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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 

I OF THE 

THIRTEENTH MEETING 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT CORK IN AUGUST 1843. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1844. 



PRINTED BY RICHARD AND JOHN E. TAYLOR, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association v 

Officers and Council vii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement viii 

Table of Council from commencement ix 

Officers of Sectional Committees and Corresponding Members xi 

Treasurer's Account xii 

Reports, Researches, and Desiderata xiv 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xx 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxiv 

Arrangements of the General Evening Meetings xxviii 

Address of the President xxix 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxxiv 

Report of the Committee appointed to superintend the establishment 

of Meteorological Observations at the Kew Observatory xxxix 

Report on the Electro-magnetic Meteorological Register. By Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone, F.R.S xl 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Third Report upon the Action of Air and Water, whether fresh or salt, 
clear or foul, and of various Temperatures, upon Cast Iron, AVrought 
Iron, and Steel. By Robert Mallet, Mem. Inst. C.E., M.R.I.A. . 1 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Herschel, the Mas- 
ter OF Trinity College, Cambridge, the Dean of Ely, Dr. 
Lloyd, and Colonel Sabine, appointed to conduct the co-operation 
of the British Association in the system of Simultaneous Magnetical 
and Meteorological Observations 54> 

Report of the Committee appointed for the Reduction of Meteorologi- 
cal Observations. By Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart 60 

Report of the Committee appointed by the British Association for Ex- 
periments on Steam-engines. Members of the Committee : — Eaton 
Hodgkinson, Esq., F.R.S. ; J. Enys, Esq. ; Rev. Professor Moseley, 
M.A., F.R.S. ; and Professor William Pole ; . . . . 104. 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. H. E. Strickland, Professor 
Daubeny, Professor Henslovit and Professor Lindley, appointed 
to continue their Experiments on the Vitality of Seeds 105 



IV CONTENTS. 

_j Page 

Report of a Series of Observations on the Tides of the Frith of Forth 
and the East Coast of Scotland. By J. S. Russell, Esq 110 

Notice of a Report of the Committee on the Form of Ships. By John 
Scott Russell, Esq 112 

Report on the Physiological Action of Medicines. By J.Blake, M.R.CS. 115 

Report of a Committee appointed to print and circulate a Report on 
Zoological Nomenclature 119 

Report of the Committee appointed by the British Association in 184^2, 
for registering the Shocks of Earthquakes, and making such Meteor- 
ological Observations as may appear to them desirable 120 

Report of the Committee for conducting Experiments with Captive 
Balloons 128 

Appendix to the Report, by Professor Wheatstone 128 

Report of the Committee for the Translation and Publication of Foreign 
Scientific Memoirs 129 

On the Habits of the Marine Testacea. By C. W. Peach 129 

Report on the Mollusca and Radiata of the ^gean Sea, and on their 
distribution, considered as bearing on Geology. By Edward Forbes, 
F.L.S., M.W.S., Professor of Botany in King's College, London. ... 130 

Synoptical Table of British Fossil Fishes, ai'ranged in the order of the 
Geological Formations. By M. Agassiz 194' 

Report on the British Fossil Mammalia. By Richard Owe», Esq., 
F.R.S., Part II 208 

Report on the Excavation made at the junction of the Lower New Red 
Sandstone with the Coal Measures at CoUyhurst, near Manchester. 
By E. W. BiNNEY 241 

Report on the Fauna of Ireland. Div. Invertebrata. Drawn up, at the 
request of the British Association, by William Thompson, Esq., Pre- 
sident of the Natural Histoiy and Philosophical Society of Belfast . . 245 

Provisional Reports and Notices of Progress in Special Researches en- 
trusted to Committees and Individuals 291 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by- 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

MEMBERS. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to conform 
to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution, recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Members of the Association, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

The amount of the Annual Subscription shall be One Pound, to be paid in 
advance upon admission ; and the amount of the composition in lieu thereof, 
Five Pounds. 

An admission fee of One Pound is required from all Members elected as 
Annual Subscribers, after the Meeting of 1839, in addition to their annual 
subscription of One Pound. 

The volume of Reports of the Association will be distributed gratuitously 
to every Annual Subscriber who has actually paid the Annual Subscription 
for the year to which the volume relates, and to all those Life Members who 
shall have paid Two Pounds as a JBook Subscription. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

If the Annual Subscription of any Member shall have been in arrear for 

1843. b 



VI RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

two years, and shall not be paid on proper notice, he shall cease to be a 
Member. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, tor one week, or longer. Tlie place 
of eacli Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the previous 
Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or longer, 
to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the following 
persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4-. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committee shall report what subjects of investigation they would par- 
ticularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and brought 
under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of par- 
ticular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent pereons, for 
the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommen- 
dations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. Vll 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
mav also assemble for the despatch of business during the week, of the Meeting, 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1843—44. 



Trustees (permanent). — Francis Baily, Esq., F.R.S. Roderick Impey Mur- 
chison, Esq., F.R.S., Pres. G.S. John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., Treas. G.S. 

President. — The Earl of Rosse. 

Vice-Presidents Tlie Earl of Listowel. Vise. Adare, M.P., F.R.S. 

Sir W. R. Hamilton, R.I.A. Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

President Elect. — The Very Reverend George Peacock, D.D., Dean of Ely. 

Vice-Presidents Elect. — The Earl Fitzwilliam, F.R.S. Viscount Mor- 
peth, F.G.S. The Hon. John Stuart Wortley, M.P. Sir David Brewster, K.H. 
Michael Faraday, Esq., F.R.S. Rev. William V. Harcourt, F.R.S. 

General Secretaries. — Roderick Impey Murchison, Esq,, F.R.S., Pres. G.S., 
London. Lieut.-Col. Sabine, F.R.S., Woolwich. ' 

Assistant General Secretary. — Professor Phillips, F.R.S., York. 

General Treasurer. — John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, 
London. 

Secretaries for the York 3Ieeting in 1 844. — William Hatfeild, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thomas Meynell, Esq., F.L.S. Rev. W. Scoresby, LL.D., F.R.S. Wil- 
liam West, Esq. 

Treasurer to the Meetiiig in 1844. — William Gray, jun., Esq., F.G.S. 

Council. — Sir H. T. De la Beche. Rev. Dr. Buckland. Dr. Daubeny. 
Professor T. Graham. J. E. Gray, Esq. G. B. Greenough, Esq. James 
Heywood, Esq. Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq. Leonard Horner, Esq. Robert 
Hutton, Esq. Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. Rev. Professor Lloyd. Charles 
Lyell, Esq. Professor MacNeill. Professor MacCullagh, Professor Moseley. 
The Marquis of Northampton. Dr. Richardson. Rev. Professor Sedgwick. 
Lieut.-Col. Svkes. Vv'illiam Thompson, Esq. Professor Wheatstone. Rev. 
William Whew ell (Master of Trin. Coll., Cambridge). C.J. B. Williams, M.D. 

Local Treasurers. — Dr. Daubeny, Oxford. C. C. Babington, Esq., Cam- 
bridge. Dr. Orpen, Dublin. W. Ramsay, Esq., Edinburgli and Glasgow. 
William Gray, jun., Esq., York. William Sanders, Esq., Bristol. Samuel 
Turner, Esq., Liverpool. G. W^. Ormerod, Esq., Manchester. James 
Russell, Esq., Birmingham. William Hutton, Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Henry WooUcombe, Esq., Plymouth. James Roche, Esq., Cork. 

Auditors, — William Yarrell, Esq. James Heywood, Esq. Professor 
MacNeill. 

b2 




^ p 



MEMBERS OP COUNCIL. ix 

II. Table showing the Members of Council of the British Association from 
its commencement, in addition to Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 
Secretaries. 

(-Rev. Wm. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S., &c 1832—1836. 

Francis Baily, V.P. and Treas. R.S 1835. 

General Secretaries. -J R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., F.G.S 1836—1843. 

I Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c 1837, 1838. 

LLieut.-Colonel Sabine, V.P.R.S 1839, 1843. 

General Treasurer. John Taylor, F.R.S., Treas. G.S., &c 1832—1843. 

{Charles Babbage, F.R.SS.L. & E., &c. (Resigned.) 
Francis Baily, F.R.S. 

^"tlS^"' }P^°f-^°^ P^^"'P^' F.R.S., &c 1832-1843. 

Members of Council. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal 1834, 1835, 1841. 

Neill Arnott, M.D 1838, 1839, 1840. 

Francis Baily, V.P. and Treas. R.S 1837—1839. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S 1841—1843. 

George Bentham, F.L.S 1834, 1835. 

Robert Brown, D.C.L., F.R.S 1832, 1834, 1835, 1838—1841. 

Sir David Brewster, F.R.S., &c 1832, 1841—1842. 

Sir Thomas Brisbane 1842. 

Sir M. I. Brunei, F.R.S., &c 1832. 

Rev. Professor Buckland, D.D., F.R.S., &C.1833, 1835, 1838—1843. 

The Earl of Burlington 1838, 1839. 

Rev. T. Chalmers, D.D., Prof, of Divinity, 

Edinburgh 1833. 

Professor Clark, Cambridge 1838. 

Professor Christie, F.R.S., &c. 1833—1837. 

William Clift, F.R.S., F.G.S 1832—1835. 

J. C. Colquhoun. Esq 1840. 

John Corrie, F.R.S., &c 1832. 

Professor Daniel!, F.R.S 1836, 1839. 

Dr. Daubenv 1838—1843. 

J. E. Drinkwater 1834, 1835. 

Sir P. G. Egerton, Bart 1840, 1841. 

The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L., F.R.S., &C...1833. 

Professor Forbes, F.R.SS. L. E., &c 1832, 1841, 1842. 

Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., V.P.R.S., &c 1832. 

Professor R. Graham, M.D., F.R.S.E 1837. 

Professor Thomas Graham, F.R.S 1838, 1839—1843. 

John Edward Gray, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c 1837—1839, 1840, 1843. 

Professor Green, F.R.S., F.G.S 1832. 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S., F.G.S 1832—1839—1843. 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S., F.S.A., &c 1836. 

Rev. W. V. Harcourt, F.R.S 1842. 

Sir William R. Hamilton, Astron. Royal of 

Ireland 1832, 1833, 1836, 

W. J. Hamilton, Sec. G.S 1840—1843. 

James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S 1843. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. ..1837. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, F.R.SS. L. & E. 

F.R.A.S., F.G.S., &c 1832. 

Thomas Hodgkin, M.D 1833—1837, 1839, 1840, 

Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq. F.R.S 1843 

Prof. Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 1832. 

Leonard Horner. F.R.S 1841 1843 

Rev. F. W. Hope, M.A., F.L.S 1837. 



MBMBEBS OF COUNCIL. 

Robert Hutton, F.G.S., &c 1836 1838, 1839-1843. 

Professor R. Jameson. F.R.SS. L. & E 833. 

Rev. Leonard Jenyns J°^»- 

H. B. Jerrard, Esq {»40. 

g"5;aiirs Urn;;: Ba;v.-::;::::::;:;::::::::::::i838: m i8i2-m3. 
IrSeSorSey, F.R.s:; F.L.s::&c.""::::::i833: i836: 

Sfprnfessor Lbyd, D.D ..••••^^^^' ^^^^' ^841-1843. 

J W. Lubbock, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c., Vice- 
Chancellor of the University of London.... 1833— 1836, 1838, 1839. 

Rev. Thomas Luby looo* loon ^o^n iq^q 

Charles Lyell, jun., F.R.S 1838, 1839, 1840, 1843. 

Professor MacCullagh, M.R.LA 1843. 

William Sharp MacLeay, F.L.S : 1837. 

Professor John Macneill 1843. 

Professor Miller, F.G.S 1840. 

Professor Moseley 1839, 1840, 1843. 

Patrick NeiU, LL.D., F.R.S.E 1833. 

The Marquis of Northampton, P.R.S 1840—1843. 

Richard Owen, F.R.S., F.L.S 1836, 1838, 1839. 

Rev. George Peacock, M.A., F.R.S., &c 1832, 1834, 1835, 1839-1842. 

E. Pendarves, Esq 1840. 

Rev Professor Powell, M.A., F.R.S., &c. ...1836, 1837, 1839, 1840. 

J. C. Prichard, M.D.. F.R.S. &c 18.32. 

George Rennie, F.R.S 1833-1835, 1839, 1841. 

Sir John Rennie 1838. 

Dr. Richardson, F.R.S 1841—1843. 

Rev. Professor Ritchie, F.R.S 1833. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D 1841. 

Sir John Robison, Sec. R.S.E 1832, 1836, 1841, 1842. 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S..F.G.S., &c... 1834— 1837, 1841, 1842. 

Lieut.-Colonel Sabine 1838. 

Lord Sandon 1840. 

Rev. Professor Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S 1842, 1843. 

Rev. William Scoresby, B.D., F.R.SS.L. & E.1842. 

H. E. Strickland. Esq., F.G.S 1840—1842. 

Lieut.-Col.W. H. Sykes, F.R.8., F.L.S., &c. 1837— 1839, 1842—1843. 

H. Fox Talbot, Esq., F.R.S 1840. 

Rev. J. J. Tayler, B.A., Manchester 1832. 

William Thompson, F.L.S 1843. 

Professor Traill, M.D 1832, 1833. 

N. A. Vigors, M.P., D.C.L., F.S.A., F.L.S.1832, 1836, 1840. 

James Walker, Esq., P.S.C.E 1840. 

Captain Washington, R.N 1838, 1839, 1840. 

Professor Wheatstone 1838 — 1843. 

Rev.W.WTiewell,F.R.S.,MasterofT.C.Camb.l838, 1839, 1842, 1843. 

C. J. B. Williams, M.D 1842, 1843, 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S 1842. 

William Yarrell, F.L.S 183.3—1836. 

James Yates, Esq., M.A., F.R.S 1842. 

Secretaries to the / Edward Turner, M.D., F.R.SS. L. & E. 1832—1836. 
Council. \ James Yates, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 1831—1840. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XI 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES AT THE 
CORK MEETING. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

Pres2rf««^— Professor M'CuUagh, M.R.I. A. 

Vice-Presidents.-Frofes30TUoyd, F.R.S., M.R.I.A. The Rev. Dr. Pea- 
cock, Dean of Ely, F.R.S. W. Snow Harris, F.R.S. 
^ecretoWes.— Professor Stevelly, M.A. John Nott. 

SECTION B.^ — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY ; 

(including their applications to Agriculture and the Arts.) 
Preside7iL—Fto{essor Apjohn, M.R.I.A. ^ c r^ r v 

Vice-Presidents.— Msivquis of Northampton, Pres. R.S. Protessor Kane, 

M.R.I.A. , . c . T> o 

Secretaries.— Rohert Hunt, Sec. R. C. Polytechnic Society. Dr. Sweeny. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Preside7it.—mchsiTd E. Griffith, F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Preside7it for Geography.— R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Wm. Hopkins, F.R.S. Charles Lyell, F.R.S. John 

^JecretoWJs.— FrancisM.Jennings,M.R.I.A.,F.G.S. H.E.Strickland,F.G.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

President.— Wd\\s.va. Thompson, F.L.S. t- r. c? v> 

Vice-Presidents.— Kohevi Ball, M.R.I.A. Professor Owen, t.R.b. Pro- 
fessor E. Forbes, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, F.L.S. 

Secretaries.— ^yim Lankester, M.D., F.L.S. Robert Patterson. George 
J. Allman, M.B. 

SECTION E. MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Sir James Pitcairu, M.D. t»t t-* a « 

Vice-Presidents.— ^ mam Bullen, M.D. Charles P. Croker, M.D. A. H. 
Callanan, M.D. Christopher Bull, M.D. 

Secretaries John Popham, M.D. Richard S. Sargent, M.D. 

SECTION F. STATISTICS. 

President.— Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. 

Vice-Presidents.— Maiov N. Ludlow Beamish, F.R.S. Sir W. Chatterton. 
Secretaries W. Cooke Taylor, LL.D. D. Bullen, M.D. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor John Macneill, M.R.I.A. 

Vice-Preside?its.— John Taylor, F.R.S. F. G. Bergen, Esq. Sir Thomas 
Deane, Knt. 

Secretaries James Thomson, F.R.S.E. Robert Mallet, C.E. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Professor Agassiz, Neufchatel. M. Arago, Secretary of the Institute, 
Paris. A. D. Bache, Philadelphia. Professor Berzelius, Stockholm. Pro- 
fessor Bessel, Konigsberg. Professor H. von Boguslawski, Breslau. Pro- 
fessor Braschmann, Moscow. Professor De la Rive, Geneva. Professor Dumas, 
Paris. Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. Professor Encke, Beriin. Dr. A. Lr- 
man, Beriin. M. Frisiani, Astronomer, Milan. Baron Alexander von Hum- 
boldt, Berlin. Professor Henry, Princeton, U. S. M. Jacobi, St. Petersburgh. 
Professor Jacobi, Konigsberg. Dr. Lamont, Munich. Professor Liebig, 
Giessen. Professor Link, Berlin. Dr. Langberg, Christiama. Protessor 
GErsted, Copenhagen. M. Otto, Breslau. Jean Plana, Astronomer Royal, 
Turin. M. Quetelet, Brussels. Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. Professor Schu- 
macher, Altona. Professor VVartmann, Lausanne. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance in hand from last year's Account 

LifeConiposilions received at theMancliesterMeeting,and since 
Annual Subscriptions Ditto Ditto Ditto 

Compositions for Books (future publications) 208 

Moieties of J65 Compositions Refunded 

Dividends on £5500 in 3 per cent. Consols, 18 months, tol 

January 1843 J 

Received on account of Sale of Reports, viz. 

1st vol., 2nd Edition 

2nd vol 



£ s. 



538 14 



3rd vol 

4th vol 

5th vol 

6th vol 

7th vol. ... 

8th vol 

9th vol. ... 

10th vol 

11th vol 

Lithographs . 



Received for Ladies' Tickets at the Manchester Meeting 

Ditto for Tickets to the Sections only ditto 

Ditto from Bankers at Manchester, Interest on Cash 



869 











868 















1737 








208 











15 10 















192 


10 









247 


10 





7 4 


8 








6 18 


5 








7 19 











8 2 











7 17 


11 








10 7 


11 








12 9 











16 4 


11 








31 10 











57 8 


5 








11 11 











2 2 















179 


15 


3 






331 












33 












11 


14 


7 



£3271 4 



ROBERT BUTTON, 1. ,., 
JAMES HEYVVOOD,/^"'^"*'"' 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



23rd of June 1842 to the 14th of August 1843. 

PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 
Sundry Disbursements by Treasurer and Local Trea- 
surers, including the expenses of the Manchester 
Meeting, Advertising, and Sundry Printing ....... 328 8 10 

Paid for printing, &c. the Eleventh Report 438 9 

Paid on account of Engraving for Twelfth Report 7 19 G 



446 3 

Paid Salaries to Assistant General Secretary, Ac- 
countant, &c 435 

Paid on account of Grants to Committees for Scien- 
tific purposes, viz. — 

Revision of the Nomenclature of Stars 1842 

Reductionsof Stars, British Association Catalogue „ 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth „ 

Hourly Meteorological Observations at Kingussie 

and Inverness 1842 

Hourly Meteorological Observations at Kingussie 

and Inverness 1841 

Meteorological Observations at Plymouth „ 

Do 1842 

Do. Whewell's Anemometer Do „ 

Do. Osier's Do Do „ 

Reduction of Meteorological Observations „ 

Meteorological Instruments and Gratuities 1841 

Construction of Anemometer at Inverness „ 

Magnetic Co-operation „ 

Meteorological Recorder for Kev? Observatory „' 

Action of Gases on Light „ 

Do 1842 

Establishment at Kew Observatory, Wages, &c 38 

Do. Repairs, Furniture, and Sundries 94 17 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 1842 

Oxidation of the Rails of Railways „ 

Publication of Report on Fossil Reptiles „ 

Coloured Drawings of Railway Sections „ 

Registration of Eathquake Shocks „ 

UncoveringLowerRedSandstone nearManchester „ 

Report on Zoological Nomenclature „ 

Vegetative Power of Seeds „ 

Marine Testacea, (Habits of) „ 

Marine Zoology ,, 

Do. ...." 1841 

Preparation of Report on BritishFossil Mammalia 1842 
Physiological operations of Medicinal Agents... „ 

Vital Statistics 1841 

Additional Experiments on the Forms of Vessels „ 

Do 1842 

Reduction of Observations Do „ 

Morin's Instrument and Constant Indicator ... „ 
Experiments on the Strength of Materials „ 



2 





25 





120 





47 12 8 


30 





5 





50 





10 





20 





30 





39 


6 


56 


12 2 


lo 


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4 7 
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81 


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147 


18 3 


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4 


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5 


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20 





36 


5 8 


70 





100 





100 





69 


14 10 


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Balance in the Bankers' hands ... 
Do. General Treasurer's hands 
Do. Local Treasurers' hands .. 



432 


16 


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12 


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22 


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1565 10 2 



£3271 4 4 



Xiv REPORT — 1843. 

The following Rqwrts on the Progress and Desiderata of different brandies 

of Science have been draion up at the request of tlie Association, and 

printed in its Transactions. 

1831-32. 

On the progress of Astronomy during the present century, by G. B. Airy, 
M.A., Astronomer Royal. ^ 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Tides, by J. W. Lubbock, M.A., 
Vice-President of the Royal Society. 

On the recent progress and present state of Meteorology, by James D. 
Forbes, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy, Edinburgii. 

On the present state of our knowledge of the science of Radiant Heat, by 
the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry, 
Oxford. 

On Thermo-electricity, by the Rev. James Gumming, M.A., F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry, Cambridge. 

On the recent progress of Optics, by Sir David Brewster, K.C.G., LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

On the recent progress and present state of Mineralogy, by the Rev. 
William Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On the progress, actual state, and idterior prospects of Geology, by the 
Rev. William Conybeare, M.A., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., Ac. 

On the recent progress and present state of Chemical Science, by J. F. W. 
Johnston, A.M., Professor of Chemistry, Durham. 

On the applicatidn of Philological and Physical researches to the History 
of the Human species, by J. C. Prichard, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

1833. 

On the advances which have recently been made in certain branches of 
Analysis, by the Rev. G. Peacock, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the present state of the Analytical Theory of Hydrostatics and Hydro- 
dynamics, by the Rev. John Challis, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

On the state of our knowledge of Hydraulics, considered as a branch of 
Engineering, by George Rennie, F.R.S., Sec. (Parts I. and II.) 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the Magnetism of the Earth, by 
S. H. Christie, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics, Woolwich. 

On the state of our knowledge of the Strength of Materials, by Peter 
Barlow, F.R.S. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting Mineral Veins, by John Taylor, 
F.R.S., Treasurer G.S., &c. 

On the Physiology of the Nervous System, by William Charles Henry, 
M.D. 

On the recent progress of Physiological Botany, by John Lindley, F.R.S., 
Professor of Botany in the University of London. 

1834. 

On the Geology of North America, by H. D. Rogers, F.G.S. 

On the philosophy of Contagion, by W. Henry, M.D., F.R.S. 

On the state of Physiological Knowledge, by the Rev. Wm. Clark, M.D., 
F.G.S., Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge. 

On the state and progress of Zoology, by the Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., 
F.L.S., &c. 

On the theories of Capillary Attraction, and of the Propagation of Sound 
as affected by the Development of Heat, by the Rev. John Cliallis, M.A., 
F.R.S., &c. 



RESKABCHES IN SCIENCE. XV 

On the state of the science of Physical Optics, by the Rev. H. Lloyd, M.A., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy, Dublin. 

1835. 

On the state of our knowledge respecting the application of Mathematical 
and Dynamical principles to Magnetism, Electricity, Heat, &c., by the Rev. 
William Whewell, M.A., F.R.S. 

On H^nsteen's researches in Magnetism, by Captain Sabine, F.R.S. 

On the state of Mathematical and Physical Science in Belgium, by M. 
Quetelet, Director of the Observatory, Brussels. 

1836. 

On the present state of our knowledge with respect to Mineral and Thermal 
Waters, by Charles Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., &c.. Professor of 
Chemistry and of Botany, Oxford. 

