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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

I OIL 



REPORT 

OF THE 

TWELFTH MEETING 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT MANCHESTER IN JUNE 1842. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1843. 



TEINTED BY EICHAHD AND JOHN E. TAYLOB, 
BED LION COUET, FLEET STEEET. 



«<?£ 









CONTENTS. 

— *- — 

Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association , v 

Officers and Council . vii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement viii 

Table of Council from commencement ix 

Officers of Sectional Committees and Corresponding Members .... xi 

Treasurer's Account xii 

Reports, Researches, and Desiderata ,. xiv 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xx 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxv 

Arrangements of the General Evening Meetings xxix 

Address of the President xxxi 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir J. Herschel, the Master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, the Dean of Ely, Dr. Lloyd, 
and Colonel Sabine, appointed to conduct the co-operation of the 
British Association in the system of Simultaneous Magnetical and 
Meteorological Observations 1 

Report on the present state of the Ichthyology of New Zealand. By 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., &c, Inspector of Naval Hospitals 
at Haslar , 12 

Report on the Progress of the Meteorological Observations at Ply- 
mouth. By W. Snow Harris, F.R.S., &c 30 

Second Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. H. E. Strickland, 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow, and Prof. Lindley, appointed to 
make Experiments on the Growth and Vitality of Seeds 34 

Report of the Committee* on Railway Sections. By Charles Vig- 
noles, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.R.I.A., M. Inst. C. E., Professor of Civil 
Engineering, University College, London '. . 38 

Report of the Committee for the Preservation of Animal and Vegetable 
Substances 4,0 

Abstract of Professor Liebig's Report on " Organic Chemistry applied 
to Physiology and Pathology." By Lyon Playfair, M.D 42 

Report on the British Fossil Mammalia. By Richard Owen, Esq., 

F.R.S., Part I 54 

62 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Researches on the Influence of Light on the Germination of Seeds and 
the Growth of Plants. By Mr. Robert Hunt, Secretary to the 
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society 75 

Report on the Fossil Fishes of the Devonian System or Old Red Sand- 
stone. By Louis Agassiz, Professor of Natural History at Neuf- 
chatel 80 

Appendix to a Report on the Strength and other Properties of Cast 
Iron obtained from the Hot and Cold Blast. By William Fair- 
bairn, Esq 88 

Report of the Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British As- 
sociation held at Plymouth, in 1841, for registering Shocks of Earth- 
quakes in Great Britain. By David Milne, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.E. 92 

Report of a Committee appointed at the Tenth Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation for the Construction of a Constant Indicator for Steam-en- 
gines, and for the determination of the Velocity of the Piston of the 
Self-acting Engine at different periods of the Stroke. Members of 
the Committee : — Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq., F.R.S.; J. Enys, Esq. ; 
the Rev. Professor Moseley, M.A., F.R.S. (Reporter) 98 

Report of a Committee on the Form of Ships. By John Scott Rus- 
sell, M.A 104- 

Report of a Committee appointed " to consider of the rules by which 
the Nomenclature of Zoology may be established on a uniform and 
permanent basis" 105 

Report of a Committee of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, consisting of Lieut.-Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. ; Lord San- 
don, M.P. ; G. R. Porter, Esq., F.R.S. ; J. Heywood, Esq., F.R.S. ; 
Dr. W. P. Alison; and E. Chadwick, Esq., on the Vital Statistics 
of large Towns in Scotland 121 

Provisional Reports, and Notices of Progress in Special Researches en- 
trusted to Committees and Individuals 205 



ERRATUM. 
Page 12, line 10 of Sections, for directed read vertical. 



TO THE BINDER. 
There are only Two Plates in this volume, which are numbered II and IV. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 



RULES. 

MEMBERS. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to conform 
to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution, recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Members of the Association, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

The amount of the Annual Subscription shall be One Pound, to be paid in 
advance upon admission ; and the amount of the composition in lieu thereof, 
Five Pounds. 

An admission fee of One Pound is required from all Members elected as 
Annual Subscribers, after the Meeting of 1839, in addition to their annual 
subscription of One Pound. 

The volume of Reports of the Association will be distributed gratuitously 
to every Annual Subscriber who has actually paid the Annual Subscription 
for the year to which the volume relates, and to all those Life Members who 
shall have paid Two Pounds as a Book Subscription. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

If the Annual Subscription of any Member shall have been in arrear for 



yi RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

two years, and shall not be paid on proper notice, he shall cease to be a 
Member. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the previous 
Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or longer, 
to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the following 
persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would par- 
ticularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and brought 
under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of par- 
ticular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, for 
the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommen- 
dations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. VU 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1842—43. 



Trustees {permanent).— Francis Baily, Esq., F.R.S. Roderick Impey Mur- 
chison, Esq., F.R.S., Pres. G.S. John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., Treas. G.S. 

President. — The Lord Francis Egerton, M.P., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. The Hon. and Very 
Rev. Wm. Herbert, LL.D., F.L.S., Dean of Manchester. William Charles 
Henry, M.D., F.R.S. Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart. The Rev. Professor 
A. Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., G.S., &c. 

President Elect. — The Earl of Rosse. 

Vice-Presidents Elect.— The Earl of Listowel. Vise. Adare, M.P., F.R.S. 
Sir W. R. Hamilton, R.I.A. Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

General Secretaries. — Roderick Impey Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., Pres. G.S., 
London. Lieut.-Col. Sabine, F.R.S., Woolwich. 

Assistant General Secretary. — John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., York. 

General Treasurer.— John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., &c. 2 Duke Street, Adel- 
phi, London. 

Secretaries for the Cork Meeting in 1843.— John Stevelly, M.A., Prof, of 
Nat. Phil., Belfast. Rev. Jos. Carson, Fellow of Trin. Coll., Dublin. Wm. 
Keleher, Esq., Cork. 

Treasurer to the Meeting in 1843. — James Roche, Esq., Cork. 

Council. — Sir H. T. De la Beche. Sir David Brewster. Sir Thomas Bris- 
bane. Rev. Dr. Buckland. Dr. Daubeny. Professor Forbes. Professor T. 
Graham. G. B. Greenough, Esq. W. J. Hamilton, Esq. Rev. W. V. Har- 
court. Leonard Horner, Esq. Robert Hutton, Esq. Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. 
Rev. Professor Lloyd. The Marquis of Northampton. Rev. Dr. Peacock 
(Dean of Ely). Dr. Richardson. Sir John Robison. Dr. Roget. Rev. 
Professor Sedgwick. H. E. Strickland, Esq. Lieut.-Col. Sykes. Professor 
Wheatstone. Rev. William Whewell (Master of Trin. Coll., Cambridge). 
C. J. B. Williams, M.D. Rev. Professor Willis. James Yates, Esq. 

Local Treasurers. — Dr. Daubeny, Oxford. C. C. Babington, Esq., Cam- 
bridge. Dr. Orpen, Dublin. Charles Forbes, Esq., Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow. William Gray, jun., Esq., York. William Sanders, Esq., Bristol. 
Samuel Turner, Esq., Liverpool. Rev. John James Tayler, Manchester. 
James Russell, Esq., Birmingham. William Hutton, Esq., Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Henry Woollcombe, Esq., Plymouth. James Roche, Esq., Cork. 

Auditors William Yarrell, Esq. Robert Hutton, Esq. James Hey- 
wood, Esq. 



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MEMBERS OP COUNCIL. IX 

II. Table showing the Members of Council of the British Association from 

its Commencement, in addition to Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries. 

r Rev. Wm. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S., &c 1832—1836. 

I Francis Baily, V.P. and Treas. R.S 1835. 

General Secretaries. < R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., F.G.S 1836—1842. 

Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S., F.G.S.. &c 1837, 1838. 

L Lieut-Colonel Sabine, V.P.R.S 1839, 1842. 

General Treasurer. John Taylor, F.R.S., Treas. G.S., &c 1832—1842. 

f Charles Babbage, F.R.SS.L. & E., &c. (Resigned.) 

rr . f ,, I R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., &c. 

Trustees (permanent) . j John Taylorj FR&> &< / 

L Francis Baily, F.R.S. 

ASSiSt S n e t cr < e 7 Z eral } Pr °f e s sor Phillips, F.R.S., &c 1832-1842. 

Members of Council. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S. , Astronomer Royal 1834, 1835, 1841. 

Neill Arnott, M.D 1838, 1839, 1840. 

Francis Baily, V.P. and Treas. R.S 1837—1839. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S 1841, 1842. 

George Bentham, F.L.S 1834, 1835. 

Robert Brown, D.C.L., F.R.S 1832, 1834, 1835, 1838—1841. 

Sir David Brewster, F.R.S., &c 1832, 1841—1842. 

Sir Thomas Brisbane 1842. 

Sir M. I. Brunei, F.R.S., &c 1832. 

Rev. Professor Buckland, D.D., F.R.S., &c. 1833, 1835, 1838—1842. 

The Earl of Burlington 1838, 1839. 

Rev. T. Chalmers, D.D., Prof, of Divinity, 

Edinburgh 1833. 

Professor Clark, Cambridge 1838. 

Professor Christie, F.R.S., &c 1833—1837. 

William Clift, F.R.S., F.G.S 1832—1835. 

J. C. Colquhoun, Esq 1840. 

John Corrie, F.R.S., &c 1832. 

Professor Daniell, F.R.S 1836, 1839- 

Dr. Daubeny 1838—1842. 

J. E. Drinkwater 1834, 1835. 

Sir P. G. Egerton, Bart 1840, 1841. 

The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L., F.R.S., &C..1833. 

Professor Forbes, F.R.SS. L. & E., &c 1832, 1841, 1842. 

Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., V.P.R.S., &c 1832. 

Professor R. Graham, M.D., F.R.S.E 1837- 

Professor Thomas Graham, F.R.S 1838, 1839—1842. 

John Edward Gray, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. ...1837—1839, 1840. 

Professor Green, F.R.S., F.G.S 1832. 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S., F.G.S 1832—1839—1842. 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S., F.S.A., &c 1836. 

Rev. W. V. Harcourt, F.R.S 1842. 

Sir William R. Hamilton, Astron. Royal of 

Ireland 1832, 1833, 1836. 

W. J. Hamilton, Sec. G.S 1840—1842. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. .1837. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, F.R.SS. L. & E. 

F.R.A.S., F.G.S., &c 1832. 

Thomas Hodgkin, M.D 1833—1837, 1839, 1840. 

Prof. Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D., F.R.S., &C.1832. 

J^eonard Horner, F.R.S 1841, 1842. 

Rev. F. W. Hope, M.A., F.L.S 1837. 

Robert Hutton, F.G.S., &c 1836, 1838, 1839—1842. 

Professor R. Jameson, F.R.SS. L. & E 1833. 



i. MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 

Rev. Leonard Jenyns 1838. 

H. B. Jerrard, Esq 1840, 

Dr. R.Lee 1835. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart 1838, 1839, 1842. 

Rev. Dr. Lardner 1838, 1839. 

Professor Lindley, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c 1833, 1836. 

Rev. Professor Lloyd, D.D 1832, 1833, 1841, 1842. 

J. W. Lubbock, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c., Vice- 

Chancellor of the University of London ...1833—1836, 1838, 1839. 

Rev. Thomas Luby 1832. 

Charles Lyell, jun., F.R.S 1838, 1839, 1840. 

William Sharp MacLeay, F.L.S 1837- 

Professor Miller, F.G.S 1840. 

Professor Moseley 1839, 1840. 

Patrick Neill, LL.D., F.R.S.E 1833. 

The Marquis of Northampton, P.R.S 1840—1842. 

Richard Owen, F.R.S., F.L.S 1836, 1838, 1839. 

Rev. Geo. Peacock, D.D., M.A., F.R.S.,&c.l832, 1834, 1835, 1839—1842. 

E. Pendarves, Esq 1840. 

Rev. Professor Powell, M.A., F.R.S., &c. ...1836, 1837, 1839, 1840. 

J. C. Prichard, M.D., F.R.S., &c 1832. 

George Rennie, F.R.S 1833—1835, 1839, 1841. 

Sir John Rennie 1838. 

Dr. Richardson, F.R.S 1841, 1842. 

Rev. Professor Ritchie, F.R.S 1833. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D 1841. 

Sir John Robison, Sec. R.S.E 1832, 1836, 1841, 1842. 

P. M. Roget,M.D., Sec. R.S., F.G.S., &c... 1834— 1837, 1841, 1842. 

Lieut. -Colonel Sabine 1838. 

Lord Sandon 1840. 

Rev. Professor Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S 1842. 

Rev. William Scoresby, B.D., F.R.SS. L.&E.1832. 

H. E. Strickland, Esq., F.G.S 1840—1842. 

Lieut.-Col. W. H. Sykes, F.R.S., F.L.S., &C.1837— 1839, 1842. 

H. Fox Talbot, Esq., F.R.S 1840. 

Rev. J. J. Tayler, B.A., Manchester 1832. 

Professor Traill, M.D 1832, 1833. 

N. A.Visrors,M.P.,D.C.L., F.S.A., F.L.S. ..1832, 1836, 1840. 

James Walker, Esq., P.S.C.E 1840. 

Captain Washington, R.N 1838, 1839, 1840. 

Professor Wheatstone 1838—1842. 

Rev.W.Whewell,F.R.S.,MasterofT.C.Camb.l838, 1839, 1842. 

C. J. B. Williams, M.D 1842. 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S 1842. 

William Yarrell, F.L.S 1833—1836. 

James Yates, Esq., M.A., F.R.S 1842. 

Secretaries to the f Edward Turner, M.D., F.R.SS. L. & E. 1832—1836. 
Council. \ James Yates, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 1831—1840. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XI 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES AT THE 
MANCHESTER MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— The Very Rev. George Peacock, D.D., F.R.S., Dean of Ely. 

Vice-Presidents.— Siv D. Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. Sir T. M. Brisbane, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. Rev. Professor Lloyd, F.R.S. Sir W. R. Hamilton. 

Secretaries.— Professor Stevelly, M.A. Rev. W. Scoresby, F.R.S. Pro- 
fessor McCullagh, M.R.I.A. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

President — John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. *, ** « 

Vice-Presidents.— Marquis of Northampton, F.R.S. Professor T. Graham, 
F.R.S. Rev. W. V. Harcourt, F.R.S. Michael Faraday, F.R.S. C. Henry, 
M.D., F.R.S. T , _ _ 

Secretaries.— Dr. Lyon Playfair. Robert Hunt. John Graham. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., &c, Pres. G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir H.T.DelaBeche, F.R.S., F.G.S. Rev. W. Buckland, 
D.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S., F.G.S. R. Griffith, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— U. E. Strickland, F.G.S. G. Lloyd, M.D., F.G.S. E. W. 
Binney, Sec. Manch. Geol. Soc. R. Hutton, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

President— The Hon. and Very Rev. Wm. Herbert, LL.D., F.L.S., Dean 
of Manchester. 

Vice-Presidents.— John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. John Moore, F.L.S. 
Sir William Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. The Bishop of Norwich, P.L.S. 

Secretaries E. Lankester, M.D., F.L.S. R. Patterson. J. A. Turner. 

SECTION E. MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Jas. Lomax Bardsley, M.D. C. B. Williams, M.D. 

Secretaries. — Dr. Sargent, and Dr. Chaytor. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 

President. — George William Wood, M.P., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S. Henry Hallam, F.R.S. Sir 
Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. G. R. Porter. 

Secretaries.— Rev. R. Luney, M.A. G. W. Ormerod, M.A. Wm. Cooke 
Taylor, LL.D. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Rev. Professor Willis, M.A., F.R.S., &c. &c. 

Vice-Presidents William Fairbairn, C.E. Eaton Hodgkinson, F.R.S. 

Sir M. I. Brunei, F.R.S. Sir John Robison, F.R.S.E., Pres. R.S.A. 

Secretaries. — James Thomson, F.R.S.E., Civil Engineer. J. Scott Russell, 
M.A., F.R.S.E. I. F. Bateman, C.E. C. Vignoles, F.R.A.S. 
CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Professor Agassiz, Neufchatel. M. Arago, Secretary of the Institute, 
Paris. A. D. Bache, Philadelphia. Professor Berzelius, Stockholm. Pro- 
fessor Bessel, Konigsberg. Professor H. von Boguslawski, Breslau. Pro- 
fessor Braschmann, Moscow. Professor De la Rive, Geneva. Professor Dumas, 
Paris. Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. Professor Encke, Berlin. Dr. A. Er- 
man, Berlin. M. Frisiani, Astronomer, Milan. Baron Alexander von Hum- 
boldt," Berlin. M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg^. Professor Jacobi, Konigsberg, Dr. 
Lamont, Munich. Professor Liebig, Giessen. Professor Link, Berlin. Pro- 
fessor CErsted, Copenhagen. M. Otto, Breslau. Jean Plana, Astronomer 
Royal, Turin. M. Quetelet, Brussels. Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. Professor 
Schumacher, Altona. Professor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 
RECEIPTS. 



£&.<!. £ s. d. 

Balauce in hand from last year's Account 367 3 11 

Life Compositions fromMembers at Plymouth Meeting and since 358 
Annual Subscriptions... Ditto Ditto.. .Ditto 773 1 



1131 1 



513 2 



Compositions for Books (future publications) 563 2 

Moieties of £5 Compositions Refunded 50 

Dividend on £6000 in 3 per cent. Consols, 6 months, to\ 90 

January 1842 J 

Proceeds of Sale of £500 3 per cent. Consols 45.2 1 O 

Received on account of Sale of Reports, viz. 

1st vol., 2nd Edition 4 13 9 

2nd vol 3 15 2 

3rd vol 4 6 

4th vol 5 19 

5th vol 5 12 O 

6th vol • 13 9 

7th vol 21 9 

8th vol 30 6 \ 

Lithographs ° 18 

Received for Ladies' Tickets at Plymouth 







£2903 10 11 



"WILLIAM YARRELL," 

ROBERT HUTTON, J. Auditors. 

JAMES HEYWOOD, 



LL,1 
D, J 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



24th July 1841 to the 23rd June 1842. 

PAYMENTS. 



£ s, d. £ s. d. 



Sundry Disbursements by Treasurer and Local Trea- 
surers, including the expenses of the Plymouth 
Meeting, Advertising, and Sundry Printing 321 15 5 

PaidBalanceof Accountforprinting.&c.TenthReport 266 11 6 

Paid on account of Engraving for Eleventh Report 21 11 10 

288 3 4 

Salaries to Assistant Secretary, Accountant, &c. ... 305 

Grants toCommittees for Scientificpurposes,viz. — for 

Dynamometric Instruments 1840 100 

Do 1841 13 11 2 



113 11 2 

Anopleura Britannica 1840 52 12 

Tides at Bristol „ 50 

Do 1841 9 8 



59 8 

Action of Gases on Light 1840 30 14 7 

Roberts's Chronometers „ 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology of Great Britain „ 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia 1841 100 

Statistics of Education 1840 20 

Marine Steam-vessel Engines 1838 28 

Reduction of Stars in Histoire Celeste 1841 59 

British Association Catalogue of Stars „ 110 

Coloured Drawings of Railway Sections 1840 11 10 

Do 1841 150 

161 10 

British Belemnites „ 50 

Fossil Reptiles (Publication of Drawings and 

Report) „ 210 

Forms of Vessels 1840 100 

Do 1841 80 

180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 1838 5 8 6 

Meteorological Observations and Anemome- 
ters at Plymouth 1841 68 

Constant Indicator „ 90 

Velocity and Force of Wind „ 10 

Light on Germination of Seeds and Growth 

of Plants 8 

Vital Statistics „ 50 

Growth and Vitality of Seeds „ 8 1 11 

Questions on the Races of Men 1840 7 9 



Balance in Bankers' hands 337 

Do. in Treasurer & Local Treasurers' hands 201 13 



1449 17 8 
9 
9 
- 538 14 6 

£2903 10 11 



xiv REPORT — 1842. 

The following Reports on the Progress and Desiderata of different branches 
of Science have been drawn up at the request of the Association, and 
printed in its Transactions. 

1831-32. 

On the progress of Astronomy during the present century, by G. B. Airy, 
M.A., Astronomer Royal. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Tides, by J. W. Lubbock, M. A., 
Vice-President of the Royal Society. 

On the recent progress and present state of Meteorology, by James D. 
Forbes, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy, Edinburgh. 

On the present state of our knowledge of the science of Radiant Heat, by 
the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry, 
Oxford. 

On Thermo-electricity, by the Rev. James Cumming, M.A., F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry, Cambridge. 

On the recent progress of Optics, by Sir David Brewster, K.C.G., LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

On the recent progress and present state of Mineralogy, by the Rev. 
William Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On the progress, actual state, and ulterior prospects of Geology, by the 
Rev. William Conybeare, M.A., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., &c. 

On the recent progress and present state of Chemical Science, by J. F. W. 
Johnston, A.M., Professor of Chemistry, Durham. 

On the application of Philological and Physical researches to the History 
of the Human species, by J. C. Prichard, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

1833. 

On the advances which have recently been made in certain branches of 
Analysis, by the Rev. G. Peacock, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the present state of the Analytical Theory of Hydrostatics and Hydro- 
dynamics, by the Rev. John Challis, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the state of our knowledge of Hydraulics, considered as a branch of 
Engineering, by George Rennie, F.R.S., &c. (Parts I. and II.) 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the Magnetism of the Earth, by 
S. H. Christie, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics, Woolwich. 

On the state of our knowledge of the Strength of Materials, by Peter 
Barlow, F.R.S. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Mineral Veins, by John Taylor, 
F.R.S., Treasurer G.S., &c. 

On the Physiology of the Nervous System, by William Charles Henry, 
M.D. 

On the recent progress of Physiological Botany, by John Lindley, F.R.S., 
Professor of Botany in the University of London. 

1834. 

On the Geology of North America, by H. D. Rogers, F.G.S. 

On the philosophy of Contagion, by W. Henry, M.D., F.R.S. 

On the state of Physiological Knowledge, by the Rev. Wm. Clark, M.D., 
F.G.S., Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge. 

On the state and progress of Zoology, by the Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., 
F.L.S., &c. 

On the theories of Capillary Attraction, and of the Propagation of Sound 
as affected by the Development of Heat, by the Rev. John Challis, M.A., 
F.R.S., &c. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XV 

On the state of the science of Physical Optics, by the Rev. H. Lloyd, M.A., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy, Dublin. 

1835. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the application of Mathematical 
and Dynamical principles to Magnetism, Electricity, Heat, &c, by the Rev. 
William Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On Hansteen's researches in Magnetism, by Captain Sabine, F.R.S. 

On the state of Mathematical and Physical Science in Belgium, by M. 
Quetelet, Director of the Observatory, Brussels. 

1836. 

On the present state of our knowledge with respect to Mineral and Thermal 
Waters, by Charles Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., &c, Professor of 
Chemistry and of Botany, Oxford. 

On North American Zoology, by John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

Supplementary Report on the Mathematical Theory of Fluids, by the Rev. 
J. Challis, Plumian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Cambridge. 

1837- 

On the variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at different points of 
the Earth's surface, by Major Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

On the various modes of Printing for the use of the Blind, by the Rev. 
William Taylor, F.R.S. 

On the present state of our knowledge in regard to Dimorphous Bodies, 
by Professor Johnston, F.R.S. 

On the Statistics of the Four Collectorates of Dukhun, under the British 
Government, by Col. Sykes, F.R.S. 

1838. 

Appendix to Report on the variations of Magnetic Intensity, by Major 
Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

1839. 

Report on the present state of our knowledge of Refractive Indices for 
the Standard Rays of the Solar Spectrum in different media, by the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.Ast.S., Savilian Professor of Geo- 
metry, Oxford. 

Report on the distribution of Pulmoniferous Mollusca in the British Isles, 
by Edward Forbes, M.W.S., For. Sec. B.S. 

Report on British Fossil Reptiles, Part I., by Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S., 
F.G.S.,&c. 

1840. 

Report on the recent progress of discovery relative to Radiant Heat, sup- 
plementary to a former Report on the same subject inserted in the first 
volume of the Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, by the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.Ast.S., F.G.S., Savilian 
Professor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

Supplementary Report on Meteorology, by James D. Forbes, Esq., F.R.S., 
Sec. R.S. Ed., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edin- 
burgh. 

1841. 

Report on the conduction of Heat, by Professor Kelland, F.R.S., &c. 

Report on the state of our knowledge of Fossil Reptiles, Part II., by Pro- 
fessor R. Owen, F.R.S. 

1842. 

Abstract of Professor Liebig's Report on Organic Chemistry applied to 
Physiology and Pathology, by Lyon Playfair, M.D. 



xvi REPORT — 1842. 

•Report on the Ichthyology of New Zealand, by John Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

On the Fossil Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone, by Professor Agassiz. 
Report on British Fossil Mammalia (Part I.), by Professor Owen. 

The following Reports of Researches undertaken at the request of the Associa- 
tion have been published in its Transactions, viz. 

1835. 

On the comparative measurement of the Aberdeen Standard Scale, by 
Francis Baily, Treasurer R.S., &c. 

On Impact upon Beams, by Eaton Hodgkinson. 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial Magnetic 
Force in Ireland, by the Rev. H. Lloyd, Capt. Sabine, and Capt. J. C. Ross. 

On the phaenomena usually referred to the Radiation of Heat, by H. 
Hudson, M.D. 

Experiments on Rain at different Elevations, by Wm. Gray, jun., and 
Professor Phillips (Reporter). 

Hourly Observations of the Thermometer at Plymouth, by W. S. Harris. 

On the Infra-orbital Cavities in Deers and Antelopes, by A. Jacob, M.D. 

On the Effects of Acrid Poisons, by T. Hodgkin, M.D. 

On the Motions and Sounds of the Heart, by the Dublin Sub-Committee. 

On the Registration of Deaths, by the Edinburgh Sub-Committee. 

1836. 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial Magnetic 
Force in Scotland, by Major Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S., &c. 

Comparative view of the more remarkable Plants which characterize the 
Neighbourhood* of Dublin, the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and the South- 
west of Scotland, &c. ; drawn up for the British Association by J. T. Mackay, 
M.RJ.A., A.L.S., &c. ; assisted by Robert Graham, Esq., M.D., Professor of 
Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 

Report of the London Sub-Committee of the Medical Section of the 
British Association on the Motions and Sounds of the Heart. 

Report of the Dublin Committee on the Pathology of the Brain and 
Nervous System. 

Account of the Recent Discussions of Observations of the Tides which 
have been obtained by means of the grant of money which was placed at the 
disposal of the Author for that purpose at the last meeting of the Association, 
by J. W. Lubbock, Esq. 

Observations for determining the Refractive Indices for the Standard Rays 
of the Solar Spectrum in various media, by the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., 
F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

Provisional Report on the Communication between the Arteries and 
Absorbents, on the part of the London Committee, by Dr. Hodgkin. 

Report of Experiments on Subterranean Temperature, under the direction 
of a Committee, consisting of Professor Forbes, Mr. W. S. Harris, Professor 
Powell, Lieut.-Colonel Sykes, and Professor Phillips (Reporter). 

Inquiry into the validity of a method recently proposed by George B. 
Jerrard, Esq., for Transforming and Resolving Equations of Elevated Degrees ; 
undertaken, at the request of the Association, by Professor Sir W. R. Hamilton. 

1837. 
Account of the Discussions of Observations of the Tides which have been 
obtained by means of the grant of money which was placed at the disposal 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XVII 

of the Author for that purpose at the last Meeting of the Association, by J. 
W. Lubbock, Esq., F.R.S. ' 

On the difference between the Composition of Cast Iron produced by the 
Cold and the Hot Blast, by Thomas Thomson, M.D., F.R.SS. L. & E., &c, 
Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow. \ . 

On the Determination of the Constant of Mutation by the Greenwich Ob- 
servations, made as commanded by the British Association, by the Rev. T. 

R. Robinson, D.D. „.•,»• j i -^ 

On some Experiments on the Electricity of Metallic Veins, and the lem- 
perature of Mines, by Robert Were Fox. ^ 

Provisional Report of the Committee of the Medical Section of the British 
Association, appointed to investigate the Composition of Secretions, and the 
Organs producing them. • , , , 

Report from the Committee for inquiring into the Analysis of the Glands, 
&c. of the Human Body, by G. O. Rees, M.D., F.G.S. . 

Second Report of the London Sub-Committee of the Medical Section of 
the British Association, on the Motions and Sounds of the Heart. 

Report from the Committee for making experiments on the Growth of 
Plants under Glass, and without any free communication with the outward 
air, on the plan of Mr. N. I. Ward of London. 

Report of the Committee on Waves, appointed by the British Association 
at Bristol in 1836, and consisting of Sir John Robison, K.H., Secretary of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and John Scott Russell, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Edin. (Reporter). , 

On the Relative Strength and other mechanical Properties of Cast Iron ob- 
tained by Hot and Cold Blast, by Eatou Hodgkinson, Esq. 

On the Strength and other Properties of Iron obtained from the Hot and 
Cold Blast, by W. Fairbairn, Esq. 

1838. 

Account of a Level Line, measured from the Bristol Channel to the En- 
glish Channel, during the year 1837-38, by Mr. Bunt, under the Direction 
of a Committee of the British Association. Drawn up by the Rev. W. 
Whewell, F.R.S., one of the Committee. 

A Memoir on the Magnetic Isoclinal and Isodynamic Lines in the British 
Islands, from Observations by Professors Humphrey Lloyd and John Phil- 
lips, Robert Were Fox, Esq., Captain James Clark Ross, R.N., and Major 
Edward Sabine, R.A., by Major Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

First Report on the Determination of the Mean Numerical Values of Rail- 
way Constants, by Dionysius Lardner, LL.D., F.R.S., <£c. 

First Report upon Experiments, instituted at the request of the British 
Association, upon the Action of Sea and River Water, whether clear or foul, 
and at various temperatures, upon Cast and Wrought Iron, by Robert Mal- 
let, M.R.I.A., Ass. Ins. C.E. . . 

Notice of Experiments in progress, at the desire of the British Association, 
on the Action of a Heat of 212° Fahr., when long continued, on Inorganic 
and Organic Substances, by Robert Mallet, M.R.I.A. 

Experiments on the ultimate Transverse Strength of Cast Iron made at 
Arigna W T orks, Co. Leitrim, Ireland, at Messrs. Bramah and Robinson's, 29th 

Provisional Reports, and Notices of Progress in Special Researches en- 
trusted to Committees and Individuals. 

1839. 

Report on the application of the sum assigned for Tide Calculations to 
Mr. W T hewell, in a Letter from T. G. Bunt, Esq., Bristol. 

1842. c 



xviii report — 1842. 

Notice of Determination of the Arc of Longitude between the Observato- 
ries of Armagh and Dublin, by the Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., &c. 

Report of some Galvanic Experiments to determine the existence or non- 
existence of Electrical Currents among Stratified Rocks, particularly those of 
the Mountain Limestone formation, constituting the Lead Measures of Alston 
Moor, by H. L. Pattinson, Esq. 

Report respecting the two series of Hourly Meteorological Observations 
kept in Scotland at the expense of the British Association, by Sir David 
Brewster, K.H., LL.D., F.R.SS. L. and E. 

Report on the subject of a series of Resolutions adopted by the British 
Association at their Meeting in August 1838, at Newcastle. 

Third Report on the Progress of the Hourly Meteorological Register at the 
Plymouth Dockyard, Devonport, by W. Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S. 

1840. 

Report on Professor Whewell's Anemometer, now in operation at Ply- 
mouth, by W. Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S., &c. 

Report on the Motions and Sounds of the Heart, by the London Com- 
mittee of the British Association for 1839-40. 

An Account of Researches in Electro-Chemistry, by Professor Schonbein 
of Basle. 

Second Report upon the Action of Air and Water, whether fresh or salt, 
clear or foul, and at various temperatures, upon Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, and 
Steel, by Robert Mallet, M.R.I.A., Ass. Ins. C.E. 

Report on the Observations recorded during the Years 1837, 1838, 1839, 
and 1810, by the Self-registering Anemometer erected at the Philosophical 
Institution, Birmingham. By A. Follett Osier, Esq. 

Report respecting the two series of Hourly Meteorological Observations kept 
at Inverness and Kingussie, at the Expense of the British Association, from 
Nov. 1st 1 838, to Nov. 1st, 1839. By Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S., &c. 

Report on the Fauna of Ireland : Div. Vertebrata. Drawn up, at the re- 
quest of the British Association, by William Thompson, Esq. (Vice-Pres. 
Nat. Hist. Society of Belfast), one, of the Committee appointed for that 
purpose. 

Report of Experiments on the Physiology of the Lungs and Air-tubes. 
By Charles J. B. Williams, M.D., F.R.S. 

Report of the Committee appointed to try Experiments on the Preservation 
of Animal and Vegetable Substances. By the Rev. J. S. Henslow, F.L.S. 

1841. 

On the Tides of Leith, by the Rev. Professor Whewell, including a com- 
munication by D. Ross, Esq. 

On the Tides of Bristol, by the Rev. Professor Whewell, including a com- 
munication by T. G. Bunt, Esq. 

On Whewell's Anemometer, by W. S. Harris, Esq. 

On the Nomenclature of Stars, by Sir John Herschel, 

On the Registration of Earthquakes, by D. Milne, Esq. 

On Varieties of the Human Race, by T. Hodgkin, M.D. 

On Skeleton Maps for registering the geographical distribution of Animals 
or Plants, by — Brand, Esq. 

On the Vegetative Power of Seeds, by H. E. Strickland, Esq. 

On Acrid Poisons, by Dr. -Roupell. 

Supplementary Report on Waves, by J. S. Russell, Esq. 

On the Forms of Ships, by J. S. Russell, Esq. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XIX 

On the Progress of Magnetical and Meteorological Observations by Sir 
John Herschel. 

On Railway Constants, by Dr. Lardner. 

On Railway Constants, by E. Woods, Esq. 

On the Constant Indicator, by the Rev. Professor Moseley. 

1842. 

Second Report of the Committee for registering Earthquakes, by David 
Milne, Esq. 

On the Progress of simultaneous Magnetical and Meteorological Observa- 
tions, by Sir John Herschel. 

On the Preservation of Animal and Vegetable Substances, by C. C. Ba- 
bington, F.L.S. 

Reports of Committee on Railway Sections, by Charles Vignoles, F.R.S. 

On the Growth and Vitality of Seeds, by H. E. Strickland, F.G.S. 

On Zoological Nomenclature, by H. E. Strickland, F.G.S. 

On the Form of Ships, by John Scott Russell, M.A, 

On the Constant Indicator, by Professor Moseley. 

On the Meteorological Observations made at Plymouth during the past 
year, by William Snow Harris, F.R.S. 

On the Influence of Light on the Germination of Seeds and the Growth 
of Plants, by Robert Hunt. 

On the Strength of Iron, by Wm. Fairbairn. 

On Vital Statistics, by Colonel Sykes, and the Committee on that subject. 



The following Reports and Continuations of Reports on the Progress and 
Desiderata of particular branches of Science, and on -the results of Re- 
searches recommended by the General Committee, have been undertaken to 
be draivn up and presented to future Meetings of the Association. [Asterisks 
are prefixed to those Reports the request for which originated at the last 
Meeting.] 

On Salts, by Professor Graham, F.R.S. 

On the Differential and Integral Calculus, by the Rev. Professor Peacock, 
M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the Geology of North America, by H. D. Rogers, F.G.S., Professor of 
Geology, Philadelphia. 

On Vision, by Professor C. Wheatstone, F.R.S. 

On Isomeric Bodies, by Professor Liebig. 

On Organic Chemistry, by Professor Liebig. 

On Inorganic Chemistry, by Professor Johnston, F.R.S. 

On the Salmonidae of Scotland, by Sir W. Jardine. 

On the Habits of the Caprimulgidae, by J. Gould, F.L.S. 

On the state of Meteorology in the United States of North America, by 
A. Bache. 

On the state of Chemistry as bearing on Geology, by Professor John- 
ston. 

On the recent progress and present condition of Electro-Chemistry and 
Electro- Magnetism, by Professor De la Rive, of Geneva. 

On the state of our knowledge of the Zoology of New Zealand, bv J. E. 
Gray, F.R.S. ' 

On the resistance of the Atmosphere to Moving Bodies, by E. Hodgkin- 
son, F.R.S. 

c2 



XX REPORT — 1842. 

On the progress of Astronomy during the present century (second Re- 
port), by the Astronomer Royal. 

On the Theory of the Undulations of Fluid and Elastic Media, by Profes- 
sor Kelland. 

*On Photography and its Applications, and other Cognate Phenomena, 
by Fox Talbot, F.R.S. 

*On Physical Optics (second Report), by the Rev. Professor Lloyd, F.R.S. 

*On the Structure and Colours of Clouds, by a Committee consisting of 
Mr. Phillips, Professor Miller, Sir David Brewster, Professor Stevelly, Pro- 
fessor Daniell, Professor Forbes, and Mr. Luke Howard. 

*On the Progress made by the German Meteorological Association (second 
Report), by Dr. Lamont of Munich. 

*On the Analogy between Deposits of Peat and Beds of Coal, by the 
Rev. Dr. Fleming. 

*Oa the Laws of Divisional Structure in Rocks, derivable from obser- 
vation, by John Phillips, F.R.S. 

*On the Structure and Uses of the Palpi of the Araneidea, by John 
Blackwell, F.L.S. 

*On the present state of Knowledge of the Art of Smelting Iron, with a 
view of ascertaining what parts of the process may be susceptible of improve- 
ment, or may require the aid of scientific investigation ; three Reports, from 
Mr. Anthony Hill for South Wales, Mr. Gibbon for the Midland Counties, 
and Professor Gordon for Scotland. 

*On the consumption of Fuel and the prevention of Smoke, by Mr. Fair- 
bairn, Mr. Houldsworth, Mr. Hodgkinson, and Mr. Buck. 



Recommendation involving an application to Government adopted by the 
General Committee at the Twelfth Meeting. 
That the President and Officers of the British Association, with the assist- 
ance of the Marquis of Northampton, the Dean of Ely, Sir John F. W. Her- 
schel, and Francis Baily, Esq., be appointed a Committee to make application 
to Government to undertake the publication of the Catalogue of Stars in the 
Histoire Celeste of Lalande, and of Lacaille's Catalogue of the Stars in the 
Southern Hemisphere, which have been reduced and prepared for publication 
at the expense of the British Association ; and that the President and Coun- 
cil of the Royal Society be requested to support this application. The Dean 
of Ely to be the Convener of this Committee. [To this Committee was also 
referred the consideration of the steps to be taken for securing a publication 
of the results obtained at the cost of the Association, by the Committee who 
have investigated the ' Forms of Ships.'] 



Recommendations of Researches in Science involving Grants of Money, 
adopted by the General Committee at the Twelfth Meeting. 

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

ASTRONOMY. 

That the Committee for the revision of the Nomenclature of Stars (con- 
sisting of Sir John Herschel, Rev. William Whewell, and Mr. Baily) be re- 
appointed, with the sum of 32/., the unexpended part of a former grant, at 
their disposal for the purpose. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXI 

That Mr. Baily and the Rev. Dr. Robinson be a Committee for completing 
the Reduction of the Stars requisite for the extension of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society's Catalogue, with the sum of 25/. at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the sum of 550/. be appropriated to the publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of Stars, conformably to a Report on the subject pre- 
sented by the Committee. 

TIDES. 

That Sir John Robison and Mr. John Scott Russell be a Committee for 
making observations upon the anomalous Tides of the East coast of Scot- 
land, and especially of the Frith of Forth, with the sum of 120/. at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

METEOROLOGY. 

That Sir David Brewster and Professor Forbes be a Committee for carry- 
ing on Hourly Observations of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Anemo- 
meter, for another year at Inverness, with the sum of 60/. at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Sir David Brewster and Professor Forbes be a Committee for con- 
tinuing for another year (if the Committee should think it advisable) the 
Hourly Meteorological Observations now making at Unst in Shetland, under 
the local superintendence of Dr. Edmonstone, with the sum of 35/. at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Snow Harris be requested to continue, for an additional year, 
the Hourly Observations of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Hygrometer 
at Plymouth, with the sum of 50/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Snow Harris, Mr. A. Follett Osier, the Rev. William Whewell, 
and Professor Stevelly, be a Committee for continuing, for an additional 
year, the observations of Whewell's Anemometer at Plymouth, with the sum 
of 10/. at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose. 

That Mr. Snow Harris be requested to discuss the observations made with 
Osier's Anemometer, in connexion with the observations of other meteorolo- 
gical instruments, recorded at Plymouth, with the sum of 20/. at his disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Sir John Herschel be requested to continue his superintendence of 
the Reduction of Meteorological Observations, with the 75/. (the balance of 
the former grant) at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Snow Harris and Mr. A. Follett Osier be a Committee for making 
certain improvements in the Anemometers at Edinburgh and Plymouth, with 
the sum of 15/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Wheatstone, Professor Daniell, and Mr. Snow Harris, be 
a Committee for constructing a Self-recording Meteorological apparatus, to 
be employed in the building at Kew, recently placed by Her Majesty the 
Queen at the disposal of the British Association, with the sum of 50/. at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That the Treasurer be authorized to advance, in payment for certain in- 
struments employed by Professor Forbes in researches requested by the 
Association, and for certain gratuities to persons employed in observing and 
reducing, a sum not exceeding 40/. 

That the Committee formerly appointed (consisting of the Rev. Dr. Robin- 
son, Colonel Sabine, Professor Wheatstone, the Rev. William Whewell, the 
Astronomer Royal, Sir John Herschel, and Sir John Lubbock) for conduct- 
ing experiments, by captive Balloons, on the Physical Constitution of the 
Atmosphere, be re-appoiuted, with 250/. at their disposal for the purpose. 



xxii REPORT — 1842. 



MAGXETICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



That the Committee formerly appointed (consisting of Sir John Herschcl, 
Professor Whewell, the Very Rev. Dr. Peacock, Professor Lloyd, and Colonel 
Sabine) for conducting the co-operation of the Association in the system of 
simultaneous Magnetical and Meteorological Observations be re-appointed, 
with the sum of 89/. 11*. 2d. (the residue of the former grant) at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

LIGHT. 

That Sir David Brewster be requested to continue his examination of the 
Action of different bodies upon the Spectrum, with the sum of 40/. at his dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

KEW OBSERVATORY. 

That the sum of 200/. be placed at the disposal of the Council for uphold- 
ing the establishment in the Kew Observatory, lately placed by Her Majesty 
the Queen at the disposal of the British Association for the purposes of 
Scientific Investigation. 

SCIENTIFIC MEMOIRS. 

That the Committee formerly appointed to superintend the translation and 
publication of Foreign Scientific Memoirs (consisting of Colonel Sabine, 
Dr. R. Brown, Rev. Dr. Robinson, Sir John Herschel, Professor Wheatstone, 
Sir David Brewster, Professor Ovven, Professor T. Graham, Professor Miller, 
Sir W. Jardine, and Professor R. Graham) be re-appointed, and that the sum 
of 50/. (part of the residue of the grant of last year) be placed at the disposal 
of the Committee for the purpose. 

CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

That Professor T. Graham, Dr. C. J. B. Williams, Professor Owen, Dr. 
Prout, Dr. Hodgkin, and Professor Sharpey, be a Committee for making a 
series of researches on the Chemistry and Physiology of Respiration and Di- 
gestion, with the sum of 60/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Lyon Playfair and Professor Bunsen of Marburg be a Com- 
mittee for examining the gases evolved from Iron Furnaces (both hot and 
cold blast), more especially with a view to the ceconomy of fuel, with the sum 
of 50/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Kane, Dr. Schunck, and Dr. L. Playfair, be a Committee for ex- 
amining into the Chemical History of the Substances of the Tannin family, 
With the sum of 10/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Kane, Dr. Schunck, and Dr. L. Playfair, be a Committee for ex- 
amining the Chemical History and Origin of the colouring materials used in 
the Arts, with the sum of 10/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert Mallet be requested to make researches upon the amount 
of oxidation of the Rails of Railways, both in use and out of use, distinguish- 
ing and determining also the loss by abrasion, with the sum of 20/. at his dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That the Committee formerly appointed (consisting of Sir H.T.De laBeche, 
Mr. R. Hutton, Dr. Richardson, Mr. L. Horner, Colonel Sabine, and Pro- 
fessor Phillips), for promoting the publication of the drawings requisite to 
the illustration of the Report on Fossil Reptiles by Professor Owen, be re- 
appointed, with the sum of 40/. (the residue of the former grant) at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That the Committee formerly appointed (consisting of the President of the 
Royal Society, the Rev. Dr. Buckland, Mr. Murchison, Mr. John Taylor, 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XX1U 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, and Mr. C. Vignoles, with power to add to their 
number), for taking measures to obtain Coloured Drawings of Railway Sec- 
tions before they are covered up, be requested to continue their labours ; and 
that the sum of 200/. be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee formerly appointed (consisting of Dr. Buckland, Mr. 
L. Horner, Mr. Wheatstone, Mr. Snow Harris, Lord Greenock, Mr. Mime, 
Professor Forbes, Mr. Pattison, Sir John Robison, Mr. T. J. Torrie, Major 
Portlock, Mr. Bryce) for registering the Shocks of Earthquakes in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and for making such Meteorological Observations as 
may appear to them desirable, be re-appointed ; and that the sum of 100/. be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Binney be requested to make an excavation at the junction of the 
Lower New Red Sandstone with the Coal Strata at Collyhurst, near Man- 
chester, with the sum of 10/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Major Portlock be requested to continue his experiments on the Tem- 
perature of Mines in Ireland ; and that the sum of 10/. be placed at his dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

SECTION D. 

That Mr. H. E. Strickland, Mr. C. Darwin, Professor Henslow, Rev. L. 
Jenyns, Mr. W. Ogilby, Mr. J. Phillips, Dr. Richardson, Mr. J. O. West- 
wood, Professor Owen, Mr. Broderip, be a Committee for printing and cir- 
culating their Report on Zoological Nomenclature, with the sum of 10/. at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee formerly appointed, consisting of Mr. H. E. Strickland, 
Professor Daubeny, Professor Henslow, and Professor Lindley, be requested 
to continue their Experiments xm the Growth and Vitality of Seeds, with the 
sum of 16/. 14s. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir Charles Lemon and Mr. Jonathan Couch be a Committee for 
enabling Mr. Peach to continue his researches on the habits of the Marine 
Testacea, to institute a series of Experiments on their reproduction and 
Growth, and to draw up a Report on the result of his observations, with 10/. 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee formerly appointed, consisting of Mr. Babington and 
Mr. Garnons, be requested to continue the researches on the preservation of 
animal and vegetable substances ; and that the sum of 6/., formerly granted, 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee formerly appointed, consisting of Dr. Richardson, Rev. 
Dr. Buckland, and Mr. R. Taylor, for defraying the necessary expenses at- 
tendant on the preparation of Professor Owen's Report on British Fossil 
Mammalia, be re-appointed, with the sum of 100/. (the unexpended balance 
of a former grant) aj their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir W. Jardine, Mr. Selby, Mr. Yarrell, and Dr. Lankester, be a 
Committee for defraying the expense of illustrating undescribed species of 
Anopleura, Foreign as well as British, with the sum of 25/. at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Mr. Edward Forbes be requested to draw up a Report on the Ra- 
diata and Mollusca of the iEgean and Red Sea, with special reference to the 
relation of the recent genera and species to those which have been hitherto 
supposed to occur only in a fossil state, with 1 00/. at his disposal for the 
purpose. 

That a Committee formerly appointed, consisting of Mr. Gray, Mr. Forbes, 
Mr. Goodsir, Mr. Patterson, Mr. Thompson (of Belfast), Mr. Ball (of Dublin), 
Dr. Geo. Johnston, Mr. Smith (of Jordan Hill), Mr. Couch, Mr. Bartlett, 
Mr. H. Bellamy, Mr. Walker, Mr. Lyte, and Mr. Wallace of Douglas (Isle 



xxiv REPORT — 1842. 

of Man), be requested to continue a series of researches with the dredge, with 
a view to the investigation of the Marine Zoology of Great Britain, the illus- 
tration of the Geographical Distribution of Marine Animals, and the more 
accurate determination of the Fossils of the Pleiocene Period ; and that the 
sum of 50/. be placed at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose. 

That Dr. Hodgkin, Dr. Prichard, Professor Owen, Dr. Hibbert Ware, Mr. 
J. E. Gray, Dr. Lankester, Dr. A. Smith, Mr. A. Strickland, and Mr. C. C. 
Babington, be a Committee for procuring information in regard to the va- 
rieties of the Human Race, with the sum of 51. at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

That Professor Sharpey and Mr. John Erichsen be a Committee for re- 
searches on Asphyxia, with the sum of 40/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. C. J. B. Williams and Mr. James Blake be a Committee for re- 
searches on the Physiological operation of medicinal agents, with the sum of 
40/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

STATISTICS. 

That Col. Sykes, Viscount Sandon, Mr. G. R. Porter, Mr. J. Heywood, 
Dr. W. P. Alison, Mr. E. Chadwick, and Mr. G. W. Wood, be a Committee 
for continuing the Reports on Vital Statistics, with the sum of 150/. at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

That Sir John Robison and Mr. J. S. Russell be a Committee for com- 
pleting the Experiments on the Forms of Ships, with the sum of 100/. at their 
disposal for the purpose. * 

That Sir John Robison and Mr. J. S. Russell be a Committee for reducing 
above 20,000 observations on the forms of ships, with the sum of 100/. at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Moseley, Mr. Enys, and Mr. Hodgkinson, be a Committee 
for procuring and defraying the expense of Morin's Instrument for measuring 
velocity, and for completing the trial of the Constant Indicator, with the sum 
of 100/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Hodgkinson be requested to continue his Experiments on the 
Strength of Materials, with the sum of 100/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Fairbairn, Mr. Buck, Mr. Hodgkinson, Mr. Nasmyth, Prof. Mon- 
tagu Phillips, Mr. John Davis, Mr. R. Mallet, Mr. Lucas, and Mr. H. H. Wat- 
son, bea Committee for making Experiments to ascertain whether any and what 
changes take place in the internal constitution of metals when exposed to con- 
tinual vibration and concussion, as in the case of axles of locomotive engines 
and other machinery, with the sum of 150/. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Anthony Hill, Mr Gibbon, and Professor Gordon, be a Com- 
mittee for acquiring and employing the apparatus used by M. Bunsen in col- 
lecting the gases of Blast and other furnaces, for the use of those gentlemen 
appointed to prepare Reports on the Smelting of Iron. 

GENERAL NOTICE. 

Gentlemen engaged in scientific researches by desire of the British Asso- 
ciation, are requested to observe that by a Resolution of the General Commit- 
tee at the Manchester Meeting (1842), all Instruments, Papers, Drawings 
and other Property of the Association, are to be deposited in the Kew Ob- 
servatory (lately placed by Her Majesty the Queen at the disposal of the 
Association), when not employed in carrying on Scientific Inquiries for the 
Association ; and the Secretaries are instructed to adopt the necessary mea- 
sures for carrying this resolution into effect. 



SYNOPSIS. XXV 

Synopsis of Sums appropriated to Scientific Objects by the General 
Committee at the Manchester Meeting. 

Section A. 

£ s. d. 

Nomenclature of Stars 32 

„ . x . , A ... n i. i re, f Reductions .... 25 

British Association Catalogue of Stars | pubKcationof> . . 550 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observations at Kingussie and Inver- 
ness 60 

Meteorological Observations at Unst 35 

Meteorological Observations at Plymouth 50 

Whewell's Anemometer at Plymouth 1000 

Osier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological Observations 75 

Improvements in Anemometers 15 

Meteorological Recorder at Kew 50 

Meteorological Instruments and Gratuities 40 

Experiments \vith Balloons 250 

Magnetic Co-operation 89 11 

Action of Gases on Light 40 

Establishment at Kew 200 

Scientific Memoirs 50 

£1711 11 
Section B. 

Chemistry and Physiology of Digestion 60 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

Chemical History of Tannin 1000 

Colouring Materials used in the Arts 1000 

Oxidation of Rails of Railways 20 

£150 
Section C. 

Fossil Reptiles (Publication of Report) 40 

Railway Sections 200 

Earthquake Registration 100 

Section of Lower New Red Sandstone 10 

Subterranean Temperature in Ireland 1000 

£360 
Section D. 

Report on Zoological Nomenclature 1000 

Vegetative power of Seeds 16 14 

Marine Testacea 10 

Preservation of Animal and Vegetable Substances 6 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Undescribed Anopleura 25 

Radiata and.Mollusca of the iEgean and Red Seas .... 100 

Marine Zoology - 50 

Races of Men. 5 

£322 14 



£ 


s. 


el. 


40 








40 









xxvi REPORT — 1842. 

Section E. 

Researches on Asphyxia 

Medicinal Agents 

£80 

Section F. 

Vital Statistics 150 

Section G. 

Forms of Vessels, additional Experiments 100 

Forms of Vessels, Reduction of Observations 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant Indicator 100 

Strength of Materials 100 

Effect of Vibration and concussion on the internal structure of 

Metals 150 

Bunsen's Apparatus 15 

£565 
Total of Money Grants .... £3339 5 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 

1834. £ s . d. 
Tide Discussions 20 

1835. £ s. d. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

167 

1836. 

Tide Discussions : 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c 50 

Experiments on long-continued Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 1500 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

435 

1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean Temperature . . 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 846 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

918 14 6 



GENERAL STATEMENT. XXVU 

1838. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and Anemometer (con- 
struction) 100 

Cast Iron (strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances (preservation of) 19 110 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 366 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 530 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 3195 

Thermometers 1640 

956 12 2 

1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at Plymouth ... 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterranean Temperature . . 21 1 1 

Vitrification Experiments 947 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 7 2 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 4 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste , 331 18 6 

Stars in La Caille 1100 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 16 6 

Animal Secretions . . 10 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air .... 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 300 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 

1595 11 

1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 1313 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8130 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 1161 



Carried forward .... 202 1 1 7 



xxviii report— 1842. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Brought forward .... 202 11 7 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 24-2 10 

Stars (La Caille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 700 

Meteorological Observations 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 11216 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phenomena 40 

Meteorological Observations at Plymouth ... 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 

1546 16 4 

1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean Temperature . . 8 8 

Actinometers • • 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 600 

Veins and Absorbents 300 

Mud in Rivers 500 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers . 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (La Caille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at Inverness ... 20 

Meteorological Observations (reduction of) . . . 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at Plymouth ... 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 963 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 200 

1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 11311 2 

Anopleura Britannise 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Carried forward .... 256 5 9 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 

£ S. d. 

Brought forward .... 256 5 9 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines 28 

Stars fHistoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (British Association Catalogue of ) . ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of Report) .... 210 

Forms of Vessels 1 80 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments at Plymouth ... 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 111 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 



■1449 17 8 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a_Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, London, for 
such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



On Thursday evening, June 23rd, at 8 p.m., the President, the Right Hon. 
Lord Francis Egerton, M.P., took the Chair in the Friends' Meeting House, 
Manchester, and delivered an Address (see page xxxi.). 

On Monday evening, in the Theatre of the Athenaeum, Mr. Vignoles ex- 
plained the principles and construction of ' Atmospheric Railways,' and Sir 
M. I. Brunei described the ' Thames Tunnel.' 

On Tuesday evening, in the same Room, Mr. Murchison stated the 
result of his recent Surveys of the Geology of Russia, in which he was ac- 
companied by Count Keyserling and M. De Verneuil. 

On Wednesday, at 8 p.m. the Concluding General Meeting of the Associa- 
tion took place in the Friends' Meeting House, when an account of the Pro- 
ceedings of the General Committee was read by Colonel Sabine. 



ADDRESS 



LORD FRANCIS EGERTON. 



Gentlemen, — Some twelve years have now elapsed, since, by the exertions of 
individuals, most of whom are now present, the prototype of this meeting was 
held in the city of York ; and so successful was that first experiment, that it 
has been annually repeated. The order and course of the proceedings of the 
body there constituted and arranged, has not, I apprehend, been strictly 
uniform, but I believe, on the whole, it has been usual, that on the occasion 
of its annual assemblage, those proceedings should be open to some observa- 
tions incidental to the occasion, on the part of the President ; and this pre- 
liminary duty I am anxious, to the utmost of the very limited means of my 
ability, to execute. In the earlier meetings of this Society, and on occasions 
when the office I now hold has been filled by men distinguished by scientific 
acquirement, it was, I believe, found possible and convenient for such Pre- 
sidents to include in a preliminary discourse, a compressed but instructive 
statement of past proceedings and present objects. The punctual and com- 
plete observance of such a practice, indeed, could not be consistent with 
those arrangements which admit to the occasional honour of your Presidency, 
individuals, selected, like myself, not for any scientific pretensions, but from 
the accidents of local connexion with the place, rather than the objects of 
the assemblage. I apprehend that other reasons of equal urgency exist, 
calculated to make this custom one of partial observance. The operations 
of this Society have grown with its growth, and expanded with its strength ; 
and I am happy to believe that it would be difficult for the most able and 
instructed of those with whose knowledge I am proud, for the moment, to 
find my own ignorance associated, now to compress into reasonable limits, 
and to reduce to terms adapted to a mixed audience, a satisfactory summary 
of scientific proceedings, past and contemplated, connected with the labours of 
this Society. If, indeed, I look to the proceedings of the last year's meeting 
at Plymouth, I find some warrant for this supposition. You met last year, 
indeed, under different auspices. I cannot forget — I wish for the moment 
you could — how your Chair was then filled and its duties discharged. Could 
you forget the fact, it were hardly to my interest to awaken your recollec- 
tion to it, that such a man as Professor Whewell filled last year at Plymouth, 
an office which I now hold at Manchester. I do so for the purpose of re- 
marking that he, more able, perhaps, than any man living in this country to 
give you a concise and brilliant summary of all that he and his fellow- 
labourers are doing, forbore in his discretion from that endeavour. If he, 
then, who is known in matters of science to have run 

" Through each mode of the lyre, and be master of all," 

abstained from that undertaking, I may now be excused, not for my own 



xxxii REPORT — 1842. 

silence, which would require no apology, but for not calling on one of your 
other functionaries to supply my place for the purpose. 

Slightly, indeed, before I sit down, I may presume to touch on one or two 
topics which I may consider immediately illustrative of the advantages of 
this Institution. In the first instance, however, allow me to indulge for a 
moment in the expression of feelings of congratulation on the subject of the 
particular locality which sees us here together. Guests and strangers will 
excuse me — inhabitants, I think, will sympathise with me, if, as a neighbour, 
and all but an inhabitant, I indulge in some avowal of complacency on this 
subject. It is not merely that to this spot from which I now address you, 
mechanical invention and skill have long been attracted as to one of their 
principal centres ; nor that a neighbourhood so rich in mineral treasures 
bears its own recommendation to the followers of several important branches 
of natural science. These, with a host of other local reasons, might well 
justify the selection of Manchester as a place of scientific assemblage. It 
has, in my opinion, a claim of equal interest as the birth-place, and still the 
residence and scene of the labours of one whose name is uttered with re- 
spect wherever science is cultivated, who is here to-night to enjoy the 
honours due to a long career of persevering devotion to knowledge, and to 
receive, if he will condescend to do so, from myself, the expression of my 
own deep personal regret, that increase of years, which to him, up to this 
hour, has been but increase of wisdom, should have rendered him, in respect 
of mere bodily strength, unable to fill, on this occasion, an office which, in 
his case, would have received more honour than it could confer. I do 
regret that any cause should have prevented the present meeting, in his 
native town, from being associated with the name of Dalton as its President. 
The Council well know my views and wishes in this matter, and that, could 
my services have been available, I would gladly have served as a door-keeper 
in any house where the father of science in Manchester was enjoying his just 
pre-eminence. 

It is no part, as I consider it, of my present office to discuss the reasons 
which have induced others to suppose that I might hold it, at least, without 
prejudice to the interests of the Society, or of this meeting. With those who 
originated its efforts, who conceived its formation, and who have tended it 
from its cradle in York to its present vigorous maturity in Manchester, I 
respectfully leave my apology. In addressing to you any remarks on the 
objects we are met to promote, I can only do so in one way, by endeavouring 
to convey to you the impressions of an unscientific man — the reasons which 
induce me, as such, to wish success to its operations, and to defer to the 
judgment of those who have thought I might be of service in my present 
position. All readers of German literature must have observed the frequent 
recurrence of a word which signifies the position from which an object is 
viewed by the spectator — the Standtpunkt, or place of standing, meaning 
the place from which an object is viewed by a spectator, the position of 
which must govern the accuracy and extent alike of his vision. My view 
of the vast temple of science which, raised by successive architects, is daily 
deriving new additions, is dim, and distant, and shadowy. Not even a prose- 
lyte of the gate, far less a Levite of the sanctuary, I cannot mould my lips 
to any Shibboleth of entrance ; and though I fain would worship at a distance, 
the echo of the ritual falls too faintly on my ear to allow me to join in the 
service of the altar. The pile is a vast one ; but who shall live to pronounce 
it complete? New edifices are daily arising round the central structure. 
Many a shaft remains to be polished, and many a capital to be elaborated into 
new forms of fitness and of beauty. The architects, I know, are at work. 



ADDRESS. XXX1U 

I hear with you the clink of the trowel and the hammer. The builder is busy 
on the ground from which Bacon cleared the rubbish of centuries, and shaped 
the vast esplanade, the Moriah of philosophy, into a fit foundation for the 
subsequent erections of Newton and others. All this is going on, — I may and 
do congratulate you on the fact ; but it is not for me to describe and particu- 
larize the progress of the labour. This will be done by the builders them- 
selves in those sectional departments into which they have divided themselves- 
There the geologist will teach and learn the results of recent research and 
adventurous travel. Mr. Lyell is still, I believe, pursuing his investigations 
in the distant regions of the New World, but Mr. Murchison is returned rich 
witli the results of his exploration of an interesting portion of the Old, and to 
tell you how highly and how justly such objects and such labours as his have 
been appreciated, how honourably to himself they have been assisted and 
promoted by the sovereign of those vast domains. With the political nature 
or extent of that sovereign's power we have here nothing to do. Quid belli-, 
cosus Cantaber aut Scythus cogitet is no subject for our thoughts or disquisi- 
tions ; but his liberal appreciation of science, as evinced in the recent case of 
my friend Mr. Murchison, is worthy of our warmest acknowledgments ; and 
I trust that those distinguished men among his subjects who have honoured 
us with their presence on this occasion, will bear back to him evidence of the 
fact, that the followers of science in England duly appreciate his conduct 
towards their countrymen. You will learn in those Sections through what 
new channels the electrical inquirer has directed the fluid which Franklin 
snatched from Heaven, into what shapes, and what service, the grasp of 
science has compelled the imponderable Proteus it is his mission to enslave 
to his bidding. The communication and the discussion of these past achieve- 
ments, the suggestions of new methods and branches of inquiry which spring 
from such discussion, are among the main purposes of our meeting, and the 
volumes of this Society's Transactions bear ample witness to their accom- 
plishment. We have, indeed, no longer to deal with conjecture in this respect ; 
we have no longer an estimate to show, but an account, a profit, and a divi- 
dend. It was well for the originators of this Society to enter into calculations 
of prospective advantages, to foreshow that from personal intercourse and 
collision, light and heat would be elicited, that dormant energies might be 
excited in various parts of the country by the nomadic principle of this So- 
ciety, that scientific operations which require simultaneous exertion on an 
extensive scale, might derive their necessary element of combination, and 
their necessary funds, from the voluntary association of men in this shape. 
All this it was reasonable to predict, and fortunately it is no less easy now to 
show that the prediction has been in all particulars of importance ratified by 
the result. It has been observed on more than one former occasion, — it was 
noticed on the last by my predecessor in the Chair, and at York in 1831, — 
that in the whole range of physical science Astronomy was the only one which 
had, generally speaking, derived direct assistance from governments, or even 
enjoyed what I may call the patronage of society at large. It was also re- 
marked, with equal force and truth, that many other subjects are specially in 
need of that species of assistance which the power of the State, or the opu- 
lence of individuals, can afford to the otherwise solitary man of science. It 
has come, as you well know, within the scope of the operations of this Society 
to endeavour, in many instances, to meet and remedy this deficiency. To the 
science of the stars the first rank in the table of precedence may indeed be 
cheerfully conceded. Let it walk first in that dignity with which its very 
nature invests it, but let it not walk alone. The connexion, indeed, between 
that science and the State, between Greenwich and Downing Street, rests 

d 



xxxiv REPORT — 1842. 

now upon the soundest principles of mutual advantage. It was not always 
thus that the astronomer found favour and footing in the councils of states- 
men and the courts of princes. Time was when the strange delusions of 
judicial astrology reduced such men as Kepler to the level of Dr. Dee ; and 
it is melancholy to think how much of such a life as Kepler's was wasted in 
casting the nativities of princes, and calculating the fortunes of their foolish 
and wicked enterprises. The sun of science has drunk these mists. The tele- 
scope of a Wellington was pointed, not like that of Wallenstein from his ob- 
servatory in Egra on the heavenly host, but on the frowning masses of his 
country's foes. He knew but one, the Homeric omen, the defence of his 
country and the performance of his duty. Three centuries ago, a Mr. Airy 
might have been distracted from his intense and important labours at Green- 
wich, to mark what star was culminating at the birth of a royal infant. We 
do not now watch the configuration of the heavens on such events ; but to 
that Providence which has shielded the mother, and under that Providence to 
the love and prayers of a loyal people we cheerfully confide thefateand fortunes 
of the infant hope of England : still, though such delusions are swept away, it 
is impossible that in this maritime country the protection of the State should 
not in the first instance be accorded to the science which directs her fleets. 
Even here, as you well know, the labours of this Society have not been 
wanting nor inefficient. Her advice has been followed, the contribution of 
her funds has been accepted. It is to the suggestion and the actual assist- 
ance of this Society that the country owes the reduction of observations now 
in progress under Mr. Airy ; and were this the only practical result of which 
we had to boast, I might ask whether this were a mere trifling benefit con- 
ferred upon the nation which has accepted it at your hands. On this parti- 
cular point, were it in the least degree doubtful, I might hereafter find an 
opportunity of appealing to Prof. Bessel, whose authority was specially quoted 
on a former occasion, and who will shortly be here in person to support it. 
Yes; and the railroad on Monday will convey in one of its carriages a most 
important freight. Adam Smith says, that of all luggage man is the most 
difficult to transport ; fortunately the difficulty is not commensurate with the 
value of the article. 

" Weigh'd in the balance hero dust 
Is vile as vulgar clay." 

Were it otherwise I doubt whether the workshop of my friends, Messrs. Sharp 
and Roberts, could construct an engine of power sufficient to draw here in 
safety a freight so illustrious as one which is shortly expected here by such 
conveyance. If ever accident is destined to happen on the Birmingham and 
Grand Junction rail-road, I hope it may be spared us on an occasion when 
two such companions as Herschel and Bessel are trusting their lives to its 
axles. May they convey to us in health and safety the illustrious stranger, 
the accuracy of whose observations, and the grasp of whose calculations 
have enabled him, if I am rightly informed, to pass the limits of our planetary 
system and the orbit of Uranus, to expatiate extra fiammantia mama mundi, 
and to measure and report the parallax and the distance of bodies, which 
no contrivance of optics can bring sensibly nearer to our vision — and which 
remain on the mirrors of our most powerful telescopes, the same points of 
unextended light which they appeared to the Chaldean shepherd. 

I have been speaking of matters for some time past in progress, and no- 
torious to all who have taken an interest in j'our proceedings. They are gra- 
tifying as proofs that the impulse of this Society has been communicated and 
felt in high quarters. It is surely desirable that, under any form of go- 



ADDRESS. XXXV 

vernment, the collective science of a country should be on the most amicable 
footing with the depositories of its power; free, indeed, from undue control 
and interference, not dangling in antechambers, nor wiping the dust from 
palace staircases, uncontaminated by the passions and influences with which 
statesmen have to deal, but enjoying its good will and favour, receiving and 
requiting with usury its assistance on fitting occasions, and organized in such 
a manner as to afford reference and advice on topics with respect to which 
they may be required. One more recent instance of the operations of this 
Society in this respect I may mention, in addition to those I have slightly 
enumerated. I do not refer in detail to other most important operations 
which owe their origin to this Society — the Magnetic Expedition now in pro- 
gress ; the extension of the Trigonometrical Survey on an expanded scale, sug- 
gested by you, and liberally adopted by the Board of Ordnance — these and 
many other similar matters are recorded in your Transactions ; and to those 
Transactions, rather than to any defective catalogue of mine, I would refer 
those who may doubt the benefit of our labours. The most recent instance, 
however, I cannot omit ; I mean the important accession to the means of this 
Society of a fixed position, a place for deposit, regulation, and comparison of 
instruments, and for many more purposes than I could name, perhaps even 
more than are yet contemplated, in the Observatory at Kew. This building 
was standing useless. The Council of the Association approached the throne 
with a petition that they might occupy it, and I am happy to say that the 
sceptre was gracefully held towards them ; and I think this transaction a 
fair instance of that species of connexion between science and government, 
which I hope may always be cultivated in this country. I am informed 
that the purposes to which this building is readily and immediately appli- 
cable, are of an importance which none but men advanced in science can 
appreciate. You will hear further of them in the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

With reference to the past transactions of the Society, it would be a pre- 
sumption in me to enter upon any detail. I confess, however, that on looking 
over the printed Transactions of the year 1839, my eye was caught by a pa- 
ragraph of the introduction to Prof. Owen's treatise on the fossil reptiles of 
Great Britain, in which he avows that but for the assistance of the Associa- 
tion he should have shrunk from the undertaking of that work. The context 
to this passage is a vast one. Those who wish to feel the entire force of the 
commentary it conveys, must follow it through the pages of subtle disquisition 
which succeed it. I ask you, learned and unlearned alike, to give but a glance 
at those pages. See how the greatest — am I wrong in calling him so ? — of 
the British disciples of Cuvier walks among the shattered remnants of former 
worlds, with order and arrangement in his train. Mark how, page after page, 
and specimen after specimen, the dislocated vertebrae fall into their places, — 
how the giants of former days assume their due lineaments and proportions, 
some shorn of the undue dimensions ascribed to them on the first flush of 
discovery, others expanded into even greater bulk, all alike bearing the inde- 
lible mark of adaptation to the modes of their forgotten existence, and preg- 
nant with the proofs of wisdom and omnipotence in their common Creator. 
This is a portion, at least, of the results of this Society. I select it for no- 
tice, because it deals with a subject which comes, partially at least, within the 
comprehension of those to whom algebraical formulae or the hieroglyphics 
of mathematical science are a sealed letter. 

Gentlemen, I have endeavoured by these remarks to convey to you the ge- 
neral reasons which induced me, an unscientific man, to wish this Society 
success, and to endeavour to assist that success by any means at my disposal. 



xxxvi REPORT — 1842. 

I would ask leave, before I conclude, to further illustrate these views and 
feelings which are incidental to my own position, by reference to a scientific 
transaction of no very distant date. Some two years ago, as I have under- 
stood, an adventurous and scientific party, with Prof. Agassiz at its head, un- 
dertook the ascent of that Swiss mountain, whose name indicates that it had 
for ages been pronounced inaccessible to the foot of man. They applied, 
however, to physical difficulties in this case the energies and perseverance 
which have won them many triumphs over intellectual obstacles, and they 
succeeded. I doubt not that there were many who, from the chalet and the 
pasturage beneath, directed their glasses to those peaks of ice, and watched 
with intent and thrilling interest the progress of those adventurers. Perhaps 
among them were some who, by some trifling incursions into those awful re- 
gions, in pursuit perhaps of the artist's or the hunter's pastime, had learned 
to appreciate the dangers of the crevice, the toil of the ascent, cut step by step 
with the hatchet in the precipitous ice, and the general magnitude of the en- 
terprise. Be assured, you climbers of the heights of science, and there are 
many of you here, that individuals so situated hail the progress they cannot 
share, — that they sympathize with your advance, lament when you are baffled; 
and that when you plant your flag on some hitherto virgin summit, their 
shout of applause would reach you from below, — if it could be conveyed to 
your organs by the pure and attenuated atmosphere it is yours, and yours 
alone, to breathe. Dwellers in the peopled valley as we are, absorbed by 
other cares, and I hope discharging other duties, breathers of a heavier and 
too often tainted atmosphere, we yet can look upwards. We watch and 
count your triumphs ; and as you gain them, w r e gladly add your names to the 
list of those who have done honour to their country and service to their kind. 
For your labours have this privilege, that while their results become the com- 
mon property of man, for that very reason, and because they confer that com- 
mon benefit, they elevate the country in which they originate in the scale of 
nations, and gratify the most reasonable feelings of national pride, while they 
fulfil to the most unrestricted extent the obligations of our common hu- 
manity. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir J. Herschel, the 
Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, the Dean op Ely, 
Dr. Lloyd, and Colonel Sabine, appointed to conduct the co- 
operation of the British Association in the system of Simulta- 
neous Magnetical and Meteorological Observations. 

I OUR Committee have great pleasure in being enabled to continue their 
hitherto favourable report of the progress of the important operations which 
they have been delegated to watch over ; and the extent of their operations 
being now vastly increased, by the addition of new foreign establishments 
observing upon the same concerted plan, and at the same hours, — by the adop- 
tion of a system of colonial and national magnetic Surveys, based upon and 
correlative Avith the fundamental determinationsatthe fixed magnetic centres, — 
and by the introduction of new instruments and processes of observation , afford- 
. ing great facilities for magnetic determinations to travellers both by land and 
sea, — it will be convenient, both for clearness and precision, if we subdivide this 
our report into several distinct sections, according to the subject matter of 
these and other heads. And as offering grounds of the warmest interest and 
most lively sympathy to a British audience, we shall commence with the 

1. Antarctic Expedition 

Our last year's report brought down the account of the progress of the ex- 
pedition to its departure from Hobart Town in November 1840. The pub- 
lished extracts from the dispatch of Captain Ross, dated April 7, 1841, con- 
taining the details of the brilliant success of the expedition in penetrating the 
formidable barrier of ice, which had baffled the efforts of the French and 
American navigators, (an achievement as daring as any which has illustrated 
the annals of British nautical prowess,) and of his discovery of the great vol- 
canic and lofty continent of Victoria in the previously unexplored seas far to 
the southward of that bai'rier, must be too fresh in your recollection to need 
any recapitulation in this report. It is with the magnetic observations and 
results of the voyage only, that our immediate concern lies. 

Landing on the Auckland Islands shortly after leaving Hobart Town, Cap- 
tain Ross observed there the November term of 1840. Abandoning then, by 
reason of the ill success of his predecessors in that direction, his original in- 
tention of sailing across the isodynamic oval surrounding the point of maxi- 
mum intensity, his adopted course led him between the two southern foci. 
And although his return to the northward was by a more westerly route, it 
seems probable that he was generally to the eastward of the present locality of 
the greatest intensity. The magnetic observations accumulated in this voyage, 
however, have only lately reached England. Their full import therefore can- 

1842. b 



2 REPORT— 1842. 

not yet be known ; but it is understood that intensities have been observed by 
Captain Ross in these regions exceeding 2\ times the minimum observed by him 
near St. Helena; and that intensities of this high value prevail with little 
variation over a space extending from the 47th to the 77th degrees of lati- 
tude The intensity in lat. 76°, where the nearest approach was made to the 
magnetic pole, was found to be actually less than in 47°. The nearest ap- 
proach to that interesting point, viz. the magnetic pole, was made in lat 76° 
12', long. 164° east, the dip being between 88 and 89 degrees. 

It was mentioned in our last Report that the publication of the magnetic 
observations of the expedition had, at the request of the Admiralty, been 
placed under the superintendence of Lieut. Col. Sabine. The first portion 
of this work has been published in the Phil. Trans, of the present year, con- 
taining the observations of intensity made at sea between England and Ker- 
guelen Island. In this paper, the 3rd of a series of " Contributions to Ter- 
restial Magnetism" which we owe to Col. Sabine's zeal and industry, the whole 
series of interesting observations made on board each of the ships with Fox's 
statical or deflecting magnetometer, are carefully analysed, projected, and rea- 
soned on. The results are every way most satisfactory as regards the prac- 
ticability of observing with precision at sea, in all sorts of weather; as a 
proof of which, it will be necessary only to mention, that out of 647 observa- 
tions of this kind made between London and the Cape of Good Hope, on 
board the Erebus, one only was found so far irreconcileable with their general 
tenor as to be declared doubtful : while the observations taken on board both 
ships, when compared, exhibit a steady accordance which cannot be accidental, 
and may well be termed beautiful. From this examination it would appear (if 
earlier observations can be relied on) that the line of least intensity on suc- 
cessive meridians in the middle and eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean is tra- 
velling rapidly northward. 

In addition to the sea observations, the expedition since our last Report 
has made absolute determinations and observed terms as follow : — 

1840. Nov Auckland Island. 

1841. May and June Van Diemen Island. 

July Sydney. 

Aug., Sept, Oct., Nov New Zealand. 

The November term having been kept in the Bay of Islands, the expedi- 
tion, according to the last letter received from Capt. Ross, dated Nov. 22, 1 841 , 
was to sail thence the day following to resume the exploration of the Antarctic 
regions. His intention, as stated in that letter, Avas to traverse the isodynamic 
oval surrounding the focus of greatest intensity, supposed to be in lat. 60°, 
long. 235° east, and steering thence directly south to the edge of the ice-pack, 
to make, on reaching it, for the point at which the first year's exploration of 
the coast of the new continent terminated, with intention to pursue the barrier, 
wherever its course may lead. The working out of this arduous undertaking 
may of course involve a winter spent within the antarctic circle. Should it 
be otherwise, we may expect shortly to hear of the arrival of the expedition 
at the Cape of Good Hope, or at the Falkland Islands *. 

2. British and Foreign Observatories. — Extension of the period for which the 
British Establishments have been granted by the British Government. 

All the British and Indian magnetic observatories, that at Aden excepted, as 

* By letters received since the meeting of the British Association at Manchester, we laern 
that the Expedition arrived at the Falkland Islands in April of the present year, and was to 
sail again for the Antarctic Circle in October. 



ON MAGNETICAL. AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 3 

well as those Continental ones which can be regarded as intimately connected 
with and bearing partinthegreatoperations in progress — areof course, and have 
long been, in full activity. The Russian Government has been pre-eminently 
active in the establishment of new observatories, and supported by the power- 
ful protection of M. le Comte Cancrine, Minister of Finance, as well as 
aided by funds placed at his disposal for the purpose by Prince Mentchikoff 
and other Russian noblemen of distinction, the zealous and energetic director- 
general of the Russian observatories, M. KupfTer, has succeeded in procuring 
the establishment of magnetic observatories at Kasan, Barnaoul, Nertschinsk, 
and Catherinebourg, and in bringing them by his personal exertions into a 
state of efficient activity, as well as in obtaining the re-erection of the old 
and insufficient observatories of Tiflis and Nicolaijeff, and the prospect of a 
new foundation for the same purposes at Moscow, under the auspices of Count 
Strogonoff, curator of the university of that city. 

This vast development of the original plan of operations, followed up as it 
has been by almost every European power, has of course not been accom- 
plished, to say nothing of expenditure, without the lapse of much valuable 
time. The original term of observations granted by our own Government 
and the East India Company, was three years, which expire in the current 
year — just when in fact everything is come into full action, and the fruits of 
so much labour and expense are beginning to be regularly gathered in, on a 
scale commensurate to the exertions used. The necessary preparations, the 
instruction of officers, their conveyance to their points of destination, the 
building of observatories, the establishment and adjustment of instruments, 
were all works of time. The first year of the term was necessarily thus oc- 
cupied, and in some cases a considerable portion of the second ; so that in no 
case has anything like the three years of actual observation contemplated, 
been secured. Under these circumstances, and considering that a pause for 
the present, and resumption at some future time of the observations, would 
involve the breaking up of the whole system so auspiciously commenced, the 
dismantling and decay of the existing observatories, the fresh initial expense, 
delays, and difficulties of concerted organization in their re-establishment, it 
was considered advisable by the President and Council of the Royal Society 
that application should be made to Government on their part for the con- 
tinuance of the observatories during another period of three years, to termi- 
nate with the end of the year 1845. At the same time it was officially inti- 
mated on the part of the Russian Government, that the Russian observatories 
should be kept on as long as the British ; Baron Brunow at the same time 
stating, that so far from supposing the period thus asked for long, his com- 
munications led him to presume that it would be considered as the shortest 
time in which the objects contemplated were likely to be accomplished, and 
in which adequate returns could be made for the great exertions and outlay 
occasioned in the establishment of the observatories. 

To these representations your Committee are happy to be enabled to re- 
port that an unhesitating assent on the part of the British Government has 
been given, and that in consequence the continuance of the general system for 
three additional years must be considered secure. Whatever may be the 
course of men's opinions as to the additional burdens recently imposed on the 
country, men of science may at least congratulate themselves that their quota 
of the general contribution will be devoted to objects which they cannot but 
heartily approve. 

To this new period that which is on the point of elapsing must be consi- 
dered (independent of the rich and valuable results it has yielded) as a pre- 
paration of incalculable value, since whatever modifications and improvements, 

b 2 



4 REPORT — 1842. 

under a revised system of instructions, it will be found necessary to introduce, 
will now be based on mature experience, and adopted with sound deliberation. 
Uniformity can now be insisted on in points which were necessarily at first 
open to peculiarities of local and individual practice. Hourly in place of two- 
hourly observations may possibly be found generally practicable. Instrumen- 
tal corrections, and especially that for the temperature of the magnets, which 
has proved to be the most important of all, as well as the most difficult to as- 
certain, will have been accurately determined, and can henceforward be con- 
fidently applied. 

But in regarding what has been done as preparatory to what is to follow, 
we are not to lose sight of its actual independent value. Were it only on ac- 
count of its affording so vast a basis of comparison with the itinerant results 
of the antarctic expedition, it would have been inestimable. The demonstra- 
tion it has afforded of the ubiquity over the whole globe of those singular dis- 
turbances to which the name of Magnetic Storms has been applied, could 
have been no otherwise obtained, and is in itself a physical result of the first 
importance. The data it has afforded for the revision of the Gaussian theory 
are numerous, and beyond all comparison more exact than any which had ever 
before been collected. In a word, were the series broken off at this point, 
though we must have grieved to find ourselves arrested in full career, we 
should stillhave found cause to regard the operation as conspicuously successful. 

3. Magnetic Surveys. 

Southern Africa. — Lieut. Clerk, R.A., who is noticed in the last Report as 
having been ordered by the Master-General of the Ordnance to join the mag- 
netic observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, in anticipation of an application 
for this survey, arrived at the Cape in December, and has since taken part in 
the duties of the observatory as assistant to Capt. Wilmot. In the estimate 
which has been forwarded to the Treasury of the expenses of the magnetic 
establishments under the department of the Ordnance for the newly autho- 
rized period, Lieut. Clerk and one additional gunner are included in the 
strength of the Cape observatory, the survey having been made part of the 
duties of that establishment. It is proposed that the survey shall comprehend, 
in addition to the colony itself, as extensive a portion of the earth's surface in 
all directions from the observatory as time and circumstances will permit. 
Application has been made to the Admiralty (who have on all occasions shown 
the utmost readiness to promote magnetical inquiries.) to permit the sea por- 
tions of this survey to be carried into execution by occasional opportunities 
which the Admiral at the Cape station may be able to afford without prejudice 
to the public service in other respects, in Her Majesty's ships and vessels 
under his command. This will include the coasts of Africa on either side of 
the Cape. When this portion of the survey shall have been considerably ad- 
vanced, we shall be better able to judge of the expediency of completing the 
circle by an excursion into the interior. With a view to this, inquiries have 
been set on foot at the Cape, and answers received from the colonial autho- 
rities in the commissariat and surveying departments, relative to the most de- 
sirable route, the strength of the party, time required, mode, and probable 
cost of transport and subsistence, &c. The Geographical Society have also 
furnished notices of high interest as to the points of geographical discovery 
(including the discovery of the Great Lake in the interior of South Africa, 
whose existence is considered certain, but which has never been visited by 
any European), which might be accomplished consistently with the objects of 
such survey. 

North America. — Lieut. Lefroy, R.A.,has been appointed successor to Lieut. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 5 

Riddell, in the principal direction of the observatory at Toronto, and of the 
survey there, which, as at the Cape of Good Hope, is made a part of the ge- 
neral duties of the establishment. Having been relieved at St. Helena by 
Lieut. Smyth, Lieut. Lefroy is now in England preparing instruments for the 
survey, and will proceed to America in a few weeks. Since Lieut. Riddell's 
return to England in January 1841, on account of health, the observatory at 
Toronto has been conducted in the most satisfactory manner by Lieut. Young- 
husband on the excellent system established there by Mr. Riddell. Exten- 
sive as is the field of research which now opens in that quarter of the globe, 
and arduous as will be the task of profiting duly by the opportunities likely 
to be afforded, the zeal, intelligence, and perseverance which have been al- 
ready shown by Messrs. Lefroy and Younghusband, give the best assurance 
of the good performance of the further service entrusted to them. The Hud- 
son's Bay Company, with its accustomed readiness to promote scientific in- 
quiries of all kinds in their extensive territories, have most liberally under- 
taken to furnish conveyance in the summers of 1843, 1844, and 1845, over 
the countries to the north and west of Canada, extending to the shores of 
Hudson's Bay and to the Pacific Ocean, and have made the further offer of 
a passage in one of their annual ships from Hudson's Bay to England, so as 
to include in the survey the interesting magnetic region of Hudson's Bay 
and Straits. 

The operations thus contemplated in the north will connect themselves 
with magnetic surveys actually in progress by several distinguished magneti- 
cians in the United States. Mr. Bache has during the last summer com- 
pleted the systematic survey of Pennsylvania, commenced in the preceding 
year, including the three elements of Declination, Inclination, and Intensity. 
Professor Loomis has extended his series of observations of the Inclination 
over many parts (previously unvisited by him) of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, and Missouri. M. Nicollet has also observed in the same region, and 
Dr. Locke has added a contribution. These and other similar operations 
which we may expect in the United States, from the increasing interest which 
magnetism excites there, will connect the Northern British survey with the 
determinations of Captain Barnett, R.N., commanding H. M. S. Thunder, on 
the southern coasts of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico. Cap- 
tain Barnett is well provided with instruments both for sea and land observa- 
tion, and has shown himself a zealous and careful observer. 

4. Observations made at Sea. 

It has already been stated in the last year's Report, that by the use of Mr. 
Fox's instrument the inclination or dip, and the magnetic intensity may be mea- 
sured at sea, if not with absolutely the same pi'ecision as at land, yet with a 
precision quite as great as is requisite for every possible use to which obser- 
vations at sea can be turned, that is to say, for the purpose of tracing out the 
isodynamic and other magnetic curves in the portion of the globe occupied by 
water ; and the probable absence of local attractions and disturbances in open 
ocean, while it renders such curves more easily traceable, so it affords a ready 
method of checking each particular observation by reference to the chain of 
determinations of which it forms a part. To extend and facilitate the use of 
this valuable instrument, a set of instructions for its use has been drawn up 
by Col. Sabine, and printed by the Admiralty for general circulation. The 
use of this instrument has been adopted by Captain Blackwood in his sur- 
veying expedition to Torres Strait, and the same system of daily observation 
is practised with it, as in the Erebus and Terror ; and the example it is to be 
hoped will be followed, not only in voyages designed expressly for purposes 



6 REPORT — 1842. 

of survey and exploration, but in ships pursuing ordinary tracks, so as at 
length to furnish data for the construction of complete magnetic sea-charts, 
founded on observation alone, for these important elements, as well as for 
the declination. 

For the formation of such charts, however, it is necessary to eliminate the 
influence of the ship's iron, an influence which the continually increasing 
quantity of iron on board of vessels renders an evil of great and increasing 
magnitude. Instructions for this purpose, as regards the declination, have 
also been issued by the same authority, founded on the experience obtained in 
our arctic expeditions, and embodied in rules which are substantially the same 
with those given by Col. Sabine in his paper in the Phil. Trans, on Compass 
Deviations on board the Isabella and Alexander in the arctic voyage of 1818, 
consisting in simultaneous sea and shore observations, and reciprocal bearings 
with the ship's head laid in succession round every point of the compass. 

In reference to contributions made to our knowledge of the magnetic ele- 
ments in various parts of the globe, it would be unjust to omit the mention 
of the. valuable series of such determinations made by Captain Belcher, R.N., 
of H. M. S. Sulphur. These determinations, the first portion of which have 
been reduced by Col. Sabine, and published in the Phil. Trans, for 1841, 
have been continued by Captain Belcher at more than 20 stations in the 
islands and coasts of the Pacific and China Seas. The observations are 
arrived in England, and will shortly be reduced, forming altogether a very 
valuable contribution towards the data accumulating for the revision of the 
numerical elements of Gauss's Theory. 

Still less pardonable would it be in this Report to omit signalizing the final 
publication during the last year of Professor Erman's magnetic results in his 
journey into Siberia and voyage round the world. It is true that these results 
are already in part interwoven with the numerical computations of M. Gauss's 
magnetic coefficients, and so constitute an integrant part, and a most import- 
ant one, of that vast and laborious work. But this has been by the especial 
favour and liberality of that eminent traveller, in placing at the disposal of 
those engaged in theoretical researches, results to them invaluable, and which 
have actually proved most useful even without that final revision and labo- 
rious reduction which he has ultimately given to them. When we consider 
the vast extent of sea and land traversed by this indefatigable traveller, his 
long residence in the dismally cold and inhospitable regions of Siberia, the 
infinite labour of the observations themselves, and the care with which they 
have been made, we shall see reason to regard this work as one which must 
constitute an epoch in the history of magnetic science, both for the mass of 
information it contains and the personal devotion it indicates. 

5. Magnetic Disturbances. 

M. Gauss truly remarks, that " It is one of the great results of British 
enterprise, that the existence of disturbances extending over the whole globe has 
been ascertained." As a physical fact deeply connected with the general 
causes of terrestrial magnetism, this is indeed a result of the first magnitude ; 
and its consideration under all its circumstances, and especially as modified 
by distance and geographical locality, is eminently calculated to lead to spe- 
culations on those causes, and to theoretical views tending to connect these 
abrupt variations with the usual course of the magnetic phaenomena. To dis- 
connect, in the phaenomena of the magnetic storms, what is local from what 
is general, and to trace individual shocks occurring in them from observa- 
tory to observatory, and from station to station, until they become so far en- 
feebled by the effects of distance from their origin as to be confounded and 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 7 

masked by the growing influence of other shocks whose point of action is 
nearer, is now one of the principal points to which attention must be directed. 
The great mass of the magnetic bars used for the regular determinations, and 
for observations of small and moderate disturbances, throws some obstacles 
in the way of this inquiry, when the changes of magnetic force are very sud- 
den and irregular, which seems more likely to be prosecuted effectually by 
the use of very small bars capable of being instantly affected by short and 
sudden shocks. But however this may be, the occurrence of many and re- 
markable storms during the continuance of these observations, at the most di- 
stant localities, and with all their detail of circumstances, has given a very 
high degree of immediate interest to this branch of the inquiry, and occa- 
sioned a change in the contemplated order of publication of the reports. It 
has been considered advisable to collect together from all the returns the cases 
of remarkable disturbances observed, arrange them in chronological order, 
and publish them in volumes by themselves. Those of 1840 and 1841 will 
appear in the course of the summer. By pursuing this course it alone be- 
comes practicable to mature such a plan of extra or storm observation (whe- 
ther by the use of smaller needles or by other processes which will suggest 
themselves,) as can be fairly tried and effectually brought into action while 
the colonial observatories still subsist. Among those which will be included 
in this first publication, the great disturbance which took place on and about 
the 25th of September, 1841, though not the greatest in point of actual devi- 
ation which has occurred, is yet in many respects one of the most remarkable. 
It was observed at Greenwich and immediately made the subject of a circular 
communication addressed by the Astronomer Royal to his brother observers. 
Speedily accounts" dropped in of the observation of the same disturbance at 
outlying stations, from Toronto, from St. Helena, from the Cape of Good 
Hope, nay, even from Trevandrum in Travancore. All these accounts ar- 
rived in time to be inserted in the Report of this Association for 1841, and 
it must surely be regarded as a signal proof of the efficiency of the arrange- 
ments made on all hands, that a phsenomenon, casual in its nature so far as 
we yet see, and manifested by no external and visible premonitory symptoms, 
should have been thus seized upon by our observers in Europe, Asia, Africa 
and America, reported thence to England, reduced, printed and circulated 
in three months and a week after its occurrence. " Tantum series June- 
turaque pollet" /* 

Anomalous magnetic movements of unusual magnitude take place on the 
average 3 or 4 times in the month, but apparently with greater frequency 
in some months than in others. The returns from the different stations 
show hitherto without exception that these disturbances are general, that is 
to say, that though the movements individually may not be, and in fact are 
not, always simultaneous, the observations of the same day never fail to ex- 
hibit unusual discordances at all the stations. Generally the disturbances 
are characterized by a diminution more or less of horizontal intensity, pre- 
vailing more or less for several hours together, everywhere, and mostly ac- 
companied by a movement, also general, of the north end of the needle to- 
wards the west. By a memorandum of Lieut. Younghusband on the disturb- 
ance on the night of the 15th April 1842, which was so considerable that the 
range of the declination in little more than an hour extended over 2° 15' in 
arc, it appears that with the 15-inch bars used in the observatory, which re- 
quire 17 s for a vibration, a change of more than 50 divisions of the scale, or 

* Dr. Lamont states that during the most intense part of this disturbance, (the whole of 
which was observed by him at Munich,) the movements exhibited no correspondence, taken 
seriatim, with those at Greenwich. 



8 REPORT — 1842. 

35 minutes of arc, occasionally takes place in the time required for the three 
vibrations which give the mean place entered in the tables. . 

Experience has somewhat diminished the value of the term observations as 
a principal means of detecting disturbances ; especially since our observatories 
have adopted hourly observations, by which a departure from the normal 
state cannot continue long without notice ; and thus the disturbance furnishes, 
of itself, at all the stations, a natural signal for extra and simultaneous ob- 
servation. Besides our Colonial and East India observatories, the disturbances 
are watched with the greatest diligence at Prague, Munich, and Greenwich. 

6. New Magnetic Instruments and Modes of Observation. 
Transportable Magnetometer. — Among the most useful services that have 
been rendered to the magnetic cause in the year elapsed, has been the ma- 
king this a thoroughly practical instrument, and the instructions which have 
been drawn up by Mr. Riddell for its use. These instructions are now in 
progress of printing. They are of the most distinct and practical kind, and 
contain the formulae of correction and reduction with numerical examples 
from actual practice. This instrument and the instructions for its use, freely 
supplied to officers of the army and navy, will multiply absolute determina- 
tions, teriu observations, and disturbance observations far beyond what could 
ever be done by fixed observatories, and also in localities where such could 
not be established. Already have these improved instruments been supplied 
to the ships of Capt. Blackwood and Capt. Sulivan, the first proceeding to 
survey Torres Strait, and the latter the Falkland Islands, and the officers have 
been instructed in the use of the instruments at Woolwich. Another has 
been supplied to Mr. Lefroy, and will enable him to keep the terms in what- 
ever part of America he may find himself on the days appointed. Others are 
preparing for Capt. Barnett and Capt. Grove, R.N., who are engaged in sur- 
veys at Bermuda and Malta, both being stationary for several months in the 
winter. From Capt. William Allen, R.N., of the Niger expedition, we have 
received the November and December terms, 1841, kept at Ascension, with 
the original German transportable magnetometer, as also the absolute deter- 
minations made with it in the same island. 

Professor Lloyd's new Inclinometer. — The vertical element of the magnetic 
force is one of difficult determination with that precision which is required to 
become comparable with the determinations of its horizontal component, so as 
to afford a perfectly correct means of calculating the changes of the incli- 
nation and of the total intensity. The instrument hitherto used for the 
purpose, called by Prof. Lloyd the Balance Magnetometer, has been found 
scarcely adequate to its intended purpose. " Unexceptionable as its principle 
is in theory, the accuracy of its results has not been commensurate with that 
of the others. This inferiority is owing to the large influence which the un- 
avoidable errors of workmanship necessarily have on the position of equili- 
brium of a magnet supported on a fixed axle." " The sources of error seem 
to be inherent in every direct process for determining the third element, and 
it is only by an indirect method that we can hope to evade them."* Such a 
method has accordingly been recently proposed and subjected to trial by Dr. 
Lloyd, by means of an instrument to which he has given the name of an 
Induction Inclinometer, the principle of which is the measurement of the 
intensity of the magnetism induced on a vertical bar of soft iron (which must be 
considered as due to the vertical magnetic component only) by the deviation it 
is capable of causing in a horizontal bar suspended near it. The details of 

* Account of the Magnetical Observatory at Dublin, &c, by the Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 9 

the construction and adjustments of this instrument are given in the work 
cited below. 

Weber's Inductive Inclinometer. — Similar in respect of its general principle, 
but widely different in the mode of application of that principle, is a recent 
invention of M. Weber for the same purpose. The deflection of the horizontal 
magnet in this instrument is produced by the earth's magnetism, induced not 
on a vertical soft iron bar at rest, but on a ring, sphere, or plate of copper 
made to revolve about a vertical axis with a perfectly uniform and given ve- 
locity by clockwork. This ingenious instrument has not been tried in Eng- 
land, but is stated by M. Kupffer to perform very satisfactorily. 

M. Lamonts Inclinometer. — A third and much less simple mode of ac- 
complishing the same object of measuring the intensity of the earth's mag- 
netism by its inductive power has been devised by M. Lamont. As in Dr. 
Lloyd's process, a bar of soft iron is used as the temporary magnet, but in 
other respects the application of the general principle is widely different. 
The bar so temporarily magnetized is made to act unequally on the two 
bars of an astatic magnetic couple, thereby tending to draw them aside from 
a given position in which they would otherwise be held by a fixed magnet of 
given power. This tendency however is destroyed by another magnet placed 
in a given position and distance. A series of reversals and changes of di- 
stance in the soft iron bar and the neutralizing magnet is then operated, which 
furnishes equations by which everything but the intensity sought and known 
quantities can be eliminated. 

7. Publication of Magnetic Observations, Descriptions of Observatories, fyc. 

As it is not by any means the object of this Report to give a historical 
view of the progress of magnetic science generally, except in so far as the 
immediate purposes for which your Committee is constituted are concerned, 
and as bearing on the practical operations over which they are delegated by 
the Association to watch, — it must suffice under this head to notice very 
briefly the appearance of several works and memoirs, in which observations 
are recorded or discussed, instruments and observatories described, &c. 

None of the returns of the regular observations at our stations are as yet 
printed ; but, as has been noticed, those of the disturbances in 1840 and 1841 
will appear in the course of the present year. In this respect however we 
are not more in arrear than our Russian coadjutors, the observations made 
in the whole extent of which empire under the superintendence of M. 
Kupffer, for the year 1839, have appeared in the course of 1841, forming the 
regular continuation of that noble collection, the " Annuaire Magnetique et 
Meteorologique du Corps des Ingenieurs des Mines de Russie". Nor indeed 
does it seem practicable in works of this vast extent, and where the returns 
have to arrive from such distant quarters, to place a much less interval be- 
tween the making and publication of the ordinary observations. 

The year elapsed has also been marked by the publication of the first vo- 
lume of the magnetic and meteorological observations made at Prague by M. 
Kreil, containing the observations from July 1, 1839 to July 1, 1840; a sin- 
gular departure from the usual and far more convenient practice of packing 
together in the same volume the observations of each separate year. In this 
work the observations are not only registered, but very amply discussed and 
reduced, and the daily, monthly, and yearly march of the results investigated. 
The suspected influence of the moon on magnetic and meteorological phse- 
nomena is made a subject of especial discussion by M. Kreil. 

M. Quetelet continues his praiseworthy labours in collecting and project- 
ing meteorological observations on the solstitial and equinoxial term days. 



10 REPORT — 1842. 

These, and his observations of the magnetic terms with their graphical pro- 
jections, continue to be regularly published by him in the Bulletins of the 
Royal Academy of Brussels. 

Dr. Lloyd, Dr. Laraont, and Messrs. Lovering and Bond have respectively 
furnished descriptions of the magnetic observatories under their direction at 
Dublin, Munich, and at Harvard University, Cambridge, N. S. In the last- 
mentioned of these works (published in the Memoirs of the American Acade- 
my of Boston,) are also printed the term observations made in 1840 and the 
commencement of 1841 at that Institution, projected, and in the case of the 
term of Oct. 21, 1840, compared with the corresponding observations at 
Toronto (as regards the declination), and exhibiting (conformably to what has 
been found to obtain in stations not more distant from each other in Europe) 
a close and minute agreement in the march of the deviations, which on that 
occasion was very irregular. 

Dr. Lamont's observations are characterized by the use of very small 
needles. Some anomalies appear to have been produced in their readings by 
circulating currents of air arising from inequality of temperature in their 
glass inclosures ; but these he has succeeded in great measure in destroying. 
Indeed there seems no good reason why such needles should not be sus- 
pended in vacuo. Assuredly if very small needles could be used in place of 
large ones, (for those observations, that is to say, which do not depend on 
observed times of vibration, for to such they are quite inappropriate,) not only 
would the costliness of apparatus be much diminished, and its portability in- 
creased, but the temperature corrections would become more certain, by rea- 
son of the rapid distribution of heat through the whole extent of the needle, 
(neither would there probably be found much difficulty in keeping such 
needles constantly up to a definite state as to magnetic saturation) not to re- 
fer again to what has been already said of their applicability to a closer ana- 
lysis of the shocks producing irregular disturbances. 

Dr. Lloyd's paper may be advantageously referred to for a full account of 
the construction, adjustments and mathematical theory of all the magnetic in- 
struments employed, and in this respect must be considered as a very useful 
and valuable contribution to the cause in hand. 

Col. Sabine has reduced and discussed during the past year the observa- 
tions of Capt. Belcher on the west coast of America and at Otaheite in the 
second series of his " Contributions to Terrestrial Magnetism" published in the 
Phil. Trans., 1841, and in his third series of such contributions has passed 
under examination the sea observations of intensity made onboard the Erebus 
and Terror in the voyage from England to Kerguelen's Land. 

Professor Loomis's observations of intensity and dip in several stations in 
the United States, made in the years 1838, 1839, 1840, have also appeared in 
the year elapsed. 

The subject of the mutual action of permanent magnets, with a view to 
their best relative position in an observatory, has been resumed by Dr. Lloyd 
in a supplement to his former paper on that subject published by the Royal 
Irish Academy. Choosing among the incompatible conditions which a total 
destruction of the mutual actions of three magnets would require those of 
most importance to satisfy, he has been enabled to propose several arrange- 
ments adapted to specific purposes, which accomplish their object with great 
simplicity and convenience. 

A considerable extent of correspondence has taken place on the important 
subjects of the best formula to be used and method to be adopted for deter- 
mining the absolute intensity of a magnet by deflection observations, Mr. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 11 

Airy contending for the inadequacy of Gauss's formula, and proposing a 
different method, and Dr. Lloyd for its practical sufficiency. The subject 
must be considered as still under discussion, and the necessary revisal of the 
instructions for the new period will either cause both methods to be practised, 
or otherwise bring the point to a satisfactory issue. Opportunity will also be 
afforded for attention to many other valuable practical suggestions which 
have been offered as the result of experience already gained ; such as Mr. 
Lamont's correction for change of magnetism in the deflecting bar in the 
same class of experiments, when in the meridian, and when perpendicular to 
it ; as also Dr. Lloyd's determination of the ratio of the distances of the de- 
flecting bar which shall give the smallest possible error in the resulting in- 
tensity corresponding to a given force of deflection, and his suggestion re- 
specting the employment of the bifilar suspension for the purpose of magni- 
fying small declination-changes, whether such changes require to be mea- 
sured for ascertaining the temperature correction of a deflecting magnet, or 
simply for their own sake, at stations near the equator where they are habitu- 
ally very small. 

No expense beyond a charge of 10/. 8s. lOd. for observatory registers sup- 
plied to Mr. Boguslawski for the new period of three years, has been incurred, 
but your Committee pray a continuance of the remainder of their grant to 
meet such demands as may arise. 

Signed on the part of the Committee, J. F. W. Herschel. 

Annual Report of Professor Von Boguslawski, addressed to Colonel Sabine. 
" My dear Sir, " Breslau, June 18, 1842. 

" I have received with great pleasure, although much retarded, your es- 
teemed communications of May 19th, 1841, and January 11th, 1842, as well 
as the highly interesting inclosures, but am still in expectation of the arrival 
of the required forms, as also of the new books for observations of this year, 
from 2 to 2 minutes. They will however arrive in time, because for this year 
past, extraordinary obstacles to the labours of the observatory have taken 
place, which however have now been happily removed. The only assistant 
who was associated with me was suffering under a complaint of the chest, 
which rendered him incapable of continued work. The labours thereby fallen 
to my share were increased by the death of Dr. Scholtz, Professor of Mathe- 
matics, part of whose lectures I was obliged to take upon me until his place 
was supplied again. 

" Not without much exertion I have taken care, that all the magnetic term 
observations were made complete, and that everything was prepared to proceed 
presently to the absolute observations under more favourable circumstances, 
as also not to omit observations of perturbations out of terms. 

" During the vacancies of the Easter holydays I have caused to be made for 
that purpose, not without difficulty, a deep blind (niche) within the old thick 
and strong wall of the tower, in order to get thereby sufficient room for ob- 
servations of deviations of the declination needle also in the westerly direction. 
I place much confidence in the new assistant, who is to arrive by the 1st 
July, and live in hope that my request for a second assistant will be acceded 
to, so that the magnetic observations will be continued with redoubled zeal, 
and more time can then be given to the forming of the abstracts and registers 
for you. 

" I beg to request of you the favour of communicating this to the Council of 
the British Association, and to present to them at the same time my most 
sincere and hearty thanks for the honour conferred upon me for naming me 
a corresponding member." 



12 REPORT— 1842. 

Report on the present state of the Ichthyology of IVetv Zealand. By 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., Sfc., Inspector of Naval 
Hospitals, at Haslar. 

Now that New Zealand has become the adopted home of thousands of our 
countrymen, whose numbers are daily receiving fresh accessions, and whose 
efforts are primarily directed to the overthrow of the native forests with a 
view to their replacement by farm-houses, verdant pastures, rich crops of the 
cerealia, and the other accompaniments of a successful agriculture ; we may 
expect that a corresponding change will follow in the distribution of animals. 
Some will become rare or perhaps entirely disappear, while others, casually 
or intentionally introduced, and finding appropriate food and protection, will 
increase, and people the land. It is of importance to zoology that the num- 
ber, range and habits of the animals should be ascertained and recorded be- 
fore the din and bustle of civilisation scare them from their native haunts ; 
and it was with the view of facilitating the execution of such a task, that 
J. E. Gray, Esq. of the British Museum, and I undertook, on the recommenda- 
tion of the general committee assembled at Plymouth, to draw up a report, 
of which the present paper is a part. 

The islands of New Zealand crossing thirteen degrees of latitude, and pos- 
sessing from their narrowness and their remoteness from continents, a purely 
maritime climate, are well situated for showing how far the distribution of 
animals is influenced by an increasing distance from the tropic, independent 
of other considerations. Several able zoologists have gone to reside in this 
the most remote of our colonies, and it is to them that we look for an accu- 
mulation of facts bearing on this question, before the unwearied assiduity 
and continual progress of the Anglo-Saxon race, and the ravages of the do- 
mestic beasts of prey which follow in their train, shall have compelled the 
various species to overpass the demarcations of their ancient ranges, which 
could have been but little disturbed by the operations of the thinly scattered 
aboriginal inhabitants. These observations apply more extensively to the 
birds than to the other vertebrata, for quadrupeds are very rare in New 
Zealand, Cook having observed only two, the dog and rat, and Polack, in his 
recently published popular account of the Colony, says that it nourishes no 
serpents or snakes of any description. Three individuals of the genus Pela- 
mys were indeed thrown ashore on a piece of timber ; but from the way in 
which the fact is mentioned, I suppose that they were destroyed by those 
who witnessed the descent. A large agama (Hatteria, Gray) is known to 
the settlers by the name of iguana, but it is now scarce, having been nearly 
extirpated by wild cats sprung from the introduced domestic race. 

Mr. Gray with the assistance of his brother has prepared a list of the birds, 
and also drawn up one of the reptiles and invertebrata known to inhabit New 
Zealand ; but he has lately received an accession of specimens which require 
time for examination, and has therefore found it expedient to defer his report 
to another year, that he may be able to present it in a more complete state. 
The fish have hitherto been more neglected than the other vertebrata or the 
mollusca, and had I designed to draw up an orological report, or to make ex- 
tended observations on the peculiarities of organization exhibited by the fish 
which inhabit the seas of New Zealand, I must also have deferred this paper 
until materials accumulated ; but my object is the much more humble though 
still useful one of furnishing the naturalists now at work on the ichthyology 
of those distant seas with a list of the known species and references to their 
figures and published descriptions. 

It is to the accurate observers who accompanied Cook on his first and 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 13 

second voyages, that we are indebted for almost all that is known of the fish 
of New Zealand. They figured or described upwards of sixty-five species, to 
which nine have been added by Cuvier and Valenciennes in their admirable 
' Histoire des Poissons,' and sixteen by other writers, making in all ninety. 
Even in this small list it is to be feared that in two or three instances the same 
species is mentioned more than once under different names. 

