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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



SEVENTH MEETING 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT LIVERPOOL IN SEPTEMBER 1837. 



VOL. VI. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1838. 




riUNTED BY RICHARD AND JOHN E. TAYLOR, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



/ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association v 

Officers and Council viii 

Treasurer's Account xi 

Reports, Researches, and Desiderata xii 

Address of Professor Traill .~. xxv 

Communications to the General Evening Meetings xliii 

REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Report on the Variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at 
different Points of the Earth's Surface. By Major Edward 
Sabine, R.A., F.R.S 1 

Report on the various modes of Printing for the use of the Blind. 
By the Rev. William Taylor, F.R.S ' 87 

Account of the discussions of Observations of the Tides which 
have been obtained by means of the grant of money which was 
placed at the disposal of the Author for that purpose at the last 
Meeting of the Association. By J. W. Lubbock, Esq., F.R.S. 103 

On the difference between the Composition of Cast Iron produced 
by the Cold and the Hot Blast. By Thomas Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S., L. & E., &c, Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow 117 

Notice of the Determination of the Constant of Nutation by the 
Greenwich Observations, made as commanded by the British 
Association. By the Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D 127 

Report of some Experiments on the Electricity of Metallic Veins, 
and the Temperature of Mines. By Robert Were Fox .... 133 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



Provisional Report of the Committee of the Medical Section of the 
British Association, appointed to investigate the Composition 
of Secretions, and the Organs producing them 139 

Report from the Committee for inquiring into the Analysis of the 
Glands, &c, of the Human Body. By G. O. Rees, M.D., F.G.S. 149 

Second Report of the London Sub-Committee of the British Asso- 
ciation Medical Section, on the Motions and Sounds of the Heart 1 55 

On the present state of our knowledge in regard to Dimorphous 
Bodies. By Professor Johnston, F.R.S 163 

Special Report on the Statistics of the Four Collectorates of Duk- 
hun, under the British Government. By Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. 217 

On the relative Strength and other Mechanical Properties of Cast 
Iron obtained by Hot and Cold Blast. By Eaton Hodgkinson 337 

Report on the Strength and other Properties of Iron obtained from 
the Hot and Cold Blast. By William Fairbairn 377 

Report of the Committee on Waves, appointed by the British As- 
sociation at Bristol in 1836, and consisting of Sir John Robi- 
son, K.H., Secretary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and 
John Scott Russell, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. Edinb., (Reporter) 417 

Note by Major Sabine, being an Appendix to his Report on the 
Variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at different Points 
of the Earth's Surface 497 

Report from Mr. James Yates, as one of the Committee for ma- 
king Experiments on the Growth of Plants under Glass, and 
without any free Communication with the outward Air, on the 
Plan of Mr. N. I. Ward, of London 501 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a 
stronger impulse and a more systematic direction to scientific 
inquiiy, — to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate Sci- 
ence in different parts of the British Empire, with one another, 
and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general atten- 
tion to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvan- 
tages of a public kind, which impede its progress. 



RULES. 

MEMBERS. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be 
entitled to become Members of the Association, upon subscri- 
bing an obligation to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philo- 
sophical Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Em- 
pire, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Members of 
the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or managing 
Committees, of Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by 
its Council or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like 
manner, to become Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by 
the General Committee or Council, to become Members of the 
Association, subject to the approval of a General Meeting. 



RULES OF TIIE ASSOCIATION. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



The amount of the Aunual Subscription shall be One Pound, 
to be paid in advance upon admission ; and the amount of the 
composition in lieu thereof, Five Pounds. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secre- 
taries. 

If the annual subscription of any Member shall have been in 
arrear for two years, and shall not be paid on proper notice, he 
shall cease to be a member ; but it shall be in the power of the 
Committee or Council to reinstate him, on payment of arrears. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. 
The place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General 
Committee at the previous Meeting ; and the Arrangements 
for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE*. 

The General Committee shall sit during the time of the 
Meeting, or longer, to transact the business of the Association. 
It shall consist of all Members present, who have communicated 
any scientific Paper to a Philosophical Society, which Paper 
has been printed in its Transactions, or with its concurrence. 

Members of Philosophical Institutions, being Members of 
this Association, who may be sent as Deputies to any Meeting 
of the Association, shall be Members of the Committee for that 
Meeting, the number being limited to two from each Institution. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, 
Committees, consisting severally of the Members most conver- 
sant with the several branches of Science, to advise together for 
the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation 
they would particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the 
ensuing year, and brought under consideration at the next 
Meeting. 

* The constitution of the General Committee was discussed at Liverpool, 
and at the close of the meeting notice was given, that attention would be 
directed to the reconsideration of the laws of the constitution of the General 
Committee at the next meeting of the Association in Newcastle. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. Vll 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and 
progress of particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to 
time by competent persons, for the information of the Annual 
Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OP RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Com- 
mittee, which shall receive and consider the Recommendations 
of the Sectional Committees, and report to the General Com- 
mittee the measures which they would advise to be adopted for 
the advancement of science. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Asso- 
ciation to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may 
desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, two or more Se- 
cretaries, and a Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the 
General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings the affairs of the Association 
shall be managed by a Council, appointed by the General Com- 
mittee. The Council may also assemble for the dispatch of 
business during the week of the Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty 
to reserve his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by 
Auditors appointed by the Meeting. 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1837-38. 



Trustees {permanent.)— Charles Babbage, Esq. R. I. Mur- 
chison, Esq. John Taylor, Esq. 

President. — The Earl of Burlington. 

President elect.— His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. 

Vice-Presidents. — The Bishop of Durham, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Hareourt, F.R.S., &c. Prideaux John 
Selby, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents elect. — The Right Rev. The Bishop of Nor- 
wich. Rev. William Whewell. John Dalton, LL.D. Sir 
Philip Egerton, Bart., M.P. 

General Secretaries. — R. I. Murchison, Esq. Rev. Professor 
Peacock. 

Assistant General -Secretary.— Professor Phillips, York. 

Secretaries for Newcastle. — J. Adamson, Esq. William 
Hutton, Esq. Professor Johnston. 

Treasurer. — John Taylor, Esq., 2, Duke Street, Adelphi. 

Treasurers to the Neiucastle Meeting. — Rev. W. Turner. 
Charles Bigge, Esq. 

Council— Francis Baily, Esq., Treas. R.S. Professor 
Christie, Woolwich. Professor Graham, London. J. E. Gray, 
British Museum. G. B. Greenough, Esq., Regent's Park. 
Professor Henslow, Cambridge. Dr. Hodgkin. Rev. F. W. 
Hope. Robert Hutton, Esq., M.P. W. S. MacLeay, Esq. 
Professor Powell, Oxford. Dr. Roget. Colonel Sykes. 

Secretary to the Council. — James Yates, Esq., 49, Upper 
Bedford Place, London. 

Local Treasurers. — Dr. Daubeny, Oxford. Professor Hens- 
low, Cambridge. Dr. Orpen, Dublin. Charles Forbes, Esq., 
Edinburgh. William Gray, jun., Esq., York. George Ben- 
gough, Esq., Bristol. Samuel Turner, Esq., Liverpool. Rev. 
John James Tayler, Manchester. James Russell, Esq., Bir- 
mingham. William Hutton, Esq., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Henry Woollcombe, Esq., Plymouth. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. IX 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES AT THE 
LIVERPOOL MEETING. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Sir D. Brewster. 

Vice-Presidents.— J ". W. Lubbock, Esq. F. Baily, Esq. 
Rev. Professor Peacock. 

Secretaries.— Bar. Professor Powell. Professor Stevelly. 
W. S. Harris, Esq. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

President. — Dr. Faraday. 

Vice- Presidents.— Professor Daniell. Professor Graham. 
Dr. Apjohn. 

Secretaries.— Professor Johnston. Dr. Reynolds. Pro- 
fessor Miller. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Rev. Professor Sedgwick. (For Geography) 
G. B. Greenough, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents.— Leonard Horner, Esq. Lord Lole. tl. 
T. De la Beche, Esq. 

Secretaries.— Captain Portlock. R. Hutton, Esq. (JJor 
Geography) Captain H. M. Denham, R. N. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

President.— W. S. MacLeay, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. Richardson. Professor Graham. 
Professor Lindley. . 

Secretaries.— C. C. Babington, Esq. W. Swamson, Esq. 
Rev. L. Jenyns. 

SECTION E. MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Professor W. Clark, M.D. 
Vice-Presidents.— James Carson, M.D. Peter Mark Roget, 
M.D. Robert Bickersteth, Esq. Professor R. T. Bvanson, 

M fecretaries.-J a mes Carson, Jan., M.D. J. R. W. Vose, 
M.D. James Long, Esq. 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 



SECTION F. STATISTICS. 



President. — Lord Sandon. 

Vice-Presidents. — Col. Sykes,Esq. G. R. Porter, Esq. James 
Heywood, Esq. 

Secretaries.— W. R. Greg, Esq. Dr. W. C. Taylor. W. 
Langton, Esq. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Lardner. Professor Wheatstone. 
Professor Willis. 

Secretaries. — Thomas Webster, Esq. Charles Vignolles, 
Esq. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Professor Agassiz, Neufchatel. M. Arago, Secretary of the 
Institute, Paris. Professor Berzelius, Stockholm. Professor 
De la Rive, Geneva. Professor Dumas, Paris. Baron Alexan- 
der von Humboldt, Berlin. Professor Liebig, Giessen. Pro- 
fessor CErsted, Copenhagen. Jean Plana, Astronomer Royal, 
Turin. M. Quetelet, Brussels. Professor Schumacher, Altona. 



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xii SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

The following Reports on the 2»'ogress and desiderata of dif- 
ferent branches of science have been drawn up at the request 
of the Association, and printed in its Transactions. 

Vol. I. 

On the progress of Astronomy during the present century, 
by G. B. Airy, M.A., Astronomer Royal. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Tides, by J. W. 
Lubbock, M.A., Vice-President of the Royal Society. 

On the recent progress and present state of Meteorology, 
by James D. Forbes, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy, 
Edinburgh. 

On the present state of our knowledge of the Science of Ra- 
diant Heat, by the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian 
Professor of Geometry, Oxford. 

On Thermo-electricity, by the Rev. James Cumming, M.A., 
F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Cambridge. 

On the recent progress of Optics, by Sir David Brewster, 
K.C.G., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 

On the recent progress and present state of Mineralogy, by 
the Rev. William Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On the progress, actual state, and ulterior prospects of 
Geology, by the Rev. William Conybeare, M.A., F.R.S., 
V.P.G.S., &c. 

On the recent progress and present state of Chemical Science, 
by J. F. W. Johnston, A.M., Professor of Chemistry, Durham. 

On the application of Philological and Physical researches to 
the History of the Human Species, by J. C. Prichard, M.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

Vol. II. 

On the advances which have recently been made in certain 
branches of Analysis, by theRev. G. Peacock, M.A.,F.R.S.,&c. 

On the present state of the Analytical Theory of Hydrostatics 
and Hydrodynamics, by the Rev. John Challis, M. A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the state of our knowledge of Hydraulics, considered as a 
branch of Engineering, by George Rennie, F.R.S. , &c. (Parts 
I. and II.) 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the Magnetism of 
the Earth, by S. H. Christie, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Mathe- 
matics, Woolwich. 

On the state of our knowledge of the Strength of Materials, 
by Peter Barlow, F.R.S. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Mineral Veins, by 
John Taylor, F.R.S., Treasurer G.S., &c. 



DESIDERATA, ETC. Xlll 

On the state of the Physiology of the Nervous System, hy 
William Charles Henry, M.D. 

On the recent progressof Physiological Botany, by John Lind- 
ley, F.R.S., Professor of Botany in the University of London. 

Vol. III. 

On the Geology of North America, by H. D. Rogers, F.G.S. 

On the philosophy of Contagion, byWm. Henry,M.D.,F.R.S. 

On the state of Physiological Knowledge, by the Rev. William 
Clark, M.D., F.G.S. , Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge. 

On the state and progress of Zoology, by the Rev. Leonard 
Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

On the theories of Capillary Attraction, and of the Propaga- 
tion of Sound as affected by the development of Heat, by the 
Rev. John Challis, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the state of the science of Physical Optics, by the Rev. 
H. Lloyd, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy, Dublin. 

Vol. IV. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the application of 
Mathematical and Dynamical principles to Magnetism, Electri- 
city, Heat, &c, by the Rev. Wm. Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On Hansteen's researches in Magnetism, by Captain Sabine, 
F.R.S. 

On the state of Mathematical and Physical Science in Bel- 
gium, by M. Quetelet, Director of the Observatory, Brussels. 

Vol. V. 

On the present state of our knowledge with respect to Mine- 
ral and Thermal Waters, by Charles Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., 
M.R.I. A., &c, Professor of Chemistry and of Botany, Oxford. 

On North American Zoology, by John Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

Supplementary report on the Mathematical Theory of Fluids, 
by the Rev. J. Challis, Plumian Professor of Astronomy in the 
University of Cambridge. 

Vol. VI. 

On the variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at dif- 
ferent points of the Earth's Surface, by Major Edward Sabine, 
R.A., F.R.S. 

On the various modes of Printing for the use of the Blind, 
by the Rev. William Taylor, F.R.S. 

On the present state of our knowledge in regard to Dimor- 
phous Bodies, by Professor Johnston. 

On the Statistics of the Four Collectorates of Dukhun, under 
the British Government. 



SEVENTH REPORT— 1837, 



The following Reports of Researches undertaken at the re- 
quest of the Association have been published, viz. 

Vol. IV. 

On the comparative measurement of the Aberdeen Standard 
Scale, by Francis Baily, Treasurer R.S., &c. 

On Impact upon Beams, by Eaton Hodgkinson. 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial 
Magnetic Force in Ireland, by the Rev. H. Lloyd, Capt. Sabine, 
and Capt. J. C. Ross. 

On the Phaenomena usually referred to the Radiation of Heat, 
by H. Hudson, M.D. 

Experiments on Rain at different elevations, by Wm. Gray, 
jun. and Professor Phillips. 

Hourly observations of the Thermometer at Plymouth, by 
W. S. Harris. 

On the Infra-orbital Cavities in Deers and Antelopes, by A. 
Jacob, M.D. 

On the Effects of Acrid Poisons, by T. Hodgkin, M.D. 

On the Motions and Sounds of the Heart, by the Dublin Sub- 
Committee. 

On the Registration of Deaths, by the Edinburgh Sub-Com- 
mittee. 

Vol. V. 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terres- 
trial Magnetic Force in Scotland, by Major Edward Sabine, 
R.A. : F.R.S., &c. 

Comparative view of the more remarkable Plants which cha- 
racterize the Neighbourhood of Dublin, the Neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh, and the South-west of Scotland, &c; drawn up for 
the British Association, by J. T. Mackay, M.R.I.A., A.L.S., 
&c, assisted by Robert Graham, Esq., M.D., Professor of 
Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 

Report of the London Sub-Committee of the Medical Section 
of the British Association on the Motions and Sounds of the 
Heart. 

Second Report of the Dublin Sub-Committee on the Motions 
and Sounds of the Heart. (See vol. iv. p. 243.) 

Report of the Dublin Committee on the Pathology of the 
Brain and Nervous System. 

Account of the recent Discussions of Observations of the 
Tides which have been obtained by means of the grant of Money 
which was placed at the disposal of the Author for that purpose 
at the last Meeting of the Association, by J. W. Lubbock, Esq. 



DESIDERATA, ETC. XV 

Observations for determining the refractive Indices for the 
Standard Rays of the Solar Spectrum in various media, by the 
Rev. Baden Powell, M.A.,F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geome- 
try in the University of Oxford. 

Provisional Report on the Communication between the Arte- 
ries and Absorbents on the part of the London Committee, by 
Dr. Hodgkin. 

Report of Experiments on Subterranean Temperature, under 
the direction of a Committee, consisting of Professor Forbes, 
Mr. W. S. Harris, Professor Powell, Lieut. Colonel Sykes, and 
Professor Phillips, (Reporter.) 

Inquiry into the Validity of a Method recently proposed by 
George B. Jerrard, Esq., for Transforming and Resolving 
Equations of Elevated Degrees : undertaken at the request of 
the Association by Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton. 

Vol. VI. 

Account of the discussions of Observations of the Tides 
which have been obtained by means of the grant of money which 
was placed at the disposal of the Author for that purpose at the 
last Meeting of the Association, by J. W. Lubbock, Esq., 
F.R.S. 

On the difference between the Composition of Cast Iron 
produced by the Cold and the Hot Blast, by Thomas Thomson, 
M.D., F.R.S. , L. & E., &c, Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow. 

On the Determination of the Constant of Nutation by the 
Greenwich Observations, made as commanded by the British 
Association, by the Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

On some Experiments on the Electricity of Metallic Veins, 
and the Temperature of Mines, by Robert Were Fox. 

Provisional Report of the Committee of the Medical Section 
of the British Association, appointed to investigate the Com- 
position of Secretions, and the Organs producing them. 

Report from the Committee for inquiring into the Analysis of 
the Glands, &c, of the Human Body, by G. O. Rees, M.D. 
F.G.S. 

Second Report of the London Sub-Committee of the British 
Association Medical Section, on the Motions and Sounds of 
the Heart. 

Report from the Committee for making experiments on the 
Growth of Plants under Glass, and without any free communi- 
cation with the outward air, on the plan of Mr. N. I. Ward, 
of London. 

Report of the Committee on Waves, appointed by the British 
Association at Bristol in 1836, and consisting of Sir John Robi- 



Xvi SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

son, K.H., Secretary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and 
John Scott Russell, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Edin. (Reporter). 

On the relative strength and other Mechanical Properties of 
Cast Iron obtained by Hot and Cold Blast, by Eaton Hodgkinson. 

On the Strength and other Properties of Iron obtained from 
the Hot and Cold Blast, by W. Fairbairn. 



The following Reports and Continuations of Reports have been 
undertaken to be drawn up at the request of the Association. 

On the progress of Electro-chemistry and Electro-magnet- 
ism, so far as regards the experimental part of the subject, by 
P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

On the Connexion of Electricity and Magnetism, by S. H. 
Christie, Sec. R.S. 

On the state of knowledge of the Phaenomena of Sound, by 
Rev. Robert Willis, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the relative level 
of Land and Sea, and the waste and extension of the land on 
the east coast of England, by R. Stevenson, Engineer to the 
Northern Lighthouses, Edinburgh. 

On the Botany of North America, by Jacob Greene, M.D., 
and Professor Sir W. J. Hooker, M.D. 

On the Geographical Distribution of Insects, and particu- 
larly of the order Coleoptera, by J. Wilson, F.R.S.E. 

On circumstances in Vegetation influencing the Medicinal 
Virtues of Plants, by R. Christison, M.D. 

On Salts, by Professor Graham, F.R.S. 

On the progress of Medical Science in Germany, by Dr. 
Graves. 

On the Differential and Integral Calculus, by Rev. Professor 
Peacock, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the Geology of North America, by H. D. Rogers, F.G.S., 
Professor of Geology, Philadelphia. 

On the Mineral Riches of Great Britain, by John Taylor, 
F.R.S., G.S. 

On Vision, by Professor C. Wheatstone, F.R.S. 

On the application of a General Principle in Dynamics to 
the Theory of the Moon, by Professor Sir W. Hamilton. 

On Isomeric Bodies, by Professor Liebig. 

On Organic Chemistry, by Professor Liebig. 

On Inorganic Chemistry, by Professor Johnston, F.R.S. 

On Fossil Reptiles, by Professor Owen, F.R.S. 

On the Salmonidae of Scotland, by Sir J. W. Jardine. 

On the Caprimulgidaj, by N. Gould, F.L.S. 

On theGeneraof Fossil Insects, byRev. F.W.Hope, F.L.S.j&c. 



DESIDERATA, ETC. 



Reports requested, Researches recommended, and Desiderata 
noticed by the Committees of Science at the Liverpool 
Meeting *. 



ASTRONOMY. 

For the reduction of observations on Stars in the Histoire 
Celeste and the volumes of the Academie des Sciences for 
1789 and 1790 (see vol. iv. p. xv.) 500/. was placed at the dis- 
posal of a Committee, consisting of Mr. Baily, Prof. Airy, and 
Rev. Dr. Robinson. 

For the extension of the Catalogue of the Astronomical So- 
ciety, so as to include all the stars in Bessel's Fundamenta 
Astronomiae, as well as some other stars both in the north- 
ern and southern hemisphere, which have since been found to 
come within the original scope and intention of that Catalogue, 
or which from peculiar circumstances of position, magnitude, 
discordance, or proper motion, might advantageously be in- 
cluded therein (the whole of the stars to be reduced to the year 
1850, and the constants of precession, aberration and nuta- 
tion to be computed for that epoch, with their secular varia- 
tions), the sum of 500/. was placed at the disposal of a Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. Baily, Prof. Airy, and Rev. Dr. Ro- 
binson. 

A Committee was appointed, consisting of Rev. Dr. Robin- 
son, Mr. Baily, and Dr. Traill, to apply to the proper authori- 
ties for the establishment of an astronomical observatory at 
Liverpool. 

A Committee was appointed, consisting of the President, 
the Earl of Burlington, Mr. Lubbock, the Astronomer Royal, 
Mr. Baily, Prof. Rigaud, Prof. Challis, Prof. Sir W. Hamilton, 
Prof. Peacock, and Rev. Dr. Robinson, for the purpose of re- 
presenting to Government the importance of reducing the 
Greenwich observations of the moon. 



TIDES. 

For completing the discussions of Tides of the port of Bris- 
tol, under the direction of Rev. Wm. Whewell, the sum of 
75/. was granted. 

A committee was appointed, consisting of Mr. Whewell, Mr. 
Lubbock, and Dr. Traill, to apply to the proper authorities for 
the establishment of tide observations at Liverpool. 

* In addition to or extension of those contained in vol. iv. and vol. v. 

vol. vi. 1837. b 



xv ji SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

WAVES. 

For continuing the experimental investigations on Waves, 
100/. was placed at the disposal of Sir J. Robison and Mr. 
Russell. 

METEOROLOGY. 

The Committee for Meteorology and Subterranean Tempe- 
rature received a further grant of 100/. 

For hourly observations of the Barometer and Wet-bulb 
Thermometer a grant of 50/. was placed at the disposal of Mr. 
W. S. Harris. 

For the construction of an Anemometer, on Mr. Osier's plan, 
the sum of 40/. was placed at the disposal of Mr. W. S. Harris 
and Mr. Osier. 

For the repairs of an Anemometer, on Mr. Whe well's plan, 
10/. was placed at the disposal of Mr. W. S. Harris. 

Application was directed to be made to the Dock Committee 
of Liverpool, requesting that body to direct Meteorological 
Observations to be made and recorded at the lighthouses and 
telegraphs under their direction, in conformity with any instruc- 
tions they may receive from the Meteorological Committee. 



OPTICS. 

For the purpose of an inquiry into the action of Gases on 
the Solar Spectrum 100/. was placed at the disposal of Sir D. 
Brewster. 

For the purpose of constructing a Telescopic Lens of Rock 
Salt, the grant of 80/., at the disposal of Sir D. Brewster, was 
renewed. 

Prof. Wheatstone was requested to present a Report on 
Vision to the next Meeting of the Association. 

Prof. Sir W. Hamilton was requested to consider and re- 
port on the question of the practicability of applying his gene- 
ral method of Dynamics to improve the Theory of the Moon. 



CHEMISTRY. 

For experiments on substances present in minute quantities 
in Atmospheric Air the sum of 10/. was placed at the disposal 
of Mr. West. 

For a continuation of his Table of Chemical Constants the 
sum of 30/. was placed at the disposal of Prof. Johnston. 



DESIDERATA, ETC. XIX 

For the institution of a series of experiments on the great 
scale on the chemical and mechanical effects and changes pro- 
duced on Cast and Wrought Iron, by the continued action of 
Sea Water at various temperatures, and of foul River Water, 
whether fresh or salt, the sum of 201. was placed at the disposal 
of Prof. Davy and Mr. R. Mallet. 

For the prosecution of experiments on the Action of Heat of 
212° on Organic and Inorganic Bodies the sum of 10/. was 
placed at the disposal of Mr. R. Mallet. 

Prof. Liebig was requested to prepare a Report on the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge in regard to Isomeric Bodies. He 
was also requested to prepare a Report on the state of Organic 
Chemistry and Organic Analysis. 

Prof. Johnston was requested to prepare a Report on the 
state of Inorganic Chemistry and Inorganic Analysis. 



GEOLOGY. 

For the purpose of carrying on the inquiry into the per- 
manence of the Relative Level of Land and Sea, the sum of 
2121., the remainder of the vote of last year (500), was placed 
at the disposal of a Committee, consisting of Rev. W. Whewell, 
Col. Colby, Mr. Greenough, and Mr. Griffith. 

For the purpose of advancing our knowledge of Fossil Ich- 
thyology, by assisting the publication of M. Agassiz, the fur- 
ther sum of 105/. was placed at the disposal of a Committee, 
consisting of. Dr. Buckland, Prof. Sedgwick and Mr. Mur- 
chison. 

For the purpose of making excavations in the Peat Mosses 
of Ireland the grant of 50/., at the disposal of Col. Colby, was 
renewed. 

For the purpose of making experiments on the quantity of 
Mud in Rivers the grant of 201. was renewed, and placed at 
the disposal of a Committee, consisting of Mr. James Yates, 
Mr. De la Beche and Capt. Denham. 

It was stated to be desirable that a Report should be drawn 
up on the present state of our knowledge of the effects of Volta 
and Thermo-Electricity in the production of Crystals and the 
modification of Mineral Substances, and the Council of the As- 
sociation was requested to take steps for obtaining such a re- 
port. 

Prof. Owen was requested to draw up a Report on the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge of the Fossil Reptiles of Great 
Britain. 

b2 



XX SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

It was stated to be desirable that Engineers and Proprietors of Railways 
should be requested (where it is necessary to cover up sections) to preserve 
Notes and Drawings of such sections, and to collect the Organic Fossils, if any, 
and to transmit the same to the Geological Society of London. 

The attention of geological observers was directed to the different varieties 
of superficial Gravel and Detritus ; their origin, whether fresh-water or marine ; 
their composition, whether of erratic or of local materials ; their position with 
respect to the present form of the surface and one another ; their organic re- 
mains, and other peculiarities. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 

The following reports and monographs were requested in 
addition to such as are mentioned in vol. v. p. xv. 

On the species of Salmonidae found in Scotland by Sir W. 

Jardine. 

On the Caprimulgida?, by Mr. Gould. 
On the Genera of Fossil Insects belonging to Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland, by the Rev. W. F. Hope. 

For the purpose of collecting materials towards a Fauna of 
Ireland, a Committee was formed, consisting of Capt. Portlock, 
Mr. R. Ball, Mr. W. Thompson, Dr. Coulter, Mr. W. A. 
Eyton, and Mr. Vigors, who was requested to act as Secretary 
to the Committee. 

Mr. J. E. Gray and Mr. R. Ball were requested to investigate 
the mode by which Mollusca, Annelida, and other marine In- 
vertebrata excavate rocks. 

Capt. Ducane, R.N., was requested to continue his researches 
concerning the Crustacea of the waters of Southampton. 

For the purpose of experiments on the Growth of Plants in 
Glass Vessels, on Mr. Ward's plan, the further sum of 50/. was 
placed at the disposal of a Committee, consisting of Mr. James 
Yates, Dr. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow, and Mr. R. Ball. 

For the purpose of experimenting on the best modes of Pre- 
serving Animal and Vegetable Substances the sum of 251. was 
placed at the disposal of a Committee, consisting of Prof. Hen- 
slow, Mr. Jenyns, Dr. Clark, and Prof, dimming. 

MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

The following Committees were re-appointed : 

For investigating the Anatomical Relations of the Absorbent 
and Venous Systems in different classes of Animals, with 501. 
at their disposal ; for inquiring into the Effects of Poisons on the 
Animal Economy, with 251. at their disposal ; for the Chemical 



DESIDERATA, ETC. XXI 

Analysis of the Animal Secretions, with 251. at their disposal *; 
for investigating the Pathology of the Brain and Nervous Sy- 
stem, with 251. at their disposal ; for investigating the Sounds 
of the Heart, the Committees of London and Dublin, with 251. 
at the disposal of each. 

A Committee was appointed, to consist of Dr. Carson and 
other Members of the Association resident in Liverpool and 
Manchester, for the purpose of making experiments on the 
Lower Animals labouring under Diseases of the Lungs, to de- 
termine the influence of local or general remedial means in the 
Cure of these Diseases, with 251. at the disposal of the Com- 
mittee. 

A Committee was appointed, to consist of Dr. Williams and 
other Members of the Association, to investigate the Physiology 
of the Lungs, and Bronchi. 



STATISTICS. 

In furtherance of inquiries into the actual State of Schools 
in England, considered merely as to numerical analysis, the 
further sum of 150/. was placed at the disposal of a Committee 
consisting of Lord Sandon, Lieut.-Col. Sykes, and Mr. G. R. 
Porter. 

In furtherance of inquiries into the Condition of the Work- 
ing Population, specified in the form of numerical tables, the 
sum of 100/. was placed at the disposal of a Committee, con- 
sisting of Lord Sandon, Lieut.-Col. Sykes, and Mr. G. R. 
Porter. 

For the purpose of drawing up instructions for the Advance- 
ment of Statistical Science a Committee was appointed, consist- 
ing of Lord Sandon, Col. Sykes, Mr. Porter, Mr. W. Langton, 
Mr. W. R. Greg, and Mr. J. Heywood, with power to add to 
their number. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

For the prosecution of experiments on the Strength of 
Cast Iron, produced by the application of the Hot and the 
Cold Blast, and the extension of the same to Wrought Iron, the 
Committee, originally composed of Mr. E. Hodgkinson and 
Mr. W. Fairbairn, was enlarged by the addition of Prof. Willis, 
Mr. Donkin, and Mr. P. Clare, with 100/. at their disposal. 

For procuring, printing, and circulating periodical statements 

* Mr. Gokling Bird was added to this Committee. 



XXli SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 

of the Duties of Steam Engines in Cornwall and elsewhere, the 
grant of 50/., at the disposal of Mr. J. Taylor, was renewed. 

For ascertaining the Amount of Duty actually performed by 
the consumption of one bushel of Coals in Steam-Engines em- 
ployed in pumping Water, not in the Cornish districts, a Com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting of Mr. Bryan Donkin, Mr. G. 
H. Palmer, Mr. James Simpson, Mr. John Taylor, and Mr. 
Thomas Webster, who was requested to act as Secretary, with 
100/. at their disposal. 

The Committee was requested to report all the circumstances 
affecting the Amount of Duty in each case. 

For instituting a series of experiments to determine the mean 
Value of Railway Constants, a Committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of Mr.Hardman Earle, Dr. Lardner, Mr. Joseph Locke, 
Mr. G. Rennie, and Mr. John MacNeil, with 50/. at their dis- 
posal. 

For obtaining a series of observations on the average loco- 
motive Duty of a ton of coals per horse-power in Steam Ves- 
sels, a Committee was appointed, consisting of Mr. Fairbairn, 
Dr. Lardner, Mr. J. S. Russell, and Mr. J.Taylor, with 100/. 
at their disposal. 

The Committee was requested to report all the circumstances, 
nautical and mechanical, which may affect this Duty. 

Should the Committee above named find it expedient to ex- 
tend their researches to the other side of the Atlantic, the 
further sum of 50/. was placed at their disposal for such pur- 
pose. 

ARTS. 

A Committee was appointed to superintend the exhibition of 
Mechanical Inventions, Manufactured Articles, and Processes 
in the Arts at Newcastle ; viz. Sir D. Brewster, Mr. Babbage, 
Prof. Wheatstone, Prof. Willis, Prof. Powell, and Prof. John- 
ston, who was requested to act as Secretary. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

In grants of money to the Committees for purposes of science, 
the Member first named is empowered to draw on the Trea- 
surer for such sums as may from time to time be required. 
The General Committee does not contemplate in these grants 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 



SYNOPSIS. 



SYNOPSIS OF SUMS APPROPRIATED TO 
SCIENTIFIC OBJECTS. 

BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE AT THE LIVERPOOL MEETING. 
(Drawn up for comparison with vol. iv. p. xl. and vol. v. p. xx.) 



Reduction of Observations on Stars (vol. iv. p. xv. ; 

vol. vi. p. xvii.) 

Continuation of Tide Discussions at Bristol (vol. v. 

p. xx. ; vol. vi. p. xvii.) 

Meteorological Instruments and Subterranean Tem- 
perature (vol. iv. p. xix.) • 

Comparative Level of Land and Sea (vol. iv. p. xxvi. ; 
vol. v. p. xvii., part of the former grant renewed) 

Lens of Rock Salt (vol. iv. p. xxii.) 

Hourly Observations in Meteorology (vol. v. p. xvi.) 

Investigations on the Form of Waves (vol. v. p. xvi.) 

*Astronomical Society's Catalogue (vol. vi. p. xvii.) i _ . 

*Action of Gases on Solar Spectrum (vol. vi. p. xviii.) 

*Osler's Anemometer (vol. vi. p. xviii.) . . . 

*Repairs of an Anemometer (vol. vi. p. xviii.) . 

Composition of Atmospheric Air (vol. v. p. xvii.) 

Chemical Constants (vol. iv. p. xxiv.) . . . 

*EfFect of Water on Cast and Wrought Iron (vol 

p. xix.) 



*Effect of Heat of 212° on Organic and Inorganic 

Bodies (vol. vi. p. xix.) 

Mud in Rivers (vol. iv. p. xxvii.) 

Fossil Ichthyology (vol. iv. p. xxvii.) 
Peat Mosses in Ireland (vol. v. p. xviii.) . . 
Growth of Plants under Glass (vol. v. p. xviii.) 
*Preservation of Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(vol. vi. p. xx.) 

Absorbents and Veins (vol. iv. p. xxxi.) .... 

Sounds of the Heart (vol. iv. p. xxxi.) 

Effects of Poisons on the Animal Economy (vol. iv. 

p. xxxi.) 

Pathology of Brain and Nervous System (vol. iv. p. 

xxxii.) 

Chemical Analysis of Animal Secretions (vol. v. p. 

xix.) 

*Disorders of the Lungs (vol. vi. p. xxi.) .... 



£500 



75 

100 



272 





80 





50 





100 





500 





100 





40 





10 





20 





30 





20 





10 





20 





105 





50 





50 





25 





50 





50 





25 





25 





25 





25 






Carried forward £2357 



Xxiv SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

Brought over. . . 
State of Schools in England (vol. v. p. xix.) . . 

*Condition of Working Population (vol. vi. p. xxi.) 
Strength of Iron (vol. iv. p. xxxii. ; vol. vi. p. xxi.) 
Duty of Cornish Engines (vol. iv. p. xxxii.) . . 

*Duty of Pumping-Engines not in Cornwall (vol. vi 
p. xxii.) 

♦Railway Constants (vol. vi. p. xxii.) 

*Duty of Steam Engines in Vessels (vol. vi. p. xxii.) 

Conditional Grant to ditto (vol. vi. p. xxii.) . . 



£2357 





. 150 





. 100 





100 





. 50 





. 100 





. 50 





. 100 





. 50 






Total of Grants £3057 



The Grants to which the asterisk (*) is prefixed relate to 
subjects for which no previous Grant has been made. The 
others are renewals or continuations of former Grants. 



ADDRESS 



PROFESSOR TRAILL, M.D. 



GENTLEMEN, — The duty of addressing the British Association, on 
this occasion,was originally confided to one admirably qualified to do jus- 
tice to the task; and few persons have more cause to lament the circum- 
stances which deprive us of the services of that gentleman than the indi- 
vidual who now addresses you. To those who know me only as connected 
with my present domicile, my position at this Meeting may appear un- 
warrantable or presumptuous. I can only plead, that though highly 
honoured by the office, it certainly was neither expected nor solicited 
by me ; and that, unless twenty-eight years' residence in this place, 
and the existence of numerous and valued local attachments, may be 
considered as conferring the privilege, I fear I can advance few claims 
to be received as one of the Secretaries for Liverpool. 

The objects and nature of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science have been so eloquently handled by my predecessors, 
that to some members the subject may appear to be exhausted ; but, 
as the Association is necessarily a fluctuating body — as many have 
now joined it for the first time — and as there still seems to be con- 
siderable misapprehension in the public mind regarding its objects 
and utility, a few remarks on the purposes which it is intended to ac- 
complish may not be altogether misplaced. 

The British Association was undoubtedly suggested by the successful 
efforts of the philosophers of Germany, within the last few years. The 
obstacles to free intercourse between scientific men, in that part of 
Europe, had always been felt as a great bar to the advance of science. 
Under such a system, those who, in sequestered regions, had long 
pursued laborious investigations, had often the mortification to discover 
that they were following paths trodden by others, or in which they had 
been completely anticipated by more fortunate inquirers. To obviate 
such grave inconveniences, and to promote social intercourse among 
men of science, scattered over wide regions, separated by physical and 



XXvi SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

political obstacles, though connected by one common tongue, were the 
objects of that great Continental Association; and that these have 
been, to a considerable extent, realized by the annual assemblages of 
the illustrious sons of Germany, is generally admitted. 

In our more united and highly-favoured land, the facilities of inter- 
course between its most distant points, the less isolated position of our 
philosophers, unquestionably render the progress of science less de- 
pendent on such general associations of its cultivators than in Ger- 
many : yet it has never been doubted, that the personal intercourse of 
men engaged in similar pursuits is favourable to the progress of philo- 
sophical investigations, by the direct assistance derived from the ex- 
perience and suggestions of others, and by fostering that generous 
emulation in the search after truth which imparts a wholesome stimulus 
to mental exertion, while it tends to smooth the asperities occasionally 
engendered by controversy, even in the abstract sciences. Men ac- 
customed to meet and act together for one great end, naturally and 
insensibly imbibe the social spirit — scientific jealousy and personal 
rivalry are softened by mutual approximations ; and individuals com- 
posing the Association, like members of the same family, learn to 
temper the pursuit of personal distinction by an honest exultation in 
whatever redounds to the honour and celebrity of the body to which 
they belong. 

These advantages the British Association shares in common with 
many other societies ; but it possesses characteristics peculiarly its 
own. It can scarcely reckon a period of infancy; — it sprung at once 
from the conception of its founders, like Pallas from the head of Jove, 
in the perfection of youthful vigour — secure in the panoply of rectitude 
of purpose against open or secret hostility. It quickly numbered in 
its ranks the elite of the philosophy of the United Kingdom ; and, 
strengthened by the accession of foreign associates of distinguished 
reputation, it has extended its views beyond its original horizon, and 
has attained a colossal magnitude that distinguishes it above every 
other scientific association in the British empire. 

This Institution ought not to be considered as the rival of any of 
the previously existing philosophical establishments which give lustre 
to these kingdoms. It, indeed, receives communications on every 
branch of scientific inquiry, but it professes to publish none of the 
numerous contributions which have given rise to the interesting and 
animated discussions in its different Sections : a short abstract of these 
papers is all that it attempts to promulgate ; but the distinguishing 
features of its publications arc those invaluable Reports on the pro- 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL. XXVU 

gress of science which the Association has confided to some of its 
members, especially selected for that important duty. 

The advantages thus conferred on general science will be best ap- 
preciated by persons whose studies are directed to any of the subjects 
discussed in the Reports, and who have once felt the want of an ac- 
curate analysis of what had been recently added to our previous stock 
of knowledge; but it would be impossible to calculate in how many 
instances those abstracts of precise and useful information have saved 
the time, and abridged the labour, of the retired student, in tracks al- 
ready explored by other philosophers. Another peculiarity in the 
publications of the Association consists in the circulation of desiderata 
in different branches of science. The attention of their cultivators, 
thus drawn to the principal deficiencies in each, has already filled up 
various chasms in the paths of intellectual exertion, and stimulated to 
inquiries that cannot fail to lead to important results. 

It soon became apparent that the British Association must exercise 
a powerful influence on the general diffusion of science, and could 
undertake, or materially promote, investigations to which individual 
research and unaided exertion are utterly inadequate. Its annual 
migrations, and the comparative ease of admission into its ranks, have 
unquestionably increased the taste for scientific disquisition ; and, 
although it would be absurd to suppose that all who seek for enrol- 
ment in the Association are destined to extend the boundaries of 
science, who can believe that familiarizing large masses of the com- 
munity with such investivations, and exhibiting how the highest 
branches of philosophy may be made available to the purposes of life, 
will fail to promote the avowed purpose of our meetings? Who will 
venture to deny, that the contemplation of the galaxy of illustrious 
men, mustered on occasions similar to the present, has often proved 
the first impulse to the secret aspirant after honourable distinction — 
has afforded the Promethean spark, that kindled the sacred flame in 
the breast of slumbering genius ? 

The Association has not failed to use its influence in stimulating 
our rulers to aid the progress of science. At its instigation, the 
British government has taken up the task of the reduction of the 
enormous mass of observations on the heavenly bodies, accumulated 
since 1750 at the Greenwich Observatory — which, though col- 
lected at a great expense to the nation, and by the exertion of con- 
summate skill in the observers — which, though pronounced by the 
highest authorities in Europe to be of the utmost moment to the 
future progress of astronomy, — have been permitted to remain a rich, 



XXviii SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

but unexplored, mine of facts. The voice of our petition has been 
heard — the work has been auspiciously begun — and 5001. have been 
assigned by the Treasury for the commencement of this great national 
work. 

The subject of the Tides, so strangely neglected in this great mari- 
time country, from the period of the promulgation of the Newtonian 
Theory to our own times, has engaged the attention of the Association 
from its commencement. The advances which have recently been made 
on this subject, and which have greatly altered the aspect of that branch 
of science, had chiefly for their original basis the very valuable tide ob- 
servations made in this port, many years ago, by Mr. Hutchinson, a 
dock-master, embracing an interval of above thirty years. The ori- 
ginals are preserved in the Lyceum Library of Liverpool ; and, by the 
liberality of the proprietors, have been confided to the hands of Mr. 
Lubbock, under whose direction the discussion of them, ordered by the 
Association, has thrown a new light on the laws of Tidal phenomena. 

Since that time, the earnest representations of a distinguished Asso- 
ciate, whom this county claims as a native, have given rise to a most 
important set of observations on the tides. Mr. Whewell, by personal 
application to the chief of the coast-guard service, and solicitation to 
the Admiralty, has procured the completion of a continuous series of 
observations, at upwards of 500 stations, along the coasts of Great 
Britain and Ireland. They were continued for a fortnight in June 
1834, and again in June 1835, when they were extended from the 
mouths of the Mississippi to the northern extremity of Europe. These 
observations have been discussed at the expense of the Admiralty ; but, 
as I shall presently mention, the Association has voted a large sum to 
be applied by Mr. Lubbock to the same object. 

These discussions have, within the last few years, led to very curious 
results ; for instance, to the fact of the rise of the mean level of the tides, 
in proportion to the fall of the barometer, and the existence of a diurnal 
tide — i. e. the difference between the morning and evening tides of the 
same day. This diurnal tide, it may be interesting for the inhabitants 
of Liverpool to know, was first marked in the tide tables constructed 
by a young ingenious townsman, Mr. Bywater, jun., who has, unfor- 
tunately for science, died since the last Meeting of the Association. 

The importance of the subject, and the success already obtained, have 
encouraged the Association to direct the discussion of the Tidal obser- 
vations recorded at the port of Bristol, and at the London Docks ; and 
to supply the means of defraying the necessary expense. 

The influence of researches on tidal waters to navigation and to com- 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL. XXIX 

merce are too obvious to require illustration : but perbaps it may not 
be unsuitable, in this place, to refer to the deductions of our eminent 
associate, Captain Denham, on the capability of the Mersey " to com- 
mand a navigable avenue to the ocean, so long as its guardians preserve 
the high-water boundaries from artificial contraction." It may also be 
stated, that in our Transactions, this gentleman has recorded his most 
important general inference (drawn from a connected series of observa- 
tions on the tides, which the liberality of the Dock Trustees of Liverpool 
enabled him to carry on) — that there is one invariable mean height, com- 
mon to neap and spring tides — the Half Tide Mark — a point from 
which engineers, geologists, and navigators will henceforward com- 
mence their calculations, and adjust their standards of comparison. 

The Association made application soon after the meeting at Edin- 
burgh for the resumption of the Trigonometrical Survey of Scotland ; 
a work imperiously demanded by the imperfect state of our best maps 
and charts of that part of the island, either for the purposes of geology 
or navigation. It is needless to give further proof, than that parts of se- 
veral of the large islands at the mouth of the Clyde are laid down se- 
veral miles out of their true position. The magnificent scale on which 
the survey of Ireland is now carrying on, emboldened various scientific 
societies of Scotland this year to memorialize the government on the 
subject. I am happy to add, that the applications have been successful, 
and the triangulation of Scotland will recommence early in 1838. 

The British Association may also boast, that at its instigation, our 
illustrious associate, Arago, moved the Bureau des Longitudes to soli- 
cit from the French government the publication of the series of obser- 
vations on the tides at Brest, and a reduction of the astronomical obser- 
vations made at the Ecole Militaire. The Brest observations have been 
printed, and a copy of the valuable documents put in the hands of one 
well able to appreciate them. 

At the Dublin meeting, a committee was appointed for representing 
to our own government two objects important to science ; which can 
only be accomplished in a satisfactory manner by the rulers of a power- 
ful nation, or by an union of governments in the cause of philosophy. 
The first related to the establishment of Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observatories, in different parts of the earth, furnished with proper in- 
struments, and in which the observations should be conducted on ac- 
knowledged and uniform principles. The extent, and the variety of 
climate of the British possessions, indicate them as favourable points 
for such establishments, which have already been commenced in France 
and its dependencies, and may hereafter, by the co-operation of the 



XXX SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

several governments of Europe, and of our Trans- Atlantic brethren, 
be extended over a large portion of the civilized world. The second 
suggestion was the importance of an Antarctic Expedition, for prose- 
cuting discoveries and observations in Geography, Hydrography, Na- 
tural History, and, above all, Magnetism, with a view to determine the 
positive southern magnetic pole or poles, and the direction and intensity 
of the magnetic force in antarctic regions. The East India Company 
was likewise to be requested to favour the same objects, especially at 
their establishment at Madras. 

The General Committee some time ago made application to the au- 
thorities, both in France and this country, respecting some mode of in- 
stituting a reciprocal protection to literary property. Might I venture 
here to allude to a recommendation which I hope the Association will 
not fail to leave in Liverpool, for the promotion of a scientific object of 
immense consequence to this port — the establishment of an Observatory 
in or near Liverpool ? The adoption of such suggestions, while con- 
ferring an incalculable benefit on science, would rear a proud, impe- 
rishable, and bloodless monument to national greatness. 

These statements might be a sufficient answer to a question, some- 
times put in tones of captious sarcasm, — What has the Association di- 
rectly contributed to the progress of useful knowledge ? Without 
again appealing to the very admirable reports on the progress of science 
published in our Transactions ; without again claiming merit for the 
suggestions and efforts already noticed, — I should fearlessly answer 
such cavillers, by an appeal to the value and number of the communi- 
cations, which have occupied the different Sections, at each annual 
meeting, and which contain the application of pure science to important 
questions in Physics, or of experimental investigation to numerous 
branches of knowledge. I would point to the valuable researches 
which have been undertaken and completed at the request of the 
Association, among which it may be permitted to indicate the fol- 
lowing memoirs : — The comparison of the standards of Linear Measure, 
made by the late Mr. Troughton, for the town of Aberdeen, and the 
Astronomical Society of London, which were confided to Mr. Baily — 
a comparison of much consequence, as the standard yard, by the same 
artist, was lost in the fire which consumed both Houses of Parliament ; 
On the Investigation of the Impact upon Beams, when struck by bodies 
of different weight, hardness, and elasticity, by Mr. Hodgkinson ; On 
the Direction and Intensity of the Magnetic Force in England, Ireland, 
and Scotland, by Professor Lloyd, Major Sabine, and Captain James 
Ross ; On the influence of Height above the Sea on Magnetic Intensity, 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL. XXXi 

by Professor Forbes — from which it appears that the horizontal inten- 
sity diminishes -j- 000 °f tne wno ^ e > f° r every 3000 feet of vertical ascent ; 
On the quantity of Rain falling at different heights above the surface of 
the Ground, made at York, by Professor Phillips, and Mr. Gray ; On 
the determination of the mass of the planet Jupiter, by the Astronomer 
Royal ; On the Horary Variations of the Barometer, Thermometer, 
Hygrometer, and Whewell's Anemometer, by Mr. Snow Harris — part of 
which has already appeared, and of which the sequel will be laid before 
this annual Meeting ; On the Duty performed by Cornish Steam En- 
gines, by Mr. Enys ; On the Ratio of the Resistance of Fluids to the 
Velocity of Waves, by Mr. Russell and Mr. Robison — of which we ex- 
pect to receive an account on this occasion. 

We may also be permitted here to allude to some highly-interesting 
investigations, still in progress, under the auspices of the Association, 
such as — Observations on the Temperature of Springs and Deep Mines, 
by Instruments procured and verified by the Meteorological Council, 
which are already placed in various districts of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, and also in Peru, under the direction of our scientific associate, 
Mr. Pentland, from which results most interesting to Geology are an- 
ticipated ; On the Temperature of the strata at different depths near 
Edinburgh, by Professor Forbes, for ascertaining the rate of the trans- 
mission of Solar Heat downwards; A continuation of Mr. W.Vernon Har- 
court's experiments on the effects of long-continued Heat on Rocks and 
other bodies ; Experimental Investigations into the Fabrication of Glass, 
by the same gentleman and Dr. Faraday ; A Systematic Catalogue of 
all the Organized Fossils of the British Islands, by Professor Phillips ; 
An Experimental Determination of the Strength and other Mechanical 
Properties of Iron obtained by the Hot and Cold Blasts, undertaken by 
Messrs. Hodgkinson and Fairbairn ; Analysis of Iron in the different 
stages of its manufacture, and an Extension of the Tables of Chemical 
Constants, by Professor Johnston ; Statistical Returns of the State of 
Education in our great towns ; An Examination of the Statistical docu- 
ments preserved in the India House, by Professor Jones ; besides the 
discussion of numerous very interesting contested points in Natural 
History and in Medicine. 

These are satisfactory evidences of the activity of the Association ; 
but it has not scrupled also to afford pecuniary assistance, when such 
aid appeared requisite to ensure success. It is true, that the moderate 
sum, payable on admission into the Society, seems more suited to the 
finances of the majority of philosophers, than to the support of ex- 



Xkxii SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

tensive enterprises ; yet the numbers annually desirous of admission 
supply funds, adequate to important undertakings ; and the power 
thus given to the General Committee is acknowledged to have been 
exercised with a sound discretion. 

Without descending to minute particulars, it may be well to state 
some of the appropriations for various scientific inquiries. 

The application to the French government already noticed, was ac- 
companied by a vote of the General Committee of the Association to 
appropriate 5001. for a duplicate reduction of the Astronomical Obser- 
vations, with a view to secure the utmost accuracy in these important 
computations. This offer proves the value attached by the Association 
to whatever can improve Astronomy, and the zeal which carries its 
scientific views even beyond the limits of the British Empire. This 
sum is still devoted to the reduction of Astronomical Observations. 
701. have been devoted to the determination of a constant numerical 
expression for Lunar Notation, as deduced from the observations made 
with the Greenwich mural circle: 250/. have been appropriated for 
the Discussion of the Tides ; besides 150/. voted last year for the Dis- 
cussion of the Observations made on Tides at Bristol : 100/. were set 
apart for meteorological instruments, and experiments on subterranean 
temperature, — the last a problem of the highest interest to Geology, as 
involving the question whether or not there be a general source of ter- 
restrial heat, independent of solar influence : 500/. have been voted 
for ascertaining the permanence or fluctuation in the relative level of 
the land and of the ocean, on the coasts of the British Isles. This sub- 
ject affords matter for the highest speculations in Geology ; but it is 
doubly interesting to a maritime people, as affecting the permanence of 
our river navigation, and of our naval stations : 210/. were given to 
enable M. Agassiz to include the fossil fishes of our islands among his 
interesting Researches on Fossil Ichthyology, a publication which forms 
a new era in this department of Geology : 100/. have been assigned for 
Investigations on the Form of Waves, and the mode of their produc- 
tion : 150/. for the experiments on Vitrification, and the improvement 
of the manufacture of Glass : 80/. for experiments on Lenses of Rock 
Salt ; a subject of much interest to Optics : 50/. for determining the 
specific gravity of Gases: 60/. for an experimental inquiry into the 
strength of Iron : 50/. for ascertaining the Duty of Steam Engines : 
50/. for an inquiry into the Origin of Peat Mosses : 250/. for con- 
ducting various Physiological Rearches : 1 50/. have likewise been voted 
for investigating the Statistics of Education in our large towns. While 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL. XXX111 

on tins subject, I must not omit to state that the Statistical Societies of 
London and Manchester trace their origin to this Association ; and that 
the laborious investigations of Colonel Sykes, on the Statistics of India, 
founded on materials chiefly collected by himself, and undertaken at the 
request of the Association, are now happily brought to a close, and will 
be presented to the Association. 

These appropriations are exclusive of several minor sums devoted to 
the encouragement of investigations into various branches of Physics, 
Chemistry, and Natural History ; making an aggregate of upwards of 
26591. set apart from the funds of the Association, in the past year, for 
scientific objects— a larger sum than has been appropriated, in so short 
a period, by any other Society, to purposes purely scientific. 

While stating these facts, we ought not to conceal a circumstance, cre- 
ditable to the disinterested zeal for the cause of science elicited by these 
grants. Though the voteshave been liberal, this circumstance has never 
induced inconsiderate expenditure. In many instances, far less than the 
sums appropriated have been actually expended ; and in various in- 
stances, the individuals intrusted with the funds have refused to draw 
on the Association, when their own labour could save its finances. 

It has been usually considered a part of the duty of the Local Secre- 
tary, to give a short account of the Reports which are just published. 

The first in the volume is the masterly report ' On Mineral and 
Thermal Waters,' by Dr. Daubeny. After glancing at the nature of 
atmospheric water, the author has pointed out the connexion of the 
foreign ingredients, detected in the atmosphere, with the production of 
meteoric stones, the formation of nitric acid under certain circumstances, 
and the presence of the organic principle found in air, even when col- 
lected on great elevations, to which the name of Pyrrhine has been 
given. He considers the existence of the elements of meteoric stones 
in the atmosphere as doubtful. The nitric acid may sometimes arise 
from the effects of electric explosion on its oxygen and nitrogen ; at 
other times this union is seemingly produced by causes not yet ascer- 
tained. The researches of the celebrated Ehrenberg have shown, that 
pyrrhine probably owes its origin to the ova of polygastric infusoria, 
raised by evaporation and by atmospheric currents induced by changes 
of temperature. In considering the ocean, the author directs particular 
attention to its gaseous contents ; as confirming or invalidating the opi- 
nion of Arago, that oxygen predominates in all waters, even to con- 
siderable depths. This law is well known to hold good in the more 
superficial portions of the ocean, and seems intended to support the 
respiration of aquatic animals ; but the preponderance of oxygen at 
vol. vi. 1837. c 



XXXIV SEVENTH REPORT IHo/. 

great depths cannot yet be considered as absolutely determined, on ac^ 
count of the imperfection of the modes of obtaining unmixed water from 
such points. The water of springs is more especially the object of Dr. 
Daubeny's Report. 

In considering the saline contents of mineral springs, he gives some 
ingenious speculations on the origin of these salts ; especially of the 
carbonate of soda, of the sulphates, and of boracic acid. The common 
salt he derives from the same source as the saltness of the sea ; and he 
considers rock-salt as a deposition from the waters of the ocean ; a view 
confirmed by the presence in saline deposits of iodine and bromine — ele- 
ments first detected in marine productions. Dr. Daubeny regards the 
absence of these two bodies in the lowest and purest bed of the Cheshire 
rock-salt while they abound in the upper saliferous beds, as proofs that 
rock-salt was deposited from a saturated solution. The salts of io- 
dine and bromine, as well as the earthy muriates, from their greater 
solubility, would remain longer in solution ; and thus be mingled with 
the more hasty mechanical deposits from the waters. The brine 
springs of Droitwich, which are found to contain neither iodine nor 
bromine, he also considers as derived from a salt deposited from a sa- 
turated solution. 

The siliceous earth, so often detected in thermal springs, he con- 
ceives to be dissolved by alkaline matter, aided by a high temperature. 
Both alkali and silica may be afforded by felspathic rocks ; and Dr. 
Daubeny conjectures, that silica may be more soluble in hot water at 
the moment of its separation from its combinations in the rock, or ere 
it has its aggregation increased, by assuming the crystalline texture. 
He states, that it may be interesting to try, whether hot water lias a 
stronger action on such bodies as opal, in which the molecules do not 
seem to have a true crystalline arrangement, than on quartz. Since I 
came this time to Liverpool, I subjected a fragment of wood-opal for 
fourteen days to a temperature estimated about 280° Faht., in the boiler 
of a fixed steam-engine ; but it had neither lost nor gained the smallest 
weight in that time. 

The author combats the opinion of Anglada on the origin of the or- 
ganic matter termed Glairine, now found to be a very common ingre- 
dient of thermal springs. This substance Anglada supposes, with little 
probability, to be derived from the interior of the earth ; while the ob- 
servations of our author on this substance, as collected from above fifty 
springs, especially from the thermal sources of the Pyrenees, sliow, that 
Glairine is probably derived from the decomposition of organic bodies, 
such as confervce and infusory animalcules. 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL. XXXV 

The author's speculations on the source of the heat of thermal 
springs, partake of his views on the origin of volcanoes ; namely, that 
it depends on the penetration of water, through fissures in the external 
crust of the globe, to the regions where he conceives the elements of 
earthy and alkaline bodies to exist : that the intense heat, generated 
during the oxidation of these elements, converts a portion of the water 
into steam ; which, under compression, obtains a high temperature, acts 
on various earthy bodies, and communicates its heat to subterranean 
waters which issue in thermal springs. This view he supports by nu- 
merous instances observed by geologists; especially by Professor Forbes 
in the Pyrenees, where thermal waters gush out in the vicinity of dis- 
ruptions, or upheavings of strata by ignigenous rocks. The author be- 
lieves that, unless in countries agitated by volcanic action, the tempe- 
rature of thermal springs is subject to little variation ; and that, where 
the contrary has been alleged, it may generally be ascribed to the im- 
perfection of the thermometers employed. 

The temperature of copious springs has generally been observed to 
vary little, and is about the mean temperature of the country where 
they occur. Thus the magnificent fountain at Vaucluse has the mean 
temperature of that part of France, and scarcely ever varies one degree 
of Reaumur. It is, however, worthy of remark, that I found the tem- 
perature of St. Winifred's Well, the largest spring in Britain, by dif- 
ferent observations during twenty years, to experience variations of 
more than four degrees of Faht., always to have a temperature several 
degrees above the mean of Flintshire, and at all seasons superior to that 
of another very large spring, Fynnon asa, about five miles distant. 
The variations may perhaps arise from surface water, directly finding 
its way into the Holywell spring ; but its constant superior tempera- 
ture may be accounted for, on Dr. Daubeny's principle, from the dis- 
turbances in the strata produced by the numerous mineral veins in the 
adjacent Halkin Mountains. 

The second report is ' On the Direction and Intensity of Terrestrial 
Magnetism in Scotland,' by Major Sabine. 

The experiments were made at numerous stations, both by the sta- 
tical method of Professor Lloyd, in which the dip and intensity are as- 
certained by the same instrument, and by Hansteen's method, of mea- 
suring intensity by the number of horizontal vibrations in a given time. 
It is interesting to know, that the intensities estimated by both methods 
nearly correspond ; and that we therefore may place confidence in either 
mode of observing, when allowance is made for changes in the force of 
magnetism in the needles employed. Major Sabine experienced, on 

c 2 



XXXvi SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

several occasions, what has been remarked by other observers, that 
magnetical experiments are liable to be affected by the vicinity of Trap 
rocks. This was particularly noticed by him at Oban and Loch Scavig, 
so as to render his observations at the latter of no utility for his calcu- 
lations. Two of the most familiar examples of this quality of ignigenous 
rocks are afforded by the powerful effect of a column of the Giant's 
Causeway, as mentioned by Professor Lloyd ; and by the strong polar- 
ity of the basaltic cap of Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, which is ca- 
pable, in more positions than one, of causing complete inversion of poles 
of the pocket compass. These instances show how carefully the vi- 
cinity of considerable masses of Trap rocks should hereafter be avoided, 
in all delicate experiments on magnetic dip and intensity : for the errors 
they occasion may be more considerable than the effect of a ship's local 
attraction on azimuths, and are far less easily compensated. 

Major Sabine has considered it best to give no other designation, on 
his chart, to the isodynamic lines in Scotland, than what expresses their 
relation to each other, until we have more fully investigated their rela- 
tion to magnetic intensity in England. The differences between the 
deductions, in regard to the Isodynamic lines in Scotland and in Ireland, 
are very considerable, and apparently too great to be due to any dif- 
ference in the lines themselves : but future observations will probably 
disclose the cause. 

In a former volume of our Transactions, appeared a valuable report 
on North American Geology : in that just announced is an excellent 
essay on the Zoology of that portion of the globe, by Dr. Richardson, 
the intrepid friend and companion of Sir John Franklin, in their ha- 
zardous exploratory expeditions to the shores of the Arctic Ocean. 
After some general remarks on the climate of North America, he pre- 
sents us with an extensive Table of Mean Temperatures, calculated for 
periods of six and three months throughout the year, for the hottest and 
the coldest months, and for the months with a mean temperature above 
52° Faht., taken at forty-four different stations, and collected from his 
own and Franklin's observations, combined with those of Humboldt, 
Ross, Parry, and Scoresby. The results are very important, and show, 
in a striking manner, the very erroneous deductions on the mean tem- 
perature of any place, if investigated by Mayer's formula, especially in 
very low or very high latitudes. 

The geographical position of Mexico constitutes the point at which 
the Faunae of the northern and southern regions meet ; and hence it is 
the place in which the general laws regulating the distribution of animals 
can be most satisfactorily studied. There the Wolf of a northern cli- 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL. XXXV11 

mate is seen with the Monkey of tropical regions ; the Bunting and 
the Titmouse nestle near the Parrot and the Trogon ; the Phalarope 
of the North seeks its food on the same beach as the Jacana and the 
Boatbill of Brazil. 

Dr. Richardson states, that though colonization has, in America, 
restricted the range and modified the migrations of wild animals, we 
have no evidence that a single species has been there lost within the 
records of history. The Quadrumana, or Monkeys, of America are 
peculiar to that continent. None of them have what may be called 
a perfect hand, with the thumb opposed to the ringers. Their thumbs 
are small, sometimes only rudimentary, or even wholly wanting. Not 
a single Ape — not one true Baboon is to be found among them ; but 
many are furnished with prehensile tails, admirably adapted for ani- 
mals moving among thick forests, and almost as serviceable for grasp- 
ing as the proboscis of the Elephant. 

Almost all the Mammifera, considered as common to the New and 
Old Worlds, belong to the order of Carnivora ; yet it is by no means 
improbable, that a minute examination of species now considered as 
the same, may detect specific differences among them. I would par- 
ticularly recommend attention to the skulls of animals. My late in- 
genious young friend, Robert Jameson, of Edinburgh, had acquired 
great tact in discriminating the Carnivora, in particular, by the form 
and position of the sutures uniting the bones of the face, which differ 
much in each species. It is believed by many naturalists, that the 
proportions of the skulls of Indian birds, in other respects similar to 
our own, as compared to their bodies, differ from those of Em-ope. 
Similar differences may occur in other parts of the skeletons of qua- 
drupeds, which have escaped the superficial examiner, yet sufficient to 
constitute specific characters. This would be particularly valuable in 
determining the species of weasels and amphibious Carnivora, which, 
at present, are very perplexing to the naturalist. 

All the existing Marsupial animals are confined to America, Au- 
stralia, and some other South Sea Islands : yet, at one period, animals 
of this order must have been very generally distributed over the earth, 
as their bones occur everywhere in a fossil state, and are formed in the 
oldest deposits of mammiferous remains. 

The number of Rodentia in North America is great, and all seem to 
be peculiar to the New World : of the Edentata, one only is found in 
North America. Two or three species occur in Africa and India; all 
the rest are South American. It is singular, that of the existing Pa- 
chydermata, two species only are considered as indigenous to Ame- 



XXXviii SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

rica — the tapir and the peccary ; and of these, the last only is found 
in North America. Yet no region can boast of more numerous, or 
more gigantic species of fossil animals of this order — as elephants and 
mastodons — and, what is remarkable, though the present race of horses 
is acknowledged to be not indigenous, fossil bones of the horse were 
found on the N.W. coast by Capt. Beechey mingled with those of ele- 
phants. Of the Ruminantia, two only seem to be common to the Old 
and New World — the reindeer and the elk — unless we admit that the 
argali of Siberia is the same as the sheep of the Rocky Mountains. 

The Celacea, as might be expected from their mode of life, may be 
considered as common to both worlds. The Rytina Borealis and 
Manatus Americanus are found in North America, but not in the seas 
of Europe. Temminck estimates that we have 930 well ascertained, 
and 140 doubtful species of Mammifera; of these 207 are in the New 
World, and 169 in North America. The birds of North America are 
most numerous, and have been illustrated by the successive labours of 
Pennant, Wilson, the Prince of Musignano ; but, above all, in the Fauna 
Boreali-Americana of Richardson and Swainson, and the superb work 
of Audubon. The similarity between the birds of Europe and North 
America is marked by one third of the species being common to both 
Faunae. These are chiefly to be found among the Grallatores and 
Natatores, two-thirds of which orders are common to both : of the 
order Rapaces several are common to both continents. The Insessores 
are very numerous, and a great number are peculiar to America. The 
Rasores, in all countries, are little disposed to migrate ; and almost all 
of this order found in America are peculiar to it, with the exception of 
some pigeons and a few Arctic grouse. 

The Reptilia of North America are exceedingly numerous. All, 
with the exception of some sea-turtle, are distinct from those of the 
Old World. Two genera equally fitted to live in water and in air, as 
possessing both gills and lungs, and represented by the Siren laccrtina 
and Menopoma gigantea, which abound in North America, have only 
one analogous animal in the Old World, the Proteus anguinus of the 
lakes and caves of Carniola. 

Many species of the fishes of the American seas are found else- 
where ; but the only fresh-water fish, common to both worlds, appears 
to be the pike ; yet it is singular, that it does not occur in the waters 
to the west of the Rocky Mountains, although there the two continents 
are more approximated. Some of the family of the Salmonidae and 
Clupiada?, which visit America, have much resemblance to those of 
Europe. 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL,. XXXIX 

Tliis Report is an excellent specimen of the method of comparing 
the Faunae of distant regions, and presents a model of a philosophical 
disquisition on the geographical distribution of animals. 

The Association has, at different times, received three able Reports 
from Professor Challis, of Cambridge, on the Mathematical Theory of 
Fluids. In the first he showed how the application of mathematical 
analysis to investigating the properties of an imaginary fluid, supposed 
incompressible, or so compressible that the density should always be 
proportional to the pressure it sustains, admits of comparison with 
facts observed in the equilibrium and motion of water, or in the exist- 
ing mechanical qualities of air. In the second, the author considered 
the modifications which these theories had, in later times, sustained by 
the introduction of certain molecular hypotheses on the constitution of 
matter, and how a comparison of the consequences of these hypothe- 
tical speculations with experimental results, served to establish the 
basis of the mathematical reasoning, and to make known properties 
and conditions of bodies not cognizable by our senses. 

The present Report treats of several very important points in the 
Mechanical Theory of the Atmosphere. Mr. Atkinson's* attempt to 
ascertain the law of variation of temperature, at different heights in the 
atmosphere, would seem to require, for its establishment, a more ex- 
tensive series of observations over a greater portion of the earth's sur- 
face than we now possess. 

The difference between the velocity of sound, as determined by ex- 
periment, and Newton's deduction from Boyle's and Mariotte's law of 
elastic fluids, amounting to one-sixth of the whole, has given rise to 
many attempts to solve the problem, especially by Euler, Lagrange, 
and Laplace. The latter gave the true solution of the discrepancy — 
namely, that it arises from the evolution of heat, and its absorption, 
which accompany every sudden compression or expansion of air. The 
application of analysis, to afford a formula of correction, was first at- 
tempted by Biot and Laplace, and more lately by Ivory ; but when we 
compare the theoretic deduction with the best experiments on the 
propagation of sound by Moll and Van Beck, at Utrecht, by Golding- 
ham at Madras, and Parry and Foster in the Arctic regions, the slight 
discrepancies between experiment and calculation are more to be at- 
tributed to some imperfection in our formulae than to error in experi- 
ments, which in their results agree so nearly, though made under very 
different circumstances. 

* Trans. Royal Astron. Soc, vol. ii. 



xl SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

Under the liead of Theories of Elastic Fluids, the author has intro- 
duced some valuable remarks upon the memoirs of Poisson, on the 
equilibrium and motion of elastic bodies, on the equilibrium of fluids, 
and the pressure of fluids in motion ; and also on Laplace's theory of 
Capillary Attraction ; for which I must refer to the Report. 

We have next two reports on the Comparative Botany of Scotland 
and Ireland, by Mr. Mackay and Professor Graham, of Edinburgh. 
The first indicates the more remarkable plants that characterize the 
neighbourhood of Dublin and Edinburgh. In the second, Mr. Mackay 
points out the effect of climate on the Flora of Ireland. Ireland, il is 
true, has fewer species of plants than Great Britain, and possesses fewer 
alpine plants than Scotland. Its position and moister climate, how- 
ever, put it in possession of many plants not found in Great Britain, 
but of species occurring in Spain and Portugal, among which may be 
noticed Erica Mediterranea, Erica Mackiana, Pinguicola grand/flora, 
Arbutus unedo, Menziesia poly folia. 

The Reports from the London and Dublin sub-committees on the 
Motions and Sounds of the Heart, in this and the last volume, will 
interest the physiologist and the physician. Ever since the application 
of the stethoscope, by Laennec, to the investigation of pectoral diseases, 
the sounds of the heart have been anxiously explored — its normal 
sounds studied, and its abnormal bruits eagerly inquired into, as im- 
portant diagnostics of health and disease. The causes of those sounds 
have been matter of dispute ; the investigation was recommended by 
the Association ; and a sum appropriated for the expense of experi- 
ments on the subject. The Reports are the results of the labours of 
two sub-committees,who agree on the principal points,viz., that the first 
sound is produced during the systole, or contraction of the ventricles: 
and that the second sound is produced by the sudden check which the 
action of the semilunar valves gives to the current of blood impelled 
against them, by the elasticity of the arteries. In the second Dublin 
Reports, the abnormal sounds are illustrated by some ingeniously-de- 
vised experiments : but both sub-committees admit, that the motions 
and sounds of the heart require further investigations. 

The Dublin Committee on the Pathology of the Brain and Nerves 
express their opinion, that to arrive at any accurate conclusions on so 
extensive and difficult a subject, a very large number of cases must be 
first submitted to examination, their symptoms during life accurately 
noted, and minute examinations instituted after death. One hundred 
and seventy-eight males and two hundred and ninety-four females, 
labouring under nervous affections, are in the Dublin House of In- 



ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR TRAILL. xli 

dustry and Hospitals — of whom forty-one have already been accurately 
examined, for the object just alluded to. 

The results of the Discussion of the Observations on the Tides, ob- 
tained by means of the grants of the Association, have been reported 
by Mr. Lubbock. 

Mr. Dessiou was employed to discuss the Tides observed at Liver- 
pool, so as to ascertain the diurnal inequalities in their height, and also 
to classify the errors of prediction for a year in Liverpool and at the 
London Docks. The result is, that Daussy's deduction from the ob- 
servations at Brest is confirmed, viz. that the height of high water is 
diminished when the barometer is high, and increased when it is 
low. 

The various discussions of nineteen years of observations at the 
London Docks, amounting to 13,370, for the purpose of deducing the 
diurnal irregularities, and examining the effects of the moon's transit 
immediately preceding high water, and those of the two previous days, 
lead to the conclusion, that Bernouilli's theory of Equilibrium " satis- 
fies the phenomena nearly, if not quite, within the limits of errors of 
the observations," and that it leaves very little to be otherwise ac- 
counted for. 

A short statement is made by Professor Powell, of Oxford, on the 
Determination of Refractive Indices for the definite rays in the Solar 
Spectrum, from direct observation. The investigations recommended 
in the third Report of the Association have been commenced by Pro- 
fessor Powell, who continues his observations. 

Dr. Hodgkin reported from the London Physiological Commit- 
tee, that their investigations have not established the views of Lippi, 
respecting the communications of the absorbents with the veins ; but 
they do not warrant a rejection of his observations, nor amount to any 
proof that the thoracic duct is the sole medium of communication be- 
tween the lacteals and the veins. Direct communications between 
absorbents and veins have been observed by the reporter : but he is 
disposed to consider these as deviations from the normal structure. 

A short Report on the best methods of ascertaining Subterranean 
Temperatures, and the proper form for Registers of such observations, 
is published by a Committee appointed for the purpose. 

The last Report in the volume is the very profound Examination, by 
Sir William Hamilton, of the Validity of Mr. Jerrard's proposed me- 
thod of Transforming and Resolving the higher degrees of Equations, 
as contained in his ' Mathematical Researches.' Mr. Jerrard's method 
may be characterized as consisting in rendering the problem indeter- 



xlii SEVENTH REPORT 1837« 

minate, and in employing this very property to decompose certain of 
the conditions into others, for the purpose of avoiding that elevation 
of degree, that would otherwise be the consequence of the elimination. 
The ingenuity of the principle, and the talent displayed in the re- 
searches, are freely admitted by Sir William, who contends that the 
process is valid, as a general and unexpected transformation of equa- 
tions of elevated degrees, though it fails as a method of resolving 
them ; and who thus sums up the result of his investigations on the 
subject : — " This method of decomposition has, however, conducted, in 
the hands of Mr. Jerrard, to transformations of equations, which must 
be considered as discoveries in algebra ; and to the solution of an ex- 
tensive class of problems in the analysis of indeterminaies, which had 
not before been resolved : the notation, also, of symmetric functions, 
which has been employed by that mathematician in his published re- 
searches on these subjects, is one of great beauty and power." 

On the very valuable matter contained in the proceedings of the 
Sections time will not permit me to enter, and I must refer you to the 
volume just published. 

In conclusion, allow me, in the name of my respected colleagues and 
of our Liverpool associates, to offer a sincere and hearty welcome to 
the distinguished strangers whose presence confers additional interest 
to this meeting ; and secondly, to congratulate the town of Liverpool 
on the exertions it has made, worthily to receive an Association, which, 
aiming at the diffusion of a general taste for scientific investigations, 
and their application to the improvement of society, seems calculated 
to perform an important part in the future destinies of our country — 
which, as co-operating with all other scientific bodies, and the rival of 
none, but including in its lists representatives from each — which, distin- 
guished by the freedom of its discussions, the liberality of its assistance, 
and the importance of its recommendations, has been happily charac- 
terized, by an eloquent secretary of a former year, as a Fourth Estate 
in the Realm, and may be aptly designated Her Majesty's Parlia- 
ment of Science. 



COMMUNICATIONS. xlhi 



Communications to the General Evening Meetings. 

On Monday evening Professor Traill read his Address. 

On Wednesday evening Mr. W. Snow Harris delivered a 
Lecture, illustrated by experiments on a large scale, on the 
application of Lightning Conductors to Ships. 

On Friday evening Reports were received from the Presi- 
dents of Sections of the communications which had been read 
during the week. 

On Saturday evening, besides the official business, the Pre- 
dent noticed the gift, by Dr. Manni, of Rome, of a Colossal 
Bust of Maecenas, as a mark of respect for the objects of the 
British Association. This magnificent Bust was forwarded 
for presentation to Dr. Bryce, of Liverpool, who has given 
the following account of the circumstances which render this 
Bust interesting to the public : — 

" It was long a cause of wonder and regret, that no gem, medal, or 
statue of a man so illustrious had ever been discovered. At length, 
the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, early in the last century, by a 
happy conjecture, fixed on one of the gems in his collection, an ame- 
thyst of small size, marked with the name of the engraver, Dioscorides, 
as being the representation of the head of Maecenas. Another gem, 
bearing the name of Solon, the engraver, evidently representing the 
same person, was afterwards found in the Farnesian Museum ; and a 
third of the same, a sardonyx, also engraved by Solon, has since been 
discovered in the collection of the Prince Ludovisi. The features 
given in these gems agree so well with all that has been handed down 
in the Roman Classics concerning the personal appearance and habits 
of Maecenas, that the suggestion of the Duke of Orleans has been 
adopted by all subsequent antiquaries. A few years after the recogni- 
tion of the head of Maecenas on the gems of Dioscorides and Solon, 
both artists coeval with Augustus, an antique fresco painting was dis- 
covered in the ruins of the palace of the Caesars on the Palatine Hill 
at Rome. This painting represents Augustus surrounded by his 
courtiers, conferring a crown on the Persian King Phraates, an event 
spoken of by Horace. In the front rank of the courtiers stands one, 
evidently the Prime Minister, in the act of speaking, whose features 
strongly resemble those on the gems of Maecenas above described. 
Next to him is Agrippa, who is readily recognized from medals, coins, 
and statues of him. Horace also is found in the group. A copy of 
this painting was bought by Dr. Mead, and brought to England by 
him ; and an engraving of it may be seen in Turnbull's Essay on 
Ancient Painting. 

" This was the extent of antiquarian research and acquisition con- 



xliv SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

cerning Maecenas during the last half century, when, in the spring of 
1 830, a Bust was found in an excavation made by Professor Manni, at 
Carsoli, the ancient Carsuli, about seventy miles from Rome, on the 
Flaminian Way. This place is situated in what is esteemed the most 
beautiful and romantic district of the Roman territory, being near the 
cascades of the Nera, at Terni, and midway between the towns of 
Terni, Todi, and Spoleto. 

" The Bust was of colossal size, the same as that presented to the 
Association, of pure Parian marble, and perfect in every feature. On 
being cleared of its incrustation, the modelling of the work was seen to 
be of that masculine firmness which characterizes the style of the 
epoch of Augustus, excelling in what is called a broad manner — the 
execution that of a master — with the greatest severity and grandeur ; 
the emaciation by age of the individual represented being faithfully 
preserved. The striking resemblance of the Bust to the gems and 
picture of Maecenas was at once recognized by the most eminent anti- 
quaries and learned men at Rome. 

" It may be interesting to state, in further confirmation of the high 
value which has been set upon the Bust, in Italy, as also because the 
circumstance enhances the gift of Professor Manni, that it has been 
t\vice copied by Thorwaldsen. One copy was presented to the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, and by him placed in the Hall of the Academy of 
Petrarch, at Arezzo, as being the presumed birth-place of Maecenas ; 
the other to the King of Naples, who caused it to be deposited in the 
Borbonico Museum at Naples." 

The following is an extract from the letter of Chevalier 
Manni, forwarded with the Bust to Dr. Bryce : — 

" The town of Liverpool shall possess a third copy in marble. You 
will exhibit it at the Meeting of the British Association, and express 
my very great regret, that I shall not be able to be present, as I was 
last year at Bristol. You will say, that the friendly civilities, received 
on that and on other occasions in your country, moved me to offer 
some tribute of my gratitude and of my respect ; and to manifest these 
feelings, I am delighted to place in your hands this Bust of Maecenas." 

In conformity with the wish of Dr. Manni and a rule of 
the Association, which provides that gifts of this nature to 
Meetings of the Association shall be transferred to some sci- 
entific institution or public body at the place where the Meet- 
ing is held, the Bust of Maecenas will be placed in the Town- 
hall, in Liverpool. 



REPORTS 

ON 

THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report on the Variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed 
at different Points of the Earth's Surface. By Major 
Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

[With Plates.] 

It has been justly remarked by M. de Humboldt, " that the 
phainomena of the earth's magnetism, in its three forms of 
variation, dip, and intensity, have of late years been examined 
with great care, in the most different zones, by the united ef- 
forts of many travellers ; and that there is scarcely any branch 
of the physical knowledge of the earth in which, in so small 
a number of years, so much has been gained towards an ac- 
quaintance with its laws, though not perhaps with its causes." 
{Ann. der Physik, vol. xv. p. 320.) 

Be it here remarked, that it is to the example and the 
writings of this illustrious philosopher that the accelerated pro- 
gress in this, as in so many other branches of physical science, 
is eminently due. His writings exhibit, in the most pleasing 
manner, the delightful, the never-failing interest which such 
pursuits afford, awaken thereby a taste for them in those who 
were previously unconscious of its existence, and stimulate its 
exercise in all. It is in this respect that M. de Humboldt has 
been not only a great promoter of science, but a moral be- 
nefactor to many ; for it is the privilege of such pursuits that 
tedious hours are little known to the mind that engages in them, 
and the enjoyment which they yield is unimpaired by advancing 
years *. 

M. de Humboldt's remark is particularly true in regard to the 
magnetic intensity. At the commencement of the present cen- 

* The surviving friends of the late Major Rennell have, in their recollection 
of that true philosopher, when engaged in his latter years in his important work 
on the currents of the Atlantic Ocean, a memorable example of this power of 
physical research, to preserve its interest vivid and unbroken amidst the infirmi- 
ties of declining years. 

vol. vi. 1837. b 



2 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

tury, the bare fact of there being any difference whatsoever in 
the intensity of the magnetic force in different parts of the 
earth was unattested by a single published observation. The 
maps attached to this memoir exhibit the progress which inves- 
tigation has made in the years that have since elapsed. They 
contain 753 distinct determinations, at 670 stations widely dis- 
tributed over the earth's surface ; leaving, it is true, much still 
to be desired ; — but in what has been accomplished, leading 
to conclusions so remarkable, in regard to the phaenomena of 
magnetism, on the largest scale presented to us by nature, as 
to stimulate greatly to more extensive research. 

I have sought to embody in this report on the variations of 
the magnetic intensity, all the materials which have been ob- 
tained by the labours of observers of all nations, in all parts of 
the world ; — to present them in the form best fitted to add to 
our knowledge ; — and to call attention to the general conclu- 
sions, to which we are conducted by an attentive consideration 
of the facts of observation, when thus brought together in one 
view. A large portion of these determinations are here pub- 
lished for the first time. The observations of Capt. de Frey- 
cinet, Capt. King, Mr. Douglas, Capt. Fitz Roy, Capt. Ross, 
and Major Estcourt are wholly new, the original observations 
having been recently communicated to me by the respective 
observers, and calculated and arranged by me. Messrs. 
Hansteen and Due's Siberian observations, and M. Erman's in 
the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, have been furnished to me by 
the liberality of those gentlemen, calculated as they appear 
here. Of the results previously published, the greater number 
are collected from different foreign works which have little cir- 
culation in this country ; and some of these, as well as apart of 
my own observations published in this country several years 
ago, have required additional calculations, for the purpose of 
bringing them into the general comparison. 

I have divided the report into three sections ; the first, con- 
taining a condensed historical notice of each of the several series 
of observations, by which our knowledge of the magnetic in- 
tensity has been progressively advanced ; the second, comprising 
the whole of the results, classed according to the values of the 
intensity, and arranged in a tabular form ; and the third, con- 
taining a summary of the principal general conclusions in regard 
to the system of terrestrial magnetism, which are deducible 
from the facts thus collected. 

I have endeavoured to confine the historical notices in the 
first section within the narrowest limits compatible with the pri- 
mary object, that of including in each notice all the circum- 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 6 

stances required to be known in order to estimate rightly the 
value of the results. In the case of observations which are 
either wholly or partly new, these particulars are not to be 
found elsewhere ; and in the case of those series, the published 
accounts of which are contained in foreign works rarely met 
with in this country, it has appeared desirable, — whilst giving 
every direction which may facilitate a reference to the original 
publication, — to make the account here given complete in all 
particulars essential to a just estimation of the value of the 
results, independently of such reference. The details neces- 
sary for this purpose may render this portion of the report 
occasionally tedious to the general reader, who will be princi- 
pally interested by that section which contains the general con- 
clusions. 

Section I. — Historical Notices. 

It is to France we owe the first rightly directed experimental 
inquiry on this subject. The instructions, drawn up by the 
members of the French Academy of Sciences for the expedition 
of La Perouse, contain a recommendation that the time of vibra- 
tion of a dipping needle should be observed at stations widely 
remote, as a test of the equality or difference of the magnetic 
intensity ; suggesting also with a sagacity anticipating the result, 
that such observations should particularly be made at those 
parts of the earth where the dip was greatest and where it 
was least. 

The experiments, whatever their results may have been, which 
in compliance with this recommendation were made in the ex- 
pedition of La Perouse, perished in its general catastrophe ; 
but the instructions survived, and bore fruit in the earliest re- 
corded observations of the variations of the magnetic intensity, 
which are those published by M. de Rossel in the second volume 
of the Voyage de Dentrecasteaux in search of La Perouse. 

Rossel, 1791-1794. — These observations, though made in the 
years above-mentioned, were not published until 1808. They 
were made with a needle vibrated in a dip circle of Le Noir, 
coming to rest disadvantageously soon for the purpose of experi- 
ments on the intensity. The needle continued in vibration little 
more than three minutes; consequently incidental errors would 
bear a very large proportion to the total time of vibration ; a 
disadvantage which appears to have been in a great degree coun- 
teracted by the very great care bestowed on the observation. 
The needle was vibrated at Brest in 1791, before the voyage 
commenced ; and, successively, at Teneriffe ; Van Die men's Land, 

b2 



4 SEVENTH REPORT — 18.37- 

in May 179^; at Amboyna, in October of the same year; again at 
Van Diemen's Land, in February 1793 ; and at Surabaya in 
Java, in 1794. With this last observation the published results 
terminate ; there is no record of the vibrations having been re- 
peated on the return to France, for the purpose of testing the 
constancy of the magnetism of the needle, a step which subse- 
quent experience has shown to be most important. The con- 
nexion of all the foreign stations with Europe is consequently 
imperfect ; and the values of the intensity at those stations, re- 
latively to any standard value in Europe, could only be com- 
puted, subject to the uncertainty arising from the possibility 
of a change in the magnetic condition of the needle. The 
conclusion drawn by M. de Rossel, of the increase of the inten- 
sity in receding from the equatorial to the higher latitudes, was, 
however, fully borne out and substantiated, in regard to the 
southern hemisphere, by the observations at Van Diemen's Land 
in 1792 and 1793, compared with the intermediate vibrations at 
Amboyna. These form a comparison complete in all respects, 
and to the certainty of which nothing is wanting. It is inde- 
pendent of any change the needle may have undergone before 
or afterwards ; the correspondence of the time of vibration at 
Van Diemen's Land in May 1792 and February 1793, proving 
the needle to have been steady in that interval. The increase 
in the intensity between Amboyna and Van Diemen's Land was 
in the proportion of 1 to 1'67, a difference far too great to be 
attributed to any supposable errors or accidents of observation. 
Jt is this determination which unquestionably entitles Admiral 
de Rossel to the distinction which he has always enjoyed, of 
having been the first who ascertained that the magnetic inten- 
sity is different at different positions on the earth's surface : al- 
though his observations were not published until after those of 
M. de Humboldt in 1798-1803, by which the same fact was 
more largely established. 

As M. de Rossel's observations have not, I believe, been pub- 
lished in any English work, I have subjoined a table containing 
an abstract of all their essential particulars. 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



Station. 


Eate. 


Lat.* 


Long* 


Dip. 


Time of 
Vibration. 




20 Sept., 1791 

21 Oct, 1791 


48 24 
28 28 
4332S. 

3 42S. 
43 34 S. 

714S. 


355 34 
343 42 
146 57 
128 08 
14657 
11242 


71 30 N. 
62 25 N. 
70 50 S. 
20 37S. 

72 22 S. 
25 20 S. 


202 

2-081 

1-869 

2-403 

1-850 

2-429 




Van Diemen's Land 


11 May, 1792 
9 Oct., 1792 
7 Feb., 1793 
9 May, 1794 


Van Diemen's Land 




The times of vibration are in infinitely small arcs, being reduced by M. 
de ltossel, by means of a table which accompanies the observations hi the 
original publication. 



M. de Rossel's observations at Van Diemen's Land were 
made at a port on the S.E. part of the island. Capt. Fitz Roy 
has recently determined the value of the intensity at Hobart 
Town, about 40 miles north of M. de Rossel's station, to be 
1*817, in terms of a comparative scale in general use adopted 
in this Report, of which an explanation will be given in the 
sequel. Suffice it at present to say, that in the same scale the 
force at Paris = 1*348, and at London 1*372. Capt. Fitz Roy's 
observations will be found in their place in the course of this 
Report. If we take his value of the intensity at Hobart Town 
for the force at M. de Rossel's station, we have 1*097 as the 
force at Amboyna. By means of Capt. Fitz Roy's observation 
at Van Diemen's Land, I have been thus enabled to connect 
M. de Rossel's determination at Amboyna with Europe, and it 
is accordingly entered in the general table. 

Humboldt, 1798-1803. — These observations were made in 
the course of M. de Humboldt's well-known journey to equi- 
noctial America. Various partial notices of them have appeared 
at different times and in different works, but a complete account, 
communicated by M. de Humboldt himself, may be found in 
the xvth volume of the Annalen der Physik, from which the 
results employed in this memoir are derived. The observations 
were made with a dipping needle of Le Noir, selected by 
M. Borda. It vibrated considerably longer before coming to 
rest than the needle employed by M. de Rossel, so as to allow 
the number of vibrations performed in ten minutes to be taken 
as the measure of the intensity at the different stations. The 
time of vibration at Paris was observed in October 1798. be- 



* All the longitudes in this Report are east of Greenwich, unless otherwise 
expressed ; and all the latitudes arc north unless they arc designated otherwise. 



6 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

fore M. tie Humboldt's departure ; but as the needle was left in 
Mexico, those observations could not be made on the return to 
Europe, by which its magnetic invariability might have been 
assured. The circumstances are greatly to be regretted, what- 
ever they may have been, which deprived a suite of observa- 
tions so extensive, and on which so much care and labour had 
been bestowed, of a final confirmation, which can hardly be 
supplied in an equally satisfactory degree by any less direct 
evidence. Fortunately, indirect means are not altogether want- 
ing in this case, and we may infer from them that up to the 
beginning of 1800 M. de Humboldt's needle had undergone no 
change ; and that if subsequently to that date it lost magnet- 
ism, the alteration was not considerable. The observations in 
Paris were made in 1798. Between August 1799 and February 
1800, M. de Humboldt made thirteen determinations of the 
intensity on the Spanish main, between the latitudes of 10° and 
11°, and the longitudes of 292| and 296|. The mean of these 
is an intensity of 1*196. In 1822 the value of the intensity at 
Trinidad, in lat. 10° 39' and long. 298|, was determined, by 
observations made by myself (to be discussed hereafter), to be 
1*204<. The result of this comparison is extremely satisfac- 
tory; and being derived, on M. de Humboldt's side, from obser- 
vations with one needle at several stations, and on mine from 
several needles at one station, a fair conclusion may be drawn, 
that in the beginning of 1800 his needle retained its magnet- 
ism unimpaired. In January, 1801, M. de Humboldt's needle 
gave for the intensity at Havannah 1*359 ; mine, in 1822, 1*499. 
In this comparison the agreement is less perfect ; there is a 
greater difference than is usual between the results of different 
observers at the same station ; and it is such as would be occa- 
sioned by a loss of magnetism in M. de Humboldt's needle, but 
not to an amount that would impair in a material degree the 
value of his important series. Against any precise inference, 
however, to be drawn from these comparisons, there is, 1st, 
the difference of the dates at which the respective intensities 
were determined ; 2nd, a small difference in longitude of the 
localities of the first comparison ; and 3rd, those circumstances 
of a local and instrumental nature which must affect every 
such comparison. 

In the account which M. de Humboldt has given of his ob- 
servations there is no mention made of corrections having been 
applied for the arcs of vibration or for the temperature of the 
needle ; but in such an extensive series, corrections on these 
accounts are of minor importance. 

The number of land -stations at which the intensity was ob- 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. / 

served appears to have been 77, all of which are entered in 
the general table in this memoir. 

Besides the land-stations, there are 12 geographical posi- 
tions, in which M. de Humboldt observed the vibrations of the 
needle on board ship. There are two great and obvious dis- 
advantages in such observations, compared with those on land, 
viz. the motion, and the iron, of the vessel. On the other side 
should be noticed, the space interposed between the instrument 
and the solid materials of the earth's surface, many of which 
are known to exercise a very considerable disturbing influence 
on the needle. As opinions may, and I believe do, vary in re- 
gard to the degree of relative value to be allowed to observa- 
tions of intensity made at sea and on land, and as it is not a 
point on which, from personal experience, I feel qualified to 
decide, I have placed the sea-observations in a separate table, 
and subjoin them here. 



Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Date. 


Intensity. 


38 52 


34°5 59 


1799 


1-315 


37 26 


345 49 


1799 


1-315 


34 30 


345 26 


1799 


1-230 


31 46 


345 17 


1799 


1-261 


24 53 


341 23 


1799 


1-283 


3 02 S. 


279 54 


1803 


1-067 


21 29 


336 39 


1799 


1-261* \. . ft 
1-251* } 1256 


19 54 


333 36 


1799 


14 15 


314 18 


1799 


1-283* !,.„-« 
1-230*1 * Mt} 


13 02 


309 23 


1799 


10 46 


301 27 


1799 


1*178* 1 
1-Jil.} 1 - 220 


11 01 


297 30 


1799 



The results marked with an asterisk were observed on the 
passage across the Atlantic, between TenerifFe and Trinidad, a 
part of the ocean where no land exists, and where, consequently, 
the results obtained at sea furnish the only attainable evidence. 
On examination, they present differences among themselves 
considerably greater than is usual in land results ; but by com- 
bining them in pairs, as shown in the table, and using the mean 
latitude, longitude, and intensity of each pair, these partial dif- 
ferences greatly disappear. I have entered the mean latitude, 
longitude, and intensity of these three pairs in the general 
table. 



Humboldt and GayLussac, 1805-1806. — These observations 



8 • SEVENTH REPORT — 1 S3 7- 

were made during a tour in France, Switzerland, Italy, and 
Germany, with a needle suspended by fibres of silk, vibrating in 
the plane of the horizon, and measuring the horizontal compo- 
nent of the magnetic intensity. The dip was observed at the 
same time with a dipping-needle of Lenoir (the same that had 
been used in the Voyage de Dentrecasteaux), supplying the 
means of computing the total intensity from its horizontal com- 
ponent. An account of these observations was published by 
M. Gay Lussac in the 1st volume of the Memoires de la Societe 
d'Arcueil. The values of the intensity were given in reference 
to the force at Paris, where the needle was vibrated at the close 
of the series, but not at its commencement. M. Gay Lussac 
infers that no change took place in the magnetism of the needle 
throughout the series, from its having had the same time of vi- 
bration at Milan on two occasions, viz. in going and in return- 
ing, at six months' interval. As no dates are given, the stations 
at which the strict comparability of the force was thereby en- 
sured can only be conjectured. It is probable that no correc- 
tions were applied either for the arcs or for differences of tem- 
perature, as neither of these circumstances is noted in the 
record. The number of stations of known geographical po- 
sition is 19, 16 of which are inserted in the general table in 
this memoir. The other stations were in the crater, on the side, 
and at the foot of Vesuvius, where the results were considered 
by the observers to be affected, as no doubt they were, by the 
proximity of the lava. 

Sabine, 1818, 1819, 1820. — These observations were made 
in the first and second voyages of northern discovery to Baffin's 
Bay and the Polar Sea. Aware of the magnetic importance of 
the regions to be explored, and anxious duly to improve such 
opportunities, I sought diligently to provide myself with instru- 
ments adequate to the occasion. Those furnished by Govern- 
ment were by no means so ; but it fortunately happened that my 
brother-in-law Mr. Browne possessed and entrusted to me a 
dip circle and needle of very superior character, made by Nairne 
and Blunt, and similar in all respects to the one made under 
Mr. Cavendish's directions, and described by him in the 66th 
vol. of the Phil. Trans. The needle vibrated about eight mi- 
nutes before coming to rest ; and probably, from its age, had 
long acquired the state of steady magnetism which it was proved 
to possess during these voyages, its time of vibration being 
almost identical when observed in London in March, 1818, in 
March, 1819, and in December, 1820*. 

* The observations of March, 1819, and December, 1820, are recorded in 






ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 9 

The observations of the voyage of 1818 were published in 
the Phil. Trans, for 1819 ; those of the voyage of 1819-20, 
partly in the appendix to the narrative of that voyage, and 
partly in my work entitled Pendulum and other Experiments, 
published in 1825. In these publications the results were 
deduced without any corrections having been made for the 
arc of vibration or the temperature of the needle. On this oc- 
casion I have introduced both these corrections. That for the 
arc has been computed by means of the table published in the 
Voyage de Dentrecasteaux, which I find to reduce the vibrations 
in the different arcs so nearly to an equality as fully to justify 
its employment. The arcs themselves are stated in the printed 
record of the observations. The temperatures on the different 
days of observation ai'e taken from the record of the external 
thermometer in the Meteorological Journal, and the corrections 
are computed by the usual formula for that purpose, in which 
the coefficient "OOOi has been determined by experiments with 
the same needle in high and low temperatures. 

In the voyage of 1819-1820 I furnished myself, besides the 
dipping-needle, with three horizontal needles, and an apparatus 
for their vibration. These would have been of great use had it 
been our good fortune to have returned to Europe by the way of 
the Pacific; but the method of deducing the total intensity by 
means of horizontal needles almost ceases to be available in coun- % 
tries where the dip so nearly approaches 90°, and where small 
incidental errors in the determination of the dip will so greatly 
affect the conclusion as to the force. Accordingly, I have at 
no time brought the observations with the horizontal needles 
in this voyage in comparison with the results given by the dip- 
ping-needle. There is, however, an incidental purpose of some 
value which they may serve, which did not occur to me when 
the record of the observations was printed, and which is worth 
noticing, as it may be useful on similar occasions, should there 
be such. The horizontal vibrations, though inappropriate in 
such circumstances to furnish the total intensities, give as cor- 
rect measures of the relative values of the horizontal component 

the Appendix of the second Polar Expedition. From the circumstance of the 
narrative and appendix of that voyage having been published at an interval of 
some months apart, the copy of the narrative which reached M. Hansteen was 
unaccompanied by the appendix, which it seems he has never seen. The abs- 
tract of the results, published in another work from whence he has taken them, 
refers to the full record of the observations in the appendix, and omits their 
dates, and Mr. Hansteen has consequently been at a loss to know whether the 
vibrations were observed both before and after the voyage of 1819 — 1820. By 
consulting the original account, he will see that this necessary care was not 
omitted. 



10 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 



of the force at any two stations, as the vibrations of the dipping- 
needle do of the total force. If, then, T is the time of hori- 
zontal vibration, and D the dip at a primary station, where the 
total force is taken as unity, — and if T' and D' are the same 
quantities at another station, where I' is the value of the total 
intensity derived by the vibrations of the dipping-needle, — 

cos D' = — p-rpTa — ; and we thus get a determination of the 

dip distinct from the ordinary method, and independent of the 
instrumental errors from which it is so difficult to clear the 
dipping-needle, especially one in which the poles are not re- 
versed in every observation. 

Employing the observations at Melville Island, printed in 
the appendix to the account of that voyage, in this manner, 
we obtain the dip at Melville Island by the three horizontal 
needles as follows, viz. 

Needle 1 88° 44' 

Needle 2 88 46 

Needle 3 88 48 

The direct observation by the dipping-needle was 88° 43'"5. 

The following table exhibits the results of the observations 
of intensity in the two north polar voyages above noticed, cor- 
rected for temperature and arc, and expressed in terms of the 
general scale. 



Station. 


Latitude. 


Long. 


Therm. 


Time of Vibration. 


Intensity. 


Observed. 


Correct. 


London, 1818 


o 1 

Ul 31 

60 09 
68 22 
70 26 
75 05 

75 51 

76 45 
76 08 
70 35 
64 00 

73 31 
72 45 
75 10 

74 27 


o / 
359 52 

358 48 
306 10 
305 08 
299 37 
296 54 
284 00 

281 39 
293 05 
298 10 

282 38 
270 19 
256 16 
248 18 


48 
44 

34 
34 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
32 
40 
32 
32 
20 


f480 

] 482 
[480 
470 
440 
443 
447-2 
443-6 
435-0 
436-0 
436-0 
437-4 
439-5 
4390 
442-5 
444-3 
446-2 


472-0 
473-5 
472-9 
461-7 
432-1 
434-9 
439-4 
435-6 
429-1 
4300 
429-7 
435-0 
432-9 
428-9 
430-7 
434-6 
432-6 


1 1-372 

1-434 
1-643 
1-622 
1-590 
1-618 
1-666 
1-659 
1-661 
1-621 
1-637 
1-668 
1-653 
1-624 
1-638 


London, 1819 ... 


London, 1820 


Shetland, 1818 
















On Ice, 1819 






Byam Martin's Island . 
Melville Island 




74 47 j 


249 12 


43 



Hansteen, 1819-1825. — In 1819 M. Hansteen, having com- 



i 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THK EARTH. 1 1 

pleted and published his elaborate exposition of the theory of 
the earth's magnetism, to which he had been conducted by the 
study of the phasnomena of the variation and dip as far as they 
were then known, entered into the field of experimental re- 
search, in which he has since rendered such important practical 
services to his favourite science. His exceedingly portable ap- 
paratus for determining the intensity by horizontal needles is too 
well known to need description here ; and his good fortune in 
possessing a needle of remarkably steady magnetism, supplied 
by Mr. Dollond, renders little more necessary to be said in re- 
gard to his determinations, than to refer to the publications in 
which they may be found, and to enter them in the general table. 
From 1819 to 1824 his observations were confined to Norway 
and the shores of the Baltic, and were published in the iiird. 
vol. of the Ann. der Physilc, the intensity stations being 37. In 
1825 he extended them round the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia; 
and the determinations of that year, being 30 in number, were 
published, first, in the ixth vol. of the Ann. der Physik, and, 
secondly, with corrections, in the Astro. Nach., No. 146. 

Erichsen, 1824 ; Keilhau and Boeck, 1825-1827 ; Erman, 
1826. — I have classed these observations together, because 
they were all made, I believe, at the instance and with the ap- 
paratus of M. Hansteen, and were communicated to the public 
through him in the Astro. Nach., No. 146. Captain Erichsen's 
consist of 3 stations on the shores of the Baltic, and in Ger- 
many ; Messrs. Keilhau and Boeck's of 9 stations in Germany ; 
and M. Erman's of 2 stations in Germany. They were all 
connected with Paris through Christiania, and are entered in 
the general table. 

Sabine, 1822-1823. — These observations were made during 
two voyages, in which I was furnished by the British Govern- 
ment with a vessel for my conveyance to stations' at remote 
latitudes from each other, for the purpose of determining the 
amount of the ellipticity of the earth by means of the pendu- 
lum. The first voyage was to the equatorial shores of the Afri- 
can and American continents, and the second to the north of 
Europe, Greenland, and Spitzbergen. For these voyages I sup- 
plied myself with as many as six horizontal needles, in anti- 
cipation that some amongst them might prove unsteady in their 
magnetism. The observations with all the needles, and at all 
the stations visited, were published in 1825, with the account of 
the pendulum experiments. 

One of the needles, No. 2, lost so much of its magnetism in 



12 SEVENTH REPORT — 183". 

the first voyage that it was not used in the second. Another, 
No. 1, appears to have been subject to fluctuations in its 
magnetic condition, rather than to have undergone permanent 
or uniform gain or loss. M. Hansteen, who has discussed 
these observations at some length in the ixth volume of 
the Annalen der Physik, has rejected the results with these 
two needles whenever they differed considerably from those 
of the other four ; but has retained and allowed weight 
in the general mean to such of their results as appeai'ed 
to agree with the other needles. Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 showed 
on their return to England small and comparatively unim- 
portant differences from their times of vibration previous to 
their departure. M. Hansteen has applied corrections on this 
account to the intervening observations, according to their 
dates. One of my stations having been Drontheim in Norway, 
which was visited by M. Hansteen himself for the same purpose 
in 1825, two years after I had been there, it became a station 
common to our respective series ; and he was thereby enabled 
to compute the values of the intensity at all the stations visited 
by me, relatively to the force at Drontheim, which he had 
already compared with Paris by observations at Drontheim 
and Christiania, and at Christiania and Paris. The values so 
computed and published by M. Hansteen in the volume of the 
Ann. der Physik referred to, are here subjoined, for the pur- 
pose of exhibiting them in comparison with my own deduc- 
tions. The latter are made from the observations with Nos. 3, 
4, 5, and 6 alone, those of Nos. 1 and 2 being put wholly 
aside. The times of vibration of each needle at the different 
stations, as originally published in 1825, have received three 
corrections : one, when necessary, for change of magnetism, 
assigned on the principle of uniform gain or loss ; a second, 
to diminish the observed times of vibration to the correspond- 
ing times in infinitely small arcs ; and a third for reduction to 
a standard temperature of the needle, the coefficients for 
the formula having been determined experimentally for each 
needle. The values of the intensity in my deductions are given 
relatively to the force in Paris, by my own comparison of the 
farce in London and in Paris, which will be noticed hereafter. 
There are, therefore, several particulars in which M. Han- 
steen's mode of deduction and mine differ ; but it is interesting 
to perceive how nearly the results agree. The values calculated 
by M. Hansteen are almost everywhere slightly in defect of those 
computed by me. This arises from the force at Drontheim be- 
ing somewhat less by M. Hansteen's observations than by mine ; 
and as he has compared the intensity at all my stations with that 






ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



13 



at Paris through the observations at Drontheim, the original 
difference between us at Drontheim pervades the whole series. 



Place. 


Hansteen. 


Sabine. 


Place. 


Hansteen. 


Sabine. 


Sierra Leone ... 
Gambia River... 


0-894 
0-900 
0-921 
1-006 
1043 
1-129 
1-184 
1-183 
1-300 


0-898 
0-920 
0-931 
1-016 
1-053 
1-141 
1-193 
1-204 
1-313 




1-382 
1-414 
1-430 
1-430 
1-493 
1-493 
1-512 
1-531 
1-794 


1-373 
1-436 
1-442 
1-454 
1-499 
1-506 
1-530 
1-562 
1 803 




Grand Cayman . 


Hammerfest ... 



In the deductions contained in this table (both in M. Hans- 
teen's and mine) the dips employed are those which M. Hans- 
teen has calculated from my published observations. They 
differ occasionally a minute or two from my calculated results, 
but in no instance does the difference amount to 3'. 

Liitke, 1826-1829. — These observations were made by 
Captain (since Admiral) Liitke, of the Russian Imperial Navy, 
in a voyage of circumnavigation in H.I.M. ship Siniavin. At the 
request of Capt. Liitke, M. Lenz, of the Imperial Academy of 
Sciences at St. Petersburg, undertook to arrange them for 
publication, and they have since been published in the German 
language in the Memoirs of the Imp. Acad, of Sciences for 1835. 
I was indebted to the friendship of Capt. Liitke for an early 
knowledge of these observations, having received a copy of them 
in a letter from Norfolk Sound in July 1827 ; but the present 
notice, as well as the results entered in the table, are taken 
from the published account. 

M. Lenz's memoir is divided into two sections, — on the ob- 
servations of Dip, — and on those of Intensity. Our present 
purpose is with the latter section. 

The observations of intensity were made with one dipping and 
five horizontal needles. The dipping-needle was S\ inches in 
length, with a steel axle, and was reserved exclusively for mea- 
suring the intensity by its vibrations, as there were two other 
dipping-needles for observations of the dip. The horizontal 
needles were of various shapes, cylindrical, rhomboidal, and 
elliptical, but all of the same length, i. e. two English inches. 
They were obtained in England when the Siniavin was on her 
outward passage. The apparatus in which they were to have 



14 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837. 

been used was unfortunately broken in pieces in the carriage 
from London to Portsmouth by mail. It had been Capt. Lutke's 
intention to have vibrated the needles at Portsmouth before his 
departure, and again at the same spot on his return from the 
Pacific ; so that all the observations of his voyage with each 
needle might have been comparable with its rate at Portsmouth. 
The accident which prevented the execution of this purpose, 
and rendered the series of observations much less complete than 
it would otherwise have been, is much complained of both by 
Capt. Liitke and M. Lenz. In consequence of this accident, it 
was not until the arrival of the Siniavin at Kamtschatka that 
the needles could be vibrated at a station to which they were 
subsequently brought back ; and out of 52 stations, there are 
only 18 which were observed at during an interval in which 
anything is known by observation of the steadiness of the mag- 
netism of the needles. They were vibrated at three different 
dates at the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul, viz. on Septem- 
ber 30, 1827, June 6, 1828,and October 9, 1828. Their changes 
of rate in the intervals were small, but not proportionate. 
Corrections are computed and applied at all the intermediate 
stations in the usual manner. M. Lenz has employed the rate 
of change of each needle, deduced from the first and second 
times of vibration at St. Peter and St. Paul, to furnish correc- 
tions for the stations observed at antecedently to Capt. Lutke's 
first arrival at Kamtschatka ; of these the land stations are 
Rio de Janeiro, Concepcion, Valparaiso, Sitka and Unalaska. 
For a single station (Manilla) observed at subsequently to the 
final departure from Kamtschatka, M. Lenz has used the rate 
of correction deduced from the second and third times of vibra- 
tion there. 

The times of vibration were derived on all occasions from the 
mean of 250 consecutive vibrations, commencing with an arc 
of 30° and ending usually about 10°. M. Lenz has not consi- 
dered it necessary to apply a correction for the arcs. The value 
of the correction to a mean temperature was determined for 
each needle by observations made at St. Petersburg at the con- 
clusion of the voyage. For four of the five needles the correc- 
tion was as usual additive to the time for temperatures below 
the standard, and subtractive for those above it ; but one 
needle, rhomboidal in shape, exhibited the anomaly of a de- 
crease of force in the colder temperatures, fully as great as the 
increase shown by any of the others. The observations appear 
to have been very carefully made, — were repeated four times, — 
and include a difference of temperature of 20° Reaumur. A 
similar anomaly has been noticed, if I remember rightly, by M. 






ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



15 



Kupffer, as having occurred in his experience, and I have my- 
self met with an instance of the same kind. M. Lenz has em- 
ployed no correction for this needle ; and the vibrations of the 
vertical needle appear also to have been uncorrected for tem- 
perature. 

The harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul is the fundamental 
station of Capt. Liitke's determinations. The value of the in- 
tensity there, 1*447 to 1*348 at Paris, is stated by M. Lenz to 
be taken on the authority of M. Hansteen. 

Capt. Liitke used both his dip and intensity needles at sea in 
favourable weather, placing the instruments on a board sus- 
pended in gimbals above the companion. His sea observations 
appear to be viewed by M. Lenz as not entitled to equal weight 
with those at the land stations, but as valuable additions. Of 
51 intensity results, 16 are at land stations, and are entered in 
the general table; and I subjoin, as in the case of M. de Hum- 
boldt's, a separate table of the 35 results obtained at sea. 



Lat. 


Long. 


Date. 


Intensity. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Date. 


Intensity. 


South. 




1827. 




North. 




1827. 




