Welsh) or north-eastern in composition. We may now 
examine them to determine whether they record more than one glacial 
epoch. For this purpose we can divide the region into two parts along a 
line running roughly from Derby — Lichfield — Tamworth — Coventry — 
Stratford-on-Avon to Moreton-in-the-Marsh. 

East of this line two distinct sets of glacial deposits can be recognised on 
lithological and stratigraphical grounds . The older of the two , as developed 
in the north, is of Pennine origin, and was carried by ice travelling from the 
north-west (Figs. 4, 5, and 3) ; but near Coventry and Rugby drift occupying 
an analogous position contains chalk and flints, and can be described 
as a sort of chalky boulder clay. Its apparent southerly limit is shown in 
Figs. 4, 7 and 2, 6- In the intermediate district little is known, but near 
Hinckley and perhaps also at Bedworth part of the older series consists 
of well-bedded, probably lacustrine deposits. The drifts on the Blythe- 
Avon watershed near Stratford-on-Avon, and the ' Campden Tunnel 
Drift ' near Moreton appear to be Welsh in origin. ^ They have both been 
regarded as probably older than the Great Eastern glacier (Tomlinson). 

Throughout all this eastern region the upper or more recent drift has 
been derived from the north-east and often consists of a true chalky 
boulder clay. It has generally and, I think, correctly been referred to the 
Great Eastern glaciation of Harmer. 

If we examine the map (Fig. 3) showing the distribution of glacial 
striae and of boulders of Midland origin in this eastern region, we note 
that the Pennine group travelled towards the south-east, whereas there is a 
great stream of Leicestershire rocks towards the south and south-west. 
These two directions are certainly an index of the movements of the older 
and more recent glaciers respectively. 

Between the lower and the upper boulder clays in the Hinckley-Cov- 
entry-Rugby district there is a persistent bed of gravel and sand. Some- 
what similar deposits, the Jurassic gravels of Miss Tomlinson, underlie 
the ' Main Eastern ' boulder clay of the Stratford area. The ' Ditchford ' 
or ' Paxton ' gravels of the Moreton district occupy an analogous position 
with respect to the chalky ' Moreton Drift ' (Tomlinson and Dines). 
See Fig. 4, g- In the Jurassic gravels near Stratford, a single tooth of 
an archaic form of Elephas antiquus has been found, which is suggestive 
of interglacial conditions. Near Coventry both cold and warm climate 
fossils have been recorded by Shotton. In view of the close association 
of these deposits with two glacial series, the presence in them of tundra 
and temperate fossils is not so contradictory as would at first sight appear, 
especially as we must allow that vast lengths of time may be represented 
by comparatively thin deposits in a watershed-area, like this, where the 
levels of the valley floors were not much altered either by erosion or 
deposition. 

* See, however, note on p. 82. 



86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

I consider that the facts in this eastern region support the idea of two 
distinct glaciations within the Older Drifts with interglacial conditions 
between them {First biter glacial). The question of how the lower, 
very ancient chalky boulder clays of Coventry and Rugby reached that 
district remains to be solved. 

West of the Derby-Moreton line the area of the Older Drifts is sharply 
limited on the north by the southern edge of the later Main Irish Sea 
glacials (Fig. 4), which has already been discussed. Except in the Lower 
Avon valley, the older drifts are here Welsh. The directions of ice-flow 
are shown on Fig. 3. 

The interpretation of these drifts is extremely difficult, partly because 
it is likely that if there have been two glaciations, they will be recorded 
by similar deposits which might occur each separately or both together 
on the same surface, and partly because of the great dissection and de- 
struction that they have undergone. Many of the deposits, too, are gravels 
and sands that belonged rather to outwash fans than to the ice sheet 
itself. On the other hand, we have, as already pointed out, the river 
terraces to help us, by providing a record of the progressive deepening of 
the valleys and of the contemporaneous opening up and development of 
new lines of drainage on surfaces, each of which appear to grade with one 
or other of the terraces, and which for this reason may be regarded as of 
approximately the same age as the terrace in question. 

One is bound to confess that any conclusions that can at present be 
drawn are very tentative. For this reason I hesitated about setting them 
out in black and white as diagram maps ; but I have decided to do so in 
order to make clear my present views. It is most essential, however, 
that the speculative nature of the maps (Figs. 3 and 5) be continually 
kept in mind. They attempt to express, diagrammatically, the general 
distribution of the ice and of the main drainage lines at successive stages 
in the melting of the glaciers, which I think can be deduced from the dis- 
tribution of the drifts, from their composition, and from their relation 
to the terrace history of the Severn and Avon. 

We may consider the Lower Avon and Lower Severn vales first. Here 
the highest deposit, namely the Woolridge Terrace, is developed between 
Tewkesbury and Gloucester, and up the Leadon valley at heights between 
200 and 285 O.D. I have elsewhere suggested that the Leadon valley 
deposits were laid down by water travelling west of the Malvern range 
and forced to take this course by the filling of the Severn vale by the 
Welsh ice, when at its maximum (Fig. 3, i). At this stage, too, the ice 
seems to have carried Welsh boulders to the Moreton-in-the-Marsh 
district and to have been responsible for certain very high level drifts 
in Worcestershire. For these reasons I picture it as stretching over the 
vales of Severn and Avon to the Cotteswold escarpment. A slight retreat 
(Fig. 3, 2) would have allowed outwash material to be laid down below 
Tewkesbury. Patches of this have survived at Woolridge (260 O.D.), 
Norton Hill (283 O.D.), and Corse Hill (250 O.D.). These and some 
other very high deposits such as those already referred to (p. 82) at 
Dripshill (240 O.D.), and Leopards Grange (320 O.D.), and at Cracombe 



C— GEOLOGY 87 

Hill (350-400 O.D.) and perhaps those on the Avon-Blythe watershed 
and in the Warwickshire Coalfield and those capping isolated high hills 
in the Avon vale, seem to belong to this early stage and to be the most 
likely equivalents of the lower boulder clays of the Upper Avon valley 
and of the Pennine drifts of the Trent, Soar, and Wreak valleys 

(Fig. 4, 5 and 7)- ^ . 

If we accept this view, it follows that the retreat of this First Welsh 

Glacier was connected with the ' first interglacial ' episode for which we 
have discussed the evidence in the Upper Avon valley. In the Lower 
Severn vale the Bushley Green Terrace, containing a temperate shell 
fauna and lying at a considerably lower level than the Woolridge Terrace, 
appears to belong to this time. The Bushley Green correlates with the 
Avon No. 5 Terrace of Miss Tomlinson, but for the following reasons I 
picture the latter as somewhat later in date though graded to about the 
same level : the Bushley Green Terrace deposits seem to be overlaid 
by eastern boulder clay, whereas Avon No. 5 near Evesham lies in a valley 
cut through eastern drifts, and is also clearly newer than the Ridgeway 
deposits in which there are eastern elements. I have already given 
reasons (p. 81) for believing that the eastern drifts referred to were 
laid down during a rather brief advance of the eastern ice to near Tewkes- 
bury (Fig. 2), and that a more considerable halt was made near Stratford — ■ 
as described by Miss Tomlinson. On this view the Bushley Green and 
Avon No. 5 Terraces cover the * first interglacial ' episode and the oncoming 
and maximum stage of the Great Eastern glacier in the Avon vale. 

What then of the rest of the region ? There are certain data and 
several lines of reasoning which in my opinion justify us in postulating 
the existence during the Great Eastern Glaciation of a Welsh ice sheet 
reaching across the Stour and Salwarpe valleys, and covering the Black 
Country, East Worcestershire and the Warwickshire Plateau (Fig. 5). 
There is, however, no clear-cut evidence to prove whether it was the 
shrunken First Welsh or, as I think more likely, a Second Welsh ice-sheet 
which, as the first interglacial epoch passed away, grew and invaded the 
northern part of the same region, incorporating to some extent in its 
deposits the drifts of the earlier advance. 

I will refer very briefly to some of the reasons for my view. First, 
in the region in question there are, as I have already mentioned, a certain 
number (perhaps 40 or 50 are known) of small Irish Sea erratics, in the 
form of Scotch and Lake District rocks, whereas none ^ are known in the 
deposits already allocated to the First Welsh glaciation. Their distribu- 
tion is shown on Fig. 4. 

Secondly, the deposits in some cases occupy valleys that seem to have 
been excavated below the levels of the oldest drift-sheet. For example, 
Miss Tomlinson has described evidence for what she refers to as a ' Welsh 
re-advance,' which brought a north-western ice-sheet into the Blythe 
valley after the deposition of the drifts of its southern watershed, and at 
the time of the Stratford stage of the Great Eastern glacier. 

° The Packwood and Rowington granite boulders are on the extreme limit of 
the Second Welsh Sheet as shown on Fig. 4. 



88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Thirdly, there is no obvious connection between the present topo- 
graphy and the First Welsh drifts, but in the case of the supposed Second 
Welsh drifts, it is possible to see cases where the present drainage seems 
to have been influenced by the glaciation, as for example the course of the 
Blythe, as described by Miss Tomlinson. Again, in the Cole valley 
sands and gravels referable to the Second Welsh glaciation prevent the 
Cole reaching the Tame near Birmingham and send it six miles to the 
east before it effects a confluence ; and in the Stour valley, as Mr. White- 
head has pointed out to me, the present course through the Bells Mill 
Gap in the Bunter Pebble Bed escarpment near Stourbridge can be 
explained by assuming an ice-dam across the original Stour valley at 
Hinksford. 

Finally, outwash material grades down into the valleys at levels which 
accord with terraces that are far younger than the Woolridge Terrace and 
therefore far younger than the First Welsh glaciation. One important 
spread runs east of the Severn from near Stoulton southwards through 
Wadborough and Besford to grade with Avon No. 5 Terrace, and there- 
fore perhaps to be regarded as comparable in date with the Great Eastern 
glaciation. Others follow the Salwarpe and Stour valleys, and are but 
little above the level of the Kidderminster Terrace which itself correlates 
approximately with the Second Interglacial epoch. 

Having stated some of the evidence for a Second Welsh ice-sheet in the 
Midlands contemporary with the Great Eastern glacier when the latter 
spread from the north-east into the Eastern Midlands and Avon vale, I 
caii only briefly refer to its retreat. This is illustrated diagrammatically 
on Fig. 5. 

The first position shown is indicated by a line with double offsets. This 
line conforms with Miss Tomlinson's maximum ' re-advance ' in the 
Blythe valley ; with the considerable development on the Ridgeway of 
drifts with both north-eastern and north-western erratics which may 
have owed their origin to the combined efforts of the two glaciers ; and 
with the gravels and sands of the Stoulton-Besford area which I have just 
referred to as grading to the same level as Avon No. 5 Terrace. As the 
two sheets withdrew, the drainage down the Avon was responsible for 
the formation of some parts of the same terrace. It appears necessary 
to imagine the Severn valley from Worcester downwards as having already 
been established, possibly as a marginal flow along the edge of the First 
Welsh Glacier. 

The second stage deserves more elaboration ; but this cannot yet be 
achieved, owing to want of data. The line indicated with three offsets 
must therefore be regarded as a composite representation of several that 
it would be necessary to draw in order to satisfy even the evidence we 
now possess. East of Birmingham the line represents a lobe in the Tame 
basin connecting near Tamworth with the Eastern ice of the Anker and 
Trent valleys. This disposition of the two sheets would enable us to 
account for the Blythe valley lake suggested in the Birmingham Memoir 
and described by Miss Tomlinson. It drained southwards by the Kings- 



C— GEOLOGY 



89 



wood Gap to the Alne valley during the Stratford stage of the Great 
Eastern Glacier (Tomlinson). 

Ice approximately in the position shown for this stage could also account 




Fig. 5. — Possible successive stages of retreat of the Second Welsh and of the 
Great Eastern glaciers. Horizontal ruling indicates glacial lakes ; one- 
barbed arrow, Bushley Green Terrace of Severn, and Wolvercote Terrace of 
Evenlode ; two-barbed arrows, Avon No. 5 Terrace ; three- and four-barbed 
arrows approximate to the Kidderminster Terrace. 

for the Cole valley lake, the Moseley gravels, and the barrier of sands 
which turn the river eastwards near Castle Bromwich. Fig. 5 also 



90 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

indicates a lake in the upper Rea valley, south-west of Birmingham. This 
expresses the hypothesis that certain clays, such as the ' india-rubber 
clay ' of California and the similar deposits at Parson's Hill, King's Norton, 
may have originated as lake clays when the Rea valley was obstructed by 
ice that impounded water up to about 550 O.D. 

The line further coincides to the south-west of Birmingham with the 
gravel deposits of Rowney Green near Alvechurch which may be regarded 
as marginal in origin. The lobe stretching southwards complies with 
the necessity for an extension into the lowlands of an ice-sheet that was 
mighty enough to overspread the high ground of the Black Country and 
the Lickey Hills. Drainage from this was carried away along the Sal- 
warpe into the Severn, and was responsible for part of the erosion of 
these valleys before the Kidderminster Terrace came to be formed. It 
will be noted that the overflow from the Blythe lake coupled with drainage 
from the retreating Eastern glacier produced similar erosion-eft'ects in the 
Avon valley before Avon No. 4 Terrace was laid down. 

Returning to the melting glacier, the next event seems to have been 
the splitting of the ice on the high ground of the Black Country. The 
lobe on the east may have been concerned with initiation of the peculiar 
drainage of the Shenstone valley which is being investigated both by 
Mr. Wilfred Bullows and by Mr. S. J. Martin (Fig. 5, line with four 
offsets). The lobe on the west I picture as occupying the low ground 
west of the coalfield and of the Clent-Lickey range as far south as the 
Salwarpe valley. It was this ice that held up the lake or lakes near Wild- 
moor and Barnt Green which have left their record in the horizontally 
bedded high-level sands and gravels of that district. 

As the ice shrank back the thick mounds of sand and gravel in the 
Stour vale and near the Churchill brook were deposited. These clearly 
antedate the Kidderminster Terrace and so fall into their correct position 
in the scheme. 

The final stage, indicated on Fig. 5 by a line with five offsets, was sug- 
gested to me by Mr. T. H. Whitehead. There is much evidence to justify 
the assumption that in pre-Glacial times the Stour flowed northwards as 
far as Hinksford, where it rounded the end of the then-unbroken Bunter 
Pebble Bed escarpment. Ice in the position shown on the map would, 
as already suggested (p. 88), have impounded a lake in the upper Stour 
valley, the overflow from which might have initiated the present gorge of 
the Stour through the Bells Mill Gap. The sands of the so-called Kings- 
winford Esker can be regarded as having originated in this lake. 

I am very grateful to Mr. Whitehead for allowing me to use this idea 
which he is setting out in the forthcoming memoir on the Dudley 
district ; though I am far from confident that he will agree with the date 
to which I assign the event. 

All the records of the further retreat of the Welsh ice sheet have been 
obliterated by the invasion of the later Main Irish Sea glacier. 

The evidence relating to the Older Drifts that we have been considering 
is scattered, difficult to interpret and usually ambiguous ; but nevertheless 
I feel some confidence in the correctness of the main features of its inter- 



C— GEOLOGY 91 

pretation, namely that there were two glaciations involved. In the first 
the ice movement was from North Wales and the Pennines towards the 
south-east : in the second there was a similar, but less powerful North- 
Welsh dispersion with some slight intermingling of Irish Sea material. 
Simultaneous with this, however, in the east and in the Avon valley was 
the Great Eastern glacier. 

By the end of the First Glacial epoch the general trend of the lowest 
parts of the Severn seem to have been established as marginal channels 
bordering the ice which lay thickest in the Salwarpe-Piddle Brook de- 
pression. The first and the second glaciations were probably separated 
by truly interglacial conditions (First Interglacial). 

The Second Glaciation came to an end in the Second or Great Inter- 
glacial epoch which intervened between the deposition of the Older and 
Newer Drifts. In the area under review we find at this stage that the 
present directions of the rivers had been determined, and that the valleys 
of those days can be recognised and their depths defined by the Kidder- 
minster-Avon No. 4 Terrace, and perhaps by the ' High Terrace ' with 
Hippopotamus in the Trent valley. There is, however, one exception to 
this statement. I refer to the Iron Bridge gorge. This section of the 
present river was non-existent at this time, and in its place was a high 
watershed. The diversion of the Upper Severn across this waterparting 
belongs to the story of the Newer Drifts. 

Newer Drifts. 
(a) The Main Irish Sea Glaciation. 

This address has already become so long that I can only refer in the very 
briefest way to the events that have occurred since the ' Great Interglacial.' 
I have already mentioned that the Newer Drifts in the Midlands were the 
product of the Alain Irish Sea Glacier, and I have attempted to define 
its maximum extent on Fig. 2. This glacier belonged to the Third 
Glaciation, 

The oncoming of this glacier seems to have coincided with the deepening 
of the Severn valley below the Kidderminster Terrace level, in preparation, 
as it were, for the great floods of sand and gravel that were fed into it as 
soon as the ice crossed the old watershed near Iron Bridge and at the head 
of the Worfe and Smestow valleys. These deposits are now the Main 
Terrace, correlatives of which are the Second Terrace of the Avon and 
probably the low terraces of the Trent and Tame. 

As the ice had been moving upstream in its invasion of the Dee and 
Mersey basins, it must have impounded the drainage during the advance, 
as we know it did later during the retreat ; but there seems to be no record 
of an overflow into the Severn catchment during this growth stage. Pos- 
sibly an overflow into the Trent may have existed during the advance ; 
but the whole story of the effect of this glaciation on the east-flowing 
drainage is at present very obscure, in fact, an interesting problem awaiting 
investigation. 

As the ice melted back from the maximum position shown on Fig. 6, a 
series of important drainage changes took place. First, at an early stage 



92 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



when the ice still covered the watershed at Iron Bridge and at the head of 
the Worfe, but had melted back enough to expose the upper Penk valley, 
a small lake was impounded just north of Wolverhampton which flowed 
out south-westwards over the watershed near Tettenhall, forming the 
Tettenhall Gap. This overflow was responsible for the great train of 
gravels full of Irish Sea erratics that follows the Smestow Brook down into 
the Stour. 

Dixon has traced various ice fronts trending in a general north-easterly 
direction across the country between the Penk and Newport, Salop. 
These are marked by terminal kames and by beaded asar. 




► C/ac/ai J»-a.('n.aje Lines 

DdAfit— Irtfyi Ib/xo/r i\M/rs "exji and WULS. 



I c e-SCa nds 



Fig. 6. — The retreat phenomena of the Main Irish Sea Glacier. 

The Worfe valley was an important line of drainage from the ice front 
until the latter came to lie on the north side of the watershed. In this 
position a lake was impounded near Newport, and Dixon has shown that 
this drained across the watershed at Gnosall into the Church Eaton brook 
and so into the Trent. He named it Lake Newport. 

I have elsewhere described the detailed evidence relating to the way in 
which the waters of the Upper Severn came to be diverted through the 
Iron Bridge gorge into the drainage basin of the present Middle and 
Lower Severn. This diversion was brought about during the melting 
back of the Main Irish Sea glacier on the watershed region near the 
Wrekin, through the development of a system of marginal channels and 
glacial lakes. The detailed evidence substantiates a hypothesis suggested 



C— GEOLOGY 



93 



independently by both Lapworth and Harmer, the main feature of which 
was that a lake was held up by the ice sheet on the north-west side of the 
pre-Glacial watershed at Iron Bridge ; and that this lake drained away 
across the divide, and thus initiated a gorge that became so deep that it 
has permanently retained the Upper Severn drainage which formerly went 
out to sea either by the Dee or by the Mersey. This lake I named Lake 
Buildwas (Fig. 6). 

At this stage then there were two lakes, Buildwas and Newport, on the 
north-west side of the watershed, one draining to the Trent and one to 
the Middle Severn. They were separated by the ice where it impinged 
on the Wrekin. When the glacier melted back further and allowed the 
lakes to join and form ' Lake Lapworth,' so nearly at the same level were 
the outlets, that it was a mere matter of chance that the Upper Severn went 
permanently to the Bristol Channel and not to the Humber. As it hap- 
pened, the Iron Bridge outlet was, or at any rate soon became, the lower. 
It took all the discharge and has retained it ever since. This implies that 
when the ice left Cheshire, the drifts of the Cheshire plain formed across 
the old pre-Glacial valley a barrier that was higher than the Iron Bridge 
outlet at the time. It seems likely, therefore, that Lake Lapworth had by 
then been lowered considerably by the partial destruction of the rock sill 
at Iron Bridge. 

These glacial accidents have been the factors that have determined 
much of the geography of the Midlands ; for they diverted into the rela- 
tively small pre-Glacial catchment basin of the Lower and Middle Severn 
great volumes of water which have rejuvenated the river, especially in its 
middle reaches, on a stupendous scale. The rejuvenation is still operative 
and can be seen to-day in the erosive activity of every tributary of the 
Middle Severn. The relationship of the Main Terrace and its correlatives 
in the Avon and Trent to the present valley-floor also displays in a striking 
way the influence of the increased erosive activity on the shape of the 
valley. The low terraces of the Tame and Trent system which has had 
no rejuvenation of this type, rise a few feet above the alluvium and extend 
downwards below the valley floor ; the surface of the Second Terrace in 
the Avon keeps parallel to the present flood plain, but some 20-30 feet 
above it. Here the rejuvenation has been slightly felt. On the other 
hand, in the Severn valley the present floor lies 20-30 feet below the Main 
Terrace at Tewkesbury, but 100 feet below it at Bridgnorth. In fact, 
from Worcester upstream the Severn is increasingly incised, and its 
tributaries, the Salwarpe, the Stour and the Worfe, join it in deep trenches. 

Climatic conditions during the Main Irish Sea glaciation were extremely 
severe. Solifluxion and melt- water floods were on a correspondingly 
grand scale in the periglacial region. There are vast spreads of local, 
often angular, detritus at the foot of the Cotteswold and Malvern Hills, 
and in the valleys draining the high ground of Enville and the Clent-Lickey 
range, which resulted from these conditions. Most of these grade down 
to the Main Terrace level in the adjacent valley, and may be correlated 
with that terrace and thus with the third glaciation ; though some seem to be 
still younger and to correlate with the Worcester Terrace and the Welsh 
Re-advance. 



94 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

(b) The Welsh Re-advance ' or Little Welsh Glaciation. 

The fourth and last glacier to reach our area was an extension of the 
Upper Severn valley-glacier down as far as Shrewsbury to which White- 
head has given the name Welsh Re-advance. There is strong evidence 
that the lowest of the important Severn Terraces, the Worcester Terrace, 
was being formed during this re-advance. It is the highest terrace to be 
recognised on both sides of the Iron Bridge gorge, and its level there shows 
that the gorge was then some 60 feet shallower than now. 

There is no conclusive evidence in the Midlands that the cold conditions 
of the Welsh Re-advance were anything but a climatic oscillation in the 
general amelioration that caused the gradual melting of the Irish Sea 
glacier. Whitehead in his account of the Shrewsbury district writes as if 
he considered that the Irish Sea ice-sheet possibly still existed not far to 
the north, when the Welsh Re-advance glacier was at its maximum. 
There is, however, some slight evidence for interglacial conditions in the 
Midlands during the time between the deposition of the Main and Wor- 
cester Terraces, which, taken in conjunction with evidence in other areas 
(particularly the sealing by Irish Sea boulder clay of Upper Palaeolithic 
caves in North Wales, and the upper boulder clay on the top of the Wrex- 
ham delta-terrace, now being investigated by Miss D. S. Coates), suggests 
the possibility that the Irish Sea ice sheet first withdrew completely and 
then re-invaded the northern part of its old domain simultaneously with 
the re-advance of the Upper Severn glacier. 

This problem is one among many relating to our glaciations that await 
solution, and yet can never be solved by work in one restricted area. The 
cry is always for accurate data in neighbouring areas. I close this address, 
as I began it, by an appeal for amateurs who are willing to undertake con- 
scientiously and scientifically the recording and co-ordinating of every 
scrap of evidence in the district in which they live, whether it be a glacial 
or a periglacial one. If this were done so carefully that no temporary 
exposure escaped record, data would gradually, but I think quickly, accu- 
mulate by which some at least of the many outstanding problems of glacial 
correlation and interpretation would reach solution. 

' The map. Fig. 2, does not attempt to show the limits of this along the Welsh 
borderland, as worked out by Dwerryhouse and Miller and by Charlesv/orth, since 
they lie wholly outside the Midlands. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY. 



THE SEX RATIO 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. F. A. E. CREW, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Of the thousands of zoological papers that appear in the course of a year 
few surpass in interest the Statistical Review of the Registrar-General. 
Its pages are crowded with irresistible invitations to thought, and nowhere 
else can be encountered greater incentives to further inquiry through 
observation and experimentation. Its title and address do not disguise 
its real nature, for it deals with phenomena that are essentially zoological — 
with growth, multiplication, natality and mortality in an animal population, 
and with the results of the interplay of living animal and varying environ- 
ment. It is, in fact, a progress report of a vast and exciting zoological 
experiment which we are conducting, scientifically or otherwise, with 
ourselves as the experimental material. For this reason alone it commands 
the attention of the zoologist. 

But there is another and even more cogent reason why we should 
study this Review. Many of the data presented therein can be inter- 
preted correctly only by such as can bring to their examination knowledge 
derived from a comparative study of a number of different living forms. 
Much concerning man must remain incomprehensible until the answers 
to our questions are sought amongst the structures and behaviours of 
other and sometimes quite lowly animals. 

An excellent illustration of this contention is provided by the figures 
in this Review which relate to the human sex ratio. Nothing is 
easier than to demonstrate that for an understanding of the somewhat 
startling and certainly intriguing facts concerning the relative numerical 
proportions of the sexes in a human population we are inevitably forced 
to make a comparative survey of the sex ratio amongst other mammals, 
birds and insects, wild and domesticated, both in the open and under 
the controlled conditions of experimentation. In this matter of the sex 
ratio, to know only man is to understand nothing. 

This subject of the numerical proportions of the sexes in a population 
is of such obvious interest to the naturalist, the sociologist, the economist 
amongst others, that it is not surprising to find that to it considerable 
attention has been paid. But so complicated are the problems that cluster 
round it that even yet our understanding of the significance of the sex 
ratio is still very incomplete. It will be remembered that Darwin (1871), 
in discussing the influence of natural selection on the sex ratio, made the 



96 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

following observations : ' In no case, as far as we can see, would an 
inherited tendency to produce both sexes in equal numbers or to produce 
one sex in excess, be a direct advantage or disadvantage to certain indi- 
viduals more than to others . . . and therefore a tendency of this kind 
could not be gained through natural selection. Nevertheless there are 
certain animals in which two or more males appear to be necessary for 
the fertilisation of the female : and the males accordingly largely pre- 
dominate, but it is by no means obvious how this male-producing tendency 
could have been acquired. I formerly thought that when a tendency to 
produce the two sexes in equal numbers was an advantage to the species 
it would follow from natural selection, but I now see that the whole 
problem is so intricate that it is safer to leave its solution for the future.' 
I myself belong to a generation whose thoughts and actions have been 
largely moulded by Darwin's opinions and attitudes. It is but natural, 
therefore, impressed as I am by his greatness, that I should hesitate to 
assume that I might contribute towards the solution of a problem that 
Darwin himself set aside. But recent developments in cyto-genetics 
have removed many of the difficulties that surrounded this subject in 
Darwin's time and it is, I think, now possible to re-examine the problem 
more hopefully. I am encouraged in this view by the writings of Fisher 
(1930) who in presenting his concept of reproductive value logically 
maintains that the sex ratio adjusts itself under the influence of natural 
selection in such a way that the total parental expenditure incurred in 
respect of each sex is equal. Accepting this argument, I propose to 
attempt to uncover the mechanisms that may be concerned in such 
adjustment. 

From the pages of the Registrar-General's Report for igJS I have torn 
all the information that deals with the sex ratio. The abundant tables so 
completely detailed show that in that year in England and Wales for every 
100 girl babies born alive there were no fewer than 105-6 boys. Expressed 
diiTerently, the secondary sex ratio (the sex ratio that obtains amongst 
newly born infants) was 105 -6 : 100. 

During the same year the sex ratio for the babies who died during the 
yth-gth months of intra-uterine life was no: 100, being significantly 
higher than the secondary sex ratio. 

The population, being classified by the Registrar- General into 5-year 
age groups, and the sex ratio of each of these groups computed, it is 
revealed in the most striking fashion that the sex ratio becomes greatly 
altered as we pass from the younger to the older age groups. This swing 
is indeed remarkable, for a numerical preponderance of males amongst 
the earlier age groups gives place to a numerical equality of the sexes 
among the 15-19-year olds, whilst amongst the 20-24-year olds the 
females actually begin to outnumber the males ; and thereafter, as age 
group succeeds age group, this female numerical ascendancy progressively 
increases until, amongst the 85 's and over, there are more than twice as 
many women as men. 

This swing in the sex ratio from high to very low, is shown to be the 
result of a sexually selective mortality, for the mortality tables make it 
clear that at all ages relatively more males are removed from the popula- 



D.— ZOOLOGY 97 

tion by death ; amongst those aged 75 and over actually more females 
than males die for the very simple and obvious reason that amongst the in- 
dividuals of 75 and over awaiting death there are far more females than males. 

It would appear from these figures alone that to be born is a more 
dangerous adventure for the male than for the female, and that there is 
a sexually selective mortality which not only operates at all ages after 
birth to the disadvantage of the male, but which acts and possibly 
equally strongly pre-natally as well. The expectation of life at all ages 
is greater in the case of the female of the species, and the true recipe for 
longevity is to be born a girl. The political power of women in a demo- 
cracy such as ours, which pretends to disregard sex diflFerences, is much 
less than that which their numbers could command. 

A considerable number of other facts and observations concerning the 
human sex ratio and relevant to the present discussion are easily found 
in the abundant literature that deals with this particular subject. It is 
generally accepted, for example, that the sex ratio amongst abortuses is 
higher than that amongst still-births, and there is sufficient reason for 
holding the view that the sex ratio amongst abortuses of the earlier months 
of intra-uterine life is much higher than that amongst those of the later 
months. It has been shown that the secondary sex ratio is influenced 
by urbanisation, being lower in county boroughs than in rural areas. The 
secondary sex ratio would seem to be affected by' social upheavals. It is 
commonly held, for example, that in those countries directly engaged in the 
Great War the secondary sex ratio was high immediately following the 
cessation of hostilities and higher immediately after than immediately 
before the War ; neutral countries affected commercially by the War 
experiencing the same phenomenon, though not to the same extent. The 
secondary sex ratio is highest amongst the first-born, and declines with 
increasing size of family in a curvilinear manner. It is influenced by 
migration, the migrants having a higher or a lower secondary sex ratio 
than their relatives who remain in the homelands. Usually it is lower 
amongst illegitimates than amongst living children born in wedlock. 
As a rule it is lower amongst coloured people than amongst the whites 
amid whom they live. It is affected by social status, being higher in the 
upper and middle classes and lower amongst the unskilled workers. In 
places and in periods where infant mortality is high the ratio of boy deaths 
to girl deaths is low, and where there is a low rate of infant mortality the 
death rate of boys is relatively high. With the reduction of infant 
mortality that has occurred within recent years there has been a marked 
relative increase of boy deaths. The sex ratio at death amongst infants 
during the first year of life varies with the age of the infants : for the very 
young it is high, but decreases during the year. 

A consideration of these facts must ultimately lead to the conclusion 
that in the case of man, for some reason or other, the male, in virtue of 
his maleness, is less viable than the female, so that, under unfavourable 
circumstances, both pre-natally and post-natally, the male, because of 
this greater inherent fragility, suffers more easily and more severely than 
does the female, and is removed from the population by death in greater 
numbers. Furthermore, since this selective elimination of the male occurs 



98 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

before as well as after birth, it follows that since the secondary sex ratio 
is 105 : 100, the primary sex ratio (that which obtains at conception) 
must be higher than this, high enough, presumably, to allow for the 
wastage that occurs. 

This suggested explanation of the difference between the primary and 
secondary sex ratios and of the greater mortality of the male would seem 
to accommodate every demand made upon it. Thus : abortion is far 
more common than is usually recognised. Out of every 100 conceptions 
only 78 can be expected to yield living offspring. The incidence of 
abortion is higher during the earlier months of pregnancy. If, then, the 
conditions which attend pregnancy are unfavourable to the embryo and 
foetus, foetal death is made more probable, and if the male foetus is less 
viable than the female, more males than females will perish. Under such 
circumstances, the secondary sex ratio will be low. The sex ratio amongst 
abortuses will be higher than that amongst still-births for the reason that 
the differences in viability between male and female are greatest during 
the earlier stages of intra-uterine development. Movements in the 
secondary sex ratio can therefore be used as a measure of the success or 
otherwise of the social services, of slum clearance, of the general health 
of a community. The secondary sex ratio is lower in county boroughs 
than in rural areas for the reason that abortion and still-birth are more 
common in urban populations. The greater frequency of abortion 
implies a higher male mortality, and therefore a lower sex ratio amongst 
those who are born alive. The secondary sex ratio is thus a biological 
yardstick with which town and country may be measured. It is highest 
amongst first-born for the reason that the incidence of abortion and mis- 
carriage is higher in large than in small families ; thus, in a dwindling 
population, the secondary sex ratio will be high. It differs in different 
countries for the reason that in them there are different standards of living 
and of personal and public hygiene so that abortion and miscarriage are 
commoner in one country than in another. It is influenced by migration 
because of the reactions of the migrants to the new conditions. If the 
migrants move from a relatively harsh environment to a relatively generous 
one, so that the conditions associated with child-bearing are greatly im- 
proved, it is to be expected that there will be fewer abortions and 
miscarriages, and so relatively more male births and a high sex ratio. 
This holds true of Northern European immigrants in the United States 
of America. On the other hand, Southern European immigrants have 
a lower sex ratio than their kin remaining in Europe for the reason that 
the new conditions are to them less favourable than were those in 
the countries from which they came. They reinforce the lowest social 
categories, and a harsh European environment is replaced by one even 
harsher. Thus the secondary sex ratio can, in such circumstances, be 
used as an index of the success or otherwise of immigration. It is lower 
amongst illegitimates than amongst legitimates for the reason that abortion 
and still-birth are commoner amongst the former for very obvious 
reasons. If it is not lower among illegitimates then it is to be assumed 
that in that particular community illegitimacy is not regarded as an 
unforgivable social error. It is lower amongst coloured people than 



D.— ZOOLOGY 99 

amongst their white neighbours if and when the standards of personal and 
public hygiene of the two sections of the community differ at all markedly. 
Usually the standards of the coloured peoples are lower, and for this 
reason abortion and miscarriage amongst them are more frequent. It is 
affected by social status for the reason that in general the higher the status 
the more generous is the environment, the smaller the family and the 
greater the attention given to the child-bearing mother. The differences 
between the social classes in respect of the sex ratio are to be related to 
differences in the incidence of abortion. In a class-less state with a high 
standard of living, the sex ratio will be uniformly high. The relation 
between primary and secondary sex ratios is unaffected when infantile 
mortality generally is high, and is disturbed when this is low for the reason 
that high infantile mortality indicates the action of death-dealing diseases 
of such potency as to overwhelm any difference in respect of viability on 
the part of male and female. Such diseases kill both boys and girls with- 
out discrimination. Under these circumstances, since both boys and 
girls are removed, the sex ratio is unaffected. Low infantile mortality, 
on the other hand, implies relatively mild attacks of disease-provoking 
agencies which discriminate between male and female, leaving the female 
untouched in virtue of her greater constitutional strength, but removing 
the weaker male to yield a low sex ratio. Since, in this respect, the 
sexes are so different, it follows that in the case of an ailing male child 
the doctor is called upon to treat not only the pathological condition but 
also the condition of maleness. 

The disturbance of the secondary sex ratio that is commonly supposed 
to be associated with protracted war is not so easily explained. If it is 
indeed the case that there is a real and significant rise in the sex ratio 
associated with war then the explanation would seem to be that under 
the conditions that exist the incidence of abortion and miscarriage falls. 
It has been suggested that the lengthy absences of husbands with a 
consequent reduction in the frequency of intercourse and therefore of 
pregnancy mean rest and repair for the wives and the attainment of a 
greater degree of physiological fitness. This of course would lead to a 
lowering of the incidence of abortion in those cases in which pregnancy 
did occur. Furthermore, war is associated with a rise in the marriage 
rate, and this means relatively more first babies, and the high sex ratio 
that obtains amongst such. However, this suggestion of a modification 
of the secondary sex ratio associated with war demands further examina- 
tion, for it has been shown that if the sex ratio of a population is traced 
over a long period of time it is usual to find evidences of a definite secular 
trend, upwards in some countries, downwards in others (Russell, 1936), 
so that it may be that the sex ratio associated with war can be evaluated 
only when it is studied in relation to this movement of the sex ratio 
generally which can be seen only if 100 or more years are reviewed. 

In explanation of the observed inequality in mortality and longevity 
of the sexes in man a number of suggestions have been offered. To 
account for the particularly high mortality of male infants around the 
time of birth emphasis has been placed upon size differences between the 
sexes. Typically the male is the larger, with the bigger head and with 



loo SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

bones more completely ossified, and so, as would be expected, it is the male 
that suffers more from birth injuries and from the epilepsy that follows 
upon such. The sex ratio of such cases is approximately i6o : loo. 
There are other causes of death which operate almost exclusively upon 
one sex : hernia is a cause of death of male infants, gonococcal infections 
are restricted almost exclusively to the female infant. But the explana- 
tion of this is to be found in a consideration of the anatomical differences 
that distinguish the sexes at birth. Such sex-limited conditions obviously 
cannot provide an explanation of the difference in the sex incidence of 
death among early abortuses, and, in any case, they lose their significance 
when the tables in the Registrar-General' s Annual Review giving the 
causes and the sex incidence of death are examined, for it is seen that from 
all causes there is everywhere a general proneness on the part of male 
infants to die in greater numbers, and that in general the earlier in life 
the onset of a disease, the higher is the sex ratio among its fatal cases. 
This is true of infectious as well as of other diseases, and the only possible 
explanation for this would seem to be that the differences between the 
sexes in respect of capacity for continued life is greatest in early infancy. 

Violent deaths remove twice as many males as females from a popula- 
tion in the course of a year, and therefore necessarily distort the sex ratio 
among certain age groups, but murder, suicide, deaths on the road, 
occupational accidents, warfare and migration cannot possibly explain 
away the gentle swing in the sex ratio from conception to extreme 
senescence. There is no doubt whatsoever that the whole course of sex 
mortality in pre-natal life, in infancy, and in all subsequent age periods is 
consistent with the view that the male in man is the inherently weaker 
sex, more prone on account of his relative constitutional weakness to 
developmental anomalies, to congenital debility and to death from 
diseases of all kinds. 

This being so, it is necessar}^ to contrast male and female in order to 
determine what fundamental differences distinguish them, and to decide 
which of these may be held responsible for the observed differences 
between the sexes in respect of viability. 

Male differs from female in genetic constitution. He is heterogametic, 
possessing but a single X-chromosome and elaborating two kinds of 
gametes, X-chromosome-bearing and Y-chromosome-bearing respectively. 
The female is constitutionally homogametic, possessing two X-chromo- 
somes and therefore elaborating ova all of which are alike in that each 
carries one X. In respect of X-borne genes the male is equipped with 
a single set, the female with two. It follows from this that in the female 
a mutant recessive gene in one X can be cancelled out by its wildtype 
dominant allele in the other, whereas the same recessive gene in the single 
X of the heterogametic individual is unchecked and unrestrained and is 
expressed to produce its full effect. Upon this firm basis of ascertained 
fact, the sex-linked lethal theory, which seeks to account for the sexually 
selective mortality and the swing in the sex ratio, has been built. It 
has been advocated by Lenz (1923), Gunther (1923), Geiser (1924-5), 
Huxley (1924), Schirmer (1929) among others, and had its beginning as 
long ago as 1912 when Morgan first drew attention to the lower vitality 



D.— ZOOLOGY loi 

of the mutant white-eyed stocks as compared with that of wildtype 
Drosophila melanogaster and when, in the following year, Hyde, using 
wildtype and truncate flies produced evidence which seemed to show that 
duration of life had a genetic basis. In 1916 Morgan and Bridges listed 
all the known mutants in the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster 
and noted for many of them their effect upon the duration of life. They 
found that certain mutant genes very effectively reduce the viability of 
the males and alter the secondary sex ratio and discovered a number of 
sex-linked ' lethal ' genes which caused the death of all males carrying 
them. Later Pearl and Parker (1921) proceeded to demonstrate the 
constancy of definite degrees of mean longevity of inbred stocks of 
Drosophila. They found, for example, that their ' Old Falmouth ' wild- 
type males had at emergence an expectation of life of 41 -o days, whereas 
quintuple males with 5 mutant genes had one of only 14-2 days. Crosses 
between the two stocks were made by Pearl, Parker and Gonzalez (1923), 
and in the F.^ definite evidence of segregation presented itself. Gonzalez 
(1923) further studied the mean duration of life of strains of Drosophila 
possessing i, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of these mutant genes, and ascertained that in 
so far as their effect on duration of life was concerned, the individual 
mutants behaved as units. 

Since this time a great mass of information concerning these matters 
has been accumulated, and it is clear that these lethals exist in considerable 
numbers in such animal and plant stocks that have been subjected to 
genetical experimentation. They are not vague abstractions invoked 
by the diagnostically destitute to explain away a mortality that they cannot 
comprehend : they are genes which can be mapped and which have an effect 
upon the secondary sex ratio that can be predicted. They can be in- 
corporated into and rejected from a genotype at will and in this way the 
dimensions of a secondary sex ratio can, within limits, be experimentally 
controlled. Their presence and wide distribution in wild populations 
have been amply demonstrated, and no doubts remain that they are 
responsible, in part at least, for the higher mortality of the heterogametic 
sex, both pre- and post-natally. 

But there are genetic differences between the sexes which are sex- 
limited, not sex-linked. Levit (1935) has presented a very consider- 
able body of evidence which shows that many defects and derangements 
in man, formerly regarded as recessives, are partial irregular dominants, 
and that many of these are more often and more completely expressed 
in the male than in the female. Furthermore, he has shown that many of 
these characters which previously had been classified as sex-linked are in 
reality sex-limited, being expressed only in the male. He explains the 
greater manifestation of heterozygous genes, corresponding to defects, in 
the male, on the ground that in man selection is less intense among males 
than among females so that such genes would tend to accumulate in the 
male as would also genes causing sex-limitation. From an examination 
of the sex ratio among the relatives of the father and mother Levit has been 
led to the conclusion that few of the male deaths at or before birth are 
due to sex-linked lethals. From this it would appear that though sex- 
linked lethals are certainly responsible for some of the differences in male 



102 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

and female mortality rates, it is much more likely that sex-limited defects 
and derangements, expressed either before birth or in senescence, are 
also heavily concerned. 

Sex differences in chromosome constitution may imply more than a 
difference in respect of sex-limitation and of sex-linked lethals ; they 
may mean also a difference in genie balance. Two X-chromosomes 
together with two sets of autosomes include a gene association different 
from that which is resident in one X-chromosome and a Y-chromosome 
plus two sets of autosomes. The work of Gowen (1931) who studied the 
duration of life in males, females, triploid females and sex-intergrades of 
Drosophila melanogaster to find that the average length of life was 33*1, 
28-9, 33 • I and 15 days respectively, can be regarded as providing evidence 
that differences in chromosome balance is a factor in determining the 
span of life. It may be that this difference in genie balance between 
male and female is itself a cause of unequal mortality, though it is difficult 
to regard the male as being less well balanced genically since he has 
endured as long a course of selection as has the female and it would be 
expected that dosage compensation would ensure a proper balance in 
each sex regardless of differences in dosage ratios. 

There are other differences, metabolic and physiological, which quickly 
appear in development and which, in turn, give rise to endocrinological 
differences which, when once established, take charge of further differ- 
entiation and the maintenance of sexuality in the higher forms. The 
initial genetic constitution would seem to determine which of two alter- 
native types of dift'erentiation shall occur — either toward testis formation, 
or else toward ovary formation — and, with the incoming of the gonad and 
the rest of the endocrine system, maleness or else femaleness becomes 
finally and firmly established. These two states or conditions are to be 
distinguished by sustained differences in oxidation rate. 

It will be remembered that Geddes and Thomson (1889), having 
looked widely upon living things, were driven to the conclusion that 
males are predominantly catabolic, females anabolic, that the deep 
constitutional difference between the male and the female organism which 
makes one a sperm-producer and the other an egg-producer was due to 
an initial difference in the balance of chemical agencies. This hypothesis 
has been much refined and elaborated by Riddle (193 1) who assumes 
that the genes exercise their influence on developing sexuality by establish- 
ing higher or lower oxidation rates. He points out that if sex differences 
rest primarily on prolonged and sustained differences in the rate of 
cellular oxidation during the earliest phases of development, this difference 
should often be well expressed in adult stages as well and should manifest 
itself in adequate measurements of metabolic rate and in various states or 
conditions of the blood and tissues which restrict, indicate or accompany 
metabolic rate. Adequate measurements of basal metabolism of the 
sexes have been made in the young human (Benedict and Talbot, 1921), 
adult human (Benedict and Emmes, 1914, and also Gephart and du Bois, 
(191 6), in the adult fowl (Mitchell, Card and Haines, 1927), the rat 
(Benedict and MacLeod, 1929) and in the ring dove (Riddle, Christman 
and Benedict, 1930). In every case the higher metabolism, from 3 to 



D.— ZOOLOGY 103 

14 per cent., has been found in the male. Because of their relationship 
to respiration the erythrocytes and hzemoglobin might be expected usually 
to show a sex difference. Adequate measurements of both erythrocyte 
number and hagmoglobin content have been made on the adult in man 
(Haden, 1922, Rud, 1923), in the fowl (Blacher, 1926), pigeon and ring 
dove (Riddle and Braucher, 193 1), and in every case the higher erythro- 
cyte amount, 2-3-31 per cent., and the higher ha2moglobin value, 7-35 per 
cent., is found in the male. 

In the light of these and similar observations it is reasonable to expect 
that the higher metabolic rate of the male should render him less resistant 
to unfavourable conditions and more prone to death. That this expectation 
is justified is shown by the results of a considerable number of varied 
experiments, the following of which are cited as examples. 

MacArthur and Baillie (1929) found that at 28° C. the mean duration 
of life of the females of Daphnia magna exceeded that of the males by 
33-35 per cent., by 15-82 per cent, at 18° C, and by only 0-43 per cent, 
at 8° C, and they further demonstrated that this extreme response of the 
males was probably a factor of their metabolic level. Riddle, Christman 
and Benedict (1930) found that the basal metabolism of male pigeons was 
more easily and extremely aflFected by such conditions as unusually high 
temperature and low oxygen supply than was that of the females. Essen- 
berg (1923) showed that the males of the sword-tailed minnow Xiphophorus 
helleri are 2-25 per cent, more susceptible to KCN, alcohol and extremes 
of temperature, whilst Hildebrand (1927) found by direct test that the 
males of Gambusia are much less resistant to high temperature, altered 
pa, KCN and oxygen deficiency. 

The metabolic theory is, at the present time, somewhat crude, lacking 
the precision and smoothness that distinguish the alternative and attractive 
sex-linked lethal theory, but nevertheless in it there lies truth. It is to 
be expected that, with advances in our knowledge of endocrinology, and 
with the increasing manufacture of synthetic equivalents of the elaborated 
products of gonad, pituitary, thyroid and the rest, we shall soon be 
equipped with the means of exploring completely those physiological 
differences between the sexes which seem to be connected with differences 
in mortality, and, moreover, it will then perhaps become possible to repair 
by chemical means the deficiencies which maleness now confers upon its 
exhibitors. 

It is desirable at this stage to find out if the sex ratio of man is peculiar, 
or whether the facts and observations concerning the human sex ratio 
apply also and equally to that of other living forms. 

A great mass of data relating to the secondary sex ratio in animals of 
economic importance has been accumulated, and though herd and stud 
books are, for various reasons, inclined to be somewhat inaccurate, the 
records therein do possess a certain value. An examination of these shows 
that in the case of the horse the secondary sex ratio has been found by all 
who investigated it to be low, so also has been that of the sheep. That of 
cattle has a wide range, from very low to very high, whilst that of the pig 
and of the dog has always been found to be high. But, from the point 
of view of the present study, the secondary sex ratio by itself possesses 



I04 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

little value. The fact that it is never equality is of course a matter of 
considerable interest, and invites speculation, but unfortunately the figures 
relating to pre-natal and early post-natal death are but few, and, for the 
most part, were garnered many years ago. However, it is the case that 
in all instances in which figures for the sex ratio of still-births amongst 
these animals of the farm have been examined they always show that this 
is higher than that amongst live births. Thus Goehlert (1888) gives 
106 : 100 for still-births, and 96-5 : 100 for live births amongst horses. 
In cattle, Lillie (1916) found the sex ratio amongst still-births to be 
134 : 100 ; Jewell (1921) 123 : 100, that for live births being loo-iio : 100. 
Parkes (1925), examining the sex ratio amongst pig foetuses classified 
into different weight groups, found that the sex ratio was very much 
higher amongst them than was the standard secondary sex ratio, and, 
further, that the size groups showed an inverse correlation between male 
percentage and the stage of development. He concluded that the primary 
sex ratio in the pig must be about 160 : 100. Krizenecky (1935) in a 
review of the sex ratio in the pig gives that of still-births as 119 : 100, 
compared with loi -8 : 100 for live births. 

The figures for post-natal mortality from natural causes amongst these 
animals are of course exceedingly rare, for it is man himself who here 
wields the sickle. For this reason the tertiary sex ratio (that which 
obtains amongst an adult population) provides no information of any 
value to the present discussion. However, my colleagues have provided 
me with figures which show the relative male and female wastage amongst 
our pigs between birth and weaning. The secondary sex ratio amongst 
2>336 pigs is 104-9 : 100, whereas that amongst the 1,489 which remain 
alive at the time of weaning has fallen to 97-4 : 100, the percentage loss 
amongst the males being 38-6, that amongst the females, 33-7. These 
figures suggest that the pre-natal mortality in the pig which discriminates 
against the male is continued at least up to the time of weaning. 

Thus, as far as they go, the figures relating to the mammals of the farm 
without exception suggest that the male amongst them shares with the 
male of man a relative frailty and endures a selective elimination both 
before and after birth. 

The laboratory rat and mouse have provided records which, though 
far less numerous, are more reliable than those derived from stud books. 
The secondary sex ratio of the albino rat is accepted as being roughly 
ic6 : 100, that amongst still-born rats was found by King (1921) to be 
129-3 : 100. In the case of the mouse the secondary sex ratio for the 
ordinary albino as recorded by different investigators is round about 
equality with a slight suggestion of male excess. There is some difference 
of opinion concerning the relation of pre-natal mortality and the secondary 
sex ratio in this animal. The earlier observations of Parkes .(1924) 
suggested that there was a considerable pre-natal mortality and that this 
vi^as sexually selective, falling preponderatingly on the male. Contmua- 
tion of this study, however, failed to support this conclusion. Further- 
more, McDowell and Lord (1925), in the case of their own mouse stock, 
have shown fairly conclusively that during gestation there had been no 
continuous sexually selective elimination of one sex or the other. In the 



D.— ZOOLOGY I OS 

case of the laboratory mammals, therefore, it may be accepted that though 
in certain stocks there is no evidence of a selective pre-natal mortality, 
yet in others in which it undoubtedly occurs it is the male that is removed 
in greater numbers. 

In the case of birds there is much that is anecdotal and a certain amount 
of information that has been derived from experimentation. It will be 
remembered that Darwin's correspondents assured him that male birds 
were caught in greater numbers than were females, and that he accepted 
this presumed preponderance of males in nature as a fact supporting his 
theory of sexual selection. Pelseneer's (1921) summary closes with the 
statement that in the known cases where observation had been possible 
an early excess of males at hatching and in young birds may be preserved 
into adult life, but becomes less marked owing to the shorter life and higher 
mortality of the males, and is often followed by an equality of the sexes 
or even by a numerical preponderance of females. Darwin accepted 
the view that in the domestic pigeon there is good evidence either that 
males are produced in excess or that they live longer, and that the hen 
is generally the weaker of the two and more likely to perish. Cole and 
Kirkpatrick (1915) found a secondary sex ratio of 105 : 100 in the pigeon 
and recorded that post-natally there was an early period with an excess of 
male deaths followed by an adolescent and reproductive phase with a 
slight . excess of female deaths, but that, on the whole, there was no 
significant change of the sex ratio with advancing age. Whitman's 
figures (191 9) for the Japanese turtle dove, presented by Riddle, show that 
the male is often the longer-lived, whilst Haig Thomas and Huxley (1927) 
found that in pheasant species crosses there was a predominance of males 
at hatching and also a large and distinctive excess of male deaths both 
before and after hatching, so that a secondary sex ratio of 67 • i per cent, 
males became reduced to 50-1 per cent, in the adult, they concluded that 
in the case of these pheasant crosses the early post-natal mortality 
of the male is much greater than that of the female. 

Concerning the sex ratio of the fowl there is an abundant literature, 
much of which has been summarised in the papers to which reference is 
now made. Landauer and Landauer (193 1) computed that amongst 
67,993 live born chicks the percentage of males was 48-77, whereas 
among those dying during the first eight weeks of life it was 52-7 ±0-5. 
They therefore concluded that in the fowl, as also in man, post-natal 
mortality is higher amongst males and that if any differential mortality 
during embryonic development occurs it is the male that suffers more. 
But Byerley and Jull (1935) present an even greater body of data. They 
hold the view that data on embryonic mortality were dismissed as in- 
adequate by Landauer and Landauer, and largely ignored by MacArthur 
and Baillie (1932), and show that in the literature are to be found records 
of 6,864 dead embryos of which 48-59 per cent, were males. They 
themselves examined a further 17,989 dead in shell to find among these 
47-56 per cent, males. Thus, among the whole 24,853 dead embryos 
there are only 47-85 per cent, males, a highly significant deviation from 
equality. 

Adding their own figures to those in the literature they find among 

E 2 



io6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

96,008 live born chicks, 49-17 io-ii per cent, males — a figure still 
significantly lower than 50 per cent., so that it would appear that in spite 
of the fact that more females than males die before hatching there is still 
a slight preponderance of females among the live born. 

As regards early post-natal mortality neither Jull (1931) nor Byerley 
and Jull (193s) could find any evidence to show that this was in any way 
differential between the sexes. There is no reason why there should be 
if only viable chicks are hatched and if the conditions of brooding are such 
as not to discriminate against one sex. In order to determine which sex 
is less viable during early post-natal life, it would be necessary to keep the 
chicks under less favourable conditions ; at the present time the techniques 
of artificial incubation are not so highly developed as are those of artificial 
brooding. 

These conclusions attach to themselves a particular importance for 
the reason that in birds the heterogametic sex is the female. A com- 
parative study of the sex ratio and sex incidence of mortality in mammals 
and birds might be expected, therefore, to determine to what extent the 
heterogametic constitution itself is connected with mortality. If in 
mammals it is the male and in birds the female that is found to be the more 
fragile, then it becomes possible to assert that it is the heterogametic sex 
that is the less viable and to seek the cause of this relative inviability in 
the heterogametic constitution. If, on the other hand, it should prove 
in both mammals and birds to be the male that is removed by natural 
death in greater numbers, maleness itself must be held to be the cause. 

The figures for the fowl seem to show that it is the heterogametic 
sex upon which death falls more heavily pre-natally so that it becomes 
possible at once to decide that in the heterogametic mechanism itself a 
factor of importance is to be found. But more information concerning 
birds generally is urgently needed. 

Geiser (1923) in reviewing the literature dealing with the sex ratio in 
fish found that in populations taken at birth the sexes were either nearly 
equally represented or else showed a slight excess of females, and that in 
older populations the females were always more numerous ; in some 
instances greatly so. But the evidence loses a great deal of its value for 
the reason that the sex chromosome constitution of such fish as the plaice, 
salmon, smelt, dog-fish and top minnow has not yet been determined, so 
that it is impossible to relate the above findings to heterogamety. 

Concerning insects many records have been published showing that 
the normal male does not live as long as the female. Arendsen Hein 
(1920) found that among 13,754 young pupae of the meal worm beetle 
taken at random the sex ratio was 100 males : 100-3 females. In a series 
of 32 experiments he ascertained that in this species the male lives on the 
average 60 days, the female iii. Pearl (1923) found that in the case of 
Drosophila melanogaster (male heterogamety) the survival relations of the 
two sexes were exactly like those in man ; at practically all ages in Droso- 
phtla the number of survivals at any given age is higher amongst the 
females than amongst the males. The mean duration of life for the male 
is 31-3 days ; that for the female 33-0 days. 

There is a series of papers by Rau and Rau (1914) dealing with large 



D.— ZOOLOGY 107 

saturnid moths (female heterogamety) which are always quoted as sup- 
porting the contention that in this group males commonly outlive the 
females, but, in point of fact, an analysis of their figures by MacArthur 
and Baillie (1932) shows that the contrary holds true for five out of six 
of the species. Graf (1917), working with the potato tuber moth, found 
that the males died first in 221 out of 275 pairs in the experiment, and 
concluded that the length of life of males is less than that of females. 
In the gypsy moth (female heterogamety) Goldschmidt (191 7) records 
that the males are so precocious and so short-lived that they are often gone 
before the later females are ripe. Very full information concerning the 
mortality of the sexes of the codling moth (female heterogamety) is con- 
tained in certain publications of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture. The studies were made on a very large scale, repeated over many 
years and at stations widely separated, covering all sections of the conti- 
nental United States. The most useful data from this source include the 
records of longevity of imagoes from observations on large numbers of 
mated moths reared in their natural sex ratios in large out- door oviposition 
cages. From the figures given it is evident that at all stations and in all 
generations (excepting only the first broods) the males are the shorter-lived. 
The weighted average duration of life for females is 10-23 days, that for 
males 9*40 days. The difference between this is over twenty-five times 
its probable error and is highly significant in view of the large number 
on which it is based. MacArthur and Baillie (1932) use these figures very 
effectually to maintain their conclusion that Lepidoptera afford no excep- 
tion to the rule that the larger destruction and shorter life of males, 
irrespective of whether these be homo- or hetero-gametic, cause them to 
become relatively fewer at advanced ages. 

A multitude of other references could be quoted, but were this done 
nothing very essential to this discussion would have been added. Every- 
where one finds support of a kind for the contention that the male, 
irrespective of his actual sex chromosome constitution, is the shorter-lived. 

Though much remains unclear, demanding further and more critical 
examination, enough has been gleaned from this necessarily incomplete 
survey to show beyond all doubt that there is nothing unique about the 
human sex ratio and that the factors which operate to distort it are exactly 
those which produce the same results in other forms. Sex-linked lethals 
and other recessive disadvantageous X-borne genes are undoubtedly 
concerned in the production of a sex incidence of mortality that bears 
more heavily upon the heterogametic sex. But it is impossible, in the 
face of all the evidence that has been presented, to conclude that all the 
inequality in mortality and longevity between the sexes is due to the action 
of such genes. Wildtype stocks of Drosophila shown to be free from 
expressed lethals have exhibited the usual sex differences in longevity. 
There are autosomal genes, as Gonzalez (1923) has shown, which com- 
pletely reverse the usual mortality of the sexes and allow males to outlive 
the females by a very significant number of days. So that mortality 
and longevity are controlled through the whole genetic and environmental 
complex ; they are not different and separate characters, but expressions 
in time of the organisation of the body. 



io8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

As a general rule, the males of all groups, except those derived from 
wide crosses in which genie balance is more likely to be unusual, appear 
to show a relatively low viability, irrespective of their homo- or hetero- 
gamety, and the difference in the death rates of the sexes appears to be 
as much correlated with sexuality itself as with any particular type of 
chromosome or gene equipment. That this should be so is perhaps not 
surprising when the relative reproductive values of the sexes are com- 
pared. The major task of one generation of gamete producers is the 
production, economically and efficiently, of a succeeding generation that 
numerically will be in harmony with the conditions and resources of the 
habitat. That of the females of a generation is the production of the 
requisite number of ova ; that of the males the production of sperma- 
tozoa in numbers sufficient to make the fertilisation of every available egg 
highly probable. The number of spermatozoa required will be deter- 
mined by many factors — e.g. the variety of the fertilisation process, the 
pre-natal and post-natal relations of mother and offspring, the relation- 
ship of male to female in respect of parentage. If the male is merely a 
fertilising agent, then economy and efficiency are observed if the male dies 
in coitu or is for other reasons shorter-lived than the female so long as 
there are more or less equal numbers of males and females of the age when 
fertilisation occurs. If the male is concerned with the protection of and 
food-finding for the female and her young then the length of life of the 
male might be expected to be related to the duration of the period of 
dependency of the young upon the parents and of the female upon the 
male, and it might reasonably be assumed that when the male has served 
his purpose he would be removed so that savings in food energy could be 
effected and used for further reproduction. 

In the light of the facts and observations that have been presented, 
it is desirable to examine Table 31, Volume 2, of the Report on the 
Census of Scotland, 193 1. Here it is seen that in this human population, 
though between the ages of 0-14 there were more males than females, 
and between the ages of 20-100 there were more females than males, 
the sex ratio of those in the population between the ages of 15 and 19 
was equality. So, also, in the Regisrrar-General's Annual Review for 
1935 will it be found that among those aged 15-19 is the sex ratio most 
nearly equality. It can be stated, therefore, that in the case of these 
human populations the sex ratio is equality only amongst those who 
stand at the threshold of their reproductive prime. This fact is surely 
not without significance. The age group in which the sex ratio is equality 
consists of those who, biologically if not socially, are newly equipped for 
ardent reproduction. Amongst them there is no surplus : there are 
equal numbers of males and females. If, during the biological evolution 
of man, pair-mating attached to itself a definite and positive value, it 
would be expected that all the mechanisms concerned in the establishment 
of a sex ratio of near equality among the 14-19 age group would, through 
selection, come ultimately to be related harmoniously to this end. 

Implied in this suggestion is yet another : that in the case of any 
population of living things, and under the conditions that exist in any 
given place and at any given time, there is an optimum sex ratio amongst 



D.— ZOOLOGY 109 

those of the ages associated with the fullest expression of the reproductive 
function, and that through selection all the mechanisms, whatever they 
may be, which influence this are fashioned into harmony with this " re- 
productive " sex ratio. It is necessary, therefore, to discuss the meaning 
in biological philosophy of mutation, sex and heterogamety, all of which 
are intimately concerned. 

Mutation is a mechanism that has become adapted and elaborated for 
the provision of material possibilities of evolutionary movement. It takes 
the form of the replacement of one gene by an allelomorph : — the sub- 
stitution of a gene that, having been tested and found worthy, has come to 
be in harmony with the rest of the genotype, and through this with the 
conditions of the external environment, by another, the merits of which 
have yet to be determined. More often than not, therefore, mutation 
implies a disturbance of an equilibrium within the genotype itself, and 
between this and the external environment. It is usual, therefore, to 
find that mutation leaves the genotype less in harmony with the existing 
external conditions than was that which it has replaced. Mutation, the 
inception of a new heritable variation, thus usually equips its possessors 
with a handicap, imposing on them a disadvantage that can range from 
inconvenience to complete lethality. 

Sex is the mechanism that has become adapted for the dispersal of a 
mutant gene amongst a population. Through its exercise a new gene 
can become incorporated into a variety of genotypes, and thus given the 
opportunity of finding itself associated with other genes with which it 
can interact. It is established that the quality of the action of a gene is 
largely determined by this interaction with others, for, as judged by its 
effects upon the life processes of the zygote, it can exhibit disadvantageous 
properties when in one gene association, advantageous when in another. 
For the quiet dispersal of a mutant gene in this way it is necessary that it 
should be recessive, initially at least, to the gene that it has displaced, for 
then it can pursue a cryptomeric existence for a considerable period of 
time. 

If the great usefulness of sexuality lies in the opportunities it provides 
for variety in gene recombination and for the exercise of selection then its 
advantages will be best exploited when, among those about to reproduce, 
there is a sex ratio of equality. This observation would not seem to apply 
to those instances in which gene combinations that are common or are 
exceedingly rare are concerned, but a sex ratio of equality among the 
parents would seem to provide the greatest variety of recombinations in 
the oflFspring in the case of gene combination of intermediate rarity. Be 
this as it may, a device for the production of a sex ratio of equality has 
certainly been elaborated. 

Heterogamety is a mechanism that has become adapted for the pro- 
duction of a primary sex ratio of equality. In its evolution in the higher 
forms it has taken the form of the replacement in one sex of an X-chro- 
mosome by a wholly or largely non-homologous Y-chromosome. The 
heterogametic sex, therefore, now possesses one X-chromosome, the 
homogametic, two. An indirect result of this evolution has been that 
a recessive mutant gene in the differential segment of the X-chromosome 



no SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

is at once uncovered in the case of the heterogametic individual, and so, 
if in its action such a gene is disadvantageous, deleterious or lethal, to it 
no time is allowed for the finding of modifying company and for the 
pursuit of its own evolutionary development. It is expressed and tested 
within a very short time of its first appearance, and should it cripple or 
kill, it is the heterogametic sex that is affected. In this way the sex ratio 
becomes modified, for the heterogametics either die before birth or else 
their early post-natal mortality is greater than is that of the homogametics. 
It is somewhat surprising that so few sex-linked lethals have so far been 
discovered in mammals. It would seem that the differential segment of 
the X is relatively insignificant and that the crossover portion, which 
could not yield a differential mortality since its genes would not auto- 
matically be expressed in the male, is relatively large. 

It is thus possible to look upon the inequality in capacity for continued 
life between the sexes as being partly of the nature of an evolutionary over- 
sight due to a lag in the development of a harmonious relationship between 
the mechanisms of mutation and heterogamety. But this disharmony has 
been repaired by the invention of a supplementary device which can 
provide a compensatory primary sex ratio, high in those species with 
male heterogamety, low in those in which the heterogametic sex is the 
female. It is established that in many, though not in all, mammalian 
stocks, the primary sex ratio is much higher than is the secondary, and it 
is in such stocks that there is much sexually selective mortality operating 
to the disadvantage of the heterogametic sex. This being so, it seems 
reasonable to entertain the view that these three variables — ^the primary 
sex ratio, a sexually selective pre-natal and early post-natal mortality 
and the optimum reproductive sex ratio — -are somehow related, the dimen- 
sions of the first being connected with the amount of the second. Should 
this prove to be the case, then it would follow that in general the greater 
the incidence of mutation, the more common the sex-linked recessive 
lethals and the greater the difference in the sex incidence of mortality in 
adolescence in a stock with male heterogamety, the higher will be the 
primary sex ratio, and, conversely, the rarer mutation is, the fewer the 
lethals and the less the difference in the sex incidence of mortality between 
conception and reproductive prime, the nearer to equality will this primary 
sex ratio be. 

This suggestion, of course demands that there should be genes which 
affect the functioning of the heterogametic mechanism, and also that it 
should be possible, by continued selection, to modify the primary sex 
ratio of a stock. This will be equality when the heterogametic sex 
elaborates its two kinds of gametes, X- and Y-chromosome-bearing 
respectively, in equal numbers, and when both of these are equally 
functional in fertilisation. Conversely, the primary sex ratio will be 
removed more or less from equality if and when the two forms of gametes 
are not produced by the heterogametic sex in equal numbers, or when, 
between these two forms, there is functional inequality. The fact that 
in those instances where the primary sex ratio is not equality it is the 
Y-bearing gamete that is either produced in greater numbers or is greatly 
advantaged in fertilisation, so that more XY than XX gametes are pro- 



D.— ZOOLOGY III 

duced, is of great interest in view of the observed fact that it is the XY 
zygote that suffers more through the action of sex-linked lethals. 

It has been shown (King, 1919) to be possible, by continued selection 
within an animal stock to produce high and low sex ratio strains, and 
thus it would appear that there are genes which can be concentrated in 
a genotype which, in their action, influence the heterogametic mechanism 
affecting either the relative production of the two kinds of gametes pro- 
duced by the heterogametic sex or else their relative functional ability. 
If, as seems to be the case, the male in many forms and irrespective of 
his chromosome constitution is the weaker sex, then in those instances 
in which the male is homogametic, an excess of X-chromosome-bearing 
ova is demanded from the hetero-gametic females or else there must be 
some form of selective fertilisation, the X-ova being more often or more 
readily fertilised. 

That genes which lead to the production of X- and Y-bearing gametes 
in unequal numbers do exist is shown very clearly indeed by the work of 
Sturtevant and others. One such gene was discovered as long ago as 
1922 (Morgan, Bridges and Sturtevant, 1925) in a strain of Drosophila 
affinis in which occasional males were found to produce families consisting 
almost entirely of females. A definite X-borne gene was suspected. 
Gershenson (1928) found a similar gene in Drosophila obscura, and showed 
that it was indeed resident in the X-chromosome. A male carrying this 
gene produces very few sons, regardless of the genetic nature of his mate. 
More recently (1936) Sturtevant and Dobzhansky have found that his 
gene has a very wide geographical distribution in both races of Drosophila 
pseudo-obscura, that it is sex-linked, lying in the right arm of the X- 
chromosome, and being associated with a small inversion. Cytological 
study has shown that in these cases the X-chromosome undergoes equa- 
tional division at each meiotic division, whilst the Y-chromosome de- 
generates with the result that a male carrying this gene produces nearly 
all X-sperm instead of the usual 50 per cent. It is to be expected, of 
course, that a sex ratio gene of this kind would be discovered only if its 
effects upon the sex ratio were profound. But the existence of such genes 
permits us to assume that other genes of the same kind, having less severe 
effects upon the heterogametic mechanism, also exist and are responsible 
for minor distortions of the sex ratio. If such genes do exist, then of 
course, they can be incorporated into, or extruded from a genotype, and 
upon them selective agencies can work their will. These sex ratio genes 
may perhaps provide a partial explanation of the observation that hybrid- 
isation commonly is attended by marked distortions of the secondary 
sex ratio. Such hybridisation in man (Pearl and Pearl, 1908), in the 
mouse (von Guaita, 1898, 1900), and in the rat (King, 191 1), for example, 
has given a secondary sex ratio much higher than those of the parental 
stocks concerned, as might be expected if these had through time come to 
possess different sex ratio gene complexes. It does not seem reasonable 
to suppose that heterosis itself could produce such a result. 

But all this is so much speculation, and the only justification for toying 
with such ideas is that criticism may be aroused and experimentation 
launched. I have presented evidence to show that three possible causes 



112 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of sex differences in mortality have to be considered : (i) sex-linked 
lethals, (2) sex-limitation of defects and derangements, and (3) sex- 
dimorphic physiological and endocrinological differences. It seems 
probable that sex-linked lethals play only a minor part and that the defects 
and derangements that have come to be manifested only or more completely 
in the male owing to his relative unimportance in respect of propagation, 
constitute the major cause, though as yet too little is known of sex differ- 
ences in respect of hormones and their effects to permit us to regard these 
as unimportant. For your pleasure and my own I have attempted to 
construct a thought-model of a genetic mechanism that could yield what 
I have called an optimum reproductive sex ratio ranging as this may 
from equality to the grossest inequality. I have tried to reconcile the 
views of the geneticist and of the physiologist out of whose disputations 
has emerged a clear recognition of the need for a closer collaboration. 
I have shown, I hope, that the problem of the human sex ratio must be 
studied not only in the office of the statistician but also in the laboratory 
of the experimental biologist and in the open country, and I have stressed 
the view that out of the secondary sex ratio can be fashioned an instrument 
of precision by the use of which a human society may measure the quality 
of its structure. 