From the great prolongation of the islands in a north and south direction, 
the deep indentations of their coast-lines, the different exposures of their bays, 
the variety of the beaches, the existence of sand-banks off their shores, their 
numerous rivers and interior lakes, we should expect to find them rich in 
fish, and in fact Polack says that few countries possess a greater abundance 
or variety of the finny tribes. There is no place in the northern hemisphere, 
situated in the same manner as New Zealand, so that it can be used as a 
standard of comparison ; but the Mediterranean sea embraces similar parallels 
of latitude and it is known to nourish at least 230 species of acanthopterygii 
alone. The fish which frequent the shores of New Zealand are probably as 
numerous as those which visit the coasts of Italy and Sicily, and we may ex- 
pect to find among them a greater variety of the wandering oceanic kinds. 
Lesson, in the zoological part of the account of the voyage of the Coquille, 
gives an eloquent sketch of the general distribution of fish in the Southern 
seas, which may be consulted with advantage ; but much information is still re- 
quired to complete this department of zoology. Seamen are so well acquainted 
with the general forms of the pelagic fish, that they have ceased to regard 
them as objects of curiosity, or to record their appearance ; and we conse- 
quently lack observations on the precise ranges of the species. It is of the 
more local kinds, owing to their peculiar habits and strange shapes, that navi- 
gators on visiting a foreign coast form the bulk of their collections. Of these, 
some are strictly littoral in their haunts, and prey on the minute Crustacea 
which deposit their spawn in such localities ; others browse on sea-weed or on 
coral, and are not likely to traverse large districts of the ocean destitute of 
such productions. The boleophthahni and some other Gobioides even ascend 
the beach, and like little lizards chase their insect prey through rocky crevices. 
The plectognathi seem to be peculiarly adapted for living in the surf of coasts 
exposed to all the fury of the ocean, and particularly among the coral barriers 
of the intertropical isles. Their powers of natation are small, aided though the 
caudal be by the approximation to it of the other two vertical fins, and they are 
apparently tossed about at the mercy of the waves. Some of them are protected 
by hard elastic cuirasses, strengthened by strong spines placed at the angles ; 
others have their soft integuments studded by projecting flexible spines like 
those of the terrestrial hedge-hog or sea echinus ; and they possess moreover 
the power of rendering themselves more buoyant by inflating the skin with 
air, or of steadying themselves by taking in water as ballast. Australian spe- 
cimens of these fish abound in every museum. 

The predominance of marsupial quadrupeds over the other Mammalia in 
Australia is the distinguishing feature of its zoology, and it would form a 
curious subject of inquiry, to ascertain whether there be anything analogous 
in the other divisions of the animal kingdom existing in that quarter of the 
world. Mr. Owen has shown that the marsupial structure is peculiarly 
adapted to the necessities of animals that are required to traverse large tracts 
of poor and barren country in search of food. Now an inhabitant of the 
waters must be in a condition somewhat similar to the kangaroos in the wastes 
of New Holland, when the element in which it is primarily organized to move 
and from which it draws its subsistence is occasionally deficient. Immedi- 
ately without the tropics there is a zone of various width but nowhere passing 



14 REPORT — 1842. 

the 34-th parallel, within which little or no rain falls. We can trace this zone 
from Pitis and Lower California across the new world to the Atlantic. In 
the old world it includes the Sahara and lesser deserts of Northern Africa, 
Egypt, Arabia Deserta, and certain districts in Asia, being interrupted chiefly 
by the intrusion of lofty mountain chains. This arid belt is bounded by 
zones of periodic rains, which on the north side of it fall in the winter season, 
and on the south side in the summer only, the rains having a more uniform 
character in the latter district. Similar zones exist in the southern hemi- 
sphere, though they are less easily traced from the intervention of large tracts 
of ocean. We find them well characterised however both on the Pacific 
and Atlantic coasts of South America, again north of the colony of the Cape 
of Good Hope, and in the southern half of New Holland, where as at the 
Cape the rivers are for the most part mere chains of ponds. Some provision 
must be made for the preservation of fish inhabiting the ponds in such coun- 
tries, in the dry season ; and we observe, accordingly, that in Australia vari- 
ous Cheironectes, Batrachi, Gobioides, Megalapes and Apocles bury themselves 
in the mud as the water dries up, and like the lepidosiren of the Gambia re- 
main in an inert state until the rain falls. In South America some siluroids, 
such as the Callichthys, also bury themselves in the mud, while the Doras 
hancochi when the water fails marches overland in dense bodies in quest of 
another river. The Anabasidece have a peculiarity in the structure of the 
pharynx enabling them to retain a supply of water in seasons of drought, which 
has been compared by some authors to the water-bag of the camel, that 
ship of the desert. These fish are most abundant in the southern parts of 
Asia, a few range to the Indian archipelago, and the genus Spirobrcmchus 
peoples the rivers of the Cape of Good Hope. The Indian Anabas, a member 
of the family, is said to ascend palm-trees in quest of little pools of water to 
be found in the axils of the leaves. None of the group have as yet been de- 
tected in Australia, though the nature of the country would lead us to ex- 
pect to find them there : but the rivers have been scarcely explored by the 
ichthyologist. As to New Zealand, its maritime, and consequently more humid 
climate, seems to render any peculiarity in the structure of the respiratory 
apparatus of its fresh-water fish less necessary. With regard to the marine 
fish the proportion of known species is as I have already said too small to en- 
able us to draw any very precise conclusions ; but we cannot fail in reckoning 
the known Australian fish (including those of New Zealand) to be struck with 
the unusual number which are furnished with simple pectoral rays, more or 
less divided from the rest of the fin. The cottoid family, in which this struc- 
ture is predominant, is as numerous, if not more so, in the Australian seas, as 
in the corresponding latitudes of the northern hemisphere, and there are in 
addition many Polynemi, Ckeironemi, Aplodactyli, Cheihdactyli, Nemadac- 
tyli, and Latres, all furnished with simple pectoral rays. Many Australian 
genera exist also in the seas of China. Of the Cyprinoids which are so 
very abundant in India, but one species is known to exist in Polynesia or 
Australia. 

In the following list " Solander" refers to that naturalist's manuscript ' Pisces 
Australia^,' containing his descriptions of the New Zealand fish obtained on 
Cook's first vuyage. The term " Australia" as used by him relates solely to 
New Zealand, which was supposed until Cook circumnavigated it, to be part of 
a great southern continent. The figures of fish executed in the same voyage 
are quoted under the name of the artist " Parkinson". " G. Forster" indicates 
the drawings made on the second voyage, which are preserved with those of 
Parkinson, and Solander's manuscripts in the Banksian library. " J. R. Forster " 
refers to the description of the species in Schneider's edition of Bloch. Forster's 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 15 

manuscripts are kept at Berlin, and are said to be at present in the course of 
publication in an entire state. The ' Histoire des Poissons' is quoted under 
the initials of its authors, and reference is occasionally made to the 9th vo- 
lume of the Annals of Natural History, in which I am now publishing " Con- 
tributions to Australian Ichthyology." 

Percoideje. 

1. Serranus lepidopterus (Rich. Annals, 9, p. 18.). The Butterfly-bar- 
ber-fish. {Perca lepidoptera J. R. Forster MS. II. 58. apud Schn. Epi- 
nephelus lepidopterus, Bl. Schn. p. 302.) 

This fish was discovered on Cook's second voyage, and has recently been 
detected by Dr. Lhotsky on the shores of Van Diemen's Land. It belongs 
to the group of Serrani, which is named " Les Barbiers" in the * Histoire des 
Poissons,' and which is nearly equivalent to Bloch's genus Anthias. The 
works above quoted contain all that has been published respecting it. 

2. Polyprion cernuum (C. & V. 3. p. 24. t. 42.), Wreck-fish, Cherny or 
Jew-fish. (Sciama gadoides, Solander, p. 38. Parkinson, 2.t.74. Perca 
prognathus, et "Palo-tera," G. Forster, 2.t.l8. J. R. Forster, MS.iv.19. 
Epinephelus oxygeneios, Bl. Schn. p. 301 .) 

Few of the finny tribes have a wider range than this curious fish, which is 
remarkable among the percoids for its considerable size, and the peculiar ar- 
mature of its head. It is abundant in the Mediterranean, where the fisher- 
men have long applied to it an epithet expressive of its worthlessness and con- 
sequent rejection as an article of food ; and it has been taken on both sides 
of the Atlantic, from the coast of Cornwall to the Cape of Good Hope. Yet 
it seems to have been quite overlooked by European ichthyologists until the 
publication of M. Valenciennes' paper upon it in the eleventh volume of the 
• Memoires du Museum,' unless Duhamel intended to represent it in his 
< Peches,' pi. 6. (vide C. & V. 3., p. 23.). In the same year however as the pub- 
lication of Duhamel's work, this fish was an object of interest to Solander, who 
was then with Cook, navigating the seas of New Zealand. His 'Pisces 
Australia?' contain an extended description of a specimen taken off Motuaro, 
which embraces most of the peculiar characters of the genus. Parkinson's figure 
was executed at the same place, and most probably is a portrait of the same 
individual. On Cook's second voyage the species was seen by the Forsters 
at Queen Charlotte's Islands, near the 19th parallel of south latitude and 138th 
meridian, where it was known to the natives by the name of " Palo-tera". G. 
Forster's drawing of it is preserved in the Banksian library, and J. R. Forster 's 
description may be found in Schneider's edition of Bloch. 

3. Centropristes trutta (C. & V. 2. p. 54.). (Scicena trutta, G. Forster, 2. 
t. 210. Perca trutta, J. R. Forster, apud Bl. Schn. p. 542.) 
This fish was procured by the Forsters in one of the coves of Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound, and Schneider quoting from the manuscripts of J. R. Forster, 
informs us that it was named by the natives " Kahavai," and by the sailors 
" Salmon-peel," on account of its rich and delicate flavour. Cuvier adopted 
the species in the second volume of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' under the de- 
signation that it has in Schneider's edition of Bloch ; but in the third volume 
of the ' Histoire des Poissons ' he supposes that the species may prove to be 
the same with the Centropristes ? truttaceus procured by Messieurs Quoy and 
Gaimard at Port Western. Several very closely resembling but distinct 
species appear to exist in the Australian seas. Two of them are named be- 
low, and Polack in his popular list of New Zealand fish mentions " Kahawai" 



16 REPORT — 1842. 

or colourless Salmon, but gives us no clue by which to discover the species 
to which he alludes. 

4. Centropristes mulloides. (Sciana mulloides, Parkinson, 2. t. 68. Sci- 

<E?ia mulloides, ft. (sapidissima), G. Forster, 2. t. 211. 
This species was obtained by Parkinson at Hetrawai, and by the Forsters 
in Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

5. Centropristes sapidissimus. (Mulloides sapidissimus, Solander, p. 22. 

Parkinson, 2.t.67.) 
Solander has given a pretty full description of this species in his ' Pisces 
Australia,' and mentions that it inhabits Tegadoo bay, and Tolaga, between 
the 38th and 39th parallels of latitude. Parkinson procured the specimen 
which he has figured at Opooragi. The drawings of these three, variously 
named Centropristes, being unfinished, we are not in a condition to point out 
their distinctive characters, neither is it quite certain that they are all speci- 
fically different from the New Holland Centropristes truttaceus (C. and V.), 
C. georgianus* (C. and V.), and C. salar (Zool. Trans. 3. p. 78.). Some ob- 
servations on their peculiarities may be found in the paper last quoted. 

6. Aplodactylus meandratus (Rich. Zool. Trans. 3. p. 83.). (Scicena 

meandrata, Parkinson, 2. t. 65. Mceandrites, Solander, p. 2.) 
It was not until the year 1831 that the genus Aplodactylus was made 
known by Cuvier, on M. d'Orbigny bringing specimens of punctatus from 
Valparaiso. A second species, the arctidens, from Van Diemen's Land, is 
described in the third volume of the Zoological Transactions, now in the 
course of publication ; and a third, not yet named, exists in the Museum of 
Fort Pitt. But as long ago as October 1769 Solander was in possession 
of a New Zealand species, which was taken off Cape Kidnappers, otherwise 
named Matamawi, in the forty-second parallel, and Parkinson made a draw- 
ing of it. This figure in conjunction with the extended description contained 
in the ' Pisces Australia? ' leaves us no reason for doubting the genus of the 
fish. 

7. Percis colias (C. and V. 3. p. 273.). Coaly Percis. (Labrus macrocephalus, 
Solander, p. 27. Parkinson, 2. t. 57., Gadus colias, and New Zealand Cole- 
fish, G. Forster, 2.t. 181. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 36. apud Schn. Enche- 
liopiis colias, Bl. Schn. p. 54.) 

This fish was discovered on Cook's first voyage off Owhooragi, and was 
named " Cole-fish" by the seamen. Parkinson's figure was done from a spe- 
cimen which was taken at Motuaro. The Forsters afterwards found it on the 
same coast, and ascertained its native name to be " nera-warre." The painters 
and describers of this fish differ in the numbers of the fin rays, and we may 
conclude either that the species is variable or that two species have been con- 
founded. 

Solander, Pise. Austr. 

Parkinson, fig. 

G. Forster, fig. 
17. J. R. Forster, apud Schn. 
The two drawings however are very like one another, and there is no other 
marked discrepancy in the descriptions than the variation of the numbers of 
the rays. 

8. Percis nicthemera (C. and V. 3. p. 274.). 

Messieurs Lesson and Garnot brought this fish from the Bay of Islands, and 
* Arripis georgianus, Jenyns, Zool. Beagle. 



D.5 


20; 


A. 12 


5 


20; 


17 


5 


23; 


20 


5 


25; 


11 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 17 

Cuvier says that he should be inclined to consider it as the same with J. R. 
Forster's Gadus colias, but for its very different numbers of rays, which are 
the same as in Parkinson's figure of macrocephalus, above quoted. It is pos- 
sible that there may be a mistake or misquotation of the dorsal rays by 
Schneider, in which case the nicthemera would most probably have to be 
razed from our list of species. Solander mentions that the opercular bones 
of macrocephalus are the only scaly parts of the head, and this character is 
considered in the ' Histoire des Poissons' as a peculiarity of nicthemera. He 
also states that six or seven brown bands are faintly visible on the body of the 
living fish, the colours in other respects being those ascribed to nicthemera. 
The banded distribution of the darker tints is a prevailing one in the genus. 

9. Uranoscopus maculatus (Forster). Bearded Star-gazer. ( Uranoscopus 
maadosus, Solander, p. 21. U. maculatus, J. R. Forster apud Schneider. 
G. Forster, 2. 1. 176. 177. U. monopterygius, Bl. Schn. p. 49. U. cirrhosus, 
C. andV. 3. p. 314. U. forsteri Idem, p. 318. U. kouripoua, Lesson, 
Voy. pax M. Le Cap. Duperrey, pi. 18. U. maculatus, Rich. Annals, &c 
ix.p.207.) 

In the last -quoted paper reasons are assigned for considering the several 
names here quoted as synonyms of a single species, examples of which Avere 
procured at Tolaga bay on Cook's first voyage, in Queen Charlotte's Sound on 
his second voyage, and in the Bay of Islands by the naturalists of La Coquille. 
Lesson states that 'Kouripooa,' is the name given to it by the natives of New 
Zealand, while Forster says that they call it ' Bedee'. 

10. Upeneus vlamingii (C. and V. 3. p. 452.). (Labrus calophthalmus, So- 
lander, p. 35. Parkinson, 2. t. 46. Up. vlamingii, Annals, 9. p. 21 1.) 

This fish came under the observation of Solander and Parkinson in Queen 
Charlotte's Sound. It exists likewise in the Indian ocean, Admiral Vlaming 
having left a figure of it which was copied by Renard. Specimens were also 
collected by Messrs. Quoy and Gaimard. 

11. Upeneus porosus (C. and V. 3. p. 455.). 

This Upeneus was detected by Peron in Van Diemen's Land, and by Les- 
son and Garnot in the rivers of New Zealand. 

The following percoid-fish inhabit the seas of New Holland. Apogonrex- 
mullorum (C. and V.) ; Ap. aprion (Annals, ix.) ; Sen-anus lepidopterus, 
(Annals, ix.) ; S. gilberti (Annals, ix.) ; >S". merra (C. and V.) ; S. stellans 
(Annals, ix.) ; S. ura (C.andV.); S. crapao (C. andV.); Plectropoma den- 
tex(C. and V.) ; PI. serratum (C. andV.); Pi. nigro-rubrum (C. and V.); Meso- 
prion yapilli (C. and V.) ; M. carpo-notatus (Annals, ix.) ; M. ? emeryii (Icon. 
Pise. fasc. i. t. 3= f. 2*); Centropristes truttaceus (C. and V.) ; C. georgianus 
(C. and V.) ; C. scorpcenoides (C. and V.) ; Grystes macquariensis (C. and 
V.); Cheironemus georgianus (C. and V.) ; Therapon servus (C. and V.) ; 
Th. theraps (C. and V.); Th. rubricatus (Annals, ix.); Pelates quadrilineatus 
(C. and V.) ; Helotes sexlineatus (C. and V.) ; II. octolineatus (Jenyns, Zool. 
Beag.); Sillago maculata (C. and V.); S. bassensis (C.and V.) ; S. punctata 
(C. and V.); S.burra (Annals, ix.); Beryx lineatus (C. and V.); Trachich- 
thys australis (C. and V.); Aphritis urvillii (C. and V.) ; Uranoscopus Icevis 
(C. and V.); Ur. maculatus (Annals, ix.); Polynemus plebeius (C. and V.); 
P. tetradactylus (C. and V.); Percis emeryana\ (Annals, ix. Icon. Pise. 1. 
f. 1) ; P. nebulosa (C. and V.) ; Upeneus porosus (C. and V.). 

* Icones Piscium, or Plates of Rare Fishes, by John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., &c. London, 
1842. 

t This is Dentex fasciatus discovered by Solander on the coast of New Holland, May 24, 
1770. It is also, perhaps, the variety of Percis nebulosa, noticed in C. and V. iii. p. 263. 

1842. c 



18 REPORT — 1842. 

COTTOIDEJE. 

12. Trigla papilionacea (Solandei-, p. 23.). The Kumu. (Trigfa pa- 
pilionacea, Parkinson, 2. 1. 104. TV. kumu, Lesson et Garnot, Coquille, 
pi. 19., C. and V., 4. p. 50. Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, p. 27-). 

Parkinson and Solander saw this gurnard in Tolaga bay, at Opooragee, 
and on other parts of the coast of New Zealand. INT. Lesson, and at a later 
period Mr. Darwin procured specimens of it in the Bay of Islands. Solander 
describes the colours of the recent fish more fully than any succeeding writer. 

13. Scorp^na cardinalis (Solander, p. 28.); Parkinson, 2. 1. 12. Annals, 

ix.p.212.) 
The ' Pisces Australia? ' contain a long description of this species. The 
habitat there assigned to it is Motuaro, but on Parkinson's drawing the more 
general one of Eaheenomauwee, or the northern island of New Zealand, is 
given. Much of Solander's description is quoted in the Annals of Natural 
History. 

14. Scorpjena cottoides (Forster apud Schneider.). (Scorpcetia cottoides, 

G. Forster, 2. 1. 190. Synanceia papillosa, Bl. Schn. p. 196.) 
Forster's figure has a strong resemblance tot\\c. Scorpama ergastulortim of Van 
Diemen's Land (Annals, ix.), but wants the black mark on the first dorsal 
fin. Cuvier compares it with the cirrhosa and venosa of the ' Histoire des 
Poissons.' Its New Zealand name is " enooheetara." 

15. Scorp^na plebeia (Solander, p. 21.). (Rich. Annals, ix. p. 214.) 
Little is known of this species. Solander, who found it in Tolaga bay, de- 
scribed its colours merely, and there is no figure of it extant. It remains 
therefore for the local investigator of the Zoology of New Zealand, to com- 
pare it with the established species. 

16. ScoRPiENA cruenta (Solander, p. 5. Annals, ix. p. 217.). 

Neither have we any figure of this fish. It was procured off Cape Kid- 
nappers, and has the black mark on the dorsal fin which is so conspicuous in 
the European scrofa and ergastulorum of Van Diemen's Land. 

17. Sebastes percoides. (Scorpana percoides, Solander, p. 4. Parkinson, 2. 

1. 16. Annals, ix.) 

This fish was obtained at Motuaro in Queen Charlotte's Sound on Cook's 
first voyage. Parkinson's unfinished drawing does not express the generic 
characters with precision, and Solander's description is confined to the tints of 
colour exhibited by the recent fish. 

The following members of the cottoid family frequent the coasts of New 
Holland : Scorpana miles (Zool. Tr. 3.) ; Sc.jacksoniana (Quoy et Gaim.) ; 
Sc. hurra (Annals, ix. p. 215) ; Sc. panda (Annals, ix. p. 216); Sc. ergas- 
tidonim (Annals, ix.p.217); iPlatyeephalus endrachtmsis (C. andV.); PI. 
fuscus (C. and V.); PI. bassensis (C. and V.) ; PI. laevigatas (C. and V.) ; 
PI. inops (Jenyns, Zool. Beagle) ; Apisfes aust/alis (C. and V.) ; Apistcs 
? (Jenyns, Zool. Beagle) ; Synanceia trachynis (Annals, ix. p. 385). 

SdjENOIDEiE. 

18. Cheilodactylus carponemus (C. and V. p. 362.). {Scianoidcs abdo- 
minalis, Parkinson, 2. t. 52. Sparus carponemus, G. Forster, 2. t. 206; Chei- 
lodactylus carponemus, Zool. Trans. 3. p. 99.) 

This species was obtained on Cook's first voyage at Matarruhow, and on 
the second in Dusky Bay. Quoy and Gaimard found it in King George's 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 19 

Sound, New Holland, and it is a common and highly prized fish at Hobart 
Town. 

19. Cheii-odactylus macropterus. (Scicena and scicenoides abdominalis, 
Solander, p. 11. and 27.; Parkinson, 2. t.40.; Scicena macroptera, G. Fors- 
ter, 2. t. 206 ; J. R. Forster, MS. ii. 54. apud Schneider ; Cichla macrop- 
tera, Bl. Schn. p. 342 ; Cheil. macropterus, Rich. Zool. Trans. 3. p. 101.) 
In the ' Histoire des Poissons ' this species is confounded with the prece- 
ding one, but it seems to be sufficiently distinct and to be characterized not 
only by a more conspicuous black mark above the shoulder, but also by a 
different number of rays, thus — 

D. 17 | 26; A. 3 | 14. macropt. Sol. and Schn. 
17 | 31 ; 3 | 19. carponem. C.& V. and Rich. 

The tip of the tenth ray of the pectoral passes the beginning of the anal, be- 
ing proportionally longer than that of carponemus. Specimens were pro- 
cured on Cook's first and second voyages off Cape Kidnappers, in Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound and in Dusky Bay. 

20. Latris? s almoue a. (Scicena salmonea, Parkinson, 2. t. 66 ; Latris? sal- 

monea, Rich. Zool. Trans. 3. p. 114.) 
The ' Pisces Australia? ' contains no account of this fish, which was procured 
in Totaeranue Cove, Queen Charlotte's Sound, and Parkinson's figure is not 
complete enough to render the genus perfectly certain, though the general 
aspect is that of Latris. 

21. Latris lineata. Yellow-tail. (Scicena lineata, G. Forster, 2. t. 204 ; 
J. R. Forster, MS. ii. 52. apud Schneider; Cichla lineata, Bl. Schn. p. 342; 
Latris lineata, Rich. Zool. Trans. 3. p. 108.) 

This inhabitant of the rocky narrows of Dusky Bay was discovered on 
Cook's second voyage, and immediately named by the sailors " Yellow-tail." 
It is very like the " Trumpeter" of Van Diemen'sLand (Latris hccateia), and 
may possibly prove on examination to be the same, but the specimens of the 
Trumpeter which have been transmitted to this country do not show any yellow 
tints on the tail. 

22. Latris ciliaris (Rich. Zool. Trans. 3. p. 115). (Scicena ciliaris, G. Fors- 
ter, 2. t.205. and 2. t. 209. ; J. R. Forster, MS. 2. 55. apud Bl. Schn. p. 31 1 ). 
Two sketches of this fish were made on Cook's second voyage, one (205) 

in Dusky Bay, where it bears the native appellation of " moghee "; the other 
(209) in Queen Charlotte's Sound. Two ciliated tubercles placed above the 
eyes are peculiar to this species. 

The characters of the genus Latris are detailed in the third volume of the 
Zoological Transactions, and a full description with an accurate figure is 
there given of the Trumpeter ; Parkinson's and Forster's figures of the three 
.New Zealand species have much of the general character of the genus, but 
do not clearly show the simplicity of the lower pectoral rays*. 

The Sciasnoid fish known to frequent the coasts of New Holland are Ele- 
ginusbursinus (C. and V.); Scolopsis longulus (Annals, ix. p. 389) ; Cheilo- 
dactylus carponemus (Zool. Tr. 3.); Latris hecateia (Zool. Tr.); Nemadactijlus 
concinnus (Zool. Tr.) ; Amphiprion melanostolus (Annals, ix. p. 390) ; Amph. 
rubro-cinctus (Annals, ix. p. 391) ; Pristipoma sexlineatum (Q. and G.). 

* And it may be proper to mention, that there is in the Museuin of the College of Surgeons 
a fish, procured on one of Cook's voyages and presented to the Museum by Sir Joseph 
Banks, having a very close external resemblance to Latris, but with more dorsal spines 
than any species here enumerated, and the lower pectoral rays branched like the uppermost. 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1842. 

SpAROIDE-ffi. 

23. Pagrus guttulatus (C. andV. 6. p. 160.). 

M. Lesson procured this fish in the mouth of one of the rivers of New 
Zealand, and Peron and Quoy and Gaimard found it on the coasts of New 
Holland. 

24. Pagrus micropterus (C. and V. 6. p. 163.). 

The account of this species in the ' Histoire des Poissons ' was drawn up 
from a specimen which was taken in the ffistuary of the river Thames, New 
Zealand, by Mess. Quoy and Gaimard. 

25. Pagrus latus (Rich. Annals, ix.p. 392). (Sciama lata, Solander, p. 2.5; 
Sc. aurata, G. Forster, 2. t. 208 ; J. R. Forster, apud Schn. ; Labrus aura- 
tits, Bl. Schn. p. 266.) 

Solander procured this fish between Owhooragi and Opooragi, and Forster 
found it on the second voyage in Queen Charlotte's Sound. The natives of 
the latter locality name it " ghoo-paree." 

Pagrus guttulatus (C. and V.) ; P. unicolor (C.and V.) ; Pentapus vitta 
(C. and V.) ; P. iris (C.and V.); Lethrinus cyanoxdnthus (Icbn.Phc.~4'.f*l); 
L.cinnabarhius (Id. 4. f.2);and Oblata tricuspidata (C.and V.) are Sparoid 
forms which have been detected in the Australian seas. 

We have the Mamoid Gerres subfasciatus (C. and V.), and G. Jilamento- 
sus (C. and V.) from the same seas, which likewise produce the following. 
ChcEtodontoidecz : Drepane punctata (C. and V.), Chelmon marginalis (An- 
nals), Platax leschenaldi (C. and V.), PL orbicularis (C. and V.), and 
Scorpis georgianus (C. and V.). No Anabasidea have as yet been brought 
from New Holland. 

SCOMBEROIDEJE. 

26. Scomber (scombrus) solandris. (Scomber scombrus, Solander, p. 31 ; 

Richardson, Annals.) 
Solander observed a mackerel in Queen Charlotte's Sound, which he thought 
was the well-known European species. He neither describes nor figures it, 
but merely mentions the number of its rays, and states that the ordinary size 
of the fish is greater than in Europe. It is probably the Scomber loo of the 
' Histoire des Poissons.' 

27. Thyrsites atun, altivelis (Rich. Zool. Tr. iii. p. 119). (Scomber splen- 
dens, Solander, p. 37 ; Scomber dentex, G. Forster, ii. t. 216; Sc.dentatus, 
J. R. Forster, MS. II. 58, apud Bl. Schn. p. 24. 

Solander saw this fish in Murderer's Bay, and the Forsters found it in 
Queen Charlotte's Sound, and learnt that its native name was " maga." So- 
lander's description is full and characteristic, and the figure corresponds pretty 
well with a specimen from Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land, which is de- 
scribed in the 'Zoological Transactions.' An actual comparison of specimens- 
is required to decide whether it be the same with the Thyrsites atun of the 
Cape of Good Hope, described in the 'Histoire des Poissons,' viii. p. 137, 
pi. ccxix. 

28. Gempylus solandris (C.and V. viii. p.216). (Scomber macrophthalmus, 
Solander, p. 40 ; Parkinson, ii. t. 91 ; Gempylus solandris, Annals, ix.) 
The account of this inhabitant of the seas washing Eaheenomauwee, in the 

'Histoire des Poissons,' rests upon Solander's description and Parkinson's 
figure. Some passages are quoted from Solauder in the ' Annals of Natural 
History.' 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 21 

Polack mentions Sword-fish in his list of the productions of New Zealand, 
but the latitude with which popular names are applied prevents us from form- 
ing any decided opinion as to the genus. He may have seen the Histiopho- 
rus indicus, which probably ranges southwards to New Zealand. The true 
sword-fish (Xiphias gladius) is confined as far as we know to the Atlantic. 
The same writer also includes "pilot-fish" in his list. He may perhaps mean 
the Naucrates indicus (C. and V. viii. p. 326). 

29. Chorinemus forsteri (Rich. Annals, ix.). (Scomber maculatus, G. 
Forster, ii. t. 228; J. R. Forster, MS. II. 120, apud Schn. ; Sc. forsteri, 
Bl. Schn. p. 26. 

The Forsters found this fish in New Zealand, and a New Holland specimen 
is described in the 'Annals of Natural History.' It is named "milinjidnee" by 
the natives of Port Essington, and is very probably the same species with the 
Chorinemus commersonianus of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' viii. p. 370. 

30. Trachurus Nov^e Zelandije (C. and V.ix. p. 26). 

This trachurus belongs to the group which has the lateral line armed by 
fewer than eighty shields, and differs little in external appearance from the 
common European Caranx trachurus, but there are peculiarities in the struc- 
ture of its skeleton and viscera. It was brought from New Zealand and Am- 
boyna by Quoy and Gaimard, and from Shark Bay, New Holland, by Lesson 
and Garnot. 

31. Trachurus ? clupeoides (Ann. ix.). (Scomber clupeoides, Solander, 

p. 31.) 
Solander obtained this species in Dusky Bay. There is no figure of it, but 
his description points it out to be a Caranx, and most probably of the group 
of Trachuri. 

32. Caranx lutescens (Annals, ix.). (Scomber lutescens, Solander, p. 38.) 
Was procured in Queen Charlotte's Sound on the 30th of March, 1 770. 

33. Caranx sinus-obscuri (Annals, ix.). (Scomber trachurus, varietas, 

G. Forster, ii. t. 223. C. and V. ix. p. 20.) 
This Caranx, discovered by the Forsters in Dusky Bay, is, like the preceding 
species, a member of the third of the three groups into which the " caranx 
proprement dit " are divided in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' x. p. 45. 

34. Caranx platinoides (Annals, ix.). (Scomber platinoides, Solander, 

p. 13.) 
An inhabitant of Tolaga Bay, but depending as a species on Solander's too 
brief description. 

35. Caranx georgianus (Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, p. 71.). (Scomber micans, 
Solander, p. 27 ; Parkinson, 2. t. 89. Caranx georgianus, C. and V. ix. 
p. 85 ?) 

Inhabits Opooragi, New Zealand, and Shark Bay, New Holland. 

Polack mentions Dories as inhabiting the seas of New Zealand, but whether 
he alludes to the same species that is taken at Van Diemen's Land or not re- 
mains to be ascertained. 

The Australian Scomberoids are Scomber australasicus (C. and V.), Thyn- 
nus bicarinatus (Q. and G.), Thyrsites atun (C. and V.), Chorinemus forsteri 

(Annals), Cybium clupeoideum (C. andV.), Trachurus ? (C. and V.ix. 

p. 20), Trachurus declivis (Jenyns), Caranx clupeoides (Annals), Car. geor- 
gianus (C. and V.), Car, lessonii (C. and V.), Car. platinoides (Annals), Car. 



22 report— 1842. 

speciosus (C.&n&V '.), Psenes leucurus (C. and V.), Temnodon saltator(C.&ndV.), 
Seriola cultrata, and Capros atistralis (Zool. Tr. iii.). 

SlGANOIDEJE. 

36. Acanthurus triostegus (Bl. Schn.). (Harpurus fasciatus, Forster 
apud Schn. ; Teuthys mistralis, Gray, King's Voy. to New Holl. ; Acan- 
thurus triostegus, C. and V. x. p. 137.) 

An inhabitant of the seas of the Mauritius, New Zealand, New Holland 
and Polynesia. 

Amphacanthus notostictus (Annals), Amph. gymnoparcius (Annals), Amph. 
lunifrons (C. andV.), Amph. nebulosus (C. and V.), Amph. maculosus (Q. 
and G.), Acanthurus triostegus (C. and V.), Ac. grammoptilus (Annals), are 
Australian Siganoidese. 

Mugiloideje. 

37. Mugil forsteri (C. and V. xi. p. 141). (JSlugil albulal G. Forster, ii. 
t. 239 ; J. R. Forster apud Bl. Schneider, p. 120.) 

Forster states that this mullet ascends the rivers of Dusky Bay in shoals in 
the month of April. 

Polack says that mullet frequent the deep banks on the eastern coast of 
New Zealand, and are named " kanai " by the natives. 

Mugilperonii (C. and V.), M. acutus ( C- and V.), M. argenteiis (Q.and G.), 
Dajaus diemensis (Zool. Tr.), Atherina hepsetoides (Annals), Ath. pectoralis 
(C. and V.), Ath. presbyteroides (Annals), Ath. endrachtensis (C. and V.), 
Ath. nigrans (Annals), and Ath. jacksoniana (C. and V.), are New Holland 
fish. 

GoBIOIDEjE. 

Fish of this family abound in great variety in the seas of New Zealand aud 
Australia, examples of most of the generic and sub-generic forms described 
in the ' Histoire des Poissons ' having been brought by voyagers from that 
district of the ocean. The exposed haunts, singular habits and strange forms 
of many gobioid fishes subject them to easy capture, and we find accordingly 
that they form a considerable portion of the collections of the casual visitors 
of the shores which they inhabit. 

38. Clinus littoreus (C. and V. xi. p. 389). (Blennius littoreus, G. Fors- 
ter, ii. t. 184 ; J. R. Forster, MS. II. 42, apud Schn. ; Bl. quadridactylus, 
Bl.'Schn. p. 177.) 

Named " kogop " by the inhabitants of Queen Charlotte's Sound, where 
the Forsters saw it on the 24th of October, 1774. 

39. Acanthoclinus fuscus (Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, p. 93, pi. xviii. f. 2). 
This form is peculiar to New Zealand. Mr. Darwin procured his speci- 
mens in the Bay of Islands. It is remarkable for the number of its anal spines. 
Mr. Jenyns remarks that the preceding species is probably another member 
of the genus, but this supposition is discountenanced by Forster's figure, 
which shows only nine anal rays. 

40. Cristiceps australis (C. and V. xi.p. 102). 

Pcron discovered this fish in Van Diemen's Land, and Quoy and Gaimard 
afterwards found it in the river at Hobart Town, and drew the portrait of a 
specimen which measured seven inches. Another paragraph in the ' Histoire 
des Poissons ' mentions that the last-named naturalists brought three very 
small examples of the species from New Zealand. » 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP NEW ZEALAND. 23 

41. Tripterygion nigripenne (C. and V. xi.p. 413). 

Lesson and Gamot, when they accompanied Duperrey, discovered this 
species in the rivers of New Zealand. 

42. Tripterygion varium (C. and V. xi. p. 414). (Blennius varius, G. Fors- 

ter, ii. t. 185 ; J. R. Forstcr, II. 43, apud Bl. Schn. p. 178.) 
A finished drawing was made by G. Forster of a specimen of this fish, 
captured on the 9th of Nov. 1774, in Queen Charlotte's Sound. Its native 
name is " ke kogop." 

43. Tripterygion forsteri (C. and V. xi. p. 415). (Blennius tripinnis, 

J. R. Forster, MS. 11.41, apud Bl. Schn. p. 174.) 
This Tripterygion is also from New Zealand, notwithstanding the following 
passage in the ' Histoire des Poissons:' — " On ne nous dit pas ou il avait etg 
trouve." But in Forster's ' Notes,' as quoted by Schneider, we find, under 
Tripterygion fenestratum, " Habitat cum sequentibus circa insulam Novae 
Zelandice, inter saxa ad ostia rivulorum aquae dulcis, locis cestu mari irrigatis." 
Now in Forster's manuscripts the species stand in the following order : — 



MS. II. 42. Clinus littoreus. 

' 43. Tript. varium. 

44. Scorpaena cottoides, Sfc. 



MS. II. 39. Tript. fenestratum. 

40. 

41. Tript.forsteri (B.tripinnis). 

44. Tripterygion fenestratum (C.and V. xi. p. 410). {Blennius fenestra- 
te, G. Forster, ii. t. 186 ; J. R. Forster, MS. II. 39, apud Bl. Schn. p. 173.) 
G. Forster executed a figure of this species in Dusky Bay with more than 

usual care. It frequents the mouths of rivulets, and is named " he-tarooa " 
by the natives. 

45. Tripterygion capito (Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, p. 94, pi. xix. f. 1.). 
Mr. Darwin captured this little fish on tidal rocks in the Bay of Islands. 
Several gobies and periophthalmi have been detected on the northern shores 

of New Holland, and in the islands of Torres Straits, but none exist in any 
of the collections that have hitherto been made in Van Diemen's Land and 
New Zealand. 

46. Eleotris gobioides (C. and V. xii. p. 247). Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, p. 98. 
Discovered by Quoy and Gaimard in the fresh waters on the north-east 

coast of New Zealand. Forster named another member of this family, which 
he found on the island of Tanna, Blennius gobioides. It is the Salarias al- 
ticus of the ' Histoire des Poissons.' 

47. Eleotris radiata (C. and V. xii. p. 250). 

Found by Quoy and Gaimard in the mouth of the river Thames, in Febru- 
ary 1827. 

48. Eleotris basalis (Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 73.). 
Inhabits the river Thames. 

49. Hemerocjetes acanthorhynchus (C. and V. xii. p. 311). (Callio- 
nymus acanthorhynchus, G. Forster, ii. 1. 175; J. R. Forster, 11.30, apud 
Schneider; Call, monopterygius, Bl. Schn. p. 41.) 

No specimen of this curious fish having been seen since the time of Cook, 
our knowledge of it is entirely derived from the figure and description of the 
Forsters. It was thrown up after a storm in Queen Charlotte's Sound. The 
natives named it " kogo-hooee," probably from some fancied resemblance or 
connexion with Eleotris nigra, which is termed " kogo " in the Polynesian 



24 BEPORT— 1842. 

language. " Hoee-hoec " signifies poisonous or man-killer in the same tongue, 
and is the appellation given to the Tetraodon hispidus at Parietea. Since 
writing this passage, I have, through the kindness of Mr. Gray, seen a drawing 
by Dr. Dieffenbachof a Hemeroccetes from New Zealand, which may be the same 
species*. It appears to differ in some of the markings from Forster's figure, 
but I have not hitherto had an opportunity of comparing them accurately. 

The following Australian Gobioids have been noticed by naturalists : — 
Blennius tasmanius (Zool. Tr. iii.); JBlennechis anoints (C. and V.); Salarias 
meleagris (C. and V.) ; S.forsteri (C. and V.) ; S. kingii (C. and V.) ; Clinus 
]>erspiciUatus(C. and V.); CI. despicillatus (Zool. Tr. iii.) ; Cristiaps australis 
(C. and V.) ; Eleotris trabcalus (Annals) ; Eleotris mogurnda (Annals). 

Batrachus diemensis (Le Sueur) and Cheironectcs politus (Zool. Tr. iii.) 
arc among the representatives of the Batrachoideae on the coast of New 
Holland. 

La3Roide^;. 

50. Labeus pcecilopleura (C.and V. xiii. p. 95). 

Lesson and Garnot discovered this species at New Zealand, and ascertained 
its native name to be " pare-quiriquiri." 

51. Julis? rubiginosus (Annals). (Sparus rubiginosus, Parkinson, ii. t. 
38 ; Solander, p. 7.) 

Solander discovered this fish off Cape Kidnappers. The species resembles 
Julis decussatus. 

52. Julis notatus. (Sparus notatus, Solander, p. 16; Parkinson, ii. t. 37.) 
This fish was found in Totaeranue Cove and Tolaga Bay. It resembles 

Julis decussatus still more closely than the preceding species. 

The ' Pisces Australia?' contains accounts of the colours merely of Sparus 
stellatus and of a Labroides asellinus, but no drawing of them being extant, it 
is impossible now to say whether they ought to be referred to the Wrasse 
family or not. This point remains to be settled by the ichthyologists who 
may hereafter explore the bays in question. The two following species are 
nearly in the same predicament, though a description of their forms is to be 
found in Schneider's edition of Bloch. 

53. Julis miles. (Labrus coccineus, J. R. Forster apud Schneider ; Labrus 

miles, Bl. Schneider, p. 264.) 
Forster's notes, as quoted by Schneider, inform us that this fish resembles 
Labrus lutiaris of Linneus, meaning most probably thereby the Julis blochii 
which Cuvier distinguishes from the true Julis lu?iaris. All three have lunate 
caudal fins. The New Zealand fish was captured with the hook by the sea- 
men, who named it the " soldier " on account of its red jacket. 

54. Julis celidotus. (Labrus celidotus, J. R. Forster apud Schn. ; Bl. 

Schneider, p. 265.) 

Taken at the same place with the preceding fish. 

The Sparus prasioplifhalmusot Solander (p. 5) has six obscure bands, while 
celidotus has only three, and also a large black lateral mark over the anus not 
noticed as existing in prasiophthahnus. There being no description of the form 

* Since the report was read I have had an opportunity, by the kindness of Mr. Owen, of 
examinmg a specimen of this rare fish, which was presented by Dr. Dieffenbach to the Col- 
lege of Surgeons. Forster's description has been misunderstood in some material parts. The 
species will be described in the appendix to Dr. Dieffenbach's account of New Zealand, which 
is uow preparing for the press. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 25 

of the latter given, the genus of the fish must remain for the present uncer- 
tain, since in Solander's time the genus Sparus was made to include very- 
various forms. 

55. Odax pullus (C. and V. xiv. p. 304). (Scarus pullus, G. Forster, ii. 

t. 202 ; J. R. Forster, MS. IV. 17, apud Schneider, p. 208.) 
Inhabiting Queen Charlotte's Sound, and known there by the name of 
" niarraree." 

56. Odax? vittatus (Annals, ix.). (Coregonoides vittatus, Solander, p. 1 

and 39 ; Callyodon coregonoides, Parkinson, ii. t. 24.) 

Two entries of this fish occur in the ' Pisces Australise,' the second being 
an account of the differences between the old and young. It was taken at 
Mataruhow. 

The following Labroids have been taken in the Australian seas. Labrus 
tetricus (Zool. Tr.) ; L.fucicola (Zool. Tr.) ; L. psittaculus (Zool. Tr.) ; L. 
laticlavius (Zool. Tr.) ; L. cya?iodus (Rich.ined) ; L.iris( Solander); Tautoga 
melapterus(C.a.adV.) ; Cheilio lineatus (C.and V.) ; Julis lineolatus (C.andV.) ; 
J. auricularis (C. and V.) ; J. notatus (Sparus, Solander); J. dringii (Rich. 
Icon. Pise. 3. f. 1); Odax pullus (C. and V.); Odax algensis (Zool. Tr.) ; 
Hoplegnathus conwayi (Zool. Tr.). 

Of the extensive family of Siluroidece, of which nearly 300 species are de- 
scribed in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' not a single individual has been bi-ought 
from New Zealand. Nor was it to be expected that many species should have 
been found there, since most of the family are inhabitants of fresh water and 
of the lower latitudes. In North America one species only is known to reach 
the 55th parallel, and the only European species is partially diffused over 
similar latitudes. The plotosus ikapor or lineatus (C.and V. xv. p. 412), a 
widely spread inhabitant of the Indian and Polynesian oceans, descends to 
the west coast of New Holland, and is the most southerly Siluroid which is 
known to us. 

We have no Cyprinoid fish to enumerate among the productions of the 
fresh waters of New Zealand, though it is highly probable that some will here- 
after be brought from thence. The Leuciscus (Ptycholepis) salmoneus, which 
is the Mugil salmoneus discovered by Forster at the island of Tanna, exists at 
Port Essington, New Holland. A specimen brought from thence by Mr. 
Gilbert has enabled me to ascertain that this fish is not an Elops, as Cuvier 
has said in his ' Regne Animal ' (ii. p. 324). Solander notices briefly, in his 
' Pisces Australia?,' a Mugil lavaretoides, which is also referred to Elops in 
the ' Histoire des Poissons ;' but the little that Solander says of the fish ap- 
plies entirely to Mr. Gilbert's specimen of salmoneus, though his account is not 
particular enough to establish their specific identity ; we may therefore quote 
Solander's New Zealand fish, with some doubt, as 

57. Leuciscus ? lavaretoides. (Mugil lavaretoides, Solander, p. 15.) 

Esocnxffi. 
5S. Galaxias alepidotus (Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 283). (Esox alepidotus, 
G. Forster, ii. t. 235 ; J. R. Forster, MS. II. 62, apud Schneider, p. 395.) 
Taken with the hook in the lakes and rivulets which flow into Dusky Bay. 
The aborigines name it " he-para." Cook's sailors called it " rock-trout." 
Another species, most probably the truttaceus of Cuvier, inhabits the rivers 
of Van Diemen's Land, where it obtains the appellation of " the trout." 

59. Galaxias fasciatus (Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 73.). 

This species was discovered by Dr. Dieffenbach in the river Thames. 



26 REPORT— 1842. 

60. Mesitf.s attenuatus (Jenyns, Zool. Beagle, p. 123, pi. xxiv.f. 5). 
This fish was taken in the fresh waters of the Bay of Islands by Mr. Dar- 
win. The genus Mesites seems to be very nearly allied to Galaxias, and this 
species in particular to be scarcely distinguishable from a young Galaxias 

fasciatus. 

61. Sairis scombroides. {Esox scombroides, Solander, p. 40 ; Esox saurus, 
G. Forster, ii. t. 233 ; J. R. Forster, MS. II. 65, apud Bl. Schneider, p. 394.) 

Solander first saw this very handsome fish in lat. 39^° S., long. 204?° W., 
between New Zealand and New Holland. He describes it as having the most 
intense ultramarine or " garter-blue " on the back, and a silvery hue on the 
belly. Forster's description corresponds with Solander's, both agreeing in the 
colours, and in mentioning a blue network on the caudal fin, in the numbers 
of the dorsal and anal finlets, and in the upper jaw being only about two lines 
shorter than the lower one. They may therefore be considered as identical, 
or at least as very closely allied species. The specimen figured by G. Forster 
was captured on the 27th March, 1773, in Dusky Bay. The aborigines named 
it " he-eeya." 

62. Hemiramphus marginatus (Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 286). 

Polack includes " Flying Fish " in his enumeration of the animals of New 
Zealand. The Exoccetus exiliens and volitans inhabit both oceans, and both 
are mentioned by White in his ' Voyage to Botany Bay,' as existing in the 
seas of New Holland. We have no means of judging what the species are to 
which Polack alludes, unless the Esox subpellucens of Solander (' Pisces 
Australia?,' p. 14) be an Exoccetus. The only particulars of form that he men- 
tions are, that the upper jaw is longest ; that there is a barbel beneath, and an 
appendix at the base of the pectoral. It cannot therefore be either of the 
common species, but is rather allied to the bearded ones of America, and will 
stand in our list as 

63. ExOC&TUS? SUBPELLUCENS. 

An inhabitant of Tolaga Bay. 

None of the voyagers, whom we have consulted, mention any of the Salmon 
family as peopling the waters of New Zealand. Saurus and Aulopus exist in 
the sea that washes the north-west coast of New Holland. Vide Icon. Pise. f. 1 . 

Esox lewinii (Griff., Cuv. pi. 60) is from New Holland. 
Clupeoideje. 

64. Clupea lata (Solander, p. 17). 

Solander records the colours merely of this fish, and as there is no figure 
of it, the group of Clupeoidese, to which it ought to be referred, must remain 
for the present undecided. It was procured in Tolaga Bay. The Clupea se- 
tipinna of Forster, discovered by him in the island of Tanna, is a Megalops 
which ranges southwards to the coast of New Holland. 

Gadoidete. 

Polack mentions Cod-fish, bearing the native name of " wapuka," as inhabit- 
ing deep banks on the east coast of New Zealand. He also particularises Hake, 
Haddock and Polack as being frequently taken, though it is not likely that they 
correspond exactly with the European species, whose names the settlers have 
appropriated to them. 

65. Lota baccha (Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 334). ( Gadus bacchus, G. Forster, ii. 
1. 180; J. R. Forster, MS. II. 34, apud Bl. Schneider, p. 53, sub Encheliopode.) 

This is probably the Haddock mentioned above, as it has a large black spot 
on the upper base of the pectorals. Solander obtained it in Murderer's Bay, 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP NEW ZEALAND. 27 

and has recorded a pretty full account of it's colours when fresh. George 
Forster's figure is coarsely executed, but in conjunction with J. R. Forster's 
notes, quoted by Schneider, it renders the species easily recognisable. Its 
native name, in Queen Charlotte's Sound, is " ehogoa." 

70. Lota rhacina. (Gadus rkacinus, G. Forster, ii.t. 179 ; J. R. Forster, 

MS. iv. 16, apud Schn.; Phycis rkacinus, Bl. Schn. p. 56.) 
This resembles the preceding species in form, but differs in colour and in 
the numbers of the fin-rays. It was also taken in Queen Charlotte's Sound, 
where it bears the appellation of " ahdoroo." 

71. Brosmius venustus. (Blennius venustus, Parkinson, ii.t. 5.) 

This is doubtless one of the Hakes mentioned by Polack. Parkinson's figure 
was executed from a specimen obtained in Totaeranue, or Ship Cove. Solan- 
der gives no account of it, unless the brief notice of his Blennius rubiginosus, 
in p. 14 of the ' Pisces Australia?,' ought to be referred to this species. As 
he mentions only a single dorsal, it is most likely a congeneric fish, and there 
is no great discrepancy in the colours so as to point unequivocally to a distinct 
species. He took it in Tolaga Bay. 

We have already seen that the "Cole-fish" of the sailors is aPercis: whether 
the " Polack " of the settlers be another Percis or a true Gadoid fish we have 
no means of ascertaining. 

The Lepidolepri, or Macrouri, which are considered by Cuvier to be nearly 
allied to the Gadoid family, but by the Prince of Canino to form a group of 
the Ganoid order, having much affinity with many fossil genera, exist in the 
depths of the Australian seas, and will probably be hereafter added to the list 
of New Zealand forms. 

Platessoideje. 

Polack says that the seas of New Zealand produce Flat-fish, which are named 
"pitiki" by the natives, and are intermediate between the large flounder 
and the sole. 

72. Rhombus? scapha. (Pleuronectes scapha, G. Forster, ii.t. 193; J. R. 

Forster, MS. II. 46, apud Bl. Schn. p. 163.) 
An inhabitant of Queen Charlotte's Sound, named " mahoa " by the abo- 
rigines, and compared by Forster with the Platessa limanda. The eyes are 
on the left side. 

73. Rhombus plebeius, Solander, p. 12. 

Solander having noticed only the colours of this flat fish, without describing 
its form or dentition, we cannot refer it to its proper genus, but it is very pro- 
bably a Rhombus brought from New Zealand by Dr. Dieffenbach, which 
agrees with the little that Solander says of the species. The eyes are on 
the right side. It was taken in Tolaga Bay, and, like the preceding one, 
measured a foot in length. 

Mr. Jenyns notices a Platessa which was found by Mr. Darwin in King 
George's Sound, but does not name it. He says that it scarcely differs from 
the Platessa orbignyana of Bahia described by Valenciennes in the ' Voyage 
of Orbigny.' Another species from Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land, is de- 
scribed in the ' Zoological Transactions,' vol. iii. 

Discoboli. 

74. Lepadogaster pinnulatus (Forster, MS. IV. 15, apud Bl. Schn. p. 

199). (Cyclopterus pinnulatus, G. Forster, ii. t. 248.) 
Three portraits of this fish, under different aspects, were made by George 
Forster from a specimen which was taken in Queen Charlotte's Sound on the 



28 REPORT — 1842. 

23rd of October, 1774. Its general appearance is very similar to the Gobiesox 
marmoratus of Chiloe, figured in the 'Zoology of the Beagle ' by Mr. Jenyns, 
but it has a square pectoral disk with niammillated edges behind the trian- 
gular one of Gobiesox. The L. pinnulatus haunts stony beaches at the mouths 
of rivulets, and is named by the New Zealanders " moyeadoo." 

75. Gobiesox littoreus (Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 345). (Cyclojiterus littoreus, 

J. R. Forster, MS. II. 27, apud Bl. Schn. p. 199.) 
An inhabitant of stony beaches. 

At least two species of Echcneis exist in the Australian seas, and it is pro- 
bable that the islands of New Zealand are within their range. 

Anguilliformes. 

76. Anguilla australis ( Rich. Zool. p. 22.). (Anguilla australis, Jenyns, 

Zool. Beagle, p. 162.) 
This Eel was sent to me from Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land, by Deputy 
Assistant Commissary General Lempriere, and fully described in a paper read 
before the Zoological Society on the 9th of March, 1841. Mr. Darwin had 
previously found it in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, and it has recently 
been described by Mr. Jenyns in the ' Zoology of the Beagle.' 

77. Anguilla dieffenbachii (Gray, Zool. Misc.). 

Discovered in New Zealand by the gentleman whose name it has received. 

78. Ophidium blacodes (Forster). ( Ophidium blacodes, G. Forster, ii. t. 

174 ; Bl. Schneider, p. 285 ; Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 359.) 

This fish is named "ekokh" by the inhabitants of New Zealand. Schneider, 
who describes it without making the usual reference to Forster's notes, in- 
forms us that it is voracious, torpid and sluggish, and lurks in stony places at 
the bottom of the sea, whence it may be easily extracted by an eel-spear. It 
is much prized by the natives as an article of food. 

Anguilla australis (Zool. Proc), Gymnothorax icilsoni (Schn.), Gymn. 
scriptus (Schneider), and Machazrium subducens (Rich.), inhabit the waters 
of Australia. 

LOPHOBRANCHI. 

79. Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, Mem. de la Soc. Nat. IV. p. 411 ; 

Voy. du Duperrey, Zool. p. 125). 
This species inhabits the creeks of the Bay of Islands, and is named "kiore " 
by the natives. We have received it also from Van Diemen's Land along with 
several other species. The Hippocampus foliaceus seems to range over the 
entire circuit of the coasts of New Holland. 

Plectognathi. 

The Australian seas are very rich in fish belonging to this order, and doubt- 
less many of the same species frequent the coasts of New Zealand, though 
only a few have hitherto been brought from thence. The Diodon nycthemerus 
is abundant at Van Diemen's Land. 

80. Tetraodon hamiltoni (Nob.). 

This species was brought from New Zealand by J. M. Hamilton, Esq., As- 
sistant Surgeon in the Royal Navy, and the specimen is now in the Museum 
of Haslar Hospital. It resembles the Tetraodon jiuviatilis of Hamilton (Fishes 
of the Ganges, t. 30. f. 1). Van Diemen's Land produces another species of 
the same group, which is said to have poisoned several of the settlers. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP NEW ZEALAND. 29 

The Telraodon sceleratus, discovered byForster in New Caledonia, descends 
to the west coast of Australia, where it attains a great size. It bears the re- 
putation of being very poisonous. Another species is named at Otaheite 
" hoee-hoee " (kills men). 

81. Monacanthus scaber. (Balistes scaber, G. Forster, ii. t. 247 ; J. R. 

Forster, MS. II. 72, apud Bl. Schneider, p. 477.) 
This is known at Queen Charlotte's Sound by the name of " baddeek." 
There is nothing either in the figure or description which disagrees with a 
species seen by Solander at Motuaro and off Cape Kidnappers, and entered 
twice in his ' Pisces Australia?' under the names of Balistes unicornu (p. 9) 
and Balistes scabrosus (p. 35). 

Diodon nicthemerus (Cuv.), Balistes jacksonianus (Q. and G.), Monacan- 
thus spinosissimus (Q. and G.), Mon. papillosus (Cuv.), Mon. megalourus 
(Rich, ined.), Aleuteres maculosus (Rich.), Aleuteres paragaudatus (Rich.), 
Al.ayraud (Q.and GS),Al.spilomela?iurus (Q.and G.),Al.velutinus (Jenyns), 
Ostracion auritus (Shaw), Ostr. ornatus (Gray), Ostr. Jlavigaster (Gray), 
Ostr. spilogaster (Zool. Proc), Ostr. lenticidaris (Zool. Proc), are New Hol- 
land species. 

Chimjerid^;. 

82. Callorhynchus antarcticus (Lacep. 1. xii.). ( Chimara callorhyn- 

chus, Solander, p. 18). 
Solander observed this fish in Murderer's Bay on the 16th of January, 
1770. His description extends merely to the colours of the recent fish. Its 
aboriginal name is "erke-perkepe;" its designation by the English settlers 
" elephant-fish." The species of Callorhynchus have not been rigidly com- 
pared with each other, but two certainly exist, if the size of pectoral fins be 
considered as a specific mark. 

Scyllia. 

83. Scyllium? lima. (Squalus lima, Parkinson, i. t. 53 ; Sq. Isabella, 

Brousonnet, No. 1, Bl. Schneider, p. 127.) 
Inhabits Eaheenomauwee. 

Carcitarije. 

84. Carcharias (Prionodon) melanopterus (Miiller und Henle, Pla- 
giostomen, p. 43.). (Carcharias melanopterus, Q.and G. Freyc. pi. 43. f. 
1 and 2.) 

Inhabits the Zealand and Australian seas. 

Spinaces. 

85. Acanthias? maculatus. (Squalus maculatus, Parkinson, i. t. 52.) 
Inhabits Eaheenomauwee. 

SqUATINORAIjE. 

86. Rhinobates (Syrrhina) Banksii (Miiller und Henle, pp. 123 and 

192.) (Rata rostrata, Parkinson, i. t. 45.) 

87. Trygonorhina fasciata (Miiller und Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 124.) 

(Raia fasciata, Parkinson, i. t. 47.) 

Rai;e. 

88. Raia nastjta (Parkinson, i. t. 44.) (Miiller und Henle, Plagiostomen, 

p. 150.) 
Inhabits Toteeranue. 



30 REPORT — 1842. 

89. Trygonoptera testacea (Miiller und Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 174.) 

(Raia testacea, Parkinson, i. 1. 1 46.) 

Myliobatides. 

90. Myliobatis nieuiiofii (Miiller und Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 177.) 

(Rata macrocephala, Parkinson, i. t. 48.) 
The following Plagiostomi inhabit the Australian seas: — HemiscyUiwn 
malaianum (M. und H.), Crossorhinus barbatus (M. und H.), Carcharias 
(Prionodon) maoo (M. und H.), C. (Pr.) melanopterus (M. und H.), He- 
miscyUiwn oceUatum (M. und PI.), //. trispeculare (Richardson), Cestracion 
phiUipi (M. und H.), Trygonorhina fasciata (M. und H.), Tceniura lymma 
(M. und H.), Narcine tasmaniensis (Richardson). 

Cyclostomi. 

91. Heptatrema Dombeyi (Lacepede, i. 23). (Petromyzon cirrhatus, G. 
Forster, ii. t. 251 ; J. R. Forster, MS. II. 24, apud Schn. p. 532; Home, 
Phil. Tr. for 1815, p. 258.) 

Discovered by the Forsters in Dusky Bay. 



Report on the Progress of the Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth. By W. Snow Harris, F.R.S., fyc. 

Since I last had the honour of presenting to the Association the results of 
the discussion of the hourly meteorological observations, made and registered 
at H. M. Dock-yard at Devonport, three additional years have been nearly 
completed ; and I shall be in a position at the close of the present year (1842) 
to revise and bring under one general view the results of the series, con- 
tinued now hourly, without any material omission, since the year 1S32, and 
which will hence complete for temperature ten years' observations. The vast 
mass of registered observations of the different instruments which the Asso- 
ciation has entrusted to my care, have not been so far discussed and brought 
under an appropriate form, as to enable me, on the present occasion, to enter 
fully upon them ; nor indeed is it desirable to do so before the observations 
of the present year are complete and can be included with the preceding 
years. The only notice, therefore, of the further progress of the meteoro- 
logical register at Plymouth, which it is at present in my power to submit for 
the consideration of the Section, is a general discussion of five years' results 
of the barometer and of experiments on the wind made with Whewell's ane- 
mometer, and which I venture to hope the Association may deem not alto- 
gether unworthy its attention. 

In the annexed table and accompanying chart (pi. iv.) will be found the 
mean hourly pressure for each of the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 and 
1841, together with the mean of these years deduced from 43,800 observa- 
tions, at 75 feet above the level of the sea, and reduced to 32° of Fahren- 
heit's scale by Schumacher's tables, from the table referring to the expan- 
sion of the mercury without reference to the scale of measure, the instrument 
employed being of the peculiar construction already noticed in the Reports 
of the Association*, and to which that table is most perfectly applicable. 

In laying down the graphical delineations given in this chart, the same 
method was resorted to as in my preceding Report three years since, viz. 

* Reports of the British Association for 1833, p. 415. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AT PLYMOUTH. 



31 



the mean points were first marked off, and then a continuous line was passed 
through them by means of a flexible batten, so as to include the greatest 
number ; the points of deviation from such a continuous and fair curve being 
marked by a star. Now, I have to call the attention of the Association to 
the surprising coincidence in the general character of all these lines, and the 
very few and small deviations which they present ; a result which I cannot 
but deem somewhat remarkable, considering the frequent atmospheric dis- 
turbances to which we are liable in these latitudes. The observations them- 
selves must have been most carefully made, otherwise such a constant result 
could not possibly have been arrived at ; and I cannot but deem it my duty 
to impress on the Association, the propriety of preserving with great care the 
original manuscript of the observers and printing the whole series, as being 
calculated to advance the present state of meteorology. The meteorologist 
will have then at his command a series of hourly records obtained at con- 
siderable cost in money and time, of as unexceptionable a character as in 
the nature of the circumstances under which they have been made, and the 
present state of science, it is possible to obtain. 

Table, containing the mean hourly pressures for each of the years 1837> 1838, 
1839, 1840 and 1S41, together with the mean of these years from 43,800 
observations, at 75 feet above the mean level of the sea, reduced to 32° of 
Fahrenheit's scale. — The periods of maxima are denoted by the sign +, 
the minima by the sign — , and the mean by a *. See pi. iv. 





1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


Mean of the 5 years. 


A.M. 1. 


29-8719 + 


29-7565* 


29-7768 


29-8366 


29-7173* 


29-7918* 


2. 


29-8696 


29-7547 


29-7735* 


29-8340* 


29-7153 


29-7894 


3. 


29-8626* 


29-7518 


29-7688 


29-8294 


29-7104 


29-7846 


4. 


29-8608 


29-7507 


29-7670 


29-8261 - 


29-7086 - 


29-7826 - 


5. 


29-8606 - 


29-7507 - 


29-7670 - 


29-8271 


29-7093 


29-7829 


6. 


29-8619 


29-7552 


29-7710 


29-8297 


29-7121 


29-7860 


7. 


29-8666 


29-7585 


29-7755 


29-8331 


29-7175 


29-7902 


8. 


29-8706* 


29-7615* 


29-7772* 


29-8364* 


29-7217* 


29-7935* 


9. 


29-8717 


29-7637 


29-7790 


29-8400 


29-7258 


29-7960 


10. 


29-8732 + 


29-7645 + 


29-7807 -4- 


29-8409 + 


29-7294 + 


29-7977 + 


11. 


29-8720 


29-7627 


29-7788 


29-8395 


29-7288 


29-7964 


12. 


29-8663 


29-7587* 


29-7755 


29-8361 


29-7262 


29-7926 


P.M. 1. 


29-8627* 


29-7540 


29-7705* 


29-8310* 


29-7217 


29-7880* 


2. 


29-8580 


29-7517 


29-7670 


29-8283 


29-7184* 


29-7847 


3. 


29-8567 


29-7500 


29-7657 


29-8266 


29-7167 


29-7831 


4. 


29-8558 - 


29-7475 - 


29-7652 - 


29-8262 - 


29-7166 - 


29-7823 - 


5. 


29-8597 


29-7532 


29-7685 


29-8293 


29-7181 


29-7858 


6. 


29-8629 


29-7557 . 


29-7725 


29-8334 


29-7207 


29-7890 


7. 


29-8679* 


29-7610* 


29-7770 


29-8393* 


29-7244* 


29-7939* 


8. 


29-8740 


29-7645 


29-7798* 


29-8441 


29-7278 


29-7980 


9. 


29-8779 


29-7672 


29-7832 


29-8478 


29-7303 -+- 


29-8013 


10. 


29-8792 + 


29-7665 + 


29-7840 + 


29-8482 + 


29-7293 


29-8014 + 


11. 


29-8790 


29-7665 


29-7822 


29-8470 


29-7276 


29-8005 


12. 


29-8783 


29-7639 


29-7775 


29-8438 


29-7254 


29-7978 


Means ... 


29-8675 


29-7579 


29-7743 


29-8356 


29-7208 


29-7912 



I have little further to observe on this table ; the differences from the ge- 
neral results already deduced in my Report for 1839 not being considerable, 
the mean pressure of the five years corresponding with that already obtained. 
I may briefly remark that from the series of five years we find the line of 
mean pressure crossed between the hours 1 and 2, and 7 and 8 a.m., and 
again between 12 and 1, and 6 and 7 f.m. The hours of max. pressure are 



32 report — 1842. 

10 a.m. and 10 p.m., being, with only one exception, a uniform result for 
the whole series. 

The hours of minima are 4 a.m. and 4 p.m., being also a uniform result of 
the five years without any exception. 

When we consider that the few deviations from a fairly continuous curva- 
ture, as laid down in the graphic delineation of the mean hourly march of the 
atmospheric pressure (pi. iv.), apply to the fourth place of decimals, we have 
fair ground for believing that by these observations we have really arrived at 
the general laws of the horary oscillation at Plymouth. 

My Report for the year 1839 contains many general deductions from these 
observations ; and Professor Airy, to whom they were submitted, seemed to 
think that at present little more could be effected by them. I cannot, how- 
ever, but again remind the Association that 48,000 hourly observations on 
pressure and 87,600 hourly observations on temperature, of a very fair and 
perfect kind, made and discussed with great labour and at great cost to the 
Association, should not be lost sight of, and be allowed to exist only in the 
fragile form of a manuscript, but should be permanently secured and placed 
at the disposal of the scientific world generally. There are members of this 
Association so highly gifted with powers of physical research, that it would 
be by no means unreasonable to hope that, should their attention become di- 
rected to particular views of this branch of science, they would with such a 
mass of accredited observation at their command, find themselves in a posi- 
tion to contribute essentially to the future advance of meteorology. 

My last Report on Whewell's anemometer contained an account of the 
general indications of the instrument for one year, and of the means I pro- 
posed to pursue with a view of giving its indications not only a relative but 
an absolute value. Although the tempestuous and unsettled weather which 
marked the close of the last meeting of the Association greatly impeded the 
experiments which I proposed to make, and the early period of our meeting 
this year has somewhat abridged the intermediate time, I have been to a 
great degree enabled to realize the view I entertained of the possibility of 
deducing, by actual experiment, the absolute velocity of the aerial current 
corresponding to certain indications of the instrument, so as not only to de- 
termine the mean direction of the wind for a given time, but the absolute 
mean rate at which it has moved. 

It does not appear requisite at present to enter into a minute detail of the 
various experiments ; it may perhaps be sufficient to state that the pressure 
and velocity of the wind were observed simultaneously with the anemometer, 
and the results tabulated and discussed. From these results the following 
deductions were arrived at. 

1. When the pencil tracing the integral effect of the wind moved by the 
revolutions of the fly at the rate of 1 division of the scale of measure, or *1 
of au inch per hour ; the current of air for the same time moved at a mean 
rate of 11 feet per second. 

2. The space described by the pencil appeared to be proportional to the 
square of the velocity of the aerial current acting on the fly. Thus when 
the pencil described 4 divisions of the scale in an hour, the velocity, by a 
mean of many observations, amounted to 22 feet in a second. 

When the velocity was 15 feet in a second, the pencil had described about 
two divisions of the scale in an hour, and so on. 

Having then the velocity due to a given rate of indication per hour taken 
as unity, it is easy to find the velocity of the wind due to any other rate of 
indication, since we have only to multiply the square root of the given rate 
by the constant 1 1 , the velocity per second corresponding to a space of 1 divi- 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AT PLYMOUTH. 



33 



sion of the scale. I have in this way endeavoured to arrive at something like 
an approximation to the velocity and direction of what I believe would 
amount to a trade-wind in the place of observation. The general type of the 
wind, as laid off on the principles suggested by Mr. Whewell, I have now 
the pleasure of exhibiting to the Section ; and it will be seen that it furnishes 
a general resultant, directed from about S.S.W. to N.N.E., being from the 
southerly to the northerly points of the compass*. 

In the annexed table will be found the mean velocity of the current for 
each successive month, taken without regard to direction, together with the 
mean velocity for the whole year ; the period of observation being from April 
1841 to April 1842. 

Table showing the mean velocity of the wind by Whewell's Anemometer. 



Month. 


Velocity of wind in feet 
per second. 


Month. 


Velocity of wind in feet 
per second. 


May 

July 

September. . . . 


13-0 
11*6 

10-9 
9-0 

12-87 
15-42 


November .... 
December .... 

January 

February .... 
March 


15-29 
14-96 
12-54 
12-76 
13-97 
14-63 


Mean velocity 13*16 feet per second, or about 9 miles per hour. 



As I do not pretend to a degree of precision in these first results greater 
than is requisite to entitle them to consideration as useful and important ap- 
proximations to a more refined inquiry, I have not thought it requisite to 
treat them more elaborately than their present state demands. If we dimi- 
nish the mean velocity arrived at in this table, in the proportion of the whole 
length or trace of the wind described, to the general resultant, we shall have 
some general idea of the course and velocity of the aerial current, as deduced 
by this species of inquiry. Now the whole space described in this case is to 
the resultant as 2 : 1 nearly ; we may therefore take the resulting velocity at 
about 4*5 miles an hour, and the general direction as N.N.E. 

I shall be prepared to lay before the Section at our next meeting, typical 
delineations of the wind for 3 years, as deduced by this instrument, accom- 
panied by more extended and corrected results than have been as yet arrived 
at. I hope what has been done is sufficient to show, that the instrument it- 
self is capable, when well employed, of furnishing highly important results. 
It would necessarily have failed under the form in which it was first placed 
in my hands ; but set up as stated in my Report for 1840, and constructed 
in a firm and solid way with little friction, I believe it highly calculated for 
meteorological observation. But whether we register by this or any other 
instrument the daily direction of the aerial currents, I feel persuaded that 
little advantage will ever be derived to meteorology, unless the observa- 
tions be reduced to the form prescribed by Mr. Whewell, who has certainly 
taken the only correct view of the nature of such observations. Without 
deducing the integral effect of the wind, that is to say, a space proportional 
to that which a particle of air would pass over in a given time, taking into 
account the velocity of the wind and the time for which it blows, we can 

* The mean velocity has been deduced by determining a value of V 2 for every 24 hours, a 
method which, although not mathematically exact, is still sufficiently approximative for our 
present purpose. 

1842. D 



34 report — 1842. 

never hope to arrive at anything like a correct view of the great annual 
movement of our atmosphere. 

In the preceding calculations it is to be understood that I have only been 
dealing with mean results, and not with particular ones, which would of 
course give velocities far surpassing anything exhibited in the preceding table. 

I have now, in concluding this short notice of the progress and present 
state of the meteorological observations at Plymouth, merely to suggest to 
the Physical Committee of the Association, the propriety of either closing 
these observations after the completion of another year, or otherwise recom- 
mending the further continuance of the observations at the Dock-yard to the 
consideration of Her Majesty's government : a system and method of observa- 
tion having been completely organized there, the inconvenience and expense 
to the naval department of the government would be too small to merit con- 
sideration. My own view is, that the ten years' observations which will be 
speedily complete, are sufficient for deducing the principal laws of tempera- 
ture and pressure at this place ; but that, inasmuch as similar observations are 
now being recorded through the instrumentality of the Association in various 
parts of the world, it would be so far desirable to have simultaneous observa- 
tions made at Plymouth. I cannot but hope that the Physical Committee 
will give this matter serious consideration. 

Plymouth, June 10, 1842. 



Second Report of a Committee consisting of Mr. H. E. Strickland, 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow, and Prof. Lixdley, appointed, 
to make Experiments on the Growth and Vitality of Seeds. 

In order to carry out the objects of this Committee arrangements have been 
made for the formation at the Botanic Garden, Oxford, of a depot of seeds to 
be preserved in various ways, and to be submitted, at successive periods, to 
experiment. The amount of labour required for the preservation of these 
seeds, the conduct of the experiments, and the tabulating their results, has 
necessitated the appointment of a curator at a small salary, whose report for 
the present year is annexed. 

The expenses incident to these experiments have amounted to £9 15s. lid. 
As a considerable number of jars and other materials for preserving seeds 
will be required for the further prosecution of the inquiry, the Committee re- 
spectfully recommend that the sum of £15 be this year granted for the pur- 
pose. 

The Committee having now established a permanent place of deposit for 
seeds to be submitted to experiment, they wish particularly to request the 
contribution of specimens from persons who may be interested in this inquiry. 
Parcels of seeds of various species, both recent and of old dates, in quantities 
sufficient for a considerable number of experiments, and accompanied with 
remarks specifying the yeai's in which they were collected, and the conditions 
under which they have been preserved, will be highly acceptable, as will also 
specimens of soils taken from excavations of various depths, and carefully pro- 
tected from the access of extraneous matter, in order to ascertain the species 
of plants which may spontaneously vegetate in them. All communications 
on this subject to be sent to Prof. Daubeny, Botanic Garden, Oxford. 

H. E. Strickland, 
C. Daubeny. 

Curator's Report. 

In submitting to the British Association a statement of the progress made 



ON THE GROWTH AND VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



35 



during the present year towards forming an extensive collection of seeds of 
at least one species of as many genera of plants as practicable, to be sub- 
jected to various modes of preservation, for the purpose of carrying on a se- 
ries of experiments with the view of ascertaining the true limit of their ve- 
getative durability, the curator begs to say, that he has, under the immediate 
superintendence of the Committee appointed to investigate the same, since 
October 1, 1841, received and collected seeds of 78 species of 60 genera, 
illustrating 25 natural families of plants, which are now preserved according 
to the mode decided on as that to be generally adopted ; namely, in brown- 
paper parcels placed in earthen jars with one aperture, and covered with a 
stratum of fine sand. 

Besides the mode just referred to as particularly determined on for general 
adoption, the curator has also put up some wheat and also seeds of Lasthenia 
calif ornica, gathered in 1841, each in amass in porous earthen jars toith two 
apertures, which are covered with fine wire-gauze. A few seeds also of some 
of the same species as those preserved according to the prescribed mode are 
put up in waxed cloth, by way of comparison of methods of preservation. 

The subjoined is a list of seeds, of which, with few exceptions, a sufficient 
quantity of each species has been obtained and already put up for experiments, 
if sown according to the scheme entered in the resolutions, up to the year 1909. 

Of these seeds a portion has been purchased, and the remainder has been 
received from the London Horticultural Society, the Oxford Botanic Gar- 
den, and the Editor of the Gardener's Chronicle. 

A certain number of seeds of each of the species entered in this list have 
this spring been sown, as directed, at the Oxford Botanic Garden, the Cam- 
bridge Botanic Garden, and also at the Garden of the London Horticultural 
Society at Chiswick, the result of which will be seen by reference to the 
following table: — 



Name and Date when gathered. 



1834. 

Arabis lucida 

Hypericum Kalmianum . 
Passiflora Herbertiana . 

1835. 

Gilia capitata 

Gypsophila elegans . . . 
Polemonium gracile . . 
Hypecoum procumbens 
Potentilla nepalensis . . 
Horminum pyrenaicum 
Euphorbia Lathyris . . 
Berberis Aquifolium . . 

1836. 

Clematis erecta 

Hypecoum procumbens 



No. of 
Seeds 
of each 
Species 
sown, 
1842. 



500 
150 
125 



500 

500 

125 

50 

300 

50 

25 

20 



50 
50 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



Time of vegetating. 
In days at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



28 



d2 



36 



REPORT — 1842. 



Name and Date when gathered. 



No. of 
Seeds 
of each 
Species 
sown, 
1842. 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



Time of vegetating. 
In days at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



1836 (continued). 
Potentilla, sp. from Douglas 
Tacsonia pinnatistipula 
Turritis retrofracta . . ■ 
Lupinus polyphyllus . . 
Pentstemon diffusus . . 

pubescens . 

pulchellus , 

atropurpureus 

digitalis . 



— laevigatus 

— gracilis . . 



procerus 



Eschscholtzia californica 
Mimulus moschatus • . 
Ononis angustifolia . . . 
Coreopsis Atkinsoniana 

1837. 
Geum, sp. 

Allium fragrans 

Conium maculatum .... 

Clarkia elegans 

CEnothera, sp. from Douglas 
Lupinus grandifolius . . . . 

Camassia esculenta 

Oxyura chrysanthemoides . 

Godetia lepida 

Calandrina grandiflora . . . 

Chryseis crocea 

Delphinium flexuosum . . . 

Lupinus lucidus 

rivularis 



Papaver orientale .... 

1841. 

Vicia sativa 

Daucus Carota 

Cannabis sativa 

Pastinaca sativa .... 

Brassica Rapa 

Linum usitatissimum . . 
Lepidium sativum . . . 
Polygonum Fagopyrum 
Phalaris canariensis . . 

Brassica Napus 

Carum Carui ...... 



400 
50 
500 
100 
300 
500 
250 
250 
300 
250 
500 
400 
200 
1000 
100 
300 



500 
150 
150 
500 
600 
100 
100 
75 
250 
200 
100 
200 
50 
25 
500 



50 
100 

50 
100 
300 
150 
100 

50 
100 
150 
200 



43 
38 
17 
47 
178 
142 
79 
18 
55 
90 



41 

57 

8 

42 

158 

125 

96 

13 

70 

160 



45 
60 
20 
68 
147 
130 
87 
30 
69 
90 



11 

11 
6 

14 
5 
6 
5 

15 
9 
5 



ON THE GROWTH AND VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



37 



Name and Date when gathered. 



No. of 
Seeds 
of each 
Species 
sown, 
1842. 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



Time of vegetating. 
In days at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



184-1 (continued). 

Petroselinum sativum . 
Trifolium ? repens . . . 

Lactuca sativa 

Brassica oleracea .... 

Pisum sativum 

Faba vulgaris 

Phaseolus multiflorus . 
Triticum sestivum . . . 
Hordeum vulgare . . . 

Avena sativa 

iEthusa cynapioides . . 
Antirrhinum majus . . . 
Calendula pluvialis . . . 
Collinsia heteropbylla . 
Datura Stramonium . . 
Gilia achillaeefolia . . . 
Lasthenia californica . . 
Ligusticum Levisticum 
Pseonia, mixed vars. . . 
Verbascum Thapsus . . 

? 1820. 
Gossypium sp 



50 

150 

50 

50 

50 

25 

25 

100 

100 

100 

100 

300 

100 

300 

100 

200 

200 

100 

100 

500 



36 
18 
5 
17 
37 
25 
24 
82 
94 
90 
10 
13 
98 
125 
43 
21 
50 
30 



23 
36 

5 
20 
13 
23 
22 

? 

90 

? 



224 
74 

176 
37 
94 

113 
28 



35 
65 
43 
30 
42 
23 
21 
9S 
71 
90 
12 

280 
84 
21 
72 
10 

180 
98 

430 



17 
6 



10 
9 

7 
6 
7 

11 
6 
9 

13 

7 

7 

24 

19 



18 

21 

3 

3 

5 

14 

10 

14 

5 

14 

30 

18 

14 

30 

10 

14 

14 

28 

28 



At Oxford, with the exception only of those seeds which are usually sown 
on a hotbed, the seeds here registered were sown this season (1842) on the 
3rd of May, on a warm south border in the Botanic Garden. 

The table shows that the three species of seeds gathered in 1834 and sub- 
jected to experiment in 1842, had entirely lost their vegetative power, as was 
the case with the eight species of the growth of 1835, the eighteen species of 
the growth of 1836, and also thirteen species of that of 1837, fifteen species 
having been sown. The whole under these dates were preserved according 
to the usual mode, viz. in stout brown paper : thus involving the necessity 
of procuring, if possible, new seeds of those species, during the current sea- 
son, to be subjected to future experiments for the purpose of ascertaining the 
actual limit of their vegetative durability. 

Although the above-registered seeds are all that can in conformity with 
the resolutions of the Committee be looked upon as constituting a portion of 
the experiments to which this report has strict reference, it may still be well 
to add that in the spring of 1841, having the same object in view which these 
experiments it is hoped will determine, many seeds of old dates were sown on 
a gentle hot-bed, principally in the Oxford Botanic Garden. 

They were, — 

I. Experimented on by Professor Daubeny, taken from Professor Morison's 
Herbarium at the Oxford Botanic Garden, bearing date, in many instances, 



38 report — 1842. 

of 1706. One hundred species were sown, but as it is supposed that they 
had been brushed with corrosive sublimate, this experiment is not of much 
value, and it is therefore not necessary to enumerate the species. A list of 
them is however preserved for reference. 

II. Twenty-four species from Dr. Sibthorp's Collection at the Oxford Bo- 
tanic Garden, dated about 1787, experimented on by Professor Daubeny. 
These seeds having been imperfectly preserved and injured by insects are not 
of much authority, and it is therefore needless to enumerate them. 

III. The following species, from a very old Herbarium in Merton College 
Library, Oxford, given to the Committee by the Rev. J. Bigg, experimented 
on by Professor Daubeny. 

Atropa belladonna. Hedera helix. 

Viburnum Opulus. Aspidium Filix mas. 

IV. One hundred seeds of Wheat, Barley, and Lentils respectively, from 
Egyptian catacombs, given to the Committee by the Trustees of the British 
Museum, experimented on by Professor Daubeny and H. E. Strickland, Esq. 

V. Twelve seeds of Maize, brought from Peruvian graves by Mr. Cuming, 
given to the Committee by Dr. Robert Brown, experimented on by H. E. 
Strickland, Esq. 

VI. Fourteen seeds of Green Melon, gathered in 181 4, given to the Com- 
mittee by Dr. Lindley, experimented on by H. E. Strickland, Esq., and Pro- 
fessor Daubeny. 

In all these instances a purely negative result was obtained, no vegetation 

taking place in any of the cases. 

The expenses incurred up to the present date (June 1 842) are in detail as 

follows: — £ s. d. 

Printing Circulars 1 14 

Books for registering Experiments 1 6 

Jars and material for preserving Seeds 31911 

Sundries Oil 6 

Half-year's Salary, due April 1, 1842 2 10 

Total £9 15 11 

Oxford, June 20, 1842. W. H. Baxter, Curator. 



Report of the Committee on Railway Sections. By Charles 
Vignoles, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.R.I.A., M. Inst. C.E., Professor 
of Civil Engineering, University College, London. 
A grant of 200/. from the Association was made at the Glasgow Meeting in 
1840, on a joint application from the Geological and Mechanical Sections, 
towards obtaining profiles of the various railways in the United Kingdom, 
chiefly with a view (before the slopes of the excavations become soiled over and 
covei-ed with vegetation) of putting on record the geological appearances and 
strata developed by the many vast openings made through the country by the 
operations of modern engineering. 

At the Meeting in 1841, a renewal of the unappropriated balance of the 
first grant was made : the whole of this sum has however since been ex- 
pended, and further liabilities have been incurred ; and the results are now 
laid before the Sections which originated the subject, in the shape of nume- 
rous plans and sections of several of the railways, and of the enlarged parts 
of the profiles of the excavations only. 

The Committee appointed by the Association have great pleasure in report- 



ON RAILWAY SECTIONS. 39 

ing, that in obtaining these documentsthey have been aided in the most effective 
and satisfactory manner by all the Railway Companies to whom they have 
applied, and also by their several officers ; the engineers in particular having 
taken extreme pains and great interest in forwarding the views of the Asso- 
ciation. When so many parties have thus zealously co-operated, it might be 
almost invidious to name one without specifying all ; but in particularly men- 
tioning Mr. Swanwick the engineer of the North Midland Railway, the Com- 
mittee wish to do so for the purpose of remarking on the great care taken 
by that gentleman to mark upon the sections as his works went on, all the 
geological detail shown in the excavations of that railway which passes 
through so interesting a region. There has consequently been put into pos- 
session of the Committee a vast extent of most valuable records of the kind 
sought for, and which at the same time form a most striking example, well 
worthy of imitation, of the combination of engineering and geological infor- 
mation available for ceconomic purposes. 

The Committee were not at first able to organize a system of working the 
grant to their entire satisfaction, but after some experience they ascertained 
that, with the favorable disposition shown by all the Railway Companies, they 
might (without increasing the expense) by degrees and in no great time be 
able to form an interesting and valuable collection, not only of the sections of 
the excavations of the railways, but of the whole of the plans and sections of 
the lines, which, concentrated in a public depository and open to the inspec- 
tion of all scientific and literary bodies and individuals, and to the public in 
general, under proper regulations, would be of high interest. In fact such do- 
cuments were almost necessarily required as the mere indices whereby to iden- 
tify the particular geological profiles ; but so useful and important is such a 
collection likely to become, that it is not unreasonable to hope and believe 
that after another year's experience shall have matured the arrangements of 
the Committee, and perfected their proposed system of record, and brought 
down the expense to a certain and moderate rate per mile, the subject may be 
taken up by Her Majesty's Government, and made to form part of the great 
Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, conducted by Sir Henry De la 
Beche in connection with the Trigonometrical Survey now carrying on by 
Colonel Colby and the Officers of the Corps of Royal Engineers. 

The Committee are therefore not without hope that the Geological Section 
will again apply to the General Committee for a further grant at the present 
meeting to enable them to complete the organization they have begun. The 
documents which the Committee have to submit are the following : — 

1st. Plans and sections of the whole of the Midland Counties Railway from 
Rugby to Derby and Nottingham, about 68 miles. 

Enlarged sections of the cuttings only of this railway, prepared to be filled 
in geologically. The chief characteristics of this district are the gypsum 
beds, commonly called plaster of Paris, and the water-setting lime, well known 
to engineers as the Barrow lime. 

2nd. Plans and sections of the whole of the North Midland Railway from 
Derby to Leeds, about 72 miles. The geological detail, as furnished by Mr. 
Swanwick, is laid down on the working sections of the cuttings, but as it has 
been considered by the Committee that a uniform system should be observed, 
enlarged sections have been prepared, on which, as on the similar sections of 
the other lines, the strata should be delineated. It may be observed here, that 
these enlarged sections are laid down in the proportion of one inch to forty feet 
upon the natural scale, that is, the vertical and horizontal scales are alike, 
which is not always the case in ordinary geological sections, and very seldom 
so with the working sections for earth-work and similar engineering purposes. 



40 BEPORT — 1842. 

This railway intersects the coal districts for many miles, and is replete with 
interesting subjects. 

3rd. Plans and sections of the Manchester and Leeds Railway from Man- 
chester to Normanton, about 50 miles. 

These latter are not quite finished, but will be so before the close of the 
Meeting. 

Enlarged sections of a considerable portion of the excavations only on this 
railway, filled up with the geological detail. 

4th. Enlarged sections of the excavations only on the Glasgow, Paisley, and 
Greenock railway, about 15 miles, with the geological detail. 

5th. Similar sections of the Manchester and Bolton Railway, about 11 miles, 
containing full details of the strata where the remarkable fossil trees were 
found, and of the trees also, models of which are in the Exhibition-room at the 
Royal Institution in Manchester. The liberality of this Company will afford 
several opportunities for the members of the Association to visit these trees, 
and the particular profile of the excavation where they were found will remain 
in the Geological Section, or in the Royal Institution, with the models. 

6th. Similar enlarged sections of the cuttings only on the Hull and Selby 
Railway, about 20 miles, with the geological detail. 

The whole of these enlarged geological sections were furnished by Mr. 
Wright ; and others are stated to be preparing for the Committee, but they 
have not yet come to hand. 

These records, according to the directions of the Association, will be depo- 
sited in the Museum of CEconomic Geology in London, where they may at all 
times hereafter be usefully referred to. 

In conclusion the Committee cannot refrain from observing, that the docu- 
ments thus collected are equally important and interesting to the philosopher, 
to the geologist, and to the engineer. To the theoretical investigator they 
present the curious and varying features of the crust of this portion of the globe ; 
to the practical engineer they offer a memorial of the experience of the pro- 
fession, whence many a serviceable lesson for future operations may be learned, 
whereby difficulties and expense may be hereafter avoided and diminished, 
and from which valuable information may be derived for the appliance of 
materials in constructions (it being one of the greatest arts of the engineer 
to avail himself of the most immediate natural resources which he has to dis- 
place in one instance, and to apply them usefully in another, when in juxta- 
position). On the other hand, the minute variations of the strata and soil, 
thus accurately delineated, and referred to well-defined altitudes above the 
general level of the sea, become of the very highest interest to the geolo- 
gist, and no less so to the mining engineer; more especially on the lines 
of railway intersecting the coal and mineral districts, where in so many in- 
stances labour, directed by science and sustained by commercial enterprise, 
has laid bare in deep chasms the secrets of nature, and the stores whence 
this country has derived so many advantages ; and drawn from our mines 
of coal and rude metallic ores, that abundant wealth and prosperity which 
the more splendid productions of Potosi and of Mexico have failed to bestow 
on their possessors. 



Report of the Committee for the Preservation of Animal and 

Vegetable Substances. 

In making a report for the Committee for the preservation of Animal and 

Vegetable Substances, consisting of the Rev. W. L. P. Garnons and myself, I 



ON THE PRESERVATION OF ANIMAL & VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 41 

only propose to state the results, and terminate the series of experiments com- 
menced by the former Committee appointed at the Liverpool Meeting in 1837, 
as we consider them to have been now continued for a sufficient time to sup- 
ply us with very considerable negative evidence upon the preserving powers 
of the different materials taken separately. Upon receiving notice of our ap- 
pointment, we determined that as no report upon these experiments had been 
printed by the Association, it would be advisable to defer the commencement 
of any new ones until after we had had an opportunity of giving a short state- 
ment concerning those already in progress, but hope in the autumn of the pre- 
sent year to commence a new series, in which it is proposed that vegetable 
substances should occupy a more prominent place. 

The experiments to which this report refers were commenced in June 1838, 
having thus continued for four years, and were made by placing in small glass 
jars (5 inches by 2) solutions in water of the different substances unmixed, 
but tried in three proportions, namely, (1) a saturated solution, (2) a solution 
diluted with an equal quantity of water, and (3) with a double quantity. The 
following are lists of them, arranged according to their value as preservatives 
of animal substances. 

1. Good Preservatives. 

Subcarbonate of potash. 

Naphtha employed in the proportion of 1 part to 7 of water. 

2. Moderately good, but the specimens rather too soft. 
Sulphate of magnesia. Arseniate of potash. 

3. Moderately good when examined in 1840, but the specimens now decom- 
posed. 
Alum. Sulphate of zinc. 

Muriate of ammonia. Bicarbonate of potash. 

Muriate of magnesia. Arsenious acid. 

Nitre. 

4. Quite useless for the purpose of Preservation. 
Sulphate of iron. Nitrate of soda. 

Sulphate of copper. Muriate of barytes. 

Sulphate of soda. Muriate of lime. 

Sulphate of potash. Phosphate of soda. 

Carbonate of ammonia. Chloride of potash. 

Nitrate of barites. Oxalic acid. 

Nitrate of ammonia. Rough pyroligneous acid. 

Nitrate of strontian. 
A few drops of kreosote in water is a good preservative, but stains the 
specimens brown. 

Corrosive sublimate preserves perfectly, but hardens the substances too 
much. 

Concentrated acetic acid decomposes the skin, bones, and cellular mem- 
brane, but leaves the muscles untouched. 

The vegetable specimens are well preserved in oxalic acid, concentrated 
acetic acid, naphtha and kreosote ; moderately well in muriate of ammonia, 
nitrate of ammonia, and corrosive sublimate : none of the others appear to have 
succeeded, nor indeed is the colour of the vegetables well preserved in any case, 
and. on the whole the experiments with them are far from satisfactory. 

Charles C. Babington. 



42 report — 1842. 

Abstract of Professor Liebig's Report on " Organic Chemistry ap- 
plied to Physiology and Pathology. By Lyon Playfair, M.D. 

The first part of Professor Liebig's Report consists in the examination of 
the processes employed in the nutrition and reproduction of various parts of 
the animal ceconomy. 

In vegetables, as well as in animals, we recognise the existence of a force 
in a state of rest. It is the primary cause of growth or increase in mass of 
the body in which it resides. By the action of external influences, such 
as the presence of air and moisture, its condition of static equilibrium is dis- 
turbed ; and entering into a state of motion or activity, it occupies itself 
in the production of forms, which, though occasionally bounded by right 
lines, are yet widely distinct from geometrical forms. This force has re- 
ceived the appellation of vital force, or vitality. 

Vitality, though residing equally in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, 
produces its effects by widely different instruments. Plants subsist entirely 
upon matter belonging to inorganic nature. Atmospheric air, the source 
whence they derive their nutriment, is ranked with minerals by the most 
distinguished mineralogists. All substances, before they can form food for 
plants, must be resolved into inorganic matter. 

But animals, on the other hand, require highly organised atoms for nutri- 
ment ; they can only subsist upon parts of an organism. They possess within 
themselves a vegetative life, as plants do, by means of which they increase 
in size, without consciousness on their part ; but they are distinguished from 
vegetables by their faculties of locomotion and sensation — faculties acting 
through a nervous apparatus. The true vegetative life of animals is in no 
way dependent upon this apparatus ; for it proceeds where the nerves of vo- 
luntary motion and sensation are destroyed, and the most energetic volition 
is incapable of exerting any influence on the contractions of the heart, on the 
motion of the intestines, or on the processes of secretion. 

All parts of the animal body are produced from the fluid circulating within 
its organism, by virtue of vitality, which resides in every organ. A destruc- 
tion of the animal body is constantly proceeding ; every motion, every mani- 
festation of force, is the result of the transformation of the structure, or of its 
substance ; every conception, every mental affection, is followed by changes 
in the chemical nature of the secreted fluids ; every thought, every sensation, 
is accompanied by a change in the composition of the substance of the brain. 

It is to supply the waste thus produced, that food is necessary. Food is 
either applied in the increase of the mass of a structure (i. e. in nutrition), or 
it is applied in the replacement of a structure wasted (i. e. in reproduction). 

The primary condition for the existence of life is the reception and assimi- 
lation of food. But there is another condition equally important — the con- 
tinual absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere. 

All vital activity results from the mutual action of the oxygen of the at- 
mosphere and the elements of the food. All changes in matter proceeding 
in the body are essentially chemical, although they are not unfrequently in- 
creased or diminished in intensity by the vital force. The influence of poi- 
sons and remedial agents on the animal ceconomy, proves that the chemical 
combinations and decompositions proceeding therein, and which manifest 
themselves in the phaenomena of vitality, may be influenced by bodies pos- 
sessing a well-defined chemical action. Vitality is the ruling agent by which 
the chemical powers are made to subserve its purposes, but the acting forces 
are chemical. It is from this view, and from no other, that we ought to view 
vitality. Wonders surround us on all sides : the formation of a crystal is not 



ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 43 

less incomprehensible than that of a leaf or of a muscle ; the production of 
vermilion, from the union of sulphur and mercury, is as much an enigma as 
the production of an eye from the substance of the blood. 

According to Lavoisier, an adult mail takes into his system every year 
827 lbs. of oxygen, and yet he does not increase in weight. What then be- 
comes of the enormous quantity of oxygen introduced in the course of a year 
into the human system ? The carbon and hydrogen of certain parts of the 
body have entered into combination with the oxygen introduced through the 
lungs and through the skin, and have been given out in the form of carbonic 
acid and the vapour of water. At every moment, with every expiration, 
parts of the body are thus removed, and are emitted into the atmosphere. 

No part of the oxygen inspired is again expired as such. Now it is found 
that an adult inspires 32^ ounces of oxygen daily ; this will convert the car- 
bon of 24 lbs. of blood into carbonic acid. He must therefore take as much 
nutriment as will supply the daily loss. And in fact it is found that he does 
so ; for the average amount of carbon in the daily food of an adult man, 
taking moderate exercise, is 14 ounces, which require 37 ounces of oxygen 
for their conversion into carbonic acid. 

But it is obvious, as the inspired oxygen can be removed only by its con- 
version into carbonic acid and water, that the amount of food necessary for 
the support of the animal body must be in direct ratio to the quantity of 
oxygen taken into the system. Thus a child, in whom the organs of respira- 
tion are naturally in a state of great activity, requires food more frequently, 
and in greater proportion to its bulk, than an adult, and is also less patient 
of hunger. A bird deprived of food dies on the third day ; whilst a serpent, 
which inspires a mere trace of oxygen, can live without food for three months. 
The number of respirations is less in a state of rest than in exercise, and the 
amount of food necessary in both conditions must vary also. 

An excess of food is incompatible with a deficiency in respired oxygen, 
that is, with deficient exercise ; just as violent exercise (which implies an in- 
creased supply of food) is incompatible with weak digestive organs. 

The capacity of the chest in an animal is a constant quantity ; we there- 
fore inspire the same volume of air, either at the pole or at the equator, But 
the weight of the air, and consequently of the oxygen, varies with the tem- 
perature. Thus an adult man takes into the system daily 46,000 cubic inches 
of oxygen, which, if the temperature be 77°, weigh 32-| oz. ; but when the 
temperature sinks down to the freezing point (32°), it will weigh 35 oz. Thus 
an adult in our climate in winter may inhale 35 oz. of oxygen ; in Sicily he 
would inspire only 28^ oz. ; and if in Sweden, 36 oz. It is obvious also, that 
in an equal number of respirations we consume more oxygen at the level of 
the sea than on a mountain. The quantity of oxygen inspired, and carbonic 
acid expired, must therefore vary with the height of the barometer. Hence 
we expire more carbon in cold weather when the barometer is high, than we 
do in warm weather ; and we must consume more or less carbon in our food 
in the same proportion. In our own climate, the difference between summer 
and winter in the carbon expired and therefore necessary for food, is as much 
as f 

Even when we consume equal weights of food, an infinitely wise Creator 
has so adjusted it as to meet the exigencies of climate. Thus the fruit, on 
which the inhabitants of the south delight to feed, contains only 12 per cent, 
of carbon; whilst the bacon and train-oil enjoyed by the inhabitants of the 
arctic regions, contain from 66 to 80 per cent, of the same element. 

Now the mutual action between the elements of food and the oxygen of 
the air is the source of animal heat. 



44 REPORT — 1842. 

All living creatures whose existence depends on the absorption of oxygen, 
possess within themselves a source of heat independent of the medium in 
which they exist. This heat, in the Professor's opinion, is wholly due to the 
combustion of the carbon and hydrogen contained in the food which they 
consume. Animal heat exists only in those parts of the body through which 
arterial blood, (and with it oxygen in solution) circulates ; hair, wool, or 
feathers do not possess an elevated temperature. The carbon and hydrogen 
of food, in being converted by oxygen into carbonic acid and water, must 
give out as much heat as if they were burned in the open air. The only dif- 
ference is, that this heat is spread over unequal spaces of time; but the actual 
amount is always the same. 

As animal heat depends upon respired oxygen, it will vary according to 
the activity of the respiratory apparatus of the animal. Thus the temperature 
of the body of a child is 102°, whilst that of an adult is 99|°. That of birds 
is higher than that of quadrupeds, or than that of fishes or amphibia, whose 
proper temperature is 3° higher than the medium in which they live. All 
animals, strictly speaking, are warm-blooded ; but in those only which pos- 
sess lungs, is their temperature quite independent of the surrounding medium. 
The temperature of the human body is the same in the torrid as in the frigid 
zone. But as the body may be considered in the light of a heated vessel, 
which cools with an accelerated rapidity, the colder the surrounding medium, 
it is obvious that the fuel necessary to maintain its heat must vary in different 
climates. Thus less food is necessary in Palermo, where the temperature of 
the air is that of the human body, than in the polar regions, where it is about 
90° lower. 

It has formerly been stated that the quantity of oxygen respired in the 
colder regions of the earth is greater than that inhaled in the tropics ; and 
by a more abundant supply of food, a greater generation of heat must ensue. 

The human body may be aptly compared to the furnace of a laboratory 
destined to effect certain operations. It signifies nothing what intermediate 
forms the food or fuel of the furnace may assume ; it is finally converted into 
carbonic acid and water. But in order to sustain a fixed temperature in the 
furnace, we must vary the quantity of fuel, according to the external tempera- 
ture, that is, according to the supply of oxygen. 

In the animal body the food is the fuel, and by a proper supply of oxygen, 
we obtain the heat given out during its combustion. In winter, when we 
take exercise in a cold atmosphere, we respire a greater amount of oxy- 
gen, which implies a more abundant supply of carbon in the food ; and by 
taking this food, we form the most efficient protection against the cold. A 
starving man is soon frozen to death ; and every one knows that the animals 
of prey of the arctic regions are far more voracious than those of the torrid 
zone. 

Our clothing is merely an equivalent for food, and the more warmly we 
are clothed, the less food we require. Were we to go destitute of clothes, 
like certain savage tribes, or if in hunting or fishing we were exposed to the 
same degree of cold as the Samoyedes, we could with ease consume 10 lbs. 
of flesh, and perhaps a dozen tallow-candles to the bargain, as warmly-clad 
travellers have related with astonishment of these people. Then could we 
take the same quantity of brandy or blubber of fish without bad effects, and 
learn to appreciate the delicacy of train-oil. 

We. thus perceive an explanation of the apparently anomalous habits of 
different nations. The maccaroni of the Italian and the train-oil of the Green- 
lander and the Russian are not adventitious freaks of taste, but necessary 
articles, fitted to administer to their comfort in the climates in which they 



ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 45 

have been born. In cold regions, the food must contain a greater quantity 
of carbon, or, in other words, be more combustible. 

The Englishman in Jamaica perceives with regret the disappearance of his 
appetite, which in England had been a constant recurring source of enjoy- 
ment. By the use of aromatics he creates an artificial appetite, and eats as 
much food as he did at home. But he thus unfits himself for the climate 
in which he is placed ; for sufficient oxygen does not enter his system to 
combine with the carbon contained in the food, and the heat of the climate 
prevents him from taking exercise to increase the number of his respirations : 
the carbon of the food is therefore forced into other channels, and disease 
results. 

England, on the other hand, sends her dyspeptic patients to southern cli- 
mates. In our own land, their impaired digestive organs are unable to fit the 
food for that state in which it best unites with the oxygen of the air, which 
therefore acts on the organs of respiration themselves, thus producing pul- 
monary complaints. But when they are removed to warmer climates they 
absorb less oxygen and take less food, and the diseased organs of digestion 
have sufficient powers to place the diminished amount of food in equilibrium 
with the respired oxygen. 

Just as we would expect from these views, in our own climate hepatic dis- 
eases, or diseases arising from an excess of carbon, are more prevalent in 
summer ; and in winter pulmonic diseases, or those arising from an excess of 
oxygen. 

The cooling of the body, by whatever means it may be produced, implies 
a greater demand for food. Violent exercise, loud and long-continued speak- 
ing, the crying of infants, moist air, all exert an appreciable influence on the 
amount of food which is taken. 

The whole process of respiration appears most clearly developed in the 
case of a man exposed to starvation. 

32|- oz. of oxygen enter into his system daily, which never again escape, 
except in combination with parts of his body. Currie mentions the case of 
an individual who was unable to swallow, and whose body lost 100 lbs. in 
weight in one month ; and Martell, in the Transactions of the Linnean So- 
ciety, recounts the case of a fat pig, overwhelmed in a slip of earth, which 
lived for 160 days without food, and had diminished in weight during that 
time 120 lbs. The history of the hybernating animals and of those which 
acquire a periodical accumulation of fat, proves that the oxygen of the air 
readily combines with the carbonaceous matters ; whilst in their winter 
sleep they may be considered in the light of a lamp slowly burning, the oil 
or fat for which has been stored up in sufficient quantity to sustain the com- 
bustion, that is, the animal heat ; for nutrition, properly so called, does not 
proceed in these animals during winter. The more fat then an animal con- 
tains, the longer will it be able to exist without food, for that will be con- 
sumed before the oxygen of the air acts upon the other parts of the body. 

From all this it will be seen, that in Liebig's view respiration is the fall- 
ing weight, the bent spring which keeps the clock in motion; the inspirations 
and expirations are the strokes of the pendulum which regulate it. In our 
ordinary time-pieces we know with mathematical accuracy the effect pro- 
duced on their rate of going, by changes in the length of the pendulum, or 
in the external temperature. Few, however, have a clear conception of the 
effect of air and temperature on the health of the human body ; and yet the 
research necessary for keeping it in the normal state is not more difficult 
than in the case of a clock. 

No one can deny that the nerves have considerable influence in the re- 



46 report — 1842. 

spiratory process, and some have even gone so far as to suppose that they 
are capable of generating heat. When the pons Varolii is cut through in a 
dog, or when a sudden blow is inflicted on the back of the head, the dog 
continues to respire, perhaps more quickly than before, but its body cools as 
rapidly as if sudden death had occurred. Exactly similar effects ensue on 
the cutting of the spinal cord, or the par vagum. These experiments have 
been supposed to prove that animal heat is due to nervous influence, and not 
to combustion ; but this singular view has arisen from the erroneous con- 
ception that the combustion proceeds in the blood itself. Nothing could be 
more erroneous. As will afterwards be shown, the compounds which are 
consumed by the oxygen of the air are produced by the viscera, and these 
being paralyzed in the experiments alluded to, are unable to furnish com- 
pounds for combustion, so that the heat disappears. 

Others, oh the contrary, have ascribed animal heat to the contraction of 
the muscles, just as heat is evolved when caoutchouc is allowed to contract 
from a state of extension. Some have gone so far as to ascribe part of the 
heat to the mechanical motions of the body, as if these motions could exist 
without an expenditure of force consumed in producing them. Let us in- 
quire in what manner this heat is produced. 

We kindle a fire under the boiler of a steam-engine and generate steam, 
which steam may be applied to a machine destined for producing friction. 
By this friction heat is disengaged, but it is quite impossible that the heat 
thus obtained can ever be greater than that employed to heat the boiler. We 
employ a galvanic current to produce heat ; but the amount of heat obtained 
is never greater than we might have by the combustion of the zinc used in 
producing the current. 

The contraction of muscles produces heat ; but the force necessary for the 
contraction has manifested itself through the organs of motion, in which it 
has been excited by chemical changes. The ultimate cause of the heat pro- 
duced is therefore to be found in these chemical changes. 

Professor Liebig then proceeds to prove that the heat evolved by the com- 
bustion of carbon in the body is sufficient to account for all the phenomena 
of animal heat. He shows that the 14 oz. of carbon which are daily con- 
verted into carbonic acid in an adult, disengage no less than 1 97*477° of heat; 
a quantity Avhich would convert 24 lbs. of water, at the temperature of the 
body, into vapour. And if we assume that the quantity of water vaporized 
through the skin and lungs amounts to 3 lbs., then we have still 146.380° of 
heat to sustain the temperature of the body. And when we take into calcu- 
lation the heat evolved by the hydrogen of the food, and the small specific 
heat possessed by the organs generally, no doubt can be entertained that the 
heat evolved in the process of combustion, to which the food is subjected in 
the body, is amply sufficient to explain the constant temperature of the body. 

From what has preceded, it is obvious that the amount of carbon con- 
sumed in food ought to depend on the climate, density of air, and occupa- 
tion of the individual. A man will require less carbon when pursuing a 
sedentary occupation, than when he is engaged in active exercise. 

Professor Liebig having thus discussed the source of animal heat, proceeds 
next to consider what are the ingredients in the food which may be properly 
considered to be nutritious. Physiologists conceive that the various organs 
in the body have originally been formed from blood ; if this be admitted, it 
is obvious that those substances only can be considered as nutritious which 
are susceptible of being transformed into blood. 

When blood is allowed to stand it coagulates and separates into a watery 
fluid called serum, and into the clot, which consists principally of fibrin. 



ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 47 

These two bodies contain in all seven elements, amongst which sulphur, phos- 
phorus and nitrogen are found ; they contain also the earth of bones. The 
serum holds in solution common salt and other salts of potash and soda, of 
which the acids are carbonic, phosphoric, and sulphuric acids. Serum when 
heated coagulates into a white mass called albumen. This substance, along 
with fibrine, constitutes the globules of blood, along with a red colouring 
matter in which iron is a constituent. 