On North American Zoology, by John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

Supplementary Report on the Mathematical Theory of Fluids, by the Rev. 
J. Challis, Plumian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Cambridge. 

1837. 

On the variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at different points of 
the Earth's surface, by Major Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

On the various modes of Printing for the use of the Blind, by the Rev. 
William Taylor, F.R.S. 

On the present state of our knowledge in regard to Dimorphous Bodies, 
by Professor Johnston, F.R.S. 

On the Statistics of the Four Collectorates of Dukhun, under the British 
Government, by Col. Sykes, F.R.S. 

1838. 

Appendix to Report on the variations of Magnetic Intensity, by Major 
Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

1839* 

Report on the present state of our knowledge of Refractive Indices for 
the Standard Rays of the Solar Spectrum in different media, by the Rev 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.Ast.S., Savilian Professor of Geo- 
metry, Oxford. 

Report on the distribution of Pulmoniferous MoUusca in the British Isles, 
by Edward Forbes, M.W.S., For. Sec. B.S. 

Report on British Fossil Reptiles, Part I., by Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S., 
F.G.S., &c. 

1840. 

Report on the recent progress of discovery relative to Radiant Heat, sup- 
plementary to a former Report on the same subject inserted in the first 
volume of the Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, by the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.AstS., F.G.S., Savilian 
Professor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

Supplementary Report on Meteorology, by James D. Forbes, Esq., F.R.S., 
Sec. R.S. Ed., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edin- 
burgh. 

1841. 

Report on the conduction of Heat, by Professor Kelland, F.R.S., &c. 

Report on the state of our knowledge of Fossil Reptiles, Part II., by Pro- 
fessor R. Owen, F.R.S. 

1842. 

Abstract of Report of Professor Liebig on Organic Chemistry applied to 
Physiology and Pathology, by Lyou Playfair, M.D. 



Xvi REPORT — 1843. 

Report on the Ichthyology of New Zealand, by John Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

On the Fossil Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone, by Professor Agassiz. 
Report on British Fossil Mammalia (Part I.), by Professor Owen. 

1843. 

Synoptical Table of British Fossil Fishes, by Professor Agassiz. 

Report on British Fossil Mammalia (Part II.), by Professor Owen. 

Report on the Fauna of Ireland : Div. Invertebrata. Drawn up, at the 
request of the British Association, by William Thompson, Esq., President of 
the Natural History and Philosophical Society of Belfast. 



The following Reports of Researches undertaken at the request of the Associa-. 
Hon have been published in its Transactions, viz, 

1835. 

On the comparative measurement of the Aberdeen Standard Scale, by 
Francis Baily, Treasurer R.S., &c. 

On Impact upon Beams, by Eaton Hodgkinson. 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial Magnetic 
Force in Ireland, by the Rev. H. Lloyd, Capt. Sabine, and Capt. J. C. Ross. 

On the phsenomena usually referred to the Radiation of Heat, by H. 
Hudson, M.D. 

Experiments on Rain at different Elevations, by Wm. Gray, jun., and 
Professor Phillips (Reporter). 

Hourly Observations of the Thermometer at Plymouth, by W. S. Harris. 

On the Infra-orbital Cavities in Deers and Antelopes, by A. Jacob, M.D. 

On the Effects of Acrid Poisons, by T. Ilodgkin, M.D. 

On the Motions and Sounds of the Heart, by the Dublin Sub-Committee. 

On the Registration of Deaths, by the Edinburgh Sub-Committee. 

1836. 

Observations on the Direction and Intensity of the Terrestrial Magnetic 
Force in Scotland, by Major Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S., &c. 

Comparative view of the more remarkable Plants which characterize the 
Neighbourhood of Dublin, the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and the South- 
west of Scotland, &c.; drawn up for the British Association by J. T. Mackay, 
M.R.I.A., A.L.S., &c. ; assisted by Robert Graham, Esq., M.D., Professor of 
Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 

Report of the London Sub-Committee of the Medical Section of the 
British Association on the Motions and Sounds of the Heart. 

Report of the Dublin Committee on the Pathology of the Bi'ain and 
Nervous System. 

Account of the Recent Discussions of Observations of the Tides which 
have been obtained by means of the grant of money which was placed at the 
disposal of the Author for that purpose at the last meeting of the Association, 
by J. W. Lubbock, Esq. 

Observations for determining the Refractive Indices for the Standard Rays 
of the Solar Spectrum in various media, by the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., 
F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

Provisional Report on the Communication between the Arteries and 
Absorbents, on the part of the London Committee, by Dr. Hodgkin. 

Report of Experiments on Subterranean Temperature, under the direction 
of a Committee, consisting of Professor Forbes, Mr. W. S. Harris, Professor 
Powell, Lieut.-Colonel Sykes, and Professor Phillips (Reporter). 



nESEABCHES IN SCIENCE. XVll 

Inquiry into the validity of a method recently proposed by George B. 
Jerrard, Esq., for Transforming and Resolving Equations of Elevated Degrees ; 
undertaken, at the request of the Association, by Professor SirW. R. Hamilton. 

1837. 

Account of the Discussions of Observations of the Tides which have been 
obtained by means of the grant of money which was placed at the disposal 
of the Author for that purpose at the last Meeting of the Association, by J. 
W. Lubbock, Esq., RR.S. 

On the difference between the Composition of Cast Iron produced by the 
Cold and the Hot Blast, by Thomas Thomson, M.D., F.R.SS. L. & E., &c., 
Professor of Chemistry, Glasgow. 

On the Determination of the Constant of Nutation by the Greenwich Ob- 
servations, made as commanded by the British Association, by the Rev. T. 
R. Robinson, D.D. 

On some Experiments on the Electricity of Metallic Veins, and the Tem- 
perature of Mines, by Robert Were Fox. 

Provisional Report of the Committee of the Medical Section of the British 
Association, appointed to investigate the Composition of Secretions, and the 
Organs producing them. 

Report from the Committee for inquiring into the Analysis of the Glands, 
&c. of the Human Body, by G. O. Rees, M.D., F.G.S. 

Second Report of the London Sub-Committee of the Medical Section of 
the British Association, on the Motions and Sounds of the Heart. 

Report from the Committee for making experiments on the Growth of 
Plants under Glass, and without any free communication with the outAvard 
air, on the plan of Mr. N. I. Ward of London. 

Report of the Committee on Waves, appointed by the British Association 
at Bristol in 1836, and consisting of Sir John Robison, K.H., Secretary of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and John Scott Russell, Esq., M.A.. F.R.S. 
Edin. (Reporter). 

On the Relative Strength and other mechanical Properties of Cast Iron ob- 
tained by Hot and Cold Blast, by Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq. 

On the Strength and other Properties of Iron obtained from the Hot and 
Cold Blast, by W. Fairbairn, Esq. 

1838. 

Account of a Level Line, measured from the Bristol Channel to the En- 
glish Channel, during the year 1837-38, by Mr. Bunt, under the Direction 
of a Committee of the British Association. Drawn up by the Rev. W. 
Whewell, F.R.S., one of the Committee. 

A Memoir on the Magnetic Isoclinal and Isodynamic Lines in the British 
Islands, from observations by Professors Humphrey Lloyd and John Phil- 
lips, Robert Were Fox, Esq., Captain James Clark Ross, R.N., and Major 
Edward Sabine, R.A., by Major Edward Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

First Report on the Determination of the Mean Numerical Values of Rail- 
way Constants, by Dionysius Lardner, LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 

First Report upon Experiments instituted at the request of the British 
Association, upon the Action of Sea and River Water, whether clear or foul, 
and at various temperatures, upon Cast and Wrought Iron, by Robert Mal- 
let, M.R.I.A., Ass. Ins. C.E. 

Notice of Experiments in progress, at the desire of the British Association, 
on the Action of a Heat of 212° Fahr., when long continued, on Inorganic 
and Organic Substances, by Robert Mallet, M.R.I.A. 

Experiments on the ultimiate Transverse Strength of Cast Iron made at 



xviii REPORT — 1843. 

Arigna Works, Co. Leitrim, Ireland, at Messrs. Bramah and Robinson's, 29th 
May, 1837. 

Provisional Reports, and Notices of Progress in Special Researches en- 
trusted to Committees and Individuals. 

1839. 

Report on the application of the sum assigned for Tide Calculations to 
Mr. Whewell, in a Letter from T. G. Bunt, Esq., Bristol. 

Notice of Determination of the Arc of Longitude between the Observato- 
ries of Armagh and Dublin, by the Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., &c. 

Report of some Galvanic Experiments to determine the existence or non- 
existence of Electrical Currents among Stratified Rocks, particularly those of 
the Mountain Limestone formation, constituting the Lead Measures of Alston 
Moor, by H. L. Pattinson, Esq. 

Report respecting the two series of Hourly Meteorological Observations 
kept in Scotland at the expense of the British Association, by Sir David 
Brewster, K.H., LL.D., F.R.SS. L. and E. 

Report on the subject of a series of Resolutions adopted by tlie British 
Association at their Meeting in August 1838, at Newcastle. 

Third Report on the Progress of the Hourly Meteorological Register at the 
Plymouth Dockyard, Devonport, by W. Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S. 

1840. 

Report on Professor Whewell's Anemometer, now in operation at Ply- 
mouth, by W. Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S., <Src. 

Report on the Motions and Sounds of the Heart, by the London Com- 
mittee of the British Association for 1 839-40. 

An Account of Researches in Electro-Chemistry, by Professor Schdnbein 
of Basle. 

Second Report upon the Action of Air and Water, whether fresh or salt, 
clear or foul, and at various temperatures, upon Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, and 
Steel, by Robert Mallet, M.R.I.A., Ass. Ins. C.E. 

Report on the Observations recorded during the Years 1837, 1838, 1839, 
and 1840, by the Self-registering Anemometer erected at the Philosophical 
Institution, Birmingham, by A. Follett Osier, Esq. 

Report respecting the two series of Hourly Meteorological Observations kept 
at Inverness and Kingussie, at the Expense of the British Association, from 
Nov. 1st, 1838, to Nov. 1st, 1839, by Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S., &c. 

Report on the Fauna of Ireland : Div. Vertebrata. Drawn up, at tlie re- 
quest of the British Association, by William Tliompson, Esq. ( Vice-Pres. Nat. 
Hist. Society of Belfast), one of the Committee appointed for that purpose. 

Report of Experiments on the Physiology of the Lungs and Air-tubes, 
by Charles J. B. Williams, M.D., F.R.S. 

Report of the Committee appointed to try Experiments on the Preservation 
of Animal and Vegetable Substances, by the Rev. J. S. Henslow, F.L.S. 

1841. 

On the Tides of Leith, by the Rev. Professor Whewell, including a com- 
munication by D. Ross, Esq. 

On the Tides of Bristol, by the Rev. Professor Whewell, including a com- 
munication by T. G. Bunt, Esq. 

On Whewell's Anemometer, by W. S. Harris, Esq. 

On the Nomenclature of Stars, by Sir John Herschel. 

On the Registration of Earthquakes, by D. Milne, Esq. 

On Varieties of the Human Race, by T. Hodgkin, M.D. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XIX 

On Skeleton Maps for registering the geographical distribution of Animals 
or Plants, by — Brand, Esq. 

On the Vegetative Power of Seeds, by H. E. Strickland, Esq. 

On Acrid Poisons, by Dr. Roupell. 

Supplementary Report on Waves, by J. S. Russell, Esq. 

On the Forms of Ships, by J. S. Russell, Esq. 

On the Progress of Magnetical and Meteorological Observations, by Sir 
John Herschel. 

On Railway Constants, by Dr. Lardner. 

On Railway Constants, by E. Woods, Esq. 

On the Constant Indicator, by the Rev. Professor Moseley. 

1842. 
On the Progress of simultaneous Magnetical and Meteorological Observa- 
tions, by Sir John Herschel. 

On the Meteorological Observations made at Plymouth during the past 
year, by William Snow Harris, F.R.S. 

On the Growth and Vitality of Seeds, by H. E. Strickland, F.G.S. 

Reports of Committee on Railway Sections, by Rev. Dr. Buckland and 
Mr. Vignoles. 

On the Preservation of Animal and Vegetable Substances ; by C. C. Ba- 
bington, F.L.S. 

On the Influence of Light on the Germination of Seeds and the Growth of 
Plants, by Robert Hunt. 

On the Strength of Iron, by Wni. Fairbairn. 

Second Report of the Committee for registering Earthquakes, by David 
Milne, Esq. 

On the Constant Indicator, by Professor Moseley. 

On the Form of Ships, by John Scott Russell, M.A. 

On Zoological Nomenclature, by H. E. Strickland, F.G.S. 

On Vital Statistics, by Colonel Sykes, and the Committee on that subject. 

Provisional Reports. 

1843. 

Third Report on the Action of Air and Water on Iron and Steel, by R. 
Mallet, M.R.I.A. 

Report of Committee for Simultaneous Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation. 

Report of Committee for Experiments on Steam Engines. 

Report of Committee for Experiments on the Vitality of Seeds. 

Report on Tides of Frith of Forth and East Coast of Scotland, by J. S. 
Russell, M.A. 

Report of Committee on the Form of Ships. 

Report on the Physiological Action of Medicines, by J. Blake, M.R.C.S. 

Report of Committee on Zoological Nomenclature. 

Report of Committee on Earthquakes. 

Report of Committee on Balloons. 

Report of Committee on Scientific Memoirs. 

Report on Marine Testacea, by C. W. Peach. 

Report on the MoUusca and Radiata of the j^gean Sea, by Professor 
Forbes. 

Report of the Excavation at CoUyhurst near Manchester, by E. W. 
Binney. 

Provisional Reports. 

Concluding Report of Railroad Section Committee. 



XX. KEPORT — 1843. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Cork Meeting 
in August 184-3. 

Resolved, on the motion of the Rev. Dr. Robinson, seconded by the 
Marquis of Northampton. That the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science return their thanks to Her Majesty's Government for the liberal 
manner in which they have granted assistance to tlie Association, for publish- 
ing Catalogues of Stars, by placing £1000 at their disposal for that purpose. 

Resolved, — That the thanks of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science be given to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for the early com- 
munication of Copies of the recent Census, presented to the Association ; 
together with a strong expression of their approbation of the form in which 
the same is constructed, as a model for similar works. 

That an application be made on the part of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, to the Master-General of the Ordnance, en- 
treating his assistance in the Experiments Avith Captive Balloons. A Com- 
mittee, consisting of the Marquis of Northampton, Lord Adare, and the 
Dean of Ely, to make the application. 

That application be made to Government to give its aid in the publication 
of Professor E. Forbes's Researches in the ^gean Sea (on the same plan as 
the publications of Mr. Darwin, Dr. Smith, and Captain Belcher), those 
Researches having been made while he was engaged as Naturalist in the Go- 
vernment Hydrographical Survey in the Mediterranean. 

Resolved, — That application be made to Her Majesty's Government for 
the insertion of Contour Lines of Elevation on the Ordnance Maps of Ire- 
land, such lines being of great value for engineering, mining, geological and 
mechanical purposes : and that a Committee, consisting of the Earl of Rosse, 
the Marquis of Northampton, and John Taylor, Esq., be requested to make 
the application. 

Publication of the Report on the Forms of Ships. That the Committee, con- 
isting of the Dean of Ely, John MacNeill, Esq., Col. Sabine, and John Tay- 
lor, Esq., be requested to examine and consider the matter contained in the 
Report on the Form of Ships, and report upon the same, with a view to the 
publication of the whole or such parts of the same as to them may seem 
advisable : and that the Committee be requested further to consider and re- 
port upon any mode by which a publication, such as they may judge fit to be 
made, may be accomplished. 

That it appears to the Committee highly desirable for the improvement of 
Science and Art in the City of Cork, and its neighbourhood, that the Royal 
Cork Institution should be restored to a state of efficiency ; and that the 
officers of the Association be requested to support an application to Her 
Majesty's Government, for such assistance as may be necessary for that pur- 
pose. 



Recommendations for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee for revising the Nomenclature of Stars, consisting of 
Sir John Herschel, the Rev. W. Whewell, and Mr. Baily, be re-appointed. 

That Professor Bache be requested to proceed with his Report on Ame- 
rican INIeteorology, and if possible, to present it at the next Meeting of 
the Association. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXI 

That applications be made — 

To Mr. Airy, requesting him to furnish the Second Report on the progress 
of Astronomy, if possible, by the next Meeting of the Association. 

To Professor Wheatstone for his Report on Vision, to be presented, if 
possible, at the next Meeting. 

To Mr. Hodgkinson for his Report on the Resistance of the Atmosphere, 
to be presented, if possible, at the next Meeting of the Association. 

To Professor Kelland for his Report on the Undulations of Fluid and Elastic 
Media, to be presented, if possible, at the next Meeting of the Association. 

To Mr. Fox Talbot for his Report on Photography and its Applications, 
to be presented, if possible, at the next Meeting of the Association. 

To Professor Phillips for his Report on the Structure and Colours of 
Clouds, to be presented, if possible, at the next Meeting of the Association. 

To Dr. Lloyd for his second Report on Physical Optics, to be presented, 
if possible, at the next Meeting of the Association. 

To Dr. Richardson for a Report on the State of our Knowledge of the 
Fishes of the Chinese Seas. 

To Mr. H. E. Strickland for a Report on the present State of our Know^ 
ledge of Ornithology. 

To Mr. Blackvvall to enlarge his Report on the Palpi of Araneidea, so as to 
include in a condensed form a notice of the Habits and Structure of the entire 
tribe. 

To Mr. Alder and Mr. Hancock for a Report on the British Nudibranchiate 
Mollusca. 

To Mr. Blake for a Report of his Researches on the Physiological Action of 
Medicines. 

That Mr. Fairbairn, Mr. Houldsworth, Mr. Hodgkinson, and Mr. Buck, be 
requested to continue their investigations on the Consumption of Fuel and the 
Prevention of Smoke. 



Hecommendations of Special Researches in Science, involving Grants of 

Money. 

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

That Sir David Brewster be requested to continue till Nov. 1, ISiS, the 
hourly observations on the Thermometer, Barometer and Anemometer, and 
that a sum not exceeding 12/. be placed at the disposal of the Council of the 
British Association for that purpose. 

That Mr. William Snow Harris be requested to complete the Meteorolo- 
gical Observations at Plymouth, with 35/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Dr. Robinson, Col, Sabine, 
and Mr. Wheatstone, with 100/. at their disposal for the purpose of conduct- 
ing experiments with Captive Balloons, on the Physical Constitution of the 
Atmosphere. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Sir John Herschel, Dr. Whe- 
well, The Dean of Ely, Professor Lloyd, and Colonel Sabine, with 50/. at their 
disposal, for the purpose of Magnetic and Meteorological co-operation, — and 
that this Committee be authorized to superintend the reduction of Meteoro- 
logical Observations formerly conducted by Sir J. Herschel. 

That Sir D. Brewster be requested to investigate the action of different 
bodies on the Spectrum, with 10/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Colonel Sabine, Dr. Robin- 
son, Sir John Herschel, Professor Wheatstone, Professor Owen, Professor 
T. Graham, Professor Miller, and Sir William Jardine, with 20/. at their 

1843. c 



xxii REPORT — 1843. 

disposal for the purpose of superintending the translation and publication of 
Scientific Memoirs. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Mr. Baily, and Dr. Robin- 
son, with 650/. at their disposal for the purpose of publishing the British 
Association Catalogue of Stars, (500 copies). 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Sir Thomas Brisbane, and 
Mr. J. S. Russell, with 100/. at their disposal, for the purpose of completing 
the Observations on Tides on the East coast of Scotland. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Professor Wheatstone, and 
Colonel Sabine, with 30^. at their disposal for the purpose of experimenting 
on Subterranean Temperature. 

KEW OBSERVATORY. 

That the sum of 200/. be placed at the disposal of the Council for the pur- 
pose of maintaining the establishment in Kew Observatory. 

CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

That a Committee be re-appointed, consisting of Dr. Kane, Dr. Schunk, 
and Dr. Play fair, with 10/. at their disposal for the purpose of examining the 
History of Colouring Matters. 

That a Committee be re-appointed, consisting of Dr. Kane, Dr. Schunk, 
and Dr. Playfair, with 10/. at their disposal for the purpose of Inquiries into 
the Chemical History of Tannin. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Mr. R. W. Fox, and Mr. R^. 
Hunt, with 10/. at their disposal for the purpose of continuing Researches on 
the Influence of Light upon Plants. 

GEOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

That Mr. Oldham be requested to undertake experiments on Subterranean 
Temperature in Ireland, with 10/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of the Marquis of Northampton, 
Dr. Buckland, Mr. Murchison, Mr. John Taylor, Sir H. T. De la Beche, and 
Mr. Vignoles, with 100/. at their disposal for the purpose of making geolo- 
gical Sections of Railway Cuttings. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Professor Owen, Sir Philip 
Egerton, Dr. Buckland, and Mr. Murchison, with 100/. at their disposal for 
the purpose of advancing our knowledge of the Fossil Fishes of the London 
Clay, and other Eocene Formations of Great Britain. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Rev. W. Whewell, Sir H. T. 
De la Beche, and Professor Phillips, with 20/. at their disposal for the pur- 
pose of examining the state of the reference Level Marks on the line sur- 
veyed by Mr. Bunt in Somerset and Devon, and of restoring them where 
necessary. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Mr. David Milne, and 
Mr. Duncan Maclaren, with 20/. at their disposal for the purpose of esta- 
blishing standard Level Marks on such parts of the Coasts of Scotland as they 
may think fit, with a view of ascertaining the Oscillations of the Land, parti- 
cularly in reference to the lines of Earthquake Shocks. 

GEOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY. 

That Dr. Carpenter be requested to draw up a Report on the Minute Struc- 
ture of Recent and Fossil Shells by means of the Microscope, with 20/. at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Mr. H. E. Strickland, Dr. ; 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXIU 

Daubeny, Professor Lindley, Mr. Henslow, Mr. Babington, Professor Bal- 
four, Mr. Mackay, and Mr. D. Moore, with 15^. at their disposal for the 
purpose of conducting Experiments on the Vitality of Seeds. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Sir W. Jardine, Mr. Yarrell, 
and Dr. Lankester, with 25l. at their disposal for the purpose of investigating 
the Exotic forms of the Anoplura. 

That Capt. Portlock be requested to Report on the Marine Zoology of 
Corfu, with 10/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Dr. Daubeny, Mr. Babington, 
Mr. R. Ball, Professor Apjohn, and Professor Kane, with 10/. at their disposal 
for the purpose of investigating the Preservation of Animal and Vegetable 
Substances. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Professor Owen, Professor E. 
Forbes, Sir Charles Lemon, and Mr. Couch, with 10/. at their disposal for the 
purpose of enabling Mr. Peach to continue his researches on the Marine 
Zoology of Cornwall and Devon, especially on the development and preserva- 
tion of Radiata and Mollusca. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Professor E. Forbes, Mr. 
Goodsir, Mr. Patterson, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Ball, Mr. Smith, and Mr. Couch, 
with 25/. at their disposal for the purpose of investigating, by means of the 
dredge, the Marine Zoology of Great Britain, the illustration of the Geogra- 
phical distribution of Marine Animals and the accurate determination of the 
Fossils of the Pleiocene Period. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Dr. Hodgkin, Dr. Prichard, 
Professor Owen, Dr. H. Ware, Mr. J. E. Gray, Dr. Lankester, Dr. A. Smith, 
Mr. Strickland, Mr. Babington, Dr. Scowler, and Mr. Wilde, with 15/. at 
their disposal for the purpose of investigating the varieties of the Human 
Race. 

MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Dr. Sharpey and Mr. 
Erichsen, with 10/. at their disposal for the purpose of conducting an ex- 
perimental inquiry on the subject of Asphyxia. 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

That Mr. J. S. Russell be requested to complete the discussion of the 
British Association Experiments on the Forms of Ships, with 100/. at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson be requested to continue his experiments on 
the Strength of Materials and the changes which take place in their internal 
constitution, with 100/. at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee be appointed, consisting of Mr. Fairbairn, Mr. Nasmyth, 
Mr. Hodgkinson, and Mr. Lucas, with 50/. at their disposal for the purpose 
of completing the experimental investigations on the Changes in the internal 
Constitution of Metals arising from continual Vibration and Concussion. 