29 10 


3°13 3'5 


16 Jan. 


(a) 0-924* 


35' 


/ 
232 56 


8 May 


(b) 1.013 


40 55 


307 


25 Jan. 


(a) 1-110 


2 24 


232 08 


9 May 


lb) 1-012* 


49 18 


302 48 


31 Jan. 


(a) 1-268 


13 13 


227 


19 May 


(b) 1-112* 


53 16 


301 37 


3 Feb. 


(b) 1-320* 


23 26 


218 02 


25 May 


(h) 1-212* 


55 25 


298 27 


8 Feb. 


(b) 1-413 


25 21 


213 56 


30 May 


lb) 1-376* 


41 00 


282 30 


1 March 


(b) 1-324 


40 28 


213 35 


1 June 


(b) 1-456 


29 38 


278 26 


11 April 


(c) 1-153* 


44 54 


214 50 


3 June 


lb) 1-573* 


21 51 


268 05 


18 April 


(c) 1-046* 


48 44 


216 37 


6 June 


lb) 1-653 


13 09 


251 20 


27 April 


(c) 1-014 


52 29 


219 08 


9 June 


(6) 1-662* 


9 38 


243 25 


30 April 


(c) 1-141* 


45 27 


159 02 


23 Oct. 


(b) 1-303 


6 01 


240 08 


2 May 


(h) 1-005* 


39 07 


159 03 


26 Oct. 


lb) 1-186 


4 20 


238 13 


3 May 


lb) 0-998 


32 59 


161 49 


1 Nov. 


lb) 1-113* 


2 29 


236 26 


4 May 


(a) 1-000* 


18 44 


163 55 


13 Nov. 


lb) 0-989 


2 02 


236 04 


4 May 


(h) 0-996* 


11 27 


161 52 


18 Nov. 


lb) 0-970 


I 15 


225 30 


5 May 


(c) 0-989* 


4 17 


162 54 


23 Dec. 


(a) 1-001 


1 10 


234 31 


6 May 


lb) 0-995* 


3 47 


162 59 


23 Dec. 


(a) 1-010 


56 


233 17 


7 May 


(c) 0-990* 


2 56 


162 50 


24 Dec. 
1828. 


(a) 1-018 










6 55 


158 02 


7 Jan. 


(a) 990 


The i 


esults with an asterisk are so marked ir 


1 M. Lenz's memo 


r to signify 


observat 


ions made under less favourable circums 


tances than the ot 


lers. The 


sixteen i 


jphich are not so marked are entered in 


the general table. 




(a) de 


signates results obtained by means of th 


e horizontal needle 


s; (b) those 


by mean 


s of the dipping-needle ; and (c) results 


which are a mean 


of both me- 


thods. 









King, 1826-1830. — These observations were made during 



16 SEVENTH KKPORT — 1837. 

a survey of the coast of South America from Rio de Janeiro to 
Valparaiso, carried on under the orders of the British Govern- 
ment hy Capt. Philip Parker King of the Royal Navy. They 
were undertaken at the request of M. Hansteen, and with an 
apparatus for horizontal vibration with which Capt. King was 
furnished by him. A copy of the observations was ti'ansmitted 
from time to time, as they were made, to M. Hansteen, who em- 
ployed the results, computed provisionally, in his map of the 
intensity, published in the Annalen der Physik, vol. xxviii. 
The observations themselves have not yet been published, 
having been given by Capt. King to his successor in the survey, 
Capt. Fitz Roy, to be published when the latter should return 
to England. On his return, which took place late in 1836, 
Capt. Fitz Roy placed Capt. King's magnetic observations in my 
hands (together with his own, of which a separate notice will be 
given in the sequel,) to calculate and arrange for publication 
in an account which he is now preparing for the press, of the 
proceedings of Capt. King and himself during the survey. 
Meantime I have Capt. Fitz Roy's permission to introduce Capt. 
King's results into this memoir. 

The needle with which M. Hansteen supplied Capt. King sus- 
tained a very considerable loss of magnetism during the four 
years it was employed by that officer. Its time of vibration in- 
creased between March 22, 1826, and January 24, 1831, (on 
which days it was tried in the garden of the Royal Observatory 
at Greenwich,) from 734-'5 seconds in 1826, to 775'S seconds in 
1831. A change of such magnitude in the magnetic intensity 
of the instrument employed to measure the variations of the 
terrestrial intensity, and which ought itself, therefore, to be in- 
variable, would, in ordinary circumstances, have prevented any 
satisfactory conclusion whatsoever being drawn from the obser- 
vations. Fortunately, from the nature of the duties in which 
Capt. King was engaged, he had occasion to return frequently 
to the same anchorages ; and as he was extremely careful to 
re-examine the needle on every such return, we have the means 
of knowing by direct observation the amount of the loss it 
sustained in certain portions of the time of its employment. 
There are eleven stations at which the force was observed 
on the east and west coasts of South America, and two in ports 
of the Atlantic on the outward voyage. By the practice re- 
ferred to, of repeating observations at the same station at di- 
stant intervals, the South American stations are so linked toge- 
ther and connected, that by adopting a method similar to that 
used in determining chronometrical differences of longitude, we 
may compute and assign the intensity at each, in reference to 



! 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 17 

one selected, and regarded in the same light as a first meri- 
dian. In justice to these valuable observations, and in consi- 
deration of the great change undergone by the needle, it may 
be desirable briefly to describe the manner in which this has 
been done. 

At Rio de Janeiro, which was the first station observed at in 
South America, the needle was vibrated in August 1826, Sep- 
tember 1827, and December 1828 ; in the intervals between 
these dates are comprised the principal part of the observations 
on the east side of South America. There is no direct obser- 
vation at Rio subsequently to December 1828, but we are able 
to supply the time of vibration at a fourth date in the following 
manner. The intensity at Rio and at Monte Video having been 
correctly compared by a double comparison in 1827 and 1828, 
the needle was vibrated at Monte Video on the 1st of June, 
1830, immediately before Capt. King's departure for England, 
and we thus obtain by an easy calculation the time of vibration 
at Rio corresponding to the same date. The intervals between 
these four dates include the whole of the South American sta- 
tions ; and we have only to distribute in each interval the loss of 
magnetism which the observations show to have taken place 
from one date to the next, in the manner which may appear 
most suitable. There is no very obvious indication that the 
loss was other than gradual ; and by considering it uniform in 
each separate interval, the results are found extremely ac- 
cordant at several other stations at which observations were re- 
peated at distant intervals. The subjoined tables will enable 
the reader to judge of this for himself. In the first table are 
shown the times of vibration at Rio, corresponding to the four 
dates : 1st, the observed times of horizontal vibration reduced 
to infinitely small arcs and to a temperature of 60° ; and 2nd, 
the corresponding times as a dipping-needle. The value of 
the correction for temperature has been determined for this 
needle by observations which I have recently made with it for 
that purpose, the particulars of which will be given in the 
more detailed statement in Capt. Fitz Roy's publication. In 
the three last columns are shown, — the number of days com- 
prised in each interval, — the increase in the time of vibration 
owing to loss of magnetism in the needle, — and the resulting 
daily correction on the supposition of the loss in each interval 
being uniform. 

The second table contains the corrected times of horizontal 
vibration at each of the South American stations at the dates 
respectively inserted ; — the dips observed by Capt. King ; — the 
time of vibration as a dipping-needle at Rio at the same dates, 

vol. vi. 1837. c 



18 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



-0-884 



derived from the observations in the first table ; — and the result- 
ing intensity at the station relatively to Rio. The contents of 
the tables thus far are the results of Capt. King's observations, 
unmixed with those of any other observer. We have now 
to express his results in terms of the general scale of compari- 
son, and this is done in the final column, by taking the value 
of the intensity at Rio at 0-884, which is the mean of four inde- 
pendent determinations by the following observers, viz. : 

1817 and 1820 Freycinet . . . 0-890" 

1827 Liitke 0-886 

1830 Erman .... 0-879 

1836 FitzRoy . . . 0-878_ 

I have included in table II. Madeira and Port Praya, at which 
Capt. King observed in his outward passage. The dates of 
these fall between the observations at Greenwich in March, 
1826, (corrected time = 734*0 and dip 69° 52',) and those at 
Rio in August, 1826. Having the intensity at Greenwich 
= 1*372 and at Rio = 0-884, we have the time of vibration 
as a dipping-needle at Rio at the respective dates as follows : 

March, 1826 536-2 

August, 1826 537-0 

It appears, therefore, that only a very slight change took 
place in the magnetism of the needle during the outward voy- 
age, and we may take 536*6 as the time of vibration at Rio, 
corresponding to the dates of the observations at Madeira and 
Port Praya. I have assumed the dip and force at Greenwich 
to be the same as at London. The dip at Madeira was not ob- 
served by Capt. King, but has been supplied from my own ob- 
servations in 1822, which were made in the same locality, 
namely, the Consul's garden in Funchal, where Capt. King's 
needle was vibrated. I have deducted 12' from my determina- 
tion of the dip at Madeira for the probable change between 
1822 and 1826. 

Table I. 





Time of Vibration. 








Rio de Janeiro, 
Dip 14° 00'. 






Interval. 


Loss. 


Per diem. 


Horizontal. 


As a dipping, 
needle. 




S. 


s. 


Days. 


s. 




August 29, 1826... 


545-2 


537-0 


J 382 
I 462 
} 527 












6-5 


•017 


September 15, 1827 


551-8 


543-5 












9-2 


•1)20 


December 21, 1828 


5611 


552-7 












2-7 


•005 


June 1,1830 


563-8 


555-4 







ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



19 



Table II. 



Station. 


Date. 


o2 

s = 

Is 


Observed dip. 


u 4) O 
O CO 03 


I 

Intensity, 


Rio 

= 1-000. 


Rio. 
=0-88-1. 




1826, May 31 


s. 
627-79 
557-08 
553-58 
549-44 
562-78 
553-87 
560-95 
564-89 
576-37 
584-29 
585-08 
589-36 
596-54 
595-81 
598-97 
565-23 
551-83 
555-59 
557-18 
548-59 
551-6 


62 0-0 N. 
45 44-7 N. 
22 12-4 S. 
35 05-9 S. 


s. 
536-6 
536-6 
544-5 
5381 
552-8 
545-4 
551-3 
555-4 
5531 
539-4 
540-6 
546-2 
548-2 
549-3 
555-1 
5542 
554-8 
554-6 
555-3 
553-9 
554-6 


1-556 
1-330 
1045 
1-1721 
1-179/ 
1-206 1 
1-201 I 
1-202 J 
1-538 
1-691 \ 
1-694 / 
1-712T 
1-683 1 
1-694 f 
1-712 J 
1-402 
1-425 
1-413 1 
1-412/ 
1-334 1 
1-324 J 


1-377 
1177 
0-920 

1041 

1-065 

1-361 
1-498 

1-505 

1-321 
1-262 

1-250 
1176 




1826, June 22 & 24 ,., 

1827, Nov. 3 

1826, Oct. 29 & Nov. 6 
1829, Jan. 10 






1827, Dec. 18 


36 28-4 S. 


1828, Oct. 8 




1830, June 1 




Sea-bear Bay ... 
St. Martin's Cove 


1829, March 20 


53 13-5 S. 
59 43-8 S. 

59 ' 52-6 S. 


1827, Jan. 15 &22... 
1827, March 27 




1828, Jan. 28 


1828, May 8 




1828, June 18 & July 20 
1830, April 26 








Chiloe 


1829, Sept. 1 & Dec. 15 

1830, Feb. 19 


49 52-6 S. 

44 49-8 S. 

45 10-0 S. 


Juan Fernandez . 


1829, Dec. 28 


1830, May 12 




1829, Aug. 4 


40 10-7 S. 




1830, Jan. 11 & Feb. 1. 







Sabine, 1827. — These observations were made for the pur- 
pose of determining the ratio of the intensity in Paris and 
London, in order to connect and unite in one system, the re- 
sults of the different observers who had made Paris and Lon- 
don respectively the base stations of their series. 

All values of the intensity hitherto determined are relative 
values ; that is to say, each observer has taken some one sta- 
tion as the fundamental one of his series, and has expressed 
the values of the intensity at all his other stations, compara- 
tively with the force at his fundamental station. Unless, there- 
fore, two such series have one station common to both, or un- 
less the force at their respective fundamental stations has been 
otherwise compared, they do not form parts of one system, 
and the results of the one series cannot be brought into con- 
nexion with those of the other. 

The continental observers in general have taken Paris, either 
mediately or immediately, as their fundamental station ; and the 
English observers have as generally taken London ; the present 
observations were designed, therefore, as a link to connect their 
respective series into one system. 

c 2 



20 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

Six horizontal needles were employed for this purpose, and 
a number of observations were made with them at different 
dates at both places ; the details are published in the Phil. 
Trans, for 1827. From these it appears that, if the horizontal 
intensity in London be designated as unity, the several needles 
gave its value in Paris as follows, viz. 



Needle IV. = 1-0732 
VIII. = 1-0675 
X. = 1-0726 



Needle XI. = 1-0723 

A. = 1-0709 

B. = 1-0717 



Mean 1-0714. 

The observations were corrected for a small excess of tem- 
perature in the experiments at Paris over those in London, 
being, I believe, the first time in which a correction for dif- 
ference of temperature was introduced into any published re- 
sults of the variations of intensity at different stations. The 
places of observation were the magnetic cabinet of M. Arago at 
Paris, and the garden of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick, 
near London. 

In order to deduce the relative values of the total intensity 
from their observed horizontal components, we require the 
dip at the two stations as accurately as it can be inferred from 
nearly cotemporaneous observations. In August, 1828, the dip 
in the garden at Chiswick was observed by Mr. Douglas and 
myself, 69° 46-9. Phil. Trans., 1829. In a paper of M. Han- 
steen's, in the Annalen der Physik, vol. xxi. p. 414, we find 
recorded the following observations at Paris, a part of which 
fall on either side of the London observation of August, 1828, 
viz.: Q / 

1825 Arago 68 00 

1826 Humboldt and Mathieu . . 67 56*5 

1827 Humboldt and Mathieu . . 67 58-0 
1830 Arago 67 41-3 

The months in which the observations were made are not 
named by M. Hansteen, but M. de Humboldt in a paper in the 
xvth vol. of the Ann. der Physik mentions that those of 1825 
and 1826 were made in August and September, and I have 
taken those of 1827 and 1828 as corresponding to the same 
months. Allowing then an annual decrease of dip of 2'*8 {Ann. 
der Physik, vol. xxi. p. 419) we obtain the dip in Paris in Au- 
gust, 1828, as follows: , 

1825 Arago 67 51-6~) 

1826 Humboldt and Mathieu 67 50-9 \ R % -{.,- 

1827 Humboldt and Mathieu 67 55-2 f°' D1 
1830 Arago 67 46-9J 

I have therefore taken 67° 51'-2 as the most satisfactory co- 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 21 

temporaneous result that I can obtain for Paris, all the obser- 
vations being made in M. Arago's magnetic cabinet. It appears 
therefore, that about the period in question, the dip in London 
exceeded that in Paris by 1 15'*7 ; preserving this difference in 
the dips at the two stations when reduced to the period of the 
horizontal observations in 1827, and combining them with the 
observed horizontal intensities, we obtain 1*018 as the value of 
the total force in London to unity in Paris. 

Such being the case, if any other number than unity be 
taken for the measure of the force in Paris, the correspond- 
ing value in London will be the product of that number multi- 
plied by 1-018. By the observations of M. de Humboldt al- 
ready described, the intensity at Paris to that of a place in 
Peru, where the needle had no dip, was found to be as 1*3482 
to 1*000. As at that period it was supposed that an equal in- 
tensity, being the minimum on the surface of the globe, pre- 
vailed at all places where the needle had no dip, the station 
at which M. de Humboldt had observed in Peru appeared the 
proper unity of the system of intensities. Subsequent ex- 
perience, however, has shown that the intensity lines follow a 
very different course from the dip lines ; and in retaining the 
expression of unity for the force observed by M. de Humboldt 
in Peru, we are necessitated to employ terms less than unity 
to expi*ess the force in many other of the inter-tropical parts 
of the globe, and even in one quarter beyond the tropic. The 
scale is therefore purely arbitrary : but it is in general use, 
and will probably continue to be employed till experiments 
(perhaps those of M. Gauss) shall have determined an abso- 
lute value for the magnetic intensity at some one station ; when 
all the relative intensities may be converted into the corre- 
sponding absolute intensities. Such is the origin of the num- 
ber 1*3482 employed by observers generally as expressing the 
force at Paris. In assuming a constant expression for the force 
at any station on the globe for any considerable number of 
years, we are of course subject to error resulting from the 
secular change in the intensity ; of the amount of which we have 
as yet no definite knowledge. 

The force in London relatively to the above value of the 
force at Paris is 1*3482 x 1*018 = 1*372. 

In the spring of 1828 two of the needles used in this com- 
parison were interchanged between M. Hansteen and myself, 
for the purpose of determining in a similar manner the ratio 
of the horizontal intensity at London and Christiania. The 
observations are detailed in the Journal of the Royal Institu- 



22 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

tion for 1830, p. 29. They gave the following results for the 

horizontal intensity at Christiania to unity in London : 

■\r ;n tv /"Comparison in March . . 0*9124 
JNeeciie *v.^ Comparison in May # < 0<9157 

VTTT r Comparison in March . . 0*9157 
» V111, \ComparisoninMay ... 0*9160 

Mean ... 0*9147 
We have seen that the observations in Paris and London 
gave ! "0714 for the horizontal intensity at Paris, also to unity 
in London ; consequently Christiania to Paris is as 0*9147 to 
1*0714, or as 0*8537 to 1. In the spring of 1828 M. Hansteen 
observed the dip at Christiania 72° 16'*2 ; at Paris at the same 
time, or about four months before August 1828, we may con- 
sider it to have been 67° 52*'5. The total intensity at Christi- 
ania derived from this comparison is therefore 1*423. The 
result of a direct comparison between Paris and Christiania 
made by M. Hansteen in 1825 is 1*419. 

All the values of the intensity inserted in this memoir were 
originally observed in reference to one of these three stations, 
Paris, Christiania, or London, mediately or immediately. They 
have been united by means of the comparisons above noticed, 
viz., those of Paris and London, and of Paris and Christiania ; 
and they now form one connected series. 

Keilhau, 1827. — These observations were made in a voyage 
to Finmarken and Spitzbergen, in which M. Keilhau was fur- 
nished with an horizontal apparatus of M. Hansteen's, and a 
5-inch dip circle and two needles made by Dollond. The 
observations were communicated to M. Hansteen, and the re- 
sults were published by him in the xivth vol. of the Annalen 
der Physik, from whence I have taken them. 

There may be remarked in these results greater differences 
of intensity between stations near to each other than are 
usually met with. From the geological character of the coun- 
tries, it is probable that a portion of these may be due to local 
circumstances; but it is also probable that a considerable por- 
tion of them may be attributed to the inadequacy of the dip- 
ping-needle with which M= Keilhau'was furnished, to give re- 
sults sufficiently exact for the computation of intensities, in a 
part of the globe where a small error in the dip will occasion 
a very considerable one in the deduced intensity. His two 
dipping-needles frequently gave results at the same station 
differing from twenty to thirty minutes from each other. 

There are 20 stations determined by M. Keilhau in Norway, 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 23 

Finmarken, and Spitzbergen, all which are inserted in the ge- 
neral table. 

Hansteen and Due, Erman, 1828-1830.— In 1819 M. Hans- 
teen published his celebrated work on the magnetism of the 
earth, in which he brought into one view a larger body of 
observations of the dip and variation than had been brought 
together by any previous philosopher ; and by subjecting them 
to a close examination, drew this remarkable inference in re- 
gard to the intensity ; namely, that a centre, or pole as it 
might be termed, of magnetic intensity must exist in the north 
of Siberia, less powerful, but otherwise similar to the one in 
the north of America ; and that the lines of equal intensity 
would be found to arrange themselves around the Siberian 
centre in the same way as around the centre of greater force in 
America. At the time M. Hansteen drew this inference not a 
single observation of the intensity had been made nearer to 
Siberia than Berlin on the one side and Mexico on the other. 

M. Hansteen's work, much more read on the Continent than 
in England, produced a very general desire that an inference 
so remarkable, and so important if confirmed, should be sub- 
mitted to the test of experiment. This, however, exceeded in- 
dividual means to accomplish ; it was one of those underta- 
kings in science for which national aid is required. To the 
honour of Norway, the funds for this undertaking were fur- 
nished by a unanimous vote of the Norwegian Storthing or 
Parliament. In 1828 M. Hansteen, accompanied by Lieut. 
Due, proceeded at his country's expense, and with every faci- 
lity which could be afforded him by the Russian Government, 
on a journey expressly for magnetic observations through the 
Russian dominions in the north of Europe and Asia. They 
were provided with a dip circle and two needles of Gambey's, 
and with M. Hansteen's apparatus for horizontal vibrations. 
At St. Petersburg they were joined by M. Erman of Berlin, 
proceeding on a similar mission to the same countries, and 
similarly furnished with magnetic instruments. The three 
gentlemen travelled together to Siberia, MM. Hansteen and 
Due on the one part, and M. Erman on the other, making the 
same observations everywhere, but independently of each other. 
They wintered at Irkutsk ; and the following year MM. Hans- 
teen and Due returned to St. Petersburg by land route, and 
M. Erman proceeded by Ochozk to Kamtschatka, where he 
embarked for Europe. The maps attached to this memoir 
mark by the observations entered on them their various jour- 
neys, separately and together, in northern Asia. Suffice it 



24 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

here to say, that, they traversed the whole of the north of 
Europe and of Asia longitudinally, and descended the rivers 
Oby and Jenesei to the polar circle, with a view of determining 
the latitude and longitude of the Siberian pole or centre 
of magnetic intensity ; and that its general phenomena were 
found to correspond in a very remarkable degree with M. 
Hansteen's anticipations, its locality being removed but a few 
degrees (about 6°) to the eastward of the position he had pre- 
viously assigned to it. 

Soon after M. Hansteen's return, he published a general 
map of the magnetic intensity, in the xxviiith vol. of the An- 
nate n der Physik. I am not aware that he has as yet pub- 
lished any detailed statement of the results of his journey. The 
stations inserted in the table in this memoir are from a MS. copy 
of his and Lieut. Due's observations, which, with the liberality 
that has hitherto characterised the labours of those engaged in 
this interesting inquiry, and which I trust may long continue to 
do so, he sent me from Irkutsk in 1829, with permission to make 
" every use of it that I might think proper, especially when it 
can encourage to new undertakings, and accordingly forward 
the science." 

M. Hansteen's determinations of intensity have a very great 
advantage in the perfect invariability of the needle he em- 
ployed. For sixteen years in which it was in constant use no 
sensible alteration took place in its magnetism. This is an ad- 
vantage which only those can duly appreciate who have been 
much engaged in making or in computing observations of this 
nature. The correction for temperature also, which he deter- 
mined experimentally in the usual manner, has received the 
fullest practical confirmation, by the exact agreement, when 
corrected by it, of observations at the same place in tempera- 
tures differing nearly 90° of Fahrenheit. 

M. Erman's intensity observations are not yet published ; 
they are to form a part of the second volume of the scientific 
portion of his journey, the first volume of which was published 
at Beilin in 1835. He has, however, communicated their re- 
sults, provisionally computed, with corrections applied for tem- 
perature and arc, in the xviith vol. of the Annalen 4er Physik, 
from whence I have extracted them. 

The number of stations entered in the table are, 80 observed 
by MM. Hansteen and Due, and 98 by M. Erman. These are 
all in the north of Europe and Asia, and 46 are common to 
M. Erman and MM. Hansteen and Due. There are besides 
four land determinations of M. Erman's on his homeward voy- 
age, viz., Sitka, St. Francisco in California, Otaheite, and Rio 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 25 

de Janeiro. He made also a very extensive series of intensity 
observations on board ship in his passage from Kamtschatka 
to Europe. Of these he has not yet communicated the nume- 
rical results. He observed the vibrations of a dipping-needle 
placed on an apparatus contrived to guard against the ship's 
motion, which is understood to have been very successful*. 

Kupffer, 1829. — These observations were made in a scien- 
tific journey to the Caucasus, undertaken by the order of the 
Emperor of Russia. M. KupfFer was furnished with two 
horizontal needles, one of which he received from M. Hans- 
teen, and the other from myself through M. de Humboldt. 
He employed them, between May and August, 1829, at St. 
Petersburg, Moscow, Stavropol, two stations in the Caucasus, 
Taganrog, and NicolaiefF; and on his return to St. Petersburg, 
presented to the Imperial Academy of Sciences a report on 
the general results of his journey, in which the times of 
vibration of the needles are specified, together with the tem- 
peratures and the observed dips ; but the conclusions, in 
regard to the relative intensity at the different stations, were 
deferred, until the corrections for temperature for the two 
needle-s could be experimentally investigated. I am indebted 
to M. Kupffer for a printed copy of this report, and I have 

* Since this report passed from my hands into those of the Assistant-general 
Secretary, I have been favoured by M. Erman with a complete copy of his ob- 
servations, including those made at sea. On hearing from M. de Humboldt 
that 1 was engaged in drawing up this report, M. Erman, with great liberality 
and most obligingly, sent me a copy in manuscript of the whole of his results 
provisionally computed. I have thus been enabled to add five or six stations 
between Ocbozk and the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul with which I was 
previously unacquainted, and 167 observations made on his voyage from Kamt- 
schatka to Europe. I consider these last observations particularly valuable, in 
the evidence they afford, that determinations of the intensity can be made at 
sea with an accuracy but little inferior to those on land. With the exception 
of a few in the very early part of the voyage, which appear from some cause to 
give somewhat lower intensities than accord with M. Erman's own observations 
at Sitka and St. Francisco, the results, both in the Pacific and Atlantic, when- 
ever they approach the land stations of other observers, present a most satisfac- 
tory accordance. 

The complete series of M. Erman's magnetic determinations is the most ex- 
tensive contribution yet made to the experimental department of magnetical 
science ; nor can we rate its value too highly, since it furnishes us with conse- 
cutive determinations of dip, variation, and intensity, by the same highly qua- 
lified observer, and with the same excellent instruments, extending through all 
the meridians of the globe, and from the Arctic circle in Siberia to nearly 60° of 
south latitude, the whole of this distance being traversed in the course of two 
years, and the track completely marked by the frequency of the observations. 



26 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

seen no later publication containing his own conclusions from 
his observations. The results entered in the table are con- 
sequently computed by myself from the report above no- 
ticed, and are uncorrected for temperature, which is of the 
less importance as the differences of temperature were not 
considerable. It is not stated in the report that the needles 
were re-examined at St. Petersburg at the close of the series ; 
but as the two give results very neai'ly accordant, it is pro- 
bable they underwent little or no loss. At one of the sta- 
tions in the Caucasus no dip was observed ; consequently no 
total intensity can be computed. Some error has obviously 
taken place in regard to the observations at Moscow ; the 
times of vibration of both needles as given in the report would 
correspond with a very much higher intensity there than at St. 
Petersburg, which we know from the concordant observations 
of MM. Erman and Hansteen is contrary to fact. M. Han- 
steen, who received the observations direct from M. Kupffer 
at St. Petersburg, has omitted the Moscow results in his notice 
of this series. I have therefore done the same, supposing that 
there is some satisfactory reason for the omission with which 
I am unacquainted. At Stavropol and Taganrog the dips 
employed in the reduction were observed with an inferior in- 
strument, the principal dipping-needle having met with an acci- 
dent. 

Quetelet, 1829-1830.— In 1829 M. Quetelet, Director of the 
Royal Observatory at Brussels, made observations on the hori- 
zontal intensity at several stations in Germany and the Nether- 
lands, with an apparatus similar to M. Hansteen's and two 
needles ; and in the following year in France, Switzerland, and 
Italy with the same apparatus and four needles. The obser- 
vations of 1829 are contained in a memoir printed in the 6th vol. 
of the Memoires de V Academie Royale de Bruxelles ; those of 
1830 in the Annalen der Physik, vol. xxi. Unfortunately, the 
greater part of the observations of horizontal intensity are un- 
accompanied by observed dips, and the stations are compara- 
tively few at which M. Quetelet either observed the dip himself 
or has selected dips observed by others, so as to be available 
for our present purpose. There are ten such stations entered 
in the general table. Having vibrated his needles in Paris in 
1830, the values of the intensity are deduced by direct com- 
parison. He has corrected the observations for temperature, 
employing for their reduction the coefficient determined by M. 
Hansteen for his own needle. 






ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 27 

Douglas, 1829-1834, —These observations were made by 
Mr. David Douglas during a journey to the N.W. coast of 
America, undertaken for botanical and geographical objects. 
The circumstances of his much-regretted death at Owhyhee in 
the spring of 1 834, whilst waiting for a vessel to convey him 
home to England, are too well known to need repetition here. 
Having been supplied with instruments for a part of the scien- 
tific purposes of his journey by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, his papers on such subjects were sent by the British 
Consul at the Sandwich Islands to the Colonial Office, and on 
their arrival in England were placed in my hands to examine and 
report upon. The books containing the magnetical observations 
showed, by the completeness of the record, the attention and 
care bestowed on every circumstance which could conduce to 
accuracy. A full report on these, and on his other scientific 
papers, has been presented to Lord Glenelg, the present Se- 
cretary of State for the Colonies, but is yet unpublished. I 
have therefore permitted myself to enter into a more circum- 
stantial account of these observations in this place than I have 
done in regard to other observers, whose works can be imme- 
diately consulted. 

Mr. Douglas was furnished with a dip circle of 11| inches 
in diameter, made by Dollond, with a needle on Mayer's prin- 
ciple ; and for the intensity, with four of the same horizontal 
needles which I had used in 1822-1823, viz., Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6. 
The time of vibration of these needles was observed by Mr. 
Douglas in London, in 1828 and 1829, previously to his leaving 
England. In May, 1830, they were vibrated at Oahu, one of 
the Sandwich Islands ; and between September, 1 830, and 
February, 1831, at four stations in North America, where 
the dip was also observed, viz., Fort Vancouver, Cape Disap- 
pointment, Monterey, and St. Francisco ; and at several other 
stations, where the dip was not observed. In February, 1831, 
he sent Nos. 3 and 4 to England, to have the permanency of 
their magnetism examined ; retaining Nos. 5 and 6 with him 
for further observations. Nos. 3 and 4, from accidental cir- 
cumstances, did not reach me till 1836 in Ireland, and being 
examined in Limerick and Dublin (both which stations had 
been carefully compared with London), No. 3 was found to 
have slightly gained, and No. 4 slightly lost magnetism, on a 
comparison with their rates in 1828 and 1829. When not em- 
ployed in actual observation, these needles were kept together 
in the same case, with their opposite poles connected, as were 
Nos. 5 and 6 in another and a separate case. I have had occa- 
sion to remark elsewhere, that, when needles differing consider- 



28 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

ably in their rates of vibration are so kept together, it does not 
unfrequently happen that the weaker needle acquires magnetism, 
and the stronger loses it ; and such appears to have been 
the case in this instance. It was not until 1829 that Nos. 3 
and 4 were put together, having been previously paired in a 
similar manner with other needles, whose magnetic strength in 
both cases very nearly coincided with their own. It is pro- 
bable, therefore, that the one began to lose and the other to 
gain from that time forth ; and that the whole gain or loss took 
place in the earlier portion, rather than equably throughout 
the interval from 1829 to 1836. 

When needles are so kept together in pairs, the two should 
be employed on every occasion, and their combined result 
should be regarded as one determination. Mr. Douglas never 
employed them singly. If in such cases the gain of the one 
needle were exactly proportioned to the loss of the other, the 
results of the two needles taken separately would differ, but 
combined would furnish a mutual compensation. In the pre- 
sent case the gain and loss, though not identical, were so 
nearly equal, that by taking a mean between the London 
rates of each needle in 1829 and 1836, and combining at Lon- 
don and at the other stations the results of the two needles into 
one determination, we obtain the values of the intensity as they 
would have been given by a single needle whose magnetism 
had undergone little or no change. 

The intensities thus calculated by needles 3 and 4, for the 
Sandwich Islands and the stations in North America, are al- 
most identical with those computed from Nos. 5 and 6, taken 
jointly in the same manner, using the London rates which they 
had before they left England. These needles have been 
sought for in vain amongst Mr. Douglas's effects sent to En- 
gland ; their steadiness, therefore, can only be judged of from 
a comparison of their results with those of Nos. 3 and 4. 

The special objects of Mr. Douglas's mission leading him 
in excursions on foot into the interior of the country, in Cali- 
fornia, and on the rivers tributary to the Columbia, the use of 
the horizontal needles was the only service he could there ren- 
der to magnetism, as the dip circle was not sufficiently port- 
able to be taken with him. There are 18 stations at which 
he used the horizontal needles alone, between 34|° and 54|° 
N. lat., and all nearly on the same meridian, viz., between 1 19° 
and 124° W. from Greenwich. The only absolute deduction 
in these cases is that of the horizontal intensity. In deducing 
the total force from its horizontal component, the dip employed 
must necessarily be computed from the dips observed at other 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



29 



stations. Determinations of intensity in that part of the globe 
are as yet so rare, that such observations are too valuable to be 
omitted in this memoir ; I have accordingly entered them in the 
general table, as well as in a separate table here, and have an- 
nexed to the latter a brief notice of the manner in which they 
have been computed. 

The last observations recorded in Mr. Douglas's books are 
those which he made on the dip at Byron's Bay, and on the 
force, with needles 5 and 6, at Byron's Bay and in the crater of 
the volcano Kiraueah, soon after his arrival at Owhyhee in 1834. 
I have searched in vain, amongst the few loose papers which 
were sent home, for the rough notes of observations of very 
great interest, of which he speaks in his private letters, but 
which are not entered in his books. I mean those of the dip, 
variation, and intensity at the summit of Mowna Kaah, nearly 
] 4,000 feet above the sea, and at other elevations on the island 
exceeding 10,000 feet. He mentions, as a general inference 
from these observations, that he found little or no difference 
between the three phsenomena observed at those heights and 
near the sea. Those in the crater of Kiraueah, about 4000 feet 
above the sea (which are the only ones preserved), indicate a 
decidedly less intensity (1-059 to 1*098) than on the sea side at 
Byron's Bay, a few miles distant : but Kiraueah is a recent 
volcano, and no conclusion, as to the simple effect of elevation 
on the magnetic intensity, can of course be drawn. 

In the first subjoined table are inserted the intensities de- 
termined at the stations where both the dip and horizontal in- 
tensity were observed. The second table contains those sta- 
tions where the horizontal component only was observed, and 
the dips are supplied in the third table according to the expla- 
nation annexed to it. 

Table I. 



Long, west 

from 
Greenwich 



Dip 

observed. 



Intensity. London = 1-372 



Nos. 3 & 4. Nos. 5 & 6. Mean 



Fort Vancouver.. 
Cape Disap- "I 
pointment J 
Point George .. 

St. Francisco 

Monterey 

Owhyhee 



Nov., 1830.. 

Sept. Dec, 

1830 



Feb., 1831 .. 
Jan., 1831 .. 
Feb., 1834.. 



45 37 

46 16 

46 11 
37 48 
36 35 
19 43 



122 36 

123 56 

123 40 
122 25 
122 
156 10 



69 39-7 

69 30-3 

69 16-8 
62 580 
62 07-5 
37 58-0 



1-684 
1-668 



1-597 
1-584 



1-691 
1-679 



1-597 
1-596 
1098 



1-688 
1-674 



1-597 
1-590 
1098 



30 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

Table II. 



Monterey = 1-000. 


Fort Vancouver = 1-000. 


Place. 


Horiz. Int. 


Place. 


Horiz. Int. 


Fort Alexandria ... 
Thompson's River 


0-5616 
0-5719 
0-6015 
0-6415 
0-7165 
0-9721 
0-9859 
1-0056 
1-0080 
10101 
10222 
10413 
10335 
10282 


Mouth of the Wul-1 

Rapids of the Co- 1 

South branch of"l 
the Multnomah J 


0-9790 

1-0000 

10163 
1-0463 








London =1-000. 






Oahu 


1-758 
1-762 









Table III. 



Stuart's Lake 

Frazer's Lake 

Fort Alexandria 

Thompson's River 

Oakanagan 

River Wullawullah 

Rapids of the Columbia 

River Multnomah . 

River Sandiam 

St. Francisco Solano .. 

San Jose 

La Soledad 

San Antonio 

San Miguel 

San Obispo 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Ynez 

La Purissima 

Sandwich Islands. 

Oahu 

Crater of Kiraueah 





Long, west 


Lat. 


from 




Greenwich. 


54 27 


124 20 


54 03 


124 40 


52 33 


122 29 


50 41 


120 11 


48 05 


119 27 


46 03 


118 48 


45 40 


121 48 


45 15 


122 47 


44 35 


122 27 


38 17 


122 24 


37 32 


122 00 


36 24 


121 24 


36 01 


121 18 


35 45 


121 00 


35 16 


120 40 


34 25 


119 40 


34 36 


120 11 


34 40 


120 27 


21 18 


158 


19 







June, 

June, 

May, 

April, 

April, 

July, 

Sept., 

Aug., 

Aug., 

July, 

July, 

April, 

April, 

April, 

May, 

May, 

May, 

May, 



1833 
1833 
1833 
1833 
1833 
1830 
1830 
1830 
1830 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 



May, 1830 
March, 1824 



Computed 1 


dip. 1 


7°6 09 


75 48 


74 50 


73 43 


71 45 


70 14 1 


69 27 i 


68 57 ! 


68 28 ! 


63 24 ' 


62 52 1 


62 04 


61 46 i 


61 40 


61 17 


60 48 


60 53 


60 53 


41 39 


38 00 



Intensity 
London 
= 1-3/2. 



1-745 
1-734 
1-714 
1-701 
1-701 
1-699 
1-671 
1-660 
1-672 
1-614 
1-607 
1-596 
1-584 
1-580 
1-581 
1-587 
1-579 
1-571 



1116 
1059 



The latitudes in this table, and the longitudes of the stations on the River Co- 
lumbia and its tributaries are from Mr. Douglas's observations. The longitudes 
are chronometrical, from Fort Vancouver as a first meridian. The longitude of 
Fort Vancouver is computed from 1200 lunar distances observed by him. A few 
of these were computed on the spot, but all were fully recorded, and have been 
calculated since his papers arrived in England. 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 31 

Notice of the manner in which the results in the above table 
have been computed. — There are five stations in North Ame- 
rica at which Mr. Douglas observed the dip. The number of 
separate observations is 21 distributed as follows : 
Cape Disappointment ... 3 

Point George 2 

Fort Vancouver 6 

St. Francisco 3 

Monterey 7 

To compute from these the dip at the eighteen stations where 
it was not observed, we require the direction of the isoclinal 
lines, and the rate at which the dip increases in the perpendi- 
cular to them. 

The relative position of the five stations, being nearly on the 
same geographical meridian, is unfavourable for determining 
the direction of the lines ; but, on the contrary, extremely fa- 
vourable for a deduction of the rate at which the dip increases 
in the perpendicular to them ; and as the horizontal stations 
are all nearly under the same meridian also, the rate of increase 
is the element of calculation, which it is most important to ob- 
tain correctly. 

To compute, therefore, the rate of increase from the observa- 
tions themselves, we may take the direction of the lines from 
a general map, as a small uncertainty in this respect has little in- 
fluence on the result. In M. Hansteen's map of the lines of 
dip in 1780 we find their direction in that part of the globe to 
be from N. 74° W. to S. 74° E.* If we express by r the rate 
of increase corresponding to a geographical mile, and make 
8 = the dip at a central geographical position, say 45° N. 
lat., and 124° W. long., and 8^ 8 2 , 8 3 , &c, the observed dip at 
the five stations, we shall have 

S, = 8 + («! cos 74° - b x sin 74°) r 
8 2 = 8 + (> 2 cos 74° - h 2 sin 74°) /•, &c, 
the coefficient a being the difference of longitude between the 
central station and that at which the dip was observed, ex- 

* When I wrote the above I had not seen M. Erman's more recent mag- 
netic map from his own observations in 1828, 1829 and 1830, in which are de- 
lineated the dip lines of 60°, 65°, and 70°, which pass through the district in 
which Mr. Douglas's observations were made. Their direction in the meridian 
of 124° W. measured on M. Erman's map is, as nearly as the measurement can 
be made, from N. 744° W. to S. 74§° E. I add this note to explain the reason 
why the direction in the text was not taken at once from the more modern and 
cotemporaneous map, and to express the satisfaction I feel in this confirmation 
of the element I had ventured to introduce for the calculation of Mr. Douglas's 
results, — the only element in the calculation which was not furnished by his 
own observations. 



32 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

pressed in geographical miles, and b the difference of latitude 
also in geographical miles. 

If we combine the five equations so formed for the five dip 
stations by the method of least squares, giving each equation a 
weight proportioned to the number of observations which it re- 
presents, we obtain by the usual process of summing and eli- 
mination 

8 = 68° 42' ; r = - 0-013608, 
the latter being equivalent to 73*5 geographical miles to one 
degree of dip. With these we may compute the dip for each of 
the horizontal stations ; and having the values of the horizontal 
component we may deduce the total intensity. The dips and 
intensities for the North American stations in Table 3 are thus 
computed. 

Mr. Douglas mentions that the dip he observed in the crater 
of Kiraueah was 2' greater than at Byron's Bay ; I have there- 
fore entered it in Table 3 as 38° 00'. " The dip at Oahu is from 
Capt. de Freycinet's observations at the adjacent island of Mowi, 
and must he regarded as uncertain for Oahu to some minutes ; 
but in so low a magnetic latitude an error of that amount would 
have very little influence on the calculation of the intensity. 
The horizontal intensity at Oahu was very well determined, the 
four needles being employed, a few months only after their vi- 
bration in London. 

Fitz Roy, 1831-1836. — We come next to a series which must 
rank amongst the most important contributions to magnetical 
science, and which we owe to Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N., and the of- 
ficers of H.M. ship Beagle, employed in the years above-men- 
tioned in the survey of the coasts of South America, and in a 
voyage of circumnavigation performed chiefly in the southern 
hemisphere, having for its primary object the determination 
of differences of longitude by a number of chronometers. 

Capt. Fitz Roy had the precaution to furnish himself with a 
dipping needle of Gambey, whose instruments of this kind, 
though not always without fault, are universally acknowledged 
to be the best that are made, and superior to those of our own 
artists in modern times. For the intensity he received from Capt. 
King the horizontal needle with which that officer had been 
supplied by M. Hansteen. This needle, which in Capt. King's 
voyage had lost from time to time considerable portions of its 
magnetism, appears to have very nearly attained a permanent 
magnetic state when Capt. Fitz Roy received it. By observa- 
tions at Plymouth in 1831 and 1836, and at Port Praya in 1832 
and 1836, its time of vibration is shown to have varied to a very 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY QF THE EARTH. 33 

inconsiderable amount, admitting of safe and easy interpola- 
tion. 

Capt. Fitz Roy's observations are not yet published. On his 
return to England he paid me the compliment of placing them 
in my hands to calculate and arrange for publication in the 
appendix of an account of his voyage, which he is preparing. 
Meanwhile he has permitted me to insert the intensity results in 
the general table of this memoir. They are corrected for tem- 
perature and for arc. They include 27 stations, of which 24 
in the southern hemisphere, distributed throughout its longi- 
tudes, throw very considerable light on the system of the inten- 
sity in those regions. This extensive series is, I trust, but the 
precursor of what British naval officers will accomplish for mag- 
netism in the southern hemisphere. 

Rudberg, 1832. — These observations were made with a dip- 
ping-needle and two horizontal needles of Gambey's, at five 
stations on the continent of Europe, of which Paris was one. 
A full account of them is published in the xxviith vol. of the 
Annalen der Physik. They appear to have been made with 
great care, and the results are corrected for temperature. 

Lloyd and Sabine, 1835-1836. — These observations were 
made in compliance with a wish expressed by the British Asso- 
ciation that some of its members would undertake a survey of 
the dip and intensity in the British Islands. Accordingly the 
intensity was determined at 30 stations in Ireland by Mr. Lloyd 
and myself, in 1835, and by myself at 25 stations in Scotland, 
in 1836. The volumes of the Reports of the British Association 
for those years contain a full account of these observations, as 
well as of the mode in which the determinations at the several 
stations are all made to concur in assigning the intensity at 
one central position in each country as their general result. 
It appears unnecessary, therefore, to reprint them in this 
volume, and it is only the intensities at the central position, 
thus calculated, which are entered in the general table. 

Ross, 1836. — These observations were made in a voyage to 
Davis's Straits, undertaken by Capt. James Ross, R.N., in 
the winter of 1836, to relieve the crews of several whalers 
which had been detained in the ice. Those of the intensity 
were made with two horizontal needles in an apparatus similar 
to M. Hansteen's. The magnetism of one remained quite 
steady during the voyage ; the other sustained a slight loss, 
which it is evident by inspection took place between Orkney 

vol. vi. 1837. d 



34 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 



and Greenland, and has been allowed for accordingly ; Orkney 
being compared with the first London rate, Greenland and 
Labrador with the second. The needles then give every- 
where very nearly identical results. 

The dip circle which Capt. Ross employed was of 4 inches 
diameter. The needle appears to have given very consistent 
results always at the same station ; for example, of six obser- 
vations at Westbourn-green near London in 183G, the ex- 
tremes are 69° 28' and b'9° 35' m 6, the poles being changed in 
every observation ; the mean of the six, however, as well as 
each of the separate results, is a few minutes higher than the 
dip at that spot is known to have been at that time. Taking 
into account Capt. Ross's experience in observations of this 
kind, and that the observations were made on four different 
days, it is most probable that there was some instrumental 
cause for this needle giving constantly at this station a higher 
dip than the truth. Being ignorant, however, what that cause 
may have been, I have not ventured to apply a correction to 
the dips with this needle either there or elsewhere, but have em- 
ployed them just as they were observed at each of the stations. 

In countries where the dip is so great as in the vicinity of 
Davis's Straits, the horizontal intensities may be very correctly 
determined, and yet from slight errors in the clip, the resulting 
total intensity may present anomalies unusual elsewhere. We 
have an instance of this in Capt. Ross's observations in Green- 
land. There are two stations in Greenland, at no great distance 
apart, where the difference of the computed intensity is excess- 
ive ; and the fact of there being some anomaly in the observed 
dips which would sufficiently explain the difference, is made 
quite obvious by the circumstance that the higher dip is at 
the southernmost station ; whereas the dip should increase 
in going northward on this coast, and with this the horizontal 
vibrations are in accord. I have therefore omitted both the 
results in Greenland in the general table. 

As these observations have not been published elsewhere, 
I subjoin a table containing the principal particulars. 



Station. 


Date. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Time of horiz. vibra. 


Dip 
observed. 


Intensity 
London 

= l-3;2. 


No.l. 


No. 2. 


Stromness... 
Greenland 1 
Labrndor ... 


Aug., 1835 
Feb., 1836 
June, 1836 
June, 1836 
Aug., 1836 


o / 

51 31 

58 58 
60 57 
68 59 
57 33 


35°9 50 
356 SO 
306 26 
306 47 

298 9 
359 50 


s. 
43907 
480-22 
648-57 
067-29 
616-1 1 
442-19 


s. 
441-46 
483-34 
645-30 
665-94 


o / 


1-372 
1-419 
1-798 
1-590 
1-682 
1-372 


73 36 
82 51 
82 23 
73 36 
69 321 


Oct., 1836J51 31 


441-64 


The times of vibration are reduced to a standard temperature. 






ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 35 

Estcourt, 1836. — These observations were made during the 
late survey of the navigation of the River Euphrates, conducted 
by Colonel Chesney. The magnetic observations were entrusted 
to Major Estcourt, who was furnished with a good dip circle 
by Robinson, and an apparatus similar to M. Hansteen's, with 
eight horizontal needles. Numerous observations were made 
with these at Port William and Bussora, the manuscripts of 
which have been sent to me, by the President of the Board of 
Control, to arrange for publication in the official account of the 
proceedings of the expedition, preparing under the direction of 
Colonel Chesney. On the arrival in England of the needles, 
which only took place very recently, they were also placed in my 
hands, in order that the necessary comparative observations 
might be made with them. It had unfortunately happened that 
the manuscript containing the times of vibration of the needles 
observed by the officers of the expedition before its departure 
from England, were on board the Tigris steamer when she 
was lost in the Euphrates, and no record was preserved. But 
on receiving the needles, I recognised two of the number as 
having belonged to Professor Lloyd, of Dublin, and as having 
been employed by Mr. Lloyd and myself in Ireland. I had 
consequently a memorandum of their rates before they were 
given to the officers of the expedition ; and on vibrating them 
in Sussex, where I was staying when I received them, I per- 
ceived with great satisfaction that these two needles must have 
preserved their magnetism wholly or very nearly unaltered. 
They were immediately sent to Professor Lloyd, who kindly 
vibrated them at the same spot in which they had been used in 
1884, and found their magnetism almost identical with what it 
had been at that period. On trying the six other needles, I 
found that two gave similar values for the intensity at Port 
William and Bussora with those of Mr. Lloyd; whence I in- 
ferred that those also had undergone no change in their mag- 
netism since the observations on the Euphrates. The deter- 
minations at Port William and Bussora inserted in the general 
table of this report are derived from these four needles. Their 
times of vibration have been reduced to a standard temperature, 
the coefficient in the formula having been ascertained for each 
needle by experiments made since they have been placed in my 
hands. The full details will be communicated in Colonel Ches- 
ney's official publication. . 

Freycinet, 1817-1821. — I am most happy in being able to 
add to this collection the valuable observations of Capt. de 
Freycinet in the voyage of circumnavigation, performed in the 

o2 



36 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

Uranie in 1817-1821. Having heard that I was engaged in 
drawing up this report for the British Association, Capt. de 
Freycinet, unsolicited, did me the honour to propose to place 
his observations, hitherto unpublished, in my hands, to be 
communicated to the public through this channel. I should 
certainly fail if I attempted to express my sense of this act 
of gi-eat liberality ; happily it needs no comment ; and I will 
only observe, that it adds another instance, but a very strong 
one, to those already noticed, of the good feeling that has pre- 
vailed amongst the persons by whom these inquiries have 
been carried forward. The world hears more than enough 
of the jealousies and enmities which too often disfigure the 
history and embitter the pursuits of science ; it is right that 
the instances to the contrary should not always be passed in 
silence. 

The manuscript of the observations was accompanied by the 
following remarks from Capt. de Freycinet. 

" J'ai mis une grande attention a ce qu'il ne se glissa pas de 
faute dans la copie ; et telle quelle est je crois que vous pou- 
vez compter sur son exactitude. L'experience a prouve' que 
les aiguilles Nos. 7 et 8, dont je me suis servi, ont perdu un 
peu de leur magnetisme pendant le voyage ; il sera facile d'en 
tenir compte, comme aussi des legeres alterations qui auront eu 
pour cause les variations de temperature ; mais je ne me suis 
pas livre a ces considerations, pensant qu'il valait mieux que 
vous vous en occupassiez selon vos vues particulieres." 

The table in pages 38 and 39 contains the observations, 
printed from this manuscript without alteration of any kind. 

In compliance with the wish expressed by Capt. de Frey- 
cinet, I proceeded to calculate the results of these observations 
in the following manner. The consideration of Mo. 9 was put 
aside in the first instance for the reason assigned in the mar- 
ginal note to the observations at the Isle of France. The 
times of vibration at Paris before and after the voyage, con- 
firmed by the observations at Rio de Janeiro in 1817 and 1820, 
show that Nos. 7 and 8 both slightly lost magnetism, and No. 8 
rather more than No. 7. It further appears that the extra 
loss of No. 8 over No. 7 was all sustained in the first fourteen 
months ; as at the Isle of France in June, 1818, they had arrived 
nearly at an equality in their time of vibration, which they pre- 
served for the whole remainder of the voyage, and exhibited 
on the return to Paris. In whatever way, therefore, we may 
proportion the equal loss sustained by both needles, the extra 
loss of No. 8 must be placed before the arrival at the Isle of 
France. When there are no circumstances in the observations 






ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 37 

themselves indicating otherwise, the usual course is to distri- 
bute a loss equally through the interval in which it is known 
to have occurred. I have therefore pursued this course in 
regard to the loss sustained by No. 7 ; and in the case of No. 8 
I have allowed a double proportion in each of the first fourteen 
months. The observations furnish two tests of the propriety 
of this distribution : the general agreement of the results of 
the two needles with each other at the different stations is one ; 
the other is the agreement of the force thus calculated at Rio 
in 1817 and 1821. In both the accordance is satisfactory. 

On computing the intensity at the Cape of Good Hope and 
the Isle of France by No. 9, using for that purpose its time of 
vibration at Paris in 1817, the results appeared to agree ex- 
tremely well with those of Nos.7and 8. It is hence inferred, that 
until the accident at the Isle of France, No. 9 had undergone 
no change of magnetism, and I have therefore brought into the 
account all the results obtained with it before that occurrence. 
As the effect of changes of temperature on these particular 
needles does not appear to have been ascertained experiment- 
ally, no corrections are applied on account of temperature ; 
but, as I have before remarked, such corrections are of minor 
importance in so extensive a series as the present. The table 
in page 40 exhibits the computed results, and appears to need 
no other explanation, except that the column entitled "Time of 
vibration as a dipping-needle at Paris" exhibits the times of 
vibration corrected for loss of magnetism. 



38 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 



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ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



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40 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



Paris. 



Teneriffe 

Rio de Janeiro. 



Cap de Bonne Es- \ 
perance J 



He de France 



Baie des Chiens- 
marins 



Time of vibration. 



1817 



1818 



He Timor 



He ltawak 



lies Mariannes 



He Mowi 



Sydney . 



lies Malouines 



Rio de Janeiro 



Paris. 



1819 



1820 



1821 



1019-75 
1009-93 
525-05 
450-75 
775-9 
767-27 
402-20 

937-0 

477-9 
9120 
9130 

467-8 

800-4 

802-5 
728-5 
729-8 
721-6 
722-7 
749-15 
749-9 
792-8 
793-0 
846-4 
847-4 
832-2 
832-2 
790-5 
790-9 
1043-4 
1045-3 



As a dipping-needle. 



At the 

station. 



617-7 
611-7 
318-0 
3190 
763-1 
754-6 
3956 

745-1 

380-0 
689-7 
690-5 
353-8 

607-1 

608-6 
667-7 
668-9 
7101 
7111 
739-8 
740-6 
685-3 
685-5 
572-4 
5731 
627-6 
627-6 
777-5 
777-8 
635-1 
636-3 



At 
Paris. 



617-7 
611-7 
318-0 
3180 
620-0 
616-7 
3180 

620-9 

3180 
622-8 
622-3 
318-0 

624-0 

624-2 
624-2 
624-5 
6251 
625-5 
626-9 
627-5 
627-9 
628-5 
629-5 
630-3 
630-8 
631-5 
632-2 
633-6 
635-1 
636-3 



Intensity. 



Paris = 1-000. 



Paris 
= 1-3J8, 



1-000") 

1-000 1 1-000 
1-000 J 
0-9942 
0-6602"! 
0-6679 U-658 
0-6465 J 

0-69451 . 697 

0-7005 J 
0-8155"! 
0-8139 U-813 
0-8082 J 

105 U 1-054 

1-052-1 
0-87411 ft , 
0-8718/" 
0-7750 



'•873 



;}o-71 



s 

0-840 



0-7736} ' 774 
0-7181 
0-7180 
0-8395 "I 
0-8401 J 

1-210 1 1-210 
1-210} 1J1U 

10101 

1-012; 

0-6612 "I n .rn< 
0-6625 } 0662 
1-0001 ,. nftn 
,1-000/ 100 ° 



1011 



1-348 
1-340 

0-887 

0-945 
1-096 

1-421 

1177 

1-044 
0-968 
1-133 
1-631 
1-363 
0-892 
1-348 



It would have given me great satisfaction had I been enabled 
to have included in this publication the observations made in In- 
dia by Capt. Jules de Blosseville,in whose untimely death within 
the Arctic circle, now, I fear, but too certain, science has sus- 
tained the loss of an officer who gave full promise, had he lived, 
of becoming one of the most accomplished navigators of the 
age. In the last letter which I received from him, dated at 
Toulon in 1830, he thus expresses himself in regard to his ob- 
servations of the intensity : — " Toulon ayant ete, et pouvant de- 
venir encore le point de depart de plusieurs expeditions scien- 
ifiques, il serait utile, je pense, d'y connoltre d'une maniere 
exacte la valeur de l'intensite magnetique, et je me chargerais 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 41 

volontiers pendant le petit sejour que je vais y faire, d'y ob- 
server les aiguilles. Ceci me conduit naturellement a vous 




en 

aurais entretenu des mon arrivee ; raais malheureusement les 
aiguilles ont perdu pendant le voyage une partie notable deleur 
magnetisme, et M. Arago a ete d'avis de ne point s'occuper de 
leurs resultats. C'est ainsi que toutes mes peines ont ete per- 
dues, quoique j'eusse eu l'attention de rapporter toutes les ob- 
servations a Pondicberry, qui etait le centre de nos operations, 
esperant par leur repetition dans le raeme lieu, connoitre le de- 
croissement gradueldu magnetisme de nos aiguilles. Si je re- 
commence quelque grand voyage, comme je l'espere, je me 
livrerai avec plaisir a. l'etude de l'intensite, et je m'occuperai a 
l'avance, de faire faire par Gambey l'appareil de plus com- 
mode. Je voudrais connoitre vos idees sur ce sujet." 

Experience has shown in many cases, and particularly in 
the observations of Capt. King, that it may be possible to ob- 
tain very valuable facts from a series of observations, in which 
the needles have undergone a considerable loss of magnetism 
in the course of a long voyage ; particularly in cases where at- 
tention has been paid to repetition at the same station, for the 
purpose of a frequent examination of the state of the needles ; 
and this was practised by Capt. deBlosseville, as well as by Capt. 
King. Aid may also be sometimes obtained from other ob- 
servers who may have observed the intensity at some of the 
stations : and the publication of a series of determinations de- 
pending upon Pondicherry would render it an object with 
persons who might hereafter be engaged in magnetic observa- 
tions in India, to make Pondicherry one of their stations, and 
thus supply a link to connect M. de Blosseville's observations 
with Europe. 

In 1833 Mr. Forbes made a very numerous series of excel- 
lent determinations of horizontal intensity in different parts of 
Europe. They were made chiefly with a view to the influence 
of height on the magnetic intensity, and are discussed in a 
highly interesting paper in the Edinburgh Transactions for 
1836. The dip was observed with a three-inch circle, at a few 
stations only, and Mr. Forbes has nowhere himself deduced 
the total intensities. If I am rightly informed, he has since 
made another tour in the same countries, in which magnetic 
observations formed a part of his object. We may hope that 
by a series of dips, corresponding in extent and exactness to 
his horizontal determinations, he will add greatly to the fulness 



42 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837. 

and accuracy of our knowledge of the course of the magnetic 
lines in those parts of Europe. The investigation evidently 
cannot be in better hands. Meantime I have not thought pro- 
per to make deductions which he has not made for himself; 
and the more so, because the stations are very few at which 
there are both observations of dip and of horizontal intensity, 
and at some of these the total intensity has already been de- 
termined by other observers. 



The preceding notices include all the observations of the 
magnetic intensity with which I am acquainted, in which the 
instruments, by the steadiness of their magnetism, and their 
capability of yielding sufficiently precise results, proved worthy 
of the time and pains bestowed in their employment. 



Section II. — General Table of Intensities. 

The intensities are arranged in this table according to their 
values, commencing with those of highest amount in the 
northern hemisphere, descending progressively to those of 
least amount, which have their places in the intertropical 
regions, and again ascending to the highest values in the 
southern hemisphere. Tbey are classed in zones, the first 
zone (§1) comprehending all the observed intensities in the 
northern hemisphere between 1*85 and 1*75; the second 
zone (§ 2), all between 1*75 and I "65 ; the third (§ 3), all be- 
tween 1*65 and I' 55; and so on. In each zone the record 
in the table commences with the geographical meridian of 
Greenwich, and passes round the globe in an easterly direc- 
tion ; all the longitudes being counted east from Greenwich, 
and all latitudes north, unless where it is otherwise distinctly 
specified. 

The geographical position of the several zones is shown in the 
maps attached to this report by the insertion of the observed 
intensities themselves in their places in the map. For the 
more ready guidance and direction of the eye lines are drawn, 
marking as nearly as can be judged, the middle of each zone. 
These lines are consequently what are usually denominated 
isodynamic lines, or lines of equal magnetic intensity at the 
surface of the earth. They correspond successively to the 
values of 1*8, 1*7, 1*6, &c, down to 0*8, which is the line of 
lowest value yet observed. There is, of course, great ine- 
quality in the evidence for their precise geographical position 
in different parts of the globe ; sometimes, for the purpose of 
connection, they have been partially continued where obser- 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



43 



vations are wholly wanting ; but in all cases the insertion of 
the authorities themselves in the map manifests the degree 
of exactness to which it is yet possible to trace the several 
portions of each line. 

Where the geographical positions are too near each other for 
convenient insertion in the map, two or more stations are 
collected into a group in the table, and the mean latitude, 
longitude, and intensity are placed at the foot of the page. 
Such groups are in all cases composed of the determinations 
of the same observer, and the mean determination inserted in 
the map is characterised by an additional figure, placed be- 
neath, expressive of the number of separate stations thus 
represented. 

In the case of stations visited by two or more observers, their 
separate determinations have been inserted in the map 
wherever space has permitted. As this could not always be 
done in the north of Europe and Asia, the mean of the 
determinations of the two observers has been given, cha- 
racterised by the mark +, expressive of the double weight 
to which such intensities are entitled. 

The geographical positions may require correction in a few 
instances, but pains have been taken to obtain them correctly 
from the most recent authorities. 



Division I. Northern Hemisphere. 
§ 1. Intensities from 1*85 to VJb. 



Station. 



Viluisk . . 
New York 



Lat. 



63 
40 43 



Long. 



120 

285 57 



Observer. 



Due.. 
Sabine 



Date. 



1829 

1822 



Intensity. 



1-759 
1-803 



§ 2. Intensities from \ m fh to 1-65. 



'Turuchansk 
Sebrinikowo 
Atschinsk . . 
Jenesiek. . . . 
Krasnoyarsk 

i " 
Kansk 

Kamyochatsk 
N. Udinsk . . 



65 55 


87 33 


60 02 


90 33 


56 16 


91 00 


58 27 


92 11 


56 01 


92 57 


5J 


»j 


55 43 


96 53 


5> 


5> 


55 12 


98 50 


55 00 


99 20 



Hansteen 

Hansteen , 

Hansteen & Due 

Hansteen , 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due, 
Hansteen & Due. 
Hansteen & Due 



1829 

1829 

1828 

1829 

18 

1829 

1829 

1829 

1828 

1828 



1-667 
1-660 
1-654 
1-668 
1-652 
1-663 
1-670 
1-678 
1-671 
1-672 



44 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



Station. 



Lat. 



Long. 



Observer. 



Date. 



Kurgan 
Salarinsk . . 
Sawaria 
Olonska 
Botowsk . . . . 
Bojarsk . . . . 
Tarakanowa 
Potapowsk . . 
Kirensk 



Itscliora . . 
Ivanofska 
Parchinsk 
Wittinsk . . 
Kantinsk 



Jarbinsk . . 
Beresowsk 
Olekma , . 



Sanjacktatsk .... 
Toen Arinsk .... 

Yakutsk 

Porotowsk 

Lebegkine 

Nokchinsk 

Perewos 

Tchernolies 1 » . . 
Karnastak J 

Allachjan 

Judomsk 

Arki 

Bay of St. Lawrence 

At Sea 

Sitka 



54 20 
53 30 
53 34 
52 59 

55 10 

56 05 
52 14 

57 17 

57 47 

58 38 

58 38 

59 07 
59 40 

59 53 

60 28 

59 50 

60 22 

6o"47 

61 37 

62 01 
62 01 
62 11 
61 57 
61 45 
61 31 
61 30 
61 03 
60 54 
60 07 
65 38 
48 44 
57 03 



Frazer's Lake 54 03 

Stuart's Lake 54 27 

Cape Disappointment 46 1 6 

Fort Alexandria. ... 52 33 



100 00 
102 00 

101 53 
105 04 
105 22 

105 34 

106 37 

107 34 

108 04 

IO9' 36 

110 34 

111 31 

112 00 
114 10 

116" 15 
117 56 
119 33 

123" 46 

128 31 

129 45 
131 50 

133 42 

134 57 

135 40 

136 23 

137 00 

138 45 
140 35 
142 20 
189 14 
216 37 
224 44 

» 

235 20 
335 40 

236 04 

237 31 



Erraan 

Hansteen & Due 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erraan 

Erman 

Due 

Erman 

Erman 

Due 

Erman 

Due 

Due 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Due 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Liitke 

Liitke 

Liitke 

Erman 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 



1829 
1828 1 
1829, 
1829 
1829 
1829 
18291 
1829J 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1828 
1827 
1827 
1829 
1833i 
1833! 
1830, 
1833^ 



* Mean, 2 stations 61 30 137 00 



1-695 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 



45 



Station. 



{Multnomah River 
Fort Vancouver. 
Sandiam River . 
Columbia Rapids 
Thompson's River. . 

Oakanagan 

Wullawullah River 
Byam Martin's II. . . 

Regent's Inlet 

Baffin's Bay 

Baffin's Bay 

Baffin's Bay 

Labrador 



Lat. 



45 15 
45 37 

44 35 

45 40 
50 41 
48 05 

46 03 

75 10 
72 45 

76 08 
76 45 
70 35 
57 33 



Long. 



237 13 
237 24 

237 33 

238 12 

239 49 

240 33 

241 12 
256 16 
270 19 
281 
284 00 
293 05 
298 09 



Observer. 



Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Ross . . 



Date. 



1830 
1830 
1830 
1830 
1833 
1833 
1830 
1819 
1819 
1818 
1818 
1818 
1836 



Intensity. 



1-669 
1-688 
1-683 
1-679 
1-710 
1-707 
1-707 
1-653 
1-668 
1-659 
1-666 
1-661 
1-682 



§ 3. Intensities from 1-65 to 1-55. 



Spitzbergen, Fair- 1 
haven J 

Spitzbergen, South 1 
Cape / 

Katchegatisk 

Beresow 

Kunduwaski 

Wandiask 

Kondinsk 

Obdorsk 

Jugakow 



Chutarbitka 

Kewaskirche 
Tobolsk .... 



Samarowo 

Uwatsk 

Kolotschikowo 

Sawotinski 

Tugalowsk 

Tara 

Pokrowsk . . . . 



79 40 


11 40 


76 35 


14 00 


65 09 


65 02 


63 56 


65 04 


63 18 


65 06 


66 16 


65 10 


62 13 


66 36 


66 31 


66 42 


57 32 


67 06 


» 


>> 


57 59 


67 31 


» 


5J 


61 20 


68 05 


58 12 


68 16 


» 


» 


60 45 


68 35 


59 00 


68 46 


57 27 


68 58 


60 23 


69 26 


59 32 


69 40 


56 54 


74 04 


55 38 


77 05 



Sabine 

Keilhau 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman , 



1823 

1827 

1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1829 
1828 
1828 
1829 
1829 



1-562 

1-558 

1-568 
1-580 
1-584 
1-608 
1-596 
1-580 
1-546 
1-558 
1-544 
1-566 
1-585 
1-560 
1-554 
1-584 
1-564 
1-564 
1-573 
1-574 
1-575 
1-617 



* Mean, 4 stations 45 17 237 35 1-680 






46 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



Station. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Observer. 


Date. 


Intensity. 


Kainsk 


55 50 

55 47 
55 40 
55 40 

58 50 
55 06 

55 17 

-58 '40 
53 20 

56 30 

56 18 
63 27 

52 16 

52"07 

53 00 

54 09 
51 20 

50 21 

50 '58 

51 17 
51 49 

59 21 
58 46 
58 15 
58 13 
58 01 

55 04 
65 28 
53 54 

37 48 

38 17 

36 35 

37 32 
36 24 


76 00 

77 00 

78 00 
78 10 
81 00 

81 14 

82 45 

83 00 
83 56 
85 09 

87 10 

87 16 

104 20 

104 51 

105' 00 

105 33 

106 15 
106 28 

106" 29 

106" 56 

lof 47 

143 11 
145 52 
152 01 

157 06 

158 15 
158 55 
181 28 
193 30 

235 45 

235" 36 

236 00 
236 00 
236 36 


Hansteen & Due . . 
Hansteen & Due . . 
Hansteen & Due . . 
Hansteen & Due 
Due 


1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1828 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829, 
1828; 
1829 
1828! 
1829; 
1829 1 
1829 
1829 
1829 


1-586 

1-577 
1-585 
1-601 
1-638 
1-578 
1-611 
1-599 
1-644 
1-605 
1-618 
1-620 
1-627 
1-648 
1-642 
1-632 
1-649 
1-634 
1-645 
1-648 
1-642 
1-642 
1-628 
1-624 
1-638 


Naryra 


Kolvvan 


Erman 


Hansteen & Due . . 
Erman 






Due 






Tomsk 




Hansteen & Due . . 
Erman 


Pojelnik 


Irkutsk 


Hansteen 

Hansteen & Due . . 




Hansteen & Due . . 




Troisko Sawsk .... 
Monachorowa .... 

5> .... 

Werchne Udinsk . . 

V • • 


Due 




Hansteen & Due . . 
Hansteen & Due . u 


Hansteen & Due . . 
Erman 


Hansteen & Due . . 


1829J 1-650 
1829 1*636 
1829 1*625 
1829 1*626 
1829 1-615 


Hansteen and Due. . 


Erman 


Sea of Ochozk .... 
Sea of Ochozk .... 
Sea of Ochozk .... 

Unalaska 

St. Francisco 

] San Jose 

(^ La Soledad .... 


Erman 


1829 
1889 
1829 


1-677 . 

1-601 

1-595 






1829 1-577 
1829i 1-551 
1828! 1-646 


Erman 


Liitke 




1827 
1829 
1831 
1831 
1831 


1-604 
1-585 
1-597 
1-610 
1-599 


Erman 


Douglas 


Douglas 






1831 1-605 


Douglas 


1831 


1-590 




* Mean, 


4 stations 37 12 236 03 1G0C 





ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



47 



Station. 



{San Antonio 
San Miguel 
St. Louis Obispo 
f LaPurissima. . . . 
t< Santa Ynez . . . . 
i l_ Santa Barbara . 
| Melville Island . . . 
[ Winter Harbour 
\ Possession Bay . . . 

Baffin's Bay 

Davis's Straits . . . 

Baffin's Bay 

Hare Island 

J Davis's Straits . . . 



Lat. 


Long. 


36 01 


23o" 42 


35 45 


237 16 


35 16 


237 20 


34 40 


237 33 


34 36 


237 49 


34 25 


240 00 


74 27 


248 18 


74 47 


249 12 


73 31 


282 38 


75 51 


296 54 


64 00 


298 10 


75 05 


299 37 


70 26 


305 08 


68 22 


306 10 



Observer. 



Date. 



Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Douglas 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 

Sabine 



1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1819 
1820 
1819 
1818 
1819 
1818 
1818 
1818 



Intensity. 



1-584 
1-583 
1-583 
1-571 
1-579 
1-604 
1-624 
1-638 
1-637 
1-618 
1-621 
1-590 
1-622 
1-643 



§ 4. Intensities from 1*55 to \'Al 



Slidre 

Idsat 

Bodoe 

Bear Island . . . 
Spitzbergen, 
Whale's Head 

fTronisoe . . 
Jacob's Elv 
Talvig .... 
Havoe Sund 
Ingoe 

LMageroe 
Hammerfest . . 



Upper Tornea 

Braliestad s . . 

"Lebbesbye. 

Mehavn . . . 

Kaleboton . 



« 



Omgang. . 

Berlevaag 

.Wadsoe . . 



61 05 


8 09 


62 57 


11 18 


67 15 


13 55 


74 55 


14 50 


77 25 


17 00 


69 38 


18 55 


69 54 


20 45 


70 02 


22 48 


70 57 


23 19 


71 06 


24 03 


71 01 


26 01 


70 40 


23 46 


» 


5> 


m 16 


23 47 


64 41 


24 20 


70 37 


26 45 


71 06 


27 53 


70 12 


28 10 


71 00 


28 30 


70 54 


29 11 


70 10 


29 50 



Hansteen 
Hansteen 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 

Keilhau . 

Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Sabine . 
Keilhau . 
Hansteen 
Hansteen 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 
Keilhau . 



1821 
1825 

1827 
1827 

1827 

1827 

1827 

1827 

1827 

1827 

1827 

1823 

1827 

1825 

1825 

1827 

1827 

1827 

1 

1827 

1827 



1-454 
1-452 
1-451 
1-496 

1-539 

1-515 
1-467 
1-512 
1-476 
1-517 
1-500 
1-506 
1-461 
1-464 
1-455 
1-465 
1-496 
1-491 
1-487 
1-460 
1-469 



* Mean, 3 stations 

I Mean, 3 stations 

X Mean, 6 stations 

§ Mean, 6 stations 



35 41 
31 34 
70 26 
70 40 



237 00 

238 27 
22 38 
28 23 



1-583 
1-585 
1-498 
1-478 



48 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837* 



Station. 



Wardhuus 

Miteschka 

Milet 

)> 

Koschil 

55 

Suri 

■>■> 

Dubrowa 

55 

Ochansk 

Perm 

55 

Krilassowa 

55 

Buikowa 

55 

Kirgischansk 

55 ■ ■ 

Kuslnva 

N. Tagilsk !!.'.' .' .' 
Bogoslowsk .... 

55 

Ekaterinenburg. . 

55 ■ • 

Werchoturie .... 

55 .... 

Bjelieska 

55 

Sugazk 

55 

Tiumen 

55 '• • 

Nishnei Turinsk. . 

Orlowa 

Semipalatinsk. . . . 

Natschika 

St. Peter and St. Paul 
Kosuirewsk . . 
Chartschinsk . . 

Ielowka 

Kuruginski. . . . 
At Sea 



Lat. 


Long. 


70° 23 
56 13 


31 07 

49 54 


56 41 


50 30 


57 08 


51 52 


57 34 


53 23 


57 42 


54 30 


57"00 
58 01 


56 00 
56 14 


57"34 


56 37 


56 53 


57 26 


56"50 


59 06 


58 17 


59 43 


57 55 
59 49 


59 54 
59 55 


56 51 


60 34 


58"52 


60 46 


56"50 


61 56 


57"oO 


63 44 


57"l0 


65 27 

55 


50 24 
53 06 
53 00 

55 52 

56 31 
56 54 
58 34 
40 28 


80 21 
158 15 

158 40 

159 34 

160 43 
160 55 
163 27 
213 35 



Observer. 



Date. 



Keilhau 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Hansteen 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Erman 

Liitke 

Liitke 



1827 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

18! 

1828 

1828 

1828 

185 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

1828 

185 

1828 

1829 

1829 

1829 

1829 

1829 

1829 

1828 

1827 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



49 



Station. 



Cayman Island 

Terceira 

Greenland 



Brussels 



"Bekkervig . 

Bergen . . . 

, 1 Ullensvang 

"S Leierdal. . . 

Mariasteen. 

.Norsteboe . 

Francfort . . . 

Tubingen . . . 

"Ingolfsland 

Bolkesjoe . 

Korset . . . 

Kongsberg. 

, Helgeroe . 

Kolding 

Slesvdg 

Gottingen . . . 



■M 



Aalborg 

" Tomlevold . 

Heggen . . . 

Drammen . 

Moe 

Gran 

(.Johnsrud . 

Aarhuus 

Odense 

Drontheira . . , 



1 



Christiania 



Lat. 



19 H 
38 39 

74 32 



Long. 



Observer. 



Date. 



278 55 Sabine 1822 

332 47Fitz Roy 1836 

341 10 Sabine 1823 



Intensity. 



§5. Intensities from 1-45 to 1-35. 



50 52 

6o"oi 
60 24 

60 20 

61 10 
61 02 
60 20 

50 10 
48 31 
59 53 
59 43 

58 49 

59 40 
58 59 
55 27 
54 31 

51 32 



57 03 
60 51 
59 55 

59 49 

60 14 
60 22 
59 57 
56 10 
55 24 
63 26 

5955 



4 20'Quetelet |1829 



6 38 

7 50 

8 14 
8 37 

8 37 

9 04 
8 48 



9 56 

9 58 

10 10 

10 13 

10 31 

10 32 

10 37 

10 14 

10 19 

10 25 



10 45 



Rudberg 

lOiHansteen 

17! Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Quetelet 

Humboldt & G.Lussac 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Humboldt& G.Lussac 

Quetelet 

Rudberg 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Sabine 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 



1832 

1821 

1821 

1821 

1821 

1821 

1821 

1829 

1806; 

1821 

1821 J 

1822 

1820 

1822, 

1824 

1824 

1806 

1829 

1832 

1824 

1821 

1825 

1823 

1821 

1821 

1825 

1824 

1824 

1823 

1825 

1820 



1-450 
1-457 
1-543 



* Mean, 6 stations 
f Mean, 5 stations 
t Mean, G stations 



60 33 
59 13 
GO 11 



7 38 

9 27 

10 20 



1-416 
1-401 
1-414 



1-374 
1-369 
1-411 
1-422 
1-426 
1-419 
1-406 
1-414 
1-358 
1-357 
1-416 
1-405 
1-373 
1-414 
1-398 
1-385 
1-381 
1-348 
1-365 
1*349 
1-367 
1-425 
1-415 
1-377 
1-423 
1-422 
1-425 
1-384 
1-365 
1-442 
1-430 
1-419 



vol. vi. 183/. 



50 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



Station. 



Lat. 



{Elleoen 
Soner 
Skieberg . . . . 
Fredericshall . . 
Altorp 

f Vang 

Nebye 

t j Biornestad 

1 Roraas , 

L Grundsat . . . . 
f Fi'edericshavn 
X I Gottenburg . . 
«j Quistrum 
Odensala 
LWennersborg. . 

Suul 

f Soroe 

§ J Fredericsberg 
] Helsingberg . , 
l_ Copenhagen . . 
Leipsic 



Magnor 
Berlin 



Dresden 

Ystad 

{Carlstad . . . 
Mariestad . 
Lincoping . 
Carolath 

!Oestersund. 
Grimnas. . . 
Alsta 
Sundswall . 
Hemosand. 



59 19 
59 32 
59 14 

59 01 
58 53 

61 06 

62 18 

61 03 

62 34 

60 56 
57 27 

57 42 

58 27 

57 26 

58 22 

63 42 
55 27 

55 56 

56 03 
55 41 

51 20 

59"57 

52 31 



51 02 
55 26 
59 23 
58 40 
58 26 
51 46 
63 10 
62 50 
62 29 
62 22 
62 38 



Long. 



10 40 
10 4 



11 
11 
12 



10 34 
10 58 



11 
11 

11 



10 33 

10 58 

11 45 

12 03 
12 17 
12 12 

11 54 

12 18 
12 43 
12 55 

12 22 

12"22 

13 22 



13 43 
13 56 
13 26 

13 50 
15 38 
15 57 

14 32 

15 10 

16 

17 16 
17 53 



Observer. 



Date. 



Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen and Due 
Hansteen 



Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Keilhau & Boeck . . 

Quetelet 

Hansteen 

Humboldt & G.Lussac 

Erman 

Quetelet 

Quetelet 

Eriehsen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Eriehsen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 



1822j| 
1822.| 
1822J 
1828 I 
1822 1 

1821 : 

1825 

1825 

1825 

1825J 

1824 

1819 

1819 

1822 

1828 

1825 

1820 

1820 

1820 

1820 

1826 

1829 

1825 

1806 

1828 

18291 

1829 

1824| 

1825 

1828; 

1828' 

1824 

1825 

1825 

1825 

1825 

1825 



» Mean, 5 stations 

t Mean, 5 stations 

X Mean, 5 stations 

5 Mean, 4 stations 

|| Mean, 3 stations 

If Mean, 5 stations 



59 12 
CI 35 

57 53 

55 47 

58 50 
G2 42 



11 10 
11 16 

11 31 

12 28 
11 IS 
10 10 



1-383 
1-431 

1-384 
1-383 
1-372 
1-424 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH 




51 


Station. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Observer. 


Date. 


Intensity. 


» 

Dantzic 


59 15 

59 20 

5> 
J> 

54"21 
63 49 

54 43 

62 17 
65 19 

63 04 
61 29 

60 27 
63 38 
65 50 
65 00 
59 56 
59 13 

58 31 

57 55 

57"35 

56 '52 
55 

55 46 

)> 
55 41 

55"59 
55 35 

55 54 

56 09 

56"l9 
56"o6 
55"44 

>5 


17 50 

18 04 

» 

» 
18 38 
20 12 

20 30 

21 22 
21 29 
21 42 

21 46 

22 18 
22 51 

24 15 

25 30 

30 18 

31 23 

3l" 19 
33 10 
34' 40 
35 57 

37 36 

38 35 
39" 59 

41 12 

42 26 

43 34 

43 57 

45 48 
48 09 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Erman 


1827 
1825 
1828 
1828 
1832 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1825 
1825 
1825 
1825 
1825 
1825 
1825 
1825 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 


1-444 
1-392 
1-386 
1-386 
1-382 
1-374 
1-413 
1-365 
1-406 
1-448 
1-448 
1-400 
1-389 
1-414 
1-445 
1-440 
1-410 
1-427 
1-417 
1-412 
1-412 
1-416 
1-416 
1-417 
1-395 
1-398 
1-397 
1-408 
1-401 
' 1-399 
1-411 
1-409 
1-463 
1-436 
1-433 
1-423 
1-434 
1-400 
1-442 
1-408 
1-435 
1-431 
1-450 
1-428 


Rudberg 


Erichsen 


Umea 


Hansteen 


Kdnigsberg 

Tjock 




Hansteen 


Pitea 

Wasa 




Hansteen 


Biorneborg 

Abo 

Carlebv 


Hansteen 




Hansteen 


rp J • •• 

1 ornea 


Hansteen. 


Uleaborg . 

Petersburg 

G. Novgorod 

Waldai 


Hansteen 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Erman 


Hansteen &- Due. . . . 
Erman 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Erman 




Hansteen & Due. . . . 


W. Wolotschok 

Tver 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Erman . . 


u 


Hansteen & Due 

Erman 


Moscow 




Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Erman 


Platowa 


Demitrewski 

Murom 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 

Erman 

Hansteen & Due 

Erman . 




I Osablikowo . . . 
Doskino 


Hansteen & Due 

Erman 




Hansteen & Due. . . . 
Erman 


N. Novgorod . . 
Tschougouniei .... 

„ 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 


Hansteen & Due. . . . 






E 


3 







52 



SKVJEXTII REPORT — 1837* 



Station. 



Lat. 



Long. 



Observer. 



Date, 



Kasan 

» 

Uralsk 

Klinen 

Orenburg 

Oufa 

Havana 

5» 

Jamaica 

Madeira 

>> 

Ireland. By 30 1 

stations / 

Scotland. By 25 1 

stations J 

Stromness 

Brassa 

London 



55 48 

» 
51 11 
49 05 
51 45 
54 45 
23 09 



49 07, 

» 

51 22, 

52 00j 

55 06 

56 00 
277 38j 



17 56 


283 06 


32 38 


343 04 


j> 


» 


53 25 


352 05 


56 27 


355 35 


58 58 


356 30 


60 09 


358 48 


51 31 


359 50 



Erman 

Hansteen & Due 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Hansteen 

Humboldt .... 

Sabine 

Sabine , 

Sabine 

King 

Lloyd & Sabine , 

Sabine 

Ross 

Sabine 

Sabine 



1828 
1828 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1801 
1822 
1822 
1822 
1826 

1835 

1836 

1836 
1818 

1827 



§6. Intensities from 1*35 to ] - 25. 



f Valencia 
j Cambrils 
^ Barcelona 
Gerona . . 



LPerpignan 

Paris 

{Montpellier . . . 
Nismes 
Marseilles 

f Lyons 

S, { St. Michel 

(_ M. Cenis 

ff f Geneva 

S \ Gd. St. Bernard. 
Lanslebourg 



39 29 


359 36 


40 55 


46i 


41 23 


<*, 1 9. 


41 52 


2 48 


42 43 


2 57 


48 52 


2 21 


43 36 


3 53 


43 50 


4 20 


43 18 


5 23 


45 46 


4 52 


45 23 




45 14 


6 55 


46 12 


6 07« 


45 55 


7 n| 


45 18 





Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt* 

Humboldt & 

Humboldt & 

Quetelet . . 

Quetelet . . 

Humboldt* 



1798 
1798 
1798 
1798 
1798 
1800 
1798 
1798 
1798 
G.Lussacl805 
G.LussaC|1805 
G.Lussacl805 

1830 

!l830 

G.Lussacl805 



* Mean, 5 stations 
t Mean, 3 stations 
X Mean, 3 stations 
§ Mean, 2 stations 



41 10 

43 35 

45 28 

46 03 



39 
32 



6 39 



1-296 
1-312 
1-342 

1-293 





ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 


53 


Intensity. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Observer. 


Date. 


Intensity. 


fTurin 

jj St. Gothard 

1 Milan 


45 04 

46 32 

46 41 
45 48 
45 28 

43"46 

48 08 
41 54 

49 58 
45 38 

45 55 

40 50 

50 05 

47 04 
49 23 

48 13 

46 58 

47 12 

45 03 
43 45 

46 20 
13 39 
20 41 
28 27 

» 

?> 

43 29 

41 58 

41 24 
40 39 

42 37 
40 25 


7 42 

8 33 

8 32 

9 06 
9 09 

11 15 

11 34 

12 26 

12 52 

13 47 

14 13 
14 14 

14 27 

15 27 

15 36 

16 23 
32 01 
38 58 
42 01 
42 30 
48 00 

311 50 
335 08 
343 45 

» 

j> 
351 46 

354 33 

355 16 
355 52 

355 59 

356 19 


Humboldt&G.Lussac 
Humboldt& G. Lussac 
Humboldt&G.Lussac 
Humboldt & G . Lussac 
Humboldt & G. Lussac 
Quetelet 


1805 
1805 
1805 
1805 
1805 
1830 
1805 
1826 
1805 
1826 
1826 
1826 
1805 
1826 
1826 
1826 
1826 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1829 
1830 
1799 
1799 
1798 
1817 
1822 

1799 
1799 
1799 
1799 
1799 
1799 


1-336 
1-314 
1-325 
1-310 
1-312 
1-294 
1-278 
1-339 
1-264 
1-334 
1-317 
1-314 
1-274 
1-332 
1-327 
1-319 
1-325 
1-275 
1-308 
1-327 
1-302 
1-334 
1-256 
1-256 
1-272 
1-340 
1-313 
1-262 
1-294 
1-294 
1-294 
1-294 
1-294 






Munich 


Humboldt & G. Lussac 


Rome 


Humboldt & G. Lussac 
Keilhau & Boeck . . 
Keilhau & Boeck . . 
Keilhau & Boeck . . 
Humboldt&G.Lussac 


Toplitz 






f Gratz 


Keilhau & Boeck .... 
Keilhau & Boeck .... 
Keilhau & Boeck .... 
Kupffer 


N 






Taganrog 

Bridge of Malka . . 


Kupffer 




Kupffer 


Hansteen 


At Sea 


Freycinet 


At Sea 












Sabine 


§< 


Villa el Pando . . 
Medina del Campo 
Guadarama .... 
Villa Franca .... 
. Madrid 


Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 


* Mean 
f Mean 
X Mean 
§ Mean 


, 4 statiot 

2 station 

3 station 
, 6 statior 


is 46 00 8 28 1-32 
s 45 45 14 00 1-31 
s 48 13 15 49 1-32 
is 41 45 354 58 1-29 


1 

5 
4 



. 



54 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

§ 7« Intensities from T25 to 1*15. 



Station. 



Lat. 



Long. 



Observer. 



Date. 



H 



Port William 

Bussora 

At Sea 

Carthagena 

# f Mompox 

\ Morales 

"Nueva Valencia. 
Hac. de Cura. . . 

Victoria 

Hac. de Tui . . . 
Venta di Avila . 

La Guayra 

Caracas 

.SilladeCuracas. 

fCumana 

| II Impossible 

\<{ Cocollar 

j Caripe 

(_Cumana9oa . . . 

Trinidad 

At Sea 

Port Praya 



37 00 
30 20 
39 07 
10 25 
9 14 
8 15 
10 10 
10 16 
10 14 
10 17 
10 33 
10 36 
10 31 
10 31 
10 28 
10 26 
10 10 
10 10 
10 16 
10 39 
10 53 
14 54 



38 00 

47 36 

159 03 

285 31 

285 34 

286 

291 47 

292 06 
292 30 
292 34 
292 53 
292 54 
292 56 
292 59 
295 51 

295 55 

296 01 
296 07 
296 02 

298 25 

299 29 
336 30 



Estcourt 

Estcourt 

Lutke 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt . . 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Sabine 

Humboldt 

Sabine 

King 

Fitz Roy < 



1836 
1836! 
1827 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1822 
1799 
1822 
1826 
1832 
1836 



§ 8. Intensities from 1*15 to 1*05. 



Bonin 

Oahu , 

Mowi 

Owhyhee . . 
Galapagos I. 

f Guajaquil 
c) Cuenca . . 
S | Alausi . . 

LRiobamba 



27 07 


21 


18 


20 


52 


19 


43 





15S. 


g 


13S. 


2 


55 S. 


2 


13S. 


1 


42S. 



142 24 Lutke .. . 

202 Douglas . , 

203 19Frevcinet. 
203 50 Douglas . 
269 29 Fitz Roy . 
280 03Humboldt 

280 47|Humboldt 

281 Humboldt 
281 16, Humboldt 



828, 
830 
819! 
834i 
835 
803 
802J 
802j 
802 



* Mean, 3 stations 

+ Mean, 8 stations 

X Mean, 5 stations 

§ Mean, 4 stations 



9 18 

10 24 

10 18 

2 16 S. 



285 42 
292 35 
296 00 
280 46 



1-227 
1-203 
1-184 
1-055 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



55 



Station. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Observer. 


Date. 


Intensity. 


["Quito 


0°14S 


21 

1 13 

1 54 

2 38 
4 45 
4 27 

4 36 

5 12 

6 10 

4 03 

7 53 

5 38 

6 34 

8 56 
2 48 
1 54 

10 07 

8 08 
13 08 

8 29 


281 lb Humboldt 


1802 
1802 
1802 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1800 
1822 
1822 


1-067 
1-087 
1-028 
1-048 
1-067 
1-117 
1-077 
1-147 
1-147 
1-117 
1-137 
1-077 
1-107 
1-117 
1-157 
1-107 
1-068 
1-048 
1-127 
1-107 
1-141 
1.053 


*< San Antonio . . . . 
(_ Villa di Ibarra . . 
f Pasto 


281 IS 

281 42 

282 39 


Humboldt . . . 
Humboldt . . . 




Humboldt . . . 




f < Almaquer 

[_ Popoyan 

f Carthago 

1 < Ibague 

(_ S. Fe de Bogota 

^ \ Bocca di Nares 

| Apure 

|| ^ Atures 

| Carichana .... 
LCalabozo 

" \ St. Carlos .... 

3$ f Nueva Barcelona 

\ St. Thomas .... 

River Gambia .... 

Sierra Leone 


283 06 
283 21 

283 54 

284 41 

285 47 
285 07 
285 20 

291 50 

292 01 
292 02 
292 06 
292 10 

291 59 

292 22 

295 16 

296 06 
343 27 
346 45 


Humboldt 

Humboldt 


Humboldt 

Humboldt 

Humboldt 


Humboldt 

Humboldt 




Humboldt 


Humboldt 


Humboldt 

Humboldt 


Humboldt 

Humboldt 


Humboldt 


Sabine 




§£ 


>. Intensities from 1-05 to 0-95. 


Manilla 


14 36N. 
13 26 
13 28 
6 55 
11 27 

2 56 
4 17 

3 47 
18 44 

35N. 


116 18 
144 44 
144 58 
158 02 

161 52 

162 50 
162 54 

162 59 

163 55 
232 56 




1829 
1829 
1818 
1827 
1827 
1827 
1827 
1827 
1827 
1827 


1-044 
0-980 
0-968 
0-990 
0-970 
1-018 
1-001 
1-010 
0-989 
1-013 






Acrasna 


Freycinet 


At Sea 


At Sea 


Liitke 

Liitke 


At Sea 


At Sea 


Liitke 


At Sea 


At Sea 






* Mean, 
f Mean 
t Mean, 
§ Mean 
|| Mean, 
If Mean, 
** Mean, 


3 stations 6 2 281 26 
3 stations 1 52 383 02 
3 stations 4 36 284 47 
2 stations 5 31 285 14 
5 stations 6 36 292 02 
2 stations 2 21 292 10 
2 stations 9 07 295 41 


1-061 
1077 
1-124 
1-127 
1-113 
1-058 
1-117 



56 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 



Station. 



f Ayavaca 

I Gualtaquillo . . . 

I Gonzanama . . . 

*<^ Guancabamba . 

Pucara 

Amazon's River. 
LTomependa . . . 

{Montan 
Micuipampa . . . 
Santa 
Caxamarca 

Maranham 



Lat. 






4 


38 S. 


4 


52S. 


4 


13S. 


5 


14S. 


5 


56S. 


5 


48 S. 


5 


31 S 


6 


33S. 


6 


44S. 


8 


59 S. 


7 


09 S. 


2 


32 S. 



Long. 



Observer. 



280 

280 
280 
280 
280 
281 
281 
281 
281 
281 
281 
315 



26.Humboldt 

26 Humboldt 

27 Humboldt 
37JHumboldt 
37 j Humboldt 
13 Humboldt 
24Humboldt 
lOHumboldt 
2l!Huoxboldt 
23 Humboldt 
25 Humboldt 
39 Sabine . . . 



Date. 


Intensity. 


1802 


1-019 


1802 


1-028 


1802 


1-009 


1802 


1-019 


1802 


1-009 


1802 


1-009 


1802 


1-019 


1802 


1-009 


1802 


1-000 


1802 


1-019 


1802 


1-019 


1822 


1-016 



§ 10. Intensities below 0-95. 



St. Thomas. . . . 
St. Catherine . . 

Rio de Janeiro 



Bahia 

55 

Pernambuco 
Ascension . . 

55 • • 

St. Helena . . 



25 
27 26 S, 
22 55 S. 



12 59S. 



6 45 Sabine . . . 

311 27 King .. . 

316 51 j Freycinet. 

„ ;Liitke . . . 
,, JErman. . . 
Fitz Roy . 



321 30'Sabine 

,, [Fitz Roy 

8 04 S. 325 09 Fitz Roy 

7 56 S.'345 36|Sabine . . 

55 5> (Fitz Roy 

15 55 S. 354 l7jFitz Roy 



1822 

1827 
1817 
1820 
1827 
1830 
1832 
1822 
1836 
1836 
1822 
1836 

1836 

I 



Division II. Southern Hemisphere. 
§ 11. Intensities from 095 to 1*05. 



Cape of Good Hope 34 US. 18 26 



Rawak 

Ulean 

Lugunor 

Los Valientes . 



34S.|131 00 
22NJ143 57 
29N.153 58 
46N.157 05 



Freycinet . 
Fitz Roy . 
Freycinet. 
Liitke . . . 
Liitke . . . 
Liitke . . . 



1818 
1836 
1818 
1828 
1828 
1828 



* Mean, 7 stations 
f'Mean, 4 stations 



5 10S. 
7 21 S. 



280 43 

281 20 



1-017 
1-012 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. o] 



Station. 



Ualan 5 

At Sea 4 



Lat. 



21N. 
SOS. 



13 09S. 
9 38 S. 

10 04S. 

11 03S. 
11 32S. 



At Sea 

("Casuia .... 

| Guarmey . . , 
*{ Huaura .... 

I El Ramadal 

(.Lima 112 03S. 282 53jHumboldt 

Goriti 34 57S. 305 03 King . . . 



Long. 



163 23 



Observer. 



Date. 



238 13 
251 20 

281 25 



Liitke 



Liitke . . . 
Lutke . . . 
Humboldt 

281 39JHumboldt 

282 14'Humboldt 
282 35; Humboldt 



!l827 
'1827 
11827 
I] 802 
'l802 
[1803 
11802 
|1802| 
1829 



Intensity. 



1-002 
0-998 
1-014 
1-000 
1-000 
1-009 
1-009 
1-077 
1-041 



§ 12. Intensities from 1*05 to 1-15. 



Mauritius 

Amboyna 
Otaheite . . 



Coquimbo . . 
Blanco Bay 
Monte Video 



At Sea 



20 09 S. 



57 31 



3 42 S. 128 08 
17 29S.210 30 



29 59 S 
38 57 S 
34 53 S. 

40 55 S. 



288 34 
298 01 
303 47 

307 00 



Freycinet . 
Fitz Roy . 
Rossel . . . 
Erman . . . 
Fitz Roy . 
Fitz Roy . 
Fitz Roy . 
King . . . 
Fitz Roy . 
Liitke . . . 



1818 
1836 
1792 
1830 
1835 
1835 
1832 
1830 
1833 
1827 



1-096 
1-192 
1-097 
1-172 
1-017 
1-111 
1-113 
1-065 
1-055 
1-110 



§ 13. Intensities from 1*15 to 1'25. 



Timor 

Valdivia . . . 
Concepcion 



Valparaiso 



10 10 S. 123 40 
39 53 S. 286 31 
36 42SJ286 50 



33 02 S. 



288 19 



Freycinet. 
Fitz Roy . 
Liitke . . . 
King . . . 
Fitz Roy . 
Liitke . . . 

King . . . 



1818 
1835 
1827 
1829 
1835 
1827 
1829 
1830 



1-177 
1-238 
1-234 
1-250 
1-186 
1-170 

1-176 



§ 14. Intensities from 1-25 to 1*35. 



Juan Fernandez . 

At Sea 

Port Low 

Chiloe 



At Sea 



33 38 S. 281 07 


41 00 S. 282 30 


43 48 S. 


285 58 


41 51 S. 


286 04 


55 


» 


49 18 S. 


302 48 



King . . 
Liitke . . 
Fitz Roy 
King ... 
Fitz Roy . 
Liitke . . , 



1830 

1827 
1835 
1829 
1834 
1827 



1-262 
1-324 
1-326 
1-321 
1-304 
1-268 



* Mean, 5 stations 10 52 S. 282 10 1-019. 



58 SEVENTH UEPORT — 1837. 

§ 15. Intensities from 1'35 to 1*45. 



Station. 


! 

Lat. Long. 


Observer. 


Date. 


Intensity. 




. . . . -25 4:? S. 1 1 3 20 Frevrinet 


1818 

1834 

1S33 
1829 
1827 
1820 
1833 
1834 


1-421 
1-425 
1-355 
1-361 
1-413 
1-363 
1-349 
1-385 


R. Santa Cruz 
Port Desire 

At Sea 




50 07 S.291 36 Fitz Roy 

47 45 S.294 05 Fitz Roy 

47 51 S.294 12 King 

55 25 S. 298 27 Liitke 

51 33 S. 301 55 Freyeinet 

51 32 S. 301 53 Fitz Roy 

„ Fitz Rov 


Falkland Ids. . . 








§ 16. Intensities from 1-45 to 1-55. 


St. Martin's Cov 


53 38 S. 289 02 
2 . . 55 51 S.292 26 


King 

Fitz Roy 


1827 
1*34 
1827 


1-505 

1-560 
1-498 


King 






§ 17. Intensities from 1-55 to l'6o. 








35 16 S. 174 00 Fitz Roy 


1835 


1-591 


§ 18, Intensities from i'65 to ]~o. 






35 02 S. 117 56 Fitz Roy 


1813 

1836 
1836 


1-631 
1-685 
1-709 




King George's Sound 




§ 19. Intensities from 1*75 to l - 85. 




. 




...42 53 S. 147 24 Fitz Roy 1 


1836 


1-817 1 






ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



59 



Additional Table, containing the Observations made by M. 
Erman at sea, on his return from Kamtschatku to Europe 
by Cape Horn. 

These observations were received from M. Erman since this 
Report was sent to press, which occasions their being given 
in a separate table. 





Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Dip. 


linens. 






51 03 


203 32 


67 09-5 N. 


1-522 






53 35 


213 38 


71 05-5 


1-587 




{ 


55 33 

54 27 


221 01 
221 23 


75 33-1 
73 40*0 


1-639 
1-673 




f 


43 18 


230 24 


66 44*5 


1-580 




1 


40 03 


233 39 


64 00-7 


1-551 




{ 


39 12 
38 


235 28 
235 54 


63 40-0 
63 41*5 


1-528 
1-556 




f 


31 51 


234 18 


56 31-9 


1-435 




4 


30 31 


235 41 


55 05-0 


1-394 




I 


29 04 


238 24 


53 20-8 


1-380 




{ 


28 41 
28 04 


238 59 

239 08 


53 05-5 
52 09-5 


1-402 
1-364 




r 


26 36 


239 28 


50 22-6 


1-377 




< 


26 


238 54 


49 26-1 


1-321 




I 


25 21 


238 37 


48 06-5 


1-356 




r 


23 12 


238 15 


45 20-5 


1-341 




< 


23 


238 12 


44 14-4 


1-289 




1. 


21 14 


237 57 


42 17-0 


1-271 




{ 


19 39 
18 36 


237 45 
237 34 


40 07-8 
39 03-0 


1-241 
1-219 




{ 


16 56 
15 15 


237 13 
236 55 


35 34-7 
32 28-4 


1-185 
1-183 




r 


13 37 


236 36 


29 45-7 


1-158 




<^ 


12 18 


236 28 


27 09-3 


1-143 




I 


11 18 


236 22 


25 44-4 


1-136 




{ 


9 43 
8 55 


235 58 
235 57 


23 06-4 

20 57-7 


1-107 

1-082 




r 


7 15 


236 26 


17 51-9 


1-053 




4 


6 27 


236 42 


17 08-8 


1-055 




I 


5 49 


236 38 


15 24-8 


1-056 




r 


4 35 


235 47 


13 02-6 


1-049 




< 


2 42 


234 17 


9 18-0 


1-028 




I 


1 33 


233 29 


7 21-2 


1-018 


• 


i 


46 
9 


232 54 
232 27 


5 15-4 
3 30-4 


0-992 
0-986 



60 



SEVENTH REPORT — 183/\ 





Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Dip. 


1 Intensity. 




f 


12 S. 


232 09 


3 8-5 


0-997 


Pacific Ocean . 


■••s 


6S. 


231 44 




0-995 




I 


7N. 


230 40 


3 45-3 


1-014 




{ 


8N. 


229 44 


4 19-3 


1-022 


» 


ON. 


229 22 


3 49-5 


1-029 




{ 


29 S. 


228 41 


2 38-3 


0-977 


5> 


40 S. 


228 30 


2 16-8 


C-980 




{ 


53 S. 


228 16 


2 10-9 


1-000 


» 


1 7S. 


228 


1 32-8 


1-028 




{ 


1 47 S. 


227 18 


14-6 S. 


1-015 


J> 


1 52 S. 


226 28 


16-2 N. 


0-996 




{ 


1 53 S. 


225 32 


42-6 S. 


0-942 


» 


1 52 S. 


225 03 


0-9 N. 


1-008 




r 


1 30 S. 


223 46 


46-7 N. 


1-015 


» 


4 


1 37 S. 


222 12 


57-4 N. 


1-004 




I 


1 48 S. 


221 49 


3-7 S. 


1-009 




r 


2 US. 


221 13 


21-8 S. 


1-022 


» 


J 


1 57 S. 


221 




1-001 




I 


2 19 S. 


220 16 


39*4 S. 


0-981 




{ 


4 30 S. 


218 42 


5 3-9 S. 


1-016 


JJ 


5 34 S. 


218 3 


7 29-8 S. 


1-032 




r 


7 03 S. 


217 4 


10 07-3 S. 


1-031 


>J 


J 


7 45 S. 


216 53 


1 1 27-1 S. 


1-009 




1 


8 06 S. 


216 41 


12 46-8 S. 


1-033 




{ 
{ 
{ 

r 


9 22 S. 


215 58 


15 18-5 S. 


1-066 


5> 


10 22 S. 


215 21 


17 16-7 S. 


1-105 




11 13 S. 


214 59 


18 18-0 S. 


1-081 


}> 


11 54 S. 


214 52 


19 10-8 S. 


1-070 




12 2S. 


214 51 


19 32-9 S. 


1-114 


J» 


12 56 S. 


214 38 


21 19-1 S. 


1-118 




13 7S. 


214 37 


21 16-9 S. 


1-124 


5J 


J 


13 44 S. 


214 51 


22 23-6 S. 


1-095 




I 


14 01 S. 


214 31 


23 28-6 S. 


1-075 




{ 

r 


14 55 S. 


213 59 


24 54-2 S. 


1-121 


5> 


14 43 S. 


212 26 


24 23-2 S. 


1-091 




19 06 S. 


209 49 


31 56-5 S. 


1-253 


» 


J 


22 17 S. 


209 29 


35 51-8 S. 


1-209 




1 


24 51 S. 


210 


40 19-4 S. 


1-250 




r 


26 56 S. 


209 54 


43 05-5 S. 


1-349 


» 


J 


27 43 S. 


209 57 


44 02-9 S. 


1-324 




1 


28 48 S. 


213 08 


45 27-9 S. 


1-257 




L. 

{ 


29 04 S. 


213 25 


45 26-5 S. 


1-339 


Jl 


30 33 S. 


212 58 


47 20-6 S. 


1-371 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



61 





Latitude. 


Longitude 


Dip. 


Intensity. 


Pacific Ocean . . 




32 22 S. 


214 35 


49 07-1 S. 


1-361 


j> 




34 23 S. 


216 27 


51 12-7 S. 


1-370 


» 




34 55 S. 


218 29 


52 29-3 S. 


1-392 




{ 


34 28 S. 


220 19 


50 32-9 S. 


1-426 


>> 


36 17 S. 


219 50 


52 17-6 S. 


1-407 


>■> 




37 39 S. 


218 4 


53 52-4 S. 


1-489 


» 




42 04 S. 


218 44 


58 48-4 S. 


1-509 


» 




44 24 S. 


221 59 


61 4-2 S. 


1-543 




r 


45 6S. 


225 11 


61 56-7 S. 


1-545 


» 


<^ 


45 05 S. 


228 23 


61 43-9 S. 


1-611 




I 


47 13 S. 


237 34 


63 15-5 S. 


1-583 




{ 


48 11 S. 


242 23 


63 39-6 S. 


1-609 


M 


48 50 S. 


24-5 29 


64 25-5 S. 


1-666 


>> 




51 03 S. 


252 22 


65 48-6 S. 


1-614 


» 




55 03 S. 


266 24 


66 16-1 S. 


1-630 


>J 




56 28 S. 


276 38 


65 05-6 S. 


1-576 


» 




56 05 S. 


284 36 


62 51-3 S. 


1-537 


5» 




58 31 S. 


289 35 


61 05-6 S. 


1-522 


Atlantic Ocean . 




57 26 S. 


295 56 


60 06-5 S. 


1-491 




{ 


56 02 S. 


299 34 


58 26-6 S. 


1-391 


>> 


55 36 S. 


302 02 


57 28-4 S. 


1-412 


» 




52 44 S. 


304 26 


54 29-0 S. 


1-301 


» 




50 12 S. 


304 17 


51 09-5 S. 


1-280 


5> 




47 US. 


306 20 


48 44-5 S. 


1-233 




{ 


39 48 S. 


308 45 


40 27-0 S. 


1-023 


J> 


37 09 S. 


309 41 


36 41-9 S. 


1-016 




i 


35 44 S. 


310 23 


34 09-9 S. 


0-938 


» 


33 04 S. 


312 02 


30 3-4 S. 


0-984 


») 




29 53 S. 


312 28 


25 32-5 S. 


0-923 


>> 




27 58 S. 


314 20 


22 01-2 S. 


0-899 


)> 




26 22 S. 


315 30 


19 44-7 S. 


0-880 




r 


24 12 S. 


316 19 


16 02-0 S. 


0-844 


>> 


i 


24 24 S. 


316 12 


15 47'9 S- 


0-916 




l 


24 18 S. 


318 35 


16 35-0 S. 


0-867 




r 


24 53 S. 


324 26 


18 29-9 S. 


0-852 


» 


4 


24 26 S. 


325 12 


15 17*1 S. 


0-811 




I 


24 06 S. 


325 14 


15 56-6 S. 


0-809 




i 


20 56 S. 


325 15 


9 45-1 S. 


0-816 


» 


20 00 S. 


325 


7 53-3 S. 


0-743 




{ 


19 38 S. 


324 56 


7 34-0 S. 


0-792 


» 


18 57 S. 


324 57 


7 19-8 S. 


0-820 




{ 


17 33 S. 


325 54 


4 44-0 S. 


0-784 


)> 


16 17 S. 


326 30 


2 28-0 S. 


0-795 


J> 




15 56 S. 


326 33 


1 33-5 S. 


0-797 


» 


14 53 S. 


326 49 


24-8 N. 


0-838 



62 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 





Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Dip. 


Intensity. 


Atlantic Ocean . . 


••:{ 


14 25 S. 
13 18 S. 


327 05 

327 22 


1 28-8 N. 
3 18-2 


0-856 
0-812 


» 




9 42 S. 


328 15 


9 28-0 


0-892 


»> 




5 19 S. 


329 12 


17 43'0 


0-922 




{ 


3 51 S. 


329 19 


20 24-2 


0-949 


» 


1 53 S. 


329 33 


23 28-9 


1-031 


>> 




26 N. 


329 45 


27 16-5 


1-043 


)» 




2 30 


329 32 


30 48-4 


1-074 


99 




4 26 


329 56 


34 29-5 


1-094 


5) 




5 45 


331 21 


35 16-5 


1-094 




{ 


9 36 


333 34 


39 14-4 


1-125 


>> 


10 24 


333 35 


40 48-3 


1-114 




r 


11 3 


332 38 


41 54-8 


1-187 


»» 


I 


12 36 


331 42 


44 4-3 


1-209 




I 


14 36 


330 58 


46 20-9 


1-201 




{ 


15 53 


329 26 


48 15-9 


1-273 


5> 


16 41 


328 48 


49 52-0 


1-238 




{ 


19 05 


326 42 


51 59-6 


1-311 


» 


21 01 


325 07 


54 44-0 


1-314 


}> 




24 


322 55 


58 17-2 


1-375 




{ 


26 26 


321 55 


60 49-0 


1-406 


« 


28 02 


321 22 


61 53-6 


1-404 




{ 


29 34 


320 14 


63 12-0 


1-427 


» 


30 30 


319 29 


64 17*3 


1-478 




{ 


31 .11 


320 12 


64 45-7 


1-469 


» 


32 55 


319 3 


65 21-3 


1-468 




{ 


33 45 


318 36 


66 4-4 


1-499 


J) 


34 29 


318 18 


67 26-5 


1-500 




{ 


35 


318 33 


67 36-6 


1-505 


?5 


36 15 


319 56 


68 17-5 


1-507 




{ 


37 26 


321 22 


68 19-4 


1-501 


» 


38 24 


322 57 


69 07-4 


1-491 




f 


40 09 


325 20 


69 32-9 


1-504 


>5 


1 


41 27 


327 25 


70 03-6 


1-466 


»» 




42 29 


328 34 


69 47-6 


1-512 


» 




44 22 


330 55 


71 07-1 


1-515 






46 46 


335 42 


70 18-5 


1-463 




{ 


47 47 


343 58 


69 46-0 


1-421 


>> 


47 46 


344 25 


70 14-9 


1-419 


» 




48 13 


347 7 


69 27-8 


1-422 


>» 




49 16 


351 58 


69 105 


1-416 


British Channel . . 




50 48 


358 54 


68 45-0 


1-380 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 63 



Section III. — General Conclusions. 