Analysis has shown the singular result, that fibrine and albumen are per- 
fectly identical in chemical composition. The arrangement of their particles 
is different, as the variation in their forms proves, and their composition in 
100 parts is exactly the same. They may be mutually converted into each 
other. In the process of nutrition both may be converted into muscular 
fibre, and that in return into blood. 

All organized parts of the body, i. e. parts possessed of a decided shape, 
contain nitrogen. The principal ingredients of blood contain 1 7 per cent, of 
nitrogen, and there is no part of an active organ which contains less than 17 
per cent, of this element. 

The nutritive process is simplest in the case of the carnivora. This class 
of animals lives on the blood and flesh of the graminivora ; but this blood 
and flesh is identical with their own. The nutriment of carnivora is derived 
originally from blood, and on the entrance of the nutriment into their system 
it is again converted into blood. "With the exception of hair, horn, hoof and 
feathers, every part of a graminivorous animal is susceptible of assimilation. 
In a chemical sense, therefore, it may be considered that a carnivorous 
animal in taking food feeds upon itself, for its nutriment is identical in com- 
position with its own tissues. 

But at first sight the nutritive process of graminivorous animals seems al- 
together different ; their digestive apparatus is less simple, and their food 
contains very little nitrogen. From what constituents of vegetables is their 
blood produced ? 

All vegetables contain nitrogenized compounds, and the most ordinary ex- 
perience shows us, that the greater the quantity of these compounds which 
are in the food, the less is the quantity of food required for the purposes of 
nutrition. The nitrogenized compounds of vegetables are called vegetable 
fibrine, vegetable albumen, and vegetable casein. Vegetable fibrine is fami- 
liarly known as gluten ; vegetable albumen is obtained from decoctions of 
the juice of nutritious vegetables, such as cauliflowers, asparagus and man- 
gel-wurzel ; vegetable casein is principally found in leguminous seeds, such as 
peas, beans, and lentils. 

These three compounds are the only nitrogenized bodies which form food 
for graminivorous animals, for all others existing in plants are rejected from 
the system. 

Now analysis has led to the interesting result that they are exactly of the 
same composition in 100 parts ; and, what is still more extraordinary, that they 
are absolutely identical with the chief constituents of the blood — animal fibrine 
and animal albumen. By identity, be it remarked, we do not imply similarity, 
but absolute identity even, as far as their inorganic constituents are concerned. 

How beautifully simple, then, by the aid of these discoveries, does nutrition 
appear ! Those vegetable constituents which are used by animals to form 
blood, contain the essential ingredients of blood ready formed. In point of 
fact, then, vegetables produce in their organism the blood of all animals ; for 
the carnivora, in consuming the blood and flesh of the graminivora, consume, 
strictly speaking, the vegetable principles which have served for the nourish- 
ment of the latter. In this sense, we may say that the animal organism gives 



48 REPORT — 1842. 

to blood only its form ; and further, that it is incapable of forming blood out 
of other compounds which do not contain the chief ingredients of that fluid. 
Liebig does not, indeed, maintain that other compounds may not be trans- 
formed in the body, for we know that they are ; but that they cannot form 
the blood, the starting-point of the series. 

Animal and vegetable life are therefore closely connected ; for the Jirst 
substance capable of affording nutriment to animals is the last product of the 
creative energy of vegetables. The seemingly miraculous, in the nutritive 
power of vegetables, disappears in a great degree ; for the production of the 
constituents of blood cannot appear more surprising than the occurrence of 
the fat of beef and mutton in cocoa beans, of human fat in olive oil, of the prin- 
cipal ingredient of butter in palm oil, and of horse fat and train-oil in certain 
oily seeds. 

Whilst considerations such as these have led Liebig to these conclusions 
regarding the increase of mass in animals, he has still to account for the use 
of the substances in food, which are destitute of nitrogen, but which we 
know are absolutely necessary to animal life. Such substances are starch, 
sugar, gum and pectine. In all of these substances we find a great excess 
of carbon, with oxygen and hydrogen in the same proportion as in water. 
They therefore add an excess of carbon to the nitrogenized constituents of 
food, and they cannot possibly be employed in the production of blood, be- 
cause the nitrogenized compounds contained in the food already contain exactly 
the amount of carbon which is required for the production of fibrine and 
albumen. Liebig enters into proofs to show that very little of the excess of 
this carbon is ever expelled from the system either in the form of solid or liquid 
compounds. It must therefore be expelled in the gaseous state. In short, by 
a train of admirable reasoning, he arrives at the interesting conclusion, that 
they are solely expended in the production of animal heat, being converted by 
the oxygen of the air into carbonic acid and water. The food of carnivorous 
animals does not contain non-azotized matters, so that the carbon and hydro- 
gen necessary for the production of animal heat are furnished in them from 
the waste of their tissues. The transformed matters of the organs are ob- 
viously unfit for the further nourishment of the body, that is, for the increase 
or reproduction of the mass. They pass through the absorbent and lymph- 
atic vessels into the veins, and their accumulation in these would soon put a 
stop to the nutritive process, were it not that the blood has to pass through 
a filtering apparatus, as it were, before reaching the heart. The venous 
blood, before returning to the heart, is made to pass through the liver and 
the kidneys, which separate from it all substances incapable of contributing 
to nutrition. The new compounds containing the nitrogen of the transformed 
organs, being utterly incapable of further application in the system, are ex- 
pelled from the body. 

Those, again, which contain the carbon of the transformed tissues, are 
collected in the gall-bladder as bile, a compound of soda, which being 
mixible with water in every proportion, passes into the duodenum and 
mixes with chyme. All the soda of the bile, and ninety-nine-hundredths of 
the carbonaceous matter which it contains, retain the capacity of resorption 
by the absorbents of the small and large intestines — a capacity which has 
been proved by direct experiment. 

The globules of the blood, which in themselves can be shown to take no 
share in the nutritive process, serve to transport the oxygen, which they give 
up in their passage through the capillary vessels. Here the current of 
oxygen meets with the carbonaceous substances of the transformed tissues, 
and converts their carbon into carbonic acid, their hydrogen into water. 



ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 49 

Every portion of these substances which escapes this process of oxidation, is 
sent back into the circulation in the form of bile, which by degrees com- 
pletely disappears. 

This view of Liebig's, of the use of bile, is highly iugenious and important. 
In the young of carnivorous animals, the circulation and the respiration are 
more rapid ; but an infinitely wise Providence has furnished in the butter of 
the milk of the mother a highly carbonaceous substance, by which the loss of 
the organized tissues by the action of the oxygen of the air is prevented. In 
the young of carnivorous birds milk is not required, because the absence of 
all motion is an obvious cause of a diminished waste in the organs. 

It is obvious also, that in the system of the graminivora, whose food con- 
tains relatively so small a proportion of the constituents of the blood, the 
process of metamorphosis in existing tissues, and consequently their restora- 
tion or reproduction, must go on far less rapidly than in the carnivora. Were 
this not the case, a vegetation a thousand times more luxuriant would not 
suffice for their sustenance. Sugar, gum and starch, which form so large 
a proportion of their food, would then be no longer necessary to support life 
in these animals, because in that case the products of waste, or metamor- 
phosis of the organized tissues, would contain enough of carbon to support 
the respiratory process. 

Man, when confined to animal food, requires sources of nutriment more 
widely extended than the lion and tiger, because when he has an opportunity 
he kills without eating. This is the reason that a nation of savage hunters 
cannot multiply themselves beyond a certain extent; but when civiliza- 
tion reaches them, and they become herbivorous as well as carnivorous, 
the population rapidly increases. When exercise is denied to gramini- 
vorous and omnivorous animals, this is tantamount to a deficient supply of 
oxygen. The carbon of the food not meeting with sufficient oxygen to con- 
sume it, it passes into other compounds containing a large excess of carbon 
and deficiency of oxygen, or, in other words, fat is produced. It is thus that 
the sedentary ladies of oriental countries acquire so much embonpoint, and 
stall-fed animals so much fat. That fat does arise in some such way as Liebig 
describes is obvious ; for the herbs and roots consumed by the cow contain 
no butter ; in the hay or other fodder of oxen no beef-suet exists ; no hog's- 
lard can be found in the potato refuse given to swine ; and the food of geese 
or fowls contain no goose-fat or capon-fat. The fat must be formed in the 
organism, and for this purpose oxygen must be separated from the carbona- 
ceous constituents of food. Liebig is led to the startling conclusion, that fat 
is altogether an abnormal and unnatural production, arising from the adapta- 
tion of nature to circumstances, and not of circumstances to nature, altogether 
resulting from a disproportion of carbon in the food to that of the oxygen 
respired by the lungs or absorbed by the skin. Wild animals in a state of 
nature do not contain fat. The Bedouin or the Arab of the desert, who 
shows with pride to the traveller his lean, muscular, sinewy limbs, is altoge- 
ther free from fat. And the Professor points out the diseases arising from 
this cause, and furnishes some valuable hints to therapeutics. 

From all that has preceded, we may sum up the nutritious elements of food 
as follows. The ingredients adapted for the formation of the blood, and 
which the Professor calls the plastic elements of nutrition, are as follows : — 
Vegetable fibrine. 
Vegetable albumen. 
Vegetable casein. 
Animal flesh. 
Animal blood. 

1842. e 



50 REPORT — 1842. 

The other ingredients of food being fitted to sustain the temperature of the 
body, he calls the elements of respiration. They are, 

Fat. Sugar of milk. 

Starch. Pectine. 

Gum. Bassorine. 

Cane-sugar. Wine. 

Grape-sugar. Beer. 

Spirits. 
Having been led to give at such length an account of Professor Liebig's 
general principles of nutrition, we must dismiss with a mere announcement 
the details of which the second part of his work consist. In this he examines 
the chemical processes engaged in the production of bile, of urea, uric acid 
and its compounds, as well as of cerebral and nervous substance. The con- 
clusions to which he has arrived on these subjects are of the most intense in- 
terest, and have surprised their author as much as they must his reader. In 
fact, we dare not venture to make an abstract of them, without entering into 
the calculations with which they are accompanied,, lest their beautiful har- 
mony with known operations would incline the reader to think that they are 
the creations of a brilliant imagination, instead of being (as they are) the re- 
sults of sober calculation. 

His explanatory remarks on digestion are highly beautiful, and we cannot 
pass them without referring to the singular function which he ascribes to 
saliva. 

In the action of gastric juice on the food, no other element participates 
except the oxygen of the atmosphere and the elements of water. During 
the mastication of food the fluid saliva is secreted into the mouth. This fluid 
possesses the remarkable property of enclosing air in the shape of froth, in a 
far higher degree even than soap-suds. This air, by means of the saliva, ac- 
companies the food into the stomach, and there its oxygen enters into combi- 
nation with the constituents of the food, whilst its nitrogen is again given 
out through the lungs or skin. This, then, accounts for the fact discovered 
by physiologists, that pure nitrogen is given out by the lungs and skin. The 
greater the resistance of the food, that is, the longer digestion continues, the 
greater is the quantity of saliva, and consequently of air, which enters the 
stomach. Rumination, in certain graminivorous animals, has plainly for one 
object a renewed and repeated introduction of oxygen ; for a. mere mechani- 
cal division of the food only shortens the time required for solution. Of 
course, the Professor does not mean to infer that this is the only mode by 
which oxygen enters the stomach ; it does so also by the property possessed 
by all animal tissues of being permeable to air. 

The Professor, in treating of the formation of bile, shows the very inter- 
esting result, that if the formula of the compounds existing in urine and 
those of the bile be added together, we obtain the precise formula of the 
blood ; as was indeed to be expected from his view, that the nitrogenous 
matters go principally to the former fluid, the carbonaceous matters to the 
latter. He enters largely into the hitherto mysterious transformations of 
bile into choleic acid, taurine, &c. ; and as a consequence of this examination 
he obtains the remarkable result, that if the elements of prcteine and starch 
(oxygen and water being also present) undergo transformation together and 
mutually affect each other, Ave obtain, as the products of this metamorphosis, 
urea, choleic acid, ammonia and carbonic acid, and besides these no products 
whatever ! This is full of significance with regard to the processes which 
we actually know to proceed in the animal ceconomy. 

Following out the subject still further, he accounts very happily for the 



ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 51 

formation of calculi ; a subject upon which, for obvious reasons, we cannot 
enter. In fact, in this second part of his report, all the most interesting 
transformations of the food of the various organs and tissues of the body are 
discussed with his usual success. Whilst examining the action of organic 
remedial agents on the animal ceconomy, he touches upon the use of tea and 
coffee as an article of food ; and as this is a subject of very general interest, 
we will briefly state his opinions. 

It is well known that recent chemical research has proved the fact, which 
the boldest imagination dared not have ventured to conceive, that the active 
principles of tea and coffee, viz. theine and caffeine, are absolutely one and the 
same body, being perfectly identical in every respect. The presence of this 
iu two vegetables belonging to different natural families, and derived from 
different quarters of the globe, proves that the action of tea and coffee on the 
system must be the same. Some cause there must be to explain how the 
practice of taking them has become a necessary of life to whole nations. 
Now caffeine (theine) is a highly nitrogenized body. Bile, it is well known, 
contains an essential nitrogenized ingredient, taurine. Now Professor Liebig 
considers that caffeine goes to the production of this taurine ; and by calcu- 
lating the formulas of both, he shows, that if nine atoms of water and nine 
atoms of oxygen be added to the formula of caffeine, we obtain the formula 
of two atoms of taurine. Two and eight-tenths of a grain of caffeine is sufficient 
to form the taurine contained in one ounce of bile ; and if we admit that the 
infusion of tea consumed contained no more than one-tenth of a grain of caf- 
feine, still if it contribute in point of fact to the formation of bile, the action 
even of such a quantity cannot be looked upon as nullity. 

Neither can it be denied, that in case of using an excess of non-azotized 
food, or deficiency of motion, which is required to cause the change of matter 
in the tissues, and thus to yield the nitrogenized matter of the bile ; that in 
such a condition the state of health may be benefited by the use of tea or 
coffee, by which may be furnished the nitrogenized product produced in the 
healthy state of the body, and essential to the production of an important 
element of respiration. It is only in a chemical sense that these remarks are 
intended to show, that such compounds as caffeine or theine, asparagine and 
theobromine, are better adapted to this purpose than all other vegetable 
principles. 

The American Indian, with his present habits of living solely on flesh, 
could not with any comfort use tea as an article of food, for his tissues waste 
with such rapidity, that, on the contrary, he has to take something to retard 
this waste. And it is worthy of remark, that he has discovered in tobacco 
smoke a means of retarding the change of matter in the tissues of his body, 
and thereby of making hunger more endurable ; and that he cannot with- 
stand the captivation of brandy, which, acting as an element of respiration, 
puts a stop to the change of matter by performing the function which pro- 
perly belongs to the products of the metamorphosed tissues. With the Indian 
savages, brandy administers to their feelings of comfort, which tea in their 
cases would not do. 

The third part of Professor Liebig's report treats of the recondite laws of 
the phenomena of motion. His observations on these fully bear out the high 
character of the other parts of the report ; but as they require more detail iu 
order to be understood, we can better afford to shorten our abstract by 
merely referring to the report itself. 

The Professor concludes his valuable communication by two chapters, one 
on the Theory of Disease, the other on the Theory of Respiration. With a 
very few words on these subjects, we will close this abstract. 

e2 



52 REPORT — 1842. 

The whole life of animals consists of a conflict between chemical forces 
and the vital power. In the normal state of the body of an adult both stand 
in equilibrium ; that is, there is an equilibrium between the manifestations of 
the causes of waste and the causes of supply. Every mechanical or chemical 
agency which disturbs the restoration of this equilibrium is a cause of disease. 
Disease occurs when the resistance offered by the vital force is weaker than 
the acting cause of disturbance. 

Death is that condition in which chemical or mechanical powers gain the 
ascendency, and all resistance on the part of the vital force ceases. This re- 
sistance never entirely departs from living tissues during life. Every abnormal 
-condition of supply or waste may be called disease. 

But it is evident that one and the same cause of disease, that is, of disturb- 
ance, will have different effects according to the period of life. A cause of 
disease added to the cause of waste, may in old age annihilate the resistance 
of the vital power, or, in other words, occasion death ; while in the adult 
state it may produce only a disproportion between supply and waste, and in 
infancy only an abstract state of health, i.e. an equilibrium between supply and 
waste. 

Now from what has preceded, it is obvious that a deficiency of resistance 
in a living part to the cause of waste is in fact a deficiency of resistance to 
the action of the oxygen of the atmosphere. Professor Liebig has shown, 
in that part of the report which I have omitted, that the phaenomena of mo- 
tion are dependent upon the change of matter ; consequently, if by a diseased 
transformation of living tissues a greater amount of force be generated than 
is necessary for the production of the normal motions, it is seen in an acce- 
leration of the involuntary motions, as well as in a higher temperature of 
the diseased part. 

This condition is called Fever. 

And when a great excess of force is produced by change of matter, the 
force, since it can only be consumed by motion, extends itself to the appara- 
tus of voluntary motion. 

This state is called a Febrile Paroxys. 

Should there be any products formed during disease, which the organs in 
their immediate vicinity cannot employ in their own vital functions, erema- 
causis will ensue, which may be communicated to other parts of the body. 
The physician sometimes removes those diseased conditions by exciting an 
artificial diseased state in their vicinity, such as by blisters or by setons. In 
this case he throws a less important part of the body into a state in which it 
more readily yields to the oxygen, and therefore removes the causes of waste 
from the diseased organ. When this cause of waste is reduced, the resistance 
or vital force increases, and renovates the part removed by oxygen. 

In cases of a different kind, where artificial external disturbance produces 
no effect, the physician adopts other indirect methods to exalt the resistance 
offered by the vital force. He diminishes the number of blood-carriers (the 
globules), and by this means the cause of change. He excludes from the 
food all matter capable of conversion into blood, and gives chiefly or entirely 
non-azotized food, which supports the respiratory process. 

In regard to the nature of the vital force, it is plain that it must be con- 
nected with other physical forces, for its manifestations are similar; it is de- 
void of consciousness or volition, and is, as we know, subject to the action of 
a blister. 

Perhaps we cannot give a better notion of the Professor's theory than by 
comparing the human body to a self-regulating steam-engine. 

Every one knows that the tube which conveys the steam to the cylinder, 



ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 53 

where the piston-rod is to be raised, contains a stop-cock of a peculiar con- 
struction, through which the steam must pass. By an arrangement connected 
with the regulating-wheel, this stop-cock opens when the wheel moves slower, 
and shuts when it moves more rapidly than is necessary to produce a uniform 
motion. When it opens, more force (steam) is admitted, and the motion of 
the machine is accelerated. When the stop-cock shuts, the steam is more or 
less cut off, the force in the cylinder diminishes, the tension of the steam or 
force increases, and is preserved for subsequent use. The force, that is, the 
tension of the vapour, is produced by the change of matter by the combustion 
of coals. The force increases with the temperature of the fire-place. There 
are in these engines other arrangements, all intended for regulation. When 
the force augments beyond a certain point, the channels for the admission of 
air close themselves, combustion is diminished, and less force generated ; 
but when the engine goes slower more steam is admitted to the cylinder, its 
tension decreases, the air-passages are opened, and the cause of the disen- 
gagement of heat, that is, of the production of force, increases. Another 
arrangement supplies the fire-place incessantly with coals, in proportion as 
they are wanted. 

The body, in regard to the production of heat and of force (in Liebig's 
view), acts just like one of those machines. With the lowering of the external 
temperature, the respiration becomes deeper and more frequent ; oxygen is 
supplied in greater quantity and of greater density ; the change of matter is 
increased ; and more food must be supplied if the temperature of the body is 
to remain unchanged. 

It has been proved that iron is not necessary to the colouring matter of the 
blood, but that it forms an essential constituent of blood-globules. These 
globules, it is well known, take no part in nutrition. Liebig proves that iron 
is contained in a state of protoxide in venous, and in the state of sesquioxide 
in arterial blood. The latter very readily yields its oxygen to organic matter, 
the former becomes very readily oxidized ; but the sesquioxide, in yielding 
its oxygen to organic tissues, produces carbonic acid, which (according to 
well-known facts) protoxide of iron readily absorbs. The globules of blood 
darken when exposed to carbonic acid gas, but become florid when exposed 
to oxygen, whilst all the carbonic acid is again evolved. Therefore,, the or- 
ganic compound of iron which exists in venous blood, recovers in the lungs 
the oxygen which it had lost, and liberates its carbonic acid. Professor 
Liebig conceives that the iron is therefore the great means of conveying to 
the lungs the carbonic acid formed in the system ; and he has made a calcu- 
lation of how much the iron contained in the body could thus actually con- 
vey, and the result of the calculation shows that twice as much carbonic acid 
could thus be conveyed as actually is expelled daily from the system. 

In conclusion, I entreat that this abstract may not be regarded as doing 
justice to Professor Liebig. It is difficult indeed to abstract from a work in 
which every sentence contains some new views, if possible, more interesting 
and more important than those preceding. And when the very unfavour- 
able circumstances under which this abstract was prepared are considered, 
I am sure that justice will be done to my learned friend by consulting the 
report itself. 

In the opinion of all, Liebig may be considered a benefactor to his species, 
for the interesting discoveries in agriculture published by him in the first 
part of this report. And having in that pointed out means by which the food 
of the human race may be increased, in the work now before us he follows 
up the chain in its continuation, and shows how that food may best be 
adapted to the nutrition of man. Surely there are no two subjects more 



54 REPORT — 1842. 

fitted than these for the contemplation of the philosopher ; and by the con- 
summate sagacity with which Liebig has applied to their elucidation the 
powers of his mind, we are compelled to admit that there is no living philo- 
sopher to whom the Chemical Section could have more appropriately entrusted 
their investigation. 



Report on the British Fossil Mammalia. By Richard Owen, Esq., 

F.R.S. 

Part I. Unguiculata and Cetacea. 

By many recent valuable works there may be evidently discerned in the 
labours of the Naturalists of the present day a tendency to the acquisition 
of complete and precise knowledge of the animals and plants of particular 
countries and localities. The birds of Europe, the freshwater fishes of the 
same continent, the vertebrated animals of Italy, those of the northern re- 
gions of America, the fishes of Scandinavia, have had respectively their 
historians in a Gould, an Agassiz, a Bonaparte, a Richardson, and a Nillson ; 
and, not to mention many other fauna? and florae of foreign countries, the 
series of excellent zoological works, published by Mr. Van Voorst, have in- 
cluded able surveys by our most eminent Naturalists of the existing species 
of different classes of animals of Great Britain. 

The British Association has favorably promoted the acquisition of analo- 
gous knowledge of the extinct animals of these islands, and the result of such 
investigations in regard to one class, encourages their application to other 
departments of primaeval zoology. 

How marvellous is the contrast, for example, which the catalogue of the 
British Fossil Reptiles presents in regard to the number, diversity, bulk, and 
outward forms of its subjects, with that of the existing species ! In this com- 
parison Prof. Bell's instructive volume on British Reptiles seems to form but a 
small appendix to that which treats of the extinct forms ; to so small a group 
of diminutive species have the cold-blooded air-breathing animals dwindled 
down in our portion of the earth's surface. 

The .contrast promises to be, though not so striking, still very great, be- 
tween the catalogues of the extinct and existing British Mammalia ; and in 
undertaking, at the request of the Association, the present survey of the British 
Fossil Quadrupeds and Whales, the number and variety of these have made it 
requisite to divide the subject, and prolong the researches which it demands 
into another year. 

It is proposed in this Report to record the fossil remains of extinct British 
Mammalia; first, according to their zoological relations, following them in 
the descending order ; and, secondly, to enumerate them according to the 
strata, and in the same order. 

The present division of the Report includes the Quadrumana, Clieiroptera, 
Insectivora, Carnivora, Bodentia, Marsupialia, and Cetacea. 

This simple enumeration makes known the remarkable fact, that two 
orders of Mammalia, one of which has totally disappeared from the conti- 
nents of the old world of the geographer, and the other is hardly recognized 
as European, have once possessed representatives in the land which now 
forms the island of Great Britain. So that whilst the Zoologist, enumerating 
the existing mammals of this island, finds the nearest approach to man in 
the diminutive bats, the palaeontologist, by the extinct forms, can ascend 
another step, and commence his catalogue with a species of the quadruma- 
nous order. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 55 

Order Quadkumana. 
Genus Macacus. 

The existence of this genus during the earlier tertiary epochs was esta- 
blished by the discovery, in sand, beneath a stratum of blue clay, at Kyson 
near Woodbridge, Suffolk, of a fragment of a lower jaw, including the socket 
of the last molar, with that highly characteristic tooth entire and in place, 
and the anterior part of the base of the coronoid process. This fossil was 
determined by me in August 1839* ; it was of a dark colour and brittle 
from the loss of its original animal matter, but less absorbent than the cave 
fossils usually are. The crown of the tooth presents five tubercles, the four 
anterior ones being arranged in two transverse pairs, the fifth forming the 
posterior heel or talon. This conformation of the crown of the last molar of 
the lower jaw, is characteristic, as is well known, of two families of catarrhine 
or old-world monkeys,— the Semnopithecidce, including Semnopithecus and 
Colobus, and the Macacidce including Macacus, Cynocephalus and Papio. 
In the Semnopithecidce the fifth tubercle or talon is large but simple. In 
most of the Macacidce it presents two cusps, the outer one being much 
larger than the inner one. This character is well marked in the fossil, and 
reduces it to the lower group, or Macacidce; in which, after a close com- 
parison with several recent species, it appears to me to come nearest to the 
true Macaci. But the fossil exhibits the following differences from the re- 
cent Macaci : — the whole tooth is rather narrower in proportion to its length ; 
the transverse ridge at the anterior part of the tooth crossing the base of the 
two anterior tubercles is a little more prominent, and passes more obliquely 
from the outer to the inner side ; the second transverse ridge uniting the 
first pair of tubercles, rises nearer to their summits ; the portion of the jaw 
is more compressed than the corresponding part of the jaw in the recent 
Macaci; the internal wall of the socket of the tooth is flatter and much 
thinner ; the ridge on the outer side of the alveolus, which forms the com- 
mencement of the anterior margin of the coronoid process, begins closer to 
the tooth. These characters are sufficiently important and well-marked to 
establish the specific distinctions of the Macacque to which the portion of 
the jaw belongs, and are the more valuable as corroborating the evidence 
already adduced in proof that the fragment in question is a true fossil of the 
Eocene stratum in which it wus discoveredf. 

A second specimen of the fossil Macacus consists of the crown and one 
fang of the second molar, left side, lower jaw ; or the tooth which corre- 
sponds with the second ' bicuspis ' in human anatomy ; it was discovered in 
the same stratum and locality as the preceding. The crown presents four 
tubercles arranged in two transverse pairs, the anterior pair being the most 
distinctly developed, and rising the highest ; there is also a very small ridge 
at the anterior, and another at the posterior side of the crown ; the latter is 
placed between and connects together the two posterior tubercles. The 
fangs are two, strong and divergent ; the anterior one has been broken off. 
The grinding surface of the tooth presents two depressions, a small one in 
front of the anterior pair of tubercles, and a larger one between the two pairs 
of tubercles. The tooth has evidently belonged to an old individual, for the 
tubercles are worn, and the posterior concavity is smoothed and deepened 
by attrition. It differs from the corresponding tooth of a recent Macacus 

* See Magazine of Natural History, 1839, p. 444. 

t A newspaper critic, when this discover}' was first announced, suggested that the sup- 
posed fossil might be nothing more than the remains of some monkey belonging to a 
travelling menagerie, which had died and been cast out in the progress through Suffolk. 



56 REPORT — 1842. 

of the same size in having a slight ridge along the base of the anterior part 
of the crown, and in being a little narrower from side to side, and the same 
characters distinguish the posterior molar of the fossil Macacus above de- 
scribed. As, moreover, the present fossil molar bears exactly the same pro- 
portion to the above-mentioned fossil posterior molar, which obtains in the 
corresponding teeth of the recent Macaci, I have no doubt that the two fos- 
sil teeth belong to the same species of extinct Macacus. 

The evidence on which this ancient British monkey has been recognized, 
is of the same nature as that which has proved the existence of another and 
higher organized Quadrumane, in a contemporary formation in the South of 
France. During the life-time of Cuvier no fossil referable to the quadru- 
manous order had been discovered in any part of the world. Such remains 
have, however, been subsequently determined not only from tertiary strata 
in England and France, but also from tertiary beds in the East Indies and 
South America ; four different genera of apes and monkeys being now known 
to have co-existed with the stranger Mammalia of the tertiary periods which 
have become extinct. 

Order Cheiroptera. 

The most common situations in which the fossil bones of the bat- tribe 
have been met with are the bone-caves, in some of which, as in the cavern 
at Kostritz, they occur mixed with the bones of existing as well as extinct 
animals, and may have been introduced at a recent period. I shall not, 
therefore, here notice the remains of existing species of bats found in the 
superficial stalactites of caves, and which appear also to have been acci- 
dentally and recently introduced, like the remains of the human species, into 
caves containing the true fossil bones of extinct animals. 

In the cavern called Kent's Hole, near Torbay, Devon, fragments of the 
skeleton of a bat have been found so associated with the remains of the ex- 
tinct animals as to claim a like antiquity. A ramus of the lower jaw presents 
two large cuspidated molars in place, the socket of a third, those of two small 
premolars, and a canine, from which I am disposed to refer these fossils to the 
genus Rhinolophus, typified by the horse-shoe bat of the present fauna. 

A species of small insectivore, referable only, as it appears to me, to the 
bat-tribe, has left indications of its presence during the remote tertiary pe- 
riods in which the Macacus, already described, existed. These indications 
consist of two molar teeth, apparently the last and penultimate of the right 
side of the lower jaw. 

One of these small grinders (penultimate or antepenultimate grinder) has 
the crown composed of four triangular prisms, placed in two transverse rows, 
with an angle turned outwards, and a side or flat surface inwards, the sum- 
mits being sharp-pointed. The exterior prisms are the largest ; the crown 
swells out abruptly above the fangs, defending them as it were by an over- 
hanging ridge. There is a small transverse eminence or talon at the anterior 
part of the crown ; and a very small tubercle is placed between the bases of 
the two external prisms. The second molar differs from the preceding in 
having the two posterior prisms suppressed, and replaced by a flattened tri- 
angular surface. The anterior prisms are present, and their apices project 
far beyond the level of the posterior surface. There is a small ridge at the 
anterior part of the tooth. These teeth agree more nearly with the ante- 
penultimate and last molars of the larger insectivorous bats, than with any 
other teeth with which I have as yet compared them ; they differ chiefly in 
the presence of the small tubercle at the basal interspace of the exterior 
prisms ; a difference which M. de Blainville regards as ground for doubting 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 57 

the legitimacy of their approximation to the Cheiropterous order at all*. 
Since, however, an anatomist so familiar by his recent researches with all 
the modifications of the teeth of the Mammalia has been unable to refer the 
fossil molars in question to any of the terrestrial or aquatic genera of Insec- 
tivora, but has given my figures of these molars a place in the plate illus- 
trating the ancient Vespertiliones in his ' Osteography,' I deduce from that 
fact additional confidence in my original determination. It is to the grinders 
of a tropical species of Molossus, in the collection of Mr. Cuming, that the 
present British fossils make the nearest approach. 

Order Insectivora. 
Genus Talpa. 

Moles have been introduced into the retreats of owls and other birds of 
prey, and these remains have been detected in the earth at the bottom of 
caves, as in that at Pavilandf, but these cannot be regarded as true fossils. 

The almost entire skeleton, figured as a Saurian in the ' Geology of Bacton,' 
by Mr. Green, unquestionably belongs to the genus Talpa, as I have ascer- 
tained by examination of the characteristic humeri, which in the figure 
alluded to are placed so as to correspond with the coracoid and pelvic bones 
of Saurians. This mole's skeleton was discovered in a lacustrine deposit 
consisting of a greenish kind of mud intermixed with sand, underlying a 
stratum of bluish mud, with patches of brown clay, itself covered by the 
hard ferruginous crag and the superficial till. 

The associated skeleton I of a quadruped, combining a dentition like that 
of the ruminants, with, apparently, a divided metacarpus and metatarsus, as 
in the Anoplotherhim gracile, would indicate this formation to belong to the 
older tertiary series ; but of this I shall be enabled to speak with more cer- 
tainty, after a personal examination of the fossil and strata previous to the 
preparation of that part of the present report which will treat of the herbivo- 
rous Mammalia. 

Genus Sorex. 

Fossil remains of shrew-mice have been found in the bone-cave at Kent's 
Hole § ; in the collections of bones in the raised beaches near Plymouth, 
and in other recent formations : they offer no evidence of species distinct 
from those now existing in Great Britain. 

Genus Amphitherium. 

The mammalian fossils which have excited most interest, and been the 
subject of closest examination and warmest discussion, are the small jaws 
from the oolitic calcareous slate at Stonesfield near Oxford, first indicated 
as evidence of the mammalian class by Dr. Buckland, in his celebrated 
paper on the Megalosaums, published in 1823 in the ' Transactions of the 
Geological Society of London,' vol. i. 2nd series, p. 399 ; and there referred, 
on the authority of Cuvier, to the genus Didelphys. 

A statement of so much importance as that of the existence of the remains 
of a terrestrial mammal in a secondary formation, much lower than the 
chalk, excited, as might be expected, much scepticism and close inquiry, 
first, in regard to the geological relations of the alleged oolitic stratum, and 
next as to the zoological affinities of the fossils. 

* Osteographie des Cheiropteres, p. 93, pi. xv. fig. ix. 
t Reliquiae Diluvianas, p. 93. 
% Green's Geology of Bacton, plate ii, pp. 13-18. 

§ As they have likewise been found in the cave at Kostritz, and in the bone-caves of 
Belgium. 



58 report — 1842. 

The first exception to any generalization which has assumed the cha- 
racter of a law, is always admitted with difficulty, and by the strict or 
mechanical systematists with reluctance. The geological arguments by 
which M. Prevost endeavoured to invalidate the conclusions of Dr. Buck- 
land, were soon and satisfactorily refuted by Dr. Fitton ; and the question 
as to the real age of the rock containing the bones in question has not since 
been agitated. The attempts to remove the supposed anomaly by inter- 
preting the appearances in the fossils as indications of a cold-blooded spe- 
cies, have been more frequent and persevering; and they assumed the 
character of so systematic a refutation of the Cuvierian view, in the me- 
moirs communicated by M. de Blainville to the French Academy in the 
year 1838, that a close and thorough re-examination of the fossils in ques- 
tion became imperatively called for, in order that the doubts cast upon their 
mammalian nature might be tested. For this purpose the original fossil jaw 
described by Dr. Buckland, and those subsequently obtained from the 
Stonesfield slate and preserved in the Oxford Museum, were submitted to 
my inspection. I carefully examined the specimen described by Mr. Brode- 
rip and presented by him to the British Museum, and likewise that which is 
preserved in the Museum of the Philosophical Society at York. The results 
of these examinations were communicated to the Geological Society, and 
have been published with new and more exact figures of the fossils in the 
6th vol., 2nd series, of the Transactions of the Society. 

By a very singular coincidence the mammalian fossils from the Stones- 
field slate, hitherto determined, are all portions of the loAver jaw ; whether 
belonging to individuals of different species, or of different genera, or even, 
as appears by examination of new specimens acquired since the publication 
of my memoir of 1838, of different orders of Mammalia. 

The first fossil was referred originally to the genus Didelphys, from the 
resemblance of the grinders to those of the opossums ; but Cuvier expressly 
states that they exceeded in number the molar series in that or any other known 
carnivorous genus of mammal. M. Agassiz, originally regarding this fossil as 
insufficient to determine the nature of the animal to which it belonged, sub- 
sequently proposed, nevertheless, a generic name, Ampltigonus, for that 
animal, expressive of its supposed ambiguous nature. M. de Blainville, 
likewise, though participating in the incertitude or doubt which M. Agassiz 
had cast upon the original determination of the Stonesfield fossil, had as 
little hesitation in suggesting a name for the new genus which it seemed to 
indicate, whatever might subsequently prove to be its characters or affinities ; 
and it is remarkable that the Greek compound ' Amphitherium,' should 
imply by its terminal element a relation to the class Mammalia, which the 
two memoirs read to the French Academy by its inventor were designed to 
disprove. 

M. Valenciennes, in his reply to M. de Blainville, arriving at the conclu- 
sion that the fossil jaw described and figured by M. Prevost and Dr. Buck- 
land not only belonged to a mammalian but likewise to a marsupial animal, 
proposed for it a third generic name, indicative of these presumed affinities, 
viz. Thylacotherium. 

The arguments of M. Valenciennes were opposed in a second detailed 
memoir by M. de Blainville, who concluded by stating that he felt himself 
compelled to pause, at least until fresh evidence was produced, in the con- 
viction that the portions of fossil jaws found at Stonesfield, certainly did not 
belong to a marsupial — probably not to a mammalian genus, either insectivo- 
rous or amphibious — that, on the contrary, it was most likely the animal had 
been oviparous, and that, had not M. Agassiz decidedly given his opinion 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 59 

against the fossils in question belonging to fishes, he would rather have been 
led to suppose that they might have been the remains of an animal of that 
class. 

With respect to the term ' amphibious,' in M. de Blainville's conclusion, 
this has reference to a later opinion expressed by M. Agassiz*, who, admit- 
ting the Stonesfield fossils to be certainly those of mammals, rejects them 
from the marsupial and insectivorous orders, observing that " each separate 
tooth resembles the greater part of those of seals, near which group (am- 
phibious Carnivora) the animal to which the jaws belonged should form a 
distinct genus. In fact," adds M. Agassiz, " the aspect of these fossil 
fragments is so peculiar, that it draws our attention towards aquatic animals 
rather than away from them." 

A mammiferous animal, not larger than the water-shrew, may manifest 
aquatic habits, but can hardly be supposed to have been piscivorous, or to 
have been endowed with instincts and an organisation like those of the 
seals ; at all events it must be admitted, in the absence of any evidence of 
the locomotive extremities, that such an affinity can only be matter of mere 
conjecture ; which a close examination of the dental and maxillary characters 
will show to have little probability. 

The fossil first discovered by Professor Buckland, and figured by the Pro- 
fessor, by M. Prevost and myself, is the left ramus of a lower jaw wanting 
the anterior extremity, containing ten of the molar teeth more or less broken, 
and measuring ten lines in length. 

This specimen, however, plainly exhibits, — first, a convex articular con- 
dyle ; secondly, an indubitable and well-defined impression of what was once 
a broad, thin, high, and slightly recurved triangular coronoid process, rising 
immediately anterior to the condyle, having its basis extended over the 
whole of the interspace between the condyle and the commencement of the 
molar series, and having a vertical diameter equal to that of the horizontal 
ramus of the jaw itself; thirdly, the angle of the jaw continued to nearly the 
same extent below the condyle as the coronoid process reaches above it, and 
with its apex continued backwards in the form of a process ; fourthly, the 
parts above described forming one continuous portion with the horizontal 
ramus of the jaw, which is not compounded of three or four distinct pieces. 
As respects this last statement, it is to be observed that an inferior marginal 
groove has been considered as evidence of the composite structure of the 
jaw under consideration ; but there is no other mark that could be inter- 
preted as an indication of this reptilian structure, whilst a similar groove 
characterizes the lower jaw of the marsupial Myrmecobius and Wombat, and 
of some large species of Sorex. 

M. de Blainville was led to suppose that there was no trace of a convex 
condyle, but that in its place there existed an articular fissure, somewhat as 
in the jaws of fishes ; that the teeth, instead of being imbedded in sockets, 
had their fangs confluent with, or anchylosed to, the substance of the jaws ; 
and that the jaw itself presented evident traces of a composite structure. 

The point, therefore, which first demanded the closest attention, was 
the actual condition, in the Stonesfield fossils, of the articular or condyloid 
process, in regard to which they give the same evidence. In the jaw examined 
by Cuvier, in the second specimen of the same species examined by M. Va- 
lenciennes, and in the lower jaw of another genus described and figured by 
Mr. Broderip, a prominent convex articular condyle is more or less distinctly 
revealed ; it is most entire and unequivocal in Mr. Broderip's specimen which 

* Neue Jahrbuch Mineral, und Geol. von Leonhard und Bronn, 1S35, iii. p. 185. 



60 REPORT — 1842. 

I shall subsequently describe. What M. de Blainville has mistaken for an 
articular fissure, " une sorte d'6chancrure, articulaire un peu comnae dans 
les poissons," must be the entering angle or notch, either above or below the 
true articular condyle. 

The angle of the jaw in the original fossil is produced backwards in the 
form of a process, as in the insectivorous and in all the carnivorous Mam- 
malia, with the exception of the seals ; but it could not be determined in 
that specimen whether this process was likewise bent inwards in the way 
which so strikingly characterizes the Marsupialia. A very complete half- 
lower jaw from Stonesfield, obtained since my paper was printed in the 
Geological Transactions, determines this question in the negative ; and at the 
same time, therefore, turns the scale of evidence in favour of the affinities 
of the present ancient mammal to the placental insectivora. 

Before, however, describing this fossil, I shall proceed to offer a few ob- 
servations on the second specimen of Amphitherium figured in my paper in 
the Geological Transactions ; and on the evidence which it affords of the 
affinities of this most interesting genus. 

In this specimen the whole of the exposed surface of the lower jaw, with 
the exception of the coronoid, articular and angular processes, is entire ; the 
smooth surface near the anterior extremity of the jaw is in bold relief, and 
slopes away at nearly a right angle from the rougher articular surface of the 
elongated symphysis. It may be supposed that this symphysial surface, 
which at once determines the side of the jaw, might be obscured in the 
plaster cast studied by M. de Blainville, but there is no possibility of mis- 
taking it in the fossil itself; it is long and narrow, and is continued forwards 
in the same line with the gently convex inferior margin of the jaw, which 
thus tapers gradually to a pointed anterior extremity, precisely as in the jaws 
of the Didelphys as well as in other Insectivora, both of the marsupial 
and placental series. Its lower margin presents a small but pretty deep 
notch, which possesses every appearance of a natural structure, and a corre- 
sponding but shallower notch is present in the same part of the jaw of the 
Myrmecobius. In the relative length of the symphysis, as in its form and po- 
sition, the jaw of the Amphitherium corresponds with that of the Didelphys, 
Myrmecobius and Gymnurus. A greater proportion of the convex articular 
condyle is preserved in this than in the foregoing specimen, and it projects 
backward to a greater extent. The precise contour of the coronoid process 
is not so neatly defined in this as in the first specimen of Amphitherium, but 
sufficient remains to show that it had the same height and width. 

The exposed surface of the coronoid process is slightly convex. The sur- 
face of the ascending ramus of the jaw is entire above the angle, whence we 
may conclude that if the process from the latter part had been continued 
directly backwards, it would also have been entire ; but the extremity of the 
angular process is broken off, proving it to have originally inclined inwards 
or towards the observer : as, however, the greater part of the angle is entire, 
it could not have been inflected to the same extent as in the Didelphys, 
Dasyurus, or the Phascolotherium next to be described. A groove is ex- 
tended from the lower end of the articular condyle forward to the orifice of 
the canal for the dental artery, where it divides ; the upper branch terminates 
in the dental orifice, the lower and larger division is continued forward near 
the lower margin of the jaw, and is gradually filled up half way towards the 
symphysis : this smooth vascular groove has no resemblance to an articular 
fissure. There is a broader and snorter groove in the corresponding part of 
the jaw of the Myrmecobius ; and a narrower groove in that of the Wombat. 
The alveolar wall of the posterior grinders makes a convex projection, cha- 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 61 

racteristic of the inner surface of the ramus of the lower jaw. The posterior 
grinder in the present jaw is fortunately more complete than in the first ex- 
ample, and shows a small, middle, internal cusp, with part of a large external 
cusp, both projecting from the crown of the tooth in nearly the same transverse 
line. The enamel covering the internal cusp, which is vertically fractured, is 
beautifully distinct from the ivory, and considerably thicker in proportion to 
the size of the tooth than is the enamel or its analogue in the teeth of any spe- 
cies of reptile, recent or fossil. The six molars anterior to the one in place, are 
broken off close to the sockets ; both the fifth and fourth false molars are en- 
tire : the anterior cusp presents the same superior size as in the first specimen. 
The thick external enamel, and the silky, iridescent lustre of the compact ivory, 
are beautifully shown in these teeth. The third and second grinders are more 
fractured than in the first specimen, but sufficient remains to show that they 
possess the same form and relative size ; but the most interesting evidence as 
regards the teeth, which the present jaw affords, is the existence of the sockets 
of not less than seven te'eth, anterior to those above described. Of these 
sockets the four anterior ones are small and simple, like those of the mole, 
being more equal in their size and interspaces than in the Didelphys. The 
fifth socket contained a small premolar with double fangs, and so likewise 
did the sixth and seventh sockets. Thus the two false molars, with perfect 
crowns in the present specimen, are the eighth and ninth teeth, counting 
backwards, or the fourth and fifth of their class, viz. premolares or false 
molars. This fossil, therefore, gives evidence that the dental formula of the 
Amphitherium must have included thirty-two teeth in the lower jaw (sixteen 
on each side) ; that these, instead of presenting an uniform, compressed, tri- 
cuspid structure and being all of one kind, were divided into three series as 
regards their form : five, if not six, of the posterior teeth are quinque-cuspi- 
date, and must be regarded as molares veri. Some of the molares spurii are 
tricuspid and some bicuspid, as in the opossums ; but these are six, if not 
seven in number. Anterior to the molars are four simple teeth, of which the 
fourth may be regarded as the representative of the canine, and the anterior 
three as incisors. Thus the Amphitherium differs considerably from the ge- 
nus Didelphys in the number of its teeth. Indeed at the time when Cuvier 
wrote respecting it, believing it to have had ten molars, no mammiferous 
ferine quadruped was known to possess a greater number of these teeth 
than the Chrysochlore, which has nine molars on each side of the upper jaw, 
and eight molars on each side of the lower jaw. The Chrysochlore, however, 
is not the only mammal in which the molars exceed the number usually 
found in the unguiculate Mammalia. The marsupial genus, Myrmecobius, 
has nine molars on each side of the lower jaw, besides one small canine and 
three conical incisors. 

The teeth of Amphitherium, moreover, differ from those of Didelphys not 
only in number but also in size, being relatively smaller. The teeth of Myr- 
mecobius, besides their approximation in number to those of Amphitherium, 
resemble them in their small relative size more than do those of Didelphys, 
but they are still smaller than in Amphitherium, which in this respect, as 
well as in the structure of the teeth, appears to hold an intermediate posi- 
tion between Didelphys and Myrmecobius. The Didelphys Prevostii being 
evidently, as Cuvier states, a distinct genus from Didelphys properly so 
called, a distinct generic name was no doubt desirable for it, and the term 
Amphitherium fulfils all the requisite conditions. In my memoir of 1838 I 
ventured to observe in reference to the new name proposed by M. Valen- 
ciennes, that it would have been more prudent to have chosen one less de- 
scriptive than Thylacotherium, since the affinities of the fossil insectivore to 



62 report — 1842. 

the marsupial order were indicated only with a certain degree of probability, 
and required further evidence before the desired demonstration could be at- 
tained. But the determination of the particular order of mammals to which 
the fossils in question belonged, was a matter of very inferior importance to 
the discovery of the class of vertebrate animals in which it ought to rank. 
In reference to this point the evidence afforded by the two jaws above de- 
scribed, decisively proves, in my opinion, that they belong to a true, warm- 
blooded, mammiferous species, referrible also to the higher or unguiculate 
division of the class Mammalia, and to an insectivorous genus ; with a pro- 
bability of the marsupial character of such genus. 

The probability entertained in 1838, and supported by the degree of re- 
semblance between AmplritJierium and 3Iyrmecobius in the number and form 
of the molar series of teeth, has since been diminished, if not destroyed, by 
the discovery of the right ramus of a lower jaw, presenting its external sur- 
face to the observer, and in which the angular pi'ocess is shown not to have 
extended inwards. This jaw, now in the possession of Prof. Buckland, con- 
tains the whole series of twelve molar teeth, the last six being quinque-cus- 
pidate ; the six anterior ones uni-cuspidate, with one or two small basal ac- 
cessory cusps ; one small canine and three small incisors ; altogether amount- 
ing to sixteen teeth on each side of the lower jaw, as indicated by the sockets 
of the second specimen above described. The convex condyle, the broad 
and high coronoid process, the projecting angle, the varied kinds and double- 
rooted implantation of the teeth, all unequivocally displayed in this fossil, 
establish the conclusions which I had deduced from the foregoing fossils, of 
the existence of a small insectivorous mammal during the oolitic epoch ; and 
turn the scale in favour of the placental affinities of this ancient insectivore, 
for which, therefore, I shall retain the generic name Amphitherium, in pre- 
ference to the later one of Thylacothe?'ium, proposed by M. Valenciennes. 
Other fossils, also portions of the lower jaw, establish the existence of small 
Mammalia in the oolitic slate of Stonesfield ; but they present more decided 
characters of the marsupial order, and will be, therefore, noticed after a sur- 
vey of the fossils belonging to the larger placental Carnivora. 

UrSIDjE. 

In regard to the larger extinct carnivorous quadrupeds, the remains of 
which are dispersed in the superficial drift or diluvial gravel, but are more 
especially accumulated in caves, it has been proved, chiefly by the researches 
of Dr. Buckland, that England differs very remarkably from the rest of 
Europe in the small number of its ancient bears as compared with the 
hyaenas; the proportionate numbers of Ursus spelceus and Hyarna spelcea 
being reversed in the island and on the continent. How far this difference 
may be taken as an indication of some geographical separation having ex- 
isted at the remote period of these beasts of prey, analogous to that which 
now divides us from the continent, may be worthy of closer inquiry ; but 
the facts in regard to the Carnivora in question are indisputable. 

I shall first indicate the chief localities of Ursine remains in this country, 
and then enter upon the question of their specific characters and relations. 

The tusk of a bear, equalling in size that of the Ursus spel&its, has been dis- 
covered in the celebrated hyaena-cave at Kirkdale in Yorkshire. The soli- 
tary character of this specimen is made more remarkable by the fact of the 
incalculable numbers of hyaenas' teeth which have been discovered in the 
same cavern. The size of the Ursus spelaus must be regarded as one of its 
striking and remarkable characters, but if this character were not associated 
with modifications of the osseous and dental structures, it might only indi- 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 63 

cate that the brown bear of Europe was a degenerate descendant of the same 
species, as M. de Blainville has recently endeavoured to show. The diffi- 
culties which oppose themselves to the view of the specific identity of the 
great cave bear and the existing European bears, I shall point out after 
noticing other localities in which the Ursus speleeus of Cuvier have been 
found in this country. 

In the cave at Paviland, in the lofty limestone cliff facing the sea on the 
coast of Glamorganshire, the following parts of a large species of bear are 
enumerated by Dr. Buckland : — Many molar teeth, two canines ; the sym- 
physial end of two lower jaws, exhibiting the sockets of the incisor teeth 
and of the canines ; the latter are more than three inches deep ; a humerus 
nearly entire ; many vertebrae, two ossa calcis; metacarpal and metatarsal 
bones. 

At Oreston, on the coast of Devonshire, several caverns or cavernous fis- 
sures were discovered during the quarrying of the limestone rock for the 
construction of the breakwater at Plymouth. The first of these, described 
in the Philosophical Transactions for 1817, contained the bones of a species 
of Rhinoceros ; in the second, a smaller cavern distant one hundred and 
twenty yards from the former, and described in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions for 1821, were found, associated with the tooth of a rhinoceros and 
parts of a deer, some teeth and bones of a large species of Ursus. 

The fossils referable to the bear here discovered, include a canine tooth, 
left side, lower jaw ; a canine tooth, left side, upper jaw ; the penultimate 
grinder, right side, upper jaw; the penultimate grinder, left side, lower jaw; 
a portion of the sacrum ; portions of two tibiae ; a portion of the ulna ; a 
portion of the femur. 

The richest cave-depository of the fossil bones of bears hitherto found in 
England is that called Kent's Hole, near Torquay. The natural history, with 
a special account of the organic riches of this cave, will be given in the se- 
cond volume of the ' Reliquiae Diluvianae,' which Dr. Buckland is now pre- 
paring for the press. It is to the assiduous researches of the late Rev. Mr. 
Mac Enery that the discovery of the various and interesting fossils of this 
cave is principally due, and some of the rarest and most valuable of this 
gentleman's collection have been lately acquired by the British Museum. 
Among the Ursine fossils meriting especial notice, are portions of the skull 
and teeth of the Ursus spekeus, some of the latter equalling in size the 
largest specimens from the German caverns. 

The anterior portion of a lower jaw, includiug the anchylosed symphysis, 
with two enormous canines, is likewise remarkable from the circumstance of 
its retaining a small and simple-fanged premolar in the interspace or dia- 
stema between the canines and the double-fanged molars. 

A second interesting fossil is a large proportion of the lower jaw, in- 
cluding the symphysis and the whole dental series of each ramus ; the sockets 
of two small simple-fanged premolars are visible in the diastema above de- 
scribed ; one close to the canine, the other, less completely preserved, near 
the first double-fanged molar. 

Amongst the bones of the trunk and extremities there occur remarkable 
examples of diseased action ; a lumbar vertebra, for example, presents ex- 
tensive exostosis from the under part and sides of the body ; the distal 
extremity of the radius exhibits an oblique fracture of that bone, in the 
attempt to heal which a new and irregular ossific mass has been deposited 
on the surface of the bone. Several bones and teeth of the Bear from 
Kent's Hole exhibit very decided marks of having been gnawed, most pro- 
bably by a hyaena. One of the fragments of the lower jaw of a young Bear 



64 report — 1842. 

shows the same interesting transitional state of dentition as has been dis- 
covered in fossils from the continental bear-caves. 

The drift or diluvial deposits in several localities of England have yielded 
remains of large carnivorous quadrupeds, and among these of the Bear. 

In the valley of the Thames this deposit affords considerable quantities of 
brick-earth, and in working this material at Grays in Essex, and also at 
Whitstable, remains of a large species of L'rsus have been discovered. 

An entire skull and portions of the upper and lower jaws of a bear have 
been discovered in Manea Fen, Cambridgeshire, five feet below the surface. 
The skull forms part of the collection of Piofessor Sedgwick : the portions 
of the jaws are in the possession of Sir P. de M. Grey Egerton, Bart. 

These, though belonging to a genus extinct in Great Britain, can scarcely 
be considered as fossil bones, and they are included in the present report, 
rather as satisfactory objects of comparison with the remains of Bears from 
the caverns and drift formations. 

I proceed now to inquire into the relations which the Bears, formerly inha- 
bitants of this island, have to the existing species in Europe or other parts 
of the world ; — an inquiry which the recent doubts pubbshed by If. de 
Blainville as to the real nature of the specific differences pointed out by 
Cuvier between the Cave Bears (L'rsus spelceus, U. priseus, Sec.) and the 
existing species render more necessary. 

For this purpose I have critically compared most of our British fossils with 
specimens from the German caverns, in the museums of this country, and 
with the skeletons of the largest existing species, as the Vrsusferox, L. ma- 
ritimus, arctos. See. 

Cranium. — John Hunter, who first instituted an anatomical comparison 
between the Cave Bears and those of the present period, selected the great 
Polar Bear for this purpose, as being the largest existing species with which 
he was acquainted. Hunter, however, restricts himself to pointing out the 
difference in the proportion of length to breadth in the skull of an old White 
Bear and in that of the great Cave Bear : the individual skulls which he 
compared are still preserved in juxtaposition in the Museum of the College 
of Surgeons, as they were left by Hunter when removed by death from this 
the latest field of his extensive and various researches. 

This difference in the proportions of the skull, though one of the most 
striking between the fossil and recent species of Bears, is not the only one. 
The last molar tooth of the upper jaw in the White Bear has a smaller an- 
teroposterior diameter, and a narrower posterior termination. The inter- 
space between the antepenultimate molar and the canine tooth presents the 
remains of two sockets, one near the molar, the other near the canine, which 
in young full-grown Polar Bears contain small and simple-fanged premolars. 
The youngest specimens of Cave Bear which I have seen, exhibit no trace of 
either of these small premolars, or of their sockets : they doubtless existed 
in the foetus, but normally were very soon lost ; the exceptions are extremely 
few in which their traces are visible in the jaws of full-grown Cave Bears. 
The posterior palatal foramina are situated opposite the middle of the last 
molar tooth in all the skulls of the White Bear examined by me, but oppo- 
site the interspace between the penultimate and last molars in the skulls of 
the Cave Bear. The zygomatic arches are wider and shorter, and the base 
of the zygomatic process behind the glenoid cavity is more horizontal in 
the White Bear than in the Cave Bear. The Grisly Bear (Ursus ferox), — a 
larger species than the White Bear, and unknown to Hunter, — agrees with 
the Cave Bear in the great proportional size of the last molar tooth, but the 
interspace between the antepenultimate grinder and the canine is relatively 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 65 

less than in either the Cave Bear ( U. spelceus) or White Bear ( U. maritimus), 
and it contains two small and simple premolars in specimens, which from 
the worn state of the molar teeth have belonged to older individuals than 
those to which the skulls of the Cave Bear have belonged, which present no 
trace of premolars. 

The lower jaw of the Ursus spelceus differs from that of the Ursus ferox 
in the greater breadth of the posterior molar as compared with its length, 
and in the greater convexity of the inferior contour of the ramus of the 
jaw, in which latter circumstance it differs, though in a somewhat less degree, 
from the Black Bear of Europe ( Ursus arctos). 

The lower jaw of the Grisly Bear, in differing by the larger size of its 
molar teeth, especially of the last molar from the Polar Bear, in the same 
degree differs less from the Ursus spelceus. 

The Ursine remains from the Paviland Cavern, and some of those from 
Kent's Hole, are unquestionably identical with the Ursus spelceus. 

To this species, also, I should refer, on account of the size of the canines 
and the extent of the diastema between these and the large molars, the 
anterior part of the lower jaw from Kent's Hole ; notwithstanding the presence 
of a small simple-fanged premolar in that diastema : since a few exceptional 
instances have occurred of the persistence of these teeth in lower jaws of 
the Ursus spelceus from the German and Belgian caverns. 

The fossil humerus from Kent's Hole likewise manifests all the characters 
of that of the Ursus spelceus ; characters which appear to me to be as well 
marked as those which can be pointed out as distinguishing the same bones 
in any other two species of one genus. 

Cuvier, as is well known, conceived that he had met with two very distinct 
forms of the humerus, belonging to equally gigantic extinct species of Cave 
Bears. 

" On trouve deux sortes d'humerus, tous deux appartenant a des ours, et 
cependant fort differens l'un de l'autre, John Hunter les a deja represented 
(Phil. Trans. 1794, pi. xx.) ; mais depuis on n'a insiste dans aucun ouvrage 
sur leur difference. La deuxieme sorte d'humerus de ces cavernes, pi. xxv. 
fig. 4, 5, 6, et 7, m'est comme par un echantillon bien entier que notre Mu- 
seum possede, par la gravure de Hunter, et par le dessin que je dois a feu 
Adrien Camper d'une portion qui en comprenoit les trois quarts inferieurs. 
Elle differe eminemment de la pr6cedente par un trou perce au dessus du 
condyle interne pour le passage de l'artere cubitale. ( Voy. a, fig. 4 et 5)." — 
Ossemens Fossiles, 4to. 1823, torn. iv. p. 362. 

Whatever may be deemed the value of the character of the perforation of 
the inner condyle, I can affirm that it derives no accession from the other 
differences manifested by the figure in Hunter's memoir, which Cuvier sup- 
posed to be of a fossil Bear ; that figure having been, in fact, taken from the 
humerus of an old Polar Bear, inserted in the plate (pi. xx. Phil. Trans. 
1794.), and placed above the figure of the fossil humerus in order to illus- 
trate the differences between the recent and fossil species. The bone of the 
Polar Bear was placed by Hunter in the same drawer with two humeri of the 
Cave Bear from Gailenreuth, which it exceeds in size, and which are the 
identical specimens alluded to in the following passage of Hunter's Memoir: — 
" These are two ossa humeri rather of less size than those of the recent White 
Bear." Hunter does not allude to any other differences, probably intending 
these to be illustrated by the figures. These, in fact, show that the humerus 
of the White Bear is broader at both extremities, and thicker in proportion to 
its length. The supinator ridge forms an angle instead of being continued 
downwards in a gentle convex curve ; the internal condyle is much thicker 

1842. f 



66 BEPORT—1842. 

and stronger, where it bounds the olecranal cavity, and it extends inwards to 
a greater distance from the articular surface ; the deltoidal ridge reaches 
lower down in the White Bear ; the antero-posterior diameter of the proxi- 
mal third part of the bone 1 of the White Bear exceeds in a marked degree 
that of the extinct species. 

The decease of Hunter took place before the printing of his observations 
on the fossil cave-bones, and the individual to whom the task of superin- 
tending the printing was entrusted, described both the figures of the humeri 
in the Plate, as belonging to the fossil species. Cuvier, who did not perceive 
the resemblance of the upper figure to the humerus of the White Bear, and 
who therefore did not recognise the mistake, avails himself of it to illustrate 
his opinions respecting the specific distinction of his Ursi spelceus et Arc- 
toideus. 

Cuvier, in fact, possessed a humerus of one of the great Cave Bears, the 
internal condyle of which was perforated, as in the feline tribe, whilst other 
humeri were imperforate, and corresponded with the lower figure in Hunter's 
plate. But the perforated fossil humerus figured by Cuvier differs from that 
of the White Bear in the shorter deltoid ridge, the narrower proximal and 
distal extremities, the convex outline of the supinator ridge, and the inferior 
production of the inner condyle ; in short in all those characters by which the 
imperforate fossil humerus has been shown above to differ from that of the 
White Bear. Not any of the three fossil humeri in the Hunterian Collec- 
tion have the perforation of the internal condyle ; and amongst the ex- 
tremely numerous humeri that have since been obtained from the bone- 
caves of Germany, not any have been found to present the perforation which 
Cuvier regards as the specific character of this bone in the Ursus spelceus ; it 
is most probably therefore, as Professor de Blainville conjectures, an acci- 
dental anomaly. But the differential characters which both the imperforate 
and perforate humeri of the great Cave Bear present, when compared with 
those of any recent species, cannot be reconciled by the hypothesis that these 
are merely degenerated descendants of the Ursus spelceus. 

The humerus from Kent's Hole presents all the characters of that of the 
Ursus spelceus above described. 

Ulna. — The ulna of the Cave Bear ( Ursus spelceus), compared with one 
of the same length from the Polar Bear, is less straight, being more convex 
towards the radius ; is thicker, particularly at the anterior part of the shaft ; 
the ridge on the outside of the distal end of the bone is more produced ; the 
styloid process is more pointed ; and the concavity on the inner side of the 
proximal articular surface is deeper. 

The ulna from Kent's Hole agrees with that of the Ursus spelceus from the 
German caves. 

The difference between the femur of the Ursuc spelceus and the femur of Ur- 
sus arctos or ferox, is analogous to that which has been pointed out in the hu- 
meri ; the femur of the Grisly Bear being broader in proportion to its length, 
especially at its two extremities : it is owing to this breadth that the lesser tro- 
chanter is thrown wholly to the posterior surface of the bone, the inner mar- 
gin being continued beyond it, whilst in the Cave Bear the lesser trochanter, 
though on the posterior surface of the bone, projects a little beyond the inner 
margin. At the distal end of the bone the tuberosity above the internal 
condyle, corresponding with that in the humerus, is larger and more promi- 
nent in the Grisly than in the Cave Bear ; the same difference in the position 
of the lesser trochanter is presented by the White Bear as compared with 
the Cave Bear, and the extremities of the bone are relatively broader. 

I have not been able to detect any other well-marked modification of form 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 67 

in the remaining bones of the extremities of the Ursus spelams, but the co- 
incidence of such appreciable modifications in the femur, ulna, humerus, 
with those in the form and proportions of the head, and in the form and the 
relative size of certain teeth, seem to offer as good grounds for the specific 
distinction of the Ursus spclceus as for that of the Ursus maritimus, or any 
other existing species proposed by Pallas and Cuvier, and admitted by the 
best modern zoologists. 

The question which the Palaeontologist ought to propose to himself in his 
first survey of the fossils of any particular district, is the value of the distinc- 
tive characters which such remains may present, as compared with those 
which distinguish species, according to the zoological systems and principles 
of the time being. For if he disregard or suppress such differential cha- 
racters in the fossils, because the limits of variation by the influence of time 
and surrounding circumstances may not be determined, he rejects one of the 
valuable means whereby the ultimate resolution of such higher and more 
general questions in zoology may be effected. 

To refuse to recognise such differences as have been .pointed out in the 
skeleton of the great Cave Bear, because they may be possibly or hypothe- 
tically accounted for by degeneration of the specific type, and thereupon to 
record the fossil species as the primaeval Ursus arctos, seems a voluntary- 
abandonment of the most valuable instrument in all ulterior inquiries. 

Observation has well determined the extent of modification which the 
skull of a carnivorous species may undergo according to age, to sex, to the 
free or the constrained exercise of its destructive weapons ; and the relative 
size of the intermuscular crests, the relative strength of the zygomatic arches 
and the proportions of the canines to the other teeth are well known to vary 
within certain limits. 

But in the Ursus speleeus we have to account for the greater relative size 
and complexity of certain molar teeth ; for the more extended diastemata, 
accompanying more lengthened jaws ; for a premature loss of certain teeth 
and their sockets, without any predominating development of neighbouring 
canines to account for it ; for narrower zygomata, with longer and higher 
parietal crests ; for large frontal sinuses impressing a striking and readily 
recognisable feature upon the skull. 

It has been endeavoured to explain the last-cited modification, by assert- 
ing that the primasval Bears had their frontal sinuses more developed in 
virtue of their respiring a fresher, drier, and more invigorating atmosphere 
than their less fortunate and degenerated descendants*. But we may question 
whether the flat-headed Ursus ferox has a less exposed locality or breathes 
a more humid and impure atmosphere on the rocky mountains of North 
America, than did the old Cave Bears of the German and British forests ; 
and we may more than doubt that the cold and bracing sea-breezes inhaled 
by the still flatter-headed Polar Bear, should be less efficient in expanding 
the sinuses along the respiratory tract, than the musty air of the sepulchral 
retreats in which the Cave Bears slept. 

Existing species of Bears, reckoned distinct by modern zoologists, do in 
fact differ in the relative convexity of their forehead, and the flat-headed 
species, as the Polar and American Bears, are unquestionably not those which 
habitually respire the least pure and invigorating air. Instead of speculating 

* "L'intensitememe de l'acte respiratoire dans les lieux plus decouverts, ou l'air est plus vif, 
plus sec, plus frais, developpe tous les sinus qui se trouventsur le tiajet de l'air, et, des-lors, les 
frontaux sont dans ce cas aussi bien que tous ceux qui entourent les fosses nasales ; des-lors 
aussi, par I'ecarteroent des deux lames de l'os, le gonflement des fosses frontales, independantes 
et separees par un sillon." — De Blainville, Osleogr., p. 36. 

F2 



68 report — 1842. 

on the atmosphere as a physical cause of the inflation of the bony cells, it 
would be more profitable, if it were possible, to trace the relationship between 
the different degrees of development which the frontal sinuses may present in 
different species of Bears, and their peculiar habits and modes of life. We 
may thus, I think, see the reason why, in the piscivorous species of the Polar 
ice, the receptacles of air in the bones of the head are least developed, viz. 
to offer least resistance to its progress through the water when diving after 
its prey. 

The opposite extreme in the condition of the frontal sinuses of the Ursus 
spelceus, may have had some corresponding relation to the habits of that gi- 
gantic extinct species. 

From the great proportional size and more complicated tubercular surface 
of the posterior molar teeth, especially in the upper jaw, and from the 
greater complication on the crown of the smallest persistent molar in the 
lower jaw, one might be led to suppose that the Ursus spelceus fed more on 
vegetables than the Grisly Bear does. 

If this were the case, one might infer from the slight traces of abrasion in 
the teeth of full-grown specimens, that the vegetable food, in whatever pro- 
portion it entered into their diet, was of a soft nature, as berries, or tender 
twigs or sprouts. The size and strength of the Ursus spelceus would, how- 
ever, enable it to cope with the large Ruminants and ordinary Pachyderms, 
its contemporaries in ancient Britain and on the Continent, and to success- 
fully defend itself against the large Lion or Tiger, whose remains have been 
found in the same caverns. 

I proceed next to speak of other species of Ursus, of which the fossil re- 
mains have been found in the caves and superficial deposits in this country. 

A large proportion of a lower jaw, with the incisors, canines, and the entire 
series of molar teeth on both sides, from Kent's Hole, corresponds with the 
jaw of the Ursus priscus, Goldfuss. The size is much inferior to that of the 
Ursus spelceus ; while the worn surface of the teeth proves the animal to have 
been mature, and probably aged. 

The socket of the first fangless small premolar is immediately behind the 
canine, and a trace of the socket of a similar premolar is visible near the first 
double-fanged molar. The interspace containing the simple sockets of the 
two small premolars is relatively longer than in the Brown Bear or White 
Bear. The last true molar is relatively smaller than in the Ursus spelceus. 

The Oreston Ursine fossils appear to me to be referable also to the Ursus 
priscus. 

The most remarkable fossils of the Ursine family which have been found 
in this country, are those of the Ursus cultridens, or at least of a species closely 
allied to that from Auvergne and the Val d'Arno ; the singularly compressed 
and serrated canines of which suggested to Cuvier the specific name above 
quoted. The evidence of this species, since made the type of a distinct 
sub-genus under the names of Machairodus and Stenodon, which British 
localities have afforded, consists of detached canine teeth found in Kent's 
Hole. These are larger and broader in proportion to their thickness, and 
have shorter fangs than the Auvergne tooth figured in the ' Osteography ' 
of M. de Blainville. 

The crown of one of the canines of the Ursus cultridens, from Kent's Hole, 
measures 2-g- inches ; the fang of a second canine, with the apex of the canine 
worn down, is 2^ inches in length ; the breadth of the base of the crown is 
1 inch 2 lines ; its thickness half an inch. 

The oldest fossil referable to the genus Ursus which I have yet seen, is the 
crown of a molar tooth, found associated with remains of a large species of 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 69 

Felis in the red crag, below the so-called mammaliferous crag near Wood- 
bridge, Suffolk ; the Ursine fossil in question is the antepenultimate grinder 
of the right side, upper jaw ; it is smaller than the corresponding tooth in the 
Ursus spelaus. 

The most recent remains of the Bear which can claim to be included in 
the present Report, are those already mentioned, which have been disco- 
vered about five feet below the surface in the Manea Fen, Cambridgeshire. 

Sir Philip Egerton possesses a fine example of the right superior maxillary 
and intermaxillary bone of the Bear from this locality. 

The jaw nearly equals in size that of the Ursus spelceus, but differs in the 
much shorter interspace between the canine and the third molar tooth, count- 
ing from behind forwards ; likewise in having this interspace occupied by 
two small and simple-fanged false molars. The crown of the penultimate 
grinder is broader in proportion to its length or antero-posterior diameter. 
The difference in regard to the presence of the two first false molars must be 
allowed due weight, since the present Fen Bear has its grinders much worn, 
whilst the Cave Bear, with which it is compared, is a younger but full-grown 
specimen, with the tubercles of the grinding teeth entire, and the last molar 
tooth of the Fen Bear has a narrower posterior termination than in the Cave 
Bear. The Fen Bear differs also from the Ursus priscus, which retains the 
two first false molars, by their being in contact, which results from the nar- 
rower interspace between the canine and the third false molar, which inter- 
space is relatively as wide in the Ursus priscus as in the Ursus spelceus ; and 
a great proportion of this interspace divides the first from the second false 
molar in the Ursus priscus. This likewise cannot be a difference dependent 
on age or sex, for the jaw of the Fen Bear here described belonged to an 
individual absolutely larger than the Ursus priscus, with which it is com- 
pared ; and, judging from the size of the canine incisor teeth, the Fen Bear 
was probably an old male. The grinding surface of the molars prove it to 
have been a much older individual than the Ursus priscus with which it is 
compared, and to have attained that age when no difference could be ex- 
pected to take place in the length of the interspaces of any of the teeth. In 
all the characters in which the upper jaw of the Fen Bear differs from that of 
the two species of Cave Bear with which it has been compared, it agrees with 
the Ursus arctos, especially the Black, or Norwegian variety. 

In the museum of Prof. Sedgwick at Cambridge there is an entire cranium 
of the same species of Bear from the Manea Fen, which enables us to extend 
the comparison of this ancient British species with those still existing in 
Europe. In regard to which it may be observed that the cranium of the 
Manea Fen Bear in its less convex forehead, and the length of the sagittal 
crest, which commences at a greater distance, in front of the occiput, resembles 
the black variety of Ursus arctos more than it does the Brown Bear. 

As it may serve to further elucidate the characters of the Cave Bears (Ursi 
spelceus et priscus), as well as those of the Ursus arctos, of which I regard 
the specimens under consideration to be a variety, I shall add a few observa- 
tions arising out of the comparison of the lower jaw of the Fen Bear. The 
specimen, which is in the collection of Sir Philip Egerton, consists of the left 
ramus of the lower jaw, from Manea Fen, Cambridgeshire. It equals in 
length the largest specimen of the lower jaw of the Ursus spelceus, but differs 
from that species in the more simple form of the last spurious molar, or the 
fourth grinder counting from behind forwards ; for, whereas the Cave Bear 
has two distinct cusps developed upon that tooth, in the present species there 
is only one cusp, as in the Black, Brown and White Bears. The Bear of the 
Fen also differs from the Ursus spelceus in the shorter interspace between the 



70 REPORT— 1842. 

last-described molar and the canine, even when compared with the lower jaw 
of a Cave Bear absolutely shorter, The preceding interspace in the Fen Bear 
contains the sockets of two small spurious molars, 'each with a simple fang, 
but there is no trace of these in the Cave Bear, save in very rare excep- 
tions ; and this difference cannot be the effect of age, because the lower jaw 
of the Fen Bear, which has the grinders moderately worn by mastication, is 
here compared with the jaw of a young and small Ursus spelceus, in which 
the tubercles of the grinding teeth are all entire. The Fen Bear resembles 
the Ursus prisons in so far as the latter retains the first false molar, but dif- 
fers in possessing the second, which is wanting in a younger specimen of the 
Ursus priscus ; it differs also in the greater extent of the interspace between 
the canine and the third false molar ; and, more importantly, in the form of 
that tooth, which in the Ursus priscus presents a second cusp on the inner 
side, and a little behind the first, which is wholly wanting in the Fen Bear. 
The ramus of the jaw is deeper, and the slope of the symphysis is more gra- 
dual. In all the particulars in which the Fen Bear differs from the two ex- 
tinct species above cited, from the caverns, it agrees with the existing Black 
Bears of Europe, from which it does not appear to differ in any well-marked 
specific character. The Grisly Bear of North America agrees with the Cave 
Bear in the absence of the first two false molars and in the more complicated 
crown of the third false molar of the lower jaw. 

Subgenus Meles. 
Fossil remains of the Badger {Meles vulgaris) have not been discovered in 
British strata more ancient than the diluvium. They offer no characters 
distinguishable from those of the existing species : the comparison support- 
ing this conclusion has been made on the right branch of the lower jaw, with 
the entire series of teeth, of the fossil Badger, from Kent's Hole, Torquay. 

Remains of the Badger have been found fossil in the cave at Berry Head, 
Devon. 

Genus Putorius. 

Remains of a species of Weasel, not to be distinguished from the bones of 
the Putorius vulgaris, have been obtained from the bone-cave at Kirkdale, 
and from Kent's Hole, near Torquay. The collection of the late Mr. 
Mac Enery contained a nearly entire skull, having all the characters of that 
of the common Weasel, but evidently a contemporary with the Cave Bears 
and Hyaenas, now extinct. 

Remains of a somewhat larger species of Putorius, probably Put. Ermi- 
neus, have been discovered in the bone-cave at Berry Head. 

A cranium stained red and absorbent from the loss of animal matter, of 
the size and conformation of that of the Putorius Euro, was obtained, with 
other fossils, from one of the raised beaches at Plymouth. 

Genus Canis. 

Amongst the fossils referable to the Wolf ( Canis lupus) which have been 
discovered, associated with those of the Hyaena and Bear in most of the 
bone-caves of England, as at Kirkdale, at Paviland, at Oreston, in Kent's 
Hole, in the Mendip caverns, &c, the most remarkable is an almost entire 
skull, discovered in Kent's Hole. This does not exceed in size the skull of a 
fine male Arctic Wolf, but the penultimate molar is a little larger, and the 
lower border of the jaw rather more convex. 

Remains of a smaller species of Canis, not distinguishable from those of 
the Fox (Canis vulpes), have been found in Kirkdale (a calcaneuui and 









ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. f\ 

many teeth) ; at Oveston (teeth and bones of the extremities) ; and in Kent's 
Hole (an entire left ramus of the lower jaw, with other less perfect and in- 
structive specimens). 

Genus Hycena. 

In regard to the extinct British species of the genus Hycena, little remains 
to be added to the accurate and graphic history of these Ossivora contained 
in the ' Reliquiae Diluvianae ' of Dr. Buckland. 

Besides the cave at Kirkland, in which the abundance of Hyaenas' teeth 
and bones is so extraordinary, the remains of the same species of Hyaena 
have been found in the caverns at Oreston, at Paviland, at Kent's Hole, and 
in the Mendips. 

The ancient British Hyaena resembles more closely the Hycena crocuta of 
South Africa than the Hycena vulgaris of North Africa and Asia Minor : it 
differs however from the Cape Hyaena in the smaller interspace between the 
occipital condyle and the mastoid process ; and in the greater relative depth 
of the posterior plate of the glenoid cavity for the lower jaw. In the spotted 
Hyaena the anterior and internal tubercle of the penultimate molar (upper 
jaw) is relatively larger, and the small posterior molar is a little further 
removed from the penultimate one. The posterior ridge of the second molar 
tooth of the lower jaw is relatively broader in the fossil than in the recent 
Hyaena ; the first molar lower jaw is also relatively larger, especially in its pos- 
terior division, and it is nearer the canine in the fossil Hyaena. The numbers 
of the Hycena spelcea in England may be conceived, when the remains*of not 
fewer than from 200 to 300 have been discovered in a single cavern, as that 
at Kirby Moorside. 

Fossil Hyaenas have been shown by Dr. Buckland to be found in this 
country, as on the Continent, in situations of two kinds, viz. caverns and drift, 
or the so-called diluvial gravel. In the latter formation they were first dis- 
covered in England in the year 1 822, at Lawford near Rugby, associated 
with bones of the Mammoth, Rhinoceros, Equus, Bos, &c. The integrity of 
the Hyaena's under-jaw from this locality presents a remarkable contrast 
with the uniformly fractured condition of the bones from the caverns, and the 
explanation of, and deductions from, this difference, given by the author of 
the ' Reliquiae Diluvianae,' are replete with interest. 

Genus Felis. 

The remains of a feline animal surpassing in size the largest existing 
Lion or Tiger, have been found in the bone-caves of the Mendip Hills, in 
those at Oreston, at Kirby Moorside, and in Kent's Hole. Of this remarkable 
species, to which the name of Felis spelcea has been given, most of the cha- 
racteristic bones have been discovered in the caves at Gailenreuth, proving 
its true feline structure and its large relative size. 

The metacarpal bone of a large Felis from the Hyaena-cave at Kirby Moor- 
side does not exceed in size the corresponding bones of the Tiger : it might 
have belonged to a young individual of the Felis spelcea. In a collection of 
fossil teeth from the red crag of Newbourne near Woodbridge, the genus 
Felis is represented by a posterior molar, belonging to the left side of the 
lower jaw of a species equal in size to the Leopard. This tooth presented 
the same mineral condition, and had been subject to the same mechanical 
attrition as the fossil teeth of an extinct Shark (Carcharias megalodoti) found 
along with it. 

The lower jaw of a species of Felis about the size of the Wild Cat (Felis 
catus) has been found in Kent's Hole. 



72 REPORT — 1842. 

Genus Lutra. 

Of this genus I have determined characteristic remains of a species about 
the size of the common Otter, in the so-called mammaliferous crag at South- 
wold, and near Aldeburg, Suffolk. 

Order Cetacea. 

Most of the remains of this order of Mammalia, have been, in Great Britain 
found in gravel-beds adjacent to estuaries or large rivers, in marine drift or 
diluvium, and in" the subjacent clay-beds : but although these depositories are 
the most superficial, and belong to the most recent period in geology, the 
situation of the cetaceous fossils generally indicate a gain of dry land from 
the sea. Thus the skeleton of a Balsenoptera, 72 feet in length, found im- 
bedded in clay on the banks of the Forth, Mas more than twenty feet above 
the reach of the highest tide. Several bones of a whale, discovered at Du- 
more Rock, Stirlingshire, in brick-earth, were nearly forty feet above the 
present level of the sea. The vertebrae of a whale, discovered by Mr. Richard- 
son in the yellow marl or brick-earth of Heme Bay, in Kent, were situated 
ten feet above the occasional reach of the sea on that coast. A large verte- 
bra of Balccna mysticelus was discovered fifteen feet below the surface, in 
gravel, by the workmen employed in digging the foundation for the new 
Temple Church. The teeth of a Cachalot have been discovered by Mr. Brown 
in the diluvium of Essex. Part of the tusk of a Narwhal (Alonodon) has 
been discovered in the London clay ; presenting the usual condition of the 
fossils*from that old tertiary stratum. 

The most completely petrified remains of this order are a series of anchy- 
losed cervical vertebra? of a large Delphinns in the museum of Prof. Sedg- 
wick. Their fossilized condition indicates a higher antiquity than the Ceta- 
cean fossils above noticed : they were discovered in Cambridgeshire, but the 
stratum and locality were unfortunately unknown. 

No specimens of herbivorous Cetacea have hitherto been discovered in 
British strata. 

Order Rodentia. 

The British fossil remains of species of this order hitherto detected are 
referable to the genera Castor (Beaver), Arvicola (Water-vole, Field-vole), 
Mils (Rat and Mouse), and Lepus (Hare and Rabbit); which have been 
found in superficial drift, bogs and fens, (Castor), in bone-caves, in the 
brick-earth deposits, in the mammaliferous crag, and in the subjacent red 
crag. The ancient Rodents from the last two tertiary formations belong to 
the genus Arvicola. The fossils of the Beaver above noticed agree with the 
species of the Danube. Besides these, the remains of the great Castor Tro- 
gontherium have been found in the submarine forest at Bacton. 

Order Marsupialia. 
Genus Didefphi/s ? 
In the eocene sand, underlying the London clay, at Kyson near Wood- 
bridge, Sussex, a small portion of jaw, with a spurious molar tooth, has been 
found. This fossil has been referred to the Opossum (Diddphys), but the 
evidence which it afforded is, in my opinion, insufficient to support that con- 
clusion. There is no tooth so little characteristic, or upon which a deter- 
mination of the genus could be less safely founded, than one of the spurious 
molars of the smaller carnivorous and omnivorous Ferce and Marsupialia. 
A large, laterally compressed, sharp-pointed middle cone or cusp with a small 
posterior, and sometimes also a small anterior talon, more or less distinctly de- 
veloped, is the form common to these teeth in many of the genera of the above 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 7<J 

orders. It is on this account, and because the tooth of the fossil in question 
differs in the shape of the middle and size of the accessory cusps from that 
of any known species of Didelphys, that I regard its reference to that genus 
as premature, and the affinities of the species to which it belongs as needing 
further evidence before they can be determined beyond the reach of doubt. 
Mr. Charlesworth, by whom the present fossil was first described and figured, 
has accurately specified the differences above alluded to in the shape of the 
crown of the tooth as compared with the false molars of the true Opossums : 
they are seen in the more equilateral or symmetrical shape of the middle 
cusp, the greater development of the posterior talon, and the presence of 
the anterior talon at the base of the middle cusp : the grounds on which his 
determination of the fossil was founded are not stated. 

The crowns of the spurious molars of the placental Ferae, which present the 
same general form as the fossil, are thicker from side to side in proportion to 
their breadth ; the spurious molars of the Dasyurus, Thylacinus, and Pkas- 
cogale, differ in like manner from the fossil. It is in the marsupial genera 
Didelphys and Perameles that the false molars present the same laterally 
compressed shape as in the fossil. Now besides the perfect tooth, the fossil 
includes the empty sockets of two other teeth ; and the relative position of 
these sockets places the Perameles out of the pale of comparison. On the 
hypothesis that the present fossil represents a species of Didelphys, the tooth 
in situ unquestionably corresponds with the second or middle false molar, 
right side, lower jaw. This is proved by the size and position of the an- 
terior alveolus. 

Had the tooth in situ been the one immediately preceding the true molars, 
the socket anterior to it should have been at least of equal size and in juxta- 
position to the one containing the tooth. The anterior socket, however, is 
little more than half the size of the one in which the tooth is lodged ; it is 
also separated from that socket by an interspace equal to that which separates 
the first from the second false molar in the Didelphys Virginiana. This is 
well shown in the inside view. In the placental Mammalia, in which the first 
small false molar is similarly separated by a diastema from the second, the 
first false molar has only a single fang. In the present fossil, the empty 
socket of the first false molar proves that the tooth had two fangs, as in the 
marsupial Perce and Insectivora. There is nothing in the size or form of the 
socket, posterior to the implanted tooth of the fossil, to forbid the supposition 
that it contained a false molar, resembling the one in place ; had it been the 
socket of a true molar, then the fossil could not have belonged to Didelphys, 
or to any other known marsupial genus, because no known marsupial animal, 
which presents the posterior false molar of a similar form and in like juxta- 
position with the true molars as the tooth in the present fossil (on the sup- 
position that it immediately preceded the true molars), has the next false 
molar so small as it must have been in the fossil on that supposition. 

Upon the whole, the conclusion that the present eocene tertiary fossil is 
marsupial is the most probable one, but the evidence is insufficient to demon- 
strate its truth. Cuvier, however, might have failed to convince contem- 
porary naturalists that the corresponding formation in France contained the 
remains of a Didelphys, unless he had had the good fortune to demonstrate 
the marsupial bones in their natural connections with the pelvis. 

Genus Phascolotherium. 
With regard to the fossil on which the genus Phascolotherium is founded, 
the maxillary evidence is more complete. Two rami of lower jaws, one con- 
taining the whole dental series, have been discovered in the oolitic slate at 



74 REPORT— 1842. 

Stonesfiekl, associated with the Amphitherium described in a preceding sec- 
tion of the Report. 

In the Geological Transactions, vol. vi., second series, p. 58, will be found 
the description and figures of the most complete of these fossils, and the ob- 
servations in proof of the marsupial affinities of the Phascolotfierium. It has 
four true molars, and three, or, at most, four false molars — one canine and 
three incisors in each ramus of the lower jaw. In the proportionate size of 
the molars, especially the small size of the hindmost tooth, the Phascolothc- 
rium resembles the Myrmecobius more than the Opossum or Dasyure, but it 
more resembles the Thylacim in the shape of the grinding teeth. It likewise 
agrees with the Thi/lacine in the low position of the condyle, and in the lon- 
gitudinal extent of the inwardly inflected angle of the jaw. The close ap- 
proximation of the Phascolotherium to marsupial genera, now confined to 
New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, leads us to reflect upon the in- 
teresting correspondence between other organic remains of the British oolite 
and the existing forms now confined to the Australian continent and neigh- 
bouring seas. Here, for example, the Cestracion swims which has given the 
key to the nature of the " palates " from the oolite, now known as teeth of 
congeneric gigantic forms of cartilaginous fishes. Living Trigonice and Te- 
rebratulce abound in the Australian seas, and afford food to the Cestracion, 
as their extinct analogues probably did to the Aciodi, Psammodi, &c. of the 
oolitic period. Araucariae and cycadeous plants flourish on the Australian 
continent, where marsupial quadrupeds abound, and thus appear to complete 
a picture of an ancient condition of the earth's surface, which has been su- 
perseded in our hemisphere by other strata and a higher type of mam- 
miferous organization. 



Addendum to Report on British Fossil Mammalia, Part I. 

Since the printing of the first part of the above Report, I have, in the course 
of an investigation of the mammalian fossils of Essex and Norfolk, examined 
the skeleton " combining a dentition like that of the ruminants, with, appa- 
rently, a divided metacarpus and metatarsus," and alluded to at p. 57, in re- 
ference to the stratum containing the remains of a mole. 

The bones placed in the position of the metacarpus and metatarsus, and 
so described in Mr. Green's work*, do not belong to the same animal as the 
jaws and the rest of the skeleton : one of the so-called metatarsals is the tibia 
of a quadruped about the size of a hare, the other is a shorter bone, with a 
wide medullary cavity, like the shall of a femur. The two metacarpals are 
the un-united divisions of the metatarsal, or cannon-bone, of a very young 
or foetal ruminant. A portion of the vertebra dentata, and the distal epiphy- 
sis of the right radius of the animal to which the chief part of the skeleton 
belongs, are placed in the position of the tarsal bones ; the distal end of the 
right femur is placed above the tarsus as the distal end of the left tibia : in 
short, the parts of the skeleton in question have been artificially and arbi- 
trarily fixed in the position in Avhich they are represented in the plate in Mr. 
Green's work, and in the drawing originally submitted to me. 

The portion of the skull, jaws and teeth, vertebrae, pelvis, scapula, hume- 
rus, radius and ulna, femur and tibia, are parts of the same individual, which 
is a ruminant closely resembling the Roe-deer (Cervics capreolus), probably 
female, arrived at full size, as the dentition proves, but immature, as the state 
of the epiphyses shows. The bones have lost much of their animal matter, 
and are of a brown colour. 

* Geol. of Bacton, p. 18. 



s l 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ON SEEDS AND PLANTS. 75 

Researches on the Influence of Light on the Germination of Seeds 
and the Growth of Plants. By Mr. Robert Hunt, Secretary to 
the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. 

The British Association having committed to my care this interesting in- 
quiry, to which I had the satisfaction of first drawing attention, I feel it is 
incumbent on me to furnish to the present meeting some account of the 
results of my researches, as far as I have proceeded with them. I wish it 
to be particularly understood, that this communication does not pretend to 
contain anything, which can fairly be looked upon as pointing to any defi- 
nite laws, or which can support any theoretical view of the influence of 
solar light on vegetation. As it was not possible to commence my ob- 
servations, in series, until January, the short time which has elapsed has not 
permitted of my varying the conditions under which my experiments have 
been tried. Had I been enabled to do so, I should in all probability have 
had it in my power to explain with some approach to correctness, the causes 
which have operated in the production of some of the effects described, but 
on which I am scarcely enabled to speculate in the present state of the in- 
quiry. I simply record the facts as they stand, trusting they will prove the 
singular importance of the subject, which promises to lead us to a clear 
view of many of the most mysterious functions of plants, to explain some of 
the most interesting phasnomena of vegetable life, and beyond this, to deve- 
lope properties in light which have not yet been discovered. 

Before I proceed to the principal subject of this paper, it is necessary I 
should particularly describe the arrangements with which I have operated. 

Six boxes have been so prepared, that air was freely admitted to the plants 
within them, without permitting the passage of any light, except that which 
passed through the coloured glasses with which they were covered. 

These glasses permitted the permeation of the rays of light in the follow- 
ing order. 

1. A Ruby Glass, coloured ivith Oxide of Gold This glass permits the 

permeation of the ordinary red, and the extreme red rays only. 

2. A Brown Red Glass. — The extreme red ray appears shortened ; the 
ordinary red ray, and the orange ray pass freely, above which the spectrum 
is sharply cut off. 

3. Orange Glass. — The spectrum is shortened by the cutting off of the 
violet, indigo, and a considerable portion of the blue rays. The green ray is 
nearly absorbed in the yellow, which is considerably elongated. The whole 
of the least refrangible portion of the spectrum permeates this glass freely. 

4. Yellow Glass, somewhat Opalescent. — This glass shortens the spec- 
trum by cutting off the extreme red ray, and the whole of the most refran- 
gible rays beyond the blue ray. 

5. Cobalt Blue Glass. — The spectrum obtained under this glass is 
perfect from the extreme limits of the most refrangible rays down to the 
yellow, which is wanting. The green ray is diminished, forming merely a 
well-defined line between the blue and the yellow rays. The orange and 
red rays are partially interrupted. 

6. Deep Green Glass. — The spectrum is cut off below the orange and 
above the blue rays. Although the space on which the most luminous por- 
tion of the spectrum falls appears as large as when it is not subjected to the 
absorptive influence of the glass, there is a great deficiency of light, and on 
close examination with a powerful lens, a dark line is seen to occupy the 
space usually marked by the green ray. 

A case has also been prepared containing five flat vessels filled with dif- 



76 REPORT— 1842. 

ferent coloured fluids. Much delay has been occasioned in the observations 
with these, owing to the difficulty of securing the contents in the glass cells 
from leakage and evaporation ; the sun, the alkalies, and the acids acting on 
the cements used to secure them. At length I have procured some very flat 
flint glass bottles, which answer extremely well ; in these the fluids are about 
an inch thick, and observe the following order in their absorptive actions : — 

A. Red. Solution of Carmine in Supersulphate of Ammonia. — This gives 
a spectrum nearly in all respects similar to that given by the ruby glass (1) ; 
all the rays above a line drawn through the centre of the space occupied by 
the orange being cut off. 

B. Yellow. A saturated Solution of Bichromate of Potash. — This beauti- 
fully transparent solution admits the permeation of the red and yellow rays, 
which are extended over the space occupied by the orange ray in the unab- 
sorbcd spectrum. The green rays are scarcely evident. 

From the absorptive powers of the sulphurets of lime and potash in solu- 
tion, I was very desirous of using them, but they were found to be so liable 
to decomposition when exposed to the sun's rays as to be quite useless for 
my purposes, sulphuretted hydrogen being liberated in such quantities as 
to burst the bottles with great violence. 

C. Gbeen. Muriate of Iron and Copper. — This medium is remarkably 
transparent ; the blue, green, yellow and orange rays pass freely, all the 
others being absorbed. 

D. Blue. Cupro-sulphate of Ammonia. — This fluid obliterates all the rays 
below the green ray, those above it permeating it freely. 

E. White. — This is merely water rendered acid by nitric acid, for the 
purpose of securing its continued transparency. It should be noted that 
spaces in the cases have been left open to the full influence of the light, that 
a fair comparison might be made between those plants growing under ordi- 
nary circumstances, and the others under the dissevered rays. 

It will be seen from the above that the following combinations of rays 
have been obtained to operate with. 

1 and A. The calorific rays, so called, well-insulated. 

2. A smaller portion of these rays mixed with a small amount of those 
having peculiar illuminating powers. 

3. The central portion of the solar spectrum well-defined, and all the rays 
of least refrangibility, thus combining the luminous and calorific rays, so 
called. 

4-. The luminous rays mixed with a small portion of those having a calo- 
rific influence. 

5. The most refrangible rays with a considerable portion of the least so ; 
thus combining the two extremes of chemical action, and affording a good 
example of the influence of the calorific blended with the chemical spectrum. 

6. Some portion of those rays having much illuminating power, with those 
in which the chemical influence is the weakest under ordinary circumstances. 
[Some information given me with great kindness by Sir John Herschel 
shows that this is not a correct expression of the, case, as he has discovered 
some preparations on which these rays act with the greatest intensity.] 

B. The luminous rays in a tolerably unmixed state. 

C. The luminous rays combined with the least actively chemical ones, as 
in 6 ; but in this case the luminous rays exert their whole influence. 

D. The most refraugible or chemical rays well-insulated. 

E. White light. 

Although I have adopted the terms usually employed to designate the 
divisions of the spectrum, yet it is necessary to bear in mind that these terms 



ON THE INFLUENCE OP LIGHT ON SEEDS AND PLANTS. 77 

are not absolutely correct; Sir John Herschel has shown that the calorific 
and the luminous spectra are co-extensive with the chemical one ; and my 
own observations have proved that every ray of the prismatic spectrum 
exerts a decided chemical action, the relative intensities changing with the 
material upon which it is made to act. . 

These are matters of the first importance when the peculiar influences oi 
light are to be studied, and it will be apparent from some of the results 
which I have already obtained, that they demand the most rigorous investi- 
gation. When we look on a spectrum which has been subjected to the 
influence of some absorptive medium, we must not conclude, from the 
coloured rays which we L, that we have cut off all other influences than 
those which are supposed to belong to those particular colours Although 
a blue glass or fluid-may appear to absorb all the rays except he most re- 
frangible ones, which have usually been considered as the least calorific of 
the solar rays; yet it is certain that some principle has permeated the glass 
or fluid which has a very decided and thermic influence, and so with regard 
to media of other colours. u„u:„,i 

The relative temperatures indicated by good thermometers placed behind 
the glasses and fluid cells, which I have used, will place this ma clear light ; 
the thermometers were carefully compared with a very excellent standard 
one at the Polytechnic Hall, Falmouth. The following results present a fair 
average series, and distinctly mark the relative degrees in which these media 
are permeable by the heating rays :— 

Glasses. 
Co l our . Rays not absorbed. Temperature. 

1. Ruby. Ordinary red, and the extreme red - |/° 

2. Red. Ordinary red, and orange, portion of extreme red. 8.3 

3. Orange. Little blue, green, yellow, orange, red, and ex- 

feme red. . . ^ 

4. Yellow. Red, orange, green, and blue. ...... »» 

5. Blue. Violet, indigo, blue, little green, and some red. 94 

6. Green. Orange, yellow, green, and blue <* 

Fluids. 

»7C0 

A. Red. Ordinary and extreme red ' ° 

B. Yellow. Ordinary red, and yellow «" 

C. Green. Blue, green, yellow, orange °» o 

D. Blue. Green, blue, indigo, and violet ' j> 

E. White. Green, blue, indigo, and violet by 

It will be found that these results are in strict accordance with those 
obtained by Sir John Herschel. An interesting account of the thermic 
spectrum, and the manner of obtaining it, will be found in a ;^cMe- 
moir, Philosophical Transactions, Part 1 for 1840, page 51. \™«*$*» 
a series of similar experiments on light, subjected to the analysing plates or 
fluids, considering it highly probable that the various P**^**** 
may indicate the condition of the calorific rays in a clearer manner than «e 
can expect by the thermometer. „„„!„.• . 

There are some other points on which it is desirable to obtain conclu ive 
experimental evidence, particularly with regard to the absorption oi other- 
wise of the luminous spectrum, by the media through which it passes. 

The results obtained with the arrangements 1 have described are, up to 
the present time, as follows : — . . 

. Bulbous and tuberous rooted flowers (tulips and ranunculuses) were 
planted in pots, and placed in boxes under the glasses 1, 2, J, 4, b, b. 



78 REPORT— 1842. 

The first appearance of germination took place with the tulips under the 
orange glass (!3), which was followed in three days by those under the red 
glass (2), then by those under the ruby glass (1), and next by those under 
the influence of the yellow (4), blue (5), and green glasses (6). The roots 
under the orange glass developed the cotyledons a week earlier than those 
under the yellow, blue, and green glasses. But that the ranunculuses ob- 
served the same relative order in germinating, I should have suspected that 
some peculiarity in the bulbs had influenced the result, although these had 
been selected with the most scrupulous care, At first the greatest pro- 
gress was made by the tulips under the yellow (4) and orange glasses (3) ; 
but the leaves under eacli of these were by no means healthy, particularly 
under the yellow glass (4), which had a singularly delicate appearance, being 
of a very light green, and covered with a most delicate white bloom. 

The leaf-stalks of the tulips shot up remarkably long, and were in both 
cases white ; at length an exceedingly small flower-bud appeared on the 
plant under the orange glass (3), which perished almost as soon as it ap- 
peared, and the death of the plant immediately followed. The tulips under 
the yellow glass (4) never showed any buds, and their vitality soon failed 
them. The condition of the ranunculuses was in most respects similar to 
that of the tulips ; they exhibited the same exuberant length of stalk 
but the leaves were of a more healthful appearance. These plants, however, 
never showed any flower-buds, and they died nearly about the same time 
with the tulips. 

It may be proper to mention that the garden-pots in which these roots 
were planted, were filled with a mixture of fine earth, sand, and well-rotted 
manure from a hot-bed. A few days after their exposure, those under the 
orange and yellow glasses threw up several fungi, and continued for some 
days to do so, which was not the case with any of the others. 

Under the ruby (1 ) and red glasses (2), the tulips shot up a single lobe, 
which maintained a little life for three or four weeks, but never rose more 
than two inches above the soil. There was a marked redness upon this 
stunted formation, which I often fancied was in some respects characteristic 
of the kind of medium under which they were placed. The tuberous roots 
perished in the soil ; sufficient moisture and warmth had called into action 
the latent principle of germination, but being unable to maintain it against 
the destructive influence of the light, they rotted. 

Beneath the green glass (6) the plants grew all of them, slowly but tole- 
rably strong. They were, however, marked by a more extraordinary length 
of stem than those before mentioned ; some of the stems of the ranunculuses 
being above ten inches in length, having a small leaf at the end not more 
than two-thirds of an inch in diameter. These plants all show flower-buds, but 
none of them could be made to flower, notwithstanding the greatest care 
and attention was bestowed upon them ; the effort of throwing up the buds 
appeared to exhaust their powers, and the whole of these plants soon died. 

The results under the blue glass (5) were very different ; the roots germi- 
nated, I think, a little less quickly than they did in the open ground, forming 
compact and healthy plants, developing their flower-buds strongly. Most un- 
fortunately the wind on a tempestuous night overturned this box and scat- 
tered its contents, preventing of course the formation of the perfect flowers, 
which but for this accident there can be no doubt would have ensued. 

Numerous experiments have been tried with the seeds of mignonette, 
many varieties of the flowering pea, the common parsley, and cresses ; with 
all of them the results have been similar to those already described. The 
seeds have germinated, in general, the most rapidly under the red glass (2), 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ON SEEDS AND PLANTS. 79 

and next under the ruby, blue, and orange glasses (1, 3, and 5). Except 
under the blue glass, these plants have all been marked by the extraordinary 
length to which the stems of the cotyledons have grown, and the entire abs- 
ence of the plumula. No true leaves forming, the cotyledons soon perish, 
and the plant dies. Under the green glass (6) the process of germination 
has been exceedingly slow, and the plants, particularly the cresses and 
mignonette, have speedily died. 

Under the blue glass (5) alone has the process gone on healthfully to the 
end, and although 1 have found a few instances of a perfect plant under the 
yellow glass (4), it has not on any occasion yet endured to the formation of 
a flower ; excepting the plants under the yellow and blue glasses (4- and 5), 
all have been more or less etiolated. 

The most remarkable phsenomenon remains to be noticed ; under all ordi- 
nary circumstances plants bepd towards the light, whereas those growing 
under the red glass (2) have invariably bent from it. 

The experiments with the light analysed by the fluid media, have been in 
every respect confirmatory of the results I originally obtained, which were 
published more than two years since in the Philosophical Magazine. Ger- 
mination has been in nearly all cases prevented by the absorptive powers of 
yellow and red fluids (A and B). I say in nearly all cases, as I have within 
the last few weeks, since the sun has shone with more than usual fervour, 
noticed a few symptoms of weak germination under the yellow fluid (B). 
It will be seen by reference to my paper above referred to, that I suspected 
the difference in the results obtained by Professor Draper and myself, arose 
from some peculiar difference between the condition of the rays of the sun 
in Virginia and in England. The above fact confirms me in this opinion. 
The absorptive powers of the atmosphere I have no doubt are constantly 
changing, not merely with regard to its influence on the solar beam, but va- 
rying as it regards particular rays ; and I think it will be found that the 
condition of the prismatic spectrum is not on all occasions the same. I be- 
lieve Sir David Brewster has proved this to be the case ; I am not, however, 
acquainted with the facts. 

Under the green medium (C) the cotyledons only have been formed, and 
these have all been etiolated. 

A very large wooden case was perforated with four small holes, two within 
a few inches of each other, on either side of the front of the box, one pair being 
about three feet from the other. These holes were covered with coloured 
glasses, red (2), yellow (3), blue (5), green (6) ; thus arranged it was turned 
over on the ground, several potatoes having been planted close to the back 
of the box, at the greatest possible distance from the holes through which 
alone light was admitted. 

The red and yellow glasses were at one end, and the blue and green at 
the other. 

After some weeks, when examined, it was found that the shoots from the 
potatoes, and the weeds which had sprung up from the ground, had, all of 
them, in the most marked manner, run towards the yellow glass, through 
which the greatest quantity of the luminous rays passed. This, I think, 
proves that the luminous spectrum .has two distinct influences on the plant; 
or otherwise, that its action is modified by some peculiar functions of the 
plant itself. 

I submit these few results, incomplete as they are, to the attention of the 
Association without any further remark. I do not consider that my experi- 
ments have as yet proceeded far enough to warrant my taking up the time 
of the Meeting with any opinion I may have formed. I hope the result of 



80 REPORT— 1842. 

another year will place the matter in a clearer light, and remove many of 
the apparent contradictions which at present exist. I have planned many 
new experiments, and every Member of the Association must be aware that 
these experiments require much time, and often to be repeated. We have 
to deal with a subtile agent, and the few results which I have already ob- 
tained, convince me of the existence of some secret principle in light, which 
I hope to render evident to the senses by its operations, although it may not 
itself be sensible to the human eye. 
Falmouth, June 20, 1S42. 



Report on the Fossil Fishes of the Devonian System or Old lied 
Sandstone. By Louis Agassiz*, Professor of Nat. Hist, at 
Neufchatel. 
Having been requested by the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science to draw up a report on the Fossil Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone, I think it. my duty, in the first place, to mention the favourable cir- 
cumstances which have allowed me to undertake this labour, and under 
what auspices I have been able to accomplish a part of the important task 
confided to me. 

It would be very difficult for me to give at present an idea of the limited 
extent of the knowledge possessed a few years back of the fossils of a for- 
mation very little known at that time, and which, nevertheless, is found at 
the present day to extend over a considerable portion of the surface of 
Europe. But if the rapid progress of discoveries in this field renders 
the appreciation of their limits almost impossible, I must nevertheless ac- 
knowledge, above all, that it is to the persevering researches and indefatiga- 
ble zeal of English geologists that science is indebted for the knowledge of 
one of the most curious faunas, I might even say one of the strangest, that 
has hitherto engaged the attention of palaeontologists. When I Visited Scot- 
land for the first time, in 1834, Dr. Fleming and Messrs. Sedgwick and Mur- 
chison were the only persons who had signalized fossil fishes in the old red ; 
the first having described various scales from Clashbinnie, which he consi- 
dered allied to the sturgeons; while Messrs. Sedgwick and Murchison, as- 
sisted by Cuvier, Valenciennes, and Pentland, published the description of 
two new genera of fossil fish from Caithness. The total number of species 
then determined amounted only to four, and only one of these had been 
fio-ured. I have already mentioned in various parts of my ' RechercKes sur les 
Poissons Fossiles,' the numerous communications which were made to me at 
that time on the subject, principally by Mr. Murchison, Mr. Lyell, and Dr. 
Traill, who enabled me to increase the number of genera to ten, and that of 
the species to seventeen, previous to the appearance of Mr. Murchison's great 
work on the Silurian system. Such was the impetus given to the study of 
the ancient rocks by the publication of this important work, that on visiting 
Scotland again in 1840, during the meeting of the British Association at 
Glasgow, I had occasion to examine, in consequence of communications 
which were made to me, nearly double .the number of genera, and treble 
the number of species of fossil fishes, which had all been recently discovered, 
and had not yet been described. In one of the meetings of the Geological 
Section, I was, nevertheless, able to draw the attention of geologists and 
paleontologists to some of the most curious types I had just examined the 
characters of, forms agreeing so little with all we knew previously in re- 
gard to fossils, that it was impossible to determine at first sight even the 



ON THE FOSSIL FISH OF THE DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 81 

class to which they belong. Never shall I forget the impression which 
the sight of these creatures, provided with appendages resembling wings, 
produced upon me, when I had assured myself that they belonged to the 
class of fishes. It was an entirely new type which was about to figure for 
the first time since it had ceased to exist in the series of beings, — again to 
form a link which nothing of all that had been revealed up to the time, 
with regard to extinct creations, would have led us even to suspect the exist- 
ence of; showing forcibly that observation alone can lead us to the recogni- 
tion of the laws of development of organized beings, and how much we should 
guard against all those systems of transformation of species which the ima- 
gination invents with as much facility as reason refutes them. The merit 
of the discovery of these curious fossils is chiefly due to Mr. H. Miller, and 
I had only to fix their characters, and their relations to the fossil fishes al- 
ready known, for all their importance to be appreciated. I believe that the 
minute and comparative study of the type which I have called Pterichthys, 
and of the not less curious genusdiscovered at Caithness by Messrs. Murchison 
and Sedgwick, and to which I have applied the name Coccosteus, will open to 
comparative palaeontology a field not less fruitful than was the first announce- 
ment, now nearly a quarter of a century ago, of the Ichthyosauri and Plesio- 
sauri. How many interesting relations of organization have we not a right to 
expect to discover in analysing the solid remains of animals which have been 
regarded by the most able naturalists successively as Tortoises, Fishes, Crus- 
tacea, and even Coleoptera ! Mr. Miller has already made known, in a separate 
publication, a portion of the palseontological treasures contained in the old red 
sandstone of the neighbourhood of Cromarty. The difficulties, almost insur- 
mountable, which have occurred in determining fossils, varying so much from 
those already known as these two genera, have necessarily required on my part 
numerous and repeated comparisons, and a minute study of the smallest frag- 
ments preserved in all the collections of Scotland, to which I should have been 
unable to apply myself, notwithstanding the facilities afforded me for this exa- 
mination by all the persons possessing any of these fossils, had it not been for 
the assistance which the British Association has kindly afforded me. 