GENERAL NOTICE. 

Gentlemen engaged in scientific researches by desire of the British Asso- 
ciation, are requested to observe that by a Resolution of the General Commit- 
tee at the Manchester Meeting (1842), all Instruments, Papers, Drawings 
and other Property of the Association, are to be deposited in the Kew Ob- 
servatory (lately placed by Her Majesty the Queen at the disposal of the 
Association), when not employed in carrying on Scientific Inquiries for the 
Association ; and the Secretaries are instructed to adopt the necessary mea- 
sures for carrying this resolution into effect. 

c2 



Xxiv REPORT — 1843. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee, at the Cork Meeting, August 23, 1843, with 
the Name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Committee, 
is entitled to draw for the Money. 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 

Brewster, Sir D. — For continuing hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations at Kingussie and Inverness 1200 

Harris, W. S. — For completing the Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth 35 

Robinson, Dr. — For conducting experiments with Captive Bal- 
loons 100 

Herschel, Sir J. — For Magnetic and Meteorological Co-ope- 
ration 50 

Brewster, Sir D. — For investigating the Action of different 

Bodies on the Spectrum 10 

Sabine, Col. — For superintending the Translation and Publica- 
tion of Scientific Memoirs 20 

Baily, Francis, Esq. — For the Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars, (500 copies) 650 

Brisbane, Sir Thomas — For completing the Observations on 

Tides of the East Coast of Scotland 100 

Wheats tone. Professor — For experiments on Subterraneous 

Temperature 30 

£1007 
Kao Observatory. 

For maintaining the establishment in Kew Observatory . . . £200 

Chemical Science. 

Kane, Professor — For investigating the Chemical history of Co- 
louring Substances 10 

Kane, Professor — For inquiries into the Chemical history of 

Tannin 10 

Fox, R. W. Esq. — For continuing Researches on the Influence 

of Light ou Plants 10 



£30 
Geological Science. 

Oldham, , Esq.— For experiments on Subterraneous Tem- 
perature in Ireland 10 

Northampton, Marquis of — For making Coloured Drawings 

of Railroad Cuttings 100 

Owen, Professor — For investigation of Fossil Fishes of the 

Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Whewell, Rev. W. — For completing level marks in Somerset 

and Devon 20 

Milne, David, Esq. — For Establishing Standard Level Marks 

on the Coast of Scotland 20 

£250 



GBNEBAIj statement. XXV 

Geology and Zoology. 

£ s. d. 
Carpenter, Dr. — -For Researches into the Microscopic struc- 
ture of Fossil and Recent Shells £20 

Botany and Zoology. 

Strickland, H. E., Esq. — For experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 15 

Jardine, Sir W. Bart. — For researches on Exotic Anoplura. . 25 

PoRTLOCK, Captain — For a Report on the Marine Zoology of 

Corfu 10 

Daubeny, Dr. — For Investigating the Preservation of Animal 

and Vegetable Substances 1000 

Owen, Professor, — For Researches on the Marine Zoology of 

Cornwall and Devon by Mr. Peach 1000 

Forbes, Professor E. — For Researches on the Geographical Dis- 
tribution of Marine Animals 25 

HoDGKiN, Dr For Inquiries into the varieties of the Human 

Race 15 



£110 
Medical Science. 

Sharpey, Dr. — For Inquiries into Asphyxia £10 

Mechanical Science. 
Russell, J. S. Esq. — For completing the discussion of theSritish 

Association experiments on the Form of Ships 100 

HoDGKiNsoN, Eaton, Esq. — For experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 100 

Fairbairn, W., Esq. — For experimental investigations on 

Changes in the internal Constitution of Metals 50 



Total of Grants 



£250 



£1877 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 

£ s. 
Brought forward 344 14 



1834. 



Tide Discussions ... 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions ... 62 

BritishFossil Ichthyology 105 



£167 



1836. 
Tide Discussions . , 
BritishFossil Ichthyology 
Thermometric Observa 

tions, &c. . . . 
Experiments on long 

continued Heat 
Rain Gauges . • . 



163 
105 



50 



17 
9 



Carried forward £344 14 



Refraction Experiments. 15 
Lunar Nutation ... 60 
Thermometers .... 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions . . . 284 1 
Chemical Constants . . 24 13 
Luntir Nutation ... 70 
Observations on Waves . 100 12 
Tides at Bristol . . .150 
Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 89 5 



VitrificationExperiments 150 



Carried forward £868 11 6 



XXVI 



REPORT — 1843. 



£ *. d. 

Brought forward 868 1 1 6 

Heart Experiments . . 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 





£918 


14 


6 


1838. 








Tide Discussions . • 


29 








British Fossil Fishes . 


. 100 








Meteorological Observa 








tions and Aneraometei 








(construction) . . 


. 100 








Cast Iron (strength of) 


. 60 








Animal and Vegetable 








Substances (preserva 








tion of) .... 


19 


1 


10 


Railway Constants . 


41 


12 


10 


Bristol Tides . . . 


50 








Growth of Plants . . 


. 75 








Mud in Rivers. . . 


. 3 


6 


6 


Education Committee 


. 50 








Heart Experiments . 


. 5 


3 





Land and Sea Level . 


. 267 


8 


7 


Subterranean Tempera- 








ture 


8 


6 





Steam-vessels . . . 


. 100 








Meteorological Commit 








tee 


. 31 


9 


5 


Thermometers . . . 


. 16 


4 







£956 


12 


2 


1839. 








Fossil Ichthyology . 


110 








Bleteorological Observa 








tions at Plymouth . 


63 


10 





Mechanism of Waves 


144 


2 





Bristol Tides . . . 


35 


18 


6 


Meteorology and Subter- 








ranean Temperature 


21 


11 





VitrificationExperiments 


. 9 


4 


7 


Cast Iron Experiments 


. 100 








Railway Constants . 


. 28 


7 


2 


Land and Sea Level . 


. 274 


1 


4 


Steam-vessels' Engines 


. 100 









Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 
Stars in La Caille. . . 11 
Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 
Animal Secretions . . 10 
Steam-engines in Corn- 
wall 50 

Atmospheric Air ... 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron . 40 





1 




Carried forward £1353 7 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Brought forward 1353 





7 


Heat on Organic Bodies 


3 








Gases on Solar Spec- 








trum 


22 








Hourly Meteorological 








Observations.Inverness 








and Kingussie . . . 


49 


7 


8 


Fossil Reptiles. . . . 


118 


2 


9 


Mining Statistics . . . 


50 









£1595 11 
1840. 
Bristol Tides .... 100 
Subterranean Tempera- 
ture 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments . . IS 19 
Lungs Experiments . . 8 13 
Tide Discussions ... 50 
Land and Sea Level ..1161 
Stars (Histoire Celeste). 242 10 
Stars (La Caille) ... 4 15 
Stars (Catalogue). . . 264 
Atmospheric Air . . . 15 15 
Water on Iron .... 10 
Heat on Organic Bodies 7 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions 32 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Me- 
moirs 112 1 6 

Working Population . .100 

School Statistics . . . 50 

Forms of Vessels . . . 1 84 7 
Chemical and Electrical 

Phasnomena ... . 40 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 80 



Magnetical Observations 185 

£1546 
1841. 
Observations on Waves 
Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature 
Actinometers ... 
Earthquake Shocks . 
Acrid Poisons ... 
Veins and Absorbents 
Mud in Rivers. . . 
Marine Zoology . . 
Skeleton Maps ... 
Mountain Barometers 
Stars (Histoire Celeste) 
Stars (La Caille) . . 




13 



16 4 



30 



8 


8 





10 








17 


7 





6 








3 








5 








15 


12 


8 


20 








6 


18 


6 


185 








79 


5 






Carried forward £386 11 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXVU 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Brought forward 386 


11 


2 


Stars (Nomenclature of) 


17 


19 


6 


Stars (Catalogue of). . 


40 








Water on Iron .... 


50 








Meteorological Observa- 








tions at Inverness . . 


20 








Meteorological Observa- 








tions (reduction of) . 


25 








Fossil Reptiles .... 


50 








Foreign Memoirs . . . 


62 








Railway Sections . . . 


38 


1 


6 


Forms of Vessels . . . 


193 


12 





Meteorological Observa- 








tions at Plymouth . . 


55 








Magnetical Observations 


61 


18 


8 


Fishes of the Old Red 








Sandstone .... 


100 








Tides at Leith .... 


50 








Anemometer at Edin- 








burgh 


69 


1 


10 


Tabulating Observations 


9 


6 


3 


Races of Men .... 


5 








Radiate Animals . . . 


2 








£1235 


10 


11 


1842. 








Dynamometric Instru- 








ments 


113 


11 


2 


Anopleura Britanniae. . 


52 


12 





Tides at Bristol . . . 


59 


8 





Gases on Light. . . . 


30 


14 


7 


Chronometers .... 


26 


17 


6 


Marine Zoology . . . 


1 


5 





British Fossil Mammalia 100 








Statistics of Education . 


20 








Marine Steam-vessels' 








Engines 


28 








Stars (Histoire Celeste). 


59 








Stars (British Associa- 








tion Catalogue of). . 


110 








Railway Sections . . . 


161 


10 





British Belemnites . . 


50 








Fossil Reptiles (publica- 








tion of Report). . . 


210 








Forms of Vessels . . . 


180 








Galvanic Experiments on 








Rocks 


5 


8 


6 


Meteorological Experi- 








ments at Plymouth . 


68 








Constant Indicator and 








Dynamometric Instru- 








ments 


90 









Carried forward £1366 6 9 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 1366 6 9 

Force of Wind. ... 10 
Light on Growth of 

Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics .... 50 
Vegetative Power of 

Seeds 8 1 11 

Questions on Human 

Race 7 9 



£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars ... 200 

Reductions of Stars, Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith 

of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations at Kin- 
gussie and Inverness . 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 

Meteorological Whe- 
well's Anemometer at 
Plymouth .... 10 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions Osier's Anemo- 
meter at Plymouth. . 20 

Reduction of Meteorolo- 
gical Observations . . 30 

Meteorological Instru- 
ments and Gratuities . 39 6 

Construction of Anemo- 
meter at Inverness. . 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation . 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder 

for Kew Observatory . 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew 
Observatory, Wages, 
Repairs, Furniture, and 
Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive 

Balloons 81 8 

Oxidations of the Rails 

of Railways .... 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles ... 40 



Carried forward £789 8 4 



xxvm 



REPORT — 1843. 



£ s. d. 
Brought forward 789 8 4 

Coloured Drawings of 

Railway Sections . . 147 18 3 

Registration of Earth- 
quake Shocks . . . 

Uncovering Lower Red 
Sandstone near Man- 
chester 

Report on Zoological 
Nomenclature . . . 

Vegetative Power of 
Seeds 

Marine Testacea, (Habits 
of) 

Marine Zoology . . . 

Marine Zoology . . . 

Preparation of Report 



30 



4 4 6 
10 

5 3 8 

10 

10 

2 14 11 



Carried forward £1009 9 8 



Brought forward 1009 9 8 
on British Fossil Mam- 
malia 100 

Physiological operations 

of Medicinal Agents . 20 

Vital Statistics .... 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments 
on the Forms of Vessels 

Additional Experiments 

onthe Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Observa- 
tions on the Forms of 
Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and 

Constant Indicator. . 69 14 10 

Experiments on the 

Strength of Materials 60 



70 



£1565 10 2 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, London, for 
such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

On Thursday evening, August 17th, at 8 p.m., the President, the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Rosse, F.R.S., took the Chair in the Corn Exchange, Cork, 
and delivered an Address (see page xxix.). 

On Saturday evening, August 19th, in the Corn Exchange, Professor Owen 
delivered a discourse on the Dinornis of New Zealand. 

On Monday evening, August 21st, in the same Room, Professor Forbes 
stated the result of his recent Surveys of Distribution of Animal Life in the 
^gean Sea. 

On Wednesday, August 23rd, at 8 p.m., the Concluding General Meeting 
of the Association took place in the Corn Exchange, when Dr. Robinson 
delivered an account of the principles of construction employed in the Great 
Reflecting Telescopes of the President, the Earl of Rosse. A synoptical 
statement of the grants of money sanctioned at the Meeting was presented to 
the Members. 



ADDRESS 



THE EARL OF ROSSE. 



Gentlemen, — I am sure no one can feel more sensible of the kindness of 
my noble friend, in condescending to notice my very humble exertions in the 
cause of astronomical science, and no one more conscious that the compliment 
so flattering is undeserved, and, I must say, that I should be but too happy were 
it now in my power to resign into his abler hands those duties which have 
just devolved upon me ; for in that case I am sure the Association would 
have nothing to desire. But as that is impossible, and as it has been of late 
the practice for those who have occupied the position in which I find myself 
most undeservedly placed, to offer a few observations on the objects of the 
Association at the first General Meeting, I feel I have no other course but 
to solicit most earnestly your kind indulgence. Such a request you would 
not perhaps consider unreasonable from any one who laboured under the 
embarrassment necessarily arising from the consciousness of his own inability 
adequately to discharge the duties entrusted to him, augmented, as it must be, 
tenfold, by that awe which it is impossible not to feel in the presence of men 
the most distinguished in the varied departments of human knowledge. But 
perhaps, in this instance, your kindness will allow there is an additional claim 
to your indulgence. This very embarrassing position is not of my own 
seeking. To have aspired to the high honour of presiding at one of your 
meetings, would have been an act of presumptuous vanity, which I never did, 
which 1 never could have contemplated. A communication from Manches- 
ter, announcing that the Association had actually made their selection, was 
the first intimation which reached me that my name had even been thought 
of. Under such circumstances, to have declined the honour, and to have 
shrunk from the responsibility, would, in my opinion, have been inconsistent 
with proper respect : it remained, therefore, but to endeavour to do the ut- 
most, trusting that your kindness would overlook all omissions, and that the 
vigilance of the many most able men who guide the proceedings of the 
Association would detect and correct all important errors. But, however 
arduous the task, however painful the duty of addressing a meeting so con- 
stituted as this is, it is impossible not to participate in the gratification which 
all must feel in seeing so many men of eminence assembled to assist each 
other in promoting objects of such deep and general interest. The man of 
the world who, busied in the changing scenes of life, watches with fixed at- 
tention the actions of men, while he occasionally perhaps casts a passing glance 
at science as it happens to present to him some new wonder — he cannot fail 
to look with surprise, and, I may add, with gratification, at a meeting so 
large (and in this country too), from which politics are altogether excluded. 
Here he will see no angry conflict of passions, none of that feeling of bitter- 
ness and animosity, which never fails to attend the contests between man 
and man, between different classes in the same country, or between diiferent 



XXX REPORT 1843. 

nations : all proceeding from the same cause, or nearly so — a struggle for 
power ; in other woi'ds, a struggle for dominion over man, and through him 
over the material things of this world. But in such a contest, what is gained 
on one side must be lost on the other. Here, on the contrary, however much 
may be gained, there can be no loss to any one. This is no paradox ; for 
here the object of the contest is to increase man's knowledge, and with it at 
once his power over the material things of this world. It is plain, therefore, 
that in the objects we have in view, all have an equal interest ; that the con- 
test we are engaged in is one of friendly rivalry, all competing in their 
efforts to promote that knowledge, that science, which has been given to hs 
as the reward of industry, and by which the gifts of a bountiful Providence 
may be increased and improved, for the benefit of man, to an extent almost 
unlimited. 

But, Gentlemen, there are perhaps many here who have not been present 
at other meetings of the Association, who know nothing of the objects actu- 
ally accomplished by it, and who are not acquainted with the records of its 
proceedings annually published. The question, therefore, may be asked. Does 
this Association actually promote the advance of science, and if so, by what 
means ? 

For a complete, detailed and triumphant answer to such a question, I must 
refer to the printed Reports of the proceedings. It would be unpardonable 
on my part to take up your time in endeavouring to perform a task, no doubt 
imperfectly, which has been achieved in the most complete manner by the 
very able men who on former occasions have undertaken it. I shall there- 
fore only mention, that original researches in various departments of science, 
and on a great scale, have been carried on by the Association, upon which 
large sums have been expended under the most skilful management, and 
with very important results. The sum so expended exceeds 8000^. Mud 
also has been accomplished for science, by the resources of the State applied 
under the advice of the Association ; and within a few days it has been 
officially announced that the sum required for an important astronomical ob- 
ject, the publication of the Observations of Lacaille and Lalande, has been 
granted by Government. 

For the previous reduction of the observations we are indebted to the 
zeal, ability and public spirit of Mr. Baily and Mr. Henderson, two members 
of the Association, who gave their services gratuitously, and took upon 
themselves the laborious duty of superintending the work. The actual ex- 
pense incurred, amounting to 1400/., was defrayed out of the funds of the 
Association. 

I am also happy to be enabled to announce, that with respect to another 
great undertaking you all have heard of, which has been carried on at the 
public expense, under the gratuitous superintendence of a distinguished phi- 
losopher*, a most favourable notice has been published by a foreign geo- 
metrician of eminence : that notice, or essay, perhaps I should call it, will 
appear translated in the next number of the Scientific Memoirs. I regret 
I have not been able to procure a copy of the original essay, and therefore 
cannot say anything more precise about it ; still I cannot refrain from men- 
tioning it as a subject of much interest in the scientific world. In addition 
to the researches carried on by the Association, much has been done to aid 
research. A very important series of papers has been written and published 
in the annual volumes, under the head of" Reports on Researches in Science." 
Each of these Reports is, in fact, a complete and accurate general view of 
the actual state of that science, or branch of science, to which it refers, 
* Mr. Babbage. 



ADDRESS. XXXI 

briefly, but profoundly, touching upon every point of interest, so that the 
man about to undertake the task of endeavouring to advance any particular 
branch of science may at once, by referring to one of these Reports, know 
where to look for that information which is indispensable to success, namely, 
an exact knowledge of all that has been done by others. 

These Reports are so numerous, and embrace so wide a field, that to give 
any analysis of them within reasonable limits, would be impossible ; and to 
form an adequate estimate of their importance, it is absolutely necessary to 
examine them in detail, just as they have been published. However, it ap- 
pears to me, that without presupposing any knowledge whatever of these 
matters, or of the past history of this Society — without assuming that it has 
in any one instance effected, by joint co-operation, important and laborious 
researches in the cause of science, still that, even to a person who will not 
take the trouble of inquiring and informing himself, an answer to the question, 
Does the Association advance science ? may be returned, short but conclusive. 
The answer I should give would be this : I appeal to the experience of every 
man at all conversant with the history of science, and with the working of 
scientific societies, whether it is not an indisputable fact, proved by experi- 
ence, that all such societies, when properly conducted, are powerfully in- 
strumental in promoting the advance of science. 

Unfortunately, it sometimes happens, that when a new society springs up, 
it in some degree interferes with a society previously existing. This Asso- 
ciation, however, interferes with no other society, and therefore, setting aside 
the great objects actually accomplished, far beyond the pecuniary resources 
of other societies, and for which I take no credit, because I presume for a 
moment they are unknown, it appears to me, nevertheless, to follow irresist- 
ibly, that this Association, acting precisely as other learned societies do — 
using the same means, and exerting a similar indirect influence, must like- 
wise, just as they are, and on a scale just proportioned to its magnitude, be 
eminently useful in urging on the advance of science. 

It may, perhaps, be worth while to inquire for a moment in what way the 
associations of scientific men promote science. The inquiry, however, can- 
not alter the fact that they do so, for that fact is based on experience. There 
are many and very obvious ways in which they do so. I shall mention but 
one. 

The love of truth; the pleasure which the mind feels in overcoming dif- 
ficulties ; the satisfaction in contributing to the general store of knowledge ; 
the engrossing nature of a pursuit so exalted as that of diving into the won- 
ders of the creation ; all these are very powerful incentives to exertion ; and 
under their influence great works have been undertaken in the cause of 
science, and carried through to a successful termination ; but I believe few 
Avill be disposed to deny that further inducements must be highly useful. 

Let it be for a moment recollected, that where any, even the most trifling, 
step in advance has been gained, except perhaps the accidental discovery 
of a simple fact, there has usually been a long and laborious course of 
previous preparation. It has been necessary, even in the more popular sci- 
ences, to know accurately, first, what had been done by others ; to see di- 
stinctly the boundary line between the known and the unknown, before there 
was the least chance of effecting anything ; and in the higher departments 
of science such is the time to be expended, so great the toil to be endured 
in ascending to that elevation, from which the difficulties to be encountered 
but just begin to appear, that the task is one to which the undivided energies 
of man exerted for many years are no more than commensurate. 

But the necessary preparations accomplished, then the real difficulties com- 



xxxii REPORT — 1843. 

mence. Some perhaps apparently new principle suggests itself; it is fol- 
lowed, with great expenditure of time and labour, to its remote conse- 
quences, and it turns out to be perfectly barren and worthless. 

One disappointment succeeds another, and yeai-s of toil pass away and no 
result. Under these trying circumstances the associations of scientific men 
afford their friendly aid ; they soothe disappointment, excite hope, and pre- 
pare the way for redoubled exertion ; they call into active existence that 
principle which has been implanted in our nature for the noblest purposes — 
the legitimate ambition of meriting and receiving the approbation of our 
friends and associates. In the ordinary circle of acquaintances, the man en- 
gaged in scientific pursuits will find very few, if any, who can understand 
and appreciate his labours ; but in such associations as this, there are always 
many Avho see exactly the object aimed at, the difficulties to be encountered, 
and who are ready to acknowledge with gratitude every successful effort in 
the cause of science. 

It is thus, without having recourse to other considerations, that I account 
for the fact, that the associations of scientific men, even when they employ 
no large funds, and perform no gigantic labours, as this Society does, still, by 
their indirect action, accelerate very greatly the progress of scientific dis- 
covery. 

But this Association performs other important services. It appears to me 
to diffuse over scientific inquiry (if I may so express myself) a salutary in- 
fluence — a healthy vigour of action. What more calculated to dispel that 
feeling of languor and weariness, the consequence of excessive mental labour 
long continued, than the freshening excitement of an interchange of ideas 
with men to whom the same course of research had long been an object of 
interest? What more likely to extinguish any petty jealousy which might 
arise — and scientific men, like other men, have their weaknesses sometimes, 
— than to bring all the parties together in friendly intercourse, where they 
cannot but feel they have a common object, and are working in a common 
cause — the discovery of truth ? 

Again : should the mind, pui'suing in retirement some single scientific ob- 
ject, raise up to itself notions exaggerated and unreal, of the importance of 
that object, and then, elated and misled by some trifling success, should it 
throw off the garb of humanity, the characteristic of science pursued in a 
proper spirit, what more calculated to dispel the illusion than these meetings, 
where the man, however eminent in that branch of science to which he may 
have devoted his almost exclusive attention, will be sure to find others im- 
mensely his superior in every other department of human knowledge ? And 
it is not merely for the sake of individuals engaged in the pursuit of science 
that these consequences are so valuable ; it is also for the sake of science 
itself. 

It is important that science should stand before the world in an aspect 
which is not forbidding, and we may rest assured of this, that wherever there 
may be the least trace of petty jealousy, of prejudice, or of pride, the world 
will not be slow to discover it ; and as science claims as one of its noblest 
attributes, the power of exalting and enlarging the mind, and of arming it 
against such weaknesses, it will thus be exposed to the charge of having pre- 
ferred pretensions to which it has no just title. 

I will not detain you by enlarging upon the other obvious beneficial con- 
sequences of these meetings, such as the opportunities they afford for the 
free discussion of questions upon which the concentrated knowledge of in- 
dividuals may be brought to bear with so much success — the opportunities 
they afford for the formation of new friendships between scientific men, often 



ADDRESS. XXXIU 

fraught with consequences very important to science, and the necessary ten- 
dency of them to encourage a taste for science. Upon all these I will 
abstain from offering any observations. There is, however, one consequence 
of these meetings, to which, if you will permit me to detain you a moment 
longer, I will just advert. 