In considering the comparative fitness of the three kinds of 
magnetic lines, those of equal variation, equal dip, and equal 
intensity, to promote a knowledge of the system of terrestrial 
magnetism, the lines of equal intensity have in one leading re- 
spect an advantage over the other two. Viewed under the most 
favourable circumstances and in its simplest aspect, the magnet- 
ism of the earth is still, it must be acknowledged, a highly com- 
plicated subject ; and needs not the additional complication of 
its phenomena being involved with considerations foreign to 
itself. Now the lines of equal dip and equal variation do 
not express simple magnetic relations. The lines of equal dip, 
for example, connect those stations on the earth's surface where 
the direction of the magnetic attraction forms a certain angle 
with the horizontal plane at the station. But every station has 
its own horizontal plane depending on the direction of gravity, 
which has no known or necessary connexion with magnetism. 
The zero planes thus differing, the equality of dip does not ex- 
press, or necessarily imply, a simple magnetic relation, but has 
reference to the attraction of gravitation as well as to (hat of 
magnetism. The lines of equal variation express a complex re- 
lation of a similar character. Here also the zero planes change 
with the station ; and, the variation being the same at two sta- 
tions, by no means implies parallelism in the direction of the 
needle at them, or any other specific relation whatsoever inde- 
pendent of the geographical pole, which pole has no known or 
necessary connexion with magnetism. It is not the same with 
the lines of equal intensity. Whatever may be the sources of 
magnetic attraction, and wherever their situation in space, — 
whether superficial as regards the earth, — or above or beneath 
its surface — the line of equal intensity expresses the equality of 
their resultant at all those points of the earth's surface through 
which it is drawn, unmixed with any considerations foreign to 
magnetism. They are pure magnetical isodynamic lines at the 
surface of the globe ; and express a common relationship to the 
sources of magnetical attraction. The instruction they convey 
is therefore more simple, direct and unequivocal than in the 
case of the other two. The eye of the mathematician may dis- 
cern the pure magnetic indication through the complex signi- 
fication of the lines of equal variation and dip ; but the lines 
of intensity are better suited to convey the system of magnetism 
as indicated by the phenomena to the general apprehension. 



61 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

I proceed to notice a few of the most striking inferences which 
are deducible from the observations of intensity recorded in 
this report. 

1. The lines of equal intensity are not parallel with the 
lines of equal dip, and the difference is systematic. 

In 1805 M. Bint published an investigation of the laws which 
should govern the clip and the intensity, in the hypothesis of a 
magnet situated at the centre of the earth, having its poles in- 
finitely near to each other, and directed to opposite points on 
the surface of the globe. It is a well-known consequence of this 
hypothesis, that the lines of equal dip and equal intensity on the 
earth's surface should everywhere be parallel to each other. 

It has always appeared to me that the distinguished author of 
this investigation has been taken much beyond his meaning, 
when he has been supposed to have propounded this hypothesis 
as a general representation of the facts of terrestrial magnetism 
then known, or of those which should be shown by more ex- 
tensive experience. He was doubtless fully aware that, many 
years antecedently, the phenomena of the variation had been 
shown by Dr. Halley to be wholly irreconcileable with the 
geometrical deductions from a single central magnetic axis ; 
and that Euler, who may in some degree be regarded as an op- 
ponent of Halley upon the subject generally, fully acquiesced 
in this conclusion. Accordingly, M. Biot made no comparison 
of the hypothesis with the variation, considering no doubt that 
its inapplicability in that respect had been already shown. A 
few facts of the dip were the only observations with which he 
compared the formula? of his hypothesis, and with some of 
these it appeared to accord tolerably; but still there were 
anomalies which drew from him the acknowledgement, that to 
represent even those few facts of the dip, it would be neces- 
sary to add to the influence of the primary axis the supposi- 
tion of subordinate centres. That he had no expectation of its 
proving applicable to the intensity, any more than to the varia- 
tion, is, I think, beyond a question, when we read the following 
sentence : "Quant a la declinaison et a l'intensite nous avouons 
franchement que nous ne savons absolument rien sur leurs 
lois ni sur leurs causes : et si quelque physicien est assez - 
heureux pour les ramener a un principe unique, qui explique en 
meme temps les variations de l'inclinaison, ce sera sans doute 
une des plus belles decouvertes que Ton ait jamais faites."* 

* Journal de Physique, vol. lix. p. 450. The state in which the question 
was left hy Halley and Euler was, I believe, as follows : Halley decided in 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 65 

The light in which I have thus considered M. Biot's essay is 
the same, I think, in which it was regarded at the time, by his 
distinguished coadjutors in this and so many other branches of 
science. MM. Gay Lussac and Humboldt, in closing the ac- 
count of their magnetic observations on the continent of Europe 
in 1805 and 1806, remark as follows : " Les inclinaisons corre- 
spondantes donne*es par la theorie d'apres M. Biot, sont toutes 
beaucoup plus grandes, car les plus petites differences vont a 
pres de 4°. En supposant la position de l'equateur magnetique, 
rigoreusement determinee, il en resulteroit qu'en Europe, il y 
a une inflexion considerable des paralleles magnetiques vers 
l'equateur, occasionnee par l'influence de quelque centre parti- 
culier. Mais pour tirer aucune conclusion a cet egard, il est 
prudent d'attendre que des observations exactes et plus nom- 
breuses fournissent des bases solides, sar lesquelles on puisse 
elever une the'orie rigoreuse qui les embrasse toutes*." It is 
here fully recognised that M. Biot's was not " cette the'orie 
rigoreuse" which, resting on the solid basis of induction from 
a competent assemblage of facts, should have a proportionate 
claim to be regarded as a general representation of the phe- 
nomena. 

In showing the incompatibility with subsequent observations 
of this " abstraction mathematique," as M. Biot himself de- 
signated it, I do not therefore consider myself as opposing 
either his opinions or his expectations. 

It has sometimes appeared to me that the very simplicity of 
the laws of this hypothesis has tended to counterbalance in 
some degree the advantage it produced, in recalling attention 
to a subject, the interest in which had been for some years 
suspended. Apart from the question of accordance or non- 
favour of four poles, as the best representation of the phaenomena : Euler hesi- 
tated to accede to this until it should be shown more decisively that the phae- 
nomena might not be represented by a single excentric axis, having its semi- 
axes of unequal length ; claiming in such case the preference for the latter 
supposition over that of four poles, as being more suitable for geometrical de- 
ductions. To have accomplished what such men as Halley and Euler had left 
incomplete would have been an undertaking not unworthy of M. Biot ; but it 
would have required the preliminary labour of collecting together, as M. 
Hansteen has since done, the great body of the facts of observation, which, at 
the time his essay was written, were scattered in the journals of travellers and 
navigators, and in the transactions of learned societies of many countries. This 
labour might well in prospect have deterred him from the attempt ; but it was 
indispensable for the purpose of furnishing the basis of a philosophical induc- 
tion of such general laws as should comprehend the whole of the phaenomena. 
On no less solid foundation was it probable that phaenomena should be repre- 
sented, known to wear so complicated an aspect, and which had been the sub- 
ject of the long-continued investigation of the eminent men above noticed. 

* I have put in Italics the part of this extract to which I particularly refer. 
VOL. VI. 1837- F 



CG SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

accordance with facts, simplicity recommends itself to all; 
and persons imperfectly acquainted with the phaenomena may 
have heen led by it to undervalue observation, when detached 
portions of its facts, inconsistent with the hypothesis, may have 
come under their notice ; and, departing from the principles of 
inductive philosophy, may have suffered themselves to look to 
the hypothesis rather than to the phaenomena. The simplicity 
of its resulting phaenomena is, however, that characteristic in 
which it specially departs from the facts of nature. The real 
phaenomena are complex, as all who have studied them will 
most readily admit ; and it can scarcely be expected that the 
laws which are to represent them should not also have in some 
degree an appearance of complexity, until the laws of their 
causation shall be discovered. 

In a science which stands in need of national aid for its ex- 
perimental extension, it is peculiarly desirable to remove such 
erroneous impressions as militate against a belief in the value, 
and consequently the importance, of experimental research. 

I propose, therefore, in the first place, to show, that the irre- 
concilability of a single central axis does not rest on insulated 
facts only, or, as some may have supposed, on the conclusions 
of a single observer, but that all those who have principally 
concurred in extending the boundaries of our experimental 
knowledge of late years, have arrived at the same conclusion 
in that respect, and have uniformly borne testimony to the in- 
applicability of the formulae of that hypothesis to represent their 
respective observations ; and, secondly, to direct the reader's 
attention to those facts in particular, which may produce the 
readiest conviction of the systematic departure of the lines of 
dip and intensity from that law of the hypothesis by which they 
should have parallel courses. 

We have already seen the conclusion at which MM. Gay 
Lussac and Humboldt arrived in 1807, namely, that their ob- 
servations in France, Italy, and Germany, taken in conjunction 
with M. de Humboldt's in America, could only be reconciled 
with M. Biot's hypothesis, by supposing the existence of a 
secondary centre extending its influence over the continent 
of Europe, and acting conjointly with the primary. 

From 1807 the spirit of experimental inquiry slumbered for 
a while ; the times were unpropitious to a research which re- 
quired freedom of access to different countries, and safety and 
facility in traversing extensive spac es of the earth's surface. 
At length it revived nearly simultaneously, in Capt. de Freyci- 
net's voyage of circumnavigation, and in the British expeditions 
for the discovery of a north-west passage. Between 1818 and 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. &J 

1823 I had the good fortune to enjoy opportunities of observing 
the magnetic phaenomena over a portion of the globe amounting 
to about one-eighth of its surface, or the quarter of an hemi- 
sphere. In comparing, on my return to England, the observa- 
tions of dip with M. Biot's formula, the differences between cal- 
culation and experiment were seen to be not atsingle stations only, 
but systematic, extending over large spaces of the globe ; the 
discrepancies were also so great as (in the words which I em- 
ployed in 1825) to make it " certain that no two positions could 
" be assigned to the magnetic poles, which would enable a cal- 
" culation of the dip as a function of the magnetic polar distance, 
u in which differences from fact should not be found of 10° and 
a upwards." Further, in comparing the observations of dip and 
intensity with the parallel course, which, according to the hy- 
pothesis, the lines of equal dip and equal intensity should 
preserve, their irreconcilability with this law was shown to be so 
great and so systematic as to be " decisive against the sup- 
" posed relation of the force to the observed dip ; and equally 
" so against any other relation whatsoever, in which the r'e- 
" spective phaenomena might be supposed to vary in corre- 
" spondence with each other." Another important difference 
was also pointed out. In the hypothesis the maxima of dip 
and intensity are coincident : with this the observations were 
at variance ; those of the intensity placing its maximum several 
degrees to the southward of the geographical position which 
the observations of dip indicated as that of the dip of 90 de- 
grees*. 

In 1830 M. Erman returned from a journey in which he had 
carried magnetic observations over a space on the globe still 
more extensive than mine, and (which should be specially no- 
ticed) so entirely distinct from mine, that we had not a single 

* The observations of intensity arranged around their own centre presented 
much less discordance with the laws of an uniaxal hypothesis than appeared 
in those of the dip when referred to the position of the pole as indicated by the 
dip of 90 degrees. By substituting in the formula of that hypothesis the "iti- 
nerary distance from the maximum of intensity" for the "magnetic polar di- 
stance," and employing this formula as an empirical representation, it was 
found to correspond with the facts of the intensity within the district comprised 
by my observations, with no very material discrepancies. In that portion of 
the hemisphere in which the influence of the primary centre is predominant, 
the variations of the intensity maybe easily imagined not to differ greatly from 
the effect of a single axis ; and such is apparently the fact. It happened that 
my observations, extensive as they were, fell within that limit; had they been 
pursued a few degrees further to the eastward, the influence of the Siberian 
centre would have become more sensible, and the uniaxal formula would have 
ceased to afford even an approximate representation of the facts. But this 
perhaps will be better understood when the sequel of the report has been read. 

f2 



C8 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

station in common. I cannot state his conclusions better than 
by giving his own words*. 

" Lignes a egale Intensity, ou Lignes Isodynamiques. — 
Esperant encore completer mes observations relativement a 
ces lignes interessantes, pendant mon passage du Bresil en 
Europe, je me borne ici a en relever quelques particularities frap- 
pantes, et nommement celle, qu'en Siberie les lignes isodyna- 
miques ne sont rien moins que paralleles aux lignes d'egale 
inclinaison. Nous voyons au contraire sous le meridien d'Ob- 
dorsk et de Tobolsk, les premieres avoir des branches descen- 
dantes presque verticales ou legerement inflechies du N.O. 
au S.E., tandis que les lignes a inclinaison egale y sont presque 

horizontales. 

***** 

" Ces indications preliminaires suffiront pour prouver que 
l'ancienne theorie, diveloppee par Euler et KrafFt, et plus 
tard par MM. Humboldt et Biot, et qui ne suppose qiiun seul 
axe magne'tique, est absolument en deTaut pour les loix de l'in- 
tensite de la force magnetique. En effet, l'intensite n'etant 
d'apres cette theorie qu'une fonction de l'inclinaison, les lignes 
qui representent l'un et l'autre de ces phenomenes, devraient 
conserver une marche toujours parallele. On peut en tirer la 
consequence interessante, que la position des deux poles mag- 
netiques n'est pas la seule qui regie les phenomenes de l'incli- 
naison et de la declinaison dans les differentes parties du 
globe ; mais qu'il existe encore une cause secondaire qui n'af- 
fectant toutefois que tres faiblement la declinaison et l'incli- 
naison, et la derniere d'autant moins qu'on l'observe plus pres 
de l'equateur, exerce cependant sur les loix de l'intensite une 
influence si puissante qu'elle en efface presque tous les carac- 
teres deduits par la theorie." 

M. Erman's conclusions, in respect to the non-parallelism of 
the lines of dip and intensity, and the insufficiency of a single 
magnetic axis to represent his observations, were almost iden- 
tical with mine. Our difference, in regard to the particular 
class of the phaenomena which were most at variance with that 
hypothesis, arose from the different parts of the globe which 
had been the field of our respective researches. 

I have next to state the inferences of M. Hansteen as an 
experimentalist, drawn from his observations in his own ex- 
tensive journeys. This need occupy the less space, because I 
have alreadyf endeavoured to show, as clearly as the necessity 

* Memoires de V Acad. Imp. des Sciences de St. Petersburg, 1831, (Bulletin 
Scie/itifiqite). 

f Fifth Report of the British Association, p. 72 — 73. 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 69 

of great condensation would admit, the arrangement of the lines 
of intensity, and their systematic departure from parallelism 
with those of the dip, which, in his theory of four poles, founded 
on the assemblage and study of the earlier observations of the 
dip and variation, M. Hansteen had anticipated, previous to his 
own experiments. It is sufficient to show, as may be done by 
a single sentence written since his return from Siberia, that the 
results of these have accorded with his previous views. " Thus 
is confirmed in the clearest and most satisfactory manner what 
I had earlier inferred from the two other magnetic phaenomena ; 
namely, that in the northern hemisphere there are two magnetic 
centres, or poles ; and that the westernmost, in North America, 
has a sensibly greater intensity than the easternmost in Siberia*." 

Having thus shown the concurrent opinions which those 
who have most extensively engaged in the experimental in- 
quiry have been led to form, it remains to place the facts them- 
selves in a convenient manner before the general reader. The 
complete view of the systematic difference in the course of the 
two kinds of lines is best obtained, by comparing the map of 
the intensity lines in this Report with M. Hansteen's map of 
the dip lines for 1780, in the Fifth Report of the British 
Association^. The lines of dip have undergone some changes 
since that period, but none which much affect their general 
configuration. All readers, however, may not have that 
volume at hand, and I have therefore traced in Plate I. 
the course of the line of equal intensity which passes through 
our own islands, for 160 degrees of longitude, and have 
exhibited it in comparison with the neighbouring lines of dip. 
The line of intensity, shown by the continuous line, is taken 
from the general map accompanying this memoir. The por- 
tions of dip-lines, marked by the dotted lines, are taken from 
M. Erman's map drawn from his own observations, in the 
Annalen der Phys'ik, vol. xxi. The intensity line, which in 
the meridians of 280° and 290° is in close juxtaposition with 

* Ann. der Physilc, vol. xxviii. p. 579. 

f I may take this opportunity of stating that the sea portions of M. Han- 
steen's map of the dip in 1780 rest on the authority of between 900 and 1000 
observations of the dip made at sea between the years 1767 and 1788, and that 
these are tabulated in the Appendix of the Magn. der Erde. The observation 
of the dip at sea in favourable weather was the habitual practice of many of the 
scientific navigators of that period, such as Le Gentil, La Perouse, Ekeberg, 
Lewenhorn, and our own countrymen Phipps, Hutchins, Abercrombie, and 
Pickersgill. It is much to be wished that it were a more frequent practice now. 
M. Erman, in his voyage from Kamtschatka to Europe, found a number of 
days sufficiently favourable to enable him to observe the dip in not less than 
167 geographical positions at sea. 



70 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

that of 50° of dip, successively intersects in its eastern pro- 
gress all the lines of dip between 52° and 73°, with which 
latter it coincides in lat. 60° and long. 10°; it then again de- 
scends, intersecting successively, a second time, the same lines 
of dip, until it touches that of 57° in long. 70°. When it is 
seen that the saine line of intensity successively coincides with 
the lines of dip of twenty different degrees, it must be admit- 
ted that their systems are not parallel, and that the conclusion 
was justly drawn, that the facts could not be repi'esented by an 
hypothesis in which the intensity should vary as any function 
of the dip. A conclusion by no means at variance, however, 
as has been erroneously imagined, with their having a causal 
connexion. 

Nor is the fact of non-parallelism confined to the northern 
hemisphere ; on the contrary, the southern hemisphere ex- 
emplifies it in a still more striking degree. Thus we have in 
South America the line of unity under a dip of 0, as observed by 
M. de Humboldt in Peru ; and at the Cape of Good Hope, the 
same line of unity under a dip exceeding 50°, as shown by the 
concurrent observations of Captains de Freycinet and Fitz Roy; 
whilst at Port Desire and at the Falkland Islands, these officers 
found an intensity of 1*36, with nearly the same dip as had 
been found at the Cape of Good Hope accompanying an inten- 
sity less than unity. 

In M. Erman's dip-lines (Plate I.), which represent his 
own recent observations, and are quite independent of pre- 
existing evidence, we see the same double flexure, of which 
the importance, in its bearing on physical causes as well as 
on empirical laws, was pointed out in the Fifth Report of the 
British Association, page 67. This double flexure takes place 
also in the intensity lines, but in a more marked degree. In 
both series of lines the radii vectores drawn from the geo- 
graphical pole have two maxima and two minima ; a line joining 
the parts of each curve which approach nearest to one another, 
i.e. at the points of minima, will divide the area into two un- 
equal portions, the larger comprehending the American, and 
the smaller the Siberian centre of attraction. But there is a 
distinction in this respect between the two series of curves of dip 
and intensity, which has been pointed out by M. Erman, and 
is illustrated by the annexed diagram (Plate II.), taken from his 
paper in the Annalen der Physik, vol. xxi. The diagram re- 
presents the northern hemisphere, on which the curves of in- 
tensity of 1'45 and of 75° of dip are drawn. The longitudes 
of the maxima of both these curves are nearly the same ; but 
not so those of the minima. In the curve of dip, the minima 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. /I 

are in the longitude of 35° and 140°; in the curve of intensity 
in those of 20° and 175°. The Siberian portion of the inten- 
sity curve bears consequently a larger proportion to the whole 
area of that curve, than the Siberian portion of the dip-curve 
does to its total area. From the general resemblance of the 
several lines of dip to each other, and of the several lines of 
intensity to each other, — the characteristics of each being 
always marked, though gradually softening as they approach 
the middle regions of the globe, — the features of distinction 
which are thus strongly marked in the curves compared by M. 
Erman, must exist also in a greater or less degree in many. 
Here, then, is another striking and systematic difference in the 
two species of magnetic lines*. 

2. The lines of intensity in the northern hemisphere system- 
atically indicate the existence of two centres of attraction of 
unequal force. 

The examination of the graphical representation of these 
lines in the maps will convey a clearer apprehension of this 
systematic indication than a lengthened verbal description. 
The higher the values of the intensity of each isodynamic line, 
— in other words, the nearer the lines approach the centres of 
attraction, — the more unequivocal is their testimony. The 
smaller areas included by the curves in the Siberian quarter 
mark the less extensive influence and inferior power of the 
Siberian centre. Looking next at the values of the intensities 
represented by the lines, we find in the neighbourhood of New 
York, a portion of a line of 1*8, to which there is no equiva- 
lent in Asia. The highest intensity there is 1'76, observed by 
Lieut Due at Viluisk, which M. Hansteen believes, and with 
great probability, derived from the configuration of the lines, to 
be the highest existing in that quarter. It is improbable, 
moreover, that the greatest intensity in the American quarter 
should be found so far south as New York ; the configuration 
of the lines, as shown particularly in the north polar map, in- 
dicates the maximum to be nearer Hudson's Bayf. 

* M. Erman remarks that the difference is of that character which would 
appear to indicate for the Asiatic centre a less depth beneath the surface than 
the American. 

+ Since the above was written, the first number has reached London of the 
Observations Meteor -ologiques et Magnetiques faites dans I'etendue de I' Empire 
de Russie, which have been confided to the editorship of M. Kupffer. In the 
introduction we have a formal recognition of the existence of the Siberian pole. 
" La Russie est aussi la terre classique du magnetisme terrestre. Ilyaun 
pole maguetique dans le nord de la Siberie." 



72 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

3. The two centres of magnetic attraction in the northern 
hemisphere are not at opposite points ; in other words, the dif- 
ference of geographical longitude between them is not 180°, 

measured both ways. 

This is also best evidenced by inspection. Their distances 
apart are more nearly 200° measured across Greenland and 
Norway, and 160° across Behring's Strait. 

4. The magnetic intensity is unsymmetrically distributed in 
the meridians of the northern hemisphere. 

This is a consequence of the two centres being nearer to 
each other in the one direction than in the other. If we 
imagine the hemisphere to be divided into two equal sections, 
by a plane coinciding with the meridians of 100° and 280° (Plate 
V.), the American division, which we may call the western sec- 
tion, will contain both centres of attraction, and a higher mea- 
sure of intensity will be seen to be spread over its meridians 
than in the corresponding latitudes in the eastern section. 
Thus we find, that in 150 meridians, or in five-sixths of the 
eastern section, no intensity of so high a value as 1*7 has been 
found within the range of observation, and probably does not 
exist ; whilst in the western section there is not a single me- 
ridian in which a higher intensity than 1 *7 is not found. Europe 
is situated nearly midway between the centres at their widest 
separation, and we find that throughout Europe (with possibly 
the exception of its S.W. extremity in Spain), the magnetic 
intensity is weaker in every latitude than in the same parallels 
elsewhere in any other part of the hemisphere. 

5. The lines of intensity in the southern hemisphere have a 
general analogy with those in the northern hemisphere. 

The materials from whence conclusions may be drawn are 
fewer in the southern than in the northern hemisphere ; but 
aided by our acquaintance with the magnetic system and dis- 
tribution in the latter, we are enabled to trace the general 
analogy of the two hemispheres, though the particular con- 
clusions in the case of the southern must necessarily be less 
determinate and exact than those we have hitherto discussed. 

We have already seen that the lines of dip and force depart 
from parallelism with each other even more in this hemisphere 
than in the northern. We may also perceive in the portions 
of the curves, which observations have as yet enabled us to trace, 
evidence of the same double flexure which in the other hemi- 
sphere we have seen to be characteristic of two centres of 
governing influence. The radii vectores carried from the south 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 73 

geographical pole would have also two maxima and two minima. 
The New Holland curves inclose larger areas than the South 
American, indicating that the centre to which they more espe- 
cially belong is more powerful than the other. We have another 
indication of the same fact in the appearance in Van Diemen's 
Land of an intensity exceeding 1*8, which in the other hemi- 
sphere we have seen to characterise distinctively the centre of 
primary influence. The coincidence in this respect in the two 
hemispheres is very striking ; not only is the highest intensity 
yet observed in the one, (1'80 at New York,) matched by the 
nearly identical value of 1 '82 at Hobart Town, but the geogra- 
phical latitudes of the two observations are also nearly identical, 
New York being in 40° 43' N. and Hobart Town in 42° 53' S. ; 
both being unexpectedly low latitudes in which to find such 
high intensities. 

With regard to the geographical positions of the centres in 
the southern hemisphere, the observations are yet too few 
and too distant from them to admit of their localities being 
assigned with any fair degree of approximation ; but by com- 
paring the observations in Southern Africa, and on the east 
coast of South America, with those of the corresponding paral- 
lels in the better known hemisphere, we are able to infer with 
considerable probability, that the southern centres are not only 
not in opposite points of the hemisphere, — that is to say, distant 
180 degrees of longitude from each other, measured both 
ways, — but that they are nearer to each other in the one direc- 
tion, and more distant in the other, than is the case with the 
centres of the northern hemisphere. We have seen that in 
the meridians of Europe, where the northern centres are widest 
apart, the lower intensities extend greatly northward, occupy- 
ing latitudes which in all other parts of the hemisphere possess 
a higher intensity. In the southern the same thing takes place, 
but in greater degree. The line of unity, once thought to 
be the minimum intensity on the globe, is found on either side 
the Atlantic in south latitudes exceeding 30° ; whence we may 
conclude that in the higher latitudes of the southern Atlantic, 
a much lower intensity prevails generally than the lowest inten- 
sities in the same latitudes in the northern hemisphere ; eviden- 
cing that the space between the influential centres is wider in that 
quarter of the southern, than in the corresponding quarter of 
the northern hemisphere. 

The converse of this should be found in the Pacific section. 
As the southerly inflection of the lines of low intensity in the 
South Atlantic is the greatest, so should their southerly in- 
flexion in the opposite section of the hemisphere be the least, 
of the inflections which these lines undergo in either hemi- 



74 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

sphere. The observations by which this inference might be 
confirmed are few, but none give a contrary indication. Every 
observation in the South Pacific section shows that a higher 
intensity prevails there than in equal latitudes in the North 
Pacific section ; and, as far as the lines can yet be traced from 
the observations, the inflection in the South Pacific does ap- 
pear to be the least marked in character, and to extend over 
the fewest meridians. It is of course the lines of higher in- 
tensity which would afford the more decisive evidence, because 
their characteristics are more marked ; but the authorities for 
these are few in the part of the space between New Zealand 
and South America, where they could most illustrate the point 
in question. 

In review, we conclude, therefore, that, as far as observa- 
tions have yet been made in the southern hemisphere, they 
accord with a system analogous to that in the northern, of two 
centres, of unequal force, and at unequal distances apart. The 
observations further render it pi'obable, that the distances be- 
tween the centres are still more unequal in the southern than 
in the northern hemisphere. Admitting the small difference 
of distribution from this cause, there does not appear reason 
to suppose that there is any general inequality in the magnetic 
charge of the two hemispheres ; on the contrary, there is every 
appearance that they have the same. 

6. If the globe be divided into an eastern and a western 
hemisphere by a plane, coinciding with the meridians of 100° 
and 280°, the western hemisphere, or that comprising the 
Americas and the Pacific Ocean, has a much higher mag- 
netic intensity distributed generally over its surface, than the 
eastern hemisphere, containing Europe and Africa and the 
adjacent part of the Atlantic Ocean. 

This is a corollary from (4) and (5) rather than a distinct 
proposition. The four centres being in the western hemisphere 
a higher intensity will prevail generally in its meridians ; and 
this is accordant with the whole body of observations distri- 
buted over the globe (Plate V). 

The equality of the magnetic charge in the northern and 
southern hemispheres and its inequality in the eastern and 
western, are important features of the magnetic system mani- 
fested by the observations of intensity. 

7. The distribution of the intensity in the intertropical re- 
gions is accordant with the conclusions already draivn, of two 
governing centres in each hemisphere. 

As the lines of higher intensity are those which have the 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 75 

characteristics of the system most strongly marked, I have 
chiefly employed them, where observations would permit, in 
describing its general features. The characteristics soften 
gradually as the distance increases from the governing cen- 
tres ; but even in the intertropical regions the distribution of 
the intensity and the arrangement of the lines contribute their 
testimony to the same system. I have nowhere attempted to 
assign the precise geographical positions of the centres ; and in 
regard to those of the southern hemisphere especially, have 
expressly stated, that the facts yet acquired would not enable 
this to be done within fair limits of approximation. Thus 
much, however, may be safely said in regard to them, that the 
primary in the southern, and the secondary in the northern, 
are at the present time not far from the same meridian ; and 
that the primary in the northern, and the secondary in the 
southern, are similarly situated, except that their difference of 
longitude is somewhat greater. If we respectively connect 
the centres, which thus approximate in longitude, by lines 
on the globe crossing the equator, the lines will mark those 
localities within the tropics where the influence of the cen- 
tres should produce a higher intensity than elsewhere in 
the same latitudes. Thus we should have two maxima in the 
intertropical regions ; and these should not be in opposite me- 
ridians, because the centres are unsymmetrical. Such is ac- 
tually the distribution of the intensity in these regions. The 
isodynamic lines which represent unity are the weakest which 
run unbroken round the globe, and appear twice in every me- 
ridian ; these approach each other in the meridians of 110° 
and 260°, whilst, intermediately, they recede from each other, 
and inclose spaces occupied by a still weaker intensity ; the 
largest of these spaces, corresponding to the widest interval 
between the centres, is of 210 degrees of longitude, and the 
smallest of 150 degrees. In the middle of the largest, as the 
point most distant from all the four centres, we should expect 
to find the weakest intensity existing anywhere at the surface of 
the globe ; and accordingly at St. Helena, which is nearly in 
that situation, the intensity observed by Captain Fitz Roy, 0*84, 
is the lowest determination recorded in this report, and is the 
locality of the weakest intensity yet observed on the globe. 
Between St. Helena and the lines of unity on either side, we 
should have a line representing the value of 0*9, a part of 
which has been extremely well determined by concurrent ob- 
servations. This line, being comprehended by the lines of 
unity, is necessarily a closed one. Observations are yet want- 
ing to show whether the intensity descends as low as 0-8 in the 



76 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

middle of the larger space, or as 0*9 in the smaller space, 
which has its locality in the Pacific*. 

We may also trace in the intertropical regions another con- 
sequence of the inequality of force of the primary and secondary 
centres. Where the lines of unity approach each other in the 
Pacific, the primary is to the north, the secondary to the south ; 
the latitude in which the lines approach is consequently to the 
south of the equator. In the Indian Sea the primary is to the 
south, and the secondary to the north ; and here the latitude 
in which the lines of unity approach each other is to the north 
of the equator. 

Every geographical meridian has a point of minimum inten- 
sity ; if these points in different meridians were connected hy a 
line, that line would separate the intensities of the northern 
from those of the southern magnetic hemisphere. It would be 
in some respects analogous to the line of no dip, but it would not 
be aline of equal intensity, as it would consist of intensities va- 
rying from unity to the lowest on the globe. Such a line traced 
on the map is found to differ very considerably in geographical 
position from the line of no dip. 

8. The geographical position of the maximum of intensity 
in the North American quarter is not the same with that of the 
maximum of dip, or with that of the point of convergence of 
the variation lines. 

It will be necessary here to enter into rather more precise 
geographical positions than we have hitherto done. In regard 
to the maximum of dip we cannot err widely in taking the lati- 
tude and longitude where Capt. James Ross observed the dip 
of 89° 59' in 1831, viz. 70° N. and 263° E. That this is also 
very nearly the spot to which the variation lines converge may 
be shown abundantly by the observations made in the different 
polar voyages by sea and landf . It is marked by an asterisk 

* Since the above was written Mr. Erman's sea observations have been re- 
ceived; he crossed the space in the Atlantic included by the line of 0-9 some 
degrees to the west of St. Helena, and, midway between the north and south 
portions of that line, found the intensity diminished below 0-8. Captain Fitz 
Roy's observation at St. Helena is consequently no longer the lowest observed 
on "the globe ; and it is probable that even a lower intensity than was observed 
by M. Erman would be found a few degrees to the south of St. Helena, and 
nearly in the meridian of that island. 

f M. Hansteen, who has brought together the observations of dip and va- 
riation made in the different polar voyages, finds that the variations observed 
to the north of the latitude in which the dip is 90° and in the vicinity of that dip, 
converge to a point a little to the north of that latitude ; and conversely, that the 
variations observed to the south converge to a point south of that latitude ; or, 
more exactly, that the curves of highest dip are ellipses, having their greater axes 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 77 

in the North Polar map annexed to this report. If the reader 
will nowrefer to that map (Plate IV.), he will see that this position 
will by no means accord with that which the observations point 
out for the maximum of intensity. We are not, indeed, enabled 
to assign the position of the latter as nearly as in the case of 
the dip ; but it must clearly be in a much lower latitude. The 
intensities observed in Baffin's Bay and the Polar Sea have 
all a much lower value than at New York ; and the general 
configuration of the lines of intensity would rather point to a 
maximum in the vicinity of the shores of Hudson's Bay. 

This remarkable feature of the system was first brought to 
notice in the account of my magnetic observations published 
in 1 825*. In a point of so much interest, it is natural to in- 
quire whether there is any indication of a similar separation at 
the principal pole of the opposite hemisphere. Observations 
as yet do not enable us to assign with sufficient approxima- 
tion the places of the maxima in that quarter ; but we are in 
possession of a leading fact, which, by its complete analogy 
with the phenomena at New York, gives strong ground for 
believing that in the southern hemisphere also the places of 
the maxima of the two phenomena are distinct. I have already 
noticed the almost identity of the force at Hobart Town and 
New York, under nearly equal geographical latitudes ; but there 
is yet another feature which completes the analogy, and bears 
directly on the point now treated of. At New York we have 
the highest intensity of the northern hemisphere, 1 '80, with a 
dip of 73° 07'; at Hobart Town the highest intensity of the 
southern hemisphere, 1'82, with a dip of '70° 35'. In both hemi- 
spheres the highest intensity united with a comparatively loiv 
dip. Nor in that quarter is Hobart Town a solitary instance of 

in a north-west and south-east direction, and that the variation lines converge 
not to the point of 90° but to points in this axis. Small differences of position, 
however, have no effect on the reasoning in the text. 

* It has been viewed by M. Kupffer as having a direct and important bear- 
ing on the very interesting question of the physical nature of the magnetism of 
the earth. In the Ann. der Physik, vol. xv., after describing the course of the 
isogeothermal lines (or lines of equal temperature of the earth at 25 metres be- 
low its surface) between the meridians of 80° west and 60° east of Paris, he has 
discussed the influence which the facts represented by those lines should 
have on the magnetic dip and force, in the case of the earth's magnetism being 
superficial and induced. The differences of surface temperature affecting the 
intensity but not the dip would cause the isoclinal and isodynamic lines to se- 
parate where otherwise they might have been accordant ; and would especially 
separate the places of the maxima, causing the maximum of intensity to be in 
the lower latitude. M. Kupffer considers the fact of their being thus separated 
as giving probability to the aforesaid view of the physical nature of the earth's 
magnetism. 



78 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

high intensity with comparatively low dip ; at King George's 
Sound and Sydney, in 34° and 35° south latitude, Captain Fitz 
Roy found intensities of 1'7 1 and 1*68 with dips of 64° 41' and 
62° 29'. 

Should such a separation exist at the secondary centres, it 
cannot he expected to he of so striking a character. I wish 
not to anticipate the more ahle discussion which we may ex- 
pect on this point from M. Hansteen, whose long and arduous 
journeys were undertaken expressly to determine with exact- 
ness all the pha3nomena of the Siberian pole. I will confine 
myself, therefore, to noticing his remark already referred to, 
that he believes the intensity observed at Viluisk to be the 
highest intensity existing in Siberia. Should this be so, the 
highest intensity in that quarter is certainly not in the same 
locality as the highest dip*. 

Our knowledge of the phenomena in the neighbourhood of 
the secondary centre in the southern hemisphere is not suffi- 
cient to throw any light on this question. 

With regard to the direction which the lines of higher 
intensity may be conceived to take around their maxima in 
the northern hemisphere, we should infer from the observations 
that the line representing 1*8 must be a closed curve around 
the North American maximum only ; as must also be that of 1*9, 
supposing such to exist. 

The North American portion of the line of 1*7 appears also 
to be nearly, if not quite, a closed curve. Encompassed on the 
north, east, and south, by intensities of less value, the western 
is the only direction open for its connection with the Siberian 
portion of the same line. The situation of the two branches 
of the line of 1*7 in the west of America is marked by the ob- 
servations ; — the southernmost crossing the lower waters of the 
Columbia River, — and the northernmost between Sitka and 
Melville Island. Whether these branches join and form a 
closed curve, or whether they communicate with the Asiatic 
portion of the same line in some such courses as is represented 
by the dotted line in the polar map, observations do not yet 
enable us to decide. No intensity of so high a value as 1*7 has 
yet been observed between Sitka in 224°, and the meridian 

* It is much to be desired that the observations in Siberia should be still 
further completed by a series of determinations along the shores of the polar 
sea. If the view here taken be correct, these should exhibit higher dips and 
lower intensities than were observed at Viluisk. From the liberal support which 
the Russian government gives to the prosecution of magnetic inquiries we may 
expect that such observations will not be long wanting. 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 79 

of 138° in Siberia ; and it is possible that a navigator sailing 
from the Pacific through Behring's Strait, and passing the Bay 
of St. Lawrence where Admiral Liitke observed 1"65, might 
proceed to the northward having the spaces included by the 
closed curves of 1 *7 on either side of him. 

The space inclosed by the curve of 1*8 possesses a very high 
degree of magnetic interest, and is well deserving of being 
traversed by observations as frequent and as accurate as those 
of MM. Hansteen and Erman in Siberia. The greater part of 
it is in the British dominion, and over a considerable portion at 
least convenient means of locomotion are to be found. The 
British Association had but to express the wish that a magnetic 
survey of the British Islands should be made, and it was at 
once responded to by some of its own members. The present 
volume contains the record of the completion of that under- 
taking ; and it may be permitted to one of the contributors to 
that work to express a hope, that the attention of the Associa- 
tion may now be given to the British possessions abroad. 
In the extensive territory under British dominion in India, not 
a single determination has yet, I believe, been made of the 
magnetic intensity, and but few of either of the other phaeno- 
mena. From the well-known zeal of the officers of the Indian 
service, a recommendation in the proper quarter would speedily 
cover that large portion of the earth's surface with accurate 
magnetic determinations. But the Canadian quarter is of pro- 
minent interest ; a correct delineation of the lines of variation, 
dip, and intensity in the space included by the curve of 1 "8, or 
in even a portion of that space, would have a high value in 
theoretical respects. The accomplishment of this service is 
not altogether beyond the compass of individual means, and 
needs not, like a southern voyage, await the success of an ap- 
plication to Government. It requires only for its proper ex- 
ecution, that it should be the principal object of the person 
undertaking it, and that he should be provided with adequate 
instruments. Were the wishes of the Association expressed in 
regard to Canada, as they were in regard to the British Is- 
lands, I have little doubt that they would soon be complied 
with by members of their own body*. 

* The ground which Capt. Back traversed in his journey in search of Capt. 
Ross in 1833 and 1834 is of great interest as regards the magnetic intensity ; 
and had that officer been furnished with suitable instruments, and had it ac- 
corded with his other objects to have made observations in the manner of MM. 
Hansteen and Erman at every halting-place, his results might have possessed 
great value. 

The vibrations of the dipping-needle, which he employed to measure the in- 



80 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



9. The highest intensity already observed is more than twice 
as great as the loivest. 

The intensities observed at New York and Hobart Town, 
compared with that at St. Helena, are as 1*81 to - 84, or as 
2-16 to 1. 

St. Helena is not the lowest intensity ; and the force at 
New York and Hobart Town cannot be viewed as abso- 

tensity, appear to have been subject to a considerable instrumental uncertainty ; 
and the needle lost magnetism during the absence from England to a large 
amount, but at what time the loss took place is not very obvious from the ob- 
servations. Under these circumstances I have not felt that I could assign with 
sufficient confidence the value of the intensity relatively to Europe at any of 
Capt. Back's American stations. By grouping them, however, and comparing 
the values of the intensity in different groups, relatively to each other only, and 
not relatively to Europe, we may considerably lessen the effect of the irregu- 
larities above mentioned, and obtain an indication, which, if we could view it as 
sufficiently clear from instrumental uncertainty, would possess much interest. 
For example, if we group neighbouring stations as in the subjoined table, and 
make the intensity at New York the unity of the comparison, we have as fol- 
lows : viz. 



New York 

Fort Alexander ... 
Cumberland House 

Isle a la Crosse 

Fort Chipewyan ... 
Fort Resolution ... 

Fort Reliance 

Musk Ox Rapid .. 

Rock Rapid 

Point Beaufort.. 
Montreal Island 
Point Ogle 



1833 
Apr. 
Jun. 
July 
July 
July 
Aug. 
Oct. 
1834 
May 
Oct. 
July 
July 
July 
Aug. 
Aug. 



I.at. 
North 



40 42 
50 37 
53 58 
55 25 
58 42 
6110 
6246 



64 41 

65 54 
6741 
6747 

6814 



Long. 
West 



74 01 
96 21 
102 22 
107 55 
111 19 
113 45 
109 01 



10808 
9810 
95 02 
95 18 

94 58 



Time of 
Vib. 



1-2857 
1-2432 
1-2643 
1-2969 
1-3000 
1-2387 
1-2750 

1-2844 
1-2781 
1-2873 
1-2800 
1-2975 
1-2885 
1-2656 



g 




Mean 








Lat. 


Long. 


Time of 
Vibr. 


Ther. 


sity. j 




, 




S. 


° 




69- 


40 42 


74 01 


1-2857 


69 


1000 


70-51 












59-5 


> 53 20 


10213 


1-2681 


68 


1-027 


73-5 










(«) 


95- | 
65-6 
44- ■ 


. 59 56 


112 32 


1-2693 


80 


1-031 


49- 


" 62 46 


109 01 


1-2792 


40 


0-997 


28- 












64- 1 












87- 




• 








72- 


y 66 51 


9819 


1-2838 


70 


1002! 


74- 
53- , 










(<0 1 



Here we see that the groups («) and (b), which have their mean position about 
53° N. and 102° W., (258 east), and GO N., and 112J W. (247 J east), have a 
higher intensity than the more northern group (c), which has its mean position 
about 67° N. and 98° W. (262 east). These groups (a) and (b) have also a 
higher intensity than that of Fort Reliance to the north, or New York to the 
south. New York, Fort Reliance, and the northern group (c), scarcely differ in 
the values of their respective intensities. This arrangement is quite conformable 
with the lines in the polar map. 

I have taken Capt. Back's observations from Mr. Christie's paper in the Phil. 
Trans, for 1836; the times of vibration at the stations in America being those 
contained in the table page 393. That table shows that the needle was vibrated at 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH. 



81 



lutely the highest. If we suppose the minimum to reach 
0*74, (one of M. Erman's sea observations is 0*743) and the 

every station with its face to the face of the instrument, and that at some of the 
stations it was also vibrated in the reverse position. Where this has been done 
there often appears a considerable difference between the times of vibration 
at the same place in the two positions, which must be ascribed to instrumental 
defect. It does not appear to have been of the nature of a constant error in 
either position of the needle, as sometimes one position gives the highest inten- 
, sity and sometimes the other. I have taken the twelfth column just as it stands, — 
that is, the times of vibration in the position which was everywhere observed, 
as there can be no question of the comparability of those with each other ; and 
I have reduced the times of vibration to an uniform temperature by the coeffi- 
cient which Mr. Christie found for that needle ; but I have introduced no other 
corrections, either for loss of magnetism or on any other account. I have grouped 
the results by taking the mean latitude, longitude, and intensity of the neigh- 
bouring stations, connected by brackets. 

If the intensities are taken from a mean of all the observations at each of the 
stations, including those in the reversed, as well as in the direct position of the 
needle, the inferences drawn above are somewhat strengthened, as is shown in 
the following table : — 



Station. 


Lat. 

North. 


Long. 
East. 


Time of 
Vib. 


Ther. 


Intensity. 




40 42 
53 20 
59 56 
62 46 
66 51 


285 59 
257 47 
247 28 
250 59 
261 41 


1-2857 
1 -2644 


69 

to 


1-000 
1-033 
1-045 
1-002 

0-999 






1-2607 80 
1-2758 40 j 
1-2857 70 ; 








1 



Mr. Christie, in combining the observations at different stations and in differ- 
ent positions of the needle, has followed a somewhat different course, and has 
arrived at somewhat different conclusions. With more perfect instruments, — 
with observations alike complete at all the stations, — and repeated at New 
York as well as in London, to test the permanency of the needle's magnetism, — 
there would not have been room for any difference of view. The only result 
absolutely deducible from the observations, and in which all persons must 
agree, is the comparability of the intensities at the different stations of the 
northern group with each other, and with Fort Reliance ; as the observa- 
tions of May and October, 1834, show by their agreement that during 
that interval the needle underwent no change. The conclusion to be drawn 
from this portion of the observations, which are as strictly comparable as 
the imperfection of the instrument permits, is, that in the district which it 
comprises no consistent alteration takes place in the intensity. If any small 
alteration does take place, it would require a more delicate instrument than 
Capt. Back was furnished with to determine it. 

It is in these countries that the statical method of Professor Lloyd would be 
of the greatest advantage. I have already had occasion to speak of the disad- 
vantage to which the method by horizontal vibrations is exposed in countries 
of very high dip, where every error in the dip is magnified to a high degree in 
its effect on the intensity deduced ; and of the preference due in such cases to 
the vibrations of a dipping-needle. But it is well known that this latter method, 
though a trust-worthy, is far from being a delicate test of differences of mag- 

vol. vi. 1837. o 



82 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837- 

maximum 1*85, the proportion would be 2*5 to 1. It seems 
probable that this is rather under tban over the difference 
existing in the present distribution of the intensity. If the 
centres change their relative places, by having unequal mo- 
tions, both the absolute and the relative values of the max- 
imum and minimum must be variable. 

This report has already occupied so large a portion of the 
annual volume, that I feel the propriety of not permitting the 
inferences of an individual judgment to trespass further on 
its pages. I have endeavoured, to the best of my power, to 
place the facts themselves before the reader in such a manner, 
that, on the one hand, he may have no difficulty in tracing every 
observation to its original source, — and on the other, that by the 
assemblage of the results in one view, he may be enabled with 
the greater facility to draw his own conclusions. 

Having in a former report described M. Hansteen's theory 
of the magnetism of the earth, and given the formulas for the 
variation, dip, and intensity deduced from his hypothesis of two 
excentric axes of unequal force, it may be expected that I should 
conclude this report by comparing some of the observed inten- 
sities with the results computed by the formula. I may there- 
fore add a few words to show that the proper time for a detailed 
comparison of this kind has not yet arrived, because observa- 
tion is still in arrear of theory. Until observation has supplied 
the materials which theory has required for the correct assign- 
ment of the elements of calculation, such a comparison could 
not be otherwise than imperfect. 

The geographical positions of the magnetic poles in the 
Magnetismus der Erde were derived from observations made 
between 1787 and 1800, which were insufficient to furnish them 
in more than a very general manner. Since that period also, 
changes, of the nature anticipated by M. Hansteen, appear to 
have taken place in the positions of the poles ; which conse- 
quently require to be assigned afresh (as well as more cor- 
rectly), in order that the results computed by the formula may 
represent observations of a more recent date. The materials 
proper for this purpose are observations in the vicinity of the 

netic intensity, even with a good instrument, on account of the shortness of the 
period during which the needle will continue to vibrate, and the consequent 
necessity of commencing with a large arc of vibration. With an inferior instru- 
ment the limits of error are of course much wider still. In high magnetic la- 
titudes the statical method deserves a decided preference over the method of 
horizontal vibrations, inasmuch as a moderate error of the dip will scarcely have 
an appreciable effect on the intensity ; and over that by verticul vibrations, inas- 
much as it admits of much greater exactness. 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OP THE EARTH. 83 

magnetic poles themselves. In the northern hemisphere, these 
are far more ample and exact than at any former period, owing 
in great measui'e to the interest excited by the publication of 
M. Hansteen's theory. But the corresponding observations in 
the southern hemisphere are yet wanting ; and until these are 
supplied, we cannot advance beyond an anticipation, more or 
less confident, of the eventual accordance of the hypothesis, 
when the correct elements of calculation shall have been ob- 
tained ; and in this view, we may at least say thus much in re- 
gard to the general accordance of the hypothesis with the ob- 
servations of intensity, that if we omit the consideration of the 
higher latitudes, where the contemporaneous and correct posi- 
tions of the magnetic poles are most essential, the formula, 
even with the elements derived from the earlier and less perfect 
observations, both represents all the leading features of the 
system, and shows a fair approximation in individual cases. 

The method in which this science has progressively advanced 
is strikingly illustrative of a passage in Mr. Playfair's writings, 
in which the distinct offices of theory and experiment, and the 
value of their co-operation in inductive investigation, are well 
described. "In physical inquiries the work of theory and ob- 
servation must go hand in hand, and ought to be carried on at 
the same time, more especially if the matter is very complicated, 
for then the clew of theory is necessary to direct the observer. 
Though a man may begin to observe without any hypothesis, 
he cannot continue long without seeing some general conclusion 
ai'ise ; and to the nascent theory it is his business to attend, 
because by seeking either to verify or to disprove it, he is led 
to new experiments and new observations. He is led also to 
the very experiments and observations that are of the greatest 
importance ; namely, to those instancies cruris that naturally 
present themselves for the test of every hypothesis. By the 
correction of his first opinion a new approximation is made to 
the truth, and by the repetition of the same process certainty 
is finally obtained. Thus theory and observation mutually 
assist one another ; and the spirit of system, against which 
there are so many and so just complaints, appears nevertheless 
as the animating principle of inductive investigation. The 
business of sound philosophy is, not to extinguish this spirit, 
but to restrain and direct its efforts. It is therefore hurtful to 
the progress of physical science to represent theory and obser- 
vation as standing opposed to one another." 

The earlier observations of terrestrial magnetism were made 
without reference to theory. As facts accumulated general 
conclusions arose. Their elaborate examination conducted to 

g2 



84 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

an hypothesis of four magnetic poles ; and this, to the sugges- 
tion of new experiments to verify or disprove it. In the north- 
ern hemisphere' the verification is complete, affording signal 
proof of the value of experiment directed by theory. A simi- 
lar verification in the southern hemisphere is yet wanting ; and 
the observations necessary for that purpose will also supply 
those elements of calculation whereby the hypothesis may be 
fitted for a detailed comparison with facts. This will be the 
next " stepin the advancement of knowledge ;" — the next " term 
of a series that must end whenever the real laws of nature are 
discovered"; — but which, in its progression, fitly prepares the 
way for their discovery. 

I have already adverted to what the influence of the Associ- 
ation may effect, in causing the spaces yet vacant on the map, 
in the British possessions in India and Canada, to be filled. 
But beyond all comparison, the most important service of this 
kind, which this or any other country could render to this branch 
of science, would be by filling the void still existing in the 
southern hemisphere, and particularly in the vicinity of those 
parts of that hemisphere which are of principal magnetic in- 
terest. This can only be accomplished by a naval voyage ; for 
which it is natural that other countries should look to England. 
That the nations that have made exertions in the same cause 
do look to England for it, cannot be better shown than by the 
following extract of a letter of M. Hansteen's, which I take 
the liberty of introducing here, both for this purpose, and be- 
cause it expresses in so pleasing a manner, the praise that is so 
justly due to his own country, and which I am sure will be 
cordially responded to by all who cultivate science in this coun- 
try, and particularly by those who know the kindly feeling with 
which Englishmen are ever welcomed in Norway. 

" C'estle Storthing (la Chambre des Deputes) de la Nor- 
vege, qui a donne les frais a l'expedition en Siberie. On a fait 
cela dans un terns ou on a refuse les depenses pour un chateau 
de residence pour sa Majeste a Christiania. Dans un terns, ou 
une telle economie a ete necessaire, il est tres honorable, 
qu'une Chambre, composee de toutes les classes du peuple, 
mthne d'un grand nombre de paysans, a unanimemeni resolu de 
donner les frais pour une expedition purement scientifique, 
dont les resultats n'auront jamais aucune utilite economique 
pour la patrie, et dont on ne comprenait pas la haute valeure 
scientifique. Regarde les ressources tres-bornes de notre 
pays, c'est une generosite presque sans exemple. 

" Comme la petite Norvege a fourni toutes les observations 
entre les meridiens de Greenwich et de Ochozk, et entre les 



ON THE MAGNETIC INTENSITY OF THE EARTH, 85 

paralleles de 40° et 75° de latitude boreale, il ne me semble pas 
une demande trop grande ou immodeste a l'Angleterre, si 
grande, si riche, si puissante, qui a necessairement un plus 
grand interet dans toutes les sciences combinees avec la navi- 
gation, de fournir toute la partie meridionale de la carte. Une 
telle entreprise doit reflechirune splendeur a la nation, et payera 
a. la fin les frais par des resultats aussi utiles pour les sciences 
que pour la navigation. II ne faut plus dans notre terns laisser 
l'avancement des sciences au hasard. Par des observations 
fragmentaires et discontinues on a tache avec grande peine 
d'etudier les phenomenes magnetiques de la terre pendant deux 
ou trois siecles. Par deux ou trois expeditions literaires, ar- 
rangees expres pour ce but, on pourrait en peu d'annees avoir 
une collection plus complete, et d'une plus grande utilite pour 
la theorie." 

The subject has in every way a claim on this country. The 
existence of four governing centres, and the system of the phe- 
nomena in correspondence therewith, was originally a British 
discovery. The sagacity of our countryman Halley was the 
first to penetrate through the complexity of the phenomena, 
and to discern what is now becoming generally recognised. En- 
gland was also the first country which sent an expedition ex- 
pressly for magnetic observation, namely, that of Halley in 1698 
and 1699. Whilst approving and cordially co-operating in 
magnetic inquiries of other kinds which have their origin in 
other countries, it is right that we should feel a peculiar in- 
terest in that in which we have ourselves led the way, espe- 
cially when its object is subordinate to none. 

As the research would require to be prosecuted in the high 
latitudes, a familiarity with the navigation of such latitudes 
would be important in the person who should undertake this 
service ; and a strong individual interest in the subject itself 
would be of course a most valuable qualification. I need 
scarcely say that the country possesses a naval officer in whom 
these qualifications unite in a remarkable degree with all others 
that are requisite ; and if fitting instruments make fitting times, 
none surely can be better than the present. 

Viewed in itself and in its various relations, the magnetism 
of the earth cannot be counted less than one of the most im- 
portant branches of the physical history of the planet we in- 
habit ; and we may feel quite assured, that the completion of 
our knowledge of its distribution on the surface of the earth, 
would be regarded by our cotemporaries and by posterity as 
a fitting enterprise of a maritime people ; and a worthy achieve- 
ment of a nation which has ever sought to rank foremost in 
every arduous and honourable undertaking. 



Report on the various modes of Printing for the use of the 
Blind. By the Rev. William Taylor, F.R.S. 

It must be a matter of great satisfaction and pleasure to every 
one, who is anxious to alleviate the misfortunes of his fellow- 
creatures, to find that the British Association has been pleased 
to take into consideration the various modes of printing in tan- 
gible characters for the use of the blind ; a subject which has 
long occupied the attention of many individuals, and lately of 
some public societies, but which has not made much progress 
till within the last seven years . Now, however, under such 
powerful influence, it is likely to receive that attention and as- 
sistance which will probably bring it to the highest state of per- 
fection which it is capable of*. 

The object in view is twofold, 1st, to print such elementary 
books as may assist in the intellectual education of the blind, 
and afford them amusement and occupation during the many 
solitary hours which they must of necessity, especially in after 
life, be doomed to pass ; and 2ndly, to pvit into their hands the 
word of God in such a tangible shape, that they may be able, 
of themselves, to " read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest " that 
holy book which is able to make them " wise unto salvation." 

When the blind are unemployed, they brood over their mis- 
fortunes and draw such comparisons between their condition 
and that of their seeing brethren, as tend to disturb their peace 
of mind, and often to make them discontented : what a blessing 
then will printing in tangible characters prove to that unfortu- 
nate class of society, by opening to them new fields of delight, 
and placing within their reach treasures which otherwise they 
never could by their own exertions possess ! 

I am sorry, however, it has not fallen to the lot of one better able 
to report upon this most interesting and important subject ; not 
that I want zeal in the cause, but on account of the difficulty of 
acquiring a full and accurate knowledge of what progress it has 
made and is noiu making in various parts of the world. I have 
not spared to avail myself of such information as I could collect 

* The Edinburgh Society of Arts, &c. were the first, as a public body, to take 
up this subject in this country, and by their great and praiseworthy exertions 
they have not only collected much valuable information relating to printing 
for the use of the blind, but have ascertained the opinion of almost every per- 
son known to have turned his attention much to the subject, as may be seen 
by their excellent report published in June last. 



88 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

from the few sources which are within my reach*; but after 
all I shall stand in need of indulgence from those who may 
peruse these pages, as much valuable matter will unavoidably 
have escaped me, and some errors crept into the statement I 
have given. 

Origin of printing in characters in relief for the Blind. 

To enter into a complete history of the first rude attempts to 
form alphabets and to print raised characters for the use of the 
blind, would be uselessly to swell this report ; I shall, therefore, 
only briefly notice the earlier inventions, and hasten to the mo- 
dern improvements, which certainly have the largest claim 
upon our attention. 

So far back as the 16th century letters were cut in wood for 
the use of the blind ; but instead of projecting as they now do, 
they were sunk or made hollow, on which account the fingers 
were unable to trace the forms of the letters unless they were 
of a very large size. 

In 1575 Rampazzetto published examples of letters carved in 
wood, in relief; but, as they were not separate, but like the stereo- 
typing of the present day, they were laid aside as inconvenient. 

In 1640 moveable characters were cast in lead at Paris by one 
Peter Moreau, but the expense, or difficulty of the undertaking, 
prevented his going on with it. 

Various other persons, at different times, have made characters 
and letters for the blind both in wood and metal, but not with 
much success till the year 17&3 5 when punches were cut and 
matrices struck, in which characters were cast by Founder, at 
the expense of M. Rouille de 1' Etang, Treasurer of the Philan- 
thropic Society in Paris. These characters however, (from an 
erroneous notion that all objects or models for the use of the 
blind should be made of great dimensions), were considerably 
larger than was necessary or convenient ; consequently a new 
set of punches was cut, and letters, nearly similar to those now 
in use in France, were cast in the foundry at Vaflard. Since 
that time many of the letters have been improved in their form, 
and the metal of which they were cast rendered more durable 
by altering the proportion of the ingredients it contained. 

Types for the blind differ from those in ordinary use, in that 
they are set up and read from left to right, whilst in those for 
printing with ink the reverse order is observed. Besides this the 
stem or body of the types used in France is made in the shape of 
a T, the letter being on the top or cross-piece which prevents 

» Chiefly am I indebted to the works of Dr. Guillie, Dr. Klein, Prof. 
Zeuue, &c. 



REPORT ON THE MODES OF PRINTING FOR THE BLIND. 89 

the type falling through the bars of the frame in which it is 
placed, while the shank or tail goes between them. But this 
kind of type is very heavy and clumsy, and the lines of printing 
cannot be brought very near to each other, which tends greatly 
to increase the bulk as well as the expense of the books. 

In 1784 the first European institution for the instruction of 
the blind was established at Paris by Valentine Haiiy ; and 
although many attempts to produce raised characters or letters 
for their use had previously been made, yet printing for the 
blind may be said to have been unknown till 1785, when 
M. Haiiy submitted to the Royal Academy of Sciences a me- 
morial, in which he explained the " means he proposed to em- 
ploy for the instruction of the blind." A committee was ap- 
pointed to examine this plan, who allowed that M. Haiiy was 
the inventor of printing books in relief for the blind, and 
strongly recommended his invention to the approbation of the 
Academy. Since that time some change and improvement have 
been made in a few of the letters ; for instance, the e is a little 
less liable to be mistaken for the coro; the u not so narrow 
and therefore not so like to the a ; the k also is opened to be 
less like the h, &c. I would here state that the French use 
both capitals and "lower case," and the form of the letter ap- 
proaches that of the Latin or Italian. 

" In the Paris Institution," says Dr. Guillie, " the blind pupils 
set and distribute the types and print the books themselves, and 
some who are expert will arrange about a dozen lines of an 8vo 
page in a quarter of an hour." Whether or not they have now 
adopted the common or screw press for printing, I am not able 
to say, but formerly the types were set in a frame (as before 
mentioned), the paper well wetted, laid upon them, and over all 
three or four folds of thick flannel ; it was then passed through a 
large wooden rolling press* and the impression taken out on the 
other side. In this maimer a variety of books have been printed, 
amongst which are spelling books, grammars, geography, por- 
tions of the Scripture, short pieces of poetry, with miscellaneous 
extracts, &c.f 

* The rolling press was used because it was thought that a sufficient pressure 
could not be given with the common screw press. In the former case only one 
line at a time is pressed by the roller, and consequently the whole force is sus- 
tained by that line, but in the latter the pressure is distributed over the whole 
page at once, and therefore must be very great to work a 4to or folio. But I 
believe the perpendicular pressure is now used in France, and was introduced 
some years ago by M. Clousicr, printer to the King. 

f In Zurich there is an excellent establishment for the education of 
the blind, in which they print books in raised letters, &c, and have already 
several books, such as a grammar, Scripture phrases, &c, which are given to 
the pupils gratis on leaving the Institution. 



90 SEVENTH REPORT— >1837« 

The paper used in printing in relief should be very good and 
strong, not liable to tear, tolerably thick and well-sized. If it 
be too thick the letter will not be sharp nor well-defined ; neither 
should the impression be too much elevated, or it will increase the 
bulk of the book and be more liable to injury. About -fa or -^ 7 
of an inch is generally found sufficiently high for small type im- 
pressions. Alphabets and first books for beginners should be a 
little higher. " This kind of printing," says Dr. Guillie, "cannot 
be done on both sides the paper, as in taking off the second 
page the first would be destroyed*". In this state printing for 
the blind remained till Mr. Gall of Edinburgh, about the year 
1831 or 1832, introduced what he calls a triangular, or rather 
angular, alphabet. This is chiefly a modification of the com- 
mon alphabet, though some of the letters are entirely arbi- 
trary. For instance, the A is a triangle standing upon one 
of its angles ; the B and D are triangles with two small ears 
or projections at the upper angle ; and the P and Q are also tri- 
angles, similar to the above, only they have the projections at the 
lower angle. The O is a square standing upon one of its corners ; 
and the G is the same, only a little smaller, with a perpendicular 
tail to it about as long as one of the sides of the square. The 
C is an obtuse angle concave to the right hand. The E the 
same with an additional line bisecting the angle. The T is a 
perpendicular line with a very short one crossing it in the 
middle. The other letters partake in a great degree of the com- 
mon form, except that the R, S, and W are angular instead of 
curvedf . Mr. Gall conceives that curves arc not so easily di- 
stinguishable by the touch as angles. 

'bcsitst die Anstalt einen Apparat, mit welchcm eben so sclmell, 



wie in gewohnlichen Druckereien, Biicher in erhabcner Schrift, fiir Blinde, 
lesbar gedruct werden. So besitzen wir z. B. cin Sprachbuch fiir Blinde, 60 
Seiten stark ; ferner eine systcmatische Sammlung von Bibelspriichen, unter 
dem Titel, Biblisches Spracbbueh fiir Blinde ***** soldier Biicher werden 
den austretenden Blinden jedesmal unengeltlich mitgcgobcn." — Orell on the 
Zurich Institution for the Blind, &c, 1835, page 43. 

* An attempt however has since been made (I have been told) at Philadelphia, 
to print upon both sides by engraving or punching the letters upon pewter plates, 
and passing two of these plates, through a rolling press, with a very thick paper, 
almost reduced to a state of pulp, between them, but I believe the plan was 
too expensive to be employed generally. Mr. Gall of Edinburgh has also 
printed on both sides the paper by arranging the types so that the lines on one 
side the leaf just occupy the spaces between the lines on the other. A little 
room is gained by this method, but as it requires much nicety in laying the pa- 
per upon the type to print the second page, lest the first should be injured, 
some time must be lost in taking oft" the impressions ; which, to me, renders the 
advantage of such a plan very doubtful. 

t Mr. Gall has recently altered the form of some of his letters, and thereby 
greatly improved them. 



REPORT ON THE MODES OF PRINTING FOR THE BLIND. 91 

About that time several schools or asylums for the blind were 
established in America. In Philadelphia the Gospel of Saint 
Mark was published in a raised type and printed on both sides 
the leaf as before mentioned ; the letters are something between 
the Italic and written characters. I am not aware that much 
more has been done there; but at Boston printing in raised 
characters for the blind has been carried to a great state of per- 
fection under the direction and superintendence of that able and 
zealous friend to the blind, Dr. S. G. Howe. The form of the 
letter differs a little from the " lower case "used in this country, 
but the impressions are exceedingly sharp and good. Many 
books have been published there, and at a very cheap rate, as 
will appear from the following extracts from Dr. Howe's ex- 
cellent letter to the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

From the " Monthly Extracts from the Correspondence of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society." 

From the Rev. Dr. Howe, Director of the New England Insti- 
tution for the Education of the Blind. 

" Boston, U.S., Nov. 20, 1836. 

" I now forward you a box containing two complete copies of 
the New Testament of our Lord and Saviour in raised charac- 
ters, one bound in 4 vols, the other copy in 2 vols. For adults 
and persons who would use them carefully the copy in 2 vols, 
would be best ; for children the one in 4 vols. 

"You ask, what would be the cost of a hundred or a thousand 
copies of the New Testament ? I answer that they may be 
printed and bound for 1/. 105. But you will observe that the 
paper on which the copies I send you are printed is very tough 
and peculiar in its fabric ; it was made for the purpose, and is 
saturated with animal size, so that it will be very durable. If 
you depress one of the letters you will observe the paper will 
spring back again, which I fear will not be the case with the 
kind of printing you sent to me. The cost of our Testament was 
little over 2l. sterling, another edition might be had cheaper. I 
rejoice to learn that an interest is beginning to be felt on the 
subject of printing for the blind, for it has been the object near- 
est my heart for the last four years." 

After urging the desirableness of using the common letter, 
Dr. H. proceeds : 

" I have known of several cases where blind persons had 
learned to read at home : we had one boy enter our institution 
who knew how to read and spell in our first books, though he 
was but seven years old and was born blind. His mother, a small 
farmer's wife, had procured a book a year before and taught him. 



92 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837« 

Again, there are many persons who lose their sight after having 
learned the common form of letters ; and they have little diffi- 
culty in recognising them by the touch, but would be discouraged 
by a new character*." 

The Doctor, after stating some cases of bedridden persons, and 
persons of weak sight though not blind, reading the raised type 
with their fingers, goes on to say : " We have about fifty in this 
institution who are of the age for instruction, and forty of them 
can read ; twenty can read very fast, and will run through a 
chapter of the Testament in just the time it takes a seeing per- 
son to read twice the quantity^ observing all the stops. Some 
of our children at the age of six can read. 

" * * * * * The elevation of the letters, the hardness and du- 
rability of the impression, the strength of the paper, the method 
of binding, all these are to be considered, experimented upon, 
and greatly improved. It is a wide and interesting field, and 
right glad am I that labourers have entered into it in England ; 
and I wish only that they may work with one common plan. 
I believe much more printing has been done for the blind in this 
Institution than in all England * * * having obtained the sanction 
of the American and Massachusetts Bible Societies, the Ame- 
rican Tract Society, &c. I have printed an abridgement of Mur- 
ray's Grammar, a Spelling Book, a Hymn Book, The Dairy- 
man's Daughter, Baxter's Call, The Pilgrim's Progress, Child's 
First Book, second ditto, and last, not least, the entire New 
Testament ! 

"I have now in the press a Geography, and shall continue as 
long as I have health and the means to operate with. 

**' With regard to any funds to be applied by your Society, I 
would earnestly recommend, and in the name of the blind im- 
plore, that they may be upon works which have not yet been 
printed for them, or which they cannot obtain for a long time. 
Their hooks must he few and the same work should not be print- 
ed in different places, but different books, so that exchanges may 
be made; for instance, if you could send us fifty copies of the 
Psalms or* * *,we could send you fifty of the Acts or the Evan- 
gelists * * *. We should like very much to print an edition of 
the Psalms of David, say five hundred copies, for the use of the 
blind of England and of this country : the expense would pro- 
bably be from 225/. to 250/. if done up in the best and most du- 
rable stylef . Perhaps it would be more extensively useful to print 
them on our medium type, that is a size between the large type 

* This is much against the use of arbitrary alphabets. 

t The Committee have voted 150/. and are to receive fifty or a hundred 
copies. 



REPORT ON THE MODES OP PRINTING FOR THE BLIND. 93 

on the title page of the Testament and the small type of the 
same. 

" If the British and Foreign Bible Society would undertake 
to appropriate funds for this purpose, and present to the blind 
of England and this country an edition of the Psalms, it would 
confer happiness and a blessing upon many. 

"P.S. November 24. Our Geography is finished, and our 
press is now throwing off an edition of ' The Sixpenny Glass of 
Wine,' printed at the expense of the American Sunday School 
Union. 

" I hope your Society will allow us to send you the Psalms ; 
it would make one snug volume and be finished in four weeks." 

In April 1832 the committee of the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of the useful Arts in Scotland, presented their report upon a 
method of printing for the blind invented by Mr. Hay of Edin- 
burgh, and in consequence of their recommendation the So- 
ciety, in the following year, offered their gold medal, value 201., 
" for the best communication on a method of printing for the 
use of the blind." The authors of the communications were re- 
quired to " investigate what form and size of the letters or cha- 
racters, and what number of those should be adopted, with a 
view to constructing a general alphabet for the blind in Great 
Britain and Ireland ; and secondly, the best and cheapest me- 
thods of printing such letters or characters in relief, so as to 
render them most easily and accurately distinguishable by the 
touch." 

In consequence of this notice, communications with printed 
and written specimens of alphabets, types, &c. were received by 
the Society. 

For Competition. From Mr. Alexander Hay of Edinburgh ; 
Mr. J. P. Walker, Glasgow ; Miss M. Banks, Edinburgh ; Mr. 
Mungo Ponton, Edinburgh; Mr. John Henderson, Edinburgh; 
Mr. John Richardson, Edinburgh ; Rev. Edw. Craig, Edin- 
burgh ; Mr. James Gall, Edinburgh ; Dr. Edmund Fry, lion- 
don ; Mr. Richard Eaton, Coventry ; Mr. D. Macpherson, Edin- 
burgh ; Mr. John Lothian, Edinburgh ; Mr. Robert Milne, 
Edinburgh ; Mr. John Johnstone, Glasgow ; Mr. J. Jones, 
Bishop Wearmouth. 

Not for Competition. From Lady C. Erskine, Edinburgh, 
two letters on the subject, but no alphabet; Mr. D. Vallance, 
Lanarkshire, method of teaching the blind to read ; Dr. R. K. 
Greville, Edinburgh, alphabet; J. Simpson, Esq., advocate, 
Edinburgh, alphabet. 

A Committee was appointed by the Society to consider and 
report upon these several communications. — Now as " twelve of 



94 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

these proposed alphabets were composed entirely of arbitrary- 
symbols, while three were merely modifications of the ordinary 
Roman and Italic characters, the first question that presented 
itself for their consideration" was whether some modification of 
the ordinary Roman or Italic alphabets in common use, or an 
entirely new arbitrary character, would be best adapted for the 
use of the blind generally throughout the kingdom ? This 
was a question of considerable difficulty, especially at that time, 
when so few experiments had been made upon the subject. The 
Committee however, in their Report of 1832, gave their opinion 
in favour of an arbitrary character. Since that time Mr. Gall 
published a little work, which seemed to show that his alphabet* 
was more legible by the touch and possessed greater advantages 
than any of the others. This increased the difficulty the Society 
had to contend with, and induced them to take the opinion of 
various persons experienced in the education of the blind. Con- 
sequently the whole of the communications were sent to various 
persons, and (among others) to me, in the spring of 1835. Most 
of these communications were exceedingly clever and interest- 
ing!-. I read them with very close attention, and examined 
minutely the various specimens; and in July following returned 
them to Edinburgh, with a report stating what seemed to me 
the advantages and disadvantages of each. This report the 
Society soon after published, together with extracts from other 
reports, as well as from the communications and fac-similes 
of the various alphabets, and sent copies to the different insti- 
tutions, &c. 

Some years ago Mr. Lucas of Bristol contrived an alphabet 
chiefly from short-hand characters, and in his books uses nume- 
rous contractions or abbreviations, and thereby reduces the bulk 
of the book very much, but increases the difficulty of making out 
the words, &c.J Cm the 12th of February 1836 a public meet- 

* Mr Gall's alphabet was composed of characters in some degree similar to 
the Roman, or that generally used in printing ; but he excluded all curves and 
circles, and formed his letters entirely of angles and straight lines. 

j Many of these communications show great ingenuity and deep research in 
their authors, and contain so much valuable matter relating to the general edu- 
cation of the blind, that a publication of the whole or greatest part of them 
would be productive of much good to those for whose benefit they were written. 
But as this would be rather expensive (many of the communications being very 
long) and as the Edinburgh Society of Arts has already done so much on this 
subject, it is scarcely reasonable to expect that body to encounter so costly an 
undertaking, unless they could, from some other source, be assisted in the fur- 
therance of their praiseworthy exertions. 

% Mr. Lucas uses a new system of spelling, employing only as many letters 
as are sufficient to give the sound of the word ; thus, " adu for adieu," " ni for 
nigh," " bote for bought," &c. He also uses one letter for several words, as " n 



REPORT ON THE MODES OF PRINTING FOR THE BLIND. 95 

ing was held in Bristol, when a Society was formed, and denomi- 
nated " the Bristol Society for embossing and circulating the 
authorized Version of the Bible for the use of the Blind." 
Patron, the Lord Bishop of that Diocese; President, Lieu- 
tenant-Gen. Orde. 

Amongst other things it was then and there resolved, .1st. 
" That the system of embossed characters invented by Mr. Lu- 
cas for teaching the blind to read, is recommended by its sim- 
plicity, and has been proved to be efficacious by several public 
examinations of his pupils." 2nd. i( That a portion of the Holy 
Scriptures be printed on this system of embossed characters as 
soon as sufficient funds shall be collected to meet the expenses 
of publication." 3rd. " That as it is the object of this meeting to 
enable the blind to read the Holy Scriptures, the support of the 
Bible Society, the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
and other Religious Societies be solicited in behalf of this So- 
ciety." 

When I attended the meeting of the British Association last 
year at Bristol, I had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Lucas, and 
witnessing two of his pupils, in the presence of several other 
gentlemen, read portions of the Scriptures printed in his cha- 
racters. But the mere reading from a book well known to the 
pupil, in whatsoever character it might be printed, proves very 
little, for blind children will generally learn with great ease al- 
most any alphabet set before them ; therefore it is necessary to 
compare the progress made with different alphabets, and to 
consider the sum of the advantages possessed by each before it 
can be determined which is the best*. 

At that meeting I had the honour of being introduced to Dr. 
Carpenter of that city, a gentleman who has evidently thought 
much and long on this subject, and whose opinion and obser- 
vations therefore cannot fail to be highly valuable. Dr. C. in 
his able letter to W. Fraser, Esq., Secretary to the Edinburgh 
Society of Arts, says, " I should, as Mr. Lucas does, employ 

for into, under, &c." " x for example, exercise, &c." (see Explanation of his 
system of printing for the blind.) 

The numerous inconveniences arising from such a plan (unless adopted by 
everybody, the seeing as well as the blind) are too obvious to need pointing 
out, and of too much consequence not to he strictly guarded against. Mr. 
Lucas has published the Gospel of St. John, and, notwithstanding all his nu- 
merous contractions and abbreviations, it is very little less than the same 
printed by Mr. Alston in Dr. Fry's type. 

* Caution is necessary in making experiments on different alphabets. The 
pupil may be interrupted in reading by holding his finger upon the word under 
it at that instant ; and if upon asking him to name it, it was found that he had 
pronounced words, in a part of the sentence at which his finger had not yet ar- 
rived, this would show that he was reading from memory ! 



96 SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 

the leading letters beginning words of frequent occurrence, for 
the words themselves, as wh. for tvhich ; gl. for glory ; pi. for 
pleasure, &c." This certainly would tend to lessen the bulk of 
the book, but I think would not facilitate the reading ; for if 
words, printed in full, can be made out by the first two letters, 
the remaining ones need not be felt, but the finger passed on to 
the next word. Besides, as so many of our words begin with 
the same two or three letters, the length of the word, when 
printed in full, would, at once, without feeling every single 
letter, show, if a long word beginning with pi, that it was not 
plan, plea, play, or any other short word, &c. and if short, that 
it was not plausible, plurality, plenipotentiary, &c. It will 
therefore be highly dangerous to make much use, if any, of ab- 
breviations. 

Feeling convinced that the letters recommended by Dr. Fry 
were the only ones likely to be generally adopted, I ventured, in 
the beginning of 1S36, to procure a quantity of type, cast from 
his punches, by Messrs. Thoroughgood and Co., London, and 
commenced printing for the use of the children in the Yorkshire 
school for the blind, and the experiment was most satisfactory. 
About the same time I found that Mr. Alston (treasurer to the 
Asylum for the Blind at Glasgow), a gentleman whose zeal and 
exertions in behalf of the blind must rank him among the best 
friends of that portion of society, had begun to use types of the 
same kind, only of a size between the two which I used. Soon 
after many specimens were printed by Mr. Alston, and amongst 
others the Book of Ruth, the Epistle of St. James, and the four 
Gospels, &c. 

A tew months ago the Society of Arts in Scotland awarded their 
prize of a gold medal in favour of Dr. Fry's alphabet, but re- 
commended the type to be fretted or roughened on the top to give 
the letters a dotted appearance, and, as they think, to render 
them more easily legible by the touch ; but of this I shall speak 
hereafter. They also recommend printing upon both sides of 
the paper. 

A few years ago Mr. Gall published the Gospel of St. John 
in his angular alphabet at 21s., and now the whole New Testa- 
ment in Dr. Fry'salphabet is offered for about 32*. by Mr. Alston, 
and I believe for less by Mr. Gall in his angular type. Such 
is the state at present of printing in raised characters for the 
use of the blind, at least as far as regards " letter-jjress." 

Mathematics. 

In mathematics very little has been done for the blind in the 
way of books, but various methods have been contrived for teach- 



REPORT ON THE MODES OF PRINTING FOR THE BLIND. 97 

ing common arithmetic and algebra, some of which are very 
simple and effective*. However, I shall not enter into a de- 
scription of them here, as they can scarcely be said to form a 
part of the subject of this report. 

Some embossed mathematical diagrams have been printed both 
in Germany and America, and I believe in France; and in the year 
1828 1 published the diagrams of the first book of Euclid in an 
embossed form ; but the expense of the copper plates, engraving, 
&c. deterred me from going on with the work. At Boston, U.S., 
figures explanatory of mechanics, astronomy, &c, and some very 
beautiful maps of large size, have been printed ; also some chro- 
nological tables, &c. Globes and maps have long been made at 
Paris, and I believe in Germany, by gluing threads upon the 
lines, or pasting a second map over them ; but this cannot pro- 
perly be called printing^. 

Music. 
Music has been much cultivated by the blind in general, and 
several palpable modes have been invented to facilitate their 
acquiring a knowledge of it. The French contrived a very in- 
genious plan, which has been followed in other places. It is a 
board, with raised lines and pierced full of holes, in which are 
placed pegs of various shapes to represent the different notes. 
The same kind of board is now used in the Yorkshire school, but 
upon a very much smaller scale, having crooked pins for the notes 
instead of clumsy wooden pegs, and saw-cuts across the board 
in which to set bits of tin to represent the bars. For this im- 
provement we are chiefly indebted to a blind gentleman of 
YorkJ. I am informed that music has been printed from move- 
able types in Germany, France and America, but I have seen 
only a small specimen from the last-mentioned country. In the 

* By help of one of the best of these my own private pupils (blind) have 
soon acquired a sufficient knowledge of the elements of algebra to enable them 
to solve quadratic equations with ease and readiness ; and one has gone still 
further. 

The pleasure they generally derive from working problems of this kind is 
very great. 

Geometry also, when taught them in a way suited to their peculiar circum- 
stances, seldom fails to afford them great delight, but it must always be made 
interesting to them or they soon despair of learning it. 

f Since writing this I have received from Dr. Howe a copy of a book of 
plates, or " Diagrams illustrating a compendium of Natural Philosophy for the 
use of the Blind. Printed at the New England Institution for the Education of 
the Blind, 1836." 

The diagrams seem to be taken from blocks of wood engraved after the 
manner of copper. The work is admirably got up, and is a very valuable ad- 
dition to the books for the blind. 

% W. D. Littledale, Esq. 
vol. vi. 1837. H 



98 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

beginning of this year I published a selection of Psalm tunes, in 
an embossed form, printed from engraved pewter plates, using 
the common form of notes, cliffs, time, &c, which are thus ren- 
dered familiar to the blind, and enable them more easily to be- 
come teachers of music to those who see. Thus I have given an 
abstract of what I have been able to collect on this subject ; 
but as I have not had an opportunity of visiting many of the 
institutions abroad, it is probable that much has been done, in 
the various branches here noticed, which has never yet come 
under my observation, and of which I am totally ignorant. 
A comparison between the advantages and disadvantages of the 
common Roman and arbitrary Alphabets. 

The great question " whether it is better to employ the com- 
mon Roman letters or an arbitrary alphabet in printing for the 
blind," has long engaged the attention of many who feel an in- 
terest in this subject, and numerous and ingenious arguments 
have been advanced on both sides. 

It has been contended that an arbitrary alphabet maybe com- 
posed of such characters as to possess greater characteristic 
difference, be more legible by the touvh, and occupy less room, 
and therefore be altogether better for the blind than that in 
common use. This may be possible, but such an alphabet I have 
never seen. There are two things to be considered in forming 
a new alphabet before the shape of the letter or character be de- 
termined upon, viz. whether it is better to have the usual num- 
ber of characters, or to use a few and to give to each a variety 
of positions to make up the difference. 

It has also been contended by those who advocate arbitrary 
characters, that giving a variety of positions to one character 
reduces the number of forms, and must therefore be less bur- 
densome to the memory. But as every neiv position does in 
effect become a new form, or something new to be remembered, 
the difference cannot be very great. Some persons hold that 
angular characters are more legible by the touch than such as 
are formed partly or altogether of curves ; and the contrary has 
been held by others. 

The Edinburgh Society of Arts have recommended (as before 
stated) the fretted types, as being more easy to make out by the 
touch ; but I tried four of the children in the York school with 
specimens of Mr. Gall's characters both fretted and plain, and 
they all said they liked the plain best as they could read it with 
greater facility. The same w r as the result of Mr. Alston's experi- 
ments at Glasgow, as communicated tome in a letter from him*. 

* Mr. Alston has lately greatly improved the paper on which he prints, and 
has also had some improvements made in a few of his letters. 






REPORT ON THE MODES OP PRINTING FOR THE BLIND. 99 

Abbreviations and contractions have been strongly recom- 
mended ; but if there is too much left to the imagination of 
the reader, wrong impressions will be often formed, and false 
ideas acquired ; and if a blind person has first to encounter a 
difficulty, and afterwards to be left in doubt whether he is right 
or not, he will very soon be discouraged, and lose all interest in 
that which otherwise would afford him not only occupation and 
amusement, but also delight and permanent advantage. Those 
who advocate the use of the common alphabet contend that it 
has not been proved to be less legible by the touch, or to require 
more space than others of the same sized letters or type, but 
evidently possesses many advantages over an arbitrary one ; 
amongst others, " it associates" (as Mr. Craig, one of the compe- 
titors for the Edinburgh medal, says) " the blind in their literary 
pursuits more closely with other men, and secures to them from 
all quarters an aid which they might not otherwise readily attain." 
With spelling and other elementary books printed in the com- 
mon character, they can attend with great benefit any school 
with other children, and with them learn their lessons, and 
from them obtain the aid for which one scholar is usually in- 
debted to another. Moreover they may be taught at home by 
their parents, long before they are old enough to be trusted 
amongst a number of frolicksome seeing companions. These 
and many other advantages are incompatible with an arbitrary 
alphabet. In favour of the alphabet in common use it may be 
stated, that it has been employed by the French, the Americans, 
Germans, &c, though varying a little in some particulars from 
ours. The books printed at Boston are without capitals, but 
the French use both capitals and small letters, so also do the 
Germans, but they employ the Italian characters. Klein (Direct- 
or of the Institution for the Blind at Vienna, in his most excel- 
lent book Lehrbuch zum Unterrichte der JB linden-, page 65) says, 
" Die Form der lateinischen Buchstaben ist am leichtesten durchs 
Gefiihl zu lesen, daher wahle man diese Schrift zum Lesen und 
Schreiben fur Blinde. Einige Buchstaben miissen auch in dieser 
Schrift noch mehr vereinfacht werden, so wie auch alle unwesent- 
liche, bloss zurVerzierung dienende Zuga und Striche wegbleiben 
miissen.*" Thus it seems from so many nations adopting an 
alphabet well known among them, that the general opinion is 
decidedly against an arbitrary character. 

Klein in his preface to the above book allows it to be possible 

* Translation. The form of the Latin or Italian letters is the easiest to read 
by the touch, on which account they are to be chosen in which to print and 
write for the blind. But some of these letters, even, must be simplified and 
deprived of all useless ornaments, fyc. 

h2 



100 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

that characters may be contrived more simple, and in some re- 
spects easier to read by the touch, yet he considers the common 
alphabet the best; and in teaching the blind employs the usual 
mode of instructing seeing children as far as possible ; for as 
long as the blind must live and mix with those who see, it is 
most desirable to connect the two together both in their educa- 
tion and pursuits ; for by so doing that unfortunate class will be 
spared many a painful reflection on their condition, and escape 
the bitterness of an unfavourable comparison with their more 
fortunate brethren*. Besides blind persons may with a pencil or 
tracing paper write letters to their friends, and their friends may 
write to them by means of a stile or other blunt point, placing 
the paper upon something soft so that the letters may be raised 
on the other side ; but this advantage, gratifying in the highest 
degree to the blind when they are able to practise it, would be 
greatly diminished, if not altogether destroyed, by the use of an 
arbitrary alphabet ; for then no one could correspond with them 
who had not learnt their system. 

Furthermore, the blind often become scientific men or poets, 
and probably from the improved methods of conveying instruc- 
tions to them, this may in future more frequently happen. How 
delightful then to correspond with others or to record their own 
thoughts by means of an alphabet generally understood ! Mr. 
Alston, in one of his communications to me, states the great de- 
light his pupils enjoyed (who had learnt the common alphabet) 
in going into the churchyards and reading the grave-stones, &c. 

Arbitrary alphabets are more liable to errors of the press than 
the common, and less likely to be detected on account of their 
not being so familiar to the printer, &c, so that the blind are 
thereby exposed to the danger of being misled, and of acquiring 
erroneous notions, which in many cases might be of serious 
consequence. 

Assuming the reasons in favour of using the common alpha- 
bet to be satisfactory, it would appear that the Roman Capitals, 

* " Daher habe ich getrachtet, so weit es nur moglich war, die gewbhnlichen 
Unterrichts- und Hulfs-mittel wie man sie fiir sehende Kinder gebrauchet, auch 
fur die Blinden beyzubehalten, um diesen desto leichter Lehrer zu verschaffen, 
die sicb durch neue Lebrmittel, in welcbe sie sich selbst erst einstudieren 
miissen, vielleicht hatten abscbrecken lassen. Dieses bestimmte meine Wahl 
fiir die gewohnlichen Buchstaben, obgleich nicht zulaugnen ist, dass die von 
Hrn Wolke und von andern vorgeschlagenen eiufacben, der Telegrafen-Schrift 
ahnliche zeichen zur fiihlbaren Schri ft leichter sind. So lang der Blinde mit und 
unter Sebenden lebt, muss man suchen, ihn in seinem eigenen Benehmen und in 
der Behandlung, so viel es nur moglich ist, den Sehenden ndher zu bringen, 
um ihm manchem Anstoss und mauche schmerzhafte Erinnerung an seinem 
Zustand zu ersparen." 






REPORT ON THE MODES OF PRINTING FOR THE BLIND. 101 

as recommended by the late Dr. Fry, and now employed by 
Mr. Alston, offer the greatest advantages*. Being all of one 
height they form a regular line in the page, so that there is 
no danger of the finger of the blind reader straying into the 
line either above or below ; an evil, which in many of the 
arbitrary alphabets would frequently occur, and which raises 
a very formidable objection to them f. For if blind persons get 
puzzled or be led into error by reading, they will have no con- 
fidence in what they do, and will therefore never feel any pleasure 
or interest in reading, but take it up as a school boy does his 
task. This among other things renders it necessary to be very 
cautious, lest in attempting to reduce too much the bulk of the 
books for the blind it be carried so far as to frustrate the object, by 
making a book difficult to be read, and therefore useless to ninety- 
nine out of a hundred of those for whose benefit it was intended. 
It may not be amiss to observe that when an alphabet or 
specimen of printing is submitted to the blind in any institu- 
tion for experiment, a few of the cleverest children, whose 
touch is delicate and acute, are selected to make the trial, and 
because these can easily make out what is submitted to them 
the experiment is thought to have been fairly made. Whereas 
the greatest proportion of blind persons will always be found 
amongst those who have to earn their living by manual labour, 
which blunts their touch and renders them incapable of reading 
a small-sized letter. 

Besides, as the literature for the blind can never be very ex- 
tensive, the grand aim should be to print chiefly such books as 
are most necessary ; for example, the New Testament, parts of 
the Old, Catechisms, Hymns, Moral Tales, Spelling Books, Easy 
Lessons, Fables, &c, and in a type sufficiently large to be easily 
read by the average, at least, of the blind. A " large book " 
surely cannot be a " greater evil " than one too small to be read, 
and therefore useless. The Gospels printed upon the plan of 
White's Diatessaron would probably be a valuable addition to 
the books for the blind, as the substance of the four Evangelists 
would then be comprised in the smallest room possible. 

At present there is great excitement on this subject and much 

* As the small letter or "lower case " is in use among the seeing, it perhaps 
would be well to have a few books printed with that type for the blind ; but if 
the letters are some to go above and some below the lines, as in the b, d, g, y, 
&c, the bulk of the book must necessarily be a little increased, as the lines 
must not come so near each other that the tops in one line may interfere with 
the tails of those in the line above. 

f Besides, if capitals to begin proper names, &c. be used (which in my opinion 
would be of essential service,) the same form of letter will serve if made a little 
larger. 



'02 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

praiseworthy zeal in operation to further it; and, as opinions vary, 
many books are printed, in different alphabets or characters, for 
the use of the blind, each author contending that his plan must be 
the best. But this contention will soon cease, as some one system 
will be shown, by the preference of the blind themselves, to be 
decidedly superior, and all the others will be laid aside ; for the 
blind will, when left to their own choice, use only that which 
they can read with the greatest facility and satisfaction. 

From what is here stated it seems that the alphabet best adapted 
for the use of the blind is not that which possesses superiority in 
some one particular, but that which is superior as a whole — 
that which offers the greatest sum of advantages. Now, pro- 
bably, this may not be the one which occupies the least space, 
for the bulk of the book is of much less importance than the ease 
with which its contents can be perused. Furthermore, as the 
object is general communication, the alphabet in common use 
must afford advantages which are incompatible with an arbitrary 
one ; for should a blind person become deaf, the only means of 
communicating with him would be by printing in raised letters, 
or by writing with the finger upon his head, back, &c. ; and in 
such a case how limited would be his intercourse with others, 
if he had only learnt an arbitrary alphabet, compared with what 
it would have been had he been taught the one in common use ! 
In the former case only very few could understand him, or be 
understood by him ; while in the latter almost every one could 
communicate to him some intelligence of what was going on' 
around him, and thereby contribute in no small degree to alle- 
viate the weight of his misfortune, and enliven the dreary gloom 
which must perpetually hang over his existence. 






Account of the discussions of Observations of the Tides which 
have been obtained by means of the grant of money ivhich 
was placed at the disposal of the Author for that purpose at 
the last Meeting of the Association. By J. W. Lubbock, 
Esq.,F.R.S. 

At the last meeting of the Association held at Bristol I had the 
honour to communicate the results which I had then obtained ; 
I now wish to explain the manner in which the last grant of 
money which was placed at my disposal by the Association has 
been employed. 

1. I have engaged Mr. Jones to discuss 13,391 observations 
of the tides made in this place during nineteen years by Mr. 
Hutchinson, with reference to a previous transit, or that which 
precedes the time of high water by about 48 hours. These ob- 
servations are in the possession of the Lyceum at Liverpool, and 
they were granted with great kindness by the Committee of 
that Institution for the purpose of this inquiry. 

2. I have engaged Mr. Russell to extend the former discus- 
sion of the London Dock observations, by employing all the 
observations made from the 1st of September, 1801, to the 31st 
August, 1836, or 24,592 observations. Tables have been 
formed in precisely the same manner as those already sub- 
mitted to the Section at the meeting at Bristol. In some in- 
stances* irregularities have, in consequence of the additional 
number of observations, been eliminated, but altogether the 
agreement with the averages of nineteen years only (13,370 
observations) is much closer than I had anticipated. 

3. I have also engaged Mr. Russell to examine carefully the 
establishment and average height of high water, in order to 
ascertain the fluctuations to which these quantities are subject. 

Mr. Russell and Mr. Jones have spared no pains in order to 
render the final results as accurate as the nature of the subject 
would permit, and I consider myself particularly fortunate in 
having been able to procure their assistance in these most la- 
borious calculations f. 

Even minute discrepancies between the results afforded by 
the Liverpool and London observations become interesting and 

* See the calendar month inequality in the interval for January, the moon's 
parallax inequality in the height for parallax 56', &c. 

t The author placed hefore the Section the MS. books containing the de- 
tails of the work. 



104 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



deserve elucidation, particularly that in the parallax inequality 
for the interval to which I shall now briefly advert. 

Whatever may be the law of the moon's parallax inequality, 
we may certainly conclude that it is proportional to the difference 
of the parallax from 57' (or to 8P) ; hence all the averages em- 
ployed to afford the inequality for H.P. 56', 57', 58', &c, may 
be combined according to a method which I explained, Phil. 
Trans., 1836, p. 225. Mr. Russell has in this manner combined 
all the results afforded by the 13,391 Liverpool observations, 
and also those afforded by the 24,592 London observations, so 
as to produce for each place the inequality in the interval and 
height for H. P. 54'. Hence the Liverpool quantities which are 
given in the following table may be considered as the average of 
more than 1000 observations, and the London quantities as the 
average of more than 2000 observations. 

Table showing the moon's parallax inequality in the interval 
and in the height for H.P. 54', as deduced from theory and 
observation at London and Liverpool *. 



Moon's 

Transit 

A. 


Interval. 




Height. 




Theory. 


Observation. 


Theory. 


Observation. 


Liverpool 


London. 


Liverpool 


London. 


h m 



30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 


m 

- 1-0 
-3-0 
-5-3 
-7-4 

- 8-3 
-4-0 
+ 4-0 
+ 8-3 
+ 7-4 
+ 5-3 
+ 30 
+ 1-0 


m 

- 0-4 
-2-6 
-61 
-7-0 

-7-7 
-46 
+ 3-4 
+ 7-5 
+ 7-0 
+ 5-6 
+ 2-4 
+ 1-1 


m 

- 3-9 


ft. 
-116 
-114 
-111 
-1-09 
-110 
-115 
-1-15 
-1-10 
-109 
-111 
-114 
-116 


ft. 

-1-23 
-117 
-1-11 
-1-18 
-1-21 
-1-44 
-1-35 
-1-21 
-113 
-107 
-117 
-1-22 


ft. 

-0-95 


- 4-6 


-1-09 
-1-07 


- 7-8 


-12-9 


-1-32 


-15-6 


-1-35 


-15-0 


-1-67 


- 8-1 


-1-60 


- 11 


-1-38 


+ 1'3 


-114 


+ 1-6 


-104 


+ 0-3 


-102 


- 1-3 


-0-93 







* I have given a table similar to this in the Companion to the British Al- 
manac for 1838 ; but the argument of that table is the moon's transit B. 



REPORT ON THE TIDES. 105 

In the above columns headed " Observation" the irregulari- 
ties have been destroyed in the manner explained by me in the 
Bakerian Lecture, Phil. Trans., 1836, p. 225. The quantities 
headed " London" have been reduced to transit A by means 
of certain tables also given in that paper, to which I shall again 
have occasion to allude. The London height inequality has 
been multiplied by 1*758. The quantities headed " Theory" were 
calculated by the Liverpool constants, 

log {A) = 9-56965, log (E) = 0-87130. 

The height is represented by the expression 

D + (E) {{A) COS (2 1/r — 2 <J>) + COS 2 l/r}, 

in which <p denotes the moon's R. A. — sun's R. A. ty de- 
notes the sidereal time — the moon's R. A. 

I conceive that the best if not the only method of investi- 
gating alterations in the height of the land above the water 
in any given locality where the water is influenced by the tides, 
will be to examine carefully whether any alteration has taken 
place in the values of the constants D and {E) for that place, 
the height of high water being of course always reckoned from 
some fixed mark in the land. 

The nature of the discrepancies between the London and Li 
verpool results is better exhibited in the following diagrams, 
where the quantities in the preceding tables have been laid down. 
The London interval curve, although agreeing in form with the 
Liverpool interval curve, differs from it throughout by several 
minutes. This difference seems to be very remarkable. The 
height curves agree closely, showing that the height inequality 
varies as the quantity E, as I have supposed. Laplace says 
" Elles [les marees] augmentent et diminuent avec le diametre 
et le parallaxe lunaire, mais dans un plus grand rapport •" but 
the diagram in the preceding page appears to confirm the truth 
of this passage only at neap tides. 



10(5 






W 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 
Scale of 1 foot. 



/ /* 
/ f 

S / 1 '•■ 



Scale of 10 minutes. 




REPORT ON THE TIDES. 



107 



The inequalities due to the declination of both luminaries are 
so mixed up together that it is impossible to treat them in the 
same manner. 

The succeeding transits of the moon being denoted by the 
letters A, B, C, D, E, F ; and F being the time of the moon's 
transit which immediately precedes the time of high water at 
London, the discussion of the 24,592 London observations has 
been made with reference to transit B, I intended the transit 
B also to be used by Mr. Jones in the discussion of the Liverpool 
observations, but when the work was much advanced I found that 
Mr. Jones had employed the transit A. However, the tables 
which I gave in a former paper (Bakerian Lecture, 1836) offer 
the means of easily transferring the argument from one transit 
to another. It appears from these tables that the interval be- 
tween successive transits may be considered constant with re- 
ference to the age of the moon or time of transit, and depending 
only upon the parallax and declination. Hence the following 
table is sufficient. 

Table showing the interval between the moon's transit and the 
next succeeding, with a given moon's parallax and declina- 
tion. 

Moon's Parallax. 





54' 


55' 


56' 


57' 


58' 


59' 


60' 


61' 






m 

22-6 


m 
23-2 


m 

241 


m 

251 


m 
261 


m 

271 


m 

28-0 


m 

29-0 










Moon's Declination. 








0° 


3° 


6° 


9° 


12* 


15° 


18° 


21° 


24° 


27° 


m 

23-2 


m 

23-3 


m 

23-5 


ra 

23-8 


m 
24-3 


m 

24-9 


m 

25-6 


m 

26-3 


m 

27-1 


m 

279 



By means of this table Mr. Russell transferred the quantities 
furnished by the London calendar month inequality from transit 
B to transit A, so as to become immediately comparable with 
Mr. Jones's Liverpool quantities. 



]08 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



Table showing a comparison between the calendar month in- 
equality in the interval as deduced from theory, and from ob- 
servations at London and Liverpool. 



i-a 

2 § 

— 3 
c 


January. 


February. 


March. 


His 

c- o 


a 


o 

pi 

> 


a 

o 

C 
O 


o 

1 


g. 


c 
o 
•a 
c 
o 
►J 


o 
H 


1 
> 

3 


d 

•a 
c 
o 


h ra 


30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 


m 


111 


111 

-2-3 


m 


m 


m 
27 


m 


m 


m 
-0-8 


h m 
0. 

30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 


-0-2 


-2-4 


00 


+0-9 


[-0, 
-0-6 


+0-3 
+M 


-17 


1-8 


-1-6 


+0-5 


-0-2 


+0-2 


+0-5 


+0-3 


00 


-17 


+1-9 


+0-9 


+0-4 


+2-9 


-1-9 


+1-1 


+2-9 


-0-4 


-4-2 


+3-3 


+1-8 


0-0 


+ 1-0 


-4-5 


-09 


+3-5 


-0-2 


-4-8 


+3-4 


+3-1 


-17 


+2-3 


-7-2 


-21 


i-3-0 


-2-3 


-5-6 


+1-3 


+09 


-1-9 


+ 1-2 


-3-9 


-20 


-1-6 


+ 1-5 


+ 1-9 


-0-5 


-21 


+2-8 


+2-8 


+4-2 


+27 


0-0 


+4-6 


+8-2 


+0-7 


+1-1 


+6-3 


+3-6 


+7-9 


+4-0 


+10 


+5-2 


+6-0 
+6-3 


+21 


+ 1-8 


+6-4 


+3-0 


+6-1 


+2-6 


+ 1-8 


+ 1-5 


+2-4 


+2-0 


+4-2 


+1-5 


+2-5 


-0-5 


+0-1 


-11 


-2-8 


+ 1-3 


-0-2 


+17 


-0-9 


+0-9 


-0-7 


-3-0 


-30 


-10 


+0-5 


+0-1 


+0-3 


-0-6 


+0-1 


-0-3 












April. 


May. 


June. 






30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 






+ 0-8 


.... 




+0-2 






-07 




30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 
10 30 


00 


+0-3 


+0-1 


00 


+0-3 


-17 


+0-6 


+ 1-2 
-10 


+0-8 


-0-8 


+0-2 


-0-2 


-0-9 


+ 1-0 


-6-8 


-1-3 


+ 1-5 


-2-8 


-1-5 


-0-7 


-0-5 


+2-5 


-01 


-3-6 


-2-4 


+20 


-4-6 


-3-3 


-0-4 


-2-5 


+5-5 


+ 1-4 


-5-2 


-0-2 


+ 6-4 


-5-8 


-2-7 


+07 


-1-6 


+77 


+3-9 


-1-3 


+2-1 


+M 


-2-4 


-0-9 


+ 1-6 


+0-4 


+41 


+2-0 


+ 1-5 


+1-2 


-0-4 


+ 1-7 


-11 


-21 


-1-5 


-4-1 


-2-6 


+2-0 


-4-2 


-5-9 
-67' 


+ 1-5 


00 


-5-7 


-40 


-8-5 


-4-2 


0-0 


-4-9 


-0-5 


- 10 


-5-8 


-4-4 


-67 


-2-4 


-1-8 


-2-5 


-2-9 


-1-2 


-1-3 


-4-0 


-21 


-3-6 


-0-3 


-0-9 


-07 


-2-1 


-0-8 


-1-9 


-1-9 


-1-9 


-1-5 


+0-2 


-21 


+0-6 


-6-4 


11 


-0-2 


00 


-03 


+0-4 


0-3 


+0'4 ! 


11 30 








1 





REPORT ON THE TIDES. 

Table — continued. 



109 



1 !« 

ii 

P 


July. 


August. 


September. 


'£ c 

So 


o 


o 

& 

> 

3 


1 

a 
o 

►5 


i 


O 

B 

5 

> 

3 


d 

■a 
s 
o 


>> 


O 

> 

3 


a 

•a 

c 
o 

1-1 


h m 


30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 


m 


m 


m 
-01 


m 


m 


m 
+2-2 


m 

+0-1 


m 
+ 11 


m 

+2-2 


h in 


30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 


+0-4 


+1-0 


+0-3 


+1-7 


+ 1-2 


+ 1-3 


+1-8 


+1-9 


+1-2 


+ 1-4 


+2-1 


+0-1 


+ 1-4 


+3-2 


+4-0 


+ 1-4 


+4-5 


+1-3 


+2-3 


+2-2 


-0-6 


+1-0 


+6-3 


+37 
+4'-5" 


+1-2 


+7-3 


+5-0 


+2-9 


+3-2 


-3-0 


-0-6 


+8-1 


-41 


+ 7-7 


+5-5 


+2-1 


+17 


-5-0 


-2-1 


+8-3 


+ 3-6 


-5-2 


+3-4 


+3-1 


-0-2 


+0-6 


-3-0 


-2-5 


+3-6 


+3-5 


+4-1 


-2-7 


-0-5 


+ 1-3 


+ 1-9 


+3-3 


+1-6 


-1-4 


+4-5 


+8-5 


-4-1 


-0-6 


+4-1 


+31 


+ 6-3 


+3-1 


+0-1 


+6-2 
+4-6 


+7-0 
'+4-2" 


-1-9 


+0-7 


+3-6 


+3-8 


+4-6 


+2-3 


+ 15 


-0-8 


+2-9 


+2-2 


+2-3 


+ 1-8 


+0-8 


+ 1-8 


+2-3 


+4-4 


-0-3 


-0-7 


+0-5 


-0-1 


+0-3 


-11 


-0-3 


+4-3 


+2-8 


-01 


+ 1-2 


0-0 


-0-2 


-0-1 


0-2 













October. 


November. 


December. 






30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 






+2-4 






+0-4 






-1-6 




30 

1 

1 30 

2 

2 30 

3 

3 30 

4 

4 30 

5 

5 30 

6 

6 30 

7 

7 30 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

10 

10 30 

11 
11 30 


-0-2 


+0-1 


-0-3 


-0-4 


-1-0 


-0-4 


+W 


-1-4 


-2-6 


-1-3 


-0-9 


-1-4 


-1-1 


-0-5 


-21 


-0-9 


-2-6 


-2-9 
+ 0-8 


-3-6 


-3-3 


-2-7 


-2-5 


+0-1 


-1-6 


-3-6 
'-8-5 


-2-6 


-6-3 


-3-0 


-3-2 


-3-1 


+ 1-5 


+ 1-0 


-3-8 


+2-1 


-7-6 


-3-7 


-2-4 


-3-5 


+3-4 


+ 1-4 


-8-4 


-2-6 


0-0 


-3-3 


-3-4 


-01 


-10 


+1-9 


+1-0 


-3-2 


-3-4 


-4-1 


+2-6 


-0-2 


-0-6 


-0-6 


-20 


-2-3 


+2-7 


-61 


-8-2 


+3-8 


+1-7 


-2-6 


-4-0 


-4-3 


-37 


+1-9 


-5-0 


-8-0 


+1-5 


-0-2 


-30 


-30 


-31 


-27 


+0-3 


-4-9 


-27 


+0-2 


-0-7 


-2-2 


-4-6 


-1-2 


-0-6 


+ 11 


-17 


-1-6 


-01 


-1-8 


-0-7 


-1-5 


+0-1 


-0-0 


+2-0 


-0, 


-0-4 


0-0 


-0-5 


-0-3 


-01 


+0-3 


-0-5 




I 








1 10 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

In the Philosophical Transactions, 1837, Part I., we have 
transferred the London quantities to transit A by merely shifting 
them to the left half an hour, which suffices approximately. 
Upon comparing in this manner the diurnal inequality at Liver- 
pool and London, I find that it is extremely different ; for if we 
examine the high water caused by the same tide at Liverpool 
and London, we find that if a and h denote two successive 
heights of high water at Liverpool, and a', V successive heights 
at London, if a > b, then generally a' < b'. I do not think 
that this circumstance was known previously, although Mr. 
Whewell, in his examination of the Coast-guard observations, 
noticed an anomaly of which the origin is similar. 

It is remarkable that while at Liverpool the diurnal inequality 
in the interval is almost inappreciable, at London it is well de- 
fined. 

The results seem to prove that semidiurnal inequalities in the 
height are proportional to the quantity E, as might be expected 
from theory. See Phil. Trans., 1836, p. 223. 

If X, Y, Z denote the forces acting in the direction of the co- 
ordinate axes upon the fluid particle of which the rectangular 
coordinates are x, y, z, and if 

dx d ii d z 

M= d7' "7? ™ = d7' 

d u d u d u d u 

' dt dx dy dz 

dv dv dv dv 

dt dx dy dz 

dw die dw dw 

■ dt dx dy dz 

then the differential equation to the surface of the fluid is 

(X - u') dx + {Y -v') dy + {Z- iv') dz = 0. 

See Trait e de Mecanique, by M. Poisson, vol. ii. p. 669. 

If Q is a certain function of x, y, z, the coordinates of the 
fluid molecule, and of x 1 , y', z', the coordinates of the centre of 
the distant luminary, 

.„ dQ, dQ, , , dQ, ,dQ, (l dQ. ,dQ , 
dQ = 5 — d# + -j—.d^'-f -j— dy +t— dy+ -r- d z + -r-, dz' 
dx dx' dy * dy J dz dz' 

,r, , ri rw ■, dQ, , dQ, , dQ, ■ 

= Xd.r + Ydy+ Z dz + - T —,dx' + ^-,di/'+ - A -j dz'. 
* d x' o if cl sf 



REPORT ON THE TIDES. 1 1 1 

The equation to the fluid surface is therefore 

d Q — ^ — ,dx' — u' dx — -: — rdy' — v'dy— -j— ,dz'— w'ds = 0. 
dx' dy' * * dz' 

Bernoulli's theory of the tides, or as it has heen aptly termed 
by Mr. Whewell the equilibrium theory, rests upon the assump- 
tion that the equation to the fluid surface is 

d Q, = 0, or Q, = constant, 

that is, it requires that the quantity 

3 — ,dx' + u'dx + -i — idy' +v' dy + -r-rdz' + w' dz . . (A.) 
dx' dy' * * dz' v ' 

may be neglected. It seems desirable that some attempt should 
be made to investigate the nature of this quantity, in order to 
show a priori that the quantity 

u' dx + v ' d y + w' d z 

may be disregarded. Having given the general equation to the 
surface of the fluid, to find when the distance from the centre of 
the earth is a maximum (or the time of high water) is not a diffi- 
cult geometrical problem. In Bernoulli's theory, when the ex- 
pression for the height is differentiated, in order to solve this 
question in the usual way various quantities are treated as con- 
stants which are not so strictly ; and in order to obtain a rigorous 
solution, it would be necessary to substitute in the expression for 
the height before differentiation, expressions for the longitude, 
latitude, and distance of the luminary in terms of the time or 
mean longitude. 

The general equations of the motion of fluids referred to rec- 
tangular coordinates are given by M. Poisson, Traite de Me- 
canique, vol. ii. p. 669, and in other works. 

1 dp „ d it du du du 

§ d x~~ dt dx dy d z ' ' ' ■ v v 

1 dp _ r dv dv dv dv ,_ ' 

-r- = Y-TT-«(j fi w j— (B.) 

§ dy dt dx dy dz v 

I dp „ dw dw div div ,_ . 

g dz dt dx dy dz v/ 

|i + i^ + «Lii + ^ = o ( d.) 

d t d x d y dz v ' 



112 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

Let x = r cos $ cos ju. y = r cos Q sin /x z = r sin <f>. 

In the problem of the tides <p may represent geographical la- 
titude, and fj. the sidereal time at the place. If 

dr . d<p , dju. 



J — _ a' — 



F = 



d* Y dr r dr 

v d/2 v d/2 d/2 

da; d y d z • 

The general equations of motion referred to polar coordinates 
are 

d » d/2 dr' rd<p* 2j .dj«. 3 

gdr d r d r d r dr 

do d/2 r 2 d <J>' ^ d r d <f> . . A A d I* 9 
g d <?> d 4> d # d £ d £ x d r- 

d« d/2 2 o A <V drdjx 

-f- = -j r 2 cos 9 <f> -j4 — 2 r cos- <{> -r- -?-. 

idit d m. d £ x d r d £ 



q CljU. Q ft 



a . ditdu 

— 2 ?- 2 3in <J> cos $ -j— -3— . 

di d/ 



If 1* = n t + 9, 

and if we neglect the quantities of the second order 
d<J>dfl d_^ 

d7dT' d* 8 '* 

d» d/2 dr' 2 . _ 2 d 

— ±- = -; -. w r cos 2 <p — 2n r 3 cos 2 <f> 3— 

qdr dr dt dr 

—£- = - r*-5 w 9 ?' 2 sin <fc cos <fc — 2 w r 2 sin <t> cos $ 3-; 

pd<p d<p dt dt 

— -i— = -j r z cos' 1 <J> -j- — 2nr cos -1 <£ -r- 

gdft dju. d£ T d£ 

o • d <f> 

— 2 n r 2 sin $ cos <f> -r— , 

and the equation to the surface will be 

J" d/2 dr' _ 2a o 2 2 A d 0"\ , 

^ — 5— — n- r cos- <p — 2n r l cos^ $ -j-r r a r 

Ldr d^ at J 



REPORT ON THE TIDES. 113 

+ f^ - r *^' -n*r* sin <p cos <p -2 nr*sm<p cos Q-^A-dQ 

Cdn , 9 d0' . z^dr 

+ 1 -. r 2 cos 9 $j7-2nr cos 2 <p -r-, 

\d\i. Qf di 

di>~\ 
— 2 w r 2 sin <f> cos <J> -7^ > d /* = 0, 

which is in accordance with Laplace's equation, M4c. C&., vol. i. 
p. 98. The remaining equations are to be deduced from the 
invariability of the mass of the element d m. 
The elementary parallelopiped 

r 2 cos 4> d r d <p d p. 
is bounded by the sides 

MA = dr, MB=rd$, M C = r cos <p d/*, 
the coordinates of the point M being r, <p, p, 

A — r + d r, <p, jx 

B — r, $ + d $, \l 

C — r, $, ju. + d/*. 