Among the recent contributions which have so considerably increased our 
knowledge of the fossil fishes of the Devonian system, I must place in the first 
rank what has been accomplished by Lady Gordon Cumming in order to il- 
lustrate this ancient fauna. Not satisfied with collecting and distributing 
among geologists with unequalled liberality the numerous specimens of these 
remains, which she had collected in a quarry worked on purpose, she studied 
them with care, placed aside the most perfect specimens, and painted them 
with a precision of detail and an artistic talent to which very few naturalists 
have been able to attain. These drawings, indeed, and those of her daugh- 
ter, who constantly assisted her in her studies, will form one of the principal 
ornaments of my ' Monograph.' On the point of presenting this selection to 
the public, it is painful to me to think that this noble lady will no more be 
able herself to receive from geologists the tribute of gratitude which she so 
justly deserved. May this record, planted upon her grave, remind her esti- 
mable companion that the willingness with which she assisted her parent has 
contributed to raise for her a lasting monument in the scientific world. 

Dr. Malcolmson has likewise deserved well of the geology of the old red 
sandstone by the memoir which has been recently inserted in the Transactions 
of the Geological Society of London. Endeavouring to characterize this 
formation with the greatest possible precision, he had caused to be made 
beautiful drawings of a very large number of fragments of fish which occur 
in it ; their fragmentary state, however, did not allow of my determining 

184.2. g 



82 REPORT — 1842. 

them with sufficient accuracy previous to the printing of his memoir for the 
palaeontological portion to be published at the same time. These drawings, 
however, will not be lost to science ; perhaps the larger portion are already 
published. Alexander Robinson has also devoted himself with much success 
to the investigation of the fossil fishes of the old red : he even forwarded to me 
some very rare ones, with a book of drawings executed in a superior style, 
representing those contained in the Museum of Elgin and in several private 
collections. The collections of Lord Enniskillen and of Sir P. Egerton have 
likewise furnished very beautiful specimens from the old red sandstone of 
the North of Scotland ; and these gentlemen have had the great kindness to 
cause Mr. Dinkel to draw for me all those which it appeared desirable to 
publish. Dr. Traill and Mr. Strickland again have increased the number of 
known species, already so considerable, from the schists of the Orkney Islands, 
which appear to be an inexhaustible deposit. 

While the North of Scotland thus furnished treasures hitherto unknown, 
Professor Jameson and Mr. Anderson were collecting in the counties of the 
South the species contained in the upper strata of this formation, which are 
not less curious nor less well-preserved, and of which several have been 
figured very fairly by Mr. Anderson in his interesting Memoir on the 
Geology of Fifeshire. 

Thanks to the distant excursions of Mr. Murchison, I need not confine 
my report on the fishes of the Devonian system to the species found in the 
British Islands, but I am able to compare them with those which that inde- 
fatigable geologist has brought with him from Russia, and which exhibit the 
most perfect identity with those of Scotland. On the continent, MM. Omalius 
d'Halloy and Hoeninghausen have likewise found some scaly-plates of fishes 
irom this formation. My Report would be imperfect were I not to notice 
the doubts which have long since been entertained with regard to these 
large scaly plates of the old red sandstone, which have been cast at various 
times into the most different classes of the animal kingdom, and even of the 
vegetable kingdom, and which are at present solved in a satisfactory manner. 
They must be referred to the Crustacea, of which Dr. Buckland and myself 
were convinced at the meeting at Glasgow. 

At present I will offer some general considerations on the characters and 
the geological distribution of the species of fossil fishes which are found in 
the various strata of the Devonian system, reserving the descriptive details 
for the special part of my ' Monograph.' 

On this occasion I cannot refrain from making a general observation on 
the method to be followed in determining these fossils. There was a period, 
already remote from us, when the most superficial approximations between 
the organic fragments buried in the strata of the surface of our globe and 
the species at present living at its surface sufficed for the investigations of 
the time. Cuvier was the first who applied to these determinations the ne- 
cessary precision, establishing them on satisfactory comparison one with the 
other and with the living species : and the results, therefore, at which he 
arrived, have undergone no modification with time. Unfortunately, the 
method employed by Cuvier is not yet very generally followed ; nume- 
rous works on fossils might be mentioned whose authors have never studied 
the recent animals which might have some analogy with the fossils they de- 
scribe, trusting to the general results obtained by their predecessors, or else 
establishing their analogies from the comparison of simple figures. More- 
over, now that a new and efficacious means of determining accurately the 
structure of fossil remains has come into use, it is less possible than ever to 
admit into the sanctuarv of science results which have not been submitted to 



ON THE FOSSIL FISH OF THE DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 83 

the test of the most severe criticism. It suffices, in fact, to look at the bril- 
liant results obtained by Mr. Owen from the structure of the teeth, to bo 
convinced that in future no palaeontologist will be able to avoid microscopical 
researches, if he wishes to arrive at a profound knowledge of the beings of 
which he has undertaken to reconstruct the forms and the organization, even 
in its most minute particularities. If, however, such detailed researches are 
indispensable to establish general results, which sooner or later become public 
property, it is not less important that they be expressed in the most simple 
and correct manner, to render them intelligible to the largest number. 

One of the first observations to make on the ichthyological fauna of the 
old red sandstone is, that it is wholly peculiar to this formation ; its numerous 
species differ alike from those of the Silurian system and from those of the 
carboniferous strata ; the greater portion of the genera even of the Devo- 
nian system are restricted to the duration of this geological system, and of 
tnis number are those containing most species, such as the genera Pterich- 
thys, Coccosteus, Cephalaspis, Osteolcpis, Dipterus, Glyptolepis, Platygna- 
thus, Dendrodus, Diplacanthus, Cheiracanthus, and Cheirolepis. Among 
the genera which have representatives in the Silurian rocks or in the car- 
boniferous series, such as the genera Onchus, Ctenacanthus, Ctenoptychius, 
Ptyc/t acanthus, Acanthodes, Diplopterus, and Holoplychius, I am not ac- 
quainted with a single one of which the species are identical in these dif- 
ferent formations ; but, on the contrary, each formation in which they are 
represented has its peculiar ones. This result agrees admirably with those 
winch I have already obtained for the other strata of the series of rocks of 
which the crust of our globe is composed, as well in my researches on fos- 
sil fishes as also in those on the fossil Echinodermata and Mollusca. And 
if my conclusions with regard to this latter class of animals were frequently 
not in harmony with those of the greater number of conchologists, I have 
at least the satisfaction of finding at present M. d'Orbigny arrive at the same 
results from the study of other families and of other formations than those I 
examined. This difference in the results which I had obtained arises, with- 
out doubt, from my having applied, in determining the fossil remains of the 
Mollusca, the same principles of criticism which have always guided me in 
the determination of the fossil Vertebrata. 

It is now a truth which I consider as proved, that the " ensemble " of or- 
ganized beings was renewed not only in the interval of each of the great 
geological divisions which we have agreed to term formations, but also at the 
time of the deposition of each particular member of all the formations ; for 
example, I think that I can prove that in the oolitic formation, at least 
within the limits of the Swiss Jura, the organic contents of the lias, those of 
the oolitic group properly so called, those of the Oxfordian group, and those 
of the Portlandian group, as they occur in Switzerland, are as different from 
each other as the fossils of the lias from those of the Keuper, or those of 
the Portlandian beds from those of the Neocomian formation. I also be- 
lieve very little in the genetic descent of living species from those of the va- 
rious tertiary layers which have been regarded as identical, but which, in 
my opinion, are specifically distinct. I cannot admit the idea of the trans- 
formation of species from one formation to another. In advancing these 
general notions, I do not wish to offer them as inductions drawn from the 
study of any particular class of animals (of the fishes for instance), and ap- 
plied to other classes, but as the results of direct observation of very con- 
siderable collections of fossils of different formations, and belonging to dif- 
ferent classes of animals, in the investigation of which I have been spe- 
cially engaged for many years, in order to assure myself whether the con- 

g2 



84 REPORT — 1842. 

elusions which I had drawn from the tribe of fishes were applicable to this 
class only, or whether the same relation existed in the other remains of the 
animal kingdom. 

Another fact results in the most evident manner from the simple inspec- 
tion of the specimens of these fossils which have hitherto been collected, 
viz. that the very large majority of the species are of middle and even of 
small size. I dwell on this circumstance because it has afforded me an op- 
portunity of rectifying an exaggeration which has been pretty generally 
adopted, and which consists in representing the species of ages anterior to 
our own as being generally larger than those now existing. The idea of a 
gigantic size has become, so to say, the necessary reflection of a tableau of 
fossils of all the geological epochs, and nevertheless such a manner of view- 
ing the question is quite out of the pale of truth. In fact, if it seems strange 
to us to find in the diluvial strata of Europe, and even of the northern por- 
tion of this continent, fossil fragments of Pachydermata very similar to those 
now existing in the tropical regions, and differing very much from those 
which inhabit these countries at present, it w r ould nevertheless be an exag- 
geration to represent those fossils as vastly superior in size to the animals 
of the same families and even of the same genera which live in our days ; 
and even as regards the species of Pachydermata of the lower tertiary rocks, 
it is necessary to admit that those of our time, taking all into consideration, 
are evidently larger than the former. I do not pretend on this account to 
deny the fact of the existence in certain fossil families of types much larger 
in size than those of the present day, I only intend to state that these propor- 
tions have been exaggerated, and that this disposition to exaggeration has 
occasioned a neglect of the study of the remote relations of these types be- 
tween each other, and with those which have preceded and those which have 
followed them — relations which appear to me alone capable of solving this 
enigma. It is incontestable, for instance, that the reptiles of the oolitic rocks, 
the Ichthyosauri and the Megalosauri in particular, possessed dimensions to 
which no type of the reptiles of our time has been found to attain; but 
in comparing them with reptiles now existing, it must not be forgotten that 
these gigantic reptiles lived at a time when the Mammifera did not yet exist, or 
at least had not yet acquired the preponderance they now have; when theCeta- 
cea and Pachydermata were as yet only projected in the plan of Nature ; when 
the class of fishes and that of the reptiles reigned in sovereignty ; and when, 
consequently, it is not surprising to see the Reptilia, — which, in separating from 
the Fishes after the carboniferous formations, are examples of a real progress 
in this series of the Vertebrata, — prepare a new progress, a movement towards 
the class of the Mammifera and that of the Birds by the introduction of the 
type of the Ichthyosauri, which announces in some measure the Cetacea; of the 
type Megalosaurus, which might be considered in relation with the Pachy- 
dermata ; and of the bird-like type of the Pterodactyli. For my part, there- 
fore, I cannot regard simply as ordinary reptiles those types precursory of 
analogous types which are met with at a later period in other classes; I am 
rather inclined to view them as types prophetic of the more recent ages ; and 
hence it is necessary to apply to their study "a different measure from that 
which should be employed when the object is to fix the degree of analogy 
existing between contemporary types. I might apply these same considera- 
tions to other families, and carry them even further, if I had not already ob- 
served elsewhere that among the fossil fishes the family of the Sauroids, of 
which the carboniferous series contain such remarkable fragments, might be 
viewed as announcing, by its ambiguous characters, the introduction of the 
reptiles, at a period when this class was not yet represented on the earth. Nor 



ON THE FOSSIL FISH OF THE DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 85 

is it here the place to examine, under this point of view, the invertebrated ani- 
mals, the study of which has likewise red me to very curious considerations ; 
I will confine myself solely to the mentioning, in relation to the fishes of the 
old red sandstone, that the small size of the great majority of the species, 
compared with those of more recent periods, is a fact agreeing with what is 
observed relatively to the first development of the greater part of the classes 
of the animal kingdom. The genera of fish of the old red sandstone, the 
species of which are of middle or small size, are the following : — Pterichthys, 
Cephalaspis, Osteolepis, Dipterus, Glyptolepis, Acanthodes, Diplacanthus, 
Cheir acanthus, and Cheirolepis ; and I mean by species of middle or of small 
size in the class of fish, such as do not exceed the length of one or two feet. 
The genera Diplopterus, Coccosteus, and the four Placoidian genera of this 
formation, contained species certainly larger, but which nevertheless appear 
to me not to have exceeded two or three feet in length. The genera Holo* 
ptychius,Dendrodus, and Platygnathus, alone contained species of larger size ; 
but I doubt if any one of them has attained the dimensions of our Sharks 
and our Sword-fish, and much less those of the large Tunny. 

The close relation which appears to exist between the size of animals and 
their organization, is evident in nearly all the families of the animal kingdom; 
to be convinced of this, it suffices to pass in review a small collection only of 
animals. 

Nothing is more striking in a museum arranged systematically, than the 
conformity in size of species of the same family, where the extremes of the 
differences are generally circumscribed within very narrow limits. How little 
do the Quadrumana differ in reality one from the other in size ; what uni- 
formity in this respect in their ensemble, among the Cheiroptera, the Insecti- 
vora, the Rodents, the Ruminants; among the birds of prey, the Granivora, 
the Chelonians, the Anourous Batrachians ; among Insects, taken as a whole, 
compared with . other classes ; among Infusoria, &c. &c. The same rela- 
tions equally exist between the families of Fishes ; and the diversity in size 
which I have just noticed, among the species of different genera of this 
formation, is indeed the first indication of the diversity of the types to 
which they belong. I will point out, in the first place, four genera of the 
Placoidian order, the genera Ctenacanthus, Onchus, Ctenoptychius and Pty- 
chacanthus, which are provided with spinous rays to the dorsal fins, re- 
sembling the gigantic Ichthyodorulites of the carboniferous and Jurassic for- 
mations, but differing in their less considerable size; they are distinguished 
among themselves by the forms and the ornaments of their rays. In the order 
of Ganoid fishes, the genera Acanthodes, Diplacanthus, Cheir acanthus, and 
Cheirolepis, present themselves at first sight as a separate group ; for although 
covered, like the others, with enamelled scales, these are so small that they im- 
part to the skin the appearance of shagreen. The manner in which the fins 
are sustained by spinous rays, or the absence of these rays, and the position 
of the fins themselves, have served as characters in the establishing of these 
genera. The genera Pterichthys, Coccosteus, and Cephalaspis, form a second 
group exceedingly curious : the considerable development of the head, its 
size, the large .plates which cover it, and which likewise extend over the 
greater portion of the trunk, and the moveable appendages in the form of a 
wing, placed on the side of the head, give to them the most remarkable ap- 
pearance. It is these peculiarities, indeed, which caused the class to which 
these genera belong for a long time to be misunderstood. The large bony and 
granulated plates of Coccosteus led to their being considered as belonging to 
Trionyx ; and it will be a sufficient excuse for this error to call to recollection 
that the greatest anatomist of our age had sanctioned this approximation. 



86 report — 1842. 

The form of the disc of the head of the Cephalaspides, which has the appear- 
ance of a large crescent, and their more numerous but very elevated scales, 
resembling the transverse articulations of the body, explain how it was possi- 
ble to see in these fishes Trilobites of a particular genus. Lastly, the winged 
appendages of the sides of the head of Pterichthys, as moveable as fins, have 
easily °-iven rise to the variety of opinions concerning the true affinities of these 
singular creatures, and has caused them to be taken at one time for gigantic 
Coleoptera, at another for Crustacea or small marine Tortoises ; so little do 
the types of the classes appear fixed in certain respects at those remote times. 
Another singularity of these genera is the association to the bony plates of 
the head of a vertebral appendage, which is far from having acquired the 
. same solidity, but appears, on the contrary, to have remained fibro-cartilagi- 
nous during the whole life of the animal, resembling in this respect the ske- 
leton of the Sturgeon. 

It would be difficult to find among recent fishes types presenting any direct 
analogy with the genera Pterichthys, Coccosteus, and Cephalaspis ; it is only 
from afar that they can be compared to some abnormal genera of our epoch. 
Thus the Sturgeons, (and especially Loricaria and Callichthys), offer but a 
slight analogy with the Cephalaspis in their shielded head, and in the bony 
plates of their flanks ; the bony shields ornamented with scidptures and re- 
gular granulations, which protect the head of the Trigla, of the Peristediones, 
and of the Dactylopteri, in a slight degree call to mind what is seen in the 
"•enus Coccosteus, without however the analogy being perfect ; the structure 
of the throat and the remainder of the skeleton are very different ; and lastly, 
I find it impossible directly to compare those moveable appendages of the 
sides of the head of Pterichthys to anything observable in fishes of the present 
period. Perhaps they have some relation with the moveable sub-orbitals of 
the Acanthopsis of the family of the Cyprinoids ; perhaps they might likewise 
be compared to the prolongations of the prreoperculum o£ certain Trighc, 
and in particular of the genus Cephalacanthus ; but I have found it impossi- 
ble as yet to determine precisely with what bone of the head these extraor- 
dinary appendages must be considered parallel. As to the less solid nature of 
the vertebral column of these fishes, they have it in common with the greater 
part of the species of the older rocks. The analogy which they offer on the 
one hand in form with the dorsal cord of the embryo of fishes, together 
with the inferior position of their mouth, which is equally met with in the 
embryos, and, on the other hand, the distant resemblance of these fishes to 
certain types of reptiles, present the most curious assemblage of characters 
that can possibly be conceived. 

A third group of fishes belonging to this formation comprises those genera 
whose vertical fins are double on the back and under the tail, and which 
approach very near to the caudal. These are the genera Dipterm, Osteo- 
lepis, Diploptervs, and Glyptolepis, which differ from one another by the 
form of their scales and their dentition. 

And lastly, it seems to me necessary to regard as a fourth group of this 
order the genera which are characterized by large conical teeth situated 
on the margin of the jaws, between which are alternately smaller, and in- 
deed very small ones in form of a brush ; such are the genera Holoptychms 
and Platygnathus, and the genus recently established by Mr. Owen under 
the name of Dendrodus, and respecting which this learned anatomist has 
o-iven some exceedingly interesting microscopical details. These were evi- 
dently the Pirates of their day ; but it would be difficult to determine pre- 
cisely their size, for the very simple reason that nowhere have any portions 
of their body of any considerable size been discovered assembled together. 



ON THE FOSSIL. FISH OF THE DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 



87 



What we possess of them is nothing more than some detached scales, isolated 
teeth, and some broken bony plates. 

This primitive diversity of the ichthyoid types of a formation so ancient 
as the old red sandstone, is, in my opinion, one of the facts the most con- 
tradictory to the theory of the successive transformation of species, and of 
the descent of organized beings now living from a small number of primitive 
forms. 

In support of these general observations I add the synoptical table of all 
the species of this formation which I have to the present time been able to 
determine, and of which the detailed descriptions will be found in my 
' Monograph.' 



Synoptical Table of the Fossil Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone, or Devonian System. 



Placoidians. 

Onchus arcuatus, Ag. — Wales. 

semistriatus, Ag. — Wales. 

Ctenacanthus ornatus, Ag. — Sapey and 
Abergavenny. 

Ctenoptychius priscus, Ag. — Scotland. 

Ptychacanthus dubius, Ag. — Aberga- 
venny. 

2 genera yet undetermined. — Babrodery 
and Elgin. 

Ganoidians. 
1st Group. 

Acanthodespusillus.^jr. — Gordon Castle. 
Diplacanthus striatus, Ag. — Cromarty, 
striatums, Ag. — Lethen 
Bar. 

longispinus, Ag. — Lethen 
Bar and Cromarty. 

crassispinus, Ag. — Caith- 
ness. 
Cheiracanthus Murchisonii, Ag. — Gam- 
rie. 

minor, Ag. — Stromness. 
microlepidotus, Ag. — Le- 
then Bar. 
Cheirolepis Cummingiaa, Ag. — Lethen 
Bar and Cromarty. 

Traillii, Ag. — Pomona. 
Uragus, Ag. — Gamrie. 

2nd Group. 

Pterichthys Milleri, Ag. — Cromarty. 

productus, Ag. — Lethen Bar. 

latus, Ag. — Lethen Bar. 

cornutus, Ag. — Lethen Bar. 

testudinarius, Ag. — Cro- 
marty. 

oblongus, Ag. — Cromarty 
and Gamrie. 

cancriformis, Ag. — Orkney. 



Pterichthys hydrophilus, Ag. — Dura 

Den. 
Coccosteus oblongus, Ag. — Lethen Bar. 
latus, Ag. — Caithness and 
Orkney. 

cuspidatus, Ag. — Cromarty 
and Gamrie. 
Cephalaspis Lyellii, Ag. — Glammis. 

rostratus, Ag. — Whitbach. 
Lewish, Ag. — Whitbach. 
Lloydii, Ag. — Shropshire. 

3rd Group. 
Osteolepis macrolepidotus, Ag. — Caith- 
ness and Cromarty. 

microlepidotus, Ag. — Caith- 
ness. 
major, Ag. — Lethen Bar. 
arenatus, Ag. — Gamrie. 
Dipterus macrolepidotus, Cuv. — Caith- 
ness and Wales. 
And several varieties of this species. 
Diplopterus macrocephalus, Ag. — Lethen 
Bar. 

borealis, Ag. — Caithness, 
affinis, Ag. — Gamrie. 
Glyptolepis leptopterus, Ag. — Lethen 
Bar. 

elegans, Ag. — Gamrie. 

4th Group. 
Holoptychius nobilissimus, Ag. — Clash- 
bennie. 

Flemingii, Ag. — Dura Den. 
giganteus, Ag. — Scotland. 
Dendrodus biporcatus, Owen. "J 
sigmoideus, Owen. 



Corn- 



incurvus, Owen. '« stone in 



Murray- 
shire. 



latus, Owen. 
compressus, Owen. 
strigatus, Owen. 
Platygnathus paucidens, Ag. — Caith- 
ness. 

Jamesoni, Ag. — Dura Den. 
minor, Ag. — Dura Den. 



88 REPORT 1842. 

It results from this table, that the Devonian system contains not less than fifty- 
five species of fossil fish belonging to twenty different genera ; a number more than 
ten times that which was nominally known in the entire series of formations of the 
British Islands ten years ago. Who at that time would have believed that fifty-five 
species of vertebrated animals would have been discovered in one of the formations 
of the transition rocks ? 



Appendix to a Report on the Strength and other Properties of Cast 
Iron obtained from the Hot and Cold Blast. By William Fair- 
bairn, Esq. 

The experiments, of which the present is a notice, were entered upon in 
March 1837, and subsequently the British Association did me the honour to 
print them in their seventh volume of Transactions. They were intended to 
determine an important quality in the strength of materials, viz. the powers 
of crystalline bodies to sustain pressure for an indefinite period of time, and 
to ascertain whether cast iron, when subjected by a given weight to long- 
continued transverse strain, would, or would not, be subject to fracture. 

It appears that former writers on the transverse strength of materials had 
come to the conclusion, that the bearing powers of cast iron were confined 
within the limits of that force which would produce a permanent set, and 
that it would be unsafe to load this material with more than about one-third 
of the weight necessary to break it. This assumption is, however, incorrect, 
as the experiments which follow will abundantly testify. 

It would be superfluous to offer in this notice any observations on a dif- 
ferent theory, as the recent experiments of Mr. Hodgkinson and myself fully 
prove* that cast iron takes a permanent set with a load considerably under 
one-sixth of the breaking weight. 

From these experiments, it will be found that cast iron is more to be de- 
pended upon, and exhibits more tenacity in resisting heavy strains long con- 
tinued, than is generally admitted, and its bearing powers have deserved a 
much higher reputation than has at any former period been given to them : 
indeed it is evident from the experiments, that a cast-iron bar is capable of 
resisting for a series of years a force equal to §ths, and sometimes ^yths of 
the load that would break it. 

In the application of this force, it must be observed, that the room in 
which the experiments were made, and which are now in progress, is not 
entirely free from vibration, being slightly affected by persons crossing the 
floor, particularly when two or more are walking at the same time. 

The experiments already published on the " Effects of Time," embrace a 
period of fifteen months, from the 6th of March 1837 to the 23rd of June 
1838. Up to that time the deflections of both hot and cold blast iron were 
carefully registered ; and the present is a continuation of the same experi- 
ments, exhibiting the changes that have taken place for the last four years, 
and the effects which the permanent weights have produced upon the bars. 
It is satisfactory to observe that, during the whole time of the experiments, 
the bars (whether loaded with the lighter or heavier weights) exhibited little 
or no change beyond what may be traced to the variations of temperature. 
One of the bars was, however, found broken some time since, but whether 
from accident or the effects of continued strain I am unable to determine with 
certainty ; I am inclined to believe that the former was the cause, as the cor- 
responding bars still retain their position, indicating changes so exceedingly 

* See Reports on the Strength and other Properties of Cast Iron in the seventh volume 
of the Transactions of the British Association, and the sixth volume of the Manchester 
Memoirs. 



ON THE PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 



89 



minute as to be scarcely perceptible, even when examined with our best in- 

"following tables exhibit the progressive state of the bars from the 
23rd of June 1838, up to April 19th of the present year. 

Table I. 
Tible of deflections, as exhibited with permanent weights of 336 lbs., sus- 
!ilfrnm the centre of bars of cold and hot blast Coed- lalon iron, 
^to^eZet^l and left to determine the effect produced on 
each bar after given intervals of time. 

Distance between the supports 4 ft. b in. 



Experiment I. 

Cold Blast Iron, No. 2. 
Breadth of Bar... 1-020 
Depth of ditto ... 1-030 



O ^ 



336 


1-293 


336 


1-304- 


336 


1-304 


336 


1-305 


336 


1-304 


336 


1-303 


336 


1-303 


336 


1-305 


336 


1-309 


336 


1-303 


336 


1-305 


336 


1-305 


336 


1-306 


336 


1-308 



Date of Observation, 
1838 to 1842. 



rt O 



Feb. 7, 1839. 
March 8, ... 
April 5, 

5, ... 
15, ... 

7, ... 

9, ... 
14, 1840. 
April 27, ... 
June 6, ... 
Aug. 3, ... 
Sept. 14, ... 
Nov. 22, 1841. 
April 19, 1842. 



July 
Aug. 
Nov. 
Dec. 
Feb. 



54° 

35 

38 

72 

63 

50 

39 

50 

63 

61 

74 

55 

50 

58 



EXPERIMEMT 2. 

Hot Blast Iron, No. 2. 
Breadth of Bar.. .1-020 
Depth of ditto ... 1-040 



336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 
336 



1-524 

1-532 

1-531 

1-533 

1-532 

1-531 

1-531 

1-531 

1-519 

1-520 

1-523 

1-613 

1-620 

1-620 



■s a 



Results in the preceding table and the previously published report, showing 
the progressive and increased ratio of deflections, from the 23rd of June 
1838 to April 19th of the present year. 

Weight on bar 336 lbs. 



Cold Blast 

Iron. 

Deflection in 

inches. 



1-316 
1-305 
1-303 
1-306 
1-308 



Date of Observation. 



June 23, 1838. 
July 5, 1839. 
June 6, 1840. 
Nov. 22, 1841. 
April 19, 1842. 



Temp. 
Fahr. 



78° 

72 

61 

50 

58 



Hot Blast 

Iron. 

Deflection in 

inches. 



Remarks. 



1-538 
1-533 
1-520 
1-6201 
1-620 J 



Previous to the time of 
taking the deflection in 
Nov. and April, the hot 
blast bar had been di- 
sturbed. 



90 



REPORT — 1842. 



If we examine the results of this table, it will be observedthat the deflec- 
tion in the cold blast iron has not increased but rather decreased since June 
1S38, an anomaly not easily accounted for, unless from some error in writing 
down the figures 1-316, which — according to the progressive increase which 
has been going forward since the commencement of the experiments — should 
have been 1*306. On comparing the rate of increase of the deflection in 
this table with Table XII. in my former Report, it will be seen that the 
tendency downwards has been regular and progressive (with the above ex- 
ception) up to the present date. In the hot blast iron it is also progressive, 
the increase of deflection in four years being -082. 

It will be observed, that the state of the atmosphere has considerable in- 
fluence upon the bars, an increase of temperature producing a correspond- 
ing increase of deflection, and vice versa. 

Table II. 

Table of deflections, as exhibited with permanent weights of 392 lbs., sus- 
pended from the centre of bars of cold and hot blast Coed-Talon iron, 
cast to be one inch square, and left to determine the effect produced on 
each bar after given intervals of time. 

Distance between supports 4 ft. 6 in. 



Experiment 1. 

Cold Blast Iron, No. 2. 
Depth of Bar ... 1-030 
Breadthof ditto... 1-020 


Date of Observation, 
1838 to 1842. 


o 

<D 

a 

« a 
"5 .2 

«| 

" H 
go 

o 

Ph 

S 
H 


Experiment 2. 

Hot Blast Iron, No. 2. 
Depth of Bar ... 1-050 
Breadth of ditto... 1-000 


1" 


-a .a 
>.2-a 

5 o a 
,= -a 
O 


T2 

1 s 

-a -- , 

p g 


£ »" 

.£P;3 


-a. a 

i-s-i 

S o a 

.q -a 
O 


1 6 

1 a 
■Si 
p g 


392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 


1-815 
1-822 
1-822 
1-824 
1-824 
1-824 
1-823 
1-824 
1-818 
1-825 
1-826 
1-826 
1-829 
1-828 




Feb. 7, 1839. 
March 8, ... 
April 5, ... 
July 5, ... 
Aug. 15, ... 
Nov. 7, ... 
Dec. 9, ... 
Feb. 14, 1840. 
April 27, ... 
June 6, ... 
Aug. 3, ... 
Sep. 14, ... 
Nov. 22, 1841. 
April 19, 1842. 


54° 

35 

38 

72 

63 

50 

39 

50 

63 

61 

74 

55 

50 

58 


392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 
392 


1-784 
1-795 
1-796 
1-798 
1-797 
1-796 
1-796 
1-797 
1-802 
1-798 
1-801 
1-802 
1-804 
1-812 





Results in the preceding table and the previous reports, showing the pro- 
gressive and increased ratio of deflections, from the 23rd of June 1838 to 
April 29th of the present year. 



ON THE PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON. 
Weight on bar 392 lbs. 



91 



Cold Blast 






Hot Blast 




iron. 




Temp. 


Iron. 


Katio of Increase of 


Deflection in 




Fahr. 


Deflection in 


Deflection. 


inches. 






inches. 




1-824 


June 23, 1838. 


78° 


1-803 




1-824 


July 5, 1839. 


72 


1-798 




1-825 


June 6, 1840. 


61 


1-798 




1-829 


Nov. 22, 1841. 


50 


1-804 




1-828 


April 19, 1842. 


58 


1-812 




•004 


Increase 




•009 


1000 : 2250 



With a load of 392 lbs. we have a slow but steady increase of the deflec- 
tions, being for four years only -004 for the cold blast and -009 for the hot 
blast, which shows a ratio of increase in the hot blast of 1000 : 2250. In other 
respects the bars continue to maintain their position with little or no variation. 

Table III. 

Table of deflections, as exhibited with permanent weights of 448 lbs., sus- 
pended from the centre of bars of cold and hot blast Coed- Talon iron, 
cast to be one inch square, and left to determine the effect produced on 
each bar after given intervals of time. 

Distance between supports 4 ft. 6 in. 



Experiment 2. 




o 


Experiment 3. 


Cold Blast Iron, No. 2. 




CD 

5 


Hot Blast Iron, No. 2. 


Depth of Bar ...1-020 










Breadthof ditto... 1-030 


Date of Observation, 
1838 to 1812. 


■5.2 








■ 


T3 






*3 


.— 


rs S 


g " 




M 


g 


H3 t S 


§ > 


[5>.S 


•3sg 

£.2.3 

V o c 


'•§ a 




3 

a 


.SPjS 


C •-So 
a) o c3 


.2 o 

■s a 

(U CD 

cd ^3 


F 


,0 <H 
O 


2 




H 


P 


3 <s 

O 




448 


1-433 




Feb. 7, 1839. 


54° 








448 


1-445 




March 8, ... 


35 








448 


1-445 




April 5, ... 


38 








448 


1-446 




July 5, ... 


72 








448 


1-446 




Aug. 15, .. 


63 








448 


1-445 




Nov. 7, .. 


50 








448 


1-445 




Dec. 9, ... 


39 








448 


1-446 




Feb. 14, 1840. 


50 








448 


1-445 




April 27, ... 


63 








448 


1-445 




June 6, ... 


61 








448 


1-447 




Aug. 3, ... 


74 








448 


1-447 




Sept. 14, ... 


55 








448 


1-449 




Nov. 22, 1841. 


50 








448 


1-449 




April 19, 1842. 


58 









92 



REPORT — 1842. 



llesults in the preceding table and the previous reports, showing the progres- 
sive and increased ratio of deflections, from the 23rd of June 1838 to 
April 29th, 1842. 

Weight on bar 448 lbs. 



Cold Blast 

Iron. 

Deflection in 

inches. 


Date of Observation. 


Temp. 
Falir. 


Hot Blast 

Iron. 

Deflection in 

inches. 


Remarks. 


1-457 
1-446 
1-445 
1-449 
1-449 


June 23, 1838. 
July 5, 1839. 
June 6, 1840. 
Nov. 22, 18 11. 
April 19, 1842. 


78° 

72 

61 

50 

58 




Another bar of cold blast 
iron broke after sustaining 
the weight of 448 lbs. for 
37 days. 

The hot blast bars broke 
at once with 448 lbs. 


•008 


Decrease. 









In these experiments the same anomaly is present as in Table I., namely, a 
decrease of -008 in the deflections, which may be accounted for in the same 
way as before. These discrepancies are the more apparent, as the deflection 
in March 1838 was 1*439, in June of the same year it increased to 1*457, 
and in the February following it returned to 1*433 ; thus corresponding in 
some degree with the temperature of the room, which varied as the respect- 
ive numbers 51°, 78° and 54°. In every other respect the bars have been 
tending to rupture, and since the deflections were taken one of them has 
broken. 

Viewing the subject in all its bearings, it appears evident from these ex- 
periments, that time is an element which in a greater or less degree affects 
the security of materials when subjected to severe and long-continued press- 
ure. It may at first sight appear that the cohesive powers and the resist- 
ance may be so nicely balanced as to neutralise each other, and in this state 
continue ad infinitum, provided there be no disturbing force to produce de- 
rangement of the parts, and thus destroy the equilibrium of the opposing 
forces. This cannot, however, be expected : in practice, disturbing causes 
often occur, and I think Ave may reasonably conclude that long-continued 
strain will tend to lessen the cohesive force which unites the particles of mat- 
ter together, and will ultimately destroy that power of resistance which has 
for the last five years been so strongly exemplified in the above and previ- 
ously printed experiments. 



Report of the Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British 
Association held at Plymouth, in 1841, for registering Shocks of 
Earthquakes in Great Britain. By David Milne, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S.E. 

I. The Committee have continued to promote the object for which they were 
appointed, by sending additional instruments to Perthshire, where shocks of 
earthquake still continue to be felt. The following is a list of the shocks ob- 
served at Comrie since the date of the report given in last year to the Asso- 
ciation. 

In the following Table column 1 represents the day of the month, column 
2 represents the total number of shocks felt during that day, column 3 re- 



ON EARTHQUAKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



93 



presents the hour of the three strongest shocks, and column 4 represents the 
degree of severity of each shock, reckoning at 10 a shock which occurred on 
October 23, 1839. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


3. 


4. 


3. 


4. 


Remarks. 


1841. 


















July 23 

25 


1 
1 


1 A.M. 
4f P.M. 


2 
3 












Instrument moved. 


26 


1 


3 A.M. 












Instrument moved. 


30 


12 


8 A.M. 


2 


2| P.M. 


8* 


3| P.M. 


2 


Instrument moved. 


31 


3 


8 A.M. 


2 




1 




1 




Aug. 1 


2 




1 




1 








10 


2 




1 




1 










12 


1 


10 A.M. 
















30 

Sept. 8 

9 

10 


1 
2 
1 
3 


3 A.M. 

llf P.M. 

2| A.M. 


1 
1 
5 
3 










Instrument moved. 


4£ A.M. 


1 


»i 




- A.M. 


16 


2 


A.M. 


1 


9| P.M. 


] 








17 


2 


1 A.M. 


1 


41 A.M. 


1 








22 


1 


11| p. M . 
2| A.M. 


1 












23 


1 


1 












29 


2 


A.M. 


1 


9| A.M. 


1 








Oct. 5 


1 


A.M. 


1 












23 


1 


12 A.M. 


2 












Nov. 3 


1 


12 A.M. 


1 












5 


1 


1 A.M. 














6 


1 


8 A.M. 














7 


1 




1 












8 


1 
















18 


1 


8 A.M. 














Dec. 3 




85 A.M. 














6 


1 


3 A.M. 


1 












7 


1 


3 A.M. 


1 












1842. 


















Jan. 2 


1 


A.M. 


1 












7 


2 


A.M. 


1 


A.M. 


1 








Mar. 10 


1 


1 P.M. 


1 












Apr. 21 

22 

June 1 


1 
2 
1 


3 P.M. 
10^ P.M. 
12" A.M. 


1 
1 
1 


11 P.M. 


2 














2 

8 


1 

2 


1 A.M. 
!•!■ A.M. 


2 


If A.M. 








Instrument moved. 



It will be perceived that out of the 60 shocks above recorded, felt during 
the last eleven months, there were three occasions on which the instruments 
were moved. From this it is evident, that the instruments are not sufficiently 
sensitive to indicate the great proportion of the shocks now occurring, how- 
ever well adapted they may be for registering those of a more violent cha- 
racter which occurred in 1839 and 1840. 

II. Referring to the Report of last year (published in the last volume of 
the Transactions of the Association) for the nature and number of the in- 
struments which were then at Comrie or its neighbourhood, the Committee 



94 report — 1842. 

will now mention what additional instruments have been sent there, and to 
whose charge they have been entrusted. 

The additional instruments for indioating earthquake shocks are seven in 
number. 

Four of these arc on the principle of the watchmaker's noddy described in 
last year's Report. 

Another instrument consists of four horizontal glass tubes, slightly turned 
up at each end, and filled with mercury. These tubes are laid down on the 
solid floor of a room, according to the different points of the compass; and 
it is expected that, when a shock takes place, the mercury will flow out of 
one or more of these tubes. If there is a horizontal movement of the earth's 
surface, say in a direction from W. to E., the mercury will flow out of the 
west end of the tube placed in that direction, and partially out of two 
other tubes. If there is no horizontal movement, but an inclination of the 
ground only, the mercury will flow out of the tube or tubes affected by the 
inclination, and probably in a larger measure from the ends of the tubes to- 
wards the dip. This instrument was made by Mr. Newman of London, under 
the directions of Professor Wheatstone and Mr. Milne. 

The two remaining instruments are intended exclusively to indicate any 
vertical movements of the ground. They consist of a horizontal bar, fixed 
to a solid wall by means of a strong flat watch-spring, and loaded at the op- 
posite end. If the wall suddenly rises or sinks, the loaded end of this hori- 
zontal rod remains, from its vis inertia, nearly at rest, and thus can move any 
light substance (as paper or a straw) brought against it by the vertical move- 
ment of the ground, and which light substance is so adjusted as to stick 
wherever the rod leaves it. 

One of this last mentioned class of instruments, and the one formed with 
glass tubes, have been set at Comrie, in the upper story of a house occupied 
by Mr. Macfarlane, post-master there, — a very intelligent person, and most 
anxious to aid the Committee in their inquiries. He has kept an accurate 
register of all the shocks felt at Comrie during the last three years. 

In regard to the instruments formed on the principle of the watchmaker's 
noddy, one of them has been placed at Crieff (six and a half miles east of 
Comrie), under the charge of the Rev. Mr. M'Alester. A second has been 
placed at St. Fillans (a small village five and a half miles west of Comrie) 
under the charge of the Rev. Mr. Logan. A third is placed at Invergel- 
die, about five miles north of Comrie, under charge of the farm-overseer 
there. A fourth instrument of this kind is about to be sent to Kinlochmoi- 
dant, near Strontian in Argyleshire, where shocks are occasionally felt. It 
is to be taken charge of there by Wm. Robertson, Esq., the proprietor of 
Kinlochmoidart. To the same place there is to be sent one of the horizontal 
bars intended to indicate vertical movements of the ground. 

Besides the foregoing instruments, others of a meteorological character 
have been placed at Comrie, in order that the state of the atmosphere at the 
moment of the shocks, and the nature of the weather generally during their 
occurrence, may be as nearly as possible ascertained. These instruments 
consist of a barometer, double thermometer, and a rain-gauge. They are 
under the charge of Mr. Macfarlane of Comrie, by whom their indications 
are regularly registered. 

III. The Committee will next notice any effects produced on the instru- 
ments, during the course of last year, by earthquake shocks. The instru- 
ments sent lately by the Committee have not yet been affected, having been 
but a short time at their respective stations. Those which have been af- 
fected, were the instruments sent last year. 



ON EARTHQUAKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 95 

1. On the 26th of July 1841 (as Mr. Macfarlane reports), a shock oc- 
curred, which is noticed in the register. The inverted pendulum set in the 
steeple of Comrie parish church was thrown about half an inch to the west, 
apparently indicating a horizontal movement of the ground as much towards 
the east. Another instrument, invented by Mr. Macfarlane himself, on the 
principle of the common pendulum, and kept at his own house, about 150 
yards from the church, had vibrated in a direction due east and west. On 
this occasion an itpioard heave of the ground, to the extent of half an inch, 
was also indicated by two instruments, one of them being a horizontal bar, 
of the nature before described. 

2. The next shock by which the instruments were affected, occurred on 
the 30th of July 1841. Mr. Macfarlane reports that the two inverted pen- 
dulums in his house vibrated to the extent of half an inch, and in a direction 
south and north, which is different from previous indications. At Tomperran 
(about a mile and a half east of Comrie), an instrument on the principle of 
the common pendulum vibrated east and west. The instruments for showing 
any vertical movement were but slightly affected. 

Notwithstanding the slight nature of the effects of this shock on the in- 
struments, Mr. Macfarlane reports that it was very severe, though not so 
violent as the one which occurred in October 1839. Reckoning this former 
one at 10, he says the shock of July 30, 1841, may be reckoned 8. He adds, 
that " it was distinctly double, the latter part, if anything, more violent than 
the first : the noise and shake awful, at least I felt them so in the house, 
and those out of doors gave the same account. It is difficult to account for 
the smallness of its effects on the instruments. Perhaps the vibrations of the 
ground, though violent, were short and frequent, and thereby interrupted the 
natural swing of the pendulums. I recollect some person, on the occurrence of 
one of the former severe earthquakes, describes his feelings as if on horseback, 
when the animal shook itself. Somewhat such were my impressions on the 
30th, even before I had looked at the instruments. It is said here that there 
were twelve shocks that day. I felt nine myself; there was one about 
8 a.m., pretty smart, and none else till the great one about 2 \ p.m. Imme- 
diately after it there were two or three slight shocks, and about an hour 
afterwards a loud one, &c. The weather was cold and inclined to stormy 
about the time of the severe shock, and for a day or two before and after." 

In a subsequent letter, dated August 9, 1841, by which time Mr. Macfar- 
lane had visited all the places in and near Comrie affected by the shock, he 
gives some details, which it may not be out of place here to notice. " A 
house at Garrickrow (about two miles west of Comrie) was so severely 
handled that three out of four chimney-tops will require to be rebuilt or re- 
paired, and there is a rent in the west gable of the house. A man from 
Comrie, who happened to be working at the time on the hill behind, de- 
scribes the shock as awful indeed ; and he says the trees around him were so 
much agitated that he thought they would have been torn out of the roots, but 
he cannot remember exactly in what direction they waved, but thinks it was 
east and west. The wall of one of the houses of Ross (the neat suburb of 
our city) was rent, and the miller's house (you '11 recollect it), in spite of its 
numerous abutments, has had its rents much enlarged. This shock, I learn, 
has been felt as far east, at least, as Newburgh, about thirty-eight miles from 
Garrickrow ; as far to the west as Dalmally, the distance of which I do not 
exactly know (but probably it may be about the same); as far north as Glen- 
lion, thirty miles ; and as far south as Alloa and Stirling, twenty to thirty 
miles. 

" I have seen several of the shattered buildings; one of the chimney-tops 



96 report — 1842. 

in Duneira House is slightly rent; one in the stable behind very much ; two 
of the gardeners' cottages behind that again considerably; one so much that. 
it was taken down and rebuilding when I saw it. The directions in which 
the stones have been moved, seem to have been various. It is remarkable 
that neither the row of chimney-stacks on the hot-house wall, of the same 
construction with those of the gardener's cottage (octagonal), nor those of 
the gamekeeper's house, which is a little up the hill, have been injured. 
The gardener told me the foundation of all the buildings thereabout (except 
the last) was upon a gravelly soil, but how near the subjacent rock he could 
not guess. A person who happened to be on the hill or rising ground im- 
mediately to the west of Duneira House, told me as a proof of the shock 
having come even there from the west, that after the shock passed him he 
heard the rattle of the slates and of the buildings about Duneira; but this 
you will at once see was not evidence of the alleged fact. Another stand- 
ing on the hill above, said that he thought he saw the disturbance of 
the woods pass eastward. This was near Comrie. Those in the wooden 
shed at the saw-mill near Duneira, saw the roof open for a moment ; and 
when they rushed from the shed, they observed that the water in the mill- 
head was for a short time dammed backwards, and raised about four inches 
above its former level at that place ; and from this, and other indications, 
they judged that the earth there was heaved directly upwards about six inches. 
There were traces of electricity in the clouds at the time, and other pecu- 
liarities in the appearance of the sky, but nothing amounting to the least 
hint, so far as I could judge, that we were to be so roughly handled. I re- 
collect before of noticing the appearance of the sky as lurid and particularly 
sombre when we had quakings below, but I have frequently since seen the 
same, or even stronger marks of the same kind, and yet all pass peaceably 
off, and, on the other hand, earthquakes when the sky was clear and open. 
Even a course of previous wet weather, which, from its being hitherto an 
almost constant forerunner of the violent and frequent shocks, warranted 
the inference that they were somehow connected, does not seem to be a sine 
qua non ; so that the remark of a sagacious old man, one well-known here 
as ' Deacon lleid,' will hold good, who long ago, in the first series of our 
earthquakes, had been paying particular attention to the phenomena, and 
being asked if he had made out whether they affected the weather or the 
weather them, replied that he had attended particularly to that point, and all 
that he could make of them was, that there was ' aye some kind o' weather 
when they happened.' I may here add, it was omitted in its proper place, 
that the only difference I could observe in the circumstances of the shattered 
chimneys about Duneira, was that they were all on walls or gables running 
south and north, while those untouched had the walls on which they stood 
east and west. Dykes were thrown down in many places." 

With reference to the part of Mr. Macfarlane's letter last quoted, it may 
be proper to explain, that the spot from which the Perthshire shocks of 
earthquake appear to emanate, is situated about a mile north of Duneira, and 
therefore it is not difficult to understand why walls running north and south 
should chiefly or exclusively have been rent, whilst walls running east and 
west should have escaped. ' This explains the fact mentioned in Mr. Mac- 
farlane's letter, that the hot-house wall and range of chimneys on it escaped 
injury, whilst the west gable of the house at Garrickrow (a quarter of a mile 
east of Duneira House) was rent. 

Accounts have been received by a Member of the Committee, of the effects 
produced by the same shock in other parts of the country, which in so far as 
interesting, will be given in a treatise he is publishing on British earthquakes. 



ON EARTHQUAKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 97 

3. On the 9th of September 1841, another pretty severe shock was felt 
at Comrie, at about ten minutes before midnight. Mr. Macfarlane reports 
concerning it, " The next morning the Association's instruments indicated as 
follows : — 

" The steeple one was inclined to south three-quarters of an inch. The 
Comrie House one inclined north half an inch. 

" No damage, that I have heard of, has been done. The weather for the 
two preceding days was remarkably wet and close, much resembling that 
in which the shocks occurred in 1839 ; so much so was the sky, that the 
evening previous I was remarking to some folks here, that it looked very 
like an earthquake night. But I have more than once observed the same 
misty and lurid sky without any shock ; so that, after all, the thing may be 
a mere coincidence." 

The indications of the instruments, mentioned in Mr. Macfarlane's note, 
do not coincide with those produced by previous shocks, and are in them- 
selves somewhat perplexing, if they are assumed to have been caused by one 
and the same shock. Comrie House is about half a mile due north from 
Comrie Church, and it is difficult to understand how Comrie Church could 
have moved three-quarters of an inch to the north, whilst at the same time 
Comrie House was moved half an inch to the south, unless on the supposi- 
tion that the intermediate ground was lifted up to an extent which certainly 
would have been perceivable by the inhabitants. 

But it will be seen from the register, that after the severe shock near mid- 
night on the 9th of September, two other shocks occurred before the instru- 
ments were examined. It is very possible, therefore, that the indications 
registered were not the effects of only one shock. 

4. On the 8th of June 1842, two shocks were felt at Comrie between one 
and two in the morning, by which the horizontal pendulum in Mr. Macfar- 
lane's house (recently rent) was affected. It indicated a vertical upheave of 
the ground of fully a quarter of an inch. 

From the foregoing details, it seems probable that the opinion entertained 
by those acquainted with the locality, that the particular spot from which 
the Perthshire shocks emanate on the earth's surface, is situated about one 
mile north-north-east of Duneira House, and about one mile and a half north- 
west of Comrie, may be correct. It is desirable therefore to have additional 
instruments placed at Duneira, and in the neighbourhood of it, with the view 
of approximating still nearer to the exact spot of discharge or emission. Two 
instruments have been lately sent to Duneira and St. Fillans, from which, if 
the shocks continue, some useful data may be expected. 

Further, it is evidently desirable to have instruments greatly more sensi- 
tive than any which the Committee yet possess ; and the Committee would 
be greatly obliged for any hints which may be given to them with that view. 
Some of the members of the Committee are now making experiments which 
promise well : and if the Committee be reappointed, with a renewal of the 
grant, they hope, even before the earthquaking season (autumn and winter) 
commences in Perthshire, to be prepared for a correct registration of most 
of the shocks. 

IV. The Committee wish particularly to call the attention of the Associa- 
tion to the importance of carrying on meteorological observations at Comrie. 

There seem strong grounds for the opinion entertained by many, that an 

intimate connection of some kind or other exists between earthquake shocks 

and the state of the weather, or rather those various agents which affect the 

weather. Some persons, indeed, maintain, that the shocks are nothing else 

'than electrical discharges from the earth, and are preceded as well as followed 

1842. h 



98 report — 1842. 

by certain meteorological symptoms, which are capable of accurate registra- 
tion. This view of the matter is, for the sake of the theory of earthquakes, 
deserving of being tested by meteorological observations : and such observa- 
tions have accordingly been commenced at Comrie, by means of instruments, 
sent there in accordance with the recommendation contained in last year's 
Report, and understood to have been approved of and sanctioned by the As- 
sociation. At present the barometer and thermometer are observed at Com- 
rie only twice in the twenty-four hours. It would, however, be evidently 
desirable to have much more frequent observations, in order that the state 
of the atmosphere immediately before, as well as immediately after shocks, 
should be ascertained. The Committee understand that there are two places 
in Scotland, where, at the expense of the British Association, hourly obser- 
vations of the barometer and thermometer are now made and registered. 
The importance of these observations to meteorology is unquestionable ; and 
it is manifest that great additional value would be given to them were they 
carried on at Comrie, Avhere they would become subservient to another 
branch of scientific research. In this view of the matter they are strongly 
supported by the Meteorological Committee of the Association, whose con- 
vener (Sir David Brewster) may be with propriety consulted on this subject. 

The Committee have ascertained that proper persons can be found at 
Comrie, who, under the superintendence of Mr. Macfarlane, would observe 
the barometer and thermometer every hour in the twenty-four hours, at an 
expense of 40/. yearly ; and the Committee express a hope that the Associa- 
tion will enable them to carry this plan into effect. 

On this subject the Committee will only further observe, that they would 
be glad if some other meteorological instruments could be sent to Comrie. 
For an anemometer there is an excellent situation, viz. on the steeple of the 
parish church. It would be very desirable also to have some instrument 
capable of indicating the existence of any sudden changes in the electrical 
state of the earth or the atmosphere ; and it is understood that the expense 
of these instruments is not great. 

V. The Committee have not yet attempted the registration of earthquake 
shocks occurring in any other part of this country, except Scotland. Else- 
where the shocks are not so frequent, or so regular in their recurrence, as to 
warrant the establishment of instruments : at the same time there do appear 
to be some parts of the country much more subject to shocks than others. 
For example, the primary districts of Cornwall and Wales have pretty often 
experienced shocks ; ami if in the course of the following year any are re- 
peated in these quarters, it may be right to send some instruments there. 

VI. The Committee have finally to report, that the sum of 261. 16*. have 
been expended by them in the prosecution of their inquiries. 



Report of a Committee appointed at the Tenth Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation for the Construction of a Constant Indicator for Steam-en- 
gines, and for the determination of the Velocity of the Piston of the 
Single-acting Engine at different periods of the Stroke. Members 
of the Committee : — Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq., F.R.S. ; J. Enys, 
Esq. ; the Rev. Professor Moseley, M.A., F.R.S. {Reporter). 
In the conclusion of their last report the Committee stated it to be their 
purpose, during the present year, to apply the indicator to some of those en- 
gines whose work is registered by other means, and to compare the result of 
the two registrations. It is to this comparison that their labours have ac- 



ON A CONSTANT INDICATOR FOR STEAM-ENGINES. 



99 



cordingly "been directed. Of the numerous engines whose duty is periodi- 
cally recorded, none seemed to be so well adapted to their purpose as the 
Cornish engine at the East London Water-works. The long-continued and 
careful experiments of Mr. Wicksteed upon that engine*, have made the work 
performed by it better known probably than that of any other engine. The 
request of the Committee to be allowed to apply the indicator to it was at 
once and most liberally acceded to, and every facility was afforded to them 
during the progress of their experiments by the servants of the company. 

Results of a Trial of the Constant Indicator upon the Cornish Engine at the 
East London Water-works. 

The indicator was put to work on the 28th of January and continued its 
registration, without intermission, until the 25th of February. The numbers 
registei'ed by the counter of the engine and by the indicator were taken by the 
engineer every morning and evening. These numbers are contained in the 



two first colu 


inns of the accompanyin, 


y table. 












Number of 


Number regi- jj e 


an regi- 
ion made 




Number 


Number 


strokes made 


stered by Indi- tr 


Date. 


registered by 
Counter. 


registered by 
Indicator. 


by Engine 
between each 


cator between j_ 
each two sue- _+ ' 


ndicator 
ch stroke 








two succeeding 


ceeding ob- j 


Enffine. 








observations. 


servations. 




Jan. 28 


07680006 


000429-5 








s> 


07685564- 


004613-2 


555S 


4183-7 


752 


29 


07691430 


008945-4 


5866 


4332-2 


738 


» 


07696378 


012546-3 


4948 


3600-9 


728 


30 


07699548 


014863-2 


3170 


2316-9 


730 


31 


07702161 


016768-5 


2613 


1905-3 


729 


» 


07707828 


020946-3 


5667 


4177-8 


737 


Feb. 1 


07712075 


024055-5 


4247 


3109-2 


732 


5» 


07717805 


028317-6 


5730 


4262-1 


743 


2 


07722337 


031693-3 


4532 


3375-7 


744 


3 


07738647 


043776-4 


16310 


12083-1 


740 


4 


07742155 


046378-6 


3508 


2602-2 


741 


)? 


07743790 


047586-3 


1635 


1207-7 


738 


5 


07747184 


050113-5 


3394 


2527-2 


744 


» 


07750988 


052917-2 


3804 


2803-7 


737 


6 


07756340 


056982-4 


5352 


4065-2 


759 


)> 


07761966 


061306-4 


5626 


4324-0 


768 


7 


07766741 


064847-3 


4775 


35409 


741 


s> 


07768676 


066285-3 


1935 


1438-0 


743 


8 


07775229 


071142-6 


6553 


4857-3 


741 


» 


07780816 


075336-6 


5587 


4194-0 


750 


9 


07788825 


081257-6 


S009 


5921-0 


739 


>» 


07792228 


083786-5 


3403 


2528-9 


743 


10 


07798391 


088419-4 


6163 


4632-9 


751 


11 


07801012 


090405-6 


2621 


1986-2 


■757 


» 


07806022 


094299-3 


5010 


3893-7 


777 


12 


07809569 


096947-4 


3547 


2648-1 


746 


ti 


07814786 


100910-5 


5217 


3963-1 


•759 


13 


07819727 


104619-4 


4941 


3708-9 


•750 



* Experimental Inquiry, &c, by Thomas Wicksteed, 1841. Weale. 
h2 



100 



REPORT 1842. 

Table (Continued). 



Date. 


Number 

registered by 

Counter. 


Number 

registered by 

Indicator. 


Number of 
strokes made 

by Engine 
between each 
two succeeding 
observations. 


Number regi- 
stered by Indi- 
cator between 
each two suc- 
ceeding ob- 
servations. 


Mean regi- 
stration made 
by Indicator 
at each stroke 

of Engine. 


Feb. 14 


07824891 


108461-2 


5164 


3841-8 


•743 


)5 


07830561 


112652-0 


5670 


4190-8 


•739 


15 


07833566 


114880-9 


3005 


2228-9 


•741 


16 


07842556 


121598-8 


8990 


6717-9 


•747 


17 


07847210 


125036-2 


4654 


3437-4 


•738 


>) 


07851371 


128106-2 


4161 


3070-0 


•737 


18 


07859783 


134385-1 


8412 


6278-9 


•746 


?» 


07864386 


137818-9* 


4603 


3433-8 


•746 


19 


07868100 


140562-2 


3714 


2743-3 


•738 


20 


07876295 


146683-2 


8195 


6121-0 


•746 


21 


07880045 


149499-9 


3750 


2816-7 


•751 


22 


07887975 


155454-2 


7930 


5954-3 


•750 


23 


07896246 


161731-7 


8271 


6277-5 


•758 


24 


07904433 


167890-7 


8187 


6159-0 


•752 


25 


07912703 


1741:1-9 


8270 


6254-2 


•756 



The difference of each two consecutive numbers taken from the counter 
shows the number of strokes made by the engine between the correspond- 
ing observations, and the difference of each two consecutive numbers taken 
from the indicator shows the number registered by the indicator whilst this 
number of strokes is made by the engine. These differences are given in 
the third and fourth columns of the table. 

The number registered by the indicator whilst any number of strokes is 
made by the engine, being divided by that number of strokes, gives the mean 
registration of the indicator per stroke of the engine, between the periods of 
observation. The quotients obtained from this division, in respect to all the 
observations, are shown in the last column of the table. 

Between the 28th of January and the 18th of February the engine made 
179777 strokes, and the indicator registered the number 133955*6, being a 
mean registration of -7451 per stroke of the engine. 

Between the 28th of January and the 25th of February (being the whole 
time of the working of the indicator) the engine made 232617 strokes, and 
the indicator registered the number 173 176*7, being a mean registration of 
'7444 per stroke of the engine. 

Now the general formula for determining the work of the engine from the 
number registered by the indicator, as demonstrated in the report made by 

* On the 18th the cord got out of the pulley of the indicator, and it is not known how 
much was lost in the registration before the accident was discovered and the cord replace d ; 
supposing, however, that throughout the 4603 strokes made by the engine between the two 
observations on the 18th, the registration had continued the same, -746 per stroke, as between 
the two preceding observations, the number registered would have been 3 433'8, which added 
to the previous registration, gives 137818 - 9 for the number which would have been shown by 
the indicator; the number actually shown was 137280-2 : so that on this supposition the 
number lost by the indicator, whilst the cord was out of the pulley, was 538-/. This num- 
ber is added as a correction to all the registrations of the indicator after the 18th. The num- 
bers in the last column can only be affected by any error in it on the 18th and 19th ; any such 
error must be inconsiderable. 



ON A CONSTANT INDICATOR FOR STEAM-ENGINES. 101 

the Committee to the British Association of Science at their last meeting, 
when reduced* by the substitution in it of the particular values assigned to 
the constants in these experiments, is as follows : — 

U = 161-4474 N - -09051 L, 
where N represents the number registered by the indicator during the period 
for which the work of the engine is to be determined, L the space in feet de- 
scribed by the piston of the engine during that time, and U the number of 
units of work (in lbs. one foot high) done by the steam upon each square 
inch of the piston of the engine during that time. The second term of the 
formula is exceedingly small as compared with the first, and is a correction 
for the influence of the friction of the indicator on the number registered by it 
The mean number registered by the indicator per stroke of the engine 
between the 28th of January and the 18th of February being -7451 ; the 
mean work done by the steam (in lbs. one foot high) on each square inch of 
the piston per stroke during that time (according to the indicator) was, by 
the above formula, 

161-4474 X -7451 — 10 x -09051 = 119-3883. 

Also the mean stroke of the engine, during that time, was (by the measure- 
ment of the engineer) 9 ft. 10§ in., or 9*875 ft., so that the mean effective press- 
ure of the steam upon each square inch of the piston was, by the indicator, 

119-38S3 lonnll . 
~— = 12-09 lbs.f 

The whole number of units of work done upon each square inch of the pis- 
ton, between the 28th of January and the 15th of February, was, by the in- 

dlcator ' 21,464,067-1727. 

This number multiplied by the number of square inches in the piston, which 
is 5019-5, gives the whole number of units of effective work done by the 
steam upon the piston of the engine during the time of the experiments, or 
the whole number of lbs. of water which would have been raised one foot 
high by the engine during that time, had it not been for friction and other 
prejudicial resistances. This number is 

• 107,738,885,310-4. 

During this time 1226j cwt. of coals were consumed by the engine ; whence 

* The general formula as proved in the report is, 

U = 1-67052 Q£\ N - -3017 (l - -~\ L, 

where m represents the ratio of the space described by the piston of the engine to that de- 
scribed in the same time by the circumference of the pulley of the indicator ; A the additional 
deflexion of the springs, in inches, for each additional lb. in the strain upon them ; p the 
number of times the engine expands. 

Now (by the measurement of Price the engineer) the cord passing over the pulley of the 
indicator described 37? inches, whilst the piston of the engine made a stroke of 10 feet, so 

120 
that m — —J = 3-2215 ; also (by the experiment of Mr. Timme, Mr. Holtzapffel's draughts- 

3 1 

man) the springs deflected exactly 3 inches under a strain of 90 lbs., so that X = — = — , 

whence it follows that 1-67052 (^-) = 161-4474 ; also the steam was cut off at 3 ft. 6 in. 

10 2' „ , 2 / 2 \ 

.-.p=5T •••— =-7.-.l = -3.-. -3017 ( 1 ) = -09051. 

d ? . P P \ P / 

t This is the mean pressure of the steam above the vacuum resistance. 



102 REPORT — 1842. 

it follows, that by the indicator the duty done by the steam upon the piston 
for each cwt. of coals consumed, Mas 

87,852,427-049*. 

Comparison of the Results given by the Indicator with the Expemnetits of 
Mr. Wicksteed. t 

The effective work done by the steam per square inch of the piston per 
stroke of the engine, as determined by the experiments of Mr. Wicksteed 
(Experimental Inquiry, p. 22), was 

129-4 -7-30f = 122-1. 

In Mr. Wicksteed's experiments the engine was assumed to make a mean 
stroke of 10 feet. At the time of the experiments with the indicator, the 
mean stroke of the piston was 9 ft. \0\ in. (by the measurement of the en- 
gineer). The mean stroke being thus 1^ in. short of its former length, the 

]i 1 

work done per stroke is to be diminished by the r-^rth part, or the -^rth part. 

This deduction being made, we obtain 

Work per stroke per square inch by experiment 1 20-574 ; 

1 20 - 574 
Mean pressure by experiment = 12*21. 

The duty done per cwt. of coals, consumed between the 28th of January 
and 1 5th of February, estimated by the water raised, was, by Mr. Wicksteed's 
calculation, 81-627,471. 

On the whole, therefore, we have 

lbs. one foot high per square inch per stroke by experiment 120*5741 
lbs. one foot high per square inch per stroke by indicator 1 19*388 J 
Mean effective pressure of steam per sq. in. of piston by experiment 12-21 lbs. \ 
Mean effective pressure of steam per sq. in. of piston by indicator 12-09 lbs. J 
Duty done at pumps with 1 cwt. of coals, as shown by water raised 81,627,471. 
Duty done by steam on piston with 1 cwt. of coals, as shown by in- 
dicator 87,852,427. 

Variations in the Registration. 

The greatest variations from the mean registration per stroke, as shown by 
the table, occur on the 6th and the 1 1th of February. The latter differs from 
the mean by -032, which is equivalent by the formula to 4*26 units of work. 

These variations are due, — 1st, to a variation in the length of the stroke, 

2 1 
amounting to 2| in. at least, and giving a variation of the -r^th part, or the 

1 199-1 

— -th in the work per stroke, which variation is equivalent to — — , or 2*543 
48 48 

units of work per square inch of the piston. 

* The coals used were small coals of the worst quality, Mr. Wicksteed having, it is well 
known, adopted the excelleut expedient of contracting with the coal-merchant, on the part 
of the company, to pay not according to the quantity or quality of the coals supplied, but 
according to the pounds of water which the engine is made to raise by them one foot high ; 
i. e. to pay the coal-merchant so much per unit of work doue by the coals. Had the best 
Welch coals (such as are used in Cornwall) been used on this occasion, the duty would have 
been 110 millions per cwt. 

f The work expended per stroke on the vacuum resistance is here deducted to get the 
effective work, which is evidently that shown by the indicator. 



ON A CONSTANT INDICATOR FOB STEAM-ENGINES. 103 

2ndly. To the continual variation of the level of the water in the well, 
which variation amounts, according to the statement of the engineer, to 16 
inches, and often continues for days together. The variation in the registra- 
tion which results from this cause amounts to 1-0274. Xl| = 1 -284.2 unit of 
work per square inch of the piston. 

The possible variation in the registration due to these two causes amounts, 

therefore, 

Units per square inch. 

By variation in length of stroke, to 2'543 

By variation in water-load, to .... 1*284. 

Total 3-827 

That further variation in the work of the engine which is due to a different 
state of the packing of the piston and a different supply of oil, it is of course 
impossible to estimate ; but it is not too much to assign to it a possible varia- 
tion of T %ths of a unit of work per square inch of the piston per stroke. This 
small variation, added to that shown to be due to the length of the stroke and 
the water-load, accounts for the entire amount of the greatest variation in the 
daily registration of the indicator, as shown by the table. 

If the friction of the indicator be neglected altogether, the work shown by 
it per stroke will be 120'2944, whilst the work by experiment is 120-574. 
The difference is on this supposition, therefore, only -27, or about one quarter 
of a unit of work out of 120| units. 

In respect to these results it is sufficient to say, that no others ever obtained 
by any of the instruments applied for a similar purpose have approached to 
them in the accuracy of their registration of the work, although that regis- 
tration, which was by those instruments limited to a single stroke, has been 
by this extended continuously over 179,000 strokes; and that Mr. Wicksteed 
has expressed an opinion that the results given by the indicator are probably 
nearer to the true work of the engine than his own experimental results. 

These experiments having sufficiently established the general accuracy of 
the instrument and its working qualities, as applied to single acting stationary 
engines, the Committee became desirous of trying it on the marine engine, and 
the directors of the Great Western steam-ship having kindly given their con- 
sent, it was fixed upon the engines of that vessel when about to proceed on 
her first vovage in the present year. 

Unfortunately no trial could be obtained of the particular expedients adopt- 
ed for this new application of the instrument until the vessel was actually 
upon her voyage, and the Committee regret to state that this costly experi- 
ment was rendered useless for their purpose by circumstances which would 
have been obviated had such a trial been possible, and which would have 
been wholly unimportant and soon remedied on shore. Of these the princi- 
pal was the accidental unscrewing of one of the pistons from the extremity 
of the piston rod. 

The knowledge which would be supplied by a series of registrations of such 
accuracy as those given by the indicator, as well in regard to the duty of 
marine engines as in respect to the general conditions of the resistance op- 
posed under different velocities to the motion of a vessel of the dimensions of 
a steam-ship, is of vast importance practically and scientifically ; it is there- 
fore desirable to repeat this experiment under more favourable circumstances. 

The attention of the Committee was directed by the Association, in the 
second place, to an application of the admirable chronometrical instrument 
suggested by M. Poncelet, and contrived and applied by M.Morin, to an ad- 
measurement of the velocity of the piston of the steam-engine at different pe- 



104 REPORT — 1842. 

riods of the stroke. This velocity is dependent in engines working expan- 
sively upon the particular law, according to which the pressure of the steam 
varies as its volume expands ; any such law being assumed, the velocity may 
be expressed by a mathematical formula in terms of that law and of other 
given elements of the question. The determination of it by experiment thus 
supplies a means (and apparently the best) of verifying the different formulas 
which have been proposed to represent the true law of the expansion of steam. 

M. Morin has himself kindly undertaken to superintend the construction of 
one of his instruments for the use of the Committee. It is in the hands of M. 
Breguet, and they hope to receive it early in November. 

Nothing has hitherto approached to the admirable accuracy of the admea- 
surements stated to have been given by this instrument. It discriminates be- 
tween spaces described in successive intervals of time, whose duration does 
not exceed the 10,000th part of a second, and measures them. 



Report of a Committee on the Form of Ships. By John Scott 
Russell, 31. A. 

It contained upwards of 20,000 observations, the result of careful experi- 
ments on the resistance to models of ships of more than a hundred different 
forms and sizes, and extending from small models of 30 inches long, to ves- 
sels of 25 feet, 60 feet, and 200 feet long, and above 1000 tons burden. 
These experiments were under the general superintendence of a Committee 
of the Association, consisting originally of Sir John Robison, Mr. Scott 
Russell, and Mr. Smith. Unfortunately, the ill-health of Mr. Smith's family 
had altogether deprived the Committee of his advice and assistance, but the 
observations were personally conducted by Mr. Scott Russell, who had to 
acknowledge the pleasure he had derived from conferring with his friend 
Sir John Robison, with whom he had frequent occasion to consult during 
the progress of the observations. The smaller experiments had been made in 
a reservoir in the ground attached to his (Mr. Russell's) residence, and the 
larger ones in the open sea. It was probable that these results, maturely di- 
gested, and illustrated by accurate drafts of the forms of the ships subjected 
to experiment, would be published in such completeness as might be practi- 
cally serviceable to the naval constructor and mercantile ship-builder ; and 
he would therefore confine the present Report to a general account of the 
objects contemplated in the experiments, and the method by which these 
designs had been carried out. Several series of experiments have already 
been made, both by scientific bodies and by public-spirited men, for the ad- 
vancement of naval architecture. These had cost large sums of money, and 
consumed much valuable time and talent. To most of them it had been ob- 
jected — unhappily not without reason — first, that they had not been con- 
ducted with an adequate knowledge of the Avants of the constructor ; se- 
condly, that the forms of bodies submitted to experiment were by no means 
such as are used by the ship-builder ; thirdly, that the scale on which these 
bodies were constructed was too small to claim for the results, as applied on a 
large scale, any considerable degree of confidence ; fourthly, that it had not 
been established by what law the results of experiments on one scale of mag- 
nitude are to be transferred to a different scale, either greater or less ; and, 
fifthly, that the apparatus formerly used was liable to errors which it was 
difficult to eliminate from the results. To obviate such objections was one 
great object in these experiments. Mr. Russell had contrived a new appa- 
ratus, which was so simple and convenient, that a uniform propelling force 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 105 

was obtained, by which vessels of any magnitude might be drawn by a uni- 
form mechanical force along any given distance- The forms of the models 
employed were not confined to mathematical and arbitrary solids, but were 
those of such classes of ships as are either actually employed in navigation, 
or have been proposed for that purpose. Among these were some of the 
highest reputation. It was found that there were other circumstances be- 
sides the form of the vessel which affected the result ; and that the form and 
dimensions of the channel were as important as those of the vessel in deter- 
mining it. Experiments had been instituted on the largest as well as the 
smallest scale, to show the law of relation between different scales. These 
various modes of experiment were illustrated by reference to drawings and 
tables which were prepared for publication. As an illustration of the value 
of giving a proper form to ships, altogether independently of proportion or 
dimension, the following remarkable experiments were adduced : — Four ves- 
sels, of about twenty-five feet length, having all the same dimensions of breadth 
and depth, of the same capacity and weight, and of the same draft of water, 
were towed together at the same time, under the same circumstances and at 
the same velocity. Some writers on naval architecture have asserted that, 
in such circumstances, vessels would have precisely the same resistance. 
The forms of these four vessels were not, to an inexperieuced eye, very dis- 
similar : they were all good sea boats, and each of them found its admirers 
to give its shape a preference over the others. These vessels, alike in all 
their principal dimensions, and weight, and area of midship section, and draft 
of water, differed so much in resistance, that the one had nearly double re- 
sistance to another : thus, at 7§- miles an hour, the resistances were as fol- 
lows : — 

No. I. form 56*6 lbs. resistance. 

No. II 138-5 

No. Ill 102-7 

No. IV 90-2 

All of these were good sea boats, and it was one of the most valuable of 
these results, that No. I., the form of least- resistance, was found also the best 
sea boat, the easiest, and the driest. The whole of the observations, com- 
prising more than 20,000, were in the course of preparation for publication, so 
that the whole body of the observations would be at the disposal of the Mem- 
bers of the Association. It had been the aim of the Committee to reduce the 
whole into the form most immediately conducive to the purposes of the naval 
constructor and mercantile ship-builder, and the drawings had been made on 
the scale and with the accuracy of the drafts of ships of the largest class. 

Mr. Russell also explained a model showing the waves in a channel arising 
from the natural channel wave and the wave resulting from the form of the 
boat. 



Report of a Committee appointed " to consider of the rides by which 
the Nomenclature of Zoology may be established on a uniform and 
permanent basis" 

[Minute of Council, Feb. 11, 1842. 

" Resolved, — That (with a view of securing early attention to the following 
important subject) a Committee consisting of Mr. C. Darwin, Prof. Hen- 
slow, Rev. L. Jenyns, Mr. W. Ogilby, Mr. J. Phillips, Dr. Richardson, Mr. 
H. E. Strickland (reporter), Mr. J. O. Westwood, be appointed, to con- 
sider of the rules by which the Nomenclature of Zoology may be established 



106 REPORT— 1842. 

on a uniform and permanent basis ; the report to be presented to the Zoolo- 
gical Section, and submitted to its Committee, at the Manchester Meeting. 

Minute of the Committee of the Section of Zoology and Botany, June 29, 

1842. 

" Resolved, — That the Committee of the Section of Zoology and Botany 
have too little time during the Meeting of the Association to discuss a 
Report on Nomenclature, and therefore remit to the special Committee 
appointed to draw up the Report, to present it on their own responsibility." 

The Committee appointed by the Council of the British Association to 
carry out the above object, beg leave to report, that at the meetings which 
they held in London the following gentlemen were added to the Committee 
and assisted in its labours : — Messrs. W. J. Broderip, Prof. Owen, W. E. 
Shuckard, G. It. Waterhouse, and W. Yarrell. An outline of the proposed 
code of rules having been drawn up and printed, copies of it were sent to 
many eminent zoologists at home and abroad, who were requested to favour 
the Committee with their observations and comments. Many valuable sug- 
gestions were obtained from this source, by the aid of which the Committee 
were enabled to introduce several important modifications into the original 
plan. A few copies of the plan as amended were then printed for the use of 
the Committee, and the total cost of printing these two editions amounts to 
£4- 10s. 

As the probable success of this measure must greatly depend on its ob- 
taining a rapid and extensive circulation among foreign as well as British 
zoologists, the Committee beg to recommend that a small sum (say £5 10s.) 
be appropriated for printing and distributing extra copies of this report in 
the form which it may finally assume in our Transactions. 

The plan as amended has been further considered by the Committee du- 
ring the present meeting at Manchester, and the Committee having thus 
given their best endeavours to maturing the plan, beg now to submit it to 
the approval of the British Association under the title of a 

SERIES OF PROPOSITIONS FOR RENDERING THE NOMENCLATURE 
OF ZOOLOGY UNIFORM AND PERMANENT. 

PREFACE. 

All persons who are conversant with the present state of Zoology must be 
aware of the great detriment which the science sustains from the vagueness 
and uncertainty of its nomenclature. We do not here refer to those diver- 
sities of language which arise from the various methods of classification 
adopted by different authors, and which are unavoidable in the present state 
of our knowledge. So long as naturalists differ in the views which they are 
disposed to take of the natural affinities of animals there will always be di- 
versities of classification, and the only way to arrive at the true system of 
nature is to allow perfect liberty to systematists in this respect. But the evil 
complained of is of a different character. It consists in this, that when 
naturalists are agreed as to the characters and limits of an individual group 
or species, they still disagree in the appellations by which they distinguish it. 
A genus is often designated by three or four, and a species by twice that 
number of precisely equivalent synonyms ; and in the absence of any rule on 
the subject, the naturalist is wholly at a loss what nomenclature to adopt. 
The consequence is, that the so-called commonwealth of science is becoming 
daily divided into independent states, kept asunder by diversities of language 
as well as by geographical limits. If an English zoologist, for example, visits 
the museums and converses with the professors of France, he finds that their 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 107 

scientific language is almost as foreign to him as their vernacular. Almost 
every specimen which he examines is labeled by a title which is unknown 
to him, and he feels that nothing short of a continued residence in that 
country can make him conversant with her science. If he proceeds thence 
to Germany or Russia, he vis again at a loss : bewildered everywhere amidst 
the confusion of nomenclature, he returns in despair to his own country and 
to the museums and books to which he is accustomed. 

If these diversities of scientific language were as deeply rooted as the ver- 
nacular tongue of each country, it would of course be hopeless to think of 
remedying them ; but happily this is not the case. The language of science is 
in the mouths of comparatively few, and these few, though scattered over di- 
stant lands, are in habits of frequent and friendly intercourse with each other. 
All that is wanted then is, that some plain and simple regulations, founded 
on justice and sound reason, should be drawn up by a competent body of 
persons, and then be extensively distributed throughout the zoological world. 

The undivided attention of chemists, of astronomers, of anatomists, of 
mineralogists, has been of late years devoted to fixing their respective lan- 
guages on a sound basis. Why, then, do zoologists hesitate in performing 
the same duty ? at a time, too, when all acknowledge the evils of the present 
anarchical state of their science. 

It is needless to inquire far into the causes of the present confusion of 
zoological nomenclature. It is in great measure the result of the same branch 
of science having been followed in distant countries by persons who were 
either unavoidably ignorant of each other's labours, or who neglected to in- 
form themselves sufficiently of the state of the science in other regions. And 
when we remark the great obstacles which now exist to the circulation of 
books beyond the conventional limits of the states in which they happen to 
be published, it must be admitted that this ignorance of the writings of others, 
however unfortunate, is yet in great measure pardonable. But there is another 
source for this evil, which is far less excusable, — the practice of gratifying 
individual vanity by attempting on the most frivolous pretexts to cancel the 
terms established by original discoverers, and to substitute a new and un- 
authorized nomenclature in their place. One author lays down as a rule, 
that no specific names should be derived from geographical sources, and un- 
hesitatingly proceeds to insert words of his own in all such cases ; another 
declares war against names of exotic origin, foreign to the Greek and Latin ; 
a third excommunicates all words which exceed a certain number of sylla- 
bles ; a fourth cancels all names which are complimentary of individuals, and 
so on, till universality and permanence, the two great essentials of scientific 
language, are utterly destroyed. 

It is surely, then, an object well worthy the attention of the Zoological 
Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, to devise 
some means which may lessen the extent of this evil, if not wholly put an 
end to it. The best method of making the attempt seems to be, to entrust 
to a carefully selected committee the preparation of a series of rules, the 
adoption of which must be left to the sound sense of naturalists in general. 
By emanating from the British Association, it is hoped that the proposed 
rules will be invested with an authority which no individual zoologist, how- 
ever eminent, could confer on them. The world of science is no longer a 
monarchy, obedient to the ordinances, however just, of an Aristotle or a Lin- 
nseus. She has now assumed the form of a republic, and although this revo- 
lution may have increased the vigour and zeal of her followers, yet it has de- 
stroyed much of her former order and regularity of government. The latter 
can only be restored by framing such laws as shall be based in reason and 



108 REPORT — 1842. 

sanctioned by the approval of men of science ; and it is to the preparation of 
these laws that the Zoological Section of the Association have been invited 
to give their aid. 

In venturing to propose these rules for the guidance of all classes of zoolo- 
gists in all countries, we disclaim any intention of dictating to men of science 
the course which they may see fit to pursue. It must of course be always at 
the option of authors to adhere to or depart from these principles, but. we 
offer them to the candid consideration of zoologists, in the hope that they 
may lead to sufficient uniformity of method in future to rescue the science 
from becoming a mere chaos of words.' 

We now proceed to develope the details of our plan ; and in order to make 
the reasons by which we are guided apparent to naturalists at large, it will be 
requisite to append to each proposition a short explanation of the circum- 
stances which call for it. 

Among the numerous rules for nomenclature which have been proposed by 
naturalists, there are many which, though excellent in themselves, it is not 
now desirable to enforce*. The cases in which those rules have been over- 
looked or departed from, are so numerous and of such long standing, that to 
carry these regulations into effect would undermine the edifice of zoological 
nomenclature. But while we do not adopt these propositions as authoritative 
laws, they may still be consulted with advantage in making such additions to 
the language of zoology as are required by the progress of the science. By 
adhering to sound principles of philology, we may avoid errors in future, 
even when it is too late to remedy the past, and the language of science will 
thus eventually assume an aspect of more classic purity than it now presents. 

Our subject hence divides itself into two parts ; the first consisting of Hides 
for the rectification of the present zoological nomenclature, and the second of 
Recommendations for the improvement of zoological nomenclature in future. 

PART I. 

RULES FOR RECTIFYING THE PRESENT NOMENCLATURE. 

[Limitation of the Plan to Systematic Nomenclature.'] 
In proposing a measure for the establishment of a permanent and universal 
zoological nomenclature, it must be premised that we refer solely to the Latin 
or systematic language of zoology. We have nothing to do with vernacular 
appellations. One great cause of the neglect and corruption which prevails 
in the scientific nomenclature of zoology, has been the frequent ffnd often 
exclusive use of vernacular names in lieu of the Latin binomial designations, 
which form the only legitimate language of systematic zoology. Let us then 
endeavour to render perfect the Latin or Linna?an method of nomenclature, 
which, being far removed from the scope of national vanities and modern 
antipathies, holds out the only hope of introducing into zoology that grand 
desideratum, an universal language. 

\_Law of Priority the only effectual and just one.] 
It being admitted on all hands that words are only the conventional signs 
of ideas, it is evident that language can only attain its end effectually by 
being permanently established and generally recognized. This consideration 
ought, it would seem, to have checked those who are continually attempting 
to subvert the established language of zoology by substituting terms of their 
own coinage. But, forgetting the true nature of language, they persist in 

* See especially the admirable code proposed in the ' PhilosopMa Botanica ' of Linnaeus. If 
zoologists had paid more attention to the principles of that code, the present attempt at 
reform would perhaps have been unnecessary. 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 109 

confounding the name of a species or group with its definition ; and because 
the former often falls short of the fullness of expression found in the latter, 
they cancel it without hesitation, and introduce some new term which ap- 
pears to them more characteristic, but which is utterly unknown to the science, 
and is therefore devoid of all authority*. If these persons were to object to 
such names of men as Long, Little, Armstrong, Golightly, &c, in cases where 
they fail to apply to the individuals who bear them, or should complain of 
the names Gough, Laiurence, or Harvey, that they were devoid of meaning, 
and should hence propose to change them for more characteristic appella- 
tions, they would not act more unphilosophically or inconsiderately than they 
do in the case before us ; for, in truth, it matters not in the least by what 
conventional sound we agree to designate an individual object, provided the 
sign to be employed be stamped with such an authority as will suffice to 
make it pass current. Now in zoology no one person can subsequently claim 
an authority equal to that possessed by the person who is the first to define a 
new genus or describe a new species ; and hence it is that the name origin- 
ally given, even though it may be inferior in point of elegance or express- 
iveness to those subsequently proposed, ought as a general principle to be 
permanently retained. To this consideration we ought to add the injustice 
of erasing the name originally selected by the person to whose labours we 
owe our first knowledge of the object ; and we should reflect how much the 
permission of such a practice opens a door to obscure pretenders for dragging 
themselves into notice at the expense of original observers. Neither can an 
author be permitted to alter a name which he himself has once published, 
except in accordance with fixed and equitable laws. It is well observed by 
Decandolle, " L'auteur meme qui a le premier etabli un nom n'a pas plus 
qu'un autre le droit de le changer pour simple cause d'impropriete. La pri- 
orite en effet est un terme fixe, positif, qui n'admet rien, ni d'arbitraire, ni 
de partial." 

For these reasons, we have no hesitation in adopting as our fundamental 
maxim, the " law of priority," viz. 

§ 1. The name originally given by the founder of a group or the 
describer of a species should be permanently retained, to the exclu- 
sion of all subsequent synonyms (with the exceptions about to be 
noticed). 

Having laid down this principle, we must next inquire into the limitations 
which are found necessary in carrying it into practice. 

[Not to extend to authors older than Linn&us.~\ 
As our subject matter is strictly confined to the binomial system of nomen- 
clature, or that which indicates species by means of two Latin words, the one 
generic, the other specific, and as this invaluable method originated solely 
with Linnaeus, it is clear that, as far as species are concerned, we ought not 
to attempt to carry back the principle of priority beyond the date of the 
12th edition of the ' Systema Naturae.' Previous to that period, naturalists 
were wont to indicate species not by a name comprised in one word, but 
by a definition which occupied a sentence, the extreme verbosity of which 
method was productive of great inconvenience. It is true that one word 
sometimes sufficed for the definition of a species, but these rare cases were 
only binomial by accident and not by principle, and ought not therefore in 
any instance to supersede the binomial designations imposed by Linnaeus. 

* Limifeiis says on this subject, " Ahstinenduni ah hac inuovatione quae nunquaitf cessa- 
ret, quin indies aptiora detegerentur ad infinitum." 



110 REPORT— 1842. 

The same reasons apply also to generic names. Linnaeus was the first to 
attacli a definite value to genera, and to give them a systematic character by 
moans of exact definitions; and therefore although the names used by pre- 
vious authors may often be applied with propriety to modern genera, yet in 
such eases they acquire a new moaning, and should be quoted on the author- 
ity of the first person who used them in this secondary sense. It is true, 
that several of the old authors made occasional approaches to the Linnaeau 
exactness of generic definition, but still these were but partial attempts ; and 
it is certain that if in our rectification of the binomial nomenclature we once 
trace back our authorities into the obscurity which preceded the epoch of 
its foundation, we shall find no resting-place or fixed boundary for our re- 
searches. The nomenclature of Ray is chiefly derived from that of Gesner 
and Aldrovandus, and from these authors we might proceed backward to 
/Elian, Pliny, and Aristotle, till our zoological studies would be frittered 
away amid the refinements of classical learning*. 

We therefore recommend the adoption of the following proposition : — 

§ 2. The binomial nomenclature having originated with Linnaeus, 
the law of priority, in respect of that nomenclature, is not to extend to 
the writings of antecedent authors. 

[It should be here explained, that Brisson, who was a contemporary of 
Linnaeus and acquainted with the ' Systema Naturae,' defined and published 
certain genera of' birds which are additional to those in the 12th edition of 
Linnreus's work, and which are therefore of perfectly good authority. But 
Brisson still adhered to the old mode of designating species by a sentence 
instead of a word, and therefore while we retain his defined genera, we do 
not extend the same indulgence to the titles of his species, even when the 
latter are accidentally binomial in form. For instance, the Pcrdix rubra, of 
Brisson is the Tetrao rufus of Linnaeus ; therefore as we in this case retain the 
generic name of Brisson and the specific name of Linnaeus, the correct title 
of the species would be Perdix rufa.~\ 

[ Generic names not to be cancelled in subsequent subdivisions.'] 
As the number of known species which form the groundwork of zoological 
science is always increasing, and our knowledge of their structure becomes 
more complete, fresh generalizations continually occur to the naturalist, and 
the number of genera and other groups requiring appellations is ever be- 
coming more extensive. It thus becomes necessary to subdivide the contents 
of old groups and to make their definitions continually more restricted. In 
carrying out this process, it is an act of justice to the original author, that 
his generic name should never be lost sight of; and it is no less essential to 
the welfare of the science, that all which is sound in its nomenclature should 
remain unaltered amid the additions which are continually being made to it. 
On this ground we recommend the adoption of the following rule : — 

§ 3. A. generic name when once established should never be can- 
celled in any subsequent subdivision of the group, but retained in a 
restricted sense for one of the constituent portions. 

[Genei'ic names to be retained for the typical portion of the old genus. ~\ 

When a genus is subdivided into other genera, the original name should 

be retained for that portion of it which exhibits in the greatest degree its 

essential characters as at first defined. Authors frequently indicate this by 

selecting some one species as a fixed point of reference, which they term the 

* " Quis longo a?vo recepta vocabula commutaret hodic cum patrum?" — Linnaus. 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. Ill 

" type of the genus." When they omit doing so, it may still in many cases 
be correctly inferred that the first species mentioned on their list, if found 
accurately to agree with their definition, was regarded by them as the type. 
A specific name or its synonyms will also often serve to point out the parti- 
cular species which by implication must be regarded as the original type of a 
genus. In such cases we are justified in restoring the name of the old genus 
to its typical signification, even when later authors have done otherwise. We 
submit therefore that 

§ 4. The generic name should always be retained for that portion 
of the original genus which was considered typical by the author. 

Example. — The genus Picumnus was established by Temminck, and in- 
cluded two groups, one with four toes, the other with three, the former of which 
was regarded by the author as typical. Swainson, however, in raising these 
groups at a later period to the rank of genera, gave a new name, Asthenurus, 
to the former group, and retained Picumnus for the latter. In this case we 
have no choice but to restore the name Picumnus, Tem., to its correct sense, 
cancelling the^name Asthenurus, Sw., and imposing a new name on the 3-toed 
group which Swainson had called Picumnus. 

[_ Wlien no type is indicated, then the original name is to be kept for that sub- 
sequent subdivision which first received it.~\ 

Our next proposition seems to require no explanation : — 
§ 5. When the evidence as to the original type of a genus is not 
perfectly clear and indisputable, then the person who first subdivides 
the genus may affix the original name to any portion of it at his dis- 
cretion, and no later author has a right to transfer that name to any 
other part of the original genus. 

\_A later name of the same extent as an earlier to be wholly cancelled.^ 

When an author infringes the law of priority by giving a new name to a 
genus which has been properly defined and named already, the only penalty 
which can be attached to this act of negligence or injustice, is to expel the 
name so introduced from the pale of the science. It is not right then in 
such cases to restrict the meaning of the later name so that it may stand side 
by side with the earlier one, as has sometimes been done. For instance, the 
genus Monaulus, Vieill. 1816, is a precise equivalent to Lophophorus, Tem. 
1813, both authors having adopted the same species as their type, and there- 
fore when the latter genus came in the course of time to be divided into two, 
it was incorrect to give the condemned name Monaulus to one of the por- 
tions. To state this succinctly, 

§ 6. When two authors define and name the same genus, both 
making it exactly of the same extent, the later name should be can- 
celled in toto, and not retained in a modified sense*. 

This rule admits of the following exception : — 

§ 7» Provided however, that if these authors select their respective 
types from different sections of the genus, and these sections be after- 
wards raised into genera, then both these names may be retained in 
a restricted sense for the new genera respectively. 

Example. — The names (Edemia and Melanetta were originally co-exten- 

* These discarded names may however he tolerated, if they have heen afterwards pro- 
posed in a totally new sense, though we trust that in future no one will knowingly apply an 
old name, whether now adopted or not, to a new genus. (See proposition g, infra.) 



112 REPORT — 1842. 

sive synonyms, but their respective types were taken from different sections 
which are now raised into genera, distinguished by the above titles. 

[No special rule is required for the cases in which the later of two generic 
names is so defined as to be less extensive in signification than the earlier, for 
if the later includes the type of the earlier genus, it would be cancelled by 
the operation of § 4- ; and if it does not include that type, it is in fact a distinct 
genus.] 

But when the later name is more extensive than the earlier, the following 
rule conies into operation : — 

\_A later name equivalent to several earlier ones is to be cancelled.'] 

The same principle which is involved in § 6, will apply to § 8. 

§ S. If the later name be so defined as to be equal in extent to two 
or more previously published genera, it must be cancelled in toto. 

Example. — Psarocolius, Wagl. iS'27, is equivalent to five or six genera 
previously published under other names, therefore Psarocolius should be 
cancelled. 

If these previously published genera be separately adopted (as is the case 
with the equivalents of Psarocolius), their original names will of course pre- 
vail; but if we follow the later author in combining them into one, the fol- 
lowing rule is necessary : — 

\_A genus compounded of two or more previously/ proposed genera ivhosc cha- 
racters are now deemed insufficient, should retain the name of one of them.] 

It sometimes happens that the progress of science requires two or more 
genera, founded on insufficient or erroneous characters, to be combined to- 
gether into one. In such cases the law of priority forbids us to cancel all 
the original names and impose a new one on this compound genus. We must 
therefore select some one species as a type or example, and give the generic 
name which it formerly bore to the whole group now formed. If these ori- 
ginal generic names differ in date, the oldest one should be the one adopted. 

§ 9. In compounding a genus out of several smaller ones, the earli- 
est of them, if otherwise unobjectionable, should be selected, and its 
former generic name be extended over the new genus so compounded. 

Example. — The genera Accentor and Prunella of Vieillot not being con- 
sidered sufficiently distinct in character, are now united under the general 
name of Accentor-, that being the earliest. So also Cerithium and Potamides, 
which were long considered distinct, are now united, and the latter name 
merges into the former. 

We now proceed to point out those few cases which form exceptions to 
the law of priority, and in which it becomes both justifiable and necessary to 
alter the names originally imposed by authors. 

[A name shoidd be changed ivhen previously applied to another group which 
still retains it.] 

It being essential to the binomial method to indicate objects in natural 
history by means of tico ivords only, without the aid of any further designa- 
tion, it follows that a generic name should only have one meaning, in other 
words, that two genera should never bear the same name. For a similar 
reason, no two species in the same genus should bear the same name. When 
these cases occur, the later of the two duplicate names should be cancelled, 
and a new term, or the earliest synonym, if there be any, substituted. When 
it is necessary to form new words for this purpose, it is desirable to make 
them bear some analogy to those which they are destined to supersede, as 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 113 

where the genus of birds, Plectorhynchus, being preoccupied in Ichthyology, 
is changed to Pleclorhamphus. It is, we conceive, the bounden duty of an 
author when naming a new genus, to ascertain by careful search that the 
name which he proposes to employ has not been previously adopted in other 
departments of natural history*. By neglecting this precaution he is liable 
to have the name altered and his authority superseded by the first subsequent 
author who may detect the oversight, and for this result, however unfortu- 
nate, we fear there is no remedy, though such cases would be less frequent 
if the detectors of these errors would, as an act of courtesy, point them out 
to the author himself, if living, and leave it to him to correct his own inad- 
vertencies. This occasional hardship appears to us to be a less evil than to 
permit the practice of giving the same generic name ad libitum to a multi- 
plicity of genera. We submit therefore, that , 

§ 10. A name should be changed which has before been proposed 
for some other genus in zoology or botany, or for some other species 
in the same genus, when still retained for such genus or species. 
[A name whose meaning is glaringly false may be changed."] 

Our next proposition has no other claim for adoption than that of being a 
concession to human infirmity. If such proper names of places as Covent 
Garden, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Newcastle, Bridgewater, &c, no longer sug- 
gest the ideas of gardens, fields, castles, or bridges, but refer the mind with the 
quickness of thought to the particular localities which they respectively de- 
signate, there seems no reason why the proper names used in natural history 
should not equally perform the office of correct indication even when their 
etymological meaning may be wholly inapplicable to the object which they 
typify. But we must remember that the language of science has but a limit- 
ed currency, and hence the words which compose it do not circulate with 
the same freedom and rapidity as those which belong to every-day life. The 
attention is consequently liable in scientific studies to be diverted from the 
contemplation of the thing signified to the etymological meaning of the sign, 
and hence it is necessary to provide that the latter shall not be such as to 
propagate actual error. Instances of this kind are indeed very rare, and in 
some cases, such as that of Monodon, Caprimulgus, Paradisea apoda and 
Monoculus, they have acquired sufficient currency no longer to cause error, 
and are therefore retained without change. But when we find a Batrachian 
reptile named in violation of its true affinities, Mastodonsaurus, a Mexican 
species termed (through erroneous information of its habitat) Picus cafer, or 
an olive-coloured one Muscicapa atra, or when a name is derived from an 
accidental monstrosity, as in Picus semirostris of Linnasus, and Helix dis- 
juncta of Turton, we feel justified in cancelling these names, and adopting that 
synonym which stands next in point of date. At the same time we think it 
right to remark that this privilege is very liable to abuse, and ought there- 
fore to be applied only to extreme cases and with great caution. With these 
limitations we may concede that 

§ 11. A name may be changed when it implies a false proposition 
which is likely to propagate important errors. 

[_Names not clearly defined may be changed.'] 

Unless a species or group is intelligibly defined when the name is given, it 
cannot be recognized by others, and the signification of the name is conse- 
quently lost. Two things are necessary before a zoological term can acquire 

* This laborious and difficult research will in future be greatly facilitated by the very useful 
work of M. Agassiz, entitled " Nomenclator Zoologicus." 
1842. i 



114 REPORT — 1842. 

any authority, viz. definition and publication. Definition properly implies a 
distinct exposition of essential characters, and in all cases we conceive this to 
be indispensable, although some authors maintain that a mere enumeration of 
the component species, or even of a single type, is sufficient to authenticate 
a genus. To constitute publication, nothing short of the insertion of the 
above particulars in a printed book can be held sufficient. Many birds, for 
instance, in the Paris and other continental museums, shells in the British 
Museum (in Dr. Leach's time), and fossils in the Scarborough and other 
public collections, have received M S. names which will be of no authority until 
they are published*. Nor can any unpublished descriptions, however exact 
(such as those of Forster, which are still shut up in a MS. at Berlin), claim 
any right of priority till published, and then only from the date of their pub- 
lication. The same rule applies to cases where groups or species are pub- 
lished, but not defined, as in some museum catalogues, and in Lesson's ' Traite 
d'Ornithologie,' where many species are enumerated by name, without any 
description or reference by which they can be identified. Therefore 

§ 12. A name which has never been clearly defined, in some pub- 
lished work should be changed for the earliest name by which the 
object shall have been so defined. 

[ Specific names, when adopted as generic, must be cltanged.~\ 
The necessity for the following rule will be best illustrated by an example. 
The Corvns pyrrhocorax, Linn., was afterwards advanced to a genus under 
the name of Pyrrhocorax. Temminck adopts this generic name, and also 
retains the old specific one, so that he terms the species Pyrrhocorax pyr- 
rhocorax. The inelegance of this method is so great as to demand a change 
of the specific name, and the species now stands as Pyrrhocorax alpinus, 
Vieill. We propose therefore that 

§ 13. Anew specific name must be given to a species when its old 
name has been adopted for a genus which includes that species. 

N.B. It will be seen, however, below, that we strongly object to the 
further continuance of this practice of elevating specific names into generic. 

\_Latin orthography to be adhered to.~] 

On the subject of orthography it is necessary to lay down one proposition, — 
§ 14. In writing zoological names the rules of Latin orthography- 
must be adhered to. 

In Latinizing Greek words there are certain rules of orthography known 
to classical scholars which must never be departed from. For instance, the 
names which modern authors have written Aipunemia, Zenophasia, poioce- 
phala, must, according to the laws of etymology, be spelt JEpycnemia, Xeno- 
phasia and pceocephala. In Latinizing modern words the rules of classic 
usage do not apply, and all that we can do is to give to such terms as clas- 
sical an appearance as we can, consistently with the preservation of their 
etymology. In the case of European words Avl\ose orthography is fixed, it is 
best to retain the original form, even though it may include letters and com- 
binations unknown in Latin. Such words, for instance, as Woodward i, 
Knighti, Bullochi, Eschscholtzi, would be quite unintelligible if they were 
Latinized into Vudvardi, Cnichti, Bullocci, Essolzi, &c. But words of bar- 
barous origin, having no fixed orthography, are more pliable, and hence, 
when adopted into the Latin, they should be rendered as classical in appcar- 

* These MS. names are in all cases liable to create confusion, and it is therefore much to 
be desired that the practice of using tlieni should be avoided iu future. 



Greek. 




Latin 


6 becomes th. 





» 


ph. 


X 


JJ 


ch. 


K 


J> 


c. 


yx 


)) 


nch. 


77 


5) 


«g- 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 115 

ance as is consistent with the preservation of their original sound. Thus the 
words Tochus, awsuree, argoondah, kundoo, &c. should, when Latinized, have 
been written Toccus, ausure, argunda, cundu, &c. Such words ought, in all 
practicable cases, to have a Latin termination given them, especially if they 
are used generically. 

In Latinizing proper names, the simplest rule appears to be to use the ter- 
mination -us, genitive -i, when the name ends with a consonant, as in the above 
examples ; and -ius, gen. -ii, when it ends with a vowel, as Latreille, Latreillii, 
&c. 

In converting Greek words into Latin the following rules must be attended 
to:— 

Greek. Latin. 

ai becomes ae. 
ei „ i. 
os terminal, us 
ov „ um. 
ov becomes u. 
oi „ ce. 
v „ y. 

When a name has been erroneously written and its orthography has been 
afterwards amended, we conceive that the authority of the original author 
should still be retained for the name, and not that of the person who makes 
the correction. 

PART II. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE NOMENCLATURE IN FUTURE. 

The above propositions are all which in the present state of the science it 
appears practicable to invest with the character of laws. We have endeavour- 
ed to make them as few and simple as possible, in the hope that they may be 
the more easily comprehended and adopted by naturalists in general. We are 
aware that a large number of other regulations, some of which are hereafter 
enumerated, have been proposed and acted upon by various authors who have 
undertaken the difficult task of legislating on this subject ; but as the enforce- 
ment of such rules would in many cases undermine the invaluable principle 
of priority, we do not feel justified in adopting them. At the same time we 
fully admit that the rules in question are, for the most part, founded on just 
criticism, and therefore, though we do not allow them to operate retrospec- 
tively, we are willing to retain them for future guidance. Although it is of 
the first importance that the principle of priority should be held paramount 
to all others, yet we are not blind to the desirableness of rendering our sci- 
entific language palatable to the scholar and the man of taste. Many zoolo- 
gical terms, which are now marked with the stamp of perpetual currency, are 
yet so far defective in construction, that our inability to remove them without 
infringing the law of priority may be a subject of regret. With these terms 
we cannot interfere, if we adhere to the principles above laid down ; nor is 
there even any remedy, if authors insist on infringing the rules of good taste 
by introducing into the science words of the same inelegant or unclassical 
character in future. But that which cannot be enforced by law may, in some 
measure, be effected by persuasion ; and with this view we submit the follow- 
ing propositions to naturalists, under the title of Recommendations for the 
improvement of Zoological Nomenclature in future. 

[_ The best names are Latin or Greek characteristic words.~\ 
The classical languages being selected for zoology, and words being more 
easily remembered in proportion as they are expressive, it is self-evident that 

i2 



116 REPORT— 1842. 

§ A. The best zoological names are those which are derived from 
the Latin or Greek, and express some distinguishing characteristic of 
the object to which they are applied. 

[Classes of objectionable names.~\ 
It follows from hence that the following classes of words are more or less 
objectionable in point of taste, though, in the case of genera, it is often neces- 
sary to use them, from the impossibility of finding characteristic words which 
have not before been employed for other genera. We will commence with 
those which appear the least open to objection, such as 

a. Geographical names These words being for the most part adjectives 

can rarely be used for genera. As designations of species they have been so 
strongly objected to, that some authors (Wagler, for instance) have gone the 
length of substituting fresh names wherever they otcur ; others (e.g. Swain- 
son) will only tolerate them where they apply exclusively, as Lepus hiberni- 
cus, Troglodytes europceus, &c. We are by no means disposed to go to this 
length. It is not the less true that the Hirundo javanica is a Javanese bird, 
even though it may occur in other countries also, and though other species of 
Hirundo may occur in Java. The utmost that can be urged against such 
words is, that they do not tell the whole truth. However, as so many authors 
object to this class of names, it is better to avoid giving them, except where 
there is reason to believe that the species is chiefly confined to the country 
whose name it bears. 

b. Barbarous names. — Some authors protest strongly against the introduc- 
tion of exotic words into our Latin nomenclature, others defend the practice 
with equal warmth. We may remark, first, that the practice is not contrary 
to classical usage, for the Greeks and Romans did occasionally, though with 
reluctance, iutroduce barbarous words in a modified form into their respective 
languages. Sec&ndly, the preservation of the trivial names which animals 
bear in their native countries is often of great use to the traveller in aiding 
him to discover and identify species. We do not therefore consider, if such 
words have a Latin termination given to them, that the occasional and judi- 
cious use of them as scientific terms can be justly objected to. 

c. Technical names. — All words expressive of trades and professions have 
been by some writers excluded from zoology, but without sufficient reason. 
Words of this class, when carefully chosen, often express the peculiar charac- 
ters and habits of animals in a metaphorical manner, which is highly elegant. 
We may cite the generic terms Arvicola, Lanius, Pastor, Tyrannus, Reguhis, 
Mimus, Ploceus, &c, as favourable examples of this class of names. 

d. Mythological or historical names. — When these have no perceptible re- 
ference or allusion to the characters of the object on which they are conferred, 
they may be properly regarded as unmeaning and in bad taste. Thus the 
generic names Lesbia, Leilus, Remus, Corydon, Pasiphae, have been applied 
to a Humming bird, a Butterfly, a Beetle, a Parrot, and a Crab respectively, 
without any perceptible association of ideas. But mythological names may 
sometimes be used as generic with the same propriety as technical ones, in 
cases where a direct allusion can be traced between the narrated actions of a 
personage and the observed habits or structure of an animal. Thus when the 
name Prognc is given to a Swallow, Clotho to a Spider, Hydra to a Polyp, 
Athene to an Owl, Nestor to a grey-headed Parrot, &c, a pleasing and bene- 
ficial connexion is established between classical literature and physical science. 

e. Comparative names. — The objections which have been raised to words 
of this class are not without foundation. The names, no less than the defini- 
tions of objects, should, where practicable, be drawn from positive and self- 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 117 

evident Characters, and not from a comparison with other objects, which may 
be less known to the reader than the one before him. Specific names expres- 
sive of comparative size are also to be avoided, as they may be rendered in- 
accurate by the after-discovery of additional species. The names Picoides, 
Emberizoides, Pseudoluscinia, rubecidoides, maximus, minor, minimus, &c. are 
examples of this objectionable practice. 

f. Generic names compounded from other genera. — These are in some de- 
gree open to the same imputation as comparative words ; but as they often 
serve to express the position of a genus as intermediate to, or allied with, two 
other genera, they may occasionally be used with advantage. Care must be 
taken not to adopt such compound words as are of too great length, and not 
to corrupt them in trying to render them shorter. The names Gallopavo, Te- 
traogallus, Gypaetos, are examples of the appropriate use of compound words. 

g. Specific names derived from persons. — So long as these complimentary 
designations are used with moderation, and are restricted to persons of emi- 
nence as scientific zoologists, they may be employed with propriety in cases 
where expressive or characteristic words are not to be found. But we fully 
concur with those who censure the practice of naming species after persons 
of no scientific reputation, as curiosity dealers (e. g. Caniveti, Boissoneauti), 
Peruvian priestesses (Cora, Amazilid), or Hottentots {Klassi). 

h. Generic names derived from persons. — Words of this class have been 
very extensively used in botany, and therefore it would have been well to 
have excluded them wholly from zoology, for the sake of obtaining a memo- 
ria technica by which the name of a genus would at once tell us to which of 
the kingdoms of nature it belonged. Some few personal generic names have 
however crept into zoology, as Cuvieria, Mulleria, JRossia, Lessonia, &c, but 
they are very rare in comparison with those of botany, and it is perhaps de- 
sirable not to add to their number. 

i. Names of harsh and inelegant pronunciation. — These words are grating 
to the ear, either from inelegance of form, as Huhua, Yuhina, Craxirex, Esch- 
scholtzi,. or from too great length, as chirostrongylostinus, Opetiorhynchus, 
brachypodioides, Thecodontosaurus, not to mention the Enaliolimnosauras 
crocodilocephaloides of a German naturalist. It is needless to enlarge on the 
advantage of consulting euphony in the construction of our language. As a 
general rule it may be recommended to avoid introducing words of more than 
five syllables. 

h. Ancient names of animals applied in a wrong sense. — It has been cus- 
tomary, in numerous cases, to apply the names of animals found in classic 
authors at random to exotic genera or species which were wholly unknown 
to the ancients. The names Cebus, Callithrix, Spiza, Kitta, Struthus, are 
examples. This practice ought by no means to be encouraged. The usual 
defence for it is, that it is impossible now to identify the species to which the 
name was anciently applied. But it is certain that if any traveller will take 
the trouble to collect the vernacular names used by the modern Greeks and 
Italians for the Vertebrata and Mollusca of southern Europe, the meaning of 
the ancient names may in most cases be determined with the greatest preci- 
sion. It has been well remarked that a Cretan fisher-boy is a far better com- 
mentator on Aristotle's ' History of Animals' than a British or German scho- 
lar. The use however of ancient names, wlien correctly applied, is most de- 
sirable, for " in framing scientific terms, the appropriation of old words is 
preferable to the formation of new ones*." 