It has been remarked by a modern traveller of considerable depth of ob- 
servation, that he had always found in the children of the fields a more de- 
termined tendency to religion and piety than amongst the dwellers in towns 
and cities, and that he conceived the reason to be obvious — that the inhabit- 
ants of the country were less accustomed to the works of man's hands than 
to those of God. May not the observation be of more extensive application 
than at first sight appeared ? and if it be true that where we dwell con- 
stantly in large cities the mind is liable to be led astray by the habitual con- 
templation of the works of man, forced upon it impei'ceptibly by the con- 
tinual succession of ideas — all of the same character — all originating in ob- 
jects which have been shaped and fashioned by man, may it not also be true 
that it is equally liable to be led astray where it concentrates its whole atten- 
tion, and exerts its whole energy without relaxation in the contemplation of 
the greatest of all human works, that which the labour of so many centuries 
has raised up — the structure of the abstract sciences ? And if that be so, 
what more calculated to unbend the mind, and to divert for a season the 
current of ideas into other channels, than these periodical meetings, where, 
in the proceedings of every section, matter will be found of the deepest in- 
terest to every true philosopher ; and where, however dissimilar the facts, 
however varied the inferences, the result will everywhere be still the same — 
that of putting forward more prominently in bold relief the wonderful works 
of creation ? It appears to me, if I may presume to offer an opinion on such 
a subject, that the continual progress of discovery is destined to answer 
objects far more important than the mere impx-ovement of the temporal con- 
dition of man. Were there a limit to scientific discovery, and had we reached 
that limit, we should be in the condition of a man who, with the most splendid 
landscape before him, was insensible of its beauty because the charm of 
novelty had passed away. Each successive discovery, as it brings us nearer 
to first principles, opens out to our view a new and more splendid prospect, 
and the mind, led away by its charms, is carried beyond and far above the 
petty and ephemeral contests of life ; but the more rapid the discoveries are, 
the more powerful the charm, and therefore great is the motive for exertion ; 
and in labouring in this cause there is this gratifying reflection, that our 
labours cannot injure our successors, for the region of discovery is rich be- 
yond the powers of conception ; and however much we may draw from it 
we shall not leave its treasures exhausted — no, not even diminished, because 
they are infinite. This Association has already accomplished much ; I feel 
persuaded it will accomplish much more ; but of this we may rest assured, 
that however long it may endure, and I see no principle of endurance which 
other societies have that is here wanting, it will find an ample and an en- 
larging field of useful employment. 



XXxiv REPORT — 1843. 

Report of the Council to the General Committee. 

1. The Local Secretaries for the Cork Meeting having stated to the 
Council the expediency of appointing an additional resident Local Secretary 
to assist in the arrangements for that meeting, and having named William 
Clear, Esq. of Cork as a very desirable person to fill the office, the Council 
appointed Mr. Clear one of the Local Secretaries for the Cork Meeting. 

2. The following Resolution, passed at a Meeting of the General Com- 
mittee held at Manchester on the 29th of June 1842, was communicated to 
the Council by the General Secretaries, viz. — 

" That the President and Officers of the British Association, with thp 
assistance of the Marquis of Northampton, the Dean of Ely, Sir John 
Herschel, and Francis Baily, Esq,, be a Committee to make application 
to Government to undertake the publication of the Catalogue of Stars 
in the Histoire Celeste of Lalande and of Lacaille's Catalogue of the 
Stars in the Southern Hemisphere, which have been reduced and pre- 
pared for publication at the expense of the British Association ; and 
that the President and Council of the Royal Society be requested to 
support the application. The Dean of Ely to be the Convener of this 
Committee." 
A Report in conformity with this Resolution, — requesting the co-operation 
of the Royal Society in an application to Government to defray the expenses 
of the publication of these Catalogues, — having been prepared by the Com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose, was approved by the Council ; and the Dean 
of Ely, Chairman of the Committee, being also a Member of the Council of 
the Royal Society, was requested to present the same to the President and 
Council of the Royal Society in the name of the British Association. 

The President and Council of the Royal Society having declined to accede 
to this request, the following application to Government from the British 
Association alone was approved by the Council and transmitted by the 
General Secretaries to Sir Robert Peel. 

(Letter No. L) 

" 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, April 6, 1843. 
" Sir, — We beg leave most respectfully, on behalf of the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, to solicit the aid of Her Majesty's Go- 
vernment in the publication of the following works : — 

" The first is the Catalogue of the Stars in the Histoire Celeste of Lalande 
exceeding 47,000 in number, which have been reduced under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Francis Baily. 

" The second is the Catalogue of Lacaille's Southern Stars, exceeding 
10,000 in number, which have been reduced, catalogued, and prepared for the 
press under the superintendence of Professor Henderson, the Astronomer 
Royal of Scotland. 

" The expenses already incurred in these reductions exceeding £1400, have 
been entirely defrayed from the funds of the British Association, at whose 
request they were undertaken. The further charge required for printing and 
publishing these Catalogues would not exceed £1000. 

" The British Association at their last Meeting at Manchester considered 
their funds inadequate to meet this charge, being already pledged to a very 
large amount for the publication of the extended Catalogue of the Astrono- 
mical Society, and for various important scientific researches and experiments ; 
and they consequently requested the General Secretaries, the Dean of Ely, 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., the Astronomer Royal, and Mr. Francis 
Baily, to apply to Her Majesty's Government for a grant of the requisite funds. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL TO THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XXXV 

" In virtue of this commission we venture most respectfully to beg, ' that 
Her Majesty's Government may be pleased to place a sum not exceeding one 
thousand pounds at the disposal of Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., and Mr, 
Francis Baily, towards defraying the expenses of printing the copies of the 
reduced catalogues of Lalande and Lacaille, to be disposed of in such manner 
as the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury may direct.' 

" We beg to assure you, Sir, that we consider the speedy publication of 
these Catalogues as of great importance to the progress of Astronomy, as 
furnishing the best means of comparing the positions of the stars of the two 
hemispheres at distant intervals of time, and of thus ascertaining the minute 
changes which many of them have undergone. 

" We have not ventured to intrude upon your valuable time by asking for 
the favour of a personal interview, but if you should consider any further ex- 
planation necessary, we shall be ready to wait upon you at any time you may 
appoint. " We have the honour to remain most respectfully, 

" Your obedient Servants, 
(Signed) « Roderick I. Murchison, 1 ^^^^^^j Secretaries. 

" Edward Sabine, J 

" George Peacock. 
« J. F. W. Herschel. 
" G. B. Airy. 
" Francis Baily." 
To the Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart, 
First Lord of Her Majesty's Treasury^ 

This application gave rise to the following correspondence, viz. — 
(Letter No. 2.) 

" Treasury Chambers, April 24, 1843. 

" Gentlemen, — The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury have 
had under their consideration your letter of the 6th instant, in which you 
request that a sum, not exceeding one thousand pounds, may be advanced by 
Her Majesty's Government towards defraying the expense of printing the 
copies of the reduced Catalogues of Stars of Lalande and Lacaille, prepared 
under the superintendence of Mr. Francis Baily and Professor Henderson. 

" Their Lordships have directed me to state, that they feel it unnecessary 
to assure you of their disposition to promote every object of importance to 
science which you may consider it essential to make a recommendation to 
this Board. 

" Their Lordships, however, cannot but express their regret that they were 
not originally apprized of the intention of embarking in the work in question, 
or of the probability of the Government being called upon to defray so con- 
siderable a proportion of the expense. 

" The inconvenience of being required to defray expenses of works already 
commenced, without any previous consideration or concurrence of My Lords, 
is very great ; and I am therefore directed by their Lordships to request to be 
informed of the circumstances which have rendered the funds of the British 
Association incompetent to complete the work which has been commenced, 
and what are the other important scientific researches to which you refer in 
your said letter as having engaged the funds which would otherwise have 
been applied to this object. 

"I am, Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

" To the British Association " C. E. Trevelyan." 

for the Advancement of Science." 



XXXVi REPORT — 1843. 

(Letter No. 3.) 

" 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, June 10, 1843. 

" Sir, — As one of the General Secretaries of the British Association, I 
have the honour to reply to your letter of the 24th of April, addressed to 
that body, and to state very briefly the circumstances under which the Re- 
ductions of the Stars in the Histoire Celeste of Lalande and in the Caelum 
Australe Stelliferum of Lacaille, were undertaken by the British Association. 

" Grants of money for these works (as well as for a Catalogue of about 
8500 stars, reduced up to the present time, to be called the British Association 
Catalogue) were voted upon the earnest recommendation of the Committee 
of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences in the year 1837, at a period 
when the funds of the Association Avere very considerable from the accumu- 
lation of the life subscriptions of its members, and when those funds had not 
been seriously reduced by grants for other scientific objects, which have since 
occurred, to the amount of nearly £12,000. 

" The reductions of those stars, when once resolved iipon, wei'e prosecuted 
with great activity ; and at the last meeting of the Association, held at Man- 
chester, Sir John Herschel and Mr. Baily reported that all the three works 
were severally completed and ready for the press. The General Committee 
voted the requisite sum for the publication of the British Association Cata- 
logue, as being a work of the most pressing importance for the purposes of 
practical astronomy ; but their funds were found to be inadequate to the pub- 
lication of the other two valuable catalogues, consistently with their engage- 
ments for grants for other objects, and for the completion of other under- 
takings which were in progress. Under such circumstances therefore it was 
considered expedient to make an application to Her Majesty's Government 
for the grant of the funds requisite for the completion of these works, which 
were considered so important for the interests of astronomy. 

" The Committee were encouraged to hope that such an application would 
not be disregarded, from the prompt attention which was formerly paid to an 
application, made upon the recommendation of the same Committee for a 
grant of funds for the reduction of the Planetary and Lunar Observations 
made at Greenwich from the time of Bradley downwards ; a vast and import- 
ant undertaking, which is now nearly completed under the superintendence of 
the Astronomer Royal. 

" I beg to forward to you the last volume of the Reports of the British 
Association, in which, at pages xxvi. to xxix. of the Introduction, will be found 
a statement of the sums actually paid for scientific objects and researches 
from the date of its first establishment, amounting in the whole to upwards of 
£8300. The existing available property of the Association now scarcely 
exceeds £5000, invested in the public funds, which is already pledged to the 
extent of £3339 5s. for grants made at the last Annual Meeting at Manchester, 
the particulars of which may be seen in pages xxv. and xxvi. of the accom- 
panying volume ; and this available property may be further reduced by other 
claims that may be made on it at the next Annual General Meeting. 

" During the eight years that the Association has been in active operation, 
it has appropriated £2200 upon astronomical tables and reductions ; £1550 
upon the reduction and discussion of observations on tlie tides; fl^OO upon 
meteorological and magnetical instruments, observations and reductions ; 
£900 upon experiments for determining the best form of vessels, and for 
other researches connected with this inquiry ; £400 upon experiments on the 
raanufactui-e of iron and the strength of materials; and upwards of £5000 upon 
experiments and researches on medical, botanical, zoological and various 
other branches of science. And it is proper to add that the whole of these 



REPORT OF TIfE COUNCIL TO THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XXXVll 

sums have been appropriated without any prospect or intention of remune- 
ration to the Association ; and that no part of this money is ever applied to 
defray the personal expenses, or to compensate for the loss of time and trouble 
of those members of the Association by whom these researches or experiments 
are undertaken, and who have all rendered their services gratuitously. 

" The Committee trust that the preceding statement will be sufficient to 
satisfy the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury that the funds of 
the Association have been expended, and nearly exhausted, upon objects of 
the highest national and scientific importance, and that the present application 
to their Lordships for assistance has not been made on slight or inefficient 
grounds. 

" I beg to add that, in making this application, the British Association 
have no intention or wish to derive any benefit or advantage from the print- 
ing of the two works in question. They desire to place the whole at the dis- 
posal of the Government, to be gratuitously distributed amongst scientific 
persons, in the same way as the Greenwich Observations are now disposed of, 
or in such other manner as the Government may direct ; and their sole wish 
is that the two important Avorks, on which so much expense and time and 
labour have been already expended, should not be eventually lost to the 
public through the want of some further support. 

" I have the honour to be, &c., 

" C. E. Trevelyan, Esq." " Edward Sabine." 

(Letter No. 4.) 

" Treasury Chambers, 1st August, 1843. 

" Gentlemen. — The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury 
have had under their consideration your letter of the 10th June last, in which 
you request that a sum not exceeding £1000 may be advanced by Her Ma- 
jesty's Government towards defraying the expense of printing the copies of 
the reduced Catalogue of Stars of Lalande and Lacaille, prepared under the 
superintendence of Mr. F. Baily and Professor Henderson ; and I am directed 
by their Lordships to acquaint you that the necessary directions will be given 
for issuing £1000 for the completion of the works in question. I am at the 
same time to state, that the compliance with this application must not be 
considered as authorising the expectation of any pecuniary assistance in cases 
not in the first instance submitted to and approved by My Lords. 
" I am. Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
" To the British Association (Signed) " C. E. Trevelyan." 

Jbr the Advancement of Science, 
2 Duke Street, Adelphi." 
The Council congratulate the General Committee on the ready disposition 
which Her Majesty's Government has shown to receive favourably and to 
comply with this recommendation made by the British Association on the 
behalf of science. 

3. The following Resolution of the General Committee at Manchester 
was communicated to the Council by the General Secretaries : — 

" That £200 be placed at the disposal of the Council for the purpose 
of upholding the establishment in the Kew Observatory. That all 
instruments, papers, and other property of the Association be placed in 
the Kew Observatory when not employed in carrying on scientific 
inquiries for the Association, and that the Secretaries be instructed to 
adopt the necessary measures for carrying this resolution into eff'ect." 

The Council have made the following arrangements for the care of the 
1843. d 



xxxviii REPORT — 1843. 

Kew Observatory : — Mr. Cripps, who had charge of the Observatory under 
the department of Woods and Forests, remains in the apartments he pre- 
viously occupied, but without receiving a salary, undertaking to keep the 
house aired and the lower part clean and in good order, the Association being 
at the expense of cleansing materials, and of an allowance of fuel and can- 
dles, not exceeding in value £15 per annum. 

Mr. Galloway has been engaged at a salary of £27 7*. 6d. per annum, with 
apartments in the Observatory, fuel and light, to take charge of the rooms 
above the basement story, and of the property of the Association placed 
therein ; to render general assistance to Members of the Association who 
may be prosecuting researches at the Observatory ; and to obey to the best 
of his ability whatever instructions he may receive from time to time from 
the Members of the Council or other authorised persons. 

The Council have ordered a few necessary repairs to be made, including 
arrangements for the apartments of Mr. Galloway, and for a spare sleeping 
room in case the prosecution of any scientific researches at the Observatory 
should render it desirable for any Member of the Association to pass anight there. 

The necessary instruments were purchased, and a regular Meteorological 
Register was commenced by Mr. Galloway (under the superintendence of 
Professor Wheatstone) in November last. 

For these various purposes the sum of £133 is. Id. has been expended in 
the present year out of the £200 placed at the disposal of the Council. 

A Report will be presented to the Association by Professor Wheatstone, 
descriptive of the Self-registering Meteorological Apparatus, for which a 
special grant of £50 was made to him at INIanchester, and which has been 
completed and placed in the Observatory. 

At the close of the first year, therefore, the Council have to report the 
establishment of the following registries, viz. — 

1. An ordinary meteorological record with standard instruments. 

2. A meteorological record with self-registering instruments on a new 

construction. 

3. A record of the electrical state of the atmosphere. 

It is proposed to add to these a registry of the comparative amount of rain 
at different heights above the surface, and of the temperature at different 
depths beneath the surface, for both which purposes the locality appears 
particularly well-suited : statements of the methods proposed to be employed, 
and applications for the necessary grants will be brought forward in the 
course of the present meeting by Mr. Phillips and Professor Wheatstone. 

The Council hope that the General Committee will be satisfied with the 
progress which has been made during the past year, towards placing the 
KcM- Observatory in a state creditable to the Association, and advantageous 
to science ; and that, mindful of the circumstances under which the building 
was obtained, and of the various problems in experimental philosophy to whose 
solution it may be rendered subservient, they will regard favourably the 
desire of the Council to embrace every suitable occasion of augmenting and 
pei'petuating its usefulness. 

4. The Council have added the names of M. Bessel of Konigsberg, M. 
Jacobi of Konigsberg, Dr. Adolphe Erman of Berlin, M. Paul Frisiani, Astro- 
nomer at Milan, and Professor Braschman of Moscow, to the list of Corre- 
sponding Members of the British Association. 

5. It has been notified to the Council that an invitation will be presented 
to the British Association in the course of the present meeting, to hold the 
Meeting in the year 1841 at York. 



REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE ON THE KEW OBSERVATORY. XXxix 

Report of the Committee, consisting 0/ Professor Wheatstone, Mr. 
HuTTON, and the General Secretaries and Treasurer, appointed by 
the Council to superintend the establishment of Meteorological Obser- 
vations at the Kew Observatory. 

The limited funds at the disposal of the Committee have not allowed them 
to carry many of the contemplated objects into effect. The preliminary ar- 
rangements have however been completed, and a very perfect and efficient 
apparatus for making observations on the electricity of the atmosphere has 
been established. The Committee has paid more immediate attention to 
this subject on account of its importance in connexion with the system of 
simultaneous magnetic and meteorological observations now making on 
various points of the earth s surface, in the recommendation of which the 
Association has taken so prominent a part. Hitherto electrical phsenomena 
have been little attended to at these observatories, from the want of knowing 
what instruments to recommend for the purpose, and how to interpret pro- 
perly their indications. This want the Committee has every reason to be- 
lieve will shortly be supplied and arrangements be made for recording the 
electrical changes of the atmosphere at the various stations with the same 
regularity and accuracy as the other meteorological phsenomena. 

The following is a brief notice of the present arrangements. 

The dome in which the Equatorial was formerly placed, has been convert- 
ed into the Electrical Observatory. A circular pedestal about eight feet in 
height is firmly fixed in the middle of the room, and a platform, which is as- 
cended by a few steps, surrounds the pedestal, so that the operator standing 
upon it shall be at a convenient height to adjust and observe the various in- 
struments. At the centre of the pedestal is fixed a strong glass pillar sup- 
porting a vertical copper tube tapering upwards ; the length of this conductor 
is twenty feet, sixteen feet being elevated above the dome in the open air. 
The lower part of the conductor within the dome carries four horizontal 
branches placed at right angles to each other ; these are for the purpose of 
bringing into connexion with the conductor the various electrometrical in- 
struments employed. The electricity of the atmosphere is collected by 
means of the flame of a lamp kept constantly alight during night and day, 
and placed at the upper extremity of the conductor ; by this plan, which Volta 
recommended, much more electricity is collected than by means of a metallic 
point ; the lamp is lowered and elevated when required by means of a cord 
and pulley contained within the tube. 

The insulation of the conductor is preserved by the eifective method pro- 
posed by Mr. Ronalds. The insulating glass support has in its interior a 
hollow conical space the base of which opens into the pedestal ; beneath this 
opening is placed a small night-lamp, which heats the air within the cone and 
raises the temperature of the glass pillar. The upper part of the external 
surface of this pillar is not sufficiently heated to prevent the deposition of 
moisture, and is therefore, to a certain degree, a conductor ; the lower part 
also conducts slightly on account of its elevated temperature ; but there is a 
zone between these two parts which insulates perfectly on account of the tem- 
perature of that part of the surface being sufficient to expel all moisture and 
yet not sufficient to enable it to conduct. A conductor thus insulated will 
retain its charge for hours together without sensible diminution. 

Another peculiarity and advantage of this method of insulation is, that the 
active parts of all the electrometers are suspended from the conductor, and 
are therefore uniformly charged, depending for their insulation on the warmed 



xl REPORT — 1843. 

glass pillar only, and not, as usual, upon separate insulators which dissipate 
the electricity unequally. 

The instruments which are at present in action are, — 1st, two Volta's 
straw electrometers, one degree of the second corresponding with five degrees 
of the first ; 2nd, a Henly's electrometer, one degree of the scale of which is 
equivalent to ten degrees of the least sensible of Volta's electrometers ; 3rd, 
a modification of Coulomb's torsion electrometer, which, while it possesses the 
sensibility of the most delicate of Volta's straw electrometers, has a range as 
great as the preceding thi-ee instruments ; 4th, a dry pile electrometer ; 5th, 
a discharging electrometer for measuring the lengths of sparks ; 6th, an at- 
mospheric galvanometer with 2400 well-insulated coils, made by Gourjon of 
Paris ; 7th, Mr. Ronalds's modification of Landriani's electrograph, an in- 
genious instrument which records, during the absence of an observer, the 
electrical states of the conductor, distinguishing the positive from the negative 
states, and to a certain degree the variations of intensity. Many other instru- 
ments are in progress from which new and useful results are expected, but 
which it would be at present premature to mention. 

Since the apparatus has been completed the conductor has remained con- 
stantly charged, unless purposely discharged, or during the momentary trans- 
itions from one electrical state to the other. Tiie electric tensions vary in 
serene weather between 3° and 90°, and the diurnal changes are indicated 
with great precision. Tiiis report is accompanied by a sectional drawing of 
the Electrical Observatory, and by a register of observations commenced on 
July 1st, and continued regularly for six weeks. Observations made during 
the same time with the barometer, pluviometer, thermometer, psychrometer, 
Daniell's and Saussure's hygrometers, &c., are also annexed to the report. 

Report on the Electro-magnetic Meteorological Register. 
By Professor Wheatstoxe, F.R.S. 

The electro-magnetic meteorological register which I undertook to construct 
for the Observatory of the British Association is just completed. I will de- 
fer to a future occasion a full account of its mechanism, and of the various 
modifications I have devised to render it suitable for the diff'erent purposes 
required in meteorological investigations ; such an account will more properly 
accompany the record of the daily working of the instrument, which I liope to 
present at the next meeting of the Association. I will confine my present 
report to a concise description of the instrument in its present state, but be- 
fore proceeding to this I will briefly mention what it effects. 

It records the indications of the barometer, the thermometer and the psy- 
chrometer every half-hour during day and night, and prints the results, in 
duplicate, on a sheet of paper in figures. It requires no attention for a week, 
during which time it registers 1008 observations. Five minutes are sufficient 
to prepare the machine for another week's work ; that is, to wind up the 
clock, to furnish the cj'linder with fresh sheets of paper, and to recharge the 
small voltaic element. The range of each instrument is divided into 150 
parts ; that of the barometer comprises three inches, that of the thermometer 
includes all degrees of temperature between — 5° and + 95°, and the psy- 
chrometer has an equal range. 

The machine consists essentially of two distinct parts : the first is a regu- 
lator clock, to which are attached all the regularly recurring movements which 
require to be introduced ; the second is a train having an independent main- 
taining power, which is brought into action at irregular periods of time by 
the contact of the plunging wires with the mercury of the instruments, as 
will be hereafter explained. 



"ON THE ELECTBO-MAGNETrC METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER, xli 

The principal regularly recurring actions connected with the clock train 
are two : by means of one the plungers are gradually and regularly raised in 
the tubes of the instruments during five minutes, and are allowed to descend 
during one minute ; by means of the other, a small typewheel, having at its cir- 
cumference fifteen figures, is caused to advance a step every two seconds, while 
another type wheel, having twelve spokes but only ten figures, is caused to ad- 
vance one step when the former completes a revolution. The complete revo- 
lution of the second type wheel is effected in six minutes, that is, in the same 
lime occupied by the ascent and descent of the plungers. Thus every suc- 
cessive division of the range of an instrument corresponds with a different 
number presented by the two type wheels, the same division always corre- 
sponding with the same number. The two blanks of the second type wheel 
are presented during the return of the plungers, which occupies a minute, 
and during which time no observation is recorded. 

The breaking of the contact between the plunger and the mercurial column 
in an instrument obviously takes place at a different position of the type 
wheels, according as the mercury is at a different elevation ; if, therefore, the 
types be caused to make an impression at this moment, the degree of eleva- 
tion of the mercury will be recorded. It will be seen that observations in 
different half-hours are not made at exactly corresponding instants ; but this 
is of no consequence, as the instruments will not sensibly vary within five 
minutes, the greatest possible extent of the deviation. 