By reasoning similar to that employed in the Traitt de M4- 
canique, vol. ii. p. 671, the following equation may be obtained, 
which is equivalent to a transformation of equation (D) : 

dg d.gr* d.g$' d.gp/ 2§r' sin? 

dt^~ dr ~*~ d<p ^ dp r p cos<f> T ' 

or 

* +S \dr + d<J> + dp + r cos$ 9 J 

For incompressible fluids, when the effect of changes of 
temperature is neglected, g' = separately, and 

dr' dip' djt' 2r| _ sin <j> , _ 
dr d<J> djK. r cos $ ~ ' 

which equation agrees with that given by Laplace, M4c. C4l. t 
vol. i. p. 101. 

If t denote the temperature, Fourier has shown that 

dj d.ur d.vr d .wt _ K f d e t d 2 t d 9 t ~\ ,„ > 
dl + ~dF + ~d]T + ~dF~ ~ C id^ 2 + dP + dT 9 J l ' 

and if e denote the temperature which corresponds to a given 
temperature b, 

VOL. vi. 1837. 1 



1]4 SEVENTH REPORT — 183J\ 

§=e{\ + h(r-b)} (F.) 

K, C, and h being constants. Me'moires de I'Institut, vol. xiii, 
p. 519. When the temperature varies, the two last equations 
supply the place of the equation p' = 0. 

The left hand side of the equation (E.) is of the same form as 
equation (D.), p. 25 ; hence by the help of a known transform- 
ation it is easy to transform equation (E.) to polar coordinates, 
and we obtain 



K ftf.rr 

T 



C r < d r 2 r 2 cos 9 <p 



/ d 2 .rr \ 
V d^ 2 ) 



+ 



/ d.cos»^y \ 



| (E.) 

r' z cos 2 <J> 

The general equations of the motion of fluids have not yet 
been successfully applied to problems even of less difficulty than 
♦hat of the tides, which is complicated by the irregular shape of 
the channel in which the tide-wave travels, and by the resist- 
ance which it meets with in its passage. An improvement, how- 
ever, of theory as regards single observations, or for the purpose 
of prediction, is scarcely wanted, except as regards the fluc- 
tuations of the establishment, on account partly of the inevitable 
difficulty attendant upon observations of the time and height of 
high water, and partly on account of the derangement produced 
by causes which are at present far beyond the reach of analysis, 
such as winds and the varying atmospheric pressure. But when 
the averages of numerous observations are employed, it is evi- 
dent that in the instance which I have adduced p. 20, and per- 
haps also in some others, the equilibrium theory appears at 
least to be insufficient. Its general agreement with the pheno- 
mena, to which I have adverted on former occasions, is extremely 
remarkable, and the merit of Bernoulli's investigation does not 
seem to have been sufficiently appreciated. But whether or not 
Bernoulli's theory may soon receive improvement, at all events 
the approximation is generally so close that I have thought it 
desirable constantly to compare the results afforded by the ob- 
servations with those deduced from his expressions. More- 
over, the results given in the tables have been laid down in dia- 
grams, by which means their relation to each other and to theory 
is better perceived. The advantages of this method, of which 



REPORT ON THE TIDES. 115 

remarkable instances might be adduced *, have long been felt, 
but there can be little doubt that its more general application 
to questions depending for their illustration upon extensive series 
of irregular numbers, particularly those of meteorology and sta- 
tistics (such as variations in prices, in the population, &c), would 
greatly assist in developing relations at present obscure. 

It appears from our examination that the establishment and 
mean height of high water are liable to slight fluctuations, which 
baffle at present our attempts to obtain extreme accuracy in tide 
predictions. This subject seems to deserve attention. 

I have now endeavoured briefly to advert to those parts of 
the subject which appear to require further elucidation, in the 
hope that they may attract the attention of those whose command 
of analysis may enable them to remove the difficulties which still 
remain to be surmounted, and I have mentioned some of the 
facts which appear to me to result from these laborious calcula- 
tions, which never could have been undertaken but for the interest 
which has been felt in the subject by some of the most distin- 
guished members of the Association, particularly byMr.Whewell, 
and but for the pecuniary grants which have at different times 
been devoted to this object. I hope that when the results are 
carefully examined which have been published in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, they will not be found disproportionate in 
value to the great labour and expense which has been required 
for their attainment. 

I have lately received, through the kindness of M. Arago, the 
printed Brest Tide Observations from January, 1807, up to the 
end of December, 1835. It now therefore remains to be consi- 
dered whether by pursuing further this inquiry in the same 
manner other important facts can be elicited from the Brest ob- 
servations. I was formerly extremely anxious to obtain access 
to these observations : first, because I understood that they weref 
in print ; secondly, because the tide there is single ; thirdly, on 
account of the classical interest which attaches to these obser- 
vations, from being the foundation of the remarks connected 
with this subject by Laplace in the Mecanique Celeste ; and 
fourthly, because the Brest observations extend throughout the 
same period as those made at the London Docks, which we have 
employed in our former discussion, Bakerian Lecture, 1836. 
But I am not inclined to think that a discussion of the Brest 
observations would now lead to results presenting any important 

* E.g. Sir J. Herschel's determination of the orbits of double stars. 

f We have felt great inconvenience in employing MS. observations ; more- 
over, if the observations which we used were inprint, greater facilities would 
exist for verifying our results. 

I 2 



116 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 



feature differing essentially from those which are afforded by the 
discussions which I have already completed of the London and 
Liverpool observations. But it would certainly be desirable to 
determine the semi-menstrual inequality in the height at Brest, 
that is, the constants D and E ; this may be done from a year's 
observations. I determined some time since the semi-menstrual 
inequality in the interval for that place. See Phil. Trans. As 
the Brest observations extend throughout the same time as those 
of the London Docks which we have employed, the same tides 
might be discussed, and thus the influence of local circumstances 
and the resistances which the tide meets with in its progress from 
Brest to London might be clearly ascertained. I confess, how- 
ever, I am not sanguine that any advantage would now be gained 
sufficient to compensate for the great labour and expense which 
the discussion would require. 





The explanation of the Starts used in 
this Chart, is contained in pages 42 &r4S. 



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COMPOSITION OF CAST IRON. 117 



On the difference between the Composition of Cast Iron pro- 
duced by the Cold and the Hot Blast. By Thomas Thomson, 
M.D., F.R.S., L. & E., fyc, Professor of Chemistry, Glas- 
gow. 

At the meeting of the Association last year in Bristol, consider- 
able difference of opinion was entertained respecting the ad- 
vantages said to be obtained by heating the air before it is in- 
troduced into the furnaces in which iron is smelted, and it was 
finally admitted by all parties that the only unexceptionable 
mode of determining the question would be to institute a set of 
experiments to determine the relative qualities of hot and cold 
blast iron, and to make a comparative set of analyses of each 
sort in order to determine whether any, and what, differences 
exist in their chemical composition. Messrs. Hodgkinson 
and Fairbairn, of Manchester, undertook to make a compara- 
tive set of experiments on each sort, and Mr. Fairbairn stated 
the result of their experiments in the mechanical section of the 
Association. A committee was appointed by the chemical sec- 
tion to investigate the chemical composition of hot and cold 
blast iron. I had the honour of being named one of the mem- 
bers of that committee. I have accordingly made a certain 
number of analyses, and my object in this paper is to state the 
results which I have obtained. I do not know what has been 
done by the other members of the committee ; I was at too 
great a distance from all of them to enable us to operate to- 
gether ; I therefore take it for granted that the object in view, 
when individuals living at such distances from each other were 
named together, was that each individual should make experi- 
ments on the iron made in his neighbourhood; and that the 
section, by comparing together all the results, might have it in 
their power to come to a proper conclusion respecting this most 
important subject. 

A great deal of cast iron, and a considerable quantity of bar 
iron is now made in the neighbourhood of Glasgow. Probably 
the amount last year was not far short of 200,000 tons. It is 
well known that Glasgow is surrounded by one of the richest 
coal-fields in Britain. The coal is not only abundant, but of 
excellent quality, and the iron ore fortunately exists in great 
abundance, stratified or in nodules in the coal measures. The 
ore is always a carbonate of iron, never absolutely pure, and 
varying considerably in this respect even when we examine dif- 



118 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

ferent specimens from the same bed. I have analyzed above 
thirty specimens at different times, generally selected with some 
care, as the object in view was to determine the average good- 
ness of various beds of this ore, that the smelter might have it 
in his power to choose the best for his purpose. 

In general some notion may be formed of the goodness of the 
ore by taking its specific gravity ; the heaviest samples being 
the best. But this rule is not without exceptions ; the specific 
gravity of some of the best specimens being diminished by an 
admixture of coal. The specific gravity of pure crystallized 
carbonate of iron is 3*829. Now the heaviest iron stone which 
I have met with in the neighbourhood of Glasgow has a specific 
gravity of 3*3801. It contains 83*85 per cent, of carbonate of 
iron. The remaining 16*15 parts consist of carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, silica, alumina, and coal. A bed of iron 
stone near Airdrie is known by the name of Mushet's black 
band, because it was discovered by that gentleman, or at least 
its value was first pointed out by him. It contains 85*44 per 
cent, of carbonate of iron, which exceeds that from Crossbasket 
above stated, yet its specific gravity is only 3*0553. It may be 
worth while to state the composition of this black band, because 
it will show the foreign bodies always present, in greater or 
smaller quantity, in the clay iron stone of this district. 

Carbonate of iron 85*44 

Carbonate of lime 5*94 

Carbonate of magnesia 3*71 

Silica 1*40 

Alumina 0*63 

Peroxide of iron 0*23 

Coaly matter 3*03—100*38 

The quantity of silica and alumina in this particular band is 
unusually small, amounting only to about 2 per cent. In some 
specimens of clay iron stone which I have analyzed the alumina 
and silica amounted to 45 per cent. Mushet's black band con- 
tains no sensible traces of manganese. But in general that 
metal may be discovered, though never in great quantity, in the 
clay iron stone belonging to the Glasgow coal-field. There is 
a bed of iron stone near Johnston, which contains 84 per cent, 
of carbonate of iron ; but its lime and magnesia being very 
small in amount, the silica and alumina together constitute 
12'4 per cent, and the coaly matter 1^ per cent. 

The lightest specimen of clay iron stone which I have met 
with in the neighbourhood of Glasgow had a specific gravity of 
2*285 owing to the great quantity of coal, no less than 21*71 
per cent., with which it was mixed, Its constituents were 



COMPOSITION OF CAST IRON. 119 

Carbonate of iron 29*03 

Carbonate of lime I" 52 

Carbonate of magnesia 3*59 

Coal 21*71 

Silica 24-76 

Alumina 2O-1O-100-71 

If we abstract the coal, the carbonate of iron will amount to 
37 per cent, of the ore. In another specimen of the same band 
containing 5£ per cent, of coal, I found 62 per cent, of carbonate 

of iron. i- ..: , 

It is remarkable that the proportion between the silica and 
alumina in the two specimens was quite different. In the first 
there were 12£ atoms silica to 9 atoms of alumina, and in the 
second 12* atoms silica to 2 of alumina. This seems to show 
that the clay in the clay iron stone does not owe its existence 
to the decomposition of any mineral consisting of a definite 
compound of silica and alumina. 

The existence of these foreign bodies in the clay iron stone, 
from which the cast iron subjected to analysis was derived, will 
enable us to understand the source of certain substances from 
which no cast iron hitherto examined is free. The ore, before 
it is put into the furnace, is always roasted, which drives off the 
carbonic acid from the carbonate of iron, and thus reduces the 
weight of the ore, at an average, about 31 per cent. 

It is also mixed with carbonate of lime, which has the well- 
known property of fusing with clay into a liquid glass when 
sufficiently heated. This removes the clay from the ore, and 
enables the oxide of iron to come in contact with the ignited 
coals, which reduce it to the metallic state. I subjected the 
limestones used at most of the smelting houses round Glasgow 
to a chemical analysis. I need not observe that none of them 
was a pure carbonate of lime ; for even the most transparent 
and colourless calcareous spar always contains a sensible quan- 
tity of foreign matter. The purest limestone I met with con- 
tained 94-6 per cent, of carbonate of lime. The foreign matter 
in all was silica, alumina, and peroxide of iron. In one only I 
found carbonate of magnesia, to the amount of 2 per cent., and 
in none could I detect the presence of manganese. 

The coal used for fuel leaves, when incinerated, from 1 to 10 per 
cent of ashes. They are composed chiefly of silica, alumina, 
and oxide of iron. Coal is seldom quite free from iron pyrites. 
This enables us to account for the presence of minute quantities 
of sulphur in some of the specimens of cast iron analyzed. 

When the Clyde iron works were established, about 50 years 
ago, to obtain 1 ton of cast iron ten tons of coals were required. 
This coal was previously converted into coke, by which process 



120 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

it lost rather more than half its weight. The matter driven off 
by coking constituted in fact a most important part of the fuel, 
being the substances now well known under the names of coal- 
gas and naphtha. By diminishing the force with which the air 
was driven into the furnace, and by taking care that this air should 
be dry instead of moist, (in consequence of the water pressure 
originally employed,) and by some other minor improvements, 
the consumption of coals was reduced from 10 to 8 tons, or 
rather to 7 tons 13 cwt. for the production of one ton of cast iron. 
The quantity of limestone employed for smelting a ton of 
cast iron was 10^ cwt. 

In the year 1833, when the mode of heating the air was 
brought to a state of tolerable perfection, and when the tempe- 
rature of the air introduced was considerably above 607°, as it 
melted lead at the distance of an inch from the orifice, and the 
melting point of lead is known to be 607°, at that time coal 
was employed without being previously coked, and the quantity 
requisite for smelting a ton of cast iron was 2 tons 19 cwt., 
namely, Tons. Cwt. 

For the furnace 2 

For heating the air 8 

For the steam engine 11 2 19 

The quantity of limestone used was reduced from 10i to 7 
cwt. ; and the product in iron was greater, and the daily quan- 
tity produced from a furnace was increased from 6 tons to 9 tons. 
The expense of a ton of cast iron was in 

1829 . £4 

1833 2 12 

Produce in a month from 3 furnaces in 

1829 500 tons cast iron. 

1833 1010 

When the Clyde iron works were originally established two 
furnaces produced only 14 tons of cast iron weekly. The pro- 
duce was gradually increased to 30, 40, or even 70 tons a week ; 
but after the introduction of the heated air the produce was as 
much as 130 tons a week. Indeed it was raised to almost 200 
tons a week, but that was by the addition of another furnace. 
Various explanations have been given of the way in which 
the heated air acts to produce these advantages. If we attend 
to the facts which I have just stated the true explanation will 
I think easily suggest itself. 

When iron is smelted by the cold blast the coal requires to 
be coked, but when the hot blast is employed coking is unne- 
cessary. In the latter case one half the quantity of coals is suf- 
ficient that is required in the former. Is it not evident from 
this that the whole oxygen of the air of the hot blast combines 



COMPOSITION OK CAST IRON. 121 

with the fuel as soon as it enters into the furnace, and that the 
oxygen of the air of the cold blast is not all consumed immedi- 
ately, but makes its way upwards, and is gradually consumed in 
its ascent, producing a scattered heat which is of no use in 
smelting the iron, but merely serves to consume the fuel. When 
the hot blast is used the combustion is concentrated towards the 
bottom of the furnace ; with the cold blast it is much more dif- 
fused. Hence the reason of the saving of the coals in the former 
case, which constitutes the great advantage attending the new 
method. 

This greater concentration of the combustion must subject 
the iron to a greater heat than when the combustion is more 
scattered. This accounts for the smaller quantity of limestone 
necessary for separating the clay ; for the higher the tempera- 
ture the smaller is the quantity of limestone necessary for the 
fusion of the clay. Hence also the greater rapidity of the pro- 
cess, and consequently the additional quantity of cast iron ob- 
tained from a furnace in a given time. 

I think then we may conclude, that when the hot blast is 
used the heat is more concentrated, and consequently higher than 
when the cold blast is employed. 

I shall now state the result of various analyses of cast iron, 
No. 1, smelted by means of cold, and also by means of hot air 
in the different iron works round Glasgow. These analyses 
were made in my laboratory, partly by myself and partly by Mr. 
John Tennent, upon whose accuracy and skill I could completely 
rely. All the iron works round Glasgow employ at present 
nothing but heated air, except the Carron Company, who are 
in the habit of making cast iron, No. 1, both by the hot and cold 
blast. I applied to the manager of the Carron works, and he 
very kindly supplied me with specimens of cast iron, No. 1, 
made by both processes. These specimens I carefully analyzed, 
and considered the comparison of the two specimens as very 
satisfactory, because the nature of the ore and the process was 
exactly the same in both cases, and because the Carron Com- 
pany have the reputation of making cast iron of the very best 
quality. I had specimens of cast iron, No. 1, from the Clyde 
Iron Works which I had obtained before the new process was 
known, and consequently when nothing but the cold blast was 
employed; and I had also specimens of cold blast iron from 
Muirkirk, and some which had been given me as Swedish cast 
iron. 

I shall now point out the differences which were observed 
between cast iron, No. 1, made by the cold and the hot blast. 

1 . The specific gravity of cast iron smelted by the cold blast 
is less than that of cast iron by the hot blast. 



122 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



The following are the specific gravities of eight specimens of 
cold blast iron : — 

1st. Muirkirk 6*410 

2nd. Ditto 6*435 

3rd. Ditto 6*493 

4th. Ditto 6*579 

5th. Ditto 6*775 

6th. From pyrites 6*9444 

7th. From Carron 6*9888 

8th. Clyde Iron Works .... 7*0028 
The specific gravity of the Muirkirk iron is considerably less 
than of that smelted at Carron and the Clyde Iron Works ; the 
mean of the 8 specimens is 6*7034. 

It has been hitherto supposed that the difference between cast 
iron and malleable iron consists in the presence of carbon in the 
former, and its absence from the latter ; in other words, that cast 
iron is a carburet of iron. But in all the specimens of cast iron 
which we analyzed we constantly found several other ingredients 
besides iron and carbon. Manganese is pretty generally pre- 
sent in minute quantity, though in one specimen it amounted 
to no less a quantity than 7 per cent. ; its average amount is 2 
per cent. Silicon is never wanting, though its amount is exceed- 
ingly variable, the average quantity is about 1J- per cent. ; some 
specimens contained 3i per cent, of it, while others contain less 
than a half per cent. Aluminum is very rarely altogether absent, 
though its amount is more variable than that of silicon. Its ave- 
rage amount is 2 per cent. ; sometimes it exceeds 4|per cent., and 
sometimes it is not quite ynoo^h P art °^ tne we ight of the iron. 
Calcium and magnesium are sometimes present, but very 
rarely, and the quantity does not much exceed J-th per cent. 
In a specimen of cast iron which I got from Mr. Neilson, 
and which he had smelted from pyrites, there was a trace of 
copper, showing that the pyrites employed was not quite free 
from copper ; and in a specimen from the Clyde Iron Works 
there was a trace of sulphur. The following table exhibits the 
composition of six different specimens of cast iron, No. 1, ana- 
lyzed in my laboratory, either by myself or by Mr. John Tennent. 





Muirkirk. 


Muirkirk. 


Muirkirk, 


Pyrites. 


Carron. 


Clyde. 


Mean. 




90-98 

7-40 
046 
0-48 


90-29 

7-14 

1-706 
0-830 
0-016 
0018 


91-38 

2-00 

4-88 
110 

0-20 


89-442 
0-288 

3-600 
3-220 
3-776 


94-010 

0-626 

3-086 
1-006 
1-032 


90-824 

2-458 
0045 
2-458 
0-450 
4-602 

0-340 


91-154 

2-037 

3-855 
1177 
1-651 


Copper 

Manganese... 
Sulphur 


Aluminum ... 
Magnesium 



COMPOSITION OF CAST IRON. 123 

The constant constituents of cold blast cast iron, No. 1, are 
iron, manganese, carbon, silicon, and aluminum. The occa- 
sional constituents are copper, sulphur, calcium, and magne- 
sium. These occur so rarely, and in such minute quantity, that 
we may overlook them altogether. 

The constant constituents occur in the following mean atomic 
proportions : — 

22 atoms iron = 77*00 

\ atom manganese = 1*75 

4*36 atoms carbon = 3*27 

1 atom silicon = 1*00 

\\ aluminum = 1*40—84*42 

If we unite the iron and manganese, and consider them as 
acting the part of basis, to which the carbon, silicon, and alumi- 
num unite in definite proportions, we have 22^ atoms iron and 
manganese ; 6£ atoms carbon, silicon, and aluminum, or Z\ 
atoms iron and manganese ; 1 atom carbon, silicon, and alumi- 
num. When we compare the different specimens analyzed, we 
observe a considerable difference in the constitution of each. 
In one specimen the iron and manganese were to the carbon, 
silicon, and aluminum, in the proportion of 2*41 atoms of the 
former to 1 of the latter; in another specimen as 8*87 to 1. 
Now both of these specimens were from Muirkirk. These dif- 
ferences doubtless depended partly on the ore, partly on the 
fuel, and partly on the heat employed. They account perfectly 
for the different properties of cast iron. 

But the mean of the whole gives cold blastcastiron,No. 1, com- 
posed of 3| atoms iron, 1 atom carbon, silicon, and aluminum ; 
and the proportions of these three constituents are very nearly 
4 atoms carbon, 1 atom silicon, and 1 atom aluminum ; so that 
the cold blast cast iron of this country consists of 21 atoms 
iron, with a little manganese, 4 atoms carbon, 1 atom silicon, 1 
atom aluminum. 

2. I examined only one specimen of cast iron, No. 2. It was 
an old specimen, said to have come from Sweden, but I have 
no evidence of the correctness of this statement. Its specific 
gravity was 7' 1633 higher than any specimens of cold blast iron, 
-No. 1. Its constituents were, 

Iron 93*594 

Manganese 0*708 

Carbon 3*080 

Silicon 1*262 

Aluminum 0*732 

Sulphur 0*038—99*414 

The presence of sulphur in this specimen leads to the sus- 



124 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 



picion that it is not a Swedish specimen ; for as the Swedish 
ore is magnetic iron, and the fuel charcoal, the presence of 
sulphur in the iron is very unlikely*. 

In this specimen the atoms of iron and manganese are to 
those of carbon, silicon, and aluminum in the proportion of 4| 
to 1, instead of 3^ to 1, as in cast iron, No. 1. 

The atoms of carbon, silicon, and aluminum approach the 
proportions of 7> 2, and 1, so that in cast iron, No. 2, judging 
from one specimen, there is a greater proportion of carbon com- 
pared with the silicon and aluminum,- than in cast iron, No. 1. 

Mr. Tennent analyzed a specimen of hot blast iron, No. 2, 
from Gartsherry. Its specific gravity was 6*9156, and its con- 
stituents, 



Iron . . 

Manganese 

Carbon 

Silicon 

Aluminum 

Sulphur . 



90-542 
2764 
3-094 
0-680 
2-894 
0-023 




99-997 

So that it resembles cast iron, No. 1, in the proportion of its 
constituents. The carbon is almost the same as in cold blast 
iron, No. 2, but the proportion of aluminum is four times as 
great, while the silicon is little more than half as much. The 
atomic ratios are, carbon 4* ; silicon, 0-67 ; aluminum, 2*28. 

3. Five specimens of hot blast cast iron, No. 1, were analyzed. 
Two of these were from Carron, and three from the Clyde Iron 
Works, where the hot blast originally began, and where, of 
course, it has been longest in use. The specific gravity of these 
specimens was found to be as follows : — 

1st. From Clyde Works .... 7*0028 

2nd. From Carron 7-0721 

3rd. From Carron 7-0721 

4th. From Clyde Works . . . . 7*1022 



Mean . . 7-0623 
It appears from this that the hot blast increases the specific 
gravity of cast iron by about gV 110 - P ar t- It approaches nearer 
the specific gravity of cast iron, No. 2, smelted by cold air, than 
to that of No. 1. 

The following table exhibits the constituents of these 4 speci- 
mens. 

* I have been told by Mr. Mushet that the Swedes add sulphur to their iron, 
No. 2. 



COMPOSITION OP CAST IRON. 



125 





Clyde. 


Canon. 


Carron. 


Clyde. 


Clyde. 


Iron 


97-096 
0-332 
2-460 
0-280 
0-385 


95-422 
0-336 
2-400 
1-820 
0-488 


96-09 
0-41 
2-48 
1-49 
0-26 


94-966 
0-160 
1-560 
1-322 
1-374 
0-792 


94-345 
3-120 
1-416 
0-520 
0-599 














100-55 


100-466 


100-73 


100-174 


100- 



The mean of these analyses gives us, 

Atoms 
Iron .... 95-584 or 27*31 
Manganese 
Carbon . . 



Silicon . . 
Aluminum 



0-871 or 0-249J 

2-099 or 2'79 ] 

1-086 or 1-086 \-l- 

0-422 or 0-337J 



101-285 
Or, in the proportion of 6| atoms of iron and manganese to 1 
atom of carbon, silicon, and aluminum. In the cold blast cast 
iron, we have, Iron. Carbon, &c. 

In No. 1 3i atoms 1 atom. 

In No. 2 4£ I — 

In hot blast . . . . 6£ 1 — 

Thus it appears that when iron is smelted by the hot blast its 
specific gravity is increased, and it contains a greater proportion 
of iron, and a smaller proportion of carbon, silicon, and alumi- 
num than when smelted by the cold blast. 

The atoms of carbon, silicon, and aluminum are to each other 
nearly in the proportions of 12, 5, and 2 ; so that the proportion 
of silicon compared with the carbon is nearly twice as great in 
the hot blast iron as in the cold blast. 

These are consequences that might have been anticipated from 
the theory of the process, as I have, explained it in a preceding 
part of this paper. 

As to the qualities of the two kinds of iron I do not consider 
my experiments as calculated to enable us to draw any conse- 
quence of much importance. Hot blast iron is obviously purer 
than cold blast iron. It is said by several of the Glasgow steam 
engine makers whom I have consulted on the subject, that the 
iron by the hot blast is not so tough as that made by the cold 
blast ; and one very extensive house in Glasgow, in order to ob- 
viate this objection, is in the habit of adding a little Welsh iron 
to the hot blast iron before casting, and this I have been assured 
by the manager of the works obviates the defects. 



126 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

4. An analysis of a specimen of cast steel, manufactu in 
the neighbourhood of Glasgow, from the best Dannemoi . »ion, 
was made by Mr. Tennent, and perhaps it may be worth while 
to state the results obtained. \ 

Its specific gravity was 7'8125, and its constituents, 

Atoms. 

Iron 99-2881 „.* 

Manganese .... 0-190 J ' 
Carbon 0-388 1" 



99-866 
Or it contains 56 atoms of iron united to 1 atom of carbon. 
He could not detect the least trace of either silicon or aluminum 
in this steel. Is it not probable that the reason why Danne- 
mora iron answers so well for making steel is that it contains 
no sensible portion of silicon and aluminum ; and that the pre- 
sence of a notable quantity of these substances in British iron 
is the reason why it is so ill fitted for being converted into good 
steel ? 

Appendix. 

A quantity of hot and cold blast iron was made in the same 
furnace at the Level Furnaces, Brierly Hill, Staffordshire, with 
the same proportions of ironstone and limestone, with the addi- 
tion of one-half more coal, necessary to compensate for the defi- 
ciency of power in the furnace when blown with cold air. These 
products were tried with the following results : 

1. Two bars of cast iron §ths inch square were melted in a 
crucible from pig iron, No. 1, the first cold blast and the second 
hot blast ; both broke when exposed to a pressure of 2040 lbs. 

2. |ths inch cable bolts were made from the hot blast iron 
No. 1. These cable bolts were exposed to the Liverpool proof, 
namely, a weight of 12 tons 5 cwt., without sustaining any al- 
teration ; even a weight of 17 tons 18 cwt. produced no bad 
effect. 

Another chain without studs fths inch in diameter, made from 
the same hot blast iron, was proved to 22 tons, 7 cwt. 1 qr. 2 lbs., 
or to 12 tons, 11 cwt. 1 qr. 2 lbs. above the Liverpool proof, 
without sustaining any injury. These trials show that hot 
blast iron is at least as strong as cold blast iron. 



DETERMINATION OF CONSTANT OF NUTATION. 127 

1)911 



Notice of the Determination of the Constant of Nutation by 
the Greenwich Observations, made as commanded by the 
British Association. By the Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

It is now a century since Bradley, by his brilliant discoveries 
of the aberration of light, and the nutation of the earth's axis, 
became the founder of accurate astronomy. By them he not 
merely explained the seemingly anomalous movements which, 
though noticed by others before him, were first established by 
his observations on authoritative evidence, but he also demon- 
strated that a degree of precision, which the other astronomers of 
that time could scarcely conceive, was perfectly attainable. From 
the commencement of his career to the present day the impulse 
thus given has never failed, and each successive year has brought 
improvements to the construction of astronomical instruments, 
to the methods of observing, or, what is equally important, to the 
reductions by which these observations are made available to 
science. 

Yet it must be acknowledged that in respect of both aberra- 
tion and nutation nothing was added to the researches of Brad- 
ley till within a few years, when Struve, Brinkley, and Richard- 
son resumed the inquiry as to the first, and contracted within 
very narrow measures the limits of its uncertainty. The second, 
of these astronomers also investigated the constant of nutation, 
and his result is generally adopted by British astronomers. In 
Germany, however, the authority of M. Besselhas given currency 
to a different value of this important element, deduced by 
Von Lindenau, and though the two differ only \ of a second, 

( 7Q0 Q of the telescope used in observing,) such is the accu- 
racy now required that even this evanescent discordance is felt 
as a disgrace to astronomy. This stigma I trust is now removed 
by the work which the powerful aid of the Association has en- 
abled me to perforin, and of which it is my present object to give 
a brief notice to this section, the fuller details requiring a dif- 
ferent mode of publication. 

When an observer directs the telescope of his circle to a star, 
the distance from the pole or the zenith which he obtains is but 
crude ore, and much labour is required to obtain its precious 
contents. The refraction of the atmosphere prevents us from 
seeing it in its true place ; its effect must be computed and cor- 
rected ; the light by which we see it takes time to travel through 



128 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

the telescope, which itself moves with the earth, and thus aber- 
rates from the true direction ; this too has been brought under 
our dominion. The stars themselves, though we call them fixed, 
are most of them in motion, each with its own proper movement, 
and with a period to which even geological cycles are probably 
but as moments. And the points of our own globe, to which 
we refer their positions, are anything but invariable ; they are 
agitated with perpetual changes, some of great duration and 
extent, others minute in quantity and rapid in recurrence, all of 
which must be appreciated and known before we can record 
any history of the heavens at a given epoch. 

Of these disturbances of the earth's axis the greater terms 
have long been known under the name of the precession of the 
Equinoxes, and our present knowledge of their laws and amount 
is satisfactory ; of the remaining three, appropriately called 
nutations, one completing, its course in a fortnight and never 
reaching J^th of a second, is sufficiently determined by theory ; 
another, semi-annual in period, and ^ a second at its maximum, 
is also given by theory, and, independently, by Brinkley's ad- 
mirable observations. 

The third is of much greater magnitude, being about 9", and 
running through its changes in the time of a complete revolu- 
tion of the moon's nodes, something more than 18 years; and 
its exact determination is the object of this communication. It 
is obvious, that if a star's distance from the pole be determined 
when the effect of this nutation increases it most, but without 
making any allowance for its effect, and if 9^ years after, when 
of course the distance is most diminished, it be again observed, 
the difference of the results will be twice the total effect of nu- 
tation on that star, and from this the entire or the constant of 
nutation is of course known. But if after a second Japse of 
9£ years, when all has returned to its primary condition, we 
have a third set of observations, the conclusion is made much 
more certain ; for thus all doubt is removed that might come 
from any proper motion of the star if it returns to its original 
place ; or if not, the difference detects that proper motion, and 
gives its amount. Therefore, to succeed in this inquiry, it is 
necessary to have observations extending through at least the 
whole period of the nodes, made with the same instrument, and, 
if it were possible, by the same observer, or at least according 
to the same system. In quantities so minute as those we are 
considering, in operations so delicate in themselves, and so easily 
vitiated by errors that can scarcely be suspected, all precautions 
are necessary ; and with the exception of the observations made 
at Greenwich, while the late Mr. Pond presided over that ob- 



DETERMINATION OP CONSTANT OP NUTATION. 129 

servatory, there are none existing which even approach the ful- 
filment of these conditions. ' Even in them there is much ob- 
jectionable, but many years must elapse before they can be 
surpassed. 

The Greenwich circle was for the first 12 years employed to 
measure distances from the pole ; afterwards from the zenith ; 
the zero of the former being given by comparing the observed 
and calculated places of known stars, the latter hy combining 
direct and reflected observations. This in the present inquiry 
needed no change, but the other was inadmissible, and I re- 
stricted myself to the pole star alone. Of it 4000 observations 
were computed, by the aid of Bessel's admirable tables, retaining 
his values of declination, nutation, and proper motion, but with 
mine of aberration and refraction. Of the results more than 
2000 could be combined above and below the pole to give the 
zero of polar distance. The others served to keep watch in the 
interval between these conjugate observations, and show if any 
change took place in the instrument. After 1826, observations 
of Polaris were less numerous, but the index corrections given by 
it were then combined with reflected observations. 

The other stars were selected on this principle, that their 
altitudes should be such as to free them from the uncertainty of 
refraction j and that those observations only should be employed 
in which at least § of the effect of nutation is exerted in polar di- 
stance. Of such there are but 15 to be found in the Greenwich 
collection with sufficient frequency, and even of these three 
have not yet completed their cycles. Four of them are not 
found in Bessel's tables, but are similarly reduced ; and in all 
correction has been made for that slight nutation of which I 
spoke as of a fortnight's period. They afford about 8000 i*e- 
sults, i>ut only 6000 have been available, 1000 from an accident 
which occurred to the instrument in 1820, and vitiated the work 
of almost two years, and the rest from occasional want of 
corresponding observations of Polaris. 

Each of these observations should be exactly represented by 
the calculated place of the star, were there no errors of observa- 
tion or of reduction, and the difference gives their effects. In 
the present case we consider only three things as doubtful ; the 
place of the star at some given epoch, as given by the catalogue 
employed, the star's motion, and Lindenau's nutation. The re- 
sidue thereforois properly equated to these three quantities, and 
the equations are divided into three groups, corresponding to the 
maxima and intervening minimum (or vice versa) of nutation. 
The three resulting equations determine these three errors, two 
of which are peculiar to each star, but the correction of nutation 

VOL. vi. 1837. k 



130 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

is common to all, and each set should give it the same value. This 
is not rigorously the case, and the difference proceeds partly from 
accidental errors in bisecting the star or reading the divisions, 
hut still more from causes which are as yet unknown, and whose 
influence is but beginning to be noticed. Lastly, the corrections 
thus obtained must be combined into a general mean according 
to the most probable method, attending to their different weights. 
In some stars nutation appears with a larger coefficient, some 
have been more frequently observed, and both these circum- 
stances must be duly estimated in taking the mean. 

These are my results. To increase Lindenau's nutation : 
710 observations of y Draconis give + 0-"28 

77G a Lyrse — + ()• 54 

705 « Cygni — +0-03 

452 Arcturus — +0-33 

3G9 /3 Ursseminoris — +0*35 

224 (3 Tauri — + 0' 35 

284 Aldebaran — + 0- 31 

239 « Arietis — + 0* 31 

279 a. Corome — + 0* Gl 

287 Pollux — +0- 54 

2G7 Castor — + 0. 52 

190 a. Persei — + 0* 77 

To diminish it : 

397 observations of vj Ursae give — 0-"29 

403 Capella — —0-31 

393 Polaris — —0-01 

The mean of all being, 

+ 0."257 
8- 977 



Lindenau 9* 234 
differing only - "01G from the number selected by Mr. Baily 
for the admirable catalogue which has already been so useful to 
astronomy, and which I trust by the aid of the Association may 
soon be increased far beyond its present extent*. 

It remains to consider what errors may be supposed to affect 
this conclusion. Some may object that I have used with Mr. 
Baily the constant of aberration 20*3G, instead of employing 
20*50, which Mr. Richardson has so ably deduced from the 

* Since reading this notice to the Association I have received the Green- 
wich observations for 1836, which enables me to complete the cycle for a, 
Cygni, and to determine the proper motions of Castor and Pollux more cor- 
rectly. These, and some other changes of'less importance, have slightly changed 
my result, which is now considered by me to be 9*239. 



DETERMINATION OF CONSTANT OF NUTATION. 131 

Greenwich observations themselves. I fully admit its weight, 
but must remark, 1st, that for the star common to our compu- 
tations, the maximum of aberration obtained differs too widely, 
in one case more than a second ; secondly, that the mean of 

20-503 

Richardson and De Lambre gives, 225 , almost identical with 

20-364 
20-370 

Brinkley and Struve 20-350; and, thirdly, that the use of Mr. R.'s 

20-360 
constant would scarcely have changed my result. In the case of 
y Draconis, tbe most important in my list, I performed the 
computation with this value, and the change it produced was 
only x^jo of a second. 

As to the casual errors depending on the circumstances of 
observation, I find for this star, that the probable error of one 
observation = + 0*"96, and therefore, by the theory of proba- 
bilities, it comes out an even bet, that as far as such errors are 
concerned the result given by it is not uncertain to O"04, and 
Lyrae has nearly the same probable error. Therefore, the slight 
discordances in my results proceed from other, and, as yet, un- 
known causes. Similar and greater discrepancies occur in Mr. 
Richardson's investigations, but it is curious that in Brinkley's 
researches on nutation, Capella, and a Cygni give results less 
than the mean ; a. Lyrae, /3 Tauri, and Castor above it. 

It might seem that a more accurate conclusion is attainable 
by assuming the proper motion of the stars as known from 
comparison of Bradley's observations with those of recent date. 
This supposition would give the constant 9*181, 0*05 less than 
that given above ; but I think it inadmissible, for these motions 
may not be uniform, and there may be changes in the instru- 
ment, the refraction, the observer, nay, even in the direction of 
gravity, as affected by local circumstances, which are functions 
of the time. Something of this sort does actually appear here. 
It is well known that Pond latterly believed in the existence of 
a general southern motion of the stars j and though Brinkley has 
shown most fully that this is imaginary, yet it is remarkable 
that the corrections of Bessel's proper motions, which my work 
has given, are, except in one instance, all negative. I infer from 
this that the Greenwich circle is undergoing some progressive 
change of figure, which makes it show polar distances too great 
for about 30 degrees south of the zenith ; but if this be the case 
it is not likely long to elude the sagacity of Mr. Airy. 

The declinations which I obtain from these Greenwich obser- 
vations differ considerably from those deduced by Pond himself, 

k 2 



132 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 



and given in the N. A. for 1834, but they agree closely with 
those of Bessel ; they give the following corrections : 





Cor. N. A. 


Cor. Bessel. 


y Draconis . . 


- 0-97 . 


-0-08 


a Lyrae . . . 


- 1-25 . 


- 0-29 


« Cygni . . . 


- 0-66 . 


+ 0*43 


Arcturus. . 


- 1-82 . 


+ 0-02 


/3 Ursae Minoris 


- 0-61 . 


+ o-io 


/3 Tauri . . . 


-1-57 . 


+ 0-98 


Aldebaran . . 


- 1-80 . 


- 0-08 


a Arietis 


- 1-48 . . 


+ 0-02 


a Coronae . 


- i-7o . 


— 0-OG 


Pollux . . . 


- 1-51 . 


+ 0*56 


Castor . . . 


- 2-05 . 


- 0*13 


a Persei . . . 


. - 1*80 . 


. - 0-99 


jj Ursfe . . . 


. — 0-69 . 


. + 0'20 


Capella =, . . 


. - 2'13 . 


. — 1-02 


Polaris . . . 


- O'Ol . 


-0-04 



Mean — 1*34 — O02 

This seems to show that the difference between these cele- 
brated catalogues arises solely from the different methods of re- 
duction employed, and may excite a wish that the whole of 
Pond's Greenwich catalogue should undergo a similar revision. 



EXPERIMENTS ON VEINS AND MINES. 



133 



Report of some Experiments on the Electricity of Metallic 
Veins, and the Temperature of Mines. By Robert Were 
Fox. 

In fulfilment of the commission with which I was last year in- 
trusted, it was my intention to have made some experiments on 
the electricity of metalliferous veins on a larger scale than 1 have 
yet done, and to have endeavoured to produce changes in the 
composition of bodies, by the long-continued action of electric 
forces, derived from this source. Other engagements have, 
however, interfered with the execution of these plans, and the 
only experiments of this nature which I have recently made 
have been confined to Coldherry and Skeers lead mines, situated 
near Middleton Teasdale, in the county of Durham. In the 
former, I obtained no decided results; and in the latter, the gal- 
vanometer indicated very feeble electrical action. There are 
seven E. and W. lead veins in this mine, contained in limestone, 
which are shifted from three to five fathoms to the right hand 
by a cross vein, having nearly a northern and southern direction. 
The cross vein contained more or less galena near some of the 
places of intersection ; and a connection was made, by means of 
copper wires, between portions of ore in the cross vein, and others 
in one of the most productive of the east and west veins, when 
there appeared to be a feeble action from N. to W. (see ground 
plan, fig. 1). The parts connected, a and h, were about twenty 
fathoms distant from each other, and fifty fathoms under the 
surface. 

A small stream of water gushing 
out of the vein was at 50° Fahr. 

The ore in this mine was far from 
abundant, at least it did not occur 
in such large masses as are best 
calculated for experiments of this 
description ; and the wire was not 
sufficiently long to admit of obser- 
vations being made on the relative 
electric states of parallel veins. 

These experiments, together with 
others which I made some years 
ago in other lead mines near Moldw- 
in Flintshire, tend to induce the 
belief that the electric action is much 
more feeble in lead veins when con- 
tained in limestone and sandstone 



Fig. 1. 

N 



Lead Vein. 



134 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

than in copper veins included in the lower rocks, such as granite 
and " killas" or clay slate. And here it may be remarked that 
the sulphurets of copper are more electro-negative than galena, 
which circumstance may have had some influence on the results. 

I wished to have made experiments on the electricity of some 
of the coal-beds which have been traversed and charred by the 
great basaltic dyke in the county of Durham, but my time and 
engagements did not well admit of my doing so. It is well 
known, that when coal is reduced to the state of a cinder it be- 
comes a good conductor of voltaic electricity, although coal, in 
its natural state, does not possess this property, or even anthra- 
cite. A friend of mine having kindly sent me some specimens 
of the altered coal taken from Cockfield Fell Colliery, I found 
that most of them were incapable of conducting voltaic electri- 
city, which unexpected circumstance may, perhaps, be attri- 
buted to their having undergone a degree of vitrification, — pene- 
trated, possibly, by some siliceous matter, which their appearance 
indicated ; and T am rather confirmed in this opinion from 
having since found that one of the pieces of native cinder from 
the same place is as good a conductor of electricity as coke, and 
it has a less vitrified appearance than the others. Here then 
Ave have the evidence of electricity in favour of the powerful ac- 
tion of the heated basalt on the contiguous coal deposits. 

I have, on various occasions, endeavoured to show that the 
high temperature observed in the lowest parts of deep mines is 
in a great degree independent of accidental or extraneous causes 
not existing in the earth itself, and, indeed, that it is more often 
diminished by them than the reverse. It occurred to me that 
this point might be decided by burying the bidbs of different 
thermometers at various depths below the deepest excavations 
of mines, and I am indebted to the agents of Levant Tin and 
Copper mine, and of the Consolidated Copper mines, for having 
carried this plan into effect for me in their respective mines. 
The former mine is situated on the coast, in the parish of St. 
Just, and is worked in granite and " killas." Its depth is about 
230 fathoms from the surface, and 200 fathoms below the level 
of the sea. A thermometer four feet long, and inclosed in a 
brass tube, had its bulb sunk in a hole three feet beneath the 
" sump," or bottom of the deepest shaft, whilst another shorter 
thermometer was placed very near it, with its bulb inserted in 
a hole only about an inch deep. The former, which may be 
distinguished as No. 1, indicated a temperature of 80°, and the 
latter (No. 2) of 78'°5, both of them having been previously com- 
pared with a standard thermometer, and the needful correction 
applied. This part of the mine is in granite. The thermome- 
ter was afterwards placed in like manner in "killas," at the 



EXPERIMENTS ON VEINS AND MINES. 



135 



western extremity of the deepest level or gallery, about 190 
fathoms under the sea level, and four feet from the lode, when 
No. 1 showed a temperature of 78°, and No. 2, 72*°5 ; a stream 
of water which flowed into another part of this level to the east- 
ward of the shaft, and in granite, was at 78"°5, and the air in 
the level only 67°. 

The Consolidated Mines are situated in the parish of Gwen- 
nap, and nearly thirty miles to the 
eastward of Levant. The depth is 
290 fathoms from the surface, and 
237 below the level of the sea at 
half- tide; the rock is "killas." 
There is a " cross-cut," or gallery 
proceeding from the bottom of the 
deepest shaft (Pearce's), marked 
P.S. in the section Fig. 2, at right 
angles to the lode, which it inter- 
sects at N., the lode underlying to- 
wards the north L.N. The thermo- 
meters No. 1 and 2 were placed at a, 
24 fathoms from N., the bulb of the 
former in a hole three feet deep, 
and that of the latter in another an 
inch deep, the holes having been 
filled round the thermometers with 
clay, &c. Under these circum- 
stances No. 1 indicated a tempera- 
ture of 85*°3, and No. 2 of 84°. 
The thermometers were then simi- 
larly arranged at h, ten fathoms 
from N., and No. 1 gave 86-°3, and 
the other 85°. These experiments 
were made before the cross-cut was 

completed as far as N. When, however, the lode was inter- 
sected atthatplace,both thermometers were placed in the manner 
already described in the lode itself at c, when No. 1 indicated 
a temperature of 92°, and No. 2 of 88°. Here the thermo- 
meters were kept only two hours, but in all the other experi- 
ments in both mines they remained in their places more than 
twenty-four hours ; and when No. 1 was taken out of the deep 
holes, and allowed to stand awhile in the "cross-cut," the mer- 
cury always fell at least a degree. Only two men were at work 
at a time in or near this part of the mine. The increase of 
temperature in the lode, may, I conceive, be attributed to the 
greater facility afforded by it for the ascent of currents of warn! 




136 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

water from more considerable depths, and the difference between 
a and h to their relative proximity to the lode. The tempera- 
ture of 85'°3 is at least 35° above the mean of the climate, and, 
therefore, it gives a ratio of increase equal to one degree in 
49 '6 feet, if calculated from the surface; and Levant Mine, 
which was 80° at the bottom, one degree in 46 feet, or they give 
one degree in 48 and 44 feet respectively, if estimated from ten 
fathoms under the surface. 

The thermometers were likewise placed in holes, as before, 
in a superior level in the Consolidated Mines, 130 fathoms be- 
low the surface, when No. 1 indicated a temperature of 61°, 
and No. 2 of 61'°6. This difference in favour of the short ther- 
mometer was probably due to the influence of ascending currents 
of warm air and vapour on the surface of the rock; and such an 
explanation is not inconsistent with the opinion that the general 
temperature of the upper parts of the mine had undergone a dimi- 
nution of its original amount, in consequence of the excavations 
below having interfered with the ascent of warm water, and pro- 
moted the drainage from above of that which was comparatively 
cold. For these reasons, and from the results obtained at the 
deepest parts of mines of various depths, I consider that the 
temperature of 61° is much below what it would have been had 
there been no inferior excavations ; and I have evidence that in 
1822, when the mine was only 150 fathoms deep, the water at 
the bottom of one shaft was at 76° and of another at 80°. 

It is clear, I think, from all the experiments which have been 
made on the temperature of mines, that causes which are more 
or less local, and exist in the earth itself, have a powerful influence 
in modifying its degree, and in producing those anomalous results 
which have always characterised observations on subterranean 
heat. When it is considered how much the crust of the earth 
abounds with fissures or faults, and that warm water has a con- 
stant tendency to ascend through cooler portions of that fluid, 
and thus to produce upward and downward currents in the fis- 
sures and veins, it would indeed be surprising if such discrepan- 
cies did not exist even in the same vicinity, to say nothing of the 
greater or less influence of water percolating from the surface. 
Upon the whole, T am strongly of the opinion that the effect of 
the simple conducting power of rocks on the temperature, at 
depths hitherto attained, is very much superseded by that of the 
transporting property of water to which I have alluded. Indeed, 
I have long taken this view of the subject, and it has appeared 
to me to account very satisfactorily for the fact of the more 
compact rocks, such as granite, having been often found at 
rather a lower temperature than "killas" at given depths, and 



EXPERIMENTS ON VEINS AND MINES. 137 

both of them inferior in this respect to large porous lodes or 
veins*. Thermal springs may likewise, I conceive, be referred 
to the same cause, and it is well known that they are generally 
connected with fissures or faults; moreover, I may here remark 
that this property of fluids must more or less influence the 
temperature of water in Artesian wells, so that thermometrical 
experiments made in them are often rather calculated to prove 
the existence of subterranean heat than to ascertain its ratio of 
increase in descending from the surface. 

Since the foregoing report was read at the geological section, 

1 have obtained some results relative to the temperature of 
Tresavean Copper Mine from Captain Oats, who kindly made 
the experiments for me. The mine is worked almost wholly 
in granite, and is situated in the parish of Stythians, about three 
miles to the S.W. of the Consolidated Mines. The bulb of the 
thermometer No. I was buried 2 feet 10 inches, and that of No. 

2 one inch under the surface of the rock at the different stations, 
their stems having in all cases been surrounded by clay pressed 
into the holes. The following were the results : 

Depth in fathoms. Experiments made. 

from from In air. In the rock. 

surface, sea level. No. 1. No. 2. 

o o o 

26 ^ ... In granite 15 fathoms N. of lode, and 40 fathoms 1 ,„ „ ,„ ,„ „ 

lrom "killas J 

200 170 In the lode, rock do., " killas," and three fathoms "I ^ -9 *„ *,_ 

from granite J 

200 170 In do. 10 fathoms from do 77-7 76- 755 

250 196 In lode contained in granite, and 60 fathoms from"! „„ „ co r 00 

,, , ... ,, fOO'i Oi'J Oil' 

"killas J 

262 203 Inlode, do., in 7 fathoms from do., beincr the bottom ~| or r on r on 
- V ° > 00 5 oi'O bl' 

ot the mine J 

The last result gives a ratio of increase of 1° in 48 feet, cal- 
culated from the surface. It will be seen that the elevation of 
the latter, in reference to the sea-level, varies considerably in 
different parts of the mine. 

* See Philosophical Magazine and Annals, 1831, vol. ix., p. 94. 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 139 



Provisional Report of the Committee of the Medical Section 
of the British Association, appointed to investigate the 
Composition of Secretions, and the Organs producing them. 

Part I. 

The Committee appointed by the Medical Section of the British 
Association to investigate the chemical composition of glands 
and then" respective secretions, have been prevented by different 
circumstances (amongst which have been the lamented death of 
one of their number, and the disturbed health of another) from 
rendering a complete report on the subject referred to them. 
They are desirous however of making such a statement of then- 
progress as may invite the co-operation of animal chemists in 
the extensive and somewhat difficult field in which they find 
themselves engaged. 

The manifest object of the investigation proposed to your 
committee has been to obtain, through the medium of animal 
chemistry in its present improved state, some further insight 
into the mysterious and vital process of secretion. 

The terms in which this inquiry is proposed seem to give to 
it a particular direction, the reason for which may not be very 
obvious; and as they were suggested by one of your committee, it 
may not be amiss to assign here the reasons which occasioned this 
course to be pointed out : before proceeding to do so we will 
offer one remark in opposition to a generally received opinion 
respecting the process of secretion. It seems to be considered 
that in as much as this process is one in which vitality is con- 
cerned, it is removed from the province of chemistry ; from this 
opinion we totally dissent, seeing that whatever changes are 
produced in the proportion and mode of combination of the 
elements of which bodies are composed, must, when not merely 
mechanical, be essentially chemical, and that the introduction 
of an agent, though it be no less important than the influence of 
life, does not in any degree detract from its chemical character. 
We have merely to consider that the elements both act and arc 
acted upon under peculiar circumstances, which offer some ana- 
logy to what is seen when chemical elements are exposed to the 
influence of caloric or electricity ; their inherent properties are 
not destroyed, but they are modified when they are placed under 
these influences ; and as the investigation of chemical changes, 
in which the two influences just mentioned are concerned, has 
tended greatly to improve our knowledge in respect to them, so 



140 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

we may reasonably hope that a similar result may be obtained 
from the investigation of the processes of nutrition and secretion 
going forward in living bodies, by regarding them as strictly 
chemical, even in those very modifications which vitality pro- 
duces. When it is considered that during the activity of life 
the process of nutrition is constantly maintaining, even in the 
solid parts of animal bodies, molecular changes by which old 
materials are removed and new ones deposited, we must be led 
to presume a priori, that as the rejected particles are taken away 
in a state of perfect solution, they must find their way into those 
fluids which proceed from the particular part. In ordinary 
textures (by which we wish to be understood those which are 
not called glandular) Ave feel no hesitation in admitting that the 
rejected particles are carried away in the lymph and venous 
blood ; but in glandular structures, and in parts which like them 
yield a peculiar secretion as well as return lymph and venous 
blood to the system, we have a third course into which some 
of the rejected particles may be expected to find their way. 
Now though it may be difficult or almost impossible to detect 
either in the venous blood or the lymph, any peculiarities which 
the addition of the rejected particles may give to the venous 
blood and lymph proceeding from particular parts, the case 
may be different when we investigate a particular secretion in 
which it seems probable that these pai-ticles may exist in a 
larger proportion, having a less admixture of the whole or some 
of the constituents of the general circulating fluid. The mani- 
fest properties of some secretions seem to lead to a similar con- 
clusion a posteriori. The varieties which we find in pus pro- 
duced in different parts of the body are among the most pal- 
pable examples of this kind. Pus from the brain has a peculiar 
consistence and colour resembling greenish cream, even where 
there has been no breaking down of the substance of the brain, 
by which that material might be grossly blended with it. When 
pus is formed in the immediate neighbourhood of the alimentary 
canal, and especially of the lower part of it, it possesses so strongly 
the faecal odour, that it had been confidently believed that fasces 
had been mixed with it, until the absolute impossibility of such 
an occurrence had been demonstrated. Pus formed in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the toes possesses the peculiar odour 
of those parts, and a similar remark sometimes applies to matter 
formed in the axillse. 

The peculiar odour exhaled by different species of animals, 
and even by different individuals of the same species, dependent 
on differences of age and sex, appears to be another illustration 
of the principle which has been here suggested : for although 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 141 

such peculiar odour may in some instances be referred to a spe- 
cial local secretion, as in the instances of the civet cat and musk 
deer, it cannot have escaped the observation of those who have 
been in the habit of dissecting the bodies of recently killed ani- 
mals of different species, that these exhale not from one part 
only, but from every part internal as well as external, modified 
indeed by circumstances, a peculiar smell which is characteristic, 
and belongs both to the solids and fluids. 

Another illustration of the influence of the character of parts 
upon the secretion which they produce may be seen about the 
mouth, where a slight excoriation or sore is apt to produce a 
considerable quantity of thin fluid secretion, which one can 
scarcely fail to regard in conjunction with that secretion which 
is poured into the mouth from the internal surface of those 
parts. The copious secretion from a blistered surface, when the 
subcutaneous cellular membrane is cedematous, is perhaps a 
phenomenon of the same character. 

The chemical composition of secerning organs may influence 
that of their products independently of the particles which they 
may absolutely impart from their own structure. It may do 
so by a process similar to that which Thenard has pointed out 
as taking place when deutoxide of hydrogen comes in contact 
with fibrin ; a process which that great chemist several years 
since pointed out as likely to throw light on the function of 
secretion. This idea has since been developed by Berzelius, 
who calls their action of contact the catalytic action, and argues 
that probably the contact of the blood with certain surfaces of 
the organs may produce some alteration in the arrangement of 
elements, and that the secretions may be thus catalytically 
formed from the blood. 

It is probably to the operation of this principle that we may 
ascribe some phaenomena, which, in addition to the circumstances 
which have already been mentioned, render it desirable to ascer- 
tain with accuracy the composition of solid parts in conjunction 
with that of their secretions. In some healthy, and in not a few 
morbid actions, we see that a new product, whether fluid or solid, 
is verymuch influenced by the character of the surrounding parts. 
Thus in the condensed cellular membrane in the neighbour- 
hood of bone it sometimes happens that masses of bony matter 
are deposited, but are perfectly detached. The numerous in- 
stances which we see of ossification at the origins or insertions 
of muscles are probably referable to the same principle, although 
it must be admitted that these examples are not unexceptionable, 
since in them we have a continuity of structure. As a further 
illustration it may be noticed, that after the fracture of a bone, 



142 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837« 

the process by which the new bony matter necessary for union 
is produced, is often morbidly carried on in the matters which 
inflammation has deposited in the surrounding structures. The 
most striking illustrations are undoubtedly those which arc pre- 
sented by the heterologue structures, probably because of their 
being much more readily produced accidentally than the ana- 
logue. Thus we see that the natural structures in the neigh- 
bourhood of malignant tumours are apt to degenerate into a 
substance in some respects resembling that of the original tu- 
mour. In the neighbourhood of those tumours which are of 
slow growth, and of cartilaginous hardness, we often find the 
surrounding structures, but more especially the cellular mem- 
brane, partaking of the same character of hardness, though ne- 
cessarily wanting the structural arrangement which characterizes 
the tumour itself. In the same way we find that those tumours 
which are composed of a soft and brain-like substance are sur- 
rounded by natural structures, which degeneration has converted 
into a nearly similar substance, or which have a similar matter 
deposited intcrsticially. Again, in those tumours which are 
remarkable for their black colour, and to which the name of 
melanosis has from this circumstance been applied, the sur- 
rounding structures become more or less deeply tinged with a 
black or dark-coloured material. This disease also presents us 
with a good illustration of the principle in a mode precisely the 
converse of the preceding example. There is, perhaps, no organ 
so liable to be affected with melanosis as the eye ; and it may 
not unreasonably be suspected that it is the natural and healthy 
production of black pigment, performed by the choroid coat of 
this organ, which is the chief cause of this predisposition. 

The anatomical structure of a secreting organ is one of the 
conditions in which it is essential to consider in an inquiry into 
the phenomena of secretion, although it cannot be imagined that 
it affects it by any merely mechanical separation. If it were 
possible, it would be desirable to ascertain, and to indicate by 
definite terms, the comparative degrees of vascularity, the pro- 
portion in which the ramifications of the three vascular systems 
are combined, and the rapidity of circulation. The comparative 
innervation of the part, although probably no less important, is 
perhaps still less exactly ascertained. To improve our knowledge 
on this point, it would be particularly desirable to ascertain not 
merely the number of nerves sent in proportion to the size of the 
organ, but also their origin, and the proportion in which they are 
derived from the ganglionic and cerebro-spinal systems ; the de- 
gree of sensibility which they impart to the organ, the degree 
of uniformity or variation of function which may be observed in 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 143 

the organ, and the conditions by which it may be influenced in 
this respect; also whether the nutrition resulting from the com- 
bined action of the vascular and nervous systems is steady or sub- 
jected to periodical or other variations. 

Although we are at present very much in the dark upon most 
of these subjects, we may be convinced from various examples 
that the characters of a secretion are influenced by the texture of 
the organ which produces it. In those adventitious cysts which 
are liable to be formed in different parts of the body, but whicli 
are most frequent as well as most distinctly formed in the ova- 
ries and in their vicinity, we find, that whilst they are of a thin and 
delicate texture the secretion is thin and aqueous or serous, but 
that when they have become a little thickened their secretion is 
thick, viscid, and mucous or albuminous. A similar transition, 
but in a less marked degree, may be seen in the serous mem- 
branes natural to the body, and also in the mucous membranes. 
Where these are thin and delicate, as in the case of the con- 
junctiva, and in the extreme branches of the bronchial tubes, 
their secretion approaches very closely to that of the serous 
membranes, whilst the thicker membranes which line the vari- 
ous portions of the alimentary canal produce large quantities of 
mucus. When chronic inflammation has thickened these mem- 
branes the quantity and viscidity of the mucus produced is noto- 
riously increased. 

In investigating the causes which operate in the production 
of animal secretions there are doubtless several points to be 
considered beside the chemical composition and anatomical 
structure of the parts producing them, and the composition of 
the fluid from which they are derived. Even after the secretion 
has been poured forth from the living solid, it is certain that it 
undergoes important changes by which its character is in many 
respects altered. Although these changes are in part to be 
ascribed to the material remaining under the influence of the 
living structure by which it is surrounded, and which may act 
both by abstraction and addition, nevertheless there are some 
modifications more immediately depending on the inorganized 
secretion itself. Such changes seem to be more particularly 
within the undisputed limits of animal chemistry in its present 
state, and we may reasonably expect to find their parallels or 
analogues in the changes which take place in dead matter apart 
from the living body. While some of these changes are un- 
doubtedly brought about by the influence of air and moisture, 
by which the addition or subtraction of elements may be effected, 
in other instances the change seems to be more particularly 



144 SKVENTH REPORT — 183/. 

brought about by the alteration in the arrangement of the pre- 
viously existing elements. 

Amongst the changes taking place under one or other of these 
conditions in inorganic or dead matter, and wholly removed 
from the influence of life, and to which some parallels may pro- 
bably be found in changes effected within the living body; the 
following examples may be pointed out by way of illustration. 
None are more notorious and familiar than those which take 
place in wine and other fermented liquors when kept in well- 
closed bottles. In some of these instances it may be said that 
the change is only mechanical, and the result of very slow de- 
position ; yet there are unquestionably cases in which no depo- 
sition takes place ; and the change, be it what it may, is un- 
doubtedly effected in the chemical combination of the ultimate 
elements. Between these extremes there are mixed cases, as 
when crystals are deposited and gases liberated to occupy the 
upper part of the containing vessel. Amongst the long-neg- 
lected bottles which may sometimes be seen in a chemist's labo- 
ratory, we may occasionally observe the results of very slowly- 
effected changes in the combination of the enclosed elements 
exhibited in remarkable precipitates and in alteration in colour. 

In the mineral kingdom, and more especially in rocks of 
volcanic origin, and possessing a cellular character, we may ob- 
serve the most remarkable transfer and chemical combination 
of elements in the products, often beautifully crystallized, by 
which the cavities become more or less filled, notwithstanding 
the firm and apparently impenetrable character which the rock 
may possess. Amber may be adduced as another example fur- 
nished by the mineral kingdom, for it is doubtless whilst apper- 
taining to this class that it has received the characteristics which 
distinguish it from the recent resins to which it is not only 
closely allied, but from which it is in all probability really de- 
rived. In this instance we have a material as impervious to 
water as the volcanic rocks before-mentioned. But the obvious 
change produced is in some respects different. Instead of a 
new substance, sepai*ated in distinct portions, the result of a 
transfer to sensible distances, we find an uniform change of 
substance throughout. There is perhaps no change in dead 
matter which is more interesting, from its relation to the sub- 
ject before us, than the conversion of all the soft parts of animals 
into the peculiar fatty substance called adipocere, which takes 
place under exposure to certain circumstances, of which immer- 
sion in moisture appears to be the most important. It is wor- 
thy of note that this change seems to take place nearly alike in 



REPORT OP MEDICAL SECTION. 145 

different textures, such as skin, muscle, cellular membrane, and 
adipose substance ; yet as it can hardly be supposed that they 
are all equally prone to it, it seems probable that its having 
commenced in one tissue tends to determine its taking place in 
others in contact with it. 

As a connecting link between changes resembling those just 
adduced, and those which occur in living organized bodies, may 
be mentioned the well-known fact, that many fruits gathered 
long before their living connection with the root would have 
naturally ceased, notwithstanding undergo those changes which 
render them ripe, or in other words, bring them to a state of 
maturity. In the leaves of plants, a short time before they lose 
their connection with the branch, and also when they have been 
detached from it, a chemical change takes place, which produces 
the Xanthophylle or yellow colouring principle on which the hues 
of autumn in great measure depend. Before we can apply the 
principle of these changes to the assistance of our investigation 
of the changes effected in living bodies, it is important that the 
laws which regulate them should be further elucidated. The 
labours of some of our continental chemical brethren have already 
considerably advanced the subject. Without swelling this pre- 
liminary report with an analysis of what they have done, it will 
be sufficient for our present purpose to adduce, without attempt- 
ing any chemical explanation, some of the apparently parallel 
phenomena to which we invite the attention of those who may 
be disposed to co-operate in this kind of research. As farina 
or starch may be converted into gum, and both farina and gum 
into sugar, and these into various acids, or into alcohol or aether, 
so it would appear that other principles may be changed ac- 
cording to a particular course of succession, though some of the 
possible links may not be always essential. The very possibi- 
lity of such successive changes renders it necessary to take into 
consideration another element, viz., time; and in our inquiry 
into the production of different secretions, we must, besides in- 
vestigating the anatomical and chemical composition of the 
secreting organ, and the qualities of the matter when first pro- 
duced, as compared with its ultimate state, not fail to take time 
into the consideration. The first rapidly produced secretion 
from a mucous surface is nearly serous. Newly and rapidly 
formed mucus is thin and aqueous when compared with that 
which has been long detained upon the surface of the secreting 
membrane. When milk is too frequently drawn from the lac- 
tiferous glands it is thin and watery compared with that which 
is allowed to be longer retained. The production of pus is 
another example, and one in which the changes may be followed 
vol. vi. 1837. & 



146 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

by the eye through their whole course. When pus has been 
well removed from a suppurating surface its place is soon sup- 
plied by a thin and watery secretion. This afterwards becomes 
viscid, but without being visibly particled ; it afterwards be- 
comes manifestly particled and turbid, and ultimately thick, 
opaque, and cream-like. There are perhaps no secretions which 
are more interesting than those in which a fatty or resinous 
matter is produced. They may be contrasted with the produc- 
tion of oily matter in living vegetables, and with the conversion 
into adipocere in dead animal matter. The most recently pro- 
duced secretion of a sebaceous follicle is nearly or quite aqueous, 
but it soon appears to be albuminous or caseous, and does not 
appear to possess any oleaginous property. This it soon after 
acquires when it becomes the natural unguent to the skin. 
When the secretion fails to escape it accumulates, and a col- 
lection of grumous fatty matter is formed. In the early embryo 
the situation of the adipose substance is occupied by small grains 
of an opake whitish substance, which appears to be rather al- 
buminous or caseous than truly adipose. The production of 
cream in the lactiferous glands, when the milk is allowed to be 
well formed, appears to be another physiological instance. The 
next is of a pathological character. It is well known that in or 
near the ovaries it occasionally happens that encysted masses are 
found, containing fat, bone, teeth, and hair. Although the 
whole of these materials are not necessarily found in the same 
specimen, fatty matter appears to be invariably present. These 
extraordinary productions are generally referred to conception, 
and are indisputably closely allied to, if not identical with, it. 
Now in the natural ovum but a comparatively small portion of 
fatty matter exists, and certainly none in the situation in which 
the peculiar fatty matter which forms so large a portion of these 
encysted formations is met with. It would therefore appear 
that when growth as well as development has been suspended 
in these irregular efforts of the nisusformativus, there commences 
a conversion of the collected elements into a fatty substance by 
the introduction of a new chemical arrangement of the elements. 
Even this change is progressive, and it would appear that the 
fatty matter when formed is susceptible of further change ; for 
in some of these collections the fatty matter appears clean, 
nearly white and uniform ; in others it approaches the character 
of cholesterine ; and in one instance we have met with it, having 
a bright yellow colour, and a strong, penetrating, empyreumatic 
or bituminous odour, bearing considerable resemblance to an 
unctuous yellow substance, found as a mineral production in 
Scotland some few years since, and placed in the possession of 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 147 

Professor Jameson. Next to these changes taking place in the 
living body, yet probably, except in the case of total fat, beyond 
the limits of organization, it may perhaps be allowable to place 
the pathological degeneration of some tissues into fat. The 
muscles of the limbs and the contractile fibrous coat of an en- 
larged and thickened bladder have been found converted into 
this substance. The most frequent, as well as the most re- 
markable of these fatty degenerations is the production of fat 
livers, which has attracted the special notice of some foreign 
pathologists. It is comparatively rare in this country, and but 
few very well marked instances have been met with amongst 
many hundred inspections performed during several years at 
Guy's Hospital ; yet what have appeared to be approaches to it 
have not been very rare. This degeneration essentially belongs 
to the acini, which are generally, if not invariably, enlarged in 
size, paler, and less supplied with blood than in the healthy 
state, and have nearly or wholly lost their power of secreting 
bile. In the advanced cases, the specific gravity of the liver be- 
comes less than that of water, and fatty matter forms by far the 
largest part of its composition, whilst in other cases in which 
this degeneration has taken place fat has only formed a small 
per centage. Now it is not very uncommon to find in cachetic 
patients, who have long been uuable to take exercise, a consi- 
derably enlarged liver, dependent on the great hypertrophy of 
the acini, which, though wanting the essential characteristics of 
the fatty degeneration, are paler and more homogeneous than 
in the healthy liver, and have more or less lost the power of 
producing bile. It is perhaps not too wild a speculation to 
imagine, that in this impaired condition of the organ it may not 
be able to resist the tendency to those changes which inorganized 
animal matter undergoes when placed in circumstances favour- 
able to their production. This leads us to another remark, ap- 
plicable to other cases, and which seems to reconcile the specu- 
lations which we have allowed ourselves to offer with facts 
which will doubtless be readily admitted. 

The different tissues, while they retain their healthy condition 
unimpaired, resist these common tendencies more or less forci- 
bly, and apparently in each in a peculiar manner, and they are 
consequently enabled to maintain their own peculiar composition, 
notwithstanding the incessant molecular changes effected by 
nutrition ; and where they happen to be secreting organs, the 
same uniformity is preserved in their products. But when they 
are impaired by disease or accident this isolating faculty is in- 
jured or lost. Thus in the experiments of Majendie, Foedera, 
Segellas, Meyer, Tiedemann and Gmelin, and others, with refer- 

l2 



148 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

ence to absorption, transudation, and imbibition, we meet with 
some results, obtained in the injuredbodies of animals employed 
in these inquiries, which are not perfectly similar to those phe- 
nomena which may be observed when the corresponding organs 
of perfectly healthy and vigorous animals are concerned ; fluids 
possessing various properties being seen to enter into the circu- 
lation, and to penetrate membranous and other textures in the 
experiments alluded to, whilst in the latter case they meet with 
impassable barriers. The diffusion of a diseased process, as in 
the instances of the degeneration of structures in the vicinity of 
malignant tumours, alluded to at page 10, does not appear to 
take place until these structures have been impaired by inflam- 
mation, when the new product to which this disturbance of 
function gives rise presents the character possessed by the ad- 
ventitious structure. This view of the case, if correct, tends to 
strengthen our opinion, that inflammation is not to be regarded, 
as some have supposed, as a condition of exalted vitality, but 
quite the reverse. It also directs us, in our inquiry after the 
chemical attributes of vitality, to fix upon the precise attractions 
which it is engaged in counteracting. 

Thos. Hodgkin, M.D., &c, &c. 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 149 



Report from the Committee for inquiring into the Analysis of 
the Glands, 8fc., of the Human Body. By G. O. Rees, M.D., 
F.G.S. 

Part II. 

There are but few analyses recorded of the glands of animals, 
or of those solid products of disease which it seems 'desirable to 
submit to the searching powers of chemistry. If we refer to 
the observations of Berzelius, and the various analyses of Fromm- 
herz and Gugert, performed on some of the glands from the 
human subject, we cannot but be struck with the great difficul- 
ties which must attend any attempt at quantitative examination 
by the method of analysis adopted by these chemists. It is my 
intention to propose a form for the analysis of the various solid 
parts of the human frame, and so to establish a settled method 
in proceeding, which shall enable us to make such comparative 
experiments as may assist in the detection of any aberration 
from the healthy condition of any single organ. 

A diseased condition of an animal part must consist either in 
the increased or decreased proportion or absence of some one 
of its constituent parts, or in the addition of some adventitious 
principle to its component elements. As both these conditions 
are frequently present (since the latter implies the existence of 
the first), it becomes of the greatest importance to be able to de- 
tect not only the existence of any new principle in the diseased 
part, but likewise the quantity of each constituent which is pre- 
sent in health, as by that means we are enabled to ascertain 
what normal constituents or portions of a constituent of the gland 
have been displaced to make room for the morbid matter which 
has been deposited. For this purpose we must have recourse 
to quantitative analysis, and I hope to be able to show that most 
of those difficulties are surmountable which appear to have de- 
terred many from prosecuting this line of investigation. I have 
been much encouraged to hope for a useful result from this in- 
quiry, by considering how many valuable indications of disease 
have been afforded us by the most simple uses of chemistry 
when applied to the urine : here we observe that ascertaining 
the proportion of water alone has given rise to much philoso- 
phical reasoning and valuable information, as regards the eco- 
nomy of the organismus ; and a steady and indefatigable inquiry 
into the existence of albumen in the urine led Dr. Bright to a 
discovery, the importance of which is every day becoming more 



150 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

obvious, and which has deservedly stamped him as one of the 
most ingenious observers in the medical profession. 

I think it is hardly too much to hope that, could we procure 
a sufficient number of experiments on the proportion of water 
only in various glands, or in a single gland in any one disease 
as compared with the healthy condition, we might be able to 
arrive at some valuable information in the history of such affec- 
tion. 

The great difficulty in the prosecution of this inquiry lies in 
the obstacles that are so frequently occurring to the performance 
of post-mortem examinations, and the time which is allowed to 
elapse before the inspection is made ; these difficulties, however, 
are lessening every day, and at most public hospitals we have 
ample opportunities for research. 

The analysis of the blood and the secretion of glands has been 
a subject of interest and attention to the chemical world, and I 
have long wondered how it has happened that the methods of 
analysis applied to such matters have never been used to inves- 
tigate the chemical nature of the solid parts of animals. It is 
this which I would propose, viz. the adaptation of those rules 
of analysis used for the examination of the blood to the investi- 
gation of the chemical nature of the glands of the human body. 
When we look to the analyses of animal fluids, as performed by 
the best chemists, we perceive that the constituents of such 
matters (at least those which are purely animal) are considered 
as determined by their solubility or insolubility in certain men- 
strua ; the principal of these being water, alcohol, and aether. 
Thus we have a principle, considered as a distinct component of 
the blood, which is sometimes called osmazome ; this is noted 
by quantity in healthy blood, and the result used for comparison; 
but let us consider its right to the character of a distinct prin- 
ciple, and we shall at once be constrained to allow that such 
character is entirely the result of a single property, viz. its so- 
lubility or insolubility in certain menstrua, these being used to 
separate any one of the components of the fluid from the rest. 
That any of these component parts may be compounded in 
themselves is very easily credible and as easily proved ; thus the 
extractive matter of urine, frequently estimated as though it were 
a proximate element, is divisible, when subjected to further che- 
mical reactions, into three separate forms of extractive. I merely 
quote this instance to show how impossible it is (in most cases) 
to look upon animal analysis in any other light than as a means 
of performing comparative experiments. There is one very 
important step needed, however, before we can proceed to ex- 
amine the glands of the body on the same system that is used 



REPORT OP MEDICAL SECTION. 151 

for the blood and secretions ; this consists in fixing some de- 
terminate character to the extractives we may separate by means 
of the various menstrua employed in the analysis, for we require 
experiments to show that alcohol will extract the same matters 
from any gland that it is capable of separating from the dried 
blood ; indeed it is not impossible that every gland may have a 
set of extractives peculiar to itself. For this inquiry I would 
especially beg attention and co-operation, as it is a subject so 
extensive as to require a multitude of experiments before we 
can expect any results applicable to pathology. 

It is to a chemical knowledge of the nature of the various ex- 
tractives that we must become indebted for ascertaining any of 
those divarications from health which it will be the ultimate ob- 
ject of the inquiry to detect : such a knowledge must be the 
result of careful examinations and comparisons of several healthy 
specimens of each organ; so that we may be able to decide upon 
the true nature of any of these animal extractives. A standard 
of comparison for the quantitative analysis of diseased organs 
will require several quantitative experiments on each organ in 
health before the normal average can be determined. I will 
now proceed to show the practicability of a method of analysis, 
which, if adopted, I do not doubt will develope some valuable 
results to the profession. I have before stated, that in the ana- 
lysis of the blood we use three principal fluids as separators of 
its constituents, viz. aether, alcohol, and water. It is on the 
dividing action of these fluids that I wish to proceed, and should 
propose that the analysis thus divide the substance submitted 
into four parts, viz. 1st. That which is soluble in aether. 2nd. 
That which is soluble in water only. 3rd. That which is solu- 
ble in water and alcohol. 4th. That which is insoluble in all 
the three menstrua. This method, which is used for the blood, 
will be found very applicable to solid matters, which, as regards 
analysis, may be considered as partially dried serum. I do not 
wish it to be understood from this that we must expect to sepa- 
rate the same principles from each gland as we do from blood, 
by means of the same menstrua, but merely that the same pro- 
cess may be used ; for, as I have before stated, each gland may 
have extractives peculiar to itself; but having partially divided 
the constituents of the gland by means of the same menstrua 
that are used for the analysis of the serum, we are better able 
to examine their properties, and, moreover, have the valuable 
advantage of forming comparisons with the constituents of 
serum, some of which will undoubtedly be present in every or- 
ganized substance of the human frame. I will now notice in 
order the different divisions of our analysis, as formed by the 



152 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

solubility or insolubility of animal constituents in sether, water, 
and alcohol. 

1st. Those constituents of animal matter which are soluble in 
aether. 

Under this head we have the various fatty matters of the 
glands for consideration; and, if this plan of analysis be extended 
to the products of disease in the various parts of the body, we 
shall find much matter of interest in the examination of this 
extract. The various modifications of fat, as occurring in dis- 
eased parts, and their secretions, have scarcely procured the 
attention they deserve from chemists. The peculiar nature of 
the fatty matters of the blood affords every facility for an easy 
passage into several varieties of that substance, and we find a 
series of very interesting changes in the secretions, excretions, 
morbid secretions, and growths of the human body. Thus cho- 
lesterine, which was once supposed to be the result of the 
secreting action of the liver, has been found in the fluid of hy- 
drocele, in ovarian tumours, &c. When the nature of the fatty 
matter of blood is known, it ceases to be a subject of surprise 
that cholesterine is so generally distributed, for the chemical 
reactions of the crystalline fat of the blood are almost identical 
with those procured from cholesterine, and probably but very 
slight means are needed for the reduction of one to the other. 
I may mention that cholesterine differs from the crystalline fatty 
matter of the blood in affording an ash having an alkaline reac- 
tion on test paper, whereas the crystalline fat yields an acid 
ash owing to the presence of phosphorus. In every other reac- 
tion, however, these substances are so much alike that it is 
almost impossible to distinguish them. I find that the alkaline 
ashes of cholesterine are in about the proportion of 2*5 per cent., 
containing an alkaline, carbonate, and muriate, traces of sulphate 
and phosphate, and also phosphate and carbonate of lime. 

The other forms of fatty matter met with in animal analysis 
are adipocere and common animal fat. I now come to the 
second division of our analysis, viz. : 

2nd. Those constituents of animal matter which are soluble 
in water only. 

In the analysis of the blood, the extractive procured as soluble 
in water only consists apparently of albumen in combination 
with soda. The extractive procured by similar treatment of 
any of the glands of the body will require examination, and 
constitute an important part of our inquiry, as it probably may 
be of different nature in each gland. This extractive, as pro- 
cured from blood, is precipitable by acetic acid, the precipitate 
consisting of albumen in a gelatinous form. 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 153 

3rd. Those constituents of animal matter which are soluble in 
water and alcohol. 

The extractive procured from blood, as soluble in water and 
alcohol, is that to which the name of osmazome has been given 
by chemists ; it is called extrait de viande by the French, as 
procured from the blood it is precipitable of a brown colour by 
infusion of galls ; the precipitate thrown down by subacetate 
(or di-acetate) of lead is soluble in an excess of that reagent. 
These reactions are sufficient to guide us in making our compa- 
rative experiments. 

4th. Lastly, we shall notice those constituents of animal 
matter which are insoluble in all the three menstrua employed in 
our analysis. 

This residuum, as procured from the serum of blood, consists 
of albumen, but is of different constitution in the various glands 
and solid parts of the body; thus the more firm portions of each 
gland are made up of the insoluble structure of blood vessels 
and absorbents, with more or less of the albuminous net work 
of the cellular tissue, making up the parenchyma. It will be 
necessary for us to set down these various parts under a single 
head, as we do not possess any means of separation ; still, although 
we are thus prevented from ascertaining any deficiency or excess 
in any single one of these insoluble constituents of the gland, 
yet we shall very probably be able, by comparison of the three 
together with the similar combination in healthy specimens, to 
arrive at data which may be useful to us. 

Having now glanced at the probable contents of each extract- 
ive, I shall proceed to describe particularly each step in the 
prosecution of the analysis. 

Directions for the analysis of solid animal matters. 

A certain weight of the animal substance, sliced as minutely 
as convenient for manipulation, is to be carefully dried over a 
water-bath till it ceases to lose weight, the dry residuum being 
weighed ; the loss experienced is to be noticed in the analysis 
as " water." Water. 

The dried animal matter is now to be digested, with three 
times its bulk of rectified aether, for four or five hours in a closed 
test tube, the mixture being shaken frequently. This aether being 
poured off, a second portion is to be added, and allowed to digest 
on the animal matter in a like manner. We thus procure an 
eethereal solution A, and a residuum B. 

A. The aethereal solution being allowed to evaporate to dryness, 
the fatty matters deposited are to be dried over a water bath, Fats. 
and their weight ascertained. 

B. Water, at a temperature of 212°, and equalling six times the 



154 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

bulk of the solid matter, is to be digested on the residuum for 
half an hour ; this liquor being poured off, a second portion is to 
be added and similarly digested; this mixture is now to be thrown 
on a filter, and washed with boiling distilled water, until the per- 
colating fluid ceases to afford a precipitation by a solution of 
nitrate of silver*. The first and second digested liquors, and 
the washings being added together, are now to be evaporated 
over a water bath till dry, and till no more weight can be lost 
by further use of the bath heat. 

We thus procure an aqueous extract C, and leave on the filter 
an insoluble residue D. The weight of extract C must be taken. 

Insoluble Jj) # The residue on the filter is now to be dried, its weight ascer- 

matter'and ta i ne d> an d set down in the analysis as insoluble albuminous 

vascularis- matter and vascular tissue. 

sue - C. The aqueous extract is next to be acted upon by digestion 

for a quarter of an hour, with four times its bulk of alcohol, at 
a boiling heat. The solution so formed being poured off, a 
second portion of alcohol is to be similarly digested, the mixture 
then thrown on a filter, and the liquor allowed to percolate. The 
two portions of fluid being added together are next to be eva- 
porated to dryness over the water bath. We thus procure an 
alcoholic extract E, and leave on the filter an extractive F, which 
is not soluble in alcohol. The former is to be dried and weighed, 
and estimated as " extractive soluble in alcohol and water," 
and the latter, similarly prepared, is to be estimated as " extract- 
ive soluble in water only." The added weights of these two 
extractives should equal that of the extract Cf. 

In conclusion, I must express my regret at having been pre- 
vented by a variety of circumstances from bringing forward ana- 
lyses of glands, either healthy or affected by some well-recog- 
nized degeneration. I have, I hope, made some amends by 
proposing a set form of examination, by the adoption of which, 
analyses, though executed by a variety of persons, may be made 
serviceable as comparative experiments in any single inquiry. 
The adoption of some such form is quite necessary before the 
objects of the Association can be answered ; for they have pro- 
posed a subject far too extensive to be developed, otherwise 
than by a multitude of experimenters, all working by the same 
rule of analysis. 

* No washings are to be commenced until all the liquor of digestion has first 
passed through the filter. 

N. B. The silver test can be used on a single drop of the filtering fluid. 

t These extractives, as also the insoluble albuminous tissue, must be incine- 
rated, the ashes examined, and noticed in the analysis. 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 155 



Second Report of the London Sub-Committee of the British 
Association Medical Section, on the Motions and Sounds of 
the Heart. 

The Committee appointed in London by the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, to investigate the Motions 
and Sounds of the Heart, have the honor to lay before this meet- 
ing a short account of some investigations of the abnormal 
sounds of the heart and arteries in which they have been recent- 
ly occupied. 

Before describing these, the Committee would remark, that 
although their last inquiries have not been specially directed 
to that subject, yet they have had many opportunities of verify- 
ing the conclusions on the natural sounds as presented in their 
report of last year ; and these conclusions not having been since 
shaken by any experiment or rational objection, it may be con- 
sidered as fairly established, that the first or systolic sound of 
the heart is essentially caused by the sudden and forcible tight- 
ening of the muscular fibres of the ventricles when they contract ; 
and that the second sound, which accompanies the diastole of 
the ventricles, depends solely on the reaction of the arterial 
columns of blood on the semilunar valves at the arterial orifices. 
It further appears that the first sound may be increased by an 
additional sound of impulsion against the walls of the chest, 
under certain circumstances of posture, of increased action of 
the heart, and of certain stages of the respiratory movements. 
It is also obvious that the character of the first sound may in 
some measure depend on the closure of the auriculo- ventricular 
valves, and on the quantity of blood ; inasmuch as these deter- 
mine the nature and time of the resistance against which the 
muscular fibres of the ventricles tighten. So, likewise, the vigour 
of the ventricular systole, the quantity of blood propelled by it, 
the sudden and complete character of the diastole, the fulness of 
the arterial trunks, as well as the perfect, mobile, and mem- 
branous condition of the semilunar valves, — will determine the 
character and loudness of the second sound. An experimental 
illustration of the effect of one of these conditions was observed 
by the Committee in the great diminution of the second sound 
by the free division of the carotid artery, which would greatly 
diminish the arterial tension. 

As additional illustrations of the production of a sound, like 
that of the heart, by muscular contraction, the Committee have 
noticed that which accompanies the action of the panniculus 
carnosus of the ass during life, and the quivering contraction 



156 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837« 

of various muscles immediately after death. The sound produced 
in the latter case, in nature and frequency, closely resembled the 
first sound of the heart of the foetus, or of small animals. 

In investigating the morbid sounds of the heart, the atten- 
tion of the Committee has been chiefly directed to the causes of 
those remarkable and various phenomena called murmurs, which 
are either added to, or supersede the natural sounds of the heart, 
and which were happily compared by Laennec to the familiar 
noises of blowing, filing, rasping, sawing, purring, cooing, &c. 
This inquiry consists of two parts : 1. What is the essential 
physical cause of the phenomena in question ? and 2. How does 
the apparatus of the circulation develope this cause in the various 
instances in which these phenomena are known to occur ? To 
the first of these questions the experiments of the Committee 
supply what they trust will be deemed a satisfactory answer. 
The second is to be fully answered by extensive clinical and 
pathological observation, rather than by direct experiment ; and 
although a few physiological illustrations will be cited to this 
point, yet the Committee do not profess to do more than to open 
this inquiry to all those who have the means of pursuing it. 

Experiments on the production of sound by the motion of water 
through tubes. 

A Caoutchouc tube, eighteen inches long, and three-eighths of 
an inch in diameter, was attached to the stop-cock of a reservoir 
in which there was water to the depth of eight or ten inches. 

When the water flowed unimpeded through this tube (all 
the air being first expelled,* and the lower end of the tube kept 
under water in a vessel below) no sound was heard ; but on press- 
ing any part of the tube so as to diminish its caliber, a blowing 
sound was heard, at and below thepoint of pressure, and this sound 
became louder and more whizzing as the pressure was increased. 
The loudest sounds were obtained at the lowest end of the tube, 
where they were sometimes quite musical ; and by increasing the 
pressure or the current at regular intervals, a periodic increase 
and raising of the sound were produced, closely resembling the 
murmur sometimes heard in the neck, to which the French have 
given the name of " bruit de diable." 

A pin being stuck transversely through the tube, a slight blow- 
ing was heard ; which was made louder on substituting for the pin 
a bit of split goose- quill. A stronger blowing was produced by 
a double thread across the diameter of the tube, especially when 

* As long as any air remains in the tube, a loud crepitation accompanies the 
current. 



REPORT OP MEDICAL SECTION. 157 

the thread was rather loose ; and a still louder and shriller sound 
ensued when a knot of string was fastened to the thread. 

The same tube being adapted to the stop-cock of a water-sup- 
ply pipe, through which the current could be left to pass with 
great force, it was found possible to imitate every variety of 
blowing, whizzing, and musical murmurs, by varying the pressure 
on, or impediment in, the tube, and by altering the force of the 
current. When the current was strong, the least impediment 
caused a murmur ; but with weaker currents, greater obstructions 
became necessary for the same effect. A partial obstruction, 
which with a weak current gave a blowing sound, produced, with 
a stronger current, one of a more whizzing character. Grating 
or rasping sounds were best obtained by the effect of a strong 
current on a knotted thread across the diameter of the tube. The 
musical or uniform sounds resulted from a moderately strong cur- 
rent through a considerable impediment : increasing the force of 
the current, or the degree of obstruction, rendered the sound 
whizzing and imperfect ; diminishing the current or the obstruc- 
tion, converted it into a simple blowing. When a sound was of 
an appreciable pitch, its note was high in proportion to the force 
of the current and the amount of the obstruction j a fine forcible 
stream producing the highest note. Sometimes, however, with 
a strong current, a loud trumpet note would be set up, which 
was not altered in pitch, but only in force, by changing the strength 
of the current. This kind of note produced vibrations of the 
tube below the impediment, perceptible to sight and touch, and 
the length of this portion of the tube seemed to affect the cha- 
racter of the note. This phenomenon precisely represented the 
purring sound and tremor sometimes perceptible in the heart 
and arteries. Musical sounds of a more variable character, like 
the cooing of a dove, the humming of an insect, or the whistling 
of wind, were produced with a weak current passing through a 
tube much obstructed. The pressure of a column of water only 
two or three inches high, was sufficient to give acute whistling 
notes, which were sustained, although varying, even when the 
water that passed only fell in drops. 

Bending the tube to an angleproduced a murmur, butno sound 
resulted from any curve that did not infringe on the caliber of 
the tube. A circular constriction by a thread drawn round the 
tube caused a murmur, which was blowing or whizzing accord- 
ing to the force of the current. 

When the tube with a weak current was pressed on at two 
points, the murmur was heard at the point where the pressure 
was greatest j and by increasing the pressure at one point the 
pressure was stopped at the other. When the current was strong, 



158 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

it was easy by a pretty equal pressure to cause a murmur at 
both points. 

With a stout Caoutchouc tube, two feet long and one inch in 
internal diameter, the same results were obtained, but in a more 
remarkable degree, in consequence of the increased size of the 
tube. When the current was strong and the pressure on the 
tube considerable, sounds were produced loud enough to be heard 
without applying the stethoscope or the ear ; and the vibrations 
of the tube below the obstruction were so strong that they threw 
the water in little jets from the outside of the tube. 

In making this experiment, the pressure of the water sudden- 
ly distended a portion of the tube into a globe about three inches 
in diameter, constituting a good imitation of a circumscribed 
true aneurism. As long as the force of the current was suffi- 
cient to keep the walls of the dilated portion tense, no sound 
was heard in them ; but when these walls became flaccid, the 
passing current caused a kind of fremitus in them. Pressure 
on the dilatation, or bending the tube so as to form an angle at 
this point, also sometimes occasioned a murmur. 

A globular India-rubber bottle, three inches in diameter, being 
adapted to an aperture in the side of a tube half an inch in dia- 
meter, so as to form an elastic sac communicating with it, a 
current was directed through it and all the air expelled. The 
same was done with a tube three-eighths of an inch in diameter, 
and a bottle of an inch and a half. In some positions of the 
tube, the current in passing the lateral sac caused a fremitus ; 
but in others, as when the tube was straight, there was no sound. 
A sudden increase of current, or the removal of external pressure 
from the sac, occasioned a whizzing by the entry of water into 
the sac. Independently of the current, sudden forcible pressure 
caused a whizzing with the expulsion of the fluid, and a similar 
whizzing attended the rapid reflux into the sac, on the removal 
of the pressure. 

Some of these experiments were repeated with water, rendered 
somewhat viscid with size. The results differed only in requi- 
ring a stronger force of current to produce the same effect. 

Remarks and conclusions. 

From all these results, it is sufficiently plain that a certain re- 
sistance or impediment to a liquid current is the essential phy- 
sical cause of all murmurs produced by the motion of fluids in 
tubes. That any condition of the walls of the tube beyond the 
impeding point is not, as it has been supposed, essential to the 
production of these sounds, is proved by the fact that they may 
be produced by a partial obstruction at the terminal orifice of 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 159 

the tube, or at the mouth of a gum elastic bottle, where there 
is no tube or wall beyond to cause them : usually, this is the 
situation where they can be most readily produced, because 
here the current has acquired its greatest momentum, and finds 
a free exit beyond the obstructing point. The more flaccid state 
of the portion of a tube beyond a partially obstructed point is a 
necessary effect of the scantier supply of water beyond the im- 
pediment. It is therefore a necessary concomitant of the ob- 
struction and its sound, but is not the cause of the sound. When, 
however, the sound occasioned by the obstruction is strong, its 
vibrations may be communicated to the whole contents and walls 
of the lube beyond, which will then vibrate in system with it, 
and be capable of modifying its note, just as the tube of a reed 
instrument affects the note which is exclusively generated in the 
reed. On the other hand, when the sound generated in the ob- 
struction is weak and varying, the condition of the tube or walls 
beyond it will not affect it. 

In short, the laws of the production of sound by liquids so 
nearly resemble those which regulate the same phenomenon 
in air, that illustrations for the one may be taken for the other. 

It may be proper to advert to an objection to this view, that 
a murmur is sometimes caused where there is no impediment 
to the course of a liquid, as when it passes suddenly from a small 
into a large tube, or into a sac. Now it is not true that in 
such a case there is no impediment, for the liquid in the large 
tube or sac, having less velocity, must in itself be an impediment. 
Besides this, the course of the smaller swift current becomes 
changed by spreading into the larger channel ; and instead of 
running smoothly parallel to the tube, now strikes its walls at 
an angle, causing a series of impulses and resistances, which, if 
forcible and rapid enough, constitute the vibrations of sound. 
It may be remarked, however, that this modification of a moving 
current is not so constantly attended with the production of 
sound as the direct obstacle presented by a narrowing of or pro- 
jection into the caliber of the tube. A current issuing from a 
tube or orifice into a larger vessel or sac, is also capable of pro- 
ducing a sound by impinging against an opposite surface. 

Experiments on the production of murmurs in the living body. 

About two inches of the length of the common carotid artery 
of a young ass was laid bare. Different degrees of pressure, 
either by the stethoscope or by a probe passed under it, occa- 
sioned a variety of murmurs, blowing, sawing, filing, and musical 
cooing at each pulse. When the stethoscope was merely placed 



160 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

in contact, without pressure, no murmur was heard ; but when 
the heart acted strongly, a simple impulse and sound. 

The artery was scratched for a few seconds with the point 
of a scalpel ; it gradually became sensibly smaller for the length 
of half an inch about that point. A strong solution of salt being 
applied, the contraction increased, but it was still of a gradual 
and tapering kind, and the stethoscope could detect no murmur 
in it ; but very slight pressure on it caused a whizzing. The 
pulse at this contracted portion was felt to be much harder and 
sharper than above or below it. 

A small incision being made into the artery, a jet of blood 
issued, and a whizzing, sometimes in pulses, sometimes conti- 
nuous like the bruit de (liable, was heard beyond the orifice, 
but not at the portion of the artery nearest to the heart, the sound 
being, as usual, carried in the direction of the current. The in- 
cision being made larger, the blood spouted to the distance of 
more than six feet, and the animal died in ten minutes after this 
last incision ; the beats of the heart were frequent, short, and 
pretty loud, but without a second sound, and to the last with- 
out a murmur. They continued for nearly two minutes after 
the respiration and consciousness had ceased, becoming gradu- 
ally slower. 

The Committee repeated the observation that has often been 
made before, that a murmur can easily be produced by press- 
ure on the subclavian, carotid, or femoral artery of the hu- 
man subject. This murmur is generally of a grating or filing 
character, and is prolonged in proportion to the degree of pressure. 

Whilst making the observations on the carotids, they found 
that a continuous murmur of very remarkable and variable cha- 
racters could be produced by pressure on the jugular veins, espe- 
cially in the angle formed by the sterno-mastoid muscle with 
the clavicle. The most common sound thus produced was like 
the humming of a gnat or fly ; but occasionally it resembled the 
whistling of the wind, the singing of a kettle, the cooing of a 
dove, and sometimes it was perfectly what the French have called 
the "bruit de diable." Dr. Ogier Ward of Birmingham had pre- 
viously come to the conclusion that this sound is produced in 
the jugular veins, and the observations of the Committee con- 
firm this inference : but they do not agree with this physician 
in the opinion, which he adopts from MM. Andral and Bouil- 
laud, that the presence of this sound denotes a chlorotic state 
of the system, for which steel is indicated, or that it is essentially 
a morbid symptom at all. It may be produced in the healthiest 
subjects by moderate pressure applied to the lower part of the 
jugular veins, and is then found to be modified by various cir- 



REPORT OF MEDICAL SECTION. 161 

cumstances which can only affect the venous current. Thus it 
may be arrested or diminished by pressure on the vein above, 
by the horizontal posture or hanging down the head, and by 
forced efforts to expire with the glottis closed. It may be restored 
in increased degree by suddenly desisting from any of these acts 
or circumstances. The occasional pulsatory or remittent cha- 
racter of this sound seems to depend on the momentary increase 
of pressure caused by each pulse of the neighbouring artery ; 
and when, as sometimes happens, these pulses are attended with 
a whizzing, this is in a measure incorporated with the venous 
sound, and increases the periodic swell. The size and down- 
ward current of the jugular veins peculiarly adapt them for 
the production of sound, but probably sounds may be pro- 
duced in most other large veins when circumstances accele- 
rate the current through them. The Committee have detected 
an obscure murmur in some of the large superficial veins of 
the arm and thigh. This murmur is not in pulses, and is to 
be distinguished from muscular sounds by its being confined to 
the situation of the veins, and its being immediately arrested by 
pressure on the vein. Occasionally a pretty loud murmur or 
fremitus is to be heard on either side of the upper portion of 
the sternum, which, from its resemblance in character to the ve- 
nous sounds, may be supposed to have its seat in the large ve- 
nous trunks that lie underneath. 

Although it appears from these facts that the venous sounds 
are not necessarily signs of disease, yet the circumstance proved 
by the Committee, that water is thrown into sonorous vibrations 
more readily than a fluid of a more glutinous character, renders it 
probable that these and other sounds depending on the motion of 
liquids in the apparatus of the circulation may be more easily 
produced where the blood is thin and deficient in quantity ; and 
under these circumstances they may occur in the neck from the 
mere pressure of the muscles on the jugular veins. 

The Committee had planned several experiments for the 
further elucidation of the second part of the inquiry, By what 
changes, functional and structural, does the apparatus of the 
circulation develope the physical causes of the abnormal mur- 
murs and sounds in the various instances m which they are 
known to occur ? This part of the inquiry, so important for the 
elucidation of several obscure points in pathology, diagnosis and 
practice, the Committee propose to resume, if the Association 
should think proper to recommend them to continue their labours. 
Signed Charles J. B. Williams, M.D., F.R.S. 

R. B. Todd, M.D., Professor of Physiology 
and Pathology, King's College, London. 

vol. vi. 1837. m 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 163 



On the present state of our knowledge in regard to Dimor- 
phous Bodies. By Prof. Johnston. 

The subject of the following Report is one in regard to which 
our knowledge is yet in its infancy. It has arrived, however, 
at that state in which a detailed exposition and critical exami- 
nation of all the facts hitherto observed, is likely to lead to new 
inquiries, to call new observers into the field, and thus more 
rapidly to dissipate the obscurity with which it is invested. It 
will not be uninteresting also in after years to look back upon 
the facts actually established, the views entertained, and the 
speculations hazarded at the present time, — to mark how far 
the phenomena were rightly interpreted, — what glimmerings of 
truth were mingled with the early speculations, — at what rate 
this department of knowledge had subsequently advanced, and 
how far this advance had been promoted or retarded by the 
hypothetical views of its first cultivators *. 

I. 

1. When the forms and dimensions of crystallized bodies 
began to be accurately observed and recorded, it was soon re- 
cognized that these might be classed among the most distinct 
and specific characters which solid bodies possessed. Observa- 
tion seemed at first to show that each substance, simple and 

• How much the progress of science depends on the mode in which pheno- 
mena are interpreted by the first observers is strikingly illustrated in the case 
of certain experiments of Robert Boyle. He observed that when copper, lead, 
iron, and tin were heated to redness in the air, a portion of calx was formed, 
and there was a constant and decided increase of weight. — (Experiments to 
make Fire and Flame ponderable. London, 1673.) This experiment he re- 
peated with lead and tin in glass vessels hermetically sealed, and found still an 
increase of weight, but observed further, that when " the sealed neck of the re- 
tort was broken tiff, the external air rushed in with a noise." — (Additional ex- 
periments, No..V., and a discovery of the perviousness of glass to ponderable 
parts of flame, Exp. III.) From this he-reasoned correctly, that in calcination 
tbe metal lost nothing by drying up, as was generally supposed, or that if it did, 
" by this operation it gained more weight than it lost." — (Coroll. II.) But 
this increase of weight he attributed to the fixation of heat, stating it as "plain 
that igneous particles were trajected through the glass," and that " enough of 
them to be manifestly ponderable did permanently adhere." Had he weighed 
his sealed retort before he broke it open, he must have concluded that the metal 
had increased in weight at the expense of the inclosed air. He stood in fact 
on the very brink of the pneumatic chemistry of Priestley ; he had in his 
hand the key to the great discovery of Lavoisier. How nearly were those 
philosophers anticipated by a whole century, and the long interregnum of 
Phlogiston prevented ! On what small oversights do great events in the his- 
tory of science as of nations depend ! 

M 2 



164 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

compound, assumed, on crystallizing, a form peculiar to itself, 
and that this form constituted an unfailing specific character, — 
(Haiiy.) Crystals belonging to the regular system presented 
the only apparent exceptions. 

2. After a time, however, the generality of this conclusion 
was further narrowed by the doctrine of isomorphism, which 
showed that form alone, even when not tessular, was insufficient 
in many cases to determine the chemical constitution of a body*. 
Still, in these new exceptions, the form indicated the nature and 
constitution of a substance within certain limits, that it was a 
member of this or that isomorphous group, elevating crystalline 
dimensions in such instances from the rank of a specific to that 
of a generic character. Even this place, however, they did not 
long retain undisturbed. 

3. Founded on the principle that the molecules of crystalline 
bodies have themselves a regular crystalline form, the doctrine 
of isomorphism hitherto recognised, that for each substance, 
simple and compound, this form was one and invariable ; though 
not necessarily a specific that it was a constant character. 

4. The earliest measurements of artificial crystals had been 
made on such as were formed in ordinary circumstances of tem- 
perature and by the most usual methods of manipulation. 
Occasionally, however, crystals formed at higher temperatures 
or under peculiar circumstances attracted attention ; and in 
certain cases these new crystals were found to differ in form or 
dimensions from the ordinary form of the same substance, to 
such an extent that they could not be derived from each other 
by the ordinary laws of crystallization. Thus sulphur crystal- 
lized from fusion differs in form from the natural crystals and 
from those deposited from solutions of sulphurf. And as the 
resources or results of analytical chemistry were multiplied so 
as to place beyond doubt the chemical identity of different spe- 
cimens, the examples of such differences gradually increased in 
number. Natural substances also were met with, crystallized 
under circumstances not well understood and generally beyond 
our imitation, which, though shown to agree in chemical con- 
stitution, yet differed wholly in form. Graphite and the dia- 
mond, both forms of pure carbon j — arragonite, and calc spar, 
both pure carbonate of lime, are groups of this kind. 

5. To mark the singular character possessed by these bodies, 
they have been distinguished by the term dimorphous, and the 
abstract property by that of dimorphism. 

* Mitscherlich, An. de Chim. et de Phys., XIV. p. 172. 

t In bisulphuret of carbon, or in quadri (?) sulphuret of hydrogen. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 165 

6. It appears, therefore, that the crystalline form of a body 
is not only not a specific character, but that it is not even a 
constant character. It might also appear at first sight that 
this new result of observation would materially weaken the evi- 
dence in favour of isomorphism ; that though two bodies (A 
and B) do assume the same form, or replace each other in cer- 
tain circumstances, yet since one of them (A) is capable of 
assuming two incompatible forms, they may not in all cir- 
cumstances either assume the same form or be capable of mutual 
replacement. 

7. A further observation, however, though it does not obviate 
entirely,aswe shall afterwards have occasion to remark, the neces- 
sity of attending to this argument, yet establishes a beautiful con- 
nection between dimorphous and isomorphous bodies, and points 
to some more general law, probably of molecular arrangement, 
by which both classes of phenomena are regulated and linked 
together. Certain groups of isomorphous bodies have been met 
with, each individual of which groups is dimorphous or capable of 
assuming two incompatible forms (A and B), yet in their second 
form (B), as in their first (A), they are still isomorphous. Thus 
carbonate of lime and nitrate of potash are both dimorphous, 
and one of the forms of nitre is isomorphous with calc spar, the 
other with arragonite, which are the two forms of carbonate of 
lime. Such groups have been distinguished by the term isodi- 
morphous. AH the known groups of this kind will be inserted 
in a subsequent part of this report (16). 

8. The principle of dimorphism thus recognised, is one of 
great interest in the present state of chemical physics. Con- 
nected on the one hand with the crystalline doctrine of isomor- 
phism, and on the other, as we shall hereafter see, with the 
chemical doctrine of isomerism, it maybe regarded as standingbe- 
tween the two, and as likely to throw light on the cause of both. 

9. The case of dimorphism, which was earliest known to che- 
mists and mineralogists, is presented by carbonate of lime in 
the two incompatible forms of arragonite and calc spar. Stro- 
meyer attempted to account for the difference between these 
two minerals by showing that arragonite always contained car- 
bonate of strontian to the amount of from ^ to 4 per cent., and 
from J- to \ per cent, of water* ; and the presence of these sub- 

* Untersuchung iiber die Mischung der Mineralkorper und anderer damit 
vervjandten Substanzen. Gbttingen, 1821. In this work are ten analyses of 
arragonites, undertaken in confirmation of his previously published opinion, 
which had been controverted. Great credit was due to Stromeyer for his 
beautiful analyses, but there is now no reason to believe that either strontia or 
water are necessary constituents of arragonite. 



166 SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 

stances was considered by many chemists to afford a plausible 
explanation of what was then regarded as a very singular ano- 
maly. A few years after the publication of this opinion, how- 
ever, Mitscherlich observed a similar difference between the 
form of sulphur crystallized from fusion, and that in which it 
occurs in the mineral kingdom* ; and as in this case it was easy 
to prove the absence of any foreign body, it became necessary to 
attribute the difference to some other cause than that advanced 
by Stromeyer, to explain the production of arragonite. The pro- 
secution of the inquiry soon put into the hands of Mitscherlich 
other examples, and since that period scarcely a year has passed 
without adding some new facts to our growing knowledge. 

10. The following table contains a list of all the substances 
hitherto described as dimorphous, and it embodies nearly every 
thing we at present know in regard to the chemical and physical 
differences which the several forms of these substances present. 
See opposite table. 

1 1 . To this list might have been added anatase and futile, were 
it not that some doubt still exists as to whether both of these 
minerals consist of titanic acid only. They crystallize in square 
prisms of different dimensions and having different cleavages. 
The bichromate of potash appears also to be dimorphous, cry- 
stallizing from fusion, in a form which it does not retain on 
cooling f. I have also obtained from a London manufacturer 
crystals of iodide of potassium in square prisms three-eighths 
of an inch (f in.) in length, which are frequently deposited 
along with the ordinary cubical crystals from the concentrated 
solution. On resolution and evaporation they give only cubes. 
They exhibit traces of double refraction, which, however, the 
opacity of the crystals renders very indistinct. Mr. Brooke, to 
whom I have submitted them, is unable to pronounce decidedly 
as to their form, from the want of well-defined secondary faces. 
Like the capillary red oxide of copper from Cornwall, they may 
be only an aggregation of cubes. DufrenoyJ states that cast 
iron has been observed in cubes and in rhomboids, but the 
statement is of too uncertain a kind to be deserving of much 
confidence § . Among the ordinary crystals of sulphate of pot- 
ash with two axes, Sir David Brewster states that he observed 
some six-sided prisms with only one axis of double refraction. 

* Poggend. AnnalenYll. p. 528, (1826.) 

t See Table IV. p. 26. 

% An. de Chim. et de Phys.. LVI. p. 198. 

§ It was formerly considered that the sulphates of zinc and magnesia belonged 
to the group of dimorphous sulphates, but later observations of Mitscherlich 
have shown that the supposed second form contains only 6 atoms of water. 



e kno^ 

Hardne 
1-5 to i 

1- to 5 
3-5 to < 

2'5 to : 

2- to : 

3 - 5 to • 



6- to I 
Do. 



2-5 to 

3-5 to 

35 to 

? 

3-5 to 

30 to 









2-5 to 



II. Bi*in»rntary Compound! 

■ ' ■ ■;■■ !■ 

■ 


: 


Solpburtt of Silu-r 


j 


Sulphur.-! of Manganic, . 








Biniodide of Mcrcurj 




Bichloride of Mercury 




Aran' 










,.\ Qf 3 EUmcnli 


, 




Carbonate of Magnesia, .. 


■■* 




















On™ of Lead 


■ 


rv -^^/j.^.-^V, 






Sdemate of Zinc, 


«i 


Bundphatc of Potash, 


..A 












Idocra* 



Sulphato Tricarbooate of Lead,. 



CnS di c».s 
AgS or Ag,S 



CtO+CO, 

tfgO+CO, 
PcO+CO 

PbO+cOj 

KO+NOj 

PbO+CrO, 

s,M_. S0|+7H0 

ZnO+SfjO^ WO 

KO+S0,+HO+SO, 



i ;■ ( o*+srf) j ' 

PbS+3Ph( 



I Hi. Rh. IV. M ..„ M 10] -'.9 Ha 
T Reg. Ociulicdriiii 



| Oi whed i 

iir.v ..,,„!, 
|ui. id,, iv 



{"""""• 
i Bt in, 

:::,■;■ 

■■ ill,,,, '- 

| 111. Ill: 



m, iv 

I R( Rfa Pi U ... M ' 

\ Si)uar, pri 

/Rl. Rh. Pr 



Table I.— Exhibiting a list of a ll the kn own dimo r phous b odies, and the observed differences in the physical properties of the two forms of each substance. 1837. 



\! I.iutlv 

Cunininnl) ... 



Abund. in lied Copper 

Rarely in Kiipfcr liliitht 



Generally ... 