I. Adjective generic names. — The names of genera are, in all cases, essen- 
tially substantive, and hence adjective terms cannot be employed for them 
* Whewell, Phil. Iud. Sc. v. i. p. lxvii. 



118 REPORT— 1842. 

without doing violence to grammar. The generic names Hians, Criniger, 
Cursorius, Nitidula, <tc. are examples of this incorrect usage. 

m. Hybrid names — Compound words, whose compouent parts are taken 
from two different languages, are great deformities in nomenclature, and na- 
turalists should be especially guarded not to introduce any more such terms 
into zoology, which furnishes too many examples of them already. We have 
them compounded of Greek and Latin, as De?idrofalco, Gymnocorvus, Mo- 
nocidus, Arborophila, Jlavigaster ; Greek and French, as Jacamaralcyon, Ja- 
camerops ; and Greek and English, as Bullockoides, Gilbertsocrinites. 

n. Names closely resembling other names already used. — By Rule 10 it was 
laid down, that when a name is introduced which is identical with one pre- 
viously used, the later one should be changed. Some authors have extended 
the same principle to cases where the later name, when correctly written, only 
approaches in form, without wholly coinciding with the earlier. We do not, 
however, think it advisable to make this law imperative, first, because of the 
vast extent of our nomenclature, which renders it highly difficult to find a 
name which shall not bear more or less resemblance in sound to some other ; 
and, secondly, because of the impossibility of fixing a limit to the degree of 
approximation beyond which such a law should cease to operate. We con- 
tent ourselves, therefore, with putting forth this proposition merely as a re- 
commendation to naturalists, in selecting generic names, to avoid such as too 
closely approximate words already adopted. So with respect to species, the 
judicious naturalist will aim at variety of designation, and will not, for ex- 
ample, call a species virens or virescens in a genus which already possesses a 
viridis. 

o. Corrupted words. — In the construction of compound Latin words, there 
are certain grammatical rules which have been known and acted on for two 
thousand years, and which a naturalist is bound to acquaint himself with be- 
fore he tries his skill in coining zoological terms. One of the chief of these 
rules is, that in compounding words all the radical or essential parts of the 
constituent members must be retained, and no change made except in the 
variable terminations. But several generic names have been lately introduced 
which run counter to this rule, and form most unsightly objects to all who are 
conversant with the spirit of the Latin language. A name made up of the 
first half of one word and the last half of another, is as deformed a monster 
in nomenclature as a Mermaid or a Centaur would be in zoology ; yet we find 
examples in the names Corcorax (from Corvus and Pyrrhocorax), Cypsnagra 
(from Cypselus and Tanagra), Merulaxis (Merula and Synallaxis), Loxigilla 
(Loxia and Fringilla), &c. In other cases, where the commencement of both 
the simple words is retained in the compound, a fault is still committed by 
cutting off too much of the radical and vital portions, as is the case in Bu- 
corvus (from Buceros and Corvus), Ninox (Nisus and Noctua), &c. 

p. Nonsense names.— Some authors having found difficulty in selecting ge- 
neric names which have not been used before, have adopted the plan of coining 
words at random without any derivation or meaning whatever. The following 
are examples : Viralva, Xemu, Azeca, Assiminia, Quedius, Spisula. To the 
same class we may refer anagrams of other generic names, as Dacelo and Ce- 
dola of Alcedo, Zapornia of Porzana, &c. Such verbal trifling as this is in 
very bad taste, and is especially calculated to bring the science into contempt. 
It finds no precedent in the Augustan age of Latin, but can be compared only 
to the puerile quibblings of the middle ages. It is contrary to the genius of 
all languages, which appear never to produce new words by spontaneous ge- 
neration, but always to derive them from some other source, however distant 
or obscure. And it is peculiarly annoying to the etymologist, who after seek" 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 119 

ing in vain through the vast storehouses of human language for the parentage 
of such words, discovers at last that he has been pursuing an ignis fatuus. 

q. Names previously cancelled by the operation of § 6. — Some authors con- 
sider that when a name has been reduced to a synonym by the operations of 
the laws of priority, they are then at liberty to apply it at pleasure to any new 
group which may be in want of a name. We consider, however, that when a 
word has once been proposed in a given sense, and has afterwards sunk into 
a synonym, it is far better to lay it aside for ever than to run the risk of ma- 
king confusion by re-issuing it with a new meaning attached. 

r. Specific names raised into generic. — It has sometimes been the practice 
in subdividing an old genus to give to the lesser genera so formed, the names 
of their respective typical species. Our Rule 13 authorizes the forming a 
new specific name in such cases ; but we further wish to state our objections 
to the practice altogether. Considering as we do that the original specific 
names should as far as possible be held sacred, both on the grounds of justice 
to their authors and of practical convenience to naturalists, Ave would strongly 
dissuade from the further continuance of a practice which is gratuitous in itself, 
and which involves the necessity of altering long-established specific names. 

We have now pointed out the principal rocks and shoals which lie in the 
path of the nomenclator; and it will be seen that the navigation through 
them is by no means easy. The task of constructing a language which shall 
supply the demands of scientific accuracy on the one hand, and of literary 
elegance on the other, is not to be inconsiderately undertaken by unqualified 
persons. Our nomenclature presents but too many flaws and inelegancies 
already, and as the stern law of priority forbids their removal, it follows that 
they must remain as monuments of the bad taste or bad scholarship of their 
authors to the latest ages in which zoology shall be studied. 

^Families to end in idse, and Subfamilies in inae.] 

The practice suggested in the following proposition has been adopted by 
many recent authors, and its simplicity and convenience is so great that we 
strongly recommend its universal use. 

§ B. It is recommended that the assemblages of genera termed fa- 
milies should be uniformly named by adding the termination idee to 
the name of the earliest known, or most typically characterized genus 
in them ; and that their subdivisions, termed subfamilies, should be 
similarly constructed, with the termination ince. 

These words are formed by changing the last syllable of the genitive case 
into idee or inec, as Strix, Strigis, Strigidee, Buceros, Bucerotis, Bucerotidee, 
not Strixidce, Buceridai. 

\_Specific names to be written with a small initial.'] 

A convenient memoria technica may be effected by adopting our next pro- 
position. It has been usual, when the titles of species are derived from pro- 
per names, to write them with a capital letter, and hence when the specific 
name is used alone it is liable to be occasionally mistaken for the title of a 
genus. But if the titles of species were invariably written with a small ini- 
tial, and those of genera with a capital, the eye would at once distinguish the 
rank of the group referred to, and a possible source of error would be avoided. 
It should be further remembered that all species are equal, and should there- 
fore be written all alike. We suggest, then, that 

§ C. Specific names should always be written with a small initial 
letter, even when derived from persons or places, and generic names 
should be always written with a capital. 



120 REPORT— 1842. 

[ The authority for a species, exclusive of the genus, to be followed by a di~ 
stinctive expression.] 

The systematic names of zoology being still far from that state of fixity 
which is the ultimate aim of the science, it is frequently necessary for correct 
indication to append to them the name of the person on whose authority they 
have been proposed. When the same person is authority both for the specific 
and generic name, the case is very simple ; but when the specific name of one 
author is annexed to the generic name of another, some difficulty occurs. 
For example, the Muscicapa crinita of Linnaeus belongs to the modern genus 
Tyrannies of Vieillot ; but Swainson was the first tp apply the specific name 
of Linnaeus to the generic one of Vieillot. The question now arises, Whose 
authority is to be quoted for the name Tyrannus crinitus? The expression 
Tyrannus crinitus, Lin., would imply what is untrue, for Linnaeus did not use 
the term Tyrannus ; and Tyrannus crinitus, Vieill., is equally incorrect, for 
Vieillot did not adopt the name crinitus. If we call it Tyrannus crinitus, 
Sw., it would imply that Swainson was the first to describe the species, and 
Linnaeus would be robbed of his due credit. If we term it Tyrannus, Vieill., 
crinitus, Lin., we use a form which, though expressing the facts correctly, and 
therefore not without advantage in particular cases where great exactness is 
required, is yet too lengthy and inconvenient to be used with ease and rapi- 
dity. Of the three persons concerned with the construction of a binomial 
title in the case before us, we conceive that the author who first describes 
and names a species which forms the gi'oundwork of later generalizations, 
possesses a higher claim to have his name recorded than he who afterwards 
defines a genus which is found to embrace that species, or who may be the 
mere accidental means of bringing the generic and specific names into con- 
tact. By giving the authority for the specific name in preference to all others, 
the inquirer is referred directly to the original description, habitat, &c. of the 
species, and is at the same time reminded of the date of its discovery ; while 
genera, being less numerous than species, may be carried in the memory, or 
referred to in systematic works without the necessity of perpetually quoting 
their authorities. The most simple mode then for ordinary use seems to be 
to append to the original authority for the species, when not applying to the 
genus also, some distinctive mark, such as (sp.) implying an exclusive refer- 
ence to the specific name, as Tyrannus crinitus, Lin. (sp.), and to omit this 
expression when the same authority attaches to both genus and species, as 
Ostrea edulis, Lin.*' Therefore, 

§ D. It is recommended that the authority for a specific name, when 
not applying to the generic name also, should be followed by the di- 
stinctive expression (sp.). 

\_Neio genera and species to be defined amply and publicly.] 
A large proportion of the complicated mass of synonyms which has now 
become the opprobrium of zoology, has originated either from the slovenly 
and imperfect manner in which species and groups have been originally de- 
fined, or from their definitions having been inserted in obscure local publica- 
tions which have never obtained an extensive circulation. Therefore, although 
under § 12, we have conceded that mere insertion in a printed book is suffi- 
cient for publication, yet we would strongly advise the authors of new groups 
always to give in the first instance a full and accurate definition of their cha- 
racters, and to insert the same in such periodical or other works as are likely 
to obtain an immediate and extensive circulation. To state this briefly, 

* The expression Tyrannus crinitus (Lin.) would perhaps be preferable from its greater 

brevity. 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 121 

§ E. It is recommended that new genera or species be amply de- 
fined, and extensively circulated in the first instance. 

f_ The names to be given to subdivisions of genera to agree in gender with the 

original genus.~\ 

In order'to preserve specific names as far us possible in an unaltered form, 

whatever may be the changes which the genera to which they are referred 

may undergo, it is desirable, when it can be done with propriety, to make 

the new subdivisions of genera agree in gender with the old groups from which 

they are formed. This recommendation does not however authorize the 

changing the gender or termination of a genus already established. In brief, 

§ F. It is recommended that in subdividing an old genus in future, 

the names given to the subdivisions should agree in gender with that 

of the original group. 

[Etymologies and types of new genera to be stated. 2 
It is obvious that the names of genera would in general be far more care- 
fully constructed, and their definitions would be rendered more exact, if 
authors would adopt the following suggestion : — 

§ G. It is recommended that in defining new genera the etymo- 
logy of the name should be always stated, and that one species should 
be invariably selected as a type or standard of reference. 

In concluding this outline of a scheme for the rectification of zoological 
nomenclature, we have only to remark, that almost the whole of the proposi- 
tions contained in it may be applied with equal correctness to the sister sci- 
ence of botany. We have preferred, however, in this essay to limit our views 
to zoology, both for the sake of rendering the question less complex, and be- 
cause we conceive that the botanical nomenclature of the present day stands 
in much less need of distinct enactment than the zoological. The admirable 
rules laid down by Linnaeus, Smith, Decandolle, and other botanists (to 
which, no less than to the works of Fabricius, Illiger, Vigors, Swainson, and 
other zoologists, we have been much indebted in preparing the present docu- 
ment), have always exercised a beneficial influence over their disciples. 
Hence the language of botany has attained a more perfect and stable condi- 
tion than that of zoology ; and if this attempt at reformation may have the 
effect of advancing zoological nomenclature beyond its present backward 
and abnormal state, the wishes of its promoters will be fully attained. 

(Signed) H. E. Strickland. J. S. Henslow. 

June 27, 1842. John Phillips. W. E. Shuckard. 

John Richardson. G. It. Waterhouse. 

Richard Owen. W. Yarrell. 

Leonard Jenyns. C. Darwin. 

W. J. Broderip. J. O. Westwood. 



Report of a Committee of the British Association for the Advancement 

of Science, consisting of Lieut. -Colonel W. H. Sykes, F.R.S., Lord 

Sandon, M.P., G. R. Porter, Esq., F.R.S., J. Heywood, Esq., 

F.R.S., Dr. W. P. Alison, and E. Chadwick, Esq., on the Vital 

Statistics of large Towns in Scotland. 

Your Committee, in pursuance of the Resolution of the General Committee 

of the Association in 1840, at Glasgow, selected the towns of Edinburgh 

(with Leith), Glasgow, Aberdeen, Perth and Dundee, as best suited for their 

inquiries, from their population, the occupations of their inhabitants, and 



122 REPORT— 1842. 

their local positions, not only as affording data for useful comparison be- 
tween towns having a common character, but also between those with dif- 
ferences in their social organization or in their physical circumstances. Mr. 
Alexander Watt of Glasgow, who has established a claim to public respect 
by his Mortality Bills of Glasgow and other statistical works, was good 
enough to undertake the severe labour of accumulating the facts which con- 
stitute the present Report. From the very imperfect state of the Registers 
of Marriages, Births and Deaths in Scotland, it required no ordinary perse- 
verance and tact to obviate the deficiencies; but Mr. Watt's zeal enabled him 
to surmount all difficulties, and he presented to the Committee a series of facts 
absolutely embarrassing from their amount and elaborate and detailed cha- 
racter. Mr. Watt's facts were comprised in 119 tables, and in the state in 
which they were presented it was found that, together with the text, the re- 
port would occupy 199 pages of the annual volume of the Association, a por- 
tion of the volume which the Committee felt they ought not to desire to have 
appropriated to their report. With this feeling a re-arrangement of the tables 
and text was attempted, and by new modelling, dove-tailing and trifling omis- 
sions of certain columns in the tables, and by some omissions and reconstruc- 
tion of a few paragraphs in the text, the tables have been reduced to eighty 
in number, and the pages occupied by the report will not exceed eighty-seven. 
It is believed that these alterations have been effected without the omission 
of any important facts; it certainly has been effected without the omission of 
one of the original tables, although it must be admitted that certain columns 
have been left out in the marriage tables to which Mr. Watt attaches some 
weight ; and in justice to him this explanation is made. But the marriage 
tables, as a whole, are necessarily imperfect, and the omission therefore of 
details intended to explain the elements of the totals in the marriage tables 
it was thought might be made without injury. The original manuscript, 
however, of the report will be deposited in the archives of the British Asso- 
ciation, and will be available to those whq may be desirous of instituting 
comparisons between it and the printed report. 

While the sheets of this report were passing through the press, the Fourth 
Annual Report of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths and Marriages in 
England was presented to Parliament. As it contained later information than 
that on which the tables for English towns, LXXV., LXXVII., LXXIX. and 
LXXX. of this report, had been originally founded, it was thought right, 
with a view to insure greater accuracy, to substitute the present tables of 
the mortality in England for the former tables. The elements for determin- 
ing the averages in tables LXXV., LXXVII, and LXXIX., are supplied by 
the Registrar-General's report ; and table LXXX., containing the proportion 
of deaths to the population in certain English towns, has been copied from 
the same report. The English tables offer valuable standards of comparison 
with those from the Scottish towns. 

The Committee close their Report on the Vital Statistics of large Towns 
in Scotland with the expression of their regret that the want of a systematic 
plan for the registration of marriages, births and deaths renders their report 
less perfect than they could have desired ; nevertheless the facts accumu- 
lated open out a prospect of ascertaining, in the continued progress of their 
researches, certain physical laws in vital statistics, the knowledge of which 
may be of considerable importance, not only in the formation of more cor- 
rect estimates of the value of life in the different relations of society, but also 
in guiding the judgement of the legislator and the philanthropist in encoun- 
tering the physical evils resulting from moral causes. 

W. H. Sykes, Cliairman of the Committee. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 123 



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134 report— 1842. 



MARRIAGES. 

Till within these three years the amount of proclamations of marriages has 
generally been given as the amount of marriages, both in the Glasgow and 
Dundee mortality bills, the only towns in Scotland where attention has been 
paid to the regular publication of bills of mortality. The preceding tables of 
the proclamations of marriages for Edinburgh and Leith, Glasgow, Aberdeen, 
Perth and Dundee, furnish sufficient evidence, that to assume the total num- 
ber of the proclamations as the amount of marriages, in any case, is exceedingly 
fallacious. For example, Table III. shows that in Edinburgh, in 1839, the 
proclamations of marriages amounted to 1269, whereas the number of regular 
marriages (Table I.) amounted only to 1026. A similar difference will be ob- 
served between the amount of proclamations and the number of marriages du- 
ring the several years for all these towns, arising from a number of the parties 
residing in different parishes, in which cases there are two proclamations for 
one marriage. The arrangement which ha3 been followed in these tables is 
that lately adopted in the Glasgow mortality bills ; and, in the event of the 
clergyman who celebrated the marriages, as well as the other parties con- 
cerned, having adhered to their strict line of duty in enforcing the parties 
married to produce the proper warrants of the proclamations of banns from 
their respective parishes, the accuracy of the results in these tables is not to 
be doubted. It is known, however, that several irregularities take place with 
regard to the fulfilment of the law, in relation to the proclamations of mar- 
riages, — a circumstance which necessarily produces some inaccuracy, however 
slight, in the results brought out in the marriage tables. 

The proclamation fees are considerably lower in some parishes of Scotland 
than in others, and parties have been known to make false statements of their 
places of residence to escape paying the higher fee ; this has taken place 
more especially in those cases where one of the parties resided in the parish 
where the low fees are paid. In other cases this irregularity has taken place to 
save the payment of double fees, which would be necessary, were the parties 
proclaimed in their respective parishes as required by law. Cases are also 
known in which ministers have married parties on the production of one 
warrant, although the parties were known to have resided in different pa- 
rishes ; so that marriages have taken place in a few instances where the warr 
rants were not called for. On the other hand, some cases have occurred in 
which the parties were not married although the warrants were called for. 
These cases may therefore be considered as balancing each other ; and not- 
withstanding these irregularities, the foregoing tables of marriages, con^ 
structed as they are from the returns made by the respective session clerks, 
may be considered as nearer to the truth than any tables in other depart- 
ments of vital statistics in Scotland, arising from the very defective and par- 
tial system of registering births and deaths that exists in the country. 

Edinburgh. 

It will be found, that of the inhabitants of the city of Edinburgh, including 
the parishes of St. Cuthbert's and the Canongate, the average annual number 
of males married during the years 1839, 1840, and 1841 is 1009|, females 
1050£ ; the total average annual number of individuals married during these 
years being 2060. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 135 



Therefore the average annual number of males 
married in Edinburgh, compared to the num- 
ber of male inhabitants ascertained by the 

Census of 1841, is as 1 to 60'725, or 1-646 per cent. 

The average annual number of females mar- 
ried, to the female population, as 1 to 73-185, or 1-366 per cent. 

Greater proportion of the male than of the fe- ■ 

male population married, by O280 per cent. 

While there is on an average of these three years 0-280 per cent, more of the 

male than of the female population of Edinburgh married, it appears that on the 

average of these years there is 3*87 per cent, more females than males married*. 

The average annual number of individuals married, to the total population, 

is as 1 to 67*078, or 1*490 per cent. 

It will be observed, that in the different tables of the proclamations of 
marriages, it is assumed that all the females after marriage went to reside in 
the parish to which their husbands belonged, and the females of the double 
proclamations are accordingly deducted to obtain the amount of the resident 
marriages. The following table is constructed on this principle. 

Table XI. 

Exhibiting the proportion which the resident marriages in EDINBURGH 
and suburban districts of St. Cuthbert's and Canongate, during the years 
1839, 1840 and 1841, bear to the population of these years. 



Years. 


Population. 


Marriages. 


Proportion of Marriages to the 
Population being as 1 to 


1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


137,756 
137,986 
138,182 


1030 

998 

1007 


133-743, or 0-747 per cent. 
138-262, or 0-723 ... 
137-221, or 0-728 ... 


The average annual amount of marriages, to the mean po- 
pulation, of these three years, heing as 1 to 136-394, or 0-733 
per cent. 



Leith. 
It will be found, that of the inhabitants of North and South Leith, the 
average annual number of males married during the years 1839, 1840, and 
1S41 is 255^, females 246 ; the total average annual number of individuals 
married during these years being 501^. 

Therefore the average annual number of males 
married in Leith, compared with the num- 
ber of males as ascertained by the Census 

of 1841, is as 1 to 51*857, or 1-928 per cent. 

The average annual number of females mar- 
ried, to the female population, is as 1 to 61*508, or 1*625 per cent. 

Greater proportion of the male than of the fe- 

male population married, by 0*303 per cent. 

While there is on an average of these three years 0*303 per cent, more of the 
male than of the female population of Leith married, it appears that on the ave- 
rage of these years there is 3*65 per cent, more males than females married f. 

* By the Census of 1841, there are 125-37 females to every 100 males in Edinburgh, 
t By the Census of 1841, there are 114-27 females to every 100 males in North and South 
Leith. 



136 



REPORT — 1842. 



The average annual number of individuals married, to the population, is 
as 1 to 56*593, or 1*767 per cent. 

Table XII. 

Exhibiting the proportion which the resident marriages in the parishes of 
North and South LEITH, during the years 1839, 1840 and 1841, bear to 
the population of these years. 



Years. 


Population. 


Marriages. 


Proportion of Marriages to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


27,846 
28,103 
28,372 


246 
246 
274 


113-195, or 0-883 per cent. 
114-239, or 0-875 ... 
103-547, or 0-965 ... 


The average annual amount of marriages, to the mean po- 
pulation of these three years, being as 1 to 110-063, or 0-908 
per cent. 



Edinburgh and Leith. 

As the inhabitants of Edinburgh and Leith are so intimately connected 
with each other, the results obtained from the marriages of the two com- 
bined, to their united population, may be the nearest to the truth. These are 
as follows. 

Of the inhabitants of Edinburgh and Leith, the average annual number of 
males married during the years 1839, 1840 and 1841 is 1265, females 1296j ; 
the total average annual number of individuals married during these years 
being 2561£. 

The average annual number of males married 
in Edinburgh and Leith, compared with the 
number of males as ascertained by the 
Census of 1841, is as 1 to 58*935, or 1*696 per cent. 

The average annual number of females mar- 
ried to the female population, as 1 to 70*969, or 1*409 per cent. 

Greater proportion of the male than of the fe- 

male population married, by 0*287 per cent. 

While there is on an average of these three years 0*287 per cent, more of 
the male than of the female population of Edinburgh and Leith married, it 
appears that on the average of these years there is 2*41 per cent, more fe- 
males than males married *. 

The average annual number of individuals married, to the total population, 
is as 1 to 65*026, or 1*537 per cent. 

* By the Census of 1841, there are 123-40 females to every 100 males in Edinburgh and 
Leith. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 137 

Table XIII. 

Exhibiting the proportion which the resident marriages in EDINBURGH 
and LEITH, during the years 1839, 1840 and 1841, bear to the popula- 
tion of these years ; also the average annual amount of marriages to the 
mean population. 



Years. 


Population. 


Marriages. 


Proportion of Marriages to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


165,602 
166,089 
166,554 


1276 
1244 
1281 


129-782, or 0-770 per cent. 
133-512, or 0-748 ... 
130-019, or 0-769 ... 


The average annual amount of resident marriages, to the 
mean population of these years, being as 1 to 131-088, or 


0-762 pe 


r cent. 





Glasgow. 

The tables of marriages published in the Glasgow Mortality Bills for 1839, 
1840 and 1841, show that of the inhabitants of the city of Glasgow and the 
suburban parishes of Barony and Gorbals, the average annual number of 
males married during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 and 1841, was 2186£, 
females 2166j* the total average annual number of individuals married 
during these years being 4353. 

Therefore the average annual number of males 
married these five years in Glasgow and 
suburbs, compared with the number of 
males as ascertained by the Census of 
1841, is as 1 to 61*333, or 1-630 per cent. 

The average annual number of females mar- 
ried, to the female population, as 1 to 68*325, or 1*463 per cent. 

Greater proportion of the male than of the 

female population married, by 0*167 per cent. 

While there was on an average of these five years 0*167 per cent, more of 
the male than of the female population of Glasgow married, it appears that 
on the average of these years there was 0*887 per cent, fewer females than 
males married*. 

The average annual number of individuals married, to the total population, 
is as 1 to 64*813, or 1*542 per cent. 

* By the Census of 1841, there were 110-41 females to every 100 males in Glasgow. 



138 



REPORT — 1842. 
Table XIV. 



Exhibiting the proportion which the resident marriages in GLASGOW and 
Suburbs, during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 and 1841, bear to the 
population of these years; also the average annual amount of marriages 
to the mean population. 



Years. 


Population. 


Marriages. 


Proportion of Marriages to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


247,040 
255,390 
264,010 

272,900 
282,134 


1927 
2193 
2177 

22!)4 
2382 


128200, or 0-780 per cent. 
116-457, or 0-858 ... 
127-272, or 0-824 ... 
118-962, or 0-840 ... 
11S-444, or 0-844 ... 


The average annual amount of marriages, to the mean 
population of these five years, being as 1 to 120-290, or 0-831 
per cent. 



Aberdeen. 

It will be found, that of the inhabitants of New and Old Aberdeen, the 
average annual number of males married during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 
1840 and 1841 is 452f , females 454; the total average annual number of 
individuals married during these five years being 906J. 

The average annual number of males married 
in Aberdeen, compared with the number 
of males as ascertained by the Census of 
1841, is as 1 to 62*609, or 1-597 per cent. 

The average annual number of females mar- 
ried, to the female population, as 1 to 80*266, or l*2i5 per cent. 

Greater proportion of the males than of the 

female population married, by 0-352 per cent. 

While there is on an average of these five years 0-352 per cent, more of 
the male than of the female population of Aberdeen married, it appears that 
on the average of these years there is 0-30 per cent, more females than males 
married *. 

The average annual number of individuals married, to the total population, 
is as 1 to 71*451, or 1*399 per cent. 

* By the Census of 1841, there were 128-59 females to every 100 males in Aberdeen. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 139 

Table XV. 

Exhibiting the proportion which the resident marriages in ABERDEEN, 
during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 and 1841, bear to the population 
of these years ; also the average annual amount of marriages to the mean 
population. 



Years. 


Population. 


Marriages. 


Proportion of Marriages to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


61,985 
62,672 
63,366 
64,068 
64,778 


460 
456 
433 
435 
479 


134-750, or 0-742 per cent. 
137-438, or 0-727 ... 
146-341, or 0-683 ... 
147-282, or 0-678 ... 
135-235, or 0-739 ... 


The average annual amount of resident marriages, to the 
mean population of these five years, being as 1 to 140-004, or 
0-714 per cent. 



Perth. 

It will be found, that of the inhabitants of Perth and suburban district 
of Kinnoul, the average annual number of males married during the years 
1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 and 1841 is 140, females 148f ; the total^average 
annual number of individuals married during these years being 288f . 

The average annual number of males married 
in Perth and Kinnoul, compared with the 
number of males as ascertained by the Cen- 
sus of 1841, is as . , „ 1 to 73*471, or 1*361 per cent. 

The average annual number of females mar- 
ried, to the female population, is as I to 80*094, or 1*248 per cent. 

Greater proportion of the male than of the 

female population married, by , , 0*113 per cent. 

While there is on an average of these five years 0*113 per cent, more of 
the male than of the female population of Perth married, it appears that on 
the average of these years there is 5*66 per cent, more females than males 
married *. 

The average annual number of individuals married, to the total population, 
is as 1 to 76*879, or 1*300 per cent. 

* By the Census of 1841, there were 115-55 females to every 100 males in Perth. 



140 



REPORT — 1842. 



Table XVI. 

Exhibiting the proportion which the resident marriages in PERTH and the 
suburban district of Kinnoul, during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 
and 1841, bear to the population of these years; also the average annual 
amount of marriages to the mean population. 



Years. 


Population. 


Blarriages. 


Proportion of Marriages to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


22,489 
22,409 
22,330 
22,251 
22,172 


142 
145 
153 
127 
132 


158-373, or 0-631 per cent. 
154-544, or 0-647 ... 
145-947, or 0-685 ... 
175-204, or 0-570 ... 
167-969, or 0-595 ... 


The average annual amount of resident marriages, to the 
mean population of these five years, being as 1 to 159-728, or 
0-626 per cent. 



Dundee. 

It will be found, that of the inhabitants of the town of Dundee, the ave- 
rage annual number of males married during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 
and 1841 is519f, females 504j; the total average annual number of indi- 
viduals married during these years being 1023f. 

Therefore the average annual number of males 
married in Dundee, compared with the to- 
tal number of males as ascertained by the 
Census of 1841, is as 1 to 54*486, or 1*835 per cent. 

The average annual number of females mar- 
ried, to the female population, is as 1 to 65*904, or 1*517 per cent. 

Greater proportion of the male than of the 

female population married, by , 0*318 per cent. 

While there is on an average of these five years 0*318 per cent, more of 
the male than of the female population of Dundee married, it appears that 
on the average of these years there is 2*96 per cent, more males than females 
married *. 

The average annual number of individuals married, to the total population, 
is as 1 to 60*109, or 1*663 per cent. 

* By the Census of 1841, there were 117*37 females to every 100 males in Dundee. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 141 

Table XVII. 
Exhibiting the proportion which the resident marriages in DUNDEE, during 
the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840 and 1841, bear to the population of these 
years ; also the average annual amount of marriages to the mean popula- 
tion. 



Years. 


Population. 


Marriages. 


Proportion of Marriages to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


54,467 
56,156 
57,897 
59,691 
61,540 


506 
535 
550 
478 
529 


107-642, or 0-929 per cent. 
104-964, or 0-952 ... 
105-267, or 0-949 ... 
124-876, or 0-800 ... 
116-332, or 0-859 ... 


The average annual amount of resident marriages, to the 
mean population of these five years, being as i to 111-426, or 
0-897 per cent. 



Table XVIII. 

Average annual proportion of marriages in the towns comprised in the Re- 
port compared with each other. 





Marriages 

of 

Individuals 

as 1 to 


Per- 
centage. 


Marriages 

to 

Population 

as 1 to 


Per- 
centage. 




65-026 
64-813 
71-451 
76-879 
60-109 


1-537 
1-542 
1-399 
1-300 
1-663 


131-088 
120-290 
140-004 
159-728 
111-426 


0-762 
0-831 
0-714 
0-626 

0-897 



















GENERAL REMARKS. 

The principal objects held in view in arranging the foregoing statistical in- 
formation, have been to exhibit as accurately as possible the annual number 
of individuals married who are resident within the boundaries of the chief 
towns in Scotland, and to compare the amount of annual marriages which 
take place on an average of years, in the belief that observations on the dif- 
ference in the amount of annual marriages in those towns where the condi- 
tion of the inhabitants is so various may lead to interesting results. 

The diiferences in the amount of these annual marriages are found to be 
very great ; but to point out the exact causes of these differences would re- 
quire a more minute and accurate knowledge of the moral condition and 
physical circumstances of the people than we are possessed of, and would 
exceed the limits of this Report ; but by the statement of facts contained in 
the preceding pages an advance is made which has long been desired in 
Scotland, where so little attention has been generally paid to vital statistics. 
The tables open a new field, though still a limited one, to the statist whose 
object it is to trace the immediate causes of changes which affect the welfare 
of the people, with a view to suggest such improvements as may arrest in 
its progress a retrograde movement in the condition of the inhabitants of 
large towns : a movement to which public attention has lately so frequently 
been drawn. 

To acquire, for instance, a correct knowledge of the causes of the great 



142 REPORT— 1842. 

difference in the amount of annual marriages in Perth and in Dundee, would 
be of moment. These two towns are situated within twenty miles of each 
other, with every facility of intercourse by coach and by steam-boat. 

A large proportion of the inhabitants of Perth are in easy and comfortable 
circumstances ; and it will be observed, that the average annual amount of 
marriages in that city for the last five years is 1 to 159*72, while in Dundee, 
where there is a large proportion of poor and destitute people, as appears 
from the great proportion of burials at the public expense, the average an- 
nual amount of marriages for the last five years, to the mean population, is 
asl to 111-42! 

In Edinburgh, exclusive of Leith, the average annual amount of marriages 
for the last three years, to the mean population, is as 1 to 136*39, while in 
Leith, with numerous poor, they are as 1 to 110*06 to the mean population of 
these years. In Glasgow and suburbs, where a very large proportion of the 
inhabitants is in destitute circumstances, arising from the influx of labour being 
greater than the demand, and from other causes, the average annual amount 
of marriages, to the mean population, for the last five years, is as 1 to 120*29. 

And in Aberdeen, where the poor and destitute bear a much smaller pro- 
portion to the whole inhabitants than they do in Glasgow, the average an- 
nual amount of resident marriages is as 1 to 140*00*. It would appear 
from these observations, therefore, that in those towns where there is the 
greatest amount of* poverty and destitution, and where, as will afterwards 
appear, the mortality is greatest, the annual number of marriages is the 
greatest. It is to be feared a moral law is here shadowed out, the result of 
physical causes ; but we would not, however, be understood as coming at 
once to this conclusion, although in accordance with other observations, as 
there is much yet required to be done by the statist before we can arrive at 
a full and accurate knowledge of the social condition of the inhabitants of 
large towns in Scotland. Were the registers so kept that we could ascertain 
the ages and occupations of the parties married, more light would be thrown 
on this subject. 

The law for the regulation of marriages in England allows parties from a 
distance, by a residence of eight days before marriage in any of the towns, 
to be recorded in the Register of Marriages as inhabitants of the town. 
This is understood frequently to take place, and more especially where one 
of the parties is an inhabitant of the town ; consequently the amount of 
marriages for some of these towns, as exhibited in the reports of the Regi- 
strar-General, must appear greater than they really are ; and, compared with 
those towns of Scotland for which the marriages are stated in the preceding 
pages, would lead to inaccurate results. It would be desirable to ascertain 
the amount of the male and of the female inhabitants married of each town 
and district, which is not shown in the Registrar-General's reports, with a 
view to give an accurate knowledge of the proportion of the marriages in 
any given place to the population of that place. It is necessary to remark, 
that in the preceding tables of marriages, instead of deriving our informa- 
tion from the amount of marriages which take place, and which are nearly 
as imperfectly recorded in some registers as the births, owing to the care- 
lessness and inattention of the parties themselves, we were obliged to have 
recourse to the records of the proclamations of marriages, to which, in all 
cases of regular marriages in Scotland, both the parties married and the 

* It is also worthy of observation, that in Perth, on an average of years, there are an- 
nually married 8§ more females than males ; in Dundee 15f more males than females ; in 
Edinburgh 41£ more females than males ; in Leith 9g more males than females ; in Glasgow 
204 more males than females ; and in Aberdeen If more females than males. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 143 

clergymen who celebrate the marriages, are bound by law strictly to ad- 
here. Were records of marriages as strictly enforced as those of the pro- 
clamations, we would have been enabled to avoid errors to which our present 
statements are liable. 

A uniform and well-digested plan of registers for England, Scotland and 
Ireland, and also for exhibiting the information deduced from them, would 
obviously be of high importance ; and the results obtained by this uniform 
plan, by showing the effects produced on the amount of births, marriages, 
disease and death, by the condition of the people in different states of so- 
ciety, whether of town or country, rich or poor, of sedentary or of laborious 
employments, might ultimately lead to salutary laws for the amelioration of 
the condition of the people. 

The system adopted in the registers of marriages in England, and the 
mode of publishing the amount of individuals married in the large towns, do 
not admit of an accurate comparison with the amount of individuals married 
in towns similarly situated as to local circumstances in Scotland. 

The extent to which prudential motives operate on the respectable portion 
of the mechanics and artizans of towns in prevention of early marriages, 
appears to be considerable. The desire to establish themselves first in com- 
fortably furnished houses is alone a sufficient check. But if we look to the con- 
dition of that numerous class of the inhabitants of towns who have sunk- 
more especially of late years — into a reckless state of poverty, and where the 
prevalence of fever and other diseases, together with a limited supply of work 
by which they can earn a livelihood, have reduced masses of them to an 
extreme state of wretchedness, we shall find a very different feeling. In the 
large towns of Scotland this wretchedness is known to exist not only from 
personal inquiry, but it has been ably pointed out in late publications*. 
So far from it operating as a check, the very hopelessness of their condition 
would seem to make this class blind and callous to consequences ; and unions 
are formed which ultimately can only enhance their sufferings. 

The importance of obtaining correct statistical information, therefore, as to 
the amount of annual marriages among the different classes of society requires 
no further illustration ; and though we are aware of the caution to be ob- 
served in coming to any conclusion from the facts yet obtained and detailed 
in the foregoing pages (imperfect as the system of registration may be from 
which our data are obtained), yet these data prove that the greatest amount 
of marriages is found to take place in those localities where the greatest 
proportion of the wretchedly poor are congregated together ; and this fact 
goes far to strengthen the opinion that the diminution of destitution, by 
raising a great mass of the town population above their present reckless state 
of poverty, would prove a salutary check upon early marriages, by giving a 
taste for the comforts and decencies of life \. 

* See the work of Dr. Alison, Professor of the Institutes of Medicine in the University of 
Edinburgh ; of the Hon. Archibald Alison, Sheriff of Lanarkshire ; and of the Rev. Dr. Chal- 
mers, Professor of Divinity in Edinburgh, on the poor. The publications of C. R. Baird, 
Esq., Captain Miller and the late Dr. Cowan of Glasgow, Mr. Wilson of Aberdeen, Sheriff 
Barclay of Perth, the Rev. Mr. Lewis of Dundee, Mr. Simons, Dr. Taylor, and many others. 

t It may be noticed in proof of the effect of habitual destitution on marriage and population, 
that the handloom weavers, the poorest inhabitants of Glasgow, are known to marry earlier 
than any other class. This fact is stated by Mr. C. R. Baird, in his ' Report on the General 
and Sanatory Condition of the Working Classes and the Poor in Glasgow.' And 455 
weavers outof work, whose cases were examined and reported to the Association for Inquiring 
into the Pauperism of Scotland, in Edinburgh, by Captain Miller of Glasgow, had among them 
1851 children. Many other striking examples to the same effect are stated by Dr. Alison in 
his work on the Poor-Law of Scotland* 



144 



REPORT — 1S42. 























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146 REPORT— 1842. 



BIRTHS AND BAPTISMS. 



The inattention which prevails among parents in Scotland in regard to the 
recording of the births of their children in the public registers, even though 
the parties themselves continue to experience great inconvenience on many 
occasions on account of the omission, is so very great, as to render the ab- 
stracts of births of no avail to the statist, in so far at least as regards the 
statistics of human life. If we compare the proportion of births recorded for 
England and Wales, as exhibited in the Registrar General's Report for 
1839-40, the year for which the number of births for England have been 
most fully ascertained, we may form a pretty correct judgement of the defi- 
ciency of the registers of births in Scotland. The proportion of births re- 
corded for England and Wales for 1839-40 to the population of 1841 is 
3*153 per cent., while the number of births or baptisms recorded for Edin- 
burgh and Leith for the years exhibited in the preceding abstracts, to the 
mean population of these years, is0*992 per cent.; for Aberdeen 1 "311 per cent.; 
for Glasgow 1*160 per cent.; for Dundee 1*497 per cent.; and for Perth 1*704 
per cent. It will thus be perceived that the smallest proportion of births or 
baptisms are recorded for Edinburgh and Leith, and the greatest for Perth ; 
and that the whole of these records are so incomplete, as to give no indica- 
tion of the true number of births for these towns. 

The preceding abstracts of births or baptisms are useless to the statist, 
and the only advantage to be derived from their publication is the proof they 
afford of the utter inefficiency of the present mode of registering births in 
Scotland, and to show the necessity there is for some legislative measure 
being obtained to remedy this great national defect. Among the public as 
well as private advantages which would arise from the improvement of Scotch 
registers of births, it may be mentioned, that, in the event of an alteration 
taking place in the Poor Laws of the country, complete registers of this na- 
ture would be the most legitimate and least inconvenient means of proving 
the birth-place of parties requiring aid from the public funds. 

More than one attempt has been made in Glasgow to obtain complete re- 
turns of the amount of children baptised, from the clergymen of all denomi- 
nations, within the limits of the bills of mortality, without leading to a 
satisfactory result. It is therefore to be feared, that this very important 
branch of the vital statistics of Scotland must remain incomplete till Govern- 
ment be induced to apply a remedy. 



OX THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 147 



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153 



' ' — 

Table XXXII.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of EDINBURGH anc 
18 periods of life at which they took place; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period and th' 
the population. 1839.-Populatioj 


Diseases. 


Under 

1 
Year. 


1 

& under 

2. 


2 

& under 
5. 


5 

& under 
10. 


10 

& under 

15. 


15 

& under 

20. 


20 

& under 

30. 


30 

& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 

& under 

60. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


P. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 

1 

"i 

12 

1 

7 
6 
2 

2 
1 

Ii 
2 

1 

45 

6 

51 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M; F. 


Bowel Complaints 


1 

/" 

.- 

£ 
28 


... 

51 

t 

21 

i 

I 

18 

! 
41 
18 

2 
1 

7 
3 


1 

31 

5 
13 

1 

! 

17 

"7 
21 
5!) 
3 
2 
4 
2 


1 

2- 

l 
18 

' 8 

ll 
1 
4 

15 

41 

"5 

3 
1 


: 

; 
1 

! 

11 

i: 
17 

2 

! 

3< 

1 

7 
6 
3 


1 

4 

; 
1: 

s 
11 

14 

'5 

11 

41 

1 

H 

1 

2 


5 

5 

1 

2 
12 

1 
13 
15 

1 

"i 
12 

C 
1 
4 


2 

1 

2 
13 

10 
12 

1 

5 

7 
1 
8 
1 
3 

61; 
4 


1!) 

7 

1 

6 

2 

1 

36 
3 

3!) 


1 
18 

2 

12 
2 

4 

1 

40 
1 


i 

14 
4 

3 
4 

3 

1 

1 

40 
6 


! 

1 
1 

5! 
3 

21 
I 
2 

18 

1 
8 

137 
14 


; 

1 
i 

ii 

4! 

24 
S 
6 

14 

s 

135 
11 


1 

4 
1 
1 

47 

4 

22 

14 

1 

11 



123 
15 


1 

3 
2 
2 
7 

57 

4 

24 

13 

1 

6 

4 

11 

135 
10 


1 

5 

48 

7 
28 
11 

7 

1( 

15 

137 
■2o 


4 

/ 
1 
] 

3 

41 
IS 
2( 

11 
4 

8 

3 

14 

136 
18 


7 4 

9 10 

5 3 

51 45 
11 5 

14 15 

10 12 

6 3 

16 12 

1 2 

8 1( 

138 123 

15 14 


Childbirth 






Fever 


■2 
2( 

3 

1 

41 

24 

. f 
2 
14 
5 






Hooping-cough... 








Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertaiuec 


25o'l85 
47 37 


178 

5 


142 
1 


121 
4 


135 


83 
6 


Deaths, M. and F... 


297|222J17B 


149 


124 


1 13 


80 


70 


41 


46 


151 


146 


138 


154 


162 


154 


153 14) 

294 

11-4 

468-5 


Total 


519 1 327 
| 6-4 ! 10-3 
265-4 | 421-2 


267 

12-6 

515-9 


159 

211 

866-3 


90 
37-3 
1530-6 


87 
38-6 
1583-4 


297 
11-3 

463-8 


292 

11-5 

471-7 


316 

10-6 

435-9 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


Table XXXIII.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of EDINBURGH an 
18 periods of life at which they took place ; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and tr 
the population. 184u.-Populatk 


Asthma 

Bowel Complaints. 

Childbirth 


I 

(3!) 

•2 

1 

25 

2 

5 

26 

1 

48 

29 

7 

1 

2 

30 

20 


1 

'51 

5 

24 

5 

24 

46 

■2G 
5 

;: 
4 

29 


1 
27 

10 

2(1 
2 
5 

1.3 
1 
36 
is 
12 

5 

i r , 


1 

21 

4 

12 

"5 

21 

30 
15 
16 

"s 

IS 
8 


4 

1 
1.3 

8 

1!) 
5 
8 

■2-2 

37 
11 
12 
3 

20 
21 

2 


"o 

15 

20 

2 

17 

10 

1 

38 

1!) 
14 

17 

•2-2 




4 
1 

1 

17 
3 

11) 

12 
1 
5 

11 
2 

!l 
10 
4 


4 
"l 

2 
11 
5 

IS 
8 
2 

15 
6 
1 

13 

Ii 
3 


4 

13 
3 
2 

11 

3 

i 
2 

4 


1 

1 
1 

1 
10 

? 

Ii 

1 
1 
(i 

"i 

3 


2 
2 

17 
1 
4 

"i 
2 
1 

1 

3 


1 

16 
I 
3 
1 

7 


10 
2 
"l 

lil 
3 

10 
8 
3 

14 

3 

8 


1 
2 
1 

7 

55 
9 

13 
3 

2 

15 

3 
12 


2 

3 
3 
2 

46 

4 

21 
14 
2 

15 

1 

13 


3 

2 
4 

"7 

45 

13 
18 
3 
2 

14 

2 

2 
12 



6 

57 
8 

'27 
8 
3 

12 
18 


3 
2 

5 

33 
15 

33 
7 
4 

11 
25 


6 1 

6 ; 

3 ; 

40 3 

7 1. 

16 1 
22 1 

3 , 

13 

14 i 












Hooping-cough ... 








14 7 


Total ascertained... 
Do. not ascertained 


2m 
56 


J37 

47 


172 

10 


168:186 
8 17 


93 




00 
9 


98 

14 


43 
3 

41! 


54 

7 

CI 


34 

2 

36 


20 
2 

31 


132 
15 

147 


123 
23 

14(1 


126 
10 

142 


127 

16 

143 


148 
16 

64 


138 
17 

155 


130 1 1 
17 2 

147J13 

280 
1317 
402-8! 


Deaths, M. and F... 


J25J284' 
609 


82 


76. 


fOfi! 


.'02 


I08|ll2 


Total 


358 






■ 1 









Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


}, 

22C 


15 
5 j 


in 
385 


2 

4 


340 


7 


Hi- 
627 


■6 

2 


34-- 
12S 


1-5 


55 1 
205! 


)4 

»-3 


12-. 

470 


8 



12-! 
484 


)4 
1 


31 

IK 
432 


f 
6 
•5 



154 



urban districts of St. Cuthbert's and the Canongate during the year ending December 31, 1839, classified according to 
portion which these, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to 
756. 


60 

under 

70. 


70 

& under 

75. 


75 

& under 

80. 


80 
& under 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 

95. 


95 

& under 

100. 


100 

& up- 
wards. 


Ages not 
ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 


3| 


Proport 

Whole 
Deaths. 


ons to the 

Popula- 
tion. 


. F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


W. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. I F. 


^Q 


1 to every 


1 to every 


4 6 


1 


2 


1 






2 






















49| 30 


79 


42-6 


1743-7 


1 87 


30 


57 


33 


54 


27 


61 


8 


18 


4 


9 


2 












155 1 286 


441 


7-6 


312-3 


7 8 


1 


1 




3 


1 


1 






















28 34 


62 


54-2 


2221-8 


2 6 




1 






























122; 94 


216 


15-5 


637-7 


1 ... 


... 


1 






























10 7 


17 

26 


197-9 
129-4 


8103-2 
5298-3 




































25 


23 


48 


70-1 


2869-9 




































304 


292 


596 


5-6 


231-1 


1 7 


2 


10 


4 


4 


1 
























48 


59 


107 


31-4 


1287-4 


7 6 


a 






1 


























167 


145 


312 


10-7 


441-5 


S 19 


7 


7 


7 


5 


1 


1 


1 




















156 137 


293 


11-4 


470-1 


1 5 




1 






























29! 25 
15| 19 


54 
34 


62-3 
98-9 


2551-0 
4051-6 


9 8 


1 


3 




3 


























1461 139 
126 106 


285 
232 


11-8 
14-5 


483-3 
593-7 






1 


























... 




14 

24 

28 


14 
26 
13 


28 
50 
41 


120-1 
67-3 

82-0 


4919-8 
2755-1 
3359-9 


1 13 


2 


3 


3 


1 


1 
























79 


77 


156 


21-5 


883-0 


U65 


47 


»7 


48 


71 


31 


65 


9 


18 


4 


9 


2 












15251552 


3077 


11 


44-7 


2 8 




1 




1 


1 
























15l| 137 


288 


11-6 


478-3 


>173 


47 


88 


48 


72 


32 


65 


9 


18 


4 


9 


2 












1676,1689 


3365 


10 


40-9 


23 


135 


120 


97 


27 


13 


2 






3365 








10-4 


24-9 


28-0 


34-7 


124-6 


258-8 


1682- 






10 








26-4 


1020-4 


1147-9 


1420-1 


5102-0 


10596- 


68878- 






40-9 








irban districts of St. Cuthbert's and the Canongate during the year ending December 31, .1840, classified according to 
ortion which these, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to 
986. 


> 2 


1 


4 


1 


3 








1 






1 












51 


29 


80 


46-1 


1724-8 


) 61 


21 


68 


35 


52 


■27 


53 


21 


26 


4 


10 


4 


i 


1 


1 






163 


262 


425 


8-6 


324-6 


) 8 


4 


6 










1 




















32 


25 


57 


64-7 


2420-8 


} 4 
I ... 




2 


i 


■2 






















4 

8 


4 

5 


125 
6 

20 
323 


104 

2 

20 

27 

271 


229 

8 

20 

47 

594 


16-1 
461-0 
184-4 

78-4 
6-2 


602-5 

17248-2 

6899-3 

2935-8 

232-2 


> 12 


5 


2 


i 


■2 


1 


1 




















1 


50 


80 


130 


28-3 


1061-4 


1 12 


3 




2 








1 




















142 


143 


285 


12-9 


484-1 


1 8 


1 


9 


2 


4 


2 






1 














i 


3 


158 


124 


282 


130 


489-3 


1 1 


3 






























3 


19 
126 


16 
142 


35 

268 


105-3 
13-7 


3942-4 
514-8 


) 5 


2 


% 




























4 


140 
33 


135 
36 


275 
69 


13-4 
53-4 


501-7 

1999-7 


1 
































1 


. 7 
38 
80 


6 
47 

84 


13 

85 
164 


283-6 
43-3 
22-4 


10614-3 

1625-3 

841-3 


) 9 


6 


5 


1 


1 


1 




















4 


2 


115 


118 


233 


15-8 


692-2 


M23 


46 


S9 


43 


64 


31 


54 


23 


28 


4 


10 


5 


i 


1 


1 


17 


23 


1628 


1671 


3299 


1-1 


41-8 


) 21 


1 


1 


4 


1 




4 


1 




1 


1 










9 


10 


186 


203 


389 


9-4 


354-7 


3144 


47 


90 


47 


65 


31 


58 


24 


28 


5 


11 


5 


i 


1 


1 


26 


83 


1814 


1874 


3688 


10 


37-414 


72 


137 


112 


89 


52 


16 


6 


2 


59 


3688 




{•55 


26-9 


32-9 


41-44 


70-9 


230-5 


614-66 


1844- 


62-5 


10 






>7-3 


1007-2 


1232-0 


1550-4 


2653-6 


8624-1 


22997- 


68993- 


2338-7 


37-414 


| 





155 









Table XXXIV. — Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of EDINBURGH a 
1 8 periods of life at which they took place ; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and t 
the popidation. 1839. — Populati 


Diseases. 


Under 

1 
Year. 


l 

& under 
2. 


2 

& under 
5. 


5 

& under 

10. 


10 

& under 
15. 


15 

& under 

20. 


20 

& under 

30. 


30 

& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 

& undi 

60. 


ax. 


P. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


P. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M, 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 

8 

5 

1 

50 
4 

44 
9 
8 

10 
1 
2 
1 

13 


F. 
2 

5 

1 

18 

60 
17 
42 
11 
2 

12 

13 

183 
5 


M. 1 F. 


M. B 
4 

j 

40 4 

» 
25 : 

20 1 
6 

9 1 

23 1 

146 14 
13 1 

159 1( 

323 
10-c 

4.27-1 




2 

ill 
1 

7 

32 

1 

-1 

42 

12 

31 

4 

5 

8 
5 

;s8 


1 

66 

5 

1 
27 

"2 

44 

1 

13 

22 
1 

4 

2 
3 

40 


2 

33 

6 

10 

1 

2 

18 

1 



17 

2 

6 
1 
2 


1 

21 

1 

11 
12 

"3 

16 

1 

4 

13 

1 

4 
4 
2 


7 

"/ 

12 
16 

4 
7 

17 
1 
4 

11 
2 
1 

21 
6 
6 


"i 

12 
11 
2 
11 
12 

"J 
6 
1 
2 
15 
2 
1 


2 
2 

1 

21 
5 
15 
10 
2 

'4' 

1 

7 
1 

5 


4 
1 

2 
13 

1 
11 

8 

3 

13 

1 
10 
2 
3 


1 
"i 

i'o 

3 
2 

2 

2 

"4 


2 

~9 
2 
12 
7 
2 

5 

"e 


4 
2 

1 

22 
1 

11 
1 
5 

5 

"2 
1 

3 


1 

1 

19 
1 
6 
3 
2 

5 

1 
1 

"i 


13 

2 
2 

57 
5 

21 
7 
2 

13 

"2 

2 

4 


4 

1 
2 

15 

63 
9 

24 
3 
5 

23 

1 
1 

9 


6 

6 
1 

43 
12 
36 
10 
6 

9 

6 

135 

10 


3 

4 
3 
2 
3 

50 
10 
34 
11 
4 

14 

2 

22 

171 
13 


Asthma 

Bowel Complaints. 












Hooping-cough ... 








Total ascertained... 
Do. not ascertained 


2S3 
55 


2.32 
47 


100 

14 


04 
8 


122 
14 


$7 
10 


76 
6 


72 
9 


26 

7 


45 
3 


58 
6 


41 
4 


130 
4 


160 
3 


165 

7 


Deaths, M.andF... 


338 


279 


114 


102 


136 


97 


82 


81 


33 


48 


64 


45 


134 


163 


172 


188 


145 


184 


Total 


617 
| 5-6 
223-9 


216 

16-2 

639-7 


233 

150 

5930 


163 
21-5 

847-7 


81 

43-2 
1705-9 


109 

32-1 

1267-7 


297 

11-8 

465-2 


360 

9-7 

383-8 


329 

10-6 

420-0 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


Table XXXV. — Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in North and South LEITH durifc 
showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from il 

1840.— Populatif 


Accidents 

Bowel Complaints. 

Catarrh 

Childbirth 


16 


1(3 
2 

6 

6 

5 
1 

2 
4 
1 


10 
3 


3 

a 


2 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

5 

2 

9 


1 

1 
1 

2 
2 

"3 
4 

C 
2 
3 

<; 
1 


3 

"2 

1 
1 
4 

1 
4 
1 

5 
1 


2 

1 

1 
1 

2 
1 

1 

1 

3 


2 
1 


1 

2 

i 

1 


2 

1 
1 

4 

1 

2 

2 
1 


2 

3 
2 

1 


4 

i 

8 
1 
2 


2 

13 
2 
3 

1 

3 


1 
1 

7 

"4 

2 

2 

2 


2 

2 

9 
1 
6 
1 
2 

1 

4 


4 

6 

"6 
1 

2 

4 

23 

8 

31 


1 
1 

5 
1 
4 
3 

3 

1 

10 

7 

36 


y- 

... 

... .. 

3 
2 

3 
2 

15 : 
5 

20 S 

40 

14- 

573-, 




6 

1 

3 
8 
3 
1 

"i 

2 


4 


Dropsy 


3 

9 

5 

2 

4 


"l 
1 

7 
1 
1 

1 


Hooping-cough ... 




Scarlet Fever 




Total ascertained... 
Do. not ascertained 


11 
8 


13 

in 


40 
5 


18 
5 


■25 
8 


32 



23 
5 


13 
1 


3 

2 


5 
1 


14 
2 


8 


16 
2 


24 
5 


10 
11 


2$ 
5 


Deaths, M. and F... 


40 


*53 


45 


23 


33 


41 


28| 14 

42 

16-4 

699-1 


5 


6 


16 


8 


18 


20 


30 


33 


Total 


102 
275-5 


68 

101 

413-2 


74 
9-3 
379-9 


11 

62-7 
2554-8 


24 
28-7 
1170-9 


47 

14-6 

597-9 


63 

10-7 

446-0 


57 

12-1 

493-0 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 






































1. 


56 



mrban districts of St. Cuthbert's and the Canongate during the year ending December 31, 1841, classified according to 
iportion which these, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to 
1,182. 


60 

under 

70. 


70 

& under 

75. 


75 

& under 

80. 


80 
& under 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 

95. 


95 

& under 

100. 


100 
& up- 
wards. 


Ages not 
ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 


g| 


Proport 

Whole 
Deaths. 

1 to every 


ons to the 

Popula- 
tion. 

1 to every 


r. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


W. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


3 

>5 

10 

a 

13 
3 

12 
3 

5 
4 


2 
64 
9 
4 
1 

13 
15 
23 

C 

6 

7 


1 

40 

2 

1 

6 

5 
9 

a 




3 

65 

5 

1 

5 
4 

8 

4 

5 


1 

34 

2 

1 

2 

6 

1 


3 
43 

5 
3 

2 
1 


1 

23 

1 

3 

1 


1 

59 

1 

2 
2 

1 


1 
12 


1 

22 
1 


"i 


1 

6 


1 


3 






1 


"i 
i 

i 


56 

172 

32 

138 

2 

27 

310 

63 

186 

166 

36 

25 

116 

9 

11 

49 

16 

127 


31 

262 
37 

111 

9 

36 

26 

307 
84 

192 

167 
28 
27 

138 

2 

13 

33 

11 

129 


87 

434 

69 

249 

11 

36 

53 

617 

147 

378 

333 

64 

52 

254 

11 

24 

82 

27 

256 


40-3 

8-0 

50-8 

140 

318-8 
97-4 
661 
5-6 
23-8 
9-2 
10-5 
54-7 
67-4 
13-8 

318-8 

1461 
42-6 

129-8 
13-6 


1588-2 

318-3 

2002-6 

554-9 

12562-0 

3838-3 

2607-2 

223-9 

940-0 

365-5 

414-9 

2159-0 

2657-3 

544-0 

12562-0 

5757-5 

16851 

5117-8 

539-7 


SO 
4 


150 
17 


72 

7 


100 
8 


47 
2 


57 
2 


29 


66 
1 


13 


24 


7 


7 


1 


3 






1 

7 


3 
11 


1541 
166 


1643 
157 


3184 
323 


11 

10-8 


43-3 

427-8 


14 

31 

1 
14 


167 

1 

1-2 
1-3 


79 

IS: 

1 
73 


108 
7 

5-7 

^•9 


49 

H 

3 

127 


59 

8 

2-4 

9-4 


29 

9 

3 

143 


67 

3 

6-5 
9-3 


13 

3 
9 

373 


24 

7 

4-7 

4-6 


7 

] 

25 

987 


7 

1 

0-5 
0-1 


1 

4 
8 

345 


3 

I 

76- 

45- 






8 

2 
15 

628 


14 
2 

9-4 
1-0 


1707 1800 

3507 

1-0 

39-401 


3507 


10 


39-401 


year ending December 31, 1840, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took place ; with calculations 
eral diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 
103. 


1 

9 

4 

1 

5 
8 

1 

2 


"g 
1 

2 
1 
1 

a 

i 


1 
14 

1 
1 

1 


i'o' 


1 
11 

1 


15 
2 


9 


11 


2 


5 




3 




1 










21 

45 
7 

31 
1 

"4 
43 

8 
19 
16 

2 
18 
28 

8 

1 
20 

2 
12 


7 
57 

3 
24 

2 

4 

8 
40 
13 
24 
20 

2 
20 
16 

5 

14 

5 
15 


28 

102 

10 

55 

3 

4 
12 
83 
21 
43 
36 

4 
38 
44 
13 

1 
34 

7 
.27 


24-6 

6-7 

69-0 

12-5 

230-0 

172-5 
57-5 
8-3 
32-8 
16-0 
191 

172-5 
18-1 
15-6 
530 

690-0 
20-2 
98-5 
25-5 


1003-6 
275-5 

2810-3 
510-9 

9367-6 

7025-7 

2341-9 
338-5 

1338-2 
653-5 
780-6 

7025-7 
739-5 
638-7 

2161-7 

281030 

826-5 

4014-7 

1040-8 


'5 
1 


14 

8 


18 


16 


13 


17 


9 


11 


2 


5 




3 




1 










286 
67 


279 

58 


565 
125 


1-2 

5-5 


49-7 
224-8 


16 

5 

1 
48 


22 

8 
1-8 

4-5 


18 

3 

2 

82 


10 

4 

0-2 

6-5 


13 

3 
2 

93 


17 


3-0 

6-7 


9 
2 

14( 


11 



4-5 

)5-l 


2 

< 
401 


5 

7 

8-5 
4-7 


2'c 

93< 


3 

i 

0-0 
7-6 


... | 1 

1 

690- 
28103- 










353 

6! 

1 

40- 


337 

)0 
•0 
728 


690 

* 


10 


40-7. 


18 



* Exclusive of 26 in Newhaven. 



157 



Table XXXVI.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in North and South LEITH durin 
showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from th 

1841. — Populatio 


Diseases. 


Under 
1 

Year. 


1 

& under 
2. 


2 

& under 

5, 


5 

& under 
10. 


10 

& under 
15. 


15 

& uuder 

20. 


20 

& under 
30. 


30 

& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 

& under 

60. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


11. 


F. 


if. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 

1 

7 
3 
7 
1 

1 

2 

1 
1 


31. 
4 

<) 
1 
15 
3 
1 

2 

1 

2 


F. 

1 

1 
2 

1 

7 
1 

5 
2 

3 

"l 
1 


M. 

2 
2 

7 

i'o 

3 

1 

1 

3 

29 
2 


F. 

2 

9 

H 

1 

2 

1 

29 
1 

30 


M. 

3 

3 

1 
1 

4 
3 
(i 
(! 

1 

1 

"l 

2 

32 
2 

34 


F. 

6 
4 
10 
1 
1 

1 

1 
24 

24 


Accidents 

Bowel Complaints. 


20 

1 

2 

7 

"i 
.") 


2) 

1 

1 


"» 

1 
1 
8 

8 

1 
4 
2 


4 

i 

"2 

5 

"5 

"1 

1 
1 


4 

1 

"4 

:■> 

"4 
3 

2 

3 


1 
1 

2 

4 
4 

1 
1 

3 


1 

2 

5 
1 

3 
3 
1 


2 

"4 
3 
3 
1 


1 
2 

i 
1 

1 

2 

2 


3 

i 


1 

8 

1 
1 


3 

5 

1 
2 
1 


1 

2 
1 

1 

1 


4 

1 
1 

13 

<; 


Childbirth 




Dropsy 






Hooping-cough.... 


2 

6 

2 
"i 


Scarlet Fever 


Miscellaneous 


Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertained 


so 


53 
9 


20 


24 

1 


17 


16 


13 


10 


4 


(i 

1 


12 

1 


(i 

1 


25 
3 


24 


38 
2 


25 


Deaths, M. and F... 


60 


56 


2(1 


25 


17 


HI 


13 


10 


1 


7 


13 


7 


28 


24 


40 


25 


31 


Total 


106 

}„ 

267-6 


45 

13-6 

630-4 


33 

18-5 
859-7 


23 
26-6 
1233-5 


11 

55-7 
2579-2 


20 
30-6 
1418-6 


52 

11-7 

545-6 


65 
9-4 
436-4 


61 

100 

465-1 


58 

10-5 

489-1 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 






Table XXXVII. — Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of ABERDEEN ani 
calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number o 

1837.— Populatio) 


Accidents 

Bowel Complaints. 


11 
3 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

"•> 

1 

17 


3 

'■2 

1 

"2 

1 

"i 

IS 


1 

8 
1 

1 

"3 

1 

"2 

"<; 


7 

1 

1 

"i 
1 

"1 
6 


2 

<; 

2 

2 

2 
5 

1 

2 
5 

4 

3 


2 

4 

3 
6 
5 

1 

"3 

8 

6 


2 

"5 
3 

"i 

2 


2 

1 

'4' 

1 
1 
1 

"2 

2 


"l 

1 
1 

1 


•2 

"2 

1 


2 

1 

4 
1 
1 

1 

2 


1 
1 
1 

1 

1 


2 

5 
5 

2 
3 


1 
1 

4 
1 
6 
1 

3 
2 


2 
5 

"s 

2 
2 


... 
4 

"i 

!» 

1 
<; 

1 

2 

1 
1 


1 
1 
2 

5 
3 
4 

1 

6 

4 


1 
2 
4 

8 
2 
4 

1 
2 


2 
2 

2 

2 
1 
6 

1 
C 


3 

2 

5 
2 
3 
2 

1. 
6 














Hooping-cough.... 




Scarlet Fever 

Small-pox 

Miscellaneous 


Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertained 


11 
56 


28 
44 


23 
31 


18 

22 


34 

2!) 


38 
35 


13 
4(1 


14 

25 



15 


5 

14 


12 
17 


5 

23 


17 

25 


11) 
26 


1!) 
31 


33 

40 


27 
27 


21 

35 


22 

28 


24 
27 


Deaths, M. and F... 


n 


72 


51 


40 


63 1 73 
13C 


53 


39 


21 


1!) 


2!» 


28 


42 


45 


50 


73 


54 5!) 
II 9 


50 


51 


Total 


169 


94 


92 


40 


57 


87 


123 


10 1 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


}' 


f-2 

;-7 


h 

65 


1-8 

1-4 


1( 

45. 


)-2 

■-; 


1. 
6% 


H 
1-7 


3 
154 


1-8 


2 

m 


1-1 

7-1 


li 
7U 


•0 

•i 


11 

50; 


•3 


IS 

54* 


■3 
•5 


U 

t;i; 


•7 
•7. 



158 



year ending December 31, 1841, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took place ; with calculations 
eral diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 
372. 


60 

under 

70. 


70 

& under 
75. 


75 

& under 
80. 


80 

& under 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 

95. 


95 

& under 

100. 


100 
& up- 
wards. 


Ages not 
ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 


Hi 


Proport 

".Whole 
Deaths. 

lto every 


ons to the 

Popula- 
tion. 

1 to every 


r. 

2 

S 
1 

3 

8 

G 

s 


F. 


M. 


F. 


If, 


F. 


If. 


F. 


If. 


F. 


M. 


P. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


If. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


1 
it 

9 

4 
1 

r> 

4 


"9 

"l 

1 


1 

12 

3 
1 

1 


7 

1 


7 

1 


3 


13 


6 


5 


1 
















21 
34 

7 
26 

2 

3 

51 

13 

58 

38 

3 

8 

12 

1 

4 

2 

8 

12 


5 

46 

6 

30 

1 

1 

2 

41 

16 

55 

20 

3 

8 

24 

1 
11 
10 
10 


26 

80 

13 

56 

3 

1 

5 

92 

29 

113 

58 

6 

16 

36 

1 

5 

13 
18 
22 


23-5 

7-6 

471 

10-9 

204-3 

613-0 

122-6 

6-6 

211 

5-4 

10-5 

102-1 

38-3 

170 

6130 

122-6 

471 

34-0 

27-8 


1091-2 

354-6 

2182-4 

506-6 

9457-3 

28372-0 

5674-4 

308-3 

978-3 

2510 

489-1 

4728-6 

1773-2 

788-1 

283720 

5674-4 

2182-4 

1576-2 

1289-6 


4 
1 


29 

1 


11 


IS 
1 


8 


S 


3 j 13 


G 


5 


1 
















303 
11 


290 
9 


593 
20 


10 
30-6 


47-8 
1418-6 


5 


30 


11 


19 


8 


8 


3 j 13 

16 
38-3 
1773-2 


G 


5 


1 
















314 


299 


613 

* 


10 


46-283 


65 
9-4 
132-8 


30 

20-4 

945-7 


16 
38-3 
1773-2 


11 
55-7 
2572-2 


1 

613- 
28732- 










613 

10 

46-283 


iurbs during the year ending December 31 , 1837, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took place ; with 

ths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 

Q85. 


1 
2 
7 
2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

7 


7 

11 

! 
!8 


24 

8 

3 

2 
2 
1 

4 


11 
1 

1 


14 
1 

1 


1 
7 


13 


5 
1 

1 


15 

1 


7 


10 




3 


1 












16 
43 
11 
27 
10 

5 
29 
11 
30 
14 

1 

3 
18 

8 
17 

6 

28 


5 
79 
17 
14 
13 

9 

33 

17 

33 

12 

2 

2 

9 

7 

18 

12 

1 

27 


21 
122 

28 

41 

23 

9 

5 

62 

28 

63 

26 

3 

5 

27 
15 
35 
18 
1 
55 


66-2 
11-4 

49-7 

33-9 

60-5 

154-6 

278-4 

22-4 

49-7 

220 

53-5 

464-0 

278-4 

51-5 

92-8 

39-7 

77-3 

13920 

25-3 




44 

49 

93 



v/ 

"•4 


13 
15 

28 

8 

2< 

931 


16 
23 

39 

7 

••7 

•1 


8 
10 


13 
■22 


7 
11 


ig 

15 


7 
7 


10 
13 




3 
6 


1 


4 










277 

382 


310 
423 


587 
805 


2-3 
1-7 




18 

5 
2 

116 


35 

3 

(3-2 

5-9 


18 

4« 

2 

12(3 


31 

> 

8-4 
5-0 


14 

3 
3 

1G7 


23 

r 

7-G 
5-2 


15 

G8S 


9 

4-G 
7-2 


1 

5 

2 

123 


4 

78- 

97' 










659 

13! 
1 

44-: 


733 

)2 

29 


1392 


1-0 








iclusive of 34 in Newliaven. 1 59 






' IV 













































Table XXXVIII.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of ABERDEEN and ( 
calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number ot , 

1838.— Population 


Diseases. 


Under 

1 
Year. 


i 

& under 
2. 


2 

& under 
5. 


5 

& under 
10. 


10 

& under 
15. 


15 

& under 

20. 


20 

& under 

30. 


30 
& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 I [ 
& under • j 
60. 


M, 


F. 


M. 


F. 


HI. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


If. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


Accidents 

Asthma 

Bowel Complaints. 
Catarrh 


"1; 

2 
3 

1 
4 

1 
2 
9 
].-> 
1 
6 
6 


"s 

"5 

3 

5 

1 

13 

2 

7 
1 


7s 

"i 

i 

2 

2 
1 

"i 


"s 

1 
2 

1 

1 

3* 
2 


2 

"i 

2 

2 

1 
2 

2 
4 

5 

5 
1 


2 

1 

2 

2 
1 

1 

1 
2 

1 
1 
1 


1 

3 

2 

3 

1 

2 

2 

4 
2 


1 

2 

1 

4 

1 
1 

.". 
1 


1 

2 

3 
1 

4 

1 

1 


3 

1 
1 


2 

1 

5 

3 

1 

1 
2 


2 
1 

1 

1 
1 


2 

8 
2 
7 
1 
1 

6 

2 

3 


1 
1 
1 

5 

"J 
2 

1 

1 

2 
1 


2 
2 

9 
2 

4 

4 

1 
2 
4 


1 

1 
1 

2 

9 

"<; 
2 

i 

3 


1 

9 

V) 
1 
2 

4 

"2 
3 


2 

1 

1 

5 
1 

4 
1 

3 

"3 


1 

2 

1 

5 
3 

2 
5 


1 

4 

3 

1 
2 
3 

..J 

2 

4 








Hooping-cough ... 
Inflammation 








Total ascertained... 
Do. not ascertained 


41) 
62 


45 
55 


14 
35 


IS 
2(1 


■27 
58 


15 
35 


20 

2.-) 


14 

2S 


13 

IS 


5 
lit 


15 
15 


28 


32 
29 


22 

2S 


3d 
32 


26 

35 


31 
33 


21 

28 


19 
42 


20 
42 


Deaths.M.andF... 


111 


LOO 


49 


14 


8o| 50 

135 

10-4 

464-2 


45 


42 


31 


IS 


31 ) 


34 


61 


50 


62 


61 


64 


49 


Gl 


62 


Total 


211 

| 6-6 
297-0 


93 

151 

673-8 


87 

16-2 

720-3 


46 
30-6 
1362-4 


64 

220 

979-2 


111 

12-7 

564-6 


123 

11-4 

509-5 


113 

12-4 

554-6 


123 
11-4 

509-5 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


Table XXXIX. — Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of ABERDEEN an 
calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number t 

1839. — Populatio 


Accidents 

Aged 

Bowel Complaints. 
Croup 


3 

"i 

1 

2 

4 
1 

2 


2 

1 

4 

"i 

i 
i 

3 

"i 


2 

2 
1 
1 


2 

2 

2 

2 
1 

2 


1 

"2 

1 
1 

2 
3 

1 


1 

2 
... 

1 
5 

i 


1 

1 

i 
2 

1 


1 
1 

2 
1 

"l 


2 

2" 
1 

2 


1 


1 

1 

1 
1 

2 

4 

3 


3 

1 

I 


4 

3 
1 

1 
1 


1 

6 

3 
1 

1 
1 


4 
2 
7 
1 

1 


1 

2 

1 
1 
1 

4 

3 


1 
2 

2 
2 
1 

2 
2 


1 

2 
1 

3 

5 

"i 
2 
1 

3 


1 
1 
"l 

2 

*3 

1 

3 

1 


2 
1 
1 
2 

2 




Heart, of 

Hooping-cough ... 




Scarlet Fever 

Small-pox 

Miscellaneous 


Total ascertained.. 
Do.notascertaine( 


14 
52 


14 
53 


6 
37 


11 


11 
51 


10 

45 


31 


1; 
211 


7 

11 


1 

10 


13 
19 


5 
11 


10 
29 


13 

32 


15 
30 


13 

23 


12 
27 


19 
35 


13 
41 


8 
35 


Deaths,M.andF.. 


66 


67 


43 


46 


62|55 


37 


26 


18 1 11 


32 


19 


39 


45 


45 


36 


39 


54 


54 


43 


Total 

Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population 


1 
4 7 


J3 

i;-4 


8 

1 

71 


9 

2-9 

l«9 


1 

55 


17 
9-8 
2-7 


6 

] 
101 


3 

S-2 
).VS 


21 


9 

19*6 

85-0 


12 


1 
22-5 

12-4 


c 

1 

1 '"" 


i 

3-6 

4-3 


i 

1 
7c 


1 

4-1 

2-2 


1 


3 

2-3 

1-3 


£ 
1 

65 


7 

1-8 

3-2 



160 



uburbs during the year ending December 31, 1838, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took place; with 

eaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 

2,672. 


60 

& under 

-0. 


70 , 

& under 
75. 


75 

& under 

80. 


80 

& under 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 

95. 


95 

& under 

100. 


100 
& up- 
wards. 


Ages not 
ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 




Proport 
Whole 
Deaths. 

1 to every 


ons to the 

Popula- 
tion. 

1 to every 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


9 

3 
2 

1 
2 
2 

4 
5 


u 

3 
1 

1 
1 

2 
5 


1 

6 
1 


16 


6 


12 


8 

1 


13 


2 


9 


1 


1 




1 










13 
32 

8 
13 

2 

"4 
40 

6 
37 
18 

3 

4 
31 

8 
16 

9 
27 
33 


5 

67 

11 

19 

5 

3 

1 

29 

3 

27 

18 

4 
17 

6 
14 

6 
16 
21 


18 

99 

19 

32 

7 

3 

5 

69 

9 

64 

36 

3 

8 

48 

14 

30 

15 

43 

54 


78-3 

14-2 

74-2 

44-0 

201-5 

470-3 

282-2 

20-4 

156-7 

220 

39-1 

470-3 

176-3 

29-3 

100-7 

470 

94-0 

32-8 

26-1 






28 
28 


28 
32 


8 
12 


16 
24 


6 
14 


12 
13 


9 
14 


13 
17 


2 
6 


9 
7 


1 
1 


1 

2 




1 




i 






304 
424 


272 
411 


576 
835 


2-4 
1-6 


56 

11 

1. 

54< 


GO 

6 
H 

)-2 


20 

6( 

2 

104 


40 

) 

3-5 
4-5 


20 

4 

3 

139 


25 

5 

1-3 

2-7 


23)30 

53 

26-6 
1182-4 


8 

2 

5 
261 


16 

1 

8-7 

1-3 


2 

S 
125 


3 

3 

82- 
34- 


14 
626 


1 

L 
11- 

72- 


14 

62( 


1 

L 

11- 

72- 






728 683 

1411 

10 

44-416 


1411 


1-0 




burbs during the year ending December 31, 1839, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took place; with 

aths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 

,366. 


3 
2 

i 

2 
2 

1 

1 

:' 


2 

7 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 


G 

i 

1 


13 

1 
1 

1 


3 
1 


9 
1 


6 
1 


9 


2 


3 


2 


3 


1 












6 
23 
5 
3 
2 

18 
7 

20 

11 
2 
2 

21 
6 
4 
7 
4 
4 


4 

44 

2 

7 

2 
2 

20 
4 

15 

15 
1 
3 

13 
5 
5 

2 
12 


10 

67 

7 

10 

2 

2 

2 

38 

11 

35 

26 

3 

5 

34 

11 

9 

7 

6 

16 


114-9 

17-1 

1641 

114-9 

574-5 

574-5 

574-5 

30-2 

104-4 

32-8 

44-1 

3830 

229-8 

33-7 

104-4 

127-6 

164-1 

191-5 

71-8 






1 1 


15 

39 


8 
20 


16 
20 


4 j 10 
15 [ 18 


7 
18 


9 
21 


2 
4 


3 

7 


2 

G 


3 

5 


1 


"3 






i 




145 
433 


156 
415 


301 

848 


3-8 
1-3 


> 


54 


28 


36 


19 |28 


25|30 


6 


10 


8 


8 


1 


3 






1 




578 


571 


1149 


1-0 


11 

8 Ik 

2 



)-4 
•0 


6- 
15 

990 


I 

•9 

■0 


4 
2 

134 


r 

4-4 

8-2 


5. 
2 

115 


0-8 
21 


1 

7 

396 


1-8 
0-3 


1 

7 

39G 


1-8 
03 


A 

2 

158 


87' 
41- 






•• 




11 

55 


19 

148 











p4,2. 



161 



T^ble XL -Exhibiting the number of fatal Cases of disease that occurred in the City of ABERDEEN and 
eriS? shoeing the nunVr of death, at each period, and the proportion wfrldi these, '"^namltoaf 



Accidents.... 



Aged 

Asthma 

Bowel Complaints. 

Catarrh 

Childbirth 

Croup 

Decline 

Dropsy 

Fever 

Head, of 

Heart, of 

Hooping Cough 
Inflammation ... 

Measles 

Nervous 

Scarlet Fever... 

Small-Pox 

Miscellaneous.. 



1 



St under & under 



Total ascertained... 
Do. not ascertained 



Deaths, M. and F.. 



Total 

Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population, 



73 



58 



131 
|lf>5 
489-0 



99 



15 



& under & under 



19 I 24 
64 56 



83 80 



104 163 

13-3 8-4 

616-0 3930 



51 



2 1 



02 



113 

12-2 

566-9 



23 



46 
300 

1392-7 



22 



29 



51 
271 
12562 



02 



2 
9 113 



76 



138 

100 

464-2 



02 



St under 

60. 



01 



123 



04 



58 



122 



11-2 13-3 



57 52 



109 
12-6 



520-8 525-1 | 587-7 



Table XLI.-Kxhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of ABERDEEN and 
cajSontshowutg the total number of deaths at each period, and the proport.on winch these, Ǫ^ȣ*ǣ 



Accidents I ••• I ••• I * 



Aged 

Asthma 

Bowel Complaints.] 3 

Catarrh 

Childbirth 

Croup 1 

Decline 

Dropsy 

Fever 

Head, of 

Heart, of 

Hooping-cough 
Inflammation .. 

Measles 

Nervous 1 

Scarlet Fever ... 

Small-pox •■• 

Miscellaneous 2 



1 
1 1 

1 

*6 

1 



Total ascertained. 
Do. not ascertained 



Deaths, M. and F. . 



Total 

Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 



77 



3 
12 



00 



137 
| 7-7 
472-8 



I'D 



45 



83 
12-4 

780-4 



1 1 



40 



78 
13-2 



32 28 



60 
17-2 



19111 

30 
34-4 



10 

22|25 

47 
22-0 



830-4 1079-6 2159-2 1378-2 



44 



48 



92 

11-2 

704-1 



13 



37 



80 

12-9 

807-7 



41 



3» 



71 

14-5 

912-3 



-12 



21 



68 
15-i 
952-f 
162" 















































suburbs during the year ending December 31 , 1 840, classified according to 1 8 periods of life at which they took place ; with 

deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 

64,068. 




60 

& under 

70. 


70 

& under 

75. 


75 

& under 

80. 


80 

& undeT 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 

95. 


95 

& under 
100. 


100 
& up- 
wards. 


Ages no 
ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 


3! 
^0 


Proportions to the 

Whole Popula- 
Deaths. tion. 

1 to every 1 to ever 




M. 

1 
5 

1 

2 
3 
5 

2 

8 


F. 

1 
1 

i 

2 

1 
1 

1 
4 


M. 

6 
1 

1 


F. 

8 

1 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 




4 


3 


2 

1 


5 


1 


3 




2 


1 












7 

19 

6 

7 

"i 

19 

7 

64 

15 

*7 

14 
3 
2 

15 
1 

24 


4 
22 

6 

"2 

17 
8 
45 
14 
1 
5 
7 
8 
2 
6 

22 


11 

41 

6 

13 

"2 

1 

36 

15 

109 

29 

1 
12 
21 
11 

4 
21 

1 
46 


125-8 

33-7 

230-6 

106-4 

692-0 

1384-0 

38-4 

92-2 

12-6 

47-7 

1384-0 

115-3 

65-9 

125-8 

3460 

65-9 

1384-0 

300 






27 
40 


13 

35 


8 
29 


9 
23 


4 
11 


3 
19 


3 
8 


5 

18 


1 

6 


3 
10 


"2 


2 

3 


1 
1 












211 

486 


169 
518 


380 
1004 


3-6 
1-3 




67 


48 


37 


32 


15 


22 


ll|23 

34 

40-7 
1884-3 


7 


13 


2 


5 


2 




... 








697 


687 


1384 


10 




f 115 


69 

20-5 

928-5 


37 
37-4 
1731-5 


20 

69-2 
3203-4 


7 

196-7 

9152-5 


2 

692-0 
32034- 


... 




1384 

1-0 

46-291 




12-0 








Marin during the year ending December 31 , 1 841 , classified according to 1 8 periods of life at which they took place ; with! 
eaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 

«,77«. 




1 

3 
2 

-4 
J 2 


8 
3 

1 
1 

1 


8 
1 


10 

1 

1 
1 


5 


7 


7 


1 
9 


3 


9 


1 


1 




2 










7 

29 

5 

7 

2 

26 

5 

20 

15 

2 

15 

i 

4 

1 

17 


5 

46 

3 

11 

"l 

28 
3 

16 
7 
1 
6 
7 

"6 
2 
3 

12 


12 
75 

8 
18 

"i 

2 

54 

8 

36 

22 

1 

8 

22 

... 

6 

4 
29 


86-1 

13-7 

129-2 

57-4 

1034-0 

517-0 

19-1 

129-2 

28-7 

47-0 

1034-0 

129-2 

47-0 

147-7 

172-3 

258-5 

35-6 






!l8 
f!7 


14 

40 


9 
13 


13 
27 


5 

13 


7 
1G 


7 
11 


10 
17 


3 

5 


9 
12 


1 
1 


1 
4 


... 


2 
2 


1 








156 
354 


157 

367 


313 
721 


3-3 
1-4 




1(5 

9 

1 1 

1(15 


54 

J 

N 

1-3 


22 

li 

1 

104 


40 
2 
CrC, 

4-8 


18 

4 
2 

157 


23 

I 

5-2 

H 


18 

li 
2 

143 


27 

2-9 

9-5 


8 j 21 

29 
35-6 
2233-7 


2 

7 

14 

925 


5 

7-7 
4-0 


25 
lol< 


1 
N 

)4- 


1 

1 

10 

047 


34- 

7S- 






510 

10; 
1 

62 


524 

14 

647 


1034 


10 





m2 



163 



Tablb XLII.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of PERTH (not including 
they took place ; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, 

1837.— Population 


Diseases. 


Under 

1 
Year. 


l 

& under 

2. 


2 

& under 

5. 


5 

& under 

10. 


10 

& under 

15. 


15 

& under 
20. 


20 

& under 
30. 


30 

& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 

& under 

60. 


M. 


F. 


If. 


F. 


It. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 

1 

4 

1 

2 


F. 

2 

1 

2 
1 


M. 
2 

1 
1 

6 
2 

7 
1 
2 

2 


F. 

2 
1 

6 

"i 
1 

1 
1 


M. 

3 

1 
1 

8 

"» 

3 

2 


F. 
1 

i 

1 
2 

6 
3 
9 
2 

1 


M. 

2 

"2 

1 

3 
9 
3 

3 


F. 

3 
3 
4 

4 

8 
1 

1 

1 


M. 

1 

3 
"3 

10 
1 
4 
1 

2 
2 

3 


F. 

6 

1 
1 

9 
1 
7 
3 

1 
1 

1 


Bowel Complaints. 


8 


11 

2 

1 

3 

2 

1 

q 

i 

3 
7 

1 
2 


5 

3 
1 

2 

1 

5 
1 
6 
1 


5 
2 

"i 

3 
2 
3 


2 
2 

1 
4 

2 
1 
4 
1 
1 
2 


1 

3 
1 

3 
3 

3 
2 
4 
2 
1 
1 


1 

2 

3 
3 

i 
i 


3 

1 

1 

3 

2 
1 

1 


1 

1 

2 
1 

i 

2 


5 
1 




2 






1 

4 

1 

1 

11 

1 


Hooping-cough ... 






Miscellaneous 


Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertained 


29 
1 


40 
1 


•25 


16 


20 


24 


n 
n 


12 
1 

13 


8 

8 


6 
6 


8 
8 


6 
6 


24 
24 


16 
16 


27 
1 

28 


26 
1 

27 


23 
2 

25 


25 
25 


30 
1 

31 


31 
1 

32 


Deaths, M. and F.. 


30 


41 


25 


16 


20 


24 


Total 


71 

},, 

2757 


41 

15-8 

477-5 


44 

147 

444-9 


24 

270 

8157 


14 
46-3 

1398-5 


14 
46-3 

1398-5 


40 ' 

16-2 

489-4 


55 
11-8 
355-9 


50 

12-9 

391-5 


63 

10-3 

310-7 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


Table XLIII.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of PERTH (not including 
they took place ; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, 






1838. — Population i 


Accidents 

Bowel Complaints. 


7 


10 
1 

2 
3 

2 

4 
2 
6 
6 
5 
5 


1 
7 

2 
1 

1 

1 
2 

4 
1 
3 

2 
1 


5 

1 
2 

1 
2 

4 
1 

3 

"i 

5 


5 
5 

i 

2 

2 
5 

4 
1 
9 

12 


1 

1 

4 

2 
6 

4 

4 
1 
9 
5 


4 

"i 
i 

4 

1 


1 

1 

2 

i 

2 

6 


1 

1 

1 

i 
i 


1 

1 
1 

1 

2 


2 

1 

1 

"2 


7 
"2 


6 

1 

5 
1 
5 

2 

1 


8 

"3 
2 

2 


1 

1 

8 

"5 
2 

2 
2 


1 

2 

5 

"3 
1 

3 

1 


1 

5 

"5 
4 

2 

1 


3 

1 

6 
1 
5 
2 

1 
3 


1 
3 

3 
3 
1 
4 

1 

2 

2 


2 

1 

7 

? 

... 

1 
3 




3 
1 






Hooping-cough ... 


i 




8 

"7> 
] 


Scarlet Fever 




Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertained 


27 
2 


46 

5 


26 


25 


46 
1 


37 


11 
1 


13 


5 


6 


6 





21 
1 


15 


21 


16 


18 


22 


20 


32 


Deaths, M. and F.. 


29 ( 51 

80 


26 


25 


47 


37 


12 


13 


5 


6 


6 


!) 


22 


15 


21 


16 


18 


22 


20 


32 ' 


Total 


51 


84 


25 


11 


15 


37 


37 


40 


52 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


} 

24 


7-2 

3-8 


1 

38 


1-3 

2-4 


23 


6-8 
2-2 


2 

78 


31 
0-2 


17 


2-5 
'33 


13( 


S8-5 
KM 


1 
52 


5-6 
7-2 


1 
52 


5-6 
72 


1 
48 


4-4 
7-6 


1 
37 


1-1 

51 



164 



he suburban district of Kinnoul) during the year ending December 31, 1837, classified according to 18 periods of life atwhich 


ind the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 
9,579. 






60 


70 




80 85 


90 


95 


100 


Ages not 






Proport 


ons to the 


& under 
70. 


& under 
75. 


& under 
80. 


& under & under 
85. | 90. 


& under 
95. 


& under 
100. 


& up- 
wards. 


ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 


3i 


Whole 
Deaths. 

1 to every 


Popula- 
tion. 

1 to every 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. M. 


F. 


M. 1 F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


H. 


F. 




































9 


6 


15 


43-2 


1305-2 


15 


•?o 


lfi 


lfi 


8 


12 


12 


23 


4 


2 


1 


1 














56 


74 


130 


4-9 


150-6 


6 


9 
f) 


3 

1 


4 
1 




1 


1 
























14 
16 


23 
24 


37 
40 


17-5 
16-2 


5291 
489-4 


6 


7 


3 


6 


1 


2 


1 


1 






















20 

10 
31 


28 
3 
7 

39 


48 

3 

17 

70 


13-5 

216-3 

38-1 

9-2 


407-8 
6526-3 
1151-7 

279-7 


8 


•>, 







2 




























11 


8 


19 


34-1 


1030-4 


9, 


4 




1 


2 


1 


1 






















43 


42 


85 


7-6 


230-3 


5 


6 


4 




1 




1 
























28 
3 
11 


19 

fa 


47 

3 

23 


13-8 
216-3 

28-2 


416-5 

6526-3 

851-2 


1 


1 




1 






























13 


15 


28 


231 


699-2 






























... 1... 






12 


11 


23 


28-2 


851-2 






































16 


10 


26 


24-9 


7530 






































2 


1 


3 


216-3 


6526-3 






































3 


2 


5 


129-8 


3915-8 


1 


2 




1 


2 












. 


>... 














10 


8 


18 


36-0 


1087-7 


39 


55 


•27 


32 


lfi 


16 


lfi 


24 


4 


2 


1 


1 














308 


332 


640 


10 


30-5 






































5 


4 


9 


721 


2175-4 


i39 


55 


27 


32 


16 


16 


16 


24 


4 


2 


1 


1 














313 


336 


649 


1-0 


30-167 


i 94 


59 


32 


40 


6 


2 








649 






6-9 


110 


20-2 


16-2 


108-1 


324-5 








1-0 








208-2 


331-8 


611-8 


489-4 


32631 


9789-5 








30-167 














at which 


lie suburban district of Kinnoul) during the year ending December 31 , 1838, classified according to 18 periods of nte 


ad the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 




3,507. 




... 


































10 


2 12 


48-1 


1625-5 


12 


8 


12 


17 


7 


11 


8 


12 


2 


4 




1 




1 










41 


54j 95 


6*0 


205-3 


3 


5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


























9 
14 


13 

18 


22 
32 


26-2 
18-0 


886-6 
609-5 




1 


































2 


4 
2 


6j 96-3 
2 1 289-0 


32511 
9753-5 






































10 


7 


17 


34-0 


1147-4 






































35 


38 


73 


7-9 


267-2 


3 


2 






2 






1 






















11 


9 


20 


28-9 


975-3 


5 


1 


1 
































25 


27 


52 


111 


375-1 


a 


3 


1 






1 


























18 


25 


43 


13-4 


453-6 


i 


1 




1 
1 






























2 
6 
16 
7 
10 
16 
21 


2 

12 
9 
14 
10 
24 
15 


4 
18 
25 
21 
20 
40 
36 


144-5 
32-1 
23-1 
27-5 
28-9 
14-4 
16-0 


4876-7 
1083-7 
780-2 
928-9 
975-3 
487-6 
541-8 


2 


4 


3 










1 






















14 


14 


28 


20-6 


696-6 


28 


25 


18 


20 


10 


13 


8 


14 


2 


4 




1 




1 










267 


299 






34-4 






1 


1 


































6 


6 


12 


48-1 


1625-5 


29 


2(5 


18 


20 


10 


13 


8 


14 


2 


4 




1 














273 


305 


578 


10 


33-749 


55 


38 


23 


22 


( 




1 


1 






578 








10-5 


15-2 


251 


26-2 


96-3 


578- 


578- 






1-0 








354-6 


513-3 


848-1 


886-6 


3251-1 


19507- 


19507- 






33-749 


















■ 


























1 


65 



Table XLIV. — Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of PERTH (not including 
■which they took place ; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which 

1839. — Population 


Diseases. 


Under 

1 
Year. 


1 

& under 
2. 


2 
& under 

5. 


5 

& under 

10. 


10 

& under 
15. 


15 20 

& under & under 

20. 30. 


30 

& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 

& under 

60. 


M, 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


P. 


M. 


P- 


Accidents 

Bowel Complaints. 
Catarrh 


13 

2 

3 


i 

1 

2 

2 

3 
3 

11 


2 

i 

"i 

1 
1 
1 

2 
2 


10 

"i 

1 

2 


1 
1 

"2 
1 

"3 

2 

2 
2 


1 
1 

1 

"i 
1 

2 
1 

3 
2 


1 

"i 
1 
1 

1 

2 


1 
1 

3 

"i 


"i 

1 


1 

2 

1 

1 
1 


3 
4 

"i 

1 


1 

"i 


2 

10 

1 

1 

2 

1 
1 


1 

2 

5 
2 
3 

"i 
;'i 


2 

1 

1 
2 
3 
3 

1 

1 
1 


G 
1 
3 
1 
2 

1 
"i 


1 

9 
5 

1 
1 

"3 


1 

"i 

2 
2 
2 

2 

2 


1 

1 
1 
1 

2 
3 

"4 
2 

1 
'3 


1 

5 
2 
1 
2 

2 

i 




Fever 

Head, of 


Hooping-cough ... 


1 
[1 

6 
1 

3 




Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertained 


30 
4 


28 
2 


14 


15 


14 


13 


7 


(5 


3 


6 


9 


2 


18 


15 


15 


18 
1 


20 
2 


12 


19 


14 


Deaths, M. and F... 


34 


30 


14 


15 


14 


13 


7 


6 


3 


6 


9 


2 


18 

] 
5t 


15 

3 
2-9 

8-9 


15 


19 


22 


12 


19 


14 


Total .' 


64 
| 6-6 
303-6 


29 

14-7 

670-1 


27 

15-8 

719-8 


13 

32-9 

1495-0 


9 
47-5 
2159-4 


11 

38-9 

1766-8 


34 
12-5 
571-6 


34 

12-5 
571-6 


33 

12-9 

588-9 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


Table XLV.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of PERTH (not including 

■which they took place ; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which 

' 1840.— Population 


Accidents 

Bowel Complaints. 
Catarrh 


li 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

3 
2 
5 

9 

1 


7 

"i 

4 

"fi 


2 

1 
1 

1 

3 
1 
5 


1 
1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

li 

"5 

1 
1 


2 
3 

"2 
1 

6 

"4 


1 

1 

2 

2 
1 
2 
1 

2 


1 

1 

2 
1 

"i 
1 


1 

5 
2 

2 

1 


1 

"i 


1 

2 
1 


3 

"i 

4 
2 


1 
9 

i 
3 

1 

15 
1 


1 

9 
2 
2 
2 

2 

1 

19 


1 
3 

i 
1 

1 

7 

1 


3 
5 

1 

9 
2 


4 

1 

6 

1 

5 

3 

2 

22 
4 


1 

2 
2 

3 
2 

1 
1 

1 

13 
2 


5 
1 
1 

3 
1 

' i 
2 

1 

15 
1 


1 

i 

3 

1 

"2 
2 

1 1 

ii 
1 








1 
1 

3 
1 
(5 
4 




Hooping-cough .. 




Miscellaneous 


Total ascertained. 
Do. not ascertainec 


24 
2 


21 
3 


18 


11 
1 


22 
1 


18 
1 


12 I 7 


11 


2 


4 


Deaths, M. and F.. 


■2<; 


30 


is: i5 

33 
13-4 
586-8 


23 


19 


12 J 7 

19 
23-4 
1019-2 


11 


2 


4 


i; 


1(5 


19 


8 


11 


2(5 


15 


16 


12 


Total 


56 

},» 

315-8 


42 
10-5 
4610 


13 
34-2 
1489-6 


10 
44-5 
193(5-5 


35 
12-7 
553-2 


19 
23-4 
1019-2 


41 

10-5 
472-3 


28 

15-8 | 
691-6 ' 


Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population 











































e suburban district of Kinnoul) during the year ending December 31, 1839, classified according to 18 periods of life at 
esc, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 
,435. 


60 

i under 

70. 


70 

& under 

75. 


75 

& under 

80. 


BO 
& under 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 
95. 


95 

& under 

100. 


100 
& up- 
wards. 


Ages no 
ascer- 
tained. 


1 

Total. 


~2% 


Proport 

Whole 
Deaths. 

1 to every 


ions to the 

Popula- 
tion. 

1 to every 




F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


W. 


F. 


M. 


F. 




M. 






F. 


M. 


F. 


if. 


F. 


HI. 


M. 


F. 


F. 


M. 




"5 

4 

"s 

1 
3 


1 

5 

1 

"i 

1 

1 


"9 

2 

1 
1 

2 


1 

8 

i 
1 


1 

4 
2 


10 

2 

1 


12 


6 

1 


5 




2 




... 












2 

37 

8 

17 

2 

3 

3 

24 

7 

12 

21 

3 

6 

11 

ii 

8 

3 

13 






1388-2 

242-9 

1495-0 

498-3 

6478-3 

6478-3 

3887-0 

340-9 

845-0 

925-4 

396-6 

2776-4 

1943-5 

845-0 

19435-0 

1022-8 

1295-6 

2776-4 

670-1 


4 
4 

3 

2 
2 

5 

2 
2 


12 
43 

5 
22 

1 

2 
33 
16 

9 
28 
4 
4 
12 
1 
8 
7 
4 

ie 


14 

80 

13 

39 

3 

3 

5 

57 

23 

21 

49 

7 

10 

23 

1 

19 

15 

7 

29 


30-5 

5-3 

32-9 

10-9 

142-6 

142-6 

85-6 

7-5 

18-6 

20-3 

8-7 

61-1 

42-8 

18-6 

428-0 

22-5 

28-5 

61-1 

147 


4 


21 


13 


15 


11 


7 
1 


13 


12 


7 


5 


... 


2 


... 












227 

6 


191 
4 


418 
10 


10 

42-8 


46-4 
1943-5 


4 


21 

5 

7-7 
3-3 


13 


15 


11 


8 


13 


12 


7 


5 




2 














233 


195 


428 


1-0 


45-408 


5 

36 


28 

15-2 

694-1 


19 
23-5 

1022-8 


25 

17-1 

777-4 


12 
35-6 
1619-5 


2 

2140 

9717-5 








4J8 
1-0 
45-408 








i suburban district of Kinnoul) during the year ending December 31, 1840, classified according to 18 periods of life at 
;se, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 
365. 


'i 

i 
i 

• 

i 

■■ 

2 

1 


16 
4 

1 
1 

1 
4 

1 


9 

1 

1 

1 
2 


19 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 


1 

8 
2 

1 

1 

1 


1 
10 

1 


11 

1 


18 

1 


2 


6 


1 


3 














11 
33 

9 
16 

2 

4 

33 

3 

9 

17 

1 

13 

18 

18 

5 

1 

9 


3 

72 

11 

7 

3 

1 

4 

30 

9 

9 

15 

1 

12 

7 

15 

11 

1 

6 


14 

105 

20 

23 

5 

1 

8 

63 

12 

18 

32 

2 

25 

25 

33 

16 

1 

1 

15 


317 

4-2 

22-2 

19-3 

89-0 

445-0 

55-6 

70 

37-0 

247 

13-9 

222-5 

17-8 

17-8 

13-4 

27-8 

445-0 

445-0 

29-6 


1383-2 
184-4 
968-2 
841-9 

3873-0 
19365-0 

2420-6 
307-3 

16137 

1075-8 
605-1 

9682-5 
774-6 
774-C 
586-8 

1210-3 
19365-0 
19365-0 

1291-0 


1 


28 
1 


14 

1 


2f> 

1 


11 


12 


12 


19 


2 


6 


1 


3 














202 
12 


217 
14 


419 
26 


10 
17-1 


46-2 

744-8 





29 


J 5 


2(5 


14 


12 


12 


19 


2 





1 


8 














214 


231 


445 


1-0 


43-516 


3 

1 

— 


11 
1-1 


4 

1 

47 


1 

()■;> 

2-3 


2 

1 

71 


6 

7-1 

4-8 


a 
1 

62 


1 
4-3 

4-6 


! 

: 

21: 


i 

>5-6 

JO-fj 


11 

484 


1-2 

1-2 








- 


. 




4 

43 


15 

1-0 
516 







167 





Table XLVI.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of PERTH (not including 

thev took place ; with calculations showing the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, 

' i- . o 1841.— Population 




Diseases. 


Under 
Year. 


l 

& under 
2. 


2 

& under 

5. 


5 

& under 

10. 


10 

& under 

15. 


15 

& under 

20. 


20 

& under 

30. 


30 

& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 

fe under 
60. 




jr. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 

1 

6 

1 

1 

1 


F. 
1 

1 

3 

8 
1 

1 
1 

1 
2 


M. 

2 
1 

1 

1 
1 


F. 

1 
1 

3 

4 

2 
1 

2 


M. 

1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
3 

1 
2 


F. 

1 

7 
2 

1 
1 

4 

3 


M. 

4 

3 
2 

1 
4 
2 

1 
2 


F. 

2 

7 
4 

3 

1 
... 

3 






1 

10 
2 

2 

1 

2 

4 


1 

8 
1 

3 

3 

5 

1 

13 


5 

2 

1 

3 
2 

3 
2 
3 
2 


3 

1 
1 

1 
2 

3 
2 

1 
1 
1 

1 


1 
1 

3 

3 

2 
2 

3 

3 
3 

1 


1 

1 

3 
1 

3 
2 

1 
3 
2 

"a 


1 

1 
2 

"•2 
1 
3 


1 

1 
1 


1 


1 
1 

2 

1 


2 

1 
1 

3 

1 

"i 

i 


1 
3 




Bowel Complaints. 












Hooping-cough ... 






8 




Scarlet Fever 

Miscellaneous 




Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertained 


30 

2 


35 
1 


23 


17 


22 


1!) 


10 


3 


1 


5 


10 


4 


10 


1!) 


6 


14 
2 


12 


19 


19 


20 
1 




Deaths, M. and F... 


32 


36 


23 


17 


22 


19 


10 


3 


1 


5 


10 


4 


10 


19 


6 


16 


12 


19 


19 


21 




Total 


68 
| 6-8 
2837 


40 

11-6 

482-3 


41 
11-3 

470-5 


13 
35-8 
1484-0 


6 

77-6 
3215-5 


14 
33-2 
1378-0 


29 
160 
665-7 


22 
211 

876-9 


31 
15-0 
622-3 


40 

11-6 

482-3 
— ' 




Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 




Table XLVII.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the town of DUNDEE during the i 
the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from the several 1 

1839.— Population 1 




Accidents 

Bowel Complaints. 


57 
2 


41 

6 

13 
1 
2 
2 
1 

11 
U 
21 
i; 
i 

U 
1: 


15 

1 
9 
1 

* 

2 

15 
6 

24 
1 
8 
7 

... 


1 

20 

7 
4 

"; 

2 

15 

t 

a 

i 

4 
14 


2 

6 
2 

5 
11 
6 
1 
9 

11 

3 

3; : 
is 

! 
2 


1 

6 

1 
7 
1 

12 

S 

2( 
6 

11 

21 
14 

4 


1 

3 

11 
2 

3 
3 

9 

1 
10 

i 


2 

2 
5 
2 
5 
4 

2 
2 

12 

4 

2 


2 

3 
4 
2 

2 

1 

1 
3 
2 


6 
3 

5 
1 

1 

2 

3 
1 


5 

5 

3 
2 

3 

3 


1 
4 

5 

1 
1 

1 


5 

1 

1 

15 

1 
12 
5 

1 

7 

2 
2 

3 


2 
1 

1 

14 

1 

13 

1 
2 

7 
4 


2 

1 

10 
1 

15 
1 
1 

i 

9 


2 
2 
1 
5 

16 
6 

17 
3 

4 

1 

1 

1 




7 

i 

14 
3 

11 
6 

5 

6 

1 
1 


2 

4 

2 
2 

10 
6 

14 
2 

1 

5 

1 
2 

4 


2 

5 
1 
1 

5 
5 

9 
8 

2 

3 


... 

6 
2 

11 

9 
6 
3 1 

1 

3 

2 

5 










7 

1 

2 

7 

1 

2( 

12 

17 

e 
s 
u 

1 




















Hooping-cough .. 
Inflammation 








Scarlet Fever 




Miscellaneous 




Total ascertained. 
Do. not ascertainec 


15J 

1! 


16: 
U 


' 93 

i ... 


12: 


m 


15: 


44 


42 

1 


20 


22 


21 


13 


55 

1 


46 

1 


41 
2 


51) 
59 


60 
60 


55 
55 


41 
41 


48 

1 

49 




Deaths, M. and F.. 


171 


518< 


i 93 


12: 


11! 


15: 


44 


43 


20 


22 


21 


13 


56 


47 


43 




Total 


358 
; | 4-6 
. 161-7 


215 

7-6 
269-2 


271 

60 
213-6 


87 

18-9 

665'4 


42 
39-2 
1378-5 


34 

48-4 
1702-8 


103 

15-9 
562-1 


102 

161 

567-6 


115 

14-3 

503-4 


90 
18-3 
643-3 i 




Propor. to whol 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population 








































1 


68 





e suburban district of Kinnoul) during the year ending December 31, 1841, classified according to 18 periods of life at which 
d the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 


60 

under 
70. 


70 
& under 

75. 


75 

& under 

80. 


80 

& under 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 

95. 


95 

& under 

100. 


100 
& up- 
wards. 


Ages no 
ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 


3 j= 


Proportions to the 

Whole Popula- 
Deaths. tion. 

1 to every 1 to every 


I. F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


ft. 


F. 


ft. 


F. 


ft. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


4 8 
4 5 

1 

4 1 

i 2 


9 

3 

2 

1 


16 

2 

1 
3 


18 

1 

1 


18 
2 
1 

1 


11 


18 


2 

] 


11 




5 


2 








5 
41 
14 
18 

3 

5 
22 

7 

9 
20 

4 

8 
15 

8 
15 

5 

10 


5 

76 
13 
15 

2 

a 

4 
34 

8 

6 
16 

4 

7 
20 

4 
15 

4 

ii 


10 

117 

27 

33 

5 

6 

9 

56 

15 

15 

36 

8 

15 

35 

12 

30 

9 

21 


46-6 
3-9 
172 
14-1 
93-2 
77-6 
51-7 
8-3 
31-0 
31-0 
12-9 
58-2 
31-0 
13-3 
38-8 
15-5 
51-7 

221 


1929-3 

164-8 

714-5 

584-6 

3858-6 

3215-5 

2143-6 

344-5 

1286-2 

1286-2 

535-9 

2411-6 

1286-2 

551-2 

1607-7 

643-1 

2143-6 

918-7 


) 17 

t ... 

|l 17 

38 
112-2 

107-7 




15 
15 


22 
22 


15 
15 


22 
22 


11 
11 


18 
18 


3 
3 


11 
11 




5 
5 


2 

2 












209 
3 


250 
4 


459 

7 


10 
66-5 


42-0 
2756-1 






212 


254 


466 


1-0 


41-401 


37 

12-5 

521-4 


37 

12-5 

521-4 


29 
16-0 

665-7 


14 
33-2 
1378-0 


5 
93-2 

3858-6 


2 

233-0 
9646-5 






466 

1-0 

41-401 








!r ending December 31, 1839, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took pla 
:ases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. 