I will now proceed to describe the means I employ for recording the num- 
ber corresponding to the degree of elevation of the mercury. To simplify 
the explanation, I will at first suppose the indications of a single instrument 
only are to be registered. One end of a conducting wire is connected with 
the mercury in the tube of the instrument, and the other end with the brass 
frame of the clock, which is in metallic communication with the plunger. In 
the course of this circuit an electro-magnet, such as I employ in my electro- 
magnetic telegraph, and a single very small voltaic element are interposed. 
The electro-magnet is so placed as to act upon a small armature of soft iron 
connected with the detent of the second movement. All the time that the 
plunger is in the mercury the armature remains attracted, but at the moment 
the plunger leaves the mercury the attraction ceases, and the release of the 
detent causes a hammer to strike the types and impress them by means of 
black copying paper on the cylinder. The armature subsequently remains 
unattracted until the plunger descends ; immediately before it reascends, a 
piece of mechanism, connected with the clock movement, brings the armature 
into contact with the hiagnet, which remains there, in consequence of the 
recompletion of the circuit, until the contact is again broken. 

It might be thought that a separate striking movement and a separate pair 
of type wheels would be required for each different instrument ; but a very 
simple contrivance enables me to register the indications of all the instru- 
ments, employing for each by means of the same apparatus. For this pur- 
pose a rheotome is so placed in the voltaic circuit as to divert the current 
each successive six minutes, so that the circuit shall be completed by a 
different instrument. Thus, the barometer is registered during the first six 
minutes of the half-hour, the thermometer during the second six minutes, and 
the psychrometer during the third six minutes. Two six-minute spaces are 
left for any other two instruments which it may be hereafter desirable to add. 
It is not necessary that the completion of the circuit should be effected by 
mercury, and there are very few meteorological instruments which cannot 
be applied by suitable modifications to this register. 

It may be necessary to mention another important point in the construction 



xlii REPORT— 1843. 

of the machine. As the first type wheel shifts every two seconds, and as the 
phinger may leave the mercury at any instant of time, the hammer might 
strike during the shifting of the type wheel and produce a blurred or imper- 
fect impression ; to obviate this a contrivance is introduced, for the purpose 
of continuing the current for an instant after the plunger leaves the mercury, 
whenever the contact is broken at the moment the type wheel shifts. By 
means of this addition all the observations are registered with regularity and 
distinctness. 

The accuracy of the recorded observations is not in the slightest degree 
influenced by the rate of going of the clock. Whether the rate be accelerated 
or retarded, the same number is always printed for the same degree of ele- 
vation of the mercury. The only circumstance affected by the variation of 
the time of the clock is the time of the observation. 

The elevation of the mercury in the tube by the insertion of the plunger 
gives rise to no error, because the observation is recorded only at the moment 
the plunger leaves the mercury, and when the mercury is consequently at its 
proper level. 

A description will also be presented to the Association by Professor 
Wheatstone of an Electrical Apparatus which has been established in the 
cupola of the Observatory ; the cost of this apparatus has been defrayed by 
private subscription. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Third Report upon the Action of Air and Water, whether fresh or 
salt, clear or foul, and of various Temperatures, upon Cast Iron, 
Wrought Iron, and Steel. By Robert Mallet, Mem. Inst. C.E., 
M.R.I.A. 

283. The first Report upon these subjects which I had the honour of pre- 
senting contained a statement of the condition of our knowledge therein up 
to that time, and cleared the way by the removal of certain errors as to the 
supposed methods of protecting iron from corrosion : it also indicated the 
principal directions in which further information was requisite in six deside- 
rata which demanded experimental answers. 

The second Report supplies information as to three of these, and less com- 
pletely as to the remaining three ; and as in course of inquiry some other 
correlative branches of investigation suggested themselves, so it also enters 
pretty fully into the question of the protection of iron from corrosion under 
various conditions by the application of zinc in different forms ; of the causes 
of variation of specific gravity, and its effects upon the corrodibility of cast 
iron ; of the comparative durability and best constitution of paints or var- 
nishes for the preservation of exposed iron, upon which several experiments 
are given ; and also gives the first set of tabulated results as to the corrosive 
action of air and water upon cast iron under the five several conditions of 
experiment. One of the most important objects of those tabulated results 
was to determine the actual loss of metal by corrosion in a given time and in 
given conditions of most of the principal makes of cast iron in Great Britain, 
and hence to find their relative durabilities when used in construction, and 
by subsequent discussion of the results obtained to discover, if possible, upon 
what durability depended, whether upon the nature of the constituents of the 
compound alloy known as cast iron, or upon their proportions, or upon either 
of these in connection with the state of aggregation of the mass. 

The first period of exposure of about eighty-two different sorts of iron 
(chiefly cast iron) occupied 387 days, and from this alone the above conclu- 
sions might have been sought ; but it became obvious, in course of inquiry, 
that the original state of the metallic surface when first exposed had much to 
do with its rate of corrosion, and that this became subsequently modified as 
it proceeded, and thus that the amount of loss of metal by corrosion might 
not follow a law of equidifference, but might increase or decrease in rate upon 
continued exposure. To arrive, therefore, at greater certainty in assigning 
for the practical engineer the actual loss of metal after long periods of expo- 

1843. B 



2 REPORT — 1843. 

sure, and to obtain the amount of this increment or decrement, the whole of 
the specimens previously exposed were, after examination and weighing, again 
immersed in their respective classes of sea or fresli water, and now, after a 
second period of exposure of 732 days, h;\ve been again taken up, examined, 
and weighed. 

284. Since the publication of the second Report these inquiries have also 
been extended to wrought iron and steel, of which between twenty and thirty 
varieties have been submitted to experiment. These have been immersed 
under conditions similar to the cast iron, viz. — 

1 . In clear sea water, temp, 46° to 58° Fahr. 

2. In foul sea water, temp. same. 

3. In clear river water, temp. 32° to 68° Fahr. 

4. In foul river water, temp. 36° to 61° Fahr. 

and for the same period of 732 days. The results are given in the accompa- 
nying tables, so that we have determinations from two successive immersions of 
cast irons, and from one of wrought iron and steel. 

285. In addition, tabulated results will be found of experiments continued 
under similar conditions, and for an equally long period, upon wrought iron 
coated with zinc by the ordinary ziniiing process,or "galvanizing" as it is called, 
and upon cast iron protected by the paint of powdered zinc (2nd Rep. 195). 

286. Besides the preceding, the results are given of an entirely separate 
set of experiments on cast iron, wrought iron and steel, exposed freely to the 
weather, and to all the atmospheric influences at an altitude of about fifty 
feet above the surface in the city of Dublin. It may be presumed that the 
accurate measures, thus for the first time obtained, of the actual metallic loss 
by rusting of a great variety of irons in the atmosphere, will not be looked 
Tipon as valueless by the engineer; and accompanied as they are by the me- 
teorological registers kept at the Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin, for the 
time of experiment, will enable analogous results to be deduced for other 
localities where meteorological registers are also kept sufficiently corapai'able 
for all practical purposes ; indeed the climate of Dublin may be viewed as a 
tolerably fair average of that of the British Islands. 

By a singular chance it happens that in the year 1840 (part of our period 
of expei'iment) the relative quantities of rain falling in Dublin and London 
are more than usually regular. There are on the average of six years — 

Days of no rain. Fair. No rain and fair. 

In Dublin .... 150 .... 56 .... 206 
In London .... 220 .... 10 .... 230 

And the average quantities of annual rain are — 

In Dublin 25*874 inches. 
In London 21 "714 inches. 

July and August, which are warm months, are also generally wet months 
in Ireland. The actual quantities of rain which fell in Dublin and London 
in the two years of experiments were — 

1840. 1841. 

In Dublin . . 25-788 . . 28-882 
In London . . 18-184 . . 27-372 

The temperatures were — 







1840. 






1841. 






Daily Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Daily Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 1 


In Dublin 


. . 50-34 . 


. 85-0 . 


. 26-0 


50-15 . 


. 78-0 . 


. 19-0 1 


In London 


. . 49-80 . 


. 83-0 . 


. 21-2 


50-4 . 


. 87-0 . 


. 14-9 1 



ON THE ACTION OP AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 3 

The barometric pressures — 

In Dublin 30-349 "1 Annual 

In London 29-880 J mean pressures* 

All other circumstances being the same, the rate of corrosion of iron exposed 
to the ordinary atmospheric influences may be expected to vary in increase 
or decrease thus : — 

1st. Directly as the volume of rain and dew falling on it in a given time, 
these fluids being supposed to contain similar amounts of combined air 
and free oxygen. 

2nd. Directly as the elevation of temperature with equal moisture. 

3rd. Directly as the barometer pressure. 

The two last do not vary enough in our climate to produce very marked 
results, and probably the volume of rain and dew in a given time will be a 
tolerably exact measure of corrosion in any part of Great Britain. 

The rate of corrosion will be rather greater in a crowded city ■ (ccsferis pa- 
ribus), and greater over the sea than in the open country, the latter, owing to 
the presence of saline particles frequently in the air. 

The series of tables is therefore now complete, and I would venture to hope, 
present to the engineer sufficient data to enable him to predict the term of 
durability and allow for the loss by corrosion of iron in all conditions when 
entering into his structures. 

Their completion has involved no slight labour, having required more than 
five thousand accurate weighings to be made, without reference to other ex- 
periments. 

287. In all the tables which follow and relate to the seco7id period of im- 
mersion of cast iron and the standard wrought iron bar, viz. Tables I., III., V., 
and VII., the dimensions and weight of each specimen are given previous to im- 
mersion, its weight after the second exposure to corrosion, and the loss of metal 
for a unit of surface ; and by comparing this in every case with the results given 
in column 10 of tables of second Report, having regard to the difference in 
absolute time of exposure in the first and second periods, the results given in 
columns 8 and 9 of this Report have been found, viz. the amounts of incre- 
ment or decrement of corrosion of the same surface of the same iron when 
exposed at the first and second periods. Of course this information does not 
apply to the tables of wrought iron immersed for the first time only. The 
other information conveyed will be sufficiently obvious from the headings of 
the columns. The amount of corrosion of all the wrought iron and steel 
have been referred to the standard bar a 58, so that the whole suite of tables 
are comparable. The characters of corrosion of these have also been given 
as minutely as brevity permitted, and in a few set words throughout. 

Discussing the results given in these tables, we are enabled to draw the 
following conclusions as regards, first, 

Cast Iron. 

288. The rate of corrosion is a decreasing one, at least where the coat of 
plumbago and rust first formed has been removed prior to second immersion, 
which was unavoidable in these experiments ; but, as I shall hereafter show, 
where this coating remains untouched, the rate of corrosion remains much 
more nearly uniform, and is nearly proportionate to the time of reaction in 
given conditions. In some cases, however, even with this coating removed, 
an increment in the rate of corrosion has taken place ; and it is observable 

* It is uncertain that the pressures given are strictly the " Annual means," the Dublin 
Registers are incompletely reduced. 

b2 



REPORT — 1843. 



that thi.i almost uniformly occurs in those specimens which had the smallest 
amount of corrosion at their first immersion. Thus there is a tendency to a 
greater equality in the index of corrosion in all the varieties of iron evidenced 
by the second than by the first immersion. 

289. In the first period of immersion the amount of corrosion of all the 
thin cast specimens, those of 0'25 inch in thickness, was much greater than 
that of the thick or 1-inch specimens of the same iron in the same conditions, 
as remarked (2nd Rep. 178, 179), where this was shown to arise from a less 
homogeneity of surface in the thin than in the tliicker castings. 

The difference in their respective rates of corrosion is however much less 
on the second period of immersion, which arises from the fact that the re- 
moval of metal by the corrosion of the previous immersion had bestowed a 
much more uniform or homogeneous surface upon all the specimens. 

290. The conclusions previously given therefore (2nd Rep. 175 — 187), as 
to the connexion between the size, form, method of casting, with consequent 
surface and amount of corrosion, are not only borne out, but we shall see 
reason to conclude that homogeneity of surface and texture, or the contrary, 
are by far the most important circumstances which vary the amount of cor- 
rosion in cast iron by air and water ; that the rapidity of this is not so much 
dependent upon the chemical constitution of the metal as it occurs in com- 
merce, as it is upon its state of molecular arrangement and the condition of its 
constituent carbon. 

291. Upon collating the tables of the first and second immersions, it will 
be found that the specimens of cast iron, whose analyses are subjoined, are 
those presenting the maxima and minima corrosion. 

It was to be presumed, that if the extremes of corrosion were connected 
with the constitution of the metal, a careful analysis would elicit that upon 
which the best qualities depended. 

292. Table A — Analyses of cast irons. 











Of Maximum and Minimum Corrosion. 








Constituents. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


a 8. 

Doulais, 

No. 4. 

Hot. 


a 12. 

Varteg, 
No. 2. 
Hot. 


a 15. 

Arigna, 
No. 1. 
Cold. 


a 24. 

Cinderford, 

No. 1. 

Cold. 


a. 25. 

Burchill's, 
No. 1. 
Cold. 


a. 38. 

Sunmerlie, 

No. 2. 

Hot. 


a 41. 

Monkland, 
No. 3. 
Hot. 


a 47. 

Jluirkirk, 

No. 3. 

Hot. 


«56. 

Muirkirk, 
No. 2. 
Cold. 


a 70. 
Carron, 
No. 2. 
Cold. 


a 63 

Hardei 
mixei 


Suspended 
graphite 


1 


1-22 


1-92 


3-21 


2-23 


2-74 


2-96 


2-81 


3-11 


4-28 


3-10 


0-C 


Combined 
carbon 


s . 
e.. 


2-13 


0-54 


0-38 


0-80 


Oil 


0-34 


0-21 


0-96 


0-27 


0-35 


4-f 


Phosphoni 
Manganes 
Alumina.. 


0-21 
017 


0-18 

traces. 


1-12 


traces, 
traces. 


0-13 
0-41 


traces. 
1-92 
0-07 


traces. 
2-32 
0-10 


traces. 
1-52 
0-04 


traces. 
1-84 
0-03 


traces. 
0-60 
0-54 


trac 
0-( 


Sulphur .. 




I'il 
9506 


s'ii 

93-95 


traces. 

0-04 

95-25 


1-97 
95-00 


2-00 
94-61 


traces. 

0-94 

93-77 


traces. 

1-34 

93-22 


traces. 

0-89 

93-48 


0-70 
92-83 


1-12 

94-29 


3-"< 

92-: 


Iron 






10000 


100-00 


10000 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-< 




On inspecting these results, however, in connexion with the tables, it will 




be evident that con-odibility does not depend upon the proportion of consti- 
tuent carbon, and still less upon that of the other foreign matters usually 




found in cast iron, but upon the state in which the carbon exists in the com- 




pound, upon the state of aggregation of the whole mass, and upon the voltaic 




Ul 


liformj 


ty or ( 


Jtherw 


ise of th( 


i surface 


s expose 


d to con 


•osion. 


This is 


practi 





ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 5 

cally manifest from the fact before adverted to (2nd Rep. 179), that the very 
same sort of iron corrodes much faster when cooled irregularly and fast than 
it does when the contrary has been the case. Of this we have instances in 
the irons a 8 and 9, a 14 and 15, &c., of which analyses are given. Minute 
variations in the foreign alloying metals usually found in cast iron do not 
appear to effect its corrodibility, and the slight and uncertain difference which 
exists between hot and cold blast iron as to corrosion arises rather from their 
difference in specific gravity than anything else. 

It is observable also that the important improvement of the hot blast has 
in this respect little deteriorated the quality of cast iron, as our experiments 
(a 26, 27) show that iron made thirty-five years ago in Scotland before its 
introduction differs very slightly in corrodibility from that of recent manu- 
facture by hot blast. 

293. It will be remembered that carbon exists in cast iron in two very 
different states, viz. as diffused graphite in a crystalline form and as combined 
carbon ; that the dark gray and softer irons contain more of the former, the 
brighter and harder irons more of the latter. Now the latter kind have the 
property of being much less uniform or homogeneous of surface when cast 
under similar conditions than the former, while the highly graphitic ii'ons, 
though more uniform in large specimens, are the least dense and softest in 
texture : hence the ultimate choice at which we arrive is, that the bright gray 
irons of high commercial marks, the No. 1 and 2, while they are in all other 
respects the most valuable for construction, are also the most durable. 

294. Voltaic uniformity of surface is best attained by slow cooling of the 
metal when cast, and in all small castings will be much promoted by subse- 
quent anneajing out of contact of air, as in the process ordinarily used for 
decarbonizing cast iron to render it flexible and tough. 

295. As the analysis of cast iron is admittedly a matter of some difficulty, 
to ensure trustworthy results, it may be proper to state briefly the methods 
pursued with those above given and witli some others which it was needless 
here to bring forward. 

One of the principal difficulties exists in the determination of the carbon ; 
for this a number of methods have been proposed. Berzelius burnt the 
carbon by passing a slow current of dry oxygen over the pulverized metal, 
absorbing the carbonic acid by barytic water. He also proposed a similar 
process with dry chlorine, volatilizing the chloride of iron formed ; and the 
methods by chloride of silver or copper. 

Berthier devised a process by dissolving the metal in iodine or bromine, 
the object held in vieAv by all being to avoid the loss of carbon which inevi- 
tably results from solution of the metal in acids evolving hydrogen. All 
these modes however are so tedious and beset with practical difficulties as to 
give uncertain results. 

The method adopted by me in most cases was a modification of Regnault's 
process, which consisted in mixing the cast iron finely pulverized with about 
twelve times its Aveight of chromate of lead properly prepared and mixed 
with a little chlorate of potass. This is burnt in an ordinary combustion-tube, 
in the remote extremity of which some dry powdered chlorate of potass is 
placed, and heated after the combustion has been completed, so as to pass a 
current of oxygen over the ignited mass. This precaution is indispensable 
with the harder and denser irons containing most of their carbon in combi- 
nation. The total amount of constituent carbon is thus obtained and weighed 
as carbonic acid ; but this consists of graphite and of combined carbon. By 
a separate assay the graphite is obtained by solution of a weighed portion of 
the metal in nitric acid, as residue consisting of graphite, extractive matter 



6 REPORT — 1843. 

(from the carbon of combination) and silica, and occasionally some oxides 
of combined metals. The residue is filtered and washed, boiled in caustic 
potass, by which the silex and extractive matter are taken up ; the graphite 
remains : it is again washed with dilute muriatic acid, then with water, and 
weighed after drying. The difference between this and the total amount of 
carbon given by the combustion is equal to the carbon of combination. 

For the other constituents, after a preliminary qualitative trial, about 120 
grains of the cast iron were dissolved in nitric acid, evaporated to dryness 
with a strong heat, and ignited in a platina crucible with three and a half 
times its weight of carbonate of soda. After cooling, water is poured over it, 
which carries off the excess of alkali and an alkaline phosphate (or sulphate, 
if the iron contained sulphur, which should be ascertained beforehand), leaving 
the peroxide of iron to be separated by filtration. 

The filtered liquor must now be boiled for some time to destroy the man- 
ganesiate of potass in solution and precipitate the manganese, again filtered, 
nitric acid added evaporated to dryness, and silicic acid separated, if any exist, 
on heating with water, after moistening with acid in the usual way. 

Ammonia is now cautiously added, and if the iron contained aluminum, a 
basic phosphate of alumina precipitates, the solution, again filtered, is acidu- 
lated with acetic acid, and the phosphoric acid precipitated by acetate of lead. 
From the phosphate the phosphoric acid cannot be estimated with certainty, 
it was therefore converted into sulphate of lead, and the phosphoric acid got 
from its weight. 

The silex and manganese were always obtained by precipitation from the 
iron, <S:c. in separate assays. The method with benzoate or succinate of am- 
monia, though inconvenient, is one of the best, where the amount of iron is 
considerable. Liebig's process of separation by boiling with carbonate of 
barytes succeeds very well and presents no difficulties, but where the amount 
of manganese is so very small in proportion to the iron I preferred the former 
mode. The iron itself, from its inconvenient bulk, was generally estimated 
from the other constituents. 

Separate assays are also best made for sulphur or earthy bases, but as far 
as my observation goes, these are extremely rare in British cast iron of 
commerce. 

296. The usual constituents are carbon, manganese, silicon and phosphoric 
acid, and the metal seems to be an indefinite mixture of carburet, silicuret, 
and phosphuret of iron and manganese, in all cases of gray iron, while the 
perfectly silver-white crystalline cast iron, which contains as much as 5*4 per 
cent, of carbon, does seem to be a definite quadri-carburet. This, however, 
is of little constructive value. 

The observation therefore which has been made, that perfectly definite 
combinations are those least liable to change, and thus that definite metallic 
alloys are those least subject to oxidation, though true, is of no value to us 
here, as no commercial cast iron can be viewed in any other light but that of 
a chance mixture of constituents. 

297. The view already given (1st Rep. 55) of the causes of tubercular or 
local corrosion with concretions of rust, namely, that it is due entirely to want 
of homogeneity of surface, is confirmed by the results of the second immer- 
sion. The surface of all the specimens Avas necessarily rendered more uniform 
by their first immersion, and accordingly m'c find much less tubercular cor- 
rosion has taken place on the same specimens in the same water during the 
second than it did during the previous exposure to corrosion. That alkalinity 
of the surrounding fluid is an apparent cause there is no doubt, but it seems 
to act only as an agent in increasing the action of partial voltaic currents on 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 7 

a non-homogeneous surface, and aiding thus in the transfer of the oxides 
formed and not dissolved. 

298. On opening the several boxes of cast and wrought iron after immer- 
sion, the special appearances of each specimen were as before marked, and the 
form of corrosion is stated in the respective tables. The phaenomena gene- 
rally were much the same as in the prior exposure, with the exceptions already- 
adverted to. All the cast iron pieces in sea water were irregularly covered 
with a thin coat of carbonate of lime. 

299. It may be observed, that the decrement of the rate of corrosion of all 
the cast iron specimens is considerable in the second immersion. For the 
purpose of obtaining the amount of corrosion in the first immersion, the coat 
of plumbago and rust formed was necessarily removed, and this, contrary to 
what might have been presumed, I am now enabled to prove is the chief cause 
of the decrement. 

300. Six equal parallelopipeds of the same bright gray cast iron with planed 
surfaces were immersed in separate vessels in sea water, slightly acidulated 
with muriatic acid, and frequently renewed. Each of the six was removed 
at successive intervads of thirty days ; the coat of plumbago and rust removed 
from the piece, which was dried and weighed. The following table gives the 
results. 

The weight of the original pieces was in every case = 1060 grains. The 
temperature of the menstruum 54° to 67° Fahr. 

Table B. 



No. of 
Speci- 
men. 


No. of days' 
exposure to 
Corrosion. 


Original Weight 
of eacli Specimen 
before exposure. 


Weight of each 

. Specimen after 

exposure for the 

above times. 


Absolute losses 

of Weight by 

Corrosion. 


Losses of 
Weight divided 
by the times of 

exposure. 






Grains. 








1 


30 


1060 


1057-2 


2-8 


2-8 


2 


60 


1060 


1054-6 


5-4 


2-7 


3 


90 


1060 


1051-2 


8-8 


2-9 


4 


120 


1060 


1048-1 


11-9 


3-0 


5 


150 


1069 


1045-9 


14-1 


2-8 


6 


180 


1060 


1041-4 


18-6 


3-1 



301. The specimens were all cast from the same mass, chosen with special 
regard to the uniformity of its texture ; and the results of the preceding table 
show, that when the coat of plumbago and rust formed remains untouched 
during the whole period of immersion, the amount of this, or the actual 
loss of metal, is very nearly in proportion to the time of reaction, showing 
that the coating of plumbago and peroxide is negative with respect to the 
metal and aids in its corrosion. This result however applies much more to 
corrosion in salt than in fresh water, wherein the coat of rust formed is much 
harder and less porous ; and hence, although still negative to the metal, par- 
tially defends it mechanically from corrosion. 

302. It may be noticed, that on taking up the kyanized oak-boxes of spe- 
cimens from Kingstown Harbour, after two years' exposure, the timber was 
found perforated nearly through a thickness of two inches by the Limnoria 
terebrans, whose ravages are thus proved not to be arrested by kyanizing. 