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D.— ZOOLOGY 113 

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114 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

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Castration on thie Basal Heat Production of Chickens,' /. Agric. Res., 34, 

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Wash. Publ., No. 257 (1919). 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



THE CHANGING DISTRIBUTION OF 
POPULATION 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. C. B. FAWCETT, D.Sc, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



The changes which form the subject-matter of this address are obviously 
of such importance, and so directly geographical, that the choice of the 
topic for this Section needs no apology except on the score of its magni- 
tude. Unfortunately, reliable statistical evidence of such changes is still 
inadequate. The taking of systematic and regular censuses began, on 
both sides of the North Atlantic, only near the beginning of the nineteenth 
century ; and the habit spread slowly to other lands. For the past 
sixty years we have censuses, of varying value, for about half the popula- 
tion of the earth, and during the present century for nearly three- fourths. 
But for perhaps a quarter of the world's population we must still rely on 
estimates of uncertain and variable value. In very few countries can 
we find a firm basis for a study of changes over the last three generations. 
Hence there are practically no reliable studies of long-period population 
changes ^ ; and here I shall confine myself mainly to the facts of the 
present century. 

At the beginning of this century Levasseur made a notable study of 
the distribution of the world's population, in which he calculated the 
proportions living in the various zones. This part of it I have reworked 
for the present day, and the results are shown in the following table (I), 
p, ii6. 

The chief conclusions which may be drawn, tentatively, from these 
figures are (i) that the proportion of mankind living in the intertropical 
lands has diminished, though this change may be only apparent, due to 
reduction in some of the estimates which Levasseur used ; (2) that there 
has been a considerable increase in the small proportion which inhabits 
the south temperate lands, and (3) that the really populous zone of the 
northern lands has maintained, or even slightly increased, its dominance. 
The last column indicates that the density of population in the north 
temperate lands is three times as great as that in intertropical lands, and 
more than four times that in the ' new ' countries of the southern hemi- 
sphere ; though the latter have more than doubled their populations during 
the present century, with the greatest increase in Argentina. 

But the tropics are very arbitrary dividing lines for any such study ; and 
my only reason for using them is the fact that Levasseur did so thirty 

1 For references see end of Address. 



ii6 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



years ago and so they give a basis for a comparison. It is more useful to 
note the chief populous regions. These are clearly shown, as far as the 
scale allows, on the accompanying map (Fig. i). Evidently there are 
only four regions in which the mean density of population considerably 
exceeds the world average of about forty persons per square mile, over 

Table I. 





Percentages of world totals of 


Mean 


Zone. 


Land 
area. 


Population 
(about 
1907) 

(Levasseur) 


Population 
(about 
1936). 


density, 

persons 

per sq. 

mile, 1936. 


North of the northern 








tropic . 
Between the tropics . 
South of the southern 


50-2 

40-5 


74 . 
24-3 


75 
22 


60 
20 


tropic . 


9-3 


1-4 


2-8 


13 



The uninhabited Polar Lands are not included. 



any large continuous areas. I have estimated the extent of these regions, 
as continuously habitable lands, within boundaries drawn round their 
cultivable lands, and also the populations within those boundaries, and 
so obtained the figures given in the following table (II), from which it is 
seen that these four regions together contain about three-fourths of the 
world's population on little more than one-eighth of its total land area. 

Table II. 



Region. 



Area, in millions Population, in 
of square miles. [ millions. 



' Europe ' 


2-8 


Eastern North 




America 


1-9 


The Far East 


1-7 


India, with Ceylon . 


i-o 



520 



100 

500 

350 



Central 
latitude. 



50° N. 

40° N. 

35° N. 
25° N. 



E— GEOGRAPHY 



117 




ii8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Elsewhere there are a few small areas of relatively dense population, as 
in Java, Malaya, and West Africa, but the greater part of the land is thinly 
occupied. Of particular interest is the belt of deserts which forms a zone 
across the Continent from the Sahara north-eastward to Eastern Siberia ; 
for it was this ' Great Divide ' of empty lands, interrupted only by few 
and generally small oases and occupied by widely scattered and generally 
nomadic peoples, which held apart the civilisations of the ' East ' and the 
' West ' during all the ages of human history before da Gama's voyage 
to India in 1497 C.E. 

In these great regions there has been only one change of world magni- 
tude within recent centuries, namely the peopling of Eastern North 
America between 1620 and 1920, mainly in the last hundred years. This 
has added a fourth populous region capable of ranking with the three of 
the Old World ; though it has not yet had time to accumulate so dense 
a population as any one of them. 

Except for this the recent shifts of population have mainly been within 
the great populous regions, and have tended to accentuate their relative 
importance. The population of India has doubled its numbers since 
1 87 1 ; but the numbers of Indians settled outside India and Ceylon is 
only about three millions, or less than one per cent, of the Indian peoples, 
and less than one-sixtieth of the increase of the Indian population since 
1 87 1. And most of these are in Burma and Malaya. 

The numbers, both absolute and relative, of the emigrants from the 
Far East are more difficult to determine. It has been estimated, by 
Prof. Mukerjee, that some ten million Chinese live outside the lands 
claimed by the Chinese Republic ; half of whom are in Siam, Malaya and 
the East Indies. Similarly, there are perhaps two million Japanese out- 
side their native land ; but three-fifths of these are in Taiwan (Formosa), 
Chosen (Korea), Karafuto and Manchukwo, leaving less than three- 
quarters of a million outside the Far East. So the total population derived 
from the Far Eastern Region and now living outside it may be estimated 
at less than two per cent, of the home population. It is twice as numerous, 
both absolutely and relatively, as that from India ; but, like that, it is 
a very small proportion of the probable increase in the Far East during 
the last two or three generations. 

The really large-scale migration of the past hundred years was that 
from Europe to North America. But the number of all the peoples of 
European origin now living outside Europe and North America is probably 
less than a tenth of the number in those two continents, and not more 
than a third of the increase in the population of Europe itself during the 
past century. Yet Europeans form the great majority of the peoples of 
all the ' new ' lands of the south temperate regions, except South Africa. 
Even if we count North America as a colony it is still true that little more 
than a fourth of the peoples of European origin live outside Europe, 
though the population of that continent has increased fourfold in the last 
two hundred years. 

During the present century there have been extensions of the inhabited 
lands on the margins of all four of the major populous regions. In North 
America this has been a thrust westward and north-westward on the 



E— GEOGRAPHY 119 

prairies which has reached, and perhaps overshot, the cHmatic limits of 
the region of good cultivable lands. India has made a real expansion 
on to newly irrigated lands in the Indus Valley. Chinese colonists, to 
the number of more than thirty millions, have pushed into Manchukwo 
and Inner Mongolia in the greatest of recent migrations. There has been 
a similar eastward colonisation from Russia into Western Siberia, in a 
belt near latitude 55° N. extending almost to Lake Baikal, which may now 
include twenty million people. But these are only expansions of parts 
of the populous regions, or in some cases possibly only outward oscilla- 
tions of their margins ; and they have not seriously altered the relative 
importance of those major regions with respect either to one another or 
to the rest of the world. 

Thus the net effect of the great migrations of the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries has been to add a fourth to the major populous regions, 
and then to increase the absolute and relative numbers of the peoples 
within these four major regions. They have not tended to spread popu- 
lation more evenly over the lands of the earth or to ' fill up the great open 
spaces,' but rather to accentuate the crowding of mankind into the already 
populous lands. ^ 

There has been a very great increase in the numbers of the human race 
during the last two hundred years. The European peoples have multi- 
plied at least sixfold since 1700 ; and there is some reason to believe that 
both Chinese and Indians have at least trebled their numbers in the same 
period. The world's population is now about two thousand millions ; 
and it probably did not reach five hundred millions at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. But, always with the exception of North America, 
this increase has been mainly in the already populous Major Human 
Regions of ' Europe,' India and the Far East, which are the homelands 
of the three great civilisations ; so that the relative predominance of these 
regions has rather increased than diminished. So far as the very scanty 
evidence for Africa goes, it indicates a decrease rather than an increase in 
the population of that continent, which is only just beginning to recover 
from the social disasters of the ' Slave Trade.' It is probable that the 
population of Spanish America declined in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. And it is only in the last sixty years that there has been any 
considerable increase in South America, mainly in the La Plata Region and 
in southern Brazil. Here the population has more than doubled since 
1900 ; and the rates of increase in the early decades of this century are 
quite comparable to those of the United States in the latter half of last 
century. In the same decades Australia and New Zealand have had similar 
proportional increases. Nevertheless, the total population of all the lands 
of the south temperate zone has not yet reached fifty millions ; and the 
area of good cultivable land in them is so much smaller than that of the 
great northern regions that they are never likely to be more than minor 
areas of world population. The figures in the following table (III), 
p. 120, calculated on the same bases as those in Table II, indicate the 
comparative importance of these south temperate habitable regions. 

^ These conclusions agree with the views expressed by one of my distinguished 
predecessors in this chair, Sir Halford Mackinder, at the Centenary Meetingin 1931 . 



I20 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



Within most of these population regions there are marked trends of 
internal migration. The most widely known of these is the so-called 
' drift to the towns ' which is associated with the steadily increasing growth, 
both absolutely and relatively to the total, of the urban population in all 
countries affected by modern Western Civilisation. This townward 
migration shows no signs of slackening, rather the opposite. In the last 
intercensal decade, 1 921 -31, the proportional increase in the London 
conurbation was more than double the rate for Great Britain, and that 
area absorbed half of the total increase of population of the country. Some 
other great conurbations grew even more rapidly, though none had a 
greater absolute increase. 

This urban growth is mainly concentrated on the larger urban centres. 
At the beginning of the nineteenth century no conurbation in the world, 

Table IIL 



Region. 


Area, in millions 
of square miles. 


Population, 
in millions. 


Central 
latitude. 


' La Plata ' . 

Eastern South Africa 
South-eastern Aus- 
tralia and New 
Zealand 


0-7 
0-4 

0-4 


25 
8 

9 


35° S. 

30° s. 

35° S. 



with very doubtful exceptions in China, had reached a population of a 
million ; though London was very near to that figure, with 954,000 
inhabitants at the census of 1801. To-day there are in the world about 
sixty conurbations of this magnitude, perhaps a dozen of which have each 
as many as five million inhabitants, and together these include perhaps 
a twelfth of all mankind. The numbers, both of these ' million-cities ' 
and of their inhabitants, are increasing ; and if the trend continues 
unchecked for a generation or two' our grandchildren may live in a world 
which will have a majority of its inhabitants housed in two or three 
hundred such conurbations. 

The townward migration is associated with an absolute decrease of 
population in many rural areas, of which I need specify only a few instances. 
In Great Britain the decade 192 1-3 1 saw an absolute decrease in every 
county of the highlands, and also a relative decrease in nearly all the 
counties bordering on the highlands. These areas of decrease included all 
Scotland, eleven of the twelve counties of Wales, and ten English counties. 
France records a corresponding decrease in the mountain departments of 
the Alps, the Massif Central, the Pyrenees and Corsica ; as does Italy for 
all her mountain zones. In some of these areas the evidence of abandoned 
cultivation terraces is visible even to the casual observer. The same 
process of retreat from such ' regions of difficulty ' is going on in all the 
mountain and highland areas of Central Europe and Scandinavia. There 



E— GEOGRAPHY 121 

are apparent local exceptions, often due to the developments of tourism ; 
though this industry maintains only a small, and often only a seasonal, 
local population, and it stimulates the exodus by increasing contacts with 
the outer world. 

In some newer countries there is also a retreat of settlement from some 
thinly peopled areas. In the same decade, 1921-31, Australia saw a 
definite withdrawal of settlers from its inner areas of less than fifteen 
inches of rain towards the more humid regions nearer the coasts. And 
the still more recent exodus of ruined settlers from the semi-arid areas of 
the American ' dust-bowl ' is more widely known. In these semi-arid 
regions it seems that close settlement had been pushed beyond its safe 
limits. The system of ' dry farming,' which had been widely introduced, 
involves the destruction of the natural vegetation cover and the loosening 
of the topsoil. Over-grazing has a similar effect because it compels the 
cattle to pull up and devour the stems and roots of the grasses. When this 
is followed by a more than usually dry season, accompanied by strong 
winds, the fine topsoil is blown away, and with it most of the plant-food. 
So both dry-farming and over-grazing are desert makers. 

Such local retreats from unattractive areas are nothing new in the history 
of mankind. And it appears that there are more important general causes 
for the present trends of migration towards populous regions and great 
urban centres. Most of these seem to be results of the application of 
scientific knowledge to the work of the world. So that these great 
population shifts are essentially a result, and among the most important 
social results, of the developments of applied science. 

First among these general causes I would put the diminution in the 
proportion of the world's workers who must be devoted to satisfying the 
primary needs of food, clothing and shelter, and to making the tools 
wherewith to do this. At the beginning of the Industrial Age more than 
half of all the working population of every country was directly engaged 
in the production of food, and of vegetable and animal raw materials, for 
most of their working life. Their manual power was supplemented by 
the labour of domestic animals and, to a small extent in some favoured 
regions, by clumsy wind- and/or water-mills. Now these industries have 
received a new equipment of immensely more efficient tools (compare the 
combined harvester with the sickle and the flail), of better and more pro- 
ductive seeds and animals, of more eff^ective methods such as the rotation 
of crops, of better fertilisers, and of more efficient workers. As a result, 
their productive capacity has increased so that they can provide a much 
higher standard of material living for a greatly increased population. At 
the same time the proportion of the workers needed has fallen. It is now 
only some twenty per cent, of the total ; and it seems likely to fall still 
further. 

Similar changes have taken place in other primary industries. Such 
changes as the substitution of the steam-shovel and the excavator for the 
navvy's pick and spade, of concrete produced almost wholly by machines 
for the laboriously shaped stones of the quarryman and the mason, of the 
spindle for the spinning-wheel, have enormously reduced the amount of 
direct manual labour needed in many industries. 



122 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The first effect was to release labour for other purposes. And the 
industrial countries set out to equip themselves with new means of trans- 
port, roads and canals, ships and railways, and now motor vehicles and 
roads, with new buildings for industry and commerce and for the growing 
population. This led to, and was accompanied by, the development of 
the engineering industries ; for engineering in all its branches is essentially 
the tool-making industry, and as such it may claim to be the fundamental 
industry of civilisation. Its development is the most immediate cause 
of the many economies of labour in other occupations. 

A second effect was the enormous development of secondary industries, 
concerned no longer with the satisfaction of urgent primary needs ; and 
a great amelioration of living conditions. Children have been taken out 
from the ranks of producing workers and sent to school. Leisure is more 
abundant and more widespread. Though it is clear that as a community 
we are still very far from having realised the full possibilities of the tools 
which science has put into our hands. 

The food-producing industries were, and are, those which require 
their workers to be spread about the land. The agricultural workers, with 
their families and dependants, are the basis and the majority of the rural 
population. But the many workers released from these occupations 
could be grouped together ; and the early developments of manufacturing 
industry, in respect to both the organisation of its labour and the use of 
machines and mechanical power, demanded such a grouping. So manu- 
facturing industry is essentially an urban occupation, and industrialisation 
has everywhere been accompanied by urbanisation. However much its 
towns may be loosened out by the better use of improved transport, this 
urban character of an industrial population seems likely to persist ; and 
so every increase in the numbers and importance of the secondary industries 
will contribute still further to the concentration of more and more of the 
people in and near to the great conurbations. 

All these developments have been dependent on, and aided by, the 
rapid improvements in transport which have accompanied them. It is 
obvious, so obvious as to be usually forgotten, that no town can exist unless 
it can obtain adequate supplies of food, and that these must be transported 
to it from the rural areas in which foodstuffs are produced. It is equally 
true and obvious, that the maximum limit of any population is fixed by 
the amount of food available to maintain it. Hence I have regarded the 
conditions of the production of food as the primary determining facts in 
the numbers and distribution of mankind. The developments of trans- 
port since the early nineteenth century have made this dependence of 
urban on rural populations no longer local. But for the artificial and 
often arbitrary barriers interposed by human, mainly political, restrictions, 
the resources of the world might be regarded as a common pool for the 
supply of the needs of its inhabitants. And the developments of transport 
which justify this assertion have been so decisive that it is possible to ex- 
press a large part of the problems and trends of population distribution 
in terms of transport. 

Within the Major Human Regions which we have distinguished there 
are smaller areas of marked concentration of population. The United 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 



123 



States is the one great populous area in which freedom of movement has 
been at its maximum since the middle of last century ; and the effects of 
this tendency towards further concentration are most clearly seen there 
(see Fig. 2). In a small area stretched along the coast and the ' fall line ' 
from Boston to Washington, including both of these metropolitan dis- 
tricts, there were in 1930 about twenty-seven millions of people. Here then 



20 110 100 90 80 70 60 




Fig. 2. — The Populous Region of ' Eastern North America.' 
Areas of maximum concentration are shown by the darker shading. 



there are more than a fifth of the population on about a hundredth part 
of the area of the country. There are other lesser areas of concentration, 
notably along the south shore of Lake Erie and round the south end of 
Lake Michigan ; and Canada has one, stretching along the north shores 
of Lakes Erie and Ontario, with a greater relative concentration, for here 
thirty per cent, of the Dominion's people dwells on considerably less than 
one per cent, of its territory. But the three concentrations round the Lakes 
are together less than half as populous as the one on the Atlantic 
coast. 



124 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



The correspondingly great area of concentration in Europe (see Fig. 3) 
is in two sections, separated from each other by the Strait of Dover. 
The British section stretches right across the island. Its north-western 




end includes the densely peopled urban areas of South Lancashire and 
West Yorkshire ; its south-eastern part is the London conurbation with 
its satellite urban and suburban areas and its near coastal fringe of seaside 
towns ; and between and connecting these are the almost equally densely 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 



125 



peopled industrial districts of the English midlands. This area, as it is 
shown on the accompanying map (Fig. 4), occupies a little less than one- 




FiG. 4. — The Area of Maximum Concentration of Population in Great Britain. 



fifth of the island. It now contains five conurbations each of which has 
more than a million inhabitants, and twenty other large towns with more 
than a hundred thousand each. Its mean population density is about 



126 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



three thousand persons per square mile. The population in it, at various 
dates, is shown in the following table : — 





Table IV. 








Date of Census. 


1801. 


1851. 


1891. 


1921. 

24-3 
56 


1931- 


Population in millions 
Percentage of the pop- 
ulation of Great 
Britain 


4-2 
38 


• 

IO-2 

49 


i8-6 

55 


26-0 
58 



The continental section is a similar zone stretching from north France 
through Belgium to the Rhineland and the Netherlands. It may be noted 
that the three small countries which have each a large proportion of their 
area in this zone : England, Belgium and Holland, are the three most 
densely peopled lands of the world, each with more than one person per 



acre. 



The European and the North American areas of maximum concentration 
are thus in comparable positions on the opposite shores of the North 
Atlantic, each at the chief ocean outlet of its region. The two chief 
conurbations, London and New York, are at present almost equal, each 
with about ten million inhabitants. In extent the two zones are also 
approximately equal ; but the European area is the more densely peopled 
and each of its sections, British and Continental, has approximately as 
many people as the American area. Thus this area contains approximately 
a tenth of the whole population of Europe on a hundredth part of its area. 
And outside this great urban region, Europe has twenty million-cities, of 
which three (Paris, Berlin and Moscow) are approaching five million 
inhabitants each. 

In the Far East there appears to be a recent development of a similar 

area of concentrated population along the lower Yangtze from Shanghai 

to some distance up-river beyond Nanking. In the absence of sufHciently 

exact census records and precise topographic maps it is not possible to 

state its area and population very definitely. But it seems to be fairly 

comparable in magnitude with the American and European areas, in both 

extent and population. Shanghai has about four million inhabitants and 

Nanking more than a million ; while both cities have now ten times as 

many people as at the beginning of this century ; so that they ^re growing 

more rapidly than any other comparably large cities of the northern 

hemisphere. Between them is a stretch of very densely peopled land 

with many large towns. In its position at the ocean outlet of a vast and 

populous hinderland the Chinese conurbation is fairly comparable to the 

American and the European ; and given a stable government and peaceful 

development it may well rival them as a world focus. 

Japan has two smaller areas of similar development. Round Tokyo 



E.— GEOGRAPHY 127 

Bay there is an urban population of eight millions. Between two hundred 
and two hundred and fifty miles to the west, round Osaka Bay and in the 
valley inland from it to Lake Biwa, is a similar group of towns with a total 
of some six million inhabitants. The greater population of the Tokyo 
group is probably due to the fact that it contains the capital of the empire ; 
for in most other respects the Osaka group, situated by the Inland Sea 
on the Yamato Lowland and much more central among the populous 
areas of Japan, has a better location. These great urban concentrations 
are largely due to the industrialisation of Japan ; and, as very large con- 
urbations, they are of recent growth. But they have no hinderland 
comparable to those of the great urban regions already discussed. 

India shows no development of any principal area of grouped conurba- 
tions akin to those of the other three major populous regions. Its two 
' million- cities,' Calcutta (or ' Hughliside ') and Bombay, are far apart. 
They have developed first as seaports and later as industrial centres ; but 
neither has any such pre-eminent advantages of geographical position as to 
become a focus of population comparable to London or New York or 
Shanghai. And India is still far less urbanised than the other corre- 
spondingly populous regions. Here the drift to the towns has hardly 
begun. 

The motive determining all these migrations is, as always, the human 
desire for better conditions of life. Hence the trend is towards those 
areas which, in the circumstances of to-day, offer or are believed to offer 
the best opportunities. The applications of science to agriculture and 
other formerly rural occupations have diminished the need of these vital 
industries for large numbers of workers ; and so released a large pro- 
portion for other occupations. Similar changes have concentrated the 
workers in other industries into large groups in urban areas. These 
changes, together with parallel developments in transport, have allowed 
the social instincts to find freer play — for man is a gregarious animal, and 
few of us really like to be isolated for any long time — and the results are 
seen in the growth, at an ever-increasing rate, of the greater conurbations 
and a corresponding decline in the population of many thinly peopled 
areas. If these social desires which make for crowding together continue 
unchanged, and the power to satisfy them continues to increase, the 
concentration of human beings into urban groups may become almost 
universal. Even the agricultural workers may dwell in towns and travel 
daily to and from their place of work over distances as great as those of 
some suburban journeys of to-day. But the grouping of industries 
round the great conurbations is more purely, though not entirely, due to 
economic factors ; and so it is more readily capable of being modified 
by the action of Governments. The extent to which the growth is a recent 
fact may be seen if we recall that since 1900 Greater London (of the 
census) and Greater New York have each doubled their populations ; 
whilst the Tokyo and Shanghai conurbations, with a later start, have in- 
creased about fourfold and tenfold respectively in the same period. 

The trend towards urbanisation and concentration seems likely to be 
strengthened by the further, probable, increase in the productivity of 
agriculture ; for if the amounts of food, and other agricultural products, 



128 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

needed can be obtained from smaller areas the tendency to abandon the 
poorer marginal lands and concentrate cultivation in the more fertile 
areas will be greatly strengthened. These developments are occurring 
coincidently with the cessation of that rapid increase in numbers which 
has been a principal fact of human life for the past two centuries. Hence 
it seems that apart from catastrophic disturbances (such as a great war) 
present trends of population movements point towards (i) the probable 
reduction in the population of the, at present, thinly peopled lands, (2) a 
concentration of a still larger proportion of the world's inhabitants into 
a few great populous regions, and (3) a further increase in the size and 
dominance of a few areas of maximum concentration of population, 
among which the three leaders are those described in Western Europe, in 
Eastern North America, and in China. 

References. 

The chief bases for this paper are the census reports of many countries ; Year 
Books of the League of Nations and some of the Dominions ; such works as 
the Statesman's Year Book ; and map studies. 

Three works used for particular reference are : 
Haliczer, J. : ' The Population of Europe, 1720, 1820, 1930,' Geography (1934). 
Levasseur, E. : ' I-a Repartition de la race'humaine,' Bulletin de I'Institut 

international de Statistique (1909). 
MuKERjEE, R. : ' Migrant Asia.' Published at Rome (1936). 

Previous papers by the writer on kindred topics which have been used in 
preparing this address include : 

' The Distribution of Population over the Land,' Sociological Review (1925). 

' Centres of World Power,' Sociological Review (1926). 

' The Balance of Urban and Rural Populations,' Geography (1929). 

' The Extent of the Cultivable Land,' Geographical Journal (1930). 

' The Distribution of the Urban Population in Great Britain, 1931,' Geographical 

Journal (1932). 
'Areas of Concentration of Population in the English-speaking Countries,' 

Population (1934). 
' Millionaire Cities,' Mdlanges de G&ographie, Praha (1936). 
'Whither Population? ' Geography (1937). 



SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND 
INDUSTRIAL POLICY 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. P. SARGANT FLORENCE, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



§ I. Categories of Policy. 

This Section of the British Association bears the title Economic Science 
and Statistics. I need not, therefore, apologise for confining the 
term economic research to inquiries that follow the ordinary scientific 
practice of generalising from observed facts, measured and summarised 
in the form of statistics. Such enquiries are often known as realistic, 
thereby casting, perhaps, undeserved aspersions on purely deductive 
theory. Be that as it may, my object in this paper is to review the con- 
clusions reached by so-called realistic economists in recent years on the 
problems of practical industrial policy facing private business organisa- 
tions as well as the State. These problems of industrial policy have 
become prominent first under the caption of ' rationalisation,' later under 
that of ' planning.' To-day, instead of being taken for granted or dis- 
cussed behind the closed doors of Cabinet or Board Room, industrial 
policies are publicly reviewed and reconsidered in the heat of argument and 
often in the dangerous twilight of a little knowledge. Can economists 
not add to this knowledge and direct the argument less hotly perhaps 
but more to practical purposes } 

The main purpose of industrial policy is, we assume, to promote 
economic efhciency,,that is, to increase income, output or satisfaction at 
the least cost, monetary, physical or real.^ If this is not so, the non- 
economic purpose must be explicitly stated and not just assumed. What 
economists, as such, are interested in is not the purposes or ends but the 
means or policy. Of the policies advocated as a means to maximum 
efficiency, some are alternatives within the same category ; others are 
in different, but supplementary, categories. 

As I see it the main categories of industrial policy consist in problems 
of industrial structure ; problems of industrial functioning or adminis- 
tration ; and problems of industrial or economic technique such as 
price fixing or output restriction. These three sets of problems form 

* For elaboration of these three levels, to which the fundamental economic 
terms may be referred, see Florence, Economics and Human Behaviour, pp. 90-93. 

F 



I30 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

categories in the sense that every industrial organisation must have some 
variety of structure, of administration, and of technique. This paper 
is mainly concerned with the category of structural policies. These fall, 
to follow my model, into three sub-categories which can be succinctly 
summed up as problems of site, size and scope. They form categories 
of structure, again, in the sense that every industrial structure must 
have some site, some size and some scope. 

§ 2. The Industrial Site. 

The problem of site has always exercised a business organisation when- 
ever it planned to move or to open a new plant or branih. Recently 
the State has become interested in the siting or ' location ' of industry 
through its policy of helping distressed areas by encouraging firms to 
* site ' new plants there, and the Commissioner for the Special Areas of 
England and Wales has gone as far as to suggest placing Greater London 
out of bounds for further factory construction, unless good reasons to the 
contrary were adduced. This policy, as the Commissioner points out, 
would involve the licensing of new factories and of extensions to 
old factories in the London area.^ This year a Royal Commission has 
been appointed to ' enquire into the causes which have influenced the 
present geographical distribution of the industrial population of Great 
Britain and the probable direction of any change in that distribution in 
the future ; to consider what social, economic or strategical advantages 
arise from the concentration of industries or of the industrial population 
in large towns or in particular areas of the country ; and to report what 
remedial measures, if any, should be taken in the national interest.' 

The national value of a careful choice of the location of industry, a 
choice making full use of research, has nowhere been more precisely 
put than in the Second Industrial Survey of South Wales : ^ ' The working 
of economic forces will eventually bankrupt any concerns which have 
made a wrong choice and will thus ensure for the community the opti- 
mum distribution of its resources, but only after an interval of confusion, 
and possibly after the creation of fresh pools of stagnant labour unable to 
find an outlet. A better choice made now would ensure the earlier 
attainment of the optimum location of resources, and would eliminate 
much confusion and waste. Though in form a wisely conceived State 
direction of location might appear to be an interference with the working 
of" natural " forces, it might in fact prove to have been only a short cut 
to the equilibrium which ihe free working of those forces would eventually 
ensure.' 

In recent years considerable research has been devoted to this problem 
of siting or location of industry. Theoretical economists with the almost 
single exception of Alfred Weber have been content till recently to give 
the problem but a passing reference. Weber's Uber den Standort der 
Industrien, however, suffers from the usual limitations of a deductive 
approach that its assumptions are unreal and its argument over-simplified. 
Examining the more recent theoretical contributions of Ohlin and Predohl 

2 Third Report, p. 8. ^ Vol. I., p. 397. 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 131 

as well as that of Weber, Mr. Dennison concludes that ' a review of the 
various theories of location shows quite clearly the lack of any concepts 
which can be used in dealing with actual problems.'* A particular mis- 
take, in Mr. Dennison's view, is that these economists dealt with industry 
as a category rather than with actual industries. 

Thanks to accurate censuses of occupations and production it is now 
possible to inquire inductively into the location of actual, particular, 
industries. In 1929 I suggested a measure of the concentration of any 
particular industry in any given area by comparing the proportion of all 
occupied persons that were occupied in that industry in the given area 
with the corresponding proportion for the country as a whole. ^ A similar 
result is obtained by comparing the proportion of all persons occupied 
in any particular industry found in the given area with the corre- 
sponding proportion for industry as a whole. Thus, 54*3 per cent, of 
all brassfounders in England and Wales were found in 1931 to be in 
the West Midlands area distinguished in the Census of Occupations, 
but the proportions of the occupied population in the West Midlands 
was only 11 "5 per cent, for all industries. A measure of the concen- 
tration of the brass-founding industry in the West Midlands can thus 
be stated as 54*3 -i- ii"5 =4-7. In a paper yet unpublished, read 
before Section F of the British Association last year, Mr. A. J. Wensley 
and I worked out this measure, which we called the location factor, for all 
the industries distinguished in the 1931 Census of Occupations in respect of 
each of the twelve areas or regions into which that Census divides England. 

The fact that some particular industry is concentrated in some particu- 
lar areas though important for the siting of individual businesses, is, for 
purposes of State policy, not so significant as the fact of the general 
diffusion everywhere or concentration anywhere of the given industry. 
If a depressed area is to be developed by the introduction of new factories 
it is essential for the State to know which are the industries whose units 
can be arbitrarily shifted. Some industries such as aerated waters are 
widely diffused wherever the population presents consumers, others such 
as cotton are narrowly concentrated where the skilled labour is found. 
But there is probably a middle grade of industries that need neither be 
completely diffused nor completely concentrated, some of whose units 
can, within limits, be sited anywhere without loss of efficiency. To dis- 
cover which industries fall into such middle grades, Mr. Wensley and 
I worked out a measure of localisation based on the location factor.'' 
When an industry is evenly scattered over the whole country, the location 
factor already explained would clearly be unity for each region. To show 
in one figure to what degree each industry is localised we calculated the 
coefficient of localisation based on the mean deviation from unity of the 
industry's regional location factors. Clearly a weighted mean deviation 

* See S. R. Dennison, Theory of Industry Location. The Manchester School 
Vol. viii., No. 1. 

' Florence, The Statistical Method in Economics, pp. 327-8. 

* For other methods of measuring the degree of localisation of an industry- 
see Day: 'Distribution of Industrial Occupations in England 1841-1861,' 
Transactions of The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, March 1927 ; Hoover, 
' Measurement of Industrial Localization,' Review of Economic Statistics, Nov. 1936. 



132 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

is a better indication than an unweighted one, for a high or low location 
factor in a large area represents a greater degree of concentration or 
otherwise than the same factor in a small area. Weighting is particularly 
necessary where the official region is used as a basis since these regions 
range from Greater London with 21 -8 per cent, of the occupied population 
of England and Wales to North Wales with i • 6 per cent. If the weight 
used be these percentages of occupied population, a short-cut device can 
be used avoiding the calculation of the regional location factors. This 
is not the place for the demonstration of this device ; but a warning must 
be issued that, apart from methods of calculation, the coefficient is liable 
to be less significant the larger the areas used.' 

The coefficient of localisation can vary from o-oo for no localisation 
to 2 -00 for extreme localisation. When the official regional areas are 
used as a basis, tin-plate shows the highest coefficient with i -81. Lace, 
I -68 ; cotton weaving i -49 ; cotton carding and spinning i -45 ; hosiery 
1-45 ; cutlery 1-45 ; and pottery 1-44 are not far behind. At the 
other extreme are local government 0-05 ; dealing 0-12 ; mineral waters 
0-13 ; bread and flour 0-15 ; and beer-breweries 0-22 — ^all well dis- 
tributed. 

Industries in the middle ranges of the coefficient which offer the best 
hope of large development in the depressed areas include artificial silk 
spinning (coefficient 1-15), cocoa and chocolate (coefficient o-86), mining 
machinery (coefficient 0-82), toys, games and sports requirements (coeffi- 
cient 0-74), rubber (coefficient 0-70), biscuits (coefficient 0-64), electrical 
apparatus (coefficient o • 62), sugar confectionery (coefficient 0-53).^ The 
mere possession of a middling coefficient is of course not enough to cast 
the industry for development in a depressed area. Research must take 
account of the special circumstances of the area and the industry and must 
work on some theory of the reasons for location checked by statistical 
measures and itself checking those measures. Where the fuel, materials 
and markets of a particular industry are concentrated at distant places, 
for instance, theories such as Weber's as to their relative force in deter- 
mining the most efficient site must be tested and checked by reference to 
the statistical factors and coefficients. If, as seems to be the case in 
England to-day, the forces that determined the present localisations are 
changing and the market is becoming more important at least than fuel, 
this should be shown by a halt in the progress of localisation and of the 
more localised industries. Areas seem to be depressed to-day largely 
because their industries were too self-centred and too far from the centre 
of the country's population. Delocalisation may soon be taking place 
in the sense that there will be a smaller proportion of men employed in 
an industry where that particular industry used to be localised. Realistic 
research in siting problems has not yet however proceeded much beyond 

' Mr. Wensley has worked out a ' truer ' coefficient of localisation for a sample 
of industries based on a division of the country into very small localities. The 
differences in the case of the same industry between the truer localisation coeffi- 
cients and the coefficient based on the official twelve regions of England and 
Wales did not, in practice, however, turn out to be great. 

8 See The Second Industrial Survey of South Wales, Pt. Ill, chap. 3. for list of 
Suggested New Industries. 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 133 

the stage of the exact yet summary measurements which may soon test 
such an hypothesis of delocahsation. But this is something achieved ! 

A statistical series, such as the location factors and the localisation 
coefficients of all the particular industries distinguished in the Census 
of Occupations or the Census of Production for different years, enables 
the economist to see exactly what is the situation or trend in situation that 
he is trying to explain. He cannot just use a few well-known locations 
and localisations as illustrations when it suits his argument, but must 
frame a theory which, as a working hypothesis, will explain all or at least 
the bulk of the measured observation in the series before him. It is to 
be hoped that this working out of standard measures of localisation will 
now permit a realistic understanding of the forces at work upon which 
to base effective siting policies. 

So far the problem of site has been confined to the localisation of some 
particular industry with reference to the population as a whole. But the 
concentration of industry generally into a relatively confined geographical 
area is also exercising the State government, as the terms of reference of 
this year's Royal Commission, mentioned earlier, clearly show. 

It is the problem of urbanisation or, rather, suburbanisation. Just 
as the localisation of a particular industry presents (external) economies 
of supply of labour and auxiliary services specialised in that industry, so 
general localisation presents (external) economies of an accessible supply 
of general labour and services which, with the wider use of semi-skilled 
occupations, are not much less important. The scarcity and high rents 
of urban sites and new transit facilities, however, urge labour and factories 
to (not necessarily the same) suburbs. Hence the economic inefficiencies 
of ribbon development and of hours and expenses per man getting to 
and from work, and the strategical problems connected with population 
congestion in time of war. What is usually lumped by economists under 
the simple title of localisation thus appears to have four distinct meanings, 
all of them of separate importance in forming policy. 

1 . The location of a particular industry in a particular area-. Measur- 
able by the location factor of that area. 

2. The concentration or localisation of a particular industry anjrwhere 
in the country. The degree of localisation, measurable by the localisa- 
tion coefficient. 

3. The location of industry in general in a particular * urban ' area. 
Measurable by density of occupied population in that area.^ 

4. The concentration or localisation of industry in general anywhere 
in the country. The degree of urbanisation measurable, e.g. by the pro- 
portion of the total occupied population in towns or districts over a certain 
population density. 

Research into the location and localisation of industry in general has 
recently been undertaken in the United States by economists of the 
Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania headed by Prof. 

* Contour lines linking places of equal density of population may be drawn 
over the map of any country ; and cross-sections cut showing typical successions 
or cycles of city, suburban and rural areas. See Florence, Statistical Method in 
Economics and Political Science, p. 116. 



134 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Carter Goodrich. In a chapter of their Migration and Economic Oppor- 
tunity entitled, ' The Changing Pattern of Industrial Location,' they 
divide the areas of the U.S.A. into seven types : (A) principal cities ; (B) 
satellite cities ; (C) industrial peripheries ; (D) other cities of 100,000 
population ; (E) peripheries of ' D ' cities ; (F) important industrial 
counties ; and (G) the rest. The proportion of all ' wage jobs ' and of 
wage jobs in particular industries are then given for recent years according 
as they are situated or ' located ' in each of the seven types of area. In 
the last thirty years the trend of American manufactures as a whole is 
found to have been away from large cities. In 1899 39*5 per cent, of 
all manufacturing wage jobs were in large cities ; in 1933 only 33-1 per 
cent. The types of area that gained in jobs were the suburban industrial 
areas ' B ' and ' C,' or ' G ' — the country. Goodrich and associates also 
show what particular industries favour the different types of area. Steel- 
works, pottery banks, and worsted mills seem particularly to favour 
suburbia ; flour-milling, clay products and woollen goods the country. 
Here, undoubtedly, a new line of economic research is opened up ; the 
problem of the optimum urban-rural distribution of industry in general, 
and the most efficient incidence of particular industries in that pattern. 

§ 3. The Size of Plants. 

The problem of size arises continually in the policy of industrial 
organisations when they have to decide whether to take or refuse addi- 
tional orders and how far, if at all, to extend and develop or, as in flour- 
milling and shipbuilding, to close down the works. It arises at irregular 
intervals in an acute form when there is some project of association or 
combination on foot. The State is now also taking a hand in size policy 
through its schemes of amalgamation of mines, of limitations by quota, 
closing down of redundant plant, and marketing boards for agriculture and 
coal. The bulk of the whole planning programme is in a sense a size 
policy. The size referred to is sometimes that of the technical factory 
and plant, sometimes thai of the firm or combine or association that may 
control one or more plants. Has recent economic research discovered 
any rational basis for a policy either toward larger or smaller plants or 
firms ? 

Research into the problem of size of industrial organisations has pro- 
ceeded further than into that of site. The stage of devising descriptive 
measurement has been passed and the grounds for supposing one size to 
be more efficient than another are being explored. To a certain degree 
mere description of the actual situation is a test of efficiency, since a given 
situation in sites or in sizes is the result of efficiency in survival from past 
policies ; and efficiency is tested to a yet greater degree by the description 
of the trend of changes over a period of years. In comparing sizes of 
organisations, however, more direct tests have been adopted, such as 
costs and profits. The evidence of the actual distribution of sizes of 
plants, and trends in this distribution, will be considered first, beginning 
with manufacturing plants. 

The actual distribution of sizes of factories, measured by men em- 
ployed, is now at last obtainable for separate British industries in the 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 135 

Census of Production for 1930.1° The situation is shown to be surpris- 
ingly similar to that already known for the United States of America, 
through its long series of decennial Censuses of Manufactures. Even 
when due allowance is made for differences of definitional the average 
size of the British appears extraordinarily similar to that of the con- 
temporary American factory. But the interest does not lie in average 
size for industry as a whole so much as in the typical differences between 
industries. These differences, again, seem extraordinarily similar in Great 
Britain and the United States, and indeed in Germany, too. 

Some years ago, before the publication of the 1929 American and the 
1930 British Census, I presented a table showing the distribution of the 
wage-earning population of the U.S.A. in 1909 among plants of eight 
ranges of size in fourteen leading manufacturing industries.!^ I have 
now been able to draw up a similar table for the U.S.A. in 1929, for 
Great Britain in 1930, and Germany in 1925, adding three more indus- 
tries, furniture, hosiery and chemicals that have since become equally 
leading. Only a brief summary can be given here, by presenting in a 
table the percentage of all employees that are found in plants of over 
500 employees.!^ As the footnotes to the table indicate, a certain caution 
must be used in comparing these percentages too literally as between 
different countries ; yet the conclusion is justified from the general 
distribution of workers that in spite of difference in country, the same 
size of plant tends to prevail in the same industries. This conclusion 
would indicate that in determining size of factories there are technical 
or economic factors at work common to all industrialised countries, 
rather than factors particular to any one country. To be of use to policy 
research must discover these underlying factors. 

At Birmingham we are now engaged in tracing the relation of size of 
plant with the degree of mechanisation. Mechanisation is difficult to 
measure directly, but some cross between horse-power and overhead costs 
per worker is perhaps the most sensitive index. Though it is easiest to 
obtain, horse-power per head fails to indicate the presence of many hand- 
operated machines, as in shoe-making, and must be supplemented by some 
measure of overhead costs. This is obtainable in the British Census by 
subtracting for each industry average earnings per operative from net 
output per head.i* Admittedly, overheads per head may measure other 
elements besides mechanisation, such as specialised salaried staff and 
marketing cost, yet the machine costs such as maintenance, repair, depre- 
ciation and obsolescence are probably predominant. On the whole the 

'" Where he owns more than one factory it is officially left to the employer to 
decide whether to return the size of each single factory or the whole firm. Com- 
parison with statistics of the distribution of sizes provided by H.M. Chief In- 
spector of Factories point to the size of single factories as that normally returned. 

11 See Footnotes to the Table. 

'= Logic of Industrial Organisation, Table II, p. 30. The reason for the choice 
of industries and for omitting 1919, is given in a footnote, p. 29. 

" Gas has been omitted from the original fourteen industries as being a public 
utility rather than private manufacture. 

*■* See table pages 102-103. Pinal Report on the Fourth Census of Production 
(1930). 



136 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



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F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 137 

facts in Britain, the U.S.A., and Germany seem to justify the generalisa- 
tion that the higher the mechanisation of an industry, the larger is the size 
of its constituent plants or factories. 

An explanation that may serve as a working hypothesis is that the more 
powerful and more costly the engines and equipment, the more it pays to 
congregate men round them in a single plant ; also that mechanisation 
involves specialisation of processes and that the necessary co-ordinating 
of transport and communication costs arising from such specialisation are 
at a minimum when the specialists are all under one roof.^^ In fact, most 
of the economic advantages of localisation can be seen at their optimum 
inside a single large works. 

The particular index of size used — number of employees per plant ^^ — 
weighs against my generalisation as to the relation of size and mechanisa- 
tion, since the actual process of mechanising involves employing fewer 
persons. That the more mechanised industries should on the whole be 
the larger-scale industries in the sense of containing plants employing the 
larger number of persons is therefore all the more significant. But there 
is one large group of factory industries forming an exception to this rule, 
those where the coefficient of localisation is low. An industry in this 
group may well consist typically of small plants and yet have a high horse- 
power and overhead cost per man. The explanation is not far to seek. 
Industries with a low coefficient of localisation are scattered among the 
population largely because of the high transport costs of a raw material 
that is scattered (e.g. timber for saw-milling or grain for grain-milling) or 
of a product required fairly universally by a population that is scattered 
(e.g. aerated waters or beer). Some of these industries are highly mechan- 
ised, but their plants cannot be large because production must be carried 
on in so many plants situated in scattered localities. Where the costs 
of transporting material or product are much greater than the economies 
of mechanised concentration, there a fortiori of plants will be scattered 
(i.e. unlocalised) and small. Among the costs of transport are liability 
to putrescence and need for communication between producer and con- 
sumer. It is these conditions that probably keep industries like furniture, 
baking, printing, and clothing small scale, i.e. small-plant, industries. 
Though close-to-consumer unlocalised industries are usually small-scale, 
it does not follow that highly localised industries are large-scale as some 
economists assume. ^^ Inductive investigation based on all the principal 
British industries shows that the highly localised industries, such as tin- 
plate, hosiery, cotton and wool textiles, pottery, cutlery, boots and shoes 
are predominantly medium-scale in size of plant. 

Industrial policy requires that economic research look ahead so that 
the plans made to-day may not run counter to the forces of to-morrow. 
Is the large manufacturing plant likely to flourish under future conditions } 
Are industries likely to become large-scale yet ? 

" Florence, Logic of Industrial Organisation, p. 14. 

*" This index is chosen as being free from the difficulty of comparing economic 
values between different countries and periods. Some of the difficulties in using 
this index to measure size are given in Florence, Statistical Methods in Economics 
and Political Science, pp. 154-155. 

" E.g., A. R. and E. M. Burns, The Economic World, p. 43. 

F2 



138 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

If the growth of large plants does not depend on localisation but, subject 
merely to a minimum degree of localisation, does depend upon the growth 
of mechanisation ; then judging from the present rapid increase in mechan- 
isation, the large plant is due to flourish, multiply and expand yet further. 
Measuring mechanisation only by horse-power per man it has increased 
steadily in U.S.A. manufactures from 1-25 h.p. per man in 1879 ^^ 4"86 
h.p. per man in 1929 ; in Germany from 0-82 h.p. per man in 1907 to 
I -47 h.p. per man in 1925, and in British factories even in the short period 
between 1924 and 1930, from 2-02 to 2-44 h.p. per man. Many of the 
other elements in overheads per head can also be shown measurably to 
have grown. Not least important among them is the proportion of 
administrative and technical staff per operative worker. In British 
factories this was 11-7 per cent, in 1924, 13-5 per cent, in 1930. 

The fact that an upward trend in size actually has taken place, whatever 
the underlying causes, can be seen directly in countries, which unlike 
Britain, have measured size in more censuses than one. My table shows 
that in America the proportion of workers in the larger plants (employing 
over 500) has between 1909 and 1929 risen from 28-0 per cent, to 37-7 
per cent, for the total of manufactures and out of sixteen individual in- 
dustries compared, has only fallen (and that but slightly) in the case of 
three industries. In German productive industry, between the Census 
of 1907 and 1925 the number of plants increased considerably less than 
the number of employees. Growth in size applied to all the groups of 
factory industries ^^ except machine building and rubber. 

What is the prevailing size of plant and the trend of size in industries 
other than manufacture ? State policy is particularly concerned at present 
with the size of mining and may in the future, if some planners have their 
way, limit the number of retail shops by licence. Some countries are 
also threatening to proceed against the multiple chain store. 

If the size of mines be measured like that of factories by men employed 
the prevailing size must be classed as large. The British (1930) Census 
of Production found 87 • per cent, of miners in mines employing over 500 
men. The corresponding proportion in Germany for 1925 was 82-9 
per cent., and the trend here seems definitely towards larger mines, since 
between 1907 and 1925 the number of mines fell by 12-4 per cent, while 
the number of miners rose by 63 -3 per cent. 

The typical size of shop, on the other hand, is extremely small. It is 
calculated by Miss Douglas ^^ from the British Occupation Census of 1931 
that the average shop employs i -4 salesmen and assistants to every 
I proprietor or manager. Assuming that there is a proprietor or manager 
to every shop this makes the average persons per shop 2-4. The corre- 
sponding figure for German retailing is 2 • 3 and for commerce as a whole 
2-8. Nor does the trend appear upward. In German commerce as a 
whole between 1907 and 1925 plants increased by 63 -7 per cent., persons 
occupied by 62-7 per cent. ; and Dr. Ford has shown that for Great 
Britain between 1901 and 1931 the number of shops has increased, though 
in most trades not as fast as the population.^* 

-- Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, Band 413, I, pp. 246. 
2' Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1935, Part III. 
-* Economic Journal, September 1935. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 139 

Commercial establishments and shops in particular must by their very 
purpose be dispersed among the population and cannot be localised like 
manufactures. They must therefore be small. The dispersion among 
the population may, however, be too thorough in the sense that in any one 
neighbourhood there are more outlets for any one product than is neces- 
sary for the convenience of the neighbours, and that where deliveries are 
made errand boys continually criss-cross one another in their rounds. In 
England one shop to every 60 or 70 head of population has been the usual 
estimate, but the recently published trial census of distribution in six towns 
each of about 30,000 inhabitants, gives the observed frequency of 41-4 
persons per selling-point or about one selling-point to every ten families. 

Even if shops selling only the same wares are taken, this census shows 
that the population of 183,000 of the combined six towns was provided 
with 1,973 outlets for cigars, cigarettes and tobacco only, that is one outlet 
for every 93 persons, or say, twenty-two families ; and with about 1,200 
outlets for canned goods, for chocolate and sugar confectionery, for tea 
and coffee and for biscuits, that is one outlet for every 152 persons or, say, 
thirty-sLx families. 

Is this typically very small size and small clientele of shops the result 
of a survival of the fittest ? The evidence from costs and profits, to be 
taken in the next section in connection with distributive firms, shows that 
there is certainly no greater efficiency in the smaller shops. Rather the 
contrary. And the tale of bankruptcies, which is particularly sordid and 
tragic in the retailing trades, would go to suggest that the multitude of 
small shops is due to a continual trial and error process. Men without 
any experience or much capital are continually trying to set up as shop- 
keepers and almost as continually making an error. And the error involves 
the consumer as well as himself. If for lack of experience and capital a 
shopkeeper can only sell, say, £450 worth of goods he must charge a 
margin of 33^ per cent, for his own gross profit in order to have a bare 
income of £150 a year. Thus, with a small total of sales a huge margin 
of profit (on sales) is quite compatible with a low (total) profit and forms 
a vicious circle, for the high margin keeps up high prices and checks sales 
further. With more sales per shop, however, a fair (total) profit is com- 
patible with a low margin of profit (on sales) ; and a virtuous circle is 
engendered. The low margin of profit permits lower prices, these in 
turn stimulate more sales, and these in turn enable lower margins to be 
charged which in turn permit lower prices . . . ad infinitum. 

§ 4. The Size of Firms. 
The British and American censuses limit themselves to the size of 
plants, whereas State and private industrial policy is equally, if not more, 
concerned with the size of the firm or unit of control. Marketing and 
central selling schemes, for instance, whether in agriculture or mining, 
form an attempt to enlarge the business unit controlling several plants or 
mines rather than to enlarge any one plant or mine. The Government's 
Economic Advisory Council reported in 1930 that in the cotton industry 
' the first essential step in the path of recovery ' was the formation of 
amalgamations large enough to secure economies of merchanting and 
finance rather than building larger mills or sheds. The policy of the 



140 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Rationalisation movement is to increase the areas under one planning and 
control authority irrespective of whether that area consists of one or a 
number of plants. And the policy of Planning, so-called, goes as far as 
to advocate that this area under one control shall be a whole industry. 
Nor must we forget that here in England we have in the last twenty years, 
seen the formation of a Big Five in banking, a Big Four in railways, and 
a Big One in chemicals — not to mention the policy of Bigs Limited in 
electrical engineering, soap, sugar, matches, cement and so on. 

Economists have unfortunately not always been too clear as to whether 
they meant firm or plant when they were discussing scale of industry ; 
sometimes they really meant neither. When they do quote statistics they 
are usually figures for size of plant irrelevant to the issue. For in dis- 
cussing the trust problem or the newer problem of industrial leadership 
or the phenomena of monopoly, duopoly and oligopoly, it is size of firm 
that is relevant and in particular, the size of one, two or a few firms relative 
to the whole industry. And in discussing laws of increasing return it is, 
as we shall see, scope that is relevant — not size of organisation at all. 

It is one of the advantages of a statistical approach that the inquirer 
must be quite certain what he is discussing. If he wants to know the 
number of persons in a unit he must, if he is to get a figure, specify whether 
it is the number in the plant that he wants or the number in the firm. 
Certainly, if the type of theory most relevant to this issue of size is to be 
' checked ' by statistics it is essential to distinguish firm and plant. The 
type of theoretical model I refer to is that of Mr. E. A. G. Robinson. In 
his Structure of Competitive Industry, Robinson breaks down the 
determinants of the optimum size of business unit into five forces : tech- 
nical, managerial, financial, marketing, and risk. Finance and marketing, 
he thinks, usually demand a larger, management a smaller size. The size 
of an actual unit must therefore be a compromise. An industry requiring 
detailed management may very well have small plants, but the financing 
and marketing firm controlling several such plants can be large. Is this 
differentiation of plant and firm a real and common situation ? 

Here the German Census of 1925 is particularly helpful since it deals 
in separate volumes with plants (Niederlassungen) and firms (gewerbliche 
Unternehmungen). The distribution of workers among various sizes of 
organisation looks very different when the organisation referred to is a 
firm rather than a plant. In German productive industry generally there 
were in 1925 566,760 persons in large single, plaftts employing over 5,000, 
but 1,442,039 persons in plants belonging to the large single ^n?z^ em- 
ploying over 5,000. In my table, 33-6 per cent, of all persons occupied 
in German productive industry ^^ are shown to be occupied in large plants 
employing over 500. The corresponding percentage for those occupied 
in IdLVge firms employing over 500 is 41-6 per cent. In commerce and 
transport the disparity between the numbers employed according to 
whether large scale refers to large plant or large firm is still more marked. 
There were only 23,620 persons in very large commercial and transport 
plants, e.g. shops and stations employing over 5,000, but, with the same 

2^ Subtracting those in plants employing ten or less. 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 141 

numerical measure of very large, 1,263,109 persons in very large com- 
mercial and transport firms. In short, statistics collected by plants, to 
which America and Britain are mostly confined, seriously understate the 
degree of large-scaledness, if this is meant to refer to size of firms. 

The reason for the difference in the typical size of plant and firm is of 
course that many firms have branch plants. The German Census of 1925 
found that for industry and commerce as a whole, 42-4 per cent, of all 
persons occupied were occupied in firms with branch plants. There were, 
in fact, 45,634 firms v/ith one branch over and above headquarters plant, 
7,318 with two branch plants and 8,051 with three or more branch plants. 
As to the trend in the size of firm, particularly these multiplant firms, 
no exact figures are available even for Germany ; but the view is generally 
accepted that the combination movement is growing. Certainly, re- 
searches now being conducted at Birmingham into the largest British 
Joint Stock Companies, and also a random sample of all British industrial 
and commercial companies, disclose a much greater concentration of 
power into a few hands to-day than is usually supposed to be true for 
Great Britain. For any company to be a Holding or a Subsidiary Com- 
pany and to possess Interlocking Directors in common with other com- 
panies is rather the rule than the exception. There is also the device, as 
yet little noticed in textbooks, of the weighted vote. A few special shares 
may be created with perhaps ten times the voting power of the ordinary 
' ordinary ' shares, thus helping an individual or a company that holds 
them to ' pyramid ' control to astronomical proportions. For the moment 
we are not concerned with policies of internal control, but merely notice 
the wide and probably widening prevalence of large areas of control. 

When, instead of prevalence and trends, profits and costs are used as 
measures of efficiency, it is of course the size of the firm that is being 
tested. The view of most theoretical economists has hitherto been that 
after a certain size is passed, in spite of marketing and financial economies 
and plant decentralisation, the firm becomes too large to be manageable. 
In so far as this view is at all based on statistical information, it derives 
mainly from the experience of the big trusts formed in America between 
1893 and 1905 as summed up by Prof. Dewing writing in the Quarterly 
Journal of Ecottomics for November 1921. Subsequent writers have 
not found the conclusion quite so obvious. Mead,^^ following up Dewing 's 
thirty-seven mergers, gives a table showing that during the years 1924-31, 
seventeen of the mergers averaged at least 6| per cent, per year in dividend 
on the common stock, watered though it often was. Mead himself con- 
siders thirteen of these mergers, and one other that paid lower dividends, 
to have been conspicuously successful when accumulation of large surplus 
and provision for depreciation of plant and depletion of mineral properties 
is taken into account, in addition to paynlent of dividend. 

More recently Livermore ^^ has taken a wider list of the mergers formed 
in America between 1890 and 1904. Out of 156 mergers that were 
important enough to have the power to influence conditions in their 
industry he found that 53 suffered early and 10 later failure, while 17 

** Corporation Finance, 7th ed., chap. XXXVIII. 
-' Quarterly Journal of Economics, Nov. 1935. 



142 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

limped along. But 76, or almost exactly half, were successes in the sense 
that they had maintained a high dividend between 1901 and 1932, com- 
pared with the average for their industry. Of these 76 Livermore counts 
10 as rejuvenations and a further 10 as outstanding successes. 

The mergers of 1890 to 1904 were mostly promoted on the expectation 
of monopoly profits. Their early experiences mark in Mead's view the 
failure of an expected monopoly rather than the failure of large size. It 
is doubtful, in short, whether the theory of a low optimum management 
unit can find any factual basis in Dewing 's material. Nor must the 
suggestive inquiry of the American National Conference Board on Mergers 
m hidustry be passed over. This showed that of the prices of sixty lines 
of manufacture in the period 1900-1925, those rose least, on the average, 
where consolidations had been strong in the industries producing them, 
while in industries not affected by the combination movement, prices 
rose most on the average. A possible explanation of this somewhat 
paradoxical result is that the monopoly profit which combinations are 
usually aiming at was obtained by reducing costs, and that to such an 
extent that prices could (monopoly) profitably also be reduced relatively 
to the no-combination industries. 

Recently, two further original statistical inquiries have presented data 
on the relation of size of firms to profits. Both in Epstein's Industrial 
Profits in the United States and in Paton's Corporate Profits as shown by 
Audit Reports, it appears that the larger American Corporations made in 
the years 1924 and 1928 a lower rate of profit on their total capital than 
the smaller corporations. Neither of the authors are trying to present 
a case for the small corporation, but before their results are taken to heart 
in industrial policy a caution must be issued. Both authors when com- 
paring sizes lump all industries together. But it is quite probable that 
different industries have characteristically different rates of profit on 
capital. Indeed, one of Epstein's most valuable contributions is to show 
the permanence of differences in profit rates between different industries, 
at least over the period 1 919-1928. Epstein himself is cautious on the 
interpretation, but industries requiring little fixed capital, or involving 
risk and uncertainty might be expected to have a higher rate of profit per 
capital. If, as I have given reasons for believing, large firms prevail in 
industries where there is greater mechanisation ; and if, as is generally 
believed, smaller firms prevail in industries subject to wider uncertainties, 
it follows that small firms will tend to have the higher rate of profit. 

In any case, Marshall's warning ^^ still holds that the supposed general 
tendency of the rate of profits to equality cannot be verified till economists 
agree as to what they mean by rate of profit and how to measure that rate. 
Marshall was doubtful whether profits should be rated merely on the basis 
of capital and suggested sales -^ or the wages bill as alternative or auxiliary 

28 Book 6, chap. VIII, of his Principles. 

2' May one hope that the Government will make or cause to have made further 
inquiries of the relative profitability per ton of saleable coal of undertakings of 
different sizes such as the Samuel Commission published in 1926 ? This showed 
for the first half-year of 1925 a definite tendency for the smaller undertakings to 
obtain less profit or suffer more loss than the larger firms. But more such e\a- 
dence is required for more years and more of similar evidence for other industries. 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 143 

denominators. Certainly, it cannot be assumed that for all industries 
there should be the same normal profit per capital on the books. State 
taxation policy abandoned this assumption under the Excess Profits Duty 
and, after a temporary lapse last spring, abandoned it again in the new 
National Defence Contribution. Thus, to be scientific, enquirers such 
as Epstein and Paton must isolate the comparison of profits per capital 
for different sizes of firms within single industries. Epstein gives data 
permitting others to make this isolated comparison. His conclusion that 
the smaller corporations are more profitable than the larger is based on 
an analysis of corporations whose average capital was $13,500,000. These 
corporations are not, unfortunately, broken down into size classes for 
specific industries. But a series of separate chapters give profit rates 
for particularly small corporations with an average capital of $171,000, 
and for twenty-three specific industries (excluding major and all mis- 
cellaneous groupings) the rate of profit of a sufficient number of these 
corporations is given to form a reliable average for the industry. Com- 
paring this average for the small corporations with the average rate of 
profit for the large corporations as a whole ^° industry by industry, the 
small corporations are found on the average for the five years 1924 to 
1928 to have the higher profit in seven industries,^! the larger corporations 
the higher profit in sixteen industries. ^^ 

Clearly, until the profit rates of different sizes of corporations within 
the whole larger-sized group is analysed industry by industry, it is rash 
to accept Epstein's conclusion from his unanalysed group, that the smaller 
manufacturing corporations tend to be the more profitable. The very 
small corporation is probably not. 

Rates of profit on capital even when compared within isolated industries 
are a difficult measure wherewith to interpret efficiency. Comparisons 
of costs as well as profits on output or sales are of greater direct use as a 
guide to policy, and economists must welcome the detailed cost analysis 
of distributive firms that are being published in America by the Federal 
Government and various Research Bureaus. One of the most remarkable 
results was found by the first (1930) U.S. Census of Distribution in 
averaging the operating costs of wholesale merchants of different size. As 
the size increased from firms selling under $25,000 a year right up to 
firms selling over $1,000,000, operating costs per $100 of sales fell con- 
tinuously, for the nine successive classes of size, from $26-89 to 
$9-66. 

In retail trade the outstanding cost and profit analysis are those con- 
ducted by the Harvard Bureau of Business Research. They certainly do 

^o The comparison is slightly biassed in favour of the profitability of the small 
corporations by the fact that these did not include corporations suffering a deficit 
whereas the large corporations did. During the years 1922 to 1929 Epstein 
(op. cit. p. 350) does not consider this inclusion to be serious because of the rela- 
tively slight number and extent of such deficits. 

*i Dairying, meat-packing, lumber manufacturing, blank paper, stationery 
castings and forgings, sheet metal. 

'^ Bakery, flour, confectionery, men's clothing, knit goods (hosiery), furniture, 
cardboard boxes, newspapers, job-printing, paints, petroleum refining, ceramics, 
heating and ventilating machinery, electrical machinery, motor vehicles, tools. 



144 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

not support the thesis of a limit to efficient size. McNair, in a review of 
the Harvard Bureau's inquiries up to 1928, presents figures ^^ showing 
definitely a higher profit per sales for the larger department stores, lumber 
dealers, jewellers, grocers and shcie retailers. Since 1928 similar results 
have been repeated for department stores and have been newly established 
for specialty stores.^ This greater profit of the larger firms was due to 
their more economical purchase of merchandise rather than to their 
lower operating expense. Where chain stores are concerned it is often 
found that the larger the branch the lower is the operating cost, while the 
larger the whole firm or chain the lower the merchandise cost. A clear 
example is that of the chain groceries studied by the Harvard Bureau. 
As the whole chain gets larger the cost of merchandise falls. In chains 
of under nine branches the costs of purchasing the merchandise forms 
81-9 per cent, of retail sales ; in chains of ten to fifty branches it is 80 -8 
per cent. ; in chains of over fifty branches it is down to 79 -4 per cent. As 
the branch shop — the link of the chain — gets larger the operating costs 
fall. In firms with shops selling less than $50,000 a year on the average, ex- 
penses formed 19 per cent, of retail sales ; for firms with shops selling on 
the average more than this expenses were down to 16-7 per cent. It is 
true that the purchasing cost of merchandise rises slightly for firms with 
larger shops and that operating costs rise slightly with larger chains, but 
this is not sufficient to off^set the economies just mentioned, so that on 
balance the chains selling the greatest value of goods (whether by reason 
of large shops or a large number of shops) have the lower total of costs 
and higher profit per given amount of sales. 

The U.S. Federal Trade Commission have recently investigated chain 
stores on a wider scale. Here the several trades covered show widely 
different results. Some trades, such as groceries, confectionery, men's 
furnishings, men and women's ready-to-wear, follow the Harvard grocery 
chain-store pattern. As the number of branches increases, merchandise 
cost falls considerably, operating costs rise slightly and, on balance, profits 
rise. On the other hand, variety stores either with a limit of $10 or no 
limit, department stores and dry goods, show a falling profit as the branches 
increase in number. It is noticeable that the nine trades where (according 
to the Trade Commission's own table ^*) profits per sales rise upward with 
increasing size of the chain, are trades with, on the whole, a higher rate of 
turnover or ' stock-turn ' than the seven trades where profits fall downward 
with increasing size of chain. Only one of the nine upward profit trades 
has a turnover rate lower than 3 • 40 ; only one of the seven downward 
profit trades (department stores) has a turnover rate above 3 '42. The 
rate of stock-turn is with certain qualifications a possible index, as we 
shall see, of the degree of standardisation. 

It is possible that profitability depends not upon number of branches 
but upon standardisation and the reduction in the number of lines sold. 
Thus where the trade lends itself to a multiplication of lines it is rash for 
a firm to branch out, since not enough sales will be effected in each line to 

*' Economic Journal, December 1930. 

^^ Harvard Bureau of Business Research Bulletins, 83 and 84. 

'* Chain Stores : Sales, Costs and Profits of Retail Chains, Table 34, p. ^&. 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 145 

justify the expenses of holding stocks. This possible source of ineffi- 
ciency is essentially a problem of scope — the thesis being that a firm has 
widened the ' scope ' of its transactions too far. 



§ 5. The Industrial Scope. 

An industrial plant may occupy a certain site and consist of a certain 
size, but the scope of its activities may yet be uncertain. The problem 
of scope is more familiar under the title of integration, if it is clearly 
understood that integration refers to any joint performance by one firm 
or plant of several separable transactions, whether this joint performance 
occurs by reason of combination of firms, through extension of a single 
firm's activities or always existed. The policy of industrial firms is 
constantly concerned with questions of scope or integration. Shall a 
new process be taken on to continue processes already performed ; shall 
a new product be turned out from the materials already used for existing 
products or for the sake of a market already tapped ; shall an auxiliary 
service be provided within the firm that is now purchased externally ? 
These are questions in vertical, lateral and diagonal integration that an 
entrepreneur or Board of Directors constantly find themselves asking. 
Sometimes the question is in the opposite direction of disintegration, and 
the firm may decide on a policy of specialising in a comparatively few 
processes or services or a policy of standardising a comparatively few 
products. Policies of broadening or narrowing the scope of a firm may 
be quite independent of policies for increasing or decreasing its size. 
Employing the same number of men or producing the same value of goods 
a firm may reduce the number of its lines and, though not changing its 
size, may thus narrow its scope. Such a policy would increase the scale 
of production of the standard lines retained. It is this scale of production, 
not size of firm or plant, to which the economists' laws of increasing or 
diminishing returns refer ; so that it is not till we consider scope that 
realistic inquiries link up with elementary economic theory. The terms 
some of us learned at Cambridge may now at long last be realistically 
employed. When an industry by reducing scope goes in for general 
standardisation and large-scale production of standard lines then external 
economies arise to increase returns. When a single firm or plant by 
reducing scope goes in for particular standardisation and what I have 
ventured to call large-scale operation ^^ of standard lines, then internal 
economies arise to increase returns. If only, alas, there were more 
realistic research into the truth of these hypotheses ! The material, I 
believe, is there in the current records of British firms who have intro- 
duced mass, bulk, or batch production. 

Now such a policy of narrowing scope is being widely adopted by 
British industry, and often constitutes the core of rationalisation schemes 
whether or not sponsored by the State. The Redditch needle trades 
have, for instance, adopted a narrowing of vertical scope so that each of 
a series of plants specialises in one process ; the paper and, I believe, 

*' Economic Journal, December 1934. 



146 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the paint industry has adopted or proposed a lateral disintegration each 
plant specialising on a few varieties. Such schemes often combine a 
policy of increased size and scope for the firm or combine, together 
with diminished scope for the constituent plants. This seems the 
deliberate policy of Imperial Chemical Industries. The Economic 
Advisory Council advocated amalgamations in the Cotton Industry both 
to get spinning and weaving more closely related, and to secure the 
maximum economies from bulk production. Automatic machinery to 
be justified in any plant must, in their view, work ' upon a narrow range 
of products.' 

Economists have become accustomed to the notion bi an optimum size 
of firm or plant ; a notion that implies a pessimum or rather a pejus size 
on either side, and rejects the idea that the minimum or the maximum is 
necessarily the most efficient size. Similarly we must get accustomed to 
an optimum scope or degree of integration for individual industries that 
is somewhere between minimum and maximum integration. But the 
problem remains, for research to solve, how to find this optimum of scope 
for any industry. There is ap obstacle at the very outset in the difficulty 
of measuring scope by any one statistical index. The direct index would 
be the variety of lines produced or sold or, conversely, average number 
of units produced or sold in any given line or process. Unfortunately 
one line or process is inclined to merge into another and this proposed 
index would depend too much on arbitrary classifications. A less direct 
measure suggests itself in the rate of turnover of an industry's, a firm's or 
a plant's output or sales, since the fewer the lines selected the faster they 
might be expected to sell relatively to stock-in-trade held. This is, in 
fact, one of the purposes of standardisation. The index may be accepted 
with the important reservation of fashionable and perishable goods. 
These are far from narrow in scope but to avoid obsolescence and putres- 
cence they are sold fast enough. 

Though the degree of integration or width of industrial scope is not 
easily measurable in figures, it is often possible to show graphically how 
one plant or firm has a wider or narrower scope than another. A series 
of superimposed charts on transparent paper can be adopted, like the 
' Popular Mannikins or Models of the Human Body ' used by medical 
students. Where the technical processes of production, diverging from 
raw material or converging on the market, are fairly fixed, this may form, 
like models of the human skeleton, a common base upon which to super- 
impose, like charts of the nervous or muscular system, various patterns 
of integration. Thus, to take a simple case, petroleum is produced from 
oil wells, refined into petrol and other substances and then marketed. 
But these three vertical stages forming the fixed technical skeleton can be 
integrated into four patterns graphically shown by super-imposing en- 
closing circles, (i) Each stage by a separate organisation ; (2) producing 
and refining integrated and enclosed in one circle ; (3) refining and 
marketing integrated and enclosed in one circle ; (4) all stages integrated 
and enclosed in one circle. 

This may well seem rather elementary and childish, but I can assure 
you that when it comes to tackling the ramifications of the Birmingham 



F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 147 

brass trades the alternative patterns of integration become positively 
kaleidoscopic and one is grateful for any elementary device to see it 
through. Indeed, the superimposed circles strikingly reveal how arbitrary 
is the notion of ' an ' industry. One technical skeleton followed through 
vertically and laterally from head to tail and finger tip to finger tip, all raw 
materials to all finished products, may include dozens of industries. And 
what these industries are is determined largely by the usual course or 
scope of the enclosing circles, i.e. the policy of integration adopted in the 
past by the majority of plants or firms. 

Sometimes these circles are firmly drawn and the great majority of firms 
and plants in one given industry keep within the circle and do not suffer 
trespassers ; in other cases the frontier is not clearly fixed. The British 
Production Census of 1930 made, in its Final Report, a manful effort to 
measure how far firms assigned to an industry really specialised in the 
principal products characteristic of that industry. Two percentages are 
given for each industry, one showing the proportion of ' its ' principal 
products included in the output of ' its ' firms, the other showing the 
proportion of the output of its firms represented by its principal products. 
An industry whose firms made all of its principal products and nothing 
but those products, who were neither trespassed upon nor trespassing, 
would get 100 per cent, for each percentage. Such full marks for ' defini- 
tion ' were successfully attained on both counts by only six out of some 
120 industries ; grain-milling, ice, tobacco, matches, wall-paper and in- 
candescent mantles. Markedly loose in definition are the industries of 
building materials, of fertiliser, disinfectant and glue, of tools and imple- 
ments, of copper and brass, of finished brass, of coke and by-products, 
of oil and tallow and of manufactured stationery. 

Once the different patterns and scopes of integration are defined between 
industries or within an industry, research may proceed to compare the 
prevalence, trends, cost and profits of each of them. Such a comparison 
of profits on capital investment has been made within the U.S. petroleum 
industry^' in the years 1922 to 1926. On the whole, ^he most profitable 
pattern appears to have been a division of the whole process into two 
' scopes ' ; refining and marketing integrated (profits on capital varying 
year by year from 9-8 per cent, to 14-9 per cent.) ; producing isolated, 
with profits varying from 5-9 per cent, to 18 -6 per cent. Complete 
integration with producing refining and marketing all in one scope showed 
profits only from 4 • 7 per cent, to 12 • i per cent. Refining isolated showed 
losses of o • I per cent, and i • 5 per cent, and profits of 5 • 5 per cent, to 
13-5 per cent. 

A chance for research into scope — under almost experimental condi- 
tions — is also offered wherever a given firm or a whole industry deliber- 
ately changes its policy. I have elsewhere collected several instances of 
particular standardisation, often effected with the help of branding and 
advertisement, with its results on cost and profit.^^ One outstanding 
State experiment in general standardisation lies to hand in the ' Grid ' 
policy of the Electricity Commissioners. There is some controversy 

'" Recent Economic Changes, Vol. i., p. 194. 

'^ The Logic of Industrial Organisation, pp. 25-29. 



148 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

about the comparative efficiency of large or small firms supplying current,^ ^ 
but the policy of uniformity has, according to all competent observers,*" 
led to great savings in equipment by massing reserve capacity in central 
hands. 

§ 6. To Sum Up. 

Hovs? far is economic research helpful to current industrial policy in 
determining the optimum, most efficient, site, size and scope of industrial 
organisations ? 

1. The first conclusion to be reached is that the methods of realistic 
economic research that try to check theory by observed fact are still in 
the imperfect tense. Index measures of size, scope and concentration of 
sites are being devised, tests of the efficiency of degrees of size, scope and 
site concentration are being worked out, and the conditions where various 
degrees of size, scope and site concentration may be found efficient are, 
very imperfectly, being discovered. But this research is, I believe, on 
helpful lines. It does take account of all the facts without assuming other 
things equal ; it does necessitate a grasp of the real complexities of the 
industrial situation without inventing hypothetical cases ; and it does 
aim at expressing its discoveries in specific terms and fairly exact measured 
degrees. 

2. The discovery about industrial structure that is preliminary to all 
others is its diversity requiring, probably, diverse policies. Different 
industries have vastly different sorts of site, size of firms and plants, and 
scope. This diversity is also true within most industries ; yet the sum- 
mary measures devised by statistics show that individual industries 
usually have some prevailing sort of site, size and scope. Thus electrical 
engineering has predominantly large plants, associated with high mechan- 
isation ; pottery has predominantly medium-sized plants and high localisa- 
tion ; the ' dealing ' or distributive trades small plants and low localisation. 
So many industries follow each of these three examples not only in Britain 
but also in America and Germany that it is permissible to speak of three 
types to each of which a common policy can perhaps be applied. 

3. If tests of efficiency beyond the mere predominance or prevalence of 
a type be also consulted, it appears that in most manufacturing industries 
there is little sign of a limit to size of plant or firm, though there are signs 
that with the changing importance of the marketing and the production 
factors, the growth of localised industries may now halt. Some industries 
are absolutely dependent on local raw material or skill and are marked 
by a very high coefficient of localisation. But the policy of developing 
fairly localisable manufacturing industries away from their original sites 
may be justified as a short cut to a position that would be reached by 
economic forces anyway, but only after many and wasteful trials and 
errors. The newer site of the industry must not, of course, be just any- 
where away from the old site. It should be carefully selected by research 
inter alia into the industry's previous development there (measured by 

^' P. E. P. Report on Electricity , 1937. 

*" G. Haldane in Public Enterprise, ed. Robson, p. 129. 



F— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS 149 

the location factor of the area) and into the urban, suburban or country 
character of the place, for which also there are index measures. As to the 
efficiency limit of size in manufacturing plant, the prevailing size of plant 
in Great Britain, America or Germany is in many manufactures one 
employing over 500 men, and for nearly all manufactures the prevailing 
size is increasing. The typical association of this large size with mechani- 
sation makes the policy of encouraging larger scale plants appear rational 
since mechanisation is increasing rapidly. But mechanisation does not 
appear to involve large plants where transport costs force plants, however 
mechanised, to be near a consumer market. In that case plants must be 
ubiquitous, numerous and therefore small. But even in these at present 
ubiquitous industries such as baking, brewing and furniture, reduction in 
transport costs ^^ may in the future permit of less ubiquity and therefore 
larger plants. 

The extreme of ubiquity is found in the distributive trades. Here 
tests of efficiency fail to concur. Small scale shops and firms continue to 
prevail, yet their costs appear to be higher and their profits per given 
amount sold, lower than in larger units. In view of the general opinion 
about the rising costs of distribution and the widening middleman's 
spread, further research as a basis of policy is here urgently needed. One 
must continue to deplore the apparent unwillingness of our Government 
to undertake a Census of Distribution such as the American, the Canadian, 
or the Irish. Before blaming Governments, however, perhaps we ought 
to confess that economists have not always made very clear what they 
wanted to get out of censuses nor made much use of them once they were 
completed ! 

4. The enlargement of the size of firms and combinations of firms so 
often involved in rationalisation and planning has often been opposed on 
the ground of the unwieldiness and the difficulty of any one brain managing 
large organisations. Statistical evidence that has been offered of lower 
profits among larger firms is, however, not easy to substantiate. The com- 
pai^tive efficiency of larger firms probably depends on what they do. If 
they enlarge by widening their scope and integrating either vertically or 
laterally they may reduce their scale of operation and thus get diminishing 
returns. If they enlarge by the increased production of given standard 
lines, they may secure increasing return. The manager's brain is, after all, 
just one factor determining the curve of return. It may give way in 
attending to a thousand different varieties of integrated materials, pro- 
cesses and markets ; but it may continue to flourish and obtain increasing 
returns if it can specialise in a large way. Much more research is wanted 
into the efficiency of different degrees of integration or scope within a 
firm (or plant) in any one industry. The optimum, most efficient, pattern 
may be specialised narrow-scope productive plants sited in selected places, 
controlled by a wide-scope integrated firm or combine which also does 
marketing and financing. But there is as yet little data to compare this, 
in efficiency, with other possible patterns, though I hope to have indicated 
by argument and examples the sort of data required for research into scope, 
and the methods of using that data. 

*^ See H. Levy, The New Industrial System, Part III. 



ISO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The doings of a firm of given size and site do not stop short at varia- 
tions in scope. Its efficiency will depend also, of course, on management 
policy — methods of staff appointment training and incentive, methods of 
sub-dividing function and delegating authority, methods of co-ordination 
of all these methods. Here also economic and quasi-political research 
may help — but that would require another address. To-day I must stop 
short at the category of structural policies. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING 

ADDRESS BY 

SIR ALEXANDER GIBB, G.B.E., C.B., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Engineering started as an Art ; at a later stage it developed into a some- 
what scientific but purely empirical Practice ; it is now the final stage of 
Applied Science. 

That Engineering is a science has not always — and still in some 
quarters is not — recognised or appreciated, even among engineers them- 
selves. For that we have no one to blame but ourselves. Too long were 
we content to act by the light of accumulated experience, not always fully 
assimilated. But Engineering has now for some time past realised that, 
without research, progress and improvement are impossible. 

Engineers have sooner or later always made use of the discoveries of 
science ; but the connection with science has been casual and haphazard. 
' It seems exceedingly doubtful if Watt or any other inventor,' wrote 
Professor Lea, ' would have thought of the independent condenser, if it 
had not been for the fundamental work of a purely scientific character 
done by Toricelli, Boyle and others, on' the pressure of the atmosphere, 
and that by Black and Watt which led to the discovery of the latent heat 
of fluids, and thus to a quantitative appreciation of the heat units involved 
in changing water into steam.' 

But organised research was then something still unknown. For the 
first fifty years of its life the Royal Society had to bear the jeers and sneers 
of the pulpit, the platform, and the literary world. When Harvey pub- 
lished his tract describing the circulation of the blood it was received 
with ridicule, as the utterance of a crack-brained impostor, and he was 
deserted by almost all of his friends. This attitude of distrust on the part 
of the public lasted into the nineteenth century. But scientific research 
was at last becoming a matter not only for the individual crank and 
dilettante, but for scientific co-operation. The encouragement of research 
and the advancement of useful knowledge were indeed among the objects 
of the foundation of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1818. 

It may be interesting at this stage to remind ourselves very briefly of 
the history of research, and how very recent is its growth. 

The Royal Commission, appointed to administer the surplus of ^^2 13,000 
made by the Great Exhibition of 185 1, used the money to purchase a large 



152 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

piece of land in Kensington Gore, on which are built the South Ken- 
sington Museum, Schools of Science and Art, the Natural History 
Museum, the Museum of Scientific Instruments, and others that I need 
not mention. In addition to this many science scholarships have been 
provided. 

From 1850 Government gave an annual grant of /^ 1,000 (increased by 
jC^,ooo a year in 1877) to the Royal Society for the promotion of scientific 
enquiries, which went to aid research in mathematics, physics, astronomy, 
biology, chemistry and general purposes. The Society also benefited 
from many donations from its own Fellows. And from time to time 
private individuals, by donations or bequests, endowed fellowships. 

But in Great Britain original research continued to be mainly the task 
of individual scientists, chiefly at their own expense. Industry had 
certainly not yet recognised its value, and it was to be a full generation 
before it was fully and practically accepted that scientific and industrial 
research is an essential factor in our industrial and national existence. 

In Germany greater progress had been made. The lessons learnt in 
the Franco-Prussian War led to the institution in 1872 cf the Reichsanstalt 
and the Materials Testing Department. The former was established in 
two divisions : the one devoted to pure science and the other to its applica- 
tion to the advancement of industry and manufacture. At the same time 
technical colleges for research and the training of research students were 
founded at Charlottenburg, Darmstadt and other centres. German 
industrialists quickly recognised the value of the work of these institutions. 
The A. E.G., Siemens and Halske and such great companies at an early 
date set up private research laboratories. The development of the dye 
industry is a perpetual warning and incitement, for it was Perkin who 
first discovered, in 1857, the manufacture of aniline blue ; but it was left 
to the Dye Company of Germany to create from his discover}' the great 
German dye industry, for which purpose huge sums were spent in 
developing new methods and evolving new dyes. 

To return to our own country and engineering. In 1893 Sir William 
Anderson wrote : ' The days are past when an Engineer can acquit himself 
respectably by the aid of mother wit alone or of those constructive in- 
stincts, which in the past led our predecessors to such brilliant results.' 
Four years later the Government appointed a Committee under the 
chairmanship of Lord Rayleigh to consider and report upon the desira- 
bility of founding a National Physical Laboratory. The setting up of 
this committee was incidentally largely due to the agitation, led by 
Sir Oliver Lodge, at meetings of the British Association and elsewhere. 

In 1898 Lord Rayleigh's committee issued its report, recommending 
that a public institution should be founded ' for the standardising and 
verifying of instruments, for testing materials and for the determination 
of physical constants," and that it should be under the control of the 
Royal Society. The scheme was drawn up in 1899 and Dr. Glazebrook, 
F.R.S., (afterwards Sir Richard Glazebrook) was appointed its first 
Director, a position which he held until 1918. 



G.— ENGINEERING 153 

The year 1900 is, too, an important dividing line in another sense. The 
National Physical Laboratory was founded just before it ; and two years 
after it, 1902, the British Engineering Standards Association was estab- 
lished, by the co-operation of the Institution of Civil Engineers, the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Institute of Naval Architects, 
and the Iron and Steel Institute, under the chairmanship of Sir John 
Wolfe Barry, the great civil engineer. Since 1900 research has been on 
the whole, recognised as a question of national importance. 

The history of the National Physical Laboratory has been one of con- 
tinual expansion. From Kew it removed immediately to Teddington to 
have greater space. In 1901 the Engineering Laboratory was completed. 
In quick succession followed departments dealing with Electrotechnics, 
Electrical Standards, Optics, Thermometry, Pyrometry, Tide-Predicting, 
Road Materials, Physics, Metallurgy, Aeronautics, Ship Model Testing, 
to mention only a few of its manifold activities. By 191 8 when it became 
part of the larger organisation known as the Department of Scientific and 
Industrial Research, it had already an expert staff of 600. It has now 
over 1,900. 

The original committee of eight, under the chairmanship of Sir John 
Wolfe Barry, that controlled the British Engineering Standards Asso- 
ciation, has now expanded into a body of 870 committees with 4,850 
members. 

In later years, co-ordination has become recognised as essential. ' In 
any earlier age,' said Mr. Thomas Midgley, on the occasion of the award 
to him this year of the Perkin Medal of the Society of Chemical Industry, 
' when science and industry were simple individualistic processes, it is 
conceivable that some person, by his efforts alone, could have advanced 
applied chemistry to have justified your Committee to bestow upon him 
the Perkin Medal. To-day this is no longer so. To advance applied 
chemistry even a little requires the organised efforts of many individuals. 
Since you have chosen me as the recipient of the Perkin Medal for 1937 
it is only fitting that I acknowledge at this time the aid which I have 
received from others in solving the two problems for which you are 
rewarding me.' Such ascription of merit would have to be made by every 
research worker of to-day. 

The same is true generally in industry and manufacture. Every im- 
portant industry and many manufacturers devote considerable expenditure 
to research. It is in fact the only means of continuous progress in an 
increasingly competitive world. It is almost the exception now to find 
a firm of any standing that has not its research department, and some of 
the most extensive and elaborate laboratories in the country are under the 
control of great manufacturing firms. The modern State is founded on 
scientific research — not like the French judge in 1794, who, in sentencing 
to death Lavoisier, one of the founders of modern chemistry, said that 
the Republic has no need of scientists ! 

Nowadays a vast amount of State-aided research is being carried out by 
State Departments, private Research I-aboratories, Research Associations, 



154 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Scientific Institutions, Universities and Technical Colleges, and still by 
private individuals. 

The engineering world has not kept pace with the scientific world ; 
and it has been fortunate that the two distinguished directors who ad- 
ministered the activities of the National Physical Laboratory for the first 
thirty years of its existence. Sir Richard Glazebrook and Sir Joseph 
Petavel, should have been men of the widest views. Before 1914 the 
work of the National Physical Laboratory was very valuable, but during 
the War, it became indispensable both to Government and to industry. 
In due course it was found that a wider organisation was wanted to link 
in a more definite way the relation between science and engineering 
research and industry. A Joint Board of Scientific Societies formed a 
deputation under the leadership of Sir Joseph J. Thomson to stress the 
importance and urgency of the question on the Government. 

The outcome was the establishment, in 191 5, of the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research, under the control of a Committee of 
the Privy Council, with an Advisory Council of scientific men of the 
highest rank in the country ; and in 191 8 the National Physical Laboratory 
became part of the newly created department, though the Royal Society 
continued to control its scientific activities. 

A glance at the summary of the latest report of the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research affords some idea of the immense 
engineering field it now covers in its work. It includes fuel research, food 
investigation, building research, steel structures, roads, road tar, forest 
products research, researches on water pollution, metallurgy, and radio, 
chemical research, illumination, lubrication, atmospheric pollution, furnace 
design, industrial respirators, radium beam therapy. X-ray analysis, 
and I may add, almost any problem you may like to put before them. 

But apart from the immense importance of the scientific work done, 
the Department is the focus for linking together all the research going on 
in the country. This it made from the outset one of its primary objects ; 
and one of the chief ways in which it accomplishes this, is by the en- 
couragement of the formation of Research Associations. These associa- 
tions are self-governing bodies formed on a national basis in various 
industries for research in the interest of the industries they serve. Each 
association is, or aims at being, a co-operative unit representing all the 
firms who belong to that particular industry. There is no fixed subscrib- 
tion, it being based on the size of each firm, so that for a very small sum 
a small firm may have the benefits of an organisation which is spending 
thousands of pounds annually on fundamental research of interest to the 
whole industry. The Associations work in close contact with the Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Research, to which each one submits 
a yearly report of the work it has done and the problems which it is study- 
ing. The Department's help does not, however, stop at this point. In 
addition to advice and technical help, it contributes to the funds of the 
research associations by making a ,(^1 for ^^i addition for every sum 
provided by the members. 



G.— ENGINEERING 155 

Of equal importance is the work carried on in the various research 
bodies under the management of the great scientific institutions. These 
again are largely co-operative in their aim. Some, indeed, as for instance 
the Research and Standardisation Committee of the Institution of Auto- 
mobile Engineers, are affiliated to the Department of Scientific and 
Industrial Research as Research Associations, and receive the Department's 
£1 for £1 contribution to their funds. 

Nearly all the Universities now have research departments, which not 
only carry out practical work of importance, but also act as training 
centres for students who are to make research work their livelihood ; 
while as already mentioned private research laboratories are maintained 
by the more important and wealthier firms — as well as by quite humble 
businesses. Their primary object is naturally the furthering of private 
interests, but they are not entirely isolated units. Many such research 
departments belong to one or other of the Research Associations and 
frequently pass on problems of a fundamental nature to them to deal 
with. AH can work in contact and correspondence with the Department 
of Scientific and Industrial Research — if they desire. 

I have tried to indicate the rise, growth, and present state of research 
in this country. Some idea of the recency of its growth may be gained 
from the fact that in the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
published in 1910, the subject receives rather less than half a paragraph. 

The early years of the twentieth century saw on the whole much greater 
research activity abroad and in America than here. It is quite impossible 
to enter on any account of these, but I might mention that the National 
Academy of Sciences, was founded in the U.S.A. as early as 1863, to deal 
with all phases of national research ; and its influence in the United States 
is comparable to that of the Royal Society in our own country. In 1916 
the Academy created the National Research Council to assist Government 
in organising the scientific resources of the country, which proved of such 
great service during the period of the Great War that it was decided to 
maintain it as a permanent organisation. One of its main branches was 
that of Engineering and Industrial Research. 

The first years of the new century, also as with us, saw the setting up 
of the National Bureau of Standards by the United States Government, 
which covers an immense field and whose technical bulletins and other 
publications are the means of making widely known many of the latest 
scientific discoveries. America has indeed always been forward in pro- 
moting international standardisation in engineering and co-operation in 
research work, considering that the two matters must run together — as is 
so. The Bureau of Standards includes as part of its organisation a close 
co-operation with the research department of the Universities and other 
institutions in every State. 

In America, too, industry and manufacture have taken a leading part 
in the research movement, and some of their great laboratories eclipse 
our own in size. The United States have developed a form of co-opera- 
tive research of their own, of which the Mellon Institute is the best 



156 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

known example, founded in 19 13 by the brothers Richard and Andrew 
Mellon. Since its origin 1,150 research fellowships have been 
established in 275 technological subjects and 650 processes or pro- 
ducts have been invented or developed. In ten instances new industries 
have resulted. 

In Canada, where I was very recently, I was greatly struck by the action 
the Dominion Government is taking in the promotion of research. The 
National Research Council, with headquarters at Ottawa, where it has a 
magnificent new building, is not only carrying out a very wide programme 
of practical research, but is aiming at training a big body of research- 
minded engineers and scientists. 

One could continue the story of research abroad, but I must stop. I 
have omitted much that those acquainted with the subject would have 
expected to be included. But I have done enough to show what a great 
deal has been done to establish research in our generation. 

There is no finality. Every day extends the bounds of knowledge. 
We have only just begun to understand how to conduct organised research. 
' The historian of the future,' writes Lord Rutherford, in the last Report 
of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, ' will probably 
point to the last five years as a period marking an important development 
in the industrial outlook of this country. These years have witnessed 
the fruition of the policy adopted by several large industrial undertakings 
of setting well-balanced teams of research workers, including chemists, 
physicists, engineers and where necessary biologists, to solve a particular 
problem or to develop a new product. This method of attack has led to 
the steady improvement of the efficiency of electric lamps, to the position 
this country has won in high definition television, to the development on 
a commercial scale of the huge plant for the conversion of coal into oil by 
hydrogenation, to the growth of the plastics industry and to many other 
important advances. . . . Co-operation can never win its fullest success 
until the contacts between men of ideas in industry and men of ideas in 
science are as closely knit as possible.' 

Although I have dealt so briefly with the subject I hope I have made 
evident that research divides itself into several categories. It is, I think, 
very necessary to bear this in mind. 

There is what one may call true fundamental research — splitting the 
atom, or extreme low temperature investigation. No one can doubt that 
the results will ultimately have their effect on human life. No one, 
however, can now say who will be benefited, or how. Such work must 
always be expensive, it must depend on endowments and generous gifts. 
It is not with this type of research that Engineering is directly concerned. 

I am concerned with applied research, and it has its divisions. We 
have in the first instance work of more or less universal application — -such 
as agricultural research, the breeding of new wheats, or methods of storage 
of fresh fruits ; or investigations in regard to river pollution. The results 
once attained become immediately available to all the world. Such work 
too depends on endowments and Government support. This type of 



G— ENGINEERING 157 

research, as fundamental research, often finds its home in our Universities, 
and where there is still opportunity of individualism. 

Then there is the research that deals wholly with the problems of a 
particular industry — aircraft building, or the development of welding. 
Here the whole work has a much more restricted field and definite goal. 
New truths are not sought ; but the means of turning the inventions of 
others to practical use and the economic solutions of the problems of 
those concerned in the particular industry whatever it may be. The 
results can be more or less restricted to the members of the industry that 
support the research ; and the admitted object is to benefit those members. 

The Mellon Institute in U.S. typifies a rather difli'erent type of co- 
ordinated research. The Institute has a limited membership. Only 
one representative of each class of interest is admitted. For instance there 
is only one yeast firm that is a member. No other would be able to 
become a member. But of course the boundaries of the interests of many 
member firms necessarily overlap. The result is that while applied 
research is being carried on in many different fields in the Mellon Institute, 
all the members may benefit sooner or later from researches into problems 
not directly connected with them. The Institute is extremely ably run. 
The results have been considerable, and private research is enabled to be 
carried out on a broader basis than would otherwise be possible. 

Finally there is the private research department, large or small, of every 
progressive company. Here while the results can be kept entirely con- 
fidential, obviously the scope is in some ways more restricted. Most 
companies find it necessary to pool inventions, and even so where research 
is carried on more or less in secret, there is danger that errors of approach 
may not be realised, until much damage has been done or time lost. 

With these remarks, I turn to the all important question of finance. 
Research is expensive. Who is to pay ? In the early days of discovery 
it was inevitably at the expense of the individual, and in this way many 
private fortunes were spent for the ultimate good of industry and 
humanity. 

In the nineteenth century, apart from the scientists who spent their 
private fortunes, research was largely dependent on the endowment of 
public-spirited benefactors, and to scientific societies. Government, as I 
have already said, more far-seeing than the general public and in spite of 
futile criticism, began to aid in a small way from the middle of the century 
onwards. Generally speaking industry had not realised the importance of 
research and its attitude was almost hostile until the twentieth century 
was well on its way. The 3^54,000 raised for the Ramsey Memorial 
Fellowships, after his death in 1916 ; Sir Alfred Yarrow's ^100,000 in 
1923, are earlier examples of the efforts of individuals which have their 
modern counterparts in Lord Austin's and Lord Nuffield's gifts to Oxford 
and Cambridge Universities. 

But it is now sufficiently admitted that research should be paid for by 
those who benefit by it — the community and industry. The attitude of 
industry has changed from indifference to support. ' It is not easy to 



158 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

assess over a period of twelve months the change that is taking place,' 
vv'rites Lord Rutherford in the Report I have already quoted. ' Comparison 
of the attitude of to-day with that of ten years ago indicates more definitely 
what is happening. In one field of our work industry affords each year, 
clear and tangible evidence, that the forward movement which it has been 
our aim to encourage is gathering momentum. The steady increase in the 
total sum which industry as a whole provides annually for the development 
of Research Associations gives us good reasons for taking an optimistic 
point of view.' 

In the year 1932-33 a total sum of £,i(>7,37o was supplied by all the 
industries concerned for the support of the Research Associations organised 
by them. In 1935-36 the figure had grown to ^^232,468 ; an increase of 
40 per cent, in three years. But even so the position is not yet satisfactory, 
and industry still lags behind in its support of these Associations, in spite 
of the liberal encouragement of Government. I have no doubt, however, 
that this stage of affairs will not last. In the past year several important 
steps forward have for instance been taken, the opening of the splendid 
new laboratories of the Printing and Allied Trades Association, the 
Perivale Laboratories of the Electrical Research Association, the new 
laboratories of the Research and Standardisation Committee of the Institu- 
tion of Automobile Engineers, the extensions to the Shirley Institute and 
the Research Station of the Paint Research Association at Teddington. 

We have been experiencing a revival, and hopes are high again. This 
always makes it easier to get money. Unfortunately, when industry is 
depressed, and when research is all the more necessary, the necessary 
support is not forthcoming. I might instance the William Froude 
Laboratory. The work of the Institution was made possible by the 
benefactions of two leading members of the ship-building industry, 
Sir Alfred Yarrow in its early days, and Sir James Lithgow in its more 
recent developments. The maintenance of the research work, however, 
depends largely upon the provision of funds by the shipping and ship- 
building industries. Actually, the major portion of the expenditure has 
been met by payments for tests by individual members, while the industry 
as a whole has contributed only about ;^2,ooo a year, an inadequate sum 
to deal with the immense field that has to be covered. In the years 
1935-6, 73 ship designs involving the making and testing of 160 model 
hulls were dealt with. Four of the designs were improved in hull and 
propeller by more than 20 per cent., and effective improvements were 
made in 54 out of the 73 designs. ' It has been calculated,' we are told, 
* that if only one ship were built to each of the improved designs resulting 
from one year's work at the Tank, the annual saving in the cost of operating 
the vessels would be more than enough to cover the cost of running the 
William Froude Laboratory for a year.' 

Of course, here as always in research, it is the case that the greater the 
success of research, the more immediate and drastic the effect on existing 
plant and equipment. That is where the rub sometimes lies. Millions are 
necessarily sunk in fixed assets, which may in a year or two be made obsolete 



G.— ENGINEERING 159 

by the development of new methods. Obsolescence is indeed so rapid 
nowadays, that it is not unusual for new plant to be written off in four 
years ; and many valuable inventions have been bought up by vested 
interests and suppressed in order to save the greater loss that their ex- 
ploitation would involve to already operating plant. It is therefore not 
surprising that there is not always an enthusiasm for unrestricted research 
or a readiness to praise it. But it is a shortsighted policy. 

I have glanced at the rise and growth of the modern research movement. 
Co-ordination and co-operation have done much to link together the 
various elements, but there has as yet been no general national plan. 
For totalitarian states such things are not so difficult ; but for that reason 
democratic countries too must organise and co-operate more closely than 
ever before. Groups of unrelated, often competitive, bodies cannot be 
really effective. In my opinion the time must come when every research 
organisation will be linked by- some form of affiliation to a central control- 
ling body. This would become inevitable in time if only to prevent 
hopeless overlapping and duplication, with attendant waste of energy, 
time and money. There is another direction where centralisation is 
equally necessary. I refer to publication. At present if the results of 
research are not kept as trade secrets, they are often broadcast in such 
a multitude of journals, books, papers, addresses, etc., that it is almost 
impossible for one who is studying any particular branch to avoid un- 
wittingly covering ground already covered by previous workers. We have 
all experienced the difficulty of trying to collect all the latest information 
on the subject we have been called upon to deal with. I believe that 
approximately thirty thousand scientific periodicals are published through- 
out the world, each of which no doubt may contain the results of research 
in some form or other. In our own country no definite and practical 
scheme has yet been conceived for making available the results of research. 
There should, moreover, be some type of clearing-house of engineering 
information, such as would collect, collate and make immediately available 
all new, data discovered. Some partial success has been attained in this 
direction in more than one way. The Executive Council of Imperial 
Agricultural Bureaux, for instance, an autonomous authority that deals 
with the finance and administration of ten scientific bureaux, works in 
close touch not only with all the councils but with other research centres 
such as the Low Temperature Research Station at Cambridge, the 
Building Research Station at Watford, and so on. If it be impossible 
even to work out a similar organisation for engineering on a national or 
world-wide basis, it cannot be impossible to establish at least a clearing- 
house system at a relatively small expense in co-operation with the Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Research. This Department, with the 
research associations which it partly finances, and others with which it is 
associated provides the ideal nucleus for such an information service, but 
Engineering must work out its own scheme. 

I am afraid I have no definite proposals to make — at least at this juncture. 
All I have desired to do is to ventilate a subject of paramount importance 



i6o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

to engineering. I would thank you for so courteously listening to me ; 
there is no more useful work that the British Association does, than offer 
opportunities for the ventilating of the vital problems and questions of 
the day. I am satisfied that at the moment in the engineering world — 
which after all means in the whole commonwealth — there are two out- 
standing questions, the co-ordination of effort and the promotion of 
intensive research. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



ASSAM ORIGINS IN RELATION TO 

OCEANIA 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. J. H. HUTTON, CLE., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In choosing this subject I am not attempting to offer any definite solution 
to the problems of Indonesian migrations, but propose rather to examine 
one aspect of them in the hopes that I may elicit further information 
from various quarters which may contribute towards the ultimate solution 
of what is really a complex of very difficult problems, as I feel that although 
a clearing up of the main question may be very distant some analysis of 
the Assam side of the problem is perhaps possible. 

Many parallels are to be found of one sort or another between Assam 
and Oceania, some of which were pointed out by Sir Henry Yule and by 
S. E. Peal ^ in articles in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute in 
February 1880 and 1893 respectively, and others of which I myself 
pointed out in an article on Assam and the Pacific in Man in India in 1 924. 
In 1925 Mr. Henry Balfour pointed out cultural connections between 
Assam and Indonesia in the matter of certain types of thorn-lined fish 
traps ^ and, more recently, of fretted horn and shell ear ornaments. 
It will, therefore, be enough here to demonstrate by three examples the 
general association between Assam and Oceanic cultures. 

Evans has pointed out ^ how the Malay word buni connects with the 
word ' taboo ' throughout the Pacific, iwwi or /)Mm' having always some sense 
of segregation and a cutting off of communication with the outside world. 
This word puni clearly appears in the Naga words penna and pini, the 
Angami and Sema words respectively for the taboo observed by a whole 
village when intercourse with all strangers is entirely prohibited, and to 
the Pacific examples given by Evans might be added the use in the 
Marquesas of the 'words penant and pana-le.^ 

The second example is that of the use of wooden images to accommodate 
the souls of the departed, whose skull is used to form part of the image. 
In the Naga hills ^ certain remote Konyak villages across the frontier, 
e.g. Tobu, accommodate the souls of their dead in basket-work figures 

1 Peal, S. E., 1893, J. A. I., 22, 244 sqq. 

* Balfour, H., 1925, Man, 21. 

^ Evans, 1920, Man, 38 ; cf. Hutton I, 192, 200 seqq. ; II, 220. {Note : A key 
to roman figures used in references will be found in an alphabetical list of autho- 
rities at the end of the address). 

* Delmas, 1927, La Religion des Marquisiens, 62. ' Hutton, X. 

G 



i62 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the heads of which consist of hollow wicker cases into which the skull is 
put. Their neighbours, e.g. Angfang, carve on to the wooden statue 
complete with head two projecting horns to hold the skull in place. In 
neither case does the skull, however, form a permanent part of the soul 
figure as it does in New Guinea, where at Ron (or Run) soul images are 
reported, the heads of which are made with the skulls of the deceased.® 
But an intermediate link appears to be found in the Nicobar Islands, 
where to a deceased person a wooden image is set up which has a cup- 
board in the back into which the bones are put and two horns or a sort 
of cup, in this case arising out of the neck, to form a receptacle for the 
dead man's skull. ^ A third link is supplied by the Khasia hills in Assam, 
where the War of Sheila erect a wooden post to accommodate the bones 
of the dead man, which are placed in the post symbolically by means of 
a cowrie used to represent what is left of his bones after cremation.* 
Another link is probably to be found in the Borneo practice of interring 
the person's bones in a post.® 

The third example I offer is that of the associations of the hornbill 
with head hunting. This is well known in Assam and there is no need 
for me to go into details here, except to say that the tail feathers of 
Dichoceros bicornis are used by all Naga tribes as insignia of successful 
head-hunters,^" while the head of the same bird is worn at the back of 
the neck by men of the Lhota Naga tribe ^^ who have set up a menhir, 
and its split mandibles serve as ' horns ' with the same significance as 
the feather for some tribes on their cane helmets as for the Angami on 
their breast ornaments. ^^ The feathers and head of Aceros nepalensis 
and Rhytidoceros undulatus are sometimes used as a substitute when those 
of dichoceros cannot be obtained. 

For parallels in Borneo and New Guinea I am indebted to Dr. Haddon. 
The white-crested hornbill {Berenicornis comatus) is looked for as an 
omen on the warpath by Kayans, who wear hornbill feathers and, like 
several Naga tribes, tattoo their hands or arms as insignia of head- 
taking ^^ ; Buceros is similarly regarded as a good omen in Humboldt 
Bay in New Guinea and the wearing of its upper mandible in the hair is 
a sign that the wearer has taken human life elsewhere in New Guinea.^* 
Williams, writing of Orokaiya society in 1930, says that the hornbill's 
corrugated beak was apparently used as an emblem of homicide in former 
times and concludes that hornbill beaks and heads were exclusive homicidal 
insignia in British New Guinea. ^^ 

It will, however, probably be safer to examine limited areas more 
closely for the existence of groups of parallels between Assam and Oceania 

' Frazer, I, 311, 324, quoting F. S. A. le Clercq and J. L. van der Roest. 
' Bonington, 1932, Man, 133. 

* Information in writer's possession, but as yet unpublished. 
® Ling, Roth, Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, 2, 210 (quoting 
Prof. Kiikenthal). 

^° Hutton, I, 29, 392 ; Mills, I, 13, 109. 

" Mills, I. 14. " Hutton, I, 30. " Haddon, II, 388. 

^* Haddon, I, 200. 

1' Williams, F. E., Orokaiva Society, 19, 39, 17S. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 163 

than to look at isolated customs without their context, and for this purpose 
I have chosen three widely separated areas. The first of these at which 
I wish to look is Fiji, where a very large number of points of culture are 
to be found associated, suggesting an intimate relation with Assam. 
Head-hunting customs may be taken first. Thomas Williams in his 
journal mentions the preservation of enemy skulls in Fijian ' temples ' ^® 
which offer a close parallel to the preservation of heads in a Naga morung. 
He also mentions a practice practically identical with that of ' touching 
meat ' in the Naga hills, when he gives an account of the ceremonies 
gone through to confer honour upon Ratu Duadua ' on account of his 
having had something to do with knocking a man's brains out, or striking 
him with a club after someone else had killed him.' ^'^ That is just what 
would be regarded as an adequate qualification for the assumption of a 
hornbill's feather by a Naga warrior, and I have elsewhere mentioned 
Colonel Woods's account of how his Naga clerk at Makwari was observed 
to spear a dead enemy (shot by a sepoy) with his umbrella, after which 
he assumed warrior's dress.^^ 

Williams also mentions the practice of human sacrifice at the time of 
building a house or temple,^^ a practice which is still reported to take 
place across the Assam frontier and which has probably taken place 
inside it within my own experience of the Naga hills. The method thei'e 
believed to be used, as in Polynesia, was to put the victim into the hole 
made for the post and step the post on top of him, the object of the 
ceremony being described as the provision of someone to hold up the 
post.2o 

Brewster also mentions the necessity of a human sacrifice when build- 
ing a club house in Fiji, and quotes one instance of a man being placed 
under the house-post of a warrior, who afterwards took the name of 
Nandu Rutama, meaning ' the man-post.' ^^ Brewster also mentions 
that measles require blood, ^- a statement very reminiscent of a case in 
the Naga hills where vaccination against small-pox was supplemented by 
the taking of a head,'^ and he likewise mentions the existence in Fiji 
of sacrosanct heralds who can go and come between warring villages 
quite safely in virtue of their office,^* as they can do in the Naga hills. ^^ 
It is also perhaps worth pointing out that the thatching of the ridge pole 
of a Fijian club house must be done by a warrior,^^ as among the Sema 
Nagas ^^ ; and there is conceivably some connection between the Fijian 
practice of putting fingers in split bamboo into the thatch as symbols 
of mourning ^* and the Lhota practice of covering their ridge pole with 
bamboos split into five ends and always known as ' enemy hands.' ^^ 

Another parallel between the Naga hills and Fiji is to be found in the 
practice of women turning out to welcome the returning warrior,^*^ a 

1' Williams, Thomas, I, 552 ; II, 222. i' Williams, Thomas, II, 374. 

" Hutton, I, 165. 19 WiUiams, I, 326, n. 

2" Cf. also Mills, I, 25 ; II, 76. " Brewster, 75 sq. 

" Ibid., 67. 23 Hutton, I, 160. 

^* Brewster, 72. ^^ E.g., Hutton, X, 27. 

=" Deane, 205. " Hutton, II, 45. 

"" Williams, II, 198. 29 Mjng^ I_ ^^ 

3" Williams, I, 310, 343 n., 403 ; II, 208. 



i64 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

practice to which a parallel also existed among the head-hunting tribes 
of Kafiristan, where rice was showered on returning warriors, no doubt 
as a fertility rite comparable to the throwing of rice at a European wedding. 
The wearing of hair and teeth taken from an enemy's head ^^ is reported 
by Waterhouse from Fiji and, in the case of hair, is still practised by the 
head-hunting tribes of Assam, who, at any rate in the case of the Konyak 
Nagas, seem at one time also to have worn enemy teeth,^^ while they still 
like the Fijian warriors wear bleached pandanus leaves ^^ on their legs. 
In Fiji,^* as in the Naga hills,^^ a plantain tree is a common euphemism 
for a human being for decapitation, etc., and the men over whom the 
Fijian war canoes were launched were actually tied to plantain trees to 
serve as rollers, which suggests a possible origin for the synonym. It was 
usual in the Naga hills for a village making peace, when its tale of heads 
was less than that of the other party to the negotiations, to demand so many 
' plantain trees ' to equalise matters, and to receive them in the form of 
slaves, who were decapitated to make the numbers equal on each side. 

Many close parallels between Assam and Fiji are also to be found 
associated in one form or another with the cult of the dead. Brewster 
notes the existence in Fiji of a sort of ancestor worship combined with 
phallic forms and in some cases with an origin from a phallic rock or 
round water-worn stones. ^^ Identical cults exist in all parts of the Naga 
hills ^'^ and are to be found as far south as the Arakan hill tracts. ^^ 
Phallic stone cists are made for the skulls of the dead in some Naga 
villages ^® and over these cists ceremonies are performed to obtain the 
birth of children, just as in Fiji a barren woman oils and garlands a 
phallic stone for the same purpose. Both in Fiji and in the Naga hills 
ancestor spirits take the form of moths. In both areas there is a general 
belief in the path to be followed by the dead souls to the other world and 
in the perils that beset it,*° while the Fijian belief that the piercing of 
ears is necessary for recognition by relatives in the next world, *i or at 
least to avoid degradation therein, is reproduced by the Sema Nagas in 
Assam,*^ just as the Ao ^^ reproduce the Fijian belief ** in the ultimate 
fate of the unmarried who succumb to the demon beside the road, as a 
defence against whom the Fijian buries a club with a dead warrior and 
the Naga a spear or a dao. 

31 Waterhouse, II, 314. 

3- Owen, Notes on the Naga Tribes in communication with Assam (Calcutta, 
1844), p. 15. 

33 Seemann, 31. 

3* Brewster, 75, 234. Cf. Ellis, III, 1, 317. Where the expression 'long 
plantain ' is used in exactly the same way. 

8* Mills, II, 278, 279 n. 

^^ Brewster, 89 ; Waterhouse, I, 89. 

3' Hutton, V ; Mills, II, passim, [v. index, s.v. ' stones '). 

38 Fryer, G. B., 1878, ' Khyeng People of Sandoway,' Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
No. 1. 

39 Hutton, VIII. 

^" Williams, II, 243 sq. ; Brewster, 287; Hutton, I, 186, 414 sq., 417; II, 
211 sq. ; Mills, I, n8 sqq. 

*i Brewster, 287 ; Williams, I, 322 ; II, 247. 

" Hutton, II, 235. ^3 Mills, II, 228. 

^' Frazer, I, 464 Williams, II, 243 sq. 



H— ANTHROPOLOGY 165 

A very close parallel is also to be found in the Fijian practice of burying 
a whale's tooth with the dead man, who must throw it against a pandanus 
tree in this or in the next world.*^ If he hit the pandanus tree with the 
tooth he obtains, according to Deane, ' a passport on his journey to the 
happy land.' According to Williams he knows that his widows have been 
strangled to accompany him. The Ao warrior is given no whale's tooth 
to throw, but is provided with a spear with which, having crossed the 
river of the dead, he must aim at a tree which he will find on the far side, 
calling out his own name as he does so.*^ If he has lived an honest life 
he will hit the tree and obtain Paradise, if he has been a thief he will 
miss it and be side-tracked. It is worth noting that Waterhouse con- 
siders that the whale tooth is an innovation *^ as it has ' probably not 
been in use much more than a century.' (He was writing in 1866.) He 
adds that costly clubs and ' staves ' were similarly used as offerings like 
the whale's tooth, and in the Naga hills among the Ao, as among other 
tribes, the ordinary ceremonial gift is a decorated spear shaft without 
a head. It is probably significant that whereas the Fijian belief related 
to actual trees growing on specified islands, the Ao belief relates to a tree 
growing in the Land of the Dead and encountered immediately after 
crossing the stream which separates the land of the living from that of 
the dead. 

One small point is perhaps worth mention. The demon on the road 
to the dead insists, according to the Angami Naga, on the dead man's 
eating either a bitter seed or a louse from his, the demon's, head before 
he passes him.** Apparently in Thomas Williams' time it was customary 
in Fiji to eat lice from one's head,*^ though this is not the case, at any 
rate in my experience among Naga tribes. Williams records that the dead 
in Fiji were dressed in new clothes.^" In the Naga hills to dream of a man 
dressed in new clothes is a certain presage of death, and I once had this 
brought home to me by one of my interpreters coming to me in camp 
in considerable consternation to say that my orderly, who had been left 
behind in Kohima was dead. He knew it because he had so dreamt of 
him that night, and the news of his entirely unexpected death reached us 
by runner two days later. ^^ 

As in Fiji ^^ so in the Assam hills ^' corpses must be fanned to keep 
the flies from settling, and as in Fiji ^* so, if only occasionally, in Assam ^^ 
the coffin takes the shape of a canoe or appears to do so, although in 
the Assam hills a boat is rarely if ever used. In both places it is generally 
believed that life in the next world continues as in this.^® That if a 
man has been poor here he will be poor there and vice versa. In Bulotu, 

*° Seemann, 229, 399 ; Deane, 84 ; Williams, I, 8 n.^, 317 sq., 335 ; II, 242 ; 
Frazer, I, 464. 

" Mills, II, 229. ■»' Waterhouse, II, 341. ' " Hutton, I, 226. 

" Williams, I, 185; II, 161. 

'" WiUiams, I, 313 n. ; Waterhouse, II, 319. 

*» Hutton, I, 247. " Williams, I, 316 ; II, 197. 

" Mills, II, 278 ; Parry, 400. " Williams, II, 192. 

" Hutton, I. 417 ; IX, 41 ; Mills, I, 157, 158 w. 

" WiUiams, I, 167 n. ", sq. ; II, 183, 243 ; Hutton, II, 212 ; Mills, II, 231 ; 
Parry, 396. 



i66 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the future world of the Fijians as of the Tongans, the air is so strong 
that mortals grow old very quickly,^^ as in the Angami Whedzura,^^ and 
the topsytun^dom of the Angami chiisenii, when pestles put forth leaves 
and the grain will fly in the air and men run about to catch it, while their 
ears grow the wrong way on,^^ has a precise equivalent in the Fijian 
Tavuki,®" as it has in the Apu Lagan of the Karen of Burma, and possibly 
in the Apo Leggan of the Kayan of Borneo. 

Numbers of parallels appear in beliefs and practices current in the 
two areas. Both Fiji *^ and the Naga hills ®^ believe in the separability 
of the soul from the body. It is conceived of as animula vagula blandula, 
and when illness of the body is caused by the temporary absence of 
the soul the vagrant can be recalled by name. After death it may hang 
about its earthly haunts for three or four days,^^ while belief in the 
plurality of souls in one body occurs in both areas.®* The symptoms of 
possession by a spirit causing a violent trembling of the limbs and rapid 
incoherent speech are the same in Assam and Fiji,®^ as perhaps in many 
other parts of the world. So also the belief in the immanence of gods 
or spirits in stones is perhaps too widespread to be of value for the pur- 
poses of this comparison, though the use of baetylic stones is almost 
identical in both areas, and both areas firmly believe that these stones 
breed as if alive and produce children in the shape of smaller nodules. ®® 

Both in Fiji and among the Ao Nagas the fish appears associated with 
the marriage ceremony,®^ while tattooing is applied to girls when they 
reach a marriageable age.®^ In Fiji, as among the Konyak Nagas, we 
find girls taken from their subjects to attend a daughter of a chief going 
as a bride to a distant village,®^ and in both areas the postponement of 
cohabitation after marriage is usual. ''° In Fiji again, as among some of 
the Assam tribes, we find the practice of teknonymy,^^ which Brewster 
compares to the Polynesian practice by which parents ' sink into obscurity 
when their children arrive at the age of discretion.' One is reminded of 
the practice in Laruri in the Naga hills by which the parents abandon their 
house to their eldest son on his marriage and occupy a lean-to or separate 
hut of comparative insignificance. 

In Fiji again "^^ a system is found known as vakandewa, identical with 
that of the ' sentry ' system by which letters in the Ao county can be 
sent direct from one end of the tribe to the other, '^ though this system 
is not found in the majority of Naga tribes, at any rate in the south of 
the Naga hills. In both areas the official carver and meat distributor 

6' Frazer, I, 462 ; II, 88. ss Hutton, I, 260. 

53 Hutton, I, 252 ; Mills, II, 108. 6" Brewster, 237. 

'1 Williams, I, 102, 127 ; II, 242 ; Deane, 156. 
*2 Hutton, II, 200, 209. 
«^ Waterhouse, II, 326 ; Hutton, II, 210. 

6* Williams, II, 241 ; MiUs, II, 224. ** WiUiams, II, 224. 

^8 Seemann, 90 ; Hutton, II, 174, 253, 255. 
" Williams, II, 170 ; Brewster, 51 ; MiUs, II, 271. 

^* Deane, 23 ; Mills, II, 31. '' Williams, I, 329 n. 

"• Brewster, 196 ; Hutton, I, 222, 344 ; Shaw, 58 w.^ 
'^ Brewster, 181 ; Parry, 238 ; Shaw, 140. 
• « Brewster, 137. " MiUs, II, 178. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 167 

is an important member of the village society.''* The Naga system of 
penna has already been mentioned and has very close parallels indeed in 
the Fijian regulations observed in such festivals as that of the Ruku.''^ 
One may also compare the sacramental offering of kava to the Fijian god 
with the little share of drink that every Angami or Sema Naga sets aside 
for the spirit of himself or of the place where he is. Similar beliefs are 
to be found in both areas in the existence of jungle pixies ^® and in human 
beings who can render themselves invulnerable.^^ Both areas possess 
the story of a tower of Babel, '^^ and the Angami system of land tenure 
is extraordinarily like that of Fiji.''^ Points of this kind may be un- 
important in themselves but their cumulative effect must be taken into 
account. 

In material culture again there are a number of close parallels. The 
bachelors' dormitory (mbure) of course is very widespread, but it is 
remarkable that the game played with the beans of the great sword bean 
{Entada scandens), which is also widely distributed through the Assam 
Indonesian area, should have practically the same name {walai : alau) in 
Fiji and among the Sema Nagas.^° Both the Fijians and the Naga tribes 
use panjis,^^ that is bamboo caltrops or spikes sharpened at both ends 
and very effective against a bare-footed enemy in warfare, and both 
indicate the road to be avoided by a following party by throwing down 
a handful of leaves in the path.^^ 

The Nagas, in contra-distinction to all their neighbours, are adepts in 
the art of wig making ; so too the Fijians.*^ But the most remarkable 
parallel is perhaps to be found in the use of a certain group of Angami 
villages of an unusual game which consists in throwing a reed dart on 
to a prepared surface of ground in such a manner that it soars again into 
the air and flies for a very considerable distance towards a mark at the far 
end of an open space. ^* This game of the Dzunokeheno Angamis, called 
by them cheda or phyelida, is identical with the national game of Fiji 
known as veitingga,^^ a game which extends also to Samoa, where it is 
called tayiga ti'a ^® ; while Ellis mentions it under the names of aperea in 
Tahiti and pake in the Sandwich Islands. ^^ It is known in the plains of 
Assam under the name of the s'ar game ; with what particular tribe there 
it is to be associated I am not certain, but probably the Kachari. 

Psychological parallels must be used naturally only with the greatest 
caution, but to anyone acquainted with the Naga hills accounts of the 

'* Brewster, 282 ; Hutton, II, 218 sq. 

'^ Brewster, 91, 93 ; Hutton, I, 192, 200 sq. ; II, 220 ; Mills, I, 26 ; II, 252. 

'» Brewster, 88 ; Hutton, II, 192 sq. 

" Brewster, 99 ; Hutton, I, 243. 

" Williams, II, 253 ; Hutton, I, 265. 

" Williams, I, 106. 

'" Seemann, 282 ; Deane, 16 ; Hutton, II, 106 ; Mills, II, 156. 

" Waterhouse, II, 316 ; Hutton, I, 44 ; II, 24, 171 ; MiUs, II, 53. 

*- Deane, 194 ; Hutton, I, 293 ; II, 265. 

«3 Williams, II, 78 ; Hutton, I, 22 ; II, 10, 16 ; Mills, I, 8, 13 ; II, 44. 

" Man, 1929, 112. 

'^ Brewster, 92 ; Deane, 16 ; Williams, I, 150 ; II, 162. 

'* Brown, Mclanesians and Polynesians, 340. 

*' Ellis, III, 1, 227 and 4. 



1 68 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Fijians suggest so much that is similar in their general attitude towards 
life that it would be an error to omit all allusion to it. Thus, exactly 
like Nagas, ' the inhabitants of Namosi on being asked for their name 
will never give it when any one else is present to answer the question.' *^ 
In both cases the explanation is perhaps to be found in an acute feeling 
of personal dignity considerably stronger than that which makes it polite 
among ourselves to apologise when asking a stranger for his name. I 
take, for further instances, a sample or two from Brewster, Williams and 
Waterhouse. The first two at any rate must have spent, I suppose, as 
long in Fiji as I did in the Naga hills, while the third was at any rate 
14 years in Fiji. 

Speaking of warfare they write as follows : — 

' During the night one of them dreamed that their enemies were near 
and many in number ; whereupon, with the greatest gallantry, they 
betook themselves to their canoes and hastened back to Samo-Samo.' *^ 
A similar account, except for the canoes, might be given of 50 per cent, of 
raids and expeditions between independent Naga villages. Again, ' when 
parties on the war-trail met there was much interchange of abuse, boasting 
and challenging to mortal combat. Then should a man fall, the side 
to which he belonged promptly bolted. ... I have managed ... to 
piece together . . . records of nearly 300 years. Although they relate 
to a period of almost unbroken warfare, but little blood was actually shed. 
Communities of the trade villages become prosperous and arrogant, and 
excite the jealousy of their neighbours, who then enter into alliances 
with other clans and attack the common object of their envy. After 
desultory fighting, sacking and burning of villages the weaker side 
would flee further back into the almost inaccessible part of the hills. 
Both sides by that time would be tired . . . with the fighting, and the 
defeated party would get time to recuperate and reorganise. Then they 
would probably retaliate on their foes and turn the tables. It should 
not be inferred from this that the Fijians are cowards. We and they 
have different modes of thought — that is all. They will do many things 
that we should hesitate about.' ^° The whole of this paragraph might 
have been written, without a word being changed, of the trans-frontier 
area of the Naga hills down to the present. 

Again, ' a most striking feature in the arrangements for attack is the 
primary preparation for defeat. Many days are sometimes spent in 
preparing . . . paths by which to run away easily in case of defeat, 
while the subsequent attack may not last for many hours. . . . Frequently 
the army feigns retreat and draws out a sally from the town, a portion of 
which is almost invariably cut off by ambuscade. Generally the assailants 
will lie in ambush so as to cut off any small party which may happen to 
venture into their trap. Women and children are not spared. The 
slaughter of a pig is apparently equivalent to that of a man. " Seven 
were killed, the seventh being a pig," is sometimes reported.' ^^ Even 
so I have heard it reported in the Naga hills that seven heads were taken, 

** Seemann, 190 ; Hutton, I, 219 ; II, 143, 237 ; Mills, II, 270 ; Parry, 239 ; 
Shakespear, 19. 

" Williams, I, 205. "o Brewster, 59. "i Waterhouse, II, 318. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 169 

two of which were Mithun, that is the gayal, Bos frontalis, the domesticated 
' bison' of the Naga hills. 

To quote Brewster again, ' It is really almost dangerous to save life, 
or do any great service to a native. It seems to give those so benefited 
an unanswerable claim on the person conferring the service.®^ He then 
proceeds to give instances of this ; a point of view from which many 
officers in the Naga hills have suffered and no doubt continue to suffer. 
He gives another instance of Fijian mentality which might well be found 
in a Naga tribe. ' I remember hearing of a tribe . . . being much 
exasperated by the sneers of their heathen neighbours, who sent over 
to enquire if they had a plentiful supply of small mirrors or trade looking 
glasses. Being asked the reason of their question the reply was, " Oh, 
we thought you would like to practise before a glass how to put on a 
sanctimonious look like the Wesleyan native minister." ' ^^ I am 
reminded at once of the long faces of the Ao elders of Changki, unmoved 
by Mr. Mills's joke, at which they laughed heartily afterwards in private, 
but not in public as unbecoming to Christian sobriety. 

Waterhouse again refers to the rivalry between different clans in a 
single village, and to cases of the most cruel treachery of one to another 
with the help of strangers.®* One is reminded at once of numberless 
instances in the Naga hills of which it will be enough to cite the well- 
known incident reported by Carnegy in 1876, when a Kohima clan with 
friends in Muzuma suggested that the latter should send a war party on 
a particular day when they knew that the men of the Puchatsuma clan, 
occupying the next quarter to their own in Kohima village, would all 
be at the fields. The Muzuma party of 40 walked into the Puchatsuma 
quarter and killed everyone they could find there — -one man, five women 
and twenty children. The adjacent clans of Kohima, who did not like 
Puchatsuma, stood looking on, and one of them remarked to Carnegy 
that it was fine sport, just like killing fowls. It may be added that both 
in Fiji ^^ and in the Naga hills stinginess seems to be abominated above 
all other faults, while both areas seem to have in common a certain 
sardonic use of metaphor which shows itself in such expressions as ' a 
trussed frog ' or ' a long turtle ' for a human being as a comestible (Fiji), 

* floor rushes ' for wives to be killed and laid in a chief's grave (Fiji), 
' thatching ' for spearing a sleeping foe through his roof (Naga hills), 

* cultivation ' for a surprise raid for the heads of neighbours working 
in their fields (Naga hills), or ' banana tree ' for a human victim (both 
areas).®* 

In most of the above instances the comparison has been between 
Fijian customs or beliefs and customs or beliefs in the Naga hills, which 
can be put down as specifically Naga. But there are a number of other 
parallels which are either shared by Nagas with other groups of which 
they are quite as typical or which are found in Assam without being found 

°^ Brewster, 60. 

^^ Brewster, 66. 

'* Waterhouse, I, 53 sqq. ; II, 5 sqq. 

'^ Brewster, 51. 

" Fison, 100 ; Mills, II, 278, 279 m.* ; Hutton, II, 170. 

G 2 



i-;© SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

in the Naga hills. Thus the Fijian reluctance to kill a chief,®' although 
it has its parallel in the taboo among the Konyak Nagas in shedding 
chiefly blood (where a chief has been murdered it has generally been by 
some method which avoids bloodshed), is also reported of the Lakher 
and the Lushei,®^ where it is unlucky for even an enemy chief to be 
killed accidentally when fighting against one, and he is never killed 
wittingly. 

Teknonymy ^' is more typical of the Kuki than the Naga, though indeed 
the Kachha Nagas and some non-Naga tribes practise it ; the payment 
of ' bone prices ' ^°° is rather Kuki than Naga, in spite of occasional 
occurrences in certain tribes, and cross cousin marriage, which the 
Kuki advocates, is banned in the first generation by most Nagas. The 
use of caves for burial ^"^ is also more Kuki than Naga, while the Fijian 
belief that spirits perambulate up and down the street, making it necessary 
that doorways should face across it,^''^ reappears in the same form among 
the Thado Kuki, who will not build a house facing down the village street, 
because if they did all the wandering spirits would drift in. The nose- 
flute ^"^ does not appear in the Naga hills at all, but is to be found on 
the north bank of the Bramaputra in Assam, and the practice of sitting 
as a sign of respect, though probably general in Assam, as in Fiji,^*** 
is only specifically prescribed by the Assamese themselves, though on 
account of its association with the sanctity of the head it may probably be 
inferred elsewhere in Assam. The double canoe, which is associated in 
Fiji 1"^ with rank and quality, has possibly the same association in the 
Manipur state, where the rooks on the black side of a Manipur chess set 
take the form of double canoes as being superior to the single canoe 
which serves as a rook for its white opponent. One close parallel in 
Kuki and Fijian belief appears in the tradition of the serpent god coiled 
round the earth, whose movements cause the earth to quake. ^°® This 
god appears entirely unknown to the purely Naga tribes. Like the 
Thado Kuki or Lakher, also the Fijian uses a recessed grave, at any rate 
for his chiefs.^*^' 

I turn now to the Marquesas. Information as to these islands is much 
less easily available than information as to Fiji, but such accounts as we 
have very definitely suggest a number of comparisons with the Naga 
hills in Assam. In the Marquesas the practice of head-hunting, with 
the preservation and decoration of heads and with particular attention 
to the preservation of the lower jaw,^"^ has points in common with Naga 

»' Williams, II, 39. »« Shakespear, 58 ; Parry, 63. 

»» Brewster, 181 ; Shakespear, 19 ; Shaw, 140 ; Parry, 238 ; Playfair, 147 ; 
Mills, 270. 

1"" Shaw, 56 M.2 ; Parry, 288, 418 ; Shakespear, 147, 166, 199 ; Deane, 80. 

^""^ Shaw, 53 M.* 

"^ Williams, II, 245 ; Shaw, 85 n.^ i"' WiUiams, II, 163. 

104 Williams, I, 130 ; II, 38 ; Waterhouse, II, 340. 

105 Waterhouse, II, 347. 

'••* Brewster, 81, 255 ; Waterhouse, I, 42 ; Shaw, 72. 
1"" Fison ; Shaw, 55 n.^, 56 n.^ ; Parry, 412 sq. 

i»8 Handy, 139. Cf. Ellis, III, 1, 308 : ' The victors [in Tahiti] took away 
the lower jawbones of the most distinguished among the slain.' 



H— ANTHROPOLOGY 171 

head-hunting in general and Konyak Naga practice in particular. ^"^ 
Again when a house was built a human victim was required ^^^ as in the 
case of the Naga Morung, referred to before. Human victims were 
required for securing plentiful harvests ^'^^ or for breaking a drought, 
a practice entirely consonant wifh the general principles of head-hunting 
in the Naga hills."^ Similarly in the Marquesas human heads rendered 
fishing prosperous ^^^ and the head was a particularly sacred part of the 
body and the shoulder only less so.^^* Again we find heads brought 
home when the whole body could not be retrieved,^^^ and the name of 
the victim taken by the victor, ^^^ a practice to which there is a near 
parallel in the Chang Naga one of a victor's naming his sons after the 
villagers whom he has conquered (and decapitated) ^^' ; and the common 
practice there of taking magical steps to attract the relatives of the killed 
to come and be killed themselves likewise in due course. ^^^ 

As in the Naga hills we find ancestor worship and the practice of 
making a small offering of the first mouthful of a repast, etc. We find 
memorial platforms ^^^ extraordinarily similar to those built by Nagas, 
statues of the dead in wood and stone, cliff burial and the desiccation 
of the corpses of the dead,^^" their disposal in canoe-shaped coffins and 
in mats accompanied by their best clothes and ornaments. ^^^ We find 
the lips, the nostrils and the eyes of dying persons held together by their 
relatives, not to put an end to life, but to prevent the soul from escaping,^^^ 
and I have seen precisely the same offices performed by a Lhota Naga 
for his dying friend, while the funeral is accompanied, like that of many 
Assam hillmen, by a firing off of guns,^-^ which in Assam is variously 
explained as intended to frighten away evil spirits from the path of the 
dead or to warn the dead man's friends in paradise of his imminent 
arrival. 

Like the Angami the Marquesan appears to believe in seven existences 
after that on this earth.^^* He also believes, as many Nagas do, in 
alternative abodes of the dead in the heavens and below the earth.^^^ 
The Marquesan practice of communal taboo has already been mentioned, 
and even the verbal parallel between penant or pana-le and the penna 
and pini of Naga tribes may be extended by comparing emo, used with 

i»» Hutton, IX. "0 Handy, 240. "i Ihid. 

"2 Hutton, VI. "3 Delmas, 73. 

"* Delmas, 63, 64. [Cf. La Loubere, Royaume de Siam, 1, 405 ; F. Mendez 
Pinto, Voyages, etc., ch. 45.] 

1^* Delmas, 162, 172. 1^' Delmas, 153. 

*^' Thus the Chang Naga Chief of Yongiemdi called his eldest son Longkhong- 
Yanchu after a raid in which he had taken many heads off the Ao village of 
Lungkhung, and his second son Ongli-Ngaku after he had similarly raided Ungr 
shortly before his birth. 

"' Delmas, 163 ; Hutton, II, 176 ; Mills, II, 204. 

'!• Delmas, 86 sq. ; Hutton, I, 47 sq., 206. 

^^^ Delmas, 118. I'^i Handy, 112, 114. 1-- Delmas, 113. 

'23 Delmas, 114 ; Hutton, I, 227 ; Mills, II, 241 ; Parry, 401 [so also the 
Chakma of the Chittagong Hill Tracts between Assam and the Bay of Bengal ; 
Lewin, Wild Races of S.E. India, 186 ; the Siyin of the Chin Hills in Burma, 
Carey & Tuck, Chin Hills Gazetteer, 193 ; and the Maori, Old New Zealand, 224]. 

1" Delmas, 52 ; Hutton, I, 184. 

1^' Delmas, 52 ; Voyage of the 'Duff' (1812), 354 ; Hutton, I, 184 sq., 414 sqq. 



172 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the same meaning in some islands of the Tabui group, ^^® with the emung 
(Lhota) and amung (Ao) of other Naga tribes. ^^^ As in the Naga hills 
the soul is liable by wandering to cause sickness of the body, but can be 
recalled and brought back to it ^^^ ; and the Marquesan medicine man ^^® 
removes disease in a concrete form precisely like the Naga thumomi, 
chafing the limbs with aromatic leaves and producing after a little massage 
the particular piece of ' dirt,' generally a fragment of rough stone, by 
sleight of hand or from under the tongue and pretending it came from 
inside the patient's body. 

Seven appears in the Marquesas to be an unlucky number,^^" as it is 
to the Angami tribe, and thieves are divined both there and in the Naga 
hills by looking into the globules of rain water that collect at the top 
of the stalk in the leaf of the wild arum, while seers of both areas practise 
ventriloquy. ^^^ 

Turning to their material culture, it is remarkable to find the taro 
cultivated in the Marquesas on terraced and irrigated platforms ^^^ as 
rice is by the Angami, who, like the Marquesans, used to use the much 
valued conch shell as an article of barter almost as a currency,^^^ and who, 
like the Marquesans again, practise stilt-walking ^^* on the paved areas 
to be seen in most villages which form the scene of public entertainment. 
In the Marquesas again we find the Fijian game of vei-tingga,^^^ which 
the Angamis call phyelida, practised under the name of teka. 

All these parallels in the Marquesas have so far been with the Naga 
rather than with the Kuki group, but two parallels appear with those 
in existence in the Marquesas of men who adopted the life and habit 
of women, ^^® a practice typical of the Lushei and found in some other 
Kuki-Chin tribes, and in the practice of sacrificing a victim for a dead 
man which formed an essential element of Marquesan funeral cere- 
monies,^^^ and which one may suppose was intended to provide for his 
service in the next world, as it was by the Kuki, Lushei and Chin tribes,^^* 
who sacrificed victims on the graves of the dead, though they did not, 
like the Marquesans, devour their bodies. 

Attention should probably be called to the apparent ferocity of the 
Marquesan character, differentiating them from the Polynesians of the 
South Pacific. It has been suggested that this ferocity was due to their 
rugged environment with its deep valleys and high ranges, but it seems 
more likely that it indicates the existence of some racial or cultural 
element absent in Hawai and Tahiti. 

It is possible that Delmas's statement that among the Marquesans 
hospitality forms a road to social distinction ^^^ indicates a system, or 

"6 Delmas, 62. "7 Mills, I, 26 ; II, 82, 252. 

^2* Delmas, 76. Cf. note "" above. 

1-5 Delmas, 76 ; Hutton, II, 231. "" Delmas, 133 ; Hutton, I, 252. 

"1 Delmas, 134, 77 ; Hutton, X, 36 sq. 

"2 Handy, 185 ; Hutton, I, 72. 

133 Voyage of the ' Duff,' 208 ; Hutton, I, 71. 

1'* Frazer, 339 sg. ; Mills, II, 155 ; Hutton, V. 

1^^ Handy, 297 sq. *^* Handy, 103 ; Shakespear, 55. 

1" Delmas, 116, 118. "s Shaw, 78 n." ; Parry, 206 ; Mills, II, 200. 

"9 Delmas, 87. 



H— ANTHROPOLOGY i73 

the survival of a system, of a series of ' Feasts of Merit,' such as those by 
which social status is acquired in the Naga hills, but I have found no 
precise information on this point. As by the Dafla in Assam and as in 
Fiji, the nose-flute is used in the Marquesas.^*" while the attitude of 
Marquesans to European immunity from the malign influence of wizards 
was stated to Delmas in almost the identical words used by a Naga 
to myself : ' You escape, because you do not believe,' ^*^ a point of 
view which suggests that the Naga or Marquesan medicine-man fully 
appreciates the power of suggestion in magic, though his lack of an 
abstract vocabulary makes it difficult for him to put it into words. 

I turn now to Madagascar. Although at the opposite extreme of the 
Oceanic area to the Marquesas, many similarities are found again with 
Naga cultures in Assam, particularly with those of the Angami tribe. 
As there, villages are built for security on the tops of hills with stone 
walls, ditches and stone gateways and surrounded with thick hedges of 
thorny acacia or of prickly pear, the stone gateways being defended with 
heavy wooden doors.^*^ In Madagascar, as among the Angamis and the 
Manipuris, the pantomimic war dance '^*^ is popular, and the head is 
tabooed,^** as also the shoulder in the Marquesas and by some Nagas. 
In Madagascar again the plantain tree seems to be used as a human 
synonym i*^ and the blood of royalty must not be shed.^*^ 

As in Assam we find various treatments of the dead, including their 
exposure ^*' on platforms and in canoes as well as in tombs and family 
vaults. ^*^ Stone tombs are placed by roads or in the centre of the 
village. They are lined with stone slabs and sometimes stepped in 
pyramidical form.^*^ Their place may also be taken by cenotaphs in 
the form of menhirs,^^" and ancestor worship ^^^ is much the same as it 
is among the Angami, and a similar importance is attached to funeral 
ceremonies,^^^ which are accompanied by musketry ^^^ and the killing of 
large numbers of cattle in the court-yard in front of the house,^^* the skulls 
of which are set up on the graves.^^^ Like the Ao, the Betsileo wrestle 
with their cattle before sacrifice.^^® Graves themselves, as among the 
Angami, may only be moved during the cold weather,^^' that is, I take 
it, between the harvest and the sowing. In some cases miniature houses 
are put up on the graves to accommodate the soul, and there is a con- 
comitant belief ^^^ in the Hill of the Dead to which every soul must 
journey. The dead again are dressed in new clothes, ^^^ and corpses 

1*° Handy, 311. ^^' Delmas, 79. 

*** Sibree, 25, 28, 116 ; Ellis, II, 147, 359, 435, 450 ; Hutton, I, 44 sq. 

1" Ellis, II, 328 ; Hodson, 67. i" Ellis, II, 344. 

1*' Sibree, 241. '*' Osborn, 201 ; Ellis, II, 291. 

"' Sibree, 3, 287, 152 sq., 180 ; "8 Eiiis_ n^ ^^^^ 451. 

i*» Osborn, 343, 344 ; Sibree, 290, 300, 310. 

I" Ellis, II, 24. 

I'l Ellis, II, 404, 410 ; Osborn, 234, 262, 280. 

»" EUis, II, 63, 93. 

I" Ellis, II, 87, 206, 217 w. ; Sibree, 288. 

1" Ellis, II, 389 ; Osborn, 229, 230. '^* Osborn, 346. 

"* Wake, 26 ; Mills, II, 259, 379. ''' Sibree, 77 ; Hutton, I, 228. 