197- V ' 
L 


ce ; with calculations showing 






; 19 

4 

I 3 

: 2 

> 8 
3 

4 
6 


1 
12 
2 
2 

2 
3 
2 

1 


20 

"i 

2 

1 
4 

1 


10 

i 

i 

i 


12 
1 


11 
1 

1 


1 

16 


... 

i 


3 


1 

1 

1 

4 

4 

144 


3 

3 
3 

11- 

74- 


1 
16 

578 


1 

1 
1 

17- 

•7- 


i 

i 








27 

49 
28 
83 
10 

6 

81 
29 
87 
51 
10 
49 
47 
84 
8' 
40 
34 
41 


6 

73 
18 
78 

5 

9 
24 
90 
39 
90 
33 

7 
56 
55 
113 
18 
39 
43 
42 


33 

122 

46 

161 

15 

9 

30 

171 

68 

177 

84 

17 

105 

102 

197 

26 

79 

77 

83 


49-9- 
13-5 
35-8 
10-2 
109-8 
183-0 
54-9 

9-6 
24-2 

9-3 
19-6 
96-8 
15-6 
161 

8-3 
633 
20-8 
21-3 
19S 


1754-4 
474-5 

1258-6 
359-6 

3859-8 

6433-0 

1929-9 
33S-5 
851-4 
315-8 
689-2 

3405-7 
551-4 
567-6 
293-8 

2226-8 
732-8 
751-9 
697-5 


5] 


25 


29 


13 


13 


13 


17 


i 


3 


764 
24 


838 
21 


1602 

45 


10 

36-6 


361 

12866 


51 

10 
4-9 
.6-3 


25 

54 

3 

107 


29 

t 

0-5 

21 


13 

2( 

6 

222 


13 

33 

6-8 


13 

3( 

5 

192 


17 

4-9 
I)-9 


i 

4 
4 

144 


3 

11- 

74- 


i ... 
i 

1647- 

57897- 


788 

164 

1 

35- 


859 

7 

153 


1647 


10 


35-153 










































1( 


)9 



Tablk XLVIII.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the Town of DUNDEE during the 
the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion wliich these, and the number of deaths from the several 

1840.— Population 


Diseases. 


Under 
Year. 


1 

& under 
2. 


2 

& under 
5. 


5 

& under 
10. 


10 

& under 
15. 


15 

& under 
20. 


20 

& under 

30. 


30 

& under 

40. 


40 

& under 

50. 


50 

& under 

60. 


M. 


F. 


11. 


F. 


11. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


11. 


F. 


11. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


11. 


F. 


Accidents 

Asthma 

Bowel Complaints. 


50 

1 

1 

is 

2 
3 

12 

1) 

20 

1 

10 

22 
8 


28 

4 
12 

6 



5 
6 
3 
8 
2 
ft) 
4 


1 

13 

2 
9 

1 
3 

ia 

a 

2 

1 
■2 

20 


22 

1 

2 

1 

4 

a 

4 
3 

1 
2 

14 


2 

5 

5 
9 

5 
5 

6 
4 

3 
1 
4 
23 
2 


4 

1 

4 
3 
5 
5 

10 
2 
3 

2 

18 
1 


2 

1 

1 

10 

1 
2 

3 

;; 
1 

1 

P 

9 
2 


1 

3 

5 

3 
4 
6 
2 
3 
2 

1 
7 
2 


4 

3 
1 

1 

1 
2 
2 


1 
1 

6 

2 
3 

i 

2 

1 


3 
5 

1 
1 

i 


2 

1 

5 
1 
3 
1 

1 

1 


3 
2 

24 
2 
7 
1 
2 

3 

2 
4 


1 

1 
1 

(i 

20 
1 
8 
1 

1 

"3 

1 


3 

2 

1 

a 
3 

16 

4 
2 

2 

1 

3 


2 

1 

4 

12 
3 
9 
2 

2 

"i 

5 


7 

2 
2 

19 

2 

11 
4 

5 
"4 


2 

3 

1 

2 

16 

3 
9 
3 

1 

5 


2 

8 
3 

1 

3 
5 
4 
3 
2 

4 

3 

38 

38 


7 
1 
2 

8 
7 
7 
3 

2 

•7 
44 . 

44 












Heart, of 

Hooping-cough ... 




Scarlet Fever 




Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertained 


154 

20 


114 
15 


73 


63 


74 


58 


42 


SO 


14 


17 


11 


15 

15 


50 

50 


44 
44 


45 
1 

4(i 


44 
44 


56 

1 

57 


45 

1 

46 


Deaths, M. and F... 


174 


12!l 


75 


63 


74 


58 


42 


39 


14 


17 


11 


Total 


303 
} 4-3 
197-0 


136 

9-7 
438-9 


132 

10-0 
452-2 


81 

16-2 

736-9 


31 
42-5 
1925-5 


26 
50-7 
2295-8 


94 

140 

635-0 


90 

14-6 

663-2 


103 

12-8 

579-5 


82 
160 

727-9 j 




Propor. to whole 

Deaths is as 1 to 

To the Population. 


Table XLIX.— Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the Town of DUNDEE during the 
the total number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from the several | 

1841.— Population 


Accidents 

Asthma 

Bowel Complaints. 


'4';! 
3 

a 

7 

! 

12 
3 
]; 

V.j 

1< 

7 

1 
4 

1 


34 

2 

3 

( 

5 
( 
1 
( 

6 
5 
i 
I 

1 


1 

21 

1 
4 

1 
1 
4 

8 

7 

28 

1 

10 

1 

4 


23 

4 
4 

1 

. r ) 

9 
5 

1!) 

6 

2 


2 

6 

2 

a 


4 
3 
9 

(i 
1 

15 

31 

1 


2 

"3 

5 
5 
6 
2 

8 

15 
7 

21 
1 

21 
1 
2 


2 

1 
2 
3 

8 

4 

"i 
4 

1 

15 
1 
3 


3 

1 

1 

4 
4 
2 
5 

1 

2 
2 

12 

1 
1 


1 
2j 

7 

1 

a 

2 

1 

2 
1 
1 
1 

1 


i 

4 
2 
3 
1 

1 

5 

1 


4 

1 

9 
2 

3 

19 

10 


1 
1 

4 

1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 

2 

15 

15 


3 

"1 

1 

15 
3 
2 

i 

3 

3 

32 

32 


2 

2 

1 
1 
5 

21 
2 
5 


3 

3 
1 

18 
1 
2 


1 
4 
1 

7 

Hi 
4 
4 
5 

3 

1 

5 

51 
3 

54 


2 
10 

11 
3 
3 

5 

2 

1 
37 

37 


1 

6 

3 

11 
6 
3 

5 

1 

2 

7 

45 

45 


3 

4 
2 

5 

6 
4 
2 
1 

5 

5 

37 

1 

38 


8 
2 
4 

13 
7 
1 
4 
1 










2 3 




1 

4 

3 

49 
1 

50 


4 

a 

41 

41 


Hooping-cough... 


"•: 




... 








6 


Total ascertained.. 
Do. not ascertainct 


121 

17 


95 


90 


78 


92 


108 


45 


89 


26 


18 


48 

48 1 


Deaths, M.andF.. 


14| 


10 


90 


78 


92 


10; 


15 


89 


26 


18 


Total 


247 

}« 

249-1 


168 

8-0 

366-3 


195 

6-9 

315-5 


84 

16-1 

732-6 


44 
30-8 
1398-6 


34 
39-9 
1810-0 


82 

16-5 

750-4 


95 
14-2 

617-7 


82 

16-5 

750-4 


86 ( 

15-7 

715-5 I 


Propor. of whok 

Deaths is as 1 tc 

To the Population 






































1 


70 



■ax ending December 31, 1840 clashed according to 18 periods of life at which they took place ; with calculations showine- 
scases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. calculations snowing 
,091. 


60 

iundei 

70. 


70 

& under 

75. 


76 

& under 

80. 


80 

& under 

85. 


85 

& under 

90. 


90 

& under 

95. 


95 

& under 

100. 


100 

& up- 
wards. 


Ages no 
ascer- 
tained. 


Total. 


si 


Proport 

Whole 
Deaths. 

ltoeverj 


ions to the 

Popula- 
tion. 

1 to every 


I. F. 

2 ... 
8 34 
7 3 

4 2 

.. 2 

i '.'.'. 

.. 3 
1 8 

6 5 

1 ... 

.. 2 
1 !." 

5 3 

7 62 

1 ... 

i 62 

110 
12-0 

42-6 


M 

2 

20 

3 

3 

i 

3 

1 

3 


F. 

16 

4 

1 

3 
1 
3 

1 


11 

6 
"l 

1 
1 
4 

1 


F. 

14 

"2 

1 

1 


M. 

10 

1 


F. 

10 

1 

1 


1 


F. 

5 

1 


M. 

2 


F. 


jr. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


2 




1 










24 
57 
23 
85 
2 

"9 
104 
16 
60 
50 

7 
31 
51 

7 
13 
12 
78 
39 


5 
82 
20 
67 

7 
13 

6 
89 
30 
65 
40 

4 
27 
25 

9 

9 

7 
79 
29 


2S 
139 

43 

152 

9 

13 

15 
193 

46 
125 

90 

11 


45-5 

9-4 
30-6 

8-6 

146-6 

101-5 

80-0 

6-8 
28-6 
10-5 
14-6 
120-0 
22-7 
17-3 

2-5 
60-0 
69-4 

8-4 
19-4 


2058-3 

429-4 

1388-1 

392-7 

6632-3 

4591-6 

3979-4 

309-2 

1297-6 

477-5 

663-2 

5426-4 

1029-1 

785-4 

3730-6 

2713-2 

3141-6 

380-1 

877-8 


58 
76 
16 
22 
19 
157 
68 


36 

36 

6 

2 

91 


29 


14 


18 


11 


12 


1 


6 


2 


2 




1 




... 






668 
23 


613 
16 


1281 
39 


1-0 
33-8 


46-5 
1530-5 


29 

5 

>3 
S-3 


14|l8 

32 
41-2 

1865-3 


11 

2 

I 

25£ 


12 

3 

7-3 

5-2 


1 

IE 

852 


6 

7 

S-5 

7'2 


2 

14! 


2 

4 

>30- 

22- 


V, 

59( 


1 
1 

S20- 
)91- 




• 




691 

13 

] 
4.' 


629 

20 

•0 
i-2 


1320 


1-0 


45-2 


a|fbfa?^ 


2 

! 20 

i 11 

3 

■ 1 

1 
6 
2 

; 55 

S 55 
9 

c 


l 

10 

1 
1 

2 

1 

1 

n 

23 

7( 
1/ 

m 


1 
33 

4 
3 

1 

2 
1 
3 
1 

1 

3 
53 

53 

•8 
•7 


1 

10 

1 

1 

3 
1 

1 
18 

18 

31 

3 

181 


1 
12 

2 

1 

16 
16 

K> 


1 
8 

9 

9 

2-: 

6 
979 


12 

1 

13 
13 

1-7 
7-2 


3 

3 

3 

11 

1? 

559 


"i 

1 


T 


1 
5 




1 




1 






26 
45 
27 
79 
15 

"8 
85 
29 
31 
43 

5 
25 
47 
58 
10 
62 

7 
31 


14 
91 
34 
79 
10 
12 
13 
88 
41 
31 
50 

7 
34 
32 
47 
11 
56 
10 
34 


40 

136 
61 

158 
25 
12 
21 

173 
70 
62 
93 
12 
59 
79 

105 
21 

118 
17 
65 


33-9 

9-9 

22-2 

8-5 

54-3 

1131 
64-6 
7-8 
19-4 
21-9 
14-6 

1131 
23-0 
171 
12-9 
64-6 
11-5 
94-7 
23-6 


1538-5 

452-5 

1008-8 

389-4 

2461-6 

5128-3 

2930-4 

355-7 

879-1 

992-5 

661-7 

5128-3 

10430 

778-9 

586-0 

2930-4 

521-5 

3620-0 

946-7 


8 
8 

i-4 
1-5 


1 

1 

7 

19 

879 


6 
G 

4-0 

1-4 




1 




1 






633 
18 


694 
13 


1327 
31 


10 
43-8 


46-3 
1985-1 






1 

13 
615 








651 

135 

1 

45 


707 

8 


•3 


1358 


1-0 


45^3 


1 

13 

615 


J 
W 

10- 


1 

10- 1 





171 



172 



REPORT — 1842. 



[It being found inconvenient to bring in Tables L. to L1V. in their proper order, the 
reader is referred to the end of this Report, after p. 201.] 

Fevers and Eruptive Diseases. 

EDINBURGH. 

Table LV. — Exhibiting the average annual number of fatal cases of FEVER at different ages 
which occurred in the City of Edinburgh, including St. Cuthbert's and Canongate, du- 
ring the years 1839, 1840, and 1841, with the proportion which the deaths by fever at 
these ages bear to the whole deaths by fever ; also the proportion which the total amount 
of these deaths bear to the mean population. 



Ages. 






Feraales. 


Total. 


Proportions. 


Males 




1st. 

To the whole 

of the deaths 

by Fever. 


2nd. 

To the 

population, 

137,986. 




18f 

47 
118 


22 

49f 
110} 


40} 
96| 

228} 


Percent. 
12-410 
29-743 
70-256 


Per cent. 

0-029 
0-070 
0165 


20 years and upwards 


165 


160 


325 


100-000 

1 92-307 

99-679 

0-320 


0-235 

0069 
0-075 
0-000 




Cas 

505 


es of MEAS 
45± 


LES. 
96 


20 years and upwards 


55'| 


48 3 



103| 

0} 


56 


48 


104 
FEVER. 
46} 
71 
If 


100-000 

64-055 

98-156 

1-843 


0075 

0-033 
0-051 
0-000 




Cases of 
24± 
36 
1 


SCARLET 
22 


20 years and upwards 


35 

i 

T 


37 


35} 


72* 
POX. 
63f 

3| 


100000 

I 82-683 

95-238 

4-761 


0052 

0-046 
0053 
0002 




Cases 
34 


of SMALL- 
29| 
34 
1^ 


20 years and upwards 


2 


4H 

of FEVER 
129i 


35| 


77 


1 100-000 

ASES. 
42-939 
59-596 
40-403 


0056 

0-179 
0-249 
0169 


Case 


3 and ERUP 
119 


TIVE D1SE 

248i 


20 years and upwards 


178 
1214 


166f 
112} 


344| 
233^ 


299 j 


279 


578J 


100000 


0-419 









GLASGOW. 

Table LVI. Exhibiting the average annual number of fatal cases of FEVER at different 

ages which occurred in the City of Glasgow and suburbs during the years 1837,1 838, 1 839, 
1840, and 1841, with the proportion which the deaths by fever at these ages bear to the 
whole deaths by fever ; also the proportion which the total amount of these deaths bear 
to the mean population. 



Ages. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Proportions. 


1st. 

To the whole 

of the deaths 

by Fever. 


2nd. 

To the 

population, 

264,010. 




72* 

166* 
476* 


69| 
175$ 
358* 
533* 


142 
3414 
8344 • 


Per cent. 
12072 
29-059 
70-940 


Per cent. 

0053 
0-129 
0-316 


20 years and upwards 


642| 


1176* 


100000 


0-445 








• 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 173 

GLASGOW— (continued). 
Table LVII.— Cases of MEASLES. 



Ages. 



Proportions. 



1st. 
To the whole 
of the deaths 
by Measles. 



2nd. 

To the 

population, 

264,010. 



Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



235$ 
2654 



226i 

254f 

2+ 



46U 

520| 

34 



Per cent. 

88-087 

99-350 

0-649 



Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



267 

Cases of 

93i 
1274 



2564 



5234 



1294 



SCARLET FEVER. 

1805 

2494 
5i 



m 

122§ 

24 



125 



2544 



100000 



70-957 

97-959 

2040 



Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



Case 
169f 
1864 
11 


s of SMALL-POX. 
157§ 1 326f 
1754, 362* 


1974 


1834 1 381$ 



ioo-ooo 



85-729 

95-120 

4-879 



100-000 



Cases of FEVERS and ERUPTIVE DISEASES. 



Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



570 
746 
491 



1237 



541 
728| 
_370| 
1099 



1111 

1474| 
861-2 



2336 



47-559 
63-116 

36-883 



100-000 



Percent. 

0174 
0-197 
0001 



0122 



0-068 
0094 
0-001 



0-096 



0-123 
0137 
0-007 



0144 



0-420 
0-558 
0-326 



0-884 



PERTH. 
Table LVIII.— Exhibiting the average annual number of fatal cases of FEVER at different 
ages which occurred in the City of Perth, exclusive of the suburban district of Kinnoul, 
during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, and 1841, with the proportion which the deaths 
by fever at these ages bear to the whole deaths by fever ; also the proportion which the 
total amount of these deaths bear to the mean population. 



Ages. 



Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 

Under 5 years 

Under 20* years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 

Under five years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



G 
13 



19 



3J 

54 

13^ 



6 

HI 

262 



19i 

Cases of MEASLES. 



384 



8i 



16| 

18 



18 



Cases of SCARLET FEVER. 
6£ 74 



Ti 



131 



Proportions. 



1st. 

To the whole 

of the deaths 

by Fever. 


2nd. 

To the 

population, 

19,435. 


Per cent. 

15-706 
30-890 
69109 


Per cent. 
0-030 
0-060 
0135 



100-000 



92-222 
100-000 



100000 



63-235 

98-529 

1-470 



0196 



0-085 
0-092 



0-092 



0044 
0-068 
0-001 



100-000 



0-070 



174 



REPORT — 1842. 



PERTH— {continued). 
Table LIX.— Cases of SMALL-POX. 



Ages. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Proportions. 


1st. 
To the whole 
of the deaths 
by Small-pox. 


2nd. 

To the 

population, 

19,435. 


Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 
20 years and upwards 
Totals 


I 1 

■ 
7 


H 

4 
■5 


8f 
9 

3 


Per cent. 

87-755 

91-836 

8163 


Per cent. 
0044 
0-046 
0004 


fii 


Al 


9* 
TIVE DIS 

39f 1 

52 i 

27# 


100-000 

EASES. 
50-000 
65-577 
34-422 


0050 

0-204 
0-268 
0140 


Cases of FEVERS and ERUP 


Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 


26« 
1% 


25f 
134 




40 


39f 


79£ 100-000 


0-409 















DUNDEE. 
Table LX.— Exhibiting the average annual number of fatal cases of FEVER at dif- 
ferent ages which occurred in the Town of Dundee, during the years 1839, 1840, and 
1841, with the proportion which the deaths by fever at these ages bear to the whole deaths 
by fever; also the proportion which the total amount of these deaths bear to the mean 
population. 



Ages. 



Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



10J 
29f 



59i 



»3| 

32f 

29i 



62 



23§ 
62£ 

59 



12U 



Proportions. 



1st. 

To the whole 

of the deaths 

by Fever. 



Per cent. 
19-505 
51-373 
48-626 



Cases of MEASLES. 



Under 5 years I 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals I 



Under 5 years ; 

Under 20 years I 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



Under 5 years 1 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards I 
Totals j 

Cases of 

Under 5 years 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards 
Totals 



441 

49* 



5H 

56i 



951 
106 



49| 56£ 106 

Cases of SCARLET FEVER. 



100-000 



90-251 
100-000 



2nd. 

To the 

population, 

59,691. 



Per cent. 
0039 
0-104 
0-098 



0-203 



0160 
0177 
0-000 



24* 

36| 
I* 



38 

Cases 
33§ 

m 



23i 

32 

2 



47| 

68f 

3^ 



34f 72 

of SMALL-POX. 

m 1 7u 



100-000 



66-203 
95-370 
4-629 



41 7 

2i 






14 



83* 



100-000 



85-258 

94-820 

5179 



0177 



0079 
0-115 
0-005 



100-000 



set 1 

FEVERS an 
112f 



0-120 



0119 
0-132 
0-007 



153f 

33 



1861 



125| 
33- 



196i 



23SJ 

31*1 

66| 



383 



62-228 
82-5*8 

17-406 



100-000 



0-140 



0-398 
0-660 
0-111 



0-6 11 



N.B. — The Aberdeen records are not sufficiently perfect to admit of similar tables for that town. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 1 7^ 



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ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OP LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 179 



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180 REPORT 1842. 

Table LXVI. — Comparative per-centage of Monthly Mortality in the dif- 
ferent Towns reported on. 





Monthly per-centage of Deaths to the whole Deaths ; 
average of five years. 




Edinburgh. 


Glasgow. 


Aberdeen. 


Perth. 


Dundee. 




10-198 
9-026 
8-532 
8-679 
8-049 
8023 
7-793 
7-452 
8-219 
7-566 
8-904 
9-517 


12-428 
10-465 
9-534 
8-279 
7-392 
7171 
7-189 
7-984 
7-558 
7-154 
7-902 
8-948 


11-379 
10-930 
9-433 
8-953 
8-381 
7-898 
7-000 
6-498 
7-104 
7-173 
8-012 
9-307 


13-561 
10-829 
8-690 
8-778 
8-651 
6-040 
6-858 
7677 
7-570 
7-131 
8-054 
8-183 


14-516 
10-465 
8-763 
8-205 
8-497 
7-561 
6-973 
6-681 
6-589 
7-437 
7-205 
9-068 










My 















PROPORTION OF MALE AND FEMALE DEATHS. 



Edinburgh, including St. Cuthbert's and Canongate. 

By referring to Table L., it will be seen that the total amount of male deaths 
during the three years 1839, 1840, and 1841, is 5197, and the female deaths 
5363 ; being in the proportion of 103*194 females to every 100 males. 

The average annual amount of male deaths during these three years end- 
ing with 1841, is 1732^, and of female deaths 1787f ; while the males living 
in 1841 is 61,313, and the females 76,869; being in the proportion of 
125*37 females to every 100 males. 
The average annual number of male deaths, 

compared to the males living in 1841, is 

therefore as 1 to 35*393, or 2*825 per cent. 

And the average annual number of female 

deaths to the females living in the same 

year, as 1 to 42*999, or 2*325 per cent. 

Difference 0*500 per cent. 

The female life in Edinburgh and suburbs, exclusive of Leith, is therefore 
better than the male life by 0*500 per cent. ; while the number of female 
deaths during these three years is 3*194 per cent, greater than the number of 
male deaths. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 181 

Total Deaths, Edinburgh. 

Table LXVII. — Exhibiting the proportion which the deaths, exclusive of 
still-born children, in Edinburgh and suburban districts of St. Cuthbert's 
and Canongate, during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, and 1841, bear 
to the population of these years ; also the proportion of the average annual 
amount of deaths to the mean population of these years. 



Years. 


Population. 


Deaths. 


Proportion of Deaths to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


137,345 
137,527 
137,756 
137,986 
138,182 


5,009 
4,176 
3,365 
3,688 
3,507 


27-419, or 3-647 per cent. 
32-932, or 3-036 ... 
40-937, or 2-442 ... 
37-414, or 2-672 ... 
39-401, or 2-537 ... 


The average annual amount of deaths these five years to 
the mean population being as 1 to 34-904, or 2-864 per cent. 



As the Registers of Deaths are not complete for the whole of Leith, we 
are unable to give the proportion of male and female deaths to the living. 
The following table gives those of the total deaths : — 

Total Deaths, Leith. 
Table LXVIII. — Exhibiting the proportion which the deaths, exclusive of 
still-born children, in North and South Leith, during the years 1837, 
1838, 1839, 1840, and 1841, bear to the population of these years; also 
the proportion of the average annual amount of deaths to the mean popu- 
lation of these years. 



Years. 



1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 



Population. 



27,331 

27,586 
27,846 
28,103 
28,372 



886 
862 
679 
710 
647 



Proportion of Deaths to the 
Population, being as 1 to 



30-831, or 3-241 per cent. 
32-002, or 3-124 ... 
41-010, or 2-438 ... 
39-581, or 2-526 ... 
43-851, or 2-280 ... 



The average annual amount of deaths these five years to 
the mean population being as 1 to 36-794, or 2-717 per cent. 



Total Deaths, Edinburgh and Leith. 
Table LXIX. — Exhibiting the proportion which the deaths, exclusive of 
still-born children, in Edinburgh and Leith, during the years 1837, 1838, 
1839, 1840, and 1841, bear to the population of these years ; also the pro- 
portion of the average annual amount of deaths to the mean population of 
these years. 



Years. 



1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 



Population. 



164,676 
165,113 
165,602 
166,089 
166,554 



Deaths. 



5895 
5038 
4044 
4398 
4142 



Proportion of Deaths to the 
Population, being as 1 to 



27-934, or 3-579 per cent. 
32-773, or 3-051 ... 
40-950, or 2-441 ... 
37-764, or 2-647 ... 
40-211, or 3-486 ... 



The average annual amount of deaths these five years to 
the mean population being as 1 to 35-208, or 2-840 per cent. 



182 



REPORT — 1842. 



Glasgow. 

By referring to Table LI., it will be seen that the total amount of male 
deaths in Glasgow and suburban districts, during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 
1840, and 1841, is 21,795, and the female deaths 20,639; being in the pro- 
portion of 94*696 females to every 100 males. 

The average annual amount of male deaths during these five years ending 
with 1841, is 4359, and of female deaths 4127f; while the males living 
within the range of the Glasgow Mortality Bill, in 1841, is 134,087, and the 
females 148,047; being in the proportion of 110*41 to every 100 males. 
The average annual number of male deaths, 

compared to the males living, in 1841, is 

therefore as 1 to 30*760, or 3*250 per cent. 

And the average annual number of female 

deaths to the females living in the same 

years, as 1 to 35*865, or 2*788 per cent. 

Difference 0*462 per cent. 

The female life in Glasgow and suburbs is therefore better than the male 
life by 0*462 per cent. ; while the number of male deaths during these five 
years is 5*303 per cent, greater than the number of female deaths. 

Total Deaths, Glasgow and Suburbs. 
Table LXX. — Exhibiting the proportion which the deaths, exclusive of 
still-born children, in Glasgow and suburbs, during the years 1837, 1838, 
1839, 1840, and 1841, bear to the population of these years ; also the pro- 
portion of the average annual amount of deaths to the mean population of 
these years. 



Years. 


Population. 


Deaths. 


Proportion of Deaths to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


247,040 
255,390 
264,010 
272,900 
282,134 


10,270 
6,932 
7,525 

8,821 
8,886 


24-05, or 4-15 per cent. 
36-84, or 2-71 ... 
35*08, or 2-85 ... 
30-93, or 3*23 ... 
31-75, or 314 ... 


The average annual amount of deaths these five years to 
the mean population being as 1 to 31-108, or 3-214 per cent. 



Aberdeen. 

By referring to Table LIL, it will be seen that the total number of male 
deaths in Aberdeen and suburban district, during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 
1840, and 1841, is 3172, and the female deaths 3198; being in the propor- 
tion of 100*819 females for every 100 males. 

The average annual amount of male deaths, during these five years ending 
with 1841, is 634f, and the females 639J ; while the males living in 1841 is 
28,337, and the females 36,441 ; being in the proportion of 128*59 females 
to every 100 males. 
The average annual number of male deaths, 

compared to the number of males living in 

1841, is therefore as 1 to 44*667, or 2*238 per cent. 

The average annual number of female deaths 

to the females living in the same year, is as 1 to 56*974, or 1*755 per cent. 

Difference 0*483 per cent. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 183 

The female life in Aberdeen and suburban district is therefore better than 
the male life by 0*483 per cent. The number of male deaths during these 
five years is 0*819 per cent, greater than the number of female deaths. 



Total Deaths, Aberdeen. 

Table LXXI, — Exhibiting the proportion which the deaths, exclusive of 
still-born children, in Aberdeen and suburbs, during the years 1837, 
1838, 1839, 1840, and 1841, bear to the population of these years; also 
the proportion of the average annual amount of deaths to the mean popu- 
lation of these years. 



Years. 



1837. 

1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 



Population. 



61,985 
62,672 
63,366 
64,068 
64,778 



Deaths. 



1392 
1411 
1150 
1385 
1034 



Proportion of Deaths to the 
Population, being as 1 to 



44-529, or 2-249 per cent. 
44-416, or 2-251 ... 
55-100, or 1<814 ... 
46-258, or 2-161 ... 
62-647, or 1-596 ... 



The average annual amount of deaths these five years to 
the mean population being as 1 to 49-722, or 2-011 per cent. 



Perth. 

By referring to Table LIIL, it will be seen that the total number of male 
deaths in Perth, exclusive of the suburban dictrict of Kinnoul, during the 
years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, and 1841, is 1245, and the female deaths 1321 ; 
being in the proportion of 106*104 females to every 100 males. 

The average annual amount of male deaths during these five years, ending 
with 1841, is 249, and the female deaths 264^-; while the males living in 
1841 is 8988, and the females 10,305; being in the proportion of 115*55 
females to every 100 males. 

The average annual number of male deaths, 

compared to the number of males living in 

1841, is therefore as 1 to 36*096, or 2*770 per cent. 

And the average annual number of female 

deaths, to the females living in the same 

year, as 1 to 39*004, or 2*563 per cent. 

Difference , 0*207 per cent. 

The female life in the city of Perth is therefore better than the male life 
by 0*207 per cent. The number of female deaths is, however, greater than 
the number of male deaths by 6*104 per cent. 



184 



REPORT — 1842. 



Total Deaths, Perth. 
Table LXXII. — Exhibiting the proportion which the deaths, exclusive of 
still-born children, in the City of Perth (not including the suburban district 
of Kinnoul), during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, and 1841, bear to 
the population of these years ; also the proportion of the average annual 
amount of deaths to the mean population of these years. 



Years. 


Population. 


Deaths. 


Proportion of Deaths to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


19,579 
19,507 
19,435 
19,365 
19,293 


649 
578 
428 
445 
466 


30-167, or 3-314 per cent. 
33-749, or 2-963 ... 
45-408, or 2-202 ... 
43-516, or 2-297 ... 
41-401, or 2-415 ... 


The average annual amount of deaths these five years to 
the mean population being as 1 to 37*870, or 2-640 per cent. 



Dundee. 

By referring to Table LIV., it will be seen that the total number of male 
deaths in Dundee during the years 1839, 1840, and 184-1, is 2130, and the 
female deaths 2195. And by referring to the Dundee Mortality Bills, it will 
be found that the male deaths, during 1837 and 1838, amounted to 1594, and 
the female deaths during these two years to 1624 ; the whole amount of male 
deaths, during these five years in Dundee, is therefore 3724, aud the female 
deaths 3819 ; being in the proportion of 102*551 females to 100 males. 

The average annual amount of male deaths during these five years, ending 
with 1841, is 744|, and the female deaths 763f, while the males living in 
1841 is 28,311, and the females 33,229; being in the proportion of 117"37 
females to every 100 males. 
The average annual number of male deaths, 

compared to the number of males living in 

1841, is therefore as 1 to 38*011, or 2*630 per cent. 

And the average annual number of female 

deaths, to the females living in the same 

year, as 1 to 43*504, or 2-298 per cent. 

Difference 0*332 per cent. 

The female life in the town of Dundee is therefore better than the male 
life by 0*332 per cent. The number of female deaths is greater than the 
number of male deaths by 2*551 per cent. 

Total Deaths, Dundee. 
Table LXXIII. — Exhibiting the proportion which the deaths, exclusive of 
still-born children, in Dundee, during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 
and 1841, bear to the population of these years ; also the proportion of the 
average annual amount of deaths to the mean population of these years. 



Years. 


Population. 


Deaths. 


Proportion of Deaths to the 
Population, being as 1 to 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 


54,467 
56,156 
57,897 
59,691 
61,540 


1821 

1397 
1647 
1320 
1358 


29-910, or 3-343 per cent. 
40-197, or 2-487 ... 
35-153, or 2-844 ... 
45-220, or 2-211 ... 
45-316, or 2-206 ... 


The average annual amount of deaths these five years to 
the mean population being as 1 to 38-377, or 2-605 per cent. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 185 

Scotch Towns. 

Table LXXIV. — Exhibiting the annual average* number of deaths under five years of age, 
in five of the principal towns of Scotland, with the proportion which these deaths bear 
to the total average annual amount of deaths, as well as to the population, iu the different 
towns ; also the comparative rate of mortality at these ages in Edinburgh and the other 
towns mentioned in the Table. 



Towns. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Total. 


Mean po- 
pulation. 


Proportion of 
the average 
annual deaths 
at these ages 
to the whole 
average an- 
nual deaths. 


Comparative rate 
to the average 
annual deaths. 


Per- 
centage 
of the 
mean 
popula- 
tion. 


Comparative rate 
to the mean 
population. 


Greater 
than in 
Edinb. 


Less 
than in 
Edinb. 


Greater 
than in 
Edinb. 


Less 
than in 
Edinb. 


Edinburgh. 
Glasgow ... 
Aberdeen . . 
Perth ... 
Dundee ... 


632| 
2015 

199* 

76f 

345§ 


551§ 

1769 

175 

329f 

i 


1183| 

3784 
374* 
154* 
675 


137,986 

264,010 

63,366 

19,435 

59,691 


33-626 
44-586 
29-399 
30-046 
46-820 


Percent. 

10-960 
13-194 


Percent. 

4-227 
3-580 


0-857 
1-433 
0-591 
0-793 
1-130 


0-576 
0-273 


0-266 
0-064 



Table LXXVI. — Exhibiting the annual average number of deaths under twenty years of 
age, in five of the principal towns of Scotland, with the proportion which these deaths bear 
to the total average annual amount of deaths, as well as to the population, in the different 
towns ; also the comparative rate of mortality at these ages in Edinburgh and the other 
towns mentioned in the Table. 













Proportion of 


Comparative rate 


Per- 


Comparative rate 












the average 


to the average 


to the mean 












annual deaths 


annual deaths. 


of the 


population. 


Towns. 


Males. 


Females. 






at these ages 
to the whole 








population. 


Greater 


Less 


mean 
popula- 
tion. 


Greater 


Less 












average an- 


than in 


than in 


than in 


than in 












nual deaths. 


Edinb. 


Edinb. 


Edinb. 


Edinb. 












Per cent. 


Percent. 


Percent. 








Edinburgh . 


815f 


729 


1,544* 


137,986 


43-882 






1119 






Glasgow ... 


2,5 lOf 


2,238a 


4,749 


264,010 


55-957 


12075 




1-798 


0-679 




Aberdeen .. 


292* 


257* 


549* 


63,366 


43-148 




0-734 


0-867 




0-252 


Perth 


100 


96* 


196S 


19,435 


38-269 




5-613 


1-010 




0-109 


Dundee . . . 


426 


403* 


829i 


59,691 


57-526 


13,644 




1-389 0-270 





Table LXXVIII.— Exhibiting the annual average number of deaths at twenty years of age 
and upwards, in five of the principal towns of Scotland, with the proportion which these 
deaths bear to the total average annual amount of deaths, as well as to the population, in 
the different towns ; also the comparative rate of mortality at these ages in Edinburgh 
and the other towns mentioned in the Table. 



r- 

Towns. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Mean 
population. 


Proportion of 
the average 
annual deaths 
at these ages 
to the whole 
average an- 
nual deaths. 


Comparative rate 
to the average 
annual deaths. 


Per- 
centage 
of the 
mean 
popula- 
tion. 


Comparative rate 
to the mean 
population. 


Greater 
than in 
Edinb. 


Less 
than in 
Edinb. 


Greater 
than in 
Edinb. 


Less 
than in 
Edinb. 


Edinburgh . 
jGlasgow ... 
LVberdeen . . 
Perth . 
Dundee ... 


916i 
1,848* 
341* 
149 
284 


1,058! 

1,889* 
382* 
167* 
328i 


1,975* 

3,737* 
724* 
316* 
612* 


137,986 

264,010 

63,366 

19,435 

59,691 


Per cent. 

56-117 
44-042 
56-851 
61-730 
42-473 


Percent. 

0-734 
5-613 


Percent. 

12,075 
13,644 


1-431 
1-415 
1142 
1-630 
1-025 


0-199 


0-016 
0-289 

0-406 


* It has t< 
>r Edinburg 


> be obsc 
h and Di 


rved, tha 
mdee the 


t the ave 
average 


rage is for 
is only fo 


five years in 
* three years 


Glasgo 


sv, Aber 


deen ai 


id Perth, while 





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ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 187 



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188 report— 1842. 

Burials at the Public Expense. 

The returns for Edinburgh and Glasgow for these burials have not yet been 
fully received for 1840 and 1841. 
The per-centage of the whole burials 1 in lg39 in lg38> fa lg37< 

which took place at the public expense V cent> 

m Edinburgh and L,eitn * ... .J x 

And in Glasgow 21-66 23-20 26*30 per cent. 

Aberdeen. — In the city of Aberdeen the average annual amount of burials 
at the public expense these five years is 4*115 per cent of the whole burials. 

Perth. — In the city of Perth the average annual amount of burials at the 
public expense these five years is 4*398 per cent, of the whole burials. 

Dundee. — In the town of Dundee the average annual amount of burials 
at the public expense these five years is 11*560 per cent of the whole deaths. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

MORTALITY. 

The principal object of the preceding tables being, as far as possible, to 
supply that defect in the knowledge of the vital statistics of large towns 
in Scotland which has so long existed, care has been taken to exhibit, on an 
uniform plan, as extensive a collection of facts relative to disease and death 
as the defective state of the registers in these towns will afford ; from which 
deductions may be drawn as to how far the amount of deaths is influenced 
by the local circumstances of the various towns, or to the moral and physical 
condition of their inhabitants — differing, as they do, in the occupations in 
which the people are engaged, and the comparative numbers of those in ex- 
treme poverty, and of those in comfortable or wealthy circumstances. 

The mortality of the towns reported on being so various, and all of the 
towns showing a greater proportion of deaths than is observable in country 
districts, it becomes a matter of high importance to trace these differences to 
their true causes, by which means the philanthropist and the legislator might 
be guided in adopting such measures as might tend to remove these causes, 
and ultimately lead to an effectual amelioration of the condition of the people. 

But to trace the causes of the numerous results exhibited iu the preceding 
tables to the local peculiarities of these towns or to the condition of the 
people, would require a very minute knowledge of the circumstances of the 
inhabitants, and would inconveniently extend the limits of this Report. All 
that can be here attempted, therefore, is to point out some of the most remark- 
able of the results, and to offer a few observations as to how far these results 
may have been occasioned by local circumstances, and to endeavour to dis- 
cover — limited as our present knowledge is with regard to the vital statistics 
of the country — if there be not general laws governing the distribution of 
disease, and the amount of deaths from each disease, at the different ages of 
the town population. 

Before proceeding to a summary of the leading facts elicited in these 
tables, a few observations may be necessary in explanation of the tables 
themselves, and of the manner in which they have been constructed. 

The want of a proper system for the registration of deaths as well as of 
births and marriages, has long been much felt in Scotland, and repeated at- 
tempts have been made to introduce a legislative measure for its improve- 
ment, but without success. In the absence of a proper system for the 
registration of deaths, considerable attention has been paid by the magi- 
strates, kirk sessions, and other parties of some of the large towns, in whom I 

* Paper read at the Statistical Section of the British Association at Glasgow in 1840. 



ON THE VITAL. STATISTICS OP LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 189 

is vested the management of burial-grounds, to procure registers of burials. 
No uniform or systematic method of recording the causes oi" death has been 
adopted ; but in some of the towns the names of the fatal diseases, as stated 
by the friends of the deceased, together with the ages at which death took 
place, have been carefully noted ; and the data from which the preceding 
tables have been constructed have been obtained from these records. In 
Aberdeen the causes of death have been but partially recorded, which ren- 
ders the tables for that city less satisfactory than we could have desired. 
In all cases, however, the ages at which death took place appear to have 
been carefully attended to, which is an important feature in the tables. 

The only portion of these towns where a proper system of recording the 
diseases which cause death is to be found, is in the parish of South Leith, 
where Mr. Lyon has introduced the system recommended by the Committee 
of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, appointed to consider the 
best mode of framing public registers of deaths. This system is admirably 
adapted for the purpose, and it would be most advantageous to the advance- 
ment of our knowledge of the vital statistics of the country were it uniformly 
adopted for all burying-ground registers. It is to be feared, however, that 
there is no hope of this being done till government be prevailed upon to in- 
troduce a legislative measure. There is proof of this, in no register whatever 
being kept for the burial-ground of Newhaven, situated in North Leith, 
which prevents us from completing the mortality tables of that town on the 
same principles as the others, though for one of the burying-grounds (South 
Leith) there is at present one of the besE registers in the country. 

The classification of diseases used in the foregoing tables is far from being so 
perfect as would be attainable were the system of registration recommended 
by the Edinburgh Royal College of Physicians adopted. The arrangement 
followed in these tables was first drawn up, with the assistance of medical gen- 
tlemen, in 1835, for the construction of the tables given in the Glasgow Mor- 
tality Bills. This arrangement, which will be found in the Appendix, though 
by no means so complete as could be wished, is probably as much so as it 
can be made in the present state of the registers of deaths in Scotland. 

Whatever defects, however, may be observable in the arrangement of dis- 
eases in these tables, as the registers from which our information is obtained 
are kept in a manner similar to each other, and as the results are brought 
out in the tables on an uniform plan, a comparison of the amount of mortality 
exhibited under the heads of the different diseases and at various ages in the 
different towns, will necessarily afford useful information. 

It will be observed, that one of the distinguishing features of these disease 
tables is, that the number of deaths at the different ages is made to appear 
under the head of the diseases which caused death at these ages ; and for 
those whose local and general information on these matters may enable them 
to assist in advancing our knowledge of the physical and moral condition of 
the people, the proportions which the deaths at the different ages, and the 
proportions which the amount of fatal diseases bear to the whole deaths, and 
also to the population of the different towns, are carefully exhibited in sepa- 
rate columns. 

In those tables in which the amount of deaths by the several diseases at 
different ages is specified, in some cases for five and in others for three years, 
not only the number as compared with the population is given, but the pro- 
portion per cent, of the deaths at the different ages, and of the causes of 
death, are added ; these proportions being well suited to a comparison of 
the mortality which takes place in the several towns. 

Comparing the mortality of the different towns each year with their popu- 
lation as ascertained by the census of 184<1, it is obvious that the proportion 



190 REPORT — 1842. 

of deaths, in all the years antecedent to 1841, would appear under the truth. 
As we may assume that the increase of population from 1831 to 184-1 has been 
progressively uniform during the intervening years, the amount of population 
for the several towns of Scotland, as exhibited in the tables, has been calcu- 
lated accordingly ; and on the amount of population thus obtained, the pro- 
portions of the relative mortality of the different towns have been calculated. 

As it is an object of great interest and importance to observe the effect of 
the seasons on the amount of mortality in different localities, tables are 
added, showing the amount of deaths monthly for these towns, and also ex- 
hibiting the proportions which the average of deaths in each month bear to 
the annual average of deaths. 

Tables are also added, showing the amount of burials in each burying 
place within the boundaries of the different towns ; but, as it does not always 
follow that the inhabitants of the different localities make use of the burying- 
ground in their immediate neighbourhood, no great reliance can be placed on 
any information of this nature. These tables, however, assist to test the 
accuracy of the other tables. 

Tables are also given, showing the amount of deaths by fever and eruptive 
diseases under five, under twenty, and above twenty years of age, and the 
proportion the deaths by these diseases bear to the whole deaths. The 
results exhibited in these tables are well worthy of consideration. In the 
present limited state of our knowledge of the vital statistics of the country, 
it is obviously desirable that a minute analysis should be made of the fatal 
effects produced by the various diseases on the population at different ages, 
and under every variety of circumstances. By such analysis we may be en- 
abled to trace those general laws by which nature appears to govern the di- 
stribution of disease and mortality. Should this object be attained, a most 
important step would be gained in the progress of our knowledge of vital 
statistics, and the science itself be enhanced in utility. 

For several years past much labour has been bestowed on the Mortality 
Bills of Glasgow, in order to exhibit the amount of mortality arising from the 
various diseases at different ages ; considerable uniformity was noted in the 
results of the fever and eruptive fever tables of Glasgow and other towns ; 
and the confirmation this uniformity has received from the more extended 
results now before us, leads to the belief that it cannot be looked upon as a 
matter of chance, but that it indicates the possibility of our arriving, by a 
still more extended sphere of observation, and by a more correct system in 
the registration of the fatal diseases, at a knowledge of precise laws which 
seem to regulate the amount of deaths at different ages by fever and eruptive 
diseases. It may be too much to speak confidently of arriving at this very 
desirable result, yet the evidence is sufficiently strong to justify the bringing 
these circumstances under particular notice, which will be done in the re- 
marks we have to make on the leading results brought out in these tables. 

With regard to the hospitals and dispensaries for the poor inhabitants of 
these townsj they are placed on a very equal footing. To visit the Royal 
Infirmary or the Dispensary of any one of these towns will lead to a correct 
judgment of all the others. Differences may be observed as to the newness 
of the building, or in some of the minor arrangements, but superintended as 
they all are by suitable officers, the same high character of efficiency is com- 
mon to all of them, and renders the benefit they confer on the poor and 
destitute in time of sickness and bodily distress one of the greatest blessings 
they enjoy. The differences, therefore, that are to be observed in the 
amount of mortality in the towns, are not traceable to differences in the 
means of affording medical relief! 

The first difference to be observed in the amount of the annual mortality 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OP LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 191 

in the towns reported on, is that which appears to arise from atmospheric in- 
fluence or some other unknown cause, which seems to have a greater or less 
effect on the human frame in different years. The influence of extreme 
cold on the amount of mortality has been frequently noticed by writers on 
this subject ; and though others have attributed the excess of mortality 
which is sometimes observable more to sudden changes of temperature than 
to extreme cold, it is very evident that excessive cold, though it is not the 
only atmospheric influence to be guarded against, has a powerful influence 
in producing a great mortality, and the effect of that influence is inversely 
as the abundance of nutritive food, clothing and fuel at the command of the 
people to guard against i£\ Table LXVI. testifies in the strongest manner to 
the effects of temperature and the changes of the seasons upon vitality. 

The most fatal month in the year to human life is January, the per-centage 
deaths of the total number of deaths ranging from 10 to 14^- per cent. The 
next most fatal month is February ; and a singular uniformity prevails in the 
per-centage deaths to the whole deaths in all the towns ; then follow Decem- 
ber and March, and the mortality diminishes until July — August, gradually 
increasing again with the fall of the year until it is at its maximum in Janu- 
ary ; in short, having a close correspondence with the progress of the sun in 
the ecliptic, the maximum intensity being when the sun is furthest removed 
from our latitudes, and its minimum effects occurring when the sun is in the 
neighbourhood of the northern tropic. It might probably be more correct 
to say that the mean mortality accords with the monthly mean temperature. 
The tables exhibit a somewhat singular feature in the proportional excess of 
deaths in Edinburgh in the summer months over the other towns, combined 
with a somewhat smaller proportion in the month of January, but an excess 
in the month of December. These anomalies may possibly originate in the 
topography of the town, or in the averages being for three years only for 
Edinburgh and for five years for the other towns. Th& influence of high 
winds in removing infection and disease has also been noticed by writers, 
and is a subject of great interest in cdnnexion with the sanitary condition of 
great towns, where the inhabitants are often crowded together in closely 
pent-up houses, where a free circulation of air is not to be expected. 

Sir Gilbert Blane, in describing the effects of a hurricane which took place 
in the West Indies, in October 1780, after some observations on its beneficial 
effects on the prevailing diseases of the country, except where the old and 
delicate suffered from mechanical violence, says, " This is a fact so paradoxi- 
cal, that if I had not a concurrence of testimony, and in some degree my 
own observation, I could neither credit nor would venture to relate it. It 
had a visibly good effect on the diseases of the country ; fevers, fluxes, and 
chronic diarrhoeas, the consequence of dysenteries, were also cured by it. 
But the diseases upon which it operated most visibly and sensibly were pul- 
monic complaints. Some cases, supposed to be beginning consumption, and 
even the acute state of pleurisy, were cured by it*." 

In connexion with any inquiry into the sanitary condition of large towns, 
it is therefore of importance to ascertain what state of the atmosphere is most 
prejudicial or most favourable to health, operating as its changes do to a 
greater or less extent, according to the local circumstances of these towns, in 
regard to the free circulation of air, proper drainage, cleanliness, and the com- 
forts of the people in lodging, food and clothingf . It is to be feared, however, 

* Select Dissertations on several subjects of Medical Science, by Sir Gilbert Blane, Bart., 
F.R.S., p. 370. 

f The propriety of publishing meteorological tables for these towns in connexion with this 
subject is sufficiently obvious, and would have been attended to, had not the construction of 
the preceding tables necessarily occupied much more time than was anticipated. 



192 REPORT— 1842. 

that our meteorological observations are not yet sufficiently extensive to en- 
able us to form, a correct judgment of the specific effects of atmospheric 
phsenomena, when combined with the local circumstances of large towns, 
nor to point out how these effects are to be most effectually obviated. " It 
is not only necessary to know the temperature and weight of the air at par- 
ticular times but also the direction and force of the ivind, with the quantity 
of moisture it contains ; also its electrical state, together with the quantity of 
rain that falls." 

From the imperfect system folloAved in recording the deaths in many of the 
registers, we are obliged to assume that those deaths which occur beyond the 
limits of any of these towns, and in which burial takes place within their 
limits, are balanced by those cases in which death takes place in the towns 
and the burials elsewhere. In Perth, where there is a steady and somewhat 
decreasing population, there may perhaps be rather an excess of those who 
die at a distance buried within the limits of the city. With regard to Aber- 
deen, Bailie Forbes and others, whom we have consulted on the subject, in- 
form us that a considerable number of iniiabitants who die in that city are 
buried at a distance, often where the family of the party may have origi- 
nally been seated ; and although the ages at which death takes place in 
that town, and other circumstances, clearly prove that Aberdeen is favour- 
ably situated as to its sanitary condition, we are inclined to believe that the 
average annual mortality of that town is very considerably understated at 
1 in 49'737, as in the preceding tables. With regard to the other towns, it 
would be difficult to form an estimate as to whether the amount of those who 
die beyond and are buried within their limits, or those who die within and 
are buried beyond the limits, is the greatest. As the proportion of such 
burials, however, may be considered uniform throughout the year, a fair 
judgment may be formed as to the relative effect of the seasons in connexion 
with other causes on the mortality of the different towns. 

In Aberdeen, it will be observed, there is an excess in the proportion of 
deaths over those of Edinburgh during the months of January, February, 
March, April and May. It will be perceived that in February the excess is 
the greatest, and amounts to 1*90 per cent, of the average annual deaths. 
During the seven last months of the year the proportion of deaths is greater 
in Edinburgh than in Aberdeen ; the greatest difference being in September, 
in which month the excess in Edinburgh amounts to I'll per cent, of the 
average annual deaths. For the relative mortality in these towns for the 
different months, see Table LXIII. 

From Table LXIV. it will be found that there is an excess of deaths in 
Perth over those in Edinburgh during the months of January, February, 
March, April, May and August; the greatest excess is in January, amounting 
to 3"36 per cent, of the whole deaths* ; and in June, July, September, October, 
November and December, there is an excess of deaths in Edinburgh as com- 
pared with Perth ; the greatest excess is in June, amounting to P98 per 
cent, of the annual average of deaths.. 

In Dundee there is an excess of deaths in the months of January, February, 
March, and May as compared with Edinburgh ; the greatest excess is in 
January, and amounts to 4'31 per cent, of the annual average of deaths. 
During all the other months the excess of deaths is in Edinburgh, amounting 
in September to 1*63, and in November to 1*69 per cent. See Table LXV. 

It is much to be regretted that circumstances have prevented the construc- 
tion of monthly tables of mortality for five years instead of three for Edin- 
burgh. Had this been the case, the proportionate mortality would not have 

* The great mortality which was caused by fever and influenza in January 1837, is the 
reason of this proportion being so liigh. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 193 

been quite so favourable for that city during the winter months as is made to 
appear by these tables. The amount of deaths from fever and influenza, 
which was excessive in the beginning of 1837, is included in the results 
brought forward for the other towns, but it has not been obtained for Edin- 
burgh. The relative proportions of the deaths during the different months, 
as exhibited in these tables, are therefore more correct for the other towns 
than they are for that city. 

Whatever influence the vicissitudes of the atmosphere may have, there are 
obviously other causes greatly affecting mortality, such as a free circulation 
of air, drainage, cleanliness, temperance, the abundance of wholesome food, 
clothing, fuel, and the occupations of the people. 

One of the objects of research in vital statistics is to make comparisons of 
the effects produced on different communities similarly situated with regard 
to these various circumstances, and to observe how far the same causes pro- 
duce the same results on the human frame. 

But it must be of rare occurrence to find two towns similarly situated 
in all these respects. In the towns for which these tables are constructed, it 
will be observed, that while some approach near to each other in some 
points, both in regard to their sanitary condition and the circumstances of 
the people, yet they differ in others, and the difference is accompanied with 
a greater or less amount of mortality. 

From the tables in which the deaths are brought forward for a series of years, 
it will be seen (Tables XXXII. to XLIX.) that the greatest number of deaths 
at the very early ages takes place in Glasgow and Dundee, towns possessing 
many features common to both ; their manufactures, commerce and public 
works resemble each other, the wages of the working classes, the appearance 
of their houses, and the rents paid for them, are much the same, and the price 
of food is nearly equal in both places. The deficiency of proper drainage, the 
accumulation of impurities, and the want of a free circulation of air, are very 
observable in both cases. In both towns there is a large proportion of the 
wretchedly poor, though the largest proportion is decidedly in Glasgow. 

It appears (Tables LI. and LIV.) that the average annual amount of mor- 
tality in Glasgow for the last five years is as 1 to 31*10, or 3*21 per cent.; 
and in Dundee, for the same years, as 1 to 38*37, or 2*60 per cent. We have 
already stated that the accuracy of these results depends on whether or not 
the number of deaths which take place in these towns, with burial in the 
country, or the deaths that take place in the country, with burial in the 
towns, balance each other. A more -correct judgment may therefore be 
formed of the relative mortality of these towns by a comparison of the ages 
at which death takes place than by these general results. 

By referring to Tables LI. and LIV., it will be found that the proportion of 
deaths at Glasgow under one year of age, to the population on an average 
of years, exceeds that of Edinburgh by 0*178 per cent. In Dundee the pro- 
portion is greater than in Edinburgh by 0*086 per cent. The excess of deaths 
at one and under two years of age in Glasgow over those in Edinburgh, is 
0*21 per cent.; in Dundee, 0*07 per cent. At two and under five years of 
age the excess of deaths in Glasgow is greater than in Edinburgh by 0*18 
per cent. ; and in Dundee by 0*11 per cent. Again (Table LXXIV.), it ap- 
pears that in Glasgow the average annual proportion of deaths under five 
years of age, to the mean population, is 1*43 per cent., and to the whole 
average annual deaths is 44*58 per cent.; while in Dundee the proportion of 
deaths under these years, to the population, is 1*13 per cent., and to the 
whole average deaths is 46*82 per cent. Table LXXVI. shows that in Glas- 
gow 1*79 per cent, per annum of the population die under twenty years of 
age, and in Dundee 1*38 per cent. It will be observed, however, that the pro- 

1842. o 



194 report — 1842. 

portion of deaths under twenty years of age in Glasgow, to the total deaths, 
is 55-95 per cent., whereas in Dundee it amounts to 57'52 per cent. 

It will also be observed that at the higher ages there is an excess of deaths in 
Edinburgh over either Glasgow or Dundee, with the exception of those above 
ninety-five years of age, at which ages the excess of deaths takes place in Glas- 
gow and Dundee. Table LXXVIII. shows that 1 -4d per cent, per annum of the 
population of Glasgow die above twenty years of age, and that 1*02 per cent, 
of the population of Dundee die above that age ; 44-04 per cent, of the whole 
deaths taking place in Glasgow above that age, and 42*4-7 per cent, in Dundee. 

It is plain, therefore, that as the proportion of deaths at the different ages 
under five years, under twenty, and above twenty years of age, to the whole 
deaths, leads to the belief that Dundee is a less healthy town than Glasgow, 
and that the deaths at the two former age3, to the population, show that 
Glasgow is the least healthy of the two towns, the inference to be drawn is 
either that those deaths which take place beyond the limits of Glasgow, and 
in which burial takes place within the limits, exceed the number of those 
cases in which death takes place in the town, and the burials elsewhere, or 
that the opposite of this is the case in Dundee. 

It is to be regretted that we are unable to give tables of mortality and of 
marriages for the town of Ayr. As that town is so similarly situated in many 
respects to Perth, a very interesting and useful comparison might have been 
made of the relative amount of the marriages and deaths in these towns. 

There is a very considerable difference between the local circumstances of 
Perth and those of Glasgow or Dundee. This town is chiefly dependent on its 
connexion with the rich agricultural districts that surround it ; it has some 
factories of flax, woollen and cotton, but these are of inconsiderable extent*. 
Of the towns for which we have constructed tables, Edinburgh approaches 

* Of the population of Perth there are ahout 900 adults employed as hand-loom weavers, 
and a considerable portion of them produce a fabric somewhat peculiar to themselves ; and 
as the manufacture of this species of goods has not fallen off so much as the goods manu- 
factured in Paisley, the weavers have been comparatively well off in this district lately, many 
of them making from 10*. to 12». per week; some of them, however, do not make half so 
much. The wages of the ordinary labourer are rather lower than in some other towns ; the 
price of food, however, is considerably lower. The 41b. loaf retails at Id., whereas at Glas- 
gow it is 'id., and till very lately 10(7. ; and all other kinds of food seem to be cheaper than 
at Glasgow. On inspection, it does not appear that there is so much of that extreme desti- 
tution and utter wretchedness which is to be met with in some other towns. The houses of the 
poorer classes are better, and the rents more moderate than elsewhere. Some of the lodging- 
houses for the poor, though better than in some other towns, are certainly capable of im- 
provement; but, generally speaking, good beds, blankets and sheets are provided, and con- 
siderable attention seems to be paid to their cleanliness. It does not appear that there are 
so many lodgers crowded into one room as at Aberdeen, Dundee, or Glasgow. 

Perth is a fine, open, well-aired town. With regard to drainage, it possesses great advan- 
tages in the command of a fine stream of water, which enters at the north-west part of the 
town, and is there divided into three branches, passing through different portions of the 
city, carrying off the impurities which are thrown into it from various parts of the town by 
surface drains. The improvement of covered drains, as contemplated by the Lord Provost, 
must still further add to the comfort and health of the inhabitants. The greatest attention 
is paid to the scavenger department of the police, and the manure is carefully removed to the 
outskirts of the town. Accumulations of this kind are unknown in any part of Perth. 

As the county of Perth is well known to be a wool-growing country, it may be mentioned 
that great encouragement has been extended by the Lord Provost and magistrates to the 
woollen manufactures, and various premiums have been offered to those who may introduce 
or increase these manufactures ; and as the county town should form a very suitable mart for 
these manufactures, a wool fair has lately been established under the same auspices, and it has 
been very successful. 

"Without entering into further detail, it may be stated that Perth, without being subject to 
a high state of prosperity or of adversity, possesses many advantages which tend to promote 
the comfort and well-being of the inhabitants. 



ON THE VITAL. STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 195 

the nearest to it, though there are some important particulars in which they 
differ considerably. 

It will be seen (Table LXVII.) that the average annual mortality in Edin- 
burgh for the last five years, to the mean population of these years, is as 1 to 
34-90, or 2-86 per cent., and in Perth it is as 1 to 37*87, or 2-64 per cent. It 
will also be observed (Table LIIL), that there is an excess in the proportion of 
deaths in Edinburgh at nearly all the ages up to fifty years, over those which 
took place at Perth, with the exception of those at two and under five, and 
those at fifteen and under twenty years ; and that the greatest proportion of 
deaths at all the ages above fifty years in these towns is in Perth. It will be 
observed, that the difference in the proportion of these deaths, at any of the 
ages stated in the table, does not extend to high numbers ; the greatest excess 
in Edinburgh being of the deaths under one year, which amounts to 0'07 per 
cent, of the whole population ; and the greatest proportion of deaths in 
Perth over those of Edinburgh is at the age of seventy and under seventy- 
five years, which amounts to 0*09 per cent. 

It may further be observed (Table LXXVI.), that in Edinburgh the deaths 
under twenty years of age amount annually to 1*1 1 per cent, of the population, 
and to 43*88 per cent, of the whole deaths ; while in Perth the deaths under 
the same age amount to 1*01 per cent, of the population, and to 38*26 per 
cent, of the whole deaths. Again (Table LXXVIIL), the deaths in Edinburgh 
above twenty years of age amount to 1*43 per cent, of the population, and to 
56*11 per cent, of the whole deaths ; while in Perth the deaths above the same 
age amount to 1*63 per cent, of the population, and to 61*73 per cent, of 
the whole deaths. 

The differences in the mortality of these two cities might be traced to 
the local circumstances of the inhabitants, but to pursue this subject further 
would lead us beyond the limits of this Report. 

With regard to Aberdeen, partaking as it does partly of the character of 
Perth as a county town, and of the character of Glasgow and Dundee in the 
extent of its factories for the manufacture of flax, cotton and woollen goods, 
the defective state of the registers prevents us from making the tables show- 
ing the causes of death so complete as for the other towns*. By a careful 
examination of the mortality tables for this town, it will be found that they 
afford good reason to believe that Aberdeen is very healthy f; although, as 

* We have been very obligingly favoured with extracts of Registers and Reports from the 
Hospitals and Royal Infirmary, by several of the medical gentlemen of that city, for the pur- 
pose of supplying this deficiency to a certain extent. 

f Much has been done of late years to improve the city of Aberdeen, by removing old, 
closely-built and ill-aired houses, and by building wider streets, more healthy houses, and 
elegant public buildings in their stead. A considerable number of lanes and closes, sur- 
rounded by the worst description of houses, have been in this manner removed. And in visiting 
any of those closes where this class of houses is still to be found, it is gratifying to observe 
that great attention is paid to the scavenger department of the police. None of those offen- 
sive accumulations of animal and vegetable matter, which are so conspicuous in some parts 
of Glasgow, Leith and Dundee, are allowed to remain to destroy the comfort and the health 
of the inhabitants. Through the kind attention of Captain Barclay, superintendent of 
police, we have been able to compare the condition of the poorest class of the inhabitants 
with the condition of those in other towns. There is perhaps no town in which there are 
worse cases of miserable destitution than are to be met with in Aberdeen, but, fortunately 
for that city, these cases bear a much smaller proportion to the population than is to be met 
with in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee, or perhaps in Liverpool. The lodging-houses for 
the poor in Aberdeen are often densely crowded. In Peacock's Close, for example, above 
twenty people are frequently to be found sleeping in a room from ten to twelve feet square, 
with a small closet adjoining. In the majority of these lodging-houses, however, the white- 
ness of the sheets and blankets indicates a much higher degree of comfort than is to be ob- 
served among the same class of people in the towns above alluded to. 

The trade and commerce of Aberdeen have long been of a steady and prosperous nature ; 
bankruptcies are of very rare occurrence in that city. The price of animal food is con- 

o2 



19G report — 1842. 

has been already stated, from some of the inhabitants being buried beyond 
the limits of the town, the probability is that the deaths which are recorded 
are not the whole deaths, and therefore the returns from the burying-grounds 
may be considered incomplete, and make the proportionate mortality of this 
town appear somewhat less than it really is. 

The average annual mortality in Aberdeen appears (Table LXXI.) to be as 
1 to 4-9'72, or 2*01 per cent.; and it will be observed (Table LII.), that with 
the exception of the ages at fifteen and under twenty years, there is an excess 
of mortality at all the ages specified in the tables up to eighty years in Edin- 
burgh over the proportion which takes place at these ages in this town. At 
all the ages above eighty years, consequently, the greatest proportion of deaths 
which take place in these towns is in Aberdeen. It is further shown (Table 
LXXVI.), that in Aberdeen the deaths under twenty years of age amount to 
0"8G per cent, of the population, and to 43*14 per cent, of the whole deaths; 
and that (Table LXXVIII.) the deaths above twenty years of age amount to 
1*14 per cent, of the population, and to 56"85 per cent, of the whole deaths. 

DISEASES. 

The tables commencing with No. XXXII. and ending with No. XLIX., ex- 
hibit the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the different towns 
during successive years, classified according to eighteen periods of life at which 
they took place ; and show also the total number of deaths at each period, 
and the proportions which these and the number of deaths, from the several 
diseases, bear to the total number of deaths, and also to the population. It 
will be observed, that our information on these heads extends only to three 
years for Edinburgh and for Dundee*. Circumstances have prevented tables 
of this description from being made for these towns for the years 1837 and 
1838, as was intended. For the other towns, with the exception of Leith, 
these tables extend to five years. It is to be regretted that the state of the 
registers of Leith prevents tables of this kind from being made out for more 
than two years ; and even these are not so complete as the others, owing to 
no registers being kept for the burying-ground of Newhaven. The amount 
of mortality in these towns, caused by the various diseases at different ages 
during successive years, may be seen by referring to the tables. We may 
here, however, notice some of the more marked results brought out in the 
five following tables, No. L. to LIV., in which the results are brought for- 
ward and comparisons are made for the several towns, on an average of 
the different years for which these tables have been constructed. 

It will be observed (Table L.), that there is a proportionate excess of deaths 
in Edinburgh over those in Glasgow, by the causes classed under the heads 
"aged," "diseases of the head," " of the heart," " inflammation," and by those 
diseases which are not distinctly brought out, as stated in the Appendix, but 
which are classed under the head of miscellaneous diseases. The greatest 
proportion of deaths by all the other diseases takes place in Glasgow. The 
greatest excess of deaths in Edinburgh over those of Glasgow, appears to be 

siderably lower than in Glasgow. Fish is about one-third cheaper than in that town. The 
wages of the working classes appear to he much the same as in other towns. There does 
not appear to be too great a supply of labour for the demand for it. We have the authority 
of Lord Provost Blackie for stating that, till the late severe depression of trade, no man who 
was willing to work could be at a loss to procure employment. 

* These tables for Dundee have been constructed from extracts from the registers 
of that town for the purpose. The data which have enabled us to extend the other 
mortality tables for that town to five years, have been obtained from the Dundee Mortality 
Bills, which have been very ably drawn up by W. B. Baxter, Esq. And the data from which 
the other tables for Edinburgh have been constructed were obtained from the paper on Vital 
Statistics, read to the Statistical Section of the British Association at Glasgow, by Mr. 
Alexander Watt. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 197 

caused by diseases of the head, amounting to 0*047 per cent. The greatest 
excess in Glasgow is by fever, amounting to 0*21 per cent. It is here to be 
observed, however, that the great excess of deaths by fever during 1837, in 
these towns, is included for Glasgow, though the amount has not been ob- 
tained, and is not included in this table for Edinburgh : so that the excess of 
deaths by fever in Glasgow over those in Edinburgh appears greater than it 
really is. The excess of deaths by bowel complaint in Glasgow, over those 
in Edinburgh, amounts to 0*20 per cent. For the per-centage of other diseases 
see the Table. 

As Table LIV. gives the amount of deaths in Dundee by the different 
diseases for the same years as those in which it has been obtained for Edin- 
burgh, the comparison is still more satisfactory than for the other towns. It 
will be observed, that the greatest excess of deaths in Dundee over those in 
Edinburgh is caused by asthma, bowel complaint, catarrh, croup, dropsy, 
hooping-cough, measles, nervous diseases, scarlet fever, and small-pox ; the 
highest excess being by measles, amounting to 0*102 per cent. The greatest 
proportion of deaths by all the other diseases is in Edinburgh. The highest 
proportion of deaths in that town over those of Dundee is by decline, and 
amounts to 0*137 per cent. For the other ■proportions see the Table. 

The names of only 33*8 per cent, of the fatal cases of disease have been 
ascertained for Aberdeen, and exhibited in the tables for that town ; and as 
these bear but a small proportion to the total amount of deaths, the propor- 
tions to the population have been omitted in the tables, as they could form 
no data for comparison with the amount of fatal cases of disease ascer- 
tained for the other towns. The proportion of deaths by the several diseases 
ascertained, to the whole of the fatal cases of ascertained disease, is, how- 
ever, given in Table LII. 

It should be noticed, that for the different towns, with the exception of 
Aberdeen, the diseases stated under the head " not ascertained," consist 
chiefly of such diseases as the relatives of the deceased could not exactly 
describe ; several of them being named in the registers " inward complaints," 
&c. It is obvious, that to whichever columns the numbers under this head 
ought to be transferred, very few of them belong to the columns of fever, 
or eruptive fevers, the characteristics of which are so strongly marked. 

There are some cases upon the recording of which clue attention has not 
been bestowed; yet the proportion of deaths stated in all the tables, but 
those for Aberdeen, may be considered as being tolerably accurate. 

We have already called attention to the uniformity in the proportion of 
deaths at the different periods of life by fever and eruptive fevers, to the 
whole deaths, by these several diseases. Although in several instances there 
is a considerable difference in the proportion of these diseases to the amount 
of population, yet the uniform proportion of the mortality by these diseases 
which falls on the different ages is very striking, and leads to the belief, as 
before stated, that by a still more extended range of observation, and by a 
more correct system of registration of the fatal diseases, we might find that 
fixed laws regulate the amount of deaths at different ages by the several 
diseases. 

Table LV. shows, that while the proportion of deaths by fever, under five 
years of age, for the last three years in Edinburgh, amounted to 0'029 per 
cent, of the population, it amounted to 12*4>1 per cent, of the whole deaths 
by fever. In Glasgow (Table LVI.), while the deaths by fever, at the same 
age, for the last five years, amounted to 0*053 per cent, of the population, 
they amounted to 12*07 per cent, of the whole deaths by fever; being very 
nearly the same proportion to the whole deaths by lever as in Edinburgh. 
Again (same tables), while the deaths by fever, under twenty years of age, 



198 



REPORT — 1842. 



for the last three years in Edinburgh, amounted to 0*070 per cent, of the 
population, they amounted to 29*74; per cent, of the whole deaths by fever. 

In Glasgow, while the deaths by fever, at the same age, for the last five 
years, amounted to 0*129 per cent, of the population, they amounted to 29*05 
per cent, of the deaths by fever, being still very nearly in the same propor- 
tion to the whole deaths by fever as in Edinburgh. Again, in Edinburgh, 
while the deaths by fever, above twenty years of age, during the last three 
years, amount to 0*165 per cent, of the population, they amount to 70*25 per 
cent, of the whole deaths by fever. And in Glasgow, while the deaths by 
fever, above that age, amount to 0*316 per cent of the population, they 
amount to 70*94- per cent, of the whole deaths by fever. 

By referring to the tables for the other towns, it will be perceived that the 
proportions of the deaths by fever, at the different ages, to the whole deaths 
by fever, are not so very close to each other as they are in Edinburgh and 
Glasgow ; yet the difference is not great, and may be accounted for partly by 
the defective state of the registers, as well as by some local circumstances 
which cannot yet be clearly traced. 

We have had time only to construct tables similar to those immediately 
referred to, for a few of the fever cases, exhibited in the Reports of the Regis- 
trar-General for towns in England. As those we have constructed, however, 
6how very striking results for Manchester and Liverpool, we here insert the 
results corresponding with those above quoted. 

Proportions of Deaths by Fever, at different ages, during 1839*. 





In Manchester. 


In Liverpool. 


Of the 

whole Deaths by 

Fever. 


Of the 
Population. 


Of the 

whole Deaths by 

Fever. 


Of the 
Population. 


Under 5 years of age... 


Per cent. 

16-037 
38-679 
61-320 


Per cent. 

0-018 
0043 
0-069 


Per cent. 
15-081 
30163 
69-836 


Per cent. 
0016 
0-033 
0077 


20 years and upwards- 


Total 


100-000 


0-113 


100-000 


0-111 





The uniformity of the following proportions of deaths by the several dis- 
eases at certain ages, to the whole deaths by these diseases, is still more 
striking, although the amount of deaths, when compared to the population, 
was very different. 

Proportion of Deaths by Measles, at different ages, during 1839f- 





In Manchester. ' 


In Liverpool. 


Of the 

whole Deaths by 

Measles. 


Of the 

Population. 


Of the 

whole Deaths by 

Measles. 


Of the 
Population. 


Under 5 years of age... 


Per cent. 

92-496 

99-353 

0-64G 


Per cent. 
0254 
0-273 
0-002 


Per cent. 

91-271 

99-750 

0-249 


Per cent. 

0133 
0146 
0000 


20 years and upwards.. 


Total 


100-000 


0-275 


100-000 


0-146 





* The data from which these proportions are obtained will be found in the Third Annual 
Report of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths and Marriages in England, see pages 70 
and 74. It will be observed, that the deaths by remittent fever and typhus are included in 
these' proportions. 

f See pages 70 and 74 of the Report of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths and Mar- 
riages m England. 



, 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OP LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 199 

Proportion of Deaths by Scarlatina, at different ages, during 1839. 





In Manchester. 


In Liverpool. 


Of the 

whole Deaths by 

Scarlatina. 


Of the 
Population. 


Of the 

whole Deaths by 
Scarlatina. 


Of the 
Population. 


Under 5 years of age... 


Per cent. 

72-659 

97-752 

2-247 


Per cent. 
0-069 
0-093 
0-002 


Per cent. 

74-598 

98-930 

1-069 


Per cent. 
0-101 
0135 
0-001 


20 years and upwards.. 


Total 


100000 


0-095 


100-000 


0-136 





Proportion of Deaths by Small -pox, at different ages, during 1839. 



Under 5 years of age.. 

Under 20 years 

20 years and upwards. 



Total. 



In Manchester. 



Of the 
whole Deaths by 

Small-pox. 



Per cent. 

87-341 

98-312 

1-687 



100000 



Of the 
Population. 



Per cent. 

0-073 
0-082 
0001 



0-084 



In Liverpool. 



Of the 

whole Deaths by 

Small-pox 



Per cent. 

85-328 

97-683 

2-316 



100-000 



Of the 
Population. 



Per cent. 

0-087 
0-092 
0-002 



0094 



For the proportions of the deaths by measles, scarlet fever and small-pox 
at the different ages, to the whole deaths, for the towns in Scotland, and 
their striking correspondence with the above, we have to refer to the preceding 
tables, in which they are exhibited. The following results brought out for 
other diseases, in a similar manner, show, that were the Scotch registers so 
improved that we could rely upon their accuracy, there is a great probability 
that the proportion of deaths at different ages, in a given population, by any 
particular disease, would be found to be nearly uniform, whatever the total 
amount might be ; and that when there was a departure from a certain pro- 
portion at these ages, a local cause might be found to account for it. 

It will be found from the tables showing the average annual amount of 
deaths by the several diseases, that the proportion of the total deaths by the 
diseases included under the head of bowel complaints, amounts to 0*167 per 
cent, of the population in Edinburgh ; to 017 1 per cent, of the population in 
Perth ; to 0263 per cent, in Dundee ; and to - 370 per cent, in Glasgow. 

The following is the annual average proportion which the deaths by Bowel 
Complaint, at different ages, bear to the whole annual average deaths by 
that complaint, in different towns, and also to the population. 



Ages. 


Edinburgh. 


Perth. 


Dundee. 


Glasgow. 


til 

2SA 
S 


o a - 
*-g .2 


ill 


Pi 


Proportion 
to whole 
Deaths. 


C i . 

.2 Cm § 

til 
g » 

£3 a 


c u 

ill 

p.- « 

2 ofl 


l|| 

£ 3 


Under 3 years of age. 


Per cent. 

79106 
85-014 
87-608 
12-391 


Percent. 

0-132 

0-142 
0-146 
0-020 


Per cent. 

79-041 
82-634 
85-029 
14-970 


Per cent. 

0-135 

0-142 

0-146 

0-025 


Per cent. 

77-919 

84-288 
86-836 
13163 


Per cent. 
0-204 
0-221 
0-228 
0-034 


Per cent. 

84066 

90-693 

93-475 

6-524 


Percent. 

0-311 

0-335 

0-346 

0-023 


20 years and upwards. 






REPORT — 1842. 



We have made out tables like the above for some of the other diseases. 
The results are all similar to those in the following table for Inflammation, 
in which there is a great variation in the proportions for the different towns. 
It is to be doubted, however, if much reliance can be placed on the accuracy 
Avith which these diseases are recorded in the registers. 

It will be found by the tables above referred to, that the proportion of the 
total annual average deaths by inflammation to the mean population of Edin- 
burgh amounts to 0'196 per cent. ; in Glasgow to 0*185 per cent. ; in Perth 
to 0-139 per cent. ; in Dundee to 0-143 per cent. 

The following is the proportion which the deaths by Inflammation, at different 
a<*es, bear to the whole deaths by inflammation, in different towns, and also 
to the population. 



Ages. 


Edinburgh. 


Glasgow. 


Perth. 


Dundee. 


a 

III 

o ofi 




C <u ■ 
'.Co j2 

[•is 


B o • 

2ft< o 
■e .2 

|!| 


g J5 "§ 


■Ml 

£s°* 


c a 

P." <U 

s 


B o ■ 

.2& s 
■" .2 

|l| 

fis a 


Under 5 years of age. 
20 years and upwards 


Per cent. 

44-103 
55-651 
44-348 


Per cent. 

0-086 
0-109 

0-087 


Per cent. 

44-934 
58-006 
41-993 


Percent. 

0-083 
0-107 
0-077 


Percent. 

32-352 
44-117 

55-882 


Percent. 

0045 
0-061 
0-078 


Per cent. 

51-361 
62-645 
37-354 


Per cent. 
0-073 
0-089 
0053 



The tables from No. LXXIV. to LXXX. exhibit the average annual number 
of deaths under five, under twenty and above twenty years of age, in five of 
the principal towns of Scotland, and also for all England, and for the City 
of London and town of Manchester ; with the proportions which the average 
annual deaths at these ages bear to the whole average annual deaths, and 
to the mean population. 

Tables LXXIV. and LXXV. show, that the proportion of deaths under five 
years of age amounted in the three years specified to 0*85 per cent, of the po- 
pulation in Edinburgh, and to 33-62 per cent, of the whole deaths in that town. 
For England it was 0*871 per cent, and 39*59 per cent, of deaths. In London 
the proportion of deaths under the same age, in the years specified, amounted 
to 1*066 per cent, of the population, and to 40-49 per cent, of the whole 
deaths. In Glasgow the proportion of deaths under five years of age in five 
years specified, amounted to 1*43 per cent, of the population, and to 44*58 
per cent, of the whole deaths. By referring to the tables, it will be found 
that there is a greater mortality under five years in London than in the 
Scotch towns ; but the mortality in Manchester exceeds that of the most un- 
healthy Scotch towns. 

Tables LXXVI. and LXXVII. show, that in Edinburgh the proportions of 
deaths under 20 years of age amounted to 1*119 per cent, of the population, 
and to 43*88 per cent, of the whole deaths. For all England the proportions 
were respectively 1*118 and 50*83 per cent. In London the proportion of 
deaths under that age amounted to 1*296 per cent, of the population, and to 
49*23 per cent, of the whole deaths. In Glasgow the proportion of deaths 
under that age amounted to 1*79 per cent, of the population, and to 55*95 per 
cent, of the whole deaths ; and in Manchester the proportion of deaths under 
the same age amounted to 2*027 per cent, of the population, and to 60*99 per 
cent, of the whole deaths. 

Tables LXXVIII. and LXXIX.show, that in Edinburgh the proportion of 
deaths above 20 years of age amounted to 1-43 per cent, of the population, and 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 201 

to 56*1 1 per cent, of the whole deaths. In England these proportions were re- 
spectively 1*082 and 49*17 per cent. And in London the proportion of deaths 
amounted to 1*36 per cent, of the population, and to 50*77 per cent, of the 
whole deaths. In Manchester only 39*01 per cent- of the whole deaths take 
place above 20 years of age, and 1*296 per cent, of its population. 

It is worthy of observation, that the mortality at the different ages in Man- 
chester (the greatest manufacturing town in England) bears nearly the same 
proportion to that of London, as the mortality at these ages in Glasgow (the 
greatest manufacturing town in Scotland) bears to that of Edinburgh. 

It will be seen (Tables LXXIV. and LXXV.) that the proportion of deaths 
under 5 years in Manchester is 10*83 per cent, of the whole deaths, and 0*639 
per cent, of the population greater than in London ; and in Glasgow the pro- 
portion of deaths under the same age is 12*07 per cent, of the whole deaths, 
and 0*67 per cent, of the population greater than in Edinburgh. Again, it 
will be found (Tables LXXVIII. and LXXIX.) that the proportion of deaths 
above 20 years of age in Manchester is 11*76 per cent, of the whole deaths, 
and 0*040 per cent, of the population less than in London ; and in Glasgow 
the proportion of deaths above that age is 12*07 per cent, of the whole deaths, 
and 0*016 per cent, of the population less than in Edinburgh. 

The average annual proportions of deaths to the mean population in the 
towns of England, is exhibited in Table LXXX. In London the average an- 
nual proportion of deaths during the years 1837-38, 1838-39, and 1839-40, to 
the mean population of these years, was as 1 to 37*34, or 2*67 per cent.; in 
Manchester as 1 in 28*06, or 3*563 per cent.; in Liverpool as 1 to 28*30, or 
3*537 per cent.; in Leeds as 1 to 36*76, or 2*720 per cent.; and in Birming- 
ham as 1 to 36*82 or 2*716 per cent.* 

We have already had occasion to notice the tendency which reckless po- 
verty and the absence of artificial comforts in the dwellings of a large pro- 
portion of the town population has to increase the number of improvident 
marriages, and consequently of births. The effect of extreme poverty 
in extending disease and mortality among the inhabitants of these towns, is 
also apparent from the results exhibited in the preceding pages. Other 
causes are mentioned as having a powerful influence in producing those fatal 
effects observable in the amount of mortality in large towns, such as intem- 
perance and inattention to cleanliness, together with a want of proper drain- 
age and a free circulation of air among the houses of the poor. 

The abuse of spirituous liquors has been well described as "at once the 

* In regard to this comparison of the mortality in the English and Scotch towns, parti- 
cularly iu early life, it is to be observed, that in several of the former, in the years compared, 
there were unusually severe epidemics of small-pox, measles and scarlet fever, the mortality 
from which falls almost entirely on the early periods of life. Thus in London, in 1838-39, 
small-pox caused 3817 deaths, or 1 in 138 of the whole mortality, and in 1839-40 measles 
and scarlet fever together caused 4535 deaths, or 1 in 10 of the whole mortality ; in Man- 
chester in 1839-40 measles alone caused 1131 deaths, or 1 in 8-1 of the whole mortality ; 
in Liverpool in 1837-38 small-pox caused 634 deaths, or 1 in 7"7 of the whole mortality, and 
in 1839-40 measles and scarlet fever caused 934 deaths, or 1 in 9'8 of the whole mortality ; 
while in Glasgow, and still more in Edinburgh, there have been no such virulent epidemics of 
these diseases. 

Now these are epidemics which no doubt affect the poorer classes of the population in any 
town more than the richer, but which extend rapidly through all ranks, and the extension of 
which must be regarded as accidental, depending apparently more on the peculiar viru- 
lence of the specific poisons than on any remediable causes. In estimating the average de- 
gree of unhealthiness of a town, or drawing any inference as to the social condition of the 
people, the mortality from such epidemics should be omitted from the calculation, or else the 
estimate should be framed on the comparison of such a number of years that unusually severe 
epidemics may be included in the records of all the towns. 



202 report— 1842. 

cause and consequence of destitution * ;" and as inattention to cleanliness 
may also be considered as an universal attendant of extreme poverty, it is 
not easy to see how the effects of the one can be traced without these effects 
being found in some degree to be influenced by the other; nor, indeed, does 
it seem possible to distinguish ,the effects of extreme poverty from those of 
defective ventilation and draining, because the poorest people have no choice 
of residence, and cannot avoid congregating in such numbers as to imply 
very deficient ventilation. 

The effect of intemperance on the human constitution in producing disease I 
and death is undoubted; and we too often witness the pernicious effects pro- 
duced on the family of the drunkard by his expending on what is to injure 
his health, degrade him in the eyes of his fellow men, and bring him to an 
early grave, those funds whereby he would be enabled to procure a greater 
abundance of wholesome food, clothing and fuel for his family, to protect them 
against the inclemency of the seasons and the ravages of disease, and by be- 
stowing upon them a better education at once to procure a more happy home 
for himself and for them. It is gratifying, however, to learn from well-in- 
formed parties in the towns reported on, that marked improvement has taken 
place in the temperance habits of the people: and too much praise cannot 
be bestowed on those philanthropic individuals whose exertions have been 
the means of urging forward this salutary reformation. 

We have endeavoured, but without success, to ascertain the exact quantity 
of spirituous liquors consumed by the population of Glasgow. The quantity 
brought into the city may be easily ascertained ; but the quantity that is sent 
out of Glasgow, in such portions as may not require a permit for its protec- 
tion, or even where the requirement of a permit may not be attended to, 
and which is consumed by the agriculturists, and by many inhabitants of the 
towns and villages to a considerable distance, round Glasgow, cannot be as- 
certained, and therefore the amount of population by which the spirits entered 
in the books of the Excise is consumed cannot be stated. 

Without being in possession of sufficiently accurate information to enable 
us to state whether a greater excess in the use of intoxicating liquors is more 
customary in Glasgow than in the other towns for which our tables are 
constructed, it will readily be admitted that this pernicious vice is too pre- 
valent in all of them ; and the amount of destitution and misery arising in 
consequence of it is greatly to be deplored. It has frequently been stated 
as one of the principal causes of female life being better than that of the 
males, that the men are more intemperate in their habits than the women. 
Were this the case, the greatest abuse of spirituous liquors may be looked 
for in Edinburgh, as the female life in that town is 0*50 per cent, better than 
the male life. And the most moderate use of spirituous liquors may be 
looked for in Perth, as the male life is only 0*20 per cent, worse than the 
female life in that town. In Glasgow the female life is better than the male 
life by 0*46 per cent.; in Aberdeen by 048 per cent.; and in Dundee by 
0*33 per centf Were, therefore, the relative mortality of men and women 
as the indulgence in intoxicating liquors, and the women alike temperate 
in their habits in the different towns, then these figures would form a sort of 
index of the degree of intemperance indulged in by the men. It may be 
objected to this, that the number of females employed at the factories of 
Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee, may have injurious effects on female life, 
and make the difference in the proportion of male and female deaths in these 
towns to be less than it otherwise would be. As, however, the inhabitants 

* Dr. Arrot's Report on the fever cases of Dundee. 

f See abstracts of the proportion of male and female deaths. 



ON THE VITAL STATISTICS OF LARGE TOWNS IN SCOTLAND. 203 

i 
of Edinburgh and Perth are more like each other as to the nature of their 
employments, should intemperance on the part of the males be a principal 
cause of the difference in male and female deaths, then the proportion of in- 
temperance should be as five in Edinburgh to two in Perth. 

Whatever may be the influence of intemperance in producing a high 
rate of mortality, both by the direct effects it produces on the human frame 
and by the destitution and misery which result from it, there are too many 
cases of extreme destitution in the towns of Scotland, arising from causes 
beyond the control of the sufferers, and for which there is no adequate re- 
lief provided by law. The effect of destitution in producing disease and 
death, seems to be admitted by all writers on the subject. Differences may 
arise as to the particular disease or diseases most affected by it ; but all 
agree, that where a great degree of destitution exists, there is to be found 
a high amount of mortality. 

It is especially to be observed with regard to the years of severe depression 
of trade, that the case of the really destitute poor in the manufacturing towns 
of Scotland is not then so bad as during the years of ordinary prosperity. Many 
of the better class of operatives require to submit to a much greater degree of 
suffering and privation than they are accustomed to, and the effects of these 
privations are much to be dreaded in the event of an unhealthy season set- 
ting in upon them. But the extraordinary exertions made by subscriptions 
from the more wealthy inhabitants, and from public funds, to supply food 
and clothing to the poor — by means of soup-kitchens, distribution of old 
clothes and otherwise, over and above the ordinary parochial relief, — often 
renders the condition of the really destitute much better at these times than 
it is under ordinary circumstances. We cannot, therefore, form such a cor- 
rect judgment of the effects of destitution during these years on the mortality 
of large towns in Scotland as is generally imagined. 

Were the local distribution of the population in towns the same as in 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, where the rich and the poor are found to occupy 
distinct districts, a more correct knowledge of the mortality among the dif- 
ferent classes of the people would be come to than has yet. been obtained. 
In the report of Monsieur Villerme, in vol. x. of Archives Generates, it is 
shown, that in the three districts of Paris in which the mortality is least the 
inhabitants are the wealthiest, and in the three districts in which the inhabit- 
ants are the poorest the mortality is the greatest. 

In a valuable paper *, " On the best means of supplying the poor with 
cheap and nutritious food," read to the Philosophical Society of Glasgow by 
Dr. R. D. Thomson, he says, — " We trust the day is fast approaching when 
the light of science will enable the guardians of the poor to manage our po- 
verty-stricken fellow-men by precise and definite rules, and will teach all 
classes of the community that the quantity of vital air supplied by the 
Creator to man is based on fixed laws which require the imbibition of a cer- 
tain amount of food. An adult consumes every day 30^ ounces of oxygen 
or vital air from the atmosphere. To consume this, and to convert it into 
carbonic acid, he requires, according to Liebig, about 13 ounces of carbon, 
in the form of food. If the food is withheld, the carbon must be supplied 
from the muscles and substance of the body ; the latter becomes thinner and 
weaker, and, like an expiring taper, is extinguished by the influence of the most 
trivial causes." Dr. Thomson, after noticing the amount of deaths in England 
by starvation, or purely from want of food, also says, " how many persons 
died by piecemeal starvation, or by disease engendered by bad food or want 

* See Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, Fourteenth Session, 184] -42. 



204 



REPORT — 1842. 



of it, has not yet been pointed out by statistical data." Though we may not 
be able to trace the effects of destitution in its different stages on the increase 
of disease and death, yet by the improvement of registers, and by greater 
attention to the vital statistics of various localities, and of different classes of 
the people, more certain knowledge may be attained on this most important 
subject. The proof, however, which the preceding tables afford that the mor- 
tality for the different towns is in proportion to the amount of the poor and 
destitute in these towns, is supported by the amount of burials which take, 
place in them at the public expense. 



Appendix. 

Classification of Diseases used in the preceding Tahles. 



Classes- 


Species. 


Synonyms. 






Fractures, Wounds, Burns, Bruises, Drowning. 

And without any particular Disease. 

Shortness of Breath. 

Flux, Bloody Flux. 

Infjanirnation of Bowels in Children. 

Diarrhoea. 

Iliac Passion. 

Cold, Influenza. 

Puerperal Fever. 

Stopping. 

Pulmonary, Phthisis, Wasting. 

Consumption of Young from Diseased Glands. 

Typhus, continued Fever, or Nervous, or Putrid. 

Rupture of Vessel in, or overflow of Blood to, Head. 

Paralysis. 

Hydrocephalus. 

Head or Brain Fever. 

Chin-Cough. 

Aneurism, Ossification. 

Not specified. 

Convulsions, Fits, Lock-jaw, Epilepsy. 

Suppuration of the Loins. 

Of Breast, of Lips, of Bowels ; Schirrus. 

Stomach Complaints. 
Rose. 

White Swelling, Diseased Hip-joint. 
Hernia. 




Decline above 60 years 




Bowel Corn- 








Teething. 

Cholic 


Cholera. 














Tabes Meseuterica ... 
Dropsy, General. 


of Bcllv 




Head, diseases J 

of 1 

Hooping-cough . 
Heart, diseases of 

Inflammation < 

Measles. 

Nervous Diseases 
Scarlet Fever. 
Small-pox. 

Miscellaneous 
i 






Water in the Head ... 
Inflammation of Head 






of Chest, 
of Bowels, 
of Liver, 
of Throat. 




Carbuncle. 
Diabetes. 




Flooding. 
Jaundice. 

Rheumatism. 


Spine Diseased. 

Spitting of Blood. 
Stone in Bladder. 



H. 



Table L. 



and 1841, classified a< showing the total average 
^otal average annual nicomparative rates of mor- 

I 
e years 137,986. 



90 



46 



& under 
95. 



15 



Comparative 

rate of Mortality 

from each kind 

of Disease. 



0-032 



70 



116 

38J 

91-034 

3568-603 

0-028 

0-017 

0011 



16 



■27 



43 
14§ 
245-581 
9626-930 
0010 
0006 

0-004 



0-047 
0-016 



0-011 



0-049 



Percent 

0-012 

0-032 
0-203 
0-029 
0012 
0-027 
0-087 
0-007 
0-210 



0-080 

0-123 
0-005 
0-044 

0-088 



Diseases, &c. 



0-084 
0-141 



Accidents. 

Aged. 

Asthma. 

Bowel Complaints, 

Catarrh. 

Childbirth. 

Croup. 

Decline. 

Dropsy. 

Fever. 

Head, of. 

Heart, of. 

Hooping-cough. 

Inflammation. 

Measles. 

Nervous. 

Scarlet Fever. 

Small-pox. 

Miscellaneous. 



0-664 



Total ascertained. 
Do.not ascertained, 



Deaths, M. and F. 



<yerage annual Deaths is as 1 to the 
344 



EDINBURGI 



Exhibiting the number of fatal ( 



se that occurred in the City and Suburbs of EDINBURGH during the years 1839, 1840 and 1841, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took pi 
i at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total average annual number of deaths, and also to the 



tality in Edinburgh and Glasgow 



th calculations showing the total average 
population of these years ; with the comparative rates of nior- 













































Mean Population of these tin 


ce years 137.986 












































































1- 


i 


til. 


il 


^rffiiSr 












n»to 


1 


' 


5 


I. 


u 


.,„ 


" 


so 


60 


,-. 


» 


SO 


85 


M 


93 


... 


* B r, not 




il 


:- 


IA 






- -■ 




Disease. fcc. 


,., 


*■ 


' 


... 


„ 


M . 


so. 


... 


at, 


Co. 


,.. 




... 


OS. 


». 


„s. 


100 








s 3 


1J 


ih 


|S 






:1 


■I 






M. 1 F. 








































Jl 


r 


111 


f 


til 


jjl H 










































































Occidents 
















10 




7 




32 




16 6 


21 


10 




12 

1511 


in 


3 

'H 










3 

i;.3 




2 
66 


















156 

I'lll 


90 
810 






"V,T- 


"2™. 




iw,_-i- 


Percol 


in- 


\ 1 


Aged 




























180 


in' 


149 




II 








"i 


1 


1 






1300 133 x [23 : i- |2S "!.ll 0-282 


ii-032 




Aged. 


Asthma 










1 










1 


















"II 


■'1 








1" 




























1 


9" 


96 


lxx c: 56 17" SH01 IS 0077 




1-032 


Aithma. 




■j;:.i 


US 


m 


01! 


S3 


is 


s 


2 


-' 


1 




1 










1 


4 


11 


13 




II 


1 


4 


a 


» 






















1 


4 


385 


309 


691 , 231 15-21U 596-181 " 167 0-370 




. l'ii:i 


Dowel Complainls. 




s 


7 




1 










1 






















1 




1 




1 






























II 


IS 


36 IS 29 333 II I - 1 1 0-037 




i-0L»!l 


Catarrh. 


Childbirth 















































































82 


82 37 128 780 5048468 ""19 0031 




1012 


Childbirth. 




1 l 


SI 


SI 


29 


34 


4 


6 




1 


1 
























































72 


76 


MX ," 71 3.-.1 2797"! 35 "1162 




ID27 






7a 


43 


42 


51 


46 


50 


37 


35 


47 














IIS 


1"! 


131 


IIS 


































8 


6 


93; 


s,u 








Decline. 




a 


4 







li 


9 


6 


4 


4 


4 




11 


■'I! 






27 


47 


■'II 




■"1 


32 


13 


17 




11 


3 


3 




















1 


161 


223 


384 i 128 27 1078-015 0-09S 0' 






Dropsy. 




10 16 


Id 


m 


40 




39 


l-( 


«6 




Is 




61 






91 


93 


55 




38 


33 


II 




■' 


1 






1 




















19. 


■ IXII 










Head, of 94 








36 




28 


19 


14 








11 












II 


II 


.III 




21 










1 


1 














1 


3 


Is, 


428 












































11 




ia 




1 






























s- 


6! 








Heart, of. 












BO 




19 




1 
























































3 


11,1 


Isx 


354 'n- 29-830 11 79 5 " 165 






Hooping-cough. 




KS 








11 


























38 


"S 


21 


i'i 




111 




























b 


HI. 


412 










Measles 

Nervous 

Scarlet Fever 

Small-pox 

Miscellaneous 


l.i 
1.' 


24 
9 
7 

38 
57 


;:, 
3 

13 
80 
11 


5fi 
1 
17 
25 
11 


41 
IS 

:i; 
11 


56 
3 
42 
25 

12 


14 
1 

22 
12 

l: 


8 
2 
31 
12 

: 


1 
1 
10 
2 
9 


"t 

III 


1 
: 

2 
6 


1 
1 


1 
1) 

21 


1 
3 

211 


1 
3 
1 

35 


"is 
"s> 

36 


Viii 


5 
61 


"3 
45 


3 
48 


12 


"1 

2:1 


14 


1 
13 


5 


3 


3 


1 




1 














'. 


i 

2 


168 

li' 
12 
321 


144 
33 

llll 
HIS 

321 


65 21? 

217 72 
232 ' 77 
645 215 


16-372 




111. -jo 
uniti; 

Mil 

0-107 


IHU'.I 


nun;, 



0088 


Nervous. 
Scarlet Fever. 
Small-pox. 
Miscellaneous. 


Ditto not ascertained. . 


MIJ 

i;.s 


05 1 

131 


145 

29 


I'M 
23 


12s 


415 

27 


2.1s 
21 


231 

27 


114 
16 


1.1.-' 

13 


I:,. 
: 


Hi 
12 


.'10! 

3! 


-lis 
37 


II! 
38 


145 


120 

51 


445 

48 


111 
45 


3M1 
52 


:;s; 
35 


131- 
46 


165 

8 


-',-1! 
Ill 


13S 
6 


192 


91 

1 


is;, 


15 
1 


; ' 


15 
1 


26 


s 


1 


1 


1 


is 
16 


i'i; 
21 


169 
503 


1X61 
197 


9560 




3186 
333 


1104 

111-561 


43-301 2-3119 
113-958 0-241 


3113 
OHIO 


0-084 

■■in 




Total ascertained. 
Do. not ascertained. 


Deaths, Mai es&Feni ale 


960 


781 


474 


427 


463 


11. 


279 


263 


130 


lis 


141 


122 


432 


155 


452 


485 


471 


193 


459 


138 


422 


184 


173 


286 


144 


1911 


92 | 1911 
2S2 


46 


70 


111 


27 


8 


4 


1 


1 


34 


17 


'.19,- .-'36! 
10560 


10560 


35211 


1-001 


39-2110 2-550 


3-214 




0-664 


Deaths, M. ind P. 






















897 


906 




340 


116 


43 


12 


2 


81 


Grand Total Deaths. 


Average annual Death 


1 581J 
| 0-05 
1 237-22 

} <"» 
I 0-59 


300) 

11-720 


301 j 
11-668 


1805 
19-483 


92} 
37-985 


m 

40152 


295} 

11 .'.»i.-, 


312) 

11-270 


321} 
10-954 


2119 
11-772 


302 
11-655 


153 
23006 


113} 

31058 


94 

37-416 


3BJ 
91034 


14} 
245-581 


4 
880-001 


0} 
5280' 


27 
130-370 


3520 
1-000 


Average annual Deaths these three years. 
/The Proportion which the above bear to the average annual Deaths 15 ;i- 1 to the 
\ foregoing. 


Propor. of above to aver 


To the mean Popula 


459 442 

0-217 


457-401 
0-218 


763-760 
0-130 


1489-057 
0-067 


1573984 
0-063 


466-694 
0-214 


441-790 
0-226 


429-417 
0-232 


461-491 
0-216 


456-9117 
0-218 


901-869 

0-110 


1217-523 
0082 


1 1117-936 
0-0C8 


3.-,i!s.|;ip.-! 

0028 


9626931 
null 


34496-501 
0-000 


2H6U79-O0I 
0-000 


51111-592 
0019 


39-200 
2 550 


Anil to the mean Population as 1 to these. 
Per-centage of the Population in Edinburgh. 


Per-centage of the Po 
pulation in Edinburg 

Per-centage of the Po 
pulation in Glasgow. 


0-431 


-I'i2 


0-184 


0-077 


0104 


264 


0-267 


0-251 


0-194 


0-200 


0-1197 


0-063 


01119 


0-017 


0006 


0-002 


Mill II 


0000 


3214 


Per-centage of the Population in Glasgow. 


Excess of Deaths i 


} - 


















0022 


0018 


0013 


0-019 


04119 


0011 


0-004 










Excess of Deaths at these ages 111 Bdicburgh. 


Excess of Deaths j 


I 


i 17 


i 


214 




1-184 




J-054 




1011 




0041 




1-050 


( 


(111 


0019 
































0'Ooa 










0-6111 


Excess of Deaths a 


tlll-M- !IL"' 


in Glasgow. 









w. 



Table LI. 



18, 1839, 1840 and 18<|ulations showing the 
ral diseases, bear to thyears ; with the com- 

ive years 264,010 



3 

338 
10 
4 
2 



376 

9 



385 



655 
131 

64784 

015-343 

0-049 

0-068 



0019 



& under 
90. 



87 



147 



234 
46f 

181-341 

5641-239 

0017 

0-028 



0011 



tarative 
Mortality 
ach kind 



27 



31 i 



Percent 

0-032 



0-047 
0-016 



0-011 



0-049 



0141 



Diseases, &c. 



Accidents. 

Aged. 

Asthma. 

Bowel Complaints 

Catarrh. 

Childbirth. . 

Croup. 

Decline. 

Dropsy. 

Fever. 

Head, of. 

Heart, of. 

Hooping-cough. 

Inflammation. 

Measles. 

Nervous. 

Scarlet Fever. 

Small-pox. 

Miscellaneous. 



Total ascertained. 
Do. not ascertained 



Deaths, M. and F. 



91 

18 
igg.perage annual Deaths du- 

14506- 

0- 

0-i 

0-( 



Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City and Suburbs of GLASGOW during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 18*0 and 184-1, classified according to 18 period, of life at which they took place ; with calculations showing t 

totalaverageani.ua] iiumiI.it ut deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total average annual imrnb.-r ..f .le.irh* and ,l<o !„ the me, nil uimi of th.-e v, u. ■ with the en 

parative rates ul mortality in Glasgow and Edinburgh. ' ' - ' 

Mean Population of these five years 261,010 



















































































j 
If 

1 


Proportion. 


lit 
- 




„.,„„• 


»-»*. 


Under 


& under 


*L 


*Lr 


.1, 


T r 


20 


30 


.:„ 


T 


60 


.1, 


T' 


lL, 


T 


"" 


US 


™- 


To,, 


ijl 


If 
Is 


'-, =. 1 
1 |j 

is : 


;;.'.;,;; rt::::, 1 


Data * Ti - Kc - 


|l 




















































































11 

2 

.-.68 
21 

212 

381 
187 
135 
Is 
13! 
27i 


182 
IS 

11 

365 
137 
416 
11 
13j 
2.-.I 


47 
171 

231 

268 

168 

1/1 

217 
268 


41 
150 

28 

281 

111 

III. 

18 

206 
26.8 
42 


1! 

.' 
41 
II 

101 

12 
67 
111 

135 
5 

144 
03 
32 


33 

"5 

43 

"' 
95 

(11 

12 j 
4 

1311 
58 
22 


31 

"i 
211 

7 

5 
30 
15 

3 
25 
13 
23 


17 

"2 
15 
6 

36 
13 

4 
27 
18 
22 


60 

ii 

8 

5 
4 

45 
3 
3 
1 

11 

25 


10 

"? 

5 
13 

231 
12 
6 

39 

9 
8 
16 
16 


147 

18 
22 
12 

"2 

592 
50 
579 
45 
17 
1 
111 
1 

6 
43 
55 


30 

"31 

23 
25 

173 

673 
65 
479 
28 
10 
1 
146 
7 
12 
4 
25 
64 


104 

43 
21 
22 

471 
57 
708 
89 
21 
2 
113 
2 
5 
3 
10 
74 


31 

53 

3: 
32 
187 

.-,.11 

476 
39 
12 

118 

2 

6 

.-, 

10 
81 


10! 

71 
21 

22 

in. 

619 
78 
24 

133 
2 
11 
1 
2 

103 


27. 

112 
30 
25 
48 
2 
406 
122 
156 
43 
16 

"99 

9 

3 
118 


49 

133 
15 

22 

1 
302 
86 
314 
81 
26 

"77 
1 
8 
2 

"lis 


36 

105 
31 
49 

379 
102 
259 
46 
15 
1 
79 
2 
11 

120 


28 
541 
115 
31 
23 

"sll 
131 
90 
15 

"5 
1 

"97 


18 
7»2 
137 
34 
35 



11 
43 

"io 

71 


1! 

378 
37 
10 
5 

23 
27 

"7 
"l 

'is 


15 

5 15 
35 

18 

3.1 
111 
22 

6 
1 

16 


2 

265 
20 

8 

14 

4 

23 
2 

"3 

15 


4 

383 
14 
3 
5 

Ts 

15 
9 


2 

255 
6 

9 

2 


3 
338 
10 

2 

"7 

6 

2 


78 
1 

i 

3 

i 


2 

1311 
2 

1 
1 

1 

1 


27 

1 


1 

54 

2 
2 


10 

1 


111 
i 


5 


'6 


671 
1514 

500 
26711 

217 

443 
3174 
614 
3212 
1331 
158 
11199 
1324 
1335 
132 
649 
989 
712 


276 

2 ISO 

518 

2219 
274 
421 
383 
3443 
673 
2669 
952 
107 
11184 
1124 
1281 
III 
625 
1117 
766 




1,0 ..ere 


1 ,„.,..„ 


|.,,„„, 


p ■" 


001s 

11-1132 
1.-2113 
11023 
0-012 
0027 

0087 

111.07 

011.1 


11-1132 

7 

0-016 

IMII 1 
II-OI3 


A 1 -i -1 ■ 1 ■ ■ 11 1 - 

Aged. 

Asthma. 

Bowel Complaints. 

Catarrh. 

Childbirth. 

Dwlin'c. 

■lead, of. 

Icart, of. 

laoping-cough 

inflammation. 

Measles. 

Nervous, 

Scarlet Fever. 

Small-pox. 

Miscellaneous. 




llil 

287 

!l 

.'ills 
273 
265 
411 

87 

304 

83 


1 

1555 
21 

i'i7 

217 

332 
194 
2611 
46 
97 
2ii:. 


™! 9 1 ':.'■' :':i:i lH} mSs 




2183 136 n. ., 1 ,,,. ,1 165 "■'85 0080 

_,,' , 525 i 12oJ " i'l "2 11 1 i- 1.1.75 113 

276 :.-, 153-746 17-27- 81 15 (r005 

127 1 25 1 ... .7 I i 115 11 i! 52 11(111 

1 381 -'-"-"15 692-576 014 56 04)88 


Inflaiiiraali.nl 


1 1 'til ascertained 

Do. not ascertained 


110! :;::■; _'■'_'■ j:i I -Ti'l 2482 
203 me ;■. 80 SB 68 


1247 
39 


1116 

28 


49! 
9 


515 
2 


669 
24 


11,-0 
15 


170: 
41 

1741 


1698 
43 


1747 
62 


1680 
42 


1081 

64 


1518 
58 


1217 
47 


122! 
40 


12-7 
38 


1311] 
20 


513 
15 


72.' 
12 


558 
5 


1117 
5 


265 
5 


376 


84 
3 


158 


30 
1 


1 


11 


17 


5 


6 


21,104 
691 


19,999 


11,1113 
1331 


266' 


1 -032 
31-881 


32115 
991-773 


3113 

11-100 


u-211 


8111 


0'i'41 


Total ascertained. 
do. not ascertained. 


Dealhs.Mal.'-Ci t'etnalr- 


4310,361113005 2.191 2760|255l 


1281 


1144 


500 


517 


6113 


685 


1741 


1809 


1722 


1744 


157. 


1291 


126! 


1527 


1321 


558 


732 


363 


172 


2711 


58.', 


87 


147 


31 


611 


11 


17 


5 


6 


11,795 


20,639 


12,434 


818.; 


Minn 


31108 


3 21 1 


2550 


0-684 




Deaths. M. and P. 


Total 


7911 
| 1582j 
| 5-363 
1 166-802 
j- 0-599 
| 0-421 


5699 
1139| 

7-445 

231-628 

0-4.-11 

0-217 


5310 
1062 
7-991 
248-596 
0-402 
0-218 


2430 
486 
17-462 
543-230 
0184 
0130 


1017 

203J 
41-724 
1297984 
0-077 
0067 


1378 
275} 

30-793 

957-946 

0104 

0063 


3487 
697i| 
12169 
378-563 
0-264 
0-214 


3531 

706 1 
12-017 
373-845 
0-267 
0-226 


3320 
664 
12-781 
397-605 
0-251 
0-232 


2561 
512} 
16-569 
515-443 
0194 
0-216 


2646 
5294. 
16034 
498-885 
0200 
0-218 


1290 

258 

32-894 

1023-294 

0-097 

0110 


835 

167 

50-819 

1580-898 

0063 

0082 


655 

131 

64-784 

1015-343 

0-049 

0-068 


234 

46} 

181-341 

5641-239 

0017 
0028 


91 

181 

466-3117 

I15IIIM1I3 

II- 

0-011 


28 

1515-500 

1711 11112 
0-002 
0000 


11 

3857-636 

120004-545 

(.1-01)0 

0000 


42,434 
84813} 

i -onii 

31-108 
3-214 
25511 


Grand Total Deaths. 