303. I now proceed to some notice of the series of experiments in Table 
IX., on iron exposed to the atmosphere, &c. at Dublin. The forms in which 
cast iron corrodes in water of various sorts have been heretofore minutely 



8 REPORT — 1843. 

described ; the action of moist air, however, produces both upon cast and 
wrought iron totally different forms of corrosion. Plumbago is not formed 
at all ; rusting takes place with almost complete uniformity over the whole 
surface, and coat after coat of adherent rust is removed ; at first each coat 
leaves a surface parallel to that of the original metal, but the whole surface 
gradually becomes fretted Mith minute concavities or indentations, at first 
scarcely visible, but gradually enlarging by several falling into one, until, after 
a lengthened period, the surface, originally flat or plane, is found covered with 
nearly hemispherical indentations often a quarter of an inch in diameter. 
This takes place whether atmospheric moisture lodges on the surface or not, 
and on both cast and wrought iron ; its cause seems difficult of explanation. 

304'. The eudiometrical properties of water, by which, whether in the state 
of snow-water, as observed by Boussingault, or of rain, it contains a portion 
of free oxygen, render it, as before observed, a powerful agent in promoting 
oxidation. 

Fresh-fallen rain after a time of drought, especially in cities, comes down 
so loaded with free oxygen, carbonic acid and aramoniacal salts, that it produces 
instantly a coat of red rust upon any iron placed in contact with it. Pure 
water, however large a portion of common air alone it contains, does not seem 
capable of producing any immediate oxide higher than the magnetic Fe O 
-f- Fe^j O3. The contrary is the case if carbonic acid or a minute quantity of 
any saline substance be in solution. 

305. But the deposition of dew under certain circumstances originates the 
most immediate and powerful oxidation, as the following observation testifies. 

On the 14th March, 18^% the temperature at Dublin, at 12 o'clock at 
noon, was high, and the day fine, but the air was nearly saturated with moist- 
ure, and dew rapidly collected on the polished parts of a large steam-engine 
which stood unfinished in a shady open building, whose temperature was 
considerably below that of the open air. In two hours time after, being 
wiped clean with cotton waste, all its bright work had a moist coating of red 
rust upon it. The rusty moisture could be swept off Avith the finger. 

Whether electrical disturbance of the atmosphere is concerned in this, or 
whether occasionally the atmospheric moisture is loaded with saline matter, 
especially near the sea, I am unable to say ; but the fact of such rapid action 
of deposited dew is remarkable, and is not confined to a single instance, having 
been noticed also to me by engineers as occurring frequently at Liverpool. 

306. No second immersion of the cast iron series 7 was practicable, the 
arrangements of the Dublin and Kingstown Jlailway Company, which enabled 
the first to be made, having been unfortunately discontinued. 

307. Table XIV. shows the average results of the corrosion of all the cast 
irons in water on the second immersion, and those of the corrosion of cast 
iron in air {Q. The numbers indicate that in general, in moist air, chilled 
cast iron corrodes much more sloioly than that cast in green sand ; the con- 
trary being, as before stated, the result in water. 

That the average loss on all varieties of cast iron in moist air is not much 
below that which takes place in clear sea water in an equal time, and is much 
above that produced by clear fresh water in the same period. 

In the case of cast iron with the skin removed by planing, the loss in moist 
air is almost precisely the same as in clear sea water. 

These facts show that the preservation of structures in iron exposed merely 
to the weather is much more important than has been hitherto presumed, and 
that without paint or some other more efficient covering, they perish almost 
as fast as if in the open sea. 

308. "We now proceed to some remarks upon the series of experiments upon 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 9 

Wrought Iron and Steel. 
The loss of metal by corrosion is, in every sort of water tried, much more 
rapid in Wrought iron than in cast iron, and the same is the case with steel. 
It takes place however much less locally than in cast iron. The particular 
phaenomena presented by the corroded wrought iron and steel are given in 
Tables II., iV^., VI., VIII. and X. respectively. In almost every case the fibre 
or crystalline texture of the iron becomes developed by the removal of the 
alternating portions of metal. This dissection commences usually at the ex- 
posed ends of the fibrous crystals, is most rapid in the direction of the prin- 
cipal axes of the crystals, and sometimes extends to a great depth. 

309. We thus learn that all wrought iron and steel consists of tvvo or more 
different chemical compounds coherent and interlaced, one of which is elec- 
tro-negative to the other, the electro-positive body being that which suffers 
first from corrosion. The electro-negative portions of the iron or steel re- 
main bright and hold a perfect metallic lustre until the whole of the other 
portions are removed, or at least are so to a great depth, when they begin 
likewise themselves to oxidate. Most of the specimens, when first taken up, 
were found in this state, but soon tarnished on exposure to air. The great 
depth to which this removal of alternate layers takes place, is most remark- 
able in the case of Damascus iron (a 12) as it is called, made for the ma- 
nufacture of fowling-piece barrels, and purposely formed of irons of two or 
more different qualities, faggoted together : here specimens of about half an 
inch thick, chosen with straight parallel fibres of alternate kinds, had the elec- 
tro-positive strata (in jo 26) removed quite through, so as to leave a grating 
of minute parallel rays that could be looked through. 

310. In general, the finer the quality of wrought iron and the more perfectly 
uniform its texture, the slower and the more uniform is its corrosion in water, 
as we before found in the case of cast iron ; minute difference in chemical 
constitution has very little effect on the rate of corrosion ; thus the difference 
is slight between the index of corrosion of — a,' I, Gloucestershire iron of fine 
quality, tough, both hot and cold ; a' 2, Staffordshire iron, red-short, contain- 
ing sulphur and perhaps a trace of arsenic ; and a' 3, cold-short Staffordshire 
iron, containing phosphorus in large proportion ; but it is very great between 
these and a' 4, a common bar of inferior Shropshire iron. This iron, on ex- 
amination of its fracture with a lens, showed the presence of innumerable 
microscopic spots of silicate of oxide of iron and of magnetic oxide. These 
immediately, on exposure to air ^nd water, become partially converted into 
peroxide of iron, and being electro-negative to the iron itself, powerfully 
promote its corrosion. Hence such " slaggy " iron, as it is technically called, 
is to be avoided where durability is important. 

311. To the general fact of uniformity of texture giving a small index of 
corrosion, unfinished bars from the puddling furnace, before the second rolling, 
are an exception. These bars contain a large amount of silex, and are ex- 
tremely hard. They are of no constructive value, of course, but the experi- 
ments with them (a 10, 11, &c.) show that, as in cast iron, so here hardness or 
softness are elements in the rate of corrosion ; and this is further confirmed by 
the results relating to steel, wherein the small amount of corrosion for hard- 
ened cast steel is remarkable. 

The highly siliceous irons, however, corrode very locally, and appear to be 
partially defended from the reaction of air and water by a thin coat of silex 
formed upon them. 

312. Of all the wrought irons experimented on, that which was found most 
durable under all possible conditions of exposure was faggoted scrap iron 
bar (a 14), that which had been most wrought, and which was not only most 



10 REPORT — 1843. 

uniform in texture, but proved, on subsequent chemical examination, to be 
most free from any foreign matter, consisting in fact of nothing besides iron, 
except a mere trace of carbon and silex. My former presumption (64) in 
favour of rolled bars is therefore partly erroneous. 

Next to this in durabiUty stands Low Moor Boiler Plate, an iron whose 
purity and excellence is universally known. These results make it plain that 
for iron ship-building the two latter kinds of iron are greatly to be preferred, 
and whether in clear or foul sea water, or in fresh or exposed to wet and dry, 
are very superior to common Staffordshire plates for this purpose. 

The iron of which the faggoted bar (a li) was formed, was best Stafford- 
shire rivet iron of excellent quality. Comparing the results of the corrosion 
of the Dannemora Swedish iron with this, it is apparent that no superior 
durability is imparted by the Swedish method of refining over that obtained 
by our own puddling process, when properly conducted. 

313. In Table XIV. the average results for all the wrought irons of most 
practical importance are given in each condition of experiment ; those for the 
remaining sorts may be easily calculated from the previous tables. 

314. Foul water, i.e. that evolving sulphuretted hydrogen, and other gases 
resulting from putrifying organic matter, acts, whether salt or fresh, much 
more powerfully upon wrought iron than when free from such impurities. 
The actual contact of soft putrid mud beneath salt water appears to be more 
destructive than the water itself. 

315. In the autumn of the year 1832, I observed that small gas bubbles 
were constantly evolved from the mud at the bottom of some of the lagunes 
at Venice, which on reaching the surface became instantly luminous, and 
disappeared with, as far as could be judged, a real combustion. 

The gas when collected, however, was not spontaneously combustible, and 
I had no means of examining it with precision. 

It seems probable, however, that when large quantities of animal matter 
are in a state of decomposition, phosphorus in some of its combinations will 
always be found; and when iron is exposed under such conditions, a phos- 
phate of iron is produced. This has actually been observed in the case of a 
large quantity of iron weapons discovered a year or two ago in a bog near 
Dunshaughlin, county Meath, along with a mass of bones of oxen, horses and 
other animals. The surface of most of the iron, which, after the lapse of 
some centuries, during which it was enveloped in damp peat, was in singu- 
larly good preservation, was almost uniformly covered with a bluish coat of 
phosphate of iron, quite similar apparently to the native blue phosphate. 

316. Proceeding now to the experiments made 

On Steel, 

the results of which are given in the same tables with the wrought iron, we 
find that in general steel corrodes much more uniformly and a good deal more 
slowly than wrought iron. 

That hardened cast steel, after " tilting," has the average minimum cor- 
rosion, and that low shear steel, which is in fact a sort of steely iron, has the 
maximum. 

317. It was stated before (1st Rep.21 ) that plumbago occasionally had been 
found from the action of air and water on wrought iron, as well as on cast 
iron. The pi-esent results show that raw or untilted cast steel always produces 
a brilliant shining plumbago like that from white cast iron, and in general 
that the production of plumbago by aqueous corrosion is dependent (so far 
as the metal is concerned), cither in cast or wrought iron, upon the amount 
of combined carbon, and upon the state of aggregation of the particles of the 



ON THK ACTION OP AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 11 

metal. The crystallized state appears to be essential to its production in the 
cases of wrought iron and steel. The pieces of raw cast steel experimented 
on were found converted into plumbago for about g^jth of an inch in depth, 
and on removing this, the surface of the metal was found covered with a 
beautiful interlacing of crystals. 

318. Several experiments have been made to endeavour to arrive at a more 
perfect knowledge of the nature and formation of this peculiar substance, as 
yet, I regret to say, without much success, owing to the circumstance that 
the same substance cannot be produced at will, or in a moderate time by the 
action of acids on iron, and that great difficulty has been found in obtaining 
specimens both of the substance, and of the iron from which it resulted, in a 
fit state for experiment, viz. not acted on by air. I have however been 
favoured by Major-General Pasley, R.E., with some specimens from the Royal 
George, sent to me in hermetically sealed vessels, which promise to give the 
desired information as to what passes when this curious substance heats 
spontaneously in air, and how it is formed. 

Attempts have also been made to collect and examine the peculiar organic ' 
bodies produced along with this by the action of acids, &c. on iron and steel. 
These substances are of great chemical interest by adding to the small num- 
ber of organic bodies known to be formed directly. They are of the families 
of hydrocarbons and extractive matters, produced by the action of the evolved 
hydrogen upon the nascent carbon of the iron. They are produced, how- 
ever, in very minute quantity in relation to the volume of hydrogen, and 
hence it has been necessary to operate on immense volumes of the gas evolved 
from iron, &c. to collect these new bodies in sufficient quantity for examina- 
tion ; owing to this, to their entanglement with the sulphur, phosphorus, &c. 
of the iron, and to the powerful affinity of some of them for oxygen, they 
have as yet not been collected in mass sufficient for accurate examination. 
Two hydrocarbons have however been distinguished, one solid at common 
temperatures, and the other liquid and highly volatile, besides the bodies of 
the extractive or apotheme class. 

With respect to the plumbago, I am led to believe that the amount of car- 
bon in a given bulk is generally greater than that due to the same bulk of the 
metal removed, and that in such cases the additional carbon has been depo- 
sited by decomposition of tlie carbonic acid contained in the water. The 
present, however, is not the place for incomplete researches, which those be- 
longing to this branch of my subject are, and as to which I hope at some 
future time to lay further results before the Association. 

319. The rusts removed from the several classes of specimens after the first 
immersion have been submitted to chemical examination ; their compositions 
do not differ from those given in the preceding Reports, and vary with the 
time of formation. 

Omitting the accidental substances introduced either from the iron or the 
water, they are all hydrated oxides and carbonates of iron, and tend, in pro- 
portion to the duration of reaction, nearer and nearer to approach the formula 
2 Fbo Og + 3 HO, becoming in fact artificial brown hematite, more or less 
mixed with Fe O + C 0^,, or spathic iron ore. When very old these rusts 
appear to lose constituent water and become " fer oligiste ;" they are imper- 
fectly crystallized ; such I found to be the case with some taken from a bar 
on one of the towers of York Minster. They always give traces of ammonia. 
When formed in foul sea water, they generally include microscopic crystals 
of iron pyrites, and always in small quantity basic salts (sulphates and chlo- 
rides), with earthy carbonates formed by decomposition of the saline con- 
tents of sea water. 



12 



REPORT — 1843. 



320. Since the publication of my last Report, a fact long doubted has been 
ascertained bj' myself and by others, namely, that water, when in the state of 
steam and under considerable pressure, is slowly decomposed by a surface of 
iron at temperatures far below visible ignition, even as low as about the 
melting point of lead, producing (as in the well-known case at the tempera- 
ture of ignition) the magnetic oxide of iron. This has been proved not only in 
Perkins's closed tubes for heating buildings by hot water, or rather steam, but 
in a high pressure steam-boiler working at 65 lbs. per square inch by myself. 

This decomposition appears always to go on in sleam-boilers where the 
inner coating of deposit or sediment causes a plate to overheat, as in such 
cases oxide of iron is found lining the interior of the boiler ; at that spot the 
deposited salts are probably decomposed here also in part. 

321. No mode of coating with zinc appears capable of preserving iron from 
the action of boiling salt water; on the contrary, the zinc oxidates with un- 
usual rapidity and the iron is not preserved. 

322. There is a great difficulty in making any experiments of practical 
• value or accuracy upon the questions proposed (2nd Rep. 166, &c.)'as to the 

temperature of the boiling sea water in marine iron steam-boilers, or what is 
the same thing, the degree of saline concentration at which the maximum 
corrosion takes place. From various circumstances attending the working 
of marine boilers, the waste of fuel appears to increase rapidly with the con- 
centration of the water beyond a certain point. 





A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


Chloride of sodium 

Chloride of magnesium . . . 
Sulphate of magnesia .... 
Carbon, lime and magnesia . 

Sulphate of lime 

Water 


2-50 
0-35 
0-58 
0-02 
0-01 
96-54 
0-00 


16-00 
0-46 
0-80 
0-00 
0-30 

79-79 
2-65 


25-50 
1-07 
1-48 
0-00 
0-00 

69-14 
2-81 


20-80 
4-85 
9-50 
0-00 
0-00 

64-85 
0-00 


Sulphate of soda 




100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



Tlie composition of sea water being on the average represented by the 
column A, specific gravity = 1-0278. When the water in the boiler has 
been concentrated to the specific gravity 1*140, its composition is shown in 
column B ; and when it has arrived at the density 1-220, it has the compo- 
sicion in column C ; finally, when the greatest part of the common salt has 
deposited, the supernatant fluid has the composition in column D. Such are 
the accurate Berthier's results. 

I believe the greatest amount of corrosion goes on in iron boilers (irrespect- 
ive of injury done by deposits) after sea salt has begun to deposit freely, 
when the boiling temperature is about 232° Fahr., combined air not being 
present in the water, and hence, as far as corrosion is concerned, the object 
of the engineer is to work at as low a point of concentration as possible, which 
comports well with all the other contingencies of the case. It would be de- 
sirable that the feed-water of marine boilers were heated to above 190° Fahr. 
before entering them, and means provided for the escape of the air disen- 
gaged, which now enters the boilers and aids much in corrosion. This could 
easily be done by Maudsley and Field's beautiful arrangement of their feed 
and brine pumps. On this branch of the subject, however, I hope hereafter 
to present further and more complete results. 



ON THE ACTION OP AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 13 

323. In Table XI. is given the results of corrosion of wrought iron in vol- 
taic contact with the alloys of copper and zinc, and in Table XII. those with 
copper and tin. The alloys are the same as those whose reactions are given in 
Tables IX. and X. of second Report, with which the present tables coordinate. 

Corrosion of wrought iron is accelerated by the presence of either brass 
or gun-metal ; most so by flie latter. With equal surfaces and conditions, 
copper produces greater corrosion than any of its alloys with zinc. Most of 
those which constitute the metals used in commerce, however, do not greatly 
accelerate the corrosion of wrought iron. 

All alloys of copper and tin do accelerate it considerably, and even more 
than copper itself, while tin produces a still greater effect than copper ; thus 
in most respects wrought iron is acted upon by air and sea water in presence 
of these alloys in a similar way to cast iron. 

These tables now give numerical measures of the amount of loss of metal 
that will occur in practice in the given conditions. The results obtained long 
since by Sir H. Davy, as to the small amount of positive metal requisite to 
protect copper sheathing, indicate that within very wide limits in the relative 
proportions of the iron, to either the brass or the gun-metal, these results will 
be very nearly exact. In the present case the surface of wrought iron was 
always = 3"07 square inches, and of the brass or gun-metal = 1"99 square 
inch, and the experiments were made in vessels containing a proportionally 
large volume of sea water, and frequently renewed. 

824. In Table XIII. the average loss by corrosion is given of all the varie- 
ties of cast iron at the second period of exposure of 732 days, and of the 
MTOught iron and steel exposed for the same period, but for the first time, 
and also of both cast and wrought iron exposed to the weather ; and in ge- 
neral the average results of the whole investigation, reduced into form for 
practical use, will be found in this and the two following tables. Table XIV. 
gives at one comparative view the results of all the classes of experiment. 

325. In Table XV., which coordinates with Table VIII. of second Report, 
the average results for wrought iron and steel are extended to a period of a 
century for clear sea and fresh water, and for exposure to weather, &c. The 
numbers here give absolute measures of the loss of metal taking place in the 
several conditions, and from the extended base of induction from which they 
have been obtained, may, I think, be relied on in practice. 

326. In each of the classes of experiment will be found included some 
made for the same lengthened period of 732 days, or about two years, on 
iron zinked in the ordinary way or " galvanized," and on iron coated with the 
zinc paint before spoken of (2nd Rep. 195). These results quite confirm the 
statements made in my second Report respecting these modes of protection ; 
in every case zinking is but a partial preservative to iron in any sort of water. 

Referring to Table XIII. it will be seen, that in clear sea water the corro- 
sion of such zinked iron is rather more than one-half of unprotected iron in 
like conditions, while in foul water, whether fresh or salt, it is fully as great. 
In fact, in foul water the zinc becomes wholly converted into a black, brittle, 
crystalline crust, which is found to be sulphuret of zinc united to sulphuret of 
iron, in fact to be an artificial blende, having the composition (Zn -h Fe) -f S. 

327. Zinked iron exposed merely to the weather, however, seems to be 
more permanently protected ; and it does appear that a coat of zinc, although 
thin, if its integrity be not injured mechanically, will protect iron from rust 
when exposed to the ordinary atmospheric influences. 

328. Zinc paint appeal's to be, as predicted, an extremely durable covering, 
more so than any one tried, except the asphaltic varnishes or coal-tar laid on 
hot ; it is desirable its use should become better known, and be extended to all 



14 REPORT — 1843. 

large engineering structures, iron bridges, viaducts, &c,, in place of the perish- 
able " best white lead" paint usually prescribed by the engineer's specification. 

329. Since the publication of the pi-evious Reports much attention has 
been excited by the new method of zinking patented by Messrs. Elkington 
and M. Ruolz, as connected with their gilding processes, for which they have 
since received the prize of the French Acadeirfj\ For a complete account 
of their highly important improvements, not merely in gilding or silvering, 
but generally in the means of covering any one metal almost with any other, 
reference must be had to the elaborate report presented to the Institute on 
this subject by M. Dumas. These methods consist partly in the use of cer- 
tain complex metallic solutions varying with the metals engaged, principally 
double chlorides and cyanurets, and partly in using these in connexion with 
the voltaic battery. By these beautiful and economical processes, gold, silver, 
platina, copper, tin, cobalt, nickel and zinc may be precipitated upon the sur- 
face of various metals, and amongst them upon cast iron, wrought iron or 
steel at common temperatures. 

The coating formed is very thin and perfectly incapable of giving any 
permanent protection to iron immersed in water or exposed to abrasion, but 
I have no doubt of its capability of preserving completely iron in any of its 
states, in moderately dry air, and to a great extent also when exposed freely 
to the weather. The method possesses the important advantages of being 
applicable to very minute or highly wrought articles in iron, to which zinc 
could not be applied in a liquid form by heat without destroying their beauty, 
or rendering them brittle by alloying with the iron all through, and also to 
articles so large and unwieldy that no operation involving a high temperature 
or change of place could conveniently be performed on them. Thus statues 
cast in iron may, by Elkington and Ruolz's processes, be covered with zinc 
standing on their pedestals, and the coating even periodically renewed, there 
being no difficulty in forming around them a stanch vessel to contain the 
required solution. For every work in iron applied to architectural construc- 
tion, and only exposed to atmospheric moisture and not liable to abrasion, 
this method is most suitable, as for cast-iron balustrades or cornices, inter- 
nal cramps and ties in walls, wire for ropes or for suspension -bridges, light- 
ning conductors, iron wire-gauze, &c. But I am convinced, from the results 
given in this and the preceding Report, that no mere covering of zinc alone, 
however laid on, will be completely effective in water, and hence many of the 
applications, to cannon shot for instance, proposed by the report of M. Dumas, 
are such as the invention of Elkingt6n and Ruolz will not answer. It is 
scarcely necessary to repeat, that none of the other known metals, except 
zinc, capable of being applied by these methods, are admissible where the 
coated surface is liable to abrasion. Zinc and certain of its alloys protect, 
on two grounds, as a sheathing, liable to be more or less destroyed, and vol- 
taically in proportion to the electric energy developed, and whether the in- 
tegrity of the covering metal be broken or not ; but metals electro-negative 
to iron stand in a different predicament. 

Of Iron Ships. 
330. The durability of iron ships has become one of the most important 
questions involved in the present inquiry, from the rapid extension which 
this novel branch of naval architecture has received, and is still receiving. 
Amongst other considerations as to their fitness for distant voyages and their 
economic adoption, is that of their durability in respect to corrosion as com- 
pared with timber-built vessels, their relative liability to " fouling," and what 
are the means we possess of preventing or retarding both. If the former, 



ON THE ACTION OP AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 15 

viz. the durability, be ensured, the vessels remaining clean under water is 
nearly, if not wholly attained, for both marine animals and plants adhere 
with obstinacy to the oxidized iron of a rusty ship's bottom, on which they 
thrive and multiply, while to clean iron they will scarcely attach themselves. 
From the importance of this subject I have been induced to give it a very 
particular consideration, and propose here to enter somewhat fully into the 
principal agents of corrosion of iron ships, the directions in which these are 
found, or may be expected, to act most destructively ; to describe the pecu- 
liar methods which I have been led to devise for preventing corrosion, and 
also those for preventing the " fouling," which is admitted by the most san- 
guine advocates of iron ship-building to be at present the salient evil of the 
system. This matter has acquired increased importance from the recent 
discovery of Professor Daniell of the existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in 
the sea water of the tropics, which our previous experiments show acts most 
destructively on iron, as well as on the copper sheathing of timber vessels. 

331. The lower part of an iron ship's floor is exposed to putrid bilge- water 
(if permitted to accumulate) ; this, on grounds already stated, is an agent of 
great corrosive power, and when heated, as beneath the boilers in steam- 
vessels, its effects are greatly increased, as far as action from the inside is 
concerned ; therefore the floor and futtocks may be expected soonest to re- 
quire restoration. This I am informed is actually the case in those thin sheet- 
iron " fly-boats" used for passengers in Scotland and Ireland on the canals. 