Abuti.lanllv 

AlninihmtU 
Rarely 



fiivurtri! in a-ii» Itiug I'niii.i, e \\,,|,l,i 

Nttive in white antimony 



Evaporating a. solution of MgC in C. 



iiv i-ispn r.ii-., Mi.i 

I M . ..,.,, K tot: 



5 Kr. 2-0B91 H. 



■NaliPt. brown, 1 
. yd. green ...) 



-|.l. ndi-iil. L-las 
Adamantine .. 



Vitreuoi. pearly .. 
Vjircons. pearly... 



Heforc blow-pipe melts quietly 



The form D generally midr 



t 60° 1-25 212 s 1 1-50 Cm 



AtG0°F. 14-3 212T. 100. 
More soluble than A 



At 212" 200 pts.. 
Largely lolnhlt* ., 



Seventh Report of British Association, to face p. 166. 



ion. TtuHlnihorbmei 



■"■ I 'iv iliciciilti. account for n 



I , I'm i -Ii -uflii-i *'■! He purtirl.'i in iii.xi.ii 

I \lii. i'li< Tlii-li Munlo lln i are |iml ml.lv ill- i 



| ■ 



lolutionofopikeinuiInHClenu'l ■ lug 

*"!'" I" filn^s ■■. t-n.'i u,.l I. I, |i , .-., .i.,;i,.|,i U ; Hi, ,u ,i,,l, ar -tmV.lr 

anil in miss upako. Tli.- glut; a.'nl i- tli.-r.-fi.n- . ill., i lln- r»rm II >ir in .1 lh.nl Male 



I in.h.itcl grin. pi of magnesia allm. 



C tlircnnnlmviifmiiii.il, I i,. Int. mi- ii nil.- ipnr, from hoi amigniii 

i-.illigui.^;iiii.|.-rr..|iil-ili -■ - I In I hli.i.Ki iiln.li^|.:ic 

dryness the urrag tic cry-tuli arc ..luiunnl iiiim 



kcritc are urifnrtimatily left in doubt 
'in r.ilh riiiimled. It OCC 

icd, i- n hod 



In the air th<< rhombic Hni,n-«ci mnte rci-lih thud il.c w|unre pri Ms ■ 



Hose, Pog. ,(n.,\lii-i 

John! BrewiWi 

Miticlicrlieb, Levy, I 

Fnmkcnhcim, Pog. .■ 

Mag., Mayl 
UiUchcrllch. 



'/, II,,..;, Qui, '.,-■ .. ■ 



. Km Kupfci . A". . Kani 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 167 

If these were crystals of sulphate they would indicate a dimor- 
phism in this salt also. — Edin. Phil. Jour., vol. i. 

Other substances likely to prove dimorphous are inserted in 
Table III., and it is not impossible that some of those forms 
now considered pseudo-morphic, may hereafter appear to be true 
cases of dimorphism. 

Several observations suggest themselves on a glance at this 
table. 

12. The number of substances contained in it, and of which 
the dimorphism has been discovered in so short a time, renders 
it very doubtful whether the crystalline form assumed by any 
given substance is one only and invariable. 

13. The several forms of the same substance possess different 
physical properties, — different colour, hardness, density, or 
relations to heat and light. This is true of every pair of di- 
morphous bodies in the table, yet in all of them the chemical 
relations remain unchanged. The only trace of an exception, 
yet observed, is in the different solubilities of the two forms of 
arsenious acid and in the different behaviour of garnet and vesu- 
vian before the blow-pipe. These chemical differences, how- 
ever, are too obscure to demand much attention in this place ; 
were they distinct and well-defined, the compounds which ex- 
hibit them, should be removed from the class of simply dimor- 
phous to that of isomeric bodies*. 

It appears, therefore, that dimorphous bodies exhibit in their 
several forms physical differences only, the chemical relations 
remaining unchanged. To this remarkable characteristic of 
such bodies we shall have occasion to advert when we come to 
inquire into the cause of dimorphism and its connection with 
isomerism. 

14. In the relation between the first and second forms of several In dimor- 
of the groups in the Table, a striking analogy presents itself, phous com 
In the carbonates of lime, of magnesia, of lead, and of iron, and in JjXch Wie- 
the nitrate of potash, the first form being a rhomboid of nearly mentis di- 
equal dimensions in all, the second form is a right rhombic prism morphous. 
similarly related in dimensions. In arsenious acid and oxide of 
antimony, the first form is the regular octohedron, the second a 

right rhombic prism. In each form these substances are iso- 
morphous, or they are isoditnorphous. 

* Though alike in chemical constitution, the two forms of arsenious acid 
and garnet may be the result of isomerism. In minerals represented by so 
complicated a formula as garnet and vesuvian, it is impossible to say that the 
elements are not very differently arranged, that they are not, in fact, different 
substances. 



168 SEVENTH REPORT — L837- 



II. 



15. Of Isodimorphous Groups. — In my report on the ac- 
tual state of chemical science, published in 1832, p. 433*, I 
drew attention to the remarkable fact that two substances 
known to be dimorphous, the carbonates of lime and lead, cry- 
stallized each in two forms, the analogous pairs of which were 
also isomorphous. To distinguish this new character I sug- 
gested the term isodimorphous, and I stated as probable that 
we should " soon be able to embrace the whole of the isomor- 
phous groups to which calc spar, and arragonite severally 
belong in one large isodimorphous group." This expectation 
has already been partly verifiedf, while other groups have been 
discovered connecting other systems of crystallization also, and 
holding out the promise of large accessions to this branch of 
knowledge as observations become more extended. 

16. The following table comprises all the groups of these 
substances, and all the members belonging to these groups with 
which we are at present acquainted. 

* Report of the British Association, vol. i. 

•)- See especially the interesting paper of G. Rose, (Pog. An. xlii. p. 366), 
whose experiments are still in progress and promise new accessions to this list, 
as well as to our knowledge of the circumstances under which the several forms 
are produced. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 



169 



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170 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837- 

Relation 1^. Remarks on the Table of Isodimorphous Groups. — One 

among sy- f ^g mos t striking facts exhibited by this table is the existence 
cmtalliza- °f an intimate relation between certain forms not mutually de- 
tion. rivable ; — between the several systems of crystallization. That 

these systems are natural is proved both by geometrical consi- 
derations, and by the fact that the same substance crystallized 
in forms belonging to different systems possesses different phy- 
sical properties (13), yet the isodimorphous groups show that 
there is a relation, not accidental but constant between crystals 
of a given dimension in one system and crystals of a given di- 
mension in another system. Thus in the first group the 

Rhomboid of 105° to 107° is related to the Rt. Rh. Prism of 116° to 118° 

Regular Octohedron Rt. Rh. Prism of 139° in the second. 

Do. Rhomboid of 71-30 in the third. 

Square Pi ism Rt. Rh. Prism of 9P10 in the fourth. 

18. The form of the crystal is dependent on the form and ar- 
rangement of the crystalline molecules ; instead however of 
necessarily agreeing in form with either of those observed in the 
crystal, the phenomena of dimorphism show that they probably 
differ from both, and by their union in the direction of one or 
other of two axes of attraction of nearly equal force build up 
one or other of the observed crystalline forms. If the connec- 
tion between the system of crystallization indicated by the table 
be really of this kind ; if forms constantly related in dimension, 
but belonging to different systems, may be formed by the collo- 
cation of molecules of one constant form, it is not impossible 
that this relation may hereafter be expressed analytically ; that 
more general formulae may be obtained involving the properties 
of two or more systems, and by means of which the form and 
dimensions of the molecules may be deduced from those of the 
dimorphous crystals which are made up of them, and which we 
can measure. 

19. While tracing the connection of the forms of dimorphous 
bodies we are naturally led to inquire if any relation be obser- 
vable between the form assumed and the physical properties 
which accompany it. Our data are still too few and imperfect 
to enable us to give any satisfactory answer to this inquiry. 

In regard to density, the observations recorded in Table I. 
would indicate that the same substance — 

Sulphur in the form of a Rh. Octohed. is more dense than in that of an Ob. Rh. Prism. 

Carbon Reg. Octohed. Rhomboid. 

Bisulphuret of Iron"! 

and V- Reg. Octohed. — Rt. Rh. Prism. 

Arsenious Acid | 

Carbonate of Lime "] 

and l Rt Rh. Pr. Rhomboid. 

Baryto Calcite J 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 171 

or that in these forms the molecules are nearest to each other 
in the following order :— 

Reg. Octohedron and Cube. 

Rhombic Octohedron ? . 

Rt. Rhombic Prism. 

Oblique Rhombic Prism ?. 

Rhomboid. 
The hardness of the several forms seems to follow a similar 
order, the denser of two forms being also the harder. This is 
certainly the case with the diamond and the arragonitic forms of 
carbonate of lime and baryto calcite, but the observations we 
possess on this point are still too few in number, and made, in 
general, with too little attention to minute accuracy*, to justify 
us in founding any general conclusion upon them. 

20. It will be observed that the several members of each 
group in the above table are represented by analogous formulae 
with a substitution in each of one element only, — a metal. The 
first group, with one exception, is represented by the general 

formula RC or RO + C0 2 , and the fourth group by RS + 7H isomor- 
or RO + RO3 + 7HO in which not only the entire sum of the P h ™ s s 
negative and positive equivalents is equal, but the sum of those uao i y di- 
in each member of the formulae is also equal. Thus in the first of morphous. 
these formula? RO + CO a the negative are to the positive equiva- 
lents as 3 : 2, and in the two parts RO and C0 2 they are as 1 : 1 
and 2:1. This is the case with all the neutral carbonates of 
Protoxides, whether isomorphous or not. In the second for- 

* M. Frankenheim has observed in regard to the hardness of crystallized 
bodies, native and artificial, that three orders of differences are to be observed : 

1° On the same line in opposite directions. 

2° On the same face in different lines. 

3° On different faces of the same crystal. 

He finds that two directions or faces of the same crystallographic value have 
always the same hardness, and that isomorphous bodies very different in abso- 
lute have similar relative hardnesses. This is the case, for example, in regard 
to nitrate of soda and calo spar, the absolute hardnesses of which are so unlike. 

These orders of differences he found to be intimately connected with the 
natural joints of the crystals, so that the hardness is least. 

1° In relation to different faces ; on the faces of the joints themselves. 

2° On each face in the line perpendicular to the intersection which the prin- 
cipal joint would give of that face. 

3° On the same perpendicular, in a direction from the obtuse to the acute 
dihedral angle of the intersection. — Frankenheim Traite sur la cohesion des 
corps. Extract Biblioth. Univ., June 1836. 

By considerations drawn from the relations of the polar forces, supposed to 
reside in the crystallographic axes of crystallized bodies, M. Voltz has endea- 
voured to show that the hardness must vary on different faces and in different 
directions, and according to certain laws (I Institut., 9th August, 1834). 



172 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837» 



mula RO + R0 3 -f 7HO the same ratio prevails among the several 
members in both the substances as yet known to belong to the 
isodimorphous group it represents. 

Now as we know that there are several carbonates isomorphous 
with the first form of the first group in our table, and several 
with the second, all of which are represented by the same for- 
mulae, there is reason to believe that they also are dimorphous, 
and that our knowledge of them might be represented as fol- 
lows : 



Like forms 
generally 
follow like 
formulae. 



Carbonate of Manganese 

Zinc 

Baryta 

Strontia .. 



Found native. ... Not known. 

Do. ... Do. 
Not known i Found native. 

Do. ... Do. 



Rt. Rh. Prism. 



and so with the rest of the isomorphous carbonates. 

In like manner we are justified in looking forward to the en- 
largement of the fourth group by the addition of the other iso- 
morphous neutral sulphates and seleniates of protoxides with 
seven atoms of water. It was supposed that the sulphates of 
zinc and magnesia had been met with in two forms, but later 
observations of Mitscherlich have shown that the second form 
contains only six atoms of water. 

21. It is generally true, so far as observations have gone, that 
isomorphous substances are analogous in constitution ; the ratio 
of the positive and negative equivalents in the whole formulas, 
and in their several members, being the same. The converse 
of this, however probable it may be, is by no means so generally 
established. A knowledge of the principle of dimorphism how- 
ever, and especially of that of isodimorphism, enables us to un- 
derstand how bodies may be isomorphous and yet not present 
themselves to us in ordinary circumstances under the same 
forms. Thus the chromate and molybdate of lead are represented 
by formulae, which are analogous in every respect, and contain 
the common base oxide of lead, and yet they occur in nature in 
different forms. If we suppose them to be dimorphous, then 
the ordinary form of each may be considered as representing 
the second or rarer form of the other, and including tungstate 
of lead, which is isomorphous, with the molybdate, we have the 
following isodimorphous groups : — 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 



173 





Formula. 


Square Prism. 


Oblique Rh. Prism. 


Tungstate of Lead... 


PbCr 
PbMo 
PbCr 


Common form ... 
Do. 


Not known. 

Do. 
Common form. 









As an illustration of this point we might have taken the sulphate 
and chromate of lead, of which not only are the formulae every 
way analogous, but in which both the acid and the base are 
known to be isomorphous and capable of replacing each other, 
or we might have made one group of the sulphate, chromate, and 
molybdate, which all present themselves in different forms. I 
have however taken the case of the chromate and molybdate, 
because I think the probability of the two forms of these com- 
pounds being a real isodimorphism is very much strengthened 
by a specimen in the possession of my friend Mr. Brooke, of 
London, which he showed me as a molybdate of lead (a square 
prism the form of the molybdate) having the colour of the 
chromate. I am not without hopes of obtaining a fragment for 
the purpose of determining if it does not really contain chromic 
acid*. The case of substances represented by the general for- 
mulas presenting themselves in more than two incompatible 
forms will be considered in a subsequent section of this reportf. 

22. But all the members of isodimorphous groups, much less T ., , 
r ... . , r & -i ^ , Like forms 

01 groups simply isomorphous, are not necessarily represented ^th unlike 

by formulae every way analogous. Of this the fourth member formulae. 

of the first group in our table, the nitrate of potash, presents a 

striking example. In the formula for this salt (KO + N0 5 ) 

neither the ratio between the positive and negative elements in 

the entire compounds, nor in the acid it contains is the same 

with that which exists in the carbonates (RO + C0 2 ) which form 

the other members of the group. 

Among isomorphous bodies, known to assume only one form 

(monomorphous), it was early observed by MitscherlichJ that 

potash (KO) might be replaced both in neutral and acid 

salts by ammonia with an atom of water (H 3 N + HO), without 

change of form, though neither the number of equivalents nor 

• Since this report went to press I have examined a fragment of this speci- 
men, and found it to be chromate, which has enabled me to insert this compound 
in Table I. among the other known cases of dimorphism. See Lond. and Edin. 
Phil. Mag. for May 1838. 

-f See p. 197. 

J Berz. Arsberattelse, 1833, p. 136. 



174 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837« 

the number of elements, nor the ratio between the positive and 
negative constituents was alike in the mutually replacing com- 
pounds. As, however, ammonia with an atom of water maybe 
represented by (H 4 N + O) the oxide of ammonium ; this case was 
fairly considered as by no means decisive that isomorphous bodies 
are not necessarily analogous in constitution and represented by 
analogous formulae. It may be, as many chemists have thought 
probable from other grounds, that potassium is itself a com- 
pound metal, and that potash, were its true constitution under- 
stood, may be analogous with ammonia. 

Other compounds, however, were discovered, agreeing in form, 
yet represented by formula? not reconcilable according to re- 
ceived views. Of these the earliest known were, that nitrate of 
soda and nitrate of potash, not then observed to be dimorphous, 
were severally isomorphous with calc spar and arragonite, and 
other examples have since been added chiefly by the researches 
of Mitscherlich. All the known groups of this kind are repre- 
sented in the following Table. T call them monomorphous, to 
indicate that as groups with unlike formulae they are not all 
known to assume more than one form. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 



175 



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ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 1/7 

The seventh group has been inserted on the authority of 
Kohler, whose paper may be consulted with advantage, and some 
doubt may be supposed still to hang over the isomorphism of 
silica and chabasie, though on this similarity of form I have 
elsewhere* founded an explanation of certain optical phenomena 
observed by sir David Brewster in some varieties of chabasie, as 
well as of certain differences in chemical constitution, which 
specimens from different localities have been found to present. 

23. Attempts have notbeen wanting to reconcile some of thedis- Are these 
cordant formulae exhibited by the above isomorphous .groups, formulaere- 
but hitherto without much success. Thus Dr. Clarke has en- 
deavouredf to reconcile the formulae for anhydrous sulphate of 
soda (NaO + S0 3 ) and permanganate of baryta (BaO + Mn 2 7 ), 
forming the sixth group in the above table by supposing 

1° That the equivalent of sodium is double of that generally 

received or Na, soda being Na, and an equivalent of the anhy- 
drous sulphate of soda Na 2 2 + S 2 O e . 

2° That the acids combine directly with the metals and not 
with their oxides, and consequently that the rational formulae 
for the two salts in question are respectively (representing Na 2 

by Na) Na+S 2 8 and Ba+Mn 2 8 or Na-j-S^and Ba + Mn 
in which state the formulae correspond, and the isomorphism of 
the two "salts becomes intelligible. 

The first of these hypotheses must be rejected, I believe for 
reasons which will find their natural place in a succeeding 
paragraph (26), the second is so completely opposed to all ex- 
perimental evidence that chemists could hardly be expected to 
regard it with a favourable eye even though the first hypothesis 
to which it serves as a sequel were not deemed inadmissible. 
Great violence to received opinions must not be offered for the 
explanation of a single apparent anomaly. Each group in the table 
would probably require one or more specific hypotheses to recon- 
cile the formulae of the several substances which compose it, and 
these hypotheses, as appears in the following section, might often 
be conflicting, showing that we are still far from a glimpse of the 
truth. 

Why should it be thought necessary to reconcile the formulae 
of isomorphous bodies, except that, carried away by the beauty 
of the doctrine of Mitscherlich, we have generalized too hastily ? 
If the same substance may crystallize in two or more different 

* Lond. and Edinb. Phil. Mag., vol. ix. p. 166. 
\ Records of Science. 
VOL. VI. 1837. N 



178 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

forms, why may not the converse hold ? why may not different 
substances crystallize in one and the same form ? We must 
allow instances to accumulate before we make any serious at- 
tempts at explanation. 

24. It may be proper here to notice a paper by Persoz, in the 
Annates de Chimie et de Physique, No. lx. p. 145, in which, to 
reconcile the discordant formulae of certain substances he sup- 
poses to be isomorphous, he advances the hypothesis that bodies 
unite by equivalent volumes, and not by equivalent atoms ; and 
that compounds may be isomorphous which contain equal 
volumes, either simple or compound. Thus, though the re- 
ceived formulae for the sulphates and carbonates RS&RC be 
different, they may be considered alike if we suppose the acids 
to be composed respectively of 2 vols, sulphurous acid + 1 vol. 
oxygen, and 2 vols, carbonic oxide + 1 vol. oxygen, and the 
neutral sulphates and carbonates may be isomorphous. So also 

may the nitrates and hyponitrites (RN&RN) be isomorphous 
since the acids are composed of, 

The nitric ... of 4 vols, nitrous acid + 1 vol. oxygen 
hyponitric of 4 vols, nitric oxide + 1 vol. oxygen. 

This hypothesis exhibits an unfortunate waste of ingenuity, 
since it has been proposed to explain two supposed cases of 
isomorphism, which have in reality no existence. On the au- 
thority of Kobell, verified by Voltz, he states that the forms of 
sulphate of barytes (BaO + SO a ) and arragonite (CaO + C0 2 ) 
are identical*, though the inclination of the lateral faces of the 
RtRh Prism in the former is 101° 42', in the latter, 116° 10'. 
They are, indeed, what Kobell calls homoiomorphousf ; but so 
are numerous other substances, the formula? of which it would 
be idle to attempt to reconcile. Because also the nitrate of 
lead (an octohedron) crystallizes without change of form in a 
solution of hyponitrate (PbO + N 2 3 ), he concludes that these 
two salts are isomorphous ; and to explain this imaginary 
identity of form between a sulphate and a carbonate, a nitrate 
and a hyponitrate, the hypothesis above stated is had recourse 
to. In the same way he states, that it is impossible to mistake 

the analogy of form between common Borax (NaB + lOH) 

* An. de Chim. et de Phys., LX. p. 1 19. 

\ See Schweigger's Jahrbuch, vol. iv. p. 410, also Reports of the British 
Association, vol. i. p. 429. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 179 

and common soda (NaC + 10H)*, and the octohedral forms of the 
same salts with five atoms of water. Had he been aware of any 
of the real cases of monomorphous groups having discordant 
formulae inserted in the list above given, or had he referred 
to them onty, his reasoning, however hypothetical, would not 
have been so undeserving of a place in the excellent and elabo- 
rate memoir of which it forms a pai't. 

25. The chemical constitution of the two metallic sulphurets Equivalent 
which compose the third of our isodimorphous groups, suggests of Silver ' 
considerations nearly related to those which have just been de- 
tailed. If they are really unlike in constitution, and are repre- 
sented severally by RS and R 2 S, then they ought to be included 
in our list of bodies which are like in form but unlike in for- 
mula. It is proper to state, therefore, why they are represented 
as isodimorphous. 

In a former reportf I have illustrated the application which 
has been made of the doctrine of isomorphism in determining 
which of several possible multiples of a given number should 
be considered as representing the true equivalent of substances 
in regard to which we have at present no other means of arri- 
ving at a satisfactory conclusion. That alumina, peroxide of 
iron, and oxide of chromium crystallize in the same form, and 
are capable of replacing each other, as in the alums, is con- 
sidered satisfactory evidence that their elementary constitution 
is analogous — that the ratio of the oxygen to the metal is the 
same in all, and that the general formula R 2 3 represents the 
composition of each. The whole doctrine of replacement, so 
beautifully applied to the elucidation of mineral compounds, de- 
pends on the same principle. No substances have ever yet 
been observed to replace each other in atomic proportions, and 
without change of form, which are 7iot also represented by the 
same general formulce. The nearest approach to an exception 
yet known is the fact established by Mosander, that peroxide of 
iron in the titanic irons may replace titaniate of the protoxide of 
iron (Fe 2 3 may replace FeO + Ti0 2 ) ; but the exception is only 
in appearance, for Fe 2 3 may be represented by FeO + Fe0 2 , in 
which case the formulas are still analogous. Ammonia with an 
atom of water and potash are the only substances in our list of 
monomorphous substances with unlike formulas which have 
been observed to replace each other, and we have already stated 

* The form of borax is an obliq. Rh. Pr. PM 101° 30' MM 86° 40' "I Rrnnlfp 
That of common soda ditto PM 108° 45' MM 76° i2'/ cr00Ke - 

f Report of the British Association, vol. i. p. 422. 

N 2 



180 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

the theoretical considerations by which the force of this objec- 
tion is for the present, at least, suspended. 

If, then, replacement in atomic proportions without change 
of form imply an absolute analogy of constitution, the sulphu- 
rets of copper and silver possess this analogy. In grey copper 

(fahlerz), represented by the general formula, R 4 R + 2Cu 4 R, the 
Cu in the second member of the formula is often replaced by 
Ag (in the silver fahlerz) without change of form. If we sup- 
pose Ag and Cu to be capable of replacing each other, all the 
varieties of the grey copper may be represented by the same 

formula R 4 R -f- R' 4 R. But if they replace each other, the forms 
of these sulphurets as they occur in nature uncombined should 
be identical. This has not hitherto been observed to be the 

case. The sulphuret of silver (Ag) is an octohedron, that of 
copper (Cu) is a rhomboid. By fusion, however, that of cop- 
per is obtained in octohedrons, while that of silver is rhomboidal 
in the double sulphuret (Ag + Cu) from Rudelstadt*. There is 

every reason, therefore, for believing that these two compounds 
can replace each other, and that they are not only isomorphousf, 
but that they form an isodimorphous group, as represented in 
the table. 

It appears, then, in the present state of our knowledge, to 
follow that the two sulphurets in question are analogous in con- 
stitution, and must both be represented by the same formula, 

R or R. It is an interesting coincidence with this result, that 
the atomic weight of silver deduced by Dulong and Petit from 
their researches into the specific heats of the metals, is only one 
half of that which is generally received. From this agreement, 
and because it involves fewer changes, it is probable that the 
compounds in question are both rfi'sulphurets and represented by 

the formula R. 

* Rose, Pog. An. xxviii. p. 427. Sander, ib. xl. p. 313. 

f If isomorphous, the formula for Polybasite Cu»J — +4Ag»J —might be 

[As [As 

expressed by R9R. For the analysis of Polybasite, formerly confounded with 
brittle sulphuret of silver (sprodglaserz), see Pog. An. xxviii. p. 156. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 181 

26. But this conclusion involves several important modifica- 
tions in the received views regarding the atomic weights of other 
substances, elementary and compound. 

It was observed by Mitscherlich that the sulphate of silver 

(AgS) and anhydrous sulphate of soda (NaS) agree in form, 
from which it is inferred that oxide of silver and soda are iso- Equivalent 
morphous. But if so, they are analogous in constitution ; and ^ c> ° um ' 
if the equivalent of silver be halved, that of sodium must be 
halved also, their formulae being respectively Ag a O and Na 2 0. 
Since, also, potash is isomorphous with soda, and may replace 
it, as in the alums, the rhomboidal nitrates, &c, this oxide also 
must be expressed by K a O. And, on the other hand, gold heing 
isomorphous with silver, the oxide of gold will be Au 2 3 , which 
agrees also with the results of Dulong and Petit, and with the 
electronegative properties sometimes exhibited by this compound. 
It is unnecessary in this place to dwell on these changes. 
They are indicated by the isodimorphism of the sulphurets of 
copper and silver inserted in the table, but they have not yet 
been incorporated with received knowledge by any of the lead- 
ing chemists of Europe. The establishment of a very few facts 
more will render any further hesitation unnecessary*. 

27. The halving of the atom of potash supplies us with a mode Analogy be- 
of establishing an analogy between the formulas for the earthy tween the 
carbonates and that of the nitrate of potash. If potash be K 2 the carbon- 
and nitric acid, as it is represented by foreign chemists, N 2 5 , ates and 

Nitrates. 

then nitre is K 2 + N 2 5 or R'R, or, putting together the posi- 
tive elements R 4 6 , or 2R20 3 . In the carbonates RR we have 
also by putting together the positive elements R 2 3 , or the for- 
mula for the nitrate of potash is analogous with that for the 
carbonates as a whole, though the expressions for neither of the 
immediate constituents of the two classes of compounds have 
any analogy. 

How far it may hereafter prove true that compounds, as 
such, may be isomorphous and analogous in constitution, while 
their several components disagree both in form and in constitu- 
tion, is at present almost wholly conjectural. I have advanced 
this mode of establishing an analogy between the nitrates and 
carbonates, partly with the view of drawing attention to the 
possible recognition of such a principle as our knowledge ad- 
vances, and partly of illustrating what I have already stated 
(22) as to the special hypothesis necessary in almost every case 

* See London and Edin. Phil. Mag., April 1838. 



182 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837 



for reconciling the formulae of substances such as those inserted 
in Table III. That an extension of the general conditions ne- 
cessary to isomorphism must by-and-by take place, the num- 
ber of bodies we are already able to insert in this table is suffi- 
cient proof*. 

28. It would be improper to dismiss the consideration of the 
tables of dimorphous and isodimorphous groups without advert- 
ing to the differences in the angular dimensions of the several 
substances comprised by these groups. It is true generally of 
isomorphous bodies, that the angular dimensions of their crystal- 
line forms do not exactly correspond, but only approach to each 
other often very closely, as in the chromate and sulphate of 
potashf, but sometimes differing nearly two degrees, as in some 
of the earthy carbonates. These differences have been much 
dwelt upon, especially by English crystallographers, to some of 
whom they have appeared sufficiently great and constant to 
warrant the rejection of the term iso and the substitution of 
plesio morphism in its steady. The fact of bodies replacing 
each other is inconsistent with a mere approach in their forms, 
while the circumstance that no constant difference has been 
observed among the forms of the several members of the same 
isomorphous group with different acids or bases, shows, I think, 
satisfactorily, that these differences do not necessarily imply 
unlike forms in the crystalline molecules. If the silicates or 
sulphates of two oxides be almost identical in form, while their 
carbonates differ by more than a whole degree, the difference 
between the forms of the oxides not being constant in the ana- 
logous classes of compounds, may at least have their origin in 
a cause extrinsic to the forms of the substances altogether. 

29. It is well known that Mitscherlich attributed these differ- 
ences to some peculiarity in the chemical affinities, specific to each 
substance or to the several substances entering into a com- 
pound. On this very probable opinion it is unnecessary to 
dwell. He has lately, however, thrown out a suggestion in re- 
gard to the nature of this specific modification of the affinities, 
or rather how it operates, an examination of which will be 
neither uninteresting nor out of place§. 

Supposing the molecules of bodies — their mutually replacing 
equivalents — to be equal in size, and to be placed at like dis- 
tances, the densities of these bodies should be as the weights of 
their equivalents. That the densities are not so related in na- 

* See London and Edin. Phil. Mag., May 1838. 

t Brooke, Annals of Philosophy, August, 1823, and January, 1821. 

t See Report on Chemistry, Reports of British Association, vol. i. p. 428. 

§ Poggendorf's Annalen, vol. xli. p. 216. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 183 

ture will appear on comparing those of almost any pair or 
group of isomorphous bodies. The molecules, therefore, of the 
analogous compounds, even of bodies which may replace each 
other, are often separated by unlike spaces. 

Now in two isomorphous substances exhibiting this differ- 
ence, the increased distance of the molecules in the less dense 
may either be equal in every direction, in which case, though 
the densities are not related as the equivalents, the crystalline 
form and dimensions of each would remain alike, or the in- 
crease of distance may be different in the direction of the 
several axes of the crystal, in which case the angular dimen- 
sions of the two substances in a state of crystallization would 
more or less vary. 

Heat is known to expand regularly crystallized bodies un- 
equally in different directions, enlarging the acute angles and 
imparting a tendency towards the cube or other forms belonging 
to the regular system. The suggestion of Mitscherlich is, that 
chemical affinity acts in the same way as heat, drawing in or 
binding together the molecules more closely in one direction 
than another, so that if, at the temperature at which two isomor- 
phous compounds crystallize, the affinity between the elements 
in the one be only a small degree greater than in the other, a 
difference more or less great must result between the dimensions 
in the so-called plesiomorphous bodies, that is, the crystals must 
be plesiomorphous only. And this suggestion is the more probable 
inasmuch as it accounts for the fact that the plesiomorphous dif- 
ferences do not prevail equally among all the analogous com- 
pounds of the same acids or bases ; the difference between the 
affinities of two bases, A and B, for an acid C, being probably 
unlike, not only in amount, but in sign*, to their difference for a 
second or third acid D or E. 

The close relation which exists between chemical affinity and 
heat would predispose us to receive with favour the hypothesis 
in question ; but we can so far test it by observation, since it 
implies that in any isomorphous group those substances whose 
crystalline dimensions most closely approximate should have 
their densities also most nearly in the ratio of their atomic 
weights ; and conversely, those which have the acute angles of 
their crystals the greatest, should also have their densities fur- 
thest below what this ratio would indicate. 

* In the difference (of the affinities?) of baryta and strontiafor the sulphu- 
ric and carbonic acids, we have this disagreement both in quantity and in sign. 
In the Rt. Rh. Prisms of these substances we have the obtuse angle in 
Sulphate of baryta = 10P-42' Carbonate of baryta = 118°-30' 
strontia = 104°*00' strontia = 117°-32'. 



184 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 



30. In throwing out the suggestion Mitscherlich compares 
only the carbonates of lime and magnesia. I shall take a greater 
number of these carbonates in order to test it more closely*. 



r>„.,:„„i„„. Observed Calculated r, ; «. Angle of the n-,* 
Equivalent. 6pecificgrav l cificgrav _ Diff. rh e omboid . 



Calc spar 

Carb. of Magnesia.., 

Iron , 

Zinc 

— — — Manganese 



632-456 
534-790 
715-65 
779-663 1 
722-337 



2-721 

2-884 
3-829 
3-379 
3-592 



2-30 
3-097 
3-354 
3-107 



0-584 
0-75 
0025 
0-485 



105-4 Mit. 

106-15 Mohs 

107-0 

106-30 Phil. 
107-40 Woll. 
106-51 Mohs. 



Ill 

1-56 
1-26 
2-36 
1-47 



A general agreement with the hypothesis is observable in 
these substances. The densities are all greater than they should 
be, compared with that of calc spar, and the acute angles of their 
crystals less, but no ratio is observable between the differences 
of density and of angle indicated by the 5th and 7th columns. 
The observed densities are those given by Mohs, as taken from 
crystallized specimens, but there is no evidence that the speci- 
mens measured were in any case those of which the density was 
also taken, so that in the absence of more correct data our test 
cannot be rigidly applied. Different crystals of the same sub- 
stance have not only different densities but also different an- 
gular dimensions. Breithaupt states that the crystals of horn- 
blende vary as much sometimes as 5°, those of pyroxene as 2°, 
and no doubt the density would vary in proportion. The same 
observer found the density of a calc spar of lC^ ^' to be 
2-741, and of another (tautokline) of 106°-10' to be 2-968f, 
both of which cases are accordant with the notion that even in 
the same substance plesiomorphous differences may arise from 
condensation or expansion analogous to that produced by a di- 
minution or increase of temperature. All these examples show 
that our determinations of the angles and densities of crystal- 
lized bodies must be ranked among uncertain knowledge till 
accurate observations of both are made from one and the same 
specimen. Such results would enable us to try, it might be 



* Taking that of calc spar, in which the acute angle is greatest, as a stand- 
ard, the specific gravities of the other substances are compared with it and cal- 
culated from it. 

Sp. gray, of calc spar x at ^ q{ a _ rf A 

At. wt. of calc spar 
f Karsten found in two specimens of pure calc spar that the one with the 
less angle had a density of 26978, that with the greater of 27064. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 



185 



would compel us to reject, the suggestion we are now consider- 
ing. 

31. Before quitting this part of my subject I cannot refrain 
from layingbefore the reader a tabular comparison of the physical 
and chemical properties of some of the metallic oxides repre- 
sented by the general formula R 2 3 , though none of them is yet 
known to be dimorphous, as they present a beautiful example 
of the analogies which exist among isomorphous bodies, and as 
their densities exhibit a relation to their plesiomorphous differ- 
ences entirely the converse of that which Mitscherlich supposes 
to exist among the earthy carbonates. 



Equivalent. 



Angle of the 
Rhomboid. 



Colour of Crystal. 



r. calculated 
from 



Corun. Ox. of 
dum. chrom. 



Corundum Al 

Peroxide "I 
of Iron ... J 

Oxide of I 
Chromium / 



321-167 
489-213 
501-319 



86-6 Mohs. 

' 85-58 Mohs. 
86-10 Phil. 

85-55 Rose .. 



9 

5-5 to 6-5 

9 



Vitreous 

Metallic 

Do. 



/Blue, yel., 1 
I »ed J" 

Steel grey 

Black 



3-33 



5-9 
6-09 



The same difficulty presents itself here as in the former ex- 
ample from the uncertainty of the determinations, but in these 
substances it is clear either that heat does not expand them so 
as to make them approach the cube, or that the difference of 
the chemical affinities considered as the cause of plesiomor- 
phism does not act in the same way as heat does. Peroxide 
of iron and oxide of chromium are much less dense than they 
ought to be, compared with corundum, and yet the acute 
angle of their rhombs is less ; or, comparing the first two 
substances in the table with oxide of chromium their specific 
gravity is greater than calculation gives it, while their acute 
angles are less. Can it be that heat in expanding these acute 
rhomboids makes them diverge from, while obtuse rhomboids 
it brings nearer to, the cubical form ? 

III. 

32. Of Analogous Chemical Groups, the members of which 
taken singly are Monomorphous, but ivhich as Groups are 
Dimorphous. — In the remarks already made on the table of 
isodimorphous groups (21) I have adverted to the observation 
that like crystalline forms generally follow like chemical for- 
mulae, and I have illustrated by one example in what way this 
observation leads us to infer and to look for dimorphism in sub- 
stances not hitherto observed in more than one form. Almost 



186 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

every group of isomorphous bodies presents us with additional 
illustrations. Not only may we expect that entire groups shall 
prove to be dimorphous, of which we as yet know only one or 
two really to be so, as the carbonates of which those of lime 
and lead, and the sulphates of which that of nickel is the type ; 
but groups also not even recognised as yet to be isomorphous, 
though their chemical formulae are analogous. Thus the tung- 
state of lime and that of lead occur in square prisms, that of iron 
and manganese (wolfram) in oblique rhombic prisms, but since 

all these compounds are represented by the same formula R Tu, 
the form which one assumes should not be impossible to the 
other. We know that lime and protoxide of lead are dimor- 
phous in their carbonates ; we may expect them to be so also 
in their tungstates, and since lime and the first oxides of iron 
and manganese are capable of mutually replacing each other, 
wolfram may be looked for in square prisms. It has indeed 
been frequently observed by mineralogists of this form. At 
Huel Maudlin, in Cornwall, at Schbnfeld, and elsewhere in 
Saxony* it has occurred in square prisms, but these are univer- 
sally stated to be pseudomorphous, to be casts of previous cry- 
stals of tungstate of lime. I have never had an opportunity of 
examining any of these crystals, but as bearing on the very in- 
teresting question how far second forms at least may be inferred 
from chemical formulas, the supposed pseudomorphism of the 
square prisms of wolfram is deserving of a close examination. f 
But if dimorphous substances may be so numerous, why are 
they not so in ordinary circumstances, or why have they not 
been more frequently observed ? Ten years more can scarcely 
pass without adding greatly to the number of known cases of 
dimorphism, and suggesting some probable reply to this and 
other similar questions. If the chemical affinities which two 
bodies are capable of displaying towards each other may lie 
dormant, even when the bodies are in juxta- position, till the 
proper hygrometric or thermometric conditions be attained, so 
may it be with the molecular attractions by which particles are 

* Allan's Manual of Mineralogy, p. 219. 

f Since the above was written I have seen Cornish specimens of this mineral 
in the collection of Mr. Brooke. They are in octohedrons, some of them beauti- 
fully perfect; the greater part of them, however, more or less hollow, and cer- 
tainly presenting the appearance of after crystals. Still we are not to despair of 
finding crystals of wolfram belonging to the pyramidal system, and our search 
may perhaps be stimulated by the character of its twin crystals, which seem 
to indicate that though this mineral presents itself in the form of oblique prisms, 
it may in reality have rectangular axes. — See Kryslallographie von Gustav Rose, 
p. 119, and Whewell's Report on Mineralogy, p. 332. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 187 

drawn together and built up into regular forms. And as ele- 
mentary or compound bodies belonging to the same natural 
family, though possessing in common many properties, the same 
in kind, yet have them in different degrees, and exhibit them 
under different circumstances, so may we expect crystallizable 
substances, analogous in chemical constitution, and possessing 
like physical properties, to exhibit those properties, in degrees and 
under circumstances specific to each. Under the same circum- 
stances there may be slight differences between the crystalline 
dimensions as there are between the chemical affinities of two 
bodies ; they may both be dimorphous, but under circumstances 
so widely different as hitherto to have escaped our observation, 
just as certain oxides of chlorine, iodine, and fluorine, which 
we believe to be possible, have hitherto baffled the attempts of 
the most refined manipulation. 

IV. 

33. Of bodies assuming two or more series of unlike physical 
properties, but of which the crystalline form belonging to each 
series has not yet been determined. — In addition to those sub- 
stances, the dimorphism of which is established by direct mea- 
surement, there is a considerable number, the dimorphism of 
which is rendered exceedingly probable by the fact of their oc- 
curring, in two or more states, physically different. If dimor- 
phism imply a difference in physical properties, as well as in form, 
we may at least be prepared to look for a difference of form 
when marked physical differences present themselves*. 

The following table contains all the substances generally 
known to exhibit such physical differences. 

* Dumas proposes to include all in one group under the name Poly- 
morphous. " Mais pour embrasser tous les phenomenes du meme genre il faut 
dire Polymorphisme sans restreindre a deux le nombre de modifications qu'un 
corps peut presenter, et comprendre dans la meme categorie toutes les sortes de 
cliangemens qui peuvent affecter les proprietes physiques." Lecons sur la 
Philosophie Chimique, p. 303. I think it better, however, to distinguish be- 
tween what we know and what we only suspect ; to call those substances in 
which two crystalline forms have been observed certainly dimorphous, those in 
which they have not been observed as probably so. The term polymorphous will 
become necessary as soon as it is established that the same substance does 
crystallize in three or more incompatible forms. 



188 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



Table 

Exhibiting the characters of those substances which are known 

stalline forms in both states 



How obtained. 



Density. 



1°. Sulphur A & 
B 



2°. Phosphorus 
A 



3°. Sulphuretof 
Antimony A 



Do. (Ker- 
mes) B.... 



Sb ; S. 



4°. Bisulphuret 
of Mercury 
(Cinnabar) 
A 

Do.(Ethiops 
Mineral) B 



5°. Bichromate 
of Potash A 



HgS 2 



6°. Sulphate of 
Potash and 
Copper A 



B 



KO+2Cr0 3 



Do. 



KS+CuS 



Do. 



A by subliming, B by 
fusing Sulphur 

By pouring Sulphur 

at 200C. into Cold 

Water 
Distilling Acid Phos 

phate of Lime with 

Charcoal 



Fusing A at J f^ 

and suddenly cool- 
ing 
Found native, also by 
heating B 



By suddenly cooling 
A when fused, or 
by precipit. from 
Antimonial Solu- 
tions 

By subliming B 



1-99 to 2-05 



177 



1-5 to 2-5 



Soft and tena- 
cious 



Conchoidal " 
or granu- 
lar 



Sectile 



4-5 to 4-7 



415 



Harder than A 



Conchoidal. 



•098 



2- to 2-5 , 



Do. 



Throwing down Hg 
from its solutions 
by HS, or cooling 
A suddenly 

By fusing Chrome 
Iron with Nitre . 



Fusing A and allow- 
ing it to cool 

Fusing the two Salts 
together 



Formed when the 
fused mass cools to 
about 60°F.,15-5C. 



Granular. 



2-6027 ? Kr 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 



189 



IV. 

to exist in two states physically different, but of which the cry- 
have not been determined. 



Colour in mass, 



Yellow 



Brown .. 
Pale Yellow... 



Black 



Lead grey ... 



Do. 



Cochineal red 



Black 



Red. 



Yellow 
while hot 

Dark green... 



Pale green ... 



Colour in powder, 



Yellow 



Yellow 



Greyish black 



Reddish 
brown 



Scarlet red 
Carmine 
whenheated 



Black 



Yellow 



Do. 



Green , 



Do. 



Transparency. 



Transparent 



Opaque 

Transparent 



Opaque 



Opaque 



Thin laminae 
transpar. ; 
deep hya- 
cinth red 

Semitranspa- 
rent 



Opaque : 



Transparent 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Characteristic or Remarks. 



See Table I. 



After about 24 hours the sul- 
phur generally becomes 
hard and brittle 

It is only when very pure, 
and repeatedly distilled, 
that it becomes black by 
sudden cooling. On refu 
sion it becomes yellow 



The second state B. Fuchs has 
distinguished by the term 
Amorphous, a term, as it 
appears to me, by no means 
applicable 



Gmelin attributes the black 
colour to the presence of 
sulphur 

The fused Bichromate on 
cooling shoots out into 
crystals, which again fall 
to pieces after the tempe- 
rature has sunk to 60° F. 



On cooling, the fused mass 
crystallizes, contracts, and 
finally expands, swells up, 
and falls to powder 



ThenaxiLAn.de Chimie. 
lxxi. p. 109. 



Dumas Traitei. p. 247 



Fuchs Annal. de PJtar- 
mac, xi. p. 282. 



Fuchs, Ibid. 



Gmelin's Handbuch, i. 
p. 1290. 



Liebig and Poggendorff, 
Worterbuch, i. p. 151. 



Herschel, Berz. Arsbe- 
rattelse, 1832, p. 142, 



190 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

To this list glass has some claim to he added. Its physical 
properties when annealed, and when suddenly cooled, are known 
to be very different, and in the second of these states it is said by 
Guerard* to be possessed of double refraction. As it is doubt- 
ful, however, how far any specimens of glass used in the arts may 
bd considered as definite chemical compounds, we cannot as yet 
draw any certain conclusions from their properties in different 
circumstances. Common charcoal and graphite are also sup- 
posed by some chemists to be modifications of carbon sufficiently 
distinct to awaken the suspicion that this substance may assume 
even a third crystalline form. 

34. The appearances presented by the bichromate of potash 
when cooling from fusion, and by the double sulphate of potash 
and copper, are very interesting. In both cases the change com- 
mences, as in the yellow crystals of biniodide of mercury, at 
one edge of the mass, and gradually spreads over the whole. As 
in the biniodide, the changed is in all probability zhetoromorphous 
state, and the same will, I think, prove true of all the substances 
contained in the present table. They are necessarily placed apart 
in the present state of our knowledge till their forms in the 
changed condition shall have been determined. 

The chance, so to speak, of their proving dimorphous is much 
strengthened by the analogy in constitution between the bisul- 
phate of potash, which is known to assume two unlike forms, and 

the double sulphate in the table. The formula of the one K S + H S 

is the exact counterpart of that of the other KS + CuS, the 
copper in the latter replacing the hydrogen in the former. Led 
by this analogy, I have sought for the same phenomena in other 
compounds of the same class. Sulphate of potash fuses rea- 
dily at a bright red heat with the anhydrous sulphates of zinc and 
of nickel, but on cooling the same change does not present it- 
self, at least under the same circumstances. Under conditions 
slightly varied we may expect all the compounds represented by 

the general formula RR + R'Rto occur in two states • physic- 
ally different, f 

* Pog. Anna!., xxxviii. p. 233. 

f The probability of the change in question being connected with dimorphism 
is strengthened by a recent observation of Mr. Talbot, (Lond. and Edin. Phil. 
Mag., Feb. 1838, p. 149) that a thin film of nitre, on solidifying from fusion, 
undergoes, when the temperature falls to a certain point, a change quite analo- 
gous to that exhibited by the bichromate and double sulphate in the table, and, 
as in those substances, diffusing itself from a point over the whole mass. In 
nitre the appearance is no doubt connected with the two forms it is known to 
assume. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 191 

35. Differences of a less permanent and definite kind are ex- 
hibited by various substances, as by some of the metallic oxides 
at different temperatures, which obscurely point to a second state 
analogous to that we are now considering as belonging to them 
also. Thus the protoxide of lead PbO when cold is of a pale 
yellow, when hot of a bright red ; the scales of litharge often 
retain this hue at common temperatures. 

It would be premature at once to explain this and similar ap- 
pearances by a supposed dimorphism ; they are deserving how- 
ever of a close attention, and though obscure at present, the 
study of them may lead us to new results. 

36. Many compound, especially saline, substances, when ex- 
posed to the air or slightly heated, undergo a change analogous 
to that we are now considering, due, however, not to a mere 
change in the arrangement of the molecules, but to an alteration 
also in the chemical constitution. When a crystal of sulphate 
of zinc with seven atoms of water is heated under alcohol it as- 
sumes a new form, but it loses at the same time an atom of 
water ; the same is said also to be the case with sulphate of 
magnesia. The blue acetate of copper with six atoms of water if 
heated to 90° or 100° F. changes without apparent change of 
form into the green acetate with one atom of water. On ex- 
amination, however, the apparently unchanged crystal is found 
to consist of a congeries of minute crystal of an entirely differ- 
ent form*. The mellate of ammonia, according to Wohler, un- 
dergoes an equally striking change by simple exposure to the air. 
One of the most curious facts of this description is that observed 
by Herman in regard to the chloride of lithium. When this 
salt is allowed to deliquesce in the open air large four-sided 
prisms are formed. If one of these prisms be taken up in the 
fingers, and then laid on blotting paper, it becomes opaque at the 
point of contact, and the opacity gradually spreads over the 
whole crystal. If now moved it falls into a powder, which 
again deliquesces in the air and crystallizes-f-. Changes of this 
kind connected with loss of water are no doubt very numerous. 

37. An appearance observed by Biot, in reference to grape- 
sugar, appears worthy of a place in the present section. He 
statesj, that the juice of the grape, before it has been crystal- 
lized, causes the plane of polarization of a polarized ray passed 
through it to deviate towards the left, while after crystallization 
its solution causes the same ray to deviate towards the right. 
By crystallization the chemical constitution is unaltered (?), 

* Wbhler, Poggendorff, Annal., xxxvii. p. 166. 

t Pog. Annul., xv. p. 480. % Taylor's Scientific Memoirs, i. p. 596. 



192 SEVENTH REPORT 1837 = 

and yet if the optical property is to be depended upon, the ar- 
rangement of the molecules in the natural juice must have dif- 
fered very materially from their arrangement in the artificial 
solution. Unfortunately we cannot depend on the purity of 
the natural juice, and therefore it would be premature to draw 
from this phenomenon any of those curious consequences in 
regard to the value of optical characters and the possibility of 
the dimorphous molecular arrangement of a solid body follow- 
ing it into its state of solution — which the absolute chemical 
purity of the sugar in the natural and artificial liquids would 
render justifiable. 

V. 

38. Of crystallized bodies not known to asswne more than 
one form, which yet exhibit unlike physical properties in dif- 
ferent portions of their mass. — There are certain mineral sub- 
stances, the crystalline form and chemical constitution of which 
are known and constant, which nevertheless in their action on 
light exhibit phenomena apparently inconsistent with the idea 
that the several parts have the form and composition of the 
whole. As these phenomena are closely related to those of 
dimorphism, and may possibly be identical with them, I shall 
here introduce a notice of the more remarkable cases in which 
they occur. The greater number of these observations have been 
made and published by Sir David Brewster. 

Apophyllite. — In a paper published in the Edinburgh Phil. 
Trans., vol. ix. p. 317, Sir David has shown that the crystals 
of certain varieties of apophyllite consist of different portions 
acting differently on light : " An individual crystal, with one 
axis, being symmetrically united with several individual crystals 
with two axes, so as to constitute a regular crystal." In a 
single fragment of a crystal of this substance Sir John Herschel 
also found three portions, each possessing distinct and pecu- 
liar properties. — Whewell's Report on Mineralogy, p. 353. In 
the amethyst he has described an analogous structure. 

Analcime. — This mineral occurs usually in icositetrahedrons, 
made up of twenty-four individual pentahedrons. These penta- 
hedrons exhibit " a species of double refraction, previously 
found in no other mineral." They possess " planes of no 
double refraction, having a definite and invariable position, and 
a portion may be extracted from each separate pentahedron 
which has no axis at all."* 

Chabasie. — Some specimens of this well-known mineral, 
when examined by polarized light, appear to consist of success- j 

* Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions, 1824. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 193 

ive layers deposited around a rhomboidal nucleus, possessed of 
positive double refraction. This refraction, however, is seen 
" to diminish in succeeding layers from a positive state till it 
disappears altogether ; beyond this neutral line it becomes ne- 
gative, and again gradually increases towards the boundaries of 
the crystal."* 

Diamond, topaz. — A similar observation has also been made 
by Sir David in regard to the diamond, which he found to con- 
sist occasionally of a succession of layers possessing different 
refractive powers and different densities ; and in the 2nd vol. 
of the Cambridge Transactions he has described the Brazilian 
topaz as consisting of " a central lozenge, surrounded with a 
border of a different kind, sometimes with additional varia- 
tions, "f 

Traces of double refraction have also been observed by the 
same distinguished philosopher in many substances, the cry- 
stals of which, hitherto observed, belong only to the regular 
system. Among these are potash- alum, rock-salt, fluor-spar, 
and diamond. In connexion with the doctrine of dimorphism, 
these observations are all of value, not so much from the posi- 
tive information they give, as from their showing us what to 
look for. 

39. The conclusion we ai'e at first sight inclined to draw from 
pheenomena such as those above described, is, that such mine- 
rals, though to the eye homogeneous, are in reality made up of 
parts unlike in chemical constitution as they are in optical pro- 
perties ; and to this conclusion Sir David Brewster appears in- 
clined to give his assent. Mr. Whewell, in his report on 
Mineralogy!, thus expresses himself : " There would be some- 
thing utterly perplexing in this complexity in the structure of 
objects apparently so simple, if we were to conceive such a kind 
of composition as formed of independent portions adhering to- 
gether ; but we ought probably rather to conceive these rela- 
tions of parts as the result of a peculiar state of the equilibrium 
of the elastic aether which exists within the body, and on which 
its optical properties depend." 

This explanation appears to apply very happily to optical 
differences exhibited by the several parts of a crystal as a whole, 
which disappear when it is broken into fragments, as is the 
case in the dodecahedral crystals of the sulphate of potash § ; 

* London and Edinburgh Phil. Mag., Sept. 183G, p. 166. 
t Report of Meeting of the British Association at Liverpool. 
t Reports of British Association, vol. i. p. 340. 
§ Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, vol. i. p. 6. 
vol. vi. 1837. ° 



194 SEVENTH REPORT 1837» 

but it does not seem to account for the fact that portions of the 
pentahedrons of analcime may be extracted which possess no 
double refraction, or for the properties of the several parts of 
the crystals of chabasie and diamond above referred to. The 
state of the elastic aether in these separate portions must de- 
pend on a difference either in the nature or mutual disposition 
of the ponderable molecules around which it exists ; otherwise 
the optical properties could be of little value as indices either 
of chemical constitution or of crystalline form. In other words, 
if the optical properties observed in these minerals reside in the 
crystalline molecules, and not in the mass, the properties of 
the different parts must depend on a difference either in the 
chemical properties or in the mechanical arrangement of the 
ultimate molecules of which they are made up. 

I think it very likely that in some instances the former cause 
operates, in other cases, the latter. The introduction of an 
isomorphous substance of unlike chemical and optical relations 
may produce such differences as are observed in chabasie* j a 
different arrangement of the molecules, without change of com- 
position ; a dimorphism — in fact — may produce the singular dif- 
ferences of the several portions of analcime. The double re- 
fraction observed occasionally in alum and other regular cry- 
stals, points, as it appears to me, to an advanced period of our 
knowledge, when these and many other substances crystallizing 
similarly will be proved to be dimorphous. 

VI. 

40. Of epigene and pseudomorphous crystals. — In a former 
section I have adverted to the subject of pseudomorphous cry- 
stals, and to the possibility that some of the forms considered to 
be such may hereafter prove to be cases of dimorphismf. In 
connexion with the present subject, therefore, as well as in 
itself not void of interest, I shall here insert a list of the best 
known and most common cases of epigene, or changed crystals, 
and pseudomorphous crystals, or casts, which either occur in 
nature or can be formed artificially. 

* This principle I have illustrated in a short paper in the Lond. and Edinb. 
Phil. Mag. for Sept., 1836. 

t This opinion, in so far as regards the last substance (Serpentine) in the 
above list, has been recently supported by Dr. Tamnau, of Berlin, (Poy. Ann., 
xlii. p. 4.62,) who assigns several weighty reasons for considering the supposed 
false forms of this substance from Snarum, in Norway, to be the true form of 
the mineral itself. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 



195 



List of Pseudomorphous Mineral Substances. 



Name. 


Form. 


Replacing. 


Localities and Authorities. 




Cubes and octohedrons 
Rhombs, and prisms ... 




Cornwall, Devonshire, 
Rochette, Erzgebirge. 

Fontainbleau, Haytor. 

Haytor, Devonshire. 

Rochette, (Dumont). 
Do. . do. 

Mont Martre. 

Cornwall. 

Saxony, {Kolell). 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 
Styria, Carinthia. 

Saxony. 

Cornwall, Brittany. 
Do. 

Cornwall. 

Chessy. 

Do. 

Do. 
Pesey. 
? 

Hexham, Alston. 

Cornwall, Saxony. 
Dumbarton {Allan). 
Schneeberg, Saxony. 
Goepfersgriin Bayreuth. 














Gypsum (lenticular) ... 
Sulphuret (Sb 2 S 3 )..,. 
Magnetic Iron (Fe+Fe) 

Iron Pyrites (Fe S 2 ) ... 






Oxide of Tin 




Oxide of Antimony 

Peroxide of Iron 
(Martite) 

Hydrateddo.(Fe+H) 
Do 










Pvrolusite Mn 




Manganite (Mn-f H)... 


Do. 


Carbonate of Lead... 
Galena (Blue Lead) 
Mixture of Carbonate 

and Phosphate 
Copper Pyrites 

Malachite, green Car- 
bonate (Cu'C+H) 
Malachite 


Do 




Lenticular Carbonate 

and Specular Iron 
Blue Carbonate 

(2CuC+H) 
Red Oxide of Copper... 

Do. 




Reg. octohed. and rh. 
dodecahedrons 
Do. 


Blue Carbonate 


Do 




Sulphate of Strontia . . . 
Carbonate and Baryto 
Calcite 


Sulphate of Baryta... 


Rt. and ob. rh. prisms 


Prehnite 


Icositetrahedrons 


Hornstone 




Steatite 


Do. 


Do., Quartz, Pearl Spar 


Serpentine 


Rt. rh. pr. .. 


1 






41.Pseudon 
gularly crysta 
ness and lustr 
hibiting no ii 
that of the su 
frequently by 
replace. In 1 
the parasitic 
one or more c 
no such mark 


lorphic crystals are 
lized bodies by the 
e by which trite ci 
iternal structure ( 
bstance of which t 
containing cavities 
nost of the exam 
formation of the 
)f these tests ; but 
3 of their origin, b 
o2 


generally distingu 
absence of the ext 
ystals are charact* 
>r cleavage, unles 
ley have the exter 
> or portions of the 
3les contained in t 
crystals is easily i 

there are some 
ut, on the contrar 


ishedfromre- 
jrnal smooth- 
prized, by ex- 
3 very rarely 
rial form, and 
mineral they 
tie above list, 
•ecognized by 
which betray 
y, possess all 



196 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

the external characters of true crystals. Among the latter may- 
be mentioned the cubes of quartz found at Rochette, in the pro- 
vince of Liege, which are so perfect as to have been mistaken 
by Haiiy for the primary rhomboids*, and which are inferred 
to be parasitic chiefly from the occurrence in the same locality 
of hollow prisms, obviously casts of previous crystals of calc 
spar. Similar observations apply to many of the quartz cry- 
stals found at Haytor, while the want of internal structure is the 
chief reason why the hornstones and steatites of Germany, the 
cubical chalcedonies of Transylvania, and the rhomboidal from 
Iceland, are classed among pseudomorphous crystals. 

The octohedral peroxide of iron (Martite) is one of those 
minerals which retains the cleavage as well as the form of the 
mineral (magnetic iron) from which it is derived. The perfec- 
tion of these crystals has induced Kobellf to consider them as 
an example of dimorphism, though, perhaps, rather hastily. It 
is not unlikely that some of the supposed parasitic may be true 
crystals j but the possession of a distinct cleavage is not alone 
sufficient to prove that any given crystals are so. Calc spar, 
after being calcined and deprived of its carbonic acid, still re- 
tains its form and cleavages. 

42. We can imitate nature in the production even of apparently 
perfect changed (epigene) crystals. Native crystals of peroxide 
of iron, heated in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen, give at 
212° F. sesquisulphuret Fe 2 S 3 , and at a higher temperature. 
Bisulphuret of iron FeS 2 , and the new compounds retain the 
lustre and cleavage of the original crystals. J A similar result, 
without change of form, is obtained from the carbonate of iron. 
Crystals of bicyanide of mercury at ordinary temperatures may 
by the same means be converted into black shining crystals of 
bisulphuret. By simple exposure of the salt to the air, me- 
tallic gold may be obtained in the form of the double chloride 
of gold and ammonia. Nitrate of silver occasionally undergoes 
a similar decomposition. Many of the salts of lead, silver, and 
other metals may likewise, by the agency of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, be converted into sulphurets without losing their form, 
and very many of the hydrated salts of the earths and metallic 
oxides part with their water without suffering disintegration. 

Still, in connexion with these numerous changes, natural 
and artificial, one question suggests itself. Are there any limits 
to the number of forms which the same substance, a metallic 

* Geologie de Liege. Par Dumont. P. 147. 

t Neues Jahrbuch der Chim. und Phys. (1831) vol. ii. p. 195. 

+ Berzelius, Arshercittelse, 1826. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 197 

sulphuret for example, may be made to assume by bringing 
more powerful chemical affinities into operation ? Bicyanide 
of mercury is completely decomposed by dry sulphuretted hy- 
drogen ; bichloride only on the surface. If the latter be pre- 
viously moistened, it is entirely decomposed ; but during the 
action of the gas, it gradually falls to powder. The phenomena 
in the latter case are owing to the existence and previous form- 
ation of a compound of the two salts, a sulpho-chloride, and 
not, necessarily, to any inability of the bisulphuret to assume 
and retain the form of the bichloride ; yet it is not impossible 
that there may exist some unknown relation between the true 
form of a body and those false forms which it is capable of as- 
suming and retaining in any degree of perfection. 

VII. 

43. Of Trimorphous bodies. — Though we are as yet unac- 
quainted with any cases in which bodies actually assume more 
than two incompatible forms, yet, as I have already remarked, 
there is no reason to consider such an occurrence as at all unlikely. 
On the contrary, there are strong reasons for believing that future 
observations will make us acquainted with three or more forms 
of the same substance, geometrically distinct. The analogous 
compounds, for example, of isomorphous bodies ought to as- 
sume the same form, and yet we are familiar with many groups 
of such compounds which, though their individual members 
are not known to assume more than one or two irreconcileable 
forms, yet, as groups, are tri, or even tetrakimorphous. In 
a former section I have illustrated, by reference to one or two 
cases, in what way the probable dimorphism of individual com- 
pounds may be inferred from that of the chemical group to 
which they belong ; the same mode of deduction renders tri- 
morphism almost equally probable. Thus the sulphate, chro- 
mate and molybdate of lead, present us with three forms : 

• •» M.M. P.M. 

Sulphate . . . PbS a Rt. Rh. Pr. 103° 42' 

Chromate . . . PbC Ob. Rh. Pr. 93° 30' 99° 10' 

Molybdate . . PbMol 

* # J. bquare prisms 

Tungstate . . . PbTuJ 
exhibited by substances represented by the same general for- 
mula RR, and which, for anything we know to the contrary, 
may all be assumed by each other. 



198 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

Again, carbonate of lime presents itself in three forms : 

1°. 

Rhomboid in calc 

spar 



3°. 
Ob. Rh. Prism in 
Obliq. Rh. baryto 
calcite ; 



2°. 
Rt. Rh. Prism in 
arragonite and Rt. 
Rh. baryto calcite 

and though the third form in this case may result from the 
combination of the rhomboid of calc spar with the Rt. Rh. 
prism of heavy spar, yet it is not impossible that it may arise 
from a true trimorphism. 

44. Even simple substances are not exempt from the suspicion 
of assuming more than two forms. Thus, in many of its combi- 
nations with their metals, sulphur belongs to the regular system 
to which the metals themselves also belong. It is not easy to 
see how regular forms should result from the union of a cube 
with either of the known forms of sulphur ; it may be con- 
sidered probable, therefore, that in certain circumstances sul- 
phur may be isomorphous with the metals which belong to 
the regular system. 

Further, it is not unworthy of notice that, among substances 
assuming regular forms, iron pyrites (FeS 9 ) and glance cobalt, 

-p >S 2 + p° >As 2 alone exhibit the so called pyritohedral 

faces. And though we cannot draw any certain conclusions in 
relation to our present subject from the phenomena exhibited 
by bodies belonging to the regular system ; yet the circum- 
stance now mentioned seems to indicate a connexion between 
the two minerals not common even among such regular forms. 
This connexion is most likely to be such as that which exists 

among the octohedral minerals RR, of which magnetic iron is the 

type, and among the garnets, namely, that the analogous mem- 
bers of the formulae by which their chemical constitution is re- 
presented are respectively isomorphous, that is to say, that in 

{As 
<n 2 arsenic and sulphur are 

isomorphous, and may replace each other. In addition, there- 
fore, to the two known forms of sulphur, there are two others 
in which we may still expect to find it, or sulphur may be tetra- 
Amiorphous. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 



199 



Rt. Rh. Prism. 


Ob. Rh. Prism. 


Rhomboid. 


Cube. 


Native Sulphur, 
Isomorph. with 
Iodine. 


After fusion, Iso- 
morph. with 
Selenium.* 


When it replaces 
Arsenic or An- 
timony. 


When isomor- 
hpous with the 
other metals. 



It is not to be disguised, however, that the reasoning in all 
these cases is at best only probable. The supposition even, — of a 
fourth form in the case of sulphur depends on a previous one, 
that in a regular crystal of cobalt glance, arsenic can exist in the 
rhomboidal form, the only one in which it has hitherto been ob- 
served (by Breithaupt) . If arsenic and antimony, like the oxides 
of the latter and the arsenious acid, be dimorphous, one of their 
forms belonging to the regular system, then the mutual replace- 
ment of these two metals and of sulphur in tessular forms, only 
strengthens the argument for the third or cubical form of sul- 
phur, which is itself also hypothetical. 

Still the facts above detailed, and we are acquainted with very 
many of an analogous kind, are deserving of much consideration. 
They open up views of great interest, and seem to indicate the 
line along which the advance of certain knowledge is destined 
to proceed. Received with caution and due distrust they will 
materially aid the observer, by teaching him what to look for 
and how to find it, — received at once as true they will at best 
form the foundation of an imperfectly verified system of opinions, 
and may probably lead to error. 

VIII. 

45. Relation of dimorphism and molecular arrangement in 
general, to temperature, electricity, and mechanical pressure. 
— Having in the preceding sections exhibited nearly all the facts 
connected with dimorphism with which we are at present ac- 
quainted, it may be proper before inquiring into the cause of 
dimorphism to take a short review of the several circumstances 
by which the assumption of the one or the other form is known 
to be affected. 

Of these circumstances the influence of temperature is the Influence of 
most apparent. The various substances which have come un- * em P er a- 
der our consideration as capable of existing in two forms or 
states, are almost uniformly characterized by a preference to one 
form or state in ordinary circumstances or at ordinary tempe- 

* Sublimed and crystallized from its solution in sulphuric acid (Frankenheim) 
Pog. Annalen, vol.xl. p. 459. 



200 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

ratures, their second form in many being produced, in some being 
stable, only at higher temperatures. Thus the crystals of sul- 
phur from fusion gradually become opaque, and appear to change 
internally to minute individuals of the common form. The yel- 
low biniodide of mercury even more rapidly changes into the 
red. The change of form ? undergone by the bichromate of pot- 
ash and the double sulphate of potash and copper, and of colour 
by the protoxide of lead, the oxide of zinc, the binoxide of mer- 
cury, titanic acid, and other oxides, generally takes place before 
they arrive at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere. What- 
ever be the way in which heat acts, thei'efore, it is obviously an 
important agent in the exhibition of the one or the other form 
by dimorphous bodies. 

By an elevation of the temperature, more or less great, the 
first form is changed into the second, in sulphur, disulphuret of 
copper, the biniodide and bichloride of mercury, arsenious acid, 
oxide of antimony, carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia, 
sulphate of nickel, bisulphate of potash, seleniate of zinc, and 
probably the garnet. Of these substances, however, the new 
form assumed is permanent in all, with the exception of sulphur 
and the biniodide of mercury. 

Common charcoal readily assumes the form of graphite at a 
temperature below that at which cast iron melts ; of the tem- 
perature at which diamond is formed we as yet know nothing. 

46. The phenomena attendant on the production of the several 
forms renders it extremely probable that they are specific in 
each substance to specific ranges of temperature, — that the form 
assumed depends upon whether the substance is allowed to 
crystallize within the one range or the other, — that at tempera- 
tures near the limit of each range a very slight cause will set the 
particles in motion, for the production of either form as in the 
biniodide of mercury, — and that at greater distances from this 
limit, either above or below the temperatures to which it belongs, 
the form is permanent only because the particles have not the 
power of moving, being coerced as in suddenly cooled glass 
(Rupert's drops), and requiring time as in sulphur, or the aid of 
heat as in arragonite, or in the process of annealing glass and 
metals, to enable them to overcome the restraint and to assume 
the other form. 

Connected as these phenomena appear to be with certain 
ranges of temperature, they cannot be ascribed to the agency of 
heat as a cause, otherwise the presence of this agent in greater 
or less intensity should produce similar effects on all crystalli- 
zable bodies ; they must rather be attributed to some peculiarity 
in the molecular constitution of the substances by which they 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 201 

are displayed, being merely developed under certain thermal 
conditions. 

47. The changes that take place in solid bodies at different tem- 
peratures, whether in form or in colour, are in general easily ob- 
served. In liquids, on the contrary, changes in the molecular 
arrangement are not so obvious, though there is little reason to 
doubt that they frequently take place. Of this fact melted sul- 
phur presents the most striking illustration with which we are 
acquainted. At 230° F. it is very fluid; at 430° F. viscid and 
tenacious ; and again at 480° F., and upwards, of great fluidity. 
Changes of a different kind are exhibited by hyponitrous acid 
(N0 3 ), which at 60° F. is of a green colour, while at — 4° F. 
it is wholly colourless *. On the other hand, a solution of iodide 
of starch, which at 200° F. is colourless, becomes blue as it cools. 
These differences can only arise from some change in the mole- 
cular arrangement induced by, or consequent upon, the change 
of temperature, precisely as in the case of some of the solid sub- 
stances above describedf. Analogous phaenomena have not yet 
been observed in other fluid bodies, either because the change of 
position in the molecules takes place at temperatures to which 
fluids are not often exposed, or because it is not often accompa- 
nied by changes in the physical properties, such as can be readily 
observed : — it may be also because they have not hitherto been 
looked for. It is not unlikely that liquids, whether permanent 
or obtained by fusion, would at different temperatures differently 
affect the course of a prolonged ray if tested by the beautiful 
method of Biot. 

48. Even in gaseous bodies the relative position of the molecules 
does not appear to be the same at every temperature. The va- 
pour of nitrous acid (N0 4 ), at the temperature of 100° F., is 
of a deep red, while at 212° it is black and opaque j (Brewster). 
It may indeed be said that in this case decomposition takes 

* Mitscherlich, Lehrbuch der Chemie, vol. i. p. 342. 

f In the Lecons sur la Philosophie Chimique par M. Dumas, which has 
come into my hands since the text went to press, is a paragraph (p. 305) almost 
verbatim with the above. He adds, " C'est sans doute aux memes influences qu'il 
faut rapporter la propriety que l'eau possede d'avoir un maximum de density 
a 4°C, au lieu de continuer a se contracter a. mesure qu'elle se refroidit." — p. 
336. He seems to have been unaware of the property observed by Sir D. 
Brewster in the vapour of nitrous acid, as in resuming the facts he had stated, 
he says, " Vous voyez qu'on arrive a conclure que dans les gaz l'influence de 
la forme des molecules parait nulle oupresque nulle ; qu'elle semble au contraire 
tres-considerable dans les solides, et qu'elle se fait egalement sentir dans les 
liquides." 

% According to Sir David Brewster, a tube, filled with the red vapour at 100° 
and sealed, becomes black when heated to 212° F. 



202 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837« 

place (2 N=N + N) at the elevated temperature, and that as the 
whole cools combination again takes place ; the opacity being 
in some way caused by the mixed vapours. But this decompo- 
sition is by no means probable, and if it were, the change in co- 
lour, &c. is still unintelligible, so that, in the present state of our 
knowledge, the fact remains as an interesting indication of the 
probable effect of high temperatures on the internal molecular 
constitution even of gaseous bodies, an effect of which future ob- 
servation may be expected to furnish us with other examples. 

49. Of Electricity . — It is not improbable, that like heat, elec- 
tricity also, to which it is in so many ways related, may have an 
influence in modifying the arrangement of the crystalline mole- 
cules, so as to cause the development of one or other of the two 
forms. 

Mr. Crosse* states, that by passing a weak current of electri- 
city through solutions of carbonate of lime he obtained rhom- 
boidal crystals of calc spar at the negative electrode, and that on 
one occasion, along with these, he obtained also very fine pris- 
matic crystals, which he took for arragonite, near to the positive 
pole. It would be very interesting to find this statement con- 
firmed by other observers. 
Influence of 50. In an early part of this reportwe have seen reason to conclude 
pressure, fa&t the cause of dimorphism acts in such a way as to alter the 
density of the substance, or the distance at which its crystalline 
particles are placed. It is therefore interesting to inquire how 
far such an alteration, induced by purely mechanical means, as 
by pressure, would affect the form so as to impart to any given 
substance the characters of a dimorphous body. In so far as the 
optical properties are concerned, the experiments of Sir David 
Brewster, recorded in the Philosophical Transactions for 1830, 
p. 87, seem to indicate that such characters may be imparted by 
mechanical agency. He found that a mixture of white wax 
and rosin, which in mass and in ordinary circumstances exhibits 
no doubly refracting structure, yet has that structure developed 
in it by simple pressure between two plates of glass. The same 
philosopher has also observed that in mineral substances the 
optical phenomena are changed in intensity by subjecting them 
to mechanical pressure, in the same way as they are known to 
change when exposed to a diminishing temperature. 

These facts tend to confirm the opinion above expressed, that 
heat has no specific action in producing physical changes in 
crystalline and other bodies — that it acts merely as any other 

* Reports of the British Association, vol. v., Appendix, p. 47. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 203 

mechanical cause, the difference of the effects produced in each 
case being due to the specific properties of the substance itself. 

IX. 

51. Cause of Dimorphism. — From what has been stated in 
the previous part of this report in regard to the infancy of our 
knowledge in this department, it will be evident that we are 
not yet in a condition to do much more than merely hazard 
conjectures as to the cause of dimorphism. Our observations, 
however, are already so multiplied that some of the earliest con- 
jectures may now be safely laid aside. I shall briefly notice the 
several explanations which have hitherto been given. 

52. Presence of a foreign body. — When the phenomenon 
of dimorphism was first recognised in carbonate of lime, it ap- 
peared most easy to account for the difference between calc spar 
and arragonite by supposing that the latter actually contained 
some other ingredient besides carbonic acid and lime. And 
though the experiments of Thenard and Biot failed in showing 
the presence of any other constituents, yet the detection of 
strontia by Stromeyer seemed to set the matter at rest, and the 
failure of the French chemists was attributed to their deficiency 
in analytical skill. Now, however, that we can change arra- 
gonite into calc spar, and by a proper regulation of the tempera- 
ture can cause one and the same portions of several other sub- 
stances to assume either of two known forms, the influence of 
foreign bodies in these cases can no longer be admitted. It is pos- 
sible that the presence of such bodies might produce a change 
of form, but they cannot be considered necessary to the pro- 
duction of a dimorphism, or to afford any insight into the pro- 
bable cause of the phsenomenon. 

53. Influence of circumstances. — In the preceding section 
we have seen that the assumption of one or other form by di- 
morphous bodies is very much influenced by circumstances. 
Hence dimorphism has been said to be due to the different cir- 
cumstances under which a substance crystallizes. But this is 
only to look on the surface of the change, and would imply that 
you have only to vary the circumstances in order to produce 
another and another form, and that thus the number of forms 
in which a substance may exhibit itself is limited only by the 
number of changes that can be effected in the circumstances. 
It implies also that similar circumstances, or a similar change of 
circumstances, should produce a similar effect on all substances • 
but neither of these things is the case, so far as observation has 
gone ; there must, therefore, be something in the internal struc- 
ture of the mass, in the form, the mechanical arrangement or 



204 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

physical relations of its molecules, which incline it to assume 
one or other of a certain number of forms, and to assume each 
only under certain fixed conditions. Were these conditions 
fully understood, some light would be thrown on the internal 
cause ; or were the form and relations of the molecules known, 
we might be able to specify what crystalline forms theyare fitted 
to build up, and under what conditions. It is stopping short 
however to attribute the phenomena to the circumstances under 
which they are displayed ; for though we may not be able at 
present to see far beyond them, yet we should be ready to 
perceive and to avail ourselves of the first glimpse of light. 

54. Change hi the intensity of the axial forces. — The optical 
phenomena exhibited by certain crystallized bodies, as the topaz, 
when raised to a high temperature, and of others when submitted 
to mechanical pressure, have suggested to Sir D. Brewster the 
idea that under the new conditions, a change takes place in the 
relative intensity of the axial forces resident in the molecule, 
and that of this change the new phfenomena are a consequence. 
And as his beautiful researches have shown that the optical 
phenomena are almost universally true indices of the crystal- 
line form, he attributes the phenomena of dimorphism to a more 
or less permanent change in this relative intensity of the forces, 
caused by the circumstances in which the bodies happen to be 
placed during crystallization. If the attractive forces in the di- 
rection of two axes, A and B, be respectively + and — , and if by 
an alteration of temperature the intensity of the one be elevated 
and the other depressed, so that they change signs and become 
respectively — and + , it is easy to understand how, if at liberty 
to move, the molecules in which this change takes place should 
make a partial revolution, and build up a crystalline mass of a 
new form. But this only removes the difficulty a step further 
back ; it merely explains how heat and other circumstances may 
produce the phsenomena, it does not affect to explain why. The 
true question still remains behind, What specific relations, me- 
chanical or physical, exist among the molecules of each sub- 
stance, that the same circumstances do not affect all alike ? 

55. Union of the Molecules in the direction of different axes. 
— This difficulty is in some measure got over by the supposition 
of Voltz*. He supposes the crystalline molecules of all bodies 
to be possessed of three unequal axes, in which reside polar 

* Transactions of the Nat. Hist. Soc. of Strasburg, 1833. The only know- 
ledge I have of M. Voltz's views is derived from L' Institict, 29th March and 
8th Aug., 1834, and from a paper by Mr. Dana, in Sittimaris Journal, xxx. 
p. 294; it is not impossible therefore that in endeavouring to give a clear state- 
ment of his views I may have unintentionally misrepresented them. 






ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 205 

forces, the intensity of which is inversely as the lengths of these 
axes. Further, that these molecules may unite in the direction 
either of the like or of any of the unlike axes, and that upon the 
junction or approximation of the axes in which they reside the 
opposite polar forces unite and neutralize (?) each other as in 
a chemical compound. 

On these suppositions the influence of circumstances is of a 
less vital character than on that of Sir D. Brewster. They do 
not alter the relative intensity of the forces, they only affect 
the mechanical condition — the relative position it may be — of 
the molecules, so as to allow them to approach and unite in the 
direction of one axis rather than another. 

If the molecules be united in groups three and three, so that 
the unlike axes unite 

a . b . c 

c . a . b 

b . c . a 



a + b + c.a + b + c.a + b + c 
the resultant axes and the forces resident in them are all equal, 
or the crystal belongs to the regular system. According to 
Voltz all regular forms are built up in this way. 
Again, let them unite in pairs thus, 

a . b . c 
a . c . b 



2a . b+c . b+c 
and we have a square octohedron, or some other form belonging 
to the pyramidal (2 and 1 axial) system. 

If they unite in equal numbers in the direction of each axis 

a . b . c 
a . b . c 



2a . 2b . 2c 
we have a crystal belonging, like the molecules* themselves, to 
the prismatic (1 and 1 axial) system. 

It is easy to see that certain dimensions being given for one 
of these forms, the dimensions of another may be calculated 
from them on the above suppositions. M. Voltz has so far veri- 
fied his principle as to deduce the dimensions of the rhomboid 
of calc spar from those of the right rhombic prism of arragonite, 
and the form of rutile from that of anatase. 

* It is not necessary that the molecules, to meet the views of M. Voltz, should 
he considered as regular prismatic forms. An oblate ellipsoid has three unequal 
axes, which would answer all the conditions. 



206 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

In regard to the difference of physical properties exhibited by 
the unlike forms of the same substance, M. Voltz considers that 
the axes as well as the forces resident in each being independent 
in magnitude, the physical properties in the direction of the 
three axes must always differ in a greater or less degree. The 
density, hardness, refraction, reflection, dilatability by heat 
and compressibility along the unlike axes being unequal in the 
molecule, must vary also in the crystalline mass with the way in 
which the molecules are grouped together to form it, and hence 
the physical properties of the mass will depend in some mea- 
sure on the system of crystallization to which its form belongs. 

These views of M. Voltz may not be correct, yet they are 
deserving of much consideration. They may embody only a 
part of the truth, or they may hereafter prove to be wholly in 
error ; yet they have more the air of a vera causa than any of the 
other hypotheses we have considered, and they may be instru- 
mental in pointing the way to something still more satisfactory. 

X. 

56. Extent of Dimorphism. — Is dimorphism or heteromor- 
phism universal ; may all substances assume two or more in- 
compatible forms ? To this question we cannot at present give 
a direct reply ; there are considerations, however, partly theo- 
retical and partly drawn from observation, which seem to render 
it probable, that if not all, at least a very great number of cry- 
stallizable substances are heteromorphous. 

57. According to any of the suppositions (53, 54, 55) by 
which dimorphism has been accounted for, as above stated, the 
power of assuming more than one form ought not to be restricted 
to any number or to any class of bodies whether simple or 
compound. If it be caused by change of circumstances, all 
substances may be placed in new conditions ; if to a change 
in the relative intensity of the axial forces, all ought to be more or 
less liable to such a change ; while the theory of Voltz implies, 
that all being made up of molecules with three unlike axes, may 
assume one or other of a much more numerous suite of forms 
than observation has hitherto given us reason to suspect in any one 
known substance. Still these explanations are all hypothetical ; 
and though we ought not altogether to lose sight of the conclu- 
sion to which they would direct us, we are not justified in allowing 
such theoretical views to do more than awaken in our minds a 
suspicion that all substances may ultimately prove to be dimor- 
phous. 

58. Again, if we turn to the department of observation, and 
consider how little the forms of bodies have been studied, how 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 207 

much less even the relations of these forms to temperature and 
other circumstances of an unusual character have been attended 
to, we shall see cause to believe that the number of bodies capable 
of assuming two or more forms must be vastly greater than we 
can as yet be aware of. 

59. In the great majority of cases we have yet to learn where 
and how to look for the second forms of bodies. This is stri- 
kingly illustrated by the beautiful observation of Frankenheim in 
regard to the crystallization of nitrate of potash from its solu- 
tion in water. As the evaporation proceeds crystals of two 
kinds are distinguished, prisms of the ordinary form and six- 
sided plates of the second form ; but as the prisms are prolonged 
they come in contact with the plates, give rise to an immediate 
movement among their particles, and incorporate them with 
their own mass, so that the ultimate result of the crystallization 
is an unmixed crop of crystals of the common form. 

In most cases of crystallization it is only the final result we 
can observe or have hitherto regarded — may there not be very 
many cases in which changes analogous to those observed in 
nitre may take place, a knowledge of which would enable us 
greatly to enlarge our list of dimorphous bodies ? 

60. An analogous observation of Ehrenberg* suggests the 
same question, and makes an affirmative reply still more pro- 
bable. In examining the crystallization of common salt under 
the microscope, he states that the first crystals formed were 
generally six-sided tables, in the centre of which a cubical point 
would suddenly appear and gradually increase in size, while the 
tabular crystal dissolved around it and at length disappeared. 
The hexagonal crystals had much resemblance to the hydra^ed 
tables observed by Mitscherlich at very low temperatures, so 
that the present does not appear to be a case of dimorphism. 
Still it points in the same direction as the observation of Frank- 
enheim, tells us to keep an eye on the same class of phenomena, 
instructs us not to rest satisfied with a knowledge of the final 
form of a crystallized body, but if possible to follow the march 
of the molecules, to note the successive stages at which they 
seem to rest for a time, and to mark the transformations they 
may undergo before they reach that form. 

61. The circumstances also, the range of temperature for 
example, within which a certain form can exist, is sometimes 
very limited. Thus a solution of carbonate of lime in carbonic 
acid, if allowed to evaporate and crystallize in the cold gives 
only calc spar, if evaporated on the sand bath it is almost en- 

* Pog. An. Z. R. vi., p. 240. 



208 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

tirely arragonite. Chloride of calcium precipitated by carbonate 
of ammonia in the cold gives calc spar, if both solutions be 
boiling the result is arragonite ; and yet at a low red heat arra- 
gonite is again changed into calc spar. Thus it would appear 
that the conditions as to temperature in which the molecules 
may unite to form calc spar are various and recurrent, and that 
so far as we yet know arragonite is not formed at a temperature 
below perhaps 80° or 100° F., and cannot exist above 700° °r 
800° F. It may be necessary therefore to observe the forms 
assumed by bodies at many different temperatures, not perhaps 
very remote from each other, before we shall be able to pro- 
nounce as to their ability to assume more than one form. 

The application of the microscope to the examination of the 
phenomena of crystallization promises to add much to our know- 
ledge. In the hands of Ehrenberg, Frankenheim, Gustav Rose, 
and Talbot it has already given us much interesting information, 
but a rich harvest awaits the further use of this new instrument 
on a field hitherto almost untouched by it. 

62. But the clearest and most extended inference in regard 
to the number of individual substances which are likely to prove 
dimorphous (trimorphous perhaps or polymorphous), is to be 
drawn from the existence of a dimorphism in certain chemical 
groups, the individual members of which are only monomor- 
phous, or conversely from the known existence of dimorphous 
individuals in large strictly chemical and isomorphous groups. 
In a former section (section iv.) we have discussed the probabi- 
lity of a heteromorphism being observed in all the members of 
the groups of the first class, and of all the members of those of 
the second class proving isodi or isetfmnorphous, and we have 
seen strong reason to believe that this expectation will not ulti- 
mately be disappointed. How great a number of individuals 
these observations when made will add to the substances in our 
first table need not be pointed out ; it is sufficient that in the 
circumstance here alluded to we see another reason for believing 
that in nature the assumption of two or more incompatible forms 
is very far from being a rare phsenomenon. 

63. Theory and observation therefore unite in suggesting 
that dimorphism, instead of being an exception, as it still in 
some measure appears, to the ordinary laws of crystallization, 
may prove to be a general, perhaps a universal consequence of 
those laws. The utility of the present report consists mainly 
in its bringing together the scattered fragments of our certain 
knowledge — in pointing out the inquiries they indicate, and the 
conclusions to which they lead, and in its setting up a landmark 
to which it may be interesting, perhaps curious to refer in a fu- 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 209 

ture and more advanced state of the science, when observation 
shall have verified some, perhaps falsified the whole of our most 
likely predictions. 

XI. 

64. Relation of the Crystalline doctrine of Dimorphism to 
the Chemical doctrine of Isomorphism. — The differences hither- 
to observed between the properties of the two forms A and B of 
any dimorphous body are physical only ; if we impart to them 
unlike chemical relations also, they become isomeric. 

65. The fact that two or more substances may consist of the 
same elements united in the same proportion, and have the same 
atomic weight, and yet possess unlike properties, chemical as well 
as physical, is at least as new to chemistry as the doctrine of 
dimorphism is to crystallography. Both classes of phenomena 
are due to a mechanical change in the relative position, distances, 
&c. of the particles of bodies ; — for what we call chemical differ- 
ences are only physical differences of a higher order. Those of 
isomerism, however, are more general, implying or carrying 
along with them those of dimorphism. Isomeric bodies in their 
several states not only exhibit different chemical properties, but 
assume also unlike crystalline forms, though the relations among 
these forms have not as yet been examined with that care which 
the subject deserves, and would probably well repay. 

66. Without affecting to understand how these two orders 
of differences are actually produced in nature, we can yet con- 
ceive how they might be produced under certain given conditions. 
For let the crystalline particles of which sensible crystals are 
immediately built up be prismatic — have three unlike axes — 
then according to the views of Voltz dimorphism may be ac- 
counted for. But let these crystalline particles be themselves 
groups (and we are certain that such a particle of a compound 
body must contain more than one, some many molecules), the 
several members of which may be collocated at different distances 
or in different relative positions, and we have, independent of and 
beyond the supposed cause of dimorphism, another means of 
producing changes of a profounder character, which may affect 
the chemical relations of the crystalline particles while it alters 
also the relative lengths of their several axes. It is immaterial 
whether the ultimate molecules have the form of prisms, of ob- 
late ellipsoids, or of spheres ; it is necessary only that by their 
collocation they may produce prismatic crystalline forms, and all 
the known phenomena can be conceived. According to this 
view, there is a sh'ong analogy between the two classes of phe- 
nomena as regards the mode by which they are produced — the 

vol. vi. 1837. p 



210 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

one change commencing as it were where the other ends, and 
basing itself upon it. 

67. Thereare other analogies also between these two doctrines. 
Isomerism like dimorphism is dependent on circumstances, is 
developed in certain cases by change of temperature. Thus ac- 
cording to Lowig* the racemic (paratartaric) acid is changed 
into the tartaric by simple fusion. The crystals of anhydrous 
cyanuric acid (3Cy + 60 + 3H) distilled at a heat below redness 
into a vessel cooled to the freezing temperature, gives a liquid 
hydrated cyanic acid 3 (CyO + HO), which on attaining the tem- 
perature of the air changes into a colourless solid — the inso- 
luble cyanic acid. During these changes there is no escape or 
loss of any of the elements. The polymeric carbo-hydrogens 
seem to change into one another, in a certain order, by an ele- 
vation of temperature j the sugars, gums, and starches also 
pass into each other by a slight alteration of circumstances, 
and future observation will doubtless make us acquainted with 
the conditions necessary for the production of the several mem- 
bers of the known and of many other as yet unknown isomeric 
groups. 

68. Connected as these two classes of phsenomena seem to be 
in their probable origin, and by the kind of circumstances under 
which they are developed, they may be expected to throw some 
light on each other. Thus if substances may appear in more 
than two or three isomeric states, be isotri or isopo/ymerlc, why 
may they not also be tri or polymorphic ? In whatever degree 
we consider these two classes of appearances to be analogous, 
in the same degree will be strengthened the probability we have 
already seen to exist, that the forms which the same body may 
assume are not limited to two or even three. 

G9. Again, if simple substances, like sulphur and carbon, 
may assume two incompatible forms, may they not present 
themselves in two isomeric states ? If they are susceptible of 
that internal molecular change to which dimorphism is due, why 
not also of that deeper change, as we suppose it, to which iso- 
merism is owing — by which difference in chemical relations is 
produced ? 

An affirmative answer to this question will probably be the 
next great step in chemical science, advancing the knowledge 
of our time at least as far as the discovery of the alkaline me- 
tals carried forward the chemistry of the time of Davy. 

70. Meanwhile the probability of such a discovery does not 
rest merely on a supposed analogy between the phsenomena of 

» Fog. An., xlii. p. 588. 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 211 

dimorphism and isomerism ; there exist also other observed ana- 
logies which point to that reduction in the number of received 
elementary substances which must necessarily follow the esta- 
blishment of the supposition that elementary bodies are suscep- 
tible of isomerism. 

Thus certain compounds, like cyanogen, known by the name 
of radicals, exhibit all the chemical relations to the elementary 
bodies by which simple substances belonging to the same class 
(chlorine, bromine, &c.) are distinguished ; the latter therefore 
may likewise be compound. 

Again, the chemical and physical relations of the several states 
of isomeric bodies are sometimes (cyanogen and paracyanogen) 
at least as distinct from each other as those exhibited by the 
several elementary substances comprised in almost any of the 
natural groups*. This consideration adds weight to the hypo- 
thesis that the latter are not simple. 

71. The speculations of chemists in regard to the probable 
diminution of the number of received elementary bodies have 
hitherto run only in the channel of decomposition. Nor is 
this surprising, since up to the present time the greatest ac- 
cessions to our knowledge have flowed to us through this chan- 
nel. It has been often supposed that any given elementary 
substance A, as happened with the alkalies and earths, may 
prove to be made up of two others known or unknown ; and 
that in any two of them, if the constituents prove the same, 
they may be united together in different proportions. The 
idea of a possible transformation has hitherto hardly been 
thought of ; and yet the doctrine of isomerism, rich already in 
its numerous discoveries, has shown that any number of the re- 
ceived elementary bodies may be made up of the same elements 
united in the same proportion. That they are so made up is in 
no degree the less probable, that under no circumstances have 
we ever observed any two (as iodine and bromine) to be trans- 
formed into each other, since even of the isomeric groups few 
are yet known, the members of which are mutually convertible 
by methods as yet understood or at our command. 

Regarding the question under this new point of view, it will 
appear that the study of the several kinds of physical and che- 
mical properties which the same portion of matter may assume, 
and of the circumstances which influence the development of 
one or other of these kinds, if it do not ultimately solve, is not 
unlikely to throw considerable light upon this, the most inter- 

* Cyanogen is not more like to paracyanogen than oxygen is to sulphur ; 
less so than chlorine is to iodine. See Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh for 1 836, vol. xiv. 

p 2 



212 SEVENTH REPORT 1837* 

esting problem now present to the minds of chemical philoso- 
phers. 

72. Are the elementary substances isomeric ? is another form 
of the question, Are the received elements really compound ? 
inasmuch as it indicates a desire to diminish the number of the 
simple substances ; but it is a very different question as regards 
the way in which the number is supposed to be capable of di- 
minution. 

For this diminution by the process of decomposition the hopes 
of chemists rest almost entirely on the application of galvanism 
or some similarly powerful agent, directed by the skill of a Davy 
or a Faraday ; it may be however that the patient study and 
pursuit of the kindred classes of phsenomena we have been con- 
sidering, shall in some brighter moment show that substances 
considered elementary are yet mutually convertible without de- 
composition ; while the question may still remain unsettled, per- 
haps untouched, whether any of them be compound or not. Are 
the received elements isomeric ? is thus preliminary to the ques- 
tion, Are they compound ? and in the case of some of them may 
receive the earlier answer. 

73. It may indeed be that all our supposed elementary bodies 
are in reality such, and therefore wholly beyond the resolving 
energy of electricity or any other agent, and yet the study of 
their changes and reactions in the laboratory, in conformity 
perhaps with new views or modes of investigation, may at some 
future period so enlarge our dominion over the molecules as 
shall cause them at our bidding to assume this or that arrange- 
ment — to appear with the properties of chlorine or iodine — of 
cobalt or nickel — of rhodium, iridium, or osmium. 

Such speculations are not only of high interest — they are of 
use also in suggesting new investigations — in urging the expe- 
rimenter to try new methods in the hope of being guided to new 
results. I have ventured to introduce these speculations at the 
close of the present report, with the view of showing the con- 
nection of isomeric and dimorphous differences with the highest 
questions and objects of research in the existing state of inor- 
ganic chemistry. The path along which they lead us is as yet 
dark and obscure, but it is certain to guide us to rich and open ' 
fields, perhaps to some hill top from which new domains may 
be descried, and from which the descent is easy to new con- 
quests. 

74. In the advance of the sciences of observation it is seldom | 
that the same instrument has been the means of producing two' 
great revolutions in the same department. The balance in the 
hands of Lavoisier overturned the phlogistic theory ; but though 



ON DIMORPHOUS BODIES. 213 

the surest weapon of the modern chemist, it is doubtful if it can 
ever again produce such an overthrow of received opinions. By 
its aid Dalton and others established the atomic theory ; but this 
was rather a splendid addition to our knowledge than the refu- 
tation of a prevailing creed. By the aid of the galvanic battery 
Davy effected the brilliant revolution with which his name is 
associated. The line of Faraday's researches, though directed 
towards a similar end, and strewed along its whole course with 
beautiful results, has yet led him to no higher dominion over 
refractory matter ; and though we have much to hope for from 
the wonderful weapon he has learned to wield so skilfully, we 
have reason also to fear lest if we trust to this weapon alone we 
should ultimately be disappointed. With the goniometer Mit- 
scherlich has gained for science those remarkable branches of 
knowledge, to the actual state of one of which it has been my 
object to draw the attention of British philosophers in the pre- 
ceding report; and it is not a little remarkable that the progress 
of these branches of knowledge seems likely to be arrested by the 
same question which electricians since the days of Davy have 
often asked themselves, Are the elementary bodies really simple ? 
Which of these branches of inquiry is destined to solve the dif- 
ficulty — will the honour be shared by each — or must a third 
branch arise, bearing a new weapon to carry away the glory from 
both? 

I cannot close this report without noticing more fully than I 
have yet had an opportunity of doing how very much this de- 
partment of knowledge has been indebted to Professor Mit- 
scherlich of Berlin. To this distinguished philosopher we owe 
the first recognition of the principle of dimorphism, as well as 
the subsequent discovery of many of the most interesting exam- 
ples of its manifestation with which we are yet acquainted. In 
reading his various memoirs on this and kindred subjects, it is 
difficult to determine whether we should admire most the inge- 
nuity and extreme beauty of his researches, the brevity and 
clearness with which his most important results are announced, 
the grave and philosophic air which pervades his deductions, 
or the unity of purpose observable even in the most seemingly 
insignificant of his published investigations. The order of his 
memoirs exhibits not only the progress of his own inquiries, but 
at the same time of the branches of knowledge he has created. 
In his own walk he has trodden almost alone, and there is perhaps 
in our time no other example among the sciences of observation 
of an entire department depending for so many years on the 
single labours of one individual. It is to be presumed that many 



214 SEVENTH KEPORT — 1837» 

understand the researches of Mitscherlich, that some at least 
are qualified to go forward in the same path with himself, yet 
no one has ventured to shoot out into the main current of his 
inquiries or to dispute with him the honour of leading the ad- 
vance. It is certain indeed that in all the necessary qualifica- 
tions, — in knowledge of the subject, andin devotion to its advance- 
ment, as well as in intellectual gifts and acquirements, no living 
philosopher could replace the present leader. Could any other be 
expected to prosecute it so zealously as he whose mind has given 
it birth ? 

We may be permitted therefore to wish and hope that the 
labours of this distinguished observer may be long continued to 
us, that he may win new laurels to himself and add new domains 
to the sciences he has already so greatly enriched. If the pre- 
sent report make his discoveries more familiar to the rising phi- 
losophers of our own country, or lead into the field of dimorphism 
one mind yet undecided what path of science to choose, its main 
objects will not be wholly unattained. 



Desiderata. — 1. To determine the physical differences which 
exist between the incompatible crystals of the same dimorphous 
substance. (See blanks in Tables I. and IV.) 

2. Within what limits of temperature is each form stable ? 
within what other (?) limits may each form exist. (61.) ? 

3. In general we are acquainted only with the final result of 
crystallization : do bodies not pass through (so to speak) one 
or more forms as they crystallize till they ultimately assume 
one more stable than the rest ? The microscope will aid this 
inquiry. (60.) 

4. In isomorphous groups of which one member is dimor- 
phous, to observe if, under certain circumstances hitherto neg- 
lected, the other members may not also be dimorphous. If 
mineral substances, specimens from different localities should 
be studied and measured. (20.) 

5. In groups represented by like chemical formula, — but 
the several members of which do not all assume the same form 
(32.), — to determine if the several known forms belonging to 
the group do not also belong or may not be assumed by each 
member of the group. (32.) 

6. When two series of unlike physical properties (33.) are 
assumed by the same chemical substance, to observe if each 
series includes a different crystalline form. 

7. In the present state of the doctrine of isomorphism it is 
of importance to collect and tabulate examples of like form in 



ON DIMOBPHOUS BODIES. 215 

substances represented by unlike formulas. (See Table III.) 
They seem to point to a modification of received opinions. 

8. In cases of reputed pseudomorphism to examine minutely 
the circumstances under which the changed crystals occur, and 
the nature of the crystals themselves ; some of them may prove 
to be cases of dimorphism. (40.) 

9. To observe by the aid of the microscope or otherwise the 
change which fusible substances undergo in the different stages 
of cooling after solidification. Some (5. 6. Table IV.) sub- 
stances appear in cooling to pass through, as it were, interme- 
diate forms which they cannot retain, before they reach that 
state of crystalline arrangement which is proper to the stationary 
temperature. If one substance be known to exhibit such trans- 
formations, to inquire if all substances represented by the same 
formulas may exhibit them. 

10. What difference of molecular arrangement, as indicated 
by the optical properties, exists in the viscid state of melted 
sulphur compared with the limpid states it assumes at a higher 
and at a lower temperature (47) ? Are analogous phenomena, 
differences of colour, density, fluidity, &c, observable in other 
fluids at different temperatures ? Can any other gases exhibit- 
ing like changes be added to the solitary example of nitrous 
acid? (48.) 

In connexion with this subject every accurate measurement 
of a crystal, every nice determination of the hardness or density 
of a well crystallized specimen, and above all every careful 
analysis of specimens previously measured and weighed is of 
great value. For though not immediately available in clearing 
up any obscure or disputed point, they will form a sound basis 
for future reasonings, will indicate new analogies among cry- 
stalline compounds, and will gradually lead us forward to wider 
generalizations. 

Durham, 1838. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 217 



Special Report on the Statistics of the Four Colectomies of 
DuJchun, under the British Government. 

[In spelling Oriental words, the a is the re in all, the u as in hid ; the rest 
have the usual English sound.] 

The General Committee of the British Association which met 
at Cambridge in 1833, did me the honour to pass a resolution 
that I should prepare for publication my manuscripts respect- 
ing the Statistics of Dukhun (Deccan). I have been anxious 
to respond to so flattering a desire at an earlier period, but 
having placed my manuscripts in the hands of a distinguished 
person, as auxiliary to his scientific labours, I have been de- 
terred from reclaiming them until the objects for which they 
had been placed at his disposal were realised. 

In responding at last to the call of the British Association, 
I feel very considerable embarrassment in adapting my ma- 
terials to the space which can be afforded to me in its annual 
volume. The materials, in fact, are very voluminous; and 
the nature of my subject embracing multitudinous details, 
figured statements, and lengthened tables, makes it a work 
of no ordinary difficulty to digest, abridge, and condense them 
without involving my subject in obscurity, and exposing my- 
self to the imputation of inefficient inquiry from the hiatus 
which must appear. I beg, therefore, distinctly to state, that 
the absence of information observable in the following Report, 
is attributable, not to paucity of matter, but to the want of a 
sufficient field in which to display it. 

Extent and Physical Circumstances. 

I propose to give but a meagre sketch of the statistics of 
Dukhun; a mere enumeration of its population, products, 
manufactures, revenues, civil divisions, &c, with little more 
comment than may be necessary to ensure perspicuity. 

In the execution of my public duties as Statistical Reporter 
to the government of Bombay, my researches made me ac- 
quainted with the statistics of the four collectorates of Duk- 
hun, denominated the Poona, Ahmednuggur, Candeish or 
Khandesh, and Dharwar Collectorates ; facts were also col- 
lected respecting the territories of the Rajah of Sattarah, and 
some few details came to hand illustrative of the state of the 
possessions of the southern Mahratta Jagheerdars, which are 



218 SKVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

under British protection. In adverting to the whole of these 
territories, although I shall name them separately in describing 
their extent, physical circumstances, and civil divisions, it will 
only be to notice where they differ from each other. 

The whole of the above territories, containing 3,285,985 
inhabitants, spread over 48,987 square miles, and averaging 
67 inhabitants to the square mile, lie upon that elevated 
plateau, which has an abrupt termination on the western side 
of India, in what are usually denominated the Ghats, but 
which plateau gradually declines, occasionally by a succession 
of low steps, as is seen by the courses of rivers to the Coro- 
mandel coast, excepting in Khandesh (Khind meaning a gap or 
trench, and Desh a country.) where the river Tapty disem- 
bogues to the westward, from the peculiar configuration of the 
narrow valley in which this collectoratc lies. Some of the 
platforms on the summit of the Ghats have an elevation of 
5000 feet above the sea, but the general level of the main 
plateau of Dukhun is about 2000 feet high near the Ghats, 
and scarcely exceeds 1000 feet in the eastern limits of the col- 
lectorates. The whole territory is mountainous near to the 
Ghats, and has numerous valleys, some of them narrow and 
tortuous, others broad, open, and flat. At from thirty to fifty 
miles eastward from the Ghats, most of the mountain spurs 
which produce the valleys terminate, and the country becomes 
open and tolerably level for considerable distances, with an 
occasional step down to the eastward ; the country, in fact, 
being made up of beds of trap, the beds extending the 
further to the eastward the lower they are in the series. 
There is much forest and underwood and jungle along the 
line of the Ghats ; but to the eastward the country is open, 
and there is a want of wood ; parts of Khandesh and Dhar- 
war are exceptions to this description. The western tracts 
along the Ghats are called the Mawuls, in contradistinction 
to the open country, which is called the Desh or Des. 

It may be as well to state here that all lands in Dukhun 
are classed within some village boundary or other, and this 
boundary is maintained with such jealousy and tenacity by 
the inhabitants, as to lead to frequent feuds and bloodshed on 
the slightest invasion of village rights. The village consti- 
tution and the occupancy of lands will be mentioned under 
land-tenures. 

Rivers. — The rivers of Dukhun, which in the monsoon flow 
with a magnificent volume of water, in the hot season present a 
broad gravelly bed, with only a thread-like stream in many of 
them, but from natural barriers of rock in the bed of the 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 219 

Beema, Godavery, Kistnah, and other large rivers of Dukhun, 
extensive sheets of water, called Dho or Dhao, are formed, 
which abound with fish. 

Roads and Bridges. — The roads in Dukhun, with the ex- 
ception of two great military roads, are untouched by art ; and 
few of the rivers can boast of a bridge. 

Geology. 

Previously to entering into descriptive details, I will state in 
a few words, that the whole country comprised within my 
boundaries is composed of distinctly stratified trap rocks, 
without the intervention of the rocks of any other formation. 
Whether at the level of the sea, or at the elevation of 4500 
feet, in all and every part beds of basalt and amygdaloid are 
found alternating, whose superior and inferior planes preserve 
a striking parallelism to each other, and, as far as the eye can 
judge, to the horizon. Barometrical measurements and the 
course of rivers indicate a declination of the country to the 
east-south-east, and south-east ; from the town of Goreh, 
latitude 19 o, 0o and longitude 74> o# 05, on the Goreh river, 
following a mean course for the river until it falls into the 
Beema, and subsequently, continuing a mean course for the 
Beema, until its junction with the Seena river, the distance 
is about 200 miles, and the declination 671 feet: there may 
therefore be a trifling dip of the strata ; but as a succession 
of low terraces occur in that distance, the apparent horizontal 
position of the strata may be unaffected by the above dif- 
ference oflevel. 

Dr. M'Culloch, describing the overlying or trap rocks, 
says, " these masses are generally irregular, but sometimes 
bear indistinct marks of stratification*." As Dr. M'Culloch's 
language implies the rare occurrence of stratification, instead 
of its being a distinctive feature, at least, of the Indian branch 
of the trap family, I deem it necessary to quote the few 
authors who have written on Indian geology, in confirmation 
of the fact I have stated f . 

* Classification of Rocks, p. 466. 

t " These mountains (the Vindhya range), like every other in Malwa, 
appear to be distinctly stratified, consisting of alternate horizontal beds of 
basalt or trap, and amygdaloid. Fourteen of these beds may, in general, be 
reckoned, the thinnest at the top, and rapidly increasing in thickness as they 
lower in position, the basalt stratum at the bottom being about 200 feet thick." 
Again, at page 327, he says, " In the upper plains of Malwa, every point of 
view presents the same uniform and distinctly streaked appearance noticed in 
the Vindhya range." — Captain Dangerfield, in Geological Notices of Malwa, 
in Appendix, No. 2, to Sir John Malcolm's Central India, pp. 322, 327. 



220 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

Ghats. — The Dukhun rises, by a succession of terraces or 
steps, very abruptly from the Konkun : its valleys and table- 
lands have a mean elevation above the sea of about 1800 feet. 
The Konkun is a long strip of land, from thirty to fifty miles 
in breadth, lying between the Ghats and the sea : the mean 
elevation of this strip is less than 100 feet ; but it is bristled 
with isolated hills or short ranges, some of which attain an 
elevation equaling that of the Ghats. Numerous shoulders or 
salient angles are thrown out from the Ghats, from the western 
or Konkun side, and by means of these the ascent to Dukhun 
is affected ; with what difficulty, will be understood when I 
state that the military road of communication between Bombay 
and Poona, up the Bore Ghat, rises nearly 600 feet in a mile. 
The western portion of my tract along the crest of the Ghats 
is exceedingly strong : spurs of different lengths extend from 
the main range to the eastward and south-east, leaving many 
narrow tortuous valleys between them, some of which have 
the character of gigantic cracks or fissures ; other valleys, 
although occurring less frequently, when looked at from the 
neighbouring ranges appear as flat and smooth as a billiard- 
table, even to the Ghats ; but when traversed, are found to 
be cut up by numerous narrow and deep ravines. Stupendous 
scarps, fearful chasms, numerous waterfalls, dense forests, and 
perennial verdure, complete the majesty and romantic interest 
of the vicinity of the Ghats. As the spurs extend to the 
east and south-east they diminish in height, until they dis- 
appear on approaching the open plains in my eastern limits, 
between the Beema and Seena rivers. The area of the table- 
land on their summit often exceeds that of the valley between 
them ; such is the case with the spur bordering the left bank 
of the Beema river for forty miles from its source, occupying, 
in fact, the whole country between the sources of the Beema 
and Goreh rivers. 

The spurs are rarely tabular for their whole length, but 
narrow occasionally into ridges capped with compact basalt, 
and subsequently expand into extensive table lands. The 
spur originating in the hill-fort of Hurreechundurghur af- 
fords a good example. The fort is about eighteen miles in 
circumference. On the east, it presents a salient angle to the 

Dr. Voysey, in a paper on the Geological and Mineralogical Structure of 
the vicinity of Nagpoor, says, " From the summit of the hill of Sitabuldee the 
difference in the outline of the rocks eastward is very perceptible. The flat- 
tened summits and long flat outline, with the numerous gaps of the trap hills, 
are exchanged for the ridgy, peaked, sharp outline of the primary rocks." 
— Physical Class of the Asiatic Researches, p. 127. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 221 

neighbouring mountain; absolute contact, however, only com- 
mences at about 400 feet from the top of the scarp, leaving a 
gap and an extremely narrow ridge, over which lies a difficult 
footpath of communication between the valley of the Malsej 
Ghat and that of the Mool river. The spur then widens ; 
some lateral ramifications shoot out, on one of which is 
situated the fort of Koonjurgbur. At the Brahmun Wareh 
pass it narrows considerably, but not into a ridge ; it subse- 
quently expands into the extensive and well-peopled table 
land of Kanoor and Parneir, twenty-four miles long by twenty 
broad, having diminished in height by a succession of steps 
from 3894 feet in Hurreechundurghur, to 2866 at Brahmun 
Wareh, 2474 at Parneir, and 2133 on the terrace of Ahmed- 
nuggur. From Ahmednuggur the spur bends southwards 
until it is finally lost in the neighbourhood of Sholapoor. It 
is, in fact, the margin of a great plateau, which has a mean 
elevation of about 300 feet above the valley of the Godavery 
river, and over which the rivers Goreh, Beema, Seena, &c. 
take their course. The basaltic caps of the ridges appear 
more or less columnar from numerous vertical fissures ; the 
weathering of these exposed rocks produces pillars, spires, 
towers, houses, and other forms of works of art. Another 
feature of these spurs is the occasional occurrence on their 
table lands of small hummocks or conical hills with a trun- 
cated apex. Dr. Voysey mentions " groups of flattened 
summits and isolated conoidal frusta" in the Gawelghur Trap 
Mountains. One of the longest of the spurs originates in 
the Ghats north-west of Sattarah, and runs nearly east-south- 
east about 100 miles towards Punderpoor. 

The spur immediately south of Poona, on the ramifications 
of which are situated the formidable fortresses of Singhur 
(4162 feet) and Poorundhur, (at nearly the same elevation) 
has an extent of ninety-five miles. 

Valleys. — Much having been said respecting valleys of 
excavation, I think it may be acceptable to offer a few obser- 
vations on the valleys between the spurs. I shall describe 
only those that present the greatest contrasts to each other. 

Valley of the Mota River. — The valley of the Mota river, 
south of Poona, originating in a mass of hills on the edge 
of the Ghats, is so exceedingly narrow that for some miles 
the bases of the opposite hills frequently touch each other, 
leaving at intervals little horizontal plots of a pistol-shot in 
width ; these plots occur in terraces, on lower levels, as they 
extend eastward. 