Average annual Deaths these five years. 
/The proportion which the above hear to the total average annual Deaths tlu- 
L ring these years is as 1 to the foregoing. 

And to the Population as 1 to these. 

I'er-eeotuec of ll.e I'.iiuilaliiio in lllasgow. 

Per-centage of the Population in Edinburgh. 


Average annual Deaths 


Proper, of ah. 'veto aver 
ann. Dcatbs is as 1 to 
To the mean Popula- 


Per-ccntagc of the Po- 
pulation in (.lasiron.. 

Per-centage of the Po- 
pulation in l.ilinlnjiL'l 


Excess of Deaths in 


1 0178 


0-214 


0184 


0-054 


0010 


0041 


0-050 


0041 


0019 


0-022 


0-018 


0-013 


0019 


0019 


0111 1 


0004 


110111 




0664 


Excess of Deaths at these ages in Glasgow. 
Excess of Deaths at these ages ill Edinburgh. 


Excess of Deaths n 



































































































184.1, classifi 
several dis 



90 

& under 

95. 



10 3 



4 10 
10 20 

14 I 30 

44 

84 

144772 
7200-681 
0-013 
0-010 



3: 
198* 



0-003 



ABERDEEN. 



Table LII. 



Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of ABERDEEN and Suburbs during the years 1837, 1838, 1839, 1810 and 1811, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took place ; with 
calculations showing the total average annual number of deaths at each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total average annual number "of deaths, and also 
to the mean population of these years; with the comparative rates of mortality in Aberdeen and Edinburgh. 

Mean Population of these five years 63,366. 











, 


„ 


, 5 


. 




. 


. 


61, 


7. 


7.., 












J_ 


i 




Sn 

Hi 

in 




DiMMC, fcc. 


vl 


& under 


, 


,.. 


,, 


,0. 


». 


.0. 


... 


lit,. 


7.. 


& under 


,. 


B , 


T 


,, 


,„». 


u P ™,U. 




> I 
- 


II 


nM 


= '-.e 














































3 


ii 


























































































































































H 


** 










- 










5 


6 




IS 




II 




I 


« 


6 


4 


'I 


■ 


, 


2 


1 




1 






, 


















III 


23 




72 


J** 


■J'.'WrS 


Accidents. 


Catarrh | *3 


21 


15 
1 


22 


"s 

2 


li 

2 


"l 


■ 


1 




3 


1 


2 


1 
1 
2 

II 


is 


5 

1 

13 


"i 

2 


6 
1 
5 
1 


s 
1 
3 


"> 


31 
13 

5 
2 


55 

11 

3 
4 


37 
"l 


61 

1 
1 


25 


44 


23 
1 
1 


51 

1 


15 


34 


1 


in 


3 


3 






146 
35 
57 
14 

"i? 


2., S 
33 
57 
18 
17 
3 




68 
114 
32 
17 
15 


Ml 

13; 

22! 

II 

;; 


:n ;2u 

ISilL'l 

i ji; sm- 
l i;<-xuo 


Aged. 

Asthma 

Bowel Complaints. 

Catarrh. 

Childbirth. 










































14 


































132 


127 




259 


511 


s:i-2s 


Decline. 












































































36 


11., 




























































1 
























171 


1311 




307 










111 


12 
:i 


7 


2 


10 


17 


9 


10 


1 


2 


1 




4 




3 


4 


6 
2 


2 


7 


9 


11 


3 


2 






1 


2 


... 


... 
















73 






11 


*H 


19(1090 


Heart, of. 






6 

"e 

2 
5 
4 
8 




2 
!1 
13 

8 






























































18 


■'II 




38 


74 


;yf'i-JGS Ilooping-COUgh. 




9 

4 
37 
1 

6 

i> 


7 

:i 
42 

:: 
7 

:i 


1 

5 
2 
1 

6 
12 


11 

12 
1 

s 


5 
2 

i'o 


6 
4 

'"; 

3 


10 

"i 
i 

2 


1 
2 


5 

"fi 
5 


2 

' 1 
2 

3 


12 

"3 

8 


7 
1 

3 

5 


9 

"2 
2 
12 


8 
2 

"l 
1 

In 


16 

2 
14 


8 
1 

Til 


11 

19 


6 
16 


11 

"l 

iV 


is 


2 
2 


i 


























99 
25 
40 
41 
33 
106 


fill 
211 
I.. 
26 

ill 




152 
51 
85 
67 
55 

200 


311= 
104 

17 

13 = 
11 


14190 Inflammation. 
49294 Measles, 
25376 Nervous. 
3J-194 Scarlet Fever. 
39-2181 Small-pox. 
10785 Miscellaneous. 












1 ■". 


ll.l 


63 


64 


lun 


94 


-III 


56 


411 


18 


60 




102 


SI. 


103 


98 


1111 


111 


85 


77 


11 1 


11 1 


til 


70 


27 


15 


33 


:,:; 


15 


31 


4 


10 


3 


3 






1093 


null 




2157 
4214 


13 1 
M2 

1274- 


1-000 


Total ascertained. 


Ditto not ascertained.. 


m 


211 


180 


i.-ii; 


231 


2114 


l.'.ll 


141 


72 


61 


75 


lull 


1411 


175 


l.-.ll 


170 


152 


159 


179 


11)7 


177 


in., 


89 


117 


63 


ss 


62 


88 


28 


49 


10 


20 


' 








MU 


ilJ4 








Deaths, Males&Female 


424 


.-1.17 


243 


2211 


331 


298 


218 


197 


112 


78 


135 


135 


248 


2111 


262 


211s 


262 


250 


264 


23 1 


291 


311:1 


135 


187 


90 


133 


95 


141 


43 


S3 


14 


30 


4 


12 


1 


1 


317: 


llllis 


1 


6371 






781 
} 156 i 
| 8156 


463 
92J 
13-758 


629 
1254 
10-127 


415 
83 
15-349 




270 
54 
23-592 






















16 


2 


6371 


Grand Total Deaths. 


Average annual Death 


38J 
33-351 


102§ 

12-4111 


106 
12018 


102S 
12-440 


99j 
12-791 


120 
10-616 


64-; 
19-782 


44} 
28-565 


26-991 


' 2 H 
50-555 


N 
U4-772 


3J 
398-125 


n 

3185-000 


1274-J 
1-000 


Average annual Deaths these five years. 
1 Tin |i'ri'i>ortion wliifl; the almve hear to the 
J total average annual Deaths during these 
I years is as 1 to the foregoing. 


I'ropur. of above to aver 
ann. Deaths is as 1 to 


I'" tin mean population 


|n:,-i:7.-, 


684-298 


503-704 


763-445 


1658-795 


1173-418 


618-808 


597-792 


618-808 


636204 


528050 


983-944 


112(1-7112 


1342-500 


2514-523 


7200-681 


19801-875 


156415-00O 


49-737 


And to the population as 1 to these. 
1 Per-centage of the whole Population inAher- 

f Per-centage of the whole Population in 
{ Edinhurgll. 


Per-centage of the I'o 
pulation in Aberdeen 
Per-centage of the Po 

pulatioum i;.-liiilii.iri> 


| 0-246 
I 0-421 


0146 
0-217 


0198 
0-218 


0130 
0-130 


0060 
0-067 


0-085 
0063 


0-161 
0-214 


0167 
0-226 


0-161 
0-232 


0157 
0216 


0-189 
0-218 


0-101 
0110 


0070 
0-082 


0074 

nuns 


0-039 
0-028 


0013 
0010 


0005 

11-000 


O-OOO 
0000 


2010 
2-550 


Excess of deaths i 


1 










0022 




... . 










0006 


0011 


0-003 


0-005 






Excess of Deaths at these ages in Aherdeen. 








0071 


0020 




0-007 




0053 










012 















,rs 1! 
eath: 



90 

lid U1H 
; 95- 






_J. 

Ac 

Aft" 

As' 

Bd" 

Caj- 

CM - 

Cri- 

Def 

Dr' 

Fer 

He|- 

He' 

Ho" 

Intf 

Me" 

Ner 

Sc^ 

Snr 

mi 

Tor 

Do 



Av< 14 

ti 24 
Prcj * 

a«3-2! 
To 

tiB7-5( 
Pep 

piOO 
Per 

P<- 



Exc 

P( 

Exc 

E 



00 



0-01 




PERTH. 

Exhibiting the number of fatal cases of disease that occurred in the City of PERTH (exclusive of the Suburban parish of Kinnoul) during the years 1837, 1838 1R39 18+0 t 
with calculations showing the total average annual number of deaths ;il each period, and the proportion which these, and the number of deaths fniin tin 1 suveral diseas 
imati population of these years; with the comparative rates of mortality in Perth and Edinburgh. 

Mean Population of these five years 19,435. 



i.l 1841, classified according to 18 periods of life at which they took 
s, bear to the total average annual number of deaths, and alsu'tu the 



















































































-j 


1 Portion. 


iff 


1 Cm 






vlr. 


- j — ■ 


-L. 


™ 


-1. 


>; ■ 


~ 


-; ■ 


-1. 


60. 


„;i, 


JL, 


JL, 


"-" 


ji„LlL,° 5 . 


1 3. 


if i j. lp 


F£3? 


». 


». 


'-"• 


•"""*■ 




1 s| |J| Is 


8=1 J g J 


if i-> 














































































3* 


«S 


Accident - 


1 
44 

2 

"b 

7 

1 
3 

10 

7 
37 

7 

4 


1 

37 

"5 
12 
1 
3 
6 

l!i 
13 
15 
46 
5 

3 


1 

M 

"7 
4 
1 
7 
9 

17 
5 

19 
5 
4 


25 

5 

1 

8 

14 
6 

12 
1 

5 

1 


3 

3 
2 

i'l 

12 
1 
6 

13 

i's 

6 
16 
6 

11 
16 


2 

"3 
2 

'J3 
5 

ii 

13 

is 

6 
14 

3 
15 

8 


2 

1 

4 
8 
2 
7 
8 

2 
3 
2 
10 


6 

"! 

"2 

5 

6 
3 

"2 
2 
3 
9 

"i 


7 

6 
1 

4 

1 

2 
"3 


1 

i 

"9 

"2 

2 
2 

2 

"1 

3 
1 
1 


6 

"i 

1 

is 
2 
3 
1 
1 

'4 
2 


1 

16 
5 

2 
1 


11 

2 

36 
5 

12 
4 
3 

9 

2 
2 


1 

i 

3 

7 

36 

13 


1 

"4 

1 
6 


7 

2 
2 

22 
3 

17 
10 

5 
1 

i 


1 

I 
7 

26 
4 

16 
6 

"7 

"e 


9 

3 
2 

22 
!l 
17 
16 

"9 

s 


2 

9 
5 
5 
1 

22 

III 


3 

iii 
2 
5 

21 
10 

6 
14 

5 

"i 

2 

ii 


12 
2 
2 

30 
13 
15 
16 

1 

5 

2 
1 

9 


17 
18 
4 
6 

"s 

9 
18 
1 

9 

10 


2 
57 
27 
3 
9 

"i 
5 
21 

12 


51 
7 
1 
3 

3 
1 
10 

2 

2 

"i 


77 
in 
1 
8 

3 

:'• 

"2 


44 
3 

2 
1 

2 

1 

5 


55 
4 
1 
2 

"i 
3 

i 
"i 


52 

'i 

"i 
2 

"i 


83 

2 

"i 


ie 
i 


28 


2 


ii 


2 


1 






47 
21 

51 
81 

28 

31 
154 
48 
95 
III 
14 
12 
71 
40 
54 
31 
28 
511 


Is 
31: 
68 

81 
39 
15 

25 

165 
41 
llll 
96 
10 
1:1 
03 
44 
57 
37 
21 


1 1. I'^o'i'SI.'S,""! 


1166 01.59 
11-542 0-314 
0122 0-045 
0-171 '0-167 


11007" 
0-22S 
0-077 
0-0114 
0060 

0-022 

0-008 

0022 
0-099 
0-018 


0-004 

o-i'os 

0001 
0-039 

1- 

0-006 
0-042 


Accidents, 

Asthma. 

Bowel Complaints. 

Catarrh. 

Childbirth. 

Decline. 
DropBy. 
Fever. 

Head, of. 

M.-asles. 
Nervous. 
Scarlel Fever. 
Small-pox. 
Miscellaneous. 





52 
111 
16 

6; 

15 
56 
31! 

81 

191 

211; 
21 
91 

131 
11! 


105-3 4-8611 lsi-29; 
23! 21-503 1 8161,-11 
33' 15365 581-586 


H.iMhrtli 

Decline 


3 1,-1 U66 61,-5 ' 0111,1 OII19 

111' 15 821 1,-31-3;.-, 05,- 1.-035 


lien.], of , . 

Heart, oJ 

Hooi ng-i nub 
(nflam Bon 


11 1231 2 12 U213 

44 106-916 1016-875 0-021 
18;| 2819; 1067-30; 0-093 
274 18-867 714-154 0-139 
IS | 28-511 ln,-:i-|66 0092 


1.319 
U036 
II-HS5 
0-1116 
i'-ii,-5 
























D i. qoi ascertained .... 


Mil 
11 


176 
12 


106 


87 

1 


124 


111 


51 


11 
1 


28 


25 


37 


25 


88 


si 


2 


83 

6 


95 
8 


91 
2 


103 

2 


HIS 
3 


130 
3 


146 


87 
1 


111 
1 


66 


70 

1 


60 


87 


IS 


28 


» 


12 


2 


1 






213 

32 


289 
32 


25 64 


12: 


1-025 38-818 
40033 1517-578 


0065 


2-309 
0-241 


0-267 


0-176 


Total ascertained. 
Do.not ascertained. 


l)rn!li$,M:,!, 


IS] 168 

339 

» 
L 7-56! 

} 0-421 


106 


ss 


126 


112 


52 


42 


28 


25 


37 1 27 

64 
124 
40-093 
1517-578 
0*065 
0-063 


90 


84 


78 


so 


103 


:i3 


105 


111 


133 148 

2S1 
56J 

9131 
345-640 

0-289 

0-2 IS 


ss 


1 15 


66 


71 


60 


87 


18 


28 


2 


12 


2 


1 






215 


321 


■566513; 


1-000J 37-850 


2-641 


3 550 


0091 




Deaths, M. and F. 




194 
36] 
13-226 
500-644 
0-199 
0-217 


238 

*H 

10-781 
408088 

0-245 
0-218 


94 

16J 

27-297 

1033-244 

1111:11; 
0-130 


53 

■ ll 3 

48-415 

1832-547 

0054 

0-067 


174 
341 
14-747 
558-189 
0-17:1 
0-214 


167 

33 j 

15-365 

0171 

0-226 


196 

89 j 

13-091 

495-535 

0-201 
02:12 


210 

4-4 

11-879 

449-652 

0222 
0-216 


203 

40} 
12-640 

478-448 
0-209 
0110 


137 
■if 
18-729 
708-941 
0141 
0082 


147 
29| 
17-455 
660-714 
0151 
0-068 


46 
H 
55-782 
2111-413 
0047 
0.028 


14 

2f 

183-285 

1937-500 
0-014 
0O1O 


3 

855-333 

52375-000 

0003 

0000 




2506 
513; 

1000 
37-850 

2-641 
, 2-550 


Grand Total Deaths. 

Average aiuin.il Ll-jatli- tlic-e five years. 

I The proportiou which the above hear to the total average annual Deaths 
t during these years is as 1 to the foregoing. 

And to the Population as 1 to these. 

Pcr-ccntagc of the whole Population in Perth. 

Per-centage of the whole Population in Edinburgh. 


miual Dv.ittib 


.ilnivctnavfr 

To llir in. 


I'cr-reittage of the l'o 

IVr-cfittage of the Pu 
pulation in Edinburgl 

i Deaths in 


I 0072 


0018 


(1027 


0031 


0013 


0-002 


0-035 


005.-) 


0031 


0006 


0071 


0099 


0059 


0083 


019 


0-004 


0003 




0-091 


Excess of Deaths at these ages in Perth. 
Excess of Deaths at these ages in Edinburgh, 


Death i 



































































































Exlug 



Deaths 



Averagi 

these 
Propor. 

ann. ] 
To th 

tion 
Per-cer 

pulati 
Per-cer 

pulat: 



Excess 
Dund 

Excess 
EdinU 



£>'/- 






Exhibiting the number of fatal 
number of deaths at each pe 
of mortality in Dundee and Edinburgh, 



of disease that occurred in the Town of DUNDEE during the years 1839, 1840 and 1841, classified a 

d the proportion which these, and the number of deaths from the several diseases, bear to the total average annual number ut deaths, and also to the 



to 18 periods of life at which they took place; with calculations showing the total average annual 
population of these years ; with the comparative rates 











































Mean Population of these three years 


59,691. 




































■— 


«- 


T" 


~ 




T" 




.". 


-L. 


™T d " 


-L. 


JL. 


B0. 


- 


"7" 


JL 




To,.,. 


s i 


Proper,,™. | 1% 


"tlP 


— --■ 


~ 


~ 


9S 


100 


\ 


ii 


ii 


S* 


- \i 


S°l 


II 


"I 








































5 
44 

26 
5 
6 

' i 
' "s 

8 
12 
2 

6 

1 

14 


































Asthma 


150 


211 
3 
8 

31 

42 

28 

■a 

6 

411 
20 


103 
2 

111 
l 
1,'| 

13 
2 
33 
27 
28 
27 
9 
52 
17 


2 
49 

22 
2 
6 
9 

34 
19 

3 
20 
28 


I 

65 
1 

9 

"s 
11 

33 

15 

62 

12 
26 
3 


6 
17 

13 

2.1 
10 
17 
23 

23 
11 
51 
1 
47 
33 


3 

18 

1 

14 

16 
10 
19 
21 

15 
64 
1 
49 
35 


5 

1 

1 

1 

15 

21 
9 

6 

8 
14 

2 
28 
10 

6 


"l 
5 

"3 

14 
9 
11 

15 
2 
6 

14 

17 
10 
3 


3 

"2 

14 
5 
8 
5 
2 

3 
2 
1 
5 
2 
8 


1 
2 

16 

7 
11 
2 
2 

1 
8 
1 
2 


9 

i 

17 
2 
8 
2 

7 

i 


'i 
2 

"2 

13 
2 
10 
2 
1 

3 

1 
1 
1 
1 


11 

1 
4 
1 

54 

6 
21 

4 

lit 

2 

10 


3 

"5 
3 
I 

12 

55 
26 

i'l 

3 

8 


8 

"6 
2 

36 
5 

33 
8 
3 

6 

1 
1 

18 


5 
7 
2 
16 

44 
13 
30 
10 

9 
1 

11 


14 

19 
2 
1 

44 
8 
25 
15 
5 

i3 
"1 

6 


5 

13 

4 
2 

4 

37 
15 
26 
10 
2 

8 

1 
2 

16 


7 

6 

7 

14 
14 
15 
12 
2 

ii 
ii 


21 
5 
6 

32 
23 
14 
10 
2 

"7 

"2 
18 


2 
73 
18 
8 
5 

16 
12 
13 
2 

"7 

12 


5 

42 
6 
6 

"3 
6 
6 

3 

i 

6 


69 
8 

2 

"7 
3 

10 
1 

"2 

4 


1 
26 

1 
3 

2 

5 

3 


1 
38 

2 

2 

1 

2 


1 

29 

1 

"i 
"i 


1 

38 

1 
2 


5 


1.1 

1 
1 




1 

10 




1 
2 


1 




77 
151 

78 
247 

27 

271 

71 
178 
1 11 

21 
10.- 

14i 
31 

11 
11! 
Ill 


25 
246 
72 

221 

43 
267 
110 
186 
128 

18 
117 
112 
16! 

38 
101 
132 
105 


102 
397 
150 
471 
49 
31 

66 
537 
184 
364 

2117 

222 
257 
318 
69 
216 
2.11 
216 


34 

152 
50 
157 

105 

"J 

179 
61S 
121J 

13} 

74 
85i 
106 
23 
72 
83} 
72 


12 I2l 
10-891 
28833 
11-182 


17.1.1-017 
1.1 1-, 16.1 
119.-I-S20 


o'oio 

0-221 


o'o'.io 

0-311 

004.1 


0-038 
0-096 
0019 

1 1 

o : 6io 

: 038 

0-102 

11-623 

0-084 


o'!,m!| 

0093 

0001 
: 137 

0«32 

11-117" 
0014 

0053 
0-036 


Accidents. 

Asthma. 

Bowel Complaints. 

Catarrh. 

Childbirth. 

Decline. 
Dropsy. 

Head, of. 
Heart, of. 

Hooping-cough. 

Inflammation. 

Measles. 

Nervous. 

Scarlet Fever. 

Small-pox. 

Miscellaneous. 


i iuMl.inl. 


127-205 .12668.12 ""1- "019 
65-530 2713 227 ""86 "035 






23-50.1 
11-881 
16-198 
1,18125 
19-181 
1,1828 
13-6011 
62-681 
2,18123 
17-231 
2,1-023 






491-9.18 
67"-685 

1176-82.1 
806-635 
IT! 1,1-782 
56.-1- 122 

2.195-2IIO 
S2II01I 
713- 138 
829-011 


,12115 
0-149 
0-022 
0-123 
0-143 
"-177 
0-038 
0120 
0140 
0-120 


0235 
0-219 

0,156 
0085 
0-1 HIT 
0-07.1 
0-015 
011.12 
0056 
0156 






















Do. not ascertained .... 


50 


371 

42 


2.16 


263 


285 


313 


131 


120 
1 


60 


57 


51 


13 


137 
1 


139 
2 


127 
3 


1.11 
3 


153 
1 


145 
1 


116 
1 


140 
1 


138 
3 


ins 


84 


III 


45 


47 


33 


42 


5 


17 


4 


11 




3 


1 


1 


208.- 

65 


2145 
50 


4210 
115 


14035 
384 


1027 
37-608 


12.13.1 
1557146 


2 3.10 
0-064 


2-309 
0-241 


"Oil 


0-177 


Total ascertained. 
Do.not ascertained. 


Deaths, Males & ieniak- 


1:15 


113 


256 


263 


28.1 


313 


1 


121 


60 


57 


51 


43 


138 


141 


130 


157 


1.11 


146 


117 


141 


141 


168 


84 


111 


45 


47 


33 


42 


5 


17 


i 


11 




3 


1 


1 


213, 


2111.1 


132.1 


1441} 


1-1100 


41-404 


2-415 


2-550 




0135 


Deaths, M.and F, 




908 
} 302} 
J- 4763 
1 197-216 
I 0-507 
| 0-421 


519 
173 
8-333 
345-034 
0-289 
0-217 


598 
199} 
7-232 
299-453 
0-333 
0-218 


252 
84 
17-162 
710-607 
0-140 
0-130 


117 
39 
36-965 
1530-538 
0-065 
0067 


94 
314 
46010 
1905031 
0052 
0-063 


279 
93 
15-483 
641-838 
0155 
0-214 


287 
95} 
15-069 
623-947 
0-160 
0-226 


300 
100 
14-416 
596-910 
0167 
0-232 


258 
86 
16-763 
694-081 
0-144 
0-216 


309 
103 
13-996 
579-524 
0-172 
0-218 


195 
65 
22179 
918-323 
0108 
0110 


92 
30} 
47-010 
1946-445 
0-051 
0-082 


75 

56-333 

2387-640 

0041 

0068 


22 
73 

192045 

8139-681 
0-012 
0-028 


15 

5 

288-333 

1938-201 

0-008 

1-010 


3 

1 

1441-666 

JSI691-OOI 
0001 
0000 


0} 

2162-500 

89530-3" 

0-001 

0-001 


4325 
1441$ 
1-000 
41-404 
2-415 
2-550 


Grand Total Deaths. 

Average aumi.il D.-rotis ,l,ey- three years, 
f The proportion which the above boar to the total average annual Deaths (luring 
\ these years is as 1 to the foregoing. 

And to the mean Population as 1 to these. 

Per-centage of the whole Population in Dundee. 

Per-centage of the whole Population in Edinburgh. 


Average animal Deaths 


Propor. of aliovc to aver, 
ann. Deaths is as 1 to 
To the mean l'opula- 


Per-centage of the Po- 
pulation in Dundee.., 

I'er-ei ntage of the Po- 
pulation in Edinburgh 


Excess of Deaths in 


} 0-086 


0072 


0115 


0010 


0002 


0011 


0059 


0066 


0065 


0072 


0-046 


0-002 


0031 


0-027 


0-016 


0-002 


0-001 




0135 


Excess of Deaths at these ages in Dundee. 
Excess of Deaths at these ages in Edinburgh. 


Excess of Deaths in 


1 






























































































- 



PROVISIONAL REPORTS AND NOTICES. 205 



PROVISIONAL REPORTS, AND NOTICES OF PROGRESS IN 
SPECIAL RESEARCHES ENTRUSTED TO COMMITTEES 
AND INDIVIDUALS. 



Report of the Committee for the Reduction of Lacaille's Stars. 

Collingwood, June 3, 1842: 
A Committee having been appointed, consisting of myself, Mr. Henderson, 
and Mr. Airy, for the purpose of effecting the reduction of Lacaille's stars, I 
have the pleasure to report, that under the superintendence of Mr. Hender- 
son, the whole of that work is now completed, and the resulting catalogue, 
being arranged in order of right ascension, is fairly written out and ready for 
the press. The total number of stars reduced and catalogued is about 10,000, 
— the sum of 105/. remaining of the original grant unappropriated; which the 
Committee recommend to be applied (with such additional grant as may be 
needed) to the printing and publication of the catalogue, without which, it is 
evident, that little or no benefit can result to Astronomical Science from the 
work so accomplished. With the catalogue, and forming an introduction to 
it, an account of the process pursued in the reductions, the constants used, 
and all other matter needful for a complete understanding of the work, ought 
also to be printed, and should it be the pleasure of the Association to order 
the publication, will be furnished by Mr. Henderson. The estimated cost of 
the publication so recommended, may be roughly stated at about 250/. for 
printing, paper, &c. of 500 copies of the catalogue and introduction. 

J. F. W. Herschel. 



Report of the Committee for the Reduction of the Stars in the Histoire 

Celeste. 

June 16, 1842. 
I have the satisfaction of reporting that the whole of the stars in the ' His- 
toire Celeste ' have been reduced, agreeably to the method proposed : those 
only being omitted for which there are no tables of reduction; and that there 
is now remaining, of the grant for this purpose, the sum of £9, which will 
not be required in the further prosecution of this portion of the work. But 
the main object of this undertaking will be defeated, if the catalogue be not 
printed for general use and information. The number of stars reduced is up- 
wards of 47,000 ; and I have caused' an estimate to be made of the expense 
of printing 500 copies in an octavo form. And it appears that the cost of 
paper and printing will be about £415, but that 1000 copies will cost £100 
more. There is, however, another expense which must be taken into the ac- 
count, which is the copying of the catalogue, in a proper order for the press, 
and the correction of the press during the printing, which I apprehend will 
be £60 or £70 more. Taking the whole of those estimates together, it would 
appear that 500 copies would cost about £500, and that 1000 copies would 
cost about £600. Should the British Association decide on the printing of 
the catalogue, I would draw up a statement of the method pursued in making 
the reductions, together with such other remarks as might be requisite. This 
probably would not add another sheet to the work. 

Francis Baily. 



206 report — 1842. 

Report of the Committee on the British Association Catalogue of Stars. 

I have the honour to report on the subject of this catalogue, that the cal- 
culations of the places of the stars, with the annual precessions, secular va- 
riations, and proper motions, together with the logarithms of the requisite 
constants, are completed for nearly 8300 stars, which is about the number 
originally contemplated ; — that the same are fairly copied out for the 
press ; and that the construction of the table of synonyms is now in pro- 
gress, two-thirds of which ' are already completed ; that the whole of the 
sum granted at the last meeting of the Association has been expended, and 
that a further sum of £25 will be required for the completion of some of the 
above stars in peculiar positions, and for the final completion of the syno- 
nyms ; that the above sum of £25 is all that will be wanting in future, as Mr. 
Farley (the principal computer and superintendent) has undertaken to com- 
plete the work, ready for the press, without any further remuneration, and 
which will be ready for delivery in a few weeks. Under these circumstances, I 
have caused an estimate to be made of the expense of printing the same : and 
I find, that the CQst of paper and printing 500 copies in quarto, will be about 
£550, but that 1000 copies will cost £150 more. It will be requisite, how- 
ever, to employ some one to correct the press, and to superintend the arrange- 
ment of the work, which will add to the expense here mentioned. A pretty 
large preface will be requisite, explanatory of the mode adopted in bringing 
up the several stars to the given epoch, and of various circumstances connect- 
ed with the investigation, as well as descriptive of the method of using the 
catalogue in its present form. But on these points I am willing to render 
any assistance in my power. Francis Baily. 

On the erection of one of Mr. Osier's Anemometers at Inverness, one 
of the Stations at which Hourly Observations with the Barometer 
and Thermometer have been made at the ' request of the British 
Association. By Sir David Brewster. 

Owing to the difficulty of obtaining a suitable place for the erection of the 
anemometer, the observations did not commence till the 15th of April. The 
indications of the rain-gauge commenced on the 6th of May, so that a com- 
plete series of observations for one year will be laid before the meeting of the 
Association for 1813. The observations are registered and superintended by 
Mr. Thomas Mackenzie and the Rev. Mr. Gray, Rector of the Royal Academy 
of Inverness. 



On the Hourly Series of Meteorological Observations made at Inverness 
during the Meteorological year from the 1st of November 1840 3 to 
the 1st of November 1841. By Sir David Brewster. 

The mean temperature of Inverness for the summer months was 52°'25S ; 
the mean temperature of the winter months 40°*287 ; and the mean tempe- 
rature for the whole year 46 0- 272. This mean temperature occurred at 
8 h 33 m a.m. and 7 b 42'", the critical interval being ll h 9 m , differing only a 
few minutes from the result obtained by similar hourly observations made at 
Leith. The observations made with the barometer, when reduced to the 
level of the sea, and to the temperature of 60°, indicate very distinctly the 
daily variation, with its two maxima and minima. The mean annual average 
of all the observations was 29*680 inches. The monthly mean indicated a 
maximum iu December and in June, and a minimum in March and in October. 



PROVISIONAL REPORTS AND NOTICES. 207 

Letter from Dr. Lamont of Munich to Col. Sabine on the System of 
Meteorological and Magnetical Observations on the Continent. 

Munich, June 12, 1842. 
My dear Sir, — My time has been so entirely taken up with magnetic expe- 
riments and the usual business of the observatory, that I am sorry to say I have 
been unable to draw up the report I intended to lay before the Council of the 
British Association on the system of meteorological and magnetical observations 
lately commenced on the Continent. I therefore request you, merely for the 
present, to mention, that the system in general is the same as that of the "So- 
cietas Palatina" instituted at Manheim in 1780. At the most part of our 
stations only the meteorological instruments are observed ; at the principal 
places magnetic observations are also made three or four times a day. The 
results are given in the ' Annalen fur Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus,' 
published by Prof. Grunert of Greifswald, Prof. Roller of Kremsmunster, 
Prof. Kreil of Prague, Prof. Plieninger of Stuttgard, Prof. Stieffel of Carl- 
sruhe and myself. Prof. Grunert furnishes meteorological and magnetic 
observations made by himself at Greifswald, and meteorological observations 
made at five other stations in the North of Prussia. Prof. Kreil and Prof. 
Koller send observations from Prague (magnetic term days), Kremsmunster 
(magnetic and meteorological observations), Milan (magnetic observations), 
Pavia, Venice, Lemberg, Ofen (meteorological observations). Prof. Plieninger 
has superintended for many years the meteorological observations made in 
Wurtemberg : the number of stations is eleven. The whole of these observa- 
tions will now be published in the ' Annalen.' Prof. Stieffel communicates 
the observations made by himself at Carlsruhe. Besides, he is now arrang- 
ing meteorological observations at many other places in Baden ; twenty-five 
of these places have been furnished with instruments from the observatory of 
Munich. The observations in Bavaria are superintended by myself: the 
system has already been mentioned at the meeting of the Association at Glas- 
gow. A considerable addition has been made of late, the members of the 
" Pfalzische Gesellschaft " in the Rhine province having joined us wi{h 
twenty-three stations. Contributions for the ' Annalen ' (regular series of 
meteorological or magnetic observations) have been promised by Prof. Kaiser 
of Leyden, Prof, van Rees of Utrecht, Prof. Wenckebach of Breda, Prof. 
Moebius of Leipzig, Prof. Reich of Freyburg (Saxony), Prof. Weisse of 
Cracau, M. Becker of Cronberg (near Frankfurt), M. Voigt of Bensberg 
(military school near Cologne), M. Littrow of Vienna, Prof. Kottinger of 
Salzburg, Prof. Gintl of Gratz, M. Valz of Marseilles, M. Colla, Director of 
the meteorological observatory of Parma. Communications may be expect- 
ed (though I do not know at present to what extent) from Prof. Fournet at 
Lyons, M. Amici at Florence, M. Capocci at Naples, M. Keserii, Director of 
the Observatory of Carlsburg (near the Turkish frontier). In Greece, a mag- 
netic station and several meteorological stations are shortly to be established. 
A very extensive correspondence is carried on at present, and if the future 
success is equal to the past, there is reason to expect that in a short time the 
' Annalen ' will present a regular and systematic meteorological account of 
the vast tract between the Pyrenees and the Russian frontier. In communica- 
ting this to the British Association, I must request you to mention that the 
undertaking was commenced only seven months ago ; at the same time I beg to 
express my regret that other avocations have prevented me from laying a full 
report of our proceedings before the Association ; I hope, however, I shall be 
able to do so at the next meeting. 

Lamont. 



208 report— 1842. 

Report of the Committee for the Reduction of Meteorological Obser- 
vations. 

It was the earnest wish of your Committee to have made their final report 
on this subject at the present meeting ; owing, however, to the severe illness 
of Mr. Birt, to whom the execution of the reduction and projection of the 
observations has been intrusted, and his subsequent change of residence, 
together with the unusually early period of the meeting this year, it must be 
deferred yet another year. Meanwhile the annexed letter from that gentle- 
man will show the present state of the inquiry and the progress made : — 

"Western Literary and Scientific Institution, 
47 Leicester Square, June 6, 1842. 

" Dear Sir, — I regret exceedingly that I am unable to send you a greater 
number of the projected curves than those now inclosed, which nearly com- 
plete the European series, including the British isles, during the years 1836, 
1837 and 1838. The following are the stations omitted: — Greenwich, two 
sets in 1836; Geneva, June 1837; Turin, March, June, September and 
December 1837; Kremsmiinster, March 1838; Gibraltar, March and June 
1837; and Cadiz, for 1837 and March 1838. The Turin curves were 
omitted in consequence of the reduction of sidereal to mean time not having 
been accomplished, and the remainder, with the exception of Greenwich, not 
presenting those marked features of agreement which are so conspicuous 
in most of the others. 

" I have just discovered that the European curves for December 1836 have 
not been projected, and as the time of the meeting is now so rapidly approach- 
ing, I have thought it best to forward those completed without waiting for 
this sheet, which I will immediately proceed with. 

" I have not included the tables which I have been unable to complete, 
principally in consequence of my illness during the autumn, which, with the 
loss of strength resulting therefrom, prevented my close attention to them for 
nearly four months. Had this not have occurred, I have no doubt the whole 
of the projections and tables would have been completed by this time. 

" I inclose in this parcel the American curves formerly sent, — namely, De- 
cember 1835, and March 1838, — as I considered it probable that you might 
wish to see the contemporaneous observations on each side of the Atlantic. I 
have also included South Africa and Asia for June 1836. 

" I have had no time on this occasion to look over the sheets previous to 
sending them to you ; in the mere glance I have given them the curves of 
December 1837 strike me as peculiarly interesting, especially the fall west- 
ward and the rise eastward of Brussels. 

" Apologizing for the inconvenienee which I feel you will experience in 
not having had the whole completed, 

" I remain, dear Sir, 

" Yours very respectfully, 
" Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart:' « W. R. Birt." 

Your Committee pray the continuance of the grant, on which no further 
charges have been made this year. J. F. W. Herschel. 



In reference to the Report which had been requested from Mr. A. D. Baclie 
of Philadelphia, relative to the meteorology of the United States of America, 
Col. Sabine made the following statement to the Section. " Our valued 
corresponding member Mr. Bache has requested me to explain to the Sec- 
tion the causes which have prevented him from completing in time for the 



PROVISIONAL REPORTS AND NOTICES. 209 

present meeting the report which has been just called for. Mr. Bache was re- 
quested to prepare this report at the Meeting at Newcastle in 1838, which he 
personally attended; it was also at that Meeting that the system originated of 
combined magnetical and meteorological observations which is now in full and 
successful action, and in which various governments and scientific individuals 
of all nations participate. In our own and most other countries the expenses of 
the establishments at which these observations are made have been defrayed 
from national funds ; but in the United States this has not been done ; and 
the task of procuring the necessary funds by private subscription for the 
magnetic observatory at Philadelphia has been undertaken by Mr. Bache, in 
addition to that of establishing it and superintending its progress. His exer- 
tions in carrying into effect the wishes of the Association on this subject have 
engrossed the time which he could otherwise have devoted to the preparation 
of the report on the meteorology of the United States. We may, however, 
expect that the report will be ready for a future meeting, and I need not say 
to those who are acquainted with Mr. Bache's qualifications, that whenever 
presented it cannot fail to form a very valuable contribution to our Transac- 
tions." In reference to the progress and present state of the magnetic ob- 
servatory at Philadelphia, Colonel Sabine read the following communication 
from Mr. Bache. 

" Philadelphia, May 10, 1842. 

"My dear Colonel, — As I shall not have the advantage of joining the 
magneticians in June, will you report to Section A. what we have been doing 
here in concert with them ? The bi-hourly observations of declination and 
horizontal and vertical force have been carried on regularly since their com- 
mencement in June 1840, as well as the term-day observations. The me- 
teorological instruments, including the barometer, the dry and wet bulb ther- 
mometer, Daniell's hygrometer, the blackened bulb and radiation thermome- 
ters, have also been observed at the intervals assigned in the general instruc- 
tions. Osier's self-registering anemometer and rain-gauge have been kept 
at work. Saussure's hair hygrometer has been observed for comparison. 
The meteorological term-days have been kept as well as the magnetic, making 
two during the month. These observations have been made with instruments 
and in an observatory belonging to the Girard College of Philadelphia, and 
have been kept up by voluntary contributions, chiefly from members of the 
American Philosophical Society, and by funds furnished by the Society. 

" We have made some changes in the instruments which we consider im- 
provements. Since January 1841 the vertical-force instrument has been 
provided with a mirror, and is observed at a distance, like the declination and 
horizontal-force instruments of Gauss. The only disadvantage which has 
occurred in this is an increase in the correction for temperature, but the fa- 
cility and certainty of the observations compensate for this. The arrange- 
ment of the force part of the Anemometer ha3 been greatly improved by 
connecting the plate which receives the action of the wind with slightly- 
curved brass bars, or springs, placed at the side of the registering table ; 
the action of the instrument is thus rendered much more regular. As we 
have much snow in the course of a season, it was a problem of some inter- 
est to measure its fall by the registering apparatus : this has been effected 
by raising the temperature of the funnel of the gauge slightly above the 
freezing point, by vapour from a boiler within the observatory. 

" During the first year the observatory was not heated artificially, but the 
large and uncertain amount of the corrections for temperature induced me to 
adopt a different course during the past winter, and without any of the bad 
results which I had apprehended from currents of air. The instruments, 

1842. p 



210 REPORT— -1842. 

however, are the large ones of the German makers. In regard to the cor- 
rection for temperature of the horizontal-force instrument, I arrived at no 
satisfactory result by the ordinary method of obtaining it. This winter an 
approximation to the correction has been obtained by allowing the observa- 
tory to cool down on Sunday. If we had had a second set of instruments 
for comparison these results would have been unexceptionable ; as it is, the 
method of vibrating a declinometer bar and of observing a portable vertical- 
force instrument for comparison, led to no satisfactory result. Had the winter 
been of its usual severity so as to give us a result every week, this comparison 
would have been of less consequence. 

"Having ascertained by the observations in 1840 and 1841 nearly the 
hours of maximum and minimum of the magnetic phenomena, I have during 
the present year caused observations to be made within those limits as fre- 
quently as on term-days. As these observations occupy, with moderate 
intervals, the whole twenty-four hours, I hope to be able to render a better 
account of disturbances than heretofore. This makes me more than ever 
anxious to keep up the observatory during the present year. The regular 
bi-hourly observations form a part of this series. 

" You have doubtless a report from the observatory at Harvard, and know 
how zealously they are at work. Mr. Gilliss, of the navy, keeps up his ob- 
servations of the declination and vertical force at the observatory at Wash- 
ington city. 

" In reference to our knowledge of the magnetic elements in different parts 
of the United States, the work goes bravely on. Prof. Loomis has contri- 
buted within the year a large quota in his observations of dip, chiefly in 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. Mr. Nicolet has observed in the same 
region, and has added a few observations of horizontal intensity to those of 
the dip. You will see an account of these results in the Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society, and at a later day in their Transactions. 
Dr. Locke has also made his contribution, which you will find in Silliman's 
Journal. I completed last summer a systematic survey of Pennsylvania com- 
menced the year before, and hope to be able to calculate the observations du- 
ring the coming vacation. The observations were for declination, dip, and hori- 
zontal intensity at the chief stations, and for dip and total intensity by Lloyd's 
method, at the subsidiary points. By observations made at the same station 
with different instruments, it appears that we now have several dipping circles 
which may be relied on to furnish accordant results, and they are in hands 
which will not let any opportunity pass of using them. The visit of Lieut. 
Lefroy will doubtless stimulate us to further exertion by showing an example 
of activity near. 

" The Association have now a great work before them in drawing out of 
the results at the magnetic and meteorological observatories the interesting 
laws which they must furnish. Wishing you and your co-labourers all 
success, "I remain, very truly yours, 

" Lieut.- Colonel Sabine" " A. D. Bache." 



Report of the Committee for the Translation and Publication of Foreign 
Scientific Memoirs. 

Since the list meeting of the British Association the Committee have obtain- 
ed and published in the ninth Number of Taylor's " Foreign Scientific Me- 
moirs," translations of the two following works, viz. Gauss, ' General Propo- 
sitions relating to Attractive and Repulsive Forces, acting in the inverse ratio 



PROVISIONAL REPORTS AND NOTICES. 211 

of the square of the distance ; ' and Dove, ' On the Law of Storms.' — These 
translations were presented to the Committee by Lieut.- Col. Sabine, and as 
no illustrations were requisite, it has not been necessary to expend any por- 
tion of the grant placed at the disposal of the Committee. 

Edward Sabine. 



On the Mode of conducting Experiments on the Resistance of Air. 
By Eaton Hodgkinson, F.R.S. 
Mr. Hodgkinson said, that, having been honoured by the Association with 
a request to pursue some experiments on the resistance of the air, he was de- 
sirous of exhibiting an instrument prepared for making the first series of those 
experiments. He proposed, in the first instance, to seek for the force of the 
wind moving at different velocities upon plane surfaces of given dimensions, 
these surfaces being either perpendicular, or inclined at any angle, to its cur- 
rent : to determine this, he intended to place the apparatus upon the front of 
the first carriage of a railway train ; the road along which the train passed 
having for a short distance poles stuck up, 100 or 200 yards asunder. He 
would try the experiment only on days when there was no perceptive wind : 
and then, if the time in seconds taken in passing between two poles be care- 
fully observed, and the pressure indicated upon the discs (which were of 
two and of four feet area, both round and square), the resistance per square 
foot, with a given velocity, would be obtained. He hoped to determine these 
facts, with various velocities and at different angles of inclination in the discs ; 
trying the same experiments with both discs at the same time, to ascertain 
whether the resistance to a square surface and a round one, of equal area, was 
the same, and that the results might correct each other. The directors of the 
Manchester and Birmingham Railway had kindly consented, at Mr. Buck's 
request, to allow him to make these experiments ; and he was indebted to Mr. 
Fairbairn for the apparatus. This was placed on the table. It consists of two 
discs of wood (which may be of any form), made inclinable at any angle by 
means of screws, and having an attached quadrant to measure the angle. To 
ascertain the force of the wind, one of Salter's balance springs is placed be- 
hind each disc, attached to the cross piece which connects the two rods of the 
discs ; and this, it was expected, would indicate the force of the wind at any 
moment. If other apparatus were found necessary it would be applied. 

Experimental Inquiries on the Strength of Stones and other Materials. 
By Eaton Hodgkinson, F.R.S. 

After noticing the present state of knowledge on this subject, and the 
experiments of Barlow, Rennie, and experimentalists on the continent, Mr. 
Hodgkinson said, he had long felt anxious to ascertain how the three forces 
— the crushing, the tensile, and the transverse strength — and the position 
of the neutral line (that separating the extended and compressed fibres 
in a bent body) — were connected in bodies generally : and his experiments 
had for several years been directed to discovering facts upon each of these 
matters, in order to determine the question. His experiments some years 
ago, made for the British Association, with respect to the values of hot and 
cold blast iron, had shown that the ratio of the forces of ultimate tension 
and compression was nearly constant in all the species of cast iron ; and a 
few experiments made at that time on sandstone and marble, had led him to 
suspect that nearly the same would be the case in these and other hard bo- 
dies. Through the liberality of his friend Mr. Fairbairn (who had, as usual, 

p2 



212 



REPORT 1842. 



given him every assistance his establishment afforded,), he (Mr. Hodgkinson) 
had made a great many experiments upon wood, sandstones, marbles, glass, slate, 
ivory, bone, &c, to ascertain the tensile, crushing, and transverse strength of 
each ; also, as far as possible, the situation of the neutral line. He had sought 
for these in thirteen kinds of timber, including oaks, pines, teak, &c. ; all the 
different sorts of experiments were made, as far as possible, out of the same 
specimen in each case. The wood was of good quality, and perfectly dry, having 
been chosen for this purpose, and laid in a warm dry place for four years or 
more. After describing the mode and character of his experiments on the va- 
rious substances named above (specimens of which he produced), Mr. Hodg- 
kinson gave the following summary of their comparative results on marbles 
and stones of various degrees of hardness : — 



Description of Stone. 



Crushing 

force per 

square inch, 

called 1000. 



Tensile force 

per square 

inch. 



Transverse 
strength of har 
1 inch square, 
and 1 foot long. 



Black marble 

Italian marble 

Rochdale flagstone 

High Moor stone 

Stone called Yorkshire flag 

Stone from Little Hulton, near"! 
Bolton J 

Mean rates. . . . 



ioqp 

1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 

1000 



14-3 

84 

104 

100 

70 



10-1 

10-6 

9-9 

9-5 



1000 



100 



9'8 



or calling the mean crushing strength per square inch, in the different articles 
experimented upon, 1000, we have, — 



Crushing strength 1000. 



Tensile 
strength. 



Transverse 
strength. 



Ratio of mean 
tensile to 
crushing 
strength. 



In timber 1000 

Cast iron 1000 

Glass (plate and crown) . . 1000 
Stone and marble 1000 



1900 
158 
123 
100 



85-1 
19'8 
10- 
9-8 



lto 0*55 
1 » 6-6 

1 » 7-8 
1 „ 10-5, or, 



taking the hardest only, 8 - 9. 



The ratio of the crushing force to the transverse force i3 nearly the same in 
glass, stone, and marble, including the hardest and the softest kinds. Hence, 
if we know the transverse strength in any of these bodies, we may predict the 
other ; and, as glass and the hardest stones resist crushing with from seven to 
nine times the energy that they do being torn asunder, we may get an ap- 
proximate value of the tensile force from the crushing force, or vice versa. 
These results render it probable that the hardest bodies, whether cast-iron, 
glass, stone, or marble, admit of certain atomic displacements, either in tear- 
ing asunder or crushing ; these displacements being in a given ratio to each 
other, or nearly so. In future calculations as to the strength of bodies, the 
crushing strength ought to be made the fundamental datum, for the reasons 
shown in this notice. The ratio of the transverse strength to the crushing 
strength is greater in cast-iron than in glass, marble, and sandstones, arising 



PROVISIONAL REPORTS AND NOTICES. 213 

from the ductility of that metal. The necessity of enlarged inquiries in these 
matters will be seen, when it is reflected that calculations of the tensile strength 
of cast-iron, or marble, or stones in general, made from the transverse strength 
by the modes used by Tredgold, Navier, and others, give the tensile strength 
twice or three times as great as it ought to be. The paper, of which a short 
notice is here given, will, when completed according to the author's wish, be 
offered to the Royal Society. 



Report of the Committee for Deep Dredging. 

Mr. Patterson stated that the Dredging Committee were continuing to 
collect the materials for their Report on the Marine Zoology of Britain, and 
announced the results of dredging at depths varying from fifty to one hun- 
dred and forty-five fathoms, off the Mull of Galloway, by Captain Beechey, 
R.N., drawn up by William Thompson, Esq.* ; also results of dredging by 
Mr. Hyndman* off the Mull of Cantire, and off Ballyally Head, co. An- 
trim, by Mr. Patterson. 

To the Committee of the British Association for advancing our know- 
ledge of British Belemnites. 

In consequence of receiving from the British Association, through the Com- 
mittee appointed at Plymouth in 1841, "for the purpose of advancing our 
knowledge of Belemnites," the sum of 50/., I have renewed the preparations 
for publishing the Figures and Descriptions of British Belemnites, which 
were presented (by request) to the Meeting of the Association at Dublin. 
Notwithstanding the lapse of time since that meeting, but few additional spe- 
cies have come to my knowledge, though doubtless such may be known to 
other geologists. I propose, by circulating proof plates already engraved, 
and of others in progress, to collect information regarding the localities of 
the known, and the nature of any new species, before printing the descrip- 
tions already prepared ; but I hope to lay before the Committee, previous to 
or at the meeting in 1842, specimen pages and plates for their consideration ; 
and I entertain no doubt that previous to the meeting in 1843, if not in the 
beginning of that year, I may be able to complete and publish the work. It 
is proposed to print in quarto, on the same size and general plan as the works 
of Voltz and Blainville : there will be from ten to twenty plates, arranged 
with as much regard both to natural affinity and geological position as prac- 
ticable. The number of plates already in hand is six. 

Malvern, May 13, 1842. JOHN PHILLIPS. 

* For these two communications see Transactions of the Sections, pp. 70-75. 



NOTICES 

AND 

ABSTRACTS OF COMMUNICATIONS 

TO THE 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOB, THE 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

AT THE 

MANCHESTER MEETING, JUNE 1842. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The Editors of the following Notices consider themselves responsible only 
for the fidelity with which the views of the Authors are abstracted. 



CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS OF MISCELLANEOUS 
COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 

Page 
Correction of an error in this part of the Report for 1841 1 

MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

M. Bessel on the Astronomical Clock 1 

M. Jacobi on a New General Principle of Analytical Mechanics 2 

Professor Braschmann's Extract from a Memoir entitled " Considerations on 

the Principles of Analytical Mechanics" 4 

Dean or Ely on the Report of the Commissioners for the restoration of lost 
standards of Weights and Measures, and upon their proposal for the intro- 
duction of a Decimal System 8 

Professor Wheatstone's Letter to Colonel Sabine, on a New Meteorological 

Instrument g 

Mr. Follet Osler on the Application of the Principle of the Vernier to the 

Subdividing of Time 9 

Mr. E. J. Dent on the Longitude of Devonport 9 

on the Rate of Protected Chronometer Springs ^, 9 

on the Rate of a Patent Compensating Pendulum N 10 

on a New Chronometer Compensating Balance 10 

Sir W. Hamilton on a Mode of expressing Fluctuating or Arbitrary Func- 
tions by Mathematical Formulae 10 

Mr. Moses Holden on a simple Method of arriving at the decimal part of the 
Sine or Tangent below a second of a degree, to the , ; a th or x u 5 th part 

of it 10 

Mr. Anthony Peacock on Decimal Fractions 10 

Professor Nichol's Extracts from a Letter on the state of the Observatory at 

Glasgow (25th June 1842) 12 

Professor MacCullagh on the Mathematical Expressions which lead to an 

Explanation of all the ordinary Phenomena in Optics 12 

Sir David Brewster on a New Property of the Rays of the Spectrum, with 
Observations on the Explanation of it given by the Astronomer Royal, on the 

Principles of the Undulatory Theory 12 

• on the Dichroism of the Palladio-chlorides of Potas- 
sium and Ammonium 13 

on the existence of a New Neutral Point, and two 

Secondary Neutral Points 13 

Professor Powell on certain Cases of Elliptically Polarized Light 13 

Sir David Brewster on Crystalline Reflexion 13 

Professor Bessel on a very curious fact connected with Photography, dis- 
covered by M. Moser of Kbnigsberg, communicated to Sir D. Brewster 14 

Sir David Brewster on the Dichroism of a Solution of Stramonium in 

.<Ether 14 

— on the Geometric Forms, and Laws of Illumination 

of the Spaces which receive the Solar Rays, transmitted through Quadrangu- 
lar Apertures 15 

— on Luminous Lines in certain Flames corresponding to 

the defective Lines in the Sun's Light 15 

; — ■ on the Structure of a Part of the Solar Spectrum 

hitherto unexamined 15 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Sir David Brewster oi\ the Luminous Bands in the Spectra of various 

Flames 15 

Mr. II. Fox Talbot on the Improvement of the Telescope 16 

Mr. John Goodman on the Theory of Magnetism 17 

on the Cause of Dissimilarity of the Voltaic and Ordi- 
nary Electricities 18 

Rev. C. J. Kennedy on the Positive and the Negative Streams of Electrified 

Air, and on an Electrical Machine fitted for examining them 19 

Rev. W. Scoresby on Improved Magnets, and the different Modes of deter- 
mining their Powers, with an Account of certain undescribed Phenomena in 

Permanent Magnetics 19 

Mr. J. S. Russell's Supplementary Report of a Committee on Waves 19 

Mr. William Walker's Observations on Oceanic Waves 21 

Mr. Rook on the Tidal Phenomena in the Bav of Fundy and the River de la 

Plata '. 22 

Colonel Sykes on the Meteorology of the Province of Coorg, in the Western 

Ghats of India 22 

Mr. Luke Howard on a Cycle of Eighteen Years in Atmospherical Phse- 

nomena. Accompanied by a Chart 24 

Mr. John Prichard's Meteorological Register for 1841-42, from Diurnal Ob- 
servations taken at Beddgelert in the County of Carnarvon 25 

Mr. Thomas Hopkins on the Meteorology of the Northern Atlantic, the 

South-west Monsoon of India, and places adjacent 26 

on a Meteorological Chart 26 

Mr. James Nasmyth on the Application of the Law of Definite Proportions to 

the Stratification of Clouds 26 

Mr. Henry Fairbairn on the Changes in the Climate of England 26 

Sir John Robison on a new Optical Instrument 27 

Professor Stefano Marianini's Abstract of an unpublished Memoir upon the 
Magnetizing Action of Transitory Electric Currents, in which it is proposed 
to explain the Variations in Magnetic Susceptibility which are frequently ob- 
served in Iron as often as it has been magnetized 27 

CHEMISTRY. 

Professor Schonbein on the Electrolysing Power of a simple Voltaic Circle... 30 

Mr. J. P. Joule on the Electric Origin of the Heat of Combustion 31 

Professor Powell on Apparatus for applying Circular Polarization to Chemi- 
cal Inquiries 32 

Mr. Mercer on some peculiar instances of (so-called) Catalytic Action 32 

Professor O. L. Erdmann on Hematoxylin, the Colouring Principle of Log- 
wood 33 

Dr. C. Bromeis on the Formation of Cyanuret of Potassium in a Blast Fur- 
nace 34 

on the Compounds of Carbon and Iron 34 

Professor Bunsen on Kakodylic Acid and the Sulphurets of Kakodyl 35 

Dr. Lyon Playfair on some New Oxides of certain of the Metals of the Mag- 

nesian Family 35 

's Note on the Composition and Characters of Carvo- 

phyllin '.... 36 

Mr. Richardson's Contributions to the History of the Magnesian Limestones 37 
Dr. Daubeny on the Agricultural Importance of ascertaining the minute por- 
tions of Matter derived from Organic Sources that may be preserved in the 
Surface Soil, and on the Chemical means by which its presence may be 

detected 37 

on the Causes of the Irregularities of Surface which are ob- 
servable in certain parts of the Magnesian Limestone Formations of this 

Country 39 

Mr. Leigh on a new Product obtained from Coal Naphtha 39 

Professor Haidinger's Account of the Mineralogical and Geological Museum 
of the Imperial Mining Department of Vienna 39 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

Mr. John Dalton on the Phosphates and Arseniates 40 

on Microcosmic Salt 40 

on a new and easy Method of Analysing Sugar 40 

Professor Nassk on the Composition of the Blood and Bones of Domestic 

Animals 40 

Mr. Wm. Blyth on the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid 40 

Mr. John Davies on the Manufacture and Purification of Gases obtained from 

Coal - 40 

Professor Schonbein on a peculiar Condition of Iron 40 

Mr. C. Wye Williams on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Hot Air in 

effecting the Combustion of Coal 40 

Mr. W. Lucas on the Production of an Artificial Copper Pyrites 40 

Mr. A. Booth on some Fires produced from Spontaneous Combustion 40 

Professor T. Graham on some Thermo-chemical Researches 40 

GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Professors H. D. and W. B. Rogers on the Physical Structure of the Appala- 
chian Chain, as exemplifying the Laws which have regulated the elevation of 
great Mountain Chains generally 40 

Rev. Mr. Schoolcraft on the Production of Sand Storms and Lacustrine 
Beds, by causes associated with the North American Lakes > 42 

Mr. Richard King on the Geography of the North-west Coast of America... 44 

Mr. R. I. Murchison's Notice of a Memoir on the Geology of the Western 
States of North America, by David Dale Owen, M.D., of Indiana 44 

on the Geological Structure of Russia (delivered at an 

Evening Lecture) 45 

Professor Adolphe Erman's Contributions to a Geological Sketch of North 
Asia 46 

Mr. John S. Dawes on the Occurrence of Vegetable Remains, supposed to be 
Marine, in the New Red Sandstone 4? 

Mr. John Phillips on the Microscopic Structure of Coal 47 

Mr. W. C. Williamson on the Origin of Coal 48 

Mr. E. W. Binney on the Great Lancashire Coal Field 49 

Mr. Richard Griffith's Statement of the Fossils which have been discovered 
in the several Members of the Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone of Ire- 
land, with a view to show the Zoological identity of the whole Series, to- 
gether with a Comparison of the Fossils which occur in the Mountain Lime- 
stone of Ireland with those which have been obtained from the same Series 
in Great Britain, and also with the Fossils of North and South Devon, illus- 
trated by Maps, Sections, Drawings and Specimens 5] 

Mr. R. [. Murchison's Notice on the distinction between the Striated Surface 
of Rocks and Parallel Undulations dependent on Original Structure 53 

Rev. D. Williams on the Stratified and Unstratified Volcanic Products of the 
West of England 54 

Mr. Edwin Lankester on some peculiar Inorganic Formations and Fossils of 
the Magnesian Limestone 55 

Mr. John Travis Clay on the Occurrence of Boulders in the Valley of the 
Calder 55 

Mr. Hawkshaw's Notice of the Fossil Footsteps in the New Red Sandstone 
Quarry at Lymm, in Cheshire 56 

Dr. Buckland's Notice of Perforations in Limestone 57 

■ on Recent and Fossil Semi-circular Cavities caused by air- 
bubbles on the surface of soft clay, and resembling impressions of rain- 
drops 57 

Rev. P. B. Brodie on the Discovery of Insects in the Lower Beds of Lias of 
Gloucestershire 58 

Mr. Elias Hall's Notices of the Geology of Derbyshire and Neighbouring 
Counties 58 

Mr. James Stark on the Structure and Mode of Formation of Glaciers 58 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Rev. D. Williams on the Discovery of the Remains of Fishes at the hase of 
the Mountain Limestone in the Vicinity of Bristol * GO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Professor Royle on the different Species of Cotton Plants, and of the Culture 

of Cotton in India 61 

Mr. G. W. Hall on the Promotion of Vegetable Growth 64 

Rev. J. B. Reade on Liebig's Theory of Fallow Crops 64 

Dr. Daubeny on an Irregular Production of Flowers, in an Aloe, at Ham 

Court, near Bristol 65 

Mr. Jon. Couch on the Migration of Birds and Flowering of Plants in Corn- 
wall 66 

Mr. John Blackwall's List of Summer Birds observed in Denbighshire in 

the Spring of 1842 66 

Mr. C. W. Peach on the Nidus and Growth of the Purpura lapillus, and also 

on the Patella pellucida and P. Icevis 66 

Mr. John Blackwall on the Palpi of Spiders 66 

's Account of a Species of Ichneumon whose Larva is 

parasitic on Spiders 68 

Mr. Joshua Alder's Notices of Eolis, Doris, &c 69 

Dr. Richardson on a Specimen of Machcerium subducens from Port Essington, 
New Holland, belonging to the Collection made by Mr. Gilbert, Mr. Gould's 

Assistant 69 

Mr. H. E. Strickland's Notice of Halcyon Smyrnensis 70 

Dr. Hodgkin on the Varieties of the Human Race 70 

Mr. George C. Hyndman's Note of Species obtained by deep Dredging near 

Sana Island, off the Mull of Cantire .' 70 

Capt. Beechey's Results of deep Dredging off the Mull of Galloway 72 

MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

Mr. C. J. B. Williams on the Construction and Application of Instruments 
used in Auscultation 75 

Professor Williams's Observations on the Therapeutic Application of Air- 
tight Fabrics 77 

Mr. J. E. Erichsen on the Influence of the Coronary Circulation on the 
Heart's Action 78 

Mr. Alexander Shaw on some Peculiarities in the Circulation of the Liver... 79 

Mr. Catlow on the Relation of the Season of Birth to the Mortality of 
Children under two years of age, and on the probable duration of Life, as it 
is affected by the Month of Birth solely, and by the Months of Birth and 
Death conjointly 80 

Mr. James Carson, jun. on the Uses of the Muscular Fibres of the Bronchial 
Tubes 80 

Dr. Laycock on a general Law of vital Periodicity 81 

Mr. John Roberton on the period of Puberty in Negro Women 82 

Prof. Owen's Notice of Dr. Martin Barry's Researches on Fibre, published in 
the Transactions of the Royal Society 83 

Dr. Fowler's Observations on the best Mode of expressing the Results of 
Practice in Therapeutics 83 

Dr. R. Fowler's further Particulars respecting a Young Woman Deaf, Dumb 
and Blind, of whom a full Account was given last Year at Plymouth 83 

Sir David J. H. Dickson on Cases of enormous Hydropic Distension of 
the Abdomen, and of sudden Death from the Rupture of an Aneurism of the 
Thoracic Aorta 83 

Dr. J. Richardson's Abstract of the Case of a Diver employed on the Wreck 
of the Royal George who was injured by the bursting of the Air-pipe of the 
Diving Apparatus 84 

Dr. Carson on a Case of unusual Paralysis 85 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 
Dr. C. Clay's Observations on the Evils arising from the Use of Common Pes- 
saries ! 87 

Dr. Bardsley on a Case of Monstrosity 87 

Dr. C. Clay on Diabetes mellitus 87 

Mr. Wilson on Lithotomy and Lithotripsy 87 

Mr. Robert Chambers on Mr. Fleming's Plans for Ventilation 87 

STATISTICS. 

On the Vital Statistics of Manchester, by a Committee of the Manchester Sta- 
tistical Society 87 

Rev. R. Parkinson on the Registers of the Collegiate Church of Man- 
chester 92 

Sir Charles Shaw on the Criminal Statistics of Manchester 92 

Mr. Shuttleworth on the Vital Statistics of the Spinners and Piercers em- 
ployed in the fine Cotton-Mills of Manchester 93 

Mr. Henry Ashworth on the Increase of Property in South Lancashire since 

the Revolution 94 

Mr. Hopkins on the Criminal Statistics of Lancashire 95 

Mr. Gardner on the Industrial and Training School about to be erected in 

the neighbourhood of Manchester 96 

Mr. Noble on the Influence of the Factory System in the development of 

Pulmonary Consumption 96 

Dr. Ashton on Vital Statistics, with Remarks on the Influence which the At- 
mosphere exerts over the rate of Mortality 97 

Dr. Alison on the Destitution and Mortality of some of the great Towns of 

Scotland 97 

Mr. Henry Woollcombe on the Statistics of Plymouth 98 

Mr. Henry John Porter on Loan Funds in Ireland 98 

on the Monts de Piete in Ireland 98 

Rev. H. L. Jones on the Commercial Statistics of France in 1840 98 

Mrs. Davies Gilbert on the Advantages arising from Spade Husbandry and 

Agricultural Education 99 

Mr. G. Webb Hall on the Differences of the Quality of the Milk of Cows for 

the different purposes of Milk and Cheese, numerically expressed 99 

Mr. James Heywood on the Comparative Statistics of the Universities of 

Oxford and Cambridge in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries 99 

Rev. Baden Powell's Contributions to Academical Statistics, continued from 
1839 100 

MECHANICS. 

Mr. Charles Vignoles's Abstract of a Lecture upon the Atmospheric Railway, 
prepared at the request of the Council for the Twelfth Meeting of the British 
Association, and delivered in the Athenaeum of Manchester on the evening of 
Monday the 27th of June, 1842 100 

Prof. Vignoles on Straight Axles for Locomotives 104 

Mr. James Nasmyth on the Strength of hammered and annealed Bars of Iron 
and Railway Axles 105 

Prof. Vignoles on the best Form of Rails and the Upper Works of Railways 
generally 106 

Mr. Wm. Fairbairn on Combustion of Coal, with a view to obtaining the 
greatest Effect, and preventing the Generation of Smoke 107 

Mr. C. W. Williams on testing the Efficacy of the several Plans for abating 
the Nuisances from Smoke by effecting a more perfect Combustion 108 

Mr. J. S. Russell on an Indicator of Speed of Steam Vessels 109 

Mr. Robert Chambers on certain Plans for Ventilation recently adopted in 
Glasgow 109 

Mr. J. F. Bateman's Abstract of a Description of a Self-acting Waste Weir 
and Scouring Sluice 110 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. Shaw on a New Steam-engine worked with three kinds of Pressure, 
viz. Action of high-pressure Steam, the Expansion of Steam, and the At- 
mospheric Pressure caused by its Condensation Ill 

Mr. Clegg on a dry Gas-Meter Ill 

Sir M. I. Brunel on the Thames Tunnel in its completed Condition Ill 

Prof. Vigxoles on the Use of Beton and Concrete in constructing Break- 
waters 112 

Mr. William Brockedon on the Construction of a New Rope employed as 
a Core in the formation of the Patent Stoppers, a Substitute for Corks and 

Bungs 112 

Sir J. Robison's Notice of Mr. Prosser's Method of making Earthenware or 

Porcelain from dry Powder of Clay compressed 114 

Mr. James Thomson on Wigston's Self-acting Railway Signals 114 

Mr. J. Smith on a New Steam-Boiler 115 

ADDENDUM TO MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mr. S. Russell on the Abnormal Tides in the Frith of Forth 115 

Index 117 

List of Book Subscribers. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



Correction of an Error in this part of the Report for 1841. 

In the Addendum to the Report of the Transactions of the Sections in 1839, one of 
the documents, viz. the Letter on p. 5, from Mr. Phillips to Mr. Nasmyth, dated Au- 
gust 10, 1840, is incorrectly terminated. The last sentence of the letter should have 
been in these words: — " Should you, however, instead of this easy and obvious mode 
of correcting any error of mine, resolve to appeal to another tribunal, the public, I 
can make no other objection than that I fear you will not have chosen the course 
most advantageous to your views," instead of " Should you, however, instead of this 
easy and obvious method of correcting any error of mine, resolve to appeal to another 
tribunal, the public, I will give you the only proof in my power to offer of an un- 
biassed mind, by transmitting copies of all the letters I have received from you, to 
render any statement you may think proper to make as complete as possible." 

The mistake was pointed out by Mr. Nasmyth, in a communication to the Presi- 
dent, dated June 7th, 1842, and appears to have occurred in the following manner : 
— There was a prior draft of the same letter, and this by some mistake was preserved, 
and after a very long interval of time was, with other documents in Mr. Phillips's 
possession, bearing upon the subject, sent to be examined by the authority of the 
Council. It was this draft, supposed to have been followed in the actual letter, that 
the printer copied, and hence the error which Mr. Nasmyth has pointed out. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



On the Astronomical Clock. By M. Bessel of Konigsberg. 

Having ever been of opinion that the most indispensable of astronomical instru- 
ments, the transit-clock, will only acquire the greatest possible perfectness, if the 
pendulum, separated from the wheel-work, is made to vibrate in equal time, whatever 
the temperature and the arc may be, I beg leave to communicate to this Associa- 
tion some hints relative to this matter. Some artists have endeavoured to compen- 
sate a variation of the arc, from summer to winter, by not completely compensating 
the pendulum for the variation of heat; others have contrived very ingenious means 
for producing always an equal arc. But experience, at least my own, has shown no 
so complete success, that astronomers, though they feel themselves truly indebted to 
the skill and the ingenuity of artists, should not be tempted to wish that further en- 
deavours might not be considered as useless. 

Some years ago, Mr. Frodsham communicated to this Association a very ingenious 
contrivance, which he calls the isochronal piece, the purpose of which is to compensate, 
by the effect of the suspension spring, that of a variation of the arc. Supposing that 
experiments of this universally celebrated artist have shown this contrivance to answer 
the purpose, there will be no longer a difficulty in making the rate of a pendulum in- 
dependent, as well of the arc as of the heat. What I wish to submit to his judge- 
ment, is only whether the very expeditious method of coincidences might not be em- 
ployed for checking a pendulum in both respects. The pendulum, without the clock, 
being suspended from the wall, a clock, taken out of its case, may be placed before it 
at a distance of 6 or 8 feet ; an object-glass, of 3 or 4 feet focal length, may be placed 
between both, so that it produces, exactly at the lower end of the pendulum of the 

1842. ' B 



2 REPORT — 1842. 

clock, an image of the lower end of the other. Then the coincidences of both pendu- 
lums may be very accurately observed with a telescope, placed in the straight line 
with both, at a convenient distance. A similar contrivance has been described in the 
account of pendulum experiments made at Kbnigsberg; and I may here be permitted 
to add, that the accuracy of the method is such, that the relative rate of both pendu- 
lums may be ascertained with the required accuracy in a time of ten or twenty minutes. 
This arrangement supposed, it will be very easy to adjust tbe isochronal piece of Mr. 
Frodsham. After this has been effected, the rate of the pendulum is to be tried in dif- 
ferent temperatures. A box, having at its lower end an opening covered with glass, 
may be fastened to the wall, so that the pendulum swings within it. A couple of 
metal tubes pass through this box, and may be heated by boiling water or steam, in 
order to heat the air within the box. Previously to the heating, the air is to be de- 
prived of its moisture. Two or three thermometers will show whether the heat within 
is pretty uniform. The pendulum being swung before and after the heating, it will 
be easy to correct the compensation for heat. 

I believe that not only the readiness with which both these experiments may be 
made, but also the perfect isolation of the pendulum will recommend this method to 
artists and astronomers. I have indeed been desirous of trying it myself before pro- 
posing it to others, but having been delayed beyond expectation with the construction 
of a pendulum provided with Mr. Frodsham's isochronal piece, I am obliged to leave 
the experiment to others. 

With respect to the construction of the pendulum, I believe that attention should 
be paid to one point of view, which hitherto seems to have been overlooked. It often 
happens that thermometers fixed at the top and at the foot of the case of a clock do 
not agree ; whence it is evident that a compensation acting only below will not always 
compensate the variation of the length of the whole rod. I should prefer, for this 
reason, the gridiron pendulum to the mercurial pendulum, especially if the former is 
constructed in such a manner that the several rods begin as little as possible below the 
point of suspension, and end at the centre of gravity of the lens. I should also think 
proper to make the several rods of equal diameter, and to coat them uniformly. Per- 
haps the application of galvanism, which the deservedly famed Mr. Dent has made 
for coating the balance-spring of chronometers with gold, would best answer the pur- 
pose. I finally believe that the utmost care in the construction of the pendulum is 
very essential, in order to remove every danger of its derangement by the spring of 
the metals. 

Supposing a pendulum perfectly regulated, as well with respect to the heat as to 
the arc of vibrations, only one cause will interfere with the regularity of its vibration 
time ; this is the effect of that part of the buoyancy of the air which depends upon 
the variations of the height of the barometer. The other part, depending upon the 
variations of the thermometer, is comprised in the adjustment of the compensation for 
heat, if made by the above-described process. There is indeed the possibility to com- 
pensate the former part too, by fastening a barometer-tube to the pendulum ; and it 
would not be difficult to find the suitable diameter of this tube ; but I am aware that 
this complication of the pendulum would be rather inconvenient. At all events, the 
effect of the variations of the barometer is not very great, especially if the specific 
gravity of the pendulum is made as great as possible. 

The pendulum of a clock being carefully adjusted, every variation of the rate of the 
clock, not explicable by a variation of the barometer, will originate in the escapement 
or the wheels. Though the uniformity of the rate of many clocks is more to be won- 
dered at than their occasional small variations, yet I believe that further improve- 
ments are possible, and that they only will be obtained by the separation of the causes 
of perturbations. From this point of view I might consider it as very desirable severely 
to test the isolated pendulum by the method which I have submitted to the judgement 
of the celebrated artists, whose admired works have lately so greatly contributed to the 
accuracy, as well of astronomical observations as of the determination of longitudes. 

On a New General Principle of Analytical Mechanics. By M. Jacobi of 

Kbnigsberg. 
In the different problems relative to the motion of a system of material points which 
have been hitherto considered, one may make an important and curious remark, " that 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 3 

whenever the forces are functions of the coordinates of the moving points only, and 
the problem is reduced to the integration of a differential equation of the first order 
of two variables, it may also be reduced to quadratures." Now I have succeeded in 
proving the general truth of this remark, which appears to constitute a new principle 
of mechanics. This principle, as well as the other general principles of mechanics, 
makes known an integral, but with this difference, that whilst the latter give the first 
integrals of the dynamical differential equations, the new principle gives the last. It 
possesses a generality very superior to that of other known principles, inasmuch as it 
applies to cases in which, when the analytical expressions of the forces, as well as the 
equations by which we express the nature of the system, are composed of the coordi- 
nates of the moveables in any manner whatever, principles (such as the principle of 
the conservation of living forces, of the conservation of areas, and of the conservation, 
of the centre of gravity) are superior to the new principle in several respects. In, the 
first place, these principles afford a finite equation between the coordinates of the 
moveables and the components of their velocities, whilst the integral found by the 
new principle is simply reduced to quadratures. In the second place, we suppose in 
the application of the new principle that we have already succeeded in discovering 
all the integrals but one, a supposition which will be realized in a small number of 
problems only. This will be sufficient to convince us of the importance of the new 
principle ; but this may be made still more manifest, if I am permitted to illustrate 
its application by a few examples. 

1st. Let us consider the orbit described by a planet in its motion round the sun. 
The differential equations in dynamical problems being of the second order, we may 
present them under the form of differential equations of the first order, by introducing 
the first differentials as new variables. In this manner the determination of the orbit 
of the planet will depend upon the integration of three differential equations of the 
first order between four variables. We find two integrals by the principles of living 
forces (forces vives) and areas. The question is thus reduced to the integration of a 
single differential equation of two variables and of the first order. Now, by my gene- 
ral theorem, this integration may always be reduced to quadratures. If therefore we 
choose to reckon this theorem amongst the other principles of mechanics, we see that 
the general principles of mechanics alone are sufficient to reduce the determination of 
the orbit of a planet to quadratures. 

2nd. Let us consider the motion of a point attracted to two centres of force, after 
Newton's law of gravitation. The initial velocity being directed in the plane passing 
through the body and the two centres of attraction, we still have to integrate three 
differential equations of the first order amongst four variables, one integral of these 
equations being furnished by the principle of living forces. Euler has discovered an- 
other, and thus has succeeded in reducing the problem to a differential equation of 
the first order between two variables. But this equation was so complicated, that any 
person but this intrepid geometer would have shrunk from the idea of attempting its 
integration and reducing it to quadratures. Now, by my general principle, this re- 
duction would have been effected by a general rule without any tentative process, 
without any extraordinary effort of the mind. 

3rd. Let us consider also the famous problem of the rotatory movement of a solid 
body round a fixed point, the body being under the influence of no accelerating force. 
In this problem we shall have to integrate five differential equations of the first order 
amongst six variables. The principle of living forces gives one integral, that of areas 
gives three others, and the fifth is found by my new principle. We thus see all the 
integrals of this difficult problem found by the general principles of mechanics alone, 
without our being required to write a single formula, or even to make a choice of 
variables. 

I will endeavour now to enunciate the rule itself, by means of which the last inte- 
gration to be effected in the problems of mechanics is found to be reduced to quadra- 
tures, the forces being always functions of the coordinates alone. Let us suppose, in 
the first instance, any system whatsoever of material points entirely free. Let there 
be found a first integral /' = const., the variables which enter into the function /' 
being the coordinates of the moveables, and their first differentials taken with respect 
to the time. I avail myself of the equation 

/' es const, 
for the purpose of eliminating any one of the variables, and I call p' the partial differ- 

b 2 



4 REPORT — 1842. 

ence of/', taken with respect to this variable. Let/" = const, be a second integral. 
By means of this equation I eliminate a second variable, and I call p" the partial dif- 
ference of /" with respect to this variable. Let us suppose that we know all the in- 
tegrals of the problem but one, and that with respect to each integral /= const, we 
seek the corresponding partial difference^ with respect to the variable, which we elimi- 
nate by means of this integral. The number of variables exceeds by unity that of 
the integrals : we eliminate by means of each integral a new variable, and we thus 
succeed in expressing all the variables by means of two of them. Let us call these 
two variables x and y and x' and y', their first differentials taken with respect to the 
time. We shall express by means of .r and y the quantities x' and y', as well as all 
the quantities p', p", &c. : since x' and y' are the first differentials of x and y taken 
with respect to the time, we shall have the equation 
y' dx — x 1 dy — 0, 
where x' and y' are known functions of the two variables a- and y. It is this differen- 
tial equation, the last of all of them, which we must integrate in order to obtain the 
complete solution of the problem. Now I show that on dividing this equation by the 
product of the variables p', p", &c, its first member becomes an exact differential, and 
therefore the integration of this equation is generally reduced to quadratures. 

When we have any system whatsoever of material points, the simplicity of the pre- 
ceding theorem is in no respect altered, provided we give to the dynamical differen- 
tial equations that remarkable form under which they have been presented for the 
first time by the illustrious Astronomer Royal of Dublin, and under which they ought 
to be presented hereafter in all the general researches of analytical mechanics. It is 
true that the formulas of Sir W. Hamilton are referrible only to the cases where the 
components of the forces are the partial differences of the same function of the coordi- 
nates; but it has not been found to be difficult to make the changes which are neces- 
sary in order that these formulas may become applicable to the general case, where 
the forces are any functions whatever of the coordinates. 

When the time enters explicitly into the analytical expressions for the forces, and 
into the equations of condition of the system, the principle of the final multiplier, 
found by a general rule, is applicable also to this class of dynamical problems. There 
are also some particular problems into which enters the resistance of a medium, which 
give rise to similar theorems. It is the case of a planet revolving round the sun in a 
medium whose resistance is proportional to any power of the velocity of the planet. 

The analysis which has conducted me to the new general principle of analytical 
mechanics, which I have the honour to communicate to the Association, may be ap- 
plied to a great number of questions in the integral calculus. I have collected these 
different applications in a very extensive memoir, which I hope to publish upon my 
return to Kbnigsberg, and which I shall have the honour of presenting to the Asso- 
ciation as soon as it shall be printed. 



Extract from a Memoir entitled " Considerations on the Principles of Ana- 
lytical 3Iechanics." By Professor Braschmann of Moscow. 

The principle of virtual velocities, on which is based the theory of equilibrium 
and of motion, has not, in my opinion, been explained in a manner which is clear 
and unobjectionable ; and I am also inclined to believe that the problem of equili- 
brium has not been treated analytically in a point of view sufficiently general, and 
that there are still many observations to be made on the correctness of the applica- 
tion of the principle of virtual velocities to certain problems. 

Similar observations may be made also with regard to the theory of motion. M. 
Ostrogradsky brought forward, some years ago, some new and general ideas on the 
laws of equilibrium and of motion in two memoirs, one of which bears the title, " On 
the Momenta of Forces ;" and the other, " On the instantaneous Displacements of 
the points of a System." Profiting by his enlightened views, I published, in 1837, 
a treatise in the Russian language on the equilibrium of solid and fluid bodies, from 
which I will now give a very short extract relating to the method I have there fol- 
lowed, and I shall add some observations which escaped me at the time of the pub- 
lication of that work, respecting the number and the character of conditions of 
equilibrium. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 5 

In the first place, I demonstrate the parallelogram of forces*, and then pass on to the 
composition and decomposition of forces, and to the equilibrium of a free point. 

To find the conditions of a point, or of a system of points, which is not free, it is 
necessary, and at the same time sufficient, that the forces cannot effect any displace- 
ment which the obstacles allow of, or that they can only produce impossible displace- 
ments. It is this condition which we will endeavour to express analytically. 

I show that a force acting on a point subjected to a certain obstacle can never give 
rise to a displacement, forming either a right or obtuse angle with the direction of 
the force, but that it can cause a displacement which forms an acute angle with the 
direction of this force. As a point can sometimes. only be displaced in a straight 
line by an infinitely small quantity, I shall only consider infinitely small displace- 
ments, but perfectly arbitrary. I will designate one of these displacements by ds, 
and its projections on the rectangular axes x, y, z, by dx, dy, dz, then the condition* 
that a force R cannot cause a displacement d s will be expressed by cos (R d s) _ ; 

n , t •,• ..•*• j ,t> j \ Xdx , Ydy . Zdz 

or since R and ds are positive quantities, and cos (K, as) = + ■,.,/ + „ . ■• 

r l Rds Rds Rds 

the analytical expression of the condition that a force does not tend to produce the 

displacement d s will be 

Xdx + Ydy + Zdz<0 (1.) 

where X, Y, Z are the projections of R on the three axes x, y, z. Let us now see how 
we can express the condition that the displacement of a point subjected to obstacles 
is possible, independently of the means which may occasion this displacement. 
For this purpose I observe, that whatever may be the condition which hinders some 
displacements, it may always be represented by one or by several fixed planes. I sup- 
pose, at first, that there is but one sole plane of dimensions infinitely small which 
prevents the displacement of the point. I imagine a normal prolonged from the 
r point in space where the displacement is possible, and I de- 

j-N . signate the angles of this normal with the axes x, y, z, by 

—, 1 >/y *> P> V ; it is then evident that only such displacements are 

/ | / / possible as form a right or acute angle with the normal, i. e. 

/ O^ / that cos (N, d s), or cos a. — + cos /3 ^1 + cos y d — > ex- 

/ . / ds ds ds = 

presses the condition that one displacement is possible ; cos 
«, cos H, cos y may be functions of the coordinates of the point, which renders 
this expression an exact differential or not ; in the first case the point will be found 
on a curved surface, and a., J3, y will be the angles of the normal of the surface with 
x,y, z ; in the second case it will not be so ; consequently, making generally cos « 
dx-\- cos 0dy + cos ydz = Adx + Bdy + C (Z^, where this expression is or is not 
an exact differential, the condition will be expressed that a displacement is possible by 

Adx + Bdy + Cdz^O (2.) 

and the whole of these conditions (1.) and (2.) will be the analytical expression that 
a force cannot effect a possible displacement, the projections of which are dx, dy, dz. 

Let us see what conclusions we should draw from these two inequalities for the 
equilibrium of a point. 

For the sake of shortness, I make Adx+Bdy + Cdz=dL, where d L ex- 
presses an arbitrary quantity infinitely small, which is the complete differential of a 
function of the three variables x, y, ss, or simply an infinitely small one, which does 
not possess this property ; I add to this equation two others, perfectly arbitrary, 

A 1 dx + B l dy + ddz = dM, 

A 2 dx + B 2 dy + C 3 dz = dN, 
where A,, B u C u A 2 . . . are the arbitrary functions. I find the expressions of these 
three equations in the following manner : — 

dx = adh+bdM + cd'N, 

dy = a l dh + b l dM+c 1 dl<i, 

dz = a 2 dL + b. 2 dM + c 2 dN. 

* It seems to have escaped attention, that in order to demonstrate that the resultant of two 
forces falls within the angle of these forces, it is necessary to admit that the dependence be- 
tween the resultant and the components must be given by a continuous function. 



6 , REPORT — 1842. 

On substituting these values in the expression Xdx + Ydy-\-Zdz, and placing 
a X -f- ai Y -f- O; Z = A &c, we find 

X dx + Y dy + Z dz = A dL + ft d M + v d N ; 
but since the values of d M and d N are quite arbitrary and independent of d L, the 
expression ft d M + » rf N may always render the second member A d L + ft d M 
+ i> <Z N positive, whilst that for the equilibrium Xdx + Ydy + Zdz must not be 
positive ; it will consequently be requisite at first, for the equilibrium, that ftdM 
+ v d N = ; and since d M and d N are arbitrary, it is necessary that ft = 0, k = 0, 
andXdx + Ydy + Zdz = *dL. 

When a displacement makes d L = 0, that is, when the obstacles are expressed 
by equations, we have Xdx + Ydy-\-Zdz = Ofor the possible displacements, the 
sign of the quantity A then remains arbitrary ; but for the displacements which give 
*dL>-0, Xdx-\- Y dy + Zdz must not be positive; it is consequently necessary 
that A be negative, or carrying the whole to the other side Xdx + Ydy + Zdz 
+ A d L = 0, or A is positive ; that is, it has the same sign as d L for the possible dis- 
placements. On substituting A.dx-\-Bdy-\-Cdz for d L, and observing that A is 
independent of the displacements, and always retains the same value, whatever be the 
displacements under consideration, we shall obtain, since dx, dy, dz are entirely 
arbitrary, 

X+AA=0 1 

Y + AB=0 [ (3.)* 

Z + AC=0 J 

X Y Z R 

Hence results -_-=.- = --= + . = — A ; but R being positive, 

ABC -VA 2 + B2+C2 

and — A a negative quantity, it is necessary to keep the sign — ; consequently 

X - A Y__B,Z__C 

•=r= » ^5- — , — ' r- — — . — : > i. e. the force R must be op- 

R ^a= + B 2 +C 2R V R V r 

posed to the normal N, and must press the point against the plane ; the magnitude 
of this force remains arbitrary. 

When there are two conditions, 

Adx + Bdy + Cdz = dL, 
A 1 dx + B 1 dy + C 1 dz = dM, 
and the above manner is adopted, it will be shown at first that v = 0, and X d x + 
Ydy + Zdz = AdL + J c*dM. Since, for one of the possible displacements, d M 
= 0, and Xdx + Ydy + Zdz = *dL, it is requisite that A be negative, or, carried 
to the other side, positive; in the same manner it is shown that p. is positive, 
i. e. that in the expression 

Xdx + Ydy + Zdz + *dL + ftdM = Q, 
A and ft, have the same signs as d L and d M for the possible displacements. From 
thi3 equation is obtained X + *A + ^A 1 = 0, 

Y + AB + ^BjrrO, 
Z + A C + A, Ci = 0, 
whence it results that the point may be considered perfectly free, if to the given force 
be added two others, the projections of which on the axes are A A, A B, A C, (*. A, 
&c. ; the value of these forces remains perfectly arbitrary, but their direction will be 
determined. 

When a point is subjected to three conditions, and the same course is adopted as 
above, it will again be found that Xrf* + Yrfy + Zrfz+?irfL + /«(ZL-)-^(/M + 
v d N = 0, where A, ft, > are indeterminate but positive quantities ; this equation does 
not afford any equation for the equilibrium, since the three equations which may be 
derived from it arc identical, when for A, ft, v their values are substituted, but the con- 
ditions of equilibrium will consist of the three inequalities A > 0, ft > 0, u > 0. 

Suppose, for instance, a solid sphere to be situated within the angle of the posi- 
tive coordinates, and the conditions that the centre is not affected by any dis- 
placement be required, then in this case we shall have for the possible displace- 
ments three conditions, dx>0, dy>0, dz>0; consequently Xdx + Y dy + 

* The point might therefore be considered perfectly free, if to the given forces another X 
VA 2 + B 2 + C 2 be added, the projections of which on the axes are X. A, X. B, \ C. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 7 

Zdz + *dy + *dz = 0, whence ^ + X = 0, ^ + Y = 0, , + Z = 0; that is the 
magnJude of The force may be arbitrary, but its .directum must be surf t AatX Y ,Z 
Se negative, since X, ^, * are positive; whence it results, that the direction of the 
force must be comprised within the angle of the negative coordinates. 
If there are more than three conditions, " ( * ~ yj* " 8) combinations may he 

made by three, and 3 - M ^~ l) (n ~ ?) inequalities are obtained, some of which may 
* Z . 3 

b ^ C nr P attmiri\nTknown demonstration, (I have transformed the demonstra- 
tiono?CaudT2 well as that of Lagrange,) it may be proved that the condition 
hat a forcTdol not tend to produce displacements, the ^^if^fj^f 
axes are, for the- first point of the system, fx dy,dz for the ™™*>*?> z fj>j 

ds i & c is expressed by Xdx + Y dy + Z dz 4 X'da +} d V + \ az 

4 X»dV' 4 < 0, the conditions of the system must be of the form hdx 

4 B dy 4 C d z 4 A' dx' + > ; and by proceeding in the same manner, 

that for the point K u, u are found to have the same signs as d L, d M, dN 

. .for the possible displacements, and that the conditions of equilibrium are 

X4xA4i"A 1 4vA 2 4 = ° 

Y4aB4^Bi + »B 3 4 = ° 

Z4xC4^C,4xC 2 4 = ° 

X 1 + xA'4f«B'+ = °- 

The same is demonstrated for the flexible wire. There is still one observation to be 
Ine same aemo ^, ^ ^ ^.^ rf ^ ^^ . m ^ case ^ t 

Y alone acts on the wire of a constant thickness, an equation of 

A I the following form is obtained for the curve ABC 

j[ e J*+e-» a ' — 2 

-4— [- W -*7 C where 6 is an arbitrary constant, which is determined by a 
\ i I J transcendent equation 

B e 2 _ e 2 = ?, 



6 



evident that the form of the surface containing the fluid has no influence on 

^WhfrSpect to the principles of 'the curvilinear movement of a point it is first 
shown that P the space described by a point, during an infinitely small timedt s ex 
pressed by an infinitely small quantity of the «cond «der,^ft tfc. space £ the 
chord- no other straight line can give an approximation which goes beyond tms 

^S3TSJ&^ »1SS^ magnitude combined .with the 
direct Ln o £ movement, but simply to express this ™f^-™£«£ ° h °ave 

s^ab^^ 

for the movement of a system subjected to variable conditions. 



8 REPORT — 1842. 

On the Report of the Commissio?iers for tlie restoration of lost standards of 
Weights and Measures, and upon their proposal for the introduction oj a 
Decimal System. By the Dean of Ely. 

After stating that the impei - ial standards of weights and measures (the yard, the pound, 
the gallon, and several of their multiples) had been lost in the fire which destroyed 
the two Houses of Parliament, the author said that a commission (of which he was a 
member) had been appointed to report on the best means of restoring these standards. 
The commission recommended to the government that the standards of length and 
weight should be independent of each other, which was not the case before. The 
standard pound weight was Troy weight (5780 grains), though the pound avoirdupois 
(7000 grains) was used throughout the country, in the proportion, perhaps, of 10,000 to 
one of Troy. The commission recommended that, hereafter, the use of the Trey 
pound should be abolished, except for a very limited number of transactions, and that 
the avoirdupois pound should be considered as the standard pound of Great Britain. 
They recommended that measures of capacity should be determined by measures of 
weight — by far the most convenient method, inasmuch as weighing was a much more 
accurate operation than, for instance, the formation of a perfect cube. The commis- 
sion also ventured to recommend strongly some alterations in the coinage, and the 
systems of weights and measures, arising out of a more extensive introduction of the 
decimal scale. The nearly unanimous determination of the commission was, that any 
attempt to interfere materially with the primary units of the coinage, weights and 
measures in ordinary use, would produce much confusion and bad consequences in 
the ordinary transactions of life. They would therefore adhere strictly to ajl those 
primary units, viz. the pound sterling, the yard (and also the foot, for there were two 
primary units in this measure), the acre, the gallon, and the imperial pound. The 
coinage must necessarily be the basis of any changes leading to the more extended 
adoption of a decimal scale. Taking the pound sterling as the primary unit, they 
propose to introduce a coin of the value of 2*. (one-tenth of the pound) ; another, 
either silver or copper, of one-tenth of 2s. (or 2d. and a fraction), which might be 
called a cent (the hundredth of a pound) and the thousandth part of the pound ster- 
ling, or nearly the value of our farthing (of which there are 960 in the pound), which 
new coin it was proposed to call a millet (or thousandth). The difference in the value 
of the copper coinage was less important, as it was merely a representative coinage, 
and had not an approximate intrinsic value like the gold and silver coinage. For the 
proposed coin of 2s. various names had been suggested, as Fictorine, rupee, or florin ; 
it being not much different from the value of some of the rupees of the East Indies, or 
the florin of the continent. Under this new decimal scale the shilling would be re- 
tained, and also the sixpence (but the latter under another name, more representative 
of its value). For the half-crown would be substituted the 2s., or Fictorine. The 
very rev. gentleman dwelt at some length on the advantages of this change "in the ex- 
tensive money transactions and accounts of bankers and merchants; in the Bank of 
England, for instance, where a thousand clerks were employed, it would greatly facili- 
tate the operations of calculations and book-keeping. Thus, discarding millets (for 
bankers now excluded the subdivisions of a penny in their accounts), the sum of 17/. 
3 Victorines, 7 cents, would be represented at once by 17'37 ; only two places of de- 
cimals, instead of as now in pounds, shillings, and pence. He showed how the prin- 
ciple was applicable, with still greater advantage, in cases of weights and measures 
(where the scale was now most anomalous and absurd). Suppose the rental or value of 
JJO'Gl acres of land to be required, and that the land cost 69/. 3 Fictorines, 4 cents an 
acre. The reduction in common arithmetic was one of very considerable labour, 
difficulty, and time. But by this plan the result might be obtained in five lines of 
decimals, containing only twenty-one figures. As to weights, the most extensive 
change recommended by the committee would be to introduce the uniform weight of 
lOlbs. to the stone, instead of the varietiesof 81bs. in some, and 14lbs. or 16lbs. in other 
parts of the kingdom ; the hundred weight to be called centner (a German term). 
These were all the changes proposed in weights ; the commission not wishing to in- 
terfere with the subdivision of the pound, which admitted of four subdivisions into 
8 oz., 4 oz., 2 oz., and 1 oz. The pound and ounce would remain, therefore, exactly the 
same as at present. As to the measure of length, the commission thought it too vio- 
lent a change to alter all the milestones ; but there would be no difficulty (with re- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 9 

ference to the standing orders of Parliament in railway matters, &c.) in introducing 
the measure of 1000 yards, which might be called a milyard. However, the commis- 
sion made no recommendations as to nomenclature, leaving that to the legislature. 
Thus the changes proposed to be introduced, not only to ensure a decimal coinage, 
but a decimal subdivision of weights and measures, were by no means of that formi- 
dable and appalling character which many persons suppose they must of necessity 
possess. 

Letter from Professor Wlieatstone to Colonel Sabine, on a New Meteorologi- 
cal Instrument. 
The importance of multiplying stations at which simultaneous meteorological obser- 
vations may be made does not require any discussion. The chief obstacle to their 
establishment is the necessity for the constant attendance of an observer to register 
the indications of the instruments, which difficulty is greatly increased when the ob- 
servations are required to be made by night as well as by day. All attempts to make 
self-recording thermometers, barometers, &c. by mechanical means have hitherto 
failed, because the mechanical force exerted by the rise of the mercury in the tubes is 
insufficient to overcome the frictions of the attached mechanism, and only very inac- 
curate indications can be obtained. The principle, however, which I employ in my 
meteorological telegraph, viz. the determination (by means of a feeble electric current) 
of any required mechanical force by the mere contact of the mercury in the tube with 
a fine platina wire, enables all these difficulties to be overcome, and a Meteorological 
Recorder may now be made, which shall register every half hour the varying indi- 
cations of the barometer, thermometer and psychrometer, as accurately as the most 
careful observer would be able to do, and which will require only a few minutes at- 
tention each day to put it in proper order to act for twenty-four hours. I propose 
therefore that such an instrument, the cost of which I estimate will not exceed 50/., 
shall be constructed, under my direction, for the Richmond Observatory. If, after a 
few months' trial at the Observatory, it shall be found to succeed, as I confidently ex- 
pect it will, a great impediment to the advancement of meteorological science will be 
removed. Persons in almost every locality may be found who would not object to de- 
vote a few minutes per day to prepare such an instrument for use, but who would 
find it impossible to give the requisite attention to make hourly or half-hourly obser- 
vations themselves ; and the cost of the apparatus (which may hereafter probably be 
considerably reduced) is, considering the important objects in view, too inconsiderable 
to stand in the way of its general adoption. 



On the Application of the Principle of the Vernier to the Subdividing of 
Time. By Follet Osler. 

Mr. Osier's idea was, to have a pendulum, which should make, say ten swings in 
the time that the principal pendulum made eleven, furnished with a small dial, and so 
placed as that the coincidences, or want of coincidence, could be observed. The strokes 
of such a pendulum being counted, the time of every observed stroke of it, reckoned 
back from its coincidence with the principal, or seconds pendulum, would, it is ob- 
vious, be found in tenths of a second. 

On the Longitude of Devonport. By E. J. Dent. 
Longitude of the landing-place on the Breakwater in Plymouth Sound , u 

by four chronometers 16 33 - G0 west 

Longitude of staff on Mount Wise by Trigonometrical Survey 16 38-10 

The same, by mean of four chronometers 16 39-80 

Difference 170 



On the Rate of Protected Chronometer Springs. By E. J. Dent. 

The author stated, that by trial at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, between the 



10 REPORT 1842. 

temperature of winter and 96° Fahr., it was proved that the rate of going of chrono- 
meters, furnished with the gold-covered steel spring, was not injured by that covering. 



On the Rate of a Patent Compensating Pendulum. By E. J. Dent. 

The invention consisted in giving impulse to the pendulum at the centre of percus- 
sion instead of the usual place, which is near to the centre of suspension. Mr. Dent 
stated the performance of clocks thus made to be very satisfactory. He mentioned, in 
connection with this subject, the invention of a new escapement by the Astronomer 
Royal, which had been found of advantage in preventing the stopping of clocks at low 
temperatures. 

On a New Chronometer Compensating Balance. By E. J. Dent. 

The ordinary compensation balance is constructed of two segments of a circle, of 
brass and steel, and from the circular form of these pieces, the compensation weights 
attached to them are moved out too far from the centre of motion in cold, and not 
sufficiently in toward the centre in warm weather. Hence chronometers thus con- 
structed gain on their rates at the mean temperature, and lose at both extremes. 

Mr. Dent stated, from experiment, that the compensation weights were carried over 
nearly equal spaces for equal increments and decrements of heat, whereas the mathe- 
matical rule requires that they should be carried over spaces proportioned to the 
square of the distance from the centre of motion. 

Mr. Dent's invention of a new compensation balance consisted in the compensation 
pieces being made into such curves as would practically meet the case required. The 
experimental investigations on which this construction was founded, were described at 
length. 

On a Mode of expressing Fluctuating or Arbitrary Functions by Mathema- 
tical Formulae. By Sir W. Hamilton. 



A simple Method of arriving at the decimal part of the Sine or Tangent below 
a second of a degree, to the xo£ TO th or j]jo^oo"o tn P art °f^' By Moses 

HOLDEN. 



On Decimal Fractions. By Anthony Peacock. 

If the successive remainders in finding the reciprocal of a prime number be placed 
over each quotient figure, the whole will form a table of the decimals equivalent to such 
number as a denominator, and the respective remainders as numerators. By this ar- 
rangement the several properties of pure repetends may be studied with great advantage. 
J I. 10. 13. 14. 24. 8. 22. 17. 25. 18. 6. 2. 20. 26. 






3 


4 


4 


8 


2 


7 


5 


8 


6 


2 





G 


8 


28. 


19. 


16. 


15. 


5. 


21. 


7. 


12. 


4. 


11. 


23. 


27. 


0. 


3. 



(.9 6 5 5172413 7 931 
The figures in the upper line are the several remainders, or numerators, and may 
be called the indices of the series ; the under figures are the repetend : thus — 

=c -1379310344, &c., — — -93103448, &c, — = -03448275, &c. 
' ' 29 29 

From the two following original properties of a reciprocal repetend various practical 
rules have been devised. 

1st. The product of any two numerators or indices is equal to the numerator stand- 
ing in the sum of the places, reckoning from right to left, unless the product exceed the 
denominator, in which case the numerator is the remainder from the product divided 
by the denominator : thus, in 29ths, 4 and 7 arc the indices in the 6th and 8th places, 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 11 

and 4 X 7 = 28 is in the 6 + 8 = 14th place. Again, 12 and 6 are in the 7th and 18th 

12 X 6 

place, and — : gives a remainder 14, which is in the 7 + 18 = 25th place. 

2ndly. If the last index of a reciprocal repetend from a denominator ending in 9 be 
made a multiplier, and multiplication be made from the last figure, the unit figures of 
the successive products will be the left-hand following digit of the series. In 29ths the 
last index is 3, and as the several products are placed over the series, this curious pro- 
perty may be seen to advantage. 

As this property belongs to all repetends formed from denominators ending in 9, by 
a knowledge of the last index, and the last figure in the series, any repetend may be 
very easily calculated by multiplication, from the last figure of the series to the first; 
while by a particular arrangement of the process, no multiplier need be above 9. 

The last index may be distinguished as the circulate multiplier, and is always one 
more than the tens in any number ending in 9 ; the circulate multiplier for 19 is there- 
fore 2 ; for 49 it is 5 ; and for 199 it is 20. 

Since every prime number terminates in either 1, 3, 7, 9, and the products of 1, 3, 7 
by 9, 3, 7 respectively terminate in 9, the circulate multipliers for numbers ending in 
1,3, 7 will be the circulate multipliers of such products ending in 9 ; for example, 
7 X 7 = 49 gives 5 for the circulate multiplier for 7ths. 

7ths, or J 7, 21. 14. 42. 28. 35. 1 Indices to be divided 

I — i 1 4 2 8 5 7 f by 7 for 7ths. 

49ths. I J 

The last figure of the series, from denominators ending in 9, is always the unit figure 
of the numerator. 

Having the circulate multiplier, and the last figure in the series, the repetend, as was 
before observed, may be found by multiplying the circulate multiplier into the last figure, 
then into the unit figure of the product, then into the unit of the next product, and so 
on successively, until the whole of the series is produced from the end to the beginning. 

5 

Example 1. Required the repetend of — . 

Here 4 is the circulate multiplier, and 5 the last figure of the series. 
39th -f Products - 5. 11. 32. 8. 2. 20. 
iSeries. 12 8 2 5 

Example 2. Required the circulate of _. 

Here the circulate multiplier is 12, the last figure of the series 5 with 6 to carry into 
the first product. 

Products. 116. 89. 57. 94. 107. 118. 109. 19. 71. 115. 79. 76. 26. 103. 78. 66. 
Series. 



9 7 4 7 8 9 


9 


1 5 9 


6 6 3 8 6 


5 


99. 38. 23. 111. 39. 33. 92. 87. 


37. 


13. 11. 110. 


29. 42. 44. 83. 




831 93277 


3 


10 9 


2 4 3 6 




65. 55. 74. 26. 22. 101. 58. 104. 


88. 


47. 113. 59. 


114. 69. 95. 117. 





546 21 84 873 94 957 9 
When the denominator is not a prime number, the numerator may be commensura- 
ble with it, in which case all the products may be divided by the greatest common mea- 
sure of the fraction ; the results will be the indices of a circulate from a prime denomi- 
nator, of which the given denominator is the product by the common measure. 

56 

For example. Required the repetend of — — . 

In this question the circulate multiplier is 12, the last figure of the series 6, with 5 

56 8 
to carry in. But — — = — ; consequently the series will be 1 7ths. Therefore, if the 

products be divided by 7 (the common measure), the quotients will be the indices of 
the repetend of 17ths. 



12 REPORT — 1842. 

ll9ths.j|; ro . ducts - 
I. Series. 

Indices of 17ths. 8. 12. 1. 10. 15. 14. 4. 6. 9. 5. 16. 7. 2. 3. 13. 11. 

In a similar manner to the last example, the circulate for any prime denominator 

whatever may be found. 



56. 


SI 


7. 


70. 


105. 


OS. 


28. 


•12. 


63. 


35. 


112. 


49. 


11. 


21. 


01 


77. 


4 


7 





5 


8 


s 


2 


:; 


.j 


2 


9 


4 


1 


1 


7 


6 



Extracts from a Letter on the state of the Observatory at Glasgow (25th 
June, 1842). By Professor Nichol. 

" The members of the Physical Section will be pleased to know, that our great transit 
circle, made by Ertel, is now in operation. The object-glass of the telescope is 6 - 2 
inches, and the diameter of the directed circle 3 J feet. The construction of this circle 
is somewhat different from those formerly furnished by the same celebrated artist. 
Its circles are placed outside of the pillars on which it rests, and the alidada, instead 
of verniers, carries microscopes. The position of the alidada, secured roughly by a 
clamp, is ascertained on any observation, by the state of a delicate level, each of 
whose divisions values 2*"4 of space, so that the power of the eye to subdivide this 
quantity along the breadth of a division of this level gives the ultimate limit of the 
precision of the instrument for a single observation. Two fixed collimators, watched 
by levels, each of the divisions of which values 3", enable the observer to determine 
the position either of the horizontal line or of a line, at a known angle with the hori- 
zontal line ; and it will be clear that observations on both collimators necessarily indi- 
cate the horizontal collimation ervors of the middle levers of the telescope, as well as 
the errors arising from flexure. 

" Our meteorological department is nearly complete ; and I have just received no- 
tice of the arrival of the declination- and horizontal-force magnetometers for our mag- 
netic pavilion, from Meyerstein of Gottingen." 



On the Matliematical Expressions which lead to an explanation of all the 
ordinary Phenomena in Optics. By Professor MacCuleagh. 

On a Neio Property of the Bays of the Spectrum, with Observations on the 
Explanation of it given by the Astronomer Royal, on the Principles of the 
Undulatory Theory. By Sir David Brewster. 

If we eover half the pupil of the eye with a thin plate of any transparent body, and 
thus view a prismatic spectrum, so that the rays which pass by the plate interfere with 
those which pass through it, the spectrum is seen crossed with beautiful black and nearly 
equidistant bands, whose breadth, generally speaking, increased with the thinness of 
the plate. If the edge dividing the ray were directed to the red end of the spectrum, 
then fringes were seen ; but no such fringes appeared when it was turned to the 
violet end of the spectrum. One peculiarity of these fringes, not before noticed, was 
that they had not the forms of bands, but rather the appearance of screws, or dotted 
black lines, or as if they were formed by the shadow of a plate of metal perforated by 
small openings. This, which appeared to be a new property of light, and to indicate 
a polarity in the single rays of light, when separated from each other by refraction, 
he had commented on at the meetings of the Association at Liverpool and Bristol ; 
and Mr. Airy, the Astronomer Royal, had given a paper and two publications on the 
subject, in which he endeavoured to account for this upon the undulatory theory, 
arguing that the appearance and magnitude of the fringe depended upon the diameter 
of the pupil, or of the object-glass. Sir D. Brewster said he had repeated all his ex- 
periments under every variety of form, varying the diameter of the pupil from its 
greatest expansion to its greatest contraction, and the diameter of the object-glass 
from four inches to a quarter of an inch, and the fringe remained utterly unaffected 
by these variations. He further found, that these fringes varied in magnitude with 
the distance of the eye from the refracting body, and not with the magnitude of the 
pupil. He stated several other results, all of which, he thought, could not be explained 
on the principles of the undulatory theory. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THH SECTIONS. 13 

On the Dichroism of the Palladio-chlorides of Potassium and Ammonium. 
By Sir David Brewster. 

Dr. Wollaston had found that a long crystal of either of these salts, when looked 
through transversely, had a green colour, but when looked through from either end, 
had a red colour; and he (Sir D. Brewster) placed one of these long crystals trans- 
versely over another, in a cruciform shape, and then found that those portions of the 
centres of both, which were in contact, gave a red colour, while all the ends of the 
crystals were red. 

On the existence of a New Neutral Point, and two Secondary Neutral Points. 
By Sir David Brewster. 

After noticing the two neutral points (points where there is no polarization of light) 
of MM. Arago and Babinet, Sir David Brewster said he had discovered a third. 
He also mentioned amongst some general results of observations continued for a long 
time, that instead of the point of maximum polarization being always, as supposed, at 
90° from the sun, he had found it more frequently 88° from the sun. He also de- 
scribed a polarimeter or polariscope, by which, he said, the rectilinear bands in polar- 
ization were seen more clearly than by other methods. 