A remedy for this suggests itself which it would be highly desirable to make 
trial of, which could be of no inconvenience, and if successful, would have 
the additional advantage of destroying all smell of bilge-water in a vessel and 
of preserving her floor at all times sweet. 

It has been before remarked (1st Rep. 49, &c.) that a small quantity of an 
alkali in solution, even in salt water, is capable of arresting oxidation of iron ; 
it is highly probable that an alkaline earth-lime for instance in solution pos- 
sesses the same power, indeed Payen's experiments make this certain ; there 
would be no difficulty to keeping lime-water in the place of bilge-water over 
the floor of an iron ship, to any desirable degree of saturation. The ship's 
well being periodically pumped out dry, fresh water let in, and a few lumps of 
dry lime dispersed, a fresh supply of lime-water would be kept up, which would 
not only preserve the bottom, but destroy the putridity of the bilge-water, of 
which some will be found even in the stanchest vessel. No injury would be 
likely to result to the few timbers which would be exposed to its contact. 

332. Exteriorly the action of air and water will be greatest just between 
wind and watei", and abreast of the paddle-wheels in steamers, where the 
constant splash from the paddles strikes, and wherever the shell of the vessel 
is heated by the contact or proximity of the boilers, &c., but the difference 
in other parts of the hull is not likely to be considerable unless in very fast- 
going vessels. 

333. It has long been an opinion amongst those concerned in iron ship- 
building, that " an iron vessel when kept in constant use is not only free from 
oxidation, but presents no more appearance of corrosion than railway-bars, 
which (say the advocates of this doctrine) are well known to remain uncor- 
roded so long as the carriages continue to roll over them." " If the iron ship 
be kept in constant use, i. e. in constant motion through the water, there is 
no appearance of deterioration ; but lay her up for a few months, and the 
usual appearances of atmospheric action become visible, accompanied by a 
rapid corrosion of the points exposed." With respect to this singular opinion 
as to railway bars, we shall have more to say presently ; what analogy sub- 
sists however between a railway bar and an iron ship it is hard to see. I do 



16 REPORT— 1843. 

not doubt the fact that an iron ship kept constantly in motion through the 
water will present much less signs of corrosion than she will do if laid up for 
an equal time, but the fact does not warrant the conclusion ; on the contrary, 
this fact rightly interpreted is the surest possible proof, and that too from the 
testimony of those most advantageously circumstanced forjudging, that rapid 
corrosion does take place. 

It has been heretofore shown, that when iron oxidates in sea water, the rust, 
when first formed, is soft and pulverulent; it has also been shown that every 
metal, iron included, is electro-positive to its own oxides ; in other words, that 
the peroxide of iron formed acts as an acid towards the iron upon which it lies, 
in the same way exalting the rate of corrosion as the plumbago formed on 
cast iron has been shown by the present set of experiments to do upon it. 

Now it is admitted that an iron ship at rest does corrode : if so, peroxide 
of iron is formed if the ship continue long at rest. This coat of oxide gets 
harder and forms a scale of oxide, which yet more promotes the rate of cor- 
rosion ; but if the ship be kept in motion, the oxide formed, soft and pulve- 
ruient at first, is swept off by the passage of her sides through the water 
nearly as fast as it is formed, and hence, while corrosion is still going on, the 
exposed surface of iron, when examined, presents a clean and apparently 
uncorroded appearance. 

Thus it is not true that an iron ship constantly in motion is incorrodible 
by sea water; on the contrary, corrosion does go on, &nd just at whatever 
rate the conditions of exposure warrant, in a surface of iron whose oxide is 
removed nearly as fast as it is formed, that is to say, which is exposed only 
to the corroding effects of the salt or other water, &c., and not to this to- 
gether with the effect of its own peroxide ; but it also follows, from the expla- 
nation above given of the phsenomena, that the real rate of corrosion of an iron 
ship is less, and probably a good deal less, while she is kept in motion than 
while she may be at rest ; and for the same reasons her tendency to "foul" 
is less while in motion than at rest. 

334'. By others it has been fancied that magnetism in some occult way 
interfered with corrosion in iron ships. There is no doubt that every iron 
ship becomes a magnet by induction from the earth, but the intensity will 
depend upon the ship's bearing, at any moment, as well as upon other obvious 
conditions. Admitting however that an iron ship were at all times a perma- 
nent magnet, no known fact warrants the supposition that its rate of corrosion 
would be in the slightest degree altered thereby (1st Rep. 66). 

The experiments cited by Levol, and alluded to in 1st Rep. 67, as appa- 
rently leading to a different conclusion, I have since found do not sustain the 
view of that author. The deficiency in rate of precipitation, &c. observed 
by him, arose from mechanical impediments introduced by the evolution of 
gas bubbles, and affected by the different position of his wires in the solution, 
and had nothing to do with their magnetism. 

335. I therefore look upon it as perfectly certain that iron vessels corrode 
just as any other mass of iron in similar conditions will. I would add, that 
no mere inspection of surface is sufficient to determine in this case whether 
oxidation has taken place or to what extent, nor can any sufficiently precise 
determination of amount of corrosion be obtained by drilling holes thi'ough 
the plates and measuring their thickness. This method might give some 
answer after a quarter of a century's corrosion ; but for any moderate period 
no correct data as to the loss of metal can be had, but by a plate of large 
size and known weight, attached to the ship's hull by rivets or screw-bolts, 
detached after exposure and again weighed ; and this experiment has not to 
my knowledge ever yet been made. 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 17 

336. As the hulls of iron ships cannot be ordinarily got at to keep them 
uniformly covered with any common paint or varnish (which have however 
alone but a limited palliative effect in preventing corrosion), such vessels 
should in all respects be viewed with reference to corrosion, as if the iron 
was always quite bare; and if so. Table XV., before given, affords data for 
determining their duration if ivholly unprotected, but as we shall see hereafter, 
iron vessels may be so treated, that in regard to corrosion it is difficult to 
assign a limit to their durability, which it is generally admitted depends 
simply on the question of corrosion. 

337. The plates of an iron ship are likely in general to be corroded most 
round the rivet-heads, both outside and inside, and adjacent to any spots 
where the plates have been hardened by hammering or bending, or in any 
other way have had their homogeneity destroyed, and least round the bows, &c., 
where the oxide formed is swept off by the ship's motion through the water. 

338. The contact of oak timber especially, and generally of all timbers 
which contain tannic or gallic acids, is extremely injurious to iron, and for 
keelsons, &c.. or other timbers in contact with iron and water, teak should 
always be used in preference, which does not act at all, or but very slightly, 
upon iron. The bolts and nails of a gate of the fort at Canara, East Indies, 
after having been exposed to the weather for half a century, were found as 
sound as when put in: the gate was of teak. In the " Chiffone" frigate 
certain teak planks had been bolted to her sides ; on subsequent removal the 
iron was sound and uncorroded in the teak, but eaten through in the oak. 

339. This injurious effect of oak timber as applied to iron ship-building, 
might however probably be completely obviated by steeping the timber, 
prior to insertion, in a solution of sulphate of iron, which would engage the 
whole of the organic acids which act so injuriously upon iron. The oak 
would become black from the gallate and tannate of iron formed in its pores ; 
its durability would most probably be increased fully as much as by steeping 
in sulphate of copper, for which, as a mode of preventing dry-rot, a patent 
has been obtained, and there is no reason to suppose that the timber would 
suffer any deterioration in toughness, while it would certainly become harder. 

340. Kyanized timber of all sorts is destructive to iron in sea water to a 
prodigious extent ; a portion of the corrosive sublimate (whether more or 
less changed) contained in the pores of the wood, is decomposed by the con- 
tact of the iron, and the quicksilver reduced to the metallic state, which, by 
its powerful electro-negative relation to iron, promotes the corrosion of the 
latter. The actual amount of corrosion on best Staffordshire iron, by my 
experiments, when in sea water and in contact with kyanized oak, amounted 
in two years to a depth of 0*122 of an inch of iron removed all over the 
surface, while the same iron freely exposed to the sea water alone, lost not 
half so much in the same time. Indeed the utility of kyanizing timber which 
is to be immersed in sea water appears very dubious, even if it were in this 
respect harmless ; for M. Lassaigne has shown that whatever be the nature of 
the combination which the corrosive sublimate forms with the albumen of the 
wood, it is soon washed out, being soluble in salt water; and I have already 
stated that, in timber freely exposed in sea water, kyanizing is no protection 
against marine boring animals, kyanized oak being eaten through, two inches 
thick, in about two years, by the Limnoria terebrans, in Kingstown Harbour. 

341. Of course the contact of a metal electro-negative to iron, as lead or 
copper, with iron ships, either exteriorly or interiorly, should be avoided, and 
when it is inevitable, increased scantling should be given to the plates, &c. at 
and around the spot. 

The contact also of brass should as much as possible be avoided ; but the 
184.3. c 



18 REPORT — 1843. 

injurious effects of brass depend much upon the relative proportions of its 
constituent metals, and by a proper choice in this respect may be made very 
small. (See Tables, 2nd Rep. IX. and X., and 3rd Rep. XI. and XII.) Brass 
or the alloys of copper and zinc, are to be preferred to gun-metal or those of 
copper and tin, all of which greatly promote the corrosion of iron when in 
contact with them in a menstruum. 

342. It is a good palliative when copper or brass must be in contact with 
the iron, as in the flanges of sea-cocks, &c. in steam-vessels, to interpose a 
thickness of patent felt, saturated in boiled coal-tar or in wax, or other non- 
conducting substance ; no interposition of " short iron pipes" or other metallic 
matters, unless masses of zinc, will be of any use ; and the effect of local 
coiTosion thus produced, especially about the engine-room and boilers in 
iron steamers, demands the most scrupulous caution, much more than ap- 
pears yet to have been given it, gun-metal sea-cocks, copper blow-off pipes, 
&c. being at present in general attached dii-ectly to the iron hull, which are 
certain soon to cause the iron plate round them to be eaten away, and thus 
the vessel is rendered leaky in a vital point and probably at an unexpected 
moment. The application of a thick zinc flange outside the ship's side or 
bottom, at the junction of such a cock or pipe, would be a remedy, but would 
promote fouling ; increased local scantling, and non-conducting flanges be- 
tween the electro- negative metal and the iron, are most to be commended. 

34-3. There are several substances found in commerce, the contact of which 
with the iron of ships, when carried as loose cargo, is more or less injurious, 
and unless an effective method of protection be adopted, such articles should 
not be taken in iron vessels but at commensurate freights ; some of these may 
be named, as pyritose wet coal, sulphur, sulphur stone, gypsum, galena, 
copper ore, or other metallic sulphurets, when wet ; alum, salt, bleaching 
salts ; acids of all sorts, when not rendered secure against escape ; wet bark 
for tanning, or other matters containing gallic or tannic acids, &c. 

34'4'. The following extract from our Tables gives the relative values of 
several of the principal sorts of wrought iron and steel found in commerce, 
in respect to durability in clear sea water ; their relative rates of corrosion are 
directly as the numbers attached to each, and hence the values of the several 
sorts of iron, &c. for ship-building are inversely as those numbers. 

Make of Iron. Inverse Relative Value. 

Common Shropshire bar 36'14? 

Tilted cast iron 13-38 

Cold short bar, Staffordshire 13-27 

Shear steel, soft 12-28 

Best bar iron, Bradley .... 12-05 

Spring steel, tempered 11-81 

Blister steel, soft 1 1-72 

Best bars and plates, Doulais (hot blast) 10-83 

Swedish iron, Dannemora 10'82 

Red short bar, Staffordshire 10-78 

Common plates. Banks 10-60 

Common Shropshire bar, case hardened . . . • . 10-14 

Best plates and bars. Forest of Dean 10"08 

Cast steel, as hard as possible 9-38 « 

Best bars and plates, Doulais (cold blast) .... 8-85 I 

Low Moor plates 8*55 

Best faggoted scrap iron 2-52 

From the foregoing table it is obvious that plates rolled from scrapped iron 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 19 

would be the most durable for ship-building ; the Low Moor comes next to 
these ; and to these again, the plates from South Wales. 

S^S. I now proceed to make some observations upon one or two of the 
methods of protection for iron which have been recently published, before 
giving the details of that which I have proposed. 

The whole of the various methods that have been from time to time pro- 
posed for protecting iron from corrosion, may be divided into two classes : 
those which protect the iron by a mechanical covering, more or less perfect, 
and itself not acted on by the corroding agent; and those wherein, by the 
contact of some other body, a change is produced in the electric or chemico- 
polar condition of the iron with respect to the corroding agents, such that 
they cease to be so with reference to it. 

To the first class belongs the whole tribe of paints and varnishes, and 
every attempt to cover or slieathe the surface of the iron with another metal 
which is electro-negative to it. The principal methods of this class which 
have been recently patented, are those of Miles Berry (a communication), 
for coating iron with alloys of zinc and copper by cementation (May 1838, 
Newton's Journal, conj. series, vol. xv. p. 91); Neilson's (of Glasgow), for 
coating iron with brass, by dusting the interior of the mould with brass filings 
before the metal is poured in, &c., a process absolutely useless ; and Joseph 
Shore's, sealed March 1840 (Rep. Arts, No. 84, December 1840), for precipi- 
tating copper or nickel on iron by Spencer's electrotype process ; and Elking- 
ton and Ruolz's process, already spoken of, patented in December 1840, which 
includes both classes of protection. 

To this class also Wall's (of Bermondsey) process, so much brought before 
the public, may be said to belong, inasmuch as (although, with reference to 
zinc or copper, this process may produce a change in the chemical relations 
of those metals to air and water) it has no such effect upon iron, and merely 
acts upon it as an imperfect but most expensive paint or varnish. 

346. The principle of the second class has been already fully pointed out 
in preceding Reports, and its conditions experimented on and stated. It has 
been stated that Sir H. Davy, Edmund Davy, Pepys and Sorel, long since 
invented or applied this sort of protection to iron. 

The principal inventions dependent upon this method which have been 
patented, are those by H. W. Crauford (sealed April 1837, Rep. Arts, N. S. 
vol. ix. p. 289), and Fountainmoreau's (sealed May 1838, Newton's Journal, 
conj. series, vol. xvi. p. 289). These two patents are in fact one ; they are 
essentially the same, differing only in certain details of application, &c. They 
both consist in the application of a thin coating of zinc to the whole surface 
of the iron, by dipping the iron into fluid zinc, when properly cleaned before- 
hand, or by coating it with a paint, or rubbing it, or lapping it up in a powder 
of metallic zinc. 

Of these various methods not one is completely effiective, the causes of 
which have been already fully discussed throughout these Reports. 

347. The paint made of powdered zinc, and Wall's mercurial paint have 
no efficacy of an electro-chemical kind whatever towards iron. They differ 
in no respect from any other paint in being towards it mere mechanical 
coverings, more or less perfect. The results of experiments on the zinc paint 
have been already given. Wall's patent, which describes an absurd and 
roundabout process that reminds one of the recipes of the alchymists, and 
can scarcely be the result of chemical knowledge, is, when stripped of its 
useless encumbrances, simply a mode of making a mixture of several salts of 
iron and mercury, chiefly sesquichloride and sesquioxide of iron, and sub- 
chloride and subnitrate of mercury, with probably suboxide of mercury, which 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1843. 

being obtained, the whole is ground into a thin " bodyless" paint with lin- 
seed oil ; when the paint is long exposed to sea water in contact with zinc 
or copper, it is possible that a small quantity of the mercury may be reduced 
to the metallic state, and may amalgamate the surface of a zinc or copper 
plate in contact with it ; but it cannot, under any conceivable circumstances, 
have the smallest protective power over iron, beyond that which the linseed 
oil alone gives, the greasy coating of whic^h probably enabled the patentee's 
prepared plates to resist the acids, &c. applied by those whose testimonials to 
that effect have been published. In some specimens of zinc and iron which I 
i-eceived prepared according to this process, I found there was not the slightest 
protection from corrosion when once the greasy film of oil was removed. 

348. I now pass to the second class of methods of protection. Zinc is 
the only known metal that can be practically used as an electro-chemical pro- 
tector to iron ; it can be applied, in a massive form, locally or at particular 
centres of action, or it can be diffused in a thin coat or zinking over the 
whole surface. 

There is no considerable difficulty in the first mode of application in most 
cases, but it is, after the lajise of a greater or less time (generally only a few 
weeks), nearly useless, from one or both of two causes. Zinc is so slightly 
electro-positive to iron, that its protective power is nearly destroyed when- 
ever a few spots of red rust have formed anywhere upon the iron it is in 
contact with ; the peroxide acting as an acid towards its own base in both fresh 
and sea water, the surface of the zinc gets covered in the latter with a hard 
crystalline coat of hydrated oxide of zinc and of calc-spar, which retards or 
prevents its further corrosion, and thus permits the iron to corrode. The de- 
tails of these reactions have been given at length in preceding Reporte. 

349. These phaenomena also occur when the surface of the iron is all 
zinked over ; but the insurmountable objection to zinked iron is, that in 
about two yeai's nearly the whole of the thin coat of zinc is oxidized and re- 
moved even in fresh water, and in less time in sea water ; further, the ten- 
dency of zinc to oxidate when fluid and at a high temperature, say 700° 
Fahr., is so great, and the methods of cleaning the surfaces of iron to be zinked 
heretofore practised so imperfect, that the surface of iron is never perfectly 
covered ; and wherever an uncovered spot occurs and is exposed to air and 
water, after a time red oxide is formed, with the results above stated. Zinc, 
alone or unalloyed, at its fusing temperature in process of working gets its 
oxide mixed up with the metal, which adheres in minute patches to the iron, 
every one of which becomes a centre of subsequent oxidation. 

350. I will not attempt here to enter upon the theoretical consideration of 
the process about to be described, but confine myself to a description of the 
methods to be pursued and the results obtained. These methods of prevent- 
ing the corrosion of iron, whether cast or wrought, or of steel, are applicable 
to articles formed of these metals of whatever sort ; and the methods of pre- 
venting the " fouling " of iron vessels, or vessels sheathed Avith iron, are ap- 
plicable to all articles of these metals immersed in sea or fresh water ; I 
therefore propose their application to all manner of articles of cast iron, 
wrought iron, or steel ; but as by far their most important and valuable appli- 
cation is to the protection of ships built of iron, I will confine my description 
to the methods of applying my processes to such only, from which may be 
readily understood how it is to be applied to all other articles of iron, &c. 

351. By the word " fouling," as applied to ships, iron buoys, floating bea- 
cons, <Src., is meant the attachment and adherence to their surfaces, when im- 
mersed in sea or certain fresh waters, of various marine or freshwater animals 
of the molluscous and testaceous classes, and of aquatic plants. 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 21 

352. The method of preventing corrosion and " fouUng" of iron vessels 
consists of three principal operations ; the first of which is designed to pre- 
vent corrosion, the second aids the former, and also prevents the first part of 
the process being afterwards interfered with by the third operation, which has 
reference solely to the prevention of " fouling." Hence, for all other articles 
of iron, except certain of those immersed in sea or fresh water, the first two 
operations are alone requisite, and in some cases the first only. I proceed 
to describe in detail the modes of performing the several operations. 

353. The first consists in covering the iron with a particular alloy of zinc 
in fusion ; for this purpose the iron surfaces require to be previously cleansed 
from adhering oxide. The boiler-plates, angle-iron, &c. to be used for ship- 
building should not be permitted to acquire any red rust previous to the 
operations about to be described ; and if required to lay by for a considerable 
time previous to use, or to be transported to a distance, should be rubbed over 
with drying oil or other greasy matter to preserve them temporarily from rust : 
this oily coating may be afterwards removed by immersion in any alkaline ley. 

354. The plates or other pieces of cast or wrought iron or steel are to be 
immersed on edge (or in such a position that the detached scale of oxide can 
readily fall off), in a suitable vessel of wood, pottery, stone or lead, contain- 
ing dilute sulphuric acid (specific gravity about I '30), or dilute hydrochloric 
acid, specific gravity about 1*06 at 60°, formed by diluting these acids re- 
spectively, as they are usually found in commerce, with rather more than an 
equal bulk of water. 

The diluted acid is best warmed, which may be conveniently done by a 
steam-jacket round the vessel, or by blowing steam into the acid, as it is de- 
sirable that the scale of oxide should be detached as rapidly as possible from 
the surface of the iron. The acid vessel, in operating on the great scale, is 
best formed so that the lower portion of acid and the scales Avhich have de- 
posited can be occasionally withdrawn, to prevent waste of acid or increased 
length of time in the cleansing process. The iron must be wholly immersed, 
and the bubbles of gas formed on its surface must be free to ascend in the 
fluid and escape. 

355. As soon as the scale of oxide has become detached or loosened from 
the iron, the plates or other pieces are to be removed from the " cleansing 
bath" and washed with cold water. The surfaces are now to be thoroughly 
scoured by hand or by power, with sand or emerj% or with pieces of grit 
stone, while exposed to a small running stream of water, until they appear 
quite clean, bright and metallic. 

356. The plates or other articles of iron are now immediately, and without 
being permitted to dry, immersed in the " preparing bath," in which they are 
to lie until about to be covered with the alloy of zinc to 'be hereafter de- 
scribed. The fluid which forms what may be called the " preparing bath" is 
made in the following way : — To a saturated cold solution of chloride of zinc 
is to be added an equal bulk of a saturated cold solution of sal-ammoniac, and 
to the mixed solutions as much more sal-ammoniac in the solid state is to be 
added as they will dissolve ; or these solutions may be made and mixed hot, 
and the solid sal-ammoniac then added, if thought more desirable, but the 
addition of more water on cooling is then requisite. The " preparing bath" 
may also be formed of sulphate of zinc and sulphate of ammonia, or acetate 
of zinc and acetate of ammonia, or of any other soluble double salt of zinc 
and ammonia, or salt of manganese and ammonia ; the nitrates of zinc and 
ammonia are the least advantageous, but none answer the purpose so well as 
the above-described chloride of zinc and sal-ammoniac. No free acid should 
be present in these solutions. 



22 REPORT — 1843. 

357. The iron, cleansed by the previous operations, is immersed in this 
solution, contained in vessels of wood or pottery, or stone, at common tem- 
peratures ; as soon as the surfaces of the cleansed iron appear covered all over 
•with minute bubbles of gas, it is in a fit state to be submitted to the final 
operation of immersing in the metallic alloy with which it is to be coated ; 
but the iron, when once cleansed, may be permitted to remain in the " pre- 
paring bath " for any moderate length of time, without injury to the subse- 
quent process. The "preparing bath" becomes therefore a convenient re- 
ceptacle for depositing and preserving the cleaned or polished iron in until 
ready for coating with the alloy. 

358. The next part of the process consists in covering the iron with the 
preservative alloy, which is to be prepared in the following manner : — Zinc 
is to be melted in a suitable vessel, which is best of pottery or stone ; and 
when in fusion mercury is to be added to it, in the proportion of 202 parts 
of mercury to 1292 parts of zinc, both by weight ; that is, 40 atoms of zinc 
to 1 of mercury, or thereabouts. These are to be well stirred or mixed to- 
gether with a rod of dry wood, or of iron coated with clay. To the above 
alloy is now to be added either potassium or sodium, in the pi'oportion of one 
pound to every ton weight; the alloy of either will answer the purpose, 
but I prefer sodium, as more easily obtained and more manageable. These 
metals are usually preserved from oxidation in naphtha, or some other fluid 
not containing oxygen. They are to be removed from this in small portions, 
not more than half an ounce at a time, placed in a small inverted cup of 
■wood formed on the end of a stick and thrust rapidly below the surface of 
the alloy of zinc and mercury, with which either may be made thus to com- 
bine easily, and without loss or combustion of the alkaline metal. The triple 
alloy thus formed of zinc, mercury and sodium, or potassium, after having 
been again stirred and mixed with the dry wood rod, is ready for coating the 
prepared iron when immersed in it. The combination of these metals is faci- 
litated, and their oxidation on the surface retarded, by strewing upon it some of 
the salts contained in solution in the " preparing bath" when in a dry state. 