Vale of the Under, — The valley of the Under river, north- 



222 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

west of Poona, presents a perfect contrast to the last. It is 
level for twenty miles, running east and west to the very edge 
of the Ghats ; and a person can stand at the head of the 
valley, upon the brink of a scarp, rising almost from the 
Konkun. Here, at the source of the river, it is nearly six 
miles wide. The river Under runs down the valley 150 feet 
below the level of the cultivated lands. 

If these valleys be valleys of excavation, the present rivers 
could scarcely produce such, were we to suppose their powers 
of attrition in operation from the origin of things even to the 
end of time ! 

Those of a fissure-like character might have resulted from 
the upheaving of the beds of trap from below the sea, and the 
consequent probable fracture of the surface; but the same 
explanation will not apply to those valleys associated 
with the preceding, broad, flat, and margined by scarped 
mountains, which valleys are as wide at their origin at the 
crest of the Ghats, and at the sources of the rivers which run 
through them, as in any part of their length. 

Terraces. — As the rise from the Konkun to the Dukhun is 
by terraces, so the declination of the country eastward from the 
Ghats is by terraces ; but these occur at much longer intervals, 
are much lower, particularly in the eastern parts, and escape the 
eye of the casual observer. In the neighbourhood of Munchur, 
on the Goreh river, there are five terraces rising above each 
other from the east to the west, so distinctly marked that the 
parallelism of their planes to each other and to the horizon 
gives them the appearance of being artificial. An artificial 
character also pervades the form of many insulated hills ; 
some of which, viewed laterally, appear to have an extensive 
table-land on the summit ; but seen endways, look like trun- 
cated cones. Conoidal frusta, in the Gawelgurh range, have 
been already noticed. Other insulated hills are triangular in 
their superficial planes, as the forts of Teekoneh (three-cor- 
nered) and Loghur. 

Escarpments. — Stupendous escarpments are occasionally met 
with in the Ghats. In these instances the numerous strata, in- 
stead of being arranged in steps, form a continuous wall. At 
the Ahopeh pass, at the source of the Goreh river, the wall 
or scarp is fully 1500 feet high; indeed, on the north-west 
face of the hill fort of Hurreechundurghur, the escarpment can 
scarcely be less than double that height. On the other hand, 
the steps are sometimes effaced, and a hill has a rapid slope. 
This originates in a succession of beds of the softer amyg- 
daloids, without any basaltic interstratification ; their superior 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 223 

angles disintegrate and a slope results. But most usually 
three or four beds of amygdaloid are found between two strata 
of compact basalt ; the former disintegrates, leaving a slope, 
which is not unfrequently covered with forest trees, forming a 
picturesque belt. The basaltic scarp remains entire, or it 
may be partially buried by the debris from the amygdaloids 
above ; but its great thickness usually preserves it from obli- 
teration, and it rises from the wood below with majestic 
effect, its black front being finely contrasted with the rich and 
lively green of its sylvan associate. It is these strata, arranged 
in slopes and scarps, repeated three or four times, and 
so commonly met with in insulated and other mountains in 
Dukhun, that constitute the amazing strength of the hill 
forts of the country, leaving a succession of natural walls 
encircling a mountain. This feature did not escape the ob- 
servation of Captain Dangerfield in Malwa, who says, " From 
the great difference in the resistance made to decomposition 
by these trap and amygdaloid beds, their exposed ends acquire 
a very distinct degree of inclination and character ; the amyg- 
daloid forming a great slope and affording a loose mould 
covered with vegetation, the trap retaining its original per- 
pendicularity and dark bareness." 

In the alternation of the strata there does not appear to be 
any uniformity ; but the general level, thickness, and extent of a 
stratum are preserved, as in sedimentary rocks, on both sides of 
a valley ; the basalt and hardest amygdaloids being traceable 
for miles in the parallel spurs or ranges ; but the imbedded 
minerals, and even the texture, vary in very short distances. 

Columnar Basalt. — A great geological feature of Dukhun is 
the occurrence of columnar basalt. The basalts and hardest 
amygdaloids run so much into each other that the line of sepa- 
ration is not always readily distinguishable, excepting, of course, 
the lines of horizontal stratification. I observed the prismatic 
disposition more marked and perfect in the basalt strata than 
in the amygdaloids, and the more or less perfect development 
of determinate forms was dependent on the compactness and 
limited constituents of the rocks. Basalts and amygdaloids, 
however compact, with many imbedded matters, rarely formed 
columns. Perfect columns were generally small, of four, five, 
or six sides ; but the prismatic structure sometimes manifested 
itself in basaltic and amygdaloidal columns many feet in 
diameter. A bare mention of the places where they occur 
would testify to their extended localities, but these are too nu- 
merous for insertion in this report. 

Schistose Structure. — Following the preceding formation, I 



224 SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 

may mention, that in some few places a schistose structure 
was met with, but its extent was limited to a few yards ; the 
lamellae were vertical, from an inch to three inches in thickness, 
being perfect tables, with parallel bounding planes. The rock 
in which this structure occurs is a simple, indurated, gray 
clay, which flies into fragments under slight blows from the 
hammer. At Dytneh, near Serroor, some very perfect speci- 
mens have led the inhabitants to connect mystic influences with 
so artificial a development of inorganic matter. The spot is 
daubed with oil and red lead, and venerated. 

Basalt en Boules. — Another characteristic feature, is the 
general diffusion of those rounded or oval masses of compact 
basalt, with concentric layers like the coats of an onion, which 
the French geologists denominate Basalt en Boules, and our- 
selves, nodular basalt*. 

Dykes. — I now pass to the basaltic dykes, several of which 
came under my notice in different parts of the country. They 
are all vertical, and I did not observe that they occasioned any 
disturbance or dislocation in the strata of basalt and amyg- 
daloid, through which they passed. 

The gentlemen whose geological memoirs I have quoted, 
rarely advert to the subject of trap dykes, and their notices 
are very brief. Captain Dangerfield says, " The trap of the 
southern boundary of Malwa is much intersected by vertical 
veins of quartz, or narrow seams of a more compact heavy 
basalt, which appears to radiate from centres." Beyond the 
continuous trap region of the peninsula, Dr. Voysey notices 
a basaltic vein in syenite, near the Cavary river at Se- 
rin^apatam, which must have been propelled upwards, as it 
broke through an oblique seam of hornblende in the syenite, 
and carried the pieces up above the level of the hornblende 
vein. " On the eastern coast," Mr. Calder says, " from Con- 
dapilli northward, the granite is often penetrated, and, ap- 
parently, heaved up by injected veins or masses of trap and 
dykes of green stone." 

Ferruginous Clay. — The next distinctive feature is the 

* Dr. Voysey says, "The nodular wachen or basalt is one of the most 
common forms of trap in the extensive districts composed of the rocks of the 
family south of the Nermada (Nerbuddah) river. It occurs perpetually in the 
extensive and lofty range of mountains (the Gawalghur) situated between the 
Purna and Tapti rivers, and appeal's to form their principal mass. It is found 
equally abundant throughout the whole of Berar, part of the provinces of 
Hyderabad, Beder, and Sholapoor, and appears to form the basis of the great 
western range of trap hills which separate the Konkun from the interior of the 
Dukhun." — Physical Class, Asiatic Researches, pp. 12G, 189. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DI7KHUN. 225 

occurrence of strata of red ochreous rock ; in fact, M'Culloch's 
ferruginous clay underlying thick strata of basalt or amyg- 
daloid, precisely as is seen to be the case in the Giant's 
Causeway in Ireland. It passes through every variety of tex- 
ture, from pulverulent, friable, and indurated, to compact 
earthy jasper. The stratum is from an inch in thickness to 
many feet. The rock makes a red streak on paper, with the 
exception of the very indurated kinds, and does not affect the 
needle : it is pulverulent near the basaltic columns at Serroor, 
friable under subcolumnar red amygdaloid, near the source 
of the Seena river, indurated under basalt at Kothool. Al- 
though hard, it is here so cellular as to have the appearance 
of sponge, and, reduced to powder, looks like brickdust. 

Pulverulent Limestone. — Limestone is met with in the 
Dukhun only in three states — pulverulent, nodular, and 
crystalline. The first occurs in thin seams on the banks of 
rivers and water-courses, and at the base of hills in debris : 
the seams are from an inch to three feet in thickness, covered 
by a few feet of black earth ; sometimes in whiteness it re- 
sembles pounded chalk, and is then used by children to smear 
their writing boards. 

Nodular Limestone. — The nodular limestone, which is the 
well-known kunkur of India, (kunkur being a native word for 
nodule,) occurs like the preceding, disseminated or diffused 
in the soil, and also on the surface. I have never seen the 
nodules of a regular crystalline form ; they vary in size from 
a marble to a twelve-pound shot, and many of them are ex- 
ceedingly irregular in shape, particularly those dug from the 
banks of rivers ; they are sometimes obscurely lenticular ; they 
are so abundant in certain localities that they appear as if 
showered upon the earth, and disguise its colour. Dr. Bu- 
chanan mentions the same fact in Rajmahl. When upon black 
soil they are usually minute, and tolerably uniform in size ; 
on other soils their form is variable. In the Ghats, neither 
pulverulent nor nodular lime is met with. It is unnecessary 
to particularize the localities of the nodular kind, as it is of 
common occurrence eastward, from the hilly tracts of the 
Ghats, and is the only source of lime for mortar ; a class of 
persons making a livelihood by collecting the larger nodules. 
When carefully burnt they make an excellent cement. 

Captain Dangerfield describes the occurrence (in Malwa) 
in some parts, particularly near the bottom of the small hills 
and banks of the rivulets, of a thin bed of loose marl or 
coarse earthy limestone. Captain Coulthard says, " In Sagar 
a white patch of this limestone mouldering by the weather is 

vol. vi. 1837. Q 



226 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

the source from whence come the particles of kunkur mixed 
with the black basaltic earth of the neighbouring valley, in such 
proportion as to add increased fertility to it ; and, if a rivulet 
meanders through that valley, (and such is generally the fact), 
patches, made up of aggregated particles of the same, will 
here and there be found ; and this it is which the native 
families pick out and work into lime." Captain Coulthard 
refers the origin of the nodules to limestone rock underlying 
basaltic strata, but I cannot trace them to such a source, not 
having seen strata of compact limestone, properly so called, in 
the Dukhun. The only specimen of compact limestone met 
with by me, was in the bed of the Beema river, near Pundur- 
poor ; it was an insulated, amorphous, gray mass, four or five 
feet in diameter. I looked upon it as an aggregation of the 
pulverulent particles of lime disseminated in the neighbouring 
banks. 

Crystalline Limestone. — Lime in a crystalline state occurs 
only as an imbedded mineral in the amygdaloidal strata in 
quartz geodes, and in the nucleus, or compact part of masses 
of mesotype or stilbite. Tt is rare compared with the preceding 
varieties. 

Loose Stoties. — Another feature of Dukhun is the occurrence 
of immense quantities of loose basalt stones, as if showered upon 
the land ; also masses of rock heaped and piled into mounds, 
as if by the labour of man. Their partial distribution is not 
less remarkable than their abundance. For the most part the 
stones have a disposition to a geometrical form, and it is by 
no means rare to meet with prisms of three or four sides and 
cubes almost perfect ; stones with one or two perfect planes 
are very common. Their texture is close-grained, and the 
colour verging to black. 

Rocky Heaps. — The singular heaps of rocks and stones above 
noticed occur at Kanoor, Patus, Kheir, between Kurjut and 
Meerujgaon, and at other places in the Mawals, or hilly tracts 
of the Ghats. The heaps are from twenty to seventy feet in 
diameter, and the same in height. When composed of rocky 
masses, without small stones, blocks of three or four feet 
in diameter, and with a disposition to determinate forms, are 
piled upon each other, constituting rude pillars. In certain 
parts of the country from fifty to sixty of these heaps are seen 
within the area of a couple of square miles^ and it excites sur- 
prise that the intermediate ground is destitute of stones. 

SheetsofRoch. — Mentionmust not be omitted of the constant 
recurrence of sheets of rock of considerable extent at the sur- 
face, and totally destitute of soil ; this is particularly the case 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHTJN. 227 

in the Mawals, or hilly tracts along the Ghats. They abound 
with narrow vertical veins of quartz and chalcedony. When of 
sufficient thickness the vein splits in the centre, parallel to 
the surface of its walls, the interior being drusy with quartz 
crystals. The walls consist of layers of chalcedony, cachalong, 
horn-stone, and semi-opal. These veins supply the majority 
of the siliceous minerals so abundantly strewed over Dukhun. 
Structure and Mineral Composition of the Trap Rocks. 
— The structure and mineral composition of trap rocks in 
Dukhun vary exceedingly in short distances, even in the 
same stratum; nevertheless, the predominant character does not 
disappear, although the basalt, in a continuous bed, may pass 
several times from close-grained, compact, and almost black, to 
grey, amygdaloidal, and externally decomposing. The same 
observation applies to the amygdaloids. A variety of compact 
basalt, of an intense green colour, is susceptible of a brilliant 
polish, and rivals the celebrated Egyptian kind. It is of great 
weight and remarkable hardness; the natives use it to work into 
idols for their temples, pedestals to the wooden columns to their 
mansions, and slabs for inscriptions. The bulls, of the size 
of life, always placed before the temples of Mahadeo, are 
cut out of this variety at Raseen, Wurwund and the renowned 
Boleshwur. Some of the pedestals in the gateway of the 
Mankeswur palace at Teimboornee, look like mirrors. In 
the temple of Pooluj, south of Punderpoor, there is a slab six 
or seven feet long, and two and a half broad, covered with an 
inscription in the Kanree language ; and in Punderpoor the 
streets are paved apparently with the same basalt. At 
Jehoor, and near Ahmednuggur, is found a compact kind, 
like the last, but not so heavy ; it has a crystalline character, 
and sharp fracture, and has angular siliceous pebbles im- 
bedded : an occasional pebble is found loose in its cell. In 
the Happy Valley, near Ahmednuggur, the basalt is compact 
and smooth, with reddish flat transparent crystals imbedded. 
It opposes a feeble resistance to the hammer, and flies into 
fragments, some of which have right angles. The basalt, 
even of the true columns, is not of a uniform texture in 
different localities ; at times it is blackish or grey, and very 
small, granular, or compact ; at others, earthy and ferru- 
ginous, particularly externally. The base of the amygdal- 
oids is clay, with more or less hornblende disseminated; 
they embrace the cellular, porphyritic, hard, friable, and 
decomposing. I endeavoured to class them agreeably to the 
prevalence of quartz, chalcedony, lime, mesotype, or stilbite, 
as imbedded minerals, but found the method of very limited 

o2 



228 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

application ; sometimes one mineral only is imbedded, occa- 
sionally two, and often the whole. 

In Hurreechundurghur quartz amygdaloid prevails ; at Akla- 
poor, on the Mool river, it is characterized by mesotype, that 
mineral being imbedded in large masses, and the radii (six or 
seven inches) are the longest I have seen ; at Nandoor it 
is porphyritic, with several crystalline specks of lime ; near to 
Ahmednuggur is seen a cellular, indeed spongiform kind, 
which is hard, and the cells are empty. A small cellular and 
pisiform variety is found in the wonderful cave temples 
of Ellora ; and some of the sculptured figures appear as 
if marked by the small-pox. This observation is partially 
applicable to the Boodh and Hindoo cave temples of Ele- 
phanta, Salsette, Karleh, Joonur, the Naneh Ghat, and the 
Adjuntah Ghat, all of which are excavated in basaltic or 
amygdaloidal strata. The stilbite, or heulandite amygdaloid, is 
of very common occurrence ; but the most prevalent kind 
is that in which all the minerals noticed above are asso- 
ciated. The stone usually selected for building is of various 
shades of grey or bluish grey ; has hornblende disseminated 
in very small crystals ; works much easier than some of the 
compacter basalts, but takes a good polish. The entire 
temples of Korrul and Boleshwur, with their innumerable 
alto-relievo figures and laboured ornaments, are built of this 
variety of trap, which is, in fact, a greenstone, although 
less crystalline than the European rock. There is a variety, 
selected carelessly, also used in building, which has the struc- 
ture, and nearly the external characters of the last, but which 
in weathering exfoliates, and the buildings fall to ruin : such 
is the case with the great temple in Hurreechundurghur. 

I must not omit mention of two remarkable rocks which, as 
far as my reading extends, have not been noticed by authors 
on European geology. The first is an amygdaloid, in which 
compact stilbite is imbedded in a vermicular form ; one of its 
localities is the insulated hill on which stands the temple 
of Purwattee, in the city of Poona ; and it is met with in 
many other places. Captain Dangerfield* observed the same 
peculiar stratum near Sagar. He says, " There occurs an 
amygdaloidal or porphyritic rock, consisting of a compact 
basis of Avacke, in which are imbedded in great abundance 
small globular or uniform masses, but more usually long, 
curved, cylindrical, or vermiform crystals of zeolite." 

The other rock occurs as a thick stratum of amygdaloid, 

* Malcolm's Central India, p. 328, 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 229 

at the elevation of 4000 feet, in the hill forts of Hurreechundur- 
ghur and Poorundhur, and in the bed of the Goreh River at 
1800 feet, near Serroor. The matrix resembles that of the 
other amygdaloids, but the mineral imbedded is a glossy- 
felspar in tables resembling Cleavelandite, crossing each other 
at various angles, and so abundant as to occupy a moiety 
of the mass. I have only remarked it in the above localities, 
and it does not appear to have come under the notice of the 
gentlemen I have quoted elsewhere. 

Minerals. — Minerals are not uniformly dispersed in Dukhun. 
In one part quartz predominates, in another chalcedony ; and 
these are more or less associated with jaspars, agates, horn- 
stones, heliotrope, and semi-opal or cachalong. In other places, 
particular members of the zeolite family prevail, nearly to the 
exclusion of the siliceous class ; and elsewhere there is a 
diminution of minerals amounting almost to privation. Ame- 
thyst quartz is rare in Dukhun ; when met with it constitutes 
the crystal lining the interior of geodes of agate. I have not 
seen it in veins. 

Pseudomorphous quartz is common ; the most frequent 
impression is that of rhomb spar. Lime occurs only in three 
crystalline forms ; rhomb, dog-tooth, and the dodecahedron. 
The first is found on the surface, and imbedded in masses of 
quartz and compact mesotype ; the two latter forms are asso- 
ciated with ichthyophthalmite in cavities in the amygdaloid 
strata. That comparatively rare mineral ichthyophthalmite is 
very common at Poona. 

Natural Salts. — Only two kinds of natural salts came under 
my notice, namely muriate and carbonate of soda ; both are 
not uncommon ; the first near to Ahmednuggur, Koond, 
Mawleh, and other places ; the latter at Kalbar Lonee. Salt- 
petre is artificial in Dukhun. 

Ores. — No other ore than that of iron is found in Dukhun. 
It occurs as a nodular hematite, associated at the source of the 
Kistna with laterite. This ore produces the celebrated 
Wootz steel. 

Organic Remains. — I did not meet with organic remains of 
any kind whatever ; and Captain Coulthard in Sagar, Major 
Franklin in Bundelkund, and Captain Dangerfield in Malwa, 
were equally unsuccessful; and Mr. Calder, in his General 
Observations on the Geology of India, says, " But hitherto the 
most striking phaenomenon in Indian geology is the almost total 
absence of organic remains in the stratified rocks and in the 
diluvial soil." Very recently shells are understood to have been 



230 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

found by Dr. Malcolmson on the edge of the great trap 
region in the province of Nagpoor. The organic remains 
from the base of the Himalaya mountains are well known. 

Thermal Springs. — I am not aware of thermal springs in the 
collectorates of Poona, Ahmednuggur, and Dharwar ; but in 
Khandesh, in the pergumahs of Arrawud and Amba, in the 
Sautpoora mountains, are the hot springs called Soonup Deo and 
Oonup Deo ; the first is so hot that the hand cannot be borne 
in it, agreeably to the testimony of Colonel Briggs. Hot 
springs are numerous in the Konkun, bursting through trap ; 
and they are met with in Canara, and in many other parts of 
India and Ceylon. 

Extent of the Trap Region. — The trap has been traced con- 
tinuously to Neemutch, lat. 24 0, 27, N. at 1476 feet above the 
level of the sea, from a fluctuating southern line, which extends 
down as low as the 15th degree of latitude, but one end of which 
terminates on the western coast, between the 16th and 17th 
degrees of latitude; and the eastern end of the line runs up to 
Nagpoor, at 1000 feet above the sea. The longitudinal extent 
of the trap, between the above latitudes, would appear to be 
from the western sea coast (excluding Goojrat) to the 82nd 
degree of E. longitude ; there is thus evidence of a continuous 
trap formation covering an area of from 200,000 to 250,000 
square miles ! ! However extraordinary this extent may appear, 
it is an undoubted fact that offsets from this great region ex- 
tend even to the Ganges ! I am not aware of any facts to 
guide the judgement in the estimation of the age of the trap 
formation. 

Laterite. — Laterite is met with at the source of the Kistna 
river at 4500 feet above the sea, and its extensive occurrence 
all round the peninsula of India in the narrow tract of land at 
the foot of the Western and Eastern Ghats is well known. 

Nodular Limestone. — Kunkur, or nodular limestone, occurs 
everywhere in Dukhun, indeed all over India. 

Granite. — Although granite does not occur in the four col- 
lectorates of Dukhun, unless in the extreme southern limits of 
Dharwar, it is the chief rock eastward of Nagpoor, and it 
bursts through the surface in so many places in the peninsula 
of India as to have induced Dr. Voysey to express a belief that 
the basis of the whole peninsula is granite; an opinion involving 
the necessary deduction, when the extent of the trap region 
is also considered, that the whole peninsula of India, and the 
island of Ceylon, roughly calculated at 700,000 square miles, 
is of igneous origin. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 231 

Sedimentary Rocks. — There are not any sedimentary rocks 
in Dukhun, nor am I aware of any south of Broach, excepting 
such as have probably originated in the consolidation of com- 
paratively recent alluvium. 

Climate, 

A detailed account of the atmospheric tides, and meteor- 
ology of Dukhun having been published in the Philosophical 
Transactions, I shall limit myself to a description of such broad 
features as characterize the climate. The Ghats and the 
Desh have distinct features. The tract along the line of the 
former has a lower mean temperature, much more moisture, 
greater prevalence of westerly winds, a more limited range of 
the thermometer ; but a greater prevalence of fogs before, 
during, and after the rains, but not in the winter months ; 
and, finally, is characterized by the absence of hot winds. 
The Desh, on the contrary, has the air excessively dry in the 
hot months ; a great diurnal and annual range of the ther- 
mometer, a comparatively small fall of rain in the monsoon, 
the frequent occurrence of hot winds, and the rareness of 
fogs. 

Barometer. — The mean monthly pressure of the atmosphere 
is greatest in the winter months of December and January ; it 
gradually diminishes until July or August, the most damp 
months, when it is at its minimum ; it gradually increases again 
until the cold months. The greatest diurnal oscillation re- 
corded by me in several years' observations was '1950, or less 
than two-tenths of an inch ; the smallest oscillation '01 50. The 
mean rise of the barometer from sunrise to 9 — 10 a.m. for three 
years was '0445, thermometer + 7°*15 / . The mean fall from 
9 — 10 a.m. to 4—5 p.m., for four years, was '1066, thermometer 
+ 5 0, 21'; and the mean rise from 4 — 5 a. m. to 10 — 1 1 p.m., for 
one year, is '0884, thermometer — 7 0- 2\ The maximum range 
of the barometer at Poona, in the year 1830, at 1823 feet 
above the sea, was only '672, or not seven-tenths of an inch. 
The mean height of the barometer for that year was 27°*9254, 
and the mean height in the monsoon was 27 0, 8447 ; so that the 
constant moisture of the monsoon only occasioned a mean 
diminution of pressure of '0807, or less than one-tenth of an 
inch. At Madras, for twenty-one years, the mean height of 
the barometer was 29 0, 958' inches ; at Calcutta, the means of 
three years make it 29*764. M. Arago, at Paris, by nine 
years' observations, reduced to the level of the sea, makes the 
mean height 29*9546 inches, being almost identical with the 
mean height at Madras. 



232 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837. 

Atmospheric tides. — There are four tides of the atmosphere 
in Dukhun, as indicated by the movement of the barometer ; 
two diurnal, and two nocturnal : the diurnal rising tide is from 
4 — 5 a.m. to 9 — 10 a.m., and varies from "0200 inches to '0500 
inches ; the falling tide is from 9 — 10 a.m. to 4 — 5 p.m, and 
varies from '1950 inches to '0150 inches. The nocturnal 
rising tide is from 4 — 5 p.m. to 10 — 11 p.m., and varies from 
•0450 inches to '1140 inches; the nocturnal falling tide is 
from 10 — 1 1 p.m. to 4 — 5 a.m., and is about "0442 inches. This 
order was never deranged or inverted in one single instance 
in many thousand observations. 

Temperature. — The climate of Dukhun is subject to very 
considerable variations of temperature ; more, however, in the 
diurnal than in the monthly or annual ranges ; indeed, less so 
in the last particular than in Europe. In 1827, the extreme 
range of the thermometer at Edmonton was 75° Fahrenheit ; 
at Cheltenham, 64° - 6. In St. Petersburgh, the thermometer 
has been as low as 35°*7' below zero, and as high as 91°'4 ; 
the range, therefore, 127 0, 1. At Berne, the annual range has 
been more than 75°. In 1826, I observed a range of 53°'4, 
viz., from 93°-9 on the 12th March, to 40°'50 on the 15th 
January at sunrise. In 1827, the maximum range observed by 
me was 48°-8, viz., from 96 0, 8 on the 28th March, to 48° on 
the 12th December at sunrise. In 1828, the maximum oc- 
curred on the 7th May, being 101°, and the minimum was 56°, 
the range, therefore, 45° ; but, for a very short time, the ther- 
mometer rose on the 7th May, between two and three o'clock, 
to 105°; and this was the more remarkable as I was then en- 
camped on the edge of the Ghats at the source of the Beema 
river, at an elevation of 3090 feet above the level of the sea. 
This instance of unusual height of the thermometer, however, 
is not confined to Dukhun, for we learn from M. Arago, that it 
has been higher than 101° Fahrenheit in the shade in Paris. 

Monthly means. — The monthly means do not differ more 
than from 13° to 17° from each other. In 1826, the dif- 
ference between the hottest month (May, 83 0, 28), and the 
coldest (January, 65°-90), was only 17°-38. And in 1829, 
March was the hottest month, and November the coldest, 
their difference of means being 13°*66. 

Diurnal range. — The greatest diurnal range in 1826 was 
on the 5th March, being 37° -30, from 50°'5 to 87°-8. In 1827, 
it was 39°-5, on the 12th December, from 49°'5 to 89°. In 

1828, it was 34°-8, on the 16th July, from 56° to 90° -8. In 

1829, the maximum diurnal range was 37°*5 in December. 
The minimum diurnal range occurs in the monsoon months of 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 233 

June, July, August, and September ; indeed, occasionally, on 
some days in those months, the mercury does not move at all. 

Mean Temperature. — In 1828, Dr. Walker, at Ahmednug- 
gui', at an elevation of 1900 feet above the sea, made the 
mean temperature 78° ; and though I was living in tents, and 
moving about the country, I made it only 77 0, 93. Of course, 
on higher or lower levels this mean temperature will be di- 
minished or increased. It is necessary, however, to note one 
remarkable fact, namely, that the mean temperature of places 
on the table -land of the continent of India is much higher than 
the calculated mean temperature of the same places agreeably 
to Mayer's formula. The calculated mean temperature of 
Ahmednuggur is 72°'27, observed 78°; of Poona 72°-78, ob- 
served 77°-7 ; of Mhow, in Malwa, 69°-86, observed 74° : 
temperature of a spring in the hill fort of Hurreechundurghur 
69°"5, calculated temperature 65° '45. 

The results of several years' observations indicate that the 
annual mean temperature of 9 o, 30 a.m., is nearly identical 
with the mean temperature deduced from the maxima and the 
minima. 

With respect to the gi'eatest diurnal, and the greatest 
monthly range of the thermometer, the winter months have 
a range nearly in a quadruple ratio to the monsoon months. 
The latter have mostly the temperature very equable, the 
difference of the monthly means rarely exceeding 3°, and the 
greatest diurnal range in five years only once amounted to 
lo° # 6. The latter end of March, and April, and May are the 
hottest periods of the year, from the position of a nearly 
vertical sun, the intensity of whose influence is but slightly 
modified by the occasionally cloudy weather : the temperature 
falls in June, and continues nearly stationary until the end of 
September : it then rises in October, but falls at the end of 
the month, until its annual minimum in December or January. 
It is low the early part of March, but rises suddenly after the 
middle of the month, occasioning a difference of 6° or 8° 
between the means of February and March, which is more 
than double that of other consecutive months in the year. 
The rise in October is also sudden, but does not occasion so 
great a difference of means as between February and March. 
It will thus be remarked that the temperature does not fol- 
low the sun's declination, owing to the interference of the 
monsoon. 

Moisture. — A remarkable feature in the climate of Dukhun 
is the small quantity of aqueous vapour generally suspended in 
the air, compared with the proximate climate of Bombay and 



234 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

the coast, or even the hilly tracts of the Ghats. My obser- 
vations were made with Daniell's hygrometer, and extended 
over several years. There is a gradual increase of moisture in 
a cubic foot of air, from the most dry month, February, until 
June and July. Hence the moisture remains nearly stationary 
until the beginning of October, when it diminishes somewhat 
rapidly and regularly until February. The annual mean dew- 
ing point is greater at 9-| a.m. than at sunrise or at 4 p.m., but 
this does not uniformly hold good in each month of the year. 
In 1826, the highest dewing point was at four o'clock on the 
21st October, being 76°*, temperature of the air 84°*5, a 
cubic foot of air holding 9*945 grains of water. The lowest 
dewing point was on the 4th December, at sunrise, being 44°, 
temperature of the air 56°, a cubic foot of air containing 3*673 
grains of aqueous vapour ; but the lowest dewing point did 
not indicate the driest state of the atmosphere, as a dewing 
point of 45° in November, with a temperature of 87° at 4 p.m., 
gave only 3 "587 grains. 

The most moist month was July ; the mean weight of water 
in a cubic foot of air was 8*775 grains, and the point of satu- 
ration was only 4°'85 from the dewing point. The greatest 
monthly range of the dewing point was, in October, 30°, and 
the smallest range, 7°, was in July and August. The monthly 
range was not coincident with the movements of the barometer 
and thermometer ; but there were curious approximations. 
The extreme dewing points differed 32°. The dewing point 
has been as high as 76°, temperature of the air 79°, a cubic 
foot of air containing 10*049 grains of aqueous vapour; but 
this is a rare occurrence. An instance occurred of the dewing 
point being obtained at 3° below the point of the congelation 
of water, the temperature of the air being 62°, and a cubic foot 
of air holding 2*146 grains of water. There is also an instance 
of a dewing point, in February, 1828, being 61° below the 
temperature of the air, viz., from 90° to 29°, but I never after- 
wards succeeded in determining anything like so great a 
depression. 

In January, 1827, there was a range of the dewing point of 
38°, and the extreme range of the year was 47°, viz., from 29°, 
temperature 62°, in January, to 76°, temperature 79°, in June. 
In 1829, the mean dewing point for the monsoon was 69°*62, 
temperature 75°*83 ; the cubic foot of air containing 8*191 grains 
of water. In 1830, the observations are only complete for 
9-10 a.m. ; the mean dewing point was 61°*9, temperature 
78 0, 4, and a cubic foot of air contained 6*351 grains of water ; 
the extreme range of the hygrometer was 47°, the lowest 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 235 

dewing point 31°, temperature 50°, in December. It might 
be supposed that the hottest months in the year, March, 
April, and May, would also be the driest ; but such is not the 
fact. The powerful action of the sun on the ocean, in the 
middle of March, raises a large quantity of aqueous vapour, 
which continues to increase in the ratio of the sun's progress 
north : the westerly winds waft this vapour into Dukhun ; 
much of it is arrested by the Ghats and hilly tracts eastward 
of these mountains ; accounting for the sensible moistness of 
the air, the frequent night fogs, and deposition of dew in this 
line, in the end of March, and in all April and May. The 
supply of moisture diminishes in proportion to the distance 
eastward from the sea, to the limits of the Coromandel coast 
monsoon. We in consequence find the Ghats, Poona, Ahmed- 
nuggur, and the Bala Ghat, all with very different dewing 
points in the hot months. 

The hygrometric state of the air in Bombay and Dukhun is 
remarkably contrasted : in fact, there is more aqueous vapour 
suspended in the air in Bombay in the hot months, than there 
is at Poona at any time during the monsoon. In April and 
May, 1826, in Bombay, the monthly mean dewing points were 
respectively 72°*84 and 75° -59, temperature 83°*48 and 84° '52, 
a cubic foot of air holding 8*988 grains, and 9*748 grains of 
water suspended ; whilst July, the most rainy month during 
the monsoon, at Poona, had only a mean of 8*775 grains of 
water suspended. In 1827, the means of ten days' observations 
in Bombay, in April, gave 10*243 grains of aqueous vapour in 
a cubic foot of air ; and the greatest mean quantity at Poona 
was in June, and it amounted only to 8*931 grains. In 1828, 
in the month of March, the following were the dewing points 
in consecutive days, travelling from Bombay to Poona ; Bom- 
bay, 10th March, 4 p.m., 11*205 grains of water in a cubic 
foot of air ; at Poona, at the same hour, on the 14th March, 
2*273 grains. At Bombay, on the 10th, at sunrise, and at 9^ 
a.m., the dewing points were respectively 72° and 71°, tem- 
perature 75° and 81°*5, a cubic foot of air containing 8*873 
grains at the former hour, and 8*487 grains at the latter hour. 
The following morning at Kundallah, on the top of the Ghats, 
1744 feet above the sea, at the same hours, the dewing points 
were 36° and 40°, temperature 72° and 78°, equivalent only to 
2*690 grains, and 3*004 grains of water in a cubic foot of air. 
In the afternoon of the same day, at Karleh, 2015 feet above 
the sea, seven miles east of Kundallah, a cubic foot of air held 
2*954 grains, and on the 12th, at 4 p.m., 2*611 grains of 
aqueous vapour. On the summit of the hill fort of Loghur, 



236 SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 

3381 feet above the sea, and 1366 above Karleh, the dewing 
point at sunrise on the 13th, was 5° Fahr. below the freezing 
point, temperature of the air 67°, and a cubic foot of air held 
only 1 *995 grains of water in a state of vapour. These facts 
fully establish the remarkable discrepancies between the hy- 
grometric state of the air in Bombay and Dukhun, and that 
too within a difference of a few miles of latitude and longitude. 
A comparison of the absolute falls of rain in Bombay and in 
Poojia, for the years 1826-7-8, shows an agreement (to a 
certain extent) in their ratio to the hygrometric state of the 
air at Poona and Bombay, above noticed. The mean fall of 
rain at Bombay in those years was 93*62 inches, and at Poona 
26"926 inches, or 28f per cent, only of the fall in Bombay. 

Main. — In Dukhun the rains are light, uncertain, and, in all 
years, barely sufficient for the wants of the husbandman, and 
a slight failure occasions much distress. They usually com- 
mence at the end of May, with some heavy thunder showers 
from E. to S.E., the lightning being terrific and frequently 
fatal, and the wind furious ; but they do not set in regu- 
larly until the first ten days in June, and continue until the 
end of September from the W. to the S. W., and break up 
with thunder-storms from the E. to the S. E. before the 
middle of October. During the remaining months of the 
year an accidental shower or two may fall from the Coro- 
mandel monsoon ; and the further the distance eastward from 
Poona, the greater the chance of showers in the cold months. 
The monsoon temperature is equable and agreeable, and the 
rain occurs almost always in showers, rarely continuing un- 
interruptedly for a day or more, as is common on the coast 
and in the Konkun. The greatest quantity of rain falls in the 
months of June and July. The greatest fall of rain in any 
one day was 2*58 inches, on the 6th July, 1826; at Bombay, 
on the 24th June, 1828, there fell 8-67 inches ; and at Hurnee, 
on the 15th June, 1829, there fell 8-133 inches in 24 hours. 

The mean annual fall of rain for all England, from many 
years' observations, appears to be 32'2 inches, but the means 
of different counties vary from 67 inches in Cumberland to 
19 inches in Essex. 

The clouds supplying the monsoon rains in Dukhun would 
appear to have a low elevation, as I have frequently seen 
through breaks as they were passing swiftly from west to east, 
a superior stratum, apparently stationary, or moving slowly in 
a contrary direction, and gilded by the sun's rays. 

Winds. — The great features in the observations respecting 
the winds, are the prevalence of winds from the west and westerly 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 237 

quarters, east and easterly quarters, and the extreme rareness 
of winds from the north and south, and the points approxi- 
mating to them ; and these features appear to be constant in 
successive years. In 5229 observations the wind blew from 
the west, or points adjoining, 2409 times ; and in this number 
the S.W. (305), and N.W. (122), amount only to 427. From 
easterly points 949 times, including 246 from the N.E. and 
S.E., thus leaving 703 from the east. From the north 115 
times, and from the south 36 times only. Another feature is 
the frequent absence of wind, particularly at sunrise, and 
more so in the months of January, February, March, October, 
and November than in other months of the year. The cessa- 
tion of wind from May to September inclusive is comparatively 
rare ; . and, generally, throughout the year the absence of wind 
at 4 p.m., may be looked upon as unusual. In my records 
there are 1720 observations of " No wind," and 847 of these 
belong to sunrise, 452 to 9 — 10 a.m., and 304 only to 4 p.m. 

The observations were continued through five years, three 
times daily ; sunrise, 9 — 10 a.m., and 4 p.m. There is consi- 
derable uniformity in the direction of the wind in the same 
months in consecutive years. The westerly winds begin to pre- 
vail in March, alternating with easterly winds, which blow the 
latter part of the night; but the easterly winds disappear as the 
monsoon approaches, and do not re-appear again till October. 
In October the winds are variable, and the records of " No 
wind," increase suddenly and rapidly. A few easterly winds, 
however, about the end of the month, indicate the change which 
is to take place ; they gradually increase, and with those from 
the N.E. and S.E., almost entirely supersede the winds from 
the westerly points during the cold months. 

In March, from the sun's approach, the interior land during 
the day gets heated ; an influx of air from the sea coast com- 
mences daily after 10 a.m. ; but as the earth, at this period, 
cools more rapidly than the sea at night, the interior is cooler 
than the coasts, and there is a reflux of air towards the 
ocean ; the easterly and westerly winds thus alternate day and 
night. This alternation, however, diminishes in the ratio of 
the sun's increasing power; and when the earth gets so 
thoroughly heated that it cannot reduce its temperature by 
radiation below that of the sea, the consequence is the preva- 
lence of winds from the westerly points to the almost entire 
exclusion of those from easterly points. In June the westerly 
winds set in regularly. There are occasional instances of the 
wind blowing with much steady violence from the west for 



238 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

many hours in the hot months with a sunny sky. In the early 
part of March some unaccountably cold winds, affecting vege- 
tation even, have been known to blow. 

Hot Winds. — The well-known hot winds of tropical conti- 
nents do not prevail near the Ghats; but the same wind, which 
is pleasant in their neighbourhood, may become a hot wind as it 
travels to Ahmednuggur and Arungabad. The east wind is 
characterized by its extreme dryness, and it is dangerous 
to sleep exposed to it. 

Whirlwinds. — Those curious whirlwinds noticed by travellers 
in Africa, and which in the deserts are dangerous, are of com- 
mon occurrence in Dukhun in the hot months. A score or more 
columns of dust, in the form of a speaking trumpet or water- 
spout, may be seen rapidly coursing over the treeless plains, 
marking a vortex of heated air. They are sufficiently powerful 
to unroof a thatched house, strike tents, and whisk away all 
light matters. 

Hail Stones. — Hail stones of considerable magnitude some- 
times fall in the thunder-storms of the hot months. 

Deivs. — Dews appear plentifully after the monsoon, and 
during the nights of the cold months; but their frequent local 
occurrence has often excited surprise. 

Fogs. — Fogs are of so rare occurrence in the Desh, or 
country eastward of the Ghats, that I have only nineteen 
records of them during five years. Along the Ghats they 
are much more common ; and during April and May, for 
three or four nights in the week, fogs drift rapidly to the 
eastward from the Konkun, or low country at the foot of the 
Ghats. On some nights no drift takes place, and the fog 
remains resting on the Konkun ; and, seen from the crest of 
the Ghats at sunrise, has the appearance of a sea of milk. 
As the sun rises the fog creeps up the chasms of the Ghats, 
and finally disappears by 10 a.m. 

Salubrity of the Climate. — With respect to the salubrity of 
the open parts of the country, it will only be necessary to state 
that, in my little camp, consisting of more than a hundred souls 
(natives), I had not a single death of an adult during six years ; 
nor a case of illness (excepting one) that I did not cure without 
regular medical aid. Dr. Walker, long civil surgeon in the 
city of Ahmednuggur, found the casualties in 1828 in that city 
(exclusive of losses from spasmodic cholera) to be only 1*82 
per cent., or 1 in 55*1 persons ; and, including cholera, 2 - 48 
per cent., or 1 in 40*2 persons. Dr. Lawrence, in charge of a 
regiment of natives. 1000 strong, lost only 0*85 parts of an 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 239 

integer per cent, per annum, or about five men in 600 during 
the years the regiment was in Dukhun. 

Parts of Khandesh have not credit for the same salubrity. 

Botany. 

Under this head I shall confine myself to a simple enume- 
ration of the agricultural and garden products, and wild fruits. 
To enter into the botany of Dukhun generally would be 
misplaced in this digest. And first with regard to cultivated 
native fruits; they are forty-five in number, viz. 

Cultivated Fruits. — Amba, Mangifera indica*; Oombur. 
Ficus glomerata; Phunnus, Artocarpus integrifolia h ; Cheents, 
Tamarindus indica c ; Ambarra, Spondias Mangifera d ; Hur- 
parewree, Cicca disticha; Ramphul, Annona reticulata 6 ; See- 
taphul, Annona squamosa ; Raeebor, Zizyphus jujuba ; Jam- 
blee, Calyptranthes caryophyllifolia; Awlee, Phyllanthus 
emblica; Bail, JEgle Marmelos i ; Wowulee, Mimusops elengi; 
Narlee, Cocos nucifera e ; Jamb, Eugenia Jambos h ; Mohha, 
Bassia latifolia ; Toot, Mortis alba » ; Shatoot, Mortis indica k ; 

Choonchoo, .Mbn/s^ l ; Kurumbul, ^e/rAoa Carambola m ; 

Kuweet, Feronia elepkatitum 11 ; Bhokur, Cordia latifolia; 
Anjeer, Ficus Carica ° ; Daleemb, Punica granatum, (two 
kinds) P ; Weer, Citrus limon^; Chukotur, Citrus decumanus r ; 
Maloong, Citrus medica*; Nareeng, Citrus aurantium t , of these 
there are several kinds ; Ambut neemboo, Citrus acida u ; 
Sakur neemboo, Citrus Union var. x ; Peroo, Psidium Pyri- 
ferumv ; Peroo tambra, Red Guava ; Kajoo, Anacardium 
occidentale z ; Gondnea, Cordia myxa ; Tarh, Borassus flabel- 
liformis ; Phopy, Pupeea Carica ; Badam, Terminalia ca- 
tappa ; Sooparee, Areca faufel aa ; Kujoor, Phoenix dactili- 
fera^ ; Ke] or Kail, Musa paradisiaca cc , there are several 
species or varieties. Sonkel, Musa sapientum ; Draxhs, Vitis 
Jinifera dA . There are seven species of grapes in Dukhun, the 
Mahratta names of which are Kalee, or black ; Ahbee, or 
watery; Phukree, or Muscadina; Saheebee, Bedana, or seed- 
less ; Sooltanee ; and Suckree, or sugary. Khurbooz, Cucumis 
Melo ee ; Phoot, Cucumis momordica ; and Kulungrah, Cucur- 

» Mango. b Jack fruit. c Tamarind. d Hog-plum. 

e Sweet-sop. f Bengal quince. B Cocoa nut. h Rose apple. 

' White mulberry. k Red mulberry. ' Small mulberry. 

m Country gooseberry. n Wood apple. ° The garden fig. 

P Pomegranate. q Lemon. 'Shaddock. "Citron. 

1 Orange. u Lime. * Sweet lime. y Guava. 

* Cashew nut. aa Betel nut. bb D a t e . cc Plantain. 

dd Grapes. ee Musk melon. 



240 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

bita Citrullus 3 -. There are several species or varieties of the 
melons. 

Wild Fruits. — The wild fruits are twenty-two in number, 
viz. Beebah, Semicarpus anacardium h ; Cher, Chirongia sa- 

pida; Ratamhee, Garcinia c ; Torun, Zizyphus albens ; 

Kurwund, Carissa Carandas and diffusa, both of them excel- 
lent fruits ; Seendee, Phoenix Sylvestris, or Elate Sylvestris^ ; 
Jungle Jaeephul, Myristica dactyloides e ; Peempree, Ficus 
comosa ; Rahbor, Zizyphus Xylopyrus ; Bunkeil, Musa tro- 
glodytarum f , two varieties; Gfooloom, Loranthus bicolor ; 
Lotowl, a genus and species not determined ; Ambgoolee, 

Elceagnus , a very nice fruit, tasting like a gooseberry. 

Ulloo, Vanqueria spinosa ; Temboornee, Gardenia, ; 

Thurtee, Capparis erythrocarpus; Neptee, Capparis aphylla ; 
Wagatee, Capparis Zeylanica ; Makur Neembonee, Citrus 

s • Wuhr, Ficus Indica ; Loheer, Ficus , a 

noble tree, 80 to 100 feet high. 

The above comprise the wild fruits of Dukhun; many of 
them are not only passable, but very palatable, particularly 
the Ambgoolee, the Kurwund, and the Char. The Ratambee, 
or wild mangostein, is in extensive use as an acid seasoner, 
and is met with for sale in most markets in a dried state. The 
wild nutmeg is frequently imposed upon the ignorant for the 
real nutmeg. The oil of the Beebah is used for marking 
linen, like indelible ink ; but the kernel roasted is agreeable. 
The wild lime ( Citrus) is only met with in the Ghats ; it forms a 
handsome dense tree, but the cultivated fruit is so abundant that 
the wild is not made any use of. Many of the above fruit 
trees produce good timber. With respect to the mango, 
which is met with both cultivated and wild, it is considered by 
the people less as a luxury, than as an auxiliary to the neces- 
saries of life, or as a substitute for them in seasons of scarcity; 
for the mango is in fruit, and seldom fails an abundant crop, 
at a time when the earth is parched up by the heats of May 
and beginning of June. 

Agricultural Products. — A brief notice only of the agricul- 
tural products can be given. The harvests are of two distinct 
kinds : one is the Khurreef, or rainy season harvest; the other 
is the Rubee, or dry, or cold, or spring season, harvest. 

Wet Season Harvest. — This harvest produces twenty- 
two kinds of grain and pulse ; but the products of the Desh, 

a Water melon. b The marking nut. c The wild mangostein. 

d Wild date. e Wild nutmeg. f Wild plantain. 

6 The original apparently of some of the species of Citrus in Dukhun. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 241 

or open country, are different from those of the Mawuls, 
or hilly tracts along the Ghats. The following are the pro- 
ducts of the monsoon crop in the Desh : Jondla, Andropogon 
Sorghum, and of these there are many varieties ; Sujgoora, 
Panicum spicatum; Rahleh, Panicum Italicum; Bhadlee, 
Paspalum pilosum ; Kodroo, Paspalum frumentaceum; Mukka, 
Zea Mays a ; Moog, Phaseolus Mungo ; Ooreed, Phaseolus 
radiatus ; Tooree, Cytisus cajan; Muht, Phaseolus aconiti- 
folius ; Teel, Sesamum orientate, two kinds ; Ambaree, Hi- 
biscus Cannabinus ; Oolgeea, Dolichos bifloris ; Waal, Doli- 
chos spicatus ; Rajgeerah, Amaranthus oleraceus Candidas ; 
Chuwluya, Dolichos catiang ; and Gowarya, Dolichos fabcc- 
formis: there are thus seventeen products of the monsoon 
harvest of the Desh. The first six are bread grains, and are 
reduced to flour; Teel and Rajgeerah are eaten unground; 
Ambaree is a cordage plant, the rest are pulse, and are cooked 
in a variety of ways. Tooree is the universal substitute for 
the split pea of Europe ; it is much more agreeable than the 
pea, and is more commonly used. 

The produce of the rainy season harvest in the hilly tracts 
is Dhan, Oryza sativa h , seventeen or eighteen kinds ; Natch- 
nee, Eleusine coracana, or Cynosurus coracanus ; Sawa, Pa~ 
nicum miliaceum ; Wuree, Panicum miliar e ; and, finally, 
Karleh, Verbesina sativa. All these require a superabun- 
dance of water. The rice, which is the chief support of the 
people of the hilly tracts, is sown in the valleys, because it can 
be constantly flooded. Karleh is an oil plant only ; the others 
are sown on the sides of the mountains, in places inaccessible 
to the plough. They are either used whole, or are reduced to 
flour for bread. Rice is never reduced to flour. 

It is not to he understood, that the above products, as 
separated into those of the hilly tracts and Desh, are rigidly 
confined to those tracts ; where the physical circumstances 
permit of it, they are indiscriminately cultivated in both tracts. 
The returns of some of the above plants are prodigiously great. 
I have seen a plant of Paspalum frumentaceum with twenty 
stalks radiating from a common root, and with thirty-three 
spikes of grain, giving the astonishing return of 61,380 for 1; 
a single head of Andropogon Sorghum gave 2895 for 1 ; eight 
stalks of Panicum spicatum from a single root 16,960 for 1 ; 
and a single head of Panicum Italicum produced 1850 for 1 ! ! 

Dry or Spring Season Harvest. — The next harvest is that 
of the Rubee, or dry or spring season of the Desh. In this 

a Indian corn. b Rice. 

VOL. VI. 1837- R 



242 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

harvest, of twenty-three products, there are four species of fine 
wheat, viz. Guhoo Bukshee, Triticum spelta ; Kupleh Guhoo, 

Triticum ; Kateh Guhoo, Triticum ; and Poh- 

teeyai, Triticum , called bellied wheat, from the seed 

being very much swelled out in the middle. Urburee, 
Cicer Arietinum; Shaloo, Andropogon saccharatum ; Juw, 
Hordeum hexastichon* ; Watanah, Pisum sativum 13 ; Kurdee, 
Carthamus Persic u s ; Juwus, Linum usitatissimum ; Mohuree, 
Sinapis racemosa, and two other kinds ; Taag, Crotolarea 
juncea; Yerund Tambra, Ricinus communis* ; Yerund Eerwa, 
Ricinus viridis ; Oos Tambra, Saccharum qfficinarum d ; 

Oos Poonda, Saccharum e ; Oos Pandra, Sacckarum 

f ; Oos Bet, Saccharum, S; Shet Wallook, 

Cucumis , the literal meaning is field cucumber ; Paw- 

teh, Dolichos ; Tumbakoo, Nicotiana tabacum; Shet 

Kapoos, Gossypium herbaceum^ ; Bhoeemoong, Arachis hy- 
pogced}. 

The above are chiefly produced in the Desh, in the dry 
season. Urburee, Cicer arietinum, is the universal substitute 
for oats for horses ; and, excepting in the rains when green 
grass is obtainable, the juicy, sweet, and nutritious stalks of 
the Shaloo, Andropogon sorghum, and varieties, is their 
only forage. Oil is expressed from the seeds of Kurdee, 
Juwus, Mohuree, and Yerand. Juwus is not used for its 
flax. Although there are four kinds of sugar-cane, and much 
raw sugar is produced, the processes of refining are not 
carried on. The bark of Taag is used for ropes and coarse 
canvas. The returns from the wheat are very considerable ; 
I have a specimen of Kupleh Guhoo, with twenty-five stalks 
from one root, giving a return of 1450 for 1 ; ten stalks are 
very common ; a specimen of the Kateh Guhoo, also in my 
possession, with fifteen stalks from a single root, giving a 
return of 480 for 1. The average on tolerable land is eight 
stalks or ears to a plant. The tobacco from some parts of 
the country is reckoned very fine. 

The dry season harvest of the hilly tracts is almost entirely 
confined to Mussoor, Ervum hirsutum ; and Pawta, a variety 
of Dolichos Lablab. 

Garden produce. — The produce of the gardens is of great 
importance to the natives of India, from their poverty limiting 
them very much to a vegetable diet, corrected by aromatic 
seeds and condiments. Most of the plants cultivated in the 

a Barley. b Peas. c Castor oil. d Red sugar cane. 

e Variegated sugar cane. f White sugar cane. s Reed-like sugar cane. 

h Field cotton. ' The earth nut. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 243 

gardens of the Desh are also produced in the gardens, where 
they exist, (which is rarely) of the hilly tracts. The products 
are forty-six in number, viz., Dhunya, Coriandrum sativum* ; 
Mehtee, Trigonella foznugrecum ; Shepoo, Anethum sowa ; 
Bureeshep, Anethum fceniculum b ; Wowa, Ligusticum agi- 
vaen ; Hulwee, Lepidum sativum ; Meerchya, Capsicum an- 
nuum c ; of this there are many species. Patee, Allium cepa d , 
red, white, and yellow ; some of which are so mild as to be 
used as vegetables. Chakweet, Chenopodium album ; Chooka, 
Rumex Vesicarius t ; Wahlea, Basella rubra and alba; Aaloo, 
Arum campanulatum ; Tandoolja, Amaranthus polygamus ; 
Maat Tambree, Amaranthus oleraceus, Var. ; Paluk, Beta 
Bengalensis ; Mohtee gohl, Oxalis monadelphus ; Gohl, Por- 

tulaca oleracea ; Pokulla, Amaranthus, ; Poodna, Mentha 

riridis ; Chundun Butwa, Chenopodium, ; Bhang, Can- 
nabis sativa f ; and Nagwail, Piper Betel. The most valuable 
of the above plants produce aromatic or pungent seeds ; most 
of the rest are pot-herbs held in considerable estimation. 

Edible roots. — The next division of garden produce is de- 
nominated Mool Bojee, which literally means "root-greens," 
properly edible roots. Mooleh, Raphanus sativusS ; Rutalee, 
Convolvulus batatas^ ; Kohn, Dioscorea purpurea or alata*; 
Gajur, Daucus carotai ; Lussoon, Allium sativum^ ; Soorun, 

Arum, ; Rungeh, Dioscorea fasciculata ; Alluh, Amo- 

mum Zingiber^. 

Fruit vegetables. — A further division is made of Phul bajee 
or fruit greens, which means fruits eaten as vegetables, viz., 
Bhendee, Hibiscus esculentus ; Wangee, Solanum melongena m , 

several species or varieties ; Gewree, Dolichos, ; the seeds 

are eaten as pulse, and there are several varieties ; Dorkee, 
Cucumis acutangulus ; Gosaled, Ltijfa pentandria ; Karlee, 
Momordica Charantia ; Tondlee, Momordica monadelphia ; 
Purwal, Trichosanthes anguina ; Purwar, Trichosanthes cucu- 
merina ; Turkakree, Cucumis usitatissimus ; n Kateh Wallook, 
Cucumis sativus, warty, prickly cucumber ; Doodh Boplah, 
Cucurbita longa ; Boplah-tambra, Cucurbita Pepo, red pump- 
kin ; specimens of this fruit are sometimes more than eighteen 
inches in diameter ; Kohwall, Cucurbita alba ; Dhendsee, 

Cucurbita, ; Kasee Boplah, Cucurbita lagenaria. 

Such are the cultivated garden products of the natives : it 
will be seen that they are rich in the cucurbitaceous family, 

1 Coriander. b Sweet fennel. c Chilly. d Onions. 

e Blister sorrel. f Hemp. £ Radishes. h Sweet potatoe. 

1 Yam. J Carrots. k Garlic. l Ginger. ■ Eggplant. 

n Common cucumber. 

r2 



244 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

and not less so in the aromatic and pungent plants ; and the 
edible roots are various. Edible leaves, used as greens, are 
very numerous, particularly those produced spontaneously. 
My limits do not permit me to give even the names of wild 
plants producing greens, fruits used as vegetables, or edible 
roots ; the flowers of some plants are used as greens ; such as 
the Angustee, /Eschynomene grandiflora ; the Shewga, Hy- 
peranthera morunga, or horse-radish tree ; and those of the 
Kanchun, Baukinia purpurea ; the foot-stalks of the flowers 
of the splendid Convolvulus candicans are used in a similar 
way. The tender twigs of the common bamboo are good as 
greens, and they are also made into a pickle. The flower, 
stalks, and roots of the Lotus (Nympha esculenta) are reck- 
oned fine ; but I must stop. 

Grasses. — The grasses are innumerable, and are not less 
distinguished for their beauty than their variety. One of the 
most common is that highly nourishing grass the Agrostis 
linearis, which, it appears, is a native of Cornwall, under the 
name of Panicon dactylon. In biting the knots or joints of 
the Ghateea (Andropogon Martini?) there is a strong, pungent, 
aromatic, and oleaginous exudation. The well-known aromatic 
Khus Khus (Andropogon muricatus) is abundant in Dukhun, 
as well as the sacred grass Durb, Poa cynosuroides. In 
speaking of the grasses it may be as well to say that it is not 
the practice of the natives to make hay from meadows ; they 
allow the grass on waste lands to become perfectly dry, and 
then cut it down with the sickle, as a substitute for hay. 

Wild cordage p>lants. — The spontaneous cordage plants are 
the Gayal, Agave vivipara ; the Kaswuree, Sida patens ; and 
some others. 

Wild oil plants. — The wild oil plants are the Kurunj, Gale- 
dupa arborea ; and the Kurd Kangonee, a small tree of the 
class and order Pentandria monogynia. 

Wild tanning plants, — The plants used in preparing leather 
are the Chambar Heerda, Terminalia Chebula; Rahn Turwur, 
Cassia auriculata ; the Sadrah or Aaeen, Terminalia alata 
glabra ; and the Baubul, Mimosa arabica, the bark of which 
is in great repute. 

Medicinal plants. — The medicinal plants are numerous. 
Amongst the most useful are the Khyr, Mimosa catechu ; the 
Seegeekaee, Mimosa abstergens ; many species of Datura ; 
Kuntuh Kareeka, Solanum jacquini ; Sagurgotta, Ceesalpinia 
bonduccella ; Korpur, Aloe succotrina; Dadmaree, Euphorbia 
tiruculU; Gooleea Eendrawun, Cucumis colocynthis ; Reeta, 
Sapindus detergens ; Sahl Phul, Boswellia thurifera; Baw- 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 245 

cheea, Psoralea corylifolia ; some of the Ocimums, and many 
of the Asclepias family. Of the powerfully scented plants, 
the Michelia Champaca, (Champa), Pandanas odoratissimus, 
several species of Jasmine, Polyanthus, Rose, &c, abound. 

European fruits. — Very few of the European fruits are cul- 
tivated in Dukhun ; indeed, those produced are almost con- 
fined to peaches and strawberries, both of which are as fine 
as in Europe. All the European vegetables thrive, such as 
cauliflowers, cabbages, asparagus, spinach, and broccoli. 
Potatoes, when properly attended to, are also good. Carrots, 
turnips, and radishes are indigenous. 

Flowering plants. — It is not within my present view to attempt 
an enumeration of the wild flowering plants of Dukhun, many 
of which are splendid and curious. Nothing can exceed the 
magnificence and beauty of the vegetation in the Ghats 
during the monsoon. The brilliancy of the ErytJirince, the 
Cassia; (particularly the Cassia Jistularia,) , the lofty Bombax, 
the varieties of the Liliaceae, Cannae, Convolvulaceae, and Mal- 
vaceae, would surprise and delight a European florist. 

In the Desh, the dwarf Cassia auriculata, with its numerous 
yellow flowers, enlivens the whole country ; and the numerous 
species of Mimosa (particularly the Mimosa odoratissima), 
perfume the air. 

The Dukhun produces few ferns and no heaths, and none 
of the coniferous family, excepting Cupressus ; the Musci 
(true mosses) are rare ; there are many of the Euphorbiaceae ; 
no oaks, elms, or hazels, or indeed any of the Amentacece, ex- 
cepting Salix tetrasperma ; multiplied genera and species of 
the Jasminece, Labiates, Compositce, Umbelliferae, Legumi- 
nosae, and Cucurbitaceae ; the Cruciferae are not abundant ; 
but the Capparides are very much so. The rosaceous plants 
are rare ; but the Solanaceae {Luridce) are very abundant ; 
although the potatoe is not indigenous. 

Such is the meagre sketch of the botany of Dukhun ; for 
the elaboration of which there are abundant materials at the 
India House, in a Hortus Siccus collected by myself. 

I must not omit to notice that the Sandal-wood tree, San- 
talum album, is met with, both in the cultivated and wild state. 

Timber trees. — The Warsa, Bignonia quadrilocularis ; the 
Tamarind, Tamarindus Indica ; the Jack, Artocarpus integri- 
folia ; and the Bauhinece, produce excellent wood for fur- 
niture ; and all the species of Mimosa furnish hard durable 
wood for tools and machinery. 

Zoology. 
Like the account of the botany, the zoology must be con- 



246 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

fined to little more than a mere catalogue of the beasts and 
birds of the country. 

The inhabitants of Dukhun have the Georgian form of 
skull : their stature is low, but not very slender ; the colour 
of the skin is brown, with shades running into yellow and 
white in the higher classes, and black in the lower ; the females 
are not distinguished for beauty or fertility, the average number 
of births to a marriage being less than in Europe ; more males 
are born than females, and, unlike Europe, they preponderate 
through all periods of life. 

Quadrumana. — Of the monkey tribe I met with only two 
kinds, Semnopithecus Entellus and Macacus radiatus. A 
new species described by me, Cercopithecus albogtdaris, was 
not from Dukhun. 

Cheiroptera. — Three species of bats, Wurbagool, Pteropus 
medius ; Nyctinomus plicatus ; and Rhinolpltus Dukhunensis. 

Plantigrada. — Chuchoondur, Sorex Indicus, or musk-rat ; 
Aswail, Ursus labiatus, or labiated bear ; Juhl Manjur, Lutra 
Nair, otter. 

Digitigrada.— Of these animals, the first is the Kolsun or wild 
dog, Canis Dukhunensis, which was first described and brought 
to Europe by myself; Landguh, Canis pallipes, wolf, a new 
species; Kholah, Canis aureus, jackal; Kokree, Canis Kokree, 
a new species of fox ; of the Viveridoe, the Juwadee Manjur, 
Viverra Indica or civet cat of Dukhun ; Moongus, Herpestes 
griseus, Mungoose ; Ood, Paradoxurus Typus. The Hyaena, 
Turrus of the Mahrattas, Hycetia vulgaris, is common in Duk- 
hun, and is capable of domestication like a dog. The Felinidce 
are numerous, not only in individuals, but in species, excepting 
the lion, which is not met with. Puttite Wagh, Felis tigris, 
royal tiger ; Cheeta, Felis leopardus or genuine leopard, is 
rare ; but the Beebeea Wagh, or panther, Felis Panther, is 
most abundant. Cheeta, Felis jubata, or hunting leopard, 
is common. Mota Rahn Manjur, Felis chaus; Lhan Rahn 
Manjur, Felis torquatus, or lesser wild cat ; the preceding 
being considered the larger wild cat. The species of the 
genus Felis here terminate. Of the rat family there is the 
Ghoos, Mus giganteus, or Bandikoot rat ; Chooa, Mus de- 
cumanus, or Norway rat ; Mus musculus, the mouse ; and a 
very pretty field mouse of a bright chestnut colour, which is a 
new Mus oleraceus, also a second new mouse, Mus plat ythrix. 
Of the squirrel family there are only two species ; the first, a 
splendid animal as large as the Sciurus maximus, of a chest- 
nut colour, with a whitish tail; I have called it Sciurus Elphin- 
stonii, the Mahratta name is Shekroo : the other species 
is the Khurree, or Sciurus palmarum. The porcupine, Sayal, 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 247 

is a new species, which I have called Hystrix leucurus. The 
hare, Sussuh, which ahounds in Dukhun, is the Lepus nigri- 
collis of F. Cuvier. That very curious animal, the Pangolin, 
Manis crassicaudata, is common ; the Mahrattas call it Kuwlee 
Manjur, or tiled cat, the scales being imbricated as tiles on 
the roof of a house. The Dookur, or wild hog, Sus 
scrqfa, abounds : every village also has a number of tame 
hogs, which are the public scavengers, but all property in 
them is abjured by the inhabitants. The Dukhun is cele- 
brated for a breed of fine horses with a dash of the Arabian 
blood in them : the pony also is bred to a great extent to 
carry baggage. The Ass, Gudha, Equus asinus, is not much 
larger than a good-sized Newfoundland dog ; it is not met 
with in the wild state. 

Ruminantia. — The Dromedary, Oont, Camelus dromeda- 
rius, is rarely bred in Dukhun, but is in general use ; the two- 
humped camel is unknown. Of the other Ruminants, the first 
is a beautiful little creature called Peesoreh, Moschus memina; 
the next is the Sambur, Cervus equinus, of the size of a small 
cow; the third is the Baikur, Cervus muntjak: all the above are 
inhabitants of dense woods. Of the antelopes there are four 
species ; Bahmunee Hum, Antilope cervicapra ; Kalesepee, 
or black tail, a new species, Antilope Bennetti ; Antilope 
quadricomis ; and finally, the Rooee, Antilope picta, or 
Nylgau : the two former are only found on the open plains ; 
the two latter prefer the woods, but are sometimes seen on 
the plains. Goats, Bukree, Capra hircus, abound ; and 
sheep are so extensively bred in Dukhun, that flocks of many 
thousands are constantly met with grazing on the uncultivated 
lands ; the wool is coarse and crisp ; the price of a sheep is 
from two to four shillings ; they afford excellent, although 
small mutton. The Pohl is the Brahmany bull, with its re- 
markable hump, Bos taunts var. Indicus, and is a noble 
animal ; when put into the yoke, or when employed in car- 
rying loads, he is called Byhl, and he loses his hump and his 
fine appearance. The cow does not yield much milk. Cattle 
are extensively bred, as it is chiefly by their means the transit 
of merchandize is effected. The female buffalo, Muhees, 
Bos bubalus, is highly valued for the quantity of milk she 
gives. The male, called Tondgah, is used in the hilly tracts 
in ploughing the muddy fields for rice. The above is the 
catalogue of the Mammalia of Dukhun, and a few comments 
will suffice respecting it. The musk-rat is a pest, from its in- 
fecting with its nauseous odour everything with which it 
comes into contact, even a bottle of wine, although corked. 
The bear is harmless. The wild-dog hunts in troops in the 



248 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

woods, and runs down the fleetest of the ruminants. The 
wolves sometimes attack women and children, but never men. 
The jackals are in large troops, and do much damage in the 
vineyards. The fox is mostly solitary or in pairs. The 
moongus is useful in destroying snakes. The hyaena is 
cowardly, entirely nocturnal in his movements, and never at- 
tacks live animals. The royal tiger and the leopard are for- 
midable to man and beast ; but the people consider themselves 
safe against the attacks of the panther and smaller cats, when 
armed with a good stout stick. The Mus giganteus under- 
mines buildings. Of the rest of the wild animals it is not 
necessary to say more, than that they, like those just enu- 
merated, are most of them objects of the chase with the 
Mahrattas, who are capital horsemen, and many of them 
keen sportsmen. 

Birds. — The birds are very numerous ; many of them not 
less useful to man, than agreeable from their plumage. Song- 
birds are, however, rare. My catalogue contains i£32 species 
of the several orders, families, and genera. 

Raptor es. — There are 13 genera of the first order Rap- 
tores, — Vultur Indians, Vultur Ponticerianus, Vultur Benga- 
lensis, Neophron Percnopterus, Haliaetus Ponticerianus, Cir- 
caetzis brachydactylus, Aquila chrysaeta, Aquila bifasciata, 
Hccmatornus Bacha, Accipiter Dukhunensis, Accipiter Dus- 
sumieri, Astur Hyder, Falco Tinnuncidus, Falco Chicquera, 
Circus pallidas, Circus variegatus, Milvus Govinda, Otus 
Bengalensis, Strix Javanica, Strix Indranee, Ketupa Les- 
chenaidti, and Noctua Indica. Of the above order there are 
two new Accipiters, one new species of Circus, one Milvus, 
and a Strix. The Neophron is the Ractamah of Bruce, the 
sacred vulture of the Egyptians, and it is a most useful sca- 
venger, removing all offal matters. The golden eagle is the 
same as that of Europe, and so is the Falco Tinnuncidus; 
and the harriers are scarcely distinguishable from the Euro- 
pean birds. The falcons, hawks, and goshawks, are used 
by the natives in hawking. 

Insessores. — There are 53 genera, and 116 species of the 
order Insessores. Few or none of these can be said to be 
useful to man, and only two of the species are songsters : — 
Merops viridis, Hirundo filifera, Hirundo Jewan, Hirundo 
concolor, Hirundo erythropygia, Cypselus affinis, Capri- 
mulgus monticulus, Caprimulgus Asiaticus, Caprimulgus 
Mahrattensis, Halcyon Smyrnensis, Alcedo rudis, Alcedo 
Bengalensis, Ceyx tridactyla, Muscipeta Paradisi, Muscipeta 
Indica, Muscipeta fiammea, Muscipeta per egrina, Muscicapa 
melanops, Muscicapa Banyamus, Muscicapa Poonensis, Mus~ 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 249 

cicapa cceruleocephala, Muscicapa picata, Rhipidura albo- 
frontata, Rhipidura fuscoventris, Dicrurus Balicassius, Di- 
crurus cosrulescens, Hypsipetus Ganeesa, Collurio Lahtora, 
Collurio erythronotus, Collurio Hardwickii, Lanius Musci- 
capoides, Graucalus Papuensis, Ceblepyris fimbriatus, Ceble- 
pyris canus, Oriolus galbula, Oriolus melanocephalus, Oriolus 
Kundoo, Turdus macrourus, Turdus Saularis, Turdus cya- 
notus, Petrocincla Pandoo, Petrocincla Maal, Petrocincla 
cinclorhyncha, Timalia Malcolmi, Timalia Somervillei, Ti- 
malia Chatarcsa, Ixosjocosus, Ixos cqfer, Ixosfulicatus, Po- 
matorhinus Horsfieldii, Iora Tiphia, Sylvia montana, Sylvia 
sylviella, Sylvia Rama, Prinia socialis, Prinia inornata, Or- 
thotomus Bennettii, Orthotomus Lingoo, Rudytes citreola, 
Budytes melanocephala, Budytes Beema, Motacilla variegata, 
Motacilla Dulthunensis, Megalurus rtificeps, Anthus agilis, 
Saxicola rubicola, Saxicola bicolor, Saxicola rubeculoides, 
Saxicola erythropygia, Phaznicura atrata, Phoenicura Sueciea, 
Parus atriceps, Parus xanthogenys, Alauda Gulgula, Alauda 
Deva, Alauda Dulchunensis, Mirqfra phosnicura, Emberiza 
melanocephala, Emberiza hortulana, Emberiza cristata, Em- 
beriza subcristata, Linaria Amandava, Ploceus Philippensis , 
Ploceus flavicollis, Fringilla crucigera, Lonchura nisoria, 
Lonchura cheet, Lonchura leuconota, Passer domesticus, Pas- 
tor tristis, Pastor Mahrattensis, Pastor roseus, Pastor Pago- 
darum, Corvus culminatus, Corvus splendens, Coracias Indica, 
Buceros, several species, Paloeornis torquatus, Palceornis me- 
lanorhynchus, Bucco Philippensis, Bucco caniceps, Picus 
Mahrattensis, Upupa minor, Leptosomus Afer, Eudynamys 
orientalis, Cuculus canorus, Cuculus fugax, Centropus Phi- 
lippensis, Chloropsis aurifrons, Cinnyris lepida, Cinnyris 
currucaria, Cinnyris Vigorsii, Cinnyris minima, Cinnyris 
Mahrattensis, and finally, Cinnyris concolor. The above 
catalogue requires very few observations. The weaver-bird, 
Ploceus Philippensis, is remarkable for its pendent nest, woven 
in the most curious and ingenious manner from fibres of grass. 
Not less curious are the nests produced by the tailor-birds, 
the Prinia socialis and the Orthotomus Bennettii, which sew 
leaves together to inclose their nests, with the skill of a veri- 
table knight of the thimble. The lark, Alauda Gidgula, has 
the habits and delightful song of the skylark of Europe ; 
and two or three species of the genera Budytes and Mota- 
cilla have sweet notes : the Collurio Lahtora has also a sweet 
note. The Muscipeta Paradisa and Indica are distinguished 
for their beautifully elongated tail-feathers. The Coracias 
Indica is characterized by its splendid colouring; and not 
less so is the Cinnyris Vigorsii. The cuckoo is the identical 



250 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

bird of Europe, and so is the sparrow. In the above list I 
have named many new species of Insessores, and have intro- 
duced one new genus. 

Rasores. — That order so highly useful to man, the Rasores, 
does not contain one single species in Dukhun that is not 
valuable as an article of food. There are 12 genera and 40 
species. Ptilinopus Elphinstonii, Columba mcena, Columba 
tigrina, Columba humilis, Columba rasoria, Columba Cambay- 
ensis, Columba JEnas, Meleagris Gallopavo, Pavo cristatus, 
G alius gigantei/s, Gallus Sonnsratii, Gallus domesticus, Gal- 
lus morio, Gallus crispus, Numida Meleagris, Coturnix dac- 
tylisonans, Coturnix textilis, Coturnix Argoondah, Coturnix 
Pentah, Coturnix erythrorhyncha, Perdix picta, Francolinus 
Pondicerianus, Francolinus spadiceus, Pterocles exustus,Ptero- 
cles quadricinctus, Hemipodius pugnax, Hemipodius Taigoor, 
Hemipodius Dussumier, Otis nigriceps, and Otis fulva. Of 
the above, Turkeys and Guinea fowls are not indigenous, and 
it may be doubted whether the gigantic cock be a native. 
The original of the domestic fowl is most abundant in the 
woods of the Ghats. The real partridge, Perdix picta, is 
found in the valleys of the Ghats. What is usually denomi- 
nated a partridge in Dukhun, is the Francolinus Pondi- 
cerianus ; it is numerous, and affects cultivated lands and 
garden grounds. The common quail of Europe is a native of 
Dukhun ; and three new species, which I have described, as 
well as the Coturnix textilis, literally swarm. That noble 
bird the Otis nigriceps is met with in large flocks, and the 
floriken is by no means scarce. 

Grallatores, — Of the fourth order, Grallatores or Waders, 
there are 25 genera and 46 species, and very many of the 
species are common to Europe. Grus Antigone, Ardca 
Egretta, Ardea Garzetta, Ardea Asha, Ardea cinerea, 
Ardea nigrirostris, Ardea Malaccensis, Ardea Caboga, Ardea 
Grayii, Ardea Javanica, Ardea cinnamomea, Botaurus stel- 
laris, Nyctieorax Europceus, Phoznicopterus ruber, Platalea 
leucorodia, Platalea junior, Ciconia leucocephala, Ciconia 
Argala, Anastomus Typus, Tantalus leucocephalus, Ibis re- 
ligiosa, Ibis ignea, Ibis papillosa, Ibis falcinella, Tetanus 
ochropus, Totanus Glareola, Totanus hypoleucos, Limosa 
Glottoides, Limosa Horsfieldii, Gallinago media, Gallinago 
minima, Rhynchea picta, Pelidna Temminckii, Parra Si- 
nensis, Gallinula Javanica, Rallus Akool, Porphyrio Sma- 
ragnotus, Fidica atra, Cursorius Asiaticus, Vanellus Goensis, 
Vanellus bilobus, Charadrius pluvialis, Charadrius Philip- 
pensis, Himantopus melanopterus, and CEdicnemus crepitans. 
Of the above, the Ibis religiosa is undoubtedly the sacred or 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 251 

mummy Ibis of the ancient Egyptians, according to Cuvier's 
description. The species of the family of the Ardeidce are 
varied and beautiful. The snipes are those of Europe, as 
well as most of the species of the Scolopacidce, and some of 
the Rallidce. 

Natatores. — The last order, Natatores or swimmers, con- 
tains 13 genera and 20 species, and, as in the preceding 
order, several of the species are common to Europe. Plec- 
tropterus melanotics, Anser Giria, Tadorna rutila, Anas stre- 
pera, Rhynchaspis virescens, Mareca poecilorhyncha, Mareca 
Jtstularis, Mareca Awsuree, Querquedula Circia, Querquedula 

Crecca, Fuligula rufina, Fuligula , Fuligula cristata, 

Podiceps Philippensis, Phalacrocorax Javanicus, Plotus me- 
lanogaster, Sterna acuticauda, Sterna similis, Sterna Seena, 
and Viralva Anglica. The geese, ducks, and teals abound 
most in the cold season, and are at that period excellent 
eating. The domestic goose and duck of Europe is not in- 
cluded in the above list, but both are extensively bred in 
Dukhun. That rare English bird the Viralva Anglica is 
very common in Dukhun. I did not meet with the Pelican, 
although it is a native of India. 

Ichthyology. — The rivers of Dukhun abound with fish, and 
some of them are not only palatable, but very fine flavoured, 
particularly the Tambra, a new species of Cyprinus, and the 
Waam, Macrognathus armatus ; the Singhala or Pimelodus is 
also in very general use by the people, but is not esteemed by 
Europeans. The fish observed by me consisted of forty-six 
species ; two belonged to the sub-order Apodes, three to 
Thoracici, and forty-one to Abdominales. The whole were 
comprised in twelve genera. There was one Murena, one 
Macrognathus, one Chanda, one Ophiocephalus, one Gobius, 
two species of Silurus, nine of Pimelodus and sub-genera, one 
Ageneiosus, one Mystus, twenty-four of Cyprinus and sub- 
genera, one Essox, and three species of Cobitus. It is re- 
markable that the fresh water Essox of Dukhun so closely 
resembles the salt water species of England, as to be scarcely 
distinguished from it, not only in external characters, but in 
the colour of its bones. 

Reptilia. — Reptiles are numerous in Dukhun. The Trionyx 
Indica abounds in the rivers, and there are two smaller 
species. Many genera of the Saurian family are met with 
from the four to five feet Monitor, to the minutest Lacerta. 
Serpents of all kinds, from the gigantic Boa Constrictor to the 
small and beautiful carpet snake. The first, however, I have 
only seen carried about the country by people who exhibit 



252 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837« 

the feats of the reptile in swallowing small animals. Inde- 
pendently of the deadly Cobra da Capello, {Coluber Naag) 
there are some other poisonous species, but in general the 
snakes are harmless. 

Crustacea. — Of the Crustacea, I shall have only to notice 
the Kenkra, Thelphusa cunicularis, a new species which per- 
vades the valleys and table-lands of the Ghats, and whose 
numbers are so great that their burrows riddle the earth ; 
they remain quiet in their holes during the cold and dry 
seasons, but, in the monsoon, they are abroad in such num- 
bers, that travellers drive over them, ride over them, and 
trample upon them in the high roads : they are not an article 
of food with the natives, but are, I believe, wholesome. 

Testacea. — There are some few genera and species of land 
and fluviatile shells, the largest of which is a Unio ; but they 
do not call for notice. 

Entomology. — Like all tropical climates, the Dukhun teems 
with insects. The domestic fly is a pest at certain seasons ; 
the most rigid precautions and the greatest cleanliness cannot 
secure the most fastidious person from the inroads of the 
bed-bug; and there is no getting beyond the "maximum leap 
of a flea" ; the fact is, these plagues are not only the constant 
companions of the people, but the flea inflicts serious injury 
on poultry, dogs, and cattle. Domestic, and indeed wild 
animals are subject also to the attacks of a small blue tick, 
(Acarus,) which multiplies upon them in such an incredible 
manner as to affect the vital functions and produce paralysis 
and death. There are three species of honey-bee in Dukhun, 
the honey from the whole of which is remarkably fine. It 
boasts also its lac insect, Coccus laccus ; and several silk-pro- 
ducing moths, particularly the Kolesurra, Bombyx Papliia. 

The most destructive of the insect tribe is the white ant, 
Termes, which, working under cover with the most inde- 
fatigable perseverance, finds its way everywhere, and every- 
where occasions loss and injury ; books, papers, clothes, 
leather, wood, &c, are indiscriminately devoured. Several 
species of genuine ants are also a great nuisance. A species 
of sphex makes its earthen nest within the locks of the dooi's, 
and blocks up the key-holes. The musquito, Culex, is not 
quite so troublesome in Dukhun as on the coast. The scor- 
pion, of which there are two or three species, so abounds in 
the stony lands of Dukhun, that on encamping my regiment, 
on the march from Punderpoor to Ahmednuggur in 1818, I 
had from two to three hundred brought to me in the course 
of a day by my men : their sting produces intolerable pain for 



ON TUB STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 253 

a few hours, but is not dangerous unless to the diseased and 
weakly. The centipede does not attain the growth of its type 
in South America, nor is it very numerous. 

As in other countries, the Coleopterous order is the most 
numerous. Some of the genera are remarkable for their 
habits, (Copridce,) and some are remarkable for their beauty 
(Buprestidce). Amongst the Lepidoptera many are very hand- 
some, both in the diurnal and nocturnal families (Papilio Hector 
and Bombyx Atlas). In the Hemipterous order, the Ci- 
micidce abound, and are cursed with all imaginable abominable 
smells. In the order Orthoptera, the Gryllidce are numerous ; 
but the locust is unknown as a scourge. In this order also, 
the multiplied and strange forms of the Mantis and Phasma 
are very striking. The Blatta is troublesome and injurious. 
The Hymenoptera includes some valuable and interesting 
genera. Of the Apterous insects I have already spoken. 
The Neuroptera are both numerous and beautiful, some of 
the Libellula and Myrmeleons particularly so. Of the Di- 
ptera, the genera Musca, Culex, Bombilius, Hippobosca, and 
Tipula, exhibit the greatest number of species and individuals. 
In Arachnida the genera are endless. The prevalence of 
scorpions I have spoken of. 

Civil Divisions. 

The British territories in Dukhun are divided into four 
collectorates, Poona, Ahmednuggur, Dharwar, and Khandesh 
or Candeish. Over each of these there is a European civil ser- 
vant of the Company, with several European assistants, for the 
purpose of collecting the revenue. These gentlemen are armed 
with magisterial powers, and can call upon the military au- 
thorities for assistance. These collectorates are divided into 
Talooks (great divisions), provinces, Pergunnahs (counties), 
and Turrufs (hundreds) ;* and 'native officers called Mam- 
lutdars, aided by inspectors of cultivation, accountants, trea- 
surers, and a police force, are placed over one or more 
Pergunnahs. All these terms are of Moosulman introduc- 
tion; the ancient Hindoo civil officers being differently named, 
and their territorial divisions were Prant, Deshmookee, and 
Naikwaree. The aggregations of habitations are called Sher 
(city), Kusbeh (market-town), Mouzeh or Ga6n (village), and 
Waree (hamlet). The cities and towns may comprise several 
villages, and they have their suburbs called Peit. The vil- 
lage constitution is noticed under land tenures. 



• Provinces, counties, and hundreds are not the exact equivalents of the 
native territorial divisions, but they afford sufficiently approximate types. 



254 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

Poona Collectorate. — The Poona Collectorate is the nearest 
of the four collectorates of Dukhun to Bombay : its bound- 
aries towards the coast approach within about fifty miles of that 
presidency, but they do not descend the Ghats into the strip 
of land at the foot of the Ghats, called the Konkun (Concan). 
This collectorate has an area of 8281 square miles, including 
the lands held in military tenure (Jagheer). It contains 
550,313 inhabitants, 1897 towns* and villages, and 114,887 
houses ; averaging 66*45 inhabitants to a square mile, 4*79 to 
a house, 247*36 to a village, exclusive of the population of 
Poona. The chief town is Poona, recently the capital of the 
Mahratta empire, containing a population of 81,315 souls. 
The other principal towns are Tullegaon (2050 males, 2007 
females), Joonur (4218 males, 3759 females), Kheir (1999 
males, 1794 females), Goreh (1154 males, 1145 females), Ootoor 
(2521 males, 1928 females), Narraingaon (1286 males, 1180 
females), Alley (1396 males, 1 064 females), Sassor (1880 males, 
1696 females), Jeejooree (885 males, 860 females), Tullegaon, 
Tnrrtif Paubul (1710 males, 1427 females), and some others; 
but the most populous of the number, as is seen above, contains 
only 7977 souls. There are, excluding Sholapoor, 8 pergun- 
nahs and 32 turruffs in the Poonah collectorate. In Sholapoor 
sub-collectorate there are 4 talooks, 19 pergunnahs, and 12 
turruffs ; but as divisions which in the other collectorates are 
called turruffs, are here called pergunnahs, there are few tur- 
ruffs. My limits will not permit of detailed descriptions of 
these pergunnahs, although there are many physical facts of 
interest connected with some of them. 

The following number of towns and villages constitute the 
different pergunnahs and talooks: Sewnere 190, Indapoor, 
86, Kheir 236, Pabul 65, Poorundhur 130, Beemthuree 92, 
Hawailee 165, the Mawuls 233, Sholapoor 122, Mohol 145, 
Indee 236, and Moodebehal 226. This makes a total of 1926, 
which is 29 villages more than was previously stated, but this 
is owing to depopulated villages being included; of this 1926, 
47 towns and 1429^ villages belong to the British ; 4 towns 
and 264^ villages are held in free gift (Eenam), and 3 towns 
and 178 villages are held on tenure of military service (Su- 
rinjam). 

Hill forts. — In the Poona Collectorate are situated many 
remarkable hill forts, impregnable in fact if properly defended, 
from their geological structure, which consists of beds of 
basalt, with vertical edges, alternating with beds of amyg- 

* Trifling transfers have taken place between the different collectorates, so 
that this may not be the exact amount at the present moment. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 255 

daloids, whose edges form a talus. Many of these in then- 
superficial plane manifest a strong disposition to a trigonal 
character. Such is the case with Teekonee (the word being 
almost Greek,) or three-angled, Koaree, and some others. 
Koaree is situated at the edge of the Ghats in the civil 
division called the Powar Khoreh ; its summit is 2910 feet 
above the sea ; and some parts of the rock within its area are 
so powerfully magnetic, as to draw the needle quite round the 
compass. The hill forts of Singhur, Poorundhur, and Wu- 
zeerghur are seen from Poona : the summit of the first is ele- 
vated 4192 feet above the sea, and the second 4471 feet. 
The hill-fort of Sewnair, in which the celebrated Sewajee was 
born, is situated close to the city of Joonur (Jooneer). Jewdun, 
is on the edge of the Ghats, a few miles westward of Joonur, 
and Hurreechundurghur, which is said to be eighteen miles in 
circumference at its base, is situated a few miles N.W. of 
Joonur. But I have not space to enumerate all these points 
of defence provided by nature, — Loghur, Eesapoor, &c. &c. 

Boodh cave-temples. — Some works of art must not be over- 
looked. The first is that magnificent cave-temple situated in 
the civil division called Naneh Mawul ; it is usually denomi- 
nated the cave of Karleh (Carlee), from being within two 
miles of a village of that name ; the temple is associated with 
many cave-chambers. The other Boodh excavations are 
pierced in the hills around the city of Joonur, under the hill- 
fort of Joonur, and at the crest of the pass into the Konkun 
from Joonui-, called the Naneh Ghat. Numerous inscriptions, 
in so antique a form of the Sanscrit alphabet as not to be 
readable by modern Sanscrit scholars, abound in these caves.* 
These astonishing works of art, resulting from the labour of 
ages, and which are met with, not only in the Poona Col- 
lectorate, but in many other parts of India, would seem to 
indicate that the country was once inhabited by a Boodhist 
population, although it has so entirely disappeared, that not a 
solitary worshiper of Boodh remains in the peninsula of India. 
In the Under Mawul, at the village of Mhow, there is 
an extraordinary large Wuhr-tree (Ficus Lidica) ; it has 
sixty-eight stems, most of them thicker than a man's body, 
and, with the exception of the original stem, the whole of 
them originate in roots let down from the branches ; it was 
capable of affording shade, with a vertical sun, to 20,000 men, 
being 201 feet long by 150 feet broad. At the town of Mun- 

* Within the last year, those indefatigahle and learned orientalists, Principal 
, Mill, Mr. James Prinsep, and Mi - . Stevenson have succeeded in reading most 
of the inscriptions which are found to relate exclusively to Boodhism and 
Boodhists. 



256 SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 

chur, in the pergunnah of Pabool and Turruf Wurgaon, 
there is a Baubel-tree {Mimosa Arabica,) of surprising mag- 
nitude ; at eighteen inches from the ground the trunk mea- 
sures nine feet and half an inch in circumference ; its head is 
ramous and dense, and it gives a vertical shade covering 5964 
square feet : this species produces gum arabic. In the turruf 
of Chakun, pergunnah Kheir, near to Mahloongah, on the 
slopes of some hills, the shrub or small tree, producing the gum 
olibanum, (Boswellia thurifera), is met with ; and it is seen 
also in other parts of the country. At Mahloongah there is a 
garden of flourishing cocoa-nut trees ; and considering that 
they are at 2000 feet above the sea, and 100 miles inland, 
the fact is sufficiently remarkable : clumps of them are also 
met with at Pabool and other places. 

Rivers. — The rivers flowing through the Poona Collectorate 
are the Mota, the Mola, the Inderanee, Under, Beema, Goreh, 
and Kokree, and some smaller streams. All these have their 
sources in the Ghats, within the limits of the collectorate ; 
they converge to the Beema, which falls into the Kistnah, and 
thus finally reach the Bay of Bengal. The rivers are only 
navigable during the monsoon, and then only partially. Boats 
with sails are not seen upon them. 

Ahmednuggur Collectorate. — The Ahmednuggur Collect- 
orate adjoins the Poona Collectorate on the east and north. 
Part of its frontier is along the Ghats; the rest. is bounded 
by the Chandore range of hills on the north, and by the 
Nizam's territories on the east and S.E. 

Ahmednuggur has an area of 9910 square miles ; it con- 
tains 666,376 inhabitants, dispersed in 2465 towns and villages, 
averaging 263*47 inhabitants to a village, (exclusively of the 
population of Ahmednuggur) ; 67*24 inhabitants to a square 
mile ; 136,273 houses and 4*89 inhabitants to a house*. 

Ahmednuggur is divided into 14 talooks, 36 pergunnahs, 
and 51 turruffs. Talook Ahmednuggur contains 157 towns 
and villages, Kurdeh 172, Sungumnair 226, Akoleh 194, 
Newassa 359, Nasseek 280, Sinnur 107, Chandwur 153, Pato- 
deh 255, Wun Dindooree 175, Barsee 124, Kurmulleh 82, 
Jamkheir 90, and Kortee 115. The total of these is 2488, 
instead of 2465 ; the difference originates in 23 depopulated 
villages being included. Of the above, 43 towns and 1858^ 
villages belong to the British ; in 27 towns and 554£ villages 
the British government has a quit rent, these villages being 
called Doomaleh,f alienated. Only one village in free gift 

* This return is for 16 pergunnahs only. 

t The proper meaning of Doomaleh is " two properties," the chief part of 
the revenue being alienated, but the government having a quit rent. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 257 

was returned to me, and one town and three villages in military 
or feudal tenure ; but the villages in free gift (Eenam) are 
included in the Doomaleh villages. 

The chief town is Ahmednuggur, with a population of 
17>838 souls in 1822 : men 5953, boys 3350, total males 9303 ; 
women 5976, girls 2559, total 8535. The other chief towns 
are Kurdeh, Nasseek, Chandore, Sungumnair, Parnair, &c. ; 
but their population I cannot state, as the total amount of the 
population of pergunnahs only was sent to me by the col- 
lector*. The most populous pergunnah would appear to be 
Nasseek, containing 71,581 inhabitants. The least populous 
pergunnah was Soagaon, containing only 9400 inhabitants. 

Rivers. — The rivers running, through the collectorate are 
formed by numerous streams originating in the Ghats and 
Chandore range, — such as the Peera, the Mool, the Doornail, 
and the Gooee, which converge to that noble stream the 
Godavery, which also has its rise in this collectorate, near 
Trimbuck, and flows to the eastward to the Bay of Bengal. 
The Seena is the only river of consequence which does not 
originate in the Ghats. It has its course at the edge of the 
plateau on which the city of Ahmednuggur stands, about ten 
miles north of the city, and flows in a S.S.E. direction into 
the Beema. 

There are several remarkable hill forts in the western part 
of the collectorate, such as Trimbuck, &c. Ahmednuggur 
was once the capital of the Ahmed Shahee dynasty of kings. 

Khandesh or Candeish Collectorate. — The area of the pro- 
vince or collectorate of Candeish, deduced from a map in the 
Deputy Surveyor General's Office, including tracts belonging 
to foreign states and to Jagheerdars, is 12,527 square miles. 
It is bounded on the north by the Sautpoora mountains ; on 
the east by the province of Berar, belonging to the Nizam ; 
on the south by the Indyadree range of mountains, which 
separate it from Ahmednuggur ; and, on the west, by Dang 
and Raj Peeplee, which bring it into contact with Goojrat. 
It is literally a Khind or Khund, a great gap between ranges 
of mountains, whence its name of Khandesh or Candeish. 
Some of the northern and western parts are little better than a 
jungle, and the whole province is miserably depopulated. The 
populated part of the collectorate belonging to the British, 
derived from the returns of the lands of 1982 populated villages, 



* The population returns forwarded by me not having been filled up, in 
consequence of a census of the population having been made by the collector 
himself within three years preceding. 

vol. vi. 1837. s 



258 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

give an area of 6760 square miles, with a population of nearly 
55 inhabitants to the square mile ; but supposing 1681 
alienated and deserted villages to have a proportionate quan- 
tity of lands, the area will be 12,504 square miles, with 38^ 
inhabitants only to the square mile, and this I believe to be 
very near to the truth. It is curious that the area derived 
from the village lands should approximate so closely to the 
area determined trigonometrically. 

The collectorate is divided into sixty-six pergunnahs, some 
of which do not contain more than one village each, whilst the 
largest, Nanchporbar, has 259 towns and villages, Nowapoor 
236, Sooltanpoor 232, Rawere 160, Jamnair 144, Amulnair 
140, and Bhamere 150, including deserted villages* The total 
number of towns and villages is 3666 ; but of this number 330 
are pyegusta, which means that the villages are deserted, but 
that part of the lands are cultivated ; 999 are entirely deserted ; 
but great confusion and uncertainty prevails in the details, for 
of this number there are 51 whose limits are unknown, 12 
whose sites are unknown but names known, and 135 whose 
names and sites are unknown but a record remains of their 
number. There are 237 populated Jagheer, or alienated vil- 
lages-, and many amongst the Pyegusta, and deserted also, be- 
long to Jagheerdars, so that it does not appear that more 
than 2032 populated villages belong to the British * ; of this 
number 1968 sent in population returns. The most populous 
town in Khandesh was Nandoorbar, and it had only 6429 inha- 
bitants ; and only one other town (Chopra) had a population of 
6000. The towns and villages average only 178 inhabitants, 
and each house averages 3*96 inmates. The total of the 
inhabitants is 478,457. 

From the village lands in Khandesh being kept universally 
in Beegahs, the amount of land under cultivation is readily 
determined. It would appear that 15,958 acres were watered 
by perennial streamlets. Lands so watered are called PaJit- 
stul, and are the most valuable of all, as the supply of water 
is mostly permanent, and the chief labour required is to open 
the channels and let it flow over the lands ; 46,064 acres were 
watered from wells, and lands so watered are called Moht- 
stul ;f 600,556 acres were under field cultivation, and are not 

* In the Collector's revenue return for 1827-8 the number of villages is 
stated to be 2697+, so that 335^ of the deserted villages had become inhabited, 
independently of 330 uninhabited villages whose lands were included in the 
return. 

f Paht means a water-channel, and Moht means a well-bucket; implying 
in the first instance that lands are watered from streamlets, and in the second 
instance from wells. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 259 

watered, — these lands are called Zerhaeet. The per centage 
of cultivated and waste lands in this collectorate is as 
follows : — 

Watered by perennial streams^) 

Watered from wells > 15*32 per cent. 

Field cultivation J 

Waste land 84*68 do. 



100 ... 



Rivers. — The River Tapty runs through the whole length 
of the collectorate, and, unlike the rivers of the other collect- 
orates, disembogues into the Gulf of Cambay, below Surat ; 
the water-shed of the counti'y being in fact from the east to 
the west, instead of from the west to the east ; there are some 
exceptions in rivers which rise in the Western Ghats, or the 
Chandore range, and run to the east for some distance, then 
sweep round in a segment of a circle and join the Tapty ; such 
are the Guirna, Roharee, the Moosum, &c. Timber is floated 
down the Tapty in the monsoon. 

Boodh Cave Temples. — Near to the Adjunta Pass, through 
the Chandore range, from Ahmednuggur into Khandesh, are 
a multitude of those astonishing remains of Boodhist art, 
consisting of excavations in the mural faces of the trap rocks, 
the interior walls of which excavations are covered with bas- 
reliefs ; indeed, with fresco paintings also, illustrative of the 
arts and social relations of life, like the paintings on the tombs 
of the Egyptian kings. 

Dharwar Collectorate. — Agreeably to information obtained 
from the Revenue Survey Department, that part of the 
southern Mahratta country, bounded on the north by the 
Kolapoor territory and the Kristna river, on the east by the 
Nizam's dominions, on the south by Mysore and the Toom- 
boodra river, and on the west by Soonda and the Syhadree 
Ghats, comprises an area of 11,747 square miles, namely, 

Square Miles. 

British possessions 8378*439 

Do. Manowlee Talook, from the Kolapoor territory 390*474 

Sawanoor Jagheer 74*750 

Sawuntwaree territory 188*934 

Nizam's territory 47*930 

Gudjundurghur jagheer 69*344 

Putwurdun and other jagheers 2597*167 

Total 11747*038 

s2 



260 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

The Talooks of Cheekooree, 354 square miles, and Munowlee, 
390 square miles, have been added to Dharwar, so that the 
area of the collectorate now amounts to 9122*913 square miles ; 
but 39 per cent, of this consists of wood and jungle, and uncul- 
tivated lands, and 61 per cent, appears upon the returns as 
cultivated. 

Dharwar is divided into 22 Talooks and 137 Turritffs, 
Mahls, Summuts, or A7«Vy«fo, independently of the subdivisions 
of the Talooks of Cheekooree and Munowlee. The Talook of 
Dharwar has 136 towns and villages, Meesreekoht 133, 
Purusghur 59, Nowlgoond 43, Hoongoond 170, Dumbul 96, 
Bunkapoor 115, Nuwee Hooblee 97, Ranee Beednoor 139, 
KettoorSl, Sumpgaon 70, Beereeh 135, Rhone 77, Bagul- 
koht 141, Hangull 173, Goottull 123, Badamee 148, Padsha- 
poor 202, Kohr 182, Talooks of Cheekooree, and Munowlee 
225. To the above are to be added 189 villages, 47 of which 
sent in population returns, although their names were not in 
the government lists ; 108 were not included because they 
were Jagheer or Eenam villages ; and 34 were depopulated 
and overlooked. The total number of villages in the collect- 
orate amounted to 2734 ; of this number 2491 were populated, 
and 243 were deserted. Of the above, 1899 British villages 
sent in returns, 225 did not send returns; 155 were deserted, 
but their lands were under cultivation by neighbouring vil- 
lagers ; 230 alienated villages sent in returns, 137 alienated 
villages did not send in returns ; and 88 deserted villages had 
not their lands under cultivation. With the aid of some 
trifling estimates the total amount of population appeared to 
be 838,757, averaging 91*94 inhabitants to the square mile, 
336-71 to a village, and 4*48 to a house. Of the 119 British 
towns, there are only three whose population exceeds 1 0,000 
souls, viz. Dharwar 11,802; Belgaon 11,037; and Mujeed- 
poor 15,387. One town has above 8000 inhabitants, (Bagul- 
koht) ; two with 6000 ; one 5000 ; thirty-six with from 2000 
to 4000; and seventy-seven with from 1000 to 2000 souls. 
All the village lands being kept in definite measurements, it 
appeared that the cultivated land of the whole collectorate 
was 61*11 per cent., and waste only 38*89 per cent. 

Rivers. — All the chief rivers of Dharwar flow to the eastward ; 
they have their source in the Ghats, and join the Kistnah. 
The principal are the Gutpurba, the Malpurba, and the 
Wurdah : the falls of the Gutpurba, near to Gokauk, are said 
to be strikingly fine. 

Hill Forts. — Dharwar, like the other collectorates, has to 
boast of its hill forts. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 261 

Viewing Dharwar, whether with respect to its numerous 
towns and well-peopled villages, the comparative density of its 
population, the size of its farms, the quantity of land in culti- 
vation, the amountof its revenues, the lightness with which they 
press supposing they were raised as a poll tax, the indications 
of manufacturing industry (so languishing elsewhere) in the 
number of its weavers, and its superior means of school 
instruction, it is unquestionably the finest of the British pos- 
sessions in Dukhun. 

Population. 

The great feature in the population of Dukhun is the 
excess of males over females in a greater proportion than 
exists in Europe. By the last census in England there 
were 100 males to 93 females. In the British possessions 
in Dukhun, in a population from which returns have 
been received of 2,802,902 souls, there are 100 males to 
87*36 females, and this difference obtains, with very little 
variation, throughout the different casts. It is subject to 
modification, however, by a very singular fact, exhibited in 
the excess of grown up women over men wherever the 
returns distinguish the adults from children ; but the excess 
of male children over female leaves the ultimate prepon- 
derance in favour of the males. From Sir Stamford Raffles'. 
History of Java, the same relative proportion of the sexes 
would appear to exist in that island. He states that the pro- 
portion of males and females born in Bantam, and over the 
whole of Java, is nearly the same as in Europe, and as is found 
generally to exist wherever accurate statements can be ob- 
tained. From the information he collected in a very careful 
survey of one province, the preponderance seemed to be 
on the side of male children to an extraordinary degree ; 
the male children being about 42,000, and the female 35,500, 
i. e. 100 males to 84*52 females. He says also there were 
formerly great drains on the male population, and which, in 
advanced stages of life, might turn the balance on the other 
side ; indeed, in some of his returns this is shown to be the 
case. 

In Dukhun, wherever the means have been afforded to me 
of ascertaining, I have found the preponderance of male over 
female children to be marked, not only in births, but as long 
as they continue to be classed as children ; although a great 
mortality, at a subsequent period, makes the grown up 
females outnumber the grown up males. 

Males and females. — In the Poona Collectorate in 1826 the 
births of males in 32 turruffs were 100 to 94 - 27 females, 



262 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

or very nearly 20 males to 19 females. The result of 
eighteen years' very careful observations for all France, from 
1817 to 1834 inclusive, gives 17 males for 16 females ; and as 
this is derived from more than seventeen and a half millions of 
births, it is worthy of every confidence. Taking each year of 
the above period, the extreme variation was from 15 males to 
14 females, as far as 19 males to 18 females. My deduction 
varies so little, that we may fairly say the same law equally ob- 
tains, whether in a tropical or an extra-tropical climate. 
Amongst illegitimate births in France it would appear that the 
number of females approximates more neai-ly to males than in 
the legitimate births ; the numbers, according to the French 
tables, being 24 males to 23 females : reducing all these to a 
common denomination, we have in the 
Poona Collectorate . . 94*27 per cent, of female births. 
In France, the average^! 

of 18 years, legiti- >-94*Il do. do. 

mate J 

In France, legitimate^ 9 g.gg do> do 

lor 1 year, .... J 
In France, legitimately 94<7 g do> do 

lor I year J 

In France illegitimate, \ 95 . g3 do d 

average ot 18 years, J 

It would thus appear that amongst illegitimate children 
there are nearly two more females born to every hundred 
males than amongst legitimate births. 

In the abstract of the census of the population of the 
Ahmednuggur Collectorate, taken in 1822, the boys were to 
the girls as 100 to62'16; a singular disproportion, there being 
in the whole collectorate 96,447 boys, and only .59,956 girls; 
but the men were to the women only as 100 to 102*18, 
the number of men being 146,750, and the women 149,945. 
In the city of Poona, in 1822, the boys were to the girls as 
100 to 73*26, a greater disproportion than Sir Stamford Raffles 
found in Java ; at the same time the adult men were to the 
women as 100 to 103*40. In the classes only of the Brahman 
priests, mendicants, and traders, were the men found to ex- 
ceed the women. In the city of Ahmednuggur, in 1826, there 
were 100 boys to 67*62 girls, but 100 men only to 106*06 
women ; but the ultimate relation of males to females was as 
100 males to 92*46 females. 



-extremes. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 



263 



The following table shows the proportion of males to 
females in the different collectorates, and their principal cities 
and towns : 



Collectorates. 


Males to 
Females. 


Cities and Towns. 


Males to 
Females. 


Poona Collectorate ... 


100 to 88 




100 to 94 




Ahmednuggur do. ... 


1 00 to 86 




100 to 92 




100 to 85 




100 to 89 








100 to 89 




100 to 98 












100 to 91 










100 to 101-25 










100 to 101-14 





Births, Deaths, and Marriages. — Returns of births, deaths, 
and marriages, in an available form, were received only from 
32 turruffs of the Poona Collectorate, comprising 1109 towns 
and villages, but not including the city of Poona, containing 
81,315 inhabitants ; my information, therefore, on these sub- 
jects must necessarily be circumscribed, but the little there is 
is valuable from its novelty. Some returns came to hand from 
the Collectorate of Dharwar, but they were merely additions 
of the totals of irregular numbers of villages, (from 2 to 12,) 
and I hesitated to trust to results which I could not test 
by the original returns. Respecting births, deaths, and mar- 
riages in the Ahmednuggur and Khandesh Collectorates, I am 
totally without information, excepting a solitary return of 
deaths in the city of Ahmednuggur in 1828, which is worthy 
of every confidence, as it was compiled by my friend Dr. 
Walker, late Civil Surgeon at Ahmednuggur. 

Births. — In the Poona Collectorate the average births, in a 
population of 250,300, amounted only to one in 50 52 persons, 
or not quite two per cent. ; the Brahmans having the smallest 
proportion, (1 in 57*29), and the Moosulmans the greatest pro- 
portion, (1 in 40*80) ; the range of births in the different tur- 
ruffs was from 1 in 15*70 to 1 in 153*60 persons ; and, on the 
whole, the hilly tracts had a greater number than the plains. 

Deaths. — The deaths were 1 in 37*34 persons in the 32 tur- 
ruffs, or 2*67 per cent., indicating a*somewhat alarming dimi- 
nution in the population ;* the range varied from 1 in 17*21 
to 1 in 70 persons, the fewest deaths being in the hilly tracts. 
It must be considered, however, that the spasmodic cholera 

* The deaths in the kingdom of Naples for 1836 — 37 was 1 in 37 and a 
fraction. 



264 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 



was raging in the country in that year, and that the deaths 
from that unaccountable and dreadful malady in two turruffs 
amounted to nearly 5 per cent., and in one turruff to 6 per 
cent, of the whole population. It is to be presumed, there- 
fore, in the absence of cholera, the births would exceed the 
deaths, as was in fact the case in some of the Mawuls, or 
hilly tracts, where it was known the cholera did not penetrate. 
In deaths the Moosulmans were the greatest average sufferers, 
(1 in 20'15) and the low casts were the least sufferers, (I in 
42-94). 

As Dr. Walker found that the cholera in the city of Ahmed- 
nuggur increased the usual deaths 0*66 per cent., the loss 
being 2*48, while the cholera raged, and only 1*82 per cent, 
when the scourge ceased, it is but fair to infer that such would 
have been the case in the country at large ; and this element, 
applied to the mortality in the Poonah Collectorate, would 
reduce the annual loss to 2*01 per cent., or one death in 
50 persons, which would indicate a greater degree of healthi- 
ness than all France, all Belgium, or the town of Glasgow, 
the loss in all these places being 1 in 39 and a fraction. 

Marriages. — The average number of marriages in the 
Poona Collectorate is proportionably more than in England 
and France, being 1 in 125*87 souls ; the proportion in En- 
gland being 1 in 128, and in France 1 in 130*4 inhabitants. 
The range in the different turruffs is from 1 in 40*11 to 1 in 
493*77 ; but in 14 turruffs the average is considerably under 
that for England. The Shoodruhs (Mahrattas proper) and 
Moosulmans are almost identical, in their proportional number 
of marriages, namely, 1 in 116*21 and 1 in 116*86, and they 
have the greatest number of marriages ; the low casts have 
the fewest marriages. The births in 1826 being only 4954 
and the marriages 1998, the average of children to a marriage 
was 2*48 or not quite 2j. In France the average is 3*72 
children to a marriage ; in England and Wales 3'55. In 
Java the births were 1 in 39, deaths 1 in 40 persons. 

The constituents of the population in the different collect- 
orates were 





Constituents of the Population. 


Brahmans. 


Rajpoots. 


Shoodruhs, &c.[Atee Shood- 
Mahratta Cul- ruhs, or low 
tivators, &c. casts. 


Moosulmans. 




Per Cent. 
11-58 


Pir Cent. 
0-41 


Per Cent. 
73-85 


Per Cent. 
9-78 


Per Cent. 
4-38 




Ahmednuggiir 


Unknown. 


Unknown. 


Unknown. 


Unknown. 


Unknown. 




5*40 


- 3-47 


69-58 


14-72 


6-38 




4-48 


0-60 


74-53 


11-895 


8-495 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 265 

In the above^analysis the chief features are the permanent 
and nearly equal proportions of the Shoodruhs or Mahratta 
cultivators and other genuine Mahrattas, which obtain in the 
different collectorates ; the fact being, that three-fourths of 
the population are of that most useful class the Shoodruhs ; 
and it will be seen by the notice on agriculture, how large 
a proportion of them are engaged in tillage. In the Poona 
Collectorate, as might be expected from its having been the 
chief seat of a Brahman government, there is a considerable 
number of Brahmans ; every ninth person, in fact, being a 
Brahman. In the other collectorates scarcely one in twenty 
persons is a Brahman. Genuine Rajpoots are little known in 
Dukhun, and I should doubt whether or not the 3% per cent, 
of Rajpoots, in the returns from Khandesh, should be added 
to the Mahratta population ; who, by the bye, have some pre- 
tensions to being descended from the Rajpoots. The propor- 
tion of low casts,* men who are only engaged in vile or discredit- 
able offices by the natives, although otherwise employed by 
the British, does not differ very much in the different collect- 
orates ; the increase in the Khandesh collectorate is attri- 
butable to large tracts of the country being inhabited by 
Bheels, who are a low cast ; in fact, less than every seventh 
person is a low cast; in Poona about every tenth, and in 
Dharwar about every eighth. The Moosulmans are few in 
number in the Poona and Ahmednuggur Collectorates, not 
being one-twentieth of the population in the first, nor one- 
fifteenth in the second ; but, in the Dharwar Collectorate they 
displace the Brahmans, and amount to nearly one-eleventh. 
Although the Moosulman power has been paramount nearly 
throughout all India for centuries, it is believed they have 
never constituted one-fifteenth of the whole population. In the 
abstract of the population returns from the Ahmednuggur Col- 
lectorate, the casts are not distinguished ; but, in a return of 
1828, from the city of Ahmednuggur, the Hindoo inhabitants 
are distinguished from the Moosulman ; and it is found that 
there is the very unusual proportion of one Moosulman to 3*45 
Hindoos, or 29 per cent, of the whole population. This is to 

* The low casts comprise all that part of the Hindoo population which 
cannot claim to be Shoodruhs, such as Mahrs, Dhers, Maangs, shoemakers, 
skinners; Ramoosees, Beruds, and Bheels. The Mahrs and Dhers are the 
scavengers, the Maangs, executioners; shoemakers and skinners speak for 
themselves ; the Ramoosees and Beruds are bom thieves, or are thieves by- 
cast, and they are usually employed for the protection of villages, on the 
principle of setting a thief to catch a thief. The Bheels are supposed to be 
the aborigines of the countries where they are found. 