On certain Cases of Elliptically Polarized Light. By Prof. Powell. 

At the last meeting of the Association, Prof. Lloyd* gave a theoretical investigation 
of certain results obtained by Sir D. Brewster relative to thin films from which polar- 
ized light is reflected. Besides completely explaining those results, Prof. Lloyd infers, 
that such films ought to give the portions of light reflected at their two surfaces differ- 
ing in phase, and that the light should be consequently in general elliptically polarized. 

The author of the present paper, before he was aware of the investigation of Prof . 
Lloyd, had made many observations on the elliptical polarization of light by reflexion 
from metallie and other surfaces, — the method of observation being by the well-known 
dislocation of the polarized rings. Some of these experiments went merely to prove 
the existence of elliptic polarization in cases where it had not previously been detect- 
ed, as in certain minerals and other bodies in which it is seen though of small amount. 
In other cases the reflecting surface consisted of the thin films formed on polished 
metal by tarnish, by heat, or by the galvanic process of Nobili. In these instances, a 
verification was afforded of Prof. Lloyd's theory by direct observation. But, further, 
these films give periodic colours ; and in passing from one tint to another, the ellip- 
ticity, as disclosed by the form of the rings, underwent regular changes, passing from 
a dislocation in one direction to the opposite, through points of no dislocation or of 
plane polarization, the rings being alternately dark and bright centred. This afford- 
ed a further field for the application of theory, and Mr. Airy investigated a formula 
for the rings under these varying conditions, with which the phenomena are in perfect 
accordance. 



On Crystalline Reflexion. By Sir David Brewster. 

Having (said Sir David), in a conversation with Prof. Kelland, had my attention 
directed to Prof. M'Cullagh's interesting memoir on the laws of crystalline reflexion 
and refraction, I have felt it necessary to make a communication on the subject to 
the British Association. In consequence of the results which I laid before the Bristol 
meeting, Prof. M'Cullagh was led to revise the views to which he had been led by my 
earlier experiments in 1819. I had at that time the advantage of communicating with 
him personally and by letter ; and, having preserved copious abstracts of his paper on 
the subject, I did not look into the memoir itself till yesterday, when my attention 
was drawn to the following note : — " I was at this time in doubt whether the phe- 
nomena observed with oil of cassia could be reconciled to that theory ; and when the 
note in page 36 was written, I was almost certain that they could not. But I have 
since, I think, found out the cause of this perplexity : some of Sir David Brewster's 
experiments were made with natural surfaces of Iceland spar ; others with surfaces 

* See Report, 1841. Transactions of the Sections, p. 26. 



14 REPORT — 1842. 

artificially polished. I believe (though I have made very few calculations relative 
to the point), that the former class of experiments will be perfectly explained by the 
theory; the latter I am certain cannot, nor ought ice to expect that they should; for 
the process of artificially polishing must necessarily occasion small irregularities by 
exposing little elementary rhombs with their faces inclined to the general surface, 
and the action of these faces may produce the unsymmetrical effects which Sir David 
Brewster notices as so extraordinary. If this does not account for such effects, I do 
not know what will." Had Prof. M'Cullagh communicated to me this explanation of 
the incapacity of the undulatory theory to account for the extraordinary unsymme- 
trical phenomena which I described to the British Association, and which exist to a 
much greater extent than I described ; or had it been contained in the two abstracts 
of his memoir, with which I was familiar, I could at once have removed the difficulty 
referred to in the preceding note. The view he has taken of the action of an arti- 
ficially polished surface of Iceland spar, is a mistaken one. The exposure of ele- 
mentary rhombs with faces oblique to the general surface, would show themselves in 
separate rays inclined to the principal pencil, especially in solar light. It could not for 
an instant be overlooked by an experienced observer. Such faces I can produce at 
pleasure, by a slight chemical action upon the surface, whether polished by crystal- 
lization or by art ; and it is impossible to confound the pencil which they reflect, with 
that which is given by the general surface. It is useless, however, to pursue this ar- 
gument any further, because I have obtained exactly the same results in using natural 
faces, and in using artificial ones, and especially on planes perpendicular to the axis 
of the crystal, where I have found the same results with the natural faces of the Chaux 
carbonatee basee of Hauy, and with those produced by artificial grinding. In this case 
the coincidence is still more remarkable, as the very friction of the finger is capable 
of developing on this surface the faces of elementary rhombs ; but the reflexions from 
these never disturb in the slightest degree the physical action of the general surface. 
I have no doubt that Prof. M'Cullagh will concur in the accuracy of these views, and, 
with that candour which distinguishes him, will acknowledge, as he has almost done 
already in the preceding note, that the undulatory theory is, generally speaking, in- 
capable of explaining the phaenomena of crystalline reflexion. 



On a very curious fact connected with Photography, discovered by M. Moser 
of Kbnigsberg, communicated by Prof. Bessel to Sir D. Brewster. 
Sir D. Brewster said, he was requested to communicate an account of some remark- 
able facts connected with the theory of photography. A new process of producing 
photographic impressions had been discovered by Dr. Mbser of Kbnigsberg ; and an 
account of the discovery had been brought to this country by Prof. Bessel, who re- 
ceived it from the discoverer himself. The subject was most important, and it would 
have been a great misfortune if the Physical Section had separated without being 
made acquainted with it. The following were the general facts connected with it :— 
A black plate of horn, or agate, is placed below a polished surface of silver, at the 
distance of one-twentieth of an inch, and remains there for ten minutes. The surface 
of the silver receives an impression of the figure, writing, or crest, which may be cut 
upon the agate or horn. The figures &c. do not appear on the silver at the expiration 
of the ten minutes, but are rendered visible by exposing the silver plate to vapour, 
either of amber, water, mercury, or any other fluid. He (Sir D. Brewster) had heard 
Prof. Bessel say, that the vapours of different fluids were analogous to the different 
coloured rays "of the spectrum ; that the different fluids had different effects, cor- 
responding to those of the spectrum ; and that they could, in consequence of such cor- 
respondence, produce a red, blue, or violet colour. The image of the camera obscura 
might be projected on any surface, — glass, silver, or the smooth leather cover of a 
book, without any previous preparation ; and the effects would be the same as those 
produced on a silver plate covered with iodine. 



On the Dichroism of a Solution of Stramonium in 2Ether. 
By Sir David Brewster. 
The solution was yellow by transmitted light, but green by reflected light. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 15 

On the Geometric Forms, and Laws of Illumination of the Spaces which 
receive the Solar Rays, transmitted through Quadrangular Apertures. By 
Sir David Brewster. 

He said his attention was called to this subject by an accidental discussion on the 
point, whether or not Aristotle, in explaining the circularity of images formed by 
quadrilateral apertures, employed the appropriate idea when he said that those images 
were, to a certain extent, quadrilateral, but appeared circular, from the eye being unable 
to recognise faint impressions of light. Prof. Whewell, in his ' History of the Philo- 
sophy of the Inductive Sciences,' had distinctly stated, that Aristotle had not used the 
appropriate idea, and that the question was entirely a geometrical one, the appropriate 
idea being the rectilinear nature of light. Having been led accidentally to consider 
the subject, he (Sir D. Brewster) had determined in a simple manner the form of the 
aperture at all distances, and had been led to take the same view of the subject with 
Aristotle, who seemed to have employed the appropriate idea. 



On Luminous Lines in certain Flames corresponding to the defective Lines in 
the Sun's Light. JBy Sir David Brewster. 

After noticing Fraunhofer's beautiful discovery as to the phsenomena of the line D 
in the prismatic spectrum, Sir David said, he had received from the establishment of 
that eminent man, at Munich, a splendidprism, made for the British Association, and 
one of the largest, perhaps, ever made ; and, upon examining by it the spectrum of 
deflagrating nitre, he was surprised to find the red ray, discovered by Mr. Fox Talbot, 
accompanied by several other rays, and that this extreme red ray occupied the exact 
place of the line A in Fraunhofer's spectrum, and equally surprised to see a luminous 
line corresponding with the line B of Fraunhofer. In fact, all the black lines of Fraun- 
hofer were depicted in the spectrum in brilliant red light. The lines A and B turned 
out in the spectrum of deflagrating nitre to be both double lines ; and, upon examining 
a solar spectrum under favourable circumstances, he found bands corresponding to these 
double lines. He had looked with great anxiety to see if there was anything analogous 
in other flames, and it would appear that this was a property which belonged to almost 
every flame. 

On the Structure of a Part of the Solar Spectrum hitherto unexamined. 
By Sir David Brewster. 

He had, by means of the prism from Munich, been enabled to extend the solar 
spectrum beyond the point where, according to Fraunhofer, it terminated immediately 
at the side of the line A, and he (Sir David) found one part to consist of about sixteen 
lines, placed so near to each other, that it was difficult to recognise the separation ; 
but the lines, as they approached to A, were much nearer to each other than as they 
receded from it ; consequently, that portion of the spectrum appeared concave, resem- 
bling so much the scooped-out lines of a moulding on wood, that it was scarcely pos- 
sible to suppose that the beholder was not looking at such a moulding. He was led to 
observe an analogous structure near the line B ; and upon carrying on this comparison 
of structure of one part of the spectrum with that of another, it seemed to him, that, 
by and by, something important would result ; for there was a repetition of a group 
of lines, and similar lines, through different parts of the spectrum, as if the same cause 
which produced them in one part produced them in another. 

On the Luminous Bands in the Spectra of various Flames. 
By Sir David Brewster. 

He had endeavoured to procure all the minerals and artificial salts and other sub- 
stances capable of combustion which could be had ; and, in order to have a suitable 
combination, he used an oxygen light analogous to the Bude light. Every one con- 
ducting these experiments was aware that it was necessary to pass the light through a 
narrow aperture; but this would reduce the intensity of the light so much, as to make 
it difficult to observe the rays at the extremity of the spectrum ; but he found that he 
could obtain the effect of a small aperture, by merely inclining the prism ; so that, with 
a good prism, the great lines ia the solar spectrum might be seen by using an aperture 



16 REPORT — 1842. 

three or four feet wide, the whole breadth of the window, by the mere inclination of 
the prism, which had the effect of producing a narrowing, facing the light. He had 
obtained 200 or 300 results, which He had not had any leisure to group ; but he would 
mention some of the general results. When nitrate of lead was thrown into combustion, 
remarkably tine lines were produced in the spectrum. The luminous line, D, of Frau-n- 
hofer, existed in almost every substance, especially in all into which soda entered, par- 
ticularly in the flame of a common tallow candle; probably owing to the muriate of 
soda existing in the tallow. The hydrate of strontites gave the lines very remarkably in 
yellow and green. The iodide of mercury did the same. Also in that remarkable 
substance, the lithoxanthemate of ammonia, first discovered and published by Mr. Fox 
Talbot, the fine lines were seen throughout the whole length of the spectrum; and 
there was a remarkable blue band, which he (Sir David Brewster) bad not distinctly 
recognized in any other flame. Indigo gave fine green and orange lines at equal di- 
stances from the D of Fraunhofer. Prussian blue did the same; calomel, nitrate of 
magnesia, litharge, also showed lines; the sulpho-cyanite of potash gave a violet and 
orange flame, with the lines extremely distinct. He hoped, at the next year's meeting 
of the Association, to be able to embody these various results in a regular report. 



On the Improvement of the Telescope. By H. Fox Talbot, F.R.S. 

Mr. Fox Talbot said, that this subject occurred to him about two years ago, when 
the Earl of Rosse (then Lord Oxmantown) was making much larger specula for re- 
flecting telescopes than had ever been obtained before ; and he thought, if once we 
had a very large and perfect speculum, it might be possible to multiply copies of it by 
galvanic means. He had observed, that if an electrotype cast were taken from a per- 
fectly polished surface, the cast was also perfectly polished; so that no defect of form 
from this cause could have an injurious effect on the speculum. The great and ob- 
vious defect was, that electrotypes were in copper, which reflected but little light. 
He mentioned these ideas to Prof. Wheatstone, to whom the same views had occurred 
previously, as he showed Mr. Talbot a paper which he had drawn up some few 
months before, in which he suggested the making specula of platina, palladium, silver 
or nickel, by precipitating a sufficient thickness of these metals upon the mould to ob- 
tain a perfect surface, and afterwards precipitating a less valuable metal, as copper, to 
form the body of the new speculum. 

Though it had occurred to Mr. Talbot to precipitate white metals, yet he did not 
think that platina would have a sufficiently beautiful white metallic polish. Prof. 
Wheatstone had, however, made choice of platina; and, varying the quantity till he 
found the required proportion, he obtained a mirror in platina, which appeared to him 
(Mr. Talbot) to have quite brilliant polish enough, and to be white enough to answer 
the purpose ; and he considered, therefore, that Prof. Wheatstone had proved, that, at 
least in one form, the specula of telescopes might be made by voltaic precipitation. 
His own idea was, that it might be possible to whiten the surface of the copper without 
injuring the form ; and, therefore, having obtained a speculum in very bright, polished 
copper, be (Mr. Talbot) whitened it, and transformed it into sulphurct of copper, by 
exposing it for a minute to the vapour of hydrosulphuret of ammonia, which did not 
injure its polish, but after passing through a series of varied colours (scarlet, blue, 
&c.) rendered it very white; and after having retained this speculum about a year, he 
did not perceive the smallest alteration in any respect. This, therefore, appeared to him 
a mode bv which important results could be obtained. There was no danger of such 
a speculum being oxidated by the air, since it was already in combination with sul- 
phur, a more powerful chemical affinity than oxygen. 

For the last year, perhaps, nothing further had been done, either by Prof. Wheat- 
stone or himself; but lately, being at Munich, he visited Prof. Steinheil, and saw his 
inventions, and learned from him that he had discovered a method of making specula 
by the electrotype. It so happened, that both Prof. Steinheil and himself had pub- 
lished their respective methods about a month or six weeks before; the Professor 
having read a communication on the subject before the Academy of Sciences at Mu- 
nich, and printed it, and Mr. Talbot having published his in England. Their modes 
were, however, different, as Prof. Steinheil precipitated gold upon the speculum which 
was to be copied, and having precipitated a certain thickness of gold, he then precipi- 
tated copper on the back of the gold, to give it sufficient thickness. He (Mr. Talbot) 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 17 

should have thought beforehand that gold would not reflectlight enough to be available; 
but Prof. Steinheil informed him he had found, by careful experiment, that it reflected 
more light than polished steel. He allowed Mr. Talbot to look through a Gregorian 
reflecting telescope, of which the speculum was a common one, but gilded, and he 
found the image perfectly clear and well-defined, though a slight tinge of yellow was 
thrown over all the objects. Prof. Steinheil said, that in the course of a year he should 
have a very large telescope, furnished not only with a speculum, but also with other 
apparatus, voltaically formed, so that telescopes might be made all from a good model, 
so as to insure greater accuracy of proportions ; and in this way even very large tele- 
scopes might be constructed- at a comparatively trifling expense. With reference to 
precipitating copper on the back of the gold, the Professor had a simple expedient for 
securing adhesion. He first precipitated gold from the cyanide of gold, and he mixed 
with it cyanide of copper, and kept gradually increasing the quantity of the latter, 
so that an alloy was precipitated, which was continually increasing the copper with 
respect to the gold, till he had a speculum whose surface was gold, and which then be- 
came an alloy, the quality decreasing, till, at the bottom,it became pure copper. This 
was important; because, without such experiments, one would not have known that 
such results would have followed; for some philosophers supposed, that, if we attempt 
to precipitate the salts of two metals, only one is precipitated ; but Prof. Steinheil 
informed him that they precipitated in union. He thus obtained a speculum with a 
face of gold and a back of copper. 

But, supposing the largest, cheapest, and best speculum was obtained, the framework 
of the telescope would be so gigantic, that few observers would be able to use the in- 
strument. With a focal length of sixty to eighty feet, it would be quite unmanageable 
for any private individual. The idea occurred to him (Mr. Talbot), to have a tube 
fixed in an invariable position, and to have a perfectly true plane mirror, of a size 
somewhat larger than the concave speculum, placed in front of the tube, with an aper- 
ture in the centre. This plane reflector should be moveable about its centre in any 
direction ; so that rays from luminous bodies, falling first upon the plane reflector, were 
then reflected against the concave reflector, and then passed through the aperture. The 
only motion requisite for the plane mirror would be one about its centre. The me- 
chanical difficulties in the way of this plan would be far less than in the common method. 
Prof. Steinheil's idea on this point was somewhat different. He (Mr. Talbot) had 
thought of placing the tube in a horizontal position, which, in the case of a tube of 
very great length, has manifest advantages. Prof. Steinheil's idea was, that it should 
be pointed directly to the pole of the heavens. 



On the Theory of Magnetism. By John Goodman. 

Having frequently attempted in vain to produce electro-magnetic effects by the 
current from the electrical machine and metallic conductors, the author at length 
resolved upon employing such imperfect conductors of the current as would arrest 
the speed of the frictional fluid, and cause it to progress more in the manner of vol- 
taic electricity. For this purpose he used a slip of common writing-paper as a con- 
ductor in place of copper wire employed in electro-magnetism, and instead of the 
soft iron substituted a plate of thin window-glass. This plate being arranged upon 
insulating pillars, it was found, after several test experiments, that the greatest 
weight that could be sustained was supported by suspending the same to a card or 
paper armature affixed to the under surface of the glass, whilst a continuous current 
from the positive to the negative conductor of the machine was transmitted along 
the upper surface of the plate by means of two half sheets of writing-paper. _ In 
this manner a weight of five ounces and twenty grains was sustained for some time, 
which, in proportion to the quantity of electricity in the current, is probably as great 
■as is ever supported by any electro-magnet whatever. 

From the success of this experiment the author contended, that for anything at 
present known this may be the principle of magnetic action ; nor does he see any 
reason for seeking other explanation of magnetic phsenomena than the simple laws 
of ordinary electric attraction and repulsion. He also suggested that the crystalline 
nature of iron may render it more capable of polarization by electric influence than 
the other metals ; and if a polar effect be obtained, so that the electricity of one par- 

1842. c 



18 REPORT— 1842. 

tide shall pass on to the next in the series, and so on throughout the length of the 
bar, and shall not be enabled to return without the removal of the inducing force, 
the elementary particles of such bar will be placed in a condition for exalting the 
tension of each other from end to end (as is the case in the multiplication of pairs 
of plates in a voltaic battery), and produce what may be termed " reciprocal polari- 
zation." 

The particles of steel may be so separated by the carbon which it contains, and by 
the process of hardening, as entirely to prevent the return of the fluid after polari- 
zation has been effected ; and finally, if the force of each particle be doubled by the 
reciprocal polarization of the one next in line, and this by the next, and so on 
throughout the series, it may readily be conceived that a degree of tension would be 
produced at each end of a bar magnet, which would be capable of inducing in a 
piece of metal of a similar kind, the same condition at a considerable distance, and 
develope indeed all the phamomena exhibited by this wonderful agency. 



On the Cause of Dissimilarity of the Voltaic and Ordinary Electricities. 
By John Goodman. 

There had arisen on the part of Dr. Faraday and other eminent electricians, ob- 
jections to the use of the guarded poles in decomposing water, described by Dr. 
Wollaston as being unidentical with voltaic decomposition, but the poles made use 
of in an apparatus constructed by Mr. Goodman were of fine platina wire completely 
unguarded. Poles of this description, one-eighth or one-sixteenth of an inch in length, 
had been frequently employed by the author, and had readily decomposed water by 
the current alone from the electrical machine. 

Mr. Goodman then proceeded to point out his view of the cause of dissimilarity in 
the two fluids, and in so doing adverted to the phenomena exhibited in the employ- 
ment of the condensing electrometer. 

On electrolvzing the plate in communication with the gold leaves, the latter in- 
stantly diverge, and exhibit considerable " tension." But on drawing near the 
opposing uninsulated plate, a gradual collapse of the leaves is uniformly the result, 
approaching each other as the plate advances, and when it has arrived at a given 
distance, the leaves are found in perfect opposition. But on removing the same they 
again diverge, and this process may be repeated many times under favorable circum- 
stances. During the period when the leaves are apart, the electricity by which the 
electrometer is charged is found to possess much " tension," that is (according to 
the views of the author), powerful attractive and repulsive properties, and in conse- 
quence much elasticity of character, great mechanical force, momentum, and capa- 
bility of resisting atmospheric pressure, and considerable magnitude of spark, &c.&c; 
but when the plates are in a given degree of apposition, all these properties disappear, 
and are supplanted by others more resembling the character of the voltaic than ordi- 
nary electricity. Its high tension is subdued, and the increased capacity of the plate 
for a further supply of electricity of the same kind, evinces the disposition of the 
fluijl to become more and more condensed, and assume that condition which may 
with great propriety be termed " intensity." Hence we may infer, as stated by Dr. 
Faraday, what " an enormous quantity of electricity is present in matter," the 
atomic particles of the same being at all times subject to the polarizing influence of 
each other, at atomic distances, and inducing thus an amazing capacity for, and con- 
densation of fluid. It is not improbable that electricity in this condensed condition 
occupies the interior of metallic bodies, that it is indeed the peculiar fluid of the 
atomic particles of matter, and yet that of high tension resides on the mere surface of 
metallic conductors. The cause then of dissimilarity in the two modifications is, 
that in the one case (the voltaic) the elementary particles of all the matter, fluid and i 
solid concerned in its production, are continually in contiguous relation to each other; 
and in the other modification (the frictional) the two main antagonist or opposing 
forces are removed and separated by the revolutions of the cylinder to a considerable 
distance from each other. The positive fluid upon the surface of the cylinder is re- 
moved completely out of the sphere of action of its opposing negative force, situate 
in the rubber, and is afterwards subject only to polarizing influence from remote 
bodies. Mr. Goodman exemplified this view of the subject by diagrams and fur- 
ther explanations. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 19 

On the Positive and the Negative Streams of Electrified Air, and on an 
Electrical Machine fitted for examining them. By the Rev. C.J. Kennedy. 

On Improved Magnets, and the different Modes of determining their Powers, 
with an Account of certain undescribed Phcenomena in Permanent Mag- 
netics. By the Rev. W. Scoresby, D.D.' F.R.S., §c. 

The author having called attention to the varying relations of capacity for, and 
retention of, the magnetic condition in specimens of steel of different mass, hardness, 
and quality, showed by experiments with compound magnets, constructed by himself 
after an extended investigation of their relations, the possibility of communicating 
and retaining very unusual magnetic energy in systems of bars, suited for various 
practical purposes. A magnet exhibited was stated to be of nearly ten times the power 
of one on the ordinary principle of equal mass. The phsenomena exhibited by it 
were, indeed, very striking, particularly its capability of suspending above 10,000 
small nails in a loop which could be moulded like plastic clay. 

In respect to the different methods of determining the powers of straight bar mag- 
nets, Dr. Scoresby showed the superiority in convenience and comparability, of the 
method of deviations, over that of torsion, and mentioned as a general result, that 
small bars exhibited greater proportionate magnetic energy than large bars. 

It appeared to have escaped notice that a considerable proportion of the energy of 
magnets taken in combination existed in a state of elastic sitppression, so that, on se- 
paration of the bars, a great increase of energy is exhibited in their individual powers. 
This weakening of some bars placed in contact might even in some cases proceed so 
far as to give to such bars an opposite magnetic condition whilst in the mass, and 
thus really diminish the power of the combination. 

The result of his numerous experiments on the subject of the communication and 
retention of magnetism, was to enable him to show what, for any specific purpose, 
was the best quality and denomination (as blister-steel, cast-steel, &c.) of steel, and 
the right degree of hardness. For certain researches concerning the earth's mag- 
netism, Dr. Scoresby proposed powerful short compound bars (six inches or less in 
length), of sufficient mass to carry reflecting mirrors for determining minute changes 
of direction. 



Colonel Sabine read a letter which enclosed Boguslawski's Report ' On the Ob- 
servations made by him in Breslau with the Magnetic Instruments belonging to the 
British Association.' 



Supplementary Report of a Committee on Waves. By J. S. Russell, M.A. 

Much of the difficulty experienced in attaining clear conceptions of the phrenomena 
and mechanism of waves is to be attributed to this circumstance, that we are apt to 
confound with each other, under the general name of Wave Motion, a variety of phre- 
nomena essentially different in their origin, their form and their laws. This essential 
diversity the author of this paper had formerly endeavoured to establish, more espe- 
cially in the case of that species of wave which he had called the Wave of Transla- 
tion. In his memoir of observations made in 1 834-35, he had indicated the existence 
and described some of the phenomena of two other classes of waves, as also in the 
former printed Reports of the Association ; but he had lately embraced an opportu- 
nity of extending his observations and maturing a classification, which he now sub- 
mitted to the Section. 

Of waves, there seem to be three great orders obeying very different laws : — 

(1.) Wave of the First Order. — The wave of translation is solitary, progressive, 
depending chiefly on the depth of the fluid ; has two species, positive and negative. 

(2.) Waves of the Second Order. — The oscillatory waves are gregarious, the time 
of oscillation depending on the amplitude of the wave ; of two species, progressive and 
stationary. 

(3.) The leaves of the third order are capillary waves ; gregarious : the oscilla- 
tions of the superficial film of a fluid, under the influence of the capillary forces, ex- 
tending to a very minute depth, short in duration ; of two species, free and constrained. 

The last of these classes he had not before minutely examined, and to them he 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1842. 

wished to draw the attention of the Section, as amongst the phaanomena which we 
most frequently see and have yet failed to examine. Although these waves were 
noticed by the author in 1834 and figured in a memoir of his own, which drawing had 
since been published by M. Poncelet in his ' Mecanique ' along with an announcement 
that he had observed the same waves in running water, yet they had not hitherto 
attracted notice, or been thoroughly examined by Mr Russell or any one else. He 
believed them to be the minute waves or dents indicated by the theory of Poisson, he 
had therefore thought it his duty to examine them. 

The waves of the third order were observed by Mr. Scott Russell in the following 
manner. A slender brass wire was. inserted vertically into a still fluid, and drawn in 
that position slowly along its surface. When the velocity is one foot per second, the 
surface of the water exhibits a group of waves of great beauty and regularity, extending 
forwards before the exciting point and spreading on both sides of it in the form of a 
con-focal group of hyperbolas ; the focal distance of each hyperbola and its asym- 
ptotes being determined by the velocity of the motion. Although the exciting 
point was of no more than T ' F th of an inch in diameter, these waves extend over 
several feet, and the diagrams exhibited the phasnomena as having great regularity 
and beauty. Numerical results, showing the number of these waves in an inch of 
distance from the exciting point, were given, and are nearly as follows : — 

Velocity of moving point. Number of waves in an inch. 

55 feet per minute. 2 

60 „ „ 3 

65 „ „ 4 

72 : , „ 5 

80 „ „ 6 

90 „ ., 7 

103 „ „ 8 

120 „ „ 9 

These waves were examples of capillary waves not in free but constrained motion. 
He had generated them in a different manner, so as to examine them in free motion 
uninfluenced by the generating point, and found that the capillary waves when moving 
freely have a constant velocity of 8^ inches per second; that their duration is short, 
becoming insensible in about twelve seconds after describing a path not longer than 
eight or nine feet : in the free state this breadth is very small at first, gradually in- 
creases, and just before vanishing attains an amplitude of nearly an inch. 

The capillary waves are among the phaenomena we most frequently observe. It is 
in generating them that a gentle breeze forming over the surface of a smooth lake 
destroys the translucent and reflective power of the surface ; they are also to be ob- 
served in all cases of primary and secondary wave motion when the superficial film is 
by any cause compressed so as to produce corrugation ; and they always disappear in 
about twelve seconds after the exciting cause is removed. 

The second order of waves had also been made the subject of careful observation. A 
mode had been discovered of generating those waves in large groups, so that instead of 
observing single waves the length of one could be deduced from the measured length of a 
number, thus getting the advantage of repetition of the quantity observed. It had thus 
been finally determined that these oscillating waves follow Newton's law, in so far that 
the velocities of transmission are as the square roots of the amplitudes; but the abso- 
lute velocity differs from that of Newton, so that instead of having the wave whose 
period is a second of an amplitude = 3-26, it is found to be = 3-57. The velocities 
determined are as follows : — 

Velocity of transmission of wave. Amplitude. 

3*01 feet per second 2-65 feet 

3-16 „ „ 2-94 „ 

3-29 „ „ 3-125 „ 

3-37 „ „ 3-26 „ 

*3-57 „ „ *3-57 „ 

3-72 „ „ 3-913 „ 

3-84 „ „ 4-20 „ 

4-16 „ „ 5-00 „ 

4'62 „ „ 6-25 „ 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



21 



He had also completed some further examinations of the wave of the first order, and 
could now present the subject in a tolerably complete form. 



Observations on Oceanic Waves. By William Walker. 

After detailing the advantages which the locality where these observations were 
made (Bovisand, near Plymouth) possessed for such an object, such as complete ex- 
posure to the waves of the Atlantic, a series of buoys at ascertained distances, well- 
observed soundings, a tide gauge fixed at the pier, and elevated cliffs from which the 
waves in series may be conveniently observed, the author described his methods of 
observing, and presented in a tabular form the results of his observations made durin°- 
the last winter. 





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From these data it does not appear that the ratios between the heights, velocities, and 

other elements of waves, are regulated by any constant law. On the 28th of September 

the waves were found to travel at the rate of 46 feet per second, being 460 feet apart, 

nd breaking in five fathoms water; the next day their velocity was only 42 feet per 



22 report — 1842. 

second, and the height of an unbroken wave was 27 feet above the surface level ! These 
waves were breaking in iive and six fathoms. On the 1st of October the velocity of the 
waves travelling at right angles to the wind, was 46' feet per second, the distance be- 
tween the waves was 345 feet, and their height only 5 feet! 



On the Tidal P/tcenomena in the Bay of Fandy and the River de la Plata. 
By Mr. Rook. 

On the Meteorology of the Province of Coorg, in the Western Ghats of 
India. By Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. 

In offering a further contribution in support of an almost established law in me- 
teorology, a few prefatory observations may be useful. Towards the end of the last 
century it was remarked, in a series of barometrical observations made at Calcutta, 
that there was a periodicity in the daily rise and fall of the mercury ; the barometer 
throughout the whole year being highest between 9 and 10 a.m., and lowest between 
4 and 5 p.m., the semi-diurnal oscillation however varying from - 030 to "150 or even 
•170. Humboldt determined the same fact in South America, not only at the level of 
the sea, but on the elevated plateaux of the Andes, finding however that there appeared 
to be a gradual diminution of the oscillations between 9 — 10 a.m. and 4 — 5 r.M. in 
2)roportion to the ascent or elevation above the level of the sea. These phenomena 
led to hourly barometrical observations, and it was found that whereas during the 
day there was a maximum pressure between 9 and 10 a.m. and a minimum pressure 
between 4 and 5 p.m., so during the night there was a maximum pressure between 
10 and 11 p.m. and a minimum pressure about 4 or 5 a.m.; thus establishing two 
ascending and two descending waves or tides in the atmosphere during the twenty- 
four hours. My meteorological observations, carried on for several years in the 
Deccan at 2000 feet above the sea, and published in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, were entirely confirmatory of those made by Humboldt ; there never having 
occurred a single instance, whatever the season of the year, wet or dry, hot or cold, 
in which the barometer was not higher at 9 — 10 a.m. than at 4 — 5 p.m. The same 
facts were obtained from the Nilgherry mountains at 8000 feet above the sea — by 
Colonel Sabine from the coast of Africa — and from numerous other places within the 
tropics. From the irregular movements of the barometer beyond the tropics, the phe- 
nomena escaped observation for some time, but of late years numerous careful ob- 
servations and a series of averages have eliminated the same facts which characterise 
the tropics, the amount or range of the semidiurnal oscillation, however, gradually 
diminishing from the equator towards a parallel not yet determined, in very high 
latitudes (but which is beyond 70° N-.), where the hours of maximum and minimum 
pressure are not the same as at the equator. Mr. Snow Harris's singularly uniform 
successions of curves of average pressure of the barometer at Plymouth for several 
years, show the same hours of maxima and minima that 1 found in the Deccan ; and 
by a series of observations transmitted to Colonel Sabine from Finmarken, in latitude 
70° N., the average height of the barometer is still found in that high latitude to be 
greater at 9 a.m. than at 3 p.m., the mean annual temperature of the place of obser- 
vation approximating to the freezing point. 

Although there is a perfect accordance in the hours of maximum and minimum 
pressure within and without the tropics, there is not the same accordance in the ex- 
tent or range of the semidiurnal oscillation of the barometer. In the tropics it is 
considerable ; in high latitudes very small ; and from such observations as have been 
made in intermediate latitudes, grounds are afforded for the belief, that the amount 
of the semidiurnal oscillation gradually diminishes from the equator toward the 
poles, and that the time of the occurrence of maxima and minima are reversed, 
the exact latitude where this change takes place not being yet satisfactorily de- 
termined. 

With these prefatory' observations I may state, that the meteorological observations 
obligingly communicated to me by Dr. Blest of the Madras army, from a new locality 
in the Western Ghats, are entirely confirmatory of those I made in the Deccan re- 
specting the movements of the barometer. 



TBANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



23 



The following is the acceptable Meteorological Register from Dr. Blest of the 
Madras Medical Service, which he prefaces by a quotation from an official Report 
made by Dr. Baikie : — 

" Temperature. — The temperature of Coorg is one of the most moderate and 
equable in the world, the daily range in doors never exceeding 6° or 8°, often not 
beyond 2°, and the thermometer seldom rising higher than 74°, nor sinking below 
CO , in the open air. The range is a little higher during the dry season, the daily ex- 
tremes being between 52° or 53°, and 68° or 70° ; the annual extremes are probably 
52° and 82°. The want of a maximum and minimum thermometer prevents my even 
guessing at the mean annual temperature, but it cannot exceed 65° or 66°. 

" Pressure. — The maximum of the barometer occurs during the dry season, the 
highest noted being 26*220, and the lowest in July during the monsoon 25-912. The 
greatest daily range observed was "076 ; the mean daily range (which is very regular) 
•050. The diurnal maximum occurs at 10 a.m., the minimum at 5 p.m., with such re- 
gularity that I have often detected an error in the supposed time by looking at the 
barometer at these hours. The barometer appears to offer no indication whatever of 
approaching changes of weather, and I have not been able to detect any influence of 
the lunar phases on it. 

" Moisture. — The hygrometrical state of the atmosphere during half the year is 
that of extreme moisture, closely approaching to saturation. During the dry season it 
is occasionally very dry, and sometimes undergoes most remarkable difference to the 
eye or feelings." — Extract from Dr. Baikie's Report. 

The above, in reference to temperature, Dr. Blest observes, differs somewhat from 
the result of his observations, owing to greater exposure of his instruments, which 
were self-registering thermometers. According to Dr. Blest the following are the 
results of three years' observations : — 

Annual mean maximum 76 0, 4 

Annual mean minimum 60 *8 

Annual mean temperature 68 '6 

Annual mean diurnal range 15 - 6 

Monthly Abstract of the daily Meteorological Register kept at Merkara*, in Coorg — 
the mean for three years, 1838, 1839, and 1840. 



Months. 


Monthly mean of 
thermometer. 


Monthly mean of the hygrometrical 

state of the atmosphere, as taken at 

9 A.M. 


Mean height and daily 
range of barometer. 


III 

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s 
a 


s* 

3 
| 


if 


60 
C C 




3 


| 


O • 

•-S 

C.S2 


S 


c 
o 
Pi 


< 








a 


a 


1 


•a 


Os 


£ 


B 


a a 


Q 


Q 






■c 


5S5 


Jan. 


76-2 


57 


66-6 


19-2 


64-71 59 


5-7 


168 


61-8 


52-5 


26-160 


26-100 


•060 


None. 


Feb. 


78-8 


62-8 


70-8 


16 


71-5 67 


4-5 


190-7 


84-4 


57-2 


26-172 


26-135 


•037 


•45 


March 


83-5 


63-9 


73-7 


19-fi 


75 1 68*2 


6-8 


216-2 


84-2 


62 


26-140 


26070 


•070 


1-51 


April 


81-5 


64-7 


73-1 


16-8 


75-3 68-2 


7-1 


214-2 


88-9 


61-7 


26-103 


26-056 


•047 


2-60 


Mav 


79 


64-8 


719 


14-2 


74-3 


68 


6-3 


217 


79-3 


62-2 


26-090 


26-040 


•050 


7-37 


June 


74-3 


64 


69-1 


9-3 


72-4 


68 


4-4 


230 


49 


64-4 


26-161 


26012 


■049 


30-40 


My 


71-9 


62-4 


67-1 


9-5 


67-5 


65-5 


2 


225-2 


23-4 


63-6 


26-088 


25-970 


■030 


55-88 


August 


72-2 


59-9 


66 


12-3 


66-2 64 


2-2 


213-6 


27 


61-5 


26-007 


25-980 


•027 


27- 


Sept. 


72-4 


58-8 


65-6 


13-6 


67-9. 65-2 


2-7 


219 


31-8 


62-6 


26050 


26-010 


•040 


11-91 


Oct. 


76 


57-6 


66-8 


18-4 


69-3! 65-3 


4 


213-1 


47-2 


61-5 


26-070 


26-020 


•050 


4-60 


Nov. 


73-8 


59-2 


G6-5 


14-6 


65-6 61-3 


4-3 


187-5 


48-7 


56-2 


26-115 


26-080 


•035 


1-38 


Dec. 


73-2 


55-6 


64-4 


17-6 


63-8 58-5 


5-3 


125-3 


100-3 


40-8 


26-140 


26-100 


•040 


•25 


Annual mean... 


143-35 


Prevailing Winds. — January, N.E. ; February, N.E.E. ; March, N.E. ; April, W. and 


variable; May, N.W. by W. ; June, W.S.W. ; Jury, S.W. ; August, S.W. ; September, S.W. ; 


October, S.W. N.E.; November, N.E.; December, N.E. 



* N.B. The instruments (with the exception of Pluviometers) were kept in the outer re- 
cess of a window in the north side of Merkara Palace, and perfectly exposed to the open air, 
while protected from glare. 



24 REPORT — 1842. 

Merkara is the capital of Coorg, seated at an elevation above the sea of 4500 feet, about 
65 miles east from Caunanore, in that tract of land lying on the edge of the Western Ghats, 
between the parallels of latitude 12° andl2°-52 N., and 73°-30 and 76°-10 E., being about 
58 miles long by 25 broad, the whole tract being a mass of hills and narrow valleys, varying 
in height from 2500 to 5 700 feet. 

Remarks.— The months of January and February are cold and very dry ; the range of tem- 
perature is considerable; the morning and evening excessively cold, with dew throughout, 
aud partial fog in the valleys from 3 to 5 p.m., while the heat of the sun in the middle of the 
day is tempered by a constant cold breeze from the N.E., frequently blowing with such vio- 
lence as to raise clouds of dust and become unpleasant. 

In March the cold of the night becomes less sensible, and the days are warmer, while the 
wind is less violent and is variable ; days clear, the ah still continuing in general dry, but 
fluctuates occasionally ; evenings occasionally foggy. 

April and May are 'delightful; the heat of the day, which begins to be oppressive out of 
doors, being tempered by frequent showers and thunder-storms ; occasionally, though rarely, 
there is some closeness in the air, but the nights are always cool. 

In June the monsoon sets in, but at variable periods of the month ; the commencement 
is seldom violent, but about the end of the month the rain frequently falls in torrents. 

July. This month is characterised by universal gloom, impenetrable dense mist, high 
bleak winds saturated with moisture, and incessant rain, the greatest fall in twenty-four 
hours being inches 11-25 cents ; a faint glimmering of sunshine for a few days. 

The rain continues more or less during August and September, with occasional short in- 
tervals of sunshine, the air loaded with moisture, and when the rain ceases there is usually a 
dense fog. 

In October there is an interval of bright and beautiful weather, rendered the more delight- 
ful by contrast, and by the intense green of the luxuriant vegetation ; about the commence- 
ment of the month the wind usually settles in the N.E.,and when strong it is piercingly cold. 

November. The weather is extremely bleak and raw, the mornings characterized by dense 
mist and drizzle, swept along by a strong N.E. wind, the days gradually becoming clearer, 
but the evenings calm, mild and balmy. 

December is intensely dry, sky clear, strong steady wind from the N.E. ; weather very 
pleasant ; nights and mornings extremely cold. 

Although the amount of rain recorded in the above register does not equal that 
which falls at Malcolm pait on the Mahabuleshwar hills, viz. 302-21 in., it still 
attests the deluge-like character of a monsoon in the Ghats of Western India. 

W. H. Sykes. 



On a Cycle of Eighteen Years in Atmospherical Phenomena. By Luke 
Howard, F.R.S. Accompanied by a Chart, Plate II. 

In a Cycle of eighteen years, from 1824 to 1841, the seasons are found, by 
observation at the Friends School at Aclcworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, to 
go througli their extreme changes of wet and dry, of warmth and coldness ; returning 
at the end to the same (or nearly the same) state again. 

The lower figure of the Chart presents on a scale the mean or average Temperature 
of each year, adapted by a curve to a mean line, representing the climatic (or eighteen 
years) average of the heat of the district. The yearly averages differ to the extent in 
the whole of 4J degrees of Fahrenheit; the spaces by which they exceed the climatic 
mean are coloured Red — those by which they fall below it, Blue. It will be seen at 
once that, in point of warmth, the years run through a cycle, the warm side of which 
lies to the left, and the cold side to the right, of the dividing line in the middle. 

Above are represented, in two columns, first the proportionate appearance (as in- 
dicated by observations made once a day) of the four classes of winds through each 
year; beginning at North (coloured blue) and proceeding to the point next the East; 
thence (coloured yellow) to the point next South ; thence (coloured red) to that next 
West; and thence (coloured green) to North again; the remainder (left blank) repre- 
senting the number of days on which no decided wind blew. Secondly, or. the right, 
the depth of rain for each year, as found by an accurate gauge placed at the level of 
the ground ; also its depth in each season of the year, shown by a dividing line — the 
whole of these referrible to a scale of inches on the right. 

The reader may thus compare, by a single glance, the state of different seasons, as, 
1. in respect of calm and windy days, the white blanks differing greatly among them- 
selves, and exceeding greatly in amount on the warm side of the cycle ; 2. in respect 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 



25 



of the prevalence of different classes of winds — as from the North and East during 
the coldest years of the cycle, and from the South and West in stormy seasons pre- 
ceding these ; 3. in respect of amounts of rain, the wet and dry years being con- 
spicuous ; and of the proportions (found sometimes in gradual increase or decrease 
from year to year) in which it fell in the different seasons ; the winter being placed 
lowest, the autumn at top. All which becomes still more interesting, when we are able 
to refer by recollection, or by any good register of the weather, to past seasons ; or 
when we may compare what is here presented with seasons occurring hereafter. 

Table of the Proportions of the Winds (by observation once a day) in each Year of 

the Cycle. 





N.— E. 


E.— S. 


s.— w. 


W.— N. 


Var. &c. 




N.— E. 


E.— s. 


s.— w. 


W— N. 


Var. &c. 


1824 


44 


24 


49 


106 


143 


1833 


40 


10 


156 


65 


94 


1825 


22 


16 


95 


52 


180 


1834 


44 


9 


207 


70 


35 


1826 


43 


12 


138 


46 


126 


1835 


21 


4 


225 


66 


49 


1827 


34 


18 


177 


58 


78 


1836 


36 


6 


251 


55 


18 


1828 


26 


13 


165 


71 


91 


1837 


39 


9 


118 


100 


99 


1829 


51 


16 


129 


85 


84 


1838 


68 


57 


77 


137 


26 


1830 


16 


7 


163 


73 


106 


1839 


70 


47 


139 


101 


8 


1831 


29 


13 


150 


92 


81 


1840 


62 


28 


146 


97 


33 


1832 


37 


15 


149 


63 


102 


1841 


43 


39 


166 


94 


23 


Warm 
side. 


302 


134 


1215 


646 


991 


Cold 
side. 


423 


209 


1485 


785 


385 




North to East in v* 


arm pe 


riod . 




302 


in cold 423 














134 


209 














1215 


. 1485 














646 


785 






Variable and Calm 








991 


385 




If 


the Variable, &c. be dis 


tributec 


to the i 


our clas 


ses in proportion to their amounts. 


theS 


. — W. will exceed on t 


le warn 


i side. 











Meteorological Register for 184- 1-42, from Diurnal Observations taken at 
Beddgelert in the County of Carnarvon. By John Prichard. 





Barometer. 


Thermo- 
meter. 


Direction of the Wind. 


Pluvio- 
meter. 


Diurnal state of the 
Weather. 


Month. 


a 4 

111 
S 5 


S -= 
3 ¥c 

M-cS 

3 3« 


i 

1 

8 


£ 

3 
| 

s 

3 


i 

o 


1 
w 

xj 

o 


1 
E 

3 

2 


1 


3 

5 


"1 

1 

0} 


1 

3 
o 

m 


1 

w 


c 

■a 

1 


.3 


1 


£ 

o 
c 

02 


1 
c 

u 


1841. 


























in pts. 










May 


3010 


28-60 


69 


42 


1 




3 




1 


4 


22 




4-21 


16 


5 




10 


June 


3010 


29-08 


00 


51 


2 


4 


7 


2 


1 


3 


11 




3-13 


20 


2 




8 


July 


29-89 


28-90 


62 


50 


1 




19 


3 






8 




7-77 


9 


5 




17 


August 


30-00 


2911 


60 


52 


5 




8 


3 


1 




14 




11-76 


10 


13 




8 


Sept. 


29-80 


28-40 


64 


48 


2 




1 


2 


G 


2 


17 




5-39 


13 


6 




11 


Oct. 


29-73 


28-16 


56 


44 


5 


4 


6 


3 


4 




9 




9-72 


9 


15 




7 


Nov. 


3010 


28-00 


50 


28 


3 


3 


7 




4 


3 


10 




7-28 


9 


6 


3 


12 


Dec. 


29-87 


28-35 


50 


31 


5 


3 


10 


1 


1 




10 


1 


9-32 


3 


7 


1 


20 


1842. 




































Jan. 


30-27 


28-50 


46 


22 


6 


5 


6 


1 


3 


1 


7 


2 


6-09 


16 


4 


2 


9 


Feb. 


30-28 


28-64 


46 


28 


2 




1 


4 


1 


1 


19 




3-84 


15 


3 




10 


March 


30-04 


28-75 


48 


36 


2 


1 


11 


1 


1 




15 




8-19 


10 


5 




16 


April 


3010 


28-86 


60 


34 


3 


3 


4 






11 


3 


6 


2-35 


26 




1 


3 












37 


23 


83 


20 


23 


25 


145 


9 


79-05 


156 


71 


7 


131 



The several instruments are read off every day at 8 a.m. In noting the " diurnal state 
of the weather," it should be observed that by " Fair" is meant, that no rain fell — 



26 REPORT — 1842. 

by " Rain," that the day has been decidedly wet — " Snow," when any quantity fell — 
and " Changeable," showery and otherwise unsettled weather. The village of Bedd- 
sjelert, where the above observations were taken, is situated on the south-west side of 
the Snowdonian range of mountains, and about twenty yards above high-water mark. 
The last summer (1841) was unusually wet. 



On the Meteorology of the Northern Atlantic, the South-west Monsoon of 
India, and places adjacent. By Thomas Hopkins. 
Mr. Hopkins argued that the common mode of accounting for the trade-winds and 
other great currents of the atmosphere was not correct. The general theory, he said, was 
that the action of the sun's rays on the earth at the tropics raised the temperature of the 
atmosphere ; and that, as the air thus heated became specifically lighter, it naturally 
ascended ; and, the cold air rushing in to supply its place, a current was produced. He 
did not mean to deny that such results took place, but he affirmed that the theory in 
question did not account for the various meteorological phenomena which have been 
observed, and that there was another cause which accounted for them in a much more 
satisfactory manner. He then proceeded to show, that the condensation of the air by 
great mountains, and the consequent precipitation of rain, must not be left out of ac- 
count in explaining- the monsoons and other periodic winds. 



On a Meteorological Chart. By Thomas Hopkins. 



On the Application of the Law of Definite Proportions to the Stratification 
of Clouds. By James Nasmyth. 
Mr. Nasmyth was first led to speculate on this subject by observing the arrange- 
ment of clouds in fine weather, when, towards the horizon particularly, they may be seen 
extended in parallel bands or stripes. He conceived that the excess of vapour floating 
in the atmosphere beyond what the air could combine with, formed clouds ; and that 
the air, in each electric state, was capable of sustaining a definite proportion of vapour, 
and consequently that the clouds of one class or description floated (in what might be 
called a plane of equal electricity) at a uniform distance from the earth. 



On the Changes in the Climate of England. By Henry Fairbairn. 

The author proposes to prove that the low temperature of the summers of Europe 
is caused by the unusual presence of ice in the Atlantic Ocean. This he states to 
have been the fact during the four last cold summers, and adds, that the intelligence 
brought on the subject by steam-ships justified the expectation of the summer of 1842 
in Europe being also chilled from the same cause in the Atlantic. About half a century 
since icebergs were a plnenomenon in the Atlantic not visible until the autumn ; now 
they increase annually in numbers, and appear as early as the month of March. 

Interposed between Great Britain and America, and drifted eastward by the Gulf- 
stream on the line of the north-west winds which prevail in summer, these moun- 
tains of ice cool the air which blows from the west at that season, while the easterly 
winds are warm. 

The augmentation of ice in the Atlantic is referred by the author to the increase of 
warmth on the North American Continent, consequent on the cutting down of the 
forests and the extension of civilization. By this means the ice is detached from the 
circumpolar bays and rivers at an earlier period, and floats further south before being 
melted than heretofore. 



The President presented to the Section a pamphlet, transmitted for the acceptance 
of the British Association, from M. Lenz, containing two Essays, one ' On the Resist- 
ance of the Human Body to Galvanic Currents,' the other ' On the Theory of Magneto- 
Electric Machines;' also 'A Treatise on Atmospherical Electricity,' by M. Peltier. 






TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 27 

On a new Optical Instrument. By Sir John Robison. 

Sir John Robison informed the Section that he had lately ascertained, by trial, 
that on a solid rod of glass being plunged into such a cavity as that of the external 
car, the light reflected inwards, along the interior of the cylinder, illuminates the 
bottom of the cavity so as to render it distinctly visible through the matter of the 
glass, provided it be homogeneous, and the ends of the rod be properly figured and 
polished. He suggested that instruments on this principle should be made for the 
examination of such cavities. 



To the Secretaries of the Twelfth Meeting of the Association. 

I offer my warmest and most sincere thanks to you, illustrious and honoured Sirs, 
for the honour of the invitation which you had the complaisance to send me in the 
obliging letter of the 13th April, 1842, to attend the Twelfth Meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. I am very sorry to be unable to be 
present. In order to respond in some measure, and as much as is in my power, to 
an honour so conferred on me, I have desired my brother, who is at Turin, to send 
to the Meeting a copy of my Memoirs, published in Modena since 1836, and I have 
made an Abstract of my Sixth Memoir (not yet published) upon the Magnetizing 
Action of Transitory Electric Currents, which I take the liberty of sending you here- 
with. I trust that these productions may not seem unworthy to merit the attention 
of the meeting. I confide in your kindness and in that of your learned countrymen, 
and I hope you will receive my communication as a proof of my good wishes, and 
as a humble testimony of gratitude and of the high esteem I entertain towards the 
British Association. 

I beg you to accept the sentiments of lively gratitude and profound esteem and 
consideration with which I am proud to subscribe myself, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servant, Stefano Marianini. 

Modena, 1st June, 1842. 

Abstract of an unpublished Memoir upon the Magnetizing Action of Trans- 
itory Electric Currents, in which it is proposed to explain the Varia- 
tions in Magnetic Susceptibility which are frequently observed in Iron 
as often as it has been magnetized. (Addressed to the Twelfth Annital 
Meeting of the British Association for ilie Advanceme?it of Science.) By 
Professor Stefano Marianini. 

A piece of iron magnetized to a certain degree, and afterwards deprived gra- 
dually of its polarity by the circulation of electric currents round it, presents the phie- 
lomenon, that, by a given current, it is magnetized more strongly or more feebly 
"lan it is in its natural state, according as the given current is so directed as to pro- 
duce the north pole in the same part in which it had been produced from the begin- 
ning, or is directed in the contrary way. This phenomenon furnished, three years 
ago, the subject of my Second Memoir upon the Magnetizing Action of Transitory 
Electric Currents. But I then limited myself to the study of the laws of the pha?- 
nomenon itself, of which it may not be inopportune to transcribe some here, for the 
better understanding of what follows : — 

1st. If the magnetic susceptibility of a piece of iron be in one direction increased 
(that is, so that it may have the north pole at a given extremity), and if it be 
diminished in an opposite direction, the susceptibility may be inverted by treating the 
same iron with currents or other magnetizing actions contrary to those first employed. 

2ndly. The increase of magnetic susceptibility in one direction equals the decrease 
of magnetic susceptibility in an opposite direction. 

3rdly. If the action of a given magnetizing current is repeated upon the same 
iron, the alteration in the susceptibility goes on always diminishing. 

After having long studied the means of depriving the iron of magnetic polarity, 
and especially the difference which occurs between the de-magnetizings produced by 
operations which serve also to magnetize, and those produced by operations which 
do not serve to produce magnetism in a sensible degree ; and after an equally long 
study of the actions of the transitory currents upon magnetized iron, it seemed to 



28 report — 1842. 

me that I was able to explain this singular pheenomenon. The three following pro- 
positions, inferred from the said studies, may suffice for my present purpose : — 

1st. When an electric current is made to circulate round an iron endowed with 
magnetic polarity, a second is generated, which, together with that pre-existing, forms 
a system of two polarities, more or less strong than the first, or even entirely 
neuter, according to the force and the direction of the current employed. 

2nd. The magnetic strengthening or weakening which is observed (when work- 
ing as above mentioned), is proportionably less when the pre-existing polarity is 
stronger. 

3rd. When magnetism is communicated to iron not magnetized, and not altered 
in its magnetic susceptibility, and a transitory current is then caused to circulate 
round it, a greater alteration is caused in the iron when it tends to magnetize it in 
a contrary direction, that is, to produce the north pole in the extremity in which the 
south pole is found. 

Let us endeavour to demonstrate these three propositions. The co-existence of 
two conspiring polarities in one piece of iron I should not be able now to prove ; 
but fortunately that is not necessary ; and to explain the phaenomenon of which we 
treat, it suffices that the co-existence in a piece of iron of such polarities cannot be 
doubted when they are contrary. 

That such co-existence of opposite polarities is possible, is proved by the known 
fact, that two magnetic needles connected by poles of different name in contact, pre- 
sent a whole sometimes without any polarity, although, after whatever time they 
have been disunited they are both magnetized, as they were before they were con- 
nected. Still the consecutive points which are sometimes observed in magnetized 
needles, offer a proof that such magnetic systems may exist in the same iron. But 
here it is necessary to prove their existence in iron wires, in which not only are no 
consecutive points, but where there is no other trace of magnetism. 

To succeed in this separation, I set to work to study those operations which serve 
to destroy magnetism, but not to generate it, at least in small masses of iron. Such 
are heating, blows, shocks, friction, flexure, &c. Wires or cylinders of iron or steel, 
from four to nine centimetres in length, and weighing from four or five grammes to 
almost a hundred grammes, I have never succeeded in magnetizing by the said 
means, especially if the irons had never been magnetized, or, had they been so, if 
the magnetic state had been taken from them by heating, or by any other of the 
said operations. Thus, as often as I destroyed by such means the magnetism pro- 
duced in the iron by the electric currents, or by any other magnetizing agent, I never 
saw any variation in the magnetic susceptibility. The propositions deduced from the 
numerous experiments made upon the de-magnetizing action of the above-men- 
tioned operations, cannot be inserted in this abstract. It may suffice to record the 
following : — 

If an iron deprived of magnetism, and whose susceptibility has not been altered, 
be magnetized, and afterwards subjected to one of the said de-magnetizing opera- 
tions, the portion of magnetism it will lose will be greater when the magnetization 
communicated to it has been weak. The following is a proof : — 

A large iron wire, eight centimetres in length, and weighing twenty-seven grammes, 
was magnetized, so that the needle of the magnetometer deviated eight degrees*. 
Being let fall upon a table from the height of two decimetres, it lost so much force 
that the needle deviated but one degree. But having then magnetized it so that the 
needle deviated to 25°, and afterwards subjected it to a shock equal to the preceding, 
it yet did not lose the half of the magnetism which it had, since it caused the needle 
to deviate 14°. 

* This apparatus consists of a needle, from the extremity of the cap of which rises 
vertically a stick of brass, to which, by means of a running ring furnished with screws , 
in order to stop it at a convenient height, is attached a small horizontal rod, which carries 
a tube of glass surrounded by a coil of copper wire covered with silk. The tube is parallel 
to the magnetic needle, and its central point is in the perpendicular which passes through 
the centre of the needle itself. The wire is so placed that its axis coincides with that of the 
tube, and from the firm deviation of the under needle we may judge of the magnetic force 
which the iron already possesses, or of that which is acquired by it in discharging the 
Leyden jar upon the copper coil which surrounds it. 






TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 29 

Let us then take a piece of iron, and after having magnetized it, by causing trans- 
itory electric currents to circulate around it, let us treat it with contrary and weaker 
currents than the preceding, until it no longer presents any polarity. If with the 
said contrary currents I produced in the iron polarities which did not mutually de- 
stroy, but only neutralized each other, what should happen if the iron were subjected 
to some shock ? This act destroys a greater portion of the weak polarities than of 
the strong, and therefore the iron after the shock will appear possessed of some de- 
gree of magnetism, in the direction in which it had been more strongly magnetized. 
And this is conformable to what the experiment shows. 

An iron cylinder, nine centimetres in length and weighing fifteen grammes, after 
being magnetized so that the needle of the magnetometer deviated 60°, was deprived 
of all polarity by means of several electric currents, so that the needle pointed to 
zero. After this, having let the iron fall from the height of two metres upon the 
pavement, it recovered such magnetic force that the needle deviated 16°. 

If, instead of acting with moderate or weak currents to neutralize entirely the po- 
larity, some little is still permitted to remain, an iron is obtained, which has only 
force to cause the needle to deviate 6 or 7 degrees ; but after the shock the needle de- 
viated 16 or 17. 

And if the weak and contrary magnetizations are made use of until the iron causes 
the needle to deviate 4 or 5 degrees in a contrary direction (that is, towards the east, 
if it first deviated towards the west), then is the iron in such a state, that, by means 
of the shock, it changes polarity, that is, presents the south pole at the extremity 
which had the north, and vice versa. 

These facts, which may be varied in many ways, prove, if I err not, that in a 
piece of iron treated as I have mentioned, there exist systems of magnetic force, 
which altogether or in part neutralize each other. 

Let us proceed now to describe some experiments which show the truth of the other 
two propositions. 

An iron wire eight centimetres long, and weighing 118 decigrammes, was mag- 
netized until the needle of the magnetometer deviated 12°. A small Leyden jar 
(one square decimetre of coated surface), charged to the tension of 10° of the elec- 
trometer on the double quadrant of Volta, was discharged upon the coil in which 
was the iron, and so as to magnetize it in the same direction in which it was already, 
and the effect was that the needle of the instrument went from 12° to 25°. 

Having destroyed the magnetism of the said iron by means of shocks, and then 
magnetized until the needle of the magnetometer remained at 59°, and having dis- 
charged as above upon the coil the small jar charged to 10 degrees of tension, the 
needle moved from 59° to 63°. 

Whence it is seen, that the more the iron is magnetized the less a given current 
can strengthen its magnetism. 

I magnetized another iron equal to the preceding, so that it made the needle 
deviate 9°, and after having discharged upon the coil which contained the iron the 
jar charged to the usual tension, but so that it might tend to magnetize it oppo- 
sitely, the needle passed from the degree 9°, which it marked on one part to the 
1° on the opposite part. 

Having magnetized the iron again so that the needle deviated to 20°, and having 
afterwards discharged upon the coil the jar with its usual tension, and in a con- 
trary direction, the needle moved from the 20° to the 10°. 

Magnetism being also taken from the iron which then remained, then magnetized 
so that the needle remained at 60°, and then having caused to circulate round it the 
usual current excited by the small jar charged to 10° of tension, and so as to pro- 
duce a contrary magnetism, the needle moved from 60° and stopped at 44°. 

Thus, the more a piece of iron is magnetized, the less is its magnetism neutralized 
by a contrary current. 

Another piece of iron similar to the preceding being magnetized so that the 
needle was fixed at 29°, and the jar with the usual tension being then discharged, 
and so as to strengthen the magnetism already possessed by the iron, the needle 
moved from 29° to 41°. 

Having, by the usual mechanical operations, destroyed the magnetism of this iron, 
then magnetized so that the needle was at 27°, upon the discharge of the jar with 



30 REPORT — 1842. 

the usual tension upon the coil, and so as to produce contrary magnetism, the 
needle moved from 27° to 12°. 

Thus the said current acting so as to strengthen the magnetism of an iron which 
caused the needle to deviate 10°, increased it so much that it deviated 21°. But that 
magnetism being removed, and the same experiment being then repeated by causing 
the current to act in an opposite direction, the deviation of 10° west was changed 
to 3° east. 

A given current, therefore, and the same degree of another magnetizing action 
has less effect when so directed as to strengthen, than when so as to neutralize the 
magnetism. 

Which things being established, it becomes easy to explain the variations in the 
magnetic susceptibility of iron, of which we are here treating. 

Let us suppose an iron magnetized with some force, as, for example, that the 
needle of the magnetometer may deviate 40°, and weaker currents being afterwards 
made to circulate round it, let it be reduced to the point of no deviation. This iron 
will be in such condition, that by a given current which circulates around it, it will be 
more strongly magnetized, when this serves to make the south pole appear from the 
same part at which it appeared when it was strongly magnetized, than when the 
same current is made so to act that it tends to produce the south pole from the 
part on which the lesser currents, which were made use of to neutralize the first 
magnetization, tended to produce it. 

In fact, if with these discharges of the Leyden jar I have produced so many magnetic 
systems, which now exist in the said iron, by causing to circulate around it a given cur- 
rent, so directed as to tend to magnetize the iron, in the direction in which it had been 
strongly, it is very true that it will but little strengthen the magnetic system having 
the south pole towards the west, but it is true also that it will much neutralize the 
weaker and opposite systems. Hence a polarity ought to be manifested in the said 
direction, stronger than that which would be obtained with the same current before 
the iron had been treated in the manner we have mentioned. Since things being 
placed in the state of the preceding experiment, that is, the magnetism of the iron 
being neutralized, if an equal transitory electric current is made to act so as to 
produce in the iron the south pole on the opposite part, the neutralization of the 
strong magnetic system should be 6mall, and equally small the strengthening in the 
opposite magnetic systems, and thence the resulting magnetization will appear weak. 
I conclude this abstract with describing an experiment, in which, with a union 
of iron wires differently magnetized, the phaenomena are imitated which the facts 
above stated make us suppose to exist in an iron when its magnetic susceptibility is 
changed. 

I magnetized a bundle of six iron wires eight centimetres long, and weighing in 
all thirty-seven decigrammes, deprived of magnetism, and not changed in magnetic 
susceptibility, so that the needle of the magnetometer was caused to deviate 48° to- 
wards the west. With five other iron wires, slightly magnetized and in different 
degrees, united to the above bundle so that the north pole of the latter came in con- 
tact with the south poles of the former, I made a bundle of eleven wires which did not 
cause the needle to deviate. Having placed this bundle in the usual coil, and dis- 
charged upon it the small Leyden jar with the tension of 10°, and so directed as to 
produce the north pole in the said bundle, on the side where the six wires united to- 
gether had it, such a magnetization ensued that the needle deviated 49°. And the 
experiment being repeated from the beginning, and the jar with the same tension of 
10° being then discharged upon the coil, but directed contrarywise, a magnetization 
of only 22° ensued. Stefano Mahianini. 

Modena, 01st May, 1842. 



CHEMISTRY. 

On the Electrolysing Power of a simple Voltaic Circle. By Professor 
Schonbein of Basle. 

The object of the experiments detailed in this paper, is to investigate the conditions 
under which the electrolysis of water takes place when a feeble electric current is 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



31 



employed. He found that when the negative platinum electrode is covered with a 
thin film of an oxidised substance, water is decomposed by a current, which under 
ordinary circumstances could not effect its electrolysis. From these experiments he 
was led to seek for evidence of a polarised state of the electrolyte, and he came to 
the conclusion, that the effects produced by oxidising and other substances in the 
vicinity of the electrodes, are partly due to the chemical action which takes place be- 
tween the ions of the electrolyte and the matters which surround the electrodes, or 
the substance of which they are composed, and partly to a depolarization of the 
electrodes effected by those substances. 



On the Electric Origin of the Heat of Combustion. By J. P. Joule. 

The author had endeavoured, in a former paper (vide Phil. Mag. vol. xx. p. 98), 
to account for the heat evolved by combustion, on the hypothesis of its arising from 
resistance to electric conduction, and had shown that the affinity of atoms for one 
another is the measure of the heat evolved by their combination. In that paper he 
had introduced his own experiments on the quantity of heat generated by combustion. 
The simplicity of his apparatus had caused him to suspect that he had not collected 
all the heat evolved ; but having lately reduced to English measure the results of 
Dulong's experiments, which were executed in a manner very well adapted to pre- 
vent loss of heat, he finds them to agree so nearly with his own results as to prove 
that the method he used was not incapable of accuracy. 

The following is a table of results both of experiment and theory, reduced to de- 
grees Fahr. per lb. of water: — 



Quantities converted 

into Protoxides by 

combustion. 


Dulong's 
Experiments. 


J. P. Joule's 
Experiments. 


Theoretical 
Results. 


Corrected 

Theoretical 

Eesults. 


40 grs. of Potassium 

31*6 — Copper ... 
1 «— • Hydrogen 


o 

10-98 
9-00 
5-18 
8'98 


o 

17'6 
11-03 
9-48 

8-36 


21-47 
13-83 
12-36 
9-97 
10-47 


o 

11-01 

8-06 

5-97] 

10-40 * 



All the theoretical results in column 4, except that for potassium, which was ob- 
tained by a more complicated process, were calculated in the following manner : — 
The electromotive forces necessary to separate the elements of the various oxides 
from the solutions of their sulphates were first ascertained ; and then the quantity of 
heat which ought to be produced per equivalent of currents of these intensities, ac- 
cording to the laws which, regulate the heat produced by electricity, was calculated, 
on the assumption that the intensity necessary to separate oxygen and metal from 
the sulphate is the same as the intensity of current caused by the union of those 
bodies in combustion. 

Latterly, however, the author, finding reason to think that this is not the fact, but 
that part of the force of a current engaged in electrolyzing these compound bodies 
is used in separating the acid from the base prior to the decomposition of the latter, 
has endeavoured to obtain the correct results of theory by subtracting from the re- 
sults in the fourth column the heat due to that extra intensity of current. These 
corrections were obtained by ascertaining the heat evolved by the solution of the 
various oxides in dilute sulphuric acid, and when subtracted from the numbers in the 
fourth column they leave those in the fifth. 

The author is of opinion that he has thus succeeded in rendering evident the fact, 
that the heat of combustion is an electrical phenomenon, and that the method of its 
development is by resistance to electric conduction. 

* Prof. Daniell finds that \ of an equivalent of sulphuric acid goes to the positive elec- 
trode when dilute sulphuric acid is electrolyzed. This demands the further reduction of the 
theoretical result for hydrogen by about one degree. — August, J. P. J. 



32 



REPORT — 1842. 



On Apparatus for applying Circular Polarization to Chemical Inquiries. 
By Prof. Powell, F.R.S., Sfc. 

The application of the phenomena of circular polarization as characterizing certain 
liquid solutions, has been fully pointed out by M. Biot, and an apparatus has been 
devised by him of the most perfect and accurate construction, for ascertaining and 
measuring the effects in question. That apparatus is however complicated, expensive, 
and very difficult to adjust, especially for those not familiar with optical experiments : 
and where the object may be rather general indications than minute measures, it ap- 
peared to the author susceptible of considerable simplification, which though unim- 
portant to the more refined optical inquirer, might be valuable to the chemical student. 
In general the essential parts of any such apparatus are, — 1st, a polarizing plate ; 
2ud, a tube containing the liquid under examination, so constructed that the polar- 
ized ray can pass along its axis ; 3rd, an analyser of double-refracting crystal. 

In M. Biot's apparatus the supports, &c. are complex and difficult to adjust. The 
tubes are of costly construction, each end being covered with plates of glass, so that 
when filled with liquid, and the glasses screwed on tight, the original luminous 
image is seen distinctly through a great thickness of the 
liquid, bounded by truly plane parallel surfaces. To 
fulfil these conditions is a very troublesome process. The 
analyser also must consist of calc spar of the greatest 
purity, cut and adjusted with perfect accuracy to give 
two truly achromatized images considerably separated. 

The simplified form proposed by the author is as fol- 
lows : — 

1st. Instead of the tubes with parallel glass ends, &c, 
he U6es merely common test tubes, having a hemispherical 
bottom and open at the top. The use of these is of 
course limited to the vertical position ; and the polarizing 
plate (P) of black glass must be fixed below at 35V to the 
axis of the vertical tube (T). 

2ndly. It is consequently necessary to introduce a small 
silvered mirror (S) to throw the light upon (P) in the 
proper direction. 

3rdly. The tube must be enclosed in an opake case, 
and the light admitted at the bottom through a small 
hole. When the eye looks down it, the image of the lu- 
minous hole will be very irregular ; but, 

4thly. This evil is remedied by the remaining pecu- 
liarity in the analyser (A) ; which instead of the double 
refracting prism, consists simply of a double refracting 
crystal in its natural state, about three-fourths of an inch 
in thickness (R), on which the light falls through a hole 
(h), about one-twentiethof an inch in diameter ; the crystal 
is enclosed in a tube, in which slides another carrying a 
small lens (L), which at once magnifies the separation, and 
forms two distinct circular discs, however irregular the 
light, and in which all the optical changes are distinctly 
seen, either by the light of the clouds, or of a lamp, on 
making the analyser revolve about the axis, and measu- 
ring its rotation on a divided circular rim round it. 

The supports should be so contrived that the analyser 
may be adjusted to different heights, to allow of the in- 
sertion of tubes of different lengths from about six to 
eighteen or twenty-four inches. 




On some peculiar instances of (so-called) Catalytic Action. By 
Mr. Mercer. 
Mr. Mercer had long considered that instances of catalysis were merely examples 
of chemical affinity exercised under peculiar circumstances. A body never entirely 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 33 

yields up its chemical characters on uniting with other bodies. The iron in pro- 
toxide of iron has still an affinity for more oxygen, and has not lost that affinity by 
its first union with that element. The intensity of affinity, by which the simple ele- 
ments are joined in the complex molecule, must be the measure of the stability of 
the compound. Mr. Mercer argued, that when the elements of a body are in mere 
static equilibrium, by virtue of a feeble attraction, and when it is acted upon by 
another body possessing an affinity for one of its constituents, which constituent, on 
the other hand, from peculiar circumstances, is not prone to combine with it, that 
in such a case so-called catalysis must ensue. Thus, on mixing oxalic acid and 
nitric acid with a little water, and raising the temperature to 130°, no action ensues. 
But if a small portion of any protosalt of manganese be now added, the decom- 
position immediately commences, and all the nitric is converted into nitrous acid, 
whilst the oxalic acid passes into carbonic acid. He thus accounts for this singular 
action : — The carbonic oxide of the oxalic acid possesses a disposition to unite with 
oxygen. To gratify this disposition, it endeavours to withdraw it from nitric acid, 
but is not sufficiently powerful to do so ; still it places the atoms of the nitric acid 
in a state of tension. Another body (protoxide of manganese) now being introduced, 
which also possesses an affinity for oxygen, exerts this affinity, and the combined 
forces thus acting upon the nitric acid occasion its decomposition. The moment the 
oxygen is withdrawn from its state of combination, it has two affinities to choose 
between, and the attraction of the oxalic acid being greater, it passes over to it, con- 
verting it into carbonic acid. The protoxide of manganese still remaining will act 
on fresh portions ad infinitum. Most of the vegetable acids may be decomposed in a 
similar manner. Following up this view, Mr. Mercer had discovered a number of 
examples of what formerly would have been called catalysis. He showed, that 
when alumina (precipitated from a hot solution) is placed in contact with dilute nitric 
acid, no apparent action ensues. But as Dr. Playfair had described a peroxide of 
aluminium, it ought to have a disposition to unite with oxygen. To discover then 
whether the atoms of nitric acid were actually in a state of tension, he introduced a 
slip of calico rendered blue by indigo. When this came in contact with the preci- 
pitated alumina, the indigo was immediately discharged, although it remained un- 
affected in the supernatant liquor. Chlorous acid was a body well fitted for his 
purpose, as its elements were held together by a feeble affinity, and as its oxygen was 
very readily yielded. He showed that the peroxide of copper, discovered by Dr. Play- 
fair, occasioned a great evolution of oxygen from a solution of chloride of soda. 
This was owing to its endeavour to become cupric acid, which under certain cir- 
cumstances it did form. He had noticed many years since that a dark purple solu- 
tion is obtained on mixing chloride of lime, a salt of copper, and lime with water, 
and leaving the mixture at repose. No evolution of oxygen is occasioned by this 
purple solution, but by the peroxide of copper before passing into it. Peroxides of 
manganese and cobalt exert a similar action. The reason was, that these metals 
possessed only a feeble affinity to pass into the metallic acids. Still the affinity was 
sufficient to occasion the withdrawal of oxygen from chlorous acid. The moment it 
was withdrawn elasticity came into play, and it escaped as a gas. A similar action 
is exerted by the peroxides of iron and lead. From these and several other instances 
which were described, Mr. Mercer concluded that almost all instances of catalytic 
action may be reduced to feeble chemical affinity. He concluded by some specula- 
tions on the atomic constitution of complex molecules. 



On Hcematoxylin, the Colouring Principle of Logwood. By Professor 
O. L. Erdmann of Leipsic. 

The hammtoxylin used by the author in his experiments, was prepared by the 
process of Chevreul. In a state of purity hsematoxylin is not red ; it is in itself no 
colouring matter, being merely a substance capable of producing colouring matters 
in a manner similar to lecanorin, orcein, or phloridzin. The colours which it pro- 
duces are formed by the simultaneous action of bases (particularly strong alkalies), 
and the oxygen of the atmosphere. By the action of these it undergoes a process of 
eremacausis, which, after forming colouring matters, ends in the production of a 
brown substance resembling mould. 

1842. D 



34 report — 1842. 

The colour of hematoxylin varies from a pale reddish yellow to a pale honey 
colour. The crystals are transparent, possess a strong lustre, and may be obtained 
a few lines in length. Their form is a rectangular, four-sided prism, sometimes with 
a pyramidal summit. The taste of hematoxylin is similar to that of liquorice ; it is 
not' very soluble in cold water, but dissolves freely, with a yellow colour, in boiling 
water. Its solutions are reddened by the action of ammonia and oxygen. Oxygen 
alone is incapable of producing this effect, but the most minute trace of ammonia 
imparts a purple colour to the solution. Hematoxylin forms, theiefore, the most 
delicate test for ammonia, and is the easiest method of proving its presence in the 
atmosphere. Hematoxylin is soluble in alcohol and ether. When exposed to the 
influence of light it acquires a reddish tinge ; on being heated it is decomposed, 
without giving any sublimate. It contains no nitrogen. When heated in the water- 
bath it loses 16 "per cent, of water. The dry substance possesses the formula 
C H 17 1S . There are two hydrates of hematoxylin. Acids do not act so ener- 
getically on hematoxylin as bases. All the compounds of hematoxylin and bases 
are decomposed by air and moisture. 

The formation of the blue or red colouring matters which hematoxylin is capable 
of producing, takes place in general by the mutual influence of bases and oxygen. If 
an excess of ammonia or potash be added to a solution of hematoxylin, the liquid 
becomes at first of a deep red colour, afterwards opake and of a dark red. After 
the lapse of some time it loses its red colour altogether, becoming of a dirty brown 
hue. When acetic acid is added to the solution, a voluminous brown precipitate is 
obtained ; this body the author calls htematein. When the red solution is cautiously 
evaporated, a substance of a dark violet colour is deposited ; this body is hamatem- 
ammonia. Hematein is analogous to orcein, phloridzein, &c. ; it dissolves in water 
with a purple colour ; by evaporating the solution, the whole of the ammonia is ex- 
pelled, and pure hematein remains. Hematein differs from orcein in containing no 
nitrogen : its formula is C 4n H ls 1B . Hematoxylin, therefore, in passing into 
hematein, under the influence of ammonia, takes up three atoms of oxygen, two of 
which combine with two of hydrogen to form water, and the third remains in the 
compound C, n H, 7 15 + 3 = C, H J5 0, 6 + H 2 2 . Hematein-ammonia is com- 
posed as follows :— C H 2 o N, 17 , which is equal to C 40 H u 1S + 2 N H 4 O. 
Hematein must therefore have the following composition :— C 4Q H u 15 + H O. 
Hematein may be combined with most metallic oxides. Hematein is decolorized 
bv sulphuretted hydrogen, but this is not the effect of reduction, for the solution re- 
gains its red colour when evaporated in vacuo. The author concurs. with Chevreul's 
view, in supposing that sulphuretted hydrogen acts on reddened hematoxylin or 
hematein in the same manner as a weak acid. 



On the Formation of Cyanuret of Potassium in a Blast Furnace. 
By Dr. C. Bromeis of Cassel. 
M. Zincken discovered, at the bottom of the blast furnace at Magdesprung in the 
Hartz Mountains, a mass which Dr. Bromeis found to contain ferrocyanuret of po- 
tassium. The furnace from which it was obtained had been fed with charcoal. The 
other ingredients of the saline mass were caustic potash, carbonate, silicate, and 
manganate of potash, together with a large proportion of cyanate of potash and 
cyanuret of potassium. It is probable that the ferrocyanuret of potassium did not 
exist ready formed in the mass, but was produced after dissolving the cyanuret of 
potassium in water. The cyanate of rfotash, by its decomposition, gives rise to car- 
bonate of potash and ammonia. Dr. Bromeis supposes that the formation of cya- 
nogen must have been occasioned in the following mariner : — The nitrogen of 'the 
atmosphere being exposed to a great pressure and high temperature, combined directly 
with the carbon of the carburet of potassium, producing thereby cyanogen and cya- 
nuret of potassium. This explanation accords with the experiments of Defossc. 

On the Compounds of Carbon and Iron. By Dr. C. Bromeis. 
Dr. Bromeis analysed various kinds of iron by burning them in a tube, with a 
mixture of chromate of lead and chlorate of potash. The combustion is conducted 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 35 

exactly like an organic analysis, and is the method invented by Regnault. An im- 
portant point in the determination of the carbon in iron is to ascertain the propor- 
tion of carbon in a state of combination, in contradistinction to that •which is 
mechanically mixed with the metal. Dr. Bromeis effected this by dissolving the 
mixture in muriatic acid ; the carbon in chemical combination unites with hydrogen 
and forms carburetted hydrogen, while the carbon in mechanical mixture takes no 
part in the action, but remains unaffected, and may be accurately determined. This 
quantity, being subtracted from the whole carbon obtained by combustion, affords a 
means of estimating the quantity in chemical combination. 

Dr. Bromeis found in crystalline white cast iron, 3 '8 per cent, of carbon ; but as 
some white cast iron has been found to contain 4% or even 5"3 per cent., Dr. Bromeis 
considers that manganese may be substituted for it ; he sometimes found as much 
as 7 per cent, of this metal. It appears, therefore, that neither common nor white 
cast iron are polycarburets of determinate constitution. 

In white cast iron Dr. Bromeis found only 0"5 per cent, of mechanically combined 
carbon, in other kinds nearly 1 per cent., and in gray cast iron 2'3 per cent. Hence 
it follows that the chemically combined carbon amounts only to 0*9 per cent. Kars- 
ten found 0'85 per cent. 

Cast steel, according to Gay-Lussac and Wilson, contains - 93 per cent, carbon. 
Bromeis found in hard cast steel, 0'97 per cent. 

Gray cast iron may be considered as a mixture of very impure cast steel with 
carbon. This may possibly be the cause that it can be so easily hardened on the 
surface. 



On Kakodylic Acid and the Sulphurets of Kakodyl. By Prof. Bunsen 
of Marburg. 

In the present paper Prof. Bunsen examines the higher stages of oxidation of 
kakodyl, and the sulphurets corresponding to them. He finds that by the oxidation 
of alkarsin, either by the direct action of the air or by means of oxide of mercury, 
kakodylic acid is formed ; but there is also an intermediate oxide which cannot be 
obtained in a state of purity, which seems to be similar to the hyponitric acid, and 
to be a combination of kakodylic acid with the oxide. Kakodylic acid crystallizes 
out of alcohol ; its composition is C 4 H 6 As 2 O 3 -f H O, this atom of water being 
constitutional, and only to be replaced by a base ; it is soluble in water but not in 
aether. A very remarkable fact with respect to this body is, that the poisonous pro- 
perties of the arsenic seem totally annihilated ; eight grains administered to a rabbit 
exerted no poisonous action. 

Kakodyl combines directly with sulphur, forming the protosulphuret which has 
been already described. This compound takes up another atom of sulphur, and 
produces the bisulphuret. There appears also to be a tersulphuret analogous to 
kakodylic acid. Prof. Bunsen has not, however, been able to obtain it in a pure 
state. From the above results, it appears that kakodyl is precisely similar in its 
behaviour to some simple metals ; and the formation of kakodylic acid by direct 
oxidation is in exact opposition to the theory of substitution of M. Dumas. 



On some New Oxides of certain of the Metals of the Magnesian Family. 
By Dr. Lyon Playfair. 

The author first drew attention to the defective state of our knowledge regarding 
the oxides of the magnesian family. Iron and manganese possess sesquioxides, but 
copper and zinc do not. Manganese has a high degree of oxidation represented by 
the formula R 3 , but none of the other metals mentioned have an analogous oxide. 
There is nothing in the molecular structure of the metals to account for this dif- 
ference. It is indeed true that Thenard has described compounds of copper, zinc, 
and calcium, to which he has ascribed the general formula of peroxide of manga- 
nese. But these compounds do not possess any chemical characters in common 
with that oxide. They are very unstable bodies, being decomposed spontaneously in 
air, and more rapidly so by heat, by alkalies, and by acids ; they are formed by the 
action of peroxide of hydrogen on .the protoxides of the metals. The author had 

d2 



36 REPORT— 1842. 

found that magnesian protoxides were very apt to form compounds with magnesian 
peroxides of the general formula R O + R» 4 . Hydrogen itself possesses all the 
characters of a magnesian metal, and hence should share this aptitude. Thenard 
found a deficiency of oxygen in the compounds obtained by him. This deficiency 
would be accounted for on Dr. Play fair's view, that they consisted of peroxide of 
hydrogen with a metallic protoxide, of the formula MO + H, 4 , corresponding to 
the compounds obtained by the author, R O + R 2 4 . On this view, the proportion 
of the radical to the oxygen would be 3 : 5, whilst on Thenard's formula of R 2 , it 
would be 3 : 6. 

Dr. Playfair then described at length the manner in which he prepared the true 
peroxides ; chloride of soda was employed to effect their oxidation. He had obtained 
a peroxide of copper of a brown colour, which evolved oxygen when dissolved in 
acids, and chlorine with muriatic acid. In its highest state of hydration it contained 
2 atoms of water ; at 212°, 1% atom is expelled, thus showing that the correct for- 
mula of the oxide is Cu 2 4 . The water is held with different degrees of force, and 
compounds were described in which this water is replaced by oxide of copper. The 
author also obtained a compound of this peroxide with a sesquioxide of copper, 
corresponding to the mineral varvacite (Mn O + Mn 2 4 ) +HO. The new body 
possesses the analogous formula (Cu 2 3 + Cu 2 4 ) + H O. 

The author also obtained a peroxide of iron (Fe O s ) by similar treatment. It pos- 
sesses analogous characters with peroxide of copper. Thus it contains 2 atoms of 
water, half an atom of which is held with considerable force. This peroxide is sus- 
ceptible of entering into combination with the sesquioxide of iron, and of forming a 
compound corresponding to varvacite in chemical composition. The author had also 
obtained a peroxide of aluminium of similar properties with the preceding peroxides, 
but which differed in its relation to water. He concluded by announcing the dis- 
covery of some new oxides of zinc and chromium, the examination of which were 
not yet completed. 

Note on the Composition and Characters of Caryophyllin. 
By Dr. Lyon Playfair. 

Caryophyllin may best be prepared by digesting cloves with alcohol for several 
days, in the manner described in Liebig's 'Organic Chemistry.' When pure, it is a 
snow-white crystalline substance, insoluble in water, but easily soluble- in hot 
alcohol. The addition of caustic ammonia or caustic potash to the alcoholic solu- 
tion does not occasion decomposition or precipitation. Caryophyllin has been ana- 
lysed by Dumas and Ettling, who found it to possess the formula Cio H 16 2 . The 
author of this paper found that, although this was the correct expression of the com- 
position of melted caryophyllin, it was not so of that body in its natural state. He 
found caryophyllin, kept for three days at 212°, to possess the empirical formula 
C 40 H 33 5 , or the rational formula C 40 H 32 4 + H O. This shows that the formula 
given by Dumas and Ettling must be quadrupled. The anhydrous caryophyllin 
would seem to show that it is isomeric with common camphor, but this hydrate 
proves that it possesses twice its atomic weight, and brings it into the same category 
of bodies with pinic, silvic, and copahuvic acids. Caryophyllin has always been sup- 
posed to be an indifferent body, but the author showed that it is a weak acid, capable 
of forming salts. Caryophyllite of potash (from which all the metallic salts may be 
procured by double decomposition) is obtained by dissolving caryophyllin in an alco- 
holic solution of potash, agitating the mixture with an excess of bicarbonate of 
potash, evaporating the whole to dryness, and dissolving out the caryophyllite of 
potash with anhydrous alcohol. The salts formed with metallic oxides and caryo- 
phyllin are insoluble. Caryophyllite of potash is a white saponaceous body with a 
crystalline appearance. 

The oil of cloves possesses the formula C, H s . By the absorption of one atom of 
oxygen it would be converted into caryophyllin, C 10 Hs O = C 40 . H 32 4 . The 
simplest view would, therefore, be to suppose that caryophyllin is a product of the 
oxidation of the indifferent oil of cloves, and not an educt of the cloves them- 
selves. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 37 

Contributions to the History of the Magnesian Limestones. 
By Mr. Richardson. 
The author, considering the great importance of the magnesian limestones, both 
to the manufacturer and agriculturist, conceived that an account of their composition 
might prove acceptable. He examined the various limestones systematically, accord- 
ing to the excellent arrangement of Prof. Sedgwick, and collected the results bf his 
analyses in a tabular form. The insoluble residue of the specimens subjected to 
analysis contained, in every case, organic matter. The analyses proved a very great 
variation in the quantities of lime and magnesia. Mr. Richardson argued, that the 
deposition of the lime and magnesia must have been effected simultaneously, from 
the fact of layers of limestone existing above and below the magnesian limestones, in 
which layers no magnesia can be detected. He was inclined to ascribe their depo- 
sition to the influx of waters holding chloride of magnesium in solution, which, 
meeting with calcareous matter held in solution by an excess of carbonic acid, robbed 
it of that excess, and the two carbonates of lime and magnesia fell together. 



On the Agricultural Importance of ascertaining the minute portions of matter 
derived from Organic Sources that may be preserved in the Surface Soil, 
and on the Chemical means by tohich its presence may be detected. By 
Dr. Daubeny. 

The researches of Sprengel and Liebig, by showing the manner in which minute 
quantities of certain ingredients may impart to the soil into which they enter as 
constituents entirely new properties with reference to the purposes of agriculture, 
have given additional interest to the methods of analysis, which aim at determining 
the chemical composition of the surface, and of the substratum from which the 
former principally derives its chief ingredients. The rude mechanical method adopted, 
even by such chemists as Sir H. Davy, is no longer considered sufficient. The 
nature, as well as the amount of the organic matter present, and the existence 
of phosphates, &c. in the proportion of ' , or even _L th part of the en- 
tire mass, are points deserving investigation, and afford a clue to the description 
of manures most likely to be useful, and to the general treatment which the 
land may require. It is also obvious, that the same importance attaches to a 
knowledge of the constitution of the subsoil, since the advantages of exposing to 
atmospheric influences, and thus disintegrating, the portions underneath, by deep 
ploughing, and other methods of bringing the subsoil to the surface, will in a great 
degree depend upon its containing ingredients which the crop requires for its sub- 
sistence, and of which the superficial soil has been already in a great degree 
exhausted. Thus, for example, it will often become a question with the farmer, 
whether it be more economical to mix with the soil a given quantity of phosphate 
of lime, or to incur the labour of so breaking up a portion of the subjacent rock, as 
to unlock, as it were, for the use of the crop, that quantity which it contains in 
close union with its other constituents. This inquiry, however, presupposes a 
knowledge on his part of the existence of phosphate of lime in the soil, and of the 
relative proportion it bears to the other ingredients ; data which can only be obtained 
through the assistance of refined chemical analysis. A few simple and easy calcu- 
lations may show how very small a proportion of this ingredient might suffice during 
a long period of time, for the demands even of those crops which require the largest 
amount of it for their nutrition. Suppose the subsoil of a single acre of ground, 
turned up to the depth of a foot, to weigh 1000 tons : now if this rock should be 
found to contain only yoWth part of phosphate of lime, it will follow that no 
less than a ton of this substance might be extracted from the uppermost foot of the 
subjacent rock, by the action of the elements, or by chemical means. Now one 
ton of phosphate of lime would be adequate to supply 125 tons of wheat, or 680 
tons of turnips. And if we reckon the average crop obtained from an acre of land 
to be, of wheat, one ton, and of turnips, fifteen, it is evident that we have at hand 
as much phosphate of lime as would be necessary for 125 crops of the former, or 
forty-five crops of the latter. Dr. Daubeny said he had great reason to believe, that 
many of our secondary rocks, those especially which contain organic remains, and 
which appear in a great measure to be made up of shells, would be found, if ex- 



38 REPORT— 1842. 

amined, to contain as large a quantity of phosphate of lime as that mentioned. 
Though the soil of Great Britain be found deficient in the phosphates, there is reason 
to believe the subsoil might in many cases be made, by proper management, to im- 
part to it what was wanting. The discovery by Dr. Buckland, in the lias and 
other secondary rocks, of the solid faxes of certain extinct animals, consisting of 
phosphate of lime, induced Dr. Daubeny, some years since, to test a variety of 
specimens of limestone, with a view of ascertaining whether traces might be found 
in them of the same ingredient. The result was, that phosphate of lime in minute 
quantities was much too commonly distributed to be attributed to coprolitic matter, 
or to afford any independent evidence of its presence. When, indeed, we recollect 
that the shells of invertebral animals contain from three to six per cent, of phosphate 
of lime, and that, according to Mr. Connel, the scales of extinct fish, taken from 
xocks as old as the coal formation, possess no less than fifty per cent, of the same 
ingredient, it would be wonderful, indeed, if all traces of this substance had disap- 
peared from rocks which appear often to be made up in a great degree of the debris' 
of shells and other marine exuviae. Dr. Daubeny was, therefore, not surprised at 
being informed by M. Schweitzer, who is intrusted with the management of the 
German Spa at Brighton, that he had detected in the chalk of Brighton Downs, 
as much as TWSE^ 1 part of phosphate of lime. From experiments since made 
by Dr. Daubeny on the same rock, taken from various localities, he was inclined to 
believe, that minute portions of this substance are present not uncommonly in that 
formation. The frequent occurrence of phosphate of lime in calcareous rocks, and 
the probability of its having been derived from the shells or bony matter of the living 
beings contained in the calcareous rock, led Dr. Daubeny to suspect that traces also 
of the organic matter which contributed to make up the animal structure, might 
likewise be found accompanying it. He had accordingly availed himself in several 
instances of the property which a solution of nitrate of silver possesses of becoming 
black, by being brought into contact with organic matter on exposure to the light, 
as a ready means of ascertaining the presence of organic matter in a specimen of 
limestone ; and whilst by this test he determined its entire absence from Carrara 
marble, chalk from the neighbourhood of a basaltic dyke on the coast of Antrim, and 
even in many instances from petrifactions of shells contained in the secondary rocks, 
he had obtained indications of the presence of some form of organized matter in se- 
veral of the tertiary rocks, and even in the chalk. 

This test, however, cannot be successfully applied, except when bituminous matter 
and every other form of mineral carbon are absent, and when the non-existence of 
common salt has been previously established by the absence of any cloudiness upon 
the addition of nitrate of silver after an exposure to light has taken place* ; nor 
does this test enable us to determine whether the organic matter is of a vegetable or 
an animal nature ; to ascertain the latter, a modification of Will and Varrentrapp's 
process for estimating the amount of nitrogen in organic matter might probably be 
adopted, the insoluble portion being heated with quicklime and caustic alkali in an 
iron or platina tube, and the vapours being collected in a receiver containing muriatic 
acid, or tested with turmeric paper. 

Dr. Daubeny read a letter from M. Schweitzer, who states that he had been pre- 
cluded from employing the secondary limestones in obtaining carbonic acid where- 
with to impregnate his mineral waters, owing to an empyreumatical odour which the 
gas carried up, and which he attributed to an organic cause. To obtain a perfectly 
pure carbonic acid, for his imitation of the spas of the continent, he was compelled 
to resort to the white kinds of marble. With regard to the presence of organic 
matter in the subsoil, its detection may be a matter of some agricultural interest, 
when we remember that the small quantities of nitrogen which are required for the 
growth of those vegetables that first start up in a new country, could not have 
been derived from an accumulation of mould by the decay of antecedent plants, but 
must have arisen in a great measure from the animal matter, which is contained in 
the rock upon which they grew, and which proceeds from the exuvije of races of 
beings belonging to a former period of creation. In a more advanced stage of vege- 
tation, this same material may be of some value to the crops that occupy the soil. 

* Common salt is present generally in chalk from the neighbourhood of the sea, and some- 
times even in sueciuieus from the iuterio;'. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 39 

Dr. Daubeny suggested whether the more compact texture of certain calcareous 
rocks than of others, might not be connected with the existence in them of organic 
matter, which, by its interposition, may prevent a crystalline arrangement of its par- 
ticles from taking place. It may be, that the attraction between the particles of 
matter, which, if uncontrolled, would prove too powerful for the agents of decompo- 
sition to overcome, is weakened by the presence of organic matter, which thus enables 
the rock to supply the vegetables that take root in it with the solid matter which 
their structure requires. To the geologist, too, it cannot but be of interest to trace 
the several steps by which the organic matters, which primarily must have constituted 
so large a portion of the bulk of the various extinct animals and vegetables, have 
disappeared from the strata which enveloped them. 



On the Causes of the Irregularities of Surface which are observable in certain 
parts of the Magnesian Limestone Formations of this Country. By Dr. 
Daubeny. 

The magnesian limestone rock in some of the quarries near Bolsover and Worksop 
in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, present a remarkable appearance. They do 
not possess an undulating surface, as limestones generally do, but the upper and 
under faces are covered with irregular elevations and depressions of a very marked 
character. In many instances the spicula or indentations run all in one uniform 
direction, and those on the under side of the block are exactly opposite to those on 
the upper. Prof. Sedgwick had cursorily noticed the configurations which these 
magnesian limestones possess, and ascribes them to an arrangement'of the particles 
of the rock which took place during the act of consolidation. Dr. Daubeny, however, 
was inclined to call in the action of atmospheric influences, and that of water im- 
pregnated with carbonic acid, as necessary to be resorted to in order to afford a full 
explanation of the pheenomenon ; appealing to the fact, that the exposed surfaces in 
the quarries of this limestone, in some cases present a similar appearance from the 
effect of weathering, and also to the circumstance, that some of the irregularities 
seen upon the faces of the blocks seem to approach in character to those produced 
in other limestones by these causes. 

Dr. Daubeny, in conclusion, referred to the paper he had read last year on the 
Tyrol, in which he had attempted to explain the appearances presented by the dolo- 
mitic rocks of that country, on principles similar to what he now suggested as ap- 
plicable to those exhibited on the small scale in our own rocks. 



On a neio Product obtained fr,om Coal Napldha. By Mr. Leigh. 

The substance described was obtained in the course of some investigations on an 
oil which Mr. Leigh discovered about three years and a half ago, as the result of the 
action of a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids on purified coal' naphtha. In their 
behaviour with potassa, both in aqueous and alcoholic solution, the crystals now 
brought under the notice of the section by Mr. Leigh have much analogy with the 
oil (like that of bitter almonds) obtained at the same time with them. The oil, when 
extensively exposed to the action of oxj'gen, becomes a crystalline solid, having much 
the same appearance as these crystals. It is probable the crystals differ from the oil 
in containing a quantity of oxygen. Mr. Leigh had made no analysis of these 
compounds. 

Account of the Mineralogical and Geological Museum of the Imperial Mining 
Department of Vienna. By Professor Haidingek. 

Professor Haidinger, in this communication, gave a detailed account of the ar- 
rangements which had been adopted in the preparation of this celebrated museum. 
The basis of this collection existed in the Museum of the Mining Department pre- 
vious to the appointment of Professor Mohs. Under the presidency of Prince Au- 
gustus Lobkowicz the Museum was considerably augmented, both by the exertions 
of the mining department and by contributions from private collectors. The method 
of arrangement employed in the Museum was suggested by Mohs himself, and fol- 



40 REPORT — 1842. 

lowed out by Prof. Haidinger after the death of the former ; it consisted in dividing 
the mineral products of the empire into four great general divisions, having in the 
centre those obtained from the rivers, and those procured from the principal chains 
of mountains as the boundaries on either side. The cabinets were so arranged as to 
form a kind of section of the various geological formations. The upper portions of 
the cabinets are filled with the rocks and minerals from the higher or mountainous 
districts, whilst the lower divisions contain the specimens taken from the valleys. 
This arrangement has been found greatly to assist the memory, and to afford nume- 
rous points of comparison to those who study the constitution of the mountain 
chains. The Professor concluded by some speculations on the changes which gra- 
dually take place in the metamorphic rocks, and which he considered might all be 
reduced to processes of oxidation or reduction. 

On the Phosphates and Arseniates. By John Dalton, F.R.S. 

On Microcosmic Salt. By John Dalton, F.R.S. 



On a new and easy Method of Analysing Sugar. By John Dalton, F.R.S. 

On the Composition of the Blood and Bones of Domestic Animals. 
By Professor Nasse. 

On the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid. By Wm. Blyth. 

On the Manufacture and Purification of Gases obtained from Coal. 
By John Da vies. 



On a peculiar Condition of Iron. By Professor Schonbein. 

On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Hot Air in effecting the Com- 
bustion of Coal. By C. Wye Williams. 

On the Production of an Artificial Copper Pyrites. By W. Lucas. 

On some Fires produced from Spontaneous Combustion. By A. Booth, 

F.L.S. 



On some Thermo-chemical Researches. By Professor T. Graham. 



GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 
On the Physical Structure of the Appalachian Cham, as exemplifying the Laius 
which have regulated the elevation of great Mountain Chains generally. By 
Professors H. D. Rogers and W. B. Rogers. 

The Appalachian Chain of North America is described by the authors as consisting 
of a series of very numerous parallel ridges or anticlinal lines, forming a mountain belt 
generally 100 miles in breadth and nearly 1200 miles in length, stretching from the 
south-eastern angle of Lower Canada to Northern Alabama. 1. The strata which 
compose this chain are the American representatives of the Silurian, Devonian and 
Carboniferous systems of Europe, united into one group of conformable deposits. 
The general direction of the chain being N.E. and S.W., there is a remarkable pre- 
dominance of S.E. dips throughout its entire length, especially in the south-east- 
ern or most disturbed side of the belt. Proceeding north-westwards, or from the 
quarter of greatest disturbance, N.VV. dips begin to appear; at first few and very 
steep, afterwards frequent and gradually less inclined. 2. The authors consider the 
frequency of dips to the S.E., or towards the region of intrusive rocks, accounted for 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 41 

by the nature of the flexures, which are not symmetric, the strata being more inclined 
on the N.W. than on the S.E. of each anticlinal, amounting at length to a complete 
folding under and inversion, especially on the S.E. side of the chain, where the con- 
tortions are so closely packed as to present a uniform dip to the S.E. These folds 
gradually open out, the N.W. side or inverted portion of each flexure becomes verti- 
cal, or dips abruptly to the N.W. ; proceeding further in this direction the dips gra- 
dually lessen, the anticlinals and troughs becoming rounder and flatter, and the in- 
tervals between the axes constantly increasing till they entirely subside at about 150 
miles from the region of gneiss and intrusive rocks. The authors express their belief 
that a similar obliquity of the anticlinal axes will be found to obtain in all great 
mountain chains, the axis plane always dipping towards the region of chief disturbance. 
The inverted flexures are regarded by the authors as exhibiting simply a higher de- 
velopment of the same general conditions. The passage of inverted flexure into 
faults is stated to occur frequently, and invariably along the N.W. side of the anti- 
clinal or S.E. of the synclinal axes j these dislocations, like the axes, maintain a re- 
markable parallelism. 3. The axes of the Appalachian chain are distributed in na- 
tural groups, the members of each group agreeing approximately in length, curvature, 
amount of flexure and distance apart. Nine principal groups are described, in five of 
which the axes are straight, whilst the four which alternate with them are curved j 
in two of the curved divisions the line of strike is convex to the N.W., in the other 
two it is convex to the S.E. In every part of the chain, the axes, whether curved or 
straight, maintain an approximate parallelism to those of their own division, and in 
the minor groups within the large divisions the parallelism is still more exact. The 
axes vary in length from insignificant flexures to lines frequently 100 and sometimes 
150 miles in length, and they deviate very little from a rectilinear course, or, as the 
case may be, from a uniform rate of curvature. Some of the longer curved axes 
exhibit a difference of strike at their extremities of fifty degrees in a distance of ninety 
miles, and the rectilinear axes of different divisions vary in their line of direction as 
much as 60°. As all the flexures were undoubtedly formed at one period, the authors 
consider these facts at variance with M. Beaumont's hypothesis, that dislocations of 
the same geological age are parallel to one and the same great circle of the sphere. 
4. The general declension in level of the Appalachian strata towards the N. W., or 
away from the quarter of greatest local disturbance, is considered important by the 
authors in its bearing upon the subject of the elevation of broad continental tracts. 
The authors next proceed to notice memoirs, describing what they consider similar 
phaenomena in Europe. 

- Theory of Flexure and Elevation of Strata. — From the consideration of the pre- 
ceding general facts the authors have arrived at a theory which they conceive appli- 
cable to the bending and elevation of strata generally. They state that the oblique 
form of all normal anticlinal and synclinal flexures "indicates that the force produ- 
cing the dips was compounded of a wave-like oscillation and a tangential pressure;" 
— a purely vertical force exerted simultaneously or successively along parallel lines 
could only produce a series of symmetrical flexures, whilst tangential pressure, unac- 
companied by a vertical force, would result in an imperceptible bulging of the whole 
region, or in irregular plications dependent on local irregularities in the amount of 
resistance. The alternate upward and downward movements necessary to enable 
the tangential force to bend the strata into a series of flexures, are such " as would 
arise from a succession of actual waves rolling in a given direction beneath the earth's 
crust." With this view all the phaenomena observed are in accordance ; but it would 
be difficult to account for them by any gradual prolonged pressure exerted either 
vertically or horizontally. The formation of grand yet simple flexures cannot be ex- 
plained by a repetition of feeble tangential movements, which could not successively 
accord in direction and amplitude, nor by merely vertical pressures, for these could 
not shift in position through a series of parallel lines, nor if feeble and often repeated 
return always to the same lines, until they became conspicuous flexures. The authors 
suppose the strata of the region in question to have been subjected to excessive upward 
tension arising from the expansion of molten matter and gaseous vapours; the tension 
would at length be relieved by many parallel fissures formed in succession, through 
which much elastic vapour would escape, and, by thus removing the pressure adjacent 
to the lines of fracture, produce violent pulsations on the surface of the fluid below. 



42 . EEPORT — 1842. 

This oscillatory movement would communicate a series of temporary flexures to the 
overlying crust, which would be rendered permanent by the intrusion of molten matter 
into the fractured strata. If during this oscillation we conceive the whole heaving 
tract to be shoved bodily forward in the direction of the waves, the union of this 
tangential with the vertical movements may explain the peculiar steepening of the 
anterior side of each flexure, and successive similar operations might occasion under 
folding or inversion. The authors do not deem it essential to this explanation, that, 
in the production of axes of elevation, the strata should be permanently fractured to 
the surface. Fissures sufficient for the escape of vast bodies of elastic vapour, might 
open and close again superficially; and the strata may often be supported in their 
new position by subterranean injections not visible on the surface. 

Identity of the Undulations which produced the Axes, with the wave-like motion of the 
Earth in Earthquake*. — The authors suppose all earthquakes to consist in oscillations 
of the earth's crust propagated with extreme rapidity ; and they ascribe this move- 
ment to a sudden change of vertical pressure on the surface of an interior fluid mass, 
throwing it into wave-like undulations, such as would produce permanent flexures in 
the strata if more energetic, and if accompanied by the formation of dykes. The 
successive earthquakes of any region usually proceed from the same quarter of the 
compass, as must have been the case with the movements which gave rise to the 
parallelism of neighbouring anticlinal axes. In illustration of the power of producing 
permanent lines of elevation which earthquakes have exhibited in modern times, 
the authors instance specially the Ullah Bund, an elevated mound extending fifty 
miles across the eastern arm of the Indus, which was the result of the great earthquake 
ofCutchin 1819. 

Date of the Appalachian Axes. — The authors describe the elevation of this chain as 
simultaneous with the termination of the carboniferous deposits of the United States, 
and as the cause which probably arrested the further progress of the coal formation. 
With one local exception, on the Hudson, the whole series seems to have been depo- 
sited conformably,without any emergence of the land. That the elevation did not take 
place at a later period, is shown by the undisturbed condition of the overlying beds, 
proximately of the age of the European new red sandstone. The elevation of the chief 
part of the great belt of metamorphic rocks on the S.E. side of the chain is referred 
to the same great movement. In conclusion, the authors remark that an incompa- 
rably greater change in the physical geography of North America, and perhaps of the 
globe, seems to have occurred at the close of the carboniferous epoch than at any 
previous or subsequent epoch ; and they consider these changes, and the effect pro- 
duced by them on the organic world, as affording some of the highest subjects of geo- 
logical investigation. 

On the Production of Sa?id Storms and Lacustrine Beds, by causes associated 
with the North American Lakes. By ilie Rev. Mr. Schoolcraft. 

A residence of nearly twenty years in the country whose physical geography is 
strongly marked by the North American Lakes, had impressed the author with the 
opinion, that these lakes afford a very striking example of the power of geological 
action possessed, at the present day, by large bodies of inland water. For more than 
half the indicated period his location had been in the immediate vicinity of Lake 
Superior, and the present remarks are confined chiefly to that member of the series. 

Lake Superior itself may be considered as occupying an interstice between the 
most northerly portions of the great secondary and sedimentary formations of the 
Mississippi valley and the crystalline rocks of British America ; and this ancient line 
of junction may be followed, down its outlet, through the Straits of St. Mary's into 
Lake Huron, and is continued along parts of its north and north-easterly shores, north 
of the fossiliferous limestones of the Manatouline chain. 

The western and northern sections of this lake exhibit the strongest proofs of 
ancient action and upheaval. A colossal dyke of trap appears to have crossed the 
lake, at about two-thirds of its length from east to west. Admitting (what appears to 
be very probable) that the vast bed of the lake west of this dyke was originally pro- 
duced by the sinking down of the strata and the consequent elevation of its shores, 
we may attribute to the same disturbing force the central breach and prostration of 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 43 

this barrier, which has been subsequently widened by the force of waters, acting under 
the pressure of strong west and north-west winds, at an epoch when its water-line 
rested at one of its higher levels ; so that, at this time, Isle Royal, Beaver and Castle 
islands, and the elevated and precipitous range of Keweena Point, all of which con- 
sist of members of the trap rock, are the only existing monuments of this ancient 
dyke. The heavy beds of trap boulders which lie east of this point, and reach, in 
blocks of large magnitude, to St. Mary's Falls and the northern shores of Lake 
Huron, strongly denote the probability of such action. 

The most extensive effects of the existing energies of this lake are witnessed upon 
its grauwacke and sandstones, which have been broken up, comminuted into fine 
sand, and piled up in elevated ridges, or spread out over wide plains along its south- 
ern margin. A coast of winding bays and headlands, which measures, by a reduced 
computation, 450 miles upon this single section, may be conjectured to have en- 
countered heavy inroads from currents forced across the lake by north winds, or 
acting diagonally from the north-east or north-west. By far the most extensive field 
of this action occurs between the easterly termination of the primary series of rocks 
at or near Granite Point, and their re-appearaace in the elevated mountainous 
range of Gros Cape at the head of St. Mary's Straits. The vast sand dunes on this 
section, to which the French Couriers du Bois earl