359. The plates of iron or other articles are now to be taken up out of the 
" preparing bath," permitted to drain for a few seconds, and immediately, 
■while still wet with the liquor, immersed in the fused alloy ; and as soon as 
they have acquired its temperature, which should not be raised higher than is 
necessary for fusion, they are to be withdrawn again edgewise, and will be found 
covered with a perfectly uniform and coherent coat or surface of the alloy. 

360. The affinity of this alloy for iron is so intense, and the peculiar cir- 
cumstances of surface induced by the preparing bath upon the iron presented 
to it are such, that care is requisite, lest, by too long an immersion, the plates 
or articles of iron should be partially dissolved ; and where the articles to be 
covered are small, or their parts minute, it is necessary, before immersing 
them, to permit the alloy to dissolve or combine with some wrought iron, in 
order that its affinity for iron may be partially satisfied, and so this risk be 
avoided. The alloy will, at its proper fusing temperature, which is about 
680° Fahr., dissolve a plate of wrought iron of an eighth of an inch thick in 
a few seconds, and form with it a quadruple alloy. 

More or less mercury and more or less of the alkaline metals may be used 
in forming this alloy, but the proportions given are those I have found best, 
as the alloy is permanent at its temperature of fusion ; i. e. no mercury is 
lost by volatilization, nor does the alloy show any inconvenient tendency to 
oxidation, much less indeed than common zinc does at the surface, which is 
in the case of the alloy to remain covered with any oxide produced, and with 
the dry salt, the double chloride of the preparing bath transferred to it on 



1 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND "WATER UPON IRON. 23 

the pieces of iron, as these defend it from the action of the atmosphere. It 
is desirable that the melting vessels should be as deep, and expose as small a 
surface, as the nature of the articles to be immersed will allow. At the mo- 
ment of immersion of a plate or other article of iron, the surface of the alloy- 
is to be cleared of all dross or oxide by a wooden skimmer. 

361. As soon as the iron is withdrawn from the alloy it is to be plunged 
into cold water and well washed therein. The surface of the iron is now in 
a condition to resist corrosion. 

362. By the addition of a larger portion of mercury to the before-mentioned 
alloy of zinc, mercury and sodium, or potassium, cast or wrought iron or steel 
may be coated therewith at a lower temperature, or even cold, by simple con- 
tact accompanied with friction ; but a smaller quantity of mercury than that 
before given will often be found most convenient. 

363. In the case of iron ships the foregoing operations are best performed 
upon the plates and ribs, after they have been all bent and fitted to their 
places, and the plates riveted together into large pieces of eight to ten feet 
square or more, which, when again put " into frame," or placed in their re- 
spective positions in the ship's hull, are to be united by rivets countersunk 
from the outside, and hence closed inside the vessel. The countersunk heads 
of these rivets should be also coated with the alloy ; and I have mentioned in 
detail elsewhere how these may be heated for riveting without injuring the 
alloyed head. 

364. The hull of the iron vessel being thus completed and wholly covered 
with the alloy, is now to receive a coat of varnish all over of the composition 
about to be described, and Avhich is best laid on with a spatula, or thin 
flexible blade of iron, as a brush produces minute air-bubbles, which leave 
spaces uncovered on the drying of the varnish. 

The varnishes described will dry or get hard and coherent at ordinary 
temperatures, but where convenient it is desirable to expose them for some 
hours to a temperature of about 300° Fahr,, which gives them greater ad- 
hesion and durability. 

365. To form the varnish No. 1, take 50lbs. of foreign asphaltum, melt 
and boil it in an iron vessel for three or four hours, adding gradually, in fine 
powder, 161bs. of red lead and Utharge ground together in equal proportions, 
with ten imperial gallons of drying linseed oil ; bring all to a boiling tempe- 
rature, melt in a separate vessel 8 lbs. of gum anime (which need not be of 
the clearest or best quality), add to it two imperial gallons of drying linseed 
oil boiling, and 121bs. of caoutchouc softened or partially dissolved by coal- 
tar naphtha (as practised by the makers of waterproof clothes) ; mix all to- 
gether in the former vessel and boil gently until, on taking some of the 
varnish between two spatulas, it is found tough and ropy. When this 
" body" is quite cold, it may be thinned down with from thirty to thirty-five 
gallons imperial of turpentine or of coal naphtha. 

This is the best varnish I am acquainted with for the purpose of covering 
iron ; it is not acted on when dry and hard by any n^oderately diluted acid 
or caustic alkali ; it does not, by long immersion, combine with water, and 
form a white and partially soluble hydrate, as all merely resinous varnishes 
and all oil paint do, and it is so elastic that a plate covered with it may be 
bent several times without its peeling off; and lastly, it adheres so fast that 
nothing but a sharp-edged instrument will scratch it off the surface of iron. 

The varnish No. 2 is of a cheaper sort, but not quite so good. Common 
coal or gas tar is to be boiled in an iron caldron at so high a temperature 
that the smoke from it is of a yellow dun colour, or the tar is to be caused to 
flow through red-hot iron tubes. The boiling is to be continued until the 



24, REPORT — 1843. 

residue is a solid asphaltum, breaking with a pitchy fracture. It is essential 
that the boiling should be carried on at this high temperature, as the perma- 
nency of the varnish in water depends upon the tar having been submitted 
to the temperature at which naphthaline is formed by the decomposition or 
breaking up of the original constitution of the tar. 

Take 56 lbs. of this coal-tar asphaltum, melt it in an iron vessel, add ten 
imperial gallons of drying linseed oil ground with 25 lbs. of red lead and 
litharge in equal proportions ; add to the whole, when well mixed, and after 
boiling together for two or three hours, 15 lbs. of caoutchouc, softened or 
partially dissolved by coal naphtha (as before described) ; when cold, mix 
•with twenty to thirty gallons of turpentine or coal naphtha, and the varnish 
is ready for use. 

366. Either of these varnishes is to be applied over the whole surface of 
the iron and suffered to dry ; and as this forms the final preservative coat upon 
all articles except iron ships, buoys, &c. requiring to be preserved from 
" fouling," any desirable colour may be given to it by colouring materials, 
which should be peroxides not acted on by air and water. 

367- The last operation, viz. that to prevent " fouling," now remains to be 
performed upon ships, &c.; for this purpose a strong-bodied thick paint is to 
be made with drying linseed oil, red lead and sulphate of barytes (or white 
lead may be used, but not so advantageously), and a little turpentine. To 
every lOOlbs. of this paint, when mixed, is to be added 20 lbs. or thereabouts 
of oxychloride of copper and 3 lbs. of a mixture composed of hard yellow 
soap, melted with an equal weight of common resin and a little water. 

The colour sold in commerce originally under the name of Brunswick green 
was an oxychloride of copper. The Brunswick green of commerce at present 
is a different thing, but the oxychloride of copper may be obtained at a cheap 
rate by various known methods, which it is unnecessary to detail. With this 
paint the whole immersed hull of the vessel is to be coated over the before- 
mentioned varnish ; it must then be permitted to dry and stiffen for three or four 
days before the ship is floated out of dock. The operations are now completed, 
and the hull of an iron ship so treated will resist " corrosion" and " fouling." 

368. The principles upon which this method of protection rests may be thus 
stated : — By the use of the " preparing bath," the surface of iron, of whatever 
sort, is more effectually cleansed than has before been practicable, and all 
minute particles of foreign matter removed from the surface ; and by the re- 
actions which take place in the " preparing bath," in which metallic amides 
are formed, and hydrogen evolved at the surface of the iron, a powerful ten- 
dency is given to the iron to combine with other metals. Again, by the pre- 
sence of the small quantity of sodium or potassium in the alloy, a greatly in- 
creased tendency to combine Avith iron is conferred upon it, while any minute 
portions of oxide, either suspended in the fluid alloy, or which have escaped 
the previous operations upon the surface of the iron, are reduced to metal. 
Thus both metals are presented to each other in a state of absolute purity and 
in the most favourable circumstances for combination. 

369. But further, when the alloy, or generally any alloy of mercury with 
metals electro-positive to it, is exposed to the action of a solvent, the positive 
metal at the surface is first acted on, and the surface becomes shortly covered 
with pure mercury. The result, therefore, of the primary reaction of air and 
water on this alloy is, that the coating of the iron becomes covered with a 
very thin film of amalgamated zinc, which is known not to be acted on by 
fluid menstrua, except under peculiar conditions. I found no calcareous 
coating formed on such a surface in sea or fresh water. The varnish laid over 
this is intended as a sheathing, to give additional durability and mechanical 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 25 

protection ; and also in the case of iron ships, to interpose between the cover- 
ing of alloy and the final coat of poisonous paint. 

370. It was stated by Sir H. Davy, in his researches on the preservation 
of copper sheathing, that the sole cause why it did not become " foul" when 
unprotected was, the continual loss of substance by sohition and washing 
away of the salts produced (the suboxide and oxychloride of copper), and 
that the poisonous properties of the salts produced had nothing to do with the 
matter. The only proof, however, given of this was, that fouling rapidly took 
place upon a surface of lead forming a portion of a coppered vessel's hull, 
upon which there existed an abundant production of carbonate of lead. Al- 
though fully aware of the powers of endurance possessed by the classes of 
animals which adhere to ships, such as those of the genera Balanus, Otion, 
Ascidia, Cineras, Anatifa, Ostrea, Mytilus, Dreissena, &c., still I doubted this 
conclusion, from remarking that they adhered to the surface of metals, such 
as zinc in a rapid state of degradation or solution in sea water, but which did 
not produce poisonous salts. 

371. I also observed, that to perfectly clean metallic surfaces they showed 
little disposition to adhere ; that either a thin coat of peroxide, or of calca- 
reous matter deposited from the sea-water, was necessary to their adherence ; 
that the testaceous animals seemed to disregard the nature of the metal to 
which they clung, provided they had a coating of calcareous matter to adhere 
to, and that the same applied, to a great extent, to the growth of sea-weeds. 

372. I thence determined to make some direct experiments upon the effects 
of metallic poisons upon such common molluscous or testaceous animals as I 
could command, and for this purpose I chose the common oyster, the limpet 
(Patella), and some of the Actinice found along the shores of Dublin Bay : 
these were placed in glass vessels of sea water frequently renewed, and left 
for some time without disturbance, until it was certain that the condition of 
the animals was not in itself fatal or injurious to them. Then certain poison- 
ous metallic salts were gradually introduced into their respective receptacles, 
such as the soluble and insoluble salts of lead, copper, mercury, arsenic, &c. 

373. The results of these experiments, which were continued for a long 
time and made with care, showed that all these animals were more or less 
subject to annoyance from substances poisonous to the higher animals ; that 
they were least affected by the salts of lead and mercury, and most so by 
those of copper ; and that, unless present in such large quantity as to be at 
once fatal, the insoluble, or rather difficultly soluble salts of copper in sea 
water (such as the oxychlorides and the arsenite of copper) gave them much 
more uneasiness than the soluble ones. The poisonous matter, when difficultly 
soluble, was sometimes merely dropped into the sea water near the animal, at 
others was strewed upon a plate and the animal placed upon it. In every case, 
when the animal was killed, the poisonous matter (at least the copper, which 
was the only metal looked for) could be detected in its body after death. 

374. From these experiments, I think I am justified in concluding that the 
other classes of "fouling" animals, whose habits are so analogous to those tried, 
are prevented from adhering to copper sheathing in virtue of the poisonous 
salts produced by the sea water acting upon it, and not merely by loss of con- 
tinuity ; and that in the case of the lead cited by Davy, the animals adherent 
must have been protected from the poisonous surface by a coat of calc-spar 
or carbonate of lime formed upon it, or by some other unexplained circum- 
stance ; and that hence the production of an artificial poisonous surface upon 
the bottom of an iron ship, a buoy, &c., would prevent their " fouling" also. 

375. I also made some experiments upon the eff"ect of metallic poisons upon 
sea-weeds, choosing for this purpose portions of Fuci adherent to small loose 



26 REPORT — 1843. 

pebbles, and thus capable of transfer to a glass vessel. The results here were 
not so distinct as with the animals, but proved that copper salts in solution 
were decidedly deleterious to their existence. I ascertained also that marine 
plants would with the greatest difficulty attach or grow upon greasy or 
varnished substances free from any film of calcareous matter or oxide of 
iron. 

376. From these experiments, I have been led to propose the peculiar 
poisonous paint already described as a preventive to " fouling" of iron ships; 
it is in fact a method of bringing their immersed surfaces as nearly as possible 
to the condition of a copper-sheathed vessel without injury to the iron. The 
paint, therefore, is only a vehicle for poisonous matter, for which purpose it 
is requisite that it sliould have sufficient adhesion to resist the ship's motion, 
but still should have a slight degree of solubility in water, so that the poison- 
ous matter may be taken up by the absorbent or capillary vessels of an ad- 
hering animal or plant. This latter property is given it by the addition of 
the resinous soap, the proportion of which must be varied to suit frigid or 
tropical climates. I prefer using the oxychloride of copper as the poisonous 
matter of this paint; indeed it is simply the formation of this salt that pre- 
vents " fouling " of ordinary copper sheathing, but other salts will answer the 
purpose. 

377. The cost of protecting, by the methods described, the hull of an iron 
ship, of say 130 feet keel, materials and labour included, and preparing her 
against fouling, would add about ten shillings per ton to the cost of her 
hull, an amount quite inconsiderable when balanced against durability, safety, 
and speed. 

378. When no attempt is made to procure complete protection from cor- 
rosion, a considerable palliative consists in heating all the plates before being 
put together to nearly a " black-red" heat in a boiler-maker's oven, immedi- 
ately plunging them into boiled coal tar, and taking them out while still warm, 
so that a firm varnish may form upon them ; but spots of rust soon appear 
even upon plates so treated. 

379. It is very desirable in every iron ship, that a layer of felt saturated 
in coal tar, boiled to the consistence nearly of pitch, should be interposed be- 
tween not only every metallic body electro-negative to iron, as before observed, 
but also between every piece of timber, of whatever sort, placed in contact 
with the hull below the water-line, and most especially in the bilge. Besides 
obvious mechanical reasons, this is important from the fact, that as soon as 
timber begins to decay in contact with iron and sea water, the rotten wood 
possesses the power of decomposing the sulphate of lime of the sea water, re- 
ducing it to sulphuret, while carbonic acid evolved from the decayed timber 
again decomposes the latter, producing sulphuretted hydrogen, which cor- 
rodes the iron locally with great rapidity. 

380. Soft wood not only rots soonest, but decays in a way that produces 
these effects more rapidly than the harder timber : this fact I would press 
upon the attention of iron ship-builders. 

These remarks might be extended, with many others of importance to the 
practical constructor, but for which this is not the place. 

381. In conclusion, when the durability of iron vessels, as regards corro- 
sion, and this is admitted alone to limit their existence, is compared with that 
of timber ships in reference to their decay, the balance undoubtedly seems at 
first in favour of the latter. We have examples of ships, such as the Royal Wil- 
liam, built in 1719, lasting more than 100 years; the Sovereign of the Seas, 
built in 1639, forty-seven years ; the Barfleur, built in 1768, more than forty- 
four years, &c. ; but these are the rare exceptions, not the rule. 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 27 

The Commissioners of Woods and Forests, in their 'Report of 1812, on 
Timber for the Navy,' estimated the average duration of a ship at fourteen 
years, while other authorities take it at twelve and a half years. Frigates, 
when built of American red pine, seldom lasted longer than five years, and 
the Ocean, Foudroyant, St. Domingo, Rodney, Ajax, and Albion, new ships, 
all fell to pieces from dry rot in about four years. 

382. Were it the fact, therefore, that unprotected iron vessels corroded 
equally throughout every part immersed, we could easily calculate, by the aid 
of our preceding researches, the durability of a ship of given scantling, and 
predetermine, under such and such conditions, at what time her hull would 
have become dangerously thin, and might rest with the assurance that for this 
period the iron ship was the best and safest that could be put upon the waters ; 
but unfortunately we have found that corrosion does not take place with per- 
fect uniformity, as has been already pointed out ; and hence, without pro- 
tection, ships of iron must be always liable to the dangerous consequences of 
local corrosion and consequent thinning down of iron at particular spots, 
until at some unforeseen moment, possibly of least preparation and greatest 
external peril, a decayed plate is burst through and the vessel fills. The 
facility of introduction of water-tight bulk heads in iron ships greatly reduces 
the danger of such an accident, but it must always be attended with danger 
and loss of property, and occurring where it is most likely to happen, namely, 
in the engine compartment of an iron steamer in bad weather, would be almost 
certain to involve the loss of the ship. 

The more sanguine advocates of iron ship-building have, in their anxiety to 
prove their durability to be such as to render protection needless, appealed to 
the existence of iron canal-boats of forty years of age or more, and to some 
of the earliest built iron vessels which have been occasionally in salt water. 
Most of the vessels alluded to however have been principally in fresh water, 
and on referring to Table XV. it will be obvious how vast a difference there 
is in durability of a ship of any given sort of iron, exposed to the action of sea 
and of fresh water. Thus, suppose a vessel of Low Moor plates ; in one cen- 
tury the depth of corrosion would be — Inch. 

In clear sea water 0*215 

In foul sea water 0*404 

In clear fresh water only 0*035 

In other words, while the ship, if originally of half-inch plates, would be almost 
destroyed in foul sea water, it would not have lost one-tenth of its scantling in 
clear fresh water in the same time. These cases therefore prove nothing to 
the point. 

383. It therefore seems to me that protection against local corrosion and 
" fouling" are essential to the safety and perfection of iron ships, and are 
alone wanting to render our future iron ships as much safer and more en- 
during than those of timber, as the steam ship of today is safer and more 
enduring than the sailing vessel of two centuries ago. 

384. The mechanical methods which have been proposed for removing 
foulness from the bottoms of iron ships, namely by scraping with a large 
wooden frame drawn under the hull by suitable rope tackle, appears quite 
incapable of removing more than the mere exterior fringe as it were of the 
" foulness," or some of the larger animals when once become adherent. The 
force with which both animals and plants adhere to the coat of calcareous and 
rusty matter on an iron plate is very great, and no instrument sufficiently sharp, 
and pressed hard enough to the ship's hull, could probably be successfully used, 
unless of iron, and this would be liable not only to injure the surface, but be- 
come constantly caught against small projections of the ship's bottom. 



28 REPORT — 1843. 

385. But even were some methods of scraping possible, it only temporarily 
removes the evil, leaving its cause untouched ; and that this cause is in such 
rapid operation, at least in some localities, as to be a most serious evil, may 
be illustrated by the following observations : — 

Stevenson, in his account of the Bell Rock Lighthouse, mentions that the 
bottom of the temporary light-ship, after being newly caulked and pitched, 
was found covered over with mussels (3fi/tili) three and a half inches long, in 
three years and seven months from the time she was moored off the Bell Rock. 

It is stated in the Transactions of the Wernerian Society, vol. \i. p. 243, 
that the spawn of the Cirrhipoda class of fouling animals became developed 
upon a feather, on which it lay before the latter l\ad decayed in sea water, 
and that they will cover a ship's bottom in a few months. 

These observations applied to wooden vessels, and the prevalent opinion 
seems to be, that iron ships " foul" even more rapidly than these do in similar 
circumstances. 

386. The opinion that iron vessels as well as railway bars receive some 
hidden power of resisting corrosion when in use which they lose at other 
times, has been before alluded to. 

387. The origin of this view with respect to rails is obscure. Wood, in 
his ' Treatise upon Railways,' quotes a Report of Mr. G. Stephenson, in 
which the following passage occurs : — 

" One phaenomenon in the difference of the tendency to rust between 
wrought iron laid down as rails, and subjected to continual motion by the pass- 
age of the carriages over them, and bars of the same material either standing 
upright, or laid down without being used at all, is very extraordinary. 

" A railway bar of wrought iron laid carelessly upon the ground alongside 
of one in the railway in use, shows the effect of rusting in a very distinct man- 
ner ; the former will be continually throwing off scales of oxidated iron, while 
the latter is scarcely at all affected." 

388. This is the first notice I have found of this opinion, which has since 
been repeated in various quarters, but no fact, that I am aware of, has been 
given to support the view which a mere casual inspection of rails so situated 
suggests. 

When rails lying parallel on the same line of way, but one set in and the 
other out of use, are examined, appearances do undoubtedly seem to support 
the opinion. The unused rails are found covered with red rust, often coming 
off in scales parallel to the surface, while those in use present a light brown 
or huffish coat of rust, without any loose scales. I am much disposed how- 
ever to believe that there is no real difference in the amount of corrosion in 
the two cases, and that the difference in appearance arises partly from a de- 
ceptio visus, by the effect of the bright and polished upper face of the used 
rail (kept so by constant traffic) contrasted with the rusty face of the unused 
rail, and partly from the fact, that as fast as rust is formed upon the rail in 
use, it is shaken off by the vibration of passing trains^and blown away by the 
draft of wind which accompanies their motion, and that the rail is soiled 
and partially blackened by coke and other dust, &c. 

Recently the assumed difference in rate of corrosion has received a new 
version ; it has been stated that rails in use do corrode as well as those out 
of use, provided the traffic pass over them in both, that is in opposite direc- 
tions as on a single line of way, but do not corrode if the traffic be confined 
to one direction. These results have been attributed to some undescribed 
and occult magnetic action. 

389. Whether either or any of these views be correct or not I am unable 
at present to say, but as the subject is not only interesting in a scientific 



ON THE ACTION OV AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 29 

point of view, but of practical importance, and as no correct measures as yet 
exist, or at least have been published, of the amount of loss of metal by 
oxidation and abrasion of railway bars, I have thought it desirable to institute 
some experiments to determine, first, whether there be any difference in the 
amount of corrosion of rails in and out of use ; secondly, if there be any, to 
discover on what the effect depends; thirdly, to distinguish numerically 
between the loss due to corrosion, and that due to abrasion by traffic. 

These experiments I have been enabled to commence on the Dublin and 
Kingstown Railway, by the favour of the Directors of that line, and hope soon 
to have others in operation upon the Ulster Railway, which is a single line, 
with traffic of course in both directions over the same rails. I have not as yet 
obtained any results (from insufficient lapse of time) which I can consider 
trustworthjs but so far I have not been able to recognize any distinct differ- 
ence of corrosion between the used and unused rails ; on a future occasion, 
however, I hope to be able to lay my results fully before the Association. 

390. With this exception, and a few others merely of scientific interest, the 
present Report completes the investigation of all the more important prac- 
tical desiderata on the subject of the corrosion of iron, &c. entrusted to me by 
the British Association, and I hope that as the information obtained by its 
liberal assistance becomes more known, it will be found of practical use by 
all who are engaged in the constructive use of iron, the substance perhaps 
the most valuable and important of all those with which Pi-ovidence has 
endowed us. 



Note by the Author. — Since the preceding Report was sent to piess, I have learnt with 
satisfaction that the principles therein developed for preventing the fouling of iron ships have 
been already acted on ; that the Iron Queen and the Ben Ledi iron steamer have been coated 
with a composition of tallow, bright varnish, arsenic, and, I believe, sulphur, and that in the 
former case all fouling was prevented ; and after the vessel had made two voyages to the Tro- 
pics, she was found perfectly clean when docked on her return. 

From the bottom of the Ben Ledi ten tons weight of mussels and barnacles are stated to 
have been removed previous to the application of the above poisonous varnish, which, although 
different from that I have recommended, not so efficacious, and not harmless as regards its re- 
action upon the iron hull, is still quite identical in principle with mine. 

R. M. 

June 26, 1843. 



30 



REPORT — 1843, 



Second Course of Experiments. 

Table I. Box a. No. 1. containing Specimens of Cast and Wrought Iron 

immersed in clear Sea Water. 

Sunk and moored a second time in Kingstown Harbour at the Second Buoy in from the 
Western Pier Head, in three and a half fathoms water, at half tide, upon a clear sandy 
bottom, on January 11, 1840, at one o'clock r.M. Weighed and removed again at same 
hour on January 12, 1842; hence immersed 732 days. 

Box a. No. 1. Class No. 1. Welsh Cast Iron. 



10