266 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837* 

be referred to the fact of Ahmednuggur having once been the 
capital of the Ahmed Shahee dynasty of Moosulman kings ; 
with these exceptions, although I have not detailed returns to 
guide me, I believe that the constituents of the population of 
the Ahmednuggur Collectorate do not differ in their propor- 
tions from those of the Poona Collectorate. In the census of 
1822, the families in the fifteen pergunnahs in the Ahmednuggur 
Collectorate, with a population of 409,279 souls, were enu- 
merated, and it appeared that there were 4*53 persons to a 
family. With respect to the styles of building in the Ahmed- 
nuggur Collectorate, it will be fully illustrated by the facts, 
that the tiled houses amount only to 10*84 per cent, of the 
whole ; the thatched houses to 32*27 per cent. ; and the mud 
flat-terraced houses to 56*89 per cent. 

Bearing in mind the clouds of horse that covered the Duk- 
hun in the war of 1817, it is sufficiently remarkable that in 
1822, in the whole Collectorate of Ahmednuggur there were 
only 405 full-grown horses, 1298 full-grown mares; the total, 
including colts and fillies, being only 2500 ; the ponies amounted 
to 12,632, of all kinds. 

Proportions engaged in agriculture. — In 1828, in this col- 
lectorate, 1878 British villages contained 41,94S cultivators or 
farmers, and a population of 512,818 souls, and allowing five 
persons to a cultivator's family, 40*89 per cent, of the people 
were engaged in agriculture. In Poona there were 52,668 
farmers, being a per centage of 55*50, with five persons to a 
family. In Dharwar 60,701 cultivators, being a percentage of 
41*76*, and in Khandesh 44*608 cultivators, being a per 
centage of 53*16 occupied in agriculture. It is to be under- 
stood these proportions have reference to the population of 
British villages only, and not to the whole population of each 
collectorate. Moreover, as these proportions are derived from 
the registered farmers only, and as they are in the habit of sub- 
letting their lands, I have no hesitation in expressing my 
opinion that exact returns would prove that three-fourths of 
the population are directly engaged in agriculture. In the 
Poona Collectorate, families were not enumerated, excepting 
in the retux*n from the city of Poona, and here families average 
4*82 persons ; each house in Poona averaged Q>\ persons ; but, 
for the whole collectorate 4*79 persons to a house ; so that it 
is probable the returns of the number of houses would give 
the number of families. In Khandesh the proportion of in- 

* Including some returns of alienated villages, an estimate makes it 48 
per cent. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 26/ 

habitants to a house falls short of the other collectorates, 
being only 8*96 persons. In Dharwar the number is 4*48 to 
a house, for the whole collectorate ; but the towns exhibit 
other figures ; namely, Belgaon 5*24, Chabee 5*78, and Gun- 
ness Pait 5*77 inhabitants to a house ; England and Wales 
has 5*60. The average inhabitants to the square mile, in the 
different collectorates, has been noticed under the head of 
civil divisions ; and the fewness will disappoint European ex- 
pectations ; but there is plainly a great mistake in the common 
estimation of the denseness of the Indian population. Bengal 
proper is said to have 203 inhabitants to a square mile, and 
Orissa, in the cultivated parts, agreeably to Mr. Stirling, the 
commissioner, has 135; but, for the whole area of Orissa, the 
average is only 14£ inhabitants to the square mile ; England 
has 192. 

Southern Jagheerdars. — The Southern Jagheerdars have 
917 villages, with an estimated population of 263,236 souls. 

Rajah of SattaraKs territories. — The Rajah of Sattarah, in 
his territories, has 1703 towns and villages, with an estimated 
population of 488,846 inhabitants. 

With the data in my possession I am enabled to give an es- 
timate of the population of the late Peshwa's territories in 
Dukhun ; it affords a closer approximation to the truth than 
has hitherto been obtained. 



Collectorate. 


Towns and 
Villages. 


Explanations. 


Number of 
inhabitants. 


Total inha- 
bitants in 
eachCollect- 
orate. 


Ahmednuggur 


1655| 

223 

586£ 
23 


The census of 1822, in the 
Ahmednuggur Collectorate, in 
1655 J towns and villages, exclu- 
sive of the city of Ahmednuggur, 
each village averaging 263*47 in- 


453,098 

58,753 
154,525 


666,376 


223 British villages of Talooks, 
Kurmulleh, and Korteh, from 
which population returns were 
not received, averaging 263*47 


586J alienated towns and vil- 
lages, from which returns were 
not received, averaging 267*47 


Depopulated villages 

Total villages in the Ahmed- 
"nuggur Collectorate. 


2488 



268 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 



Poona Collec- 
torate. 



Towns and 
Villages. 



Explanations. 



Number of 
inhabitants. 



895i 



212i 



56 
4 



574 



Total inha- 
bitants in 
cachCollect- 
orate. 



Khandesh 
Collectorate, 



155 



29 



1926 



In the collector's revenue state- 
ment for 1828 there appeared 
1469J British villages ; viz. 895§ 
towns and villages inclusive of 
the city of Poona, which sent in 
population returns in 1826, the 
villages averaging 226*10 inhabit- 
ants, exclusive of the population 
of the city, give 283,567 

212^ alienated villages sent in 
population returns 48,048 

56 alienated towns and vil- 
lages, and 4 British villages, did 
not send in returns, averaging a 
population of 22610 souls each 13,566 

574 British villages of the 
Sholapoor sub-collectorates did 
not send in returns, averaging by 
estimate 226-10 souls each 164,294 

Had the average number of 
inhabitants to a village in the 
Ahmednuggur collectorate been 
used as an element, the result 
would have been 151,145 

155 alienated towns and vil- 
lages of the Sholapoor sub-col 
lectorate at 226-l^souls each ... 40,838 
Depopulated villages. 

Total towns and villages in the 
Poona Collectorate. 



1968 



CI 



330 



335* 



14 









550,313 



In the collector's revenue state 
ment for 1828, there were 2697J 
villages; of this number, 1968 
British towns and villages sent 
in population returns in 1826, 
averaging 187-39 inhabitants to 

a village, equal to 

64 villages, refused returns, at 

127 souls each 

330 villages are cultivated, but 
not inhabited, making a total of 
2362 villages. To make up the 
number in the collector's revenue 
statement therefore, 335| villages 
must be added as having become 
populated since the population re- 
turns were sent in, at 127 souls each 
14 Jagheer villages sent in 

returns 

30Qi Jagheer, or alienated villages, 
2 did not send in returns, at an 
average of 187-39 souls each 
654 Depopulated villages, lands not 

cultivated. 

3666 Total towns and villages in the 

Khandesh Collectorate. 



368,781 
8128 



42,608 
2623 



56,317 



478,457 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 



269 



Dharwar Col- 

lectorate. 



Towns and 
Villages. 



Southern 3i 

heerdars' 

lands. 



Rajah of Sat- 
tarah's terri- 
tories. 



1899 



225 



155 
230 
137 



2734 
917 



1703 



Explanations. 



In the collector's revenue state- 
ment for 1828, there appeared 
2279 towns and villages ; of this 
number, 1899 British towns and 
villages sent in population re- 
turns, averaging 348 inhabitants 
to each village 

225 British villages in the ta 
looks of Cheekoree and Munow- 
Iee did not send in returns ; es- 
timating their population from 
the revenue they yield, falling as 
a poll-tax as in other parts of 
Dharwar, there are 

British depopulated villages, 
lands under cultivation. 

Alienated villages sent in po 
pulation returns 

Alienated villages did not send 
in population returns, at the 
lowest average of population, 
236-30 each 

Deserted villages, lands not 
under cultivation. 



Number of 
inhabitants. 



660,852 



65,805 



79,727 



32,373 



Total inha- 
bitants in 
eachCollect- 
orate. 



12,155 
1,279 

13,434 



The area of the Southern Jag- 
heerdars' territories is 2978-125 
square miles at 88-39 inhabitants 
to the square mile, the lowest 
average of the Dharwar Collect- 
orate gives by estimate 263,236 

1703 towns and villages under 
the Sattarah government, with 
an estimated population of 287-05 
inhabitants to a village, which is 
the mean between Dharwar and 
Ahmednuggur, will give 488,846 



Populated villages. 
Depopulated villages 

Total. 



838,757 



263,236 



488,846 



3,285,985 



270 



SEVENTH 
ABSTRACT 



REPORT- 
OF THE 



-1837- 
ABOVE. 



Collectorate or 
Territory. 


Area, 
squaremiles. 


Number of 
Towns and 
Villages. 


Population. 


Average 
to the 
square 
mile. 


Average to a 

village for the 

whole Collect. 

orate. 


Average to 
a house. 




8281 


1926 


550,313 


66-45 


« 247-36 


4-79 




Ahmednuggur 


9910 


2488 


666,376 


67-24 


t 263-47 


4-89 


Kliandesh ... 


12,527 


3666 


478,457 


38-19 


178-39 


3-96 




9122 


2734 


838,757 


91-94 


336-7 


4-48 


Southern Jag- 


2978 


917 


263,236 


88-39 


287-05 


Not known. 


Raj all of Sat- 
tarah's terri- 


0169 


1703 


488,846 


79-25 


287-05 


Not known. 




Total 


48,987 


X 13,434 


3,285,985 


67-07 


270-34 







Average number of inhabitants to a village for all the col- 
lectorates, 270*34. 

The above population does not include the army, camp 
followers, Bheels, or the wandering tribes. 

It would appear there are 1279 uninhabited villages in the 
four collectorates of Dukhun, principally in Khandesh ; making 
a total of 10,814 towns and villages in the British possessions, 
and of 13,434 in the late Peshwah's territories in Dukhun; 
exclusive of those belonging to the Kolapoor state. 

Total alienated villages in the four collectorates, 1695|. 
Total British populated villages, 7839a ; total deserted, 1279. 
Total villages in the four collectorates, 10,814. 

Education. 

Education, as a regular system, is certainly unknown amongst 
the people in Dukhun. The few schools existing are wholly 
disproportioned in number to the population ; and even were 
they more numerous, the present general poverty of the Koon- 
bees,§ and the imperious calls upon them for the services of 
their children in agriculture, and in attending their cattle, 

* Exclusive of the population of the city of Poona. 

f Exclusive of the population of the city of Ahmednuggur. 

X Of this number, 1279 are depopulated, and the depopulated villages of 
the Southern Jagheerdars and Rajah of Sattarah's territories are not known 
to me. 

§ Mahratta cultivators. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 271 

would disable them from letting their children profit by in- 
struction, even though gratuitous. In a stage of civilization 
which is by no means contemptible, the general illiterateness 
of the cultivators is remarkable. It might have been supposed 
that the pressure of the inconveniencies and the risk of loss 
attending the solving their constantly recurring arithmetical 
computations, whether in settling their assessments with go- 
vernment, in ascertaining the amount of their produce, or in 
computing its saleable rate to ensure a profit, or in their 
money transactions with each other, would have stimulated 
some families of the past or present generations to have pur- 
sued steadily a course of instruction for their children, which, 
by its example and the visible beneficial results attending it, 
would have originated a thirst of knowledge, and advanced 
the march of intellectual improvement. The Shoodra, however, 
is led to believe by the wily Brahmans that letters and science 
are not within his province, and the farmer is content to go on 
mastering his arithmetical difficulties with the assistance of his 
fingers, and relying upon the village clerk for the keeping his 
accounts with the government, and on his ability, judgement, 
and secrecy in the management of his private correspondence, 
which, it may be supposed, will not be very important or volu- 
minous. Were it ascertained, I believe not one cultivator in 
a hundred would be found able to write, or count up to 100 
but by fives ; and my daily unreserved intercourse for hours 
with numbers of this class of persons has given me facilities for 
forming this opinion. And yet the Koonbees are far from 
wanting intelligence ; they are not slow in observing ; they are 
quick in communicating, and the rationale of an agricultural 
process is frequently explained with a simplicity and effect 
which we might not always meet with in the educated En- 
glish farmer. There would not be any difficulty in teaching 
the Koonbees, provided the instruction were gratuitous, and 
that the farmer could spare his children ; and several im- 
portant effects might attend this instruction: the mind of the 
cultivator would be invigorated with new ideas ; enlarged views 
of action would break in upon him ; a spirit of improvement, 
enterprise, and innovation might spring up, in place of the 
apathetic routine that at present prevails in rural ceconomy, 
and in the social relations of life ; and an amelioration, both 
physical and moral, would take place in his condition. But 
* at present the little education that exists is confined to the 
Brahmans and to the shopkeepers, Shaitees*, and Mahajuns.f 

* Heads of trades. f Bankers, 



272 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

The Koolkumees *, or accountants and village-clerks, are 
always Brahmans ; many of them are shrewd and very quick, 
and possessed of infinite ingenuity in avoiding the detection of 
a fraud or mistake in their papers ; many of this class, how- 
ever, I found too stupid to keep an individual's account, much 
less the complicated details of a village assessment. The 
shopkeepers being generally people from Goojrat, keep their 
accounts in the Goojratee language. The character in universal 
use for business is the Mohr in the districts. The following will 
show the number of schools, as far as the returns received 
from the collectors will permit, — not any account of schools 
was received from the collector of Ahmednuggur. In the Col- 
lectorate of Dharwar there is one school to 2452 inhabitants ; 
in Khandesh thei'e is only one school to 4369 souls ; and, in 
the Poona Collectorate, deducting the population of the city 
of Poona, there is one school to 3337 souls. It is fair to infer 
therefore, that as Dharwar supports proportionably so many 
more schools than the other collectorates, that information is 
more generally spread amongst the people, and that they are 
better able to manage their affairs than others less instructed ; 
and the breadth of cultivation, and general manufacturing and 
commercial industry of the people, would seem to justify the 
inference. 

Irrigation. 

Preliminary to speaking of agriculture, it is necessary to 
state that lands are watered artificially in two ways. First, by 
conducting streamlets from running rivers or brooks. Lands 
so watered are called Paatsthul, from Paat, a channel, and 
Sthul, a field. f These streamlets do not always last through 
the hot season ; and though this species of irrigation, while 
available, is infinitely less onerous and less expensive to the 
cultivator, affording also a more plentiful supply of water than 
the well watering and great returns; yet it is not so certain, and, 
on the whole, is less permanently efficient than well watering. 
The second method is by well watering. Lands so watered are 
called Moht Sthul, from Moht, the water-bucket, and Sthul, a 
field. There is a good deal of trouble attending this method, 
and it requires the continual expense of the support of two or 
four bullocks, the wear and tear of materials, and the keep of 
one man, who, however, can readily manage two buckets, and 
two pairs of bullocks : at the same time it requires also a boy 
in the garden or field to open and shut the different channels. 

* Village clerks and accountants, 
t Literally " firm land." 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 2/3 

This is the most common method of irrigation in the districts 
reported on. Usually only two bullocks are attached to each 
bucket ; in some instances, however, where the wells are deep, 
four bullocks are attached to each bucket. The cattle pull 
down an inclined plane and discharge the water, and readily 
walk backwards up the plane to the highest part of it; on the 
bucket being refilled, they go down the plane again ; the 
driver sings to them and rides down on the rope. The pro- 
cess is suspended for an hour or two during the middle of the 
day. The accompanying drawing illustrates this process, and 
does not require any explanation. A very considerable quan- 
tity of water is brought up by this method. The buckets in 
use vary little in size, and the wells, probably, range from 25 
to 45 feet deep ; some experiments of mine, therefore, to 
ascertain the quantity of water brought up from a well 35 feet 
deep in a certain time, may be considered as an average of the 
efficiency of this method of irrigation. I found a moht (of six 
paahls) average a delivery of 198 wine bottles of water each 
time. The bottle contained 28 ounces of water, apothecaries' 
measure, consequently the bucket contained 5544 ounces wine 
measure, 231 quarts, or 57 gallons 3 quarts. There is a 
singular uniformity of time between the delivery of two 
buckets, seldom exceeding seventy seconds ; a man and a 
pair of bullocks, therefore, in an hour deliver 2931 gallons of 
water; and, labouring seven hours a day, give 20,517 gallons 
wine measure ; and the same man with two pairs of bullocks 
delivers 41,034 gallons of water ; a quantity infinitely exceeding 
what Europeans usually believe to be drawn up by the simple 
means employed. At eight pounds troy to the gallon, the 
weight of water drawn up by one pair of bullocks in one day 
will bel64,1361bs. troy; and bytwo pairs of bullocks, 328,2721bs. 
troy. This account appears very considerable, but my ex- 
periments have been repeated with care ; and, on the whole, 
the delivery of water may be rather underrated than over- 
rated. 

Near the village of Piroorgoot, 1 observed a simple method 
of watering a field. The bed of a nullah, or rivulet, with very 
low banks, had been dammed up; three pieces of wood, like 
a gin, were put over the water ; a scoop was suspended by a 
rope to the apex of the gin, and a man scooped out the water 
into his field. The labour was great, and the supply of water 
small. This apparatus is called Dohl. 

It would appear to be of considerable importance to encou- 
rage the making of wells, as the only means of increasing the 
very limited exports of the Dukhun. 

vol. vi. 1837. t 



274 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

Agriculture. 

Some general observations will be necessary, as the crops 
and agricultural process in the Mawuls * differ materially from 
the crops and agricultural process in the Desh.f The princi- 
pal crop of the Mawuls is that of the rains, and the most 
valuable of its produce is rice %. The severe labour attend- 
ing the preparation of the rice ground in the hot weather 
is great, and in the rains the cultivator has to trample up to 
his knees in water and mud ploughing the rice field, pro- 
bably in a deluge of rain, but with his head and back most se- 
curely protected by the Eerluh \, however much exposed the 
rest of his body may be. The transplantation is performed 
under similar exposure. The other monsoon grains of the 
Mawuls are the Sawa, Wuree, and Natchnee, and Karlee, 
or KaleeTeel|| which is an oil plant of the only other monsoon 
product. 

The labour attending the cultivation of these grains, in a 
very unfavourable climate, at the time they are grown, falls 
very severely on the people, but they are compensated for 
their labour and suffering by good returns of that valuable 
produce rice ; and the returns of the other grains are great, 
and the crops seldom fail. 

The Koonbees, or farmers of the Mawuls, also have an 
advantage which those of the Desh are not always assured of, 
i. e. the certainty of finding a market for one of their products, 
rice. 

Dry Season Crop {Mawuls.) — The dry crop of the Mawuls 
does not call for any mention in this place. 

Dry Season Crop (Desh.) — With respect to the Desh, the 
most valuable is the Rubbee, or Spring crop^[. The agricul- 
tural processes in both crops is certainly defective, less owing to 
the ignorance of the cultivators, who are well aware of the 
advantage of a ploughing adapted to the character of the soil, 
of good manuring, complete weeding, rotations of crops and fal- 
lows ; than to their necessities, which compel them to rack their 
land ; they cannot generally afford to purchase a sufficiency of 

* Hilly districts along the crest of the Ghats. 

■f- Flat country, eastward of the Mawuls. 

I Vide No. 118, wet crop, Mawuls. 

§ Eerluh, or basket-work hood, covered with leaves and quite impervious to 
rain. 

|| Wet season crop (Mawuls.) 

•[f Consisting of wheats, gram, barley ; Shaloo, (Andropogon Succharaittm) ; 
Dhal, (Cytisus cajan), oil-plants, &c. 



ON THJ5 STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 275 

manure, they have not any stable-yards, and the dearth of 
fuel compels them to burn much of their cow-dung ; and, with 
a singular fatuity and injurious caution, they sow half a dozen 
grains and pulses together in the same field, which necessarily 
impede the growth of each other, exhaust the soil, and give 
limited returns. The professed object is to assure, in the oc- 
casional uncertainty of the monsoons, some kind of return at 
least for their labours, which might have been wholly unpro- 
ductive had one grain only been sown. In short they want to 
have half a dozen strings to their bow instead of one. 

Wet Crop (Desk.) — The grains so sown ripen in succes- 
sion, and two of them remain on the ground between nine and 
ten months ; that is to say, from the beginning of June to the 
end of February. In their management of the plough, the 
Koonbees do not want dexterity. Their cattle have all 
names, know their names, and are obedient to them ; with 
four bullocks to a plough, the leaders are guided entirely by 
the voice, and I have frequently seen quite a youth managing 
alone very cleverly his plough and four bullocks. 

In the Desh, in manuring land, the cart called Jang or 
Janjeea, is used ; it consists simply of the common cart with a 
quite flat basket tied on the top of it, made by the Koonbees 
from the twigs of the Neergoondee, ( Vitex trifolia,) or of the 
twigs of the Tooree, (Cytisus cajan.) The manure generally 
consists of the sweepings of their houses, which, from being 
usually cow-dunged every day and daily swept, are not trifling, 
and from the ashes also from their hearths. 

Crops are carted to the Kulle/i, or farm-yard, from the fields 
by the Garra. This consists of an upper horizontal rude frame- 
work supported on a thick axle-tree, and is removeable at 
pleasure. The wheels are of solid wood, small, placed under 
the frame-work, are not sufficiently far apart, and consequently 
subject the cart to upset, which is but too frequent an occur- 
rence. Wooden pegs and thongs keep the whole vehicle to- 
gether, and there is no more iron about the cart than the tire 
round the wheels and the hollow cylinders within the naves. 
This vehicle, considering the circumstances of the Koonbees, 
is expensive, costing from eighty to one hundred rupees, 
and it is only the most substantial among them who have 
carts. Having carted their grain, the Koonbees remove it to 
the Kulleh, or farm-yard. 

Farm-yard. — The grain is stacked round a spot in the open 
air in a corner of one of their fields. This spot is circular, and 
has been prepared by beating and cow-dunging ; a pole, called 
Tewrah, is fixed in the centre of it. In the reedy grains the 

t2 



276 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

heads are broken off by women, and strewed round the pole* 
to the depth of 5 or 6 inches. In the ligneous pulses, the 
extreme twigs, bearing the legumes, are broken off and 
strewed round the pole ; and in the herbaceous leguminous 
pulses and straw-culm grains, the whole plant is put on the 
floor : six, or eight, or more bullocks (I saw sixteen atMunchur) 
are tied side by side, half on one side of the pole and half on 
the other ; they are muzzled and driven round the pole, tread- 
ing out the grain. This process usually occupies two men, 
and it is called the Mullnee. It is neither inefficient, nor 
dilatory. It would appear to be of great antiquity, and 
widely practised; in Deuteronomy, xxv. 4. we read, " Thou 
shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn." 

Winnowing.?— We are now brought to the winnowing the 
grain. This is dor.e in the Kulleh; and when there are suffi- 
cient members in the family of the farmer after the first tread- 
ing, the process is carried on simultaneously with the 
Mullnee. The process is very simple, but certainly not very 
efficient, as it is dependent on the wind blowing. In case the 
wind blows very hard, the grain is blown away ; and in case the 
wind is not strong enough, the husks fall with the grain. A man 
stands upon a tall three-legged form, called the Wawhree, and 
pours the grain taken up from the treading ground, out of 
the winnowing basket (popunwutee) . The full grain falls per- 
pendicularly and is pretty free from husks, but the lighter 
grain falls obliquely, and is partially mixed with the husks. 
A man sits at the base of the stool or form with a broom 
(aatuee) in his hand to assist in removing the chaff from the 
edges of the mass of fallen grain. After all is done, however, 
it is requisite to pass a good proportion of the grain through 
the sieve, (Chalun). After the grain is winnowed it is carried 
home and laid in store. 

Preserving Grain. — There are various ways of preser- 
ving the grain. Where the soil is sufficiently dry, cham- 
bers are dug in the earth for it ; but the most usual plan in 
the districts is to preserve it in large baskets, called Kuneeng, 
made of twigs of the Neergoondee, ( Vitex trifolia,) or of those 
of the Tooree, (Cytisus cajan). These baskets are plastered 
with cow-dung inside and out, and are perfectly impervious to 
rain or damp. Where the habitations are sufficiently large, 
or the baskets few in number, they are lodged in the house, 
but not unfrequently are placed outside of the house within 
reach of any pilfering hand. A few stones are put under each 

• Tewrah. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 277 

basket ; the lid, in case it has a lid, is sealed down with cow- 
dung, and in case it has not a lid, a plaster of cow-dung a 
couple of inches thick is put over the grain ; a little cap, or 
roof of grass, is put over the basket, and it is left exposed till 
required, being deemed equally protected from the elements 
and man. In the Mawuls, in the hot months, the whole of the 
grain baskets of the village, full of grain, may be seen assembled 
in front of the village temple, and left to the custody of the 
village god. The roofs of all the houses are of grass in the 
Mawuls, and the dread of fires (the people having no chimneys 
to their houses) induces them to put their monsoon and winter 
stores in a place of safety, the extreme dryness of the period 
rendering accidents by fire frequent. It is not an unfrequent 
practice with the Koonbees of the Mawuls to unroof their 
houses for the months of April and May. 

In addition to the baskets for the preservation of grain, 
earthen jars, called Kothee, made by the people themselves, 
are met with to hold grain, but they are not common. 

Preparing Grain for Food. — The preparation of grain 
for food is the last process. Husk grains, such as rice, 
Wuree, (Panicum miliar e); and Sawa, {Panicum frumen- 
taceum) ; and the Johr, or husked wheat, require to be 
pounded to remove the husks. This process is entirely 
within the province of the women : the implements used may 
be called the pestle and mortar ; the mortar is called the 
ookul, and the pestle, moosul. The mortar in the Mawuls is 
frequently very rude in form, being a rough stone with a hole 
scooped in the middle of it to receive the grain. In the Desh, 
however, the mortar is of wood, of a good form, and some- 
times carved. The moosul, or pestle, is always of wood, four 
or five feet long, tipped with iron, and in thickness and weight 
suitable to the strength of the person to use it. The final 
process is the grinding the corn; this also is the duty of the 
women, and two of them are usually employed at the mill. 
Christ says, " There shall be two women grinding at the mill ;* 
one shall be taken and the other left." 

Hand Mill. — The mill is portable, and is called Jatuh : it 
consists of two flat circular stones, fourteen or eighteen inches in 
diameter, placed one on the other; the lower one has an upright 
peg in it, the upper one has a hole in the centre through which 
the peg of the lower stone passes, and the upper stone is made 
to perform an horizontal rotatory motion round the peg by 
means of another upright peg near its margin. The grain is 
put in at the hole in the centre. This form of mill must be 

* Matth. xxiv. 41. 



278 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

very ancient, for I saw remains of such mills in the ruins 
of Pompeii, and one nearly perfect in the ruins of the Roman 
villa of Sir William Hickes's estate near Cheltenham, Glouces- 
tershire. 

Raw Sugar Mill. — Under the head of agriculture it will be 
necessary to speak of the Gool, or raw sugar-mill. Sugar 
cane is not so much cultivated as it might be, and it is seldom 
found but at populous villages. I have seldom seen more 
than two mills at a village ; and as the screws and accom- 
paniments are somewhat expensive for the circumstances of a 
cultivator, the mills are seldom found belonging to him, but 
he is a renter of them for the term requisite. The mills are 
in the open air, and consist of two vertical screws which are 
sunk in a square chamber excavated in the earth ; one of them 
is moved by a double lever so much elevated above the level 
of the field as to admit of bullocks being attached to the ends 
of the lever. The cattle go round incessantly in a circle and 
work the mill. The bits of sugar cane are passed twice be- 
tween the screws, and the juice runs out into a wooden or 
copper vessel placed to receive it. The fire-place (Choo- 
langun) and great iron pan (Kurhuee), to boil the juice in, are 
close at hand ; a ladle to stir and skim the juice as it boils, 
and some circular holes in the ground to receive the juice 
when sufficiently thick, complete the material and close the 
process. The work is continued night and day till the cane- 
field is exhausted. Sugar is not refined in the Dukhun. 

Oil Mills. — Although the oil mills belong to a class of per- 
sons who are not agriculturists, the Koonbee is quite depend- 
ent on them to turn his numerous oil seeds to account ; some 
mention therefore of them is necessary under " agriculture." 
The body of the mill is generally of stone, and the machinery, 
even when of the rudest construction, shows a good deal of 
ingenuity and an acquaintance with some of the mechanic 
powers. It is entirely the work of the village carpenter. 

At Neelsee, a Kohlee village in the wilds on the brink of 
the Ghats, the body of the mill is of wood, the lever works in 
the hollow of an upright cylinder, and by the great weight at- 
tached to its upper end constantly presses against the sides of 
the hollow and forces the oil from the seed which is put into 
the mill. The whole expense of the machinery of this particular 
mill was only five rupees *. In the Desh the body of the mill 
is of stone, the machinery is the same as in this mill. It is 
worked by a bullock. 

Average She of Farms. — There are not any farms of large 

* About ten shillings. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 279 

size under the management of a single farmer ; the largest 
I recollect meeting with was about 200 acres, but in ge- 
neral they average very considerably less in size. In the 
Poona Collectorate the average size was 29 beegahs *, in 
Ahmednuggur 35 beegahs, in Dharwar 43 T § n beegahs, and 
in Khundesh 23 T %% beegahs. The average rent of a farm 
in Poona was less than 48 shillings per annum ; in Ahmed- 
nuggur about 86 shillings ; in Dharwar 64 shillings ; and in 
Khandesh, where a good deal of the land cultivated is garden 
land, 74 shillings per annum. In Poona the average rent per 
beegah is within a fraction of two shillings ; in Ahmednuggur 
about two shillings and six pence per beegah ; in Dharwar 
not quite eighteen pence ; and in Khandesh, where there is 
proportionably a good deal of garden land, it is somewhat 
more than three shillings a beegah. The average for the 
whole of the lands of Dukhun is two shillings and ninepence, 
one-eighth per English acre, or one rupee and fourteen reas 
per Dukhun beegah. 

Proportion of Yoke Cattle to each Farmer. — Generally in 
the population returns there were great omissions of the draft 
or yoke cattle of the cultivators ; no very satisfactory state- 
ment can therefore be given of their agricultural means in 
this kind of stock. In one Talook, or county, of the Dharwar 
Collectorate, the yoke cattle were filled in, with the exception 
of two or three village returns, and the proportion is only 
1*38 bullocks to each cultivator ; but as the ploughs are 3733 
in number in the Talook, at two bullocks to a plough, the pro- 
portion should be 2*89 bullocks (nearly 3) to a cultivator: the 
returns must be defective, for I am satisfied, although a farmer 
may not have two bullocks to each of his ploughs, and he has 
generally a heavy plough and a light one, yet he has always 
two bullocks at least for one of his ploughs. 

In the Ahmednuggur Collectorate the yoke cattle are not 
distinguished from the pack or carriage cattle, but the whole 
amount is very considerable, being 212,008. In the Poona 
Collectorate the returns give 2j yoke bullocks to each farmer, 
but the farmers near to the city of Poona are much better off, 
averaging 3| bullocks each. Only a portion of the returns 
from Khandesh had the column of draft or yoke cattle filled 
up ; it is impossible, therefore, to give the proportion to each 
farmer for the whole collectorate ; but as far as the returns 
went, it appeared that each farmer averaged only l - 62 bul- 
locks, not quite If. 

* The Dukhun beegah is three-fourths of an English acre. The rupee is 
valued at two shillings. 



280 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837» 

Milch cattle. — The proportion of milch cattle, on which so 
much of the comfort of the people depends, whether rural or 
urban, in the Dharwar Collectorate, is greater than in the 
other collectorates, being one cow or milch buffalo to 2*45 souls. 
In Poona it is 1 to 5*24 persons ; in Ahmednuggur 1 to 3"04 
persons ; and in Khandesh 1 cow or buffalo to 2'26 souls. 

Ploughs, — As 1 have before stated, ploughs are of two 
kinds, the Nangur or heavy plough, and the Hulka Nangur or 
light plough ; the same obtains with respect to drill ploughs, no 
grain being sown broadcast, the heavy drill plough being called 
Mogurh, and the light Pabhar. The proportion of ploughs 
in the Dharwar Collectorate is 1*41 to each cultivator, or 
nearly three ploughs to two farmers; the number of ploughs in 
the returns being 99,883, and the number of cultivators 70,488. 

Carts. — Were a judgement to be formed of the state of the 
roads, and of the facility of communication and transit by 
wheel carriages, from the proportion of carts to the farmers, 
the estimate would be low indeed.* In the Dharwar Collect- 
orate there is only one cart to thirteen farmers. The carts 
are universally of two wheels. 

Pack cattle. — The unusual number of pack bullocks, which 
carry loads on their backs, in the Dharwar Collectorate, would 
seem to indicate that they are the chief means by which agri- 
cultural and other produce is transported from place to place. 
In Khandesh there is the least number of pack cattle, and the 
greatest proportional number of carts. In Poona a great 
number of pack cattle, and only one cart to eleven farmers. 
The proportion in Ahmednuggur I do not know. 

Land and other Tenures. 

Lands are held under a great variety of tenures in Dukhun, 
some by virtue of offices which are hereditary, some as here- 
ditary freehold property, some in free gift from the state, 
some in Jagheer or military or feudal tenure, some on a quit 
rent, and in many other ways ; but a rapid notice of the dif- 
ferent tenures, and of the office-bearers holding lands, will 
best assist to give a clear idea of their quality and number. 

In the first place, the proprietary right of the soil was 
(and is) in the people, and not in the sovereign. The sove- 
reign could assess the land as he pleased, and assign away a 
part or the whole of the revenue arising from the land-tax 
or assessment, either in free gift (Eenam), military tenure 
(Jagheer), or quit rent, or in any other way ; but he could not 

* It is nevertheless true, that had the farmers carts, they could rarely use 
them from the want of roads, unless in the dry season. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 281 

justly take away a man's land either for his own purposes or 
to give it to others; although, as a despotic prince, like all 
other princes of India, he had the undoubted ability to do so 
at his pleasure : yet few instances are known of this oppressive 
exercise of their power, and there are many instances on 
record of their purchasing land from their subjects. I have 
laid before the public translations of official documents, in 
which the sovereigns have been parties, containing the most 
irresistible proofs of the people having the uncontrolled right 
to dispose of their lands as they pleased, by gift, or sale, or 
devise, or in other ways. These translations are too lengthened 
to be introduced in this report, but they will be met with in 
the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

All lands in Dukhun were classed within some village 
boundary or other ; and to this day these boundaries are 
guarded with such jealousy by the inhabitants as to be pro- 
ductive of broils and bloodshed on their slightest invasion. 
The village lands were divided into family estates, called 
Thuls, which bore the name of the family, and the estates 
bear the name to this day, although the family be extinct or 
Gutkool, as it is called ; and half the estates in Dukhun are 
now Gutkool, but preserve their family names. These estates 
were hereditary and freehold, burthened only with the sove- 
reign's land-tax, and assessments for village expenses, as a 
gentleman's estate in England is burthened with land-tax and 
assessments for highway and poor-rates, &c. ; there were not 
any tithes, but in each village there were lands assigned for 
religious objects, either to temples or to sacerdotal persons. 
Every village had a constitution for its internal government ; 
it consisted of the Pateel or chief, assisted by a Chowgulla ; 
the Koolkurnee, or village accountant, kept the village records 
and details of assessment and revenue ; and there were twelve 
hereditary village officers, the well-known Bara Bullooteh, 
whose numbers were complete or otherwise as the population 
of the villages was capable of supporting them. All these 
officers and the chief land-owners formed a village council, 
called Pandreh, which managed the external and internal re- 
lations of the village, whether with respect to raising the 
government assessments, managing its police, or in settling 
civil disputes, excepting in cases where Panchaeits or juries 
of five persons were specifically appointed to arbitrate by 
mutual consent of the litigating parties. And it is somewhat 
remarkable that this isolated and internal government has 
withstood the shocks of all the changes of dynasties, invasions, 



282 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

rebellions, and the destructive anarchy which have so fre- 
quently disgraced the annals of India. 

A certain number of villages constituted a Naikwuree, over 
which was an officer with the denomination of Naik. Eighty- 
four villages constituted a Deshmookee, over which was an 
officer called a Deshmook, or governor,* possibly equivalent 
to our lord-lieutenant of counties ; this officer was assisted by 
a Desh Chowgulla ; and for the branch of accounts there was 
a Deshpandeh or district accountant and register. The links 
connecting the Deshmooks with the prince were Sur-Desh- 
mooks, or heads of the Deshmooks ; they were few in number. 
It is said there were also Sur-Deshpandehs. The Sur-Desh- 
mooks, Deshmooks, and their assistants, Naiks, Pateels, and 
Chowgullahs, indeed all persons in authority, were Mahrattas ; 
the writers and accountants were mostly Brahmans. Such 
was the state of things under the ancient Hindoo govern- 
ments. The Moosulmans on their conquest, in the civil di- 
visions of the country, introduced the terms of Soobeh (a 
province), Pergunnah (county), Tallook (manor, lordship), 
and Turruff (a division of a county). The Hindoo hereditary 
officers were deprived of their authority, (excepting those in 
the village constitution,) but, very liberally, they were not de- 
prived of their tenures ; and their places were supplied by 
Zemindars, f Maamlutdars, Sheristehdars, Havaildars, &c. 

I have stated that the family estates were called Thuls, 
from the Sanscrit Sthul, " firm land ; " and in case the family 
became extinct or Gutkool, from the Sanscrit Gut, " gone, 
passed away," and Kool, "a race or family," the property did 
did not pass to the sovereign, but it was at the disposal of the 
Pateel solely, or the village corporation conjointly, to do as 
they pleased with it ; and I have multiplied proofs in my pos- 
session of freeholds having been created in such estates of 
extinct families, by letters of inheritance, called Meeras Putra, 
which were granted by the Pateel or village authorities for a 
sum of money ; and such letters became title-deeds, similar to 
those of an estate in England. The law of succession by pri- 
mogeniture not obtaining amongst the Hindoos, these estates 

• Called also Desaee or Deshaee in some parts. 

f Mistakes, very serious in their consequences, have been made with 
respect to the supposed rights of Zemindars. They were introduced by the 
Moosulmans, superseding the ancient Hindoo Deshmooks and Desaees, and 
were government officers for the collection of the revenue, and for the civil 
government of districts. In Bengal, the British considered them proprietors 
of the soil, and constituted them as great freeholders ; sweeping away the vil- 
lage freeholds. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 283 

became necessarily much divided, and the individual holders 
were called by the Hindoos Thulwaee or Thulkuree ; and the 
light in which the Moosulmans looked upon such proprietors, 
when they took possession of the country, is sufficiently mani- 
fest by the term they applied to them, namely, Meerasdars, or 
patrimony-holders, from the Arabic word Meeras, " patri- 
mony," "heritage," and Dar, "a holder;" and this is the 
term by which such proprietors are distinguished at the 
present day. The Meerasdars were of two kinds ; the de- 
scendants of the original proprietor, whose surnames and the 
name of the estate or thul were identical, and those who had 
obtained a share of the estate by purchase or otherwise, whose 
surnames were not the same as that of the estate. In no in- 
stance, that I am aware of, have the former class documentary 
proofs of their right ; with the latter class documentary proofs 
are not uncommon. 

There is further proof of the Moosulmans having ac- 
knowledged hereditary rights in the term they applied to the 
Deshmooks, Desaees, Deshpandehs, and others, namely, 
Hukdar. Huh, in Arabic, meaning " right," and Dar " a 
holder;" these persons in virtue of their offices having lands 
in tenure and fees in money and kind in the districts in which 
these duties lay. The Meerasdars considered that they might 
be temporarily dispossessed of their freeholds in case of non- 
payment of the government assessments and dues, but they 
claimed to resume them whenever they had liquidated their 
debts ; and they did not consider the question of these freeholds 
compromised by the government doing justice to itself, any more 
than the existence of freehold property would be questioned 
in England because the owner might be compelled to yield 
up his property in payment of arrears of land-tax, poor- 
rates, &c. 

Meerasdars. — Meerasdars set a very high value upon their 
lands, and they clung to them with that feeling of personal and 
family pride which are characteristics of freeholders in Eu- 
rope ; even under the most grinding oppressions of their own 
government and its local officers, it was only when driven to 
despair that they abandoned them. The Meerasdar had to 
pay the government land-tax, all fees in kind to the district and 
village officers in common with the tenant at will or leaseholder; 
moreover, he had to pay a tax applicable to himself only, called 
Meerasputtee, a kind of smart-money for the distinction his 
freehold gave him ; this was levied every third year. Such was 
the Meeras tenure of land. His advantages were, first, the di- 
stinction; next, his being a constituent of the Pandreh, or village 



284 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

corporation, which the mere renter was not ; and thirdly, in 
some parts of the country where such taxation existed, he 
was exempt from marriage fees, widows' marriage fees, buffalo 
tax, hearth tax, and he may have paid a diminished per 
centage, in the rights of district officers levied in kind. Of late 
years, from the low prices of agricultural produce and the 
comparatively heavy money assessments, Meeras-land has 
scarcely had a saleable value. The terms Meerasdar and 
"Wuttundar have usually been considered identical, but in 
some village papers I observed them classed separately ; and, 
on asking for an explanation, was told that the Wuttundars 
were hereditary office-bearers, or the relations of hereditary 
office-bearers with the possible right of succession, whilst the 
Meerasdars were merely hereditary landholders ; a Wuttundar 
would necessarily be a Meerasdar, but a Meerasdar was not 
necessarily a Wuttundar. 

Oopuree. — From the extinction of numerous Mahratta fa- 
milies who were in possession of estates, a considerable por- 
tion of the land in Dukhun is without proprietors, and much 
of it is rented to Oopurees or annual tenants by the Pateel or 
village corporation, under native governments ; but, under the 
British government, by the collector or his officers. The 
term Oopuree means " a stranger," or a renter of land in a 
village in which he has not corporate rights : of course, Mee- 
rasdars can let their lands to each other, but they do not become 
Oopurees. The Oopuree holds his lands on the Ooktee, or 
word-of-mouth tenure, which is a verbal agreement for one 
year. 

Kowl Istaiva. — The third tenure is that of Kowl Istawa ; 
Koirl means a contract, and Istaiva is applied to lands let 
under their value. In practice, to induce cultivators to break 
up land that has long lain waste, a lease is given of three, five, 
seven, or nine years; the first year a trifling rent is fixed, and 
it is annually increased, until in the last year of the lease the 
full rent is paid; this tenure is highly desired, and great 
abuses exist under it : the permanently assessed cultivator is 
prompted to quit his village, and abandon even his hereditary 
lands, and get Kowl Istawa lands in another village ; and the 
moment the favourable lease is up he changes his location, 
and endeavours to obtain similar terms elsewhere : the prac- 
tice, therefore, is detrimental to the permanent revenue, detri- 
mental to the sound advancement of agriculture, and detrimental 
to the cultivator himself in encouraging vagrant habits. The 
local authorities also are found to be great occupiers of Kowl 
Istawa lands. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 285 

Owand tenure. — Any inhabitants of a village, cultivating 
lands in a neighbouring village, but not residing in that vil- 
lage, do so on the Owand tenure. The rate and terms are 
the Ooktee, and with respect to the village such cultivator is, 
in fact, an Oopuree, but his distinctive appellation is Owand- 
Kuree. 

The above are the tenures on which the government land 
revenue is raised, which in the four collectorates of Dukhun 
amounts to 82*372 per cent, of the whole revenue ; this per 
centage, however, includes some trifling rents from government 
lands, gardens, orchards, grass lands, and sheep grazing, quit 
rents, fees, Hukdars, and extra cesses. 

Tenures involving alienations of lands. — I have now to 
speak of tenures which involve alienations of lands, from a 
few beegahs in a village, to whole districts : these are Jagheer 
and Eenam in Khandesh ; Surinjam, Eenam, and Doomalla 
in the Ahmednugguv Collectorate ; Eenam, Surinjam, and 
Eesaphut in Poona ; and in Dharwar, Jooree Eenam, Surwa 
Eenam, and Jagheer : at least, such terms appeared in the 
population returns sent to me, and in the public papers which • 
I have. 

Jagheer. — Jagheer, which is a Persian word in its origin, is 
applied to lands given by government (or the government 
share of the rents) for personal support, or as a fief for the 
maintenance of troops for the service of the state : some ser- 
vice is implied in the personal as well as in the military 
Jagheer. In the Collectorates in Dukhun upwards of 400 
populated villages appear to be alienated in Jagheer. 

Eenam. — Eenam is a word of Arabic origin, meaning a 
"'gift," "present;" and lands so held should be entirely free 
from tax to government ; but a subsequent explanation of 
various tenures will show that Eenam has a much wider sig- 
nification than is generally supposed. This tenure is very 
extensive in Dukhun ; for independently of the grants of whole 
towns and villages to individuals, of which there are 231 
alienated in the Poona Collectorate alone, and the other Col- 
lectorates have a proportional share ; independently also of 
grants for temples and religious institutions, almost every 
village has Eenam land held by the Pateel, Koolkurnee, and 
Mahrs, and very commonly the Deshmooks and Deshpandehs 
have also land rent free appertaining to their offices in the vil- 
lages of their districts. The Bara Bullooteh, or twelve village 
artizans and officers, have often Eenam lands, but their Eenam 
is qualified by the imposition of some professional service, and 
it pays also a quit rent. Many of the Eenams are very 
curious in their objects; for instance, at th village of Wan- 



286 SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 

gee, Pergunnah Wangee, Poona Collectorate, 15 beegahs of 
land to a mendicant for reading stories before tbe goddess 
Dawai at ber festival; 15 beegahs to the tabor players at the 
temple ; 30 beegahs to the tumbling and dancing women at 
the temple ; the clarinet and double-drum players had respect- 
ively similar Eenams ; the gardener, for the supply of flowers, 
had 30 beegahs or 2%l acres. These Eenams existed un- 
touched under the bigoted Moosulman government, and still 
remain. 

Surinjam. — Lands held in Surinjam involve the condition 
of military service : the term is of Persian origin, meaning 
" furniture," "apparatus," implying that the lands are to defray 
the expense of equipment : in fact, Surinjam is synonymous 
with military Jagheer. In the Poona Collectorate 181 vil- 
lages appear to be alienated in Surinjam. 

Doomalla. — Doomalla, in the etymology of the word, means 
" two rights" or " properties," from Do two, and Maal pro- 
perty : the term is only found in the list of villages of the 
Ahmednuggur Collectorate, applied to villages and lands 
granted to individuals, on which government has a reserved 
right. In this sense the tenure appears to be that of quit 
rent, and the term is synonymous with the Jooree Eenam of 
the Dharwar Collectorate. In the Ahmednuggur Collectorate 
581^ villages appear as Doomalla, but this, no doubt, includes 
Jagheer and Eenam villages. 

Eesaplmt. — In the Poona Collectorate the term Eesaphut 
is applied to 37| villages : it is probably a corruption from the 
Arabic Zeaphut, meaning " feast," " entertainment." Lands 
so held are rent free, and may have been given to assist in 
celebrating festivals. 

In the Dharwar Collectorate the terms Jooree Eenam, 
Surwa Eenam, and Jagheer occur : the first corresponds to 
the Doomalla of Ahmednuggur, and is, in fact, a quit rent 
tenure; the second means " all gift," from Surwa "all," and 
Eenam "gift," there not being any tax or fee upon these 
lands : Jagheer has been explained before. 

Tenure of Deshmoolc and Desaee. — It is a general belief that 
these officers were coeval with the establishment of the land 
institutions of the Mahratta people.* Deshmooks were the 
civil governors of districts, collectors of the revenue, and 
executive officers of the government. The name is probably 
a corruption of the Sanscrit Deshuk, a governor or ruler. In 
early times they were exclusively Mahrattas, and not Brah- 
mans or Moosulmans. The importance of the office is at- 

* I mean, of couree, long antecedent to the Moosulman invasion. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 287 

tested by the fact that, in the earliest mention of the chiefs of 
the present great Mahratta families, they are styled Desh- 
mooks of such and such districts. Their rights were here- 
ditary, and saleable, wholly or in part, like those of every 
other hereditary office or right : the right of alienation is 
proved by different casts being now associated in the office. 
At Ahmednuggur a third of the Deshmookee belongs to a 
Brahman, and hvo-thirds to the ruling Mahratta family at 
Nagpoor. Similar instances are very numerous. In some 
cases a Deshmook is also Pateel of one of the villages in his 
district. The rights and emoluments of the Deshmook are 
very extensive, but not uniform throughout the country ; they 
had a per centage on the revenue varying from one to five 
per cent. In the Poona Collectorate the mean charge for 
Deshmooks and Deshpandehs amounted to 3 06 per cent, of 
the gross revenue, but on the nett revenue it amounted as 
nearly as possible to six per cent ; although these persons are 
now non-efficient, their authority being superseded. As a 
single illustrative instance, it may be as well to state, that at the 
village of Ankoolsur, Talook Ahmednuggur, out of a village 
revenue of 4533 rupees, the Deshmook received 265 rupees, 
and the Deshpandeh 150 rupees ; the former sharing 5*84 per 
cent., and the latter 3*31 per cent. Their next advantage 
is in some of them enjoying villages in free gift ; the third, 
in possessing Eenam land in most of the villages in their dis- 
tricts, sometimes to a large amount. At Mohol Talook 
Mohol, the two sharers in the office of Deshmook have each 
450 acres of free (or Eenam) land. The fourth right of the 
Deshmook is a portion of grain from each village, called 
Googree, from all the land under cultivation. In addition to 
the above, from some villages they were entitled to a sheep 
and some butter annually ; from some villages a dress, from 
others a turband, and where sugar-cane was cultivated, they 
had a portion of the raw sugar. They possessed the above 
advantages on the tenure of executing the duties previously 
stated. They were to a district what a Pateel is to a vil- 
lage. 

Deshpandehs. — The Deshpandehs are contemporary in their 
institution with the Deshmooks ; they were the writers, ac- 
countants, and registers of districts ; they were always 
Brahmans. The terms appear to be derived from the Sanscrit 
Desh, country, and Punnah, to do business. They were to 
districts what Koolkurnees were to a village : they had, and 
have nearly the same rights and emoluments as the Desh- 
mooks, but in a diminished ratio of from 25 to 50 per cent. 



288 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837» 

The offices of Deshpandeh and Koolkurnee ai'e sometimes 
found united. Their duties are in abeyance, but, like the 
Deshmooks, they enjoy their rights. 

Pateel. — The next and the most important tenure of all is 
that of Pateel or headman of towns and villages. Pateel is a 
Mahratta term, and may be derived from the Sanscrit Pattruh, 
"deed," "lease," the Pateel anciently having had the disposal 
of all vacant lands in his village by deed or lease. Originally 
the Pateels were Mahrattas, but sale, gift, or other causes 
have now associated in the office various casts, and there are 
sometimes six or seven or more sharers in the office, — Brah- 
mans, Mahrattas, Moosulmans, Shepherds, Lingaeets, &c, 
and these not holding in equal proportions. I have elsewhere* 
given a translation of a very remarkable and curious Mahratta 
document, proving in the most distinct manner the right of 
the Pateel, not only to sell his family or hereditary property, 
and the lands he held in virtue of his office, but also the 
lands of extinct families, and his other emoluments and ad- 
vantages ; but, in doing so, he also alienated part of his dig- 
nity, rights, and authority as Pateel : the honours went with 
the lands. The rights and emoluments of the Pateel are very 
numerous ; free land, fees of grain on the cultivation, called 
googree, presents on investitures, on granting letters of in- 
heritance, on marriages ; annual presents from the shoemaker 
of shoes, from the potmaker of pots, from the shopkeepers of 
cocoa-nuts, &c, market fees, all the sheeps-heads offered in 
the temple of Dawai ! daily service, and supply of wood and 
water by the Mahr and the potmaker ; precedence in all re- 
ligious or other festivals, in communicating with government, 
and with others. The details of the translation before noticed 
show with what jealousy the Pateel maintained all the minutest 
rights and dignities. Of such importance and so profitable 
was the office, or in such estimation was the dignity of Pateel 
anciently, that princes of the Mahratta empire established 
themselves wholly or in part in the office in various towns and 
villages ; Holknr, for instance, at Munchur ; Seendeh (Sin- 
diah) f at Jamgaon ; the Nagpoor Bhosleh at Ahmed- 
nuggur, and Powar of Dhar at Multun and Kuweeteh. There 
are traditional accounts of a share of the Pateel's office 
having been sold for 7000 rupees. 

The right of the Pateel to dispose of the village lands not 
occupied by hereditary proprietors, together with his respon- 

* Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

f This prince lias six out of seven shares in the office; nevertheless the 
poor Mahratta who has the seventh share has precedence of the prince. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 289 

sibility for the government revenue, involves the proof that 
the government assessment was anciently Mozehwar, or by 
the whole village, and not by direct agreement between the 
government agents and individual farmers. The village, in 
fact, was assessed at a certain fixed sum, which was called the 
Tunkha, which means an assignment ; and this Tunkha appears 
in village accounts to this day, although no longer a standard 
of assessment, as the British government settles directly with 
the farmer, and has also abrogated the right of the Pateel and 
the village corporation to dispose of waste lands ; in alienated 
villages, however, these rights remain. Although the trans- 
lation before noticed gives a minute detail of the rights and 
emoluments of the Pateels of Kuweeteh, it is to be under- 
stood they are not uniform either in number or value through- 
out the country. An idea of the value of the Googree, or 
right to a share in the grain-produce of cultivated lands, may 
be formed from the fact, that at Kurjut, Ahmednuggur col- 
lectorate, in 1827, there were 8491 beegahs of land under 
cultivation, and the Pateel was entitled to 128 seers for every 
120 beegahs ; he received therefore, 9057 seers of grain, a 
sufficiency for the annual support of 25 persons. 

The duties of the Pateel were, to be responsible for the 
revenue of the village, to superintend its police, and regulate 
its internal economy. He had power to seize, imprison, and 
fine offenders. 

With regard to joint proprietary in the office, independently 
of shares being held by different casts and families, the Hin- 
doo law of inheritance, which gives equal shares of all property 
to all children, necessarily made many joint owners in a family; 
but as the executive duties are only performed by the head 
of the family, this person is called Mokuddum, "chief" or 
" leader ; " and the term of course is applicable to the head of 
each proprietary family, who is designated in the village papers 
as half Mokuddum, quarter Mokuddum, or seventh Mokuddum, 
according to the share of the Pateelship held by the family. 

Koolkurnee. — The next village tenure is that of Koolkurnee, 
from the Sanscrit Kool "to count," and Kroot "to do," "make;" 
literally an accountant. The office is of very great import- 
ance, for the Koolkurnee is not only the accountant of the go- 
vernment revenue, but he keeps the private accounts for each 
individual in the village, and is the general amanuensis ; few 
of the cultivators, the Pateels frequently inclusive, being able 
to write or cypher for themselves. In no instance have I 
found the office held by any other cast than the Brahmanical. 
The office is sometimes united with that of Deshpandeh, and 

vol. vi. 1837. v 



290 SKVKNTH REPORT — 1837- 

not unfrequcntly to that of Johesee or village astrologer. The 
Koolkurnec, like the Pateel, has Eenamland, sometimes salary, 
fees of grain, and miscellaneous rights of butter, raw sugar, 
&c, rarely having equal rights, either in number or value, 
with the Pateel, but commonly averaging from !25 to 75 per 
cent, below. Where the villages are very small, there is only 
one Koolkurnee for several villages, as in the case of. Turruff 
Muhr Khor, Poona collectorate, where the duties of this in- 
dividual extend to one small town and eleven villages. He is 
here paid by a money rate for every 30 beegahs of land under 
cultivation ; it varies from 1 rupee the 30 beegahs to 3 rupees. 

Unlike the Deshmooks and Pateels, no instance came to my 
knowledge of shares of the office being alienated from the 
family ; the numerous sharers being all connected by ties of 
blood, who each in turn take their annual duties ; and these 
sharers are sometimes so numerous, that at one town the exe- 
cution of the duties only came to the same individual after a 
lapse of 20 years. The executive duties should be confined 
to the same person. 

Mahrs Tenure. — A very important tenure in villages is that 
of the low-cast people, called Mahr by the Mahrattas, and 
Dher by the Moosulmans. They have Eenam lands in all vil- 
lages, divided into Hurkee and Arowlah ; the former is rent 
free, and generally bears a small proportion to the latter, 
which pays a low quit rent. The Mahrs conceive that they 
have the right to mortgage or otherwise dispose of lands held 
for the performance of specific duties to the village and the 
government, and numerous instances of mortgage came to my 
knowledge ; but whether they can wholly alienate their lands 
or not, they cannot absolve themselves and their descendants 
from their duties : these are to cut wood and grass for go- 
vernment officers and travellers, to act as guides, as porters to 
carry baggage from village to village, and to go as messengers ; 
they have to attend strangers and see to their wants being 
supplied, and if the strangers be of consequence, they or the 
Ramooses have to look to the safety of their baggage at night. 
They are the guardians of all village land-marks ; they are the 
Pateel's messengers, (something like parish beadles,) and it is 
their duty to carry the collections to the treasurer of the dis- 
trict ; they have to pass on all news or information received, 
whether written or verbal, whether by sign or by token, to all 
the surrounding villages, and it is perfectly astonishing the 
rapidity with which intelligence is diffused by their means. 
It is no uncommon thing for a distant public event to be whis- 
pered about in towns before any account of it has been received 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 291 

by the government post. Occasionally the answer to my in- 
quiries respecting the duties of the Mahrs was, that they were . 
to do every thing they were ordered, whether by the Pateel, 
the village corporation, or by the government. There are 
many families of them in every village : in some villages they 
have to pay a tax to government called Rabta Mahr, and this 
is in lieu of personal service in cutting wood and grass for the 
officers of government, but it does not absolve them from their 
other duties. So strictly is it their province to cut wood and 
grass, that their signature to all village or public documents is 
a sickle or hatchet to cut grass and wood, and a rope to tie 
them up. In addition to their Eenam lands, the Mahrs, in virtue 
of their office as one of the Bara Bullooteh or twelve village 
officers, craftsmen, and professions, receive fees in kind from 
all the cultivators ; the fee in kind is a per centage upon the 
produce, but it is not uniform in amount throughout the Duk- 
hun. These twelve village officers are divided into three 
classes, according to the supposed importance of their services 
to the village ; the first class in some villages received 50, the 
second 20, and the third 10 or 15 bundles or sheaves of Joaree, 
(Andropogon sorghum,) stalk and grain included upon every 
1000 cut down ; and the same proportion of other grains. 
Many farmers in various parts of the country assured me that 
they put by 25 per cent, of their produce for the village crafts- 
men and professions ; and as the Mahrs from their usefulness 
share in all those classes, their returns must be considerable ; 
the individual benefit depending of course upon the magnitude 
of the body constituting this class of persons in the village. 
As low casts do not cultivate their Eenam lands, they derive 
less advantage from them than other Eenamdars, but make 
the best terms they can with the Koonbees to cultivate their 
lands for them. The Mahr does not pay any tax to govern- 
ment upon his Bullooteh. In the whole of the duties of the 
Mahrs, whether for government, the village, or individuals, 
they are not bound to go beyond the village next to their 
own ; here they hand over their charge and return.* 

Bara Bullooteh Tenure. — The twelve craftsmen or pro- 
fessions which were originally in every village were, the Sootar 
(Carpenter), Chambar (Shoemaker), Lohar (Ironsmith), and 
Mahr ; these constituted the Torlee Khas or first class. In 
the Mudlee Khas, or second class, were the Pureet (Washer- 
man), Koombar (Pot-maker), Nahwee (Barber), and Maang 

* In speaking of the duties of the Mahrs I ought to have used the past 
tense instead of the present in some cases, government having partly absolved 
them from duties, the performance of which is their tenure for holding their 
lands and fees. 

u2 



292 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

(Skinner and Rope-maker). And in the third or Dhaktee 
Khas, the Kohlee (Waterman), Johesee (Astrologer), Goormo 
(cleaner of, and attendant at the temple), and the Sonar 
(Silversmith) ; and, since the Moosulman rule, the Moolana or 
Moosulman priest and schoolmaster has heen added. These 
persons, in their several lines, and according to their several 
abilities, were to do for the cultivators individually and the 
village collectively whatever might be required from them ; 
and they were paid by an annual per-centage in kind upon the 
produce of the farmer ; and this was called their Bullooteh, 
whence the term Bara Bullooteh : the fee being called Bul- 
looteh, and the receiver of it Bullootehdar. Very rarely could 
I get either farmer or Bullootehdar to state specifically what 
the one gave, and the other was entitled to receive ; it de- 
pended very much upon the crops, and also upon the extent 
of services performed for each individual cultivator. These 
craftsmen have frequently small portions of Eenam lands, and 
part of their Bullooteh goes to government as a tax. 

Shet Sundee Tenure. — Lands were given to a kind of militia 
in the districts in place of pay, for the performance of certain 
duties, principally in the protection of their villages : this te- 
nure is called Shet Sundee from Shet " a field," and Sunnud 
"a grant;" constituting the holders, in fact, a landed militia. 
Although this tenure may have been general at one period, 
I only observed lands set apart as Shet Sundee in five Per- 
gunnahs of the Poona collectorate, and I remarked it also at 
Kurmulla, Ahmednuggur collectorate. 

Tenure of Chow gullet. — There are several other tenures, of 
which a brief notice only may be given. The Chowgulla is 
the Pateel's assistant; he is found in most villages ; sometimes 
he has a trifling grant of land, but most commonly gi'ain-fees 
from the landholders. This personage is called Buglah where 
the Kanree language is spoken. 

In some Turruffs a Havildar is met with ; the term is of 
Arabic origin, from Hawala " charge," " custody," and Dar 
" agent," "holder." This officer was introduced by the Moosul- 
mans as a supervisor in the collection of the revenue of a cer- 
tain number of villages. He replaced the Hindoo Naik, who 
is still met with in some of the hill districts. The Havildar 
was paid by half a seer of grain from each beegah under culti- 
vation ; and for the Hindoo officer the same is levied, under the 
name of Naikwaree. At Kanoor, Ahmednuggur collectorate, 
the Naikwaree is 12 seers of grain on every 30 beegahs under 
cultivation. 

Tulwar. — In the southern villages bordering on the Kanree 
tracts, I met with the village or TurrufF officer called Tulwar ; 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DTJKHUN. 293 

but the term is unknown to the genuine Mahrattas. His du- 
ties assimilate him to the Havildar and Naik of more northern 
tracts. 

Tenure of Ramooses. — Between the parallels of latitude 17° 
and 19° north, and longitude 73° 40' and 75° E., there are few 
villages in Dukhun without their Ramooses. These vagabonds 
are thieves by birth and cast, which is abject ; most of the 
villages have them in employ to guard the village from robbery. 
In some villages they have Eenam lands, but they are generally 
paid in fees of grain upon the cultivation. There is a perfect 
community of interest amongst the fraternity, however di- 
spersed ; and as they are dissipated, idle, and reckless, they not 
unfrequently assemble in bands, take to the hills, and commit 
depredations in the country, and it is necessary to chase them 
back to their villages by means of the regular troops. They 
are expert sportsmen and good shots. 

Bheels. — Where the Ramooses are wanting, their places are 
mostly supplied by the Bheels, or by the Kohlees ; the former 
are low casts, the latter are Shoodrahs. Their duty is to 
afford protection to the villages, and they have either Eenam 
lands or fees in grain. In many parts of the country, parti- 
cularly in Khandesh, the inhabitants of entire villages, and 
even districts, are Bheels, or Kohlees (Coolies). 

Sheteh. — Sheteh is the person by common consent admitted 
to be the head and spokesman of the mercantile and trading 
classes, in places in the districts where they are in sufficient 
numbers to require one ; and as combination is universal, he 
is of some importance in the districts as their organ in regu- 
lating prices. The Sheteh is assisted by the MaJiajun, which 
properly means a banker ; but, as the colleague of the Sheteh, 
he is an inferior personage in the districts : both these people, 
in some towns and villages, have trifling Eenam lands and 
claims for money and grain ; but on what tenure of service to 
the community is not very apparent. 

Sur Pateel, and Sur Deshmook, and Sur Desaee. — I should 
scarcely have introduced any mention of the Sur Pateel, and Sur 
Deshmook, and Sur Desaee, as it has not come to my notice 
that they hold lands in tenure, but their names frequently 
occur in village accounts as Hukdars,* or entitled to certain 
rights in money, grain-fees, &c. One of the Sur Pateelships 
is vested in the great family of Eshwunt Rao Dabareh, of 
Tullegaon ; and one of the Sur Desaeeships in the ancient fa- 
mily called Chaskur. Captain Grant Duff, in his History of 
the Mahrattas, makes mention of several Sur Deshmooks, and 

* Huh " a right," and dar " a holder." 



294 SEVENTH REPORT 1837* 

says, that Arungzebe allowed the old Sur Deshmooks 2 per 
cent, on the revenue. But the Sur Deshmookee of modern 
times which appears in all village accounts, was 10 per cent, 
of the Moghul revenue, exacted by Sewajee from the Moosul- 
mans ; it was levied over and above the land tax. The suf- 
ferers, therefore, by Mahratta violence were the Mahratta 
cultivators ; and on the whole of the possessions of the Moo- 
sulmans coming into the hands of a Mahratta government, the 
Sur Deshmookee should have been abandoned, but it remains 
to this day ; for instance, at Jehoor, near Ahmednuggur, the 
Tunkha, or government revenue or assignment, from the town 
was 10,817 rupees, 2 qr., 3 reas ; the Sur Deshmookee 1350 ru- 
pees, 3 qr., 3 reas ; but the Kumal, or total sum raised from the 
cultivators, including village expenses and Hukdars, was 
19,363 rupees, 3 qr., 1 reas : so that the Moosulmans origin- 
ally took little more than half of the revenue now raised from 
the town, that is to say, the Moosulmans took 10,817 rupees ; 
then came Sewajee, the Mahratta, and wrenched from 
them 10 per cent, of their revenue, which should have been 
1081 rupees. The Moosulmans, instead of paying it out of 
10,817 rupees, clapped the demand of Sewajee upon the town 
as an additional burthen ; and instead of honestly fixing it at 
1081 rupees (10 per cent, of 10,817), they adroitly took oc- 
casion to exact a little more from their Mahratta subjects. 

Many individuals have shares in the village revenues under 
the names of Mokassa, Sahotra, Babtee, and Nargowra. The 
most intelligible way to describe these, is to say that persons 
have money assignments, amounting to a definite per centage 
on the revenue, under these names. In their origin, Mokassa 
is 66 per cent., Sahotra 6 per cent., Babtee 25 per cent., and 
Nargowra 3 per cent, of the Chont, or fourth of the whole Mo- 
ghul revenue, which was extorted from the Moosulmans by 
the Mahrattas. Sewajee and his chiefs shared it amongst 
themselves ; the chiefs had the Mokassa for military services ; 
the Sahotra was given to the Punt Suchew, one of Sewa- 
jee's ministers ; the prince's own share was the Babtee ; and 
the Nargowra, which is synonymous with Sur Pateel, or chief 
of all the Pateels, was at the disposal of the prince. As these 
grants were hereditary, the equal division of property and 
rights amongst children has occasioned the reduction of some 
of the shares to the most trifling amount where families have 
multiplied. 

Such are the tenures that came under my notice ; and it is 
necessary to state that, with the single exception of Surwa 
Eenam or " entire gift," there was an obligation of specific 
service on the individual or parties enjoying advantages under 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 



295 



the several tenures ; the non-performance of these duties in- 
volved the forfeiture of their rights ; but independently of such 
forfeiture, all grants whatever (unless specified to the contrary) 
were resurnable by the sovereign or other grantee. Grants 
for religious purposes were rarely recalled j but for other ob- 
jects they were frequently abrogated, particularly Jagheer, 
Surinjam, and Hukdar grants. To such an extent did this 
exist under the Peshwa's government, that the Hon. M. El- 
phinstone, in his report as commissioner, enumerates as an 
item of revenue, Wiittun Zubtee, or sequestered lands of Zu- 
mundars, which yielded annually 50,000 rupees. 

Revenue. 

A few figures perspicuously arranged, are more efficacious in 
affording just impressions of the resources of a country, their 
ramifications, pressure, and availability, than the most laboured 
verhal details. In 1827 — 28 the assessments in the four col- 
lectorates of Dukhun amounted to 8,435,244 rupees, 3 qr. 79 reas, 
being a diminution of 539,399 rupees, 2 qr. 80 reas in the re- 
venue of Fuslee 1231, a.d. 1822, as stated in Mr. Chaplin's 
report ; from this sum also were to be deducted the remissions 
of 415,000 rupees, 1 qr. 25 reas in the Ahmednuggur, and 
416,320 rupees, 3 qr. in the Poona collectorate in 1827 — 8, 
amounting to a total diminution of 1,360,725 rupees, 3 qr. 
05 reas, or 15'16 decl. per cent, of the revenue of 1822. 

The revenue of 1827 — 28 in its constituents is shown in the 
following table : — 



Denomination 
of Revenue. 




Fuslee 1237— 


■ Revenue, A.D. 1827—28. 


Poona 
Collectorate. 


Nuggur 
Collectorate. 


Dharwar 
Collectorate. 


Khandesh 
Collectorate. 


Land revenue 


rupees. qr. 
1,516,323 ... 


reas. 
37 


rupees. qr. 

1,815,837 ... 


reas. 


rupees. qr. reas. 
1,945,323 2 08 


rupees. qr. reas. 
1,664,904 3 32 




231,262 1 ... 


59,007 3 


78 


334,668 ... 85 


131,710 3 ... 




241,114 1 


25 


159,150 


141,524 2 46 


155,560 3 ... 


Miscellaneous 


3,301 







35,556 2 68 


Total 


1,992,000 2 


691 


2,033,994 3 


78 


2,421,516 1 39 


1,987;733 










Grand Total 8,435,244 rupees, 3 qr. 79 reas. 





* Sahyer is the revenue raised from shops, markets, liquors, &c. Sahyer is 
a " market " in Sanscrit. 



296 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



From the preceding table it will be seen that in the several 
collectorates, although of very disproportionate superficial 
extent and population, in Ahmednuggur, Poona, and Khan- 
desh there is a close approximation in the total amount of their 
revenues, although with some difference in the value of their 
great branches. 

The following table exhibits the proportion per cent, of the 
great branches of the above revenue. 



Denomination 
of Revenue. 


Proportion per cent, of the great branches of revenue. 


Poona 

Collectorate. 


Nuggur 
Collectorate. 


Dharwar 

Collectorate. 


Khandesh 
Collectorate. 


Land revenue 


per cent. 
76-12 


per cent. 
89-275 


per cent. 
80-335 


per cent. 
83-76 




11-62 


2-900 


13-820 


6-63 






12-10 


7-825 


5-845 


7-82 


Miscellaneous 


0-16 






1-79 




100. 


100. 


100. 


100. 



There is considerable uniformity in the respective propor- 
tions of the land revenue in the different collectorates. Poona 
has the smallest, but it is compensated for in the magnitude of 
the Sahyer and customs. In Ahmednuggur the proportion 
of the land revenue exceeds that of Poona by 13 per cent, but 
this is counterbalanced by the singular smallness of the Sa- 
hyer branch. In the land revenue of Dharwar and Khandesh 
there is a sufficient approximation to a mean per centage for 
the four collectorates, which averages 82*30 decls. per cent. 
The whole revenue of England being £52,000,000, has only a 
land revenue of £2,000,000, or 3'846 decls. per cent. The 
whole revenue of France being £40,000,000, the land revenue 
is 12,000,000 or 30 per cent. 

The following table shows (in 1827 — 28) the amount of the 
land revenue in each collectorate, the number of cultivators, 
the average rent of farms, the number of British populated 
villages, and the average revenue of a village : the last column 
is intended to show the pressure (including land Sahyer and 
customs) of the assessments and taxes, viewed as a capitation 
tax. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 



297 



Names of 
CoUectorates. 


Number of 
British po- 
pulated vil- 
lages. 


Average re- 
venue per 
village. 


Land Revenue. 


Number 
of Culti- 
vators. 


Average 
rent of 
farms. 


Land revenue, Sahyer, 
Customs, &c., viewed 
as a capitation tax. 




1469§ 


rup. qr. rs. 
1253 1 98 


rup. qr. rs. 
1,516,323 ... 37 


52,668 


rup. qr. rs. 
28 3 16 


rup. qr. rs. 
4 1 78 


£. s. d. 

8 10| 


Nuggur ... 


1878J 


1082 2 99 


1,815,837 


41,948 


43 1 15 


3 3 77 


7 10J 


Kbandesh 


2367J 


839 3 7 


1,664,905 


44,608 


37 1 33 


4 1 92 


8 11| 


Dhanvar . . . 


2104 


924 2 33 


1,945,323 2 80 


60,701 


32 ... 19 


3 1 60 


6 9J 


Total 


7819J 


887 3 32 


6,942,388 1 77 


199,925 


34 2 90 


4 ... 02 


8 



The population, inclusive of Sholapoor and Cheekoree and 
Munowlee, of the Company's possessions in Dukhun, but ex- 
clusive of alienated villages, is 2,105,886 souls, and the gross 
revenue 84,435,245 rupees ; equal, therefore, to 4 rupees, qr. 
02 reas per head. 

In forming the above table, the collectors were good enough 
to supply the number of villages and cultivators in 1827 — 28, 
and the amount of the land revenue was obtained from the 
Accountant-General's office. In striking the average revenue 
per village, I have omitted, in the division of the Dharwar col- 
lectorate, 175 villages, (subsequently reduced to 155,) which 
I found by the population returns lately completed were un- 
inhabited, but parts of whose lands were under cultivation by 
neighbouring villagers, and therefore included by the collector 
in his list. In Khandesh 330 villages have been struck out 
under similar circumstances. In Poona and Ahmednuggur, 
villages of this class are very limited in number, and I have, 
in consequence, not made any deduction on their account. 

To give a fair average of the village revenues in the Poona 
collectorate, 151,241 rupees, including a share of the customs, 
have been deducted from the whole revenue for the city of 
Poona previously to striking the average. The manner in 
which the Poona capitation tax is struck is as follows : — 
1 108 towns and villages sent in population returns, containing 
331,615 inhabitants, averaging 226 souls and a fraction to 
a village. The population of the city of Poona (81,315 inhabit- 
ants) being deducted before striking the average ; of these vil- 
lages 21 2| are alienated, leaving 895i British . villages with a 
population of 283,567, including Poona. These in 1827 — 28, 
yielded a gross revenue of 1,261,711, averaging 4 rupees, 1 qr. 
78 reas to each person. 

The capitation rate in the Ahmednuggur collectorate is ob- 
tained as follows : In 1827 — 28, 1877£ towns and villages 



298 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837« 

were on the collector's list \ they contained 494,669 souls, esti- 
mated from the average number of inhabitants to a village, 
namely, 263*47, struck from the census of 1822, to which the 
present population of the city of Nuggur is to be added, 
namely, 21,208. The revenue from the collectorate was 
2,033,994 rupees, 3 qr. 78 reas ; equal, therefore, to 3 rupees, 
3 qr. 77 reas per head. 

In Dharwar the averages have the following elements : — in 
1827 — 28, 2279 British towns and villages produced a revenue 
of 2,421,516 rupees, 1 qr. 39 reas. This included the villages, 
revenue, and population of the Talooks of Cheekoree and Mu- 
nowlee, received from the Kolapoor state; population returns 
were not received from these Talooks ; their revenue from 225 
villages, namely, 197,406 rupees, 3 qr. 29 reas, is therefore 
deducted from the total revenue of the collectorate, leaving 
2,224,199 rupees, 2 qr. 10 reas, and 2054 villages. From the 
latter are to be deducted 175 depopulated villages, but having 
a small part of their land cultivated by neighbouring villagers, 
leaving 1879* British villages, with a population, agreeably to 
the census, of 653,892 souls, giving 3 rupees, 1 qr. 60 reas 
per head. 

There is some difficulty in ascertaining how the revenue of 
Khandesh would fall as a capitation tax, in consequence of the 
increased number of villages (335 £) rendered productive since 
1825 — 26, (the date of the population returns,) their population 
not being known. In 1825 — 26 the inhabited villages amounted 
to 2032, and 330 were Pyegusta, i. e. deserted, but having 
part of their land cultivated by neighbouring villagers. Sup- 
posing the new villages to be peopled in the same ratio as the 
old ones, the number of inhabitants in the government villages 
in 1827-28 would have been 443,548, which is 24,031 souls more 
than I have put into the population returns ; and as the revenue 
was 1,987,733 rupees, the people averaged an individual pay- 
ment of 4 rupees, 1 qr. 92 reas : nevertheless, I have reason to 
doubt the actual increase in population to the extent I have 
given Khandesh credit for ; and should it have remained sta- 
tionary, the revenue as a poll-tax would amount to 5 rupees, 
1 qr. 40 reas per head. 

With respect to the branch of revenue called Sahyer, it will 
be seen that the different collectorates raise it in very unequal 
proportions. The unusual lowness of it in the Ahmednuggur 
collectorate is of difficult explanation. The following table 
shows the number of persons of each class paying this tax, the 
amount paid, and the average per head. 

* Subsequently increased to 1899, with a population of 600,852. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 



299 



Collectorates. 


Number of taxable 
persons. 


Amount of taxes. 


Average per 
bead. 


Sahyer. 


Bullooteh. 




14,551 


8481 


nip. gr. rs. 
231,262 1 00 


rup. gr. rs. 
10 ... 16 




Ahmednuggur 


9,287 


4980 


59,007 3 78 


4 ... 54 




29,046 


2811 


334,668 ... 45 


10 2 02 






9,147 


2348 


131,711 I 11 1 83 



It is consequently found, that Ahmednuggur, with a greater 
number of taxable persons in the Sahyer branch than in Khan- 
desh, averages a payment per head of little more than one- 
third of what the shopkeepers, trades, and Bullooteh pay in 
Khandesh ; and the tolerable uniformity in the individual 
averages of the collectorates of Poona, Dharwar, and Khan- 
desh, proves that their Sahyer taxes are raised equitably. I 
have to notice, that in village papers there is a want of uni- 
formity in the classification of the extra cesses, sometimes 
articles being placed under the heads of Sahyer which bear upon 
the land, and others again being classed with the land which are 
money commutations for labour. 

From the definite character of the elements in the preceding 
table, great confidence may be placed in the correctness of de- 
ductions from it. The numbers of taxable persons in 1827 — 28 
were supplied to me by the collectors, and the amount paid is 
extracted from their Jummabundy settlements for that year. 

Customs. — The customs vary considerably in the different 
collectorates; those of Poona, being above 12 per cent, of its 
whole revenue, may be looked upon as high, but their mag- 
nitude manifests a favourable commercial industry. Contrary 
to expectation, Dharwar, which has indications of internal 
comparative prosperity, has the lowest revenue from customs, 
with a greater population, a greater revenue, and falling lighter 
upon the people than in any of the other collectorates, and with 
more than ten times the number of manufacturers * to be found 
in Poona and Khandesh, nevertheless shows a commercial 
return 52 per cent, less than that of Poona, and even 25^ per 
cent, below the exhausted province of Khandesh. It seems 
anomalous that the proportional per-centage of the customs on 
the whole revenue in Ahmednuggur and Khandesh should be 



* Thirteen thousand and forty-five weavers. 



300 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



identical, the population of the former being 23*75 per cent, 
greater than that of the latter, while a parity seems to exist in 
the wants and export resources of the people of both. 

Expenses. — I have put into juxtaposition some of the items 
of expense in the collectorates, and their rate per cent, on the 
gross revenue ; but the want of a systematic classification of 
charges under common heads throughout the collectorates, 
renders a rigid comparison, item for item, unattainable. The 
information is extracted from the Jummabundy returns of the 
collectors for 1827 — 28. A government form for this paper 
for common adoption would render the multitudinous details 
involved in it more available for comparison by inspection than 
in the present forms. The total expenses of two of the collect- 
orates only is given in the following tables. 

Few comments are necessary, as the charges and the rate 
per cent, they bear upon the gross revenue of each collectorate 
are seen at a glance. 



TABULAR VIEW OF THE EXPENSES. 



Denomination of 
expenses. 


Expenses 182/ — 28. 


Poona 
Collectorate. 


Nuggur 
Collectorate. 


Dharwar 
Collectorate. 


Khandesh 
Collectorate. 


Village and land ex- 


rup. qr. 

136,659 ... 


rs. 
12 


rup. qr. rs. 
149,761 2 26 


rup. qr. rs. 


rup. qr. rs. 

388,016 




Native establishment 






246,174 3 80 


157,202 2 ... 




55,997 3 


43 






45,358 






61,005 3 


00 


115,876 1 25 








Contingent charges, 
including presents 




101,055 3 22 


190,768 3 39 


339,410 3 ... 


Shet Sundee or native 


34,435 2 


43 











Pensions, Eenams ... 




466,493 3 89 


33,522 2 94 


45,619 2 24 


Collector's salary . . . 




59,653 1 33 


113,745 ... 42 


93,277 1 75 


European Judicial . . . 




53,546 2 58 




16,909 1 41 






229,366 2 73 




90,306 


Total 


288,098 ... 


98 


875,754 1 26 


584,211 2 55 


1,176,099 2 40 






416,320 3 ... 


415,005 1 25 


None. 


None. 




To H. H. Seendeh 








90,796 3 33 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 



301 






TABULAR VIEW OF THE PROPORTION PER CENT. OF 
EXPENSES. 



Denominations of expenses. 


Proportion per cent, of the expenses on the whole 
revenue in the several Collectorates. 


Poona 
Collectorate. 


Nuggur 
Collectorate. 


Dharwar 

Collectorate. 


Khandesh 
Collectorate. 


Village, land and Sahyer expenses 


per cent. 
6-86 


per cent. 
7-36 


per cent. 


per cent. 
19-52 


Native establishment for collections 






1017 


7-92 




2-81 






2-28 






306 


5-70 












4-96 


7-87 


17-08 




1-73 












... 


8-18 


1-39 


2-29 








2-93 


4-69 


4-67 








2-63 




0-85 








11-27 




4-52 




Total 


14-46 


4303 


24-12 


59-13 






20-89 


20-40 


None. 


None. 




Grand Total 


35-35 


63-43 


24-12 


59-13 





For the proper understanding, however, of some omissions 
in the above abstracts, short notices are called for. 

Under the items of " village, land and Sahyer expenses," 
" Shet Sundee," "Mokassa," and " Hukdars," there are blanks 
in the Dharwar collectorate, the whole land expenses amount- 
ing to 24" 12 per cent. ; it is to be presumed the charges under 
these heads have merged in the " Native establishment for 
collections." Under Khandesh there is a blank for the Huk- 
dars ; the expense of these persons is no doubt included in 
"village, land, and Sahyer expenses." Under Nuggur there 
are blanks under " Mokassa" and " Shet Sundee;" they must be 
included in the "Land and village expenses." Of the omissions 
in the Poona abstract it is unnecessary to speak, as they are 
intentional. 

The charges, revenue, magisterial, and judicial, upon the re- 
venue of Ahmednuggur in 1827 — 28, amounted to 43*03 per 



302 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

cent., and remissions were granted in that year to the amount 
of 20*40 per cent. ; the total deduction from the revenue was 
63*43 per cent. In Khandesh, without any remissions, the 
charges were nearly six-tenths of the whole revenue. In 
Poona I have only shown the charges which are strictly and 
permanently fixed upon the land in all the collectorates, which 
are not mutable, and therefore scarcely susceptible in justice 
of modification ; these amount to 14*46 per cent : they com- 
prise village expenses, militia, Mokassa, and Hukdars. In 
Dharwar, the collector's establishment has been added to the 
above, and it brings the charges strictly bearing on the land to 
24*12 per cent, on the revenue. 

A review of the above tables and abstracts suggests the fol- 
lowing observations. The collectorate of Dharwar, having the 
smallest area a (with the exception of Poona) of the collect- 
orates of Dukhun, has the greatest population, and produces 
the greatest revenue, which bears lightest by average upon the 
inhabitants individually. 1. Judging from the lowness of the 
customs, it has the weakest indications of commercial industry ; 
nevertheless, the manufacturers, particularly the weavers, ex- 
ceed those of the other collectorates in the ratio of 100 to 11, 
or 89 per cent. The shopkeepers and tradespeople are very 
numerous, and their individual taxes rise to the average of 
those of Poona and Khandesh. Finally, the means of the 
people (remissions not being called for) must be more efficient 
than in the other collectorates, and a proportional ratio of 
imports and exports might have been looked for. 

Khandesh has the largest superficial extent, d a population e 
29 per cent, less than that of Poona, or granting an increase 
to its population 15*32 per cent, less, with a revenue never- 
theless equal to that of Poona, bearing in consequence with 
unusual pressure upon the people, its average being 5 rupees, 
1 qr. 40 reas to each soul ; involving the fact that the assess- 
ments in this collectorate are greater than in any of the others. 
Admitting, however, the estimated increase to the population 
previously noticed, (which certainly exceeds the truth,) the 
average f individual payment will still exceed that in the other 
collectorates. It is possible this apparent pressure may be 

* 9122 square miles, including the cultivated area of the Talooks Cheekoree 
and Manowlee. 

b 838,767, including the estimated population of the Talooks of Cheekoree 
and Manowlee, 3 rupees, 1 qr. G reas per head. 

c 10 rupees, 2 qr. 2 reas. d 12,527 square miles. 

' 371,404, but supposed this year to be 443,548 in government villages. 

f 4 rupees, 1 qr., 92 reas. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DT7KHUN. 303 

inferred to the extent of its garden cultivation, which is much 
greater than that of Dharwar, and, as far as I can judge from 
observation, that of Poona and Ahmednuggur also. In Khan- 
desh in 1826., there were 82,697 beegahs a of garden-land, 
being 9*36 per cent, of the whole cultivated land, the garden- 
land in Dharwar not amounting to one-half per cent. In the 
Nuggur and Poona collectorates, in the towns of Kurmalleh, 
Kurjut, Angur, and Rawgaon, the proportion of garden to 
field-land in cultivation was 5 '45 per cent. only. But, under 
all circumstances, the villages of Khandesh average b the least 
revenue in Dukhun ; it stands third in the number of its cul- 
tivators, but second in the amount of the rent of its farms. d 
The magnitude of this rent, it is inferred, originates in the 
comparative high rate of assessment per beegah, and not in the 
greater size of the farms. I have not the number of beegah s 
of land in cultivation in 1827-28 in Khandesh, but justify my 
inference from the following data : — In 1826 there were 37,311 
cultivators, and 883,548 beegahs under cultivation, averaging 
23*68 beegahs to each farm.* 3 Last year, there were 44,608 
cultivators, and supposing them to hold individually the ave- 
rage number of beegahs of 1826, the result will be as 
cult. beegahs. cult. beegahs. 

37,311 : 88,348 : : 44,608 : 1,056,345; 

and as the land revenue of 1827-28 was 1,664,904 rupees, 
the rate per beegah is therefore 1 rupee, 2 qr. 30 reas, f which 
exceeds s that of the other collectorates from 50 to 100 per cent. 

In the Sahyer branch of revenue' the increased pressure is still 
visible upon the people ; it exceeds the mean pressure of Dhar- 
war and Poona 10*35 decl. per cent., and that of Ahmednuggur 
in the extraordinary ratio of 63*91 per cent. 

The customs' per centage on the whole revenue is identical 
with that of Ahmednuggur, although, in the present state of 
Khandesh, it could not have been looked for. 

Ahmednuggur stands second in superficial extent.* 1 The 
land revenue is only inferior in amount to that of Dharwar, 
although it has the least number of cultivators i in all the col- 
lectorates. The average rent of farms therefore is the greatest ; 

a . 62,023 acres. h 839 rupees, 3 qr., 7 reas. c 44,G08. 

d 37 rupees, 1 qr., 33 reas. 

e Beegahs 883,448, _ 9 „. rs f Rupees 1,664,904 ru.qr.rs. 

Cultivators-37^lT. ~ Beegahs 1,056,345 = * 2 30 P er ^egah. 

8 Poona and Nuggur 3 qr. 58 reas per beegah, including garden-land. The 
whole of Dharwar 2 qr. 94 reas per beegah, including garden-land. 
h 9910 square miles. > 41,948 cultivators. 



304 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

and from averages struck in different villages in various parts 
of the Desh in this collectorate, I would refer it to the 
increased size of the farms rather than to enhanced assess- 
ments. 

In a table, which will be met with in treating of the condi- 
tion of the people, farms are made to average about 45 beegahs 
each ; and the assessments, including extras, do not amount 
to a rupee per beegah. a In the hilly tracts the farms are neces- 
sarily much reduced in size, and an average for the whole col- 
lectorate would bring them down probably to 35 beegahs each ; 
41,948 cultivators therefore would occupy 1,468,180 beegahs 
of land, which, divided into the land revenue, (1,815,837 ru- 
pees,) 15 give 1 rupee, 95 reas per beegah. I am rather disposed 
to rely upon the general average, than upon the average struck 
from the examination of the papers of a few towns in the most 
favourable parts of the country. 

The very low amount of the Sahyer, which is only 2*90 per 
cent, of the whole revenue, has been already adverted to. 
The taxable persons, nevertheless, under this head, exceed 
those of Khandesh. 

The customs bear a fair proportion to the whole revenue. 

The average revenue d per village may be subject to a slight 
modification, as in the number of British villages, amounting to 
1878^, furnished to me by the acting collector, which paid 
revenue last year, deserted villages are not distinguished, part 
of whose lands are under cultivation ; and the want of popula- 
tion returns disables me from ascertaining them. 

The revenue, viewed as a poll tax, e bears easier than in any 
other collectorate, excepting Dharwar. The means to insure 
an approximate accuracy in this calculation have been already 
explained. 

Poona has the smallest land revenue, and the smallest super- 
ficial extent/ Previously to the addition of the four Talooks 
of Sholapoor, Mohol, Moodeebeehall, and Indee, agreeably 
to information furnished by the Survey Department, it com- 
prised an area of 4990 square miles only. Neither the extent 
nor population of these Talooks being known, it was necessary 
to estimate them ; the process was conducted by analogy, 
which has been explained elsewhere ; 2888 square miles 

. _ „, b Rupees 1,815,837 n>. qr. rs. 

» 2s. 8d. per acre. ^ ' ' ■ = 1 95 per beegah. 

Beegahs 1,468,180 l a 

e 14,267. d 1082 rupees, 2 qr. 99 reas. 

e Revenue as a poll tax, 3 rupees, 3 qr. 77 reas. 

Area 7878 square miles. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 305 

resulted from the calculations, giving the Poona collectorate an 
area of 7878 square miles. Poona has the greatest number of 
cultivators a excepting Dharwar ; and this is to be attributed, not 
to the extended cultivation, but to the Mawul, or hilly tracts, 
occupying a great deal of the collectorate, where the farmers are 
multiplied and the individual agricultural operations of very li- 
mited extent. In the whole Turruff of Mhurkhoreh the farms 
average only 13 beegahs each ; b but in the eastern and south- 
eastern parts of the collectorate they have the same average as is 
given to Ahmednuggur. From the above facts the farms might 
be expected to average a very low rent, as is found to be the case. 
The following estimate justifies the inference that the land 
assessments are comparatively not very onerous. 

In the Desh, or Table Land, the farms average . . 45 beegahs. 
In the Mawuls, or hilly tracts 13 do. 

2)58 

Mean average of farms .... 29 beegahs. 

In 1827-28 there were 52,668 cultivators, which multiplied 
by 29, the average number of beegahs to each farmer, will give 
1,527,372 beegahs of land under cultivation; and as the land 
revenue of 1827-28 amounted to 1,516,323 rupees, 37reas; 
the assessments would only be at the rate of 3 qr. 97 reas per 
beegah, c including garden land and extras. There are still 
however some marked features which are not satisfactory : the 
villages average a greater revenue (excluding the city of Poona) 
than in the other collectorates, although the average village po- 
pulation is less for that part of the Poona collectorate, whence 
population returns have been received. 

The 574 villages of the sub-collectorate of Sholapoor average 
1272 rupees, 1 qr. 12 reas each, d including customs. The magni- 
tude of the average of the remaining villages may be attributed to 
the great amount of the customs ; e but deducting a suitable pro- 
portion of the customs f for the inhabitants of the city of Poona,s 
and the whole of the revenue of the city, Sahyer/* land, 1 and 
Abkauree, k and mint 1 ; villages (always excluding the four 
talooks of Sholapoor) still average 1241 rupees, 1 qr. 76 reas 

= Rupees 1,516,323 n „ t , 

Beegahs 1^372 = 3 V- ^ reas per beegah. 
d Revenue of sub-collectorate of Sholapoor 730,289 rupees, 1 qr. 93 reas. 
e 215,361 rupees, 2 qr. 37| reas. f 61,756 rupees, 1 qr. 63 reas. 

8 81,515 inhabitants. •> 56,202 rupees, 3 qr. 50 reas. 

1 27,981 rupees, 81 § reas. k 12,000 rupees. ' 3301 rupees. 

VOL. VI. 1837. x 



» 52,668. ■> 94 acres. 



306 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837- 

each, which is higher than in any other collectorate ; and as the 
villages in this part of the collectorate average a fraction more 
than 226 inhabitants, 8 the taxes, assessments, and customs, 1 ' 
after deducting the share for Poona, 151,241 rupees, fall upon 
the people with the unexampled pressure of nearly 5g- rupees 
per head, c while the people in the city d average only I rupee, 
3 qr. 44 reas per head, including a proportional share of the 
customs, and the city, Sahyer, and land-tax, &c. 

For the whole collectorate of Poona, including the four talooks 
of Sholapoor, hy a process previously explained, the assessments 
average 4 rupees, 1 qr. 78 reas per head, which closely approxi- 
mates to that of Khandesh. 

Poona has the greatest number of taxable persons e after 
Dharwar in the Sahyer branch of the revenue, and ranks 
second in the total amount, of the sum raised, which falls with 
a less pressure individually than in Dharwar and Khandesh, but 
greater than in Ahmednuggur. The manufacturers, as contri- 
butors to the Sahyer, are very limited in number. 

The proportion that the customs bear to the whole revenue 
is a very striking feature : they are derived principally from 
imports, a good part of which passes on to the eastward ; much 
is consumed in the city of Poona, and the rest is dispersed into 
the districts. I have observed that imports from the coast 
have gradually cheapened in their retail price within the last 
three or four years, owing, no doubt, to the combined causes of 
increased importation and scarcity of money in Dukhun. 

The collectorate of Dharwar, whether viewed with respect 
to the quantity of land under cultivation ; the size of its farms ; f 
the amounts of its revenue; the lightness with which it falls 
upon the people, considered as a poll-tax ;? the magnitude of its 
Sahyer ; the comparative denseness of its population ; its nu- 
merous towns b and tolerably well-peopled villages ; the facility 
offered for instruction in the number of its schools, and the mani- 
festations of manufacturing industry in its numerous weavers, 1 
is unquestionably the finest British province in Dukhun. 

Dharwar Land Revenue. — The land revenue, in its pro- 
portion to the whole revenue, stands third in the Dukhun col- 
lectorates, being 80*336 per cent. ; but this apparently inferior 
station is to be attributed, not to the diminished quantity of 

a 894£ villages with inhabitants, 202,252. b 1,110,470 rupees. 

c 5 rupees, 1 qr. 9G reas. 

d . Inhabitants of Poona 81,315. Taxes and proportionate share of customs 
S-c. 151,211 rupees. 
e 23,042. f 32-74 acres, or 4365 bcegahs. & 3 rupees, 1 qr. GO reas, 
i> 119. i 13,315. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 307 

land under cultivation," which far exceeds that in the other 
collectorate, (i. e. 61*11 decls. per cent, of the whole lands, 
leaving only 38*89 decls. per cent, of waste,) but to the lowness 
of its land* assessments, amounting only to 2 qr. 94 reas per 
beegah, including all extras falling on the land. The process 
by which this average assessment was struck is as follows. In 
1827, agreeably to the population returns, the land in occupa- 
tion of a cultivator averaged 32*74 decls. acres, or 43*65 decls. 
beegahs ; in 1828, in the Jummabundy settlement, there were 
60,701 cultivators, which, multiplied by 43*65 decls. gives 
2,649,598. 65 decls. beegahs of land under cultivation. These 
divided into the land revenue, 1,945,323 rupees, 2 qr. 8 reas, 
give 294 reas per beegah, a low rate, which neither the exami- 
nation of village accounts, nor a similar process, will give in 
Poona, Ahmednuggur, nor Khandesh. b This light assess- 
ment, equal only to ls.ll^d. per acre, is certainly advantageous 
in insuring the realization of the revenue ; but when put into 
comparison with the rent of land in England, shows the unpro- 
ductive and limited character of Indian agricultural resources. 

The Sahyer branch of the revenue is highly favourable, 
amounting to nearly 14 per cent, of the whole, and, though so 
productive, falls as a tax lighter on individuals than in Khan- 
desh. The customs, being 2 per cent, lower than in Khandesh 
and Ahmednuggur, is at variance with the tolerably efficient 
character of the general resources of the Dharwar. 

From the examination of village papers I find that remissions 
were very rare under native governments, and the facility with 
which they are granted under the British government, and their 
magnitude, testify strongly to its paternal character. Great 
caution, however, is requisite in granting them, not less on ac- 
count of the government than on account of the cultivator him- 
self. If obtained with facility, and without rigid and sharp 
examinations, and some personal inconvenience to the applicant, 
(from the habitual indolence of the native character,) his ordinary 
industry, which always requires stimulating, would be paralyzed, 
applications multiplied, labour diminished, and the farmer would 
trust to the forbearance of government rather than to his own 
exertions. There is another reason for caution in the strong 
motives that the native agents have for urging remissions, with 
a view to intercept them in the transit of accounts through 
their hands. 

The collector cannot possibly personally ascertain the truth of 

a 2,308,064 acres in 1827. 

b Ahmednuggur 1 rupee, 95.reas; Nuggur and Poona, partial average, 3 qr. 
58 reas ; Khandesh 1 rupee, 2 qr. 30 reas per beegah. 

x2 



308 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

one-hundredth part of the claims set up ; he must leave this la- 
bour to his servants, and it can scarcely be believed they will not 
avail themselves of the opportunity to turn the discretion given 
to them to private profit ; in fact, I know such to be the case. 

In an examination of the papers of the villages of Muhrkoreh, 
Poona collectorate, I found that many of the cultivators had paid 
instalments of their assessments (for 1827-28) previously tore- 
missions being granted, which exceeded the amount they were 
required to pay after the deduction of the remissions ; the 
poverty of some of the cultivators, consequently, must have 
been misrepresented. I ascertained also that part of the 
remissions of 1827-28 had been intercepted. Remissions are 
unavoidable in all calamitous visitations of Providence, which 
are not of confined or local operation, and which affect the re- 
turns of the earth ; but to insure the benefit of the remissions 
to the cultivator, they should be made in a definite per centage 
on his total assessment, and the amount should be proclaimed 
more than once, and by different persons, in the public place of 
every village. 

A few words in conclusion will suffice with respect to the 
great branches of the revenue. It is seen that 82*30 decls. per 
cent, of the whole is derived from the land : already the supply 
of agricultural produce exceeds the demand, and the farmer has 
a difficulty in finding a mart. In the present state of agriculture 
therefore, this branch of revenue is at its maximum, and will 
probably decline until supply and demand be adjusted. 

The prospects of improvement in the Sahyer branch are 
not more favourable than in the land revenue. 

The trades pay to the full extent of their means at present, 
and manufactures cannot increase when the European import- 
ers of cottons can afford to undersell the native manufacturers. 
Indeed I believe little more than coarse Sarhees a for women, 
and common tent cloth, are now manufactured in the British 
provinces in Dukhun. 

The improvements in customs should usually depend upon in- 
creased wealth and commercial industryin the people. Theextent 
of imports will only be commensurate with the means of pur- 
chase. If therefore the opinions I have advanced on the land 
revenue and Sahyer be well founded, with respect to the 
limited means of persons paying taxes under those heads, the 
customs will be influenced by causes affecting them. 

Any general improvement in the revenue would seem 
to require the creation of exportable articles in agriculture, 
horticulture, or manufactures ; and to effect this desirable 

a Dresses. 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 309 

object, the introduction of persons with capital, enterprize, 
ingenuity, commercial tact and industry, is necessary ; essen- 
tials, of which the country is at present destitute. 

The manner in which the revenue yielded by a village is 
partitioned, is well exemplified in Neembawee, Pergunnah, 
Kurdeh, Ahmednuggur collectorate. The village is in Jagheer 
to Bala Sahib Rastea, one of the great Jagheerdars. The 
shares in the village are called amuls a , and there are six of 
them ; Rastia has three, Suchew b Punt one, and the Honour- 
able Company two. The whole shares are considered as an 
integer of 123 parts. 

Sun, 1236.— A.D. 1826. 

Rastia has the Jagheer 50 

Sur Deshmookee and Nuzzur d 23 

Kussur, e or remainder 7 

buchew Punt has the Sahotra 23 

23 

The Honourable Company has the Mokassa 15 

and the Neem Chowthaee, or half of the tribute 

called " Fourth" 5 

20 



Total 123 

In addition, the fixed money rights on the village are — 

Rupees. 

bur Pateel Dabaree of Tellegaon 5 

Kundeh Kurdehkur Deshmook 101 

Amrut Row Joonurkur Deshpandeh 101 

Besides the Pateel and Koolkurnee, Chowgulla, Bullooteh, who 
have their fees. 

It would seem very desirable to abolish the above absurd 
verbal distinctions, and to fix the rights of individuals as simple 
money dues, without reference to Jagheer, Nuzzur, Kussur, &c. 

The revenue of Dukhun, contrasted as a capitation tax, with 
that of England, France, and America, would appear to be 
as follows. In England, the gross revenue of 1828 was 
£50,700,000; poor-rates, parish rates, lighting, watching, 

a Amul, " rule," " sway." 

b Suchew, "friend," "minister;" one of the eight ministers of the Raiah of 
Sattara. J 

° A fief. 

d Nazar, "sight," "look," a present made on introduction to a person. 

e Kasr. " a fraction." 



310 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

£12,000,000; contributions of congregations to their clergy, 
colleges, schools, &c. about £17,300,000 : total £80,000,000 a . 
The population being 20,000,000, the tax per head is £4. In 
France, the taxation, including provision for the clergy, schools, 
&c. is £40,000,000; the population 30,000,000; equal therefore 
to £l. 6s. per head. In America the population is between 
10,000,000 and 11,000,000, and the taxation £5,000,000, or 
not quite 10*. per head. The revenue of Dukhun, viewed as a 
capitation tax, is 8s. per head. 

Assessments. 

Assessments and land measurements are so intimately con- 
nected, that it would not answer any good purpose to treat 
of them in separate sections. With respect to the portions of 
land variously denominated for the purpose of assessment, I 
am clearly of opinion that the prevailing denominations 
amongst the Hindoos were not descriptive of superficial extent, 
and that the assessments were founded on the productive 
power of the land without reference to its quantity, and were 
uniform only for similar denominations of land in a village. 

The Moosulmans, no doubt, endeavoured to be more system- 
atic; they measured garden lands, and probably in some few vil- 
lages, the field lands, under the denominations of Kundhee,Mun, 
Tukeh, Piceh, Seer, &c. with a view to the general conversion 
of such terms into the uniform and appreciable term of Bcegah; 
but the Hindoo terms not applying to quantity, the bcegahs of 
different villages could only be equal when there existed an 
accidental identity in productive power in the unmeasured 
Mun or Kundhee, &c. of land in one village with the measured 
Mun, Kundhee, &c. intended as common types. This will 
account for the varying extent of the beegah in field cultivation 
in Dukhun. How little successful the Moosulmans were in their 
attempt to supersede the old terms, is proved in the limited 
extent to which the assessments by beegahs obtained when we 
took possession of the country. It may be well doubted whe- 
ther we shall be more successful in our introduction of acres : 
the ramifications of ancient usages amongst a people are in 
general too deeply fixed to be eradicated by legislative enact- 
ments. A plant may be cut off by the surface, but there is 
always a latent disposition to reproduction from the untouched 
roots. Whatever may be our success, a revenue survey was 
imperatively called for under the indefinite Hindoo land deno- 
minations, to enable a collector to regulate his assessments 
with a shadow of equity. 

a Speech of Colonel Davies in the House of Commons, May 8, 1829. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 311 

With respect to the denominations under which land is as- 
sessed in the comparatively limited space of my inquiries, their 
variety and absurdity demonstrate a wanton bizarreness that 
could scarcely have been looked for in a people reputedly sim- 
ple and uniform in their opinions and economy. The assess- 
ment on a beegah is definite as it depended on positive mea- 
surement, and I have remarked that it obtains at, and in the 
neighbourhood of the established seats of Moosulman author- 
ity, as at Ahmednuggur, Purunda, Sholapoor, Mohol, Bar- 
lonee, Wamoree, Tacklee, &c. The Chahoor and Rookeh, as 
at Alkootee, Kheir, Wangee, Taimbournee, Kurkumb, Angur, 
Mahreh, Kurmalleh, Kurjut and Meerujgaon, being multiples 
of the beegah, are intelligible. Even the Doree or rope, used 
at Hungawarreh and Neembee, as it implies measurement and 
superficial extent, is admissible. The old Hindoo terms, 
Kundhee and Mun, at Ranjungaon, Jamgaon, Parnair, &c. &c. 
as they are founded on positive properties, furnish sufficiently 
precise ideas. But the Tukeh, with its constituents, of Suj- 
gunnees and Piceh, (copper coin,) at Dytna and Ankolner, 
the Seer of weight and its Nowtanks or ^ Seer, as at Koorul and 
Wangee, and the Pyhnee and its Annas a at Serrolee, Brulunun- 
warreh and Muhr, are not reducible by any operation of the 
mind to an appreciable portion of land, whose produce shall 
admit of the government share on it being equitably assessed. 
The assessment by the hatchet, rude as it is, still involves the 
idea of as much copse-wood land as one hatchet can clear, and 
one man can sow and reap in the year. To add to the confusion, 
similar denominations of land are not made up of common and 
uniform constituents. The Tukkeh at Kothoul is raised from 
the Rookeh, each of which is supposed to contain 10 beegahs, 
or 7^ acres. At Ankolner the Tukkeh is composed of Suj- 
gunnees, Piceh and Rookeh ; the Rookeh being equal only to 2| 
beegahs, or If acres. At Lakungaon there are 10 Tukkeh to 
one Pyhnee, and as the Pyhnee is said to contain 30 beegahs, 
the Tukkeh here contains only 3 beegahs instead of 480, as at 
Tellegaon; or 240, as at Ashtee. 

In respect to the Mun at Ranjungaon, it is rated at 10 
beegahs ; at Jamgaon, belonging to Seendeh, it is not reducible 
into beegahs at all ; at Parnair 6^ beegahs only are equal to 
the Mun. The Pyhnee at Seerolee has the Chahoor of 120 
beegahs as a typical standard, 4 Pyhnees being equal to one 
Chahoor, or 120 beegahs ; at Muhr the Pyhnee of 30 beegahs is 
considered as identical with the Kundhee of 20 Muns, reducing 
the Mun therefore to 1| beegahs. 

a One-sixteenth of a rupee. 



312 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

Under such complex definitions and involved contradictions, 
my limits will not permit me to give further explanations, 
but which my lengthened tables afford. 

The principal assessment necessarily falls on the land, and 
it is raised on the various land denominations above noticed ; 
the land in the first instance being separated into the two great 
classes of Bhaghaeet, or garden-land ; and Zerhaeet, or field- 
land. Both these terms are evidently of Moosulman intro- 
duction, Bhaghaeet being a word of Persian origin, meaning 
"gardens," "orchards;" and Zerhaeet, of Arabic derivation, 
meaning a "sown field," "sown land." 

There are marked traces of the land assessment having once 
been systematic in the Sostee or permanent rate, which was 
uniform and unchangeable for all lands of the same denomi- 
nation. This rate is found in most villages, it is distinctly 
stated in the accounts, and separated from subsequent and in- 
creased assessments, and its existence is a proof that assess- 
ments formerly were not on the superficial extent, but on the 
productive power of the soil; since, as lands were not all equally 
fertile, more of the unfertile land must have been held than 
of the fertile, to enable the cultivator to pay a fixed sum in 
quantity of grain for a piece of land under a common denomi- 
nation. The Sostee Dur, or permanent assessment, was the 
pride of the Meerasdar, but unhappily not his safeguard. 
The various governments which have passed away do not 
appear ever to have raised the pemument rate, but they rendered 
the advantages derivable under it abortive from gradually 
adding extra cesses ; their excuses in the first instance being 
unlooked-for contingencies. The cesses were originally mostly 
in kind, and temporary ; but the exigencies of government, or 
the facility with which they were raised, made them perennial, 
and their pressure upon the cultivator has been enhanced, par- 
ticularly under our government, by the cesses in kind being 
commuted into money payments. The Moosulmans, on intro- 
ducing measurements, must necessarily have subverted the 
Sostee, or uniform rate, since the same rate could not have 
been equitable for beegahs of land of different qualities. We 
find, in consequence, that when the lands are classed in bee- 
gahs otherwise than as constituents of Hindoo land denomi- 
nations, that there the assessments are on the quality of the 
soil, and vary accordingly. 

Gardens being dependent on the local advantages of a suit- 
able supply of water and some depth of soil, usually met with 
in hollows or on the banks of rivers, it might be expected that 
considerable uniformity would prevail in the quality of garden- 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 313 

land, and that it would rarely be divided into classes j such is usu- 
ally found to be the case. Most commonly all garden-land apper- 
taining to a village pays the same rate per beegah ; and where 
classification exists, it is founded, not on the quality of the 
land, but on the extent of the supply of water. 

The first great feature, in this respect, is whether the garden 
is watered from small streams conducted from rivulets or rivers, 
or whether it is watered from wells ; in the former case it is 
called Paatsthul, a and in the latter Mohtsthul. b Most Pahts 
failing in the dry months of March, April, and May, the 
former land is usually assessed at a lower rate than the latter, 
as at Tellegaon and Parnair; but where the Paht supply is 
perennial, as at Dytna, both descriptions of land pay the same 
rate. Dependent on these primary distinctions, are modifi- 
cations, affecting garden assessments : land with a perennial 
and sufficient supply of water, whether from pahts or wells, is 
called Wohol-Waho, or fully watered, and pays the highest 
rate ; this rate, unless on rice land, and isolated spots, where 
fruits of considerable value are raised, such as grapes and 
golden plantains, &c, as at Joonur, within my observation, 
has never exceeded 6 rupees per beegah, c including sugar-cane 
land. The other classes of land are comprised in the Kord 
Waho or not fully watered. It is readily intelligible that a well 
may supply a sufficiency of water for great part of a garden 
within a reasonable distance of the well, but that the extremities 
may be inadequately watered, and this affords just grounds to de- 
mand a lighter tax for the extremities : two classes should 
result from such circumstances, i. e. fully watered and not 
fully watered, and such is generally the case where distinc- 
tions are made at all : but at Ahmednuggur there is an af- 
fectation of discrimination, which has determined that gar- 
den-land receives its watering in the proportions of "fully," 
" thirteen-twentieths," "three-fifths," and "one-half," and 
such lands are respectively assessed at 5 rupees, 3£ rupees, 3 
rupees, and 2\ rupees per beegah. The assessment on garden- 
land at present is unequal, and the whole requires revision. 
There is every motive to make garden- cultivation assessments 
light with a view to insure to each cultivator, if possible, his 
well and little, plot of garden ground. Gardens produce all 
the year round ; they are comparatively unaffected by the 
droughts which destroy field crops ; and independently of the 
constantly saleable garden stuffs, fruits, and aromatic seeds, 
there is usually room for a beegah or more of bukshee or johr 

a From Paat " a channel," and Sthul " a field." 

b From Moht "a water-bucket," and Sthul "a field." c 16s. 8d. per acre. 



314 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

wheats, which require watering, and a plot or two of sugar- 
cane. To his garden the cultivator is indebted for many of the 
little enjoyments his situation is susceptible of. In some in- 
stances, in the Mahloongeh Turruff, Poona collectorate, I 
found cultivators paying their entire assessments, and reaping 
profit by their garden produce of chillies a alone, which were 
sent into the Konkun. 