1'' Sibree, 119; Osborn, 232. '^^ Sibree, 287. 



174 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

are carefully fanned to keep away the flies/"" and, in the case of the 
Vazimba, are given a double burial like the Khasi of Assam, where the 
belief in the snake monster known as the thlen is analogous to beliefs 
of the Vazimba.^"^ Like the Lushei, the Betsileo and Sakhalava draw 
off the putrefying liquors from the corpse.^^^ 

Stones are dragged from a distance with a rope ^®^ and, besides menhirs, 
spoken of as ' male stones ' and put up as cenotaphs,^®* a wooden post 
is erected as a circumcision memorial, clearly having some fertility 
association. Stone platforms ^"'^ are made and there is a cult of sacred 
stones on which, for instance, the Madagascar prince must stand, like 
the Rajah of Manipur. Monumental stones are erected in front of 
houses.^"" A taboo is found on a chief's bedstead.^®'' As among the 
Konyak Nagas, royalty must contract marriages within the clan which 
would, except for royalty, be incestuous, though in Madagascar ^"^ the 
clan is matrilineal instead of patrilineal as in the Naga hills. We find 
again a precisely similar belief in Madagascar to that in Assam, that the 
camera abstracts the soul.^®^ I remember myself making the pretty 
daughter of the Chief of Philimi most unhappy by taking her photograph, 
and she refused to be comforted until she got a print which she took to 
be the original. The possession of this secured her, in her opinion, from 
her soul's being taken to the hot plains, which would cause her sickness 
and death. Precisely as in the Naga hills among all tribes the Madagascar 
medicine-man ^"^^ cures illness by simulated extraction of ' dirt,' which 
the patient believes to have really come out of his body, though it is in 
fact palmed or ' mouthed ' by the operator. The opprobrious names so 
often fancied in Madagascar are sometimes identical in meaning ^^^ with 
those popular among Sema Nagas. The punishment of oifences against 
society by the plundering of the offender's house is as popular in 
Madagascar as formerly in the Sema and Angami Naga country ,^^'^ and 
oaths are taken in exactly the same way as by many Nagas, by drinking 
water in which a bullet or some other metal weapon has been infused.^^^ 
In Madagascar also the Milky Way appears as the sign of the division 
of the seasons.^'* 

Turning to material culture, we find the Hova using spears shod with 
a point at the butt-end for sticking into the ground ^^^ like all those in 
the Naga hills. Putting the weight is found as an indigenous sport,^^^ 

IS" Ellis, II, 260. 1" Sibree, 293, 297 ; Gurdon, 98, 141. 

IS* Wake, 25 ; Shakespear, 84. "^ Sibree, 301 ; Osborn, 345. 

1" Sibree, 26, 300, 315 ; Hutton, IV, XI. 

165 EUis, II, 451 ; Hutton, V. 

166 Ellis, II, 24, 249 (plate) ; MiUs, I. 23. 
16' Sibree, 157 ; Hutton, II, 243 ; X, 42. 
168 Ellis, II, 81, 199, 201. 

i6» Ellis, II, 340, 344 ; Hutton, I, 251 ; II, 200. 
1'" Osborn, 314 ; Hutton, II, 231. 
I'l Osborn, 307 ; Hutton, II, 236. 

1" Ellis, II, 309 ; Mills, II, 193. Cf. also Samoa (Frazer, II, 160) and the 
Maori (Old New Zealand, ch. vi). 

1" EUis, II, 333 ; Shaw, 68. i'* Sibree, 71, 79 ; Mills, II, 302. 

1'^ Sibree, 243 ; Hutton, I, 34. 

i'6 Osborn, 257 ; Hutton, I, 103 ; II, 109 ; Hodson, 76. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 175 

as also the practice of boxing with the feet.^^' Peg-tops ^'* are used by 
children, who also amuse themselves in making clay figurines of cattle 
very much like those of the Angami.^^^ The hearth-stone is made pre- 
cisely as in the Naga hills, with a trivet of three stones erected in a clay 
base and screened above by a two-decker bamboo shelf.^*" The method 
of pounding paddy ^*^ and the patterns of piston bellows ^^'^ and ' rat 
protectors ' ^^^ under granaries are typically Indonesian, extending like- 
wise to Assam, and the use of ' house-horns ' (Hova tandro-trano, Angami 
ki-ka, with precisely the same meaning, though the Sema word means 
' snail horns ') ornamented with wooden birds is typically Angami 
(Dzunokeheno). While the Y-shaped posts erected (e.g.) as a circum- 
cision memorial in Madagascar,^^^ and associated therefore with fertility 
rites, are familiar among all Naga tribes,^*^ the Betsileo apparently 
crown their stone monoliths with iron horns. ^^^ Typically Angami also 
are the stone-revetted irrigated terraces for growing rice,^^'' while in 
Madagascar channels are used to carry liquid manure from the village 
midden to the terraces ^^^ exactly as they are in some villages of the 
Dzunokeheno group of the Angami tribe, a group which we have already 
seen has a particular connection in one or two respects with Fiji and the 
Marquesas. The use of euphorbia and aloes for hedges ^^® is closely 
paralleled in the Naga hills and Manipur, and the use in Madagascar of 
the scarlet lamba ^^° as the insignia of royalty is very suggestive of the 
same area, even the word lamba being Manipuri as well as Hova. Bark 
cloth,^'^ it is true, is only paralleled in the Garo hills in Assam, but, like 
the use of spiders ^®^ as food, is perhaps not an entirely fortuitous coincid- 
ence. In both areas ownership is indicated by a bunch of grass on a 
reed, and as in Fiji again a path is barred by throwing down a bunch of 
leaves.^^^ The use of a stone as a weapon, not thrown but held in the 
hand,^^* perhaps seems an obvious means of damaging an opponent, yet 
in twenty years I do not remember any case of its use in any Naga tribe 
except the Angami ; the Angami have just the clan antagonism reported 
of Madagascar,^^^ and when a wooden utensil or tree is being dragged to 
the village a young buck will jump on to it and shout and gesticulate to 
urge on the pullers, exactly as Ellis describes ^^® in that island. But for 

1" Sibree, 32 ; Osborn, 356 ; Hutton, II, 109. 

1" Sibree, 32 ; Hutton, I, 104 ; II, 105 sq. ; Mills, I, 84 ; Shaw, 158. 
•'* Sibree, 32 ; Hutton, I, 55. 

i'" Ellis, II, 447 ; Sibree, 7 ; Hutton, I, 53 ; II, 39 ; X, 67 sq. ; Parry, 69. 
I'l Ellis, I, 203 ; Parry, 133 ; Smith, 30 ; Peal. 

"2 Peal ; Ellis, I, 308 ; Sibree, 331 ; Wake, 26 ; Hutton, I. 63 ; II, 52 
Smith, 144, 159 ; Parry, 107. 

"^ Peal. 184 Sibree, 3, 298, 319. 

"5 Hutton, III. 188 Wake, 27. 

18' Ellis, II, 247, 445, 448 ; Sibree, 21 ; Hutton, I, 72. 

188 Osborn, 281. 

189 Osborn, 419 ; Ellis, II, 444 ; Sibree, 58, 65, 105. 
19" Osborn, 194. 

191 Sibree, 330 ; Walker, G. D., 1927, Man, 5. 

192 Sibree, 344 ; Hutton, I, 95. 

198 Sibree, 172 ; Hutton, II, 68 ; I, 293. 

19* Ellis, II, 270 ; Hutton, V, 72. 

I"' Ellis, II, 274 ; Hutton, I. 109. i98 Ellis, II, 478. 



176 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a parallel to the whimsical choice of such personal names as Radeboka, 
i.e. the ' day book ' of a hospital/^^ one needs to go to the Khasia hills in 
Assam, where names such as Ka Mediterranean Sea, U Water Kingdom 
or Shakewell Bones are, or were, familiar. Matrilineal descent ^^* appears 
in Madagascar as it does in Khasia hills, though in most parts of the 
Assam hills it is now submerged. The use of the ideochord ^^^ is more 
elaborate in Madagascar than among the Kuki tribes, but is essentially 
the same instrument (I refer to the bamboo guitar in which the strings 
are formed by strips cut in the outer bark and prised up by wedges under- 
neath at each end of the strip), and exactly on the same principle as many 
village gates in Assam, particularly among the Kuki-Chin tribes, are the 
doors described by Sibree in Madagascar as made of poles — bamboos in 
Assam — -hung from a cross-piece which passes through a hole in each. 
Kuki again, but not Naga, is the story of the escape from the ogre ^°° by 
throwing down a feather which becomes a forest, etc., and apparently 
Kuki is the Malagasy (Betsileo) practice of burying with an air tube of 
bamboo let down to the head through the earth, as among the Sea Dayak 
and Kayan of Borneo, in order that the soul may have ingress to and 
egress from the buried body.^"^ I say apparently Kuki, because this 
practice is typical of the Thado at present, but it is also reported of the 
Kachari,202 and of the Santal, so that it may, like some other Kuki 
features, have been taken over from previous matrilineal (?) inhabitants. 
In the case of the Santal the tube seems to have survived a change from 
burial to cremation, as it now consists of a reed let through the lid of the 
pot which contains the cremated remains of the dead.^"^ 

The parallels which I have given are, I think, adequate to show the 
cultural connection between the Assam hills and the three widely 
separated areas in Oceania with which I have dealt. It is pretty clear 
that in Fiji and in Madagascar, and probably also in the Marquesas, this 
identity of culture, in so far as it exists, is not that of a single culture, 
but rather of a complex of cultures in each case. It is clear that Assam 
may conceivably throw some light on the Indonesian problem, as the 
stratifications can, at any rate to some extent, still be traced. The last 
immigrants are undoubtedly people of Kuki and Kachin affinities. There 
is a clear tradition among the Chins of the Arakan hill tracts pointing 
to their migration down the Chindwin Valley,^''* no doubt throwing off 
parties which must have penetrated the Assam hills from the east on 
the way, after which one portion of the Kukis at any rate seem to have 
worked up northwards again from the Bay of Bengal, a movement which 
has barely ceased, if it has ceased, in the present generation. It would 
seem that the Kayans of Borneo probably formed part of the same move- 
ment. A tradition quoted by Hose and McDougall ^"^ assigned the 

"' Sibree, 348. iss EUis, II, 81, 201. 

^°* Osborn, 360 ; Shaw, 151 ; Parry, 185. 

^"^ Sibree, 239 sgq ; Shaw, 105. 

"1 Sibree, 305 ; Shaw, 55 «." ; Hose, Natural Man, 213. 

2*"' Endle, The Kacharis, p. 47. 

2»3 Census of India, 1931, 1, iiiB, 102 (Bodding). 

204 Fryer ; Shaw, 17 n. !""> Pagan Tribes of Borneo, 1, 15. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 177 

arrival of the Kayans in Borneo to the earliest years of the fourteenth 
century a.d., a date which fits well enough with Kuki and Tippera 
tradition. 

Apart from such preceding migrations, of which there may have been 
many originating in movements in the Chindwin Valley caused by this 
southward Kuki Kachin migration, and of which we probably have a 
memory in the traditions of the Angami Lhota and Ao movements from 
Manipur westwards,2°® the two previous cultures in the Assam hills 
seem to have been definitely matrilineal and to have belonged to two 
types. One of these — and presumably the later — seems to have been 
analogous to the present Khasi and Synteng cultures, the other to that of 
the Garo and of the Kachari of the Assam plains. The Khasi migration 
clearly came from the east, and the parallel culture in Tonkin to their earliest 
remains in Assam is dated by Coedes to about the beginning of our era. 
The Garo-Kachari peoples seem to have migrated from the north bank 
of the Brahmaputra, and while the Kachari is now predominantly patri- 
lineal, as the Garo is matrilineal, both may still be said to be in the process 
of change as the result of contact between two systems. 

It is interesting to notice that in Madagascar the Vazimba, who pre- 
ceded the Hova as immigrants, had a number of features in common with 
the megalith-using Khasi, not all of which were subsequently adopted 
by the Hova. The latter, for instance, built in wood, whereas the 
Vazimba used stone. One may also observe that Hocart, writing on the 
early Fijians,^"' is inclined to think that the more civilised community 
was swamped by barbarians before the more recent migration of Poly- 
nesians from the east. Undoubtedly the Naga tribes at present repre- 
sented by the Konyak Nagas in the north and to a lesser degree by Kachha 
Nagas to the south of the Naga hills, are associated with a more civilised 
culture in some respects than that of the intervening tribes who have 
come up from Manipur, always excepting the Angamis, who are in many 
respects sut generis and who probably have incorporated a very great 
deal of the civilisation which preceded them on their present sites. 
Indeed they speak of the time when their women wore four-inch petti- 
coats like those of the Konyak tribes, and when they used to expose their 
dead on platforms — except in the villages of the Dzunokeheno group. 
It is just that group in which the Fijian Veitingga game is so popular, and 
in which the house-horns carry birds like those on Malagasy houses. 
Veitingga, as already mentioned, is also known in the Assam Valley by 
the name of s'ar khela and used to be played on roads or in village streets, 
though now almost entirely obsolete. It is still the Dzunokeheno (i.e. 
water-born villages) in which the conch shell ornament so suggestive of 
the sea is most popular. They do not, however, claim the sea, but a 
local stream, as the water of their ancestry, and they are the only Naga 
tribe that I know of, except the isolated village of Laruri on the Burma 
frontier, which repudiates any tradition of migration from elsewhere. 
The Angami are now, like the Kachha Naga, completely democratic in 
their institutions, but the Konyak tribes in the north still retain tabooed 

««• Hutton, I, 6 sqq. "J J.R.A.I., 49. 



178 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

and sacrosanct chiefs ; chiefs who have to be carried sometimes lest they 
touch the ground and destroy the fertility of the soil ; chiefs who must 
contract marriage with their own clan, which would be incestuous for 
anyone else, if they are to have a legal heir ; chiefs whose blood must not 
be shed on any account, who have been known to be driven out, strangled 
or otherwise got rid of by the villagers, who are probably derived ulti- 
mately from a different stock. 

One important feature of the Konyak tribes, shared, it is true, by their 
neighbours the Aos, and in a ruder fashion by the Sangtam, Chang and 
Yimtsungr of the east, is the possession of enormous slit wood gongs to 
which I give the name ' canoe gong ' on account of their shape. S. E. 
Peal was the first to report on these gongs,^''^ which he called ' canoe 
drums ' ; Professor Henry Balfour calls them xylophones, and the only 
reason that I do not adopt his term is that I prefer to keep that name for 
the more usual type of xylophone consisting of a number of slats of wood 
giving different notes when beaten which is found among the Kuki, 
though not among the Naga tribes. These canoe gongs are the basis 
of an important cult intimately associated with head-hunting, and strongly 
suggestive of much that is associated with canoes in Oceania. 

The true canoe gong with carved figure-heads and long hull like that 
of a dug-out is almost entirely limited to the Konyak, Ao, Chang and 
Sangtam tribes,^"^ and of these four undoubtedly the Chang and the Ao 
contain a large admixture of Konyak blood. The Sangtam only use a 
typical canoe gong in those villages which march with the Ao and Chang 
country. Further south the shape is much less elaborate, and the 
Yimtsungr to the east of them used a mere hollow tree-trunk. South 
of the Sangtam tribe the canoe gong completely disappears except for 
the following instance : the Tangkul tribe use a remarkable form of 
gong hitherto, I believe, unpublished, which might be described as 
resembling an inverted boat, the two ends of which are skeleton, while 
the centre part consists of the usual slit gong of more or less cylindrical 
type. The Angami use an unornamented wooden vessel ^lo of similar 
shape (without the skeleton ends) for the reception of liquor in bulk on 
ceremonial occasions, and one recalls Ellis's account ^^^ of the man of 
Rurutu who came off^ to meet him ' at a distance of two miles ' from the 
island in a wooden food-vessel 6 feet long and i8 inches to 2 feet wide. A 
smaller slit gong of somewhat similar pattern, but much simpler, is used 
for scaring the birds from their fields by the Kachha Naga. Further 
south again the Zanniat Chins, who, unlike the other Chins, have a demo- 
cratic organisation, have a small slit gong not more than 6 feet long 
very like the Angami vat, while the Ngawn Chins use one of the same 
size not unlike the South American teponatzli, and put food in it on the 
occasion of a ceremonial dance.^^^ A ' wooden drum ' also appears in 
Arakan as one of the prized possessions of the pre-Burmese king ; it 
may or may not have been a ' canoe gong.' ^^^ 

208 Peal, op. cit. 209 Mills. II. 76 sqq. ; Smith, 47 ; Hutton, X. 

sio Hutton, I, 57, "1 Ellis, III, 3, 400. 

212 Personal information from Mr. N. Stevenson of the Burma Frontier Service. 

213 Scott and Hardimann, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, 1, ii, 402 . 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY i79 

It is Interesting to observe that in South America the canoe gong 
appears to have developed independently from a hollow tree. Nor- 
denskiold bases this conclusion partly on the fact that these signalling 
gongs are beaten with a rubber-covered mallet to which, he says, nothing 
similar is known outside America.^^* He comes to the conclusion that 
the invention of slit gongs arose from a practice of sending out signals 
by beating on hollow trees in the forest ; that this led to carrying such 
hollow trees home to villages, and then to beating instead on canoes or 
wooden troughs. He quotes Faraba to the effect that the Amahuaca 
Indians of Peru occasionally signalled by striking with a heavy mallet 
upon the flat root of the Alatea tree after having stripped the bark from 
it but without cutting it oH.-^^ He goes on to describe ' a large wooden 
gong . . . suspended by one end whilst the other rests on the floor of 
the pile beam house: It is beaten with two wooden mallets.' Again, 
' the resemblance between a gong of this kind and a canoe is so great that 
it is quite reasonable to suppose that the Indians formerly used as gongs 
their canoes which are often drawn up underneath the floor of their pile 
houses, or laid on stagings.' ^le It is, of course, possible that the canoe 
gong of the Naga hills has similarly developed from a tree trunk, but 
since we find no example of signalling by hammering on trees we are 
perhaps entitled to argue that the process in Assam has been the other 
way and that the smaller slit gongs, or the hollow tree trunks, used by 
some villages are degenerate forms of the original gong which started as 
a canoe, and it is possibly significant that in the Kachin story of the great 
flood the two survivors escape drowning in ' a large oval-shaped drum.' ^i? 
On the other hand, it must be admitted that a simple form of slit gong 
occurs in Yunnan,^^^ as it does in Malaya and in Borneo,^!^ suggesting 
either marginal degenerations from a developed type in Assam, or 
possibly simple types from which the Assam one might have been 
elaborated. The real argument, therefore, for the canoe gong's being a 
survival from a real canoe rests on its associations with head-hunting and 
a typical canoe culture. 

Now the Naga canoe gong is closely associated with the men's house, 
and generally, if not kept in it, it is kept in an annexe. It is in some 
respects treated almost as an idol and tremendous effort is expended on 

21* A similar rubber mallet, however, is reported to be widely used in Africa, 
and it seems just possible that the idea may have been taken to S. America by 
negro slaves. 

'"s Nordenskiold, 44, 45. "i* Nordenskiold, 46. 

21' Hanson, The Kachins, 112. 

218 'In the beginning of the first moon they have a feast. A large tree is 
scooped out which is called a " trough " ; both men and women take a bamboo 
and strike it ; the sound is like a drum. Then they play.' Chinese account of 
the Pei Chong-Kia, aborigines of Kweichau in Yunnan, quoted by Colquhoun in 
Across Chryse, II, p. 308. 

2i» Evans, Among Primitive Peoples in Borneo, 133 ; Ling Roth, Nations of 
Sarawak and British N. Borneo, II, cxcvii, 263. He quotes Schwaner to the 
effect that the Orang Ot, a very primitive hunting tribe, beat violently on a 
hollowed stem to assemble the whole tribe. He also gives the name for the slit 
gong in Dutch Borneo as tenkuang, which is almost identical with one of the Naga 
names — tingkhong. 



i8o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

carving it and dragging it up to the village. All human heads brought 
in are first placed on the canoe gong, at any rate by the Ac, suggesting 
the Marquesan practice of decorating the prows of their war canoes with 
the skulls of their enemies. When the gong is dragged up to the village 
over wooden rollers, such as those used in launching a vessel, the blood 
of the sacrificed animals is poured on to it, and in the old days any 
stranger, whether friend or foe, who came to the village on the day when 
a new drum was dragged in was killed in order that his head might adorn 
the drum and his soul inhabit it. Indeed, until a head had come in, or 
had been brought in for the drum, a fence was put round it which could 
not be removed, nor could the drum be beaten until the young men had 
been out and fetched a head to remedy the defect. This head was first 
laid on the new drum. 

The parallel with Melanesian canoe practice is here very close. 
Codrington writes 220 as follows : ' In the eastern Solomon Islands, if no 
victim was met with in the first voyage of a new canoe, the chief to whom 
the canoe belonged would privately arrange with some neighbouring chief 
to let him have one of his men, some friendless man probably, or a 
stranger, who would then be killed, perhaps as he went out to look at the 
new canoe. . . . Further west also captives were kept with a view to 
the taking of their heads when new canoes were launched.' He goes on 
to give an example in a footnote : — ' The chief of Ravu bought his peko 
[war canoe] ... for a large sum of money. It was brought over secretly 
and put into a . . . canoe house, where it stood till a head should have 
been procured. ... In the morning a single man came by ... in his 
canoe . . . they caught and killed him, set up his head at the prow of 
the [newly bought] canoe and paddled back to Ravu with shouting and 
blowing conch shells.' 

Nowadays in the Ao country a mock raid takes the place of a real one, 
but even this chastened sacrifice leads to a great success in hunting and 
in agriculture. The Ao gong nowadays wears a necklace of basket balls 
representing heads. Real heads were never used in this way, although 
they were laid on the gong when first brought in. These basket-work 
ornaments perhaps afford a parallel with the carved head which formed 
part of the figure-head of the Melanesian canoe. The figure-head of an 
Ao canoe is generally in the form of a buffalo or gayal head, that of the 
Konyak tribes an elephant, buffalo or hornbill head, but Peal.^^i writing 
in 1893, remarks that the Konyak figure-head is (as depicted in his draw- 
ing) a crocodile, although ' there are no crocodiles in these hills,' and he 
points out that it is a familiar decoration in Indonesia and the Pacific. 
Although I have covered most of the ground visited by Peal in the last 
century, I have never seen any figure-head resembling the head of a 
crocodile, so that this tradition has apparently disappeared in the forty 
years since he visited the Naga hills. 

It has occurred to me that the instruments used for beating the Naga 
canoe gong may conceivably be degenerate paddles. The ordinary type 
is more like the dumb-bell than anything, but often one end of the dumb- 

^="' The Melanesians, 297. "^ J -A. I., 22, 252. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY i8i 

bell takes an ornamented form such as the hornbill's head,^^^ and in any 
case this ' dumb-bell ' is not unlike a paddle in which the blade has 
degenerated to proportions similar to those of the handle. 

F. E. Williams, writing ^^^ of the Pairama ceremony in the Purari 
Delta in Papua, tells us that ' when a successful hum returned at evening 
the corpse of the victim was borne from the canoe to the ravi amid great 
enthusiasm. The men uttered that prolonged shout or roar which has 
a singularly exciting effect upon the listener, and rattle their paddles 
upon the sides of the canoes with the rhythm called raruki raruki. . . On 
the following day the . . . hunter who first brings down the victim . . . 
is paraded in triumph through the village standing astride the canoe 
and balancing himself with a spear.' It was formerly the custom of 
Meithei to signal across the Logtak Lake in the Manipur State in Assam 
by beating with their poles or paddles on the sides of their dug-outs 
as the Nagas do on a canoe gong, and I am further told by Mr. William 
Shaw, who served many years in the Manipur State, that some Kabui 
villages which have no canoe gongs still have the tradition of having 
used them once, while in Kabui Khulen village a sort of boat, with a 
high prow, is dragged in every year at the Harvest Festival ' for all who 
have died in the past year.' The best dressed of the young men rides 
on the boat, while there is a tug-of-war between the two clans of the 
village, one pulling at each end of the boat by ropes attached to pierced 
lugs left on when fashioning this dug-out, which is known as the thing- 
khutong — the plank to which a dead body is ordinarily fastened for burial 
in that village being called thingkhu. It must, I think, represent a boat 
or a boat-shaped coffin and be associated again with the fertility of the 
crops, so largely bound up both with the spirits of the ancestral dead, 
and of dead enemies, while the riding of the boat by the young warrior 
is reminiscent of the Pairama ceremony described by F. E. Williams. 

Boat-shaped coffins are found occasionally in several of the Naga 
tribes, particularly in the Konyak country, where in one village at any 
rate they are associated with a tabooed chief, and it is worth noticing 
that a stone is put up by the Fijian ' spirit house ' for each corpse brought 
in,22'* precisely as the Konyak Nagas put up an erect stone outside the 
men's house for each head ; and it is also remarkable that in one case, 
at any rate, there seems to have been a close association between the 
Fijian war canoe and the gong known as lali, since the chief Rokona 
named his war canoe Vatutulali, after his large gong.^^^ 

The Samoans have a similar gong known as lofigo, the sound of which 
— according to Brown — will carry for 20 miles under favourable conditions. 
Brown also mentions that the Samoans struck the sides of their canoes 
with the handles of their paddles to mark time.^-® 

One more parallel is worth indicating in connection with this subject. 

"2 Vide illustration. Mills, II, 77. 

**' J.R.A.I., 53, 385, 386. He also describes with reference to the same 
ceremony the rhythmical pounding with bamboos of an old broken canoe laid 
along the ravi floor. 

"* Seemann, 178 ; Hutton, X, 41. -s Seemann, 197. 

226 Melanesians and Polynesians, 350. 



1 82 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Writing in the Journal of the Royal Society of Arts for February 1937, 
La Valette illustrates ^^^ the uptilted roofs of a branch of the Toradja 
tribe in Celebes, which he says are deliberately got from the prow and 
stern of a canoe, and are ' bound up with the tribal traditions of their 
ancestors, who originally arrived from a country overseas to which the 
spirits of the dead must return.' The roofs he illustrated are almost 
identical with forms common in one branch of the Konyak Nagas, east 
of the frontier of Assam.^^^ 

I have elsewhere suggested a possible migration from Indonesia, and 
migrations from Indonesia to Ceylon and South India are placed by 
Hornell ^^® at about the beginning of the Christian era. I cannot help 
thinking that if, as I am tempted to believe, there was an Indonesian 
migration which swept upwards northwards into Assam before the Kukis 
came south, it must have been at an earlier date than that at any rate ; 
there does seem to have been some expansion in many directions from 
Indonesia at a date which perhaps precedes the dates suggested by 
Coedes and Colani and the megalithic civilisation of south-east Asia. 
It would be interesting to know how far the stratifications of cultures 
in Oceania will correspond to the apparent succession in Assam of an 
Oceanic canoe culture, a matrilineal megalithic culture and that of a more 
recent patrilineal one associated with the Kayan and Kuki. The principal 
point which I wish to make, however, is that the hill cultures of Assam 
correspond to other distant cultures or combinations of cultures, all of 
which appear to be marginal in distribution from an Indonesian centre, 
and that there is some ground for supposing that migrations of culture, 
if not of people, have taken place from some centre in or near the Indian 
archipelago in various directions, one of which terminated in Assam. 

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"''* Hutton, X, pi. ii, fig. 5, and pi. xiv, fig. 2. 

22» Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 7, 1920. 



H.— ANTHROPOLOGY 183 

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Loans (1920). 
OsBORN, C. S. : Madagascar, Land of the Man-eating Tree (1925). 
Parry, N. E. : The Lakhevs (1932). 
Peal, S. E. : ' On the Movong as a Relic of Pre-marital Communism,' J. A. I., 

22, 299 seqq. (1893). 
Playfair, Major A. : The Garos (1909). 
Seemann, Dr. Berthold : Viti : An Account of a Government Mission to the 

Vitian or Fijian Islands (1862). 
Shakespear, Lt.-Col. J. : The Lushei-Kuki Clans (1912). 
Shaw, W. : Notes on the Thadon Kukis (1929). 
SiBREE, Rev. James : Madagascar before the Conquest (1896). 
Smith, W. C. : The Ao Naga Tribe of Assam (1925). 

Wake, C. S. : " Notes on the Origin of the Malagasy,' J.A.I. , 11 (1881). 
Waterhouse, Rev. : I, Va-ta-ah (1857). 

II, King and People of Fiji (1866). 

Williams, Rev. Thos., : I, Fijian Journal, edited by Prof. Henderson (1840- 

1S53)... 
II, Fiji and the Fijians (1870). 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



HEAT PRODUCTION, NUTRITION, 
AND GROWTH IN MAN- 
SOME NEW VIEWS. 

ADDRESS BY 

E. P. POULTON, M.A., D.M., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Section I is the Section of Physiology of the British Association ; but 
its deliberations have commonly traversed a wider ground than might 
have been anticipated from this title and the Section of ' Medical Sciences ' 
— the ' Institutes of Medicine ' of the Scottish Universities — might be a 
truer description, though I do not wish you to infer that pure physiology 
has been neglected. In doing me the honour of asking me to preside for 
this year, I feel that you have taken this wider aspect into account, so 
that before dealing with the technical part of my Address, I may be 
allowed to give my view on one disquieting tendency that relates to the 
Voluntary Hospital system and the health of the community. The 
facilities for medical research in this country have increased out of all 
proportion since 1914, when the Medical Research Committee (forerunner 
of the Medical Research Council) was formed, and I should not like to miss 
this opportunity of paying my tribute to Lord Nuffield for his unique 
benefaction to my old University. But, if we except the whole-time 
research and teaching posts, there are still funds available to pay the 
research expenses of those who are willing to give their spare time to 
medical research in the course of their teaching and practice. As one 
who has benefited by this, as I think, wise provision, I am anxious that 
my successors should not be less favourably situated, and I would appeal 
to those with funds to distribute not to neglect this need in their desire 
to provide for whole-time research posts. 

If the present outlook of medical research is relatively bright from the 
financial point of view, how about its application in medical practice ? 
Here the story is different. If the result can be taken in the form of a 
pill its popularity is assured and valuable advances in treatment have 
been achieved ; but if the discovery means that some trouble must be 
taken or an apparatus purchased, then, however valuable, in some parts 
of the country it will remain unused for years, and for this I am afraid 
the straitened circumstances of the voluntary hospitals must be held 
largely responsible. At present few voluntary hospitals will spend 



i86 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

money on novel apparatus if it can possibly be avoided, though when 
apparatus is provided, as experience shows, it will be freely used. It is 
interesting that this slow application of discovery has been noted in com- 
mercial spheres, and in a recent research benefaction to the Royal Society 
part of the money can be used for popularising the results of research. 
Such a provision is eminently desirable in medicine, and, in commending 
it to the pious benefactor, I would point out thai much good could be done 
by a comparatively small sum of money, since in the first place it need only 
be applied to the voluntary teaching hospitals. When once the medical 
student — the future doctor — has become accustomed to a new method or 
a new apparatus, its spread throughout the country cannot be so long 
delayed. 

Indirect Calorimetry. 

In estimating the heat production of an individual the oxygen intake 
and the carbon dioxide output are measured. After allowing for protein 
metabolism the oxygen intake is converted into calories of heat generated, 
by multiplying it with a factor which depends on the respiratory quotient 
(volume of COg produced/volume of Og absorbed). These multiplying 
factors were calculated originally by Zuntz and Schumburg (1901) ^ and 
are based upon (a) the heats of combustion of carbohydrate and fat, (b) the 
chemical composition of carbohydrate and fat, and [c) the theory that 
when the respiratory quotient has the value unity carbohydrate alone is 
oxidised in the body and when the respiratory quotient has a value equal 
to 0-707 fat only is being oxidised, and at intermediate values of the 
respiratory quotient corresponding proportions of carbohydrate and fat 
are being oxidised. This method of calculating the heat produced by 
an individual is known as indirect calorimetry. The basal metabolism or 
basal metabolic rate of American authors or ' standard ' metabolism of 
Krogh and Lindhard is at present defined as heat production in the 
morning before breakfast, fourteen to sixteen hours after the last meal of 
the previous day (the post absorptive condition) with the subject; lying at 
rest. 

The theory that the respiratory quotient, the term introduced by 
Pfliiger, indicates the proportion of carbohydrate and fat that is being burnt 
in the body has been evolved in physiology since Regnault and Reiset's 
observations (1849) ^^'^ Reiset's observations (1863) on various animals. 
These authors found that the proportion of carbon dioxide given out to 
the oxygen taken in depended on the food taken rather than on the type 
of animal investigated. In rabbit D, for example, this ratio — in other 
words, the respiratory quotient was 0-95 when eating carrots, 0-997 with 
bread and oats and o • 707 when hungry. In the case of a dog F, with 
bread the respiratory quotient was 0-943, when hungry 0-724, and with 
mutton fat 0-694. In 1898, M. S. Pembrey, in Schafer's Textbook of 
Physiology, wrote that ' an animal fed on a vegetable diet has a quotient 

^ Few references are given in this Address as they appear in Guy's Hospital 
Reports, 1934-37: 84, 473; 85,56, 447; 87, 151- 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 187 

closely approaching unity, for its chief food, the carbohydrates, contains 
enough oxygen to combine with the hydrogen to form water ; that a 
carnivorous animal has a quotient about o • 74 and an omnivorous animal 
such as man a somewhat higher quotient ; and finally, that even a herbi- 
vorous animal has a low quotient during starvation, for it then lives upon 
its own tissues.' The complete evolution of the theory may be said to 
date from Zuntz and Schumburg's calculations, for since that time the 
respiratory quotient has been generally regarded as providing a quantita- 
tive measure of the combustion ratio in all circumstances— after food, in 
the post-absorptive state and during starvation. For convenience this 
may be called the theory of the ' variable combustion ratio,' since this 
varies with the respiratory quotient. 

Direct Calorimetry. 

Direct determinations of the output of heat in calorimeters have been 
made over many years ; but up to the end of last century, when the 
Atwater-Rosa respiration calorimeter was constructed, the complete 
respiratory exchange was not measured simultaneously with the direct 
calorimetric measurements. The heat output of man and animals, under 
basal conditions, has been measured directly in a calorimeter by Benedict 
and Carpenter, DuBois and his colleagues and Murlin and Lusk, and 
compared with the heat output calculated indirectly by means of the 
Zuntz-Schumburg figures from the oxygen intake and the carbon dioxide 
output, which were measured simultaneously. The results obtained have 
been held by their authors to justify the conclusion from average values 
that the agreement between the two methods was sufficiently satisfactory 
to give support to the theory of the ' variable combustion ratio ' outlined 
above. 

However, this theory has not escaped criticism. Benedict and 
Carpenter, when describing their observations on the metabolism of 
subjects after a meal of carbohydrate, state (p. 173) that in many instances 
the agreement betv/een direct and indirect calorimetry is extremely 
unsatisfactory because of ' the abnormal conditions previously outlined 
which obtain when excessive amounts of carbohydrate are ingested.' 
Respiratory quotients below o • 707 — the theoretical quotient of the 
combustion of fat — have not infrequently been obtained ; these are 
impossible on the theory, since they can only be explained by the con- 
version of fat into some more highly oxygenated substance such as carbo- 
hydrate. These low quotients have been attributed by staunch upholders 
of the theory to experimental error. 

The partial conversion of fat to carbohydrate was supported by M. S. 
Pembrey, who became one of the earliest critic^ of the theory, after ob- 
serving very low quotients in hibernating animals. Observations of this 
kind date back to Regnault and Reiset who, when investigating the meta- 
bolism of marmots, found, in the case of marmot C, for example, a respira- 
tory quotient of 0399, when the animal was asleep and a quotient of 



i88 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

0-686 when it was eating. Gorer in a complete review of the subject 
concludes that there is adequate proof of some such conversion. 

No doubt exists as to the conversion of carbohydrate into fat in the 
animal body, and respiratory quotients above unity have been freely 
allowed. But even here difficulties have arisen, because it is difficult to 
imagine that such a conversion begins de novo and just at the point when 
the value of the respiratory quotient exceeds unity and that the metabolism 
of fat ceases completely at exactly the same point. Cathcart and Marko- 
witz have pointed out this difficulty, but their observations on the rise of 
the respiratory exchange and respiratory quotient after giving sugar, 
which iiad been previously studied by Higgins, do not prove that such 
conversion takes place below a respiratory quotient of unity. They 
qualify their criticism of the theory in the following words : ' We do not 
wish to cast doubt on the validity of the calculations of indirect calorimetry 
when the experiments extend over several hours ; indeed, we are whole- 
hearted believers in the method under these conditions. We even believe 
that when conditions in the body are stabilised (as they presumably are 
in the post-absorptive condition when basal metabolic rates are commonly 
determined) agreement between indirect and direct calorimetry will be 
close. But where metabolism is actively proceeding in the organism, as 
may occur in short experiments following food, this close agreement 
cannot be expected.' Krogh and Lindhard go further than Cathcart and 
Markowitz when they suggest that the conversion of carbohydrate to 
fat on the one hand and fat to carbohydrate on the other begins towards 
the middle range of respiratory quotients (i.e. 0-90 upwards and o-8o 
downwards), but it is difficult to see how any argument can be based on 
observations in which the heat itself was not determined. 

Dale and his co-workers, and Cori and Cori, suggest that the adminis- 
tration of insulin to depancreatised and normal animals brings, about oxi- 
dation of carbohydrate and so raises the value of the respiratory quotient, 
but in depancreatised animals the respiratory quotient may be fairly high 
— up to about o • 80, so that the power to utilise carbohydrate is not lost. 
In the more severe forms of muscular work respiratory quotients greater 
than unity have been observed, which can only mean some reduction of 
the carbohydrate — a conversion of carbohydrate to fat ; but this is unlikely 
if carbohydrate is the main source of energy in muscular work, a hypo- 
thesis that has been put forward to explain quotients up to unity which 
are obtained when muscular work of moderate intensity is performed 
(Furusawa). 

A Fundamental Error in Indirect Calorimetry. 

The most complete study of direct and indirect calorimetry in normal 
man under basal conditions is that made by Benedict and Carpenter. In 
the experimental work carried out by these observers, the greatest pre- 
cautions were taken to eliminate, or to compensate for, all known sources 
of error. The accuracy of the respiratory calorimeters used was checked 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 189 

by control experiments in whicli alcohol was burnt in the calorimeter 
under experimental conditions and the measured heat, oxygen con- 
sumption, and carbon dioxide production were compared with the quan- 
tities predicted from the known weight of alcohol burnt, and the results 
obtained indicate a high degree of accuracy. So satisfactory were these 
control experiments that it was felt to be necessary to give only one typical 
experiment and a summary of the results of all experiments of the same 
type which were made between October 1903 and April 1904 with the 
calorimeter of 5,000 litres capacity at the Wesleyan University, Middle- 
town, U.S.A. In two of their subjects, A.L.L. and A.H.M., the oxygen 
intake and the carbon dioxide output, and the heat generated, were simul- 
taneously determined with the subject at rest and in the post-absorptive 
state at two hourly intervals over periods of eight hours for a number of 
days. There are 24 sets of determinations for A.L.L. and 21 sets for 
A.H.M. The ' non-protein ' values for oxygen intake and carbon dioxide 
output and the calories of heat generated were calculated on the usual 
assumption that the nitrogen excreted during any period corresponds to 
an amount of protein which has been completely oxidised during that 
period ; if now the oxygen, carbon dioxide and heat (in calories) resulting 
from this oxidation are deducted from the total figures, the remaining 
amounts must be solely due to the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. 
A recent study which is not yet complete throws some doubt on this 
method of calculation, particularly for the higher quotients, and no 
allowance for protein has been made in the later results described in this 
Address. I have not found that the conclusions are invalidated by this 
omission. 

Using these data for the subjects A.L.L. and A.H.M. , the theoretical 
heat from the oxygen intake and the respiratory quotient was calculated 
by the Zuntz-Schumburg method, and this heat (indirect heat) was com- 
pared with the heat actually measured by the calorimeter (direct heat). 
The difference between the indirect and direct heat was expressed as a 
percentage of the direct heat and related to the respiratory quotient by 
a graphic method. The result is shown in figs, i and 2. The horizontal 
line at zero in the top part of the diagrams represents the condition where 
the indirect and direct heats are identical ; the ordinates represent the 
percentage differences between the indirect and direct heats. Satis- 
factory agreement between the heat calculated and the direct heat will 
depend on the percentage differences, indicated by the black dots, being 
evenly distributed above and below the horizontal zero line throughout 
the range of respiratory quotients. This is obviously not the case. The 
positions of the points suggest a systematic error ; for the lower quotients 
the indirect heat is too high and for the higher quotients too low. The 
direct and indirect heats only agree at a respiratory quotient of about 
0-785 and not elsewhere. At this particular point the respiratory 
quotient represents a combustion of carbohydrate and fat in the ratio 
of I to I -36. It is unlikely that there can be a very large error in the first 
two factors on which the Zuntz-Schumburg values are based (viz. the 



I90 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



heats of combustion of carbohydrate and fat and the chemical composition 
of these substances), it is therefore in the third factor that we must look 
for the error ; and this must mean that it is not possible to calculate the 
proportion of carbohydrate to fat actually burnt from other respiratory 
quotients than o • 785. 

When these results were first reported at the Guy's meeting of the 
Physiological Society in 1932, Prof. Benedict suggested that they might 
be due to errors in measuring the oxygen. If, for instance, the volume 
of oxygen was too low, the calculated value for the heat would be too 





A.H.M. 












20^ 

10^ 


Rq 


0-7 






0-8 0*9 




1-11 


- 


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ift 


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Fig. I. 



Fig. 2. 



Comparison of indirect and direct calorimetry. o = Oxygen ; + = COj ; 
two-hourly determinations during first day of fasting. Subject at rest. In 
fig. I two observations coincided and so only 20 are shown. 



low ; at the same time the respiratory quotient would be too high, so 
that the position of the point would be low down on the right of the 
diagram and, similarly, if the oxygen were too high the point would be 
high up and to the left ; in fact, the distribution would be the same as in 
the figures. The oxygen would be particularly liable to error because it 
was measured both by noting the loss in weight of an oxygen cylinder and 
also by determining the change in oxygen content of the calorimeter at 
the beginning and end of the experiment. Any error in the analysis of 
the gas content of the calorimeter would be magnified in the final result 
if the volume of the calorimeter was large. On the other hand, the carbon 
dioxide, which has only a small influence on the indirect heat, was pre- 
sumably accurate, because as the calorimeter was a closed circuit it could 
not escape. The validity of this explanation can be tested by noting the 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 191 

extent of the variation in the volume of oxygen. For A.L.L. the oxygen 
intake per two hours was 30-1 litres at a respiratory quotient of 0-834 
and 20-6 litres at a quotient of 0-932 (a variation of 9-5 litres) and for 
A.H.M., 29-4 litres at a quotient of 0-762 and 18-9 litres at a quotient 
of 0-947 (^ variation of 10-5 litres). Such variations are surely quite 
outside any possible error due to analysis. The fact that all control 
experiments in which alcohol was burnt in the calorimeter show a high 
degree of accuracy in the measurement of the oxygen intake when com- 
pared with the heat output confirms the view that the error indicated in 
figs. I and 2 cannot be accounted for by experimental errors in the 
measurement of the oxygen. 

Similar results have been obtained with a number of individuals who 
had been observed in the smaller calorimeters at Boston, as well as with 
a number of pathological cases described by Du Bois and his colleagues, 
and with Murlin and Lusk's observations on dogs. We have also shown 
that they cannot be accounted for by a time lag in the taking up of heat 
by the calorimeter. 

Constancy of Carbon Dioxide Output. — -In figs, i and 2 the values of the 
oxygen intake and the carbon dioxide output corresponding to the heat 
differences have been plotted ; the carbon dioxide remains remarkably 
constant throughout the range of respiratory quotients ; the oxygen 
intake, on the other hand, diminishes as the quotient increases. Benedict 
and Carpenter comment on the constancy of the carbon dioxide in their 
experiments. Those authors who have made a number of determinations 
of the basal metabolism on the same individual have in general obtained 
a constant COj and a fall in the oxygen with rise of quotient ; but when 
the subject has been taking a carbohydrate diet there is a small but definite 
rise in CO2 with rise in quotient and a fall in the oxygen as before. 

An Alternative Method of Indirect Calorimetry. 

As it became clear that the Zuntz-Schumburg figures could no longer 
be used for the purpose of calculating the heat generated by the body, 
the necessity arose of seeing whether any other relationship existed 
between the o.xygen intake, the carbon dioxide output and the heat 
production from which it would be possible to calculate the heat if the 
oxygen intake and the carbon dioxide output were known — in other 
words : Is indirect calorimetry a possibility } To answer this question 
the plan adopted was to see whether there was any direct relation between 
the carbon dioxide output and the heat produced, and between the oxygen 
and the heat. In fig. 3, 337 observations by Du Bois and his colleagues 
on the basal metabolism have been plotted, and the alcohol control 
experiments as well. In these metabolism experiments the body tempera- 
ture was not above 37-5° C. and protein figures are used — i.e. no 
deduction has been made for the protein metabolism. 

The position of the points in the diagrams shows that there is a linear 
relation between the CO2 and calories (correlation coefficient 0-950 



iga 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 









y 


-«o 






;/ 


-too 


""%« 




^ 


-60 

V 

K 

I 
-io 


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1 



Fig. 3. — Comparison of indirect and direct calorimetry. Du Bois's basal 
values (rectal temperatures not above 37-5° €.)• 

Ordinates : Calories per hour ; Abscissae : Upper diagram — CO2 grm. per 
hour; Lower diagram Oj grm. per hour. O Two coincident values. A Alcohol 
control experiments. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 193 

±0-005) ^rid between O2 and calories (correlation coefficient 0-92 
± o-oo8). The lines C represent the relation of the carbon dioxide 
output and oxygen intake to the heat produced, when pure carbohydrate 
is burnt in a calorimeter ; they were calculated from the value given by 
Lusk, viz. 5 -047 Cal. per litre of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The lines 
K and M represent the relation of the heat to the carbon dioxide output 
on the left-hand side and to the oxygen intake on the right when two 
different kinds of human fat are burnt. These two fats, from liver and 
skeletal muscle analysed by Cathcart and Cuthbertson, were chosen 
because they represent extremes, and the lines of the other nine human 
fats analysed by them lie in between. Most of the carbon dioxide points 
lie between the theoretical carbohydrate and fat lines which are widely 
spaced ; but this is certainly not the case with the oxygen points, as the 
theoretical limits are much narrower. It is possible to look on the carbon 
dioxide as the product of combustion of a mixture of carbohydrate and 
fat, but, because the oxygen points lie for the most part outside the 
theoretical limits, the oxygen intake cannot be entirely used up in 
combustion but must in part be concerned in some kind of conversion. 

The equation of the regression line to be used for determining the heat 
from the COj is 

Calories (per hour) = 3 •18CO2 (grm. per hour) — 4*92 . . (i) 

The Theory of the Constant Combustion Ratio. 

There is, then, a fundamental error in the theory that the respiratory 
quotient indicates the proportion of carbohydrate and fat that is being 
burnt in the body under basal conditions, the theory of the variable 
combustion ratio ; this theory (No. i) must be abandoned. There 
are only two other possible theories (Nos. 2 and 3) to be considered. 
The simplest one (No. 2) is that carbohydrate and fat are always burnt 
in the body in a fixed proportion, and the respiratory quotient, when it is 
high, measures the amount of conversion of carbohydrate into some less 
oxygenated material such as fat, and, when it is low, measures the 
reverse change. 

The other possibility (No. 3), which is more complicated, is intermediate 
between Nos. i and 2. The change in the respiratory quotient is the 
resultant of two independent variables : a variation in the combustion 
ratio and a variation in the amount of conversion of one foodstuff towards 
the other. As the respiratory quotient rises there are two opposed 
processes of gradually increasing intensity simultaneously at work, one 
an increasing combustion of carbohydrate relative to fat, which tends to 
make the heat, calculated by Zuntz-Schumburg, too low, the other an 
increasing conversion of carbohydrate into fat which tends to make it 
too high, as it is an endothermic reaction. Against this view there is a 
fundamental objection. The conversion of carbohydrate and fat may be 
represented by a reversible equation : 

4C27H6o04 + 4202;^i8C6Hio06 + ioH20 . . (2) 



194 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

which shows that oxygen and not carbon dioxide is concerned with the 
conversion process. Thus COg can only result from oxidation (see also 
Guy's Hosp. Reports, 85, p. 68) ; but oxygen has a two-fold function — 
oxidation and conversion. It has been calculated that the heat of reaction 
of this equation is 2 • i Gals, per grm. of fat, from which it follows that for 
every litre of oxygen given out in the conversion of carbohydrate to fat 
there is an absorption of heat of 3-93 Cals. The oxygen given out in 
this conversion is used up in the oxidation of carbohydrate and fat, so 
that a corresponding amount less is taken up from the atmosphere. 
Equation 2 is based on Cathcart and Cuthbertion's analyses of human 
fat. 

Now I litre of COj, produced in the oxidation of fat, is equivalent to 
6-65 Cals. and in the oxidation of glycogen to 5 '125 Cals. On an 
ordinary diet the CO2 output is constant with rise of quotient, and so if 
there is a rise in the proportion of carbohydrate burnt there must be a 
fall in the heat of combustion per litre of CO 2 with rise of quotient ; if 
there is simultaneously a conversion of carbohydrate to fat there must be 
a still further fall in the output of heat, as this is an endothermic reaction. 
But on plotting the measured heat against the respiratory quotient this 
is not found to be the case : it remains about the same. The only way of 
expressing this theory to fit the facts is to say that on rise of quotient 
there is an increasing combustion of carbohydrate relative to fat according 
to the quotient, and simultaneously a conversion of fat into carbohydrate, 
which seems absurd, but is really only a roundabout way of expressing 
theory No. 2. Hence theory No. 3 falls out and No. 2, or the theory of 
the constant combustion ratio, is left by exclusion. 

It must be admitted that this theory is not altogether unreasonable. 
Many quantities associated with the human body have in health a more 
or less constant value. The body temperature at rest varies within 
comparatively small limits, and the same is the case with the hydrogen 
ion concentration of the blood and the quantity of phosphocreatine broken 
down in relation to muscular work ; while the amount of sleep remains 
the same for an individual at any particular age. Why should not carbo- 
hydrate and fat be burnt in constant proportion in the post-absorptive 
condition in a normal healthy man. The story of Cain and Abel suggests 
that the diet of primitive man was variable in its carbohydrate and fat 
content, depending on his success in cultivation, when it would be mainly 
carbohydrate, or hunting, when it would be mainly protein and fat. 
Which is most likely, that the complicated metabolic processes resulting 
in the actions of the heart, muscles and glands should be entirely at the 
mercy of the individual's caprice (or luck) in his choice of food, or that 
these processes should in the main run always along well-defined lines 
of chemical and physical action, while any foodstuff taken in unusual 
quantities is stored in some suitable form for future use, even though this 
means a conversion of some kind ? Is it not reasonable to look on these 
conversions of food as some of the earliest adaptations that the organism 
has acquired in the course of evolution, and, as Dr. H. E. Magee has 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 195 

suggested to us this would be a reason for the evolution in the body of 
the power to manufacture the ferment glutathione, which is otherwise 
without a clear explanation. 

The Measured Heat at High and Low Quotients. 

If it is assumed that the reaction represented by the reversible equation 2 
— carbohydrate to fat conversion — takes place at high and low respiratory 
quotients while the combustion of carbohydrate and fat in a fixed ratio 



-xg. 



»« 



-10* 



-al 






o '^ « ' « . ?■"<■ 1 f'i *"! - " X " 

, » <<, X JL ^ Ja^ i — j • ; — a — I rf- 



' 5' ^'x" 



X X 



-107. 



-20X 



-3<a 



xS KTT Xi, * X 

X S* « „ S* "x 

' « . ' . ' 5 '^ X , « 



-Ba. I I L 



so -as 



9S 



Fig. 4. — Comparison of indirect and direct calorimetry on the theory of the 
constant combustion ratio. Error due to conversion at low and high quotients. 
Du Bois's results. 

Ordinates : Percentage differences between measured heats and heats calcu- 
lated from CO2 output. Abscissae : Respiratory quotients. 

is taking place simultaneously ; the measured (direct) heat should be less 
than the heat calculated from the carbon dioxide output, by equation i, at 
high quotients, since the measured heat will be the resultant of the heat 
given out from combustion less the heat absorbed in the conversion of 
carbohydrate to fat. At low respiratory quotients, when the reverse 
process takes place, the measured heat should be greater than the heat 
calculated from the carbon dioxide output. 

For the construction of fig. 4 the heat was first calculated from the 
carbon dioxide output for each of Du Bois's 377 observations by the 
regression equation i. The difference between the heat calculated in 
this manner and the corresponding measured heat expressed as a 



196 SECTIONAL ADDREESES 

percentage of the measured heat was then plotted against the respiratory 
quotient. The principle adopted is similar to that which was used in 
figs. I and 2, where, however, the heat was calculated from the oxygen, 
using the Zuntz-Schumburg relation. 

Here there is a tendency for the percentage differences to be positive 
when the respiratory quotient exceeds 0-875, ^^^ the points do not He 
so evenly distributed about the zero line as at intermediate quotients, 
while below 0-775 they are on the average negative. Hence there is an 
error in calculating the heat from the carbon dioxide output both at high 
and low respiratory quotients, an error predicted from theory. This is 
in contrast to the error, opposite in direction, which appeared when, in 
figs. I and 2, the Zuntz-Schumburg figures were used, and for which there 
was no explanation on the theory of the variable combustion ratio. 

Is it possible to prove quantitatively that conversion of carbohydrate 
to fat and vice versa does take place at high and low quotients ? For this 
purpose all the observations calculated for hourly periods of Du Bois and 
his colleagues, apart from diabetes, have been divided into groups accord- 
ing to the quotient, including febrile cases and experiments after food, 
which fall into line with the figures for the basal metabolisms, though 
the figures in febrile cases are not so regular as in non-febrile cases ; in 
each group the CO 2 and the heat have been correlated and regression 
equations obtained. 



R.Q. 


No. of 

hourly 

observatns. 


Correlation 
coefficients. 


Regression Equation. 




Above - 975 


29 


0-9715 Cals. 


= 2-52 COg — 0-12 , 


■ (3) 


0-925-0-975 


4Si 


0-924 Cals. 


= 2-60 CO2 + 1-49 


• (4) 


0-875-0-925 


86f 


- 879 Cals. 


= 2-44 CO., + 7-13 


- (S) 


0-825 ~ 0-875 


i84i 


0-93SS Cals. 


= 3-o55C02-3-87 


■ (6) 


0-775-0-825 


345M 


0-918 Cals. 


= 3-o43C02- 1-63 , 


■ (7) 


0-725-0 -775 


159 


0-91 Cals. 


= 2-68 CO2 + 9-85 , 


• (8) 



Equations 6 and 7 are very similar to one another, and it would be 
reasonable as an approximation to take the average — • 

Cals. = 3 -049CO2 — 2-75 . . . (9) 

and to call this the regression equation at the intermediate quotient o - 825 . 
If we assume, as is compatible with fig. 4, that at this quotient a mixture 
of carbohydrate and fat is burnt and there is no conversion, it will be 
possible to calculate for the conversion process at high and low quotients 
the calories absorbed or liberated per litre of oxygen liberated or absorbed 
and to see how this agrees with the theoretical value from equation 2, viz. 
3-93 Cals. per litre. The method of calculation is as follows: For 
25 grms. CO2 (12 -7 litres) at R.Q. = 0-825, the O2 is 15 -4 litres, and the 
heat from equation 9 is 73 -48 Cals. For 25 grms. COj at R.Q. = i, the 
Og is 12-7 litres, and the heat from equation 3 is 62-88 Cals. Hence at 



15 


25 


35 


7-6 


2-l8 




— 


3-7 


5-75 


4-0 


3-45 


2 -03 


3-27 


3-93 


4-14 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 197 

this quotient there is 10 -6 Cals. less heat given out and 2 -7 litres less O2 
absorbed ; or 3 -93 Cals. per litre Oj. 

The following calculations have been made : 

CO 2 grams per hour ..... 

R.Q. o • 75 Cals. liberated per litre oxygen absorbed 
„ 0-90 Cals. absorbed per litre oxygen liberated 

n ^ ' 95 '> '» " " " 

»» ^ *00 >) )) )) >> >» 

The figures for the Cals. per litre of oxygen are of the same order as the 
theoretical figure 3-93, and the equations 3 and 4 for R.Qs. o -95 and i • 00, 
where there is the largest amount of conversion, give the closest figures. 
The other two equations 5 and 8 give at one point an impossible figure, 
indicating absorption of heat when there should have been liberation, 
and vice versa. But the figures are provisional. The R.Qs. chosen for 
calculation are not the averages, or the medians of the R.Qs. in the 
groups, and it appears now that determinations in diabetes should be 
added. But considering that the figures represent the ratio of differences 
between quantities ten times as large, and so are particularly liable to error 
they do seem compatible with the conversion of carbohydrate and fat at 
high and low quotients, and in this sense provide a quantitative proof. 

Food. — I have just said that the values for the COg-heat relation after 
food fall into line with the basal metabolism results when grouped 
according to the respiratory quotient. This has implications of interest, 
because most results in the groups belonging to the higher quotients 
were obtained after food, and particularly carbohydrate. Hence, con- 
version into fat takes place within the first few hours after ingestion of 
carbohydrate, and the resulting absorption of heat explains the well-known 
small specific dynamic action of carbohydrate. After ingestion of fat the 
specific dynamic action is also small, but this is because the values remain 
at the basal level without alteration of quotient, presumably because fat 
delays the emptying of the stomach. On the other hand, after protein 
there is eventually increase both in the heat and the respiratory exchange 
— hence the high specific dynamic action ; but in the first hour or two 
there is often a rise of quotient and little if any increase of heat, which 
makes it probable that any rate part of the protein is immediately con- 
verted into fat, and in this case invalidates the usual method of calculating 
non-protein metabolism. 

Muscular Work. 

Investigating the effect of diet on the respiratory exchange due to 
muscular work, Krogh and Lindhard found that with carbohydrate more 
CO2 was excreted and less Oj was absorbed than with a diet mainly of fat. 
On the theory of the variable combustion ratio this meant that less heat 
was produced with carbohydrate, so that the body worked more economi- 
cally, Benedict and Milner^ have made the only systematic investigation 
* U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of Exp. Stations, Bull. 175, 1907. 



198 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

of muscular work in a respiratory calorimeter ; but their results were 
published thirty years ago and seem to have been overlooked. They 
found that for the same amount of work the heat output was practically 
the same on a mixed diet containing roughly equal proportions of carbo- 
hydrate and fat as on a carbohydrate diet. Comparing the best two 
experiments when equal amounts of work were accomplished — 63 and 
62 on A.L.L. — the total heat output for 3 days was 14670 • i and 14464-4 
Calories respectively, a decrease on the carbohydrate diet of only i • 4 per 
cent. The COj values were 1298-4 and 1397 grms. and the oxygen 
values were 4317-2 and 4058-3 grms. ; these differences are like those 
that Krogh and Lindhard subsequently found ; the R.Q's. were o - 802 
and o - 896. The results cannot be explained on the older theory because 
the heat remained nearly the same on the two diets ; but on the theory 
of the constant combustion ratio, because the CO 2 was increased on the 
carbohydrate diet, the combustion of the normal carbohydrate-fat mixture 
must have been increased and more heat produced ; this increase of heat 
must have been neutralised by the heat absorbed in the conversion of 
carbohydrate to fat, a process that, must have occurred, because less oxygen 
was absorbed on the carbohydrate diet. 

To obtain quantitative evidence of this conversion regression equations 
of the heat— CO2 and Oj — heat relations for A.L.L. on the two diets 
have been calculated for 6 hourly periods in all experiments, omitting the 
first periods in Experiments 62, 63 and 65, which were transition periods 
as regards diet, but adding the basal determinations in Carnegie Inst. 
Publication 261 to the mixed diets ; CO 2 and O2 are expressed in grms. : 

Mixed diet : Cals. = 2-94CO2 +45-1. • (10) 

O2 = 0-303 Cals. — lo-i . . (11) 

Carbohydrate diet : Cals. = 2-7iC02 +42-5 . . (12) 

O2 =0-288 Cals. — 0-4 . . (13) 

Suppose 400 grms. COg is excreted on the mixed and on the carbo- 
hydrate diets the calories from equations 10 and 12 are 1221 and 1128, 
i.e. with less muscular work there were 93 less calories given out on the 
carbohydrate diet. From equations 11 and 13 the oxygens corresponding 
to these heats are 359-5 and 324-6 grms. — i.e. 34-9 grms. less oxygen 
was absorbed on the carbohydrate diet ; on passing from the mixed 
to the carbohydrate diet the heat absorbed per grm. of oxygen was 

— =2-66 Cals., or 2 - 66 ~—^ = 3 • 8 Cals. per litre of oxygen ; now the 



34-9 22-4 

theoretical value for the conversion of carbohydrate to fat is 3 -93. Similar 
calculations over the range of COj's obtained in the muscular work and 
following rest period gave results as follows : 

CO2 grm. per 6 hours ..... 250, 400, 600, 700 
Heat absorbed in conversion, Cals. per 6 hours. 59-6, 93, 138, 166 
Cals. per litre of O2 absorbed in conversion . 7-48, 3 -8, 3 -44, 3 -38 

At any rate the experimental figures are of the same order as the theoretical 
figure 3-93. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 199 

Another method of calculation depends on using equation 7 in com- 
paring Experiments 63 and 62. With carbohydrate there was excreted 
361 -4 grms. CO2 more than on the mixed diet. If this resulted from 
oxidation of a carbohydrate-fat mixture at R.Q. 0-802, the heat would 
be by equation 7, 1097-4 Cals. Hence 14670 -i + 1097-4 — 144^4 "4 
(= 1303 -i) Cals. must have been absorbed on changing to the carbo- 
hydrate diet, owing to conversion. Since 44 grms. CO2 requires 32 grms. 
O2 for its formation, the oxygen required to produce 361 -4 grms. COj 

at the R.Q. would have been 3^ ^ "4 X 3^ ^^ 327-7) grms. The oxygen 

44 X 0-002 
that must have been absorbed on changing to the carbohydrate diet was 
^^217-2 + 327-7 — 4158 -6 (= 486 -3) grms. Hence the calories absorbed 

per grm. of oxygen was ^„^ = 2-679, or 2-679 -— - (= 3 "83) Cals. 

per litre. This value, 3-83, is very close to the theoretical value 3-93. 

Thus, there is every probability that carbohydrate is converted into 
fat in muscular work on a carbohydrate diet. This may explain the 
quotients above unity obtained by C. H. Best, K. Furusawa and J. R. 
Ridout.^ A point of interest is that the amount of the conversion 
increases with the muscular work and the total respiratory exchange, 
which suggests that conversion and combustion are linked reactions. 

Teleologically, the value of a conversion of carbohydrate to fat may be 
questioned, considering the enormous storage of fat in the body compared 
to carbohydrate ; but these deposits of fat may not be readily available, 
and anyhow a better way of looking at the conversion process is from the 
point of view of a velocity reaction, the amount of conversion depending 
on the concentration of carbohydrate in the reacting tissues, which is 
increased on a high carbohydrate diet. The interesting conclusion may 
be drawn that muscular work on any diet produces nearly the same 
amount of heat ; if heat is absorbed in conversion from carbohydrate to 
fat this must be provided by increased combustion of the standard carbo- 
hydrate-fat mixture. 

A New Definition of Basal Metabolism. 

On the theory of indirect colorimetry, based on the constant combustion 
ratio of carbohydrate and fat, the non-protein carbon dioxide results 
entirely from the combustion of carbohydrate and fat, while the oxygen 
is used partly for combustion and partly in conversion processes. If the 
respiratory quotient is high, say 0-9, the heat, calculated on the assumption 
that the oxygen is used entirely for combustion, is about 8 per cent, above 
the heat actually found, because the heat due to combustion is diminished 
by the heat absorbed in the conversion of carbohydrate towards fat (see 
fig. 4). Since under basal conditions there are continual small variations 
in the quotient, there will be continual additions to or subtractions 
from the heat of combustion, according as the conversion of fat to 
* Proc. Roy. Soc, B., 104, 119, 1929, 



200 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

carbohydrate is taking place or vice versa. Since these conversions are 
ephemeral and will cancel each other over a long period, they can hardly 
be regarded as part of a ' standard ' metabolism, and so it is much better 
to neglect them, and this is done by taking the carbon dioxide alone into 
consideration. In these circumstances the basal or standard metabolism 
must be defined afresh as the heat of combustion at rest in the post- 
absorptive state and not as the total heat measured in a calorimeter, the 
value of which may be a little different, depending on the respiratory 
quotient. If this definition be accepted it follows that the carbon dioxide 
alone must be measured and no account must be taken of the intake of 
oxygen. 

Standards of Metabolism, Growth, and General Nutrition 

IN Children. 

In working out a new standard of basal metabolism from the COg it was 
decided, as Benedict has done, to determine t^ie mathematical correlation 
between the four quantities, carbon dioxide excretion, body weight, height, 
and age, irrespective of any preconceived theory that might possibly relate 
them together ; but, as in Meeh's and Dreyer's formulae and in the 
height-weight formula of Du Bois, the Calories were related to a power 
of the body weight, it seemed advisable as a first step to plot the logarithms 
of the body weight and carbon dioxide output with a view to determining 
graphically what the power was. This was a fortunate step as, in the 
case of the children, it at once indicated that between 1-2 and 4-5 years 
of age there was a break in the continuity of the curve relating these 
quantities ; further work showed a closer correlation between CO 2 and 
height up to 5-6 years of age than between CO 2 and weight, since some 
children were unusually heavy, possibly from retention of fluid associated 
with hypothyroidism. At these ages height is the best measure of 
metabolism. As the baby grows from birth to a height of 29 in., i.e. 
up to I year, the regression equation is as follows : 

Early infancy : 

Log. CO2 = 3-15 log. height -4-04 . . (14) 

Between 29 in. (i year) and 41J in. (5-6 years) it is 

Log. CO2 = 046 log. height + I . . . (15) 

In other words, there is but little increase in COj with growth between 
heights of 29 and 41 J in. ; subsequently up to about puberty there is 
again a larger increase in the CO 2 output, and it is now higher for boys 
than for girls. These CO 2 values of Benedict and Talbot are probably 
on the low side, though they are consistent in themselves ; but the recent 
results of R. C. Lewis * and others will have to be investigated in order to 
obtain a more correct prediction of the COg from the height or weight of 
children above 5 to 6 years. 

* Amer. Jour. Dis. Child. 1937, 53, 348. 



I— PHYSIOLOGY 201 

The suggested explanation of the kink at 29 in. is the exercise taken by 
the child when he or she begins at first to crawl and later to run about ; these 
activities burn up fat and consequently the luxus consumption associated 
with the fat storage and over-nutrition of babyhood disappears, which 
means that the higher carbon dioxide production in proportion to body 
weight becomes lessened. On this view the baby in early infancy leads 
a vegetable existence, absorbing nutriment without much activity ; above 
one year old he gradually becomes an energetic child. If this is true, 
there should be a kink in the reverse direction when the logarithms of the 
height and body weight are plotted against one another, because at this 
point the baby would increase in height but not correspondingly in weight 
as the nutrition became lower ; this was found to be the case and there 
was a second kink at 41 1 in. (between 5 and 6 years), which also 
coincided with and explained the change in the log. COj-log. weight 
relation at this height. There are, thus, 3 nutritional periods in post- 
natal life ; during the first the child puts on fat, and both the body weight 
and the metabolism increase rapidly as the result and luxus consumption 
becomes established. (There is also luxus consumption in the exogenous 
obesity of adults) ; in the second period with the loss of fat the increase 
in body weight is less, while the metabolism remains almost stationary ; 
in the third period the increase in body weight and metabolism with 
growth is again established, but in neither is the increase as rapid as in the 
first period, since there is not the same amount of fat deposited. 

Emphasis has been laid on height rather than age or weight in deter- 
mining the metabolism of an infant, and this suggests that the other 
landmarks of development, such as the eruption of teeth, power to lift 
the head, closure of the fontanelle, should also be related primarily to 
height. 

Example (2 first cousins). 
(i) First tooth at 27 weeks 22 lb. 27I in. 

(2) „ „ 37 .. i6| „ 28 „ 

Dr. H. St. J. Vertue, who is kindly making observations at the Salamon 
Centre, Guy's Hospital, writes : ' Up to the present my figures (for 
eruptions of first teeth) do show a wide disparity of age and weight 
and not much disparity of length.' 

These three nutritional periods of childhood with their varying effect 
on body weight suggest that the relation of body weight to age would not 
be a satisfactory measure of growth, and this is borne out by the S-shaped 
curve (unique for man) that is obtained when weight and age from birth 
to puberty are plotted against one another. A much simpler curve is 
obtained when height and age are related ; this is the ' cumulative growth 
curve.' Above 6 years it is roughly linear till near puberty, when there 
is an increase in growth, forming the so-called prepubertal rise. Such 
curves (and they can be drawn back into prenatal life) are the best 
measure of growth, and they demonstrate that on the average children 
are taller than they were 56 years ago, and that children from better-class 

H 2 



202 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

families are taller than from poorer families. On the other hand, the 
relation of log. height to log. weight, which we and others have regarded 
as the best index of ' general nutrition,' is on the average the same now 
as it was 56 years ago, and is identical for all classes of the community. 
Both these facts have been pointed out before ; but it does not appear 
that their combination has been sufficiently emphasised. There is some 
factor in modern life that tends to promote growth in the children of the 
wealthier classes ; this was missing 50 years ago and is still missing among 
the poorer classes to-day. But though wealth tends to produce giants 
and poverty dwarfs, both giants and dwarfs are equally well formed ; 
their general nutrition remains the same. Heredity is certainly a factor 
in promoting tallness or shortness ; but it is impossible to imagine that 
the wealthy have unconsciously selected themselves for tallness during 
recent years. There jnust be other factors and improvement of the food 
supply with abundance of minerals and vitamins are obvious ones ; this 
subject has been dealt with by Orr. In this connection observations by 
Brody and others on animal nutrition are of great interest. The weight 
and chest girth of steers are greater for a given age when the animal is 
full fed than when it is scantily fed ; but the height at withers is the same 
in the two cases. This is the reverse of the findings in children. The 
steers were equally tall but the poorly fed were thinner ; so their general 
nutrition was poor. 

The explanation may be as follows : In poorly fed steers the amount 
of food was apparently cut down and therefore the Calories were deficient, 
but the diet remained qualitatively the same, so that the growth factors 
were adequate. On the other hand, according to Orr's observations, the 
intake of vitamins, of calcium, phosphorus and iron is deficient among the 
poorer classes of the community and is proportional to the amount spent 
on food, which itself depends on the income of the family. These are all 
growth-promoting factors. The intake of Calories is only deficient in the 
poorest group where the income is up to los. a week per head, and of 
this 4^. per head is spent on food. It is permissible to doubt whether 
the Calories are really deficient in this group, considering the small size 
of the individuals and the difficulty in estimating how many Calories are 
required to keep up bodily nutrition — a subject which has been touched 
on elsewhere.* At any rate Elderton's measurements of Glasgow children 
show that there is no marked difference between the log. height/log. 
weight relationship for the richest and poorest classes of the community ; 
but the poorer children are shorter and lighter for their age than those 
from better-class families, and the different classes of society have been 
graded, as far as their wealth is concerned, by their tallness. It is reason- 
able to assume that the main deficiency is in the growth factors and not 
in the total amount of Calories. It does not follow that the small, short 
individual with a normal general nutrition is a less perfect physiological 
organism than the individual who is tall. In certain walks of life tallness 

* E. P. Poulton, Diets and Recipes and the Treatment of Diabetes and Obesity, 
1937- P- 6. 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 



203 



may be a disadvantage. In a famine the short, light individual would 
certainly require less food. 



Standards of Metabolism in Adults. 

Is there any advantage in taking height into consideration in addition 
to weight and age, in calculating the basal metabolism of adults ? To 
answer this question two equations have been derived from the same 
series of published data for men. 

Log. carbon dioxide 

= 0-6204 log. body weight — 0-00357 age + I '3015 • • (^6) 

Log. carbon dioxide 

= o -51208 log. body weight + 0-5389 log height 

— 0-00357 age + 0-2573 • (17) 

The carbon dioxide is in c.cs. per minute, body weight in kilograms, 
height in centimetres, age in years between 15 and 35. 



Body Weights. 


Number 

of 
subjects. 


Number which 
best fit. 


Standard deviation 

of the differences 

between calculated 

and measured COj. 




Equation 
16. 


Equation 
17- 


Equation 
16. 


Equation 
17- 


Within ± 10% of 












average body weight 
for height 


1275 


55 


70 


14-47 


14-09 


Between ±10% and 












± 20% of average 
body weight for 
height 


38 


22 


16 


17-98 


17-87 


Beyond + 20% of 
average body weight 
for height 


15 


5 


10 


21 -41 


17-87 



The CO 2 calculated from the two equations is then compared with the 
actual CO 2 measured. For this purpose all the observations have been 
separated in the table into 3 categories, according as the body weight lay 
between + 10 per cent, and — 10 per cent, of the average body weight 
for the height, between ±10 per cent, and i 20 per cent, and beyond 

^ In two cases both equations were equally good. 



204 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

20 per cent. In column 2 is given the number of subjects in each 
category, and in columns 3 and 4 the number of cases in which 
equation 16 or 17 respectively gave a result closer to the carbon dioxide 
found experimentally. The meaning of the figures in the last two columns 
in this table may be expressed as follows : Suppose 200 c.c. COg are 
excreted per min., then since 90 per cent, of observations probably fall 
within I • 61 1 times the standard deviation (Pearl), we may assume that for 
the 127 subjects in the top line 90 per cent, of values calculated by 
equation 16 would probably lie between 176-7 and 223-3 c.c, while the 
corresponding limits for equation 17 would be 177-3 ^^^ 222-7 ^■^- ^^ 
is clear from these figures that the variation between the two equations 
is negligible, and so it may be argued that it is more physiological to use 
equation 16, which involves only body weight and age, because, if height 
is really important, the improvement with equation 17 should be more 
marked. Although in this particular series of results from which both 
equations were derived equation 17 gives for mathematical reasons slightly 
closer results, it does not follow that this would be the case if these 
equations were applied to another series of normal individuals. Hence 
equation 16 which involves fewer measurements has been retained as the 
chosen prediction equation. 

Effect of Sex and Age on Basal Metabolism. — From 5 or 6 years onwards 
girls have a lower basal metabolism for their weight than have boys. 
The differentiation of the sexes as regards their metabolism, which begins 
after the erect posture is attained and exercise is being freely taken, is of 
great interest, as it appears long before any secondary sexual characters. 
It is possibly due to the fact that from about 5 to 6 years onwards girls 
on the whole take less exercise than boys and consequently their muscles 
are less developed and so the basal metabolism which must largely depend 
on muscular development is lower. Athletes have a higher metabolism 
than ordinary men. In babyhood there is no noticeable difference in 
activity between the sexes and their basal metabolisms are the same. 
From puberty onwards the difference in activity is marked and the 
difference between the metabolisms is at a maximum. We have suggested 
that the falling off of metabolism with age is also due to lessening 
muscular activity with consequent muscular atrophy ; this takes place 
more rapidly in men than women, and this would agree with the more 
rapid drop of the metabolism in men. It would be of particular interest 
to compare the metabolisms of very old men and women ; on this 
hypothesis they should be the same, since muscular activity in both would 
be at a minimum. 



Practical Indirect Calorimetry. 

I use the ' open ' method of Krogh and Lindhard for determining the 
carbon dioxide in clinical work. Fresh outside air is supplied to the 
subject by a mask and valves ; from the subject the expired air passes to 
the bottom of a wide-mouthed bottle of about 2 litres capacity, which in 



I.— PHYSIOLOGY 



205 



order to improve the mixing may contain two horizontal layers of copper 
gauze, one just above the opening of the delivery tube and the second 
towards the top of the bottle below the exit tube. Samples of the mixed 
air as it leaves the bottle are analysed every five minutes by means of a 
Haldane gas analysis apparatus fitted with a 10 c.c. burette (a 30 c.c. 
burette has recently been used), connected to the bottle by means of lead 
tubing of fine bore. The expired air then passes to a large gas meter 
measuring 15 litres per revolution, which is read every five minutes. 
A rubber anaesthetic bag is connected by means of a T-piece to the tube 
between the bottle and the meter. With a large meter and bag in circuit 
there is no perceptible resistance to ordinary breathing, and the valves 
have been constructed with the same end in view. They consist of Paul's 
rubber intestinal tubing split longitudinally along both edges and clipped 
at intervals of about an inch with clips. Dr. Alice E. B. Harding, who 
has used the method for children, has found that a practical method of 
testing for leaks between the face and the mask is to hold a polished metal 
spatula near the junction ; if expired air escapes the surface of the metal 
is dimmed by the deposition of moisture. Five consecutive experiments 
are given in the table. They were usually continued for 25 minutes or 



T.R.H. 


O.T. 


K.W. 


F.M.T. 


A.E.B. 


CO2 


COj 


COjj 


COa 


CO2 


CO2 


CO3 


CO2 


CO2 


CO, 


% 


c.c. 


% 


c.c. 


% 


c.c. 


% 


c.c. 


% 


c.c. 




per min. 




per mm. 




per mm. 




per mm. 




per mm. 


3-75 


213 


4-29 


243 


3-47 


180 


3-37 


189 


2-97 


149 


3-91 


218 


4-28 


241 


3-42 


196 


3-73 


196-5 


2-90 


148 


3 -83 


212-5 


4-30 


237 


3-42 


184 


3-52 


181 


2-91 


157 


3-55 


214 


4-33 


240 


3-56 


192 


3-44 


186 


2-92 


152-5 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


3-39 


189 


3-44 


125 


1 2 -80 


139 


~ 


~ 










3-46 


181 


i 


~ 



half an hour, though a shorter period might sometimes be enough. 
Contrary to the general impression the carbon dioxide after the first five 
or ten minutes gives very constant results, if the patient is quiet and 
comfortable. An increase towards the end of the period can usually be 
accounted for by some extraneous factor, such as shivering or restlessness. 
There is no necessity for the examination to be restricted to the nursing 
home or hospital ; but the patient should be advised to do the minimum 
of walking on the morning of the test. Most of the original experiments 
were carried out under these conditions. 

The advantage of this method is that the constancy of the breathing 
and metabolism throughout the period can be assessed ; its disadvantage 
is that the total volume of expired air is not collected before taking out 



2o6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a sample for analysis ; but this will not matter provided the breathing 
remains constant, as indicated by the series of observations. This diffi- 
culty can be overcome by using two analysis apparatuses ; in one the 
analysis is made, while in the other air is gradually being collected in the 
burette during the five minutes by allowing the mercury to fall slowly ; 
this is analysed, while a further sample is being collected in the first 
apparatus, and so on ; alternatively the air could be collected in sampling 
tubes and analysed later. 

Finally, I should like to thank Mr. T. W. Adams, who has been 
associated with me in the calculations on which these results are based, 
and Mr. W. J. Martin of the London School of Hygiene for advice on 
the mathematics required, and to express my indebtedness to the Parsons 
Fund at Guy's Hospital and the Medical Research Council for grants in 
aid of the work, and to the Physiological Society and Guy's Hospital Reports 
for the illustrations. This study is not yet complete, though I think the 
main conclusions will stand. We hope in due time to publish all the 
evidence on which these conclusions are based. 



SECTION J.— PSYCHOLOGY. 



TESTS IN COMMON USE FOR THE 
DIAGNOSIS OF COLOUR DEFECT 



ADDRESS BY 

Dr. MARY COLLINS, 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Tests for colour vision fall into two categories. In the one type of test, 
transmitted light is used, in the other reflected light. While the former 
type of test is regarded as the more fundamental, the latter can be of 
great service for quick diagnosis of colour anomaly. Colour tests may be 
administered purely for theoretical purposes, or they may be applied for 
practical purposes, as selection tests for different vocations. This second 
function assumes its most important role in vocations in which lack of 
accurate discrimination between different coloured signals may involve 
human lives. This function is also of significance in other vocations in 
which the lack of colour discrimination, though not involving danger to 
the community, is highly disadvantageous to its possessor. 

These two aims, though not mutually exclusive, it is better to keep 
clearly in mind in any discussion. The results of certain tests may be 
invaluable for theoretical purposes, although for practical purposes their 
value may be negligible. This confusion of the two aims has probably 
been partly responsible for the production of the many differences of 
opinion which have been expressed with regard to the commoner tests 
at present used for diagnosis. 

There seems to be no need at the present day to emphasise the im- 
portance of the recognition and detection of colour defect. It is, however, 
very illuminating to study some of the more recent investigations in the 
field, particularly those concerned with the incidence of red-green 
defect. The percentages given seem to be much higher than in the 
reports of the earlier investigations. It does not necessarily follow that 
the incidence of the defect is increasing ; the indications are rather that 
detection is more accurate owing to the improvement of the test material. 
The figures given in previous estimates are generally somewhere in the 
region of 3 or 4 per cent, so far as the male population is concerned. 
While some of the percentages quoted during the past few years are 
still in this vicinity, it is not unusual to find a number of considerably 
higher percentages recorded also. Waaler,^ who tested 9,000 persons, 
found a frequency of 8- 01 per cent, in the male sex ; Planta ^ testing 

^ See Article by Bruckner. ' Neure Forschungen iiber angeborene Farben- 
sinnstorungen,' Schweiz. Med. Jahvb., 1932. ^ Ibid. 



2o8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

2,000 boys, a frequency of 7-95 per cent. Kilborn and Beh,^ testing 
Chinese male students, found 6-3 per cent, of them to be red-green 
bHnd, and Hsiao,* examining Chinese children, gives his figure as 
5 • 57 per cent, among the boys. Lorenzo and McClure ^ found, of a 
group of men tested at the University of Toledo, that 9 per cent, were 
colour blind, and Garth,® testing children and students in Turkey, a 
percentage of 5-3. Among groups of medical students, Macklin' found 
about II -o per cent., and Tocantin and Jones ^ found 12-8 per cent, 
who were red-green colour blind. Miles ^ testing university men, 
gives 8-4 per cent, as colour blind, and among a group of dry goods 
salesmen he found a percentage of 7-2. Out of 360 candidates applying 
for acceptance as apprentice printers, examined by the present writer, 
the percentage of red-green colour blinds was 7-5, this figure being 
exclusive of the colour weak and the anomalous. 

At the present day, there are said to exist three varieties of colour 
blindness. And while we are primarily concerned with the red-green 
variety only, it seems desirable for completeness to indicate briefly the 
nature of the other two types. They are not of equal importance either 
from a theoretical or from a practical point of view. 

Total colour blindness or Achromatopsia (sometimes called Achroma- 
topia) is not of frequent occurrence, only about eighty cases having been 
described up to date.^" To the totally colour blind the spectrum is a 
colourless band, differing only in luminosity. Red may appear black, 
orange dark grey, yellow light grey and so on. To such a monochromat ^^ 
bright light is extremely dazzling, in fact, ordinary illumination is some- 
times unbearable, but in dim illumination he can see fairly accurately. 
Achromatopsia is often accompanied by nystagmus and by poor central 
vision. In many cases an absolute central scotoma exists which means 
absolute blindness to light at the fovea as well as to colour. Parsons 
states that ' whether all cases have an absolute centrol scotoma or not, 
it is certain that foveal vision is very defective, even as compared with 
parafoveal, as is admitted by Hess.' ^^ 

To the totally colour blind the region of maximal brightness lies in 
the green, a condition similar to that found in the dark-adapted or 
scotopic eye. The luminosity curve of the monochromat agrees very 
closely with the normal achromatic scotopic luminosity curve. There 

* Science, 1934, 79, 34. * /. Applied Psychology, 1935, 19, 641-646. 
8 Ibid., 320-330. 8 Science, 1936, 84, 85. 

' Canad. Med. Assoc. J ., 1933, 29, 302-303. 

* Amer. J. Med. Sci., 1933, 185, 243-249. 
® The Personnel J., 1931, 9, 437-449. 

1" For a description of a case of total colour blindness, see Snyder, Amer. J. 
Psy., 1929, 41, 398-411. 

^1 This term is objected to by E. Murray, who writes : ' Monochromatic is merely 
a physicist's tag signifying that in this type of deficiency any wave-length of light 
can be matched against any other. Actually the vision of the subject is achro- 
matic, without any colour quality whatsoever. No genuine monochromasy in 
the descriptive sense is, for theoretical reasons the compounding of white from 
chromas, admissible.' Quoted from article in Amer. J. Psy., 1930, 42, 117-127. 
Color Problems : the Divergent Outlook of Physicist and Psychologist. 

^2 ' An Introduction to the Study of Colour Vision,' 2nd Ed., p. 199. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 209 

may also exist a form of monochromatism in which the visibility curve 
is of the light-adapted or photopic type.^^ 

The second variety of colour blindness, which has little practical 
significance, although it has considerable theoretical importance, is that 
of blue-yellow blindness, in which the ability to see blue and yellow is 
affected, but the ability to see red and green is unaffected. This second 
type is of doubtful existence as a congenital condition, although one 
or two apparently authentic cases have been recorded. Generally, it is 
accompanied by some pathological change in the eye. One case, reported 
by Richardson, saw blue as a dazzling white. 

Parsons ^* points out that ' it is simulated in cases of jaundice and 
sclerosis of the crystalline lens, these being due to absorption by yellow 
pigment.' Abney ^^ and Hess ^® have found that the same defect may 
arise in cases where the pigmentation of the macula is unusually dense. 

This second form of colour blindness has been termed violet-blindness 
by the adherents of the Young-Helmholtz theory, or as Maxwell preferred 
to term it, blue-blindness. The followers of the Hering theory describe 
the defect as blue-yellow blindness. The term, tritanopia, was suggested 
by V. Kries. 

The third form of colour blindness, red-green blindness, is the most 
important of all, because of the frequency with which it occurs, as has 
been already observed, and because of the colours which are confused. 
The defect is congenital and hereditary. It occurs on the male side of 
a family, and is practically non-existent on the female side, only about 
I in 500 being colour-blind. A female, however, whose father is colour- 
blind, may transmit the defect to her sons. In other words, it may pass 
over a generation, remaining latent in the female, but reappear in the 
next generation on the male side.^' 

Two forms of this colour defect are recognised, depending on whether 
the spectrum is of normal length or shortened. These are described as 
green-blind and red-blind respectively by the adherents of the Helmholtz 
theory : as red-green blind by the exponents of the Hering theory, the 
difference in the two types being ascribed to differences in macular 
pigmentation. The names deuteranopia and protanopia, suggested by 
v. Kries, are used independently of any colour theory. The terms 
photerythrous (visibility of the red) and scoterythrous (darkness of the 
red) put forward by Rivers, have unfortunately never been adopted. 

It seems more or less agreed that red-green colour blindness is a 
reduction system of normal colour vision, one cogent argument in support 
of this contention being that normal colour matches are valid for any 
type of dichromate. The colour blinds lack something which the normal 
eye has, but have nothing which the normal eye does not possess. The 
individual with normal colour vision sees a spectrum composed of six 

9 

^^ See Chapter 13 by Troland in A Handbook of General Experimental Psychology, 
1934. Edited by Murchison. 

" Ibid., p. 192. 15 Proc. Roy. Soc, 1891, 49. 

i« Arch.f. Anat., 1908, 61. 

1' Colour blindness may also be acquired, but it is not necessary to discuss this 
form of colour blindness here. 



2IO SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

or seven colours. The red-green colour blind has a spectrum composed 
of only two colours, these two colours being yellow and blue. The 
acceptance of this fact was delayed for a long time, and it is doubtful if 
it is yet generally accepted. Herschel in 1845 ^^^ the first to put forward 
the dichromic explanation of colour blindness. He pointed out in his 
article on ' Light ' in the Encyclopcedia Metropolitana that certain 
individuals could only distinguish two colours, and that these two colours 
were yellow and blue. Clerk-Maxwell, among others, opposed this, for 
he accepted the theory put forward at that time by Young and Helmholtz 
that colour blinds were either red-blind, green-blind or violet-blind, and 
that the red-blind were blind to red, but could see the remaining two 
colours, green and violet : the green-blind were blind to green, but could 
see red and violet. 

In an account by Pole of his own case,^* we find he vigorously protests 
against these prevailing beliefs, and gives a careful analysis of his own 
colour vision as evidence. He had been pronounced red-blind by Maxwell 
and green-blind by Holmgren. Pole repudiated both suggestions, and 
claimed that the true solution was that he was blind to both colours. 
This conclusion was confirmed by a large number of facts. One was the 
evidence of the colour blinds themselves who, whether they were classified 
as red-blind or green-blind, asserted that their colour sense was composed 
of blue and yellow. Another was a case of congenital unilateral dichroma- 
tism investigated by von Hippel in 1880. The individual tested had 
normal colour vision in his left eye but was colour blind in his right eye. 
With the right eye he confused red and green with yellow, as tested by 
various standard tests. The colours which the subject could distinguish 
with his right eye were blue and yellow, these being confirmed when he 
looked at them with his normal eye. Von Hippel diagnosed the case as 
one of red-green blindness with spectrum of normal length. Holmgren 
examined the case with his wool test and proclaimed it to be one of 
red-blindness with shortened spectrum in accordance with the Helmholtz 
theory. Von Hippel retested his subject and reaffirmed his first finding. 
This was the first case of monocular colour vision reported, and it un- 
doubtedly strengthened the case for the acceptance of Herschel's and 
Pole's views. Holmgren, it is interesting to note, ultimately agreed that 
blue and yellow were the only colours seen. That this point is still 
controversial may be gathered from the statement made by Pitt ^^ in a 
recent investigation, that the fundamental responses of the protanope are 
blue and a saturated green, while those of the deuteranope are blue and 
a mixture of red and green. 

Only a few cases of unilateral colour blindness have been recorded, 
and these, according to Parsons, are of ' doubtful value.' In these cases, 
however, the suggestion is always that the colours seen are blue and 
yellow. Miles and Beaumont,2° whcJ tested the two eyes separately in 

1' Proc. Roy. Soc, 1856. 

^' Med. Res. Council Report, XIV. ' Characteristics of Dichromatic Vision.' 
Special Report Series, No. 200. H.M. Stationery Office, 1935. 

2" ' Monocular Testing of the Colourblind,' American J. Ophth., 1931, 14, 
636-639. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 211 

an investigation into colour blindness, found considerable difference 
between the two eyes in many cases, and suggest that although there is 
no conclusive evidence as to the frequency of unilateral colour blindness, 
that ' possibly it amounts to three or four per cent, of the colour blind.' 
They discovered one such case in a group of 23, and Miles and Craig 
found another in a group of 390 mercantile salesmen.^^ This latter 
individual was a dry goods salesman and aware of his condition, and if 
required to match fabrics he closed the defective eye and made the 
proper discrimination with his normal eye. If these cases of unilateral 
colour blindness are as numerous as suggested, a field seems opened up 
for further investigation which may lead to definite conclusions as regards 
the fundamental sensations of the red-green colour blind. 

The results of investigations carried out over a number of years at 
Edinburgh into the colour sensations of the red-green colour blind, seem 
to indicate that their colour sensations are indeed blue and yellow.^^ 
The extent to which these two colours replace all the other colours in 
the spectrum is, however, not constant for every colour blind. With 
some, yellow and blue may replace all the other colours, that is, red, 
orange, yellow and green may be seen as different shades of yellow, blue 
and violet as different shades of blue. Sometimes, instead of the green 
being replaced by yellow, it may appear as grey, or the blue-green may 
appear as grey, the extent of the neutral band varying with the gravity 
of the defect. A second neutral band is also found extra-spectrally in 
the complementary colour, in the purples. 

In one extreme case which came under observation, only two narrow 
bands of yellow and blue existed, the other colours being seen as shades 
of grey. Red appeared as black, orange as dark grey, yellow could be 
discriminated, green and blue-green were seen as grey, blue could be 
distinguished, but violet appeared as dark grey. In one test, out of 
76 colours observed, 64 of them appeared as grey. 

All cases, however, are not so extreme as the one just described and the 
general finding which seems to be gradually gaining ground, is that there 
exist different degrees of colour blindness extending from extreme cases 
in which blue and yellow are the only two colours visible to milder cases 
in which the blindness to red and green is not total. In these milder 
cases the individual can see red and green if they are bright enough or 
vivid enough. It is these milder forms which constitute the great 
practical problem, for in these cases the ability to distinguish between 
red and green is likely to fail when the individuals are fatigued, or when 
the illumination is poor, as in mist or fog. The extreme cases can be 
easily detected, but the milder cases, which have been described as 
' dangerous colour-blinds,' require very careful examination if they are 
to be detected. 

That different degrees of colour blindness exist has been emphasised 
by more than one writer. Hayes ^^ ' wonders if we shall presently have 

^* ' Colour Blindness in Dry Goods Salesmen,' The Personnel J., 1931, 9, 437- 
449. 

^^ Collins : Colour Blindness. 
23 Psy. Bulletin, 1926, 23. 



212 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



to give up all classifications by types, arrange colour defectives in distribu- 
tion tables and give a colour graph or profile for each subject, showing 
his efficiency or deficiency for each colour in terms of a per cent, of the 
normal or average attainment.' Troland ^* states that the original 
restriction of colour blinds to protanopes, deuteranopes and tritanopes 
is not adequate any longer, and allowances must now be made for more 
types of variation. Edridge-Green ^^ recognises seven diff"erent types of 
colour vision, and Schjelderup ^s states that there are at least eighteen 
significant species of colour blindness. Collins ^^ reaches the conclusion 
that it is quite unprofitable to try to classify the colour systems of the 
colour blind because there exist so many individual variations. 



40 



35 



30 



25 



20 



15 



10 



60 


- 








50 


- 






40 


_WOfviEN 






30 


- 




'i 










, 


20 


- 


,' 




', 


10 


- 










r-('-^ 






1\ 



1-5 



_L 



1-0 



Mi 



TTT-l 



JIL 



1-5 s: 05 

Black blocks denote colour blinds. 



1-0 



One group in which the colour defect is not extreme has been definitely 
recognised. Seebeck, in 1837, found certain cases which he was reluctant 
to classify as colour blinds, who yet showed signs of colour abnormality. 
It was not until 1881, however, that these cases were understood. In 
that year, Rayleigh found that a number of individuals with otherwise 
normal colour vision were unequally sensitive to red and green. In 
equating red (lithium line 670-8 y.[x) and green (thallium line 535 (x[z) to 
match a yellow (sodium line 589 ix[i), since known as the Rayleigh equation, 
some were found to require far more red than the normal, others required 



^* Bull. Nat. Res. Counc, 1922, Part 2, No. 27. 
2° Physiology of Vision. 
26 ■ - ~- 



' Zur Theorie der Farbenempfindungen,' Zsch. f. Sinnesphysiol., 51, 49-45. 
^' Ibid. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 213 

an excess of green. Von Kries, in describing an extensive series of 
experiments, applied the name ' anomalous trichromates ' to these cases, 
and this designation has gained universal currency. Guttman advocated 
the terms red-weak and green-weak, and distinguished seven characteristics 
which they manifest, the chief of which are high thresholds, heightened 
colour contrast and quick fatigue to colour stimuli. 

It is customary to divide these anomalous trichromates into two groups 
corresponding to the two groups of dichromates, deuteranomalous 
trichromates or partial deuteranopes in which the sensitivity to green is 
below normal, and protanomalous trichromates or partial protanopes in 
which the sensitivity to red is below normal. The green anomalous 
seem to be more numerous than the red anomalous, the ratio being 
quoted as 5 to i. 

These cases, it may be, form the connecting-link between normal 
colour vision on the one hand, and colour defect on the other, and if 
a sufficient number of cases could be tested ranging from normality to 
complete red-green deficiency, a continuous series might be obtained. 
Below is a graph showing the results of testing 200 individuals, 100 women 
and 100 men with the Rayleigh equation, with rotating discs.^^ 

The results are expressed as logarithms of the ratio of red to green. 
For the 100 women tested, all the cases fall within the limits of the normal 
curve. In this respect, the results agree with those of Houston -^ who 
tested with spectral lights, and who found of 105 women students, no 
scattered cases outside the normal curve. 

The curve, in the case of the 100 men tested, presents diflferent features. 
It is difficult to know where the normal curve ends and abnormality 
begins. The cases lying at the limits of the normal curve may be the 
extreme variants, or may be just outside it. Out of 423 men students 
tested, Houston found 15 outside the normal curve exclusive of colour 
blinds. 

Edridge-Green ^" seems to apply the term anomalous trichromate to 
the extreme variants within the normal curve. Among 100 women, he 
found 14 who were anomalous, which means that he is describing cases 
as anomalous which lie within the normal curve. Other investigators 
apply the term only to the scattered cases outside the normal curve. It 
may be legitimate to use the term either way, but the definition of 
anomalous trichromasy will vary according to the usage of the term. 
If the anomalous trichromates lie outside the normal curve, then the 
difference between them and the normal may be qualitative, whereas if 
the anomalous trichromates lie within the normal curve, the diff^erence 
may be only quantitative. It may be, as I have suggested elsewhere,^^ 
that as results accumulate, the normal cui-ve will spread out to reach these 
isolated cases, and the gaps between will fill up. Kollner,^^ for example, 
reports transition cases between anomalous trichromates and dichromates, 
although none between anomalous trichromates and normal. 

^* Article by Collins : British J. Psychology, 1929, 14, 387-393. 

^* Proc. Roy. Soc, 1922. 

»» Ibid.. 86B, 164. 31 Loc. cit. 

32 Arch.f. Augenheilkunde, LXXVIII. 



214 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Hess ^^ makes the interesting suggestion that many anomalous cases 
have been wrongly classed as colour weak because they do not accept the 
normal equation, when all that this proves is colour inequality, which 
may result from supernormal sensitivity to one colour. This is the 
objection Hess urges in connection with the use of the anomaloscope, 
namely that it detects those with red-green inequality, but does not 
discover those who are supersensitive to either red or green, or whose 
sensitivity to both red and green is reduced. 

The normal curve evidently permits of fairly wide deviations. ' S ' 
marked on the curve above is an anomalous trichromate because the 
excess of green required by him in determining the Rayleigh equation 
was very marked. Even when starting from the red end, he went right 
through equality to the green side, requiring considerably more green 
than normal. Nevertheless, he comes into the normal curve quite easily. 
It is curious to note that this subject had apparently a very low threshold 
for green, 10-5 as measured on the scale attached to the Drever-Hilger 
Hue-Discrimination Spectrometer. The average threshold for 30 subjects 
for green (5350 A) using the method of serial groups for ten trials, worked 
out at 17-9 on the scale, the range of the readings^for the subjects being 
from 5*4 to 30-8. His threshold for red (6700 A), on the other hand, 
was higher than the average 25 • 6, as compared with 19-2, the range of the 
same subjects being from 7-0 to 29-0. 

In the article already referred to by Pitt, the question is asked if 
anomalous trichromates form an intermediate stage between normal 
trichromates and dichromates. The writer quotes the well-known fact 
that the equation obtained by the normal does not hold for the anomalous 
trichromate and indicates that this may be a deciding factor for the 
negative. But he further argues, in terms of the Young-Helmholtz 
theory, that ' if the green curve moved over to the red until they coincided, 
the green curve would in effect have disappeared, and the dichromatic 
mixture curves would then become a reduced form of trichromatism, 
although in the intermediate stages the system would be a different rather 
than a reduced form.' 

It is a moot point as to whether these anomalous trichromates form 
' dangerous colour blinds.' The general finding seems to be in favour of 
the affirmative. Some writers, for example, Troland, actually include 
them in classifications of types of colour blindness. Oblath ^ points out 
that they can only recognise colours when they are saturated and of 
intense luminosity. ' It is evident that these peculiarities render these 
subjects less fitted for certain services.' In a report on Colour Vision 
Requirements in the Royal Navy,^^ it is stated that ' the mildly anomalous 
trichromate can be considered a safe look-out. On the other hand, the 
unfit anomalous trichromate is, in many ways a greater source of danger 
than the dichromate.' The incidence of this anomaly is estimated, in 
the same report, as 6 per cent., which is stated to be a very conservative 

'* Farbenlehre : Ergebnisse der Physiologic, 1922, 20, 1-107. 
** Colour Vision Tests. International Labour Office. Studies and Reports, 
Series F, No. 12, 1929. 

^^ Med. Res. Council Report, Special Series, No. 185, 1933. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 215 

estimate. Both reports emphasise very strongly the fact that the anomalous 
trichromate behaves as if colour blind when conditions are unfavourable, 
such as when mist, fog or smoke are present, and this is all the more 
disastrous because the individual is rarely aware that he suffers from any 
colour defect. The heightened contrast and the quick fatigue, character- 
istic of such anomaly, may well make the judgment of colour and the 
discrimination of colour highly erroneous. The testing and discovering 
of these cases of anomalous trichromatic vision is not easy, and necessitates 
very careful procedure, and generally not the application of one test, but 
of a battery of tests. 

The testing of colour blindness, indeed, in all its forms, presents a 
problem of great practical importance, involving the adoption of a definite 
technique. 

As is well known, the adult colour blind avails himself of all kinds of 
secondary aids to enable him to discriminate colour. Identifying 
marks on the surface such as differences in texture or slight defects in 
material, or some minute details overlooked and undetected by the 
normal observer are readily made use of, so that it is possible for a colour 
blind who is aware of his abnormality to hide his defect in everyday life 
if he wishes to, and he can very often do so with surprising skill. In 
some cases, some sense, other than vision, may be utilised to help in 
discrimination. One individual examined by the writer — a case of 
shortened spectrum, in which one typical confusion is red with black — 
experienced difficulty with inks of these two colours. In marking a 
school register, he was constantly confusing the two colours, putting red 
ink where black should be, and vice versa. The discovery that he could 
distinguish them by smell solved his difficulties. 

This obscuring of colour defect came to light recently in the writer's 
experience in a rather curious way. In copying pictures from originals — ■ 
given the outline of the picture and a box of paints with the names of 
the colours removed — the characteristic confusions generally appeared. 
One individual, however, often obtained matches of colour which were 
very similar to the original, and if only the final product were considered, 
his colour vision would be thought to approximate very closely to 
normal. To watch him at work was very illuminating, and one soon 
learned that many of his excellent reproductions were based on deduction. 
He knew foliage was green, for example ; he also knew that blue and 
yellow mixed together produced green. His procedure was ' to take 
what you think to be blue, and what you think to be yellow, and you 
should get what is called green ! ' The green paint in the box, the exact 
match of the green in the picture, was not used at all. 

An unusual case reported by Gildemeister and Dieter,^® is that of an 
engineer who was classed as a typical protanomalous trichromate as the 
result of an anomaloscope test, but who some time later passed the test. 
As a trick was suspected, the anomaloscope was turned upside down, and 
the knobs adjusted so that they had to be moved in the opposite direction 
but still he was successful. It was surmised by the authors that he had 

" Arch. f. Ophth., 1922, 107, 26-29. 



2i6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

learned to accept an equation as correct which looked wrong to him. 
One of the investigators, himself a deuteranomalous trichromate, to put 
this possibility to the test, practised daily, and learned quite soon to 
recognise the normal equation, although it looked quite wrong to him. 

These examples suffice. to show some of the difficulties encountered in 
the detection of colour anomaly. Tests must be so devised that the 
person tested cannot avail himself of any secondary aids, but has to rely 
solely on his own colour sensations. 

The spectrometer is undoubtedly the most fundamental test of colour 
vision, but it is seldom available for practical purposes, and the majority 
of tests, apart from those in scientific laboratories, are carried out either 
with some kind of lantern test or some kind of pigment test. There are 
various types of lantern tests available. The Edridge- Green Colour 
Perception lantern is the only one which has been used by the writer, 
and its advantages have been referred to elsewhere.^'' A newer model 
is the Board of Trade Lantern Test, recommended with modifications 
by the committee set up to consider Colour Vision Requirements in the 
Royal Navy. In using this the eyes have to be dark-adapted for 
15 minutes. The Giles-Archer Perception Unit is also a new and simple 
model, and it, too, requires the eyes to be dark-adapted. These lantern 
tests enumerated, and many others, have the advantage that coloured lights 
are used instead of pigments, which brings conditions of testing nearer to 
everyday conditions in the services, the railroad, navigation and aviation. 

Certain pigment tests have also been extensively used, and it is these 
I should like to discuss in some detail. In some of these tests, it is 
puzzling to find mistakes made sometimes by individuals with normal 
colour vision which should only be made by colour blinds. The printing 
of the tests may be partially to blame, but it must be recalled that decisions 
are constantly being made on the results from these tests, and therefore it 
is essential to recognise which responses are diagnostic and which can be 
ignored. In order to reach a valid basis for diagnosis, I have given a 
battery of tests under constant conditions of distance and illumination to 
an unselected group of about 340 candidates applying to be accepted as 
apprentice printers, exclusive of colour blinds. Their responses, 
therefore, to the tests may be compared with the responses of a group 
of colour blinds tested under the same conditions. This normal group 
acts as a control group against which the results for each test used can 
be evaluated at its proper worth. 

Owing to exigencies of space and time it will not be possible, nor 
desirable, in this address to discuss the details of the results obtained 
with all the tests which have been used. I have, therefore, decided to 
indicate the type of investigation under progress by giving the results 
from two of the tests only. The two tests selected are the Ishihara Tests 
for Colour Blindness and the Mosaic Plates devised by Schaaff. 

I. The Ishihara Tests for Colour Blindttess (5th Edition). 

The Ishihara test is composed of a number of pseudo-isochromatic 
plates in which coloured numerals appear on coloured backgrounds. 

^' Collins : Colour Blindness. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 217 

The test makes use of the fact that blue and violet and yellow appear 
much brighter to the red-green colour blind than the colours red and 
green. Pitt^^ questions this contention of Ishihara and asserts that 
' blue is not bright compared with red and green : from the hue dis- 
crimination curves, however, it can be seen that blue is a colour having 
a noticeably different hue from red and green, and it is for this reason 
that blue is distinguishable for dichromates.' In some of the plates 
only part of a numeral appears to a person who is colour blind, this being 
dependent on the colours used. For example, an 8 may be the numeral 
read by one with normal colour vision, but only part of it may be seen 
by the colour blind, and he reads it as 3. Or a totally different numeral 
may be seen by the colour blind from the arrangements of the spots 
before him, and instead of seeing a 5 as the majority would do, he sees 
a 2 standing out distinctly from the background. Further, in some 
plates, the position is reversed as it were, and although the person with 
normal colour vision sees nothing but a blur of colour, the colour blind 
sees a numeral quite clearly. If one with normal colour vision looks at 
these plates through a blue glass, the ' hidden ' numbers become visible. 

The resuhs from this test given to 42 colour blinds appear in Table I. 

The figures 12 are seen by all, normal and colour blind alike. The 
8 appears as a 3 to the colour blind, the 6 as a 5, the 5 as a 2, and the 74 
as 21 . The next four plates, containing the figures 2, 6, 5, 7, are generally 
not visible to the colour blind, this depending on the degree of the defect. 
The two next plates contain figures which are hidden to the normal eye 
but are seen by the colour blind, a 5 and a 2 respectively. The two last 
plates are intended to diagnose the defect as one of deuteranopia or of 
protanopia. The deuteranopes read the 2 but fail to read the 6, the 
protanopes read the 6, but fail to read the 2. Similarly with Plate XIII. 
These plates seem to be diagnostic as will be seen from the table. 

The individuals forming the control group who were tested were found 
to vary markedly in their colour discrimination. It seemed advisable 
to divide them into two groups termed respectively N (normal) and N — 
(showing greater deviation from the normal). The classification is of 
necessity an arbitrary one because it is difficult to know where to draw 
the dividing line ; in fact, the line of demarcation between colour blinds 
and non-colour blinds may itself vary according to the purpose in hand. 
In the report of the Colour Vision Requirements in the Royal Navy, 
already referred to, it is stated of a certain test that if used alone it causes 
extravagant rejection of candidates who may be fit even for the Seaman 
Branch. This merely indicates that the standard for rejection can be 
changed in accordance with the post to be filled. It is interesting to note 
that three grades, so far as colour discrimination is concerned, are 
suggested in this report. 

The colour blinds in the above table have been classified thus because 
of their responses not to any single test, but to at least six tests, and in 
some cases a spectrometric examination was also made. Similarly, in 
the N and N — groups, their allocation to these classes is based on the 
results obtained from the same battery of tests. 

*' Collins : Colour Blindness, p. 44. 



2i8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Table I. 

Ishihara Test. 

Results of Testing 42 Colour blinds. 

Correct response : 

12 8 6 5 74 2 6 5 7 — — 26 42 

55 89 9 52-8 -2 

— — — 522-4- 
— • — — 52-6-2 

— — — 52-5-2 

— — — 522-4- 

— 24 — — 522-4- 

— — — 52 — -2 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 52-6-2 

— — — 522-4- 

— 44 — — 522-6- 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — • 52 — -2 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 5 2 26 42 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 522-6- 

— — — 52-8-2 

— — — 522-4- 
6 5 9 5 2 26 42 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 522-4- 
6 — — 5 2 25 42 

— — — 522-4- 
— • — 71 — 27 2 21 4- 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 622-4- 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 15 2 -0-2 
I 5 7 5 2 2- 42 

— — — 522-4- 
8 — — 522-4- 

— — 2 522-4- 

— — — 522-4- 

— — — 5 2 — — 

— — — 52-6-2 

— — — 52 — — 

— — — 52-8-2 

— — — 522-4- 



12 


3 


8 


— 


— 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


24 


45 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


• — 


12 


8 


5 


2 


24 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


— • 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


8 


21 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


8 


5 


21 


— 


12 


5 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


8 


21 


— 


12 


8 


6 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


6 


12 


3 


8 


5 


91 


8 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 




12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


6 


— 


21 


8 


12 


9 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


6 


— 


21 


— • 


12 


8 


6 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


6 


9 


II 


4 


12 


3 


5 


9 


41 


— 


12 


3 


5 


3 


21 


— 


12 


3 


6 


2 


21 


• — 


12 


3 


6 


5 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


28 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


8 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


3 


6 


2 


— 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


81 


— 


12 


3 


5 


2 


21 


— 


12 


8 


5 


2 


21 


■ — ■ 


12 


8 


5 


— 


21 


— 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 219 

Table II. 

Ishihara Test. 

Frequency in percentages of normal and colour-blind responses for N, N — , 

and colour-blind groups. 



Plates. 


As read 


^5 reaJ 


Normal. 


N- 




Colour Blind. 


by normal. 


by C. B. 


N C. B. 


N. C 


. B. 


N. C.B. 


I 


12 


12 


100 


100 





100 


2 


8 


3 


100 


100 





40 55 


3 


6 


5 


100 


100 





21 71 


4 


5 


2 


99 -5 


92 


4 


12 74 


5 


74 


21 


56 II 


29 


31 


81 


6 


2 


— 


99 


83 


I 


100 


7 


6 


— 


100 


96 


4 


5 95 


8 


5 


■ — • 


100 


98 


2 


5 95 


9 


7 


— - 


100 


100 





2 98 


10 


— ; 


5 


91 4 


89 


6 


95 


II 


— - 


3 


72 27 


48 


48 


100 


12 


26 


2) 

or6f 


99 


90 


I 


5 ^^) 
- Ml 


13 


42 


or 2) 


100 


100 






The frequency of responses other than normal and colour blind has 
been omitted. 

N = 286 males : N— = 48 males : C. B. = 45 males. 

Table II shows the results from the Ishihara test when given to these 
three groups. The percentage frequency of the responses in each group 
has been calculated with regard to normal responses and colour-blind 
responses. The table is read thus : in plate V, 56 per cent, of group N 
read the figures correctly as the normal do, that is, read them as 74, whereas 
1 1 per cent, of group N read the figures as the colour blinds do, that is, 
read them as 21. The frequency of responses other than normal and 
colour-blind has been omitted. In the N— group, 29 per cent, gave the 
normal response, 31 per cent, the colour-blind response. In the colour- 
blind group, o per cent, gave the normal response, 81 per cent, gave the 
colour-blind response. 

Plates II and III are never wrongly read by either the N or N — group, 
but Plate III seems the better diagnostic test of colour blindness, as 71 
per cent, of the colour blinds failed on it, and only 21 per cent, passed. 
Plate IV is equally good, although • 5 per cent, of the N group and 4 per 
cent, of the N— group gave the typical colour-blind responses. Plate V 
which is read as 74 by the normal and as 21 by the colour blind is said by 



220 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Miles (^®) to be ' certainly the most sensitive indicator of colour weakness 
that we possess,' and in the summary at the conclusion of the article, he 
suggests that in testing men for mercantile establishments, only Plate V 
need be used at the original interview. It is also regarded in the Report 
on Colour Vision Requirements in the Royal Navy as one of the most search- 
ing plates. It is true that 8i per cent, of the colour blind read the figures 
as 21, and the others in different erroneous ways, but if we look at the 
results from the N and the N — groups, we must modify our opinion. Only 
56 per cent, of the N group passed, whereas 1 1 per cent, failed, that is, 
read the 74 as 21. The remainder read the 7 as a 2 or as a 9 or as a i, so 
that the figures read as 24 (7 per cent.), or 94 (2 per cent.), or 14 (i per 
cent.) : or the 4 was read as a i, and the numbers read as 71 (20 per cent.), 
or 91 (2 per cent.) or 11 (i per cent.). In the N— group, the percentage of 
those passing is even smaller, 29 per cent., and the failures 31 per cent. 
The other variations also occurred. It may be, of course, that this plate 
offers a very delicate test of colour weakness, and therefore is very effective 
in picking out colour defect of varying degree. But sometimes it was the 
only error the individual made not only in this test, but in a group of 
tests. 

The next four plates seem to be very significant. The normal group 
shows a perfect pass in all four, and the colour blinds almost a complete 
failure. 

The next two plates containing the hidden numbers differ very much 
as regards efficacy for detection. The hidden 5 is certainly not visible 
to the normal eye, and the fact that 4 per cent, with normal colour vision 
saw it easily is a curious result. These 4 per cent, have perfect colour 
vision on all the tests, and one would be almost inclined to rate them as 
N+. Whether the supersensitive see the 5 or not requires further investi- 
gation. The 2, on the other hand, is not satisfactory. It could be seen 
fairly easily by all groups as will be evident from the percentages quoted. 
Twenty-seven per cent, of the N group and 48 per cent, of the N— group 
were able to read it. 

The last two plates are very satisfactory. 

The Ishihara test is a very reliable test of colour blindness and did not 
allow any of the colour blinds to pass. It also seems to detect colour 
weakness in a highly efficient manner.*" 

An attempt was made to investigate these plates with different-coloured 
filters to discover if possible the regions of the spectrum the light from 
which caused the figures invisible to certain varieties of colour blindness 
to become invisible to the normal eye, and the figures read by colour 
blinds to become visible to the normal eye.*^ 

In order to obtain illumination from different regions of the spectrum, 
Ilford and Wratten filters were used. The light was that of an arc lamp 

'^ The Personnel J., 1931, IX. Also /. General Psychology, 1922, 2, 535-544. 

*" Dr. Rabkin, Kharkov, has forwarded to me a copy of a test he has just 
produced. Polychromatic Plates for Colour Sense Examination. It contains 
features similar to those of the Ishihara, though sometimes circles and triangles 
are substituted for numbers. From a preliminary survey, it seems very serviceable. 

^^ I am indebted to Prof. Drever for this investigation with the filters. 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 



221 



in a projection lantern. By means of an erecting prism, the beam of light 
was thrown downwards on a table, after passing through the filter, and the 
tests were placed on the part of the table so illumined. No other light 
was admitted to the room. 

The first stage in the investigation was to determine the region of the 
spectrum transmitted by each filter. This was done by the Drever- 
Hilger Hue-Discrimination Spectrometer, and the following results were 
obtained. The results from the Ilford filters only are given here : — 



Violet 
Blue 

Blue-green 
Green 

Yellow-green 
Yellow . 
Orange 
Red . 



Ilford Filters. 
End of spectrum to 480/^^ 

450^^ to 500/X|U, 

475/x/A to 530/x^ 

500^^ to 550;Uft. 

53o/x/i to 590/^^ 

555/z/x to 630/x/u, 

575/i/A to 690/x/x 

620|U,/i to extreme of spectrum 



The following table (Table III) shows the results for the Ishihara test 
with the Ilford filters. The Wratten filters gave much the same results. 

Table III. 
Ishihara Test with Ilford Filters. 





Filters. 


Plate. 


Read by 
Normal. 


Read by 
C. B. 


V. 


B. 


BG. 


G. 


YG. 


Y. 


0. 


R. 


I 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


2 


8 


3 


3 


3 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


3 


6 


5 






6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


4 


5 


2 


2 


2 


5 


5 


5? 


S 


5 


5 


5 


74 


21 


21 


21 


71 


74 


74 


74 


74 


74 


6 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


2? 


2 


2 


2 


7 


6 


— 


— 


— • 


— 


6 


6.? 


6 


6 


6 


8 


5 


— 


— 




5 


5 


5? 


5 


5 


5 


9 


7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7 


7-^ 


7 


7 


7 


10 


— 


5 


5 


5 


5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


II 


— 


2 


2 


2 


2 


— ■ 


— 


2 


2_ 


2 


12 


26 


2"! 

or 6/ 


6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


26 


26 


26 


13 


42 


4 
or 2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


42 


42 


42 



222 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

It will be noted that with the violet and blue filters, the figures invisible 
and the figures read are precisely as we find them in typical colour blind- 
ness, except in Plate III where the figure 5 ought to be, and is usually 
read, and in the case of the blue filter, Plate XII, where the figure 2 or 6 
ought to be read. With the blue-green filter, Plates VI, VII, IX, X, XI, 
give the typical colour-blind results also. Yellow, orange and red filters 
give the same result as in ordinary daylight. The results with the yellow- 
green filter are specially noteworthy. Plates IV, VI, VII, VIII, IX, can 
be read, but only with difficulty, when this filter is used. The results with 
Plates XII and XIII are also interesting, the plates inserted to distinguish 
between deuteranopia and protanopia. In Plate XII, the normal read 
26, the deuteranopes 2, and the protanopes 6. On Plate XIII, the normal 
read 42, the deuteranopes 4 and the protanopes 2. With the violet filter, 
6 was read on Plate XII, and 2 on Plate XIII. With the blue and blue- 
green, green and yellow-green filters, nothing could be read on Plate XII. 
On Plate XIII, on the other hand, 2 was read with the violet and blue 
filters, and 4 with the blue-green, green and yellow-green filters. To the 
normal eye in white light there is no apparent diflterence as respects 
colour between the pages. 

2. Tableaux-Mosciique pour la Recherche du Daltonisme. 

SchaaflF's Mosaic Plates consist of ten cards, on each of which appear 
on coloured backgrounds two coloured circles, one smaller than the other. 
Each circle is incomplete, and the test consists in asking the subject to 
point out the gap or break in each circle. The cards are square and can 
be turned round to any angle when placed on the table, so that the circles 
do not always appear in the same position. 

This test failed the group of colour blinds quite definitely when the 
results are considered over the whole test (see Table IV). The number of 
the gaps seen, however, is not constant for each individual, but ranges 
from 3 to 16. The test does not seem to differentiate between deuter- 
anopes and protanopes. Plates II, VIII, and X should be seen better 
by protanopes. Plates VII and IX by deuteranopes. This does not hold 
consistently. Only two colour blinds saw the gaps in Plate II, and they 
are protanopes, but the other protanopes failed to do so. Some of them 
described the card as being composed of nothing but gaps, ' gaps all over,' 
and they did not know which one to point to. As a matter of fact, the 
circles on this card offer difficulty to people with quite good normal vision. 

Plate VI is an interesting one. The instructions run that those who 
fail in Plate VI should not be admitted as engine-drivers unless there is a 
shortage of applicants. All the colour blinds failed in this card except 
one who half passed, that is, who saw the gap in one of the circles but not 
in the other. Table V shows the results of the tests given to the control 
group as well as to the colour blinds. 

Plate I is seen by all. Plate II is clearly quite difficult, only 60 per cent, 
of the N group managed to point out the gaps in the circles, and only 
37 per cent, of the N — group. In the colour-blind group, on the contrary, 
only 7 per cent, passed, and there is a failure of 78 per cent. Plate VI 
failed 6 per cent, of the N group, 17 per cent, of the N — group, and 98 



J— PSYCHOLOGY 223 

Table IV. 
Schaaff's Mosaic Plates. 
Results of testing 40 colour blinds. 
234s 67 8 9 10 



I 


vv 


XX 


w 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


2 


w 


XX 


w 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


3 


w 


— 


w 


vv 


w 


— 


vv 


XX 


vv 


VV 


4 


w 


XV 


w 


w 


XX 


— 


XX 


vx 


XX 


w 


5 


w 


— 


w 


vv 


XX 


XX 


XX 


vx 


— 


VV 


6 


w 


— 


w 


w 


-X 


— 


— 


w 


w 


vx 


7 


w 


— 


— 


w 


— 


XX 


— 


vx 


— 


VV 


8 


w 


XX 


vx 


w 


w 


XX 


w 


vx 


w 


vv 


9 


vv 


w 


w 


w 


— 


— 


— 


w 


XV 


w 


10 


w 


XX 


w 


w 


vv 


XX 


XV 


vx 


w 


w 


II 


w 


— 


vx 


w 


yx 


— 


— 


XX 


vv 


w 


12 


w 


— 


XV 


w 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


13 


w 


vx 


w 


w 


— 


— 


— 


V- 


w 


w 


H 


w 


V- 


w 


vv 




— 


w 


vx 


XV 


w 


15 


w 


XX 


XX 


vv 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XV 


16 


w 


— 


-V 


XV 


XX 




w 


vx 


w 


w 


17 


vv 


XX 


vx 


vv 


— 


— 


— 


V- 


w 


w 


18 


w 


— 


— 


XX 


XX 


XX 


— 


XX 


— 


w 


19 


w 


XX 


vx 


w 


— ■ 


— 


vx 


vx 


w 


w 


20 


w 


VX 


w 


w 


vx 


XX 


w 


w 


vv 


w 


21 


w 


— 


XV 


vv 


X- 


— 


w 




vv 


w 


22 


w 


XX 


w 


w 


XX 


XX 


w 


— 


XV 


vx 


23 


w 




w 


w 


— 


— 


— • 


— 


w 


XX 


24 


w 


XX 


w 


w 


XX 




w 


vx 


vv 


— 


25 


w 


— 


— 


w 


XX 


- — 


' -X 


— 


XX 


— 


26. 


w 


— 


XX 


w 


— 


XX 


XV 


XV 


w 


X- 


27 


XV 


— 


XX 


w 


XV 


— 


w 


— 


vv 


XV 


28. 


w 


— • 


— 


w 


— • 


■ — ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


29 


w 


— 


— 


vv 


— 




— 


XX 


XV 


-X 


30- 


w 


XV 


vv 


vv 




— 


— 


w 


— 


w 


31- 


w 


— 


w 


w 


XX 


— 


XV 


w 


w 


w 


32. 


w 


— 


XX 


w 


— 


— 


— • 


— 


-V 


— 


33- 


w 




XV 


w 


X- 




— 


-V 


VV 




34 


w 


XX 


w 


w 


XX 


XX 


XX 


XV 


w 


w 


35- 


w 


— 


w 


w 


vv 


— 


vv 


w 


w 


w 


36. 


VV 


vx 


w 


w 


— 


— • 


— 


— 


— 


w 


37 


vv 


— 


vv 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


w 


38. 


w 


— 


— 


w 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


w 


— 


39- 


w 


w 


w 


w 


— 


vx 


— 


w 


-X 


w 


40. 


vv 


XX 


XX 


XX 


— 


— 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


V — 


pass : X 


= saw 


the circle but did not locate the 


gap: - 


- = could 


not 


see the ci 


rcle. 



















234 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

Table V. 

Schaaff's Mosaic Plates. 

Frequency in percentages of normal and colour-blind responses for N, 

N — and colour-blind groups. 







N. 






N-. 




C. B. 




Plates. 


C. 


iC. 


W. 


C. 


ic. 


W. 


c. ic. 


W. 


I 


100 








100 








100 





2 


6o 


19 


21 


37 


19 


44 


7 15 


78 


3 


90 


8 


2 


79 


19 


2 


56 17 


27 


4 


96 


3 


I 


92 


6 


2 


86 2 


12 


5 


96 


3 


I 


94 


4 


2 


10 12 


78 


6 


78 


16 


6 


50 


33 


17 


2 


98 


7 


98 


I 


I 


90 


6 


4 


27 10 


63 


8 


91 


8 


I 


79 


17 


4 


20 34 


46 


9 


100 








100 


. 





50 12 


38 


lO 


100 








100 








60 10 


30 



N = 271 males. N — =46 males. C. B. = 40 males. 
C = correct both circles : |C = one circle correct, one wrong : 

W = wrong, both circles. 

per cent, of the colour-blind group. These two plates alone, number 1 1 
and number VI, are severe tests of colour perception. 

Of the test as a whole, 43 per cent, of the N group made a perfect score, 
that is, pointed out the gap in each circle correctly. In the N — group, 
only 24 per cent, passed, and in the colour-blind group no individual 
made a perfect score. Sometimes, in all groups, the shape of the circles 
could be recognised but the gaps could not be located. When the rings 
are recognised, but not the gaps in certain tables, only slight weakening 
of the colour sense is indicated, but when the rings are not recognised, the 
defect is of a more serious nature. In the instructions accompanying the 
mosaics, the following words appear : ' Quiconque ne discerne pas les 
anneaux et les brisures dans les dix tableaux, n'a pas le sens chromatique 
normal.' 

The final estimate of this test is that it can be recommended as a fairly 
satisfactory test of colour blindness. 

A supplementary test, devised by Schaaff and Blum, consists of 30 cards 
on which are diamond-shaped spots. Some of the cards contain one 
colour only, but in varying shades, green of more than one shade, or red, 
or grey. Some of the cards have more than one colour on them. The 
subject is asked to sort the 30 cards into piles — a pile of cards in which 
all the spots are red, a second pile in which all the spots are green, and 



J.— PSYCHOLOGY 225 

a third pile in which all the spots are grey. This part of the test is 
supplementary to Part I, and undoubtedly does reveal any colour defect. 
The colour blind presented the same heterogeneous collection of colours 
as they normally do, the colour weak placed certain of the greys among 
the greens, and so on. In this part of the test difficulty was sometimes 
experienced by the normal colour group as to the correct pile into which 
a card should go — -if a blue-green, for example, should be placed among 
the greens or be in the left-over pile, if a reddish-brown should go with 
the reds or be omitted. A further part of this test is to give one card 
which has green and red spots on it of three different shades to the subject 
and ask him to select out two cards in the pack which match these exactly. 
This means selecting one card with red spots of the same shades, and one 
card with green spots of the same shades. This proved difficult both to 
normal and colour blind individuals. Some of the colour-blind gave 
the task up as hopeless, only 2 out of those tested being successful. With 
the N — group, 33 per cent, were successful, and with the N group 
60 per cent, were successful. This part of the test, the sorting and the 
matching, while of interest to an examiner, has not the same practical 
value as Part I of the test, in which the break in the circle has to be 
recognised. It could be dispensed with altogether, except in cases of 
doubt, where confirmation of or further information about a defect was 
required. 

The results from these two tests may be sufficient to give some idea 
of the type of investigation which has been carried out. A similar 
analysis of the results obtained with other pigment tests — the Stilling, the 
Nagel, the Podesta, the Edridge- Green, etc., leads to similar conclusions, 
namely, differences in the value of individual tests, inconsistencies in the 
findings arrived at with any single series, and so on. As regards the 
Stilling test, the complete investigation covers only the first three plates 
of the seventeenth edition. These are found to give very satisfactory 
results both in detecting colour blindness and in differentiating between 
the two types. It is unfortunate that the formation of the figures used in 
the plates is not clearer, because this gives rise to a number of trivial 
mistakes which may be misleading to an inexperienced examiner. Such 
errors are to mistake a 3 for an 8, or vice versa, or to confuse the figure 2 
with 7. 

In the latest edition of the Stilling (the nineteenth edition) the same 
figures are used, so that the same comusi ms appear. There are, however, 
several new features, including the insertion of hidden numbers, which 
are only visible to the colour blind. The results from this series are not 
so clear-cut as in the earlier editions, and there is no reason to suppose 
that it can yield more reliable or more consistent results than the others. 
It is interesting to note, however, that the examiner is encouraged to ask 
subjects to trace the shape of the figures with a wooden rod, to point out 
dots of a similar colour to the one indicated, both useful devices in ordinary 
testing, as also in cases of dissimulation or where it is suspected that the 
subject has been coached in the test. Also, it is suggested that if in 
doubt, the subject can be asked to read some of the plates through 
coloured filters. This is a device which could well be followed with 



226 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

almost any of the pigment tests with satisfactory results, as the subject 
can have no idea beforehand what he should see. 

The Nagel card test came out very badly in the investigation. It is 
apparently less reliable than even the simple Collins-Drever Group test, 
devised as a first aid in revealing cases of colour blindness among school 
children. It allowed a number of colour blinds to pass with a perfect 
score, and some others only made a very slight omission, not serious 
enough to place them in the category of colour blind. 

The Edridge- Green card test is very difficult for those with normal 
colour vision, as well as for the colour blind. It certainly failed all the 
colour blind, but it also failed a great many others. Of the control group, 
only 23 per cent, of the subjects passed, the others being rejects, a result 
sufficient to show its stringent nature. The test is based on Edridge- 
Green's theory, and the cards are intended to indicate if the individual 
tested is to be classified as a dichromic, a trichromic, a tetrachromic and 
so on. The results are accordingly difficult to interpret. 

Although tests of colour blindness of a severe type are essential in 
certain vocations, they do not seem to be so necessary for all vocations, 
and some simpler tests may serve the purpose equally well. It would 
be very rash to suggest any one test as being a perfect test of colour 
blindness, and most examiners prefer to compare the findings from at 
least two tests before venturing a diagnosis. A combination of the 
Ishihara, the first three tables of the Stilling, and the Schaaff Mosaic test 
should give a fairly satisfactory diagnosis of colour blindness. These 
tests should be diagnostic enough to yield reliable results for vocations 
in which colour discrimination is desirable, other than those in which 
coloured signals are used. In vocations, however, in which coloured 
signals require to be discriminated as on the railroad, in certain branches 
of the Navy, in aviation and to a lesser degree in motoring, some form of 
lantern test should be given in addition. As well as bringing conditions 
nearer to conditions in these vocations in which lights have to be dis- 
tinguished and not pigments, a lantern test also involves colour naming, 
which may yield useful supplementary evidence. 

There is a good deal of doubt, however, whether we ought to speak of 
reliability and consistency at all in connection with the results of this 
analysis. It may be that the discrepancies disclosed are due to the great 
variety of those deviations from normal colour vision which are so marked 
as to justify their being regarded from a practical point of view, as cases 
of colour blindness. This interpretation of the facts is to some extent 
confirmed by the results of filter analysis. Plates which all profess to 
diagnose deuteranopia for example, show very differently under filter 
analysis, and similarly evoke dift'erent responses from different deuter- 
anopes. The inference would appear to be that we are dealing not with 
linear variations in degree but with multidimensional variations. A wide 
new field for investigation is thus disclosed, the working of which may 
yield valuable results for the whole theory of colour vision. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



THE MODERN STUDY OF PLANTS 
IN RELATION TO EDUCATION 

ADDRESS BY 

PROF. E. J. SALISBURY, D.Sc, F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



In choosing as the subject of my Address a more general rather than a 
special theme I have not been unmindful of the fact that this is one of the 
few occasions on which it is permitted to dwell on the wider application 
of one's subject untrammelled by the presence of a purely specialist 
audience and unchallenged by the imminence of debate. 

I hope I have not been tempted unwarrantably to voice my passing 
thoughts on the broader considerations of the educational value and con- 
tacts of our subject by the happy consideration that these words of mine 
will find a peaceful resting place between the covers of an Annual Report 
whence they can only be exhumed by deliberate intent. 

When we cast our minds back on the general attitude adopted towards 
our subject in the latter part of the eighteenth century we cannot but be 
struck by the almost apologetic phraseology of its votaries and the curious 
grounds upon which they rationalised its pursuit. Rousseau, for example, 
described Botany as a study of pure curiosity that has no other real use 
than that which a thinking, sensible being may deduce from the observation 
of nature and the wonders of the universe. I venture to think that many 
otherwise educated people to-day would express similar sentiments, 
though in more modern and probably less complimentary language. 

There are many who regard the botanist as one whose main pre- 
occupation is to recognise plants and to name them, capacities which, 
I am sure most of my professional colleagues will agree, are perhaps the 
least widespread to-day of those which the compleat botanist should 
possess. Indeed, the layman is so often disappointed in the professional 
botanist's capacity to label plants that he rates our occupation even lower 
than before. 

The teaching of our subject has been in no small degree to blame for 
the widespread misconceptions as to its aims and content. For long 
regarded as a harmless and elegant occupation for the female sex. Botany 
only survived as a study of practical utility because of the continued 
necessity for medical practitioners to acquire some knowledge of Materia 
Medica. How perfunctory was much of this teaching is indicated in that 
charming book Leaves from the Life of a Country Doctor, where the late 
C. B. Gunn describes how as a medical student in 1878 ' the botany class 
gave me a " scunner " at the subject which has lasted ever since.' ' Pro- 



228 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

fessor Balfour,' he continues, ' a very kindly man, was well named " Woody 
fibre," as his teaching of what might have been a most interesting subject 
was of a singularly wooden and fibrous nature.' It is perhaps only fair 
to add that the lectures of his son are reputed to have been as interesting 
as those of his father were apparently dull. 

The old technological significance for Medicine has long since gone, 
but a newer and vastly more important significance remains, both cultural 
and vocational, which has rarely been stated, let alone stressed. Despite 
the vastly enlarged content of botanical knowledge since those days the 
general conception of Botany has remained much what it was then, and 
the fact that we so often have to deplore previous training in the subject 
of students who come up to the Universities is, I think, sufficient proof 
that the woody fibres of mere description still predominate over the 
functional presentation of the living plant. 

What I would particularly wish to urge is that the high value of Botany 
as an educational subject and indeed its absolute necessity in any system 
of real cultural development is an aspect which we botanists have failed 
to present and emphasise, perhaps too often even to realise ourselves. 

The protagonists of compulsory Greek and Latin of the last century 
valued very highly, and rightly so, the cultural content which a study of 
the humanities could provide. It is easy for us to be wise after the event, 
but now that the dust of that controversy has cleared away we can see 
that failure to apprehend that there are other approaches to the same 
mental salvation led to an unfortunate insistence upon the means rather 
than upon the end. 

But whilst scientists justly claim that cultural value is the monopoly of 
no one subject and that those brought up in the classical tradition may 
be as much philistines as any scientist it is undoubtedly true that the 
immense cultural potentialities of scientific thought have too often been 
neglected for the sake of mere erudition. 

There is a general tendency for university teaching to become more 
and more vocational as the specialised demands of occupations become 
increasingly exacting. 

Thus not only do technological aspects grow more obtrusive, especially 
in the final courses of certain subjects, but there is a trend, in the direction 
of this change, making its influence felt, further and further back in the 
student's training, so that we find, for example, certain sections of the 
medical profession demanding that the preliminary education should 
have a more direct bearing on the future occupation of the student, 
despite the fact that this can only be accomplished at the expense of their 
general education and culture. With the long course of training which 
most professions to-day require and the financial strain that this often 
involves upon parents, one cannot but sympathise in the wish to provide 
some relief, but if this is to be accomplished without detriment to the 
ultimate standing of the professions themselves it can only be by an 
increased concentration on the more general aspects of culture in the 
schools. So far as biology is concerned there is a widespread recognition 
for the need of greater attention to training in observation in the schools 
allied to what may be termed the scientific study of Natural History. Too 
much attention in this as in other subjects is paid to the acquisition of 



K— BOTANY 229 

mere information, especially if recent, too little to the principles which are 
involved. This is not intended as a stricture upon the teachers, since, with 
our present system, earlier and earlier in the students' career they are striv- 
ing to achieve a dual objective, the training which should be their chief 
concern and their preparation for University examinations at a stage in 
mental development which cannot adequately appreciate the educational 
content of the curricula. Thus the student who has taken the Intermediate 
Examination from school is often handicapped in comparison with those who 
would appear to be starting their University career in a less advanced stage. 

Just as the increased demand for material things facilitated the replace- 
ment of the products of the craftsman by mass production of machine- 
made articles, so too the rapid increase of population following the 
industrial revolution inevitably led to something analogous to mass pro- 
duction in the education of children and the training of teachers. 

Many there are who blame the examination system, which, however, 
with all its faults, if rightly used, is in reality a fairly efficient sieve for 
separation where large numbers are involved. But the examination 
machine is often expected to effect a grading of the human material 
with which it deals that can only be attained by more individual methods. 
As a consequence undue importance is attached to examination results 
and a wrong emphasis is often laid on their significance. This leads to 
a premium being placed on mere erudition and so subjects are liable to be 
taught not as living realities but, in the forceful phraseology used by 
Winston Churchill in one of his novels, ' Knowledge is presented as a 
corpse which bit by bit we painfully dissect.' 

Furthermore our educational methods are, I fear, too often divided 
in their allegiance ; on the one hand we aim at the provision of a liberal 
culture which will make for the greatest happiness of the individual, con- 
sidered in terms of mental contentment and an abiding resource in later 
life ; whilst on the other hand we aim at the equipment of the student 
for the earning of his daily bread to ensure bodily comfort. We are not 
sufficiently trustful that the provision of the former is, to employ the 
expressive northern phraseology, the ' gainest way ' to the latter end, 
and so we adopt a sort of mental squint — which permits neither of the 
clear vision of the full beauty of integrated knowledge nor even of keeping 
our eyes on the main chance. It is no more possible in education than 
in ethics to serve both God and Mammon. It is not merely good educa- 
tion but the apotheosis of worldly wisdom to seek first the cultural back- 
ground and believe that the vocational proficiency will be added unto you. 

The Universities cannot be held blameless for the lack of appreciation 
by the general public of the implications of our subject. May I, in this 
connection, quote a passage from an American report on University 
Education which loses none of its cogency on this side of the Atlantic : 
' Appointing authorities too often place undue stress on specialisation, 
instead of placing adequate emphasis on scholarly background, versatility 
of intellectual interest and general culture.' 

Whilst activity and distinction in research is a necessary qualification 
of the teacher, the capacity to impart knowledge to others is no less 
essential. Too often in the selection for University posts aptitude as 
a teacher, which should be a first consideration, is entirely subordinated 



230 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

to distinction as an investigator. No one, it is true, can be an inspiring 
teacher who does not possess intellectual initiative and who is not engaged 
in a creative pursuit, but most of us have suffered at one time or another 
from the investigator ' whose thoughts are too full for words.' 

Furthermore we must avoid the undue sacrifice of breadth for depth for 
other reasons. 

The accumulation of data and the provision of information bears much 
the same relation to the advancement of knowledge as artificial fertilisers 
to crop production. Just as our fertilisers must be properly balanced, so 
too our information must be so correlated and concerted that ignorance 
in one department does not become the limiting factor in our utilisation 
of extensive data in others. In these days of extreme and increasing 
specialisation such correlation of effort is becoming more and more im- 
portant, and it is to the Universities, old and young alike, that we must 
look for the maintenance of that contact and synthesis which is essential 
to real progress. Because the research worker to-day delves more and 
more deeply into the mysteries of nature than ever in the past, the field 
he explores is correspondingly more restricted, and hence it is more 
necessary than ever before that those who devote themselves to science 
should have a wide background of culture. In particular I should like 
to urge that the time has come when the curriculum required of those 
proceeding to a University degree in Science should be reconsidered. 
It is, in the present state of knowledge, as much an anachronism that a 
student should be able to proceed to a degree in Chemistry having no 
knowledge of Biology as that he should proceed to a degree in Botany 
with a mere smattering of either Physics or Chemistry. Anyone who 
aspires to a degree in Science should in my opinion have an adequate 
appreciation of the principles of Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 
especially as regards statistical methods and probability theory, and lastly, 
but by no means least, one biological subject, preferably Botany, since 
relation to their physical environment and the laws of heredity are more 
easily studied in plants than in animals, and the animal kingdom is, after 
all, dependent upon the vegetable. Four obligatory subjects in the first 
year University course might and probably should involve the return to 
a five-subject Intermediate examination in Science, so that a fifth optional 
subject would permit of the desirable freedom of choice in respect to 
subjects pursued in the more advanced stages. But further, it may be 
stressed that some biological training is to-day an essential to any liberal 
culture and should be as much an obligatory part of a school curriculum 
as arithmetic.^ 

Whatever views we may hold with regard to the respective merits of the 
vitalistic and mechanistic schools of thought in relation to organisation, 
the incontrovertible fact is that in the present state of knowledge we are 
quite unable to express and indeed cannot hold out any prospects of 
explaining, the phenomenon of life in terms of physics and chemistry 
alone. Such a view is quite independent of whether or not we speculate 
as to what the future may hold in store. At present therefore there are 

^ Such restrictions of choice to a single optional subject would more than 
compensate for any time-table difficulties that might result from the number of 
subjects being increased from four to five. 



K.— BOTANY 231 

certain aspects of the universe such as heredity, development and the 
reaction of the organism to the environment which must be studied in 
other respects than merely the chemical and physical states with which 
they are associated, and hence biological knowledge is as fundamental to 
our understanding of the world around us as either physics or chemistry. 

One great merit of botanical study from the standpoint of general 
education is that, if properly taught, it provides perhaps the best medium 
for training in accurate observation. 

Observation consists essentially of two separate processes, namely, 
seeing the object or phenomenon and the apprehension of what is seen. 
The visual perception of the good and bad observer may be alike adequate, 
but it is in the degree of their apprehension that they differ. To train 
such powers it is essential to check the accuracy of appreciation either 
by means of verbal description or graphic representation. The graphic 
method is clearly more suited to the adolescent mind whose limited 
vocabulary and limited feeling and understanding of the nuances of mean- 
ing of words unduly restricts his verbal precision. Drawing, if regarded 
strictly as a statement of observed facts, offers the best means of such 
training, and botanical material, because of its well-defined organisation, 
is peculiarly suited for this purpose. 

But, from the cultural standpoint, plant life and all that it implies 
may be regarded as the foundation of a vast extent of human activity and 
the basis of a large and essential part of every human environment. 
Because neither we nor the animals could persist without plant life it 
follows that much of the present distribution of these organisms over the 
face of the earth can only be understood in terms of the plant life either 
of the present or the past. Even man's industrial activities have been 
largely localised and in part determined by the geographical distribution 
of vegetation whether it be that of the forests, of perhaps 280 million 
years ago, which gave origin to our coal deposits, or the vast extent of 
grasslands that have determined the location of pastoral communities. 

It is no exaggeration to say that an adequate appreciation of geography, 
unless merely descriptive, is not possible without an adequate background 
of botanical equipment. Yet teachers of geography, let alone students, 
are too often ill-equipped in this prerequisite. 

A realisation of the widespread demands made upon plant products 
would probably astonish many of those who, like Mr. Babitt, find in the 
mechanistic devices of the age their chief delight. Yet it has been recently 
estimated that a thousand Ford motor cars utilise in their manufacture 
the entire plant yield of over six hundred acres, and this quite apart from 
the indirect demands for grazing necessary to furnish the materials of 
animal origin. Despite the vast areas of the earth's surface devoted to the 
growth of foodstuffs, of textile fibres, of timber, rubber, tea, tobacco and 
innumerable other plant products, the plant remains perhaps the least 
known and appreciated of all man's servants by those who lay claim to 
any cognisance of their environment. 

Even the town dweller can scarcely fail to recognise the indirect con- 
tacts of his everyday existence with the activities of agriculture, forestry 
and horticulture, and, if education is to be interpreted as a means 
of enabling the individual to have an intelligent appreciation of and 



232 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

harmonious relations with his environment, then a knowledge of plant life 
is manifestly essential to that end. I should almost feel that an apology was 
necessary for expressing sentiments so trite were I not sure that whatever 
agreement there may be in theory, our educational curricula bear witness 
to the neglect of these principles in practice. 

As a branch of knowledge we botanists have been fortunate in successful 
avoidance of the process of fission that other subjects have suffered but, 
in maintaining our integrity, we have by no means remained immune 
from cell division and, if one may push the simile further, the proto- 
plasmic connections between cell and cell have in certain directions 
become very much attenuated. It is neither in the interests of our sub- 
ject as a whole nor of its individual parts, still less does it contribute to 
its cultural value, that after a six months' abstinence from perusal of a 
particular branch one returns to find oneself out of touch, not with the 
principles involved but with the terminology in which those principles 
are couched. Even in the matter of plant names themselves we suffer 
from the antiquarian researches of those who, clinging to the letter of the 
law of priority, forgo the spirit of mutual understanding it was intended 
to serve. Whilst in every branch highly technical expression is sometimes 
warranted by the necessity for precision, it may easily become the cloak 
of mental laziness and is almost invariably the sign of either immaturity 
of conception or stagnation of ideas. 

The increasing diversity of pursuits in a progressive science is only too 
liable to be accompanied by an increasing detachment of interests and 
divergence of expression. Specialisation, which should be accompanied 
by greater co-ordination, is only too frequently the begetter of dis- 
integration rather than synthesis and the mutual interdependence of one 
branch on another is lost sight of. 

One of the main purposes which the British Association should serve 
is to promote the co-operation between workers in different fields. But 
we only come together for a short week in each year, and so it is to the 
Universities that we must look mainly for the continuous fostering of a 
liberal outlook both on science as a whole and within the domains of each 
particular subject. 

In its earlier phases Botany was naturally concerned largely with 
description, and in such branches as Taxonomy, Morphology, Anatomy, 
Cytology, Mycology, Paljeobotany and Plant Geography the descriptive 
aspect must necessarily play an important role just as in Ecology, 
Physiology, Bacteriology, and Genetics the experimental aspects should 
predominate. But in all, the cultural value can only be maintained if 
form and function are closely integrated. Each branch has its own con- 
tribution to make in this respect not only to the pure science but to its 
applied aspects in Agriculture, Horticulture, Pomology, Sylviculture and 
Plant Pathology. The mere enumeration of these branches, whether 
pure or applied, envisages the richness of the field we cultivate and the 
extensive contribution that Botany can make towards both the enrichment 
of the human mind and the well-being of the race. But the accumulation 
of data in these varied directions of enquiry will only fulfil its full purpose 
if the many threads are continually woven into the warp and woof of a 
single fabric. 



K.— BOTANY 233 

The retention of plant physiology within the domain of Botany has 
saved us from the worst evils of the study of form unrelated to function. 
This has also been one of the chief factors which led to that synthetic 
approach to our subject which concerns the relation of the plant to its 
surroundings. The supreme value of ecology, however, lies not so much 
in the attention which it focusses upon the mutual relations of organisms or 
even upon their relation to the environment, but in the synthesis which 
ecology achieves, into a single picture, of so many aspects of Botany 
itself and so many branches of human knowledge. Its high educational 
and cultural potentiality is an outcome of the fact that it is the very anti- 
thesis of that common failing of the human mind to think of different 
subjects as isolated compartments of knowledge and not as different facets 
of one and the same jewel. 

When we attempt to understand any plant community the necessary 
study of the physical environment leads us at once into realms of soil 
structure, into the physical problems connected with water retention and 
water movement involving colloid properties and surface action. So, too, 
the chemist and the meteorologist make their contributions to our concept 
of the habitat, whilst the bacteriologist, the mycologist, and the proto- 
zoologist all help us to envisage that teeming population of bacteria, 
fungi and protozoa in the soil which, by their proper balance, maintain 
a healthy circulation of chemical products and are a necessity for the 
maintenance of the supply of raw material for the higher plants and 
animals. 

But, since the environment of the present is in some considerable 
degree the consequence of that of the immediate and sometimes of the 
remote past, the study of external conditions brings us into contact with 
the contributions of glaciologists and historians, whilst even the student of 
' place names ' may materially assist in the reconstruction of those past 
conditions that in part have determined the present state. 

When we turn from the study of the habitat to that of the vegetation 
which it supports we are at once confronted with the question as to the 
extent to which the one is in equilibrium with the other. 

The morphologist and the anatomist furnish the data upon which we 
base our judgment as to the degree to which the external form and internal 
structure have contributed to render the organisms suited to the environ- 
ments that they frequent. In so far as there is adaptation, whether 
passive or active, in this respect, to that extent the community is in equi- 
librium with its surroundings and represents a climax, subject it is true 
to secular change but of a relatively stable character. 

The contribution of the systematist is to distinguish between the more 
critical species and races which exhibit a localisation that less meticulous 
examination might readily ignore and which often have an ecological im- 
portance far greater than the Linneons of which they are the segregates. 
The experimental conclusions of the physiologist in the laboratory must be 
applied by the ecologist to the elucidation of problems in the field com- 
plicated and often profoundly modified by the continual operation of the 
competitive factor. 

Finally, knowledge of the life histories of the constituent organisms, the 
reaction of the various phases of their development to the environment, 
their modes of reproduction, their establishment and extension, comprise 

I 2 



234 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a mass of knowledge to which many astute observers have contributed and 
amongst whom the amateur holds an honoured place in our esteem. The 
cliches of the politician with regard to policies might be applied with far 
more than their usual significance to the ecologist, who might with some 
reason be described as ' exploring every avenue ' and ' leaving no stone 
unturned ' in his attempt to reveal the causal relations underlying the 
social organisation of plant life ; but this all too brief resume of the 
contents and contacts of a single branch of Botany has, I hope, sufficed to 
emphasise that the wide range of knowledge invoked by the ecological 
approach, though constituting its chief difficulty, is the very basis of its 
cultural value, since it weaves together into a comprehensive whole so 
many threads of knowledge spun by the specialists upon the wheels of 
research. 

The value of such approach is also obvious in relation to everyday affairs. 

In any well-considered plan of land utilisation of catchment areas the 

ecological aspects are apt to be ignored. The land surface under its various 

guises may be likened to a sponge which absorbs the divers forms of 

precipitation and allows the water with more or less rapidity to find its 

way into the streams and rivers. Under ideal conditions the effectiveness 

of the sponge provided by forests may regulate the water drainage to such 

a degree that despite extreme fluctuations- of rainfall the river levels 

exhibit no abnormal oscillation ; but the effectiveness of the land surface 

for holding back the water varies according to whether it is under high 

forests, scrub, grassland, or arable. Each type of plant cover has its 

own absorptive factor and its own resistance to erosion. Furthermore, 

each vegetation type is not static but dynamic, and its role in this respect 

changes both with the seasons and with the passage of time. If therefore 

our land utilisation is to be properly conceived, due regard must be had 

to the proportions in' which the various communities, whether natural or 

artificial, are present. If we are to avoid floods and droughts, we must 

preserve rural England for practical as well as aesthetic reasons. To all 

this ecologists can contribute valuable help, the more so that with the 

passage of years the surface of our roads has become better and less 

absorbent, our ditches are kept cleaner so that drainage to rivers has 

generally become more effective and rapid. Hence what sufficed to 

restrain extreme conditions a hundred years ago would not suffice to-day. 

Afforestation of the catchment area of the Thames and other rivers would, 

in the long run, be perhaps far more effective and less costly as a guarantee 

against future floods or droughts than grand scale engineering works, 

and whilst the former would produce ancillary assets of great value the 

latter would not. 

Classical examples have been afforded in the past by areas in France 
where as a result of clear felling in the early part of the present century 
the water table rose over three feet. The detailed records from the state 
forests of Moudon showed that the average water table under both 
deciduous and coniferous forests was not only much lower than in the 
surrounding open country, but was subject to much less marked fluctua- 
tions. The recent occurrence of the disastrous floods in the Ohio and 
Mississippi valleys and the equally tragic droughts responsible for the 
American Dust Bowl, involving an area more than twice that of the entire 
British Islands, are too recent in our minds to need recapitulation. Such 



K.— BOTANY 235 

events are, I think, too apt to be conveniently dismissed as ' acts of God ' 
in the comfortable beUef that the causes are beyond our responsibiHty or 
control. But like our own droughts and floods they are in no small 
degree capable of regulation by the proper utilisation of plant cover. 
It is perhaps nothing more than the truth to assert that the provision of 
wood for the smelting of iron on the Weald of Kent, or the maintenance 
of the fuel supply for the salt pans of Droitwich has, inter alia, its reper- 
cussions in our own water economy of to-day. It is now probably 
recognised by many that these extremes of water supply are in large 
measure the outcome of lack of vision in respect to the proper integration, 
both spatial and temporal, of our exploitation of the soil surface. To-day, 
however, we find that it is the engineer who has to be called in to mitigate 
results rather than the biologist to remedy the cause. 

This is partly because the engineer's remedies, though extremely 
costly, are usually more immediate in their results and certainly more 
spectacular, but largely, I think, because botanical knowledge on the 
applied side is inadequately organised to fulfil the important role it can 
and should play in co-operation with the engineer for the communal 
well-being. 

Professor F. W. Oliver pointed out, in reference to the reclamation of 
foreshores, that the plastic plant can and does meet the constantly changing 
impact of the forces of nature in a way which the dead material of the 
engineer cannot hope to emulate, and at a far lower cost. But such 
biological control demands not only a comprehensive knowledge of the 
life histories of the species utilised but also an appreciation of the en- 
vironmental factors dynamic as well as static that is summed up in the 
phrase ecological foresight. As an example of the type of investigations 
which are calculated to provide the necessary data one might cite the 
studies of Professor Weaver and his colleagues on the root systems of 
American prairie species and on the effectiveness of the plant cover in 
the prevention of erosion. Mr. F. N. Ratcliffe's summary of the position 
on the arid pastoral regions of South Australia has shown that the erosion 
there is largely an outcome of overstocking with grazing animals, which 
took no cognisance of the normal climatic fluctuations, with the result that 
plant growth in dry seasons could not keep pace with the loss of protec- 
tion from wind due to grazing. 

Another matter to which I should like to refer in this connection is the 
much discussed question of the preservation of natural areas. The 
public generally needs guidance on these matters which the student of 
plant life should furnish. Owing to the widespread ignorance of biological 
knowledge the dynamic character of vegetation is by no means widely 
realised. There are indeed many educated people to-day who think 
that to preserve an area all you need to do is to leave it alone. The fact 
that your open downland, presented to the National Trust, may, if left 
unhindered, ultimately cease to be downland and become woodland 
with the loss perhaps of the very features for which the area was preserved, 
is for most a novel concept. The transition phase between grassland 
and woodland that we term open scrub is perhaps at once the richest in 
species of flowers and insects of all our natural plant communities and 
the most transient. To preserve such it is necessary to remove trees 
and shrubs just at the period when they would appear to be approaching 



236 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

their prime. But an enlightened poHcy of such control of national 
reserves and all that this implies will only be possible if the rising genera- 
tion has been inculcated into a biological mode of thought. So, too, the 
preservation of our insect and bird fauna and of our fungal flora demands 
a considered policy with respect to continuity in the supply of decaying 
and fallen timber, which as I am personally aware the guardians of some 
areas find to be a hard saying. 

Mr. Ramsbottom, in his Presidential Address last year, admirably 
emphasised the practical importance of the study of mycology, the many 
ways in which fungi play an important part in industry and everyday life. 
The importance of algas in relation to our fisheries has been revealed by 
the investigations carried out in the Marine Biological Station at Plymouth, 
whilst the Fresh Water Station of Windermere is rapidly increasing our 
knowledge of the role of algag in relation both to fresh water fisheries and 
to water supply. The practical value of genetics and plant breeding in 
the production of better and more disease resistant strains is so obvious 
as to need no emphasis. Indeed it is probably true to say that no branch 
of botany could be cited that has not its important practical applications. 
Botany needs no defence in respect to the practical utility of its pursuit, 
although it is probably true to say that the majority of those who reap 
the benefits of its achievements are unmindful of their source. But it is, 
I feel, the contribution that botanical knowledge can make towards general 
culture and spiritual contentment that is its chief claim to rank high in 
our educational scheme. 

For the future I venture to suggest that it is not so much the paucity 
of data that needs to be made good, as the failure of the botanist to take 
his proper place as a man of affairs. We have been too content in the past 
to pursue the pleasant paths of pure science, heedless of the implications 
of our results, with the outcome that our subject has not received the 
measure of moral and financial support that its value to the community 
would justify. 

In no direction is research more needed that in a detailed knowledge of 
the autocology and biology of our commonly cultivated species, yet, as 
I have pointed out in The Living Garden, there are several respects in 
which our knowledge urgently needs augmenting. But until the number 
of posts, other than teaching posts, open to botanists is increased so that 
a research worker in this field has an assurance of a competence and 
reasonable prospects if he proves efficient, the number of first-class 
botanical investigators will remain few and many of the best brains who 
might be attracted to it will continue from sheer force of circumstance to 
adopt other and more lucrative professions. 

A sympathetic understanding of botanical thought and progress is 
essential to a community which is to deal adequately with such national 
problems as agricultural policy, land utilisation, afforestation, drainage 
and water supply, the preservation of rural areas or the provision of 
national parks. Only on the foundation of a knowledge of plant life and 
its requirements can an educated public opinion be built up that will 
receive and give effect to well-considered legislative action. Moreover, 
it is perhaps truer of these pressing questions than of most that a sym- 
pathetic and informed public opinion is essential to the continued effective 
operation of any policy however well conceived and enlightened. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



THE INFORMATIVE CONTENT OF 
EDUCATION 



ADDRESS BY 

H. G. WELLS, D.Litt. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Section L of the British Association is of necessity one of the least 
specialised of all sections. Its interests spread far beyond professional 
limitations. It is a section where anyone who is so to speak a citizen at 
large may hope to play a part that is not altogether an impertinent intru- 
sion. And it is in the character of a citizen at large that I have accepted 
the very great honour that you have offered me in making me the President 
of this Section. I have no other claim whatever upon your attention. 
Since the remote days when as a needy adventurer I taught as non- 
resident master in a private school, invigilated at London University 
examinations, raided the diploma examinations of the College of Pre- 
ceptors for the money prizes offered, and, in the most commercial spirit, 
crammed candidates for the science examinations of the university, I have 
spent very few hours indeed in educational institutions. Most of those 
were spent in the capacity of an enquiring and keenly interested parent 
at Oundle School. I doubt if there is any member of this section who 
has not had five times as much teaching experience as I have, and who is 
not competent to instruct me upon all questions of method and educational 
organisation and machinery. So I will run no risks by embarking upon 
questions of that sort. But on the other hand, if I know very little of 
educational methods and machinery I have had a certain amount of special 
experience in what those methods produce and what that machine turns 
out. I have been keenly interested for a number of years, and particularly 
since the war, in public thought and public reactions, in what people know 
and think and what they are ready to believe. What they know and think 
and what they are ready to believe impresses me as remarkably poor stuff. 
A general ignorance — even in respectable quarters — of some of the most 
elementary realities of the political and social life of the world is, I believe, 
mainly accountable for much of the discomfort and menace of our times. 
The uninstructed public intelligence of our community is feeble and con- 
vulsive. It is still a herd intelligence. It tyrannises here and yields to 
tyranny there. What is called elementary education throughout the 
world does not in fact educate, because it does not properly inform. 
I realised this very acutely during the latter stages of the war and it has 
been plain in my mind ever since. It led to my taking an active part in 



238 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

the production of various outlines and summaries of contemporary know- 
ledge. Necessarily they had the defects and limitations of a private 
adventure but in making them I learnt a great deal about — vi^hat shall 
I say ? — the contents of the minds our schools are turning out as taught. 

And so now I am proposing to concentrate the attention of this Section 
for this meeting on the question of what is taught as fact, that is to say 
upon the informative side of educational work. For this year I suggest we 
give the questions of drill, skills, art, music, the teaching of languages, 
mathematics and other symbols, physical training and development, a 
rest, and that we concentrate on the inquiry : What are zoe telling young 
people directly about the world in which they are to live ? What is the 
world picture we are presenting to their minds ? What is the framework 
of conceptions about reality and about obligation into which the rest of 
their mental existences will have to be fitted ? I am proposing in fact 
a review of the informative side of education, wholly and solely — informative 
in relation to the needs of modern life. 

And here the fact that I am an educational outsider — which in every 
other relation would be a disqualification — gives me certain very real 
advantages. I can talk with exceptional frankness. And I am inclined 
to think that in this matter of the informative side of education frankness 
has not always been conspicuous. For what I say I am responsible only 
to the hearer and my own self-respect. I occupy no position from which 
I can be dismissed as unsound in my ideas. I follow no career that can 
be affected by anything I say. I follow, indeed, no career. I have no 
party, no colleagues or associates who can be embarrassed by any un- 
orthodox suggestions I make. Every schoolmaster, every teacher, nearly 
every professor must, by the nature of his calling, be wary, diplomatic, 
compromising — he has his governors to consider, his college to consider, 
his parents to consider, the local press to consider ; he must not say too 
much nor say anything that might be misinterpreted and misunderstood. 
I can. And so I think I can best serve the purposes of the British Associa- 
tion and this section by taking every advantage of my irresponsibility, 
being as unorthodox and provocative as I can be, and so possibly saying 
a thing or two which you are not free to say but which some of you at any 
rate will be more or less willing to have said. 

Now when I set myself to review the field of inquiry I have thus defined, 
I found it was necessary to take a number of very practical preliminary 
issues into account. As educators we are going to ask what is the subject- 
matter of a general education ? What do we want known ? And how 
do we want it known ? What is the essential framework of knowledge 
that should be established in the normal citizen of our modern com- 
munity ? What is the irreducible minimum of knowledge for a respon- 
sible human being to-day ? 

I say irreducible minimum — and I do so, because I know at least enough 
of school work to know the grim significance of the school time-table 
and of the leaving school age. Under contemporary conditions our only 
prospect of securing a mental accord throughout the community is by 
laying a common foundation of knowledge and ideas in the school years. 
No one believes to-day, as our grandparents — perhaps for most of you it 
would be better to say great-grandparents — believed, that education had 



L— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 239 

an end somewhere about adolescence. Young people then left school or 
college under the imputation that no one could teach theni any more. 
There has been a quiet but complete revolution in people's ideas in this 
respect and now it is recognised almost universally that people in a modern 
community must be learners to the end of their days. We shall be giving 
a considerable amount of attention to continuation adult and post- 
graduate studies in this section, this year. It would be wasting our 
opportunities not to do so. Here in Nottingham University College v^^e 
have under Professor Peers the only Professorship of Aduh Education in 
England, and the Adult Education Department which is in close touch 
with the Workers' Education Association has broadened its scope far 
beyond the normal range of Adult Education. Our modern idea seems 
to be a continuation of learning not only for university graduates and 
practitioners in the so-called intellectual professions, but for the miner, 
the plough-boy, the taxi-cab driver and the out-of-work, throughout life. 
Our ultimate aim is an entirely educated population. 

Nevertheless it is true that what I may call the main beams and girders 
of the mental framework must be laid down, soundly or unsoundly, 
before the close of adolescence. We live under conditions where it seems 
we are still only able to afford for the majority of our young people, freedom 
from economic exploitation, teachers even of the cheapest sort and some 
educational equipment, up to the age of 14 or 15, and we have to fit our 
projects to that. And even if we were free to carry on with unlimited 
time and unrestrained teaching resources, it would still be in those 
opening years that the framework of the mind would have to be made. 
We have got to see therefore that whatever we propose as this irreducible 
minimum of knowledge must be imparted between infancy and— at most, 
the fifteenth or sixteenth year. Roughly, we have to get it into ten years 
at the outside. 

And next let us turn to another relentlessly inelastic packing-case and 
that is, the school time-table. How many hours in the week have we 
got for this job in hand ? The maximum school hours we have available 
are something round about thirty, but out of this we have to take time for 
what I may call the non-informative teaching, the native and foreign 
language teaching, teaching to read, teaching to write clearly, basic 
mathematical work, drawing, various forms of manual training, music 
and so forth. A certain amount of information may be mixed in with 
these subjects but not very much. They are not what I mean by in- 
formative subjects. By the time we are through with these non-informa- 
tive subjects, I doubt if at the most generous estimate we can apportion 
more than six hours a week to essentially informative work. Then let us, 
still erring on the side of generosity, assume that there are 40 weeks of 
schooling in the year. That gives us a maximum of 240 hours in the 
year. And if we take ten years of schooling as an average human being's 
preparation for life and if we disregard the ravages made upon our school 
time by measles, chicken-pox, whooping-cough, coronations and occasions 
of public rejoicing, we are given 2,400 hours as all that we can hope for 
as our time allowance for building up a coherent picture of the world, 
the essential foundation of knowledge and ideas, in the minds of our 
people. The complete framework of knowledge has to be established in 



240 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

two hundred dozen hours. It is plain that a considerable austerity is 
indicated for us. We have no time to waste, if our schools are not to go 
on delivering, year by year, fresh hordes of ignorant, unbalanced, un- 
critical minds, at once suspicious and credulous, weakly gregarious, 
easily baffled and easily misled, into the monstrous responsibilities and 
dangers of this present world. Mere cannon-fodder and stuff for 
massacres and stampedes. 

Our question becomes therefore : ' What should people know — what- 
ever else they don't know ? Whatever else we may leave over — for leisure- 
time reading, for being picked up or studied afterwards — what is the 
irreducible minimum that we ought to teach as clearly, strongly and 
conclusively as we know how ? ' 

And now I — and you will remember my role is that of the irresponsible 
outsider, the citizen at large — -I am going to set before you one scheme of 
instruction for your consideration. For it I demand all those precious 
2,400 hours. You will perceive the scheme is explicitly exclusive of 
several contradictory and discursive subjects that now find a place in 
most curricula, and you will also find doubts arising in your mind about 
the supply and competence of teachers, a difficulty about which I hope 
to say something before my time is up. But teachers are for the world 
and not the world for teachers. If the teachers we have to-day are not 
equal to the task required of them, then we have to recondition our 
teachers or replace them. We live in an exacting world and a certain 
minimum of performance is required of us all. If children are not to 
be given at least this minimum of information about the world into which 
they have come — through no fault of their own — then I do think it would 
be better for them and the world if they were not born at all. And to 
make what I have to say as clear as possible I have had a diagram designed 
which I will unfold to you as my explanation unfolds. 

You have already noted I have exposed the opening stage of my diagram. 
You see I make a three-fold division of the child's impressions and the 
matters upon which its questions are most lively and natural. I say 
nothing about the child learning to count, scribble, handle things, talk 
and learn the alphabet and so forth because all these things are ruled 
out by my restriction of my address to information only. This is what 
it wants to know. In all these educational matters, there is an element 
of overlap. As it learns about things and their relationship and inter- 
action its vocabulary increases and its ideas of expression develop. You 
will make an allowance for that. 

And now I bring down my diagram to expose the first stage of positive 
and deliberate teaching. We begin telling true stories of the past and of 
other lands. We open out the child's mind to a realisation that the sort 
of life it is living is not the only life that has been lived and that human 
life in the past has been difl^erent from what it is to-day and on the whole 
that it has been progressive. We shall have to teach a little about law 
and robbers, kings and conquests, but I see no need at this stage to afflict 
the growing mind with dates and dynastic particulars. I hope the time 
is not far distant when children even of eight or nine will be freed from the 
persuasion that history is a magic recital beginning ' William the Con- 
queror, 1066.' Concurrently, we ought to make the weather and the mud 




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L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 241 

pie our introduction to what Huxley christened long ago as Elementary 
Physiography. We ought to build up simple and clear ideas from 
natural experience. 

We start a study of the states of matter with the boiling, evaporation, 
freezing and so on of water and go on to elementary physics and chemistry. 
Local topography can form the basis of geography. We shall have to let 
our learner into the secret that the world is a globe — and for a time 
I think that has to be a bit of dogmatic teaching. It is not so easy as many 
people suppose to prove that the world is spherical and that proof may 
very well be left to make an exercise in logic later on in the education. 
Then comes biology. Education I rejoice to see is rapidly becoming 
more natural, more biological. Most young children are ready to learn 
a great deal more than most teachers can give them about animals. I think 
we might easily turn the bear, the wolf, the tiger and the ape from holy 
terrors and nightmare material into sympathetic creatures, if we brought 
some realisation of how these creatures live, what their real excitements 
are, how they are sometimes timid, into the teaching. I don't think that 
descriptive botany is very suitable for young children. Flowers and 
leaves and berries are bright and attractive, a factor in aesthetic education, 
but I doubt if, in itself, vegetation can hold the attention of the young. 
But directly we begin to deal with plants as hiding-places, homes and food 
for birds and beasts, the little boy or girl lights up and learns. And with 
this natural elementary zoology and botany we ^ould begin elementary 
physiology. How plants and animals live, and what health means for 
them. 

There I think you have stuff enough for all the three or four hundred 
hours we can afford for the foundation stage of knowledge. Outside 
this substantial teaching of school hours the child will be reading and 
indulging in imaginative play — and making that clear distinction children 
do learn to make between truth and fantasy — about fairyland, magic 
carpets and seven league boots, and all the rest of it. So far as my con- 
victions go I think that the less young children have either in or out of 
school of what has hitherto figured as history, the better. I do not see 
either the charm or the educational benefit of making an important subject 
of the criminal history of royalty, the murder of the Princes in the Tower, 
the wives of Henry the Eighth, the families of Edward and James I, the 
mistresses of Charles H, Sweet Nell of Old Drury, and all the rest of it. 
I suggest that the sooner we get all that unpleasant stuff out of schools, 
and the sooner that we forget the border bickerings of England, France, 
Scotland, Ireland and Wales, Bannockburn, Flodden, Crecy and Agin- 
court, the nearer our world will be to a sane outlook upon life. In this 
survey of what a common citizen should know I am doing my best to 
elbow the scandals and revenges which once passed as English history 
into an obscure corner or out of the picture altogether. 

But I am not proposing to eliminate history from education — far from 
it. Let me bring down my diagram a stage further and you will see how 
large a proportion of our treasure of 2,400 hours I am proposing to give 
to history. This next section represents about 800 to 1,000 pre-adolescent 
hours. It is the school-boy — school-girl stage. And here the history is 
planned to bring home to the new generation the reality that the world 



242 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

is now one community. I believe that the crazy combative patriotism 
that plainly threatens to destroy civilisation to-day is very largely begotten 
by the schoolmaster and the schoolmistress in their history lessons. They 
take the growing mind at a naturally barbaric phase and they inflame and 
fix its barbarism. I think we underrate the formative effect of this 
perpetual reiteration of how we won, how our Empire grew and how 
relatively splendid we have been in every department of life. We are 
blinded by habit and custom to the way it infects these growing minds 
with the chronic and nearly incurable disease of national egotism. Equally 
mischievous is the furtive anti-patriocism of the leftish teacher. I suggest 
that we take on our history from the simple descriptive anthropology 
of the elementary stage to the story of the early civilisations. We are 
dealing here with material that was not even available for the school- 
masters and mistresses who taught our fathers. It did not exist. But 
now we have the most lovely stuff to hand, far more exciting and far more 
valuable than the quarrels of Henry II and a Becket or the peculiar un- 
pleasantnesses of King James or King John. Archaeologists have been 
piecing together a record of the growth of the primary civilisations and 
the developing roles of priest, king, farmer, warrior, the succession of 
stone and copper and iron, the appearance of horse and road and shipping 
in the expansions of those primordial communities. It is a far finer 
story to tell a boy or girl and there is no reason why it should not be told. 
Swinging down upon these early civilisations came first the Semitic- 
speaking peoples and then the Aryan-speakers. Persian, Macedonian, 
Roman followed one another, Christendom inherited from Rome and 
Islam from Persia, and the world began to assume the shapes we know 
to-day. This is great history and also in its broad lines it is a simple 
history — upon it we can base a lively modern intelligence, and now it 
can be put in a form just as comprehensible and exciting for the school 
phase as the story of our English kings and their terrestrial, dynastic and 
sexual entanglements. When at last we focus our attention on the British 
Isles and France we shall have the affairs of these regions in a proper 
proportion to the rest of the human adventure. And our young people 
will be thinking less like gossiping court pages and more like horse- 
riders, seamen, artist-artisans, road-makers and city builders, which 
I take it is what in spirit we want them to be. Measured by the great 
current of historical events, English history up to quite recent years is 
mere hole-and-corner history. 

And I have to suggest another exclusion. We are telling our young 
people about the real past, the majestic expansion of terrestrial events. 
In these events the little region of Palestine is no more than a part of the 
highway between Egypt and Mesopotamia. Is there any real reason 
nowadays for exaggerating its importance in the past } Nothing began 
there, nothing was worked out there. All the historical part of the Bible 
abounds in wild exaggeration of the importance of this little strip of land. 
We were all brought up to believe in the magnificence of Solomon's temple 
and it is a startling thing for most of us to read the account of its decorations 
over again and turn its cubits into feet. It was smaller than most barns. 
We all know the peculiar delight of devout people when, amidst the endless 
remains of the great empires of the past, some dubious fragment is found to 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 243 

confirm the existence of the Hebrews. Is it not time that we recognised 
the extreme insignificance of the events recorded in Kings and Chronicles, 
and ceased to throw the historical imagination of our young people 
out of perspective by an over-emphasised magnification of the history 
of Judea ? 

Look at our time-table and what we have to teach. If we give history 
four-tenths of all the time we have for imparting knowledge that still gives 
us at most something a little short of 400 hours altogether. Even if we 
think it desirable to perplex another generation with the myths of the 
Creation, the Flood, the Chosen People and so forth we haven't got the 
time for it — any more than we have the time for the really quite unedifying 
records of all the Kings and Queens of England and their claims on this 
and that. No reason why much of that stuff should not be picked up in 
private reading — by those who like that sort of thing. But so far as the 
school time-table goes we are faced with a plain alternative. One thing 
or the other. Great history or hole-and-corner history ? The story of 
mankind or the narrow, self-righteous, blinkered stories of the British and 
the Jews ? 

There is a lot more we have to put into the heads of our young people 
over and above History. It is the main subject of instruction but even 
so, ir is not even half of the informative work that ought to be got through 
in this school stage. We have to consider the collateral subject of geo- 
graphy and a general survey of the world. We may have a little map- 
making here, but I take it what is needed most are reasonably precise ideas 
of the various types of country and the distinctive floras and faunas of 
the main regions of the world. We do not want our budding citizens 
to chant lists of capes and rivers, but we do want them to have a real 
picture in their minds of the Amazon forests, the pampas, the various 
phases in the course of the Nile, the landscape of Labrador and so on, 
and also we want something like a realisation of the sort of human life 
that is led in these regions. We have enormous resources now in cheap 
photography, in films and so forth, that even our fathers never dreamt of 
— to make all this vivid and real. New methods are needed to handle 
these new instruments but they need not be overwhelmingly costly. And 
also our new citizen should know enough of topography to realise why 
London and Rio and New York and Rome and Suez happen to be where 
they are and what sort of places they are. 

Geography and history run into each other in this respect and, on the 
other hand. Geography reaches over to Biology. Here again our schools 
lag some fifty years behind contemporary knowledge. The past half- 
century has written a fascinating history of the succession of living things 
in time and made plain all sorts of processes in the prosperity, decline, 
extinction and replacement of species. We can sketch the wonderful and 
inspiring story of life now from its beginning. Moreover, we have a con- 
tinually more definite account of the sequence of sub-man in the world 
and the gradual emergence of our kind. This is elementary, essential, 
interesting and stimulating stuff, and it is impossible to consider anyone 
a satisfactory citizen who is still ignorant of that great story. 

And finally, we have the science of inanimate matter. In a world of 
machinery, optical instruments, electricity, radio and so forth we want to 



244 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

lay a sound foundation of pure physics and chemistry upon the most 
modern lines — for everyone. Some of this work will no doubt overlap 
the mathematical teaching. And finally, to meet awakening curiosity 
and take the morbidity out of it, we have to tell our young people and 
especially our young townspeople, about the working of their bodies, 
about reproduction and about the chief diseases, enfeeblements and 
accidents that lie in wait for them in the world. 

That I think completes my summary of all the information we can 
hope to give in the lower school stage. And as I make it I am acutely 
aware of your unspoken comment. With such teachers as we have ! 
Well, I think that it is a better rule of \\ie, first to make sure of what you 
want and then set about getting it, rather than to consider what you can 
easily safely and meanly get, and then set about reconciling yourself to it. 
I admit we cannot have a modern education without a modernised type 
of teacher. Everything I am saying now implies a demand for more 
and better teachers — with better equipment. And these teachers will 
have to be kept fresh. It is stipulated in most leases that we should 
paint our houses outside every three years and inside every seven years, 
but nobody ever thinks of doing up a school teacher. There are teachers 
at work in this country who haven't been painted inside for fifty years. 
They must be damp and rotten. Two-thirds of the teaching profession 
now is in urgent need of being either reconditioned or superannuated. 
In this advancing world the reconditioning of both the medical and the 
scholastic practitioner is becoming a very urgent problem indeed, but it is 
not one that I can deal with here. Presently this section will be devoting 
its attention to adult education and then I hope the whole question of 
professional and technical refreshment will be ventilated. 

And there is another matter also closely allied to this question of the 
rejuvenation of teachers, at which I can only glance now, and that is the 
bringing of school books up to date. In this informative section of school 
work there is hardly a subject in which knowledge is not being vigorously 
revised and added to. Our school work does not follow up contemporary 
digesting. Still less do our school libraries. They are ten, fifteen years 
out of date with much of their information. Our prison libraries by the 
by are even worse. I was told the other day of a virtuous prisoner who 
wanted to improve his mind about radio. The prison had a collection 
of technical works made for such an occasion and the latest book on radio 
was dated 1920. There is, I believe, an energetic New School Books 
Association at work in this field, doing what it can to act in concert with 
those all too potent authorities who frame our examination syllabuses. 
I am all for burning old school books. Some day perhaps we shall have 
school books so made that at the end of five years, let us say, they will 
burst into flames and inflict severe burns upon any hands in which they 
find themselves. But at present that is perhaps — Utopian. It is even 
more applicable to the next stage of knowledge to which we are now 
coming. 

This stage represents our last thousand hours and roughly I will call it 
the upper form or upper standard stage. It is really the closing phase of 
the available school period. Some of the matter I have marked for the 
history of this grade might perhaps be given in grade B and vice versa. 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 245 

We have still a lot to do if we are to provide even a skeleton platform for 
the mind of our future citizen. He has still much history to learn before 
his knowledge can make an effective contact with his duties as a voter. 
You see I am still reserving four-tenths of the available time, that is to 
say nearly 400 hours for history. But now we are presenting a more 
detailed study of such phenomena as the rise and fall of the Ottoman 
Empire, the rise of Russia, the history of the Baltic, the rise and fall of 
the Spanish power, the Dutch, the first and second British Empires, the 
belated unifications of Germany and Italy. Then as I have written we 
want our modern citizen to have some grasp of the increasing importance 
of economic changes in history and the search for competent economic 
direction and also of the leading theories of individualism, socialism, the 
corporate state, communism. 

For the next five-and-twenty years now the ordinary man all over the 
earth will be continually confronted with these systems of ideas. They 
are complicated systems with many implications and applications. Indeed 
they are aspects of life rather than systems of ideas. But we send out our 
young people absolutely unprepared for the heated and biased inter- 
pretations they will encounter. We hush it up until they are in the thick 
of it. The most the poor silly young things seem able to make of it is to 
be violently and self-righteously Anti- something or other. Anti-Red, 
Anti-Capitalist, Anti-Fascist. The more ignorant you are the easier it is 
to be an Anti. To hate something without having anything substantial 
to put against it. A special sub-section of history in this grade should 
be a course in the history of War, which is always written and talked about 
by the unwary as though it had always been the same, while as a matter 
of fact — except for its violence — it has changed profoundly with every 
change in social, political and economic life. Clearly parallel to this 
history our young people need now a more detailed and explicit ac- 
quaintance with world geography, with the different types of population 
in the world and the developed and undeveloped resources of the globe. 
The devastation of the world's forests, the replacement of pasture by sand 
deserts through haphazard cultivation, the waste and exhaustion of 
natural resources, coal, petrol, water, that is now going on, the massacre 
of important animals, whales, penguins, seals, food fish, should be matters 
of universal knowledge and concern. 

Then our new citizens have to understand something of the broad 
elements in our modern social structure. They should be given an 
account of the present phase of communication and trade, of production 
and invention and above all they need whatever plain knowledge is avail- 
able about the conventions of property and money. Upon these con- 
ventions human property stands, and the efficiency of their working is 
entirely dependent upon the general state of mind throughout the world. 
We know now that what used to be called the inexorable laws of political 
economy and the laws of monetary science, are really no more than rash 
generalisations about human behaviour, supported by a maximum of 
pompous verbiage and a minimum of scientific observation. Most of 
our young people come on to adult life, to employment, business and the 
rest of it, blankly ignorant even of the way in which money has changed 
slavery and serfdom into wages employment and how its fluctuations in 



246 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

value make the industrial windmills spin or flag. They are not even 
warned of the significance of such words as inflation or deflation, and the 
wage earners are the helpless prey at every turn towards prosperity of the 
savings-snatching financier. Any plausible monetary charlatan can secure 
their ignorant votes. They know no better. They cannot help them- 
selves. Yet the subject of property and money — together they make one 
subject because money is only the fluid form of property — is scarcely 
touched upon in any stage in the education of any class in our community. 
They know nothing about it ; they are as innocent as young lambs and 
born like them for shearing. 

And now here you will see I have a very special panel. This I have 
called Personal Sociology. Our growing citizen has reached an age of 
self-consciousness and self-determination. He is on the verge of 
adolescence. Moral training does not fall within the scope of the in- 
formative content of teaching. Already the primary habits of truthful- 
ness, frankness, general honesty, communal feeling, helpfulness and 
generosity will or will not have been fostered and established in the 
youngster's mind by the example of those about him. A mean atmosphere 
makes mean people, a too competitive atmosphere makes greedy, self- 
glorifying people, a cruel atmosphere makes fierce people, but this issue 
of moral tone does not concern us now here.' But it does concern us that 
by adolescence the time has arrived for general ideas about one's personal 
relationship to the universe to be faced. The primary propositions 
of the chief religious and philosophical interpretations of the world should 
be put as plainly and impartially as possible before our young people. 
They will be asking those perennial questions of adolescence — whence 
and why and whither. They will have to face, almost at once, the heated 
and exciting propagandas of theological and sceptical partisans — -pro's 
and anti's. As far as possible we ought to provide a ring of clear know- 
ledge for these inevitable fights. And also, as the more practical aspect 
of the question. What am I to do with my life .? I think we ought to link 
with our general study of social structure a study of social types which 
will direct attention to the choice of a metier. In what spirit will you face 
the world and what sort of job do you feel like ? This subject of Personal 
Sociology as it is projected here is the school equivalent of a confirmation 
class. It says to everyone : ' There are the conditions under which you 
face your world.' The response to these questions, the determination 
of the will, is however not within our present scope. That is a matter for 
the religious teacher, for intimate friends and for the inner impulses of 
the individual. But our children must have the facts. 

Finally, you will see that I have apportioned some time, roughly two- 
tenths of our I, coo hours, in this grade to the acquisition of specialised 
knowledge. Individuality is becoming conscious of itself and specialisa- 
tion is beginning. 

Thus I budget, so to speak, for our 2,400 hours of informative teaching. 
We have brought our young people to the upper form, the upper standard. 
Most of them are now going into employment or special training and so 
taking on a role in the coUective life. But there remain some very essential 
things which cannot be brought into school teaching, not through any 
want of time, but because of the immaturity of the growing mind. If 



L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE 247 

we are to build a real modern civilisation we must go on with definite 
informative instruction into and even beyond adolescence. Children 
and young people are likely to be less numerous proportionally in the 
years ahead of us in all the more civilised populations and we cannot afford 
to consume them in premature employment after the fashion of the pre- 
ceding centuries. The average age of our population is rising and this 
involves an upward extension of education. And so you will see I suggest 
what I call an undergraduate or continuation school, Grade D, the upper 
adolescent stage, which I presume will extend at last to every class in the 
population, in which at least half the knowledge acquired will be 
specialised in relation to interest, aptitude and the social needs of the indi- 
vidual. But the other half will have to be unspecialised, it will have to be 
general political education. Here particularly comes in that education 
for citizenship to which this educational section is to give attention later. 
It seems to me altogether preposterous that nowadays our educational 
organisation should turn out new citizens who are blankly ignorant of the 
history of the world during the last twenty-five years, who know nothing 
of the causes and phases of the Great War and are left to the tender mercies 
of freakish newspaper proprietors and party organisers for their ideas about 
the world outlook, upon which their collective wills and actions must play 
a decisive part. 

Social organisation is equally a matter for definite information. ' We 
are all socialists nowadays.' Everybody has been repeating that after the 
late Lord Rosebery for years and years. Each for all and all for each. 
We are all agreed upon the desirability of the spirit of Christianity and of 
the spirit of Democracy, and that the general interest of the community 
should not be sacrificed to Private Profit. Yes — beautiful, but what is 
not realised is that Socialism in itself is little more than a generalisation 
about the undesirability of irresponsible ownership and that the major 
problem before the world is to devise some form of administrative organisa- 
tion that will work better than the scramble of irresponsible owners. That 
form of administrative organisation has not yet been devised. You cannot 
expropriate the private adventurer until you have devised a competent 
receiver for the expropriated industry or service. This complex problem 
of the competent receiver is the underlying problem of most of our con- 
structive politics. It is imperative that every voter should have some 
conception of the experiments in economic control that are in progress 
in Great Britain, the United States of America, Italy, Germany, Russia 
and elsewhere. Such experiments are going to affect the whole of his or 
her life profoundly. So, too, are the experiments in monetary and financial 
organisation. Many of the issues involved go further than general 
principles. They are quantitative issues, questions of balance and more 
or less. A certain elementary training in statistical method is becoming 
as necessary for anyone living in this world of to-day as reading and writing. 
I am asking for this much contemporary history as the crowning phase, 
the graduation phase of our knowledge-giving. Afcer that much founda- 
tion, the informative side of education may well be left to look after itself. 

Speaking as a teacher of sorts myself, to a gathering in which teachers 
probably predominate, I need scarcely dilate upon the fascination of 
diagram drawing. You will understand how reluctant I was to finish off 



248 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

at Grade D and how natural it was to extend my diagram to two more 
grades and make it a diagram of the whole knowledge organisation of a 
modern community. Here then is Grade E, the adult learning that goes 
on now right through life, keeping oneself up to date, keeping in touch 
with the living movements about us. I have given a special line to those 
reconditioning courses that must somehow be made a normal part in the 
lives of working professional men. It is astonishing how stale most 
middle-aged medical men, teachers and solicitors are to-day. And beyond 
Grade E I have put a further ultimate grade for the fully adult human 
being. He or she is learning now, no longer only from books and news- 
papers and teachers, though there has still to be a lot of that, but as a worker 
with initiative, making experiments, learning from new experience, an 
industrialist, an artist, an original writer, a responsible lawyer, an adminis- 
trator, a statesman, an explorer, a scientific investigator. Grade F 
accumulates, rectifies, changes human experience. And here I bring in 
an obsession of mine with which I have dealt before the Royal Institution 
and elsewhere. You see, indicated by this flight of arrows, the rich 
results of the work of Grade F flowing into a central world-encyclopaedic- 
organisation, where it will be continually summarised, clarified, and whence 
it will be distributed through the general information channels of the world. 
So I complete my general scheme of the knowledge organisation of a 
modern community and submit it to you for your consideration. 

I put it before you in good faith as a statement of my convictions. I do 
not know how it will impress you and I will not anticipate your criticisms. 
It may seem impossibly bold and ' Utopian.' But we are living in a 
world in which a battleship costs ^8,000,000, in which we can raise an 
extra 400 million for armaments with only a slight Stock Exchange qualm, 
and which has seen the Zeppelin, the radio, the bombing aeroplane come 
absolutely out of nothing since 1900. And our schools are drooling along 
very much as they were drooling along 37 years ago. 

There is only one thing I would like to say in conclusion. Please do 
me the justice to remember that this is a project for Knowledge Organisa- 
tion only and solely. It is not an entire scheme of education I am putting 
before you. It is only a part and a limited part of education — the factual 
side of education — I have discussed. There are 168 hours in a week and 
I am dealing with the use of rather less than six during the school year of 
less than 40 weeks — for 10 years. It is no good saying as though it was 
an objection either to my paper or to me, that I neglect or repudiate 
spiritual, emotional and aesthetic values. They are not disregarded, but 
they have no place at all in this particular part of the educational scheme. 
I have said nothing about music, dancing, drawing, painting, exercise 
and so on and so forth. Not because I would exclude them from educa- 
tion but because they do not fall into the limits of my subject. You no 
more want these lovely and elementary things mixed up with a conspectus 
of knowledge than you want playfulness in an ordnance map or perplexing 
whimsicality on a clock face. You have the remaining 162 hours a week 
for all that. But the spiritual, emotional, aesthetic lives our children are 
likely to lead, will hardly be worth living, unless they are sustained by 
such a clear, full and sufficient backbone of knowledge as I have ventured 
to put before you here. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



STATE INTERVENTION IN 
AGRICULTURE 

ADDRESS BY 

J. M. CAIE, M.A., B.L., B.Sc. (Agr.), 

PRESIDENT OF THE SECTION. 



Two years ago, Dr. Venn, who presided over this section during the 
meetings of the Association at Norwich, deUvered a masterly address on 
' The Financial and Economic Resuhs of State Control in Agriculture.' 
To-day my subject is ' State Intervention in Agriculture,' and for any 
apparent infringement of his copyright I tender him an apology. The 
reasons for my choice are twofold. In the first place, it is the custom, 
very rightly, for those who have the honour to be presidents of sections 
to deal with matters of which they have made a special study or have some 
first-hand experience. Being a mere administrative official and not a 
scientific worker, as the term is generally understood, I must, if I am to 
follow the excellent precedent, restrict myself to the field in which I 
happen to work. 

My second reason is less personal. In the economic and political condi- 
tions of the world in recent years the importance of agriculture in the life 
of the State, not only in this country but elsewhere, has received growing 
recognition. That recognition may not always have been quite spon- 
taneously accorded ; rather indeed it has been extorted by economic and 
social forces of a most complex and compelling kind. Over-production 
and under-consumption, of which we have heard so much, have thrust 
agriculture to the middle of the stage and into the beam of a pale blue 
limelight. The agriculturist, cast too often for the part of the starving 
orphan, has raised his voice, now in lamentation, now in vituperation, 
calling on the State for help, or fair play, or protection against some 
industrial ogre or foreign invader. And the State, moved by his ' exceed- 
ing bitter cry,' has played the part sometimes of the fairy godmother, 
sometimes of the heavy father, and sometimes, so the farmer may say, 
of the deaf and cunning uncle. But never probably, save in the war 
years, have the State and the farmers been so closely interested in each 
other. And that is the second reason for my choice, which I have made 
in the hope that possibly a general survey of the relation of State and farmer 
might be of some little value. In attempting that survey, I believe that, 
despite the title of the paper, I shall trespass little if at all on that part of 
the subject which was examined so penetratingly and expounded so 
luminously by Dr. Venn. 



2SO 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



One cautionary statement I must make before I go further. When 
speaking here, I do so entirely as a private individual and not as an official ; 
the department to which I belong is in no way responsible for this address 
and must not be held as necessarily agreeing with anything it contains. 

For purposes of definition, it is desirable to show, as concisely as 
possible, the part occupied by agriculture in the economic structure of the 
State. The following tables give the essential facts relating to areas, 
holdings and populations, the output of food from our farms, and the con- 
tribution they make to the total food consumption of the people. As a 
matter of interest, corresponding figures are given for two other countries, 
Denmark and Norway, which are more agricultural and less industrial 
than Great Britain. These tables have been very kindly prepared for 
me by Mr. W. H. Senior. Most of the data relating to Denmark have 
been obtained from Professor O. H. Larsen, and those for Norway from 
Professor Paul Borgedal ; I am much indebted to these gentlemen for 
their kindness and courtesy. 





Great Britain. 


Denmark. 


« 

Norway. 


Number of agri- 


(Over I acre.) 


(Over I ha., i.e. 


(Over 0-5 ha.. 


cultural hold- 


455.185 (1935)- 


2-5 acres.) 


i.e. 1-25 acre.) 


ings. 




204,003 (1935). 


208,550 (1930). 


Total cultivated 


29.555.271 acres 


7,975,000 acres 


2,500,000 acres 


land, arable 


(1935)- 


(i935)(approx.). 


(i93o)(approx.). 


and permanent 








grass. 








Total population. 


44,790,485 (1930) 


3.550,656(1930) 


2,814,194(1930) 


Number of people 


About 1-5. 


About 0-45. 


About I • I . 


per acre of cul- 








tivated land. 








Percentage of 


5-7 %• 


29 %• 


30 %- 


population in 


(Workers of total 


(Workers of 


(All persons.) 


agriculture. 


occupied popu- 


total occupied 






lation.) 


population.) 





The chief facts to note here are the familiar ones, brought out in the 
last two lines, that in Great Britain the number of persons per acre of 
cultivated land, 1-5, is relatively high, being three times as many as in 
Denmark and nearly half as many again as in Norway, while the per- 
centage of the population engaged in British agriculture, about 6 per cent., 
is very low as compared with 20 or 30 per cent, in the other two countries. 
Notwithstanding the importance and value of our industrial development, 
this figure of 6 per cent, has social and other implications which have 
exercised the minds of many people and need not be elaborated here. 

This table shows that, as is again fairly well known, the products of 
our animal husbandry account for a very large proportion of the output of 



M .—AGRICULTURE 



251 



our land, about 72 per cent. The proportions in Denmark and Norway 
are even higher, and incidentally it may be remarked that in Scotland the 



Agricultural Output, 1935. 





Great Britain. 


Denmark. 


Norway. 




£ 




£ 


£ 






Million 


• % 


Million. % 


Million 


• % 


Meat : 












Beef . 


39-0 


l6-2 


) 


1-7 


9-1 


Veal . 


3-1 


1-3 


j 7-4 9-1 


0-7 


3"4 


Mutton and lamb 


22-2 


9-2 


o-i o-i 


0-8 


4*1 


Pork and bacon 


20-8 
85-1 


8-7 
35-4 


25-8 31-9 


2-1 


II-O 


Sub total 


33-3 41-1 


5-3 


27-6 


Dairy and poultry pro 


- 










duce, etc. : 












Milk 


53-9 


22-4 








Butter 




5-1 


2- I 








Cheese 




2-8 


I -2 


[30-2 37-3 


7-7 


40-3 


Cream 




0-7 


0-3 








Poultry 




5-6 


2-3 


6-8 8-4 


O-I 


0-6 


Eggs. 




17-8 


7-4 


1-4 


7-5 


Wool 




1-8 


0-8 


— — 






Horses 




o-i 


o-o 


1-2 1-5 


— 


— 


Live stock and live 












stock products 


• 172-9 


71-9 


71-5 88-3 


H-S 


76-0 


Crops : 




Cereal, grain anc 


1 










straw 


13-3 


5-5 


5-3 6-5 


I -I 


5-9 


Potatoes 


14-9 


6-2 




I -I 


5'5 


Other crops . 


II-4 


4-8 


f 4-2 5-2 


— 




Fruit, vegetables 


) 










flowers and hone 


y 27-9 

• 67-5 

. 240-4 


II-6 
28-1 

lOO-O 


— — 


2-4 


12-6 


Total crops, etc. 


9-5 "-7 


4-6 


24-0 


Grand total 


81 -o lOO-O 


19-1 


lOO-O 



figure stands at about 82 per cent. Our milk, it will be observed, is worth 
much more than our beef ; our eggs are more valuable than the whole of 
our cereal crops put together, and taken along with poultry are fully 
equal to our mutton and lamb. This table affords much food for thought 



252 



SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 



to those who are responsible for shaping the agricultural policy of the. 
country. The facts it contains and the agricultural conditions it illus- 
trates are indeed of fundamental importance. These facts result from 
our soil, our climate and the consequent experience and aptitude of our 
farmers ; they are not entirely unalterable, but any policy of improvement, 
development or control must primarily be based upon them. 

The value of the agricultural output per acre of cultivated land is, 
in round figures, £S in Great Britain and Norway, and ;{^ii in Denmark. 
In contrast to this, the annual output per person in British agriculture 
is about 3^200, and in Danish about £is°- 

Self-Sufficiency in regard to Important Products. 





United Kingdom. 


Denmark. 


Norway. 

* 




1935- 


I935. 






Home 


Home 


Home 




Produced. Imported. 


Produced. Imported. 


Produced. Imported. 


Beef and veal . 


% % 
53 47 


0/ ■ 0/ 
/o /o 

100 • — 


% % 
100 — 


Mutton and 








lamb 


45 55 


100 — 


100 — 


Pork and bacon 


50 50 


100 — 


100 — 


Poultry . 


(G.B.)78 22 


r 100 — ■ 


100 — 


Eggs . 


66 34 






Milk (liquid) . 


100 — 


\ 




Cheese . 


30 70 


[ 100 — 


100 — 


Butter . 


10 90 






Wheat . 


26 74 


7 93 


} 33 67 


Barley . 


46 54 


95 5 


Oats 


91 9 




— — • 


Potatoes . 


96 4 


100 — 


100 — 



N.B. — Estimates for United Kingdom and Denmark based on quantities, 
those for Norway on values. 



The figures in this third table need little comment and are in a sense 
a corollary to those in the two previous tables. As regards animal pro- 
ducts, the two Scandinavian countries are self-supporting, whereas we 
produce only about, very roughly, half our requirements of the various 
kinds of meat, nearly four-fifths of our poultry and two-thirds of our eggs. 
We produce all the liquid milk we consume, but only 30 per cent, of our 
cheese and 10 per cent, of our butter. Of wheat we import about three- 
fourths of our annual ration and of barley fully half, but we grow over nine- 
tenths of our oats and nearly all the potatoes we eat. 

So much for agriculture as a producer. What about agriculture as a 



M— AGRICULTURE 253 

buyer of the products of other industries ? Only a rough and possibly 
unreliable estimate can be given. According to the farm accounts 
obtained for 245 Scottish farms, of different kinds and in different districts, 
for the years 1934-35, the estimated expenditure on building materials, 
implements and machinery, electricity, fuel, chemicals, fertilisers, etc., 
amounted to from 145. to 20^. per acre of cultivated land. Admittedly 
this is a small sample on which to base a generalisation, but, taking it for 
what it is worth, it would represent a gross total of from twenty to thirty 
million pounds for the whole country. The corresponding figures per 
acre are for Denmark 26s. (based on 810 farm accounts for 1935-36), 
and for Norway from 12s. to 21s. 

It may be noted that no allowance is made for the personal purchases 
of the agricultural population, which presumably would be made, more 
or less, no matter what the employment of the people might be. The 
figures represent the purchases of the agricultural industry as such, and 
show to what extent it is the customer of other industries. 

The word " intervention ' is sometimes used as being equivalent to 
control. In this paper it has a wider meaning and is intended to cover the 
various ways in which the action of the State may impinge on agriculture — 
the ' impact ' of the State on agriculture, to borrow the word employed 
by Sir Josiah Stamp in his presidential address to the Association last 
year. Intervention, according to this definition, falls broadly into three 
categories : 

1. Control, i.e. statutory compulsion, enforced by penalties. 

2. The statutory provision of means by which agriculturists may take 
voluntary action to do certain things and, in the event of such action, to 
compel a minority to conform to the wishes of a majority. 

3. The giving of direct or indirect assistance, financial, advisory, 
protective, etc. 

Let us first consider control. A complete stranger visiting these islands 
might receive an impression, perhaps from an agricultural newspaper, 
or a farmer's meeting, that the agriculturists were oppressed by the rules 
and regulations of a government that joyed in tyranny, aided by a horde 
of official tormentors who not only battened on the sufferers but were 
often accused of being the real inventors of the legislative boots and 
thumb-screws. The depth and permanence of that impression would 
depend in the first place on where the stranger came from. If he 
came from certain European states, the impression might be fleeting ; 
comparing conditions here with those to which he had been accustomed, 
he might soon say, ' Here is peace : here indeed is freedom.' And if he 
looked a little under the surface and studied the relation of state and 
people in this democratic country, he would discover that a government, 
no matter how inspired by good intentions and a large majority, could 
rarely if ever pass a law that was unacceptable to the general community, 
agricultural or other, or, if it succeeded in doing so, would find it very 
hard to administer it effectively. To legislate in advance of public opinion 
is no easy matter. Those who have to do with the formulation of legisla- 
tive proposals, subsequently to be embodied in parliamentary bills, know 
that an Act of Parliament does not emerge suddenly, fully armed from the 



254 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

head of Jove. Usually it is only after prolonged discussion and consulta- 
tion with organisations and individuals that a bill takes shape and gets 
into sufficient training, so to speak, to run the gauntlet of parliamentary 
criticism. It is true that a government, having to weigh as best it can the 
conflicting claims and interests of different industries and sections of the 
population, may not always meet the wishes of agriculture ; but on 
examination it will generally be found that while it may withhold desired 
benefits, it seldom if ever attempts to impose an agricultural law to which 
there is wide and strong objection throughout the industry. The con- 
tribution of the civil servant, the so-called bureaucrat, to the legislative 
process may be one of labour and anxiety, but to call him the real villain 
of the piece is to flatter him and to ignore the fundamental and very real 
principle of ministerial responsibility. The British civil servant is truly 
a servant, informing and advising so far as he reasonably may, but always 
obeying loyally the government of the day, no matter what its colour or 
its political philosophy may be. And, if I may say so, British Ministers, 
of whatever party, do not fail to accord to the Civil Service a corresponding 
loyalty and that protection from any party criticism without which the 
Service's impartiality and devotion to duty could not be maintained. 
The system is the product of a long evolutionary process ; it may have 
defects, but it is at any rate the fruit of the political genius of the British 
nation. This, however, is something of a digression. 

If our foreign visitor were historically minded, he might be interested 
to look into the past to see how present measures of control compare with 
some of those to which agriculture was subjected in former days. I have 
no time in this paper, nor have I the qualifications, to accompany him in 
any comprehensive study of the subject. One can but glance at a few 
of the more noticeable instances, in some cases forming precedents or 
foundations for later legislation. In his English Farming Past and Present 
Lord Ernie says that, ' In the early stages of history, the law itself was 
powerless to protect individual independence or to safeguard individual 
rights. Agriculture like other industries was therefore organised on prin- 
ciples of graduated dependence and collective responsibility. Mediaeval 
manors in fact resembled trade guilds. ..." 

These continued until the local and gradual break up of the manorial 
organisation of agricultural labour was accelerated by the Black Death 
(1348-49). Labour became so scarce that panic wages were asked and 
paid until in 1349 by Royal Proclamation all men and women ' bond or 
free,' unless tilling their own land or engaged in merchandise or in some 
other craft, were compelled to work on the land where they lived at the 
rate of wages current in 1346. Here, nearly 600 years ago, was wages 
regulation of a pretty drastic kind, but it was a maximum that was fixed, 
not a minimum. Later on, in 1563, we find another notable effort to 
control the labour market in the Statute of Apprentices, which enacted, 
inter alia, that all persons between 12 and 60, not exempted by the statute, 
could be compelled to labour in husbandry and that masters unduly 
dismissing servants were fined and that servants unduly leaving masters 
were imprisoned. It also stated hours of labour and provided for the 
fixing of wages by Justices of the Peace. 



M— AGRICULTURE 255 

The story of land enclosure is well known and need only be mentioned 
as an illustration of State intervention, operating first in one direction and 
afterwards in another. In the sixteenth century, land enclosure, involving 
' the break-up of mediasval agrarian partnerships and a substitution of 
private enterprise for the collective efforts of village associations,' was 
opposed and partly arrested by legislation ; in the eighteenth century it 
received from Parliament encouragement and support. Many individuals 
suffered, but the ultimate benefits to agricultural production and to the 
state as a whole cannot be denied. It is interesting to note that in 1589, 
to relieve the labourers who lost their livelihood through the enclosure 
of land for pastoral purposes, it was enacted that not more than one family 
was to occupy each cottage, and to each cottage 4 acres of land were to be 
attached. The recent movement to provide allotments or small pieces 
of land for unemployed industrial workers seems almost like a faint echo 
of that distant law. 

As an example of compulsion indirectly benefiting agriculture, one may 
cite the law passed early in the seventeenth century making it a penal 
offence for any person over the age of six not to wear on Sundays and 
holydays a cap made of English cloth. Later, in 1666, the law did not 
stop short even at the gates of the churchyard, for it required that the dead 
should be buried in shrouds of home-grown wool. In passing, it may be 
noted that about the same time the Government, ' for the sake of multiply- 
ing seamen,' had ordained fast-days on which only fish was to be eaten. 
With precedents of that sort before us, we are almost tempted to long for 
an Act making the consumption of oatmeal, milk and herrings obligatory, 
and the possession of a tin-opener a criminal offence ; it would solve 
several current problems of Scottish agriculture and fisheries. 

Legislation of another kind prevailed throughout the eighteenth century, 
when home production was encouraged by the placing of a duty 
on the importation of foreign corn and the payment of a bounty on 
exported corn, combined, however, with frequent prohibitions of exports. 
Similar laws were enacted to encourage the raising of cattle, and importa- 
tions from Ireland were prohibited. But legislation, says Lord Ernie, 
did not raise prices ; it only succeeded in maintaining them. Increased 
production at home counteracted the effect which limitation of imports 
was designed to produce. It is unnecessary here to retell the story of the 
corn laws and of their repeal, or to touch on more recent fiscal controversies. 

The earlier instances of State intervention that I have cited were all 
English, but the Scottish parliament also provides us with some interest- 
ing examples. With regard to labour, the extinction of serfdom having 
been considered productive of indolence, a statute of 1424 required 
cottage holders to perform a certain amount of labour on the land, a pro- 
vision for which we have had an English parallel. At almost the same 
date, 1426, we find parliament taking partial control of cropping. To 
secure a greater variety of crop than the oats and here which were chiefly 
cultivated, it was enacted that every man tilling with a plough of eight 
oxen should sow every year at least a firlot of wheat, half a firlot of peas 
and forty beans, ' under the payn of ten shillings.' At a much later date, 
1703, a curious Act relating to cultivation was passed, forbidding any 



2s6 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

butcher to have more than one acre of land for grazing unless it be tilled 
annually, under penalty of £ioo Scots for each offence, loss of the cattle 
found grazing and loss of the freedom of the burgh. Public health and 
amenity were not overlooked, for to improve the aspect of the country, 
check malaria and provide shelter, all freeholders were required (1457) 
to plant on their land trees, hedges, and broom. Nearly two hundred and 
fifty years later (1695) an Act for the preservation of meadow lands and 
pasturages near sandhills forbids the pulling up of bent, juniper and 
broom. 

The necessity of keeping down weeds was recognised in the statute 
which required the cleansing of land from ' guld,' i.e. marigold. The Act, 
with a touch of humour now sadly lacking in modern statutes, sets forth 
that anyone who planted ' guld ' deserved punishment as amply as if he 
had led an army against the king and barons. 

Pig-feeding was discouraged. No burgess could permit swine to remain 
in the fields without a keeper and they had to be kept out of plantations 
and hunting ground, while it was decreed by Parliament that the owner 
of a hog which made a hole in a meadow or open place should be compelled 
to fill the hole with grains of wheat. 

Security of tenure is a subject of which we still hear. In the middle 
of the fifteenth century (1449) there was passed what might almost be 
called the first of the Agricultural Holdings Acts. It provided that ' for 
the safetie and favour of the puir papil that labouris the grunde, that thay 
and all utheris sail remaine with their tackes unto the ischew of their 
termes, quhais hands that ever thay landis cum to.' In other words, 
a change of ownership of the lands did not involve the dispossession of the 
sitting tenants. Our present law restricting the period for ' making 
muirburn,' i.e. heather burning, goes back, with some difference of the 
dates, to at least 1400. 

Storage of grain, a measure now advocated by some for purposes of 
defence, was not considered desirable in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, for in 1449 it was enacted that ' to prevent dearth,' no old stacks 
of corn were to be kept in the yard after Christmas ; in 1452 the date was 
extended to the end of May ; and in 1563 to the loth of July. 

These few examples of how in the past the State has laid its hand, 
sometimes heavily, sometimes helpfully, on agriculture are obviously 
very far from exhaustive and are not intended in any way to constitute 
a historic survey. They have been selected almost at random, to show 
that intervention — call it interference if you will — however much we may 
think we suffer from it to-day, is no new thing. You will observe that the 
intervention was almost all of the compulsory kind, the single exception 
among the instances quoted being the Scottish Act conferring a degree of 
security of tenure. My second category is not represented and there is 
no bestowal of direct benefits such as subsidies, etc. 

Having glanced at some precedents, let us consider the present state 
of affairs. We are all, of course, subject to State control of various 
kinds ; we must educate our children, pay income-tax, drive our cars 
carefully, refrain from buying or selling certain goods after certain hours, 
and so on. Some people think we have far too much of such control, 



M.— AGRICULTURE 257 

others find their yearnings still unsatisfied, and are eager to kiss, or to see 
others kissing, almost any new rod. There are, indeed, probably few of 
us who could not mention some objectionable thing that other people 
ought not to be allowed to do. But here we are considering not the common 
burdens that have been laid upon all citizens, but only those special ones 
that have been imposed upon the agriculturist as such. I am not going to 
trouble you with a catalogue of Acts of Parliament, nor need I refer to 
the various compulsive or restrictive measures of war-time. It will be 
sufficient to mention some of the existing laws in my first category that 
come most readily to mind. 

The farmer is bound to furnish to the Government annual statistical 
returns of his crops and live stock. For many years the returns were 
made voluntarily, but since 1925 they have been compulsory. The filling 
up of forms is one of life's minor worries, but no one could say that the 
compilation of accurate agricultural statistics is not essential for the proper 
understanding of many of the major agricultural questions with which 
the Government and the farmers themselves have to deal . 

The Contagious Diseases of Animals Acts, administered for the whole 
of Great Britain by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, may at 
times interfere seriously with the activities of the farmer as a stock- 
owner, but without them he would undoubtedly be exposed to vastly 
greater and possibly catastrophic losses. Similarly, the Destructive 
Insects and Pests Acts may occasionally hamper him as a crop grower, 
but on the other hand they afford him protection with which he would 
not willingly dispense. These two laws are in fact more protective than 
restrictive, and I have never heard any one suggest that they should be 
repealed. 

As a breeder of horses and cattle, the farmer must conform to the 
requirements of the Horse Breeding Act and the Licensing of Bulls Act, 
which are designed to prevent the use of inferior sires. Here again 
agricultural opinion is, in general, entirely on the side of the law ; repre- 
sentations have, in fact, been received from responsible quarters that the 
principle should be extended to pig-breeding. 

A statutory system of prescribing and enforcing the payment of mini- 
mum wages to agricultural workers has been operative in England since 
1924, and Parliament has recently passed an Act introducing a similar 
system into Scotland, where at the time of the passing of the English Act, 
and for several years after, the workers themselves, as well as the farmers, 
were opposed to having such legislation. Here perhaps we come to a 
subject not quite free from controversy. But if it be accepted that with- 
out such legislation there is a danger that the pay of the worker might fall 
below the amount necessary to maintain him and his family in a reasonable 
degree of comfort, there are few who would deny its justice. Criticism of 
the law has been based not, I think, on this ground, but rather on the ground 
that certain other steps should be taken to enable the farmer, in his 
economic difficulties of recent years, to pay a satisfactory wage. The 
criticism, so to speak, has been consequential rather than direct ; there 
has been little opposition to the fundamental principle embodied in the 
Acts. 



2s8 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

The Corn Production Act is remembered with mingled feelings. One 
solitary vestige of it remains in operation, the section requiring the 
destruction of certain specified weeds. As these are weeds which, if 
unchecked, may spread far and wide, there need be little sympathy with 
the delinquent who permits them to grow, to the detriment of his fellow- 
farmers. 

Under the Milk and Dairies Acts, the dairy farmer, in the interests of 
public health, has to conform to certain standards of cleanliness, accom- 
modation, equipment, etc. 

Certain restrictions, not very onerous, are laid on farmers by such Acts 
as the Animal Ansesthetics Act, the Dangerous Drugs Act, the law relat- 
ing to Heather Burning in Scotland, the Slaughter of Animals Act, and 
some others which may occur to you. 

Whether the State presses more or less heavily' on agriculture than on 
other businesses, e.g. shipping, mining, manufacture, shops, railways, 
etc., I am not in a position to estimate ; but later in this paper I shall 
venture on the opinion that the farmer is perhaps fortunate in that the 
hand of the law does not hold him in a tighter grasp than it does at present. 

I come now to my second category of State intervention : that in which 
the State does not at first hand compel or prohibit, but gives farmers the 
opportunity to organise themselves for certain purposes and, should the 
necessary majority of producers decide to avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity, empowers them to secure conformity by the minority and to im- 
pose penalties on recalcitrant or erring individuals. The Agricultural 
Marketing Acts are the only laws that come strictly within this definition, 
although the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act is similar 
in that the adoption of the National Mark under it is permissive, but when 
it is adopted it conveys a statutory guarantee of quality, with penalties for 
mis-use. As you know, the Marketing Acts are a recent institution in this 
country. Hitherto, agricultural co-operation for the marketing of agricul- 
tural products had been on an entirely voluntary basis, with the advantages 
and disadvantages inherent in such a system : on the one hand, complete 
freedom of the individual, and on the other the danger that the desires of a 
majority might in practice be frustrated by a minority who, for various 
reasons — personal gain, short-sightedness, secretiveness, love of individual 
independence — were unwilling to observe the rules and limitations neces- 
sary to secure successful collective action. But under the Marketing Acts, 
co-operation can be fortified with some very effective artillery. Funda- 
mentally, however, the principle is still voluntary and the system demo- 
cratic. Unless the required majority of the producers of a certain 
commodity vote in favour of the marketing scheme submitted to them at 
a poll, the Government has no power to impose a scheme upon them. In 
Scotland, for example, two raspberry marketing schemes have been 
rejected at the poll, and there the matter ended. And should a scheme be 
adopted and approved by Parliament, it is administered by a Board elected 
by the registered producers themselves. 

The need for improved marketing methods in this country is widely, 
if not universally, admitted ; the economic dangers and disadvantages 
to the farmers of the indiscriminate sale of their goods in haphazard 



M.— AGRICULTURE 259 

quantities and of irregular quality by hosts of unrelated producers have 
been only too apparent in the past ; and the weakness of purely voluntary 
co-operation as a remedy has been illustrated more than once. (The 
comparative failure of the Scottish Milk Agency scheme may be cited as 
an instance.) In view of all this, the difficulties and controversies to 
which the Marketing Acts and their derived schemes have given rise may 
be a matter for some surprise, but only, I think, to those not familiar with 
all the facts. One fact is the strong individualism of the British farmer, 
begotten of tradition, experience, and his whole way of life. Sometimes, 
in the modern world, individualism may be a handicap ; but the modern 
world too can show us many instances in which its absence is even more 
to be deplored. In this country most of us still believe that, in the words 
of John Barbour, ' Freedom is ane noble thing.' We must, however, 
retain our sense of perspective, and it is possible to exaggerate the degree 
of subservience to which farmers are subjected by a scheme which a 
majority of them was free to accept or reject and which, when accepted, 
is administered by their own representatives. Another and an important 
fact is that the marketing schemes are of a novel and necessarily compli- 
cated kind. Experience has to be gained, experiments have to be made, 
the engine has to be run in, mistakes in driving, sometimes serious mis- 
takes, are inevitable for a time. Patience and tolerance are required. 
It is better surely to adjust the bearings and tighten loose nuts than to 
throw the spanner into the works and wreck the whole machine. For 
even the critic must admit that the Acts and the schemes are at least 
earnest attempts to remedy serious defects in one important side of 
British farming. 

The subject is being treated in a separate paper this morning and I do 
not propose to discuss it in any further detail. But I will conclude my 
reference to it by quoting the opinion of one authority who has written : 
' The Marketing Acts are the equipment for a great experiment in the 
possibility of farmers organising their industry themselves, with due 
regard to the interests of the consumers. If the experiment succeeds, it 
may postpone indefinitely such drastic changes in the structure of agri- 
culture as those which are taking place in Soviet Russia. If it fails, not 
less but more control will be inevitable.' How many of you will agree 
with that view I do not know. 

Having considered briefly the methods by which the State helps the 
farmer by laying restrictions on him for his good, and by handing him the 
keys with which to open, if he will, the palace called Organised Marketing, 
where the enchanted princess, disguised as the British housewife, awaits 
him, let us now, in the third place, glance for a moment at the other 
ways, some of them quite direct, in which he is aided and supported. 
Fortunately, it has been unnecessary for me to seek out all the facts from 
the numerous and sometimes rather elusive official publications and records 
in which they are contained, for that difficult task was most ably performed 
two years ago by Dr. Venn, to whose address I refer you. At the levels 
then current, the gross total of financial assistance afforded to agriculture, 
including forestry, and allowing for local taxation reliefs, amounted to 
upwards of thirty-three and a half million pounds, from which he deducted 



26o SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

ten and a quarter millions representing the debit caused by the action of 
the Wages Committees, thus bringing out a net gain of about twenty-three 
and a half millions. Some adjustment of these figures is required at the 
present date. Owing to the rise in the price of wheat, the wheat subsidy, 
which as you know is not a direct Treasury grant but is obtained from the 
consumers of flour, is at present negligible. On the other hand, the cattle 
subsidy now stands at five millions instead of three and a third and sums 
amounting to a maximum annual total of ^(^3, 490, coo have lately been 
promised in respect of oats and barley, lime and basic slag, land drainage 
and the reduction of live stock diseases. In his balance sheet. Dr. Venn, 
no doubt wisely, made no allowance for the option afforded to the farmer 
of being assessed for income tax on his rent instead of on his actual profits, 
should these prove to be the greater. What that special concession is 
worth, it is impossible to estimate, but with any improvement in the 
financial position of the industry its value progressively increases. 

The items in the balance sheet, apart from the recent additions which I 
have mentioned, are, as you may remember, wheat, beet, meat, milk, land 
settlement and allotments, afforestation, local taxation reliefs, and ad- 
ministrative and development services. This last is a comprehensive 
item embracing many and varied matters such as live-stock improvement, 
land drainage, etc., and including the subjects which are of special interest 
to many members of this section. Education and Research. For the 
financial year 1912-13, the State grants for these subjects amounted to 
£(>Sj75° in England and Wales, and ;{^34,889 in Scotland, a total for Great 
Britain of ^(^100,639, whereas in 1936 the corresponding figures were 
^(^628, 570 in England and Wales, and £136,769 in Scotland, a total of 

^765.339- 

These are large and striking increases, but it must be remembered that 

for many years our standard of expenditure on these services was much 
lower than that in several other countries, so that if we were to attain, 
as we have done, fairly adequate recognition of their importance within a 
reasonable time, a steep financial ascent was inevitable. In view of the 
interest in the subject, it is tempting to ascertain whether this growing 
outlay has been reflected in an increased yield of agricultural products. 
The question, however, is not an easy one to answer, since many factors 
are at work, and it is difficult to ascribe an increase to any particular one. 
The output of live-stock products, for example, must depend very largely 
on the prices of imported feeding stuff's. Possibly the least fallacious 
measure to apply is the average yield per acre of our principal crops, 
though here again the problem is not simple. For instance, if the total 
acreage of a crop falls, the average yield per acre tends to rise, since it is 
from the least suitable land that the crop will be withdrawn ; conversely, 
an extended acreage will probably mean a somewhat smaller average pro- 
duction. It is subject to this and other qualifications that the following 
tables should be taken as providing any indication of the effects of our 
education and research. The figures are for 35 years from 1900 onward 
and are given as quinquennial averages, so as to smooth out to some 
extent annual fluctuations due to weather conditions, etc. 

In Great Britain as a whole, wheat, the acreage of which has fallen since 



M— AGRICULTURE 



261 



the war years, shows no significant increase, oats are up by 4 or 5 bushels 
and potatoes by something like half a ton, but rotation hay has made no 
advance in spite of a reduced acreage. The results are not spectacular, 
but the economic difficulties of many farmers, in the later periods, must be 
kept in mind. Any variations are, however, in the right direction, and 
striking changes in averages for the whole country could hardly be ex- 
pected. A general rise in national production is bound to be a slow 
movement. But there are doubtless considerable numbers of the more 
progressive farmers who, by availing themselves of the aid offered by the 



Period. 


Wheat. 


Oats. 


Potatoes. 


Rot. Hay. 


1900-04 
Acres 
Yield 


1.645.774 
2g-83 Bushels 


3,094,642 
39-24 Bushels 


569,399 
5-65 Tons 


2,331.575 
29-50 Czot. 


1905-09 
Acres 
Yield 


1,725,616 
33-28 Bushels 


3,061,529 
40-56 Bushels 


572,176 
6-20 Tons 


2,179,882 
30-23 Cwt. 


1910-14 
Acres 
Yield 


1,852,994 
31-28 Bushels 


2,964,502 
38-30 Bushels 


585,842 
6'2g Tons 


2,041,321 
28 -^6 Cut. 


1915-19 
Acres 
Yield 


2,227,592 
30-56 Bushels 


3,428,908 
39-18 Bushels 


650,973 

6-ig Tons 


1,989,169 
29-10 Cwt. 


1920-24 
Acres 
Yield 


1,879,088 
31 -g4 Bushels 


3.107.942 
38-30 Bushels 


666,289 
6-18 Tons 


2,124,750 
28-92 Cwt. 


1925-29 
Acres 
Yield 


1.546,255 
32-36 Bushels 


2,725,711 
43-38 Bushels 


646,886 
6-48 Tons 


2,000,654 
28-38 Cwt. 


1930-34 
Acres 

Yield 


1,516,509 
32-20 Bushels 


2,428,413 
43-56 Bushels 


614,942 
6-56 Tons 


1,884,938 
28-58 Cwt. 



scientist, have obtained increases much in excess of any shown in the table. 
It has to be remembered, too, that even where yields have not increased, 
costs of production may have been substantially reduced. 

There are some other branches of State intervention which, notwith- 
standing their importance, it must suffice just to mention : protection 
of the farmer by means of import tariffs and quotas, designed to raise or 
maintain the prices of his products ; the Agricultural Holdings Acts, 
controlling the relationship of landlords and tenants ; land settlement 
legislation, which enables new holdings to be established on land which, 
under certain conditions, may be compulsorily acquired for the purpose. 

In the course of an hour's address it is not possible to do more than take 



262 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

a hasty glance at this large subject, with Its many interesting ramifications, 
any one of which might well have a whole volume to itself. But inade- 
quate as the survey has been, there are one or two deductions that may 
perhaps be drawn from it. 

Comparison of an agricultural country like Denmark with an industrial 
country such as ours must not be carried too far. Marketing and other 
organisation, opportunities of alternative employment, standards of living, 
necessarily differ in the two countries. But allowing for all this, the 
statistical tables quoted in the earlier part of the paper suggest that British 
agriculture at present falls short of producing as much home-grown food 
as is possible and desirable for the nutrition of the people and also of 
affording employment on the land to as many persons as is reasonably 
practicable. The need of higher nutritive standards for a number of our 
population and the importance, in attaining these standards, of larger 
supplies of certain foods, in the production and marketing of which our 
farmers have some natural advantages, are now generally recognised. 
This recognition is tending to encourage the development of certain 
branches of our agriculture and it is to be hoped that the process will be 
a progressive one. Some authorities seem to consider that the sole 
impetus required to accelerate the process is to increase the purchasing 
power of the lower-paid groups of the population. That is certainly a 
factor of much importance, but there may be need too for education in the 
principles of nutrition, not only among these groups, but among some 
others as well. This aspect of the matter will no doubt be kept in mind 
should it be thought advisable to devise schemes for securing the desired 
object. 

When speaking of the greater employment of the people on the land, 
one is apt to be reminded at once, and quite properly, that, thanks to the 
activities of the scientist and the engineer, the output per unit of agricul- 
tural labour is steadily rising. This is a tendency that can be neither 
ignored nor retarded. Increased production, therefore, may not neces- 
sarily cause increased employment. But, on the other hand, it is probably 
true that it will be long ere, in this country, the large-scale mechanised 
farm, the ideal of the economist, is the general and normal agricultural 
unit. And, given reasonable prospects of even moderate commercial 
success, there are many for whom rural life holds a fascination and inde- 
pendence denied to the townsman and the factory worker. For agricul- 
ture, as has been said, notably by Professor W. G. S. Adams, in his paper 
read to this section at Aberdeen, is not only a living, but a way of life. 
To live in that way, they are willing to risk the financial vicissitudes of the 
farmer or even to undertake the arduous labours of the small-holder. 
Cynics may call it sentiment ; it is none the less a fact, But the question 
is by no means entirely one of settling people in new holdings ; at present 
it is indeed rather one of making up leeway both in land and in the people 
employed on it. Since before the war, two million acres have gone out 
of arable cultivation. The reclamation of waste lands in England, the 
repopulating of our Scottish glens are perhaps less immediately possible, 
but is it too much to hope that at least a good part of these two million 
acres might be recovered .'' Were it solely a matter of farming economics, 
the shrinkage of our cropping area and extension of our grass-lands 



M— AGRICULTURE 263 

might perhaps be regarded with equanimity, especially if the grass were 
of reasonably good quality. But wider issues are involved ; the effects 
on employment and food production cannot be left out of account. 

In the second place, when one compares the amount of control to which 
agriculture is subjected by the State and the amount of benefits, direct 
and indirect, which it receives, one cannot fail to notice some disparity 
between the two. The State is paying the piper fairly substantial sums, 
but while it exercises a little restraint over some of his actions, its only 
method of calling the tune is to offer special rewards for certain specified 
melodies. Some people may say that the payments should be larger, or 
different in form or in distribution ; others perhaps may think that with 
so much foreign music available, it does not greatly matter what our piper 
plays. But at any rate the fact is that the selection of the tunes is ulti- 
mately determined only by individual choice. And one can hardly help 
asking, somewhat anxiously, whether, if the system of payments, in their 
various forms, is to be continued or extended, the freedom and inde- 
pendence of the piper can be maintained. To drop the metaphor, if. it 
be the policy of the State to preserve and support the farmer, at consider- 
able cost, is he to cultivate and crop his land, to produce meat or milk or 
other products, as he thinks best, without any dictation as to methods, 
quantity or quality .'' I would emphasise that the question is not whether 
the farmer should be supported and protected, but only whether there is a 
possibility that, sooner or later, certain consequences may follow from that 
policy. It is true, as I have said earlier, that it is difficult for a Govern- 
ment to pass and to administer an unwelcome law ; but if Government 
aid were made conditional on Government control, the farmer, however 
distasteful he found it, might be induced to swallow the pill for the sake 
of the gilding. 

It may be argued that the State, in return for its expenditure, whether 
in the form of direct payments or of artificially raised prices, is entitled 
to demand not only certain goods, but a certain standard of performance, 
a view that found expression in Part IV of the Corn Production Act, 
which gave ' Power to enforce proper cultivation.' In response to that 
argument, it may be claimed that if the farmer is to be bound to produce 
commodities of a kind, quality and amount determined according to the 
kind and area of his land, he should be insured against any loss incurred 
in the process. And that leads to the further question : if he is to be 
insured against loss, is he to be left free to make unlimited profits, should 
his efforts prove successful ? It is easy to follow out this line of thought 
and to see complete control, including rents as well as wages, following 
in due course, and, indeed, the ultimate incorporation of every agriculturist 
in the Civil Service ! Titneo Danaos et dona ferentes ! Possibly this is 
all merely academic speculation, but given the premise of State support, 
the subsequent reasoning does not seem to be entirely fallacious. Whether 
the conclusion, if it were ever reached, would be a desirable one, is a 
matter for individual opinion. 

Thirdly, it may be noted that, while some of the State benefits, e.g. 
rating relief, the fruits of education and research, etc., are bestowed upon 
all, certain others, e.g. the wheat and beet subsidies, are, owing to natural 
conditions, not universally available. This is a thorny subject — although 



264 SECTIONAL ADDRESSES 

not quite so prickly as it was a few months ago — about which some of us 
have heard a good deal in the last year or two. The State is, of course, 
entitled to pay for those commodities the production of which it wishes 
to maintain or increase, or to come to the rescue of those whom it deems 
most needful or deserving of succour. If, for instance, a ' nutrition ' 
policy required an increase of, say, meat, or milk, or fresh vegetables, or if 
the agriculture of one part of the country were, for some reason, in special 
jeopardy, the disbursement of funds for such purposes would appear to 
be perfectly legitimate. But if it were a permanent policy for the State to 
support British agriculture in general, it might perhaps be desirable to 
survey the whole industry, its place in the social and economic structure 
of the country, its present and potential capacity to meet the food require- 
ments of the people, and its relation to international trade. These 
subjects are no doubt being studied now, but it can hardly be claimed that 
the study is complete. Perhaps it never can be completed, for many of 
the factors are far from static. But if a comprehensive, reliable and 
possibly continuous survey could be made, it might form the basis on 
which State aid might be allocated equitably, from time to time, to those 
branches of the industry which it was desired, in the public interest, to 
encourage and in proportions according to their needs. But on this 
assumption, the shadow of State control still lurks darkly in the 
background. 

This leads one, lastly, to consider whether in State aid, with its attendant 
shadow, lies the only hope for British agriculture. The question is one 
of paramount importance and of formidable difficulty, on which any one 
should hesitate to dogmatise. But for some at any rate there would be 
comfort in the belief, if they could hold it, that our farmers, given a fair 
share of our home markets, could once more struggle through their diffi- 
culties and maintain their position by their own initiative, energy and 
resource. For many of them, times have been hard, but many too are 
riding out the storm with courage and success. Observation, supported 
by careful economic investigation, shows that the personal factor is still 
one of enormous importance. Within one parish, even on neighbouring 
farms, great disparity in farming practice and results may be found. The 
man of enterprise and adaptability, the man who is eager to acquire new 
information, to test new methods in the light of his practical experience, 
and to apply his mind to the business management of his undertaking, 
he is the man who is least clamant for State subvention to help him in 
balancing his accounts. Education and research, both scientific and 
economic, have yet many gifts in store, gifts the acceptance of which 
carries no penalties. If they be accepted willingly and applied diligently, 
is it not possible that the general standard of our farming might be raised 
to a level at which it would be beyond the reach of any, save the very 
heaviest, waves of depression ? If not, there seems to be at least a risk 
that our farming, no longer the free industry that we know and respect, 
may become a mere hanger-on of the State, dependent on its bounty and 
subject to its commands. Economic independence is worth a struggle, 
for with it may go a higher kind of freedom that is worth the hardest fight 
of which man is capable. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Etc. 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

Forty-second Report of the Committee of Seismological Investigations (Dr. 
F. J. W. Whipple, Chairman ; Mr. J. J. Shaw, C.B.E., Secretary ; 
Miss E. F. Bellamy, Prof. P. G. H. Boswell, O.B.E., F.R.S., 
Dr. E. C. Bullard, Dr. A. T. J. Dollar, Sir Frank Dyson, K.B.E., 
F.R.S., Dr. A. E. M. Geddes, O.B.E., Prof. G. R. Goldsbrough, 
F.R.S., Dr. Wilfred Hall, Mr. J. S. Hughes, Dr. H. Jeffreys, 
F.R.S., Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. A. W. Lee, Prof. E. A. Milne, M.B.E., 
F.R.S., Prof. H. H. Plaskett, F.R.S., Prof. H. C. Plummer, 
F.R.S., Prof. J. Proudman, F.R.S., Prof. A. O. Rankine, O.B.E., 
F.R.S., Rev. C. Rey, S.J., Rev. J. P. Rowland, S.J., Prof. R. A. 
Sampson, F.R.S., Mr. F. J. Scrase, Dr. H. Shaw, Sir Frank 
Smith, K.C.B., C.B.E., Sec.R.S., Dr. R. Stoneley, F.R.S., Mr. E. 
Tillotson, Sir G. T. Walker, C.S.I., F.R.S.) 

Meeting of the Committee. 

The Committee miet once during the year, on November 27. Dr. E. C. 
Bullard, Dr. A. E. M. Geddes and Prof. J. Proudman, F.R.S. , were co- 
opted as members. The annual grant of £100 from the Caird Fund and 
the special grant of £50 from the same fund were allocated to the University 
Observatory, Oxford, for work on the International Seismological Summary. 
Prof. Plaskett was able to inform the Committee that increased support for 
the Summary was being received from the International Union for Geodesy 
and Geophysics through the Seismological Association, so that the financial 
position could be regarded as satisfactory. 

The Committee considered the possibility of the inauguration of experi- 
ments to determine by seismological methods the structure of the Con- 
tinental shelf near the British Isles. Such experiments have been made 
with success off the east coast of North America. 

The Gray-Milne Fund. 

There has been no considerable call on the Gray-Milne Fund during the 
year. The income of the fund has improved on account of the partial 
resumption of the payment of dividends by the Canadian Pacific Railway. 
Purchases for the Milne Library include Vol. I. of the Introduction to 
Theoretical Seismology by Macelwane and Sohon and Earthquakes by Heck. 

Gray-Milne Fund. 

I s. d. 
Balance, July I, 1936 . 139 18 5 Operation of Seismo- 
graphs . . 681 



£ s. 


d. 


139 18 


5 


56 14 


10 


17 






Trust Income . . 56 14 10 Milne Library . . 3 3 o 

Bank Interest . . 17 o Insurance . . 15 o 

Balance June 30, 1937 187 4 2 

£197 10 3 £197 lo 3 



266 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Seismographs. 

The six Milne-Shaw seismographs belonging to the British Association 
have remained on loan to the seismological stations at Oxford (2), Edinburgh, 
Perth (W. Australia), and Cape Town (2). 

Mr. Shaw reports that the seismograph exhibited in Edinburgh at the 
meeting of the International Union for Geodesy and Geophysics has been 
despatched to Brisbane. Another is nearing completion for Durham and a 
further machine is on order for the Azores. 



British Earthquakes. 

A slight earthquake which occurred at 1.43 G.M.T. on July 9, 1937, 
was felt over an area about 30 miles in diameter, centred near Walsall. 
Records were obtained at West Brbmwich, where the disturbance lasted 
for about i J minutes, and also at Stonyhurst, Oxford and Kew. Mr. F. J. 
Dixon, Engineer-in-Chief to the South Staffordshire Waterworks Company, 
sent for inspection a pressure diagram on which the movement was well 
marked. It was a daily chart recording at Walsall the pressure in a 
24-in. cast-iron main. At the time of the shock the recording pointer rose 
from 129 lb. per sq. in. to 136 lb. and fell to 122 lb. Whether this was 
the result of an actual change of pressure in the pipe, or due to a mechanical 
vibration of the instrument is uncertain. 

On other dates the following small disturbances were reported in the 
newspapers : 

December 29, 1936. East Kent. 

April 7, 1937. North Staffordshire. 

June 26, 1937. Near Inverness. 

It may be noted here as an item of information with regard to British 
earthquakes that in a paper published in Gerlands Beitrdge zur Geophysik, 48 
(1936), 239, Prof. V. Conrad, using material prepared by the late Dr. F. B. 
Nopcsa, finds that there is no tendency in the British Isles for earthquakes 
to be associated either with rising or with falling barometric pressure. 
This is in contrast with the conditions in certain continental countries, 
notably Italy and Norway, where the regions in which one tendency or the 
other prevails are well defined. 

Seismology in the West Indies. 

The report by Dr. C. F. Powell ^ on the seismological part of the work 
of the Royal Society Expedition to Montserrat has been published as well as 
Mr. Macgregor's ^ account of the geology of the island. 

Dr. Powell was able to locate the epicentres of 43 earthquakes which were 
registered by the Jaggar shock-recorders made at Kew Observatory for the 
expedition. It is reported that the seismic activity on the island has con- 
tinued to diminish, so that the opportunity for investigating the nature of 
the earth movements has passed. It is hoped that arrangements will be 
made for the installation of shock-recorders in several of the islands in the 
Lesser Antilles, so that a watch may be kept on any development of new 
activity in that region. 

In a recently published account of the meteorology of Jamaica attention 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 158, 479-494 (1937). 
^ Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 121, 232-252 (1936). 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 267 

has been called by Mr. J. F. Brennan, the Government Meteorologist, to 
the remarkable character of the minor earthquakes in that island. The 
following table, showing month by month, (a) the average number of earth- 
quakes, and (b) the average rainfall, has been derived from his statistics. 
The earthquake observations cover the period 1908 to 1934, the rainfall 
records a period of 60 years. 

No. of Earthquakes. 
Rainfall. In. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apl. 


May 


June 


. 


2-0 


2-3 


20 


I 


09 


1-6 


• 


4-00 


3-13 


3-35 


4-77 


8-77 


6-53 


July 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1-7 


1-6 


I -2 


I I 


I -2 


I -2 


17-8 


4-75 


6-93 


7 94 


IO-2I 


8-29 


5 -20 


73-87 



No. of Earthquakes 
Rainfall. In. 

It will be seen that the earthquakes are most frequent in the dry months 
of the year. Brennan's explanation is that the shocks are due to rockfalls in 
the underground watercourses, the geological formation of three-quarters 
of the island being limestone. These minor earthquakes have been growing 
less numerous in recent years as the great earthquake of 1907 has become 
more distant. In view of an apparent association with that catastrophe 
it is clear that closer study of the minor earthquakes is desirable. 



Work at the University Observatory, Oxford. 

Since the last report, the sections of the International Seismological Sum- 
mary for the quarters ending 1931 September and December, also 1932 
March, have been completed and distributed. April and May are printed, 
and the MS. for June, July, August and September are ready for press. 
The Summary for the whole year 1931 was sent as a bound volume to 
recipients preferring that form to separate quarterly sections. 

A set of ' Tables for the near Earthquake Pulses,' completed by Dr. 
Jeffreys, to supplement the Jeffreys-Bullen Tables which are the basis of 
the Summary and are to be found in the 1930 volume, has been printed and 
distributed as a pamphlet. 

A new list of ' Constants of Seismological Observatories ' has been pre- 
pared and will be issued shortly. This includes 116 new stations to be 
added to the list published by K. E. BuUen in 1933. A geographical index 
has been added at the end. 

An Index Catalogue of Epicentres for 1913-1930, prepared by Miss E. F. 
Bellamy, was issued in the autumn of 1936. This catalogue incorporates 
and extends to 1930 the list published by Prof. H. H. Turner in 1920. All 
the epicentres given in subsequent volumes of the International Seismolo- 
gical Summary are included. The catalogue is divided into four parts, 
the first part containing epicentres north of the equator and east of Greenwich, 
and the other parts including the N.W., S.E. and S.W. quadrants of the 
globe. In each part the epicentres are listed with all those in the same 
latitude together. The total number of shocks for which epicentres were 
determined in the 18 years was 6,738. Of these 4,007 were in the N.E. 
quadrant, 1,106 in the N.W., 957 in the S.E. and 668 in the S.W. There 
were 38 in the far north in latitudes as high as 70° N. but only 3 between 
70° S. and the South Pole. The positions of the epicentres are shown on a 
chart on the MoUweide. Equal Area Projection and the positions of seismo- 
logical stations are shown on a similar chart. The Index Catalogue should 



268 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

be used in conjunction with the Catalogues of Earthquakes arranged in order 
of date ; the last of these, covering the years 1 925-1 930, was also prepared 
by Miss Bellamy and was published in the B.A. Report in 1935. The 
Committee wishes to congratulate Miss Bellamy on the completion of a 
catalogue which will be gratefully appreciated by all seismologists. 

The New Globe. 

The new globe for use in determining epicentres at Oxford has been in 
service since October, 1936, and is a great success. This instrument was 
made by Casella, London, and is of brass with an electroplated surface 
which will take either an ink or pencil line extremely well, and yet can be 
cleaned easily. The globe is set on a wooden stand which supports a bed 
of baize, so that by rotation any point of it may be made the highest. A 
detachable arm can be screwed to the side of the stand, and bears a pointer 
and moveable celluloid scale which rotates at will and measures distances 
and azimuths of any points on the surface relative to an origin which is the 
highest point of the globe and immediately beneath the pointer. The 
azimuth scale is fixed to the wooden stand and is graduated from 0° to 360° 
in both clockwise and counter-clockwise directions, so that in dealing with 
earthquakes either the epicentre or anti-centre may be used as origin. 

There are also compasses graduated from 0° to 120° for drawing arcs of 
circles on the globe ; these bear a point at one end for insertion into a small 
hole whose position corresponds with that of an observing station and a 
' stylo ' type of pen at the other ; this latter caused considerable trouble at 
first as the tube of the pen was continually being blocked with dried ink, 
but this difficulty has now been overcome. There is also an alternative 
fitting bearing a lead pencil. 

The exact size of the globe is such that 10° of arc equals 4 cms., so that 
roughly the diameter is 18 in. The weight is about a half hundredweight 
and constitutes a handicap when it is necessary to turn the globe round 
by hand, although with practice it soon becomes comparatively easy to set 
to any part of the surface with ample accuracy. The surface has been ruled 
in 10° intervals of both latitude and longitude as far as 80° north and south 
of the equator and the accuracy of the ruling is great, so that were it not 
for a systematic error in the flexible scale distances could be read off exactly. 
As it is, the scale is in error by i per cent, or thereabouts and this must be 
allowed for, a point which hardly detracts from the utility of the instrument. 

Small holes in the surface have been drilled in positions corresponding 
to the principal observing stations and an abbreviated name engraved 
against each ; this was done before the electroplating, so that the surfacing 
was not marred by the engraving. 

The International Seismological Summary, 1932 — Some Notable 

Earthquakes. 

By y. S. Hughes. 

In the report for 1936 attention was drawn to a shock on 1931 August 10, 
from an epicentre in Western Mongolia, whose observational data possessed 
considerable abnormality, and I pointed out that their effect was to give a 
divergence from the normal, similar in extent but opposite in sign to that of 
a depth of focus 0-030. Subsequently a further independent investigation 
by Dr. Stoneley made it extremely probable that the data referred to 
two shocks having the same origin but separated by an interval in time of 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 269 

about 25 sees. Recently a further case of ' high focus ' has been noticed. 
The earthquake of 1932 September, 26^. i9h. 20"!. 42s., with epicentre 
39° -8 N., 23° -8 E., in N.W. Aegean Sea, just outside the Gulf of Salonica, 
is very well recorded over a range of distances from 5° (Italian stations) to 
158° (New Zealand stations), and 120 P readings are in approximate agree- 
ment. However, a consistent difference exists in residuals between the 
European group of stations and the North American, both in the same 
azimuth, and the only explanation that seems to fit the circumstances is 
that the European stations are at the distance at which travel times are not 
much affected by focal depth (or height) whereas at the distances of the 
American stations about the observed amount of delay would be expected. 
On the Turner scale of A corrections for abnormal focus a ' height ' of 
o 0075 has been applied ; this brings into line the otherwise discordant times 
at different distances in the same azimuth. 

There were numerous deep focus earthquakes in 1 93 2 . The large Japanese 
earthquake of April 4^ from epicentre 30° -6 N., 139° 5 E. off the coast, 
is a useful illustration of the good fit of the Turner deep focus correction 
tables. It is not necessary to claim that the fraction used to define the depth 
must be exact as a proportion of the earth's radius, but it does constitute a 
relative standard by which depths of focus in different earthquakes may be 
compared. In the present case the depth is nominally 0-065 of the earth's 
radius or 400 km., and the Turner corrections account for the differences of 
observed A from A = 2° • 5 where the figure is + 1° • 8 to nearly 90° where 
it is - 8°o. 

Another important Japanese deep focus earthquake occurred on 1932 
November 13d at about 43° -6 N., 137° -3 E., with focal depth about 0050. 
The details of this are not yet finally settled, but it is one of the most widely 
recorded shocks and will furnish data from stations at all distances. 



The Mongolian Earthquake of 193 i, August 10. 
By Dr. R. Stoneley. 

In last year's B.A. Report Mr. Hughes commented on a peculiar feature 
of this earthquake ; the P observations determine the epicentre as 46° -9 N., 
90° -o E., accurate within 0° • i , but the S readings are then about 30 sec. late. 
According to the old I.S.S. routine this would probably have indicated a 
' high focus ' shock. 

One possible explanation immediately suggests itself. In the absence of 
microseisms, P can be picked out without difficulty, even if of very small 
amplitude, whereas S has to be read against an already disturbed ' back- 
ground.' It is fortunate for seismology that S is generally of relatively 
larger amplitude than P. If a rather weak shock is followed a few seconds 
later by a decidedly stronger shock, distant stations will tend to read the P 
of the first shock and the S of the second. This explanation seems to apply 
to the earthquake under consideration. 

By the kindness of Mr. Hughes and Miss Bellamy I have been able to 
examine the seismograms of Oxford and Dyce and to make use of a pre- 
liminary proof of the I.S.S. In both records the earthquake begins as an 
eP, followed 3 or 4 sec. later by an iP. The calculated time falls between 
the eP and the iP. There is a very clear sudden onset for which O-C is 
about 33 sec. for Oxford and 32 sec. for Dyce ; these onsets cannot be ex- 
plained as reflected waves. The Kew records, for the loan of which I am 
indebted to Dr. Whipple, are quite convincing ; the proininent onset some 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

30 sec. after P is listed provisionally in the Kew Bulletin as PcP, and is 
obvious on all three components. The records indicate another P between 
these two, but it is less sharply defined ; I read this intermediate onset on 
the Oxford and Dyce records as 10 and 15 sec. after the calculated times of P, 
and the Kew Bulletin lists it at 15 sec. Only one station seems to have 
suspected a multiple shock : Upsala interprets the readings as indicating 
two aftershocks 20 and 33 sec. after the calculated time of the first shock, 
and identifies the corresponding PP, S, etc. It is rather diflScult to pick out 
S on the seismograms, and to avoid personal bias it is better to examine the 
station readings. 

All the P readings in the I.S.S., including the ' Additional Readings,' 
were analysed. The additional readings gave the following distribution for 
residuals for P, from 9 to 42 sec. : 8 residuals above this were sparsely 
scattered and could be ignored. 



9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 





2 


3 


3 


2 





3 











2 


3 


3 





3 





I 



8 


-7 


-6 


-5 


-4 


-3 


— 2 


— I 


I 


2 


I 


2 


I 


I 





3 



26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 
20241217622021 I I I 

The concentration of residuals about 33-34 sec. is unmistakable, especially 
if, as a rough method of clearing out random large errors (Jeffreys, Geo- 
physical Supplement, 2, 335), we make a uniform deduction of one per 
group. There is rather slight evidence of onsets at about 12 and 21 sec. 
after the calculated P. A corresponding analysis of all readings available 
for S gave : 

o I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 
1222141753 s I 5 2 

14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 
4017495380531253352441 

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4^ 47 48 49 5° 
131111211010011 

These S residuals show decided concentrations round about 10 sec, 
19—20 sec. and 31 sec. For the first shock S seems to have escaped notice. 
Taken all together, the evidence leaves no doubt that the shock is double, 
and it is possibly treble or quadruple. Ideally, of course, a complete cor- 
respondence should be observable among the onsets corresponding to each 
phase ; actually, the phases other than P are not so immediately obvious 
in the seismograms examined, and there is always the risk of finding just 
those things that one expects to find. 

A check on the accuracy of the I.S.S. epicentre was made by taking the 
residuals in three well-defined azimuth groups, the Japanese, European and 
North American stations, and applying the correction for ellipticity recently 
found by Bullen ; the shift indicated is less than one-tenth of a degree, and 
is barely significant. 

It is worth noticing that the S residuals of the shock of 193 1 August 18^, 
14*^. from the same epicentre are not abnormal, but form a rather ' flat ' 
distribution round about — i, in which the only anomaly is a group of 
12 residuals + S, where the general run would indicate about 4 such 
residuals ; it is very doubtful if any significance should be attached to this 
isolated group. 



SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 271 

Seismic Transmission Times. 
By Dr. Harold Jeffreys, F.R.S. 

The most important contribution of the year to theoretical seismology 
is probably Bullen's determination of the systematic errors due to the neglect 
of the ellipticity of the earth. The total effect on the arrival time of P at 
large distances may vary with azimuth by about 5 sees. I have now applied 
the corrections to the data used by BuUen and myself in the paper we sub- 
mitted to the Conference at Lisbon in 1933 and to more recent earthquakes 
suitable for determining the times of S and SKS. Times of P, S and SKS 
(to 115°) adapted to a spherical earth are now available. Some systematic 
errors were detected in the process. The maximum departure of the P times 
from those of Gutenberg and Richter is about 2 sees. The correction intro- 
duces a systematic correction into the epicentres, which is small (usually under 
o°-05) for earthquakes in the northern hemisphere, but may reach o°-5 for 
southern epicentres if near stations are few or receive insufficient weight : 
27 southern epicentres have been redetermined, as a preliminary to a new 
study of the core waves. It appears that errors in the epicentres may 
account for the low reliabilities previously found for some of the southern 
stations. The negative residuals at large distances, noticed by Bullen and 
me in some southern earthquakes, disappear when the ellipticity is taken into 
account, and there is no longer any need to suppose that Pacific earthquakes 
habitually have a small but appreciable focal depth. A preliminary classi- 
fication of the P residuals by distance suggests that the time to 50° is about 
I -5 sec. shorter in Pacific than in continental earthquakes, but further ex- 
amination will be needed before it can be said that this is not due to a small 
systematic error of observation. A difference between oceanic and con- 
tinental travel times might be expected on thermal grounds ; indeed, it is 
rather surprising that the difference should be so small, corresponding to 
about I part in 300. 

The seismological evidence indicates rapid changes with depth in the 
velocities of P and S, possibly a discontinuity, at a depth of about 470 km. 
Bullen, using the theory of the figure of the earth, finds that the mean 
density down to the core is too high to agree with that of olivine in its normal 
state and at the actual pressures. I referred in last year's report to Bernal's 
suggestion that at high pressure the usual rhombic form of olivine may be 
replaced by a cubic one of higher density. This hypothesis has been tested 
by comparison with conditions in the moon. The relevant pressure is not 
reached in the moon, and the density of the moon is nearly that of surface 
olivine. Thus the density would agree with Bernal's hypothesis. It would 
not agree, however, with the presence of a large amount of a different 
material denser at normal pressures. The former hypothesis being there- 
fore adopted, the moon can be shown to be nearly homogeneous. This 
provides the additional equation needed to determine the earth's ellipticity 
from the moon's perturbations, and gives i/e = 297 '2 ± 0-5, the accuracy 
of which is comparable with that of the determinations from gravity, and has 
the advantage that the doubtful effect of higher harmonics in the earth's 
gravitational field does not arise. Dr. H. S. Jones, using slightly different 
data, gets 296 08 ± 095. Prof. E. W. Brown and his collaborators are 
likely to improve these values soon, as the method appears promising. 

Reappointment of the Committee. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed and for the renewal of the grant of 
£100 from the Caird Fund. 



I 


s. 


d. 


■ 76 


16 


2 


. 40 








s 








18 


10 





9 


13 


10 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 

Report of Committee on Calculation of Mathematical Tables (Prof. E. H. 
Neville, Chairman ; Prof. A. Lodge, Vice-Chairman ; Dr. J. 
WiSHART, Secretary ; Dr. J. R. Airey, Dr. W. G. Bickley, Prof. 
R. A. Fisher, F.R.S., Dr. J. Henderson, Dr. E. L. Ince, Dr. J. O. 
Irwin, Dr. J. C. P. Miller, Mr. F. Robbins, Mr. D. H. Sadler, 
Mr. W. L. Stevens, Dr. A. J. Thompson and Dr. J. F. Tocher). 

General activity. — Seven meetings of the Committee have been held, in 
London. 

The grant of £150 has been expended as follows : 

Wages and insurance for computer for six months . 
Purchase of calculating machine .... 
Checking calculations for Vol. VI (balance) 
Calculations for Bessel functions of order greater than i 
Secretarial and miscellaneous expenses 

Resignation of Dr. Comrie. — At the outset of the year's -work the Committee 
received with deep regret the resignation of Dr. Comrie, who had entered 
business as a professional computer. The Committee desires on this occasion 
to place on record its appreciation of the services Dr. Comrie has rendered 
during the past eight years, and in particular of the work he has done as 
secretary. The successful translation of the activity of the Committee into 
published volumes owes a great deal to his enthusiasm and efficiency. 

Employment of Computers. — The resignation of Dr. Comrie raised the 
questions of the location of the Association's National Accounting Machine, 
which had been housed for some years at H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, 
and of the provision which should be made for regular work with the 
machine. Prof. Fisher offered to house the machine in the computing room 
of the Galton Laboratory, and this offer was gratefully accepted, W. L. 
Stevens, who is in charge of the computing room, being added to the 
Committee. It was considered that the best way of arranging for the 
calculations to be carried out was to employ a whole-time computer, who 
would work in the Galton Laboratory, and F. Cleaver was appointed to this 
post in January. The arrangement has worked very well, and it is con- 
sidered a great advantage that members of the Committee who undertake 
to be responsible for particular tables should be able to call at will on the 
services of a computer who is familiar with the National machine. 

Several part-time c mputers have been engaged under the direction of 
members of the Committee on work for which machines less elaborate than 
the National were suitable, and in this connection it is a pleasure to acknow- 
ledge the readiness with which permission was granted for computers to 
use the equipment of the Mathematical Laboratory of the University of 
Liverpool. 

The Committee has purchased an additional calculating machine, of the 
Triplex-Brunsviga type. 

Bessel Functions. — The tabular matter of the Committee's sixth volume, 
which is the first volume of Bessel functions and contains the four principal 
functions of orders o and i , is now in the press ; the printed sheets are being 



THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF ROCKS 273 

checked before the volume is published, and it is expected that the volume 
will appear before the end of 1937. 

Work on the preparation of a second volume, to contiin functions of 
higher integral order (up to w = 20) has continued. The calculation of 
values of I«(x) for n = 2(1)22 and x = oi(oi)6-o has been completed 
under the supervision of Dr. Thompson, and of values of Kk^^x) for « = 2(1)20 
and X = o • 1(0 ■ 1)6 -5 under the supervision of Dr. Bickley. Further work 
has been carried out on the calculation of kn(x), i.e. x" Kn{x), up to .\;= 6 at 
interval o • i for n = 0(1)20. 

Table of Poivers. — Most of the powers required, in addition to those given 
in Glaisher's table (see 1936 Report), have now been completed. Con- 
siderable progress has also been made towards checking the whole, and in 
the preparation of copy, mainly on the National machine. Valuable 
assistance in the computation has been given by Miss E. J. Ternouth and 
Mr. C. E. Gwyther. 

Airy Integral. — During the last year the scope of the proposed table 
(see 1936 Report) has been much enlarged. The computation of pivotal 
values over the extended range has now been completed, and the methods 
of subtabulation and preparation of copy are under consideration. 

Sheppard Tables. — Council authority is being sought for the separate 
publication of certain tables related to the probability integral of the normal 
curve, which were handed to the Committee by the family of the late 
Dr. W. F. Sheppard. One table of the ratio of tail area to ordinate of the 
normal curve, to 12 places of decimals at interval 001, together with 
reduced derivatives, was left incomplete by Dr. Sheppard, and the Com- 
mittee has completed the calculations. 

Legendre Functions. — Authority has been obtained from Council for the 
separate publication as a part-volume of these tables (see 1936 Report). 
The tables are in the press, and will appear as the first of the series of part- 
volumes which the Committee proposes to issue. 

Reappointment. — The Committee desires reappointment, with a grant of 
£200. A whole-time computer could be employed throughout the year on 
calculations of Bessel functions and the Airy integral. 



THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF ROCKS 

Report of Committee appointed to investigate the direct determination of the 
Thermal Conductivities of Rocks in mines or borings where the tempera- 
ture gradient has been, or is likely to be, measured (Dr. Ezer Griffiths, 
F.R.S., Chairman ; Dr. D. W. Phillips, Secretary ; Dr. E. C. 
BuLLARD, Dr. H. Jeffreys, F.R.S., from Section A ; Dr. E. M. 
Anderson, Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S., Prof. G. Hickling, 
F.R.S., Prof. A. Holmes, Dr. J. H. J. Poole, from Section C). 

It has appeared that the disturbance of the measured temperature gradient 
in irregular country is likely to be appreciable, since the outer surface is 
constrained to be at atmospheric temperature, and the mean decrease of 
temperature with height in the air is about a fifth of that in the crust. A 
formula for the appropriate allowance has been found by Dr. Jeffreys ; the 
theory is an application of the potential theory of Green. 

It has been found that temperatures in a borehole can, with suitable 

L .; 



274 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

precautions, be measured with considerable accuracy, using thermo- 
junctions. It is possible to measure the temperature gradient to a few 
per cent, in a hole loo ft. deep. The conductivity can be determined by 
burying heaters in the hole and noting the temperature distribution round 
them. Two values may be obtained, one from the final temperature 
distribution and one from the rate of rise and the specific heat. In pre- 
liminary experiments in a 15 -ft. hole the method was found to work well ; 
no attempt was made to get the highest accuracy, but the values obtained 
by the two methods at different distances above and below the heater agreed 
to 3 per cent., which is within the experimental error. The boring of a 
loo-ft. hole has been postponed till after Dr. Bullard's return from America 
in September. 

The cost of boring the hole is estimated at about £40, and the Committee 
asks for reappointment with a grant of that amount. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 

Twenty-eighth Report of the Committee (Prof. E. J. Garwood, F.R.S., 
Chairman ; Prof. S. H. Reynolds, Secretary ; Mr. H. Ashley, 
Mr. G. Macdonald Davies, Mr. J. F. Jackson, Dr. A. G. Mac- 
GREGOR, Dr. F. J. North, Dr. A. Raistrick, Mr. J. Ranson, Prof. 
W. W. Watts, F.R.S.) 

At the Norwich meeting in 1935, at which the 27th report was presented, 
Mr. H. Ashley and Drs. A. G. Macgregor, F. J. North and A. Raistrick 
were added to the Committee. During the past year the Committee has 
lost one of its oldest and most valued members, Mr. R. J. Welch, whose 
photographs for uniform excellence, technical and scientific, have probably 
never been excelled. Mr. Welch contributed 287 photographs to the Com- 
mittee's collection and 10 of these were reproduced in the series published 
by Prof. Watts. Mr. Welch's contributions to the collection were practically 
all pre-war, the earliest being included in the Committee's first report 
(Leeds 1890). In 1897 he sent as many as 93. All his photographs were 
whole-plate platinotypes. 

In the present report 154 photographs are listed, bringing the number in 
the collection to 8,865. The series includes a fine set by a new member of 
the Committee, Mr. H. Ashley ; Norfolk is the county best represented 
in this set, but there are others from Lincoln and Nottingham. Mr. A. G. 
Stenhouse sends an excellent series from Fife, Orkney, Shetland and the 
Isle of Eigg. The Hon. Secretary contributes photographs from the North 
of Scotland and the Bristol and Belfast districts. Mr. G. Macdonald Davies 
sends a series from Dorset and Mr. D. E. Owen from Cornwall. 

ENGLAND. 

Cornwall. — Photographed by D. E. Owen, B.Sc, Geological Dept., 
Public Museums, Liverpool 3. P.C. 

8712. I Duckpool, 4 m. N. of Rugged weathering of hard band 

Bude. in Upper Culm. 1933. 

8713. 2 Boscastle harbour. Blowhole. 1934. 

8714. 3 Boscastle harbour. Blowhole. 1934. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL LNTEREST 



275 



8715. 4 EfFord Cliff i m. E. of Recumbent fold in Bude Sand- 

Bude. stone. 1933 

8716. 5 Efford Beacon Jm. S. of Syncline in Bude Sandstone. 

Bude. 1933. 

Dorset. — Photographed by G. Macdonald Davies, M.Sc, 
63 Beechwood Road, .Sanderstead, Surrey. ^. 

87 1 7 • 331 Durlston Bay and Swan- 1933. 

age Bay, looking N. 

8718 33 -6 Durlston Bay. 

8719 33 9 Chalk cliffs between 

Ballard Point and the 
Foreland . 

33-10 The Foreland and Old 
Harry. 

33-21 Near boathouse W. of Fault in Kimmeridge Clay. 1933 
Kimmeridge Bay. 

33-22 Hobarrow Bay. 

33-17 Durdle Door. 

34-2 ShoreE.of St. Gabriel's Lias succession 
Water, near Seatown. 
Golden Cap and Sea- 
town. 



8720 

8721 

8722 
8723 
8724 

8725 
8726 

8727 
8728 



Chert bed in Mid. Purbeck. 1933. 
1933- 

Chalk sea-stacks. 1933. 



Fault in Kimmeridge Clay. 1933. 
Vertical Portland Stone. 1933. 
1934- 



32-23 

34 I 

32-18 

32-17 



Near Ridgewater, Sea- 
town. 

Seatown and Down 
Cliff. 

Wear Cliff below Gol- 
den Cap. 



Mainly Mid. Lias capped by 
Up. Greensand. 1932. 

Fault in Belemnite Marl (L. 
Lias). 1931. 

Mid. and Up. Lias. 1932. 

Mid. Lias section. 1932, 



Durham. — Photographed by S. H. Re\tviolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 
University, Bristol. 1931. i. 

Marsden. 



8729 31-125 

8730 31-80 

8731 31-79 



Plawsworth 3 m. N. of 

Durham. 
Ferry hill Gorge. 



Near view of breccia gash in 

Mid. Magnesian Lst. 
Sand pit in glacial delta Gravels. 

Overflow channel of glacial lake 
of Wear Valley. 



Gloucestershire. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. ^ and J. 

O.R.S.-Zi. h 1935 
Gully Qu. Z2—C2. 1935. 
Black Rock Qu. to Great Qu. 

Y-Si. i. 1935. 
Great or Tennis Court Qu. 

Si-Di. 1. 1935. 
Great Qu. to Bridge Valley 

Road. S1-D2. i. 
Overthrusts of Observatory Hill. 

i- 1935- 
from J. 1930. 
Suspension Bridge. 



8732 
8733 
8734 


35-2 
35-3 
35-4 


Avon Section. 
Avon Section. 
Avon Section. 


8735 


35-5 


Avon Section. 


8736 


35-6 


Avon Section. 


8737 


35 9 


Avon Section. 


8738 


30-53 


Avon Gorge s< 



276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

8739 30 52 Observatory Hill and Shows the minor thrusts in 

Avon Gorge. relation to the big over thrust. 

i. 1930. 

8740 35 ■ 14 Avon Section Great Seminula-pisolite. 5. 1935. 

8741 35 ■ 14* Avon Section Great Seminula-pisolite. J. 1935. 

Qu. 

8742 35 11 Avon Section, right Rubbly beds. j. 1935. 

bank Dj. 

8743 35 10 Avon Section, right Rubbly beds. J. 1935. 

bank Dj. 

8744 35 12 Avon Section, right Rubbly beds. J. 1935. 

bank Dx. 

8745 35 13 Avon Section, right Pseudobreccia. 5. 1935. 

bank Dj. 

8746 31-62 Scully Grove Qu., Mit- General view. 5. 1933. 

cheldean. 

Photographed by F. B. A. Welch, Ph.D., Geological Survey and 
Museum, Exhibition Road, London, S.W. 7. I. 

8747 — Avon Section. Pond in the Gully Quarry. 

Lincolnshire. — Photographed by Hallam Ashley, The Craigs, 
Ashtree Road, Costessey, Norwich. P.C. 

8748 78 Gregory's No. i Qu. An- Lincolnshire Lst. overlain by 

caster. Up. Estuarine Clays. 1933. 

8749 321 Ancaster, on Sleaford Road. Disturbed Lincolnshire Lst. 

1936. 

8750 62 Stainby, near Colsterworth. Anticline in Low. Estuarine 

Clays. 1933. 

8751 223 Stainby, near Colsterworth. Fault traversing Lines. Lst. and 

Northant. Sands Ironstone. 

1933- 

8752 163 S. Holland Drain between Scenery in marshland of S. 

Holbeach St. John's and Lincoln. 1934. 
Sutton St. Edmund's. 

8753 74 Scottlethorpe, near Bourne. Pisolitic Limestone overlain by 

surface soil. 1933. 

8754 57 Freiston shore, near Boston. Creek in Alluvium. 1933. 

8755 212 Near Wilsford, on Sleaford- Infilling in Jurassic Lst. 1935. 

Grantham Road. 

8756 156 Near Little Ponton. Gran- Dry valley in Lincolnsh. Lst. 

tham. 

Norfolk. — Photographed by Hallam Ashley, The Craigs, Ashtree 
Road, Costessey, Norwich. P.C. 

8757 379 E. Runton. Great Chalk erratic in Cromer 

Till. 1937. 

8758 166 E. Runton. Chalk erratic in Contorted Drift. 

1934- 

8759 3 E. Runton. Great Chalk erratic in Contorted 

Drift. 1932. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST 



277 



8760 167 E. Runton. 

8761 139 BetweenE.andW. Runton. 

8762 140 Between E. and W. Runton. 

8763 252 W. Runton. 

8764 35 W. Runton. 

8765 43 Trimingham. 

8766 91 Trimingham. 

8767 261 Weybourne. 

8768 324 Paston, I m. N. of Bacton. 

8769 26 Ostend, near Happisburgh. 

8770 27 Ostend, near Happisburgh. 

8771 84 Ostend, near Happisburgh. 

8772 25 Ostend, near Happisburgh. 

8773 204 Alderford. 

8774 142 Little Walsingham. 

8775 292 Between E. Harling and N. 

Lop ham. 

8776 297 Between E. Harling and N. 

Lopham. 

8777 222 \ m. N. of Holt. 

8778 232 \\ miles E. of N. Creake. 

8779 9 Snettisham. 

8780 375 Thornham, near Hunstan- 

ton. 

8781 151 Hunstanton. 

8782 216 Blackborough, near Middle- 

ton. 

8783 201 Massingham Heath. 

8784 269 Thorpe, Norwich. 

8785 284 Town Hall, Norwich. 

8786 144 Morston. 



Section of part of Chalk erratic 
and associated Pliocene beds. 

1934- 
Lower part of great Chalk 

erratic resting on Till. 1934. 
Contorted band in Cromer Till 

1934- 

Thrust plane in drift. 1935. 

Paramoudra. 1932. 

Mud-flow. 1932. 

Erosion of glacial beds. J 93 3. 

Section contorted drift, Wey- 
bourne Crag, Chalk. 1935. 

Cliffs of Cromer Till. 1936. 

Ripple Marks in Cromer Till. 
1932. 

Pocket of mud with shell frag- 
ments in Cromer Till. 1932. 

Erosion of glacial beds. 1933. 

Laminated Clays in Cromer Till. 
1932. 

Chalk pit with infilling and 
other features. 1934. 

Nodules of limonite in Chalk. 



1934- 
Pipe in Chalk. 



1936. 



Weathered surface of Chalk. 

1936. 
' Cannon-shot gravel.' 1935. 
Section of chalky Neocomian 

Boulder Clay. 1935. 
Section of Carstone. 1932. 
Section of submerged forest. 

1936. 
Erosion along joints in Carstone. 

1934- 
Section of glacial Gravel. 1935. 

Glacial gravel with angular flints. 

1934- 
Shelly patch in Norwich Crag. 

1935- 
Section, Norwich Crag, ' stone 

bed ' Chalk. 1935. 
Raised Beach. 1934. 



Northumberland. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. \. 



8787 Z^'ll Bamborough Castle. 



Current-bedded Coal Measure 
Sandstone. 193 1. 



278 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Nottinghamshire. — Photographed by Hallam Ashley, The Craigs 
Ashtree Road, Costessey, Norwich. P.C. 

8788 407 Hawton, near Newark. 



8789 408 Beacon Hill, Newark. 

8790 409 Beacon Hill, Newark. 

8791 410 Beacon Hill, Newark. 

8792 41 1 Beacon Hill, Newark. 



Large masses of gypsum in 
Keuper Marls. 1937. 

Keuper Marl with layers of 
gypsurn. 1937. 

Cavities in Keuper Marl due to 
removal of gypsum in solu- 
tion. 1937. 

Keuper Marl with layers of 
gypsum. 1937. 

Gypsum in Keuper Marl. 1937. 



SCOTLAND. 



Caithness .- 



-Photographed by S. H. 
University, Bristol 



8793 36 

8794 36 
879s 36 

8796 36 

8797 36 

8798 36 

8799 36 

8800 36 

8801 36 

8802 36 

8803 36 

8804 36 

8805 36 

8806 36 

8807 36 



49 

52 
53 
54 
55 
58 
59 

60 

61 

64. 

66 

68 

69 

71 

74 



Scrabster. 
Holborn Head, 
Holborn Head, 
Holborn Head, 
Holborn Head, 
Holborn Head, 
Holborn Head, 



Thurso . 
Thurso. 
Thurso. 
Thurso. 
Thurso. 
Thurso. 



Wick, S. of. 

Wick. 

Near Wick Castle. 

Wick. 

Wick. 

Wick. 

Wick, S. of. 

Shore E. of Thurso. 



Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 
1936. i. 

Boulder Clav on O.R.S. 

The Clett. 

Coast erosion. 

Goe leading to blowhole. 

General view of blowholes. 

Blowhole. 

The ' Deil's Brig ' over 

leading to blowhole. 
Dipping O.R. flags. 
' Greystones,' a storm beach, 
Goe. 

Gerston stack. 
A sea-stack, the ' Brough.' 
Goe just S. of the ' Brough.' 
Coast erosion. 
Nodular bed in O.R.S. 



goe 



Fife. — Photographed by A. G. Stenhouse, Whitelee, 191 Newhaven 
Road, Edinburgh 6. ^. 

8808 Inchcolm.Firthof Forth, W. end. Junction of picrite (left) with 

quartz-dolerite (right"). 1906. 

8809 Inchcolm, Firth of Forth, E. end. Picrite and associated rocks. 

1906. 

8810 Inchcolm, Firth of Forth, N. side. Picrite veined by related rocks of 

slightly more acid type. 1906. 

8811 Elie, Firth of Forth. Raised beach platforms. 

Inverness. — Photographed by A. G. Stenhouse, Whitelee, 191 New- 
haven Road, Edinburgh 6. 5x4. 

8812 Sgurr of Eigg. General view from S.E. 

8813 Sgurr of Eigg, E. end. Pitchstone with underlying basalt 

and dolerite. 

8814 Sgurr of Eigg, S. side, towards Pale felsite or porphyry injec- 

W. end. tions cutting pitchstone. 

8815 Sgurr of Eigg. Log of wood in breccia below 

pitchstone. 

All photographed between 1905 and 19 10. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST 



279 



Sutherland. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 

University, Bristol. J. 

8816 3438 Helmsdale, Kimmeridgian Boulder bed. 1934. 

section. 

Orkney. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 
University, Bristol, i. 1936. 

8817 36 9 Yescanabie Castle, Strom- Sea stack. 

ness. 

8818 36-II W. of Yescanabie Castle, Coast of seaward-dipping flags. 

Stromness. 

8819 36 13 Deerness. Goe leading to the 'Loup' of 

Deerness. 

8820 36 • 14 Whitaloo Point. The ' Long Goe.' 

8821 36-17 Hoy. The ' Old Man ' from the sea. 

8822 36 18 Hoy. The ' Old Man ' from the cliff. 

8823 36-22 N. of Finstown. Contorted strata. 

8824 3625 Whitaloo Point. Contorted O.R.S. 

8825 36-27 Birsay. Dyke. 

8826 37-11 Cliffs of S.W. Hoy from Shows the ' Old Man.' 

the sea. 



Photographed by A. G. Stenhouse, Whitelee, 191 Newhaven Road, 

Edinburgh 6. 6x4. 



8827 C. 6 Whitaloo Point. 



Contorted O.R.S. 1936. 



Shetland. — Photographed by A. G. Stenhouse, Whitelee, 191 Newhaven 
Road, Edinburgh 6. 6x4 enlarget. 1936. 



8828 D. 4 Cliffs at Eshaness. 

8829 D. 5 Eshaness. 

8830 D. 7 Eshaness. 

8831 E. 3 The Alter, West Burra. 

8832 E. 4 The Alter, West Burra. 

8833 F. I West Burra coast. 

8834 F. 2 West of Hamna Voe. 



Spheroidal mass in O.R. larva. 

Block of injection breccia. 

' Ayre.' 

Contorted calcareous schist. 

Contorted calcareous schist. 

Natural arch. 

Storm beach. 



Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The University, 
Bristol. 1936. i. 



8835 
8836 

8837 
8838 

8839 
8840 
8841 
8842 

8843 
8844 

8845 
8846 



36 29 
36-30 

36-31 
36-32 

36 34 
36 -35 
3639 
36-40 

36 -43 
36-42 

36-44 
36-48 



Eshaness. 
Eshaness. 
Eshaness. 
Eshaness. 
Exnaboe. 
Exnaboe. 
West Burra. 
West Burra. 
Noss. 

West Burra. 
Bressay. 
South Havra. 



Coast of O.R. volcanic rocks. 
Goe (voe) in O.R. volcanic rocks. 
Cliff of O.R. agglomerate. 
Coast of O.R. volcanic rocks. 
Seaward dip of O.R.S. 
Seaward dip of O.R.S. flags. 
Contorted calcareous schist. 
Contorted calcareous schist. 
O.R.S. cliff. 
Storm beach. 
Breccia. 
Contorted limestone. 



2»0 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



IRELAND. 



Antrim 

8847 35-37 

8848 35-38 

8849 35 39 

8850 35 52 

8851 35-58 

8852 35-43 

8853 35-44 

8854 35-56 

8855 35-57 

8856 35-48 

8857 35-65 

8858 35-67 

8859 35-71 



S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 

Bristol. 1935. i. 

Island High landward dip of foundered 

down basalt. 
Island Cave worn along dyke. 



. — Photographed by 
University, 
The Gobbins, 

Magee. 
The Gobbins, 

Magee. 
The Gobbins, Island Amygdaloidal basalt. 

Magee. 
Fair Head. 
Fair Head. 



near 



near 



8860 35-34 
-3( 



8861 35-^6 



Lough-a-veema, 
Ballycastle. 

Lough-a-veema , 
Ballycastle. 

Carrick-a-rede. 

Carrick-a-rede. 

Lurigethan. 



Ballintoy Bay. 

Portrush. 

Toome, N.W. end of L. 

Neagh. 
Cave Hill, Belfast. 
Cave Hill, Belfast. 



Dolerite precipice. 

Columnar dolerite and glacia- 

tion. 
Sun-cracks in nearly dry bed of 

the lough. 
Sun-cracks in nearly dry bed of 

the lough. 
Agglomerate below swing bridge. 
General view. 
End of ridge of Chalk capped by 

basalt. 
Basalt faulted against Chalk. 
Indurated Lias. 
Kieselguhr. 

Basalt on Chalk. 
View from above. 



Down. — Photographed by S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 

University, Bristol. 1935. i- 

The central hills. 

Hills forming S.W. part of the 
ring dyke. 

Shattered and epidotized sedi- 
ments. 
8865 35-31 Slieve Gullion. Agglomerate with felsite form- 

ing ' matrix.' 



8862 35-29 Slieve Gullion. 

8863 35-30 Slieve Gullion. 

8864 35-32 Newcastle Shore. 



TEACHING OF GEOLOGY IN SCHOOLS 281 



TEACHING OF GEOLOGY IN SCHOOLS 

Second Report of the Committee appointed to consider and report on questions 
affecting the teaching of Geology in schools (Prof. W. W. Watts, 
F.R.S., Chairman ; Prof. A. E. Trueman, Secretary ; Prof. P. G. H. 
BoswELL, O.B.E., F.R.S., Mr. C. P. Chatwin, Prof. A. H. Cox, 
Miss E. Dix, Miss Gaynor Evans, Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, F.R.S., 
Prof. A. GiLLiGAN, Prof. G. Hickling, F.R.S., Prof. D. E. Innes, 
Prof. A. G. Ogilvie, Prof. W. J. Pugh, Mr. J. A. Steers, Prof. H. H. 
Swinnerton, Dr. A. K. Wells). 

In 1936 a Committee of Section C of the British Association presented a 
brief Report dealing with the claims of Geology for inclusion in the curri- 
cula of schools of all types, drawing attention to both the cultural and the 
utilitarian aspects of the subject. The pubhcation of that Report has 
recently led to the suggestion from several members of the Association who 
are more directly concerned with educational problems that a somewhat 
more extended Report giving details as to the nature of the suggested school 
courses was desirable. 

It is not proposed to recapitulate here the claims, which were advanced 
in the first Report referred to, on behalf of the introduction of the subject 
into schools, or to discuss further those changes in the schools examination 
system and in University entrance requirements which have led to the 
unfortunate reactions upon the progress of Geology and the supply of 
students to carry out geological work. 

It niay be emphasised that science teaching in many schools has long 
been confined to the subjects of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, to 
which Biology has in some cases been added. In many schools teaching 
has been confined to one of these sciences, and not infrequently even to 
one branch of a science, such as Magnetism and Electricity, or Heat and 
Light. This situation has been met recently by proposals for the develop- 
ment of science teaching on a broader basis : the reasons for this new 
attitude to science teaching need not be stated here, for they have been 
clearly set forth in several reports (notably a recent report of the Science 
Masters' Association). At the same time other proposals are being made 
for the alteration of the nature of some School Certificate examinations, 
especially in relation to University entrance requirements. 

It is hoped that while these changes in science teaching are being dis- 
cussed, consideration will be given to the possibility of introducing some 
Geology as an alternative or optional subject among the other sciences in 
school courses, for it is a peculiarly suitable subject for certain schools. 
There are schools, for example, situated in areas which may be described 
as natural geological laboratories, where the teaching of Geology would 
afford an obvious link with the surroundings. Again in schools such as 
those situated in mining areas, for example, there are equally good reasons 
for dealing with geological matters ; not only is it fitting that pupils should 
know something of the geological basis of local industry, but since a pro- 
portion of the pupils will presumably be concerned with mining problems 
in later life, an introduction lo geological principles will be of considerable 
utility. 

It is not only in such areas, however, that Geology could effectively be 



282 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

taught, for it would find an appropriate place in urban schools also, especi- 
ally where museums make special provisions for the display and supply 
of teaching materials. London schools are particularly fortunate in the 
facilities thus afforded ; for instance, the models, photographs, dioramas 
and other exhibits at the new Geological Museum are of such outstanding 
value that it may be claimed that many London schools have advantages 
for the teaching of the subject which outweigh the disadvantages arising 
from the distance from areas where actual field studies can be made. 



Geology and Careers. 

While the introduction of Geology into schools is advocated by the 
Committee chiefly on cultural grounds, it may be useful to give some 
indications of the nature of the posts available to qualified geologists. 

Apart from those obtaining academic appointments and posts in museums, 
most graduates in Geology find positions in geological surveys at home or 
in the Empire, or on the staff of mining and oil companies in all parts of 
the world. Most of these posts involve much field work, sometimes in 
relatively unexplored countries, thus aifording attractive opportunities for 
young men who are willing to undertake work abroad. 

The number of posts of this kind is not of course large, but there is already 
a difficulty in finding sufficient students to fill the posts which are available. 
It is certain that there will be a still greater dearth of British-trained 
geologists in the near future, unless something is done to stimulate the 
entry of students into geological courses. Meanwhile, considerable 
numbers of geologists are being trained in American and German Univer- 
sities, and they are filling the majority of posts in many parts of the world. 

Quite apart, however, from the relatively limited number of students 
who may eventually make Geology their profession, it must be remembered 
that Geology forms a useful subsidiary subject for students traininjr for 
different types of career in science, agriculture and engineering, and for 
administrative posts in India and the Colonies. It is ordinarily taken by 
University students pursuing courses in Civil Engineering, Mining and 
Metallurgy, but it may be urged that some knowledge of Geology is of the 
greatest value to many other scientific workers, having regard to the fact 
that the majority of materials used in industry are obtained from the earth's 
crust, and to the wide range of applications of Geology to problems related 
to building and road materials, foundations, soils, drainage and water 
supply. 

Although many students preparing for such careers will have oppor- 
tunities for taking classes in Geology at the University, only a small pro- 
portion are likely to do so if their interest in the subject has not been aroused 
at school, for it is becoming increasingly rare for students entering the 
Universit\' to take up new subjects, owing to the high standard to which 
work in school subjects has been carried and to the exemptions from first- 
year University examinations which are thereby granted. 

Moreover, it must be emphasised that only a small proportion of those 
who enter for the various school examinations pass on to University work ; 
most of them take up posts in industry and commerce at once. Of these, 
a considerable proportion who have no further academic training obtain 
posts where they are sooner or later concerned with mining, building, 
engineering or other problems in which even a small acquaintance with 
geological matters would be of real assistance. In ordinary life, too, 
opportunities for using scientific knowledge are continually increasing 



TEACHING OP^ GEOLOGY IN SCHOOLS 283 

in number ; the applications of Geology are certainly not fewer or less 
important than those of other sciences. 

Unless some work in Geology is introduced into school curricula, not 
only will there be a serious restriction in the numbers who will seek to take 
up Geology as a profession, but many who may later be concerned with 
the applications of Geology will hardly know of the existence of a science 
which has close contacts with their work. 



Suggestions regarding Syllabuses. 

It has been suggested to the Committee that some indication of the scope 
of the syllabuses proposed at the various stages of school work will be useful 
as a basis for future discussion. In preparing the following notes the 
Committee have received much generous help from teachers in several 
areas and in different types of schools, particularly from those who are 
teaching Geology at the present time. 

The syllabuses given below are in outline only. It must be emphasised 
that the Committee would favour the greatest elasticity in the treatment 
of the subject ; in Geology perhaps more than in any other science the 
neighbourhood of the school should determine the bias given to the teach- 
ing. Geology taught without proper regard to the phenomena which the 
pupil can observe and study for himself must become dull and unreal. 
Thus in a North Wales school slates may be given an amount of attention 
which would be out of place in Hampshire ; the effects of glaciation would 
be studied in less detail in the south of England than elsewhere in Britain ; 
the fossils which a pupil might be expected to recognise would differ to a 
great extent from one area to another. 

It may be remarked also that the order in which various sections of the 
syllabuses are arranged below is not intended to suggest the order in which 
matters should be dealt with by the teacher. The arrangement of the 
sections may in some cases appear to give a logical scheme of study, but it 
is suggested that in the teaching of Geology a start should always be made 
with those phenomena which are most within the common experience of 
the children : the pebbles or stones they bring to school, handy rock 
exposures, the stones used in local buildings, the stream in the school 
grounds, the adjacent cliffs or shores. 

General Elementary Science. 

Much attention has lately been given to the development of courses in 
General Science both for Senior Elementary Schools and for Secondary 
Schools. The lack of any general understanding of the meaning of science, 
of its ideals or of its applications to modern life, has led to attempts to frame 
courses of instruction wider in scope than those commonly followed in the 
schools. In most of the schemes of General Science already in use, Physics, 
Chemistry and Biology are included ; a few authorities have approved 
more extended syllabuses embodying a little Geology and in some cases 
a small amount of Astronomy. 

The Committee feel that it is unnecessary in this Report to meet the 
various arguments put forward against the introduction of General Science 
into schools ; the possibility that it may reduce the standard of attainment 
in one or more specialised sciences reached by pupils proposing to enter 
Universities is surely of less significance than the certainty that such a 
course will give to the much greater number of pupils whose formal training 



284 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

will cease with school years an appreciation of the scope and aims of science, 
and an indication of its contacts with ordinary life. 

The Committee therefore strongly support the view that instruction in 
General Science should form an essential part of a liberal education. They 
consider that more specialised instruction in individual science subjects 
could be given to pupils who wish later to devote themselves to science ; 
this could be done either concurrently or at a later stage of school life. 

The Committee would prefer to see a co-ordinated scheme of General 
Science in which the individual sciences are not sharply separated, and 
recognise that it may be desirable for a single teacher to deal with such a 
scheme rather than for experts in each branch to teach the separate sciences. 
It is of course probable that there are comparatively few teachers available 
at present who are capable of treating General Science effectively on these 
lines, but suitable teachers would soon be forthcoming if there were any 
considerable demand from the schools. 

The syllabuses which have been suggested for courses in General Science 
have given rise to much discussion, but the Committee do not propose to 
enter into any consideration of the correct proportions in which the various 
sciences should be blended, believing that the proper content of General 
Science will be best determined after greater experience in teaching it, and 
by the interests of the individual teacher. The Committee believe, with 
many educationists, that a syllabus on the lines of the old Physiography 
(as understood by Huxley) but with more modern outlook, may eventually 
prove to be most suitable. 

The Committee hold strongly, however, that a certain amount of Geology 
should be introduced into every scheme of General Science. The amount 
desirable is not very extensive, and it is suggested that the time devoted to 
it in such a scheme should not be more than one-sixth of the total time 
available for the course. This would not necessarily involve even so great 
a reduction in the other portions of the subject as might at first appear, 
for at many points the matter introduced in the sections of Chemistry, 
Physics and Biology is closely related to Geology, and by a very moderate 
extension can be given a much wider value. For example, most teachers 
of Chemistry in dealing with carbon dioxide and the carbonates make some 
reference to limestone and chalk, with perhaps some remarks on the origin 
of these rocks ; at that point the pupils could be taken a little further 
towards an understanding of the bedded nature of the limestones, their 
contents and origin, and the reason for the occurrence of limestones of 
marine origin at considerable heights above the sea. Similarly most schemes 
of General Science make some reference to the evidence of evolution and 
to fossils ; the contacts with Geology and a simple account of the history 
of life make small demand of additional time. Other parts of Geology are 
inseparable from physical geography. The teaching of science undoubtedly 
fails if it leaves the impression that the natural world is divided into separate 
and independent compartments. 

The Committee consider that a General Science scheme should embrace 
the following topics : 

Rocks : igneous and sedimentary rocks ; the chief characters of granite, 
basalt, conglomerate, sandstone, clay, shale, slate, limestone and 
chalk, coal. 

The common minerals, such as quartz, felspar, mica, rock salt, iron 
pyrites, an ore of iron such as haematite, calcite. (The composition 
of the more complex minerals should not be required unless in very 



TEACHING OF GEOLOGY IN SCHOOLS 285 

general terms. Although some teachers of chemistry require the 

names of many more minerals to be learned, the Committee do not 

advocate this as part of General Science.) 
Denudation : effects of frost, variation of temperature, gravitation, wind, 

rain, rivers, ice, waves ; soil formation. 
Deposition of sediments : types of modern sediment. 
Hot springs and volcanoes (the latter not in any detail). 
A general idea of the arrangement of rocks ; their stratification ; the 

sequence of animal fossils in earth history (to be treated in very broad 

outlines only). 

As far as possible this course should be based on specimens collected 
locally and amplified by a study of the scenery of the school area. 

The order in which these topics are treated ought to depend on the 
arrangement of the rest of the syllabus, the most suitable scheme involving 
the introduction of some of the Geology in connection with relevant aspects 
of other sciences. • 

First School Certificate. 

While the inclusion of some Geology as part of a General Science course 
is probably the most effective way of introducing the subject into First 
School Certificate courses in Secondary Schools, there are certain schools 
where it may be advisable to institute courses in it as a full subject for the 
First Certificate. The subject is already taught very successfully at this 
stage in some schools, chiefly in South Wales, and there is no doubt that 
those pupils who are unlikely to carry the study of any science to a further 
stage benefit greatly from such training ; in areas of outstanding geological 
interest and elsewhere there may be special reasons for the development 
of courses for the First Certificate for such pupils. 

Syllabuses in Geology for the First School Certificate examination have 
been prepared by several examining bodies, and in general they are quite 
suitable. The Committee believe that the treatment of the subject at this 
stage should be less academic than for the Higher School Certificate or for 
first year University examinations, and that emphasis should be laid on 
matters which are likely to lie within the experience of school children. 
They would urge that a study of the school locality (or some other accessible 
area) should form an essential and considerable part of the course, and that 
candidates should be required to collect specimens, to make personal 
observations and to keep field note-books with sketches of local features 
if the area is suitable. Such wider aspects of Geology as the origin of the 
earth and the nature of the inner earth, an understanding of which must 
largely depend on observations which the pupils are unable to verify, should 
occupy a much less prominent place in the course. 

In order to indicate the relative importance which the Committee would 
assign to the various divisions in the syllabus, the approximate proportion 
of the time available which it is suggested should be devoted to each is 
shown below. 

The surface agents : atmosphere, water, ice, seas, weathering ; 
transportation of rock debris ; alluvial and glacial de- 
posits, flood plains and deltas ; marine deposits. (20 per cent.) 

An elementary study of common minerals : quartz and other 
forms of silica, felspar, mica, hornblende, augite, olivine, 
haematite, magnetite, pyrites, galena, zinc blende, cal- 
cite, dolomite, fluorspar, rock salt, gypsum. (10 per cent.) 



286 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



per cent.) 
per cent.) 
per cent.) 

per cent.) 
per cent.) 



Main types of sedimentary rocks : sandstone, grit, con- 
glomerate, shale, clay, fireclay, marl, limestone, iron- 
stone, coal. (8 

Igneous rocks : granite, basalt, obsidian, porphyry. Vol- 
canoes ; lavas, ash and agglomerate. (S 

Metamorphic rocks : illustrated by reference to slate, schist, 
gneiss, marble. (2 

Structural geology : dip, strike, simple folds, faults, uncon- 
formity ; boss, dyke, sill, neck. Practical work to in- 
clude a study of very simple geological maps and draw- 
ing of sections across them. (15 

Movements of earth's crust : raised beaches, submerged 
forests and drowned valleys ; folding and faulting ; 
folded mountains ; rift valleys and block mountains. (6 

Fossils and their uses : evidence of past climates and con- 
ditions of formation of sedimentary rocks ; a .general 
idea of the sequence of fossil vertebrates ; the character- 
istic fossils of the main periods (e.g. Trilobites and 
Graptolites in the Lower Palaeozoic, Ammonites and 
Belemnites in the Mesozoic). The general characters of 
the main groups of fossils only to be required, rather 
than any names of genera (except possibly of fossils of 
importance in the locality) ; overloading of the course 
by lists of names to be avoided. (7 per cent.) 

A general study of the character of the major rock groups of 
Britain, and of the scenic features to which they give rise 
(e.g. the slate groups of Wales and the Lake District, 
the Chalk areas, the Carboniferous Limestone, the Coal- 
fields, etc.). (7 per cent.) 

Local geology : a study of the features in the school area ; 
examination of quarries and natural sections ; observa- 
tion of escarpments and river erosion and deposition. 
Simple field sketching should be encouraged. Study of 
local geological maps and of the physical features ex- 
hibited in Ordnance maps. (20 per cent.) 

Practical work illustrating the above topics, included in the time allotted 
to the various sections. Simple tests of minerals, including hardness, 
density, solubility and reactions to dilute acid. The study of rocks and 
fossils, the study of maps and the construction of block models ; field 
excursions. Other aspects of practical work are discussed below. 



Higher School Certificate. 

For the Higher School Certificate a syllabus is put forward for a course 
in Geology as a principal subject, to occupy approximately one-third of 
two years' school work. Some teachers may prefer to introduce Geology 
only as a subsidiary subject at this stage, in which case the syllabus would 
need to be reduced considerably as regards detail ; others, while keeping 
it as a principal subject, may wish to make the sections dealing with physical 
geography identical with some portion of the Geography syllabus, so that 
when these two subjects are taken together they do not represent two 
complete principal subjects. It has appeared more useful, however, to 
design a syllabus which covers the whole range of the subject and thus 
preserves its essential unity. 



TEACHING OF GEOLOGY IN SCHOOLS 287 

The suggested syllabus has been made on the assumption that the pupils 
pursuing this course will have little previous knowledge of Geology ; pre- 
sumably the great majority will have done no more than it is proposed to 
include in the General Science syllabus. The course outlined is much 
wider in scope and should be more academic in approach than that proposed 
for the First School Certificate. It is suggested that the pupils should not 
only have some training in the recognition of rocks, minerals and fossils, 
and some knowledge of the varied applications of Geology, but that they 
should also learn something of the relation of Geology to other sciences, and 
of the more modern views of earth history. The course is designed rather 
for those completing their formal education in science than for those 
proposing to carry the study of Geology to a further stage. 

The earth as a planet ; its major surface features. Weathering in different 
climates ; soil formation ; denudation ; marine erosion. 

Sedimentary rocks ; modern sediments ; conditions of deposit as 
indicated by character of sediments. Marine, estuarine, deltaic, 
lacustrine and desert deposits among British strata. 

The composition and characters of the common minerals (a more ex- 
tended list than for First Certificate) ; some study of elementary 
crystallography including the use of Miller's notation. 

Igneous rocks : general structure and classification, to include granite, 
syenite, diorite, gabbro, serpentine, quartz porphyry, porphyry, 
dolerite, rhyolite, obsidian, andesite, basalt. 

Structural geology : stratification, lamination, dip, strike, outcrop, 
joints, cleavage. Relation of outcrop to the form of land. Types 
of folding. Faults, their effects on outcrops. Unconformity ; 
overlap. Outliers and inliers. 

Igneous activity : modes of occurrence of igneous rocks. Volcanoes ; 
geographical distribution ; types of eruption ; forms of lava and 
ash deposits. 

Earth movement. Elevation and depression of shore lines ; mountain 
folding. Rifting and block movements. Earthquake phenomena ; 
seismographic records. Structure of the inner earth ; mean density 
of the earth ; temperature of the interior. 

Metamorphism ; pneumatolysis. 

Land forms : their development and relation to rock structure and 
climate ; mountains, plateaux, plains, drainage systems. Escarp- 
ments ; relation of valley systems to structure. Forms of coasts. 

Fossils : their use in correlating sedimentary rocks. A general study 
of the evolution of fishes, reptiles and mammals. The characters 
of Foraminifera, Sponges, GraptoHtes, Corals, Crinoids, Echinoids, 
Brachiopods, Lamellibranchia, Cephalopoda, and Trilobites. The 
selection of fossils to be determined by the systems available for 
study near the school. 

Principles of Historical Geology. Broad outlines of the structure of 
Great Britain. General characters of the different systems and the 
physical conditions under which they were deposited. The scenic 
features associated with various formations. 

Relation of Geology to human life. Coal : its history and occurrence. 
Petroleum. Ores of the chief metals and their occurrence ; com- 
mon building materials ; limes and cements. Water supply. 

The practical work should be arranged to illustrate the above topics. 
It should include the examination of common minerals and rocks in hand 



288 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

specimen (and where possible in the field), and of fossils. If the school 
possesses a microscope it can be used with advantage for the examination 
of rock slices ; moreover, an ordinary microscope can now be converted 
at little cost into a polarising microscope, which would add greatly to the 
interest of examining rocks. The study of geological maps and the drawing 
of sections across them is an important part of the work ; those selected 
should include geological maps of the district, to be studied in connection 
with field work. In the course of field work reference should be made to 
the structural features and their influence on rehef ; the position of springs ; 
the relation of the soils and distribution of vegetation to the nature 
of the underlying rocks ; building stones and other products of economic 
importance. 

Senior {Elementary) Schools. 

While the Committee believe that a well-planned scheme of General 
Science (including the elements of geological knowledge as outlined on 
p. 284) supplies the most suitable basis for science teaching in Senior 
Schools, they recognise that in some schools the facilities are inadequate 
for experimental work of the character desirable in such a scheme. Where 
work in science has to be more limited in scope it is suggested that Geology 
may suitably be introduced as an independent subject, for it has the 
advantage that it can be taught with very little equipment, and that its 
requirements as regards laboratories and apparatus are fewer than in the 
case of almost any other science. It would be appropriate to teach Geology 
more fully also in those areas where many of the scholars will eventually 
find employment in mines and quarries or on the land. 

The courses provided in such schools would naturally show much 
variation, especially as the Senior Schools are free from the necessity of 
preparing their pupils for prescribed examinations. In most cases a rather 
practical bias would be appropriate to the course, and the relations of 
Geology to human life would be of outstanding importance ; treated in 
this way Geology would form a link between the cultural and the vocational 
aspects of study. In some schools the approach to Geology would best 
be made through school journeys, which afford opportunities for simple 
field studies of a more extended character. 

As an example of a scheme of study for Senior Schools the following is 
suggested : 

1. An elementary study of rocks. Based mainly on material obtained 

or used locally, with comparative examination of other types. Local 
uses of rocks in building and brick making, for road materials, in 
industrial processes, etc. 

2. The common minerals : (a) in relation to rocks examined ; (6) some 

metallic ores, and the derivation from thehj of metals by simple 
experiments ; (c) such minerals as rock salt, with reference to mode 
of origin, etc. 

3. Bedding and jointing of rocks ; structures of rocks as seen in the 

field ; extent and underground occurrence. 

4. Springs and spring water : mineral, medicinal and petrifying springs ; 

hard and soft water. Water supply : how towns and villages are 
supplied. 

5. Soil and its formation. Local soils and sub-soils, with observations 

on their distribution and thicknesses. 



TEACHING OF GEOLOGY IN SCHOOLS 289 

6. A simple study of the work of rivers ; erosion of valleys, formation 

of flood plains and deltas. Ice-work : effect on scenery and soils. 
The coast : origin of coastal features. 

7. Volcanoes and earthquakes (treated in outline only). 

8. Coal : its origin and distribution in Britain ; fossil plants. 

9. Oil : its occurrence and mode of exploitation. 

10. The main principles of historical geology, sufficient to give some 

indication of the length of geological time and an idea of a sequence 
of events in which, for example, the formation of coal and rock salt 
were episodes. Reference would be made to fossils here and at 
other suitable points in the course. 

11. Geology and scenery, studied first in the school area, and then 

extended to other areas, such as chalk country, limestone areas, 
grit moors, etc. 

The geology of other features seen in the area such as cliffs, caves, 
landslips, beaches, sand dunes ; the use of breakwaters and groynes. 

It is suggested that where possible simple experiments should be carried 
out in connection with this course on the lines indicated below. Many of 
these experiments would form a useful introduction to work in other 
branches of science. 

Practical Work in Geology. 

It has been pointed out to the Committee that one reason why some 
teachers find difficulty in introducing Geology into science courses is the 
lack of suitable practical work. It is, of course, true that Geology is 
primarily an observational science, and the problem of keeping a large 
class actively obseriing (rather than doing) is one which may present serious 
difficulties to many teachers. It may be pointed out that some teachers 
have very successfully met this problem by requiring pupils to keep 
tabulated records of their observations on rocks and minerals, and to make 
neat drawings of fossils and crystals. There is, however, little doubt that 
certain pupils will be more interested to be doing some simple experiment, 
and the Committee suggest that without much difficulty a scheme of ex- 
perimental work on the rocks and minerals could be devised. This could 
be developed to include such exercises as the following : 

1. The identification of small samples of common minerals by simple 

tests based on information supplied in outline tables. For instance, 
instead of being given labelled specimens of quartz, calcite or gypsum 
for study, unlabelled samples could be determined by the pupils, 
using tests such as hardness, reaction with acids, etc. Blowpipe 
methods could be used with other minerals. 

2. The study of some rocks could be linked with actual determinations 

of the proportions of their constituents ; pupils could break up 
granite or other coarse igneous rocks, separate the constituents into 
heaps, and weigh them. 

3. The constituents of sandstones and grits could be investigated by 

crushing samples and making simple separations of different grain 
sizes or of heavy minerals. 

4. The solubility of limestones and determination of the percentage of 

insoluble matter ; similarly the effects of hot and cold dilute acid 
on dolomite. 



290 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

5. Measurement of the porosity of sandstones, chalk, etc. 

6. Determinations of specific gravities of rocks and minerals. 

These experiments could be developed, especially in a course of General 
Science. One advantage is that they require little equipment and only a 
small space. While they may be used to supplement observational work 
and to enliven the ordinary laboratory work to some extent in the early 
stages, these experiments cannot entirely displace the examination and 
sketching of material. In any case field work must form an essential part 
of almost any geological course. 

The practical work related to map study may also be extended by the 
construction of simple block models to illustrate structures. Rectangular 
models to show true and apparent dips and outcrops, or folds in plan and 
section, can be built up in paper very easily ; it is very helpful for pupils 
to make a variety of these at an early stage. 



REPTILE-BEARING OOLITE, STOW. 

Report of Committee appointed to investigate the reptile-bearing oolite near 
Stozv-on-the-Wold, subject to the condition that suitable arrangements 
be made for the disposal of the material (Sir A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S., Chairman ; Mr. C. I. Gardiner, Secretary ; Prof. S. H. 
Reynolds, Mr. W. E. Swinton). 

The two quarries in the Chipping Norton Limestone near Stow-on-the- 
Wold, from which reptilian remains have been obtained before, have been 
visited from time to time and the reptilian remains found there brought 
away and sent to London for extraction and restoration. Most of them are 
now in the Stroud Museum. 

Of the four groups of reptiles represented — Crocodile, Theropod, Sauropod 
and Carnivorous Dinosaurs — all but the last one are in the series collected 
since the issue of the previous report of the Committee.. They include : 

Crocodiles. — Several vertebrae and a nearly perfect scapula. 

Theropod Dinosaurs. — An ilium, a sacrum and a right femur, this last 
being in an almost perfect condition and the finest bone in the series. 

Sauropod Dinosaurs. — An enormous caudal vertebra, an almost perfect 
right coracoid and two ischia. 

Professor Reynolds is studying the specimens and hopes shortly to 
publish a description of them. The Committee is unanimously of opinion 
that an application for a further grant should be made. 



ARTEMIA SALINA 



291 



ARTEMIA SALINA. 

Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the progressive adaptation 
to new conditions in Artemia salina [Diploid and Octoploid, Partheno- 
genetic v. Bisexual) (Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S., Chairman ; Dr. K. 
Mather, Secretary ; Dr. J. Gray, F.R.S., Dr. F. Gross, Dr. E. S. 
Russell, O.B.E., Prof. D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S.). 

During the year experiments have been carried out on 16,540 tested nauplii, 
distributed in five lines, of which tw^o have been carried to the fifth, one 
to the fourth, and the remaining two to the third, selected generation. 
Table I shows the number of tested nauplii in each generation of each line. 







Table 


I. 




Line. 


Generation 


C2 


C3 


C4 


C6 


C7 


Unselected 


260 


669 


29 


832 


1,204 


1st selected 


387 


430 


768 


1,082 


1,098 


2nd do. . 


225 


469 


1,055 


993 


829 


3rd do. . 


57 


180 


544 


1,023 


391 


4th do. . 


— 


— 


79 


502 


1,229 


5th do. . 


— 


— 


— 


895 


1,310 


Total . 


929 


1,748 


2,475 


5,327 


6,061 16,540 



The large increase in the extent of the experiments as compared with 
previous years is due partly to the increased amount of time devoted to the 
care of the cultures by Miss North and other members of the Galton 
Laboratory, and partly to greater success in obtaining broods, especially 
during the winter and spring months. More intense illumination may have 
been one factor contributing to this success. 

The experiments have followed the programme, as originally laid down, 
of testing each brood in six successive standard strengths of sodium arsenite 
and selecting, in each generation, survivors from the higher strengths for 
use as parents. Although, as will be seen, remarkable progressive changes 
in tolerance were shown in several lines, the difficulty, noted in previous 
reports, of broods from the same parents showing very unequal mortalities 
has not yet been overcome. For example, we give in Table II the number 
tested and surviving at different strengths in two large broods occurring 
in succession in the unselected generation of C6. It will be observed that 





Table II. 




Solution. 






Strength of Solution 
Brood I Tested 

Surviving . 
Brood 2 Tested 

Surviving . 


. H I 

. — 18 
. — 16 
. i8 18 
. 6 9 


J 

18 
12 
18 

2 


K L M 

18 18 20 

15 18 18 

18 18 18 

I I 


N 
20 

4 
24 

4 


Total 
— 112 

24 156 




292 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



equivalent mortalities in these two broods occur at concentrations differing 
by some eight units, representing a difference of more than two-fold in the 
concentration of the poison. The technique adopted of subdividing each 
brood into six successive strengths, while adequate to cope with small 
inequalities in resistance between broods, is quite inadequate to yield 
intelligible results so long as differences of the magnitude illustrated con- 
tinue to occur. Such differences, moreover, undermine the efficacy of the 
selective process, by which the parents are chosen, by allowing relatively 
susceptible individuals from broods in which the survival rate has happened 
to be high to be mistaken for individuals which have themselves displayed 
high resistance. 

The stage which the research has now reached is, therefore, primarily 




■'2 ^3 

GENE RATION 



Fig. I. 



one of the improvement of the technique of experimental elimination to a 
level of efficiency comparable with that already attained in propagation. 
The stricter control of water temperature and of food density during the 
test period and of the possibility that some broods would show a considerable 
mortality even without toxic elimination, are the three methods now being 
tried to improve this aspect of our procedure. 

Nevertheless, it is obvious from the records that substantial changes in 
resistance, such as cannot be ascribed to accidental differences, have occurred 
in at least four out of the five lines, the improvement being often continued 
progressively from generation to generation. The data from line C6 are 
shown in Table VIII (at the end of the report) the changes in the estimated 
concentration for 50 per cent, mortality being given in Table IV, and shown 
diagrammatically in Fig. i. 

In contrast, no appreciable progress whatever has been achieved in the 
parallel line C4, for which the estimated 50 per cent, death points are given 
in Table V. There has been, superficially, a drop in resistance in this line. 



ARTEMIA SALINA 



293 



The 3rd selected generation may be ignored owing to insufficient data, as 
shown by the large standard error, but the decrease in resistance of the 
S2 generation seems to be real. 

The different behaviour of these two lines might be ascribed to the pos- 
sibility that in the latter no genetic variability affecting survival in the test 
, condition was present, whereas in C6 great differences in genotype were at 
first available, leading to a rapid selective response. We suggest, however, 
that, as each generation may be predominantly bred from so few as three pairs 
of parents, the element of chance in the selection of these latter may be the 
more important factor in causing discrepancy. On this view in the one 
line selection has been successful in securing parents of high innate resistance 
for the propagation of the stock, while in the second case parents of mediocre 
or low resistance have happened to be selected owing to unintentional 
inequality of the conditions to which different broods have been subjected. 



Table III. 



Generation. 


^U pel IwCllL. 

Death Point. 


Regression 


Unselected . 


8-791 ± 0742 


0-179 


I St selected 


. 10-242 ± 0-257 


0-258 


2nd do. . 


II -090 ± 0227 


0-310 


3rd do. . 


II 763 ± 0240 


0-3S9 


4th do. . 


. 13-396 ±0-314 


0-396 


Sth do. . 


II -150 ih 0-382 


0-326 



Table IV. 



Generation. 

Unselected 
1st selected 
2nd do. . 
3rd do. . 



50 per cent. 
Death Point. 

8-524 ± 0-543 
7-436 ± 0-132 
4-675 ± 0-427 
0-761 ± 5-474 



Regression. 

0-245 
0-316 
0-224 
0-061 



The behaviour of some of the other lines seems to confirm this view. 
(See Tables V-IX.) 

A feature of some interest is shown by the steepness of the gradient of 
mortality with respect to poison concentration (called the regression in 
Tables IV and V). Other things being equal, this gradient will be higher 
the more uniform the material. In line C6 it may be observed that the 
regression increases in successive generations as the resistance is heightened. 
In other lines it also appears that, when an advance has been made, by 
selection, it is generally accompanied by an increase in the regression. It 
would appear that the increase in genetic resistance is generally accompanied 
by a decrease in variability, or, in other words, that the stocks are becoming 
more homozygous for the genes favoured by the selection. In view of this 
effect it will be of especial interest to cross the two lines now available after 
five generations of selection, and to determine whether the variability is 
thereby restored without loss of resistance. 

The Committee asked to be reappointed with a grant of £20. 



294 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Table V. 
Line C2. 



Solution. 


So 


Si 


s. 


S3 




T S 


T S 


T S 


T S 


E (5) . 


24 24 


— 


— 


— 


F (6) 










34 21 


— 


— 


— 


G (7) 










45 32 


19 10 


— 


— 


H (8) 










SI 28 


48 23 


3 3 


— 


I (9) 










26 15 


61 47 


17 13 


— 


J (10) 










38 23 


61 30 


31 20 


9 9 


K (II) 










32 16 


62 34 


32 19 


9 8 


L (12) 










20 7 


65 8 


42 .22 


9 9 


M(i3) 










— 


44 3 


48 27 


ID 9 


N (14) 










— 


17 


33 5 


10 8 


(15) 










~ 


10 


19 


10 6 



In the case of each generation the first column (T) gives the numbers of 
nauplii tested, and the second column (S) the numbers of survivors. 



Table VI. 
Line C3. 



Solution. 


So 


Si 


s. 


S3 




T s 


T s 


T S 


T S 


C (3) . 


12 12 


— 


— 


— 


D (4) 










12 4 


— 


— 


— 


E (5) 










66 48 


8 8 


— 


— 


F (6) 










86 43 


8 7 


— 


— 


G (7) 










III 50 


33 19 


— 


— 


H (8) 










107 33 


66 41 


47 28 


— 


I (9) 










"3 31 


66 33 


73 46 


14 12 


J (10) 










"3 31 


75 26 


72 44 


14 8 


K (11) 










49 I 


67 20 


75 39 


19 18 


L (12) 










— 


67 29 


97 35 


40 27 


M(i3) 










— 


40 9 


83 II 


48 26 


N (14) 










— 


— 


22 I 


39 5 


(15) 










^~~ 


~ 


~ 


6 



In the case of each generation the first column (T) gives the numbers of 
nauplii tested, and the second column (S) the numbers of survivors. 



ARTEMIA SALINA 



295 



Table VII. 
Line C4. 



Solution. 


So 


s, 


s. 


S3 


S4 




T S 


T 


S 


T S 


T S 


T S 


D (4) . 


— 


— 


- 


— 


9 7 


— 


F. (5) 






5 3 


— 


- 


94 42 


51 22 


5 I 


F (6) 






5 3 


52 


25 


134 49 


60 22 


5 I 


G (7) 






5 5 


106 


.S2 


150 54 


73 14 


II 3 


H (8) 






5 4 


106 


61 


142 26 


78 26 


24 8 


I (9) 






5 4 


106 


39 


172 32 


107 44 


28 10 


J (10) 






4 3 


130 


30 


171 21 


78 20 


6 


K (II) 






— 


130 


I."? 


116 II 


39 14 


— 


L (12) 






— 


75 


4 


65 I 


26 5 


— 


M(i3) 






— 


21 


I 


II 


12 3 


— 


N (14) 






— 


21 





— 


10 I 


— 


(15) 






— 


21 





— 




" 



In the case of each generation the first column (T) gives the numbers of 
nauplii tested, and the second column (S) the numbers of survivors. 



Table VIII. 
Line C6. 



Solution. 


S 





£ 


1 


S 


2 


S3 


S4 


s. 




T 


S 


T 


S 


T 


S 


T S 


T 


S 


T S 


E (s) . 


2 


2 


14 


9 


— 




— 




— 


— 


F (6) . 


II 


10 


61 


48 


— 




— 




— 


— 


G (7) . 


II 


ID 


lOI 


76 


20 


7 


— 




— 


— 


H (8) . 


98 


46 


106 


83 


93 


72 


50 40 




— 


— 


I (9) • 


130 


61 


109 


71 


128 


95 


81 59 




— 


— 


J (10) . 


130 


54 


170 


lOI 


140 


94 


152 125 


50 


45 


82 59 


K (II) . 


128 


40 


163 


68 


168 


94 


177 118 


81 


68 


145 60 


L (12) . 


119 


34 


102 


25 


164 


73 


160 65 


85 


61 


134 57 


M (13) . 


121 


35 


94 


30 


146 


36 


167 57 


77 


51 


145 52 


N (14) . 


58 


12 


95 


14 


72 


13 


113 26 


83 


30 


134 20 


(IS) . 


24 





67 


4 


35 





99 7 


82 


13 


147 ID 


P (16) . 






~ 


■ 


27 





24 3 


44 


12 


108 10 



In the case of each generation the first column (T) gives the numbers of 
nauplii tested, and the second column (S) the numbers of survivors. 



296 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



Table IX. 
Line C7. 



Solution 


So 


Si 


S 


2 


S. 


( 


S4 


S5 




T 


S 


T 


S 


T 


S 


T 


S 


T 


S 


T S 


C (3) . 


6 


3 


— 


- 


— 






- 








D (4) . 


6 


5 


— 


- 


— 


- 


~ 


- 




- 


— 


E (5) . 


97 


43 


16 


16 


— 


- 




- 




- 


— 


F (6) . 


173 


84 


67 


56 


— 


' 




- 






— 


G (7) . 


200 


88 


107 


65 


15 


12 




- 






— 


H (8) . 


202 


72 


131 


73 


38 


31 




- 


17 


10 


72 53 


I (9) • 


205 


58 


161 


lOI 


85 


59 


28 


23 


139 


38 


"8 55 


J (10) . 


162 


50 


187 


82 


123 


81 


49 


34 


199 


71 


175 40 


K (11) . 


95 


33 


167 


53 


142 


98 


61 


46 


204 


55 


199 30 


L (12) . 


40 


5 


112 


12 


167 


94 


87 


32 


204 


56 


249 38 


M(i3) . 


18 





75 


4 


135 


37 


86 


34 


215 


28 


298 16 


N (14) . 






54 


I 


89 


15 


75 


19 


188 


25 


148 2 


(15) . 






21 





35 


2 


5 





63 





51 



In the case of each generation the first column (T) gives the numbers of 
nauplii tested, and the second column (S) the numbers of survivors. 



ZOOLOGICAL RECORD. 

Report of Committee appointed to co-operate with other Sections interested, 
and with the Zoological Society, for the purpose of obtaining support 
for the ' Zoological Record ' (Sir Sidney Harmer, K.B.E., F.R.S., 
Chairman ; Dr. W. T. Calman, C.B., F.R.S., Secretary ; Prof. E. S. 
Goodrich, F.R.S., Prof. D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S.). 

The grant of £50 was paid over to the Zoological Society on June 25, 1937, 
as a contribution towards the cost of preparing and publishing Volume 
LXXII of the Zoological Record for 1935. Referring to the ' Record Fund ' 
the report of the Council of the Zoological Society for 1936 states : ' It will 
be seen that the position has not improved, and the loss on each volume is 
still very heavy, much in excess of the contribution of £5°° per annum made 
by this Society, so that unfortunately the Reserve Fund stands lower at 
December 31st than it did at the end of the previous year.' It appears 
from this that no progress is evident in the direction of making the Record 
self-supporting and that only a continuance of help from the various con- 
tributing societies will ensure the continuation of this indispensable pub- 
lication. The Committee accordingly asks for reappointment, with the 
renewal of the grant of £50. 



WINDERMERE FRESHWATER BIOLOGICAL STATION 297 



FRESHWATER BIOLOGICAL STATION, WINDERMERE. 

Report of Committee appointed to aid competent investigators selected by 
the Committee to carry out definite pieces of work at the Freshwater 
Biological Station, Wray Castle, Windermere (Prof. F. E. Fritsch, 
F.R.S., Chairman ; Prof. P. A. Buxton, Secretary ; Miss P. M. 
Jenkin, Dr. C. H. O'Donoghue (from Section D) ; Dr. W. H, 
Pearsall [from Section K). 

During the current year the British Association's table at the laboratory 
has been occupied by Mr. R. Misra, working under the general direction of 
Dr. W. H. Pearsall of the University of Leeds. Mr. Misra has carried out 
his work in close collaboration with members of the Association's staff. A 
full account of his work has been prepared for publication as a scientific 
paper. The following short account of the work has been drawn up by 
Mr. Misra. 



Lake Muds and their Plant Successions. 

Under the guidance of Dr. W. H. Pearsall this subject has been studied 
in the Lake District during a period of two years. The investigations were 
carried out in the Freshwater Biological Laboratory for the two summers 
1935-36, and the rest of the period has been occupied in chemical analysis 
of field collections at the University of Leeds. 

It has been shown during my work that the plants attached to lake bottoms 
are greatly influenced by the nature of the substratum ; their successions 
have been traced to chemical and physical changes taking place in the mud. 
In shallow water Littorella and Lobelia give way to Phragmites as the bottom 
gets older and more organic, and in deeper water Isoetes gives place first to 
pond weeds, then to water-lilies, and finally to sedges as similar changes take 
place in the mud. These changes in the lake floor are therefore very im- 
portant in deciding the quality and quantity of vegetation in a lake. 

During the development of a plant succession, the lake muds do not 
become very acid as do terrestrial soils undergoing similar changes in the 
same district ; for instance, in young or newly-colonised muds the p¥L 
range is very wide. But the pW range for organic muds is very narrow, 
the average figure being 5-8-60. Since the organic muds become ex- 
tremely acid upon exposing them to air for some time, it is believed that the 
acidity under water is kept down by special types of anaerobic decomposition. 

The ammonium thiocyanate test for detecting soil sourness was developed 
by Comber, and is frequently used by agriculturists for that purpose ; but 
it would not work with lake muds, for it depends upon the presence of ferric 
iron, and in lake muds the iron is present in a reduced condition. This 
method has now been modified to apply to lake muds. This is done by 
oxidising the iron by hydrogen peroxide. A large number of samples 
studied by the modified technique show that the muds become deficient 
in lime as they accumulate organic matter. Plants like Littorella and 
Isoetes cannot grow upon these lime-deficient muds, although the pond weeds 
do well there. 



M 



298 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Decomposition of organic matter in the mud has been studied in some 
detail. Starting from bare sand or silt it has been shown that as the organic 
matter increases in the mud there is an increasing loss of carbon in the form 
of marsh gas and possibly some carbonic acid gas, whereas the nitrogen is 
retained upon the finely divided particles of mud in the form of ammonia. 
This process increases the fertility of the lake bottom up to about 25 per 
cent, organic content. Should the organic matter exceed this limit de- 
composition is retarded and subaqueous peat is formed, which may remain 
sterile or be colonised by sedges. As these changes progress the mud loses 
calcium available for plant growth, and iron and aluminium become the 
replaceable ions, while sulphides also accumulate ; all these substances are 
toxic to many of the pond weeds. An analysis of plants collected in nature 
showed corresponding changes with regard to these elements. Many 
species were also transplanted to glass jars containing the different types of 
muds and sunk in the lake. The crops produced from them confirmed the 
above conclusions. 

Further methods have been evolved, including electrical appliances to 
measure the reducing property of muds ; it has been shown that the reducing 
property becomes stronger with increasing organic content ; as a result, 
when the muds are kept in contact with water, the oxygen dissolved in the 
water is rapidly used up. This is a fact of great biological importance, for 
it means that organisms in the muds must live under anaerobic conditions. 



CYTOLOGY AND GENETICS. 

Report of co-ordinating committee for Cytology and Genetics (Prof. Dame 
Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, G.B.E., Chairman ; Dr. F. W. Sansome, 
Secretary; Prof. F. T. Brooks, F.R.S., Prof. F. A. E. Crew, 
Dr. C. D. Darlington, Prof. R. A. Fisher, F.R.S., Mr. E. B. 
Ford, Prof. R. R. Gates, F.R.S., Dr. C. Gordon, Dr. Hammond, 
Dr. J. S. Huxley, Dr. T. J. Jenkin, Dr. K. Mather, Dr. W. B. 
TuRRiLL, Dr. C. H. Waddington. 

Since cytology and genetics are the concern of more than one Section of the 
Association, the Committee was formed in 1936 to assist Organising Com- 
mittees and Recorders in arranging joint sessions and in ensuring that 
papers of common interest were not given at the same time in different 
Sections. 

The Committee realise that many of the facts of cytology and genetics 
are not readily assimilated by workers in other biological fields and that the 
difficulty is enhanced by the development of a specialised terminology. 
They therefore approached the Organising Committee of Sections D and K 
with a suggestion that a morning should be devoted to a joint symposium 
and arranged for the presentation of coherent accounts of recent work in 
their subjects in such a way as to avoid unnecessary technicalities. The 
Organising Committee have approved this proposal. Should it be success- 
ful, the Committee believe that the formation of such symposia and the 
presentation of cytological and genetical demonstrations will form an im- 
portant part of their duties, and will be of value to the members of the 
Association. 

A number of papers have been grouped in the above-mentioned sym- 
posium, a second series are associated in the form of a discussion on Genetics 



KENT'S CAVERN 299 

and Taxonomy. The Committee therefore hope that they have made a 
useful step in the required direction and desire to place on record their 
appreciation of the encouragement and aid they have received from the 
Secretariats of the Sections concerned. 



KENT'S CAVERN. 



Report of Committee appointed to co-operate with the Torquay Antiquarian 
Society hi investigating Kent's Cavern (Sir A. Keith, F.R.S., Chair- 
man ; Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., F.B.A., Secretary ; Mr. M. C. 
BuRKiTT, Miss D. A. E. Garrod, Mr. A. D. Lacaille). 

Report on Excavations at Kent's Cavern. 

The following report has been received from the excavators : — 

' The season 1936-7 lasted from September 15, 1936, to March 29, 1937, 
and excavating work was carried on in the " Vestibule " during forty-eight 
days. On December 28 the searching party had the assistance of Prof. 
R. Ruggles Gates, F.R.S. The area in which digging was continued was much 
the same as last year, but the excavators were successful in penetrating to 
a depth about 30 ft. below the datum line, which is about 8 ft. lower than 
was reached last season. On the way down, several large limestone rocks 
were met, which had to be broken up and removed as the work progressed ; 
but fortunately it was found that more mammalian remains than usual were 
discovered at the lowest point. Flints have been rather scarce, only one 
of the Levallois type and a few Aurignacian being discovered. Teeth and 
bones have both been numerous, the remains of hyena being especially in 
evidence, outnumbering even those of the horse, the most outstanding 
being the skull of an adult hyena with twelve teeth in position ; a pre-ante- 
penultimate milk molar of a mammoth with the grinding surface well worn, 
also a true molar weighing two pounds and a portion of the mandible of a 
very young mammoth, including the symphysis ; the left ramus of a bison's 
jaw, which is believed to be the longest jaw ever found in the Cavern ; large 
portions of jaws of Irish deer ; a distal pair of vestigial metacarpals, and 
part of the sternum of a reindeer ; but the most interesting find was a large 
piece of the palmate portion of a deer's antler, found at a depth of nearly 
30 ft., which is not yet identified, although it presents certain features similar 
to some antlers of reindeer.' 

(Signed) Arthur H. Ogilvie, E. H. Rogers, B. N. Tebbs. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, with a further grant. 



300 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



DERBYSHIRE CAVES. 

Fifteenth Interim Report of Committee appointed to co-operate with a Com- 
mittee of the Royal Anthropological Institute in the exploration of Caves 
in the Derbyshire District (Mr. M. C. Burkitt, Chairman ; Mr. A. 
Leslie Armstrong, Secretary ; Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., Miss 
D. A. E. Garrod, Dr. J. Wilfrid Jackson, Prof. L. S. Palmer, 
Mr. H. J. E. Peake). 

Creswell Crags. — Mr. Leslie Armstrong, F.S.A., reports as follows : 

' Boat House Cave. — The work here has proved both arduous and baffling 
owing to unexpected difficulties encountered. In my last report reference 
is made to the removal of material introduced into the cave as puddling, 
when the embankment of the adjoining lake was constructed. This 
averages 6 ft. in thickness, two-thirds of it being stiff red clay. At the 
time of writing the 1936 report what was assumed to be breccia, or stalag- 
mite, covering the floor of the cave, had been reached over a small area, 
but further excavation revealed that this substance was concrete laid 
down before the introduction of the puddled clay, and not stalagmite. 
As the work proceeded this concrete was found to rise along the side 
of the cave in a series of 12-in. steps and to extend in the form of a wall, 
2 ft. thick and 5 ft. in height, across the entrance. Owing to its thickness 
and consistency, the concrete on the floor resisted all efforts to break through 
it by means of wedges and chisels and, ultimately, blasting has had to be 
resorted to. For the carrying out of this I am indebted to the Bolsover 
Colliery Company and to the Manager of the Creswell CoUiery, who kindly 
furnished the necessary drilling machine and explosives and permitted one 
of their expert shot firers to do the blasting. An area of 6 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in, 
of the floor concrete has been removed in this manner and the underlying 
cave earth is now exposed in readiness for excavation. A superficial ex- 
amination of the cave earth after the final shot yielded a mineralised bone, 
apparently reindeer, and other material which indicates that it is true cave 
earth. The whole of the material overlying the concrete has now been 
removed and its surface is exposed over half the area of the cave ; therefore 
a systematic examination of the cave earth can be proceeded with and will 
shortly be undertaken. 

'T/ze Yew Tree Shelter. — This is situated on the north side of the Gorge, 
opposite to the Boat House Cave. As the work in the Boat House did not 
require constant supervision, the excavation of this extensive rock shelter, 
which has been awaiting a suitable opportunity, was commenced in the 
autumn of 1936 and is still in hand. A sparse, but consistent, occupation 
is revealed which, in general character, appears to be contemporary with 
that of the Lower Middle and Middle zones of Mother Grundy's Parlour. 
One quartzite implement, from the base of the deposit, is of Mousterian 
type. The occupation of the site was an occasional and not a constant 
occupation, but the abundance of pot boilers and burnt flints indicate that 
it was a hving and not merely a workshop site. The associated fauna, so 
far recovered, includes mammoth, reindeer, horse, bison and hyaena. 

' 112 sq. ft. have been completely excavated and the upper layer over a 
further 70 sq. ft. examined. 

'Whalley Rock Shelter. — In January, Dr. Arthur Court, of Chesterfield, 
brought to my notice a small rock shelter at Whalley, situated geographically 



MINING SITES IN WALES 301 

between Creswell Crags and Langwith Cave, and he co-operated with me in 
excavating it during May and June last. This proved to be a workshop site 
and yielded 160 artifacts. In general facies and in the fauna, this site agrees 
with the Creswell rock shelters and is contemporary in date therewith. 

' A special exhibition of the whole of the artifacts and a representative 
selection of animal remains, obtained in the Pin Hole Cave and Mother 
Grundy's Parlour excavations, was displayed at the British Museum from 
November 1936 to May 1937. 

'Thanks are extended to Mr. Reginald A. Smith, F.S.A., Keeper of the 
Department of British and Medieval Antiquities, for providing the facilities 
and arranging this exhibition. 

' A further grant is earnestly requested by the Committee for the continua- 
tion of the work in the Boat House Cave and at the Yew Tree rock shelter, 
Creswell.' 



MINING SITES IN WALES. 

Report of Committee appointed to investigate early mining sites in Wales 
(Mr. H. J. E. Peake, Chairman ; Mr. Oliver Davies, Secretary ; 
Prof. V. Gordon Childe, Dr. C. H. Desch, F.R.S., Mr. E. Estyn 
Evans, Prof. H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., Prof. C. Daryll Forde, Sir 
Cyril Fox, Dr. Willoughby Gardner, Dr. F. J. North, Mr. V. E. 
Nash Williams). 

The committee reports that excavations have been carried out in the spring 
and summer of 1937 on a number of ancient mining-dumps in Wales. 

At Cwm Ystwyth permission to excavate was most kindly granted by 
Mr. Fermanoglu. The tips below the opencast at the top of the Comet 
Lode on Copper Hill were sectioned in several places. They were found 
to have been carefully picked over in ancient times, so that they contained 
little quartz or galena. On them are a great number of formless stone 
hammers, usually with marks of pounding at one end, while the sides are 
finely polished as a result of their use as muUers. They are always slightly 
broken, perhaps to obtain a good grip. They are made of a local rock, 
which, however, does not occur commonly, and was clearly sought for its 
hardness. There was also found part of a saddle quern. These tools 
differ from those which occur on the tips below the main opencast and on 
the ' Roman Dumps ' at the Kingsland Lode. There one finds cup-marked 
stones used for pounding, but hammers do not occur and must have been of 
iron. The Kingsland Lode is known to have been exploited as late as 1800, 
and the cup-marked querns may therefore be attributed to the seventeenth or 
eighteenth century. The age of the workings and tools on the Comet Lode 
could not be determined, but they are clearly considerably older. At the 
same time the narrow chisel-cut galleries in the region of the main opencast, 
though of a type which might be considered Roman in South Europe, 
probably belong to a more recent period in Wales. It thus appears that the 
earliest miners at Cwm Ystwyth attacked one rather small outcrop in a large 
mineralised area. This careless neglect of the greater part of an ore-deposit 
is characteristic of the users of stone hammers in West Wales. • 

A small test was carried out on the ancient dump at Nantyreira. There 
were found three thick charcoal strata separated by layers of stones and 
mud, and overlying a deep bank of stones which rested directly on till. In 



303 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

the lowest layer were several formless polished stone hammers. These 
did not occur at higher levels, and the charcoal layers may be more recent ; 
perhaps the earliest miners worked by fire-setting, and their successors, 
in cleaning out the opencast, threw out the charcoal which was reposing in 
it. The extent of the prehistoric workings seems to have been small. 
Though chalcopyrite occurs at Nantyreira, the only ore found in the dumps 
was galena and cerussite, and even this was rare. 

A thorough examination of the mine at Newtown was made with the per- 
mission of Mr. F. Bennett Lloyd of the Celynog Estate Office. It has long 
been known that there were old workings in Newtown Park, consisting of a 
shaft and gallery. A lower adit, just above the river-level, is now closed. 
The upper gallery has partly fallen in ; it cannot be followed very far, and it 
branches on both sides. In the loose material of the floor was found what 
seemed to be a circular chipped stone lid, such as are common in Wales but 
difficult to date. Further evidence was, however, obtained from the river- 
bank. The hill rises steeply, and immediately below it a soft yellow layer, 
resembling denuded material, overlies stiff yellow clay, probably boulder- 
clay in situ, which hardly emerges above the level of the water. In the 
upper yellow layer were found fragments of slag and fused furnace lining ; 
half-way up the hill was a fragment of metallic lead. These then appear to 
be derived from a hilltop furnace, whose exact site could not be located. 
It must clearly antedate the introduction of water-driven bellows, and is 
not improbably Roman, as we have evidence for the intensive Roman occupa- 
tion of the Upper Severn Valley and their interest in the mineral resources of 
the district (e.g. slag and ore specimens from Caersws and Forden). 

Fresh evidence for the chronology of stone mining-tools has recently 
been provided by a small excavation on a Roman tip on Parys Mt. and 
by a preliminary survey of the Llandudno area. At the former the lowest 
levels contain no stone tools and much quartz, and are clearly derived from 
primitive working. The upper levels had many stone tools used as hammers, 
muUers and querns. Mr. Fanning Evans reports the discovery on the 
mountain of a proper saddle-quern, such as accompany stone hammers at 
Cwm Ystwryth. Formless hammers found on the dumps at Great Orme's 
Head exactly resemble those from Cwm Ystwyth. There is good evidence 
for dating the Orme's Head mines to the later Roman period, and Parys 
was probably exploited at the same time, though it is not unlikely that it did 
not close down until after the Roman era. It thus appears that the formless 
hammer-muller-quern is Roman, and we may therefore provisionally assign 
to this period Cwm Ystwyth and the group of early workings round Plyn- 
limon, as has long been suspected but has not been previously proved. 

The Orme's Head mines also yielded a stone muller of the shape of a 
flattened sphere with a thumb-hole. Tools of this type are figured by 
Evans, but little was loiown of their date. The Roman dumps appear 
extensive, and are only partially covered by modern refuse ; it is hoped 
later to carry out a detailed survey of them . 

From somewhere in the Trecastell mine Mr. Trevethan reports a large 
perforated stone hammer. Near the bottom of the hill were found several 
unperf orated smoothed stone hammers, differing from the previous group 
in having a slight rill for a handle. They had almost certainly been washed 
down from an old series of tips at the first and second levels. The workings 
corresponding to these tips have been cut with iron gads, and it is almost 
certain that the ore was extracted on wheeled trolleys or sledges. The 
latter feature seems medieval in all parts of Europe. The former are not 
known at any Roman mine in Wales save Dolaucothy, which is stylistically 
advanced probably because it was a state-directed enterprise. Thus we 



MINING SITES IN WALES 303 

may probably assign Trecastell to post-Roman times, and as it is known to 
have been vigorously exploited in the early seventeenth century, perforated 
and rilled hammers seem to have continued in use until that date. This 
conclusion is borne out by the late date of the roughly rilled hammers from 
Alderley Edge. 

The objects from Cwm Ystwyth have been sent to the National Museum 
of Wales. Those from the Montgomeryshire mines have been deposited 
at Welshpool and a full report of these excavations -will be published in the 
Montgomery Collections of the Powysland Club. The hammers from near 
Llandudno have been sent to Cardiff, save for one specimen which has been 
left in the Llandudno Museum ; those from Parys have been sent to Bangor 
Museum. 

The following rough ore-analyses have been carried out at Belfast : 

(a) Chalcopyrite, Nantyreira : Cu 28-71 per cent., Fe 30-0 per cent., 
Sb o- 36 per cent., Pb i -16 per cent., sulphur present, no Ag, Bi, Zn, Ni, Co. 

(b) Chalcopyrite in quartz, from the ancient tip, Nantyrarian : Cu 13-14 
per cent., Fe 14-83 per cent., Zn 18-78 percent.. Pb 0-6 per cent., Sbo-04 
per cent., Ni considerable traces, as traces, no Co, Ag, Bi. 

(c) Chalcopyrite in quartz veins, Nantyricket, from the next tip to the 
ancient working at Lloches y Ladron, on the eastward continuation of the 
vein : Cu 20-89 per cent., Fe 24-31 per cent., Pb 0-51 per cent., sulphur 
present, Ag traces, as considerable traces, Sb, Bi, Zn, Ni, Co none. 

(d) Impregnations of chalcopyrite and galena from the tips, Daren Fawr : 
Cu a little, Pbo-8 per cent., Fe4-26 percent., Ni, Co, Zn, Sb, Ag, Bi none. 

(e) Hard, heavy slag from Bryn Gefeiliau near Llanfihangel-Pennant 
(Caernarvon), received from Mr. Hemp ; the slag is fairly well fused and 
looks very ferruginous, resembling bloomery slag: Fe 37-35 per cent., 
Zn 14-51 per cent., no Cu, Pb. It is difficult to decide whether this slag is 
derived from zinc-smelting or from iron-working with an ore which hap- 
pened to contain much zinc ; the temperature of bloomery slag would 
hardly be sufficient to volatilise zinc. It is hoped later to excavate the site. 

(/) Black compact hillside slag, Mvv^n-Bwll, apparently derived from a 
now denuded heap ; the piece had been rolled and was rather flaky : 
Pb 9-74 percent., Zn 10-21 per cent., Fe 11 -51 per cent., no Bi, Cu. The 
position of the slag should date it to a period when zinc was very little sought, 
so it is probably derived from lead-working. 

(g) Slag from a riverside site just east of Penrhyn-coch village, received 
from Mr. Jenan Williams through Mr. E. E. Evans. Not far off is an old 
ieat. The site is near the sixteenth-century mine of Bryn Llwyd, and the 
situation suggests that it belongs to the early days of the revived mining 
industry. The specimens received were fused furnace-lining, made of 
impure gritty clay, showing a little lead on analysis ; also fused stone. 
Pieces thought to be nietallic slag have been found previously, some of which 
occluded a little lead ore. 



304 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



BLOOD GROUPS. 

Report of Committee on the Blood Grouping of Primitive Peoples (Prof. 
H. J. Fleure, F.R.S., Chairman ; Prof. R. Ruggles Gates, F.R.S., 
Secretary ; Prof. J. H. HuTTON, CLE., Mr. R. U. Sayce). 

During the past year over 400 natives have been tested at Kohima and 
Mokokchung in the Naga Hills, Assam, under the general direction of the 
Honorary Director of Ethnography, with serum supplied by the Haflfldne 
Institute in Bombay. Many of these belong to the related tribes, Angamis, 
Lhotas, Semas and Rengmas. Many are Konyaks, while others belong to 
the Aos and the Thado Kuki. Significant differences in blood grouping 
already appear, and the work is being continued until larger numbers are 
available, in order to distinguish between the various tribes and groups 
tested. Mr. S. S. Sarkar, of the Bose Institute, Calcutta, is testing aboriginal 
tribes, the Male and Santal, in the Santal Perganas district of Bihar. Dr. 
Eileen W. Macfarlane has been continuing her blood grouping in India, 
combining it with anthropometric measurements. Two papers are in the 
press. 

Serum was sent to the Canadian Governnient Expedition which spent 
the years 1934-36 studying the Eskimos in the area west of Hudson Bay. 
One hundred and twenty-six ' natives ' were tested, but the results are not 
being published until fuller information can be obtained from another 
Expedition this year. 

Nearly 300 Micmac Indians were tested with the help of Prof. Ralph 
Smith, Pathologist, Halifax, N.S. These included nearly 100 children 
from the Indian school at Shubenacadie, the remainder being mainly adults 
from two Indian reservations on Cape Breton Island. A paper on the 
Micmac Indians, who are even more mixed with white blood than the 
British Columbian Indians, is now in course of publication. 

A satisfactory arrangement for blood grouping the Iroquois and Ojibway 
Indians of Canada has not yet been reached. 

Prof. W. R. Morse, Dean of the College of Medicine in Chengtu, 
Western China, has succeeded in obtaining the blood groups of many Chwan 
Miao, as well as of 1,312 Szechwanese. A short paper on this subject is in 
the press. 

A small pamphlet has been produced, pointing out the significance of 
the blood groups and the method by which they can be taken and recorded. 
This is available for distribution to local medical practitioners who may be 
interested and who reside in parts of the British Isles with pockets of popu- 
lation which may show peculiar blood group percentages combined with 
other physical differences. In this way it is hoped to initiate local blood 
group surveys in some of the more isolated parts of the country. 



SCIENCE IN ADULT EDUCATION | 305 



SCIENCE IN ADULT EDUCATION 

Report of Committee appointed to cpnsider and report on the place of Science 
in Adult Education (Dr. A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Chairman ; Mr. 
A. Gray Jones, Secretary ; Mrs. V. Adams, Prof. W. B. Brierley, 
Prof. L. E. S. Eastham, Sir Richard Gregory, Bt., F.R.S., Mr. 
A. E. Henshall, Prof. R. Peers). 

Contents. 

1. Introduction. 

2. Statistical Summary of Classes held under the Adult Educa- 

tion Regulations and under the Regulations for Further 
Education. 

3. The Aims of Science Teaching in Adult Education. 

4. Suggestions for the Teaching of various subjects. 

5. Appendix. Specimen detailed Syllabuses and Bibliographies. 

I. Introduction. 

This report is necessarily brief and should be regarded as complementary 
to the interim report presented at the Leicester Meeting in 1933. That 
report was the work of an earlier Committee appointed at the York Meeting 
in 1932. The Committee comprehensively surveyed the position of science 
teaching in adult education and made a number of valuable suggestions 
and recommendations, but for various reasons was unable to complete the 
scheme of work proposed. 

The present Committee was appointed at the Blackpool Meeting in 1936. 
They felt that in the light of experience gained since the issue of the 1933 
Report, their terms of reference could most usefully be discharged by rapidly 
surveying the present position of science in adult classes, by defining the 
aims of science teaching and by presenting a series of agreed recommenda- 
tions on the content of such teaching. Their work has thus to some extent 
proceeded on lines projected by the previous Committee. 

The Report therefore opens with a statistical survey designed to show 
the number and percentages of adult educational classes studying one or 
other of the various branches of science. The statistics demonstrate the 
very modest position occupied by Science classes. 

This is followed by a brief summary of the aims of science teaching in 
adult education, in which emphasis is laid on the social implications of 
science and its impact on the life of the community. 

The next section provides a number of positive suggestions for the teaching 
of various scientific subjects. These take the form in each case of a brief 
summary of agreed opinion as to the general ground to be covered in (a) one 
year ; (b) three year courses. 

An appendix provides detailed syllabuses and bibliographies in biology, 
geology, and psychology, which may serve as examples. 

The Committee trust that the topics suggested and the detailed syllabuses 
provided will be useful to all who are concerned to widen the field of science 
teaching in adult education. They believe that this can most fruitfully be 
done if the social implications of science are borne in mind. The relation- 
ship between science and the life of the community is emphasised in these 
suggestions, for the mature adult student becomes conscious of that relation- 
ship not only through his studies but also through his experience of life. 



3o6 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



2. A Statistical Summary of Adult Educational Classes. 

The following statistics of classes are compiled mainly from the Board of 
Education's Annual Report for 1935 (issued in October 1936). They show 
what subjects are taken in adult education classes recognised by the Board, 
under the Adult Education Regulations. 



Classification of subjects other than those in Vacation Courses and Residential 

Colleges. 





Year 


ended July 31, 1935. 








Preparatory, Three Year and Advanced 






Tutorial Classes. 








Students in Attendance 




Subject. 










Courses. 


Men. 


Women. 


Total. 


Literature and Language . 


172 


1,190 


1.843 


3,033 


Economics 


133 


1,616 


399 


2,015 


History, General 


79 


850 j 556 


1,406 


History, Industrial . 


23 


279 1 130 


409 


Geography 


14 


183 102 


285 


Aesthetics (including Music, 








Art, etc.) 


32 


224 1 372 


596 


Natural Science 


55 


667 349 


1,016 


Sociology 


122 


1,576 668 


2,244 


Philosophy and Psychology 


153 


1,522 1 1,372 


2,894 


Total 


783 


8,107 5,791 


13,898 




One Ye 


ir, Terminal and Short 
Courses. 


Terminal 


Literature and Language . 


326 


2,151 4,283 


6,434 


Economics 


98 


1,412 460 


1,872 


History, General 




173 


1,825 1,844 


3,669 


History, Industrial 




54 


593 421 


1,014 


Geography 




34 


365 276 


641 


Aesthetics 




114 


977 1,261 


2,238 


Natural Science 




154 


1,958 1,122 


3,080 


Sociology 




244 


3,113 1,808 


4,921 


Philosophy and Psychology 


162 


1,769 1,830 


3,599 


Total 


■ 


1,359 


14,163 13,30s 


27,468 



SCIENCE IN ADULT EDUCATION 



30"/ 



University Extension Courses and Short University Extension Courses. 






Students in Attendance. 


Subject. 


Courses. 


Men. Women. Total. 


Literature and Language . 


95 


591 


1,292 


1,883 


Economics 


34 


592 


140 


732 


History, General 




38 


358 


452 


810 


History, Industrial 




6 


86 


31 


117 


Geography 




8 


47 


71 


118 


Aesthetics 




42 


330 


494 


824 


Natural Science 




28 


339 


274 


613 


Sociology 




62 


737 


582 


1.319 


Philosophy and Psychology 


57 


633 


808 


1,441 


Total . 


• 


370 


3,713 


4.144 


7,857 



These figures indicate the lowly position held by Science classes. 

Of the 783 Preparatory, Three Year and Advanced Tutorial Classes, 
only 55 or 7 per cent, are in natural science. Of the 1,359 Oi^e Year, 
Terminal and Short Terminal Courses, 154 or 11 per cent., and of the 370 
University Extension Courses and Short University Extension Courses, 
28 or 8 per cent, are in Natural Science. 

A comparative table for the years 1933, 1934 and 1935 emphasises the 
fact that Science is not a popular subject. 



Year. 


Preparatory, Three Year and 
Advanced Tutorial. 


One Year, Terminal 
and Short Terminal. 


University 
Extension. 


1933 
1934 
1935 


(a) Total Classes 

(b) Science 

(a) Total Classes 

(b) Science 

(a) Total Classes 
(6) Science 


762 
40 

747 
45 

783 
55 


1,263 
117 

1,276 
141 

1,359 
154 


368 
36 

360 
26 

370 
28 



The Workers' Educational Association, in their Annual Report for the 
year 1936, provide a subject analysis of their classes (Advanced Tutorial, 
Tutorial, Preparatory, One Year, Terminal, etc.) which shows that out of a 
total of 3,863 classes only 339 or 8-35 per cent, are in Science. These 



3o8 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 



totals naturally include most of the courses already enumerated in the 
Table quoted on p. 306. 

An interesting point here is that the demand for Science classes varies 
as between one district and another, e.g. : 



District. 


Total Classes. 


Science. 


Per cent, of 
Total. 


Eastern 


113 


13 


II 


North-East 


234 


12 


5 


South-East 


94 


2 


2 


West Lanes. 


154 


17 


II 


London 


232 


2 


I 


East Midlands . 


206 


33 


15 


West Midlands . 


99 


3 


3 


Southern . 


64 


3 


5 


Berks, Bucks and Oxon 


52 


6 


II 


North Staffs. 


41 


2 


5 


Western . 


145 


13 


9 


North-Western . 


141 


■ 8 


6 


South-Western . 


157 


16 


10 


North Yorks. 


292 


27 


9 


South Yorks. 


227 


23 


10 


North Wales 


154 


9 


6 


South Wales 


265 


12 


5 


Scotland . 


192 


38 


20 



The comparatively high percentages in Scotland and the East Midlands 
are noteworthy, also the low percentages in London, South Wales, the 
South-East, and West Midland districts. 

It may be of interest to note the classes in natural sciences at the evening 
institutes and colleges (i.e. classes for people engaged in some occupation 
in the daytime, who attend classes organised under schemes for technical 
or part-time education). These classes are conducted by Local Education 
Authorities under the Regulations for Further Education. 



Year. 


Evening Institutes. 


Evening Classes in • 
Colleges. 


1935 


Total 
Natural Sci. 


Classes. 

73,970 

2,742 


Students. 

1,716,238 

56,966 


Classes. 

27,505 
2,722 


Students. 

538,026 

54,006 



Expressed as percentages, these figures show that 4 per cent, of the classes 
(having 3 per cent, of the total students) are in natural sciences. The 
Science subjects taken are : 



SCIENCE IN ADULT EDUCATION 



309 





Evening Institutes. 


Evening Classes in 
Colleges. 




Classes. 


Class Entries. 


Classes. 


Class Entries. 


General Science 


1,763 


41,045 


146 


2,951 


Physics 


498 


8,727 


1,124 


23,652 


Chemistry 


303 


4,250 


1,104 


21,331 


Geology 


9 


201 


46 


65 


Biology 


45 


766 


44 


779 


Physiology 


34 


704 


41 


930 


Botany . 


81 


1,059 


177 


3,031 


Zoology 


I 


18 


36 


585 


Nature Study 


8 


196 


4 


94 


Totals of all classes 








in Natural Sciences 


2,742 


56,966 


2,722 


54,006 



3. The Aims of Science Teaching in Adult Education. 

The aims of science teaching in adult education may be briefly sum- 
marised as follows : 

1. The study of science is a discipline which helps to develop a systematic, 
accurate and objective inquiry into ascertained facts. In this way powers 
of observation, criticism and diagnosis are promoted. 

2. It is a cultural activity that broadens the student's outlook and en- 
courages him to seek an understanding of the fundamental facts of life. He 
is thus led to co-ordinate and synthesise his knowledge. 

3. The use of scientific methods gives practice in clear thinking and 
impartial judgment. 

4. The teaching of science provides knowledge likely to be of interest 
throughout life, by giving a wider meaning to personal experience and to 
the observation of natural phenomena, and a keener apprehension of the 
general principles underlying the structure of our material environment. 
In this sense a wise use of leisure is fostered. 

5. A student will be led to recognise the part played by science and 
scientific achievement in moulding the society of to-day, and he will thus 
acquire a fuller understanding of human activity and of the manifold 
aspects of social development. 

6. By apprehending the impact of science on the life of the community, 
a student will appreciate many of the forces that are continually re-shaping 
the fabric of our social life. 

7. In realising the function of science as a co-operative enterprise of man- 
kind, unhindered by racial or geographical frontiers, the student acquires 
a sense of social solidarity which should assist in the removal of barriers 
between nations and between different sections of society. 

The Committee consider that there will be general agreement with this 
summary. Nevertheless they recognise that tutors and administrators 



3IO REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

may be in some doubt as to the precise means whereby these aims can be 
achieved. The issue of a memorandum by the Board of Education (A.E.R. 
No. 7) in 1935 appears to have caused some confusion in this respect, 
although it does not appear that the Board have placed any obstacle in the 
way of any reasonable course in natural science for adult students. 

The Committee consider that this memorandum was based upon a wrong 
conception of the scope and function of science teaching in adult education, 
in particular : 

(i) Its insistence upon experimental work is too rigid, and fails to recog- 
nise the difference in the conditions governing adult education from those 
of academic work. 

(2) Its partial condemnation of the historical method for the teaching of 
science is not justified by experience, which shows that a student can acquire 
a valuable degree of understanding even of an experimental science such as 
chemistry, through the skilled presentation of the history of the science. 

(3) It underrates the social implications of science. In adult education 
it is necessary to begin at a point where the interest of the students can be 
secured. It is to a great extent in social history and conditions that they 
are interested, and the impact of science on the life of the community and 
of themselves is of fundamental importance and forms an excellent starting 
point for arousing interest in the study of science for its own sake. 

(4) Adult classes do not, and in the Committee's view should not, view 
the study of science with the somewhat academic outlook that still obtains 
in the Universities and schools. To the adult student science should be 
a branch of human study associated more or less closely with human 
activities, since scientific achievement has a direct contact with social 
development. 

4. Suggestions for the Teaching of Scientific Subjects. 

The Committee realise that there will be a great diversity of opinion 
among tutors and organisers as to the manner in which a subject should be 
studied by adult classes. Equally there is considerable variation of views 
as to what should be the content of a course in a particular science. This 
will naturally vary with the type of student composing each class. 

But with these reservations the Committee offer the following specimen 
suggestions (which cover only a few subjects) in the hope that they will be 
of service to those engaged in the teaching of science to adult classes. 



Anthropology and Geography. 
One Year Courses. 

(a) The Evolution of Civilisation. — Man becomes man on grasslands and 
learns to walk erect, he becomes a hunter, woman remains a collector. 
The spread of desert over erstwhile grasslands through climatic changes 
following the passing away of the great ice sheets of the Pleistocene Ice 
Ages leads to concentration of population near rivers and springs and to 
care of plants (by the women) whence origins of cultivation in Egypt, 
Mesopotamia, etc. At first women's work, but later on domestication of 
animals brings in the men and the plough. Settled life near regularly 
flooding rivers leads to observation of stars and formation of a calendar, 
priesthoods, temples, markets, cities. Spread of civilisation into various 
regions may be outlined. 



SCIENCE IN ADULT EDUCATION 311 

(b) The Races of the Old World. — Man learns to walk erect on the grass- 
lands and improves stereoscopic vision. Woman increases material activities 
and duties (babies helpless till they can walk, a long process of learning). 
Spread of man (a) into equatorial Africa and consequent adaptations — the 
dark glistening skin with large sweat glands, the lips and nose ; (6) into 
Central and East Central Asia, related features the dry yellow-brown skin 
with few pores and so on ; (c) into Europe with neither of these lines of 
specialisation strongly marked, but a tendency to lose pigment. 

Note remnants of ' early ' groups of mankind in far corners — Bushmen 
of S.W. Africa, Australians, Tasmanians, etc., and in equatorial forests 
(Pigmies). 

(c) Society and Liberty. — The routine of agriculture (see (a) ) accom- 
panied by Fertility Rituals. The conquest of one people by another, 
especially tillers by herders. The co-existence of two strongly contrasted 
traditions side by side leads to comparisons and reflections and so to 
emancipation of some minds from domination by ritual. Rise of ' prophets ' 
and ethical and philosophical teaching within a few centuries more or less 
independently in China, India, Iran, Israel and Greece. 

(d) The Nation. — Emergence of a consciousness of kinship beyond the 
local community, importance of a common cradle language and a common 
ruler, influence of a common struggle against foes. S.E. England and 
France (Paris Basin) with easy communications, suitable for relatively 
rapid development of national idea with more centralisation, as time went 
on, in Paris, then to London. Reasons of both physical geography and 
tradition for later development in Germany and Italy. 

(e) What is a Peasantry ? — The local almost self-sufficing agricultural 
community and its more rapid transformation in the West. Land tenure and 
growth of individual property in land . Decline of homecrafts in the West. 
Greater persistence of homecrafts and peasant life in East Central Europe. 

(/) The Idea of the City. — Origin in Mesopotamia and Egypt (see (a) ). 
Transplantation of such a complex set of ideas necessarily slow. Reaches 
Aegean and India about 3000 B.C. and China perhaps a little later. Reaches 
W. Mediterranean after 1000 B.C. Gaul under the Romans, Germany East 
of Rhine, North of Danube in the Middle Ages — and so on. Transplanta- 
tion made much more rapid and easy with rise of large ships and machinery. 

{Note. — Most of these courses could be combined and expanded into three 
year courses, e.g. (a) and (b) could be interwoven and would make a three 
year course and could include discussion of the Jews and the Nordic Idea. 

(a), (c) and (e) could be interwoven as a study of agriculture leading on to 
a comparison especially of Intertropical Africa, India, China, Japan and 
Europe including U.S.S.R. 

Portions of (a), (d), (e), (/) could be linked up in a study of the evolution 
of British Life with a class interested in archaeological work. 

Portions of (d), (e), (/) could be expanded into a review of International 
Problems in Europe. 

Another profitable line would be the Spread of European peoples over 
the New World (three year course), contrasting Spanish, Portuguese and 
Anglo-Saxon schemes and referring to the peoples of older standing in the 
Americas. 

The Arctic Peoples ; Social Hierarchies ; Phases of Maritime Commerce ; 
Features of International Trade especially connected with International 
capitalism, and so on, are all possibilities.) 

Prof. H. J. Fleure. 



312 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, ETC. 

Astronomy. 

In a course of Astronomy intended to interest adult students it is suggested 
that more attention should be given to the reaction and application of 
astronomical observations in everyday life and thought than to descriptions 
of the nature and constitutions of celestial bodies. From the earliest days 
to the present time people have been impressed by what they see in the 
stellar heavens, and they can appreciate more easily such configurations and 
movements than they can understand clearly the significance of many 
discoveries made with the telescope or spectroscope. 

The determination of cardinal points, and the use of observations of stars 
and of the sun to determine positions on the earth for navigational or other 
purposes were widely used long before anything was known about the 
constitutions of these bodies. It is desirable to realise that the knowledge 
of astronomical phenomena among adults generally, or the interest in it, is 
much the same as that of primitive observers. The intention should be, 
therefore, to revive this contact of mind with the