Usually it has been deemed sufficient to arrange Zerhaeet or 
field-land into four classes, as at Jehoor, namely, Awul (best), 
usually black land, Rehsee (modified black), Burrud (dashed 
with lime and some decomposing greenstone), and finally, 
Khumid (stony, thin, and poor). The first, throughout the 
country, does not average more than 1 rupee the beegah, the 
second f , the third |f , and the last T 8 6 of a rupee per beegah ; 
but at other places there are other distinctions. In the Ma- 
wuls, or hilly tracts along the Ghauts, lands are classed as 
Bhat, Khatan, and Wurkus, the first being rice land, the 
second wheat and grain land, and the third being on the slopes 
of hills, producing the dry grains Sawa b and Wuree ; c there 
being a great deal of red soil also in these tracts, it is di- 
stinguished by the term Tambut or copper-coloured. The Awul, 
or best, where it occurs, is called Kalwut (black), and the rocky 
and stony Maal. 

These explanations are sufficient to show that where assess- 
ments on the quality of the land have been introduced, uni- 
formity has not obtained in distinguishing the qualities ; they 
show also that the people were satisfied to limit the qualities to 
four gradations ; but at Ahmednuggur, the Shaikdar or in- 
spector of cultivation has had the microscopic ability of vision 
to mark twelve shades of difference in the field-land. The ac- 
counts are, in consequence, a mass of perplexity, and it is very 
probable the revenue is frittered away in distinctions which the 
cultivator never dreamt of, and never profits by. 

Field-lands,, on which the cultivators sink wells, are not as- 
sessed as garden-lands. At Kanoor, Nuggur collectorate, I 
found lands so circumstanced had been free from any extra 
assessments from a period beyond the memory of man. 

The above notices are sufficient to show the anomalous cha- 
racter of the money assessments strictly on the land. Not only 
are they arbitrarily fixed on the productive power of the land, or 
on measurements, real or supposed ; but lands of the same deno- 
mination and quality are differently assessed in neighbouring 
villages without apparent cause. 

" Capsicum annuum, and other species. 
b Panicum frumentaceum. c Panicum miliare. 



ON THB STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 315 

The average of all the rates at many towns and villages in all 
parts of the country, derived from personal inspection of the 
village accounts, gives 3 rupees, 41 reas for a beegah of garden- 
land, or 8*. 3^d. for an English statute acre. The average of 
field-land is 3 qr. 93f reas per beegah, or 2s. *]\d. per Eng- 
lish acre. 

To determine an approximate average assessment per beegah 
in Khandesh, I may use elements, which although not just, may 
be expected to give results not very far from the truth ; namely, 
the total number of beegahs of land under cultivation in the 
population returns in 1826, and the land revenue in 1827-28 : 
the former is 883,548 beegahs, and the revenue 1,664,904 ru- 
pees : the average rate per beegah is 1 rupee, 3 qr. 54 reas, a 
much higher rate than exists in the other collectorates. 

These assessments comparatively with those of all European 
countries, of most Asiatic countries, and relatively to the va- 
luable nature of the garden produce, comprising, independently 
of the ordinary fruits and vegetables, grapes, oranges, sugar- 
cane, cotton, two kinds of fine wheat, and aromatic and pungent 
seeds, — the field produce also embracing all the bread grains, 
gram, and other pulses, — are unquestionably very low; and were 
there no extra cesses even in the present depreciated value of 
agricultural produce, could not only be borne by the cultivator, 
but he might flourish under them even with the burthen of 25 
per cent, on his produce — fees paid to the Hukdars and Bul- 
lootehdars. These rates, howevei*, are considerably enhanced by 
extra cesses called Puttees, many of which were levied for con- 
tingencies and particular exigencies, or resulted from the con- 
version of voluntary offerings in kind into compulsory money 
payments. 

These cesses are no less than 62 in number in the three col- 
lectorates of Poona, Ahmednuggur, and Khandesh, and the 
whole of them are for different objects ; many of them result 
from local circumstances, and are therefore of a local bearing. 
The majority of these Puttees are not of uniform operation in 
the three collectorates, but one or more of them up to a score 
may be found in every village. 

A few observations on the origin, character, and practical 
effects of some of these Puttees may be necessary. Most of 
them profess to bear directly on the land, such as those for 
grain, forage, and ropes to government, grain to Ramooses, 
Havildar, Gosawees, and Meeras tax, tax for sugar, &c. : other 
taxes which originally fell upon tradespeople, such as those 
for skins, shoes, wool, blankets, and oil, are no longer derived 
from their legitimate sources, but fall upon the cultivator. 



316 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

Milch cattle, fowls, mango trees, and pumpkin beds respect- 
ively continue to supply the means to pay the taxes for Ghee, 
thickened sour milk, fowls, and fruits. Some of the Puttees 
involved personal labour, such as those for grass cut and fur- 
nished gratis to government, for firewood, for dinner plates 
composed of leaves sewn together, for monsoon great coats 
made of wicker work and leaves, and for sticks to pound rice 
with. The Rabta Mahr, spoken of under "tenures," is in lieu 
of personal services. Some of them in their name indicate their 
professedly temporary character, such as the Eksalee, or foe 
one year, and yet they have been perpetuated. The Shadee or 
marriage cess at Angur, Pergunnah Mohol, and Ashtee Per- 
gunnah Oondurgaon, amounted to nearly 12 per cent, of the 
whole revenue of the towns, and could only have been for a 
passing event. The Wurgut at Wangee and Ashtee, which 
was raised by the village authorities for village expenses, is one 
of these unjustifiable taxes. At Ashtee, the scene of the battle 
of Ashtee and capture of the Sattarah princes, in 1818, the 
Wurgut was 1405 rupees, in a revenue of 6386 rupees, or 22 per 
cent. ; of this sum government took 900 rupees, leaving 505 
rupees to the villagers for their expenses. This Puttee at the 
town of Kurjut, Pergunnah Kurreh Wullet, is 6 annas per rupee, 
or 37 h per cent, on the land and Sahyer assessments, and Bur- 
goojur or tax on betel gardens. At Rawgaon, the Wurgut 
amounted to 14| annas per rupee on the land assessments and 
taxes, or more than 90 per cent. The Kaateh Mornawul, or 
pecuniary punishment, inflicted on a village for a Mamlehdar's 
running thorns into his feet on perambulating its lands, should 
have had some limits in its duration. The Puttees for sturdy 
Gosawees, Havildars, Ramooses, Naikwarees, should have 
ceased when there were no longer Gosawees to beg with arms 
in their hands, or Havildars, Naiks, and Ramooses to exercise 
respectively certain functions. 

The fractional apportioning the above taxes to the cultiva- 
tors, involving also the compound operation of providing reduced 
shares for the privileged classes, the fractional deductions, 
in a certain ratio in case of remissions, the fluctuating amount 
of the individual shares dependent on the fixed commutation 
cesses, heing yearly divisible amongst a variable number of cul- 
tivators, the mutable character of the Seerusteh Butta, which 
necessarily changes with the yearly varying total assessments 
of the village, and which Seerusteh Butta is not determinable 
until all other assessments be fixed, combine great evils, and, 
unless to the most practised, patient, and persevering investi- 
gator, present an inexjtricable mass of confusion. The evils 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 317 

are, that a cultivator, be he lettered or not, cannot by possibi- 
lity know what he will have to pay the ensuing or even the 
present year, because fixed sums, payable by the village, are 
divisible amongst a varying number of cultivators. Even if 
fixed sums were divisible amongst a fixed number of cultiva- 
tors, the limited progress in arithmetic of the poor people 
would utterly disable them from determining their respective 
fractional shares; for instance, of 4 rupees for skins and 
shoes, 1 rupee for beit, a 4f for ghee, and 1^ for leaf plates, 
&c. &c. In the whole course of my personal inquiries amongst 
this class for more than six years, I never met with one Koon- 
bee who could or would give me a detail of his assessments or 
their amount ; the constant reply was, " The Koolkumee 
knowsJ' This very uncertainty of their means and liabilities 
makes men improvident and careless. 

The next evil is, that the Koolkumee, in apportioning the 
fixed sums, and the Seerusteh Butta, the commutation money 
for grain, for ghee, sugar, pumpkins, &c. &c. is assured of 
impunity in defrauding the cultivators, from their want of liabi- 
lity in their accounts, even if they were aware of the value and 
amount of the cesses and the number of persons they were to 
bear upon. It is almost waste of labour to give the cultivator 
a note from government of what he will have to pay, as in nine 
instances out of ten he cannot read it ; his expounder is the 
Koolkumee, or the Koolkurnee's relations, and they read it 
agreeably to their own calculations. 

The above is an exposition of the assessments as they now 
bear on the land, which produces 82-30 per cent, of the whole 
revenue. The remaining portions of the revenue, which appear 
in village papers are usually classed under the term Sahyer, 
and are in fact taxes. The two principal heads of Sahyer are 
Mohturfa, properly " Arhan," or taxes on shops, houses, and 
professions ; and Bullooteh. 

Operation of Sahyer Taxes.— An idea of the operation of 
these taxes will be formed by the following details from 
Wangee, Pergunnah Wangee. 

Wanees, or sellers of grain and groceries, from 4 to 
6 rupees a shop ; oilman, for one oil-mill in 

™ ork • • • 6 rupees. 

Weavers, per loom 3 do. 

Other tradesmen pay proportional taxes. The threshold 
tax is called Oombraputtec, from Oombra, threshold: it is 
generally a rupee per house. 

At Tellegaon, Pergunnah Paubul, Poona collectorate, the 
* Beit, " o present." 



318 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

taxes on trades are fixed on a scale of annas relatively to the 
visible means and profits of the tradespeople. The anna is 
considered equivalent to 3£ rupees. The trades are taxed from 
^th anna to 2 annas, or 7 rupees, which is the highest sum 
for one shop. 

The highest tax on one weaver is half an anna, or If rupee ; 
oilman, highest rate one anna, or 3^ rupees ; the saddler, dyer, 
and butcher, at half an anna each, or If rupee; fishermen, 
dealers in sweet potatoes, and makers of bridles, 1 rupee each ; 
the community of braziers, 10 rupees. All the Momeens who 
are Moosulmans and weavers of turbands taxed in the lump at 
25 rupees ; shepherds at 14 rupees. These taxes are not raised 
on any systematic principles of application. 

Bullooteh Tax. — The Bullooteh is a tax levied on the per- 
sons called the Bara Bullooteh, or artizans and functionaries 
twelve in number, who are important personages in the village 
constitution. 

The taxes on the Bullooteh are generally deemed to be on the 
exercise of their profession ; but this is a mistake, as the 
astrologer and Guruw, or sweeper of the village temple, pay 
Bullooteh tax, although not artizans ; and I have known indivi- 
duals of a trade (in one instance a boy the survivor of a family) 
paying from 20 to 25 rupees per annum, which they could not 
possibly do from the gain of their handicrafts. 

The fact is, the Bara Bullooteeh have annual grain fees from the 
cultivators ; and government, in former times, deeming these 
fees more than commensurate with the value of the labours per- 
formed, took a part of them in money. The taxes on the Bul- 
lootehdar, are therefore indirectly derived from the land ; some 
of these taxes fall very heavily. At Wangee three carpenters 
pay 36 rupees Bullooteh tax, Wurgut 9 rupees, and house tax 3 
rupees for three houses. At Tellegaon, Turruff, Paubul, the 
Bullooteh taxes are yet higher : carpenter 50 rupees, shoe- 
makers 60 rupees, Guruw or sweeper of the temple 30 rupees, 
barber 24 rupees, washerman 8 rupees, Moolana, or Moosul- 
man priest, who also gets Bullooteh, 8 rupees ; but the culti- 
vators are numerous, and the lands of Tellegaon under cultiva- 
tion extensive. The Bullootehdar on the whole therefore reaps 
a rich harvest, in spite of government participating in his fees, 
from the cultivators. It is unnecessary to multiply instances of 
the bearing of the Sahyer taxes. Taxes for the sale of spirituous 
liquors, and the amount of customs or transit duties, rarely 
appear in village papers, as those branches of the revenue are 
mostly farmed. 

My limits do not permit me to give a detailed statement of 
the manner in which village accounts are kept under a native 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 319 

government. It would much assist to illustrate the internal 
ceconomy of a village and many local usages, but I have not space. 
I can only say that the whole accounts of a village are kept on 
a ribbon of paper, about five inches wide and some yards long, not 
rolled up but folded in lengths of twelve inches or more : one of 
these is required for each year. At Wangee it is called Gao 
Jarah, or village search ; at K.ur muMaJhartee A kaar, or figures 
or signs of search ; at Barlonee it has the compound term of 
Lownee Putruck, (detail of cultivation,) and Zumeen Jarha, 
(land search) ; at Rawgaon it is called Wussool Jarha, or 
search of collections : occasionally it is Akaarbund, or roll of 
signs, items, figures. These varying names result from the 
union of two papers which are usually kept separate ; namely 
the Thul Jarha, or roll of lands by family estates ; and the 
Loivnce Putruck, or roll of cultivation and assessments. 

In closing the notice of assessments, a few words are neces- 
sary to explain the method of keeping village accounts. At the 
head of the paper called Gao Jarha is the name of the village, 
the Pergunnah and Soobeh it is in, the year and the name 
of the government it is under ; this is followed by the Tunkha 
or Moghul money assignment upon the village, the Moosul- 
mans having fixed each village to pay a definite sum, leaving 
the whole details of assessment and distribution to the Pateel 
and villagers ; then follows the total quantity of land belonging 
to the village : deductions are made for land in boundary 
disputes, for Eenams of all kinds, whether to the temples, 
to the village officers, to the Deshmook or Deshpandeh, or 
to individuals, the quantity to each being carefully marked ; all 
these being deducted, the remainder is distinguished into 
garden and field-land ; then follows a roll of the cultivators, with 
a number of columns to record the quantity of land held upon 
each tenure, and the amount payable for each ; a column for 
the share of the extra assessments, previously noticed, inclu- 
ding the share of village expenses, which is always consider- 
able ; also columns for totals of the different heads. Then follow 
rolls of the Bullooteh, shopkeepers, trades, and others subject 
to fixed taxes, with columns for the proportion of tax upon 
the particular trade ; the Bullooteh, the house-tax, and share 
of extra assessments, which these people pay although they are 
not landholders. 

An abstract of the preceding details is now made, called the 
Ekunder Tereej. The contract for the transit duties, if not 
farmed, is added ; and the Kumall, which means "total," "all," 
"whole," is put at the bottom. Then follow the deductions under 
the heads of money — Eenams, Hukdars, village, and other ex- 
penses, every item of which is detailed. Amongst the expenses 



320 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

are village festivals, dinners to government officers, donations to 
brahmans, feeding pilgrims, interest on money borrowed, ex- 
penses of tbe Pateel and village officers when attending the go- 
vernor of the district, oil in the temples, the Moosulman saint's 
tomb (if there be one) coming in for its share of donation or 
annual allowance, strange as it may appear, from Hindoo cul- 
tivators. I regret much that my limits do not permit me to 
detail the expenses, many of which are very curious, and illus- 
trate habits and customs. The expenses being deducted from 
the collections, a balance is struck, which, under native govern- 
ments, left the Tunkha, or government original assignment, 
together with any extra assessment, if levied, such as Sur Dcsh- 
mookee, Chouth, &c. &c. To show how large a proportion of 
the village collections did not go to government, in one village, 
whose accounts I translated, the Tunkha, or government share, 
was 5500 rupees ; and the Kumall, or total collections, 8522 
rupees; 60 that 3022 rupees, or more than 35 per cent, of the 
whole, went in village expenses, Hukdars, (Deshmooks and 
Deshpandehs,) and other claims. 

Wages. 

The amount of wages of agricultural labourers is of so much 
importance to the class constituting the major part of the 
community, and it assists the judgement so materially in 
estimating the condition of the people, that I shall offer all the 
details I was able to collect in the Dukhun bearing on the 
question. 

Farmers' Artificers'' Work executed for Fees in Kind. — 
The trifling artificers' and mechanics' work required by the 
farmer being performed by the village artisans, in virtue of their 
offices and for fees in kind, it will not be necessary to enlarge 
on the remuneration for their labour : but to afford distinct 
ideas of its value, at the end of this paper I shall put into 
juxtaposition the rates paid by the Peshwah's government and 
the British government to artificers, mechanics, and others. 

I made my inquiries on the subject of wages in towns and 
villages, the most distant from each other, to prevent the mistake 
of the adoption of local rates for those of general operation. 

Wages of Husbandmen and other Labourers at Nandoor. — 
At Nandoor, a British town in the Ahmednuggur collectorate, 
in March, 1827, I found that yearly husbandry servants got 
from 12 to 20 rupees" per annum and their food; a smart 
active man got about 15 rupees per annum and supplied him- 
self with clothes. 

» From 24 to 40 shillings. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 321 

Day labourers, when paid in cash, get If anna per day, or 
■gz of two shillings, (about two pence farthing,) supplying them- 
selves with every thing : but day labourers are never paid in 
money unless when grain' is very dear. 

Quantity given. — The most usual plan in harvesting crops 
is to give each labourer three sheaves of whatever grain he is 
cutting down ; and provided he ties up the sheaves and stacks 
them, he gets five sheaves a day. 

Value of Wages in Kind, converted into Money. — The grain 
in five sheaves, in ordinary seasons, amounts to about two seers. 
At the price of Bajree*, in March 1827, at Nandoor, namely 42 
seers per rupee, the value of the labour was one penny and T ^ths 
per day. Joareef, at 56 seers per rupee, was y^^ths of a penny 
per day, or rather more than three farthings. Wheat, at 18 
seers per rupee, would have been two pence tuo> or something- 
less than two pence three farthings per day. Allowing the 
grain in five bundles to be double the quantity stated, which is 
rather possible than probable, the highest wages in harvesting 
wheat would not have been five pence halfpenny per diem. 
When men are employed in ploughing or harrowing, nine 
times out of ten, they are paid two seers of Bajree for their day's 
work, from daylight to night, allowing one hour for dinner. 

At Kanoor. — At Kanoor, a town in Jagheer, Ahmednuggur 
collectorate, in March 1827, I found that the two Pateels had 
each a permanent domestic servant in his employ; one paid 
his man 15 rupees per annum and his food; the other gave 
15 rupees per annum, food, and five articles of wearing 
apparel, the value of which was 3 a rupees. 

Wages at Dyivuree. — At Dywuree, Nuggur collectorate, 
in November 1826, the cultivators did not pay their day- 
labourers in money, but gave them five sheaves of grain for 
every hundred cut down ; a very able man indeed might cut 
down two hundred sheaves in a day, which would give him 
four seers of grain, the value of which (Bajree) in November, 
1826, was about T %ths of a rupee, or three pence English. 

Wages at Dytna. — At Dytna, Nuggur collectorate, in Fe- 
bruary 1827, I found a man getting 25 rupees per annum, 
his food and a blanket, his son being also in employ at six 
rupees a year, food and clothes ; but this was looked upon as 
high, and the individuals getting such wages fortunate : the 
village belonged to a Gosawee \ who paid his people well. 

Wages of Women Day Labourers. — At Chambergoondeh, 
a large town belonging to Seendeh, Nuggur collectorate, in 

* Properly, Sujgooreh, Panicum spicatnm. 

t Properly, Jondleh, Andropogon Sorghum. % Gosawee, a religieux. 

VOL. VI. 1837. Y 



322 SEVENTH REPORT 1837? 

November 1827, women weeding in fields got T ^th of a rupee 
per day, or one penny halfpenny, and worked from sunrise to 
sunset. 

Wages at Kurkumh. — At Kurkumb, a Jagheer town in the 
Poona collectorate, in December 1827, I found a husbandry 
servant getting only twelve rupees per annum, and food twice a 
day : no clothes. A man watching a field of grain was a monthly 
servant at three rupees a month, without food or clothes. 

Highest Wages at Kurkumb. — From the authorities of the 
town I learned that the highest rate paid for the cleverest 
gardener's assistant or ploughman was 25 rupees per annum 
and daily food, but without clothes. The monthly rates for 
agricultural servants were from 2f to 3 rupees, without food, 
or clothes, fee, or advantage. 

Pay of Seypoys at Angur. — At Angur, a British town in 
the Poona Collectorate, on the 9th of January, 1828, in looking 
over the village accounts, I found two village seypoys charged 
respectively three rupees and two rupees for a month's pay. 

Wages of Women Labourers at Poona. — On the 21st July, 
1827, I found a great number of women weeding in gardens in 
the neighbourhood of the city of Poona ; they received each 
six pice in money, or (fyths of two shillings, (two pence one-third 
per day,) and worked from daylight until dark. This may be 
considered high wages, and its amount is to be attributed to 
the paucity of field labourers in a great city. 

Wages at Pait. — At Pait, a Jagheer town in Pergunnah 
Kheir, in the Poona collectorate, on the 16th February, 1829, 
in my evening excursion, I overtook twelve or fourteen men 
and women with bundles of wheat in the straw on their heads ; 
on inquiry I found they had been employed as labourers in 
pulling up a field of wheat at Pait. Their wages had been five 
sheaves for every hundred gathered ; two or three of the men 
only had got five sheaves each, the majority of them only four, 
and the women none more than three. Five sheaves they said 
would yield about four seers of wheat, and as wheat was 
selling in Pait at 28 seers per rupee, each man with five 
sheaves received for his labour nine pice, or 3£d. English. These 
poor people belonged to the town of Owsuree, five miles 
distant from Pait ; they had therefore a march of ten miles to 
make besides their day's labour. 

Wages at Joonur. — At the city of Joonur, at the end of 
February 1829, I found a brahman cultivating the Hubbus 
Baugh (about 80 beegahs of land) ; he employed numerous la- 
bourers. While I was encamped near his garden, fields of wheat, 
and gram, and Booee Moong*, &c. were harvested. For the 

* Earth-nut, Arachis hypogea. 



ON THK STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 



323 



wheat and gram and bread-grains the men got five sheaves 
per cent. In the field of Booee Moong there were between 
fifty and sixty women employed ; and I learned that, in this 
particular product, from the labour and tediousness of digging 
it up, and the cheapness of the produce, the labourers were 
allowed one-fourth of the whole. In cutting down sugar-cane, 
gathering fruits or vegetables, and indeed where the produce 
was too valuable to give the labourer a share of it, the Brahman 
paid a man eight pice a day (little more than 2^d.) and a woman 
four, and they worked from daylight until dark, with an allow- 
ance of one hour for dinner. 

The above data are gathered from places widely separated in 
the Poona and Ahmednuggur collectorates ; and although in dif- 
ferent years, are remarkable in their uniformity ; they supply 
therefore just estimates for the general rates of wages, and it may 
be fairly stated that the highest money wages paid by the natives 
to any husbandry or domestic servant is four rupees per 
month, with which he finds his own food and clothes, and 2 T g- 
rupees per month is the pay when the master supplies food and 
clothes ; and the most favourable wages to a man day-labourer 
are eight pice per diem *, and to a woman five pice f. 

Artificers' and servants' wages, and price of Bread-grains 
under the Peshiva's and British Governments. 



Rates of hire for a month of thirty days 
of artificers, servants, and labourers 
in Dukhun, under the British govern- 
ment in 1828, and Peshwa's govern- 
ment in A.D. 1814. 


Prices of grains, pulses, and other 
articles, the ordinary consump- 
tion of artificers, servants, la- 
bourers, &c. at Poona in Duk- 
hun, under the Peshwa's go- 
vernment, being a mean of five 
years from 1811 to 1815, and 
under the British in 1828. 


Denomination 

of 

artificers, servants, &c. 


Monthly Pay. 


Grains, pulses, 

and 
other articles. 


Seers per Rupee. 


0! 

p 


J3 oj 


13 |S 

if 




Maistry, or head "l 

Second or under do. 

Maistry, or head ] 
carpenter, finest V 


Rupees. 
25, 35, 40 
23 &25 

30, 35, & 45 


Rupees. 
15 
12 

15,20, 4C 


Do. Ambemor ... 

Wheat, Buckshee 

Joaree {Andro- > 
pogon Sorghum) ) 


Seers. 
16 
13 
14 

18 
20 

32 


Seers. 
12 

12 

Hi* 

2*ii 



* About 24d. 



y 2 



t About Hd. 



324 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 



Table continued. 



Denominations 
of 


Monthly Pay. 


Grains, pulses, 
and 


Seers per Rupee. 


QJ 




g>£3 


■ceo 


artificers, servants, &c. 


S3* 3 


s| 


other articles. 


»- - 


S <«" 




^IS 


■o S 






•0 & 




5* 


= (2 




c '-£ 


Bd 




P 


& w 




& fi 


PS 




Rupees. 


Rupees. | 


Seers 


Seers. 


Carpenter, com- "> 
mon worker ... / 


15 & 224 


12 


Bajree (Panicum "1 


28 


17 «! 


Maistry, or head \ 


15 & 22 
25 & 30 


8 
20 


Dhall {Cytisus'i 


16 


1) 86 


15 & 22J 


12 


Ghee (clarified ) 


2 


li to If 


Head armourer ... 


30 


20 








15 

15 

6, 8, & 18$ 


12 
12 

74 












Maistry, or head ) 
leather worker J 


15 


12 
















Leather worker, "> 
harness maker / 


H 


9 














Puckalee, or wa- "1 


15 
9 h 12 


9 
10 










Head bricklayer, \ 


25&35 


15 &20 


















Maistry, or head ~\ 












tailor, fine > 


15 


14 






















«H 


6 










5&7 


5 










3f to 7 

34 


3 to 4 
3 










Muccadum, or "| 












chief of Dooly >• 


15&20 


8 






















7 to 9 


6 










8 


5 


Served two horses 


unde 


r Peshwa. 




7 to 9 


5 


Served two camels 


D 


9. 


Tattoo, or pack *| 


ponypermonth, l 


12 


15 








with driver ... J 












Camel with driver . 


30 


30 








Puturwut, stone- "J 




12 








7, 8, & 9 


3, 7, & 8 








Bhooee Hamalls... 


Muccadum, or "I 
chief ofHamalls J 


15 


10 















The above table shows a marked enhancement in the wages 
of all classes of handicrafts and servants, although grain be- 
came from 20 to 50 per cent, cheaper under the British than 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 325 

under the Peshwa. In the wages of the numerous servants of 
European gentlemen the same advance has taken place. The 
superior cheapness in some grains has extended to more than 
100 per cent. 

In the above notices the rupee has been considered equal to 
two shillings ; the seer of weight equal to 1 lb. 15 oz. 8 drs. 
18f grs. avoirdupois, or 2 lbs. 4 oz. 6 grs. troy ; and the seer 
of capacity to 2lbs. 6 oz. 3 drs. 24 grs. 92 dec. avoirdupois of 
Jerwail rice ; its cubic contents, 72 in. 2 dec. of water at a 
temperature of 75° Fahrenheit, at a temperature of 60° there- 
fore being equal to 48 per cent, less than two imperial quarts, 
or very nearly one quart. Rigidly, the seer is 4 # 17 dec. per 
cent, larger than an imperial quart. 

Manufactures. 

Celebrated as was India for its costly and ingenious cotton 
fabrics, little more than the memory of them now remains. 
The machinery of England has enabled her manufacturers to 
take the raw material out of the hands of the grower, and return 
it to the continent of India, worked up in various ways, with- 
out even affording an opportunity for the application of a prop 
or stay to the sinking industry of its once flourishing manufac- 
turing classes. As far as relates to Dukhun, its cotton and 
silk fabrics are confined to coarse dresses for women, tent- 
cloths, some silk handkerchiefs, and trifling pieces of silk for 
bosom cloths for women. From an examination of the cotton 
and silk goods for sale in the markets of Poona, in July 1829, 
it appeared that every product of the loom, without any excep- 
tion, with any claim to notice from texture, costliness of 
material, or ingenuity in the design or workmanship, was an 
import into the collectorates from native states not under 
the British government. Turband cloths, varying in length 
from 24 to 60 cubits, in breadth from three-quarters to l\ 
cubits, and in price from one rupee up to sixty rupees each, 
were from Peytun, Bheer, Narrainpait, Tahr Putruh, Wus- 
wunt, Nandergaon, and Shaghur, in the Nizam's dominions ; 
Boorhanpoor and Jehanabad, in Seendeh's (Scindiah's) domi- 
nions, and Chundaree in Malwa, while those made in the 
city of Poona did not exceed three rupees each in value. The 
only valuable Dotruhs or loin cloths, in length from 20 to 22 
cubits, breadth 2\ to 2f cubits, and in price from 10 to 40 
rupees, were from Muheshwur, in Malwa ; the rest were from 
the Nizam's, Holkar's, and the Rajah of Berar's (Nagpoor) ter- 
ritories. Shahpoor and Belgaon, in the Dharwar collectorate, 
produced some loin cloths of the value of 25 rupees ; those from 



326 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

Poona did not exceed three rupees in value. The Doojmttehs or 
Shelehs, cloths for throwing over the shoulder and enfolding the 
body, in value from 10 to 200 rupees, were from Peytun, Jehana- 
bad, and Boorhanpoor ; those from Poona were of the value of 
five rupees only. Loogreh or Sarhehs *, varying in length from 
13 to 20 cubits, in breadth from If to 2-f cubits, and in price 
from 1^ rupee to 80 rupees, had a wider field of production, 
even Poona producing these dresses, from one or two looms 
only I believe, of the value of 80 rupees. New Hooblee, 
and Shahpoor, in the Dharwar collectorate, produced some 
dresses of the value of 30 rupees. Cholkun or bosom cloths 
are manufactured at the above places : the highest value of one 
would appear to be 10 rupees, and the lowest about three- 
pence. The silk handkerchiefs were chiefly from the Car- 
natic. 

The price of the above articles is influenced partly by the 
colours, partly by the fineness of the fabric, but chiefly by the 
quantity of gold and silver thread worked up in them. 

Some cotton carpets are manufactured at Ahmednuggur, 
and in the Jail at Poona, but do not call for notice. 

Turbands are dyed of twenty-one colours, but I have not 
space to give the names ; few or none of them are fast colours, 
with the exception of black and red. 

The only woollen manufacture in the collectorates is that 
of a black smooth blanket, (Kianlee) the colour being that of 
the wool. In general the blanket is coarse, but there is 
a very fine fabric from Bijapoor. The low state of manu- 
factures is otherwise attested by the fact that, in the Poona 
collectorate, in the population returns sent to me, the weavers 
only amounted to 0*35 per cent, of the people, or one weaver 
for every 280 souls ; in Khandesh 0*57 per cent., or one to 
every 173 inhabitants; and in Dharwar 1*80 per cent., or one 
in 55 inhabitants, which is prodigiously above the other col- 
lectorates. I estimate the proportion in the Ahmednuggur 
collectorate to be the same as that in Poona. 

Transit Duties. 

The transit duties are farmed ; the stations for collecting 
them are numerous ; the rates, although fixed, are unjust, as 
they are not levied on uniform principles with respect to defi- 
nite tracts of country. The Carrier is not only interrupted at 
irregular intervals by British stations, but the alienated 
towns, so numerously interspersed in the British territories, 

* Women's dresses. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 327 

endeavour to levy duties ; moreover, he is perplexed by the 
money claims of hereditary district officers upon the duties, 
independently of the customs-farmer's dues. How the con- 
flicting interests are arranged I do not know ; but they are so 
various and troublesome, that the merchant is commonly driven 
to the expensive necessity of contracting with a class of people, 
called Hoondeekuree, who undertake for a fixed sum to pass 
all the merchandize through a country to its destination, 
paying all duties ; constant practice, adroitness, and bullying, 
enabling them to arrange with the collectors better than the 
merchant could. 

All transit duties should be abolished ; their amount in the 
interior of a country materially affects consumption, and is 
therefore injurious to trade. 

Coins. 

The only coins in use in Dukhun are silver rupees, half ru- 
pees, and copper pice. The rupees are of many mints, and have 
a different value in relation to the copper coin, resulting from the 
age of the rupee, and the number of punches or marks it may 
have on it made by the Shroofs or money-changers in passing 
through their hands * j the same rupee, of the same standard, 
and same mint, has not the same value in copper in neigh- 
bouring districts; this value fluctuates at the pleasure of the 
money-changers. On what principles they regulate the rela- 
tive values I do not know. The multiplicity of coins of dif- 
ferent mints, and the gradations of coins of the same mint, 
are great evils. It is unnecessary to enumerate these coins, as 
they are in the Bombay Almanac. 

Weights and Measures. 

A very considerable diversity prevails in every district, and 
often in neighbouring villages, in the weights and measures in 
use, whether of weight, length, or capacity ; this diversity goes 
so far, that the subdivisions are often found not to be in a 
determinate proportion to each other. All this confusion is 
referrible to the want of an ancient permanent standard ; to the 
abrasion or decay of the weights and measures tolerated by go- 
vernment, the knavery of the owners of the weights, and the 
apathy or connivance of the district authorities f. Everywhere 

* These marks occasion a depreciation of one or more per cent, 
f So great are the discrepancies, that they range from 41 per cent, below to 
100 per cent, above the Poona standard. 



328 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

the apparatus of metrology is characterized by clumsiness in con- 
struction ; rough stones are commonly substituted for stamped 
metal weights, and joints of the hollow bamboo for authorized 
definite measures of capacity. The seer of weight was directed 
by the authorities at Poona and Ahmednuggur to be of eighty 
Ankoosee rupees, and such a weight may be in use where the 
district officers are located, but in very few other places. With 
respect to measures of capacity, not only has each village its own, 
but I might almost say that each shopkeeper has his own, for it is 
rare that the weights and measures of any two shopkeepers are 
identical ; and when it does occur it must be referred to acci- 
dent. Even the stamping of weights and measures by govern- 
ment officers has not been effectual to insure uniformity ; for in a 
table that I drew up of the discrepancy between the weights 
and measures of some scores of places all over the country, 
very many of the weights and measures had the government 
stamp upon them. 

One feature of the measures of capacity is, that, with some 
exceptions, those of villages are always larger than those of 
towns and cities. The extent to which this fraud has been carried 
in military cantonments and large bazaars immediately under 
British control, is shown in the fact of the reduction of the 
Serroor cantonment seer, one-twentieth below the standard of 
Poona city, one-fourth below the standard of Ahmednuggur city, 
and two-elevenths below the measures of neighbouring districts. 
But in Bombay it is still more glaring, the origin of whose weights 
and measures is unquestionably referrible to the Dukhun and 
Konkun; and yet the Bombay measure of capacity is 41 per 
cent, less than that of Poona, and about 33 per cent, less than 
that at Panwell in the Konkun, the nearest great mart to 
Bombay on the continent. The diminution in the seer of weight 
in Bombay is even more striking. I found the standard seer 
of weight in the collector's office in Bombay to weigh 4970 
grains troy only, while the Panwell seer weighed 13,110 
grains, and the Poona seer neighed 13,800 grains, troy. The 
Panwell seer therefore was 163 per cent, and the Poona seer 
177 P er cent, larger than the Bombay seer. The knowledge of 
these facts is of importance to the European and native mer- 
chant, as well as to the general consumer. 

The evil of a progressive diminution in the weights and mea- 
sures of Dukhun is arrested in the cities of Poona and Ahmed- 
nuggur and the neighbouring cantonments, by standards being 
kept in the collectors' offices ; but as they are not founded on 
any scientific principles by which they could be restored if lost 
or lessened, their safe custody is of great moment. The seer 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 329 

of weight is directed to be made of a certain number of pieces 
of the current silver coin, and can therefore be tested without 
difficulty ; but there is not any test, saving the solitary standard 
in the collector's office, for the measure of capacity. It will 
be seen that I have given the weight of water of a certain tem- 
perature these measures contain, and this determination may be 
of use at a future period. 

Grain measures. — The largest measure of capacity in use is 
the Adholee, of two seers ; its name means " the half," it being 
the half of the Puheelee, of four seers, which is not in use. 
This measure is in the form of an hour-glass. I found the 
Poona city standard to contain 36,400 grains troy, of water, 
at a temperature of 75° Fahr., or 5 lbs. 3 oz. 3 dr. 5| grs., or 
144*4 cubic inches ; and at a temperature of 60° Fahr. it con- 
tained 36,462 grains troy, being 48 per cent, less than an im- 
perial gallon, or very nearly two quarts ; rigidly, the seer is 4*17 
per cent, larger than an imperial quart. It is curious that the 
first subdivision of the Adholee is not one- half but one-fourth, 
or half a seer, a seer measure being very rarely in use ; then a 
quarter of a seer, and finally, one-eighth.* In some places 
there are what are called male and female Adholees, one being 
a little larger than the other ; retail traders buy with the largest 
and sell by the smallest. The multiples are 2 Adholees 1 Puheelee 
or 4 seers, 12 Puheelees I Mun (Maund), and 20 Muns 1 
Kundee (Candy) ; but in some places there are 16 Puheelees 
to the Mun : and along the Ghats, and in the Konkun, there 
are only 3|- seers to the Puheelee. Determined by the weight 
of the contents of the Adholee of well- dried Jerwail rice, the 
Kundee would be 20 cwt. 1 qr. 26 lbs. 10 oz. 12 drs. 16 grs. 
avoirdupois. 

It is necessary to mention that the flour of all grains is sold 
by weight and not by measure. 

Oil, spirits, and milk, are sold by different measures of ca- 
pacity. These are all professedly founded on the seer of 
weight; but their discrepancies may well render it doubtful. 
At one place I found the seer of oil measure to contain 26 ru- 
pees' weight of water, at others, 66 rupees', 80 rupees', &c. The 
forms of these measures are various. The same observations 
apply to spirit measm'es. The seer of milk in one place con- 
tained 88 rupees' weight of water, in another 93, and elsewhere 
up to 109 rupees' weight. 

Weights. — The standard seer of weight in Poona weighs 80 
Ankoosee rupees or 13,800 grains troy, or 1 lb. 15 oz. 8 dwts. 

* Sellers of sweetmeats have -rVth of a seer. 



330 SEVENTH REPORT— 1837- 

18| grs. avoirdupois ; but the most common seer in use in Duk- 
hun is one of 76 rupees; the divisions are Adh seer (half), Pao 
seer (quarter), Adh pao or Nowtank (one-eighth), and Chettank 
(one-sixteenth). For the convenience of calculation, the seer is 
divided into 72 tanks or tollahs, and one-eighth, of course, is 
JVotvtank or nine tanks, and one-sixteenth is Sarhee chartank 
or 4i tanks, which is corrupted into Chettank. The multiples 
are Panch seer (five seers), the mun of 40 seers equal to 
78 lbs. 13 oz. 11 drs. 11 grs. avoirdupois, or 951b. 10 oz. troy 
exactly ; the Pullah of 3 muns, and the Kundee of 20 muns. 
But I have shown how far the weights really in use differed from 
the above, and in the tract lying between the Seena and Beema 
rivers, the weight called the Bureedee had not even the same 
constituents or multiples as the Poona weights. 

Goldsmiths' tveights. — The lowest goldsmiths' weight is no- 
minally the mustard seed, but the lowest I met with was the 
Goonj, a seed of the Ahrus precatorius, the mean weight of 
which was 1*914 10 grains troy : 96 goonj make a tollah, which 
should therefore weigh 183*7536 grains troy; but as the tollah 
is the 72nd part of a seer of 13,800 grains, it should weigh 
191,666 grains troy; the goldsmiths' weights in use conse- 
quently are below the nominal standard. Eight goonj or four 
ivaals* make one massah, and twelve massah one tollah. I 
put the goldsmiths' weights to the same test in different parts of 
the country, I did those of capacity, and found that two weights 
of the same denomination in different shops were seldom uni- 
form. The scales used by goldsmiths are called Kant ah, and 
are of metal ; those used by dealers generally are called Tajwa 
or Tagree, and are made of leather or parchment. 

Itinerary and Lo?ig Measures. — Distances between places 
are estimated by the Kohs (coss), I cannot say measured, for I 
believe the actual determination of distances between places was 
as little attended to by the native governments, as the facilitating 
communications through the country by the construction of 
roads and bridges. I think the Kohs averages about two miles 
English, varying, however, from l£ to 1\ miles. In Mahratta 
writings long measure is raised from the barleycorn ; 8 Juiu or 
barleycorns make a Boht or finger, 24 fingers a Haht or cubit, 
(18 inches), 4 cubits a Dmwosh (a bow) or fathom, measured 
by a man's outspread arms, and 8000 cubits or 2000 fathoms a 
Kohs. The Kohs therefore would equal 2\ English miles and 
40 yards. In Sanscrit 2 Kohs make a Guivyotee, and 2 of the 
latter make a Yojun or 9 miles and 160 yards ; but these terms 

* Waal is the seed of the Caesalpinia sappan. 



ON THE STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 331 

are unknown to the common people. In fact, however, the 
measure of length originates in the well-known Haht or cubit, 
determined by the mean length of five men's arms, measured 
from the elbow-joint to the end of the middle finger : the Haht 
or cubit so determined, is a little more than 18 inches in length ; 
this is divided into 2 Weets or spans, into 6 Mooshtees or fists, 
and each fist into 4 Bohts or fingers, and the latter into 8 
barleycorns each. Tailors and sellers of cloth use a Guj, 
which is divided into 16 Ghirra, each of 1-J- Tussoo, each Tussoo 
of 2 Bohts, and as each Boht is equal to a fraction more than 
| of an inch, the Guj would be a little more than an English 
yard. 

Superficial Measure. — The only land measure of any exact 
and appreciable extent is the Beegah, which is of Moosul- 
man derivation, but by some referred to the Sanscrit word 
Weegruhuh, although this word is not applied to land measure- 
ments ; and as all genuine Mahratta terms applied to the ca- 
pacity, extent, or capabilities of land, are not referrible to the 
beegah or its multiples, I must consider the Beegah of Moosul- 
man introduction. Like itinerary measures, it is raised from 
the Haht or cubit of a fraction more than 18 inches in length ; 

5 Hahts and 5 Mooshtees (fists or palms) make 1 Kattee or 
stick, 20 square Kattees or sticks make 1 Paand, and 20 
Paands a Beegah ; reduced to English measurements, the 5 
Hahts and 5 Mooshtees will be equal to 105 inches in length, 
and the square of this sum will be 11,025 inches in a square 
Kattee or stick, and 20 Kattees a Paand equal to 220,500 
inches, and 20 Paands a Beegah or 4,410,000 square inches ; 
and as the English statute acre contains 43,560 square feet, the 
Beegah is to the acre as 70^ is to 100, or as 211 to 300, being a 
trifle more than seven-tenths of an acre. But as the Haht or 
cubit is a fraction more than 18 inches, the Beegah may fairly 
be considered equal to three-foui'ths of an acre : but I very much 
doubt whether any other than garden lands were actually mea- 
sured by the Moosulmans ; and in converting the Hindoo terms 
Kundee, Man, Doree, and fifty other denominations, into Bee- 
gahs, it was done by estimate ; and this explanation will account 
for the vai'iable size of the Beegah in different parts of the 
country, which the British survey has discovered. The only 
multiples of the Beegah, to my knowledge, are the Rookeh of 

6 Beegahs or 4§ acres, and the Chahoor of 120 Beegahs or 90 
acres : these terms are of Moosulman origin. 

Adverting to the past and present state of the knowledge of 
native governments in politics, political economy and science, 



332 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837» 

it would be idle to refer the origin of their weights and mea- 
sures to scientific principles, immutable standards, or even to 
any uniform, although arbitrary system. Their long measure is 
derived from the human arm, and their weights from a seed. 
In these derivations they have not been a whit more irrational 
than the good people of England, whose standard measure of 
length, the Ulna or Ell, is derived from the arm of one of their 
kings, (Henry the First), and their weights from grains of 
wheat. There is a great coincidence between the native 
weights and measures and those of antiquity. The first five 
subdivisions of the scripture measures of length are identical 
in their derivation, and nearly so in their length, with those of 
Dukhun ; namely, the finger, fist or palm, span, Haht or cubit, 
and fathom ; both also have the coincidence of being destitute 
of a measure equivalent to a foot. The foot was a constituent 
of the ancient Greek and Roman measures ; but in practice 
these nations used the finger, palm, and cubit ; and the Pecus 
or great cubit of the Greeks was precisely of the length of the 
Dukhun cubit, namely, a fraction more than 18 inches. The 
ancient grain and liquid measures of England were raised from 
weight from a pound troy. For a very long period I had be- 
lieved the measures of capacity in Dukhun to be entirely arbi- 
trary ; but in the southern part of the country between the Seena 
and the Beema rivers, I met with Adholees with stamps on 
them, directing that they should contain a certain iveight of 
orain ; for instance, at Punderpoor the Adholee was to contain 
as much Johr Guhoon (wheat), as would weigh 200 Ankoosee 
rupees, at Mohol 160 rupees' weight of Joaree (Andropogon 
Sorghum), at Taimbournee 131 rupees' weight of Joaree, and at 
Kothool, near to Ahmednuggur, 200 Ankoosee rupees' weight 
of Bajree {Panicum spicatum) . I know not whether this slight 
indication of systematic deduction of measures of capacity from 
those of weight is attributable to the Moosulmans or to the 
Hindoos. The places where they were met with, with one 
exception, had until recently, been for ages under a Moosulman 
government (the Nizam's), but it might have been practised be- 
fore the arrival of the Moosulmans. It does not appear to have 
occurred to the natives to use the weight of water, as the least 
changeable standard by which to fix the capacity of a measure. 
Army. — The army consists of some of the royal troops paid 
by the India Company ; of European regiments of artillery and 
infantry belonging to the Company, and of native regiments of 
cavalry, infantry, and pioneers, armed, clothed and disciplined 
in the same manner as the European troops. The army is 



ON THE STATISTICS OP DUKHUN. 383 

separated into divisions commanded by General Officers and 
Brigadiers-General, and the divisions are divided into brigades, 
which are so stationed as to co-operate in the readiest and 
most efficient manner in emergencies, for the protection of the 
country and the maintenance of the civil power. 

Justice. — Not having been able to get blank forms filled up 
at the India-House with the necessary data respecting crimes 
and punishments, I abstain from any notice of judicial matters. 

W. H. SYKES, Lt.-Colonel, F.R.S., 

Late Statistical Reporter to the Government of Bombay. 



334 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 



CONTENTS 

OF THE SPECIAL REPORT ON THE STATISTICS OF THE BRITISH 
COLLECTORATES OF DUKHUN, (DECCAN). 

Page 

Introductory Observations 217 

Extent and Physical Circumstances. 

Area, Elevation, Rivers, Roads, Bridges 218 

Geology. 

Ghats 220 

Valleys, Terraces 221 

Escarpments, Columnar basalt 222 

Schistose structure, Basalt en boules, Dykes, Ferruginous clay 223 

Pulverulent limestone, Nodular limestone 225 

Loose stones, Rocky heaps, Sheets of rock 226 

Structure and mineral composition of rocks 227 

Minerals, ores, Natural salts, no organic remains, Thermal springs, 

Extent of trap region, Laterite, Granite, Sedimentary rocks 229 

Climate. 

Barometer, Atmospheric tides, Temperature 231 

Monthly means, Diurnal range, Mean temperature, Moisture 232 

Rain, Winds, Hot winds, Whirlwinds 23G 

Hail, Dews, Fogs, Salubrity of the climate 238 

Botany. 

Cultivated fruits 239 

Wild fruits 240 

Agricultural products, Products of wet season harvest 240 

Do. Dry or spring season harvest 241 

Garden produce, Edible roots, grapes, &c 242 

Spontaneous oil, tanning, and medicinal plants, European fruits, 

Flowering plants, Timber trees 244 

Zoology. 

Quadrumana, Cheiroptera, Plantigrada, Digitigrada 246 

Birds, Insessores 248 

Rasores, Grallatores, Natatores 250 

Ichthyology, Reptilia, Crustacea, Testacea, Entomology 251 



CONTENTS OF STATISTICS OF DUKHUN. 335 

Civil Divisions. 

Page 

Poona Collectorate, Pergunnahs, Towns, Hill-forts, &c 254 

Ahmednuggur Collectorate : Talooks, Pergunnahs, Towns, Forts, &c. 256 

Khandesh Collectorate : Pergunnahs, Towns, &c 257 

Rivers, Boodh cave temples 259 

Dharwar Collectorate : Talooks, Pergunnahs, Towns, Rivers, Hi'li- 

forts, &c 259 

Population. 

Proportion of the sexes, Constituents of population, Casts, Births, 

Deaths, and Marriages 261 

Proportion engaged in agriculture to the square mile, to a house, in 

villages, towns 266 

Population of Southern Jagheerdars, Rajah of Sattarah's territories ... 267 

Abstract of the population of the late Peshwa's territories 270 

Education. 
Proportion of schools in the different collectorates, & r c. 270 

Irrigation. 
Different kinds of, Quantity of water supplied by the well-bucket 272 

Agriculture. 

General observations, Agriculture of the wet season crop 274 

Do. Dry season crop (Mawuls), Dry season crop (Desk, Mawuls), Wet 
season crop (Desk), Ploughing, Treading out, Farm yard, Win- 
nowing 274 

Preserving grain, Preparing grain for food, Pounding, Grinding, Sugar 
mill, Oil mill 276 

Average size of farms, Proportion of yoke cattle, milch cattle, 
ploughs, &c 278 

Land and other Tenures. 

Estates hereditary and freehold 280 

Meeras tenure, Kowl Istawa, Owand, Tenures involving alienation of 

lands, Jagheer, Eenam, Surinjam, Doomalla, Eesaphut 283 

Deshmook and Desaee, Deshpandeh, Pateel, Koolkurnee 286 

Mahrs tenure, Bara Bullooteh, Militia, Chowgulla, Havildar, Tulwar, 

Ramoosee 290 

Bheels, Sheteh, Sharers in village revenues 293 

Revenue. 

Amount and account of, Per centage of branches of. 296 

Viewed as a capitation tax ; Average village revenue ; Shops, Excise, 

Customs 297 

Tabular view of expenses and charges upon revenue, Number of culti- 
vators, Size of farms, &c 300 

Land revenue in the different collectorates 306 



336 SEVENTH REPORT — 183j\ 

Assessments. 

Page 
General observations, Various names applied to different proportions of 

land for assessment 310 

Chief assessment on land, Sostee or permanent assessment, Varieties 

of assessment 311 

Zerhaeet or field lands 311 

Average per beegah garden and field, Extra cesses, names of 313 

Shop taxes, &c, Evils of extra assessments 317 

Description of village accounts and papers 319 

Wages. 

Agricultural labourers', Artificers', &c, in kind or money 320 

Table of rates of all classes of servants and artificers 323 

Manufactures. 
Names and prices of the few remaining , 325 

Transit Duties. 
Transit duties, how paid '326 

Coins. 
Silver and copper 327 

Weights and Measures. 

Of capacity, grain, oil, milk, and spirit. Weights: goldsmiths' 327 

Itinerary, long, and superficial measures ; weights and measures, how 
divided 330 

Army. 
Constitution, Stations 332 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 337 

On the relative Strength and other mechanical Properties of 
Cast Iron obtained by Hot and Cold Blast. By Eaton 

HODGKINSON, Esq. 

[With a Plate.] 

From the great abundance of the ores which produce iron ; 
from the fortunate circumstance of these ores being frequently 
found in the neighbourhood of coal and limestone, by which 
they are reduced to the metallic state ; from the great strength 
of the metal, and the facility with which it can be moulded 
into any form required — its uses in the arts have become very 
extensive. Every discovery, therefore, tending to facilitate 
its production, or to improve its quality, must always be re- 
garded with great interest, whilst distrust and suspicion are 
likely to be felt respecting any process by which that quality 
may be supposed to be impaired. 

The recent and very general introduction of a heated blast 
into the smelting furnaces has consequently, as might be ex- 
pected, given rise to much discussion, and at the same time 
to great difference of opinion. Iron masters in one part of the 
country had come to a conclusion that the new process greatly 
deteriorated the quality of the iron produced, and they rejected 
it accordingly. Gentlemen from other neighbourhoods, on the 
contrary, maintained that no deterioration of the metal resulted 
from the process, which was admitted by all to diminish the 
expense of its production. 

These very different conclusions, drawn by persons largely 
connected with the manufacture of cast iron, caused the honour 
of an application from the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at its meeting held at Dublin, to my friend 
Mr. Fairbairn and myself, requesting us to make a series of 
experiments tending toward the determination of this matter. 

We intended to commence the inquiry immediately, but there 
was found to be great difficulty in obtaining irons suitable for 
the purpose ; a matter which will be adverted to in Mr. Fair- 
bairn's report, where a description of the irons used will be 
given. 

In the prosecution of this research it was conceived desi- 
rable to subject the metals operated upon to more than one 
species of strain, in order to elicit their peculiar properties ; 
and accordingly they were generally broken in the following 
three modes : — 

1st. By tension, or tearing the metals asunder in the direc- 
tion of their length. 

vol. vi. 1837. , z 



338 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

2nd. By compression, or crushing specimens of different 
lengths, and various forms and sizes of base. 

3rd. By a transverse strain, and this under different forms 
of section. 

In this last mode of fracture some bars have been broken 
under various temperatures, and others have been loaded for 
a very long time with weights, neai'ly as large as would have 
broken them at once, and they are still bearing the loads. 

The experiments on the transverse strain (excepting those 
on the Carron iron, No. 2, the Devon, and the Buflfery, of 
which I read an account at Bristol) were made by Mr. Fair- 
bairn, who undertook also the experiments on the effects of 
temperature and time. I was desirous that he should try the 
effect of time upon loaded bars, being convinced that it would 
do little or nothing to destroy their power of bearing a dead 
weight ; having arrived at this conclusion from experiments 
made in a different way upon malleable iron. As I was pre- 
sent at many of Mr. Fairbairn's experiments, I may mention 
the great care and ability with which they were made ; they 
will form the subject of the next paper. 

The experiments on the tensile and compressive forces of 
the metals, and those on the transverse strain read at Bristol, 
were made by myself and are given below. 

Tensile strength of Hot and Cold Blast Cast Iron. — To 
determine the direct tensile strength of the different kinds of 
cast iron made use of in these experiments, a model was made 
of the same form as I had previously used in some experiments 
on cast iron, of which a notice was given in the Cambridge 
volume of the Association. The castings from this model were 
very strong at the ends, in order that they might be perfectly 
rigid there, and had their transverse section for about a foot 

in the middle of the form annexed . This part, which 



was weaker than the ends, was intended to be torn asunder by a 
force acting perpendicularly through its centre. The ends of 
the castings had eyes made through them, with a part more 
prominent than the rest in the middle of the casting where the 
eye passed through. The intention of this was that bolts pass- 
ing through the eyes, and having shackles attached to them 
by which to tear the casting asunder, would rest upon this 
prominent part in the middle, and therefore upon a point 
passing in a direct line through the axis of the casting. 

Several of the castings were torn asunder upon the machine 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OP CAST IRON. 



339 



for testing iron cables belonging to the Corporation of Liver- 
pool. Others were made in the same manner but of smaller 
transverse area ; these were broken by means of Mr. Fair- 
bairn's lever, which was adapted so as to be well suited for the 
purpose. 

The form of casting here used was chosen to obviate the 
theoretical objections made by Tredgold and others against 
the conclusions of former experimenters. The results are in 
the following table : 

Results of Experiments on the Tensile Force of Cast Iron. 



Description of Iron. 


Area of 
section 

in 
inches. 


Break- 
ing 
weight 
in lbs. 


Strength 

per square 

inch of 

section. 


Mean in lbs. per 
square inch. 




4-031 

1-7236 

1-7037 


56000 
22395 
23219 


13892] 
12993 \ 
13629J 


Tons. cwts. 
13505 = 6 0J 










1-7091 
1-6331 


28667 
27099 


167721 
16594/ 


16683 = 7 9 








1-7023 
1-6613 


28667 
31019 


168401 
18671 J 


17755 = 7 18§ 








1-6232 
1-6677 


22699 
24043 


139841 
14417/ 


14200 = 6 7 






Devon (Scotland) Iron, No. 3, Hot Blast 


4-269 


93520 


21907 


21907 = 9 153 


Buffery Iron, No. 1, Hot Blast 


3-835 


51520 


13434 


13434 = 6 


Do. do. Cold Blast 


4-104 


71680 


17466 


17466 = 7 10 




Coed-Talon (North Wales) Iron, No. 2, Hot Blast 
Do. do. do. 

Do. do. Cold Blast 
Do. do. do. 


1-586 
1645 


25818 
28086 


162791 
17074/ 


16676 = 7 9 


1-535 
1-568 


30102 
28380 


196101 
18100/ 


18855 = 8 8 



Compression, or the power to resist a crushing force. — In 
these experiments I shall confine myself to the resistance of 
short specimens ; crushing, with few exceptions, only such as 
will break without bending. And if I should appear to pursue 
this and some other matters beyond the strict limits of the in- 
quiry respecting the strength of hot and cold blast iron, I trust 
it will be excused, as my wish is to obtain some fixed principles 
where we have nothing but doubt and uncertainty. 

The tensile strength of cast iron is still a matter of dispute : 
the few direct experiments by Mr. Rennie and Captain Brown 

z 2 



340 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

give from 7 to 9 tons per inch, results not widely differing 
from those above ; they are noticed with some suspicion by Mr. 
Tredgold (Essay on Strength of Cast Iron, pages 91 and 92), 
who concludes from reasoning on the transverse strength of 
cast iron, according to the theory which he had adopted, that 
the direct tensile strength must be 20 tons or more. Mr. 
Barlow too, whose reasoning has better foundation than Tred- 
gold's, concludes, whilst he gives these gentlemen's results, 
that the strength must be upwards of 10 tons per square inch, 
(Treatise on the Strength of Timber and other Materials, art. 
123). I am not aware of any objection which can be brought 
against the tensile results given above, except some slight 
error which Mr. Barlow conceived (in his earlier work on the 
Strength of Timber, &c.) might arise from the use of testing 
machines, and that, in this case, would affect but four of the ex- 
periments ; all the rest were made upon Mr. Fairbairn's lever. 
I hope to explain the cause of this difference of opinion among 
our ablest inquirers at a future meeting. 

The resistance of materials to a crushing strain is equally 
a matter of doubt. Rondelet found {Trait4 cle V Art de bdtir) 
that cubes of malleable iron, and prisms of various kinds of 
stone, were crushed with forces which were directly as the 
area, whilst from Mr. Rennie's experiments, both upon cast 
iron and wood, it would appear that the resistance increases, 
particularly in the latter, in a much higher ratio than the 
area, (Mr. Barlow's Treatise, Art. 112). 1 have endeavoured, 
by repeating with considerable variations the ingenious ex- 
periments of Mr. Rennie, to arrive at some definite conclu- 
sions. 

In order to effect this, it was thought best to crush the 
object between two flat surfaces, taking care that these were 
kept perfectly parallel, and that the ends of the prism to be 
crushed were turned parallel and at right angles to their axis, 
so that when the specimen was placed between the crushing 
surfaces its ends might be completely bedded upon them. 
For this purpose a hole 1 1 inch diameter was drilled through 
a block of cast iron about 5 or 6 inches square, and two steel 
bolts were made which just filled this hole, but passed easily 
through it ; the shortest of these bolts was about 1 \ inch long, 
and the other about 5 inches ; the ends of these bolts were 
hardened, having previously been turned quite flat and per- 
pendicular to their axis, except one end of the larger bolt 
which was rounded. The specimen was crushed between the 
flat ends of these bolts, which were kept parallel by the block 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OP CAST IRON. 



341 



of iron in which they were inserted. See fig. 
where A and B represent the bolts, with the 
prism C between them, and D E the block of 
iron. During the experiment the block and 
bolt B rested upon a flat surface of iron, and 
the rounded end of the bolt A was pressed 
upon by the lever. There was another hole 
drilled through the block at right angles to 
that previously described ; this was done in 
order that the specimen might be examined 
during the experiment, and previous to it, to 
see that it was properly bedded. 

The accompanying sketch will show more clearly the mode 
of performing the experiment, in which the lever was always 
kept as nearly horizontal as possible. Other apparatus, not 
here shown, were used to lift up or lower the lever during the 
experiments. 





The results are given in the following tables 



342 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 









1 






















































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CO 








CO 








t pri; 
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CO 


CO 


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CO 




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no 


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CO CO 


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o 




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ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 



343 



tfC22 = 
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to.c 



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344 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837* 



By comparing the results in the two preceding tables, it will 
be seen that, where the length is not more than about three 
times the diameter, the strength for a given base is pretty 
nearly the same, as has been shown by Mr. Rennie and others. 
In that case, the prism, in cast iron at least, either does not 
bend before fracture, or bends very slightly, and therefore the 
fracture takes place by the two ends of the specimen forming 
cones or pyramids, which split the sides, and throw them out; 
or, as is more generally the case in cylinders, by a wedge 
sliding off, starting at one of the ends, and having the whole 
end for its base, as has been before mentioned ; this wedge 
being at an angle dependent upon the nature of the material. 
In cast iron, this angle is, as will be seen further on, such that 
the height is somewhat less than f of the diameter ; if the 
height of the specimen is less than the length of the wedge, 
the resistance is somewhat increased, and if the height be 
greater than from three to four times the diameter, the resist- 
ance, on account of the flexure of the specimen, will be de- 
creased. In estimating the strength of the iron from the above 
tables, I shall mostly confine myself to such specimens as vary 
from about the length of the wedge to twice its length, avoid- 
ing such results as are reduced hy flexure. Taking then the 
results from the cylinders and prisms of different dimensions 
of base, giving the means, with the number of experiments 
from which they were taken, we have the following abstracts : 

FROM TABLE I— HOT BLAST. 



Diameter of cylinder. 


Number 
of cxpe. 
riments. 


Mean crush- 
ing weight. 


Mean crush- 
ing weight per 
square inch. 


General mean per square inch. 


i 

4 
S 

if ='64 

Prism, base - 50 inch 

square, 
do. base 1-00 X -26 


3 
4 
5 
1 

3 
2 


lbs. 

6426 
14,542 
22,110 
35,888 

25,101 
26,276 


lbs. 
130,909 
131,665 
112,605 
111,560 

100,416 
101,062 


1 

I 121,685 lbs. = 54 tons 6* 
[ cwt. 

J 

1 100,738 lbs. = 44 tons 19§ 
cwt. 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 345 

FROM TABLE IL-COLD BLAST. 



Diameter of cylinder in 
parts of an inch. 


Number 
of expe- 
riments. 


Mean crush, 
ing weight. 


Mean crush- 
ing weight per 
square inch. 


General mean per inch. 






lbs. 


lbs. 




s 
i 
n 

Equilateral triangle 

side -866. 

Squares, § inch the 


2 
4 

7 

2 


6088 
14,190 
24,290 

32,398 


124,023 
128,478 
123,708 

99,769 


1 125,403 lbs. = 55 tons 19| 
cwt. 


side. 
Rectangles, base l'OO 


2 


24,538 


98,152 


,,100,631 lbs. = 44 tons 18§ 
cwt. 


X 243. 

Cylinders -45 inch di- 


3 


26,237 


107,971 


ameter and "75 high 










(not in table). 


2 


15,369 


96,634 


J 



«J S h tSihZ' l Wh l° Se V 868 Wei ' e trkn S les ' S( * uares > ban- 
gles and the cylinders, last mentioned, were all cut out of the 

centre ot a bar 1£ inch square. 

It will be noticed that the cylinders in both the tables eive 
much higher results per square inch than we have just found 
from the specimens cut out of the 1 1 inch bar. J This the 
writer is inclined to attribute to no other cause but that thev 
were mostly toned out of small cylinders cast for the purpose 

of at^ma^ 111 *° * "'"*' *"■ ^ ^ the mS 
We will defer speaking of such comparative results as affect 
the general question of hot and cold blast iron, till all the evi- 
dence is obtained which the present paper will afford drawing 
however as we proceed, such other conclusions as seem to of 
made out from the experiments. 

Taking the mean crushing weight per square inch, as just ob- 

KS? 6 ab f ra , Ct . S fr0m th , e d F erent C ^ Hnders « the 1st and 
2nd tables, and retaining only the three first figures, we have 

ll2lT h £ dlameter Hi' » {***?«?) ;«■ 132 > 113 > 112 - 

u ao - *, i. t \ per inch. / 124,128,124. 

The strengths per square inch in each of these lines 

approach to an equality, particularly in the latter, where The 

areas of section vary as 1 : 4 ; and the strength per inch is n 

both cases represented by 124. In the "former fine the 

?31 l to e U°2i and H inCh , dki r er * ive ^-ngths va^Tng t 
ldl to 112 per square inch. The areas here vary nearly as 
1 : 6-5 and the falling off in strength is about one-skA This 
small diminution m the power of the larger cylinders to resist 
crushing, may be accounted for from thoseLving been cu 



346 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

out of a larger body of metal than the small ones ; a matter 
which we have seen greatly reduces the strength. 

Admitting, then, that the strength per square inch in each of 
the preceding cases would have been the same if the iron had 
always been of equal hardness, we must conclude that "the 
resistance of short cylinders of cast iron to a crushing force is 
directly as the area."* 

If we refer to the abstract from tables 1 and 2 for the mean 
strengths per square inch, as given by the equilateral triangle, 
the square, the rectangle, and the cylinder, we shall find them 
in the latter, 99,769, 98,152, 107,971, 96,361; 
in the former, 100,416, 101,062. 

The strength, 107,971 and 101,062, as given by the prisms 
whose base is a rectangle, is the greatest ;t and this may be 
accounted for from their superior breadth to that of the other 
specimens, and consequently, from their having in them more 
of the outside and harder part of the bar, out of which they 
were cut, than the others. In the other forms the difference 
of strength is but little ; and therefore we may perhaps admit 
that " difference of form of section has no influence upon the 
power of a short prism to bear a crushing force." 

Mode of Fracture. (See Plate.) 

When a rigid body is broken by a' crushing force, which is 
prevented from acting after it has effected a rupture, it will be 
found not to be crumbled or reduced to a shapeless mass, but 
to be divided according to mathematical laws, and sometimes 
into very interesting forms of fracture. The accompanying 
plate will show how the fracture was effected in a variety 
of cases, and that these were all subject to one pervading law. 
The figures in the plate are of the same size as the specimens. 
Fig. 1 represents a cylinder before it was crushed ; fig. 2 

* Conceiving it desirable that this matter should be left without a doubt, 
and as Mr. Fahbairn had some very good teakwood which had been many 
years in store, 12 cylinders were turned whose diameters were £ inch, 1 inch, 
and 2 inches, 4 of each; the latter 8 out of the same piece of wood; the 
height in each case was double the diameter : the strengths were as below. 
Cylinders i inch dia. Cylinders 1 inch dia. Cylinders 2 inches dia. 
2335") 10507"] 38909"] 

2543 I Mean 9499 I Mean 39721 I Mean 

2513 [2439 10507(10171 41294(40304 

2335 J 10171 J 41294 J 

These quantities, taking the means, are nearly as 25,100 and 400, which is the 
ratio of the areas, and therefore the strength is nearly as the area, though this 
varies as 4 and 1 6 to 1 . 

t Rondelet (Traitc de V Art de bdlir, book 9, page 150) found that prisms of 
stone, whose base was a rectangle, as above, bore somewhat less than those 
with square bases of the same area. 



7 * Report Brit. Assoc.*- ft. VI p 3 ■, 




tSfiojire a&v. 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 347 

represents a wedge broken off from the same cylinder, the 
point of the wedge being flattened by the crushing apparatus 
after the fracture. There is a small crack in this wedge indi- 
cating a disposition to slide off in another direction, or rather 
to form a double wedge, nearly equilateral, having the diameter 
of the end of the cylinder for its base, and its height about 
half that of the former. The operation of this double wedge 
would be to split the cylinder and throw out its two sides. 
Figs. 3 and 4 represent another cylinder before and after 
crushing ; in fig. 4, a double wedge formed at each end threw 
out the opposite sides. Figs. 5 and 6 represent a cylinder 
before and after crushing ; in the latter, as in fig. 4, the ends 
of the figure have formed the bases of imperfectly formed 
cones, whose tendency has been to separate the sides. Fig. 7 
is intended to represent one of these cones, the vertex of 
which is a sharp edge or point. Fig. 8 represents another 
cylinder of rather soft iron ; the pressure was removed in the 
commencement of the fracture, and the circumference was 
found to be surrounded with parallel cracks both ways ; the 
angle of these cracks with the base being that of the usual 
inclination of the wedge. Fig. 9 represents the appearance 
of a very short cylinder after fracture ; the vertex of the cone, 
formed upon the end not shown, has split the end here repre- 
sented, leaving a part in the middle unbroken ; the opposite 
end is sound for a much greater central area than this, but 
its edges are a little broken. 

Fig. 10 represents a rectangle ;* and fig. 1 1 its appearance 
after fracture. One end of the specimen has been formed into 
a pyramid A, sharp pointed at D, which has split the opposite 
base and thrown off the end B, and the part C very nearly. 
The sides and angular piece at the end are lost. 

Fig. 12 represents a short rectangle before crushing ; figs. 
13, 14, 15, the different appearances of specimens of the same 
size after fracture. In fig. 14 the fracture has been caused 
by a sliding off in the way of the diagonal; in fig. 15 the 
specimen slided off in the direction b c, as before, and was 
cracked through its whole length in the direction a d ; in fig. 
13, the top of the specimen formed the base of a wedge which 
had split the bottom, and the bottom itself had formed the base 
of a wedge. Fig. 16 represents a rectangle of the same base 
as the preceding, but of double the height. Figs. 17, 18, 19, 
20, represent its appearances as shewn by different specimens 
after fracture. Fig. 20, in which the parts are separated, 
shows a wedge A C D, which has for its base the bottom of 

* The prism is, in this and many other places, designated by the form of its 



348 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 

the prism ; this wedge has, commencing at its vertex C, a 
sharp line CD,! inch long ; and by the operation of its sides, 
the wedge has removed the parts E and F, and separated the 
sides G and H, which before joined together at the top and 
formed part of the upper side of the prism. The part A B, 
adhering to the lower part of the wedge, and which had 
formed part of the side-of the prism, was nearly separated by 
the action of another wedge formed by the lower end of the 
part G, which formed a wedge not represented by the 
figure, but whose vertex formed a sharp line about *43 inch 
long in the direction I K. This wedge occupied the space 
between B and CD, and its tendency was to split off from the 
principal wedge the only remaining portion A B. 

Fig ~1 represents a prism of the form of an equilateral 
triangle, and fig. 2-2, is its appearance after fracture. The 
tendency is here, as before, for opposite wedges to be formed, 
which split off the angles and separate the sides. Figs. 23, 
24, 25, give direct representations of the three sides. 

Angle of Wedge. — We have seen that when bodies are 
subjected to a crushing force, their fracture, if they do not 
break by bending, is caused by the operation of a cone or 
wedge, which seems, under various circumstances, to slide off 
at nearly a constant angle. If a prismatic body, as for instance 
a short cylinder, be subjected to a crushing force, there 
seems no reason why fracture should take place one way more 
than another ; there is usually too in soft irons a bulging out 
in every direction round the cylinder, which shows that it is 
equally strained all round : a matter which is otherwise exem- 
plified in fig. 8. If then the cylinder be longer than the wedge, 
or than the two cones which are always in operation at the 
ends during crushing, it is evident that the angle of the wedge 
and cones, which is the same, will depend upon the nature of 
the material, and the cones must be isosceles. Cylinders 
longer than the wedge usually slide off in one direction with- 
out showing the cones, but some examples in other forms 
have been obtained ; as for instance, in the fracture of a rect- 
angular specimen whose base was l'00x*26, and its height 
•50 inch (Table I.), the rupture took place by wedges, which 
appeared to be isosceles, being formed at the top and bottom 
of the ends of the specimen, and dividing the sides in the 



middle, (as in the fig. 

In cases however where the height of the specimen was not 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 349 

equal to that of the two opposing or double wedges, then these 
cones and wedges could not be isosceles after fracture com- 
menced. It is shown by several of the figures (figs. 4, 6, 11, 
13, 20, &c.) how fracture takes place, and that in such cases 
the wedges do not meet directly and crush their opponents, 
but have sharp points and slip past each other to effect the 
destruction of the piece of which they are formed. It is evi- 
dent therefore that the angles, which the sides of these wedges 
make with their base, cannot in this case be equal ; this* is 
shown by the rectangles one inch high, and it was found to 
exist in a higher degree in the fracture of those of half the 
height. In these the angle with the base was further reduced, 
through an almost necessary tendency of the specimen to divide 
itself in the diagonal ; though the angle there was less, on 
account of the compression of the prism, than the natural 
angle in this material. The angle of the wedge as obtained 
from different specimens is as follows : 

Cylinders. 

Carron Iron, No. 2, 54° 15', 54° 15' 52° 10' "1 

59°, 56° 15' . . . . . ' j*Mean 55° 11' 

Buffery Iron, No. 1, 58°, 54°, 56°' 58°,' 56° 1 

62°, 56° . . . . '[ Do. 57° 8' 

Coed-Talon, No. 2, 55°, 56°, 56°, 531°, 53°, 49° Do. 53° 40' 

Mean angles from cones 56i°, 54i°, 57|° . Do. 56° 10' 

Mean from the whole, being 21 cylinders of various"! "Z77, 
lengths. . . . >55° 32' 



Rectangular prisms 1 inch high, Carron Iron, No. 3, angles 
made by the sides of the double wedge, with the base 
Cold Blast 54° "1 

58 J 
Hot Blast 58A 1 551° 1 

57 J' 60" f» 53 )>Mean56°43' 

If} J 

Rectangular prisms A inch high, Carron Iron, 

48°, 51°, 52°, 54°, 57°, 52°, . . Mean 52° 40' 

Mean angle from the above rectangular prisms . 54° 41' 

Prisms, Base -50 x '50 inch. 
Carron Iron, No. 2. . . 53°, 54° . Mean 53° 30' 



350 SEVENTH HEPORT — 1837- 

From the preceding examination of the angles obtained from 
specimens of different forms and lengths, it appears that amidst 
great anomalies, there is, taking the mean results, a considerable 
approach to equality, as is more particularly shown from the 
angles of the cylinders and rectangular prisms ; and this approach 
would doubtless have been greater and the anomalies less if the 
specimens had always been longer than the wedge. The defect 
in the angle from this cause is evident in the shorter rectangular 
prisms, and has been alluded to before. 

We may assume therefore, without assignable error, that in 
the crushing of short cast iron prisms of various forms, longer 
than the wedge, the angle of fracture will be the same. This 
simple assumption, if admitted, would prove at once, not only 
in this material but in others, which break in the same manner, 
the proportionality of the crushing force in different forms to 
the area ; since the area of fracture would always be equal to 
the direct transverse area multiplied by a constant quantity de- 
pendent upon the material. 

The preceding experiments on crushing have been confined 
to one sort of iron, the Carron No. 2, hot and cold blast. The 
results from other irons are given in the following table : — 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OP CAST IRON. 



351 



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352 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 



Ratio of Tensile to compressive forces in Cast Iron. 
Having obtained the forces per square inch necessary to 
tear asunder and to crush masses of cast iron of the kinds 
previously enumerated, we will seek for the ratio of these 
forces, taking the breaking weights from the preceding table 
and that on tension. 



Descript 


on of metal. 


Compressive force 
per square inch. 


Tensile force 
per sq. inch. 


Ratio. 


Devon Iron, 
Buffery Iron, 
do. 


No. 3. Hot blast 
No. 1. Hot Blast. 
No. 1. Cold Blast. 


145,435 
86,397 
93,385 


21,907 
13,434 
17,466 


0-638 : 1 
6-431 : 1 
5-346 : 1 


Coed-Talon Iro 
do. 


n,No.2. Hot Blast. 
„ Cold Blast. 


82,734 
81,770 


16,676 
18,855 


4-961 . 1 
4-337 : 1 


Carron Iron, 
do. 


No. 2. Hot Blast. 
„ Cold Blast. 


108,540 
106,375 


13,505 
10,683 


8-037 : 1 
6-376 : 1 


Carron Iron, 
do. 


No. 3. Hot Blast. 
„ Cold Blast. 


133,440 
115,442 


17,755 
14,200 


7-515 : 1 
8129 : 1 



Before quitting the subject of compression, I may mention 
that, in experiments upon various bodies besides cast iron, a 
tendency to form cones or pyramids in the fracture was ob- 
servable, showing that the same laws were in operation in these 
as have been developed in the experiments upon cast iron. For 
instance, in the crushing of short cylinders of bone obtained 
from the thigh of an ox, fracture always took place by cones 
or wedges. In marble the same result was frequently obser- 
vable, though less obvious than in iron, through a disposition 
to split in the direction of the strata. 

On the power of timber of various kinds to resist a crushing- 
force, I have, through the liberal views of Mr. Fairbairn, made 
a considerable number of experiments, with an apparatus si- 
milar to that employed in the crushing of cast iron, but much 
larger. In this material, though fibrous, fracture always 
took place by wedges sliding off", or by cones or wedges 
splitting the prism in the manner of cast iron, though at a 
much less angle with the horizon than in that metal. In the 
crushing of malleable iron likewise, short specimens always 
bulge out in the middle through the operation of the opposing 
cones or pyramids formed at their bases. 

As this principle is found to obtain in the crushing of short 
bodies so widely different as bones, marble*, timber of all kinds, 

* Rondelet (Traile de V Art debdiir) crashed stones of various kinds, and 
has given the forms of pyramids obtained from crushing prisms with square 
bases. 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OP CAST IRON. 353 

cast iron, malleable iron, we may therefore assume that it is in 
operation in the crushing of all rigid bodies, and consequently 
that, in any particular one, the resistance will be as the area 
of its section. 

I may perhaps mention that this subject ought to be studied 
in conjunction with optics and crystallization. The singular 
structure of the mineral called analcime, or cubizite, as shown 
by polarized light, and given by Sir David Brewster, Optics, 
chap, xxv., has so much the appearance of some of our frac- 
tures, as to lead one to conceive that it may have arisen from 
compression. 

Transverse strength. — It is to ascertain the resistance of 
materials to a transverse strain that the efforts of experiment- 
ers have chiefly been directed. One reason for this seems 
to be the great facility with which bodies can be broken this 
way comparatively with others, which require lai'ge weights or 
complex machinery, and often considerable attention to theo- 
retical requirements. 

In making the following experiments, it has been the au- 
thor's aim, whilst he kept in view the inquiry respecting hot 
and cold blast iron, to make the results subservient to some 
other purposes, besides giving an extended view of the appli- 
cation of these irons. 

As the inquiry was a comparative one, and required that a 
number of experiments, and those similar to each other, should 
be made upon each iron from any particular place, several 
models were made, and castings, both of hot and cold blast 
iron, obtained from them ; and as it seemed desirable to trust 
in these experiments as little as possible to theory, some bars, 
one inch square, were always obtained from the same model. 
From these, and from others, a satisfactory comparison of the 
relative strengths of the irons would have been obtained with- 
out the use of theory, could the castings have always been got 
of the exact size of the model ; but as small deviations in this 
respect were unavoidable, theory was employed to effect the 
slight reduction in the results of each bar to what they would 
have been if the bars had been of the exact dimensions of the 
models. 

All the bars used in these comparisons are uniform and of 
the same length, and the theoretical assumptions with regard 
to the strength and deflection are of the simplest and most 
generally admitted kind. They are as below, the strength in 
rectangular bars is taken as the breadth multiplied by the 
square of the depth, and the ultimate deflection is supposed 
to be inversely as the depth. To these there has been added 

vol vi. 1837. 2 A 



354 SEVENTH REPORT 1837« 

another, namely, that the power of bearing an horizontal im- 
pact from a given weight is measured by the strength of the 
beam multiplied by its ultimate deflection. This last assump- 
tion supposes that all cast-iron bars of the same dimensions 
in our experiments are of the same weight, and that the de- 
flection of a beam up to the breaking weight would be as the 
pressure. Neither of these is true, they are only approxi- 
mations ; but the difference in the weights of cast-iron bars of 
equal size is very little, and taking them as the same, it may 
be inferred from my paper on Impact upon Beams (Fifth Re- 
port of the British Association), that the assumption above 
gives results near enough for practice. 

After the following tables, therefore, there will always be 
given a summary of the strengths and deflections, reduced to 
what they Mould have been supposing the bar to be of the 
exact size of the model ; and attached to these there will be 
the other values mentioned above, representing the power of 
the beam to bear impact. 

The modulus of elasticity is set down that it may serve as 
a measure of the comparative stiffness of the irons. It is given 
in pounds per square inch. 

The ultimate deflection attached to each experiment was 
derived from the results last obtained, and as these results 
were usually more numerous than those set down, the deflec- 
tion cannot often be calculated from those which remain, but 
is nearer to the truth than those which might be obtained from 
the remaining ones. 

In all the future experiments, the bars were cast 5 feet 
long, and were supported on props 4 feet 6 inches asunder, 
except it is otherwise mentioned, which will only be found in 
two cases. 

In the prosecution of the experimental part of this research, 
it gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the efficient manner 
in which my views were carried into execution by Mr. John 
Patchett, an intelligent pupil of Mr. Fairbairn. 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 



355 




2 A 2 



356 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



Experiment 15. 

Bar from the same 
model as the last. 
4-97 inches deep, 
1-02 ... broad. 
Weight 77 lbs. 


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Length 5 feet, 

Weight 78 lbs. 


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ON STRKNGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 361 

Note. — I have been favoured by Mr. Fairbairn with the an- 
nexed examination of the structure of this and the following 
Irons : — 

" The Carron No. 2, cold blast iron, when viewed with the 
microscope, presents a dull grey colour, finely granulated with 
an appearance of greater porosity in the centre than round the 
extreme edges of the fracture. It is a free working iron, easily 
cut with the turning tool, but indicates stiffness under the file. 

" Carron No. 2, hot blast. This iron has nearly the same 
character in its working properties as the above ; it files with 
rather more freedom, and possesses an appearance of greater 
fluidity than the cold blast. Colour, a greyish blue, accom- 
panied with a greater degree of uniformity in its crystalline 
structure than the cold blast. 

" Buffery No. 1, cold blast, is finer grained than either of the 
Carron irons. It is chiefly composed of minute granules in- 
termixed with small brown specks ; it works with less freedom 
than the hot blast, and cuts with difficulty under the tool. In 
this respect it is much akin to the Milton iron (described in 
Mr. Fairbairn's paper). 

"Buffery No. 1, hot blast, has a similar appearance to the 
Carron, No. 2, cold blast ; it has more lustre than Buffery 
No. ], cold blast; the crystals are widely separated in the 
centre, but more compact as they approach the outer edge of 
the bar. 

" This appearance is nearly peculiar to the whole of the hot 
blast irons." 

Re??iarks upon the Experiments in the preceding Tables. — 
In devising the preceding experiments the writer had several 
objects in view, which he will now proceed to state. It has 
been remarked above that the first five experiments on the hot 
blast iron, and the first three on the cold blast, in the tables 
above, were made after the others. These will therefore be 
passed over for the present, and we shall commence with ex- 
periments 6 and 7, which, like most of the others, are on bars 
from the same model in both tables. The object of these ex- 
periments was to show the influence of form of section in beams 
of cast iron ; and it will be seen from the results, that when 
the rib was downwards, the casting broke with 2801bs. in the 
hot blast iron, and 2661bs. in the cold blast. When the rib 
was upwards, the breaking weights were 9S01bs. and 10501bs. 
respectively; the bars bearing nearly four times as much one 
way up as the other. These results are contrary to the opi- 
nions of some leading writers, as Tredgold and others, who, 
from their principles, would maintain that the strength should 



362 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

be equal in the two cases. An experiment of this kind I gave 
in a paper on the strength and best forms of iron beams (Me- 
moirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, 
vol. v.), and it formed indeed the basis of the inquiry in that 
paper. 

I had remarked in some of the experiments upon the Carron 
iron, and more particularly the Buffery following, that the 
elasticity of the bars was injured much earlier than is generally 
conceived ; and that instead of it remaining perfect till one- 
third or upwards of the breaking weight was laid on, as is 
generally admitted by writers (Tredgold on Cast Iron, Article 
59, &c), it was evident that 4-th or less produced in some cases 
a considerable set or defect of elasticity, and judging from its 
slow increase afterwards, I was persuaded that it had not come 
on by any sudden change, but had existed, though in a less 
degree, from a very early period. I mentioned the fact and 
my convictions sometime after to Mr. Fairbairn, and expressed 
a desire to have bars cast of greater length than before to ren- 
der the defect more obvious. 

All the future experiments on a transverse strain, whether 
made by myself or Mr. Fairbairn, have tended to prove the 
matter. 

We passed over the experiments placed at the beginning of 
Tables 1 and 2: referring now to them, it will be seen, that in 
3 out of 6 experiments, 161bs. produced a visible set, whilst 
the breaking weights in these cases were 469, 462, 518 : in 
other words, the elasticity was injured with 3 ^ of the break- 
ing weight, or less. In experiments 4 and 5, Table I., which 
were on longer bars than the others, cast for this purpose, 
and for another mentioned further on, the elasticity in the for- 
mer experiments was sensibly injured with 71bs., and in the 
latter with 141bs., the breaking weights being 3641bs. and 
1120lbs. In the former of these cases a set was visible with 
T ' T , and in the other with -fa of the breaking weight, showing 
that there is no weight, however small, that will not injure the 
elasticity. 

In two other bars, from the same model, which were laid 
against vertical supports at the same distance asunder as be- 
fore, the force being applied horizontally by means of a pulley, 
71bs. showed a defect of elasticity in that which had the rib 
submitted to tension, and 21 in the other. 

The mode used to observe when the elastic force became 
injured was as follows. When a bar was laid upon the sup- 
ports for experiment, a "straight edge" was placed over it, 
the ends of which rested upon the bar directly over the points 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 363 

of support. These ends were slides which enabled the straight 
edge to be raised or lowered at pleasure. In this manner it 
was easy to bring it down to touch in the slightest manner a 
piece of wood tied upon the middle of the bar. A candle was 
then placed at the side of the bar opposite to where the ob- 
server stood, by the light of which, distances extremely minute 
could be observed. Should it be asked why this had not been 
noticed before, the answer of the writer would be, that most 
experimenters have used bars shorter in proportion to their 
depth than are here employed, and therefore the set was much 
less obvious than here ; and in deep bars or beams it is almost 
imperceptible till the weight laid on is considerable. 

From what has been stated above, deduced from experi- 
ments made with great care, it is evident that the maxim of 
loading bodies within the elastic limit has no foundation in 
nature ; but it will be considered as a compensating fact, that 
materials will bear for an indefinite time a much greater load 
than has hitherto been conceived. 

When a body is subjected to a transverse strain some of its 
particles are extended and others compressed ; I was desirous 
to ascertain whether the above defect in elasticity arose from 
tension or compression, or both. Experiments 4 and 5 show 
this ; in these a section of the casting, which was uniform 

c 

throughout, was the form g j . During the experiments the 

broad flat part a b was laid horizontally upon supports ; the 
vertical rib c in the latter experiment being upwards, in the 
former downwards. When it was downwards the rib was ex- 
tended, when upwards the rib was compressed. In both cases 
the part a b was the fulcrum; it was thin and therefore easily flex- 
ible, but its breadth was such that it was nearly inextensibleand 
incompressible comparatively with the vertical rib. We may 
therefore assume that nearly the whole flexure which takes place 
in a bar of this form arises from the extension or compression 
of the rib, according as it is downwards or upwards. In ex- 
periment 4 we have extension nearly without compression, and 
in experiment 5 compression almost without extension. These 
experiments were made with great care, and their results are 
generally in accordance with those from two others alluded 
to above, but not inserted. They show that there is but little 
difference in the quantity of the set, whether it arises from 
tension or compression. 

The set from compression however is usually somewhat less 
than that from extension, as is seen in the commencement of 
the two experiments, and near the time of fracture, in that 



364 SEVENTH REPORT 1837- 

submitted to tension. The deflections from equal weights are 
nearly the same, whether the rib be extended or compressed, 
(as was shown by Duleau in experiments upon triangular bars 
of malleable iron,) but the ultimate strengths, as appears from 
above, are widely different. 

It is to be hoped that the observations made above will ob- 
viate objections which have been offered against a form of cast 
iron beam arrived at by the writer, in a paper alluded to above. 
From this paper it appeared that a beam bore the greatest 
weight from the same quantity of metal when the strengths of 
its bottom and top ribs were as 6 or 6\ to 1, and this was found 
in the subsequent experiments of the writer to be nearly the 
ratio of the tensile to the compressive strength of the iron. 

To ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the assertion of 
Emerson, so often shown to be true in theory, that if a small 
portion be taken from the vertex of a beam whose section is a 
triangle, the part will be stronger than the whole, castings 
were formed both from the hot and cold blast iron (experi- 
ments 8, 9, 10, in the one, and 8, 9, in the other). They were 
all from the same model and ground to the exact size, and the 
part taken off in the frustums was T ^th of the whole height 
of the triangle. The breaking weights of the whole triangle, 
in the hot blast iron were 672 and 812 lbs., mean 742 lbs. and 
of the frustum 728 lbs. In the cold blast iron the whole tri- 
angle was broken with 815 lbs., and the frustum with 677. 
The difference in the transverse strengths of the hot and cold 
blast Carron irons, No. 2, is very small, the ratio between them 
being 99 to 100. (See recapitulation at the close of this re- 
port.) We may therefore assume their strengths to be the 
same, and taking an arithmetic mean between all the strengths 
we have strength of triangle 766 lbs., strength of frustum 
702 lbs. The frustum is therefore weaker than the triangle. 

It is often asserted by practical men that if the hard skin at 
the outside of a cast iron bar be removed, its strength, com- 
paratively with its dimensions, will be much reduced ; to try 
this, four bars, \\ inch square each, were made, two of hot and 
two of cold blast ; they were then planed in the middle to one 
inch square nearly : their results are in experiments 11 and 12 
in Table 1, and 10 and 11 in Table 2. Their strengths were 
fully equal to those of bars 1 inch square, which were cast with 
them but not inserted. 

It is generally admitted that the strength of a rectangular 
beam, whose length and breadth are given, is as the square of 
the depth. To ascertain how far this important law agrees 
with experiment, castings were formed both in the Carron and 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OP CAST IRON. 365 

Devon irons ; they were 1 inch broad, and had their depths 1,3, 
and 5 inches, the distance between the two supports being as 
usual, 4 feet 6 inches. It is evident then, that if the strength 
of each of these beams, when reduced to the exact size, be 
divided by the squai'e of the depth, the quotient should be the 
same in each case. Hence, taking the mean reduced strength 
of the 1-inch bars for the first number in each iron, the reduced 
strength of the 3-inch bars divided by 9 for the second num- 
ber, and the reduced strength of the 5-inch bars divided by 
25 for the third number, we have 

In Carron, No. 2, hot blast . 452 
Do. cold blast. . 453 

In Devon Iron, No. 3, hot blast 537 
Do. cold blast 448 



427 


402 


417 


414 


576 


617 


377 


405 



472 449 459 
If we compare the numbers in each line, they differ widely ; 
but taking the mean, they approach nearly to equality. We 
may therefore admit that the strength is as the square of the 
depth. 



366 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 





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Experiment 6. 

Uniform beam 5-15 
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top and bottom, of 
transverse areas, as 
1 : 6£. Weight of 
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Depth ofbar... 4-98 

Breadth of do. 1-03 

Weight of do. 80' 

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Depth of bar... 3'00 
Breadth of do. 1-03 
Weightofdo. 48 lbs. 


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Depth ofbar... I'OO 
Breadth of do. TOO 


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ON STRENGTH A.ND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 



367 



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Experiment 7. 

Uniform beam 5 - 13 
inches deep, from 
same model as that 
in Experiment 6, 
Hot Blast. Weight 
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Experiment 6. 

Depth of bar... 4-98 
Breadth of do. roi 
Weight of do. 77i 
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Experiment 5. 

Depth of bar... 297 
Breadth of do. TOO 
Weight of do. 44£ 
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368 



SEVENTH REPORT 1837. 



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ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 369 

The last experiment in both the preceding tables was upon a 
beam of the best form of section, according to the writer's expe- 
riments, (Manchester Memoirs, vol. 5.) the top and bottom 
rib being nearly in the ratio of the tensile to the compressive 
forces of the metal, as mentioned above. The intention was 
to compare the strength of the beam with that of a rectangular 
one of the same weight, length, and depth. For this purpose 
the beams were cast uniform throughout, and in comparing the 
strength of that in the hot blast iron with the mean from the 
strengths of the two preceding rectangular beams, reduced as 
above, we find that the breaking weight of these is 19,108 lbs., 
and the beam of best form was broke with 25,817 lbs. In the 
cold blast Devon iron the difference in strength is much greater. 
The rectangular beam, from the mean of the two experiments 
on the beams 3 inches and 5 inches deep, when reduced as 
above, gives 11,183 lbs. for the breaking weight, whilst the 
beam of the best form required 22,227 lbs. to break it. 



VOL. vi. 1837. 2 b 



370 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837- 



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ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 



371 



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372 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 



General Abstract of transverse strengths. 

In the following abstract the transverse strengths of hot 
and cold blast irons to bear pressure and impact will be given, 
together with the ratio of these strengths. 

The comparison will be made between the results of bars 
from the same models, taking the reduced results, where such 
reduction has been made. 

Carron Iron No. 2. 



Strength of Irons. 


Power to bear impact. 








Ratio of 


strengths. 


c3 . 


s 


Ratio. 


Cold Blast Iron. 


Hot Blast Iron. 


The strength of Cold 


SI 


Sg 


The power of Cold 








Blast Iron being re- 


S£ 




Blast being repre- 








presented as 1000. 


u 


x" 


sented as 1000. 


.-] 


492 


469 


1000 : 


953-2 


686 


677-2 


1000 


987-1 


<u 

CJ 


509 


456 


1000 : 


895-8 


711 


649-3 


1000 


• 913-2 


3 


429 


465 


1000 : 


1083-9 


493 


5320 


1000 


: 1079-1 


0> 


449 


475 


1000 : 


1057-9 


1481 


1598-7 


1000 


1079-4 


•S5 


457 


429 


1000 : 


938-7 


2601 


2744-2 


1000 


10550 


3 


3750 


3843 


1000 : 


1024-8 


141 


154 


1000 


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rt J 


10362 


{>»»}, 0053 


1000 : 


9701 


3391 
530 


3087 
452 


1000 
1000 


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852-8 













359 


jiij.fi 


1 AAA 


1277-4 




<±UO O 1UUV 






Mean 


1000 : 


989-1 




















Mean 1000 


1005-1 


• 


266 


280 


1000 : 


1052-6 








a 3 


1050 


980 


1000 : 


933-3 










■ 815 


{S}» 


1000 : 


910-4 








o 

13 


677 


728 

Mean 
General Mean 


1000 : 
1000 : 
1000 : 


1075-0 








992-8 


990-9 











— — 












Devon !N 


o. 3 Iron. 








448 


504 


1000 : 


11250 


353-9 


589-2 


1000 : 


1664-8 




448 


570 


1000 : 


1272-3 


489-5 


1761-7 


1000 : 


3598-9 




890 


1456 


1000 : 


1635-9 


921-8 
1702-3 


2747 
4935 


1000 : 
1000 : 


2980-0 
2899-0 




3389 


5183 


1000 : 


1529-3 













10133 


15422 


1000 : 


1521-9 




Mean 1000 : 


2785-6 






Mean 1000 : 


1416-9 












~^^~ 


— — 








Buffery No. 1 Iron. 




491 


464 


1000 : 


945-0 


721-1! 


) 721-5 


1000 : 


1000-4 




437 


437 


1000 : 


1000-0 


2341-6 


2163-2 


1000 : 


923-8 




462 


409 
2975 


1000 : 
1000 : 


885-7 
9731 












3057 




Mean 1000 : 


9621 




3424 


2903 


1000 : 


850-1 




— 




Mean 1000 : 


930-7 






•^^^ 


~^^^~ 









ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OP CAST IRON. 373 



Having now subjected the irons which are tried in this paper 
to a variety of strains, and given the results under their pro- 
per heads, a summary of the whole will be added, with remarks 
to show the general bearing upon the question of Hot and Cold 
Blast Iron. 

Recapitulation . 
Taking only the means from all the experiments in the present 

paper, and attaching to each value a number, in a parenthesis, 

indicative of the quantity of experiments from which it has 

been derived, we have as below : — ■ 

Carron Iron No. 2. 



Tensile strength in lbs. per "1 

square inch J 

Compressive strength in lbs. 1 
per inch from castings torn I 

asunder J 

Do. from prisms of various"! 

forms J 

Do. from cylinders 

Transverse strength from all") 

the experiments J 

Power to resist impact 

Transverse strength of bars one 1 

inch square in lbs J 

Ultimate deflection of do. in in. 
Modulus of elasticity in lbs. per") 

square inch J 

Specific gravity 



16683 (2) 

106375 (3) 

100631 (4) 
125403 (13) 

(11) 

(9) 

476 (3) 
1-313(3) 
17270500(2) 
7066 



13505 (3) 

108540 (2) 

100738 (2) 
121685 (13) 

(13) 

(9) 

463 (3) 
1-337 (3) 
16085000 (2) 
7046 



Ratio representing 
Cold Blast by 1000. 



1000 : 809 

1000 : 1020 

1000 : 1001 
1000 : 970 
1000 : 991 
1000 : 1005 
1000 : 973 
1000 : 1018 
1000 : 931 
1000 : 997 



Devon Iron No. 3. 



Tensile strength 

Compressive strength 

Transverse ditto from the ex- "1 

periments generally J 

Power to resist impact 

Transverse strength of bars"! 

one inch square J 

Ultimate deflection ditto 

Modulus of elasticity ditto 

Specific gravity 



(5) 

W 

448 (2) 

•79 (2) 
22907700 (2) 
7295 (4) 



21907 (1) 
145435 (4) 

(5) 

W 

537 (2) 

1-09 (2) 
22473650 (2) 
7229 (2) 



1000 
1000 
1000 



Buffery Iron No. 1. 



Tensile strength 

Compressive ditto 

Transverse ditto 

Power to resist impact 

Transverse strength of bars! 

one inch square J 

Ultimate deflection ditto 

Modultls of elasticity ditto 

Specific gravity 



17466 (1) 
93366 (4) 

(5) 

••' (2) 

463 (3) 

1-55 (3) 
15381200 (2) 
7079 



13434 (1) 
86397 (4) 

(5) 

(2) 

436 (3) 

1-64 (3) 
13730500 (2) 
6998 



1000 : 769 

1000 : 925 

1000 : 931 

1000 : 963 

1000 : 942 

1000 : 1058 

1000 : 893 

1000 : 989 



: 1417 

: 2786 

: 1199 

1000 : 1380 

1000 : 981 

1000 : 991 



374 



SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

Coed-Talon Iron, No. 2. 





Cold Blast. 


tt-» di«. ' Ratio representing 
Hot Blast. Cold Blit by 1000. 




18855 (2) 

81770 (4) 

6955 (4) 


16676 (2) i 1000 : 884 

82739 (4) | 1000 : 1012 

6968 (3) j 1000 : 1002 




Carron Iron No. 3. 




14200 (2) 17755 (2) 

115442 (4) 133440 (3) 

7135 (1) ! 7056 (1) 


1000 : 1250 
1000 : 1156 
1000 : 989 










x 





Of the three columns of numbers in the table above, the first 
is the strength or other quality in the cold blast iron ; the 
second is that in the hot blast ; and the third is the ratio of 
these quantities. 

The results in this table contain nearly the whole information 
relative to the question of hot and cold blast iron that the pre- 
ceding research affords ; and before adverting to them it may 
be mentioned that it is usual for the makers of cast-iron to di- 
vide it, when taken from the furnace, into three classes, called 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, differing from each other in the appearance and 
qualities of the material. No. 1 contains the softest and richest 
irons, those which have the largest crystals ; No. 3, the 
hardest and densest irons, those with the least crystals ; and 
No. 2, irons intermediate between the former two descriptions. 
Beginning with the No. 1 iron, of which we have a specimen from 
the Buffery Iron Works, a few miles from Birmingham, we 
find the cold blast iron somewhat surpassing the hot blast in 
all the following particulars — direct tensile strength, compress- 
ive strength, transverse strength, power to resist impact, mo- 
dulus of elasticity or stiffness, specific gravity ; whilst the only 
numerical advantage possessed by the hot blast iron is that it 
bends a little more than the cold blast before it breaks. 

In the irons of the quality No. 2 the case seems in some de- 
gree different ; in these the advantages of the rival kinds seem 
to be more nearly balanced. They are still, however, rather 
in favour of the cold blast. 

Referring to the No. 2 iron, from the Carron Works in 
Scotland, we find the tensile, compressive, and transverse 
strengths, together with the modulus of elasticity and specific 
gravity, all higher in the cold blast iron than the hot blast, whilst 
the ultimate deflection and power of sustaining impact are 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 375 

greater in the hot blast. The cold blast iron is the better, but 
the difference is very small. 

In the iron No. 2, from the Coed-Talon Works in North 
Wales, the tensile strength is greater in the cold blast than 
in the hot ; but the resistance to compression is higher in the 
latter than the former, and that is the case with the specific 
gravity. 

So far as my experiments have proceeded, the irons of No. 
1 have been deteriorated by the hot blast ; those of No. 2 ap- 
pear also to have been slightly injured by it ; whilst the irons 
of No. 3 seem to have benefited by its mollifying powers. 
The Carron iron No. 3, hot blast, resists both tension and 
compression with considerably more energy than that made 
with the cold blast ; and the No. 3 hot blast iron from the 
Devon Works, in Scotland, is one of the strongest cast-irons 
I have seen, whilst that made with the cold blast is compara- 
tively weak, though its specific gravity is very high, and higher 
than in the hot. The extreme hardness of the cold blast De- 
von iron above prevented many experiments that would other- 
wise have been made upon it, no tools being hard enough to 
form the specimens. The difference of strength in the Devon 
irons is peculiarly striking. 

From the evidence here brought forward, it is rendered ex- 
ceedingly probable that the introduction of a heated blast into 
the manufacture of cast iron has injured the softer irons, whilst 
it has frequently mollified and improved those of a harder 
nature ; and considering the small deterioration that the irons 
of the quality No. 2 have sustained, and the apparent benefit 
to those of No. 3, together with the great saving effected by 
the heated blast, there seems good reason for the process be- 
coming as general as it has done. 

Additional evidence will be obtained from the experiments 
in the next paper. 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 377 



On the Strength and other Properties of Cast Iron obtained 
from the Hot and Cold Blast. By W. Fairbairn, Esq. 

The collecting of material for ascertaining the comparative 
values of iron, made from the hot and cold blast, has been a 
work of no small labour and expense. The chief difficulties 
arose from the greater part of the works in this country having 
only one sort of iron: large quantities of both sorts were ob- 
tained ; but, excepting those irons experimented upon, none 
could be found for comparison, nor any on which we could de- 
pend for analogous results. 

Nearly the whole of the Scotch irons are now prepared by 
the hot blast ; and, with few exceptions, we may consider those 
of this country and Wales produced under circumstances pre- 
cisely similar. The great saving effected in the process of 
smelting by heated air, is in itself a sufficient inducement for 
its extended application ; and in those districts where the iron 
is not deteriorated, there cannot exist a doubt as to the advan- 
tages derivable from its introduction. In confirmation of this opi- 
nion, it may be important to know, that one-half or three-fourths 
of the British ores are now reduced by heated air. In the Staf- 
fordshire and Shropshire districts it has become almost univer- 
sal ; and in North and South Wales the old process is rapidly 
giving way to the more economical application of the hot blast. 
In Yorkshire it has been tried with indifferent success, first at 
the Low Moor Iron Works, near Bradford, and more recently at 
the Milton Works, near Sheffield. The proprietors of the for- 
mer establishment persevered for some time in the use of the 
hot blast, but after repeated trials and experiments (part of 
which are briefly detailed in this Report), they abandoned the 
process, as injurious to the material, and reconstructed the old 
apparatus for the cold blast. 

I believe at the present moment they use air at the tempera- 
ture of the atmosphere : it is forced from the blowing cylinder 
into a dry receiver, and from thence into the furnace. Whether 
the failure which took place at the Low Moor was owing to 
some peculiarity in the ores, or from the presence of sulphur in 
the fuel, I am unable to determine. It is however obvious, that 
a considerable deterioration of strength was the consequence ; 
and from that cause, and that alone, I am informed, the hot 
blast was discontinued. 

At the Milton Works, the heated air is still in use ; and al- 



378 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

though the iron produced is inferior in strength to that made at 
the neighbouring works, the Elsicar, where the cold blast is used 
t L nevertheles! much improved by the introduction of araaU 
proportion of the Ulverstone ores, about 6 per cent., in combi- 
nation with those found in the district. 

Notwithstanding the unfavourable circumstances attending 
the application of the hot blast in the reduction of the York - 
sta oL, the same results were not obtained in its app feabon 
to the Scotch iron. In those a deterioration takes place less 
frequently, as will be seen from the experiments 

Taking a general mean of the experiments in both case*,, the 
difference is not considerable ; and, with the exception of the 
Yorkshire irons, I should consider the results in no way unfa- 
vourable to the hot blast : as respects fluidity, appearance, &c, 
I should rather deem them favourable than otherwise. 

Previous to eemmenoiBg ** esperiinenW it waj ^ged 
desirable to collect as large an assortment of iron of bo th kinds 
as possible ; and in order to avoid an improper sel J^jon, tart 
application was made to the W oo vwtevs m ihe J*»£W*» 
and subsequently numerous samples were received through the 
medium of persons whose interests were m no way identified 

"" way^ kept clear of preconceived opinions, ^col- 
lected a massif material of almost every description. Out of 
nearly one hundred specimens, only six could be found answei 
W the description of hot and cold blast ; viz. the Canon, Devon, 
B^tTeiy, Coed Talon, and perhaps the Elsicar and Milton* 

^difficulties thus enumerated, and the scarcity of the com- 
parage metals, have of necessity confined our -vestigations to 
the above-named irons : they are consequently more limited 
than we could wish « but, at the same time, of such a nature as, 
T trust will lead to important results. 

Si account of the greater portion of the irons collected could 
nof be introduced into these Reports, I was nevertheless induced 
o examine them minutely ; and having tested the whole by care- 
ful Experiment, the results will be found in a distinct form m 
the siSh volume of the Manchester Memoirs, now in the press. 

« c- ^ oWp was written, it was deemed expedient to renew the appli- 

last year. M r. Had| ,k.nsor , expr ^.^ of , he T f 

tensile forces of temWI ?'" ""? timcnt! . For this purpose a second 

their results will be given in the present paper. 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 379 

After the request of the Association, expressed to Mr. Hodg- 
kinson and myself, that an inquiry should be instituted into the 
comparative merits of iron made from hot and cold blast, nearly 
ten months elapsed before the necessary materials could be ob- 
tained. In fact, the experiments would have been of the most 
meagre description, for want of samples, but for the friendly co- 
operation and assistance of Mr. Murray, of the Monkland Iron 
Works. To that gentleman we are indebted for the whole of the 
Scotch irons, exclusive of other valuable information relative to 
the fuel and analysis of the ores ; I have therefore great plea- 
sure in thus publicly expressing my acknowledgments. 

Before entering upon the experiments, I made application to 
the greater part of the works from whence iron was received, 
for information relative to the nature of the ores, fuel, flux, &c. ; 
also for such analyses as the proprietors might be enabled or 
disposed to furnish, including the temperature of the air used in 
the process of smelting. 

To these inquiries I received replies which, although of great 
importance in themselves, could not with propriety be intro- 
duced into this report.* 

During the progress of the investigation, it was found desi- 
rable for Mr. Hodgkinson and myself to divide our labours ; 
and in order to examine the different irons with the utmost 
care, the experiments were classed and apportioned in the man- 
ner described in Mr. Hodgkinson's report. 

This division was attended with considerable benefit, as it ex- 
cited a closer investigation of the subject ; and the whole of the 
experiments being made at my works, gave a facility for com- 
parison that could not otherwise be obtained. 

* Mr. Murray, of the Monkland Iron Works, has, however, supplied me 
with the following particulars relative to the Scotch irons, viz. the Carron and 
Devon irons, which are derived, like most of the Scotch metals, from argillaceous 
carbonate of iron, and are found in the coal-basins of the country. Some of 
the poorer ores are found in balls imbedded in argillaceous schistus, and worked 
or turned out with the coal ; but the principal is a seam of black band, at a 
depth of 15 to 25 fathoms under the splint, or fifth seam of coal, of the Lanark- 
shire basin. This iron-stone varies from 9 to 15 inches in thickness, and con- 
tains from 35 to 40 per cent, of iron. Two-thirds of this ore is generally used 
to each charge, and one-third of the poorer balls and bands containing from 
20 to 25 per cent. — Dr. Colquhoun analyzed the black band ore, wlucn gave 



Carbonic acid 35-17 

Protoxide of iron 53-03 

Lime 3-33 

Magnesia 177 

Silica 1-40 



Alumina 0-63 

Peroxide of iron 0*23 

Calcareous or bituminous matter. 3-03 
Moisture and loss 1-41 



100-000 

The specific gravity of this ore is 3-0553, colour close brown. The ore con- 
tains an intermixture of imbedded bivalve shells. 



380 SEVENTH REPORT — 1837. 

In describing the following experiments, I will first give the 
tables and results on the transverse or more usually investigated 
species of strain, where the experiment was made without loss 
of time, and which may be considered a continuation of the 
same class of experiments by Mr. Hodgkinson, We shall then 
proceed to experiments on the Coed-Talon bars, in relation to 
time or indefinite strain. Afterwards we shall exhibit others on 
the effects of temperature ; and finally close with a general sum- 
mary of results. 

Before presenting the experiments in their tabulated forms, 
it may be necessary to supply a brief description of each class, 
in order to show the methods adopted, and how the results 
were obtained. — For this purpose, a number of models were 
prepared, to be 1 inch and lh inches scpiare; and the metals, 
hoth hot and cold blast, were run into the form of those mo- 
dels. But as there is generally a slight deviation in the size 
of the casting from that of the model, the dimensions of the 
bars were accurately measured at the place of fracture, and the 
results reduced (when practicable) by calculation to what they 
would have been if cast to the exact size of the model. This 
was done to ensure more accurate comparisons in the strength 
and other mechanical properties of the bars. The mode of re- 
duction is described in the preceding report. 

In addition to the methods herein adopted to determine the 
strength, tenacity, and value of the different irons made from 
hot and cold blast, I conceived it necessary to institute a series 
of microscopic observations ; to examine with great minuteness 
the appearance of the fracture, and by magnifying the crystals, 
to elucidate such visible indications of the fluidity, strength, 
and ductility of the irons, as would distinguish the qualities of 
the different numbers known in commerce by the name of No. 
1, 2, and 3 iron. 

I also pursued in other respects a close and minute examina- 
tion of the different specimens of hot and cold blast iron, and 
by turning, filing, grinding, &c, endeavom-ed to discover their 
properties in relation to each other, and their adaptation to the 
arts. 

As the Carron No. 2 irons, hot and cold blast, were among 
the first we obtained, I have, in the description of the fractures 
attached to each table of experiments, made the Carron No. 2 
cold blast iron the basis of comparison. It may therefore he 
proper to give here the following short description of it. 

This iron, when viewed with a microscope, presents a dull 
grey colour, finely granulated, with an appearance of greater 
porosity in the centre than round the extreme edges of the frac- 
ture. It is a free-working iron, easily cut with the turning 
tool, but indicates stiffness under the file. 



. 



ON STRENGTH AND PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 381 

able I.— North Wales Iron.— Coed-Talon No. 2 Pig-Iron, Cold Blast. 



Experiment 1. 

Depth of bar, 1-042 
Breadth of do. 1-021 
Distance between 

supports, 4 ft. 6 in. 
Weight of bar, 5 ft. 

long, 16^ lbs. 



56 
126 
154 

182 
238 
294 
350 
406 
434 
448 



"=.5 
A 



•057 
•115 
•299 
•37 
•451 
•615 
•8 

•993 
1-21 
1-332 
broke 



'■§ S 



•015 
023 
•032 
•06 
•08 
•115 
162 
•195 



. • . Ultimate de- 
flection, = 1-394. 
Broke 1 J- inch 
from the centre. 



I Experiment 2. 

Depth of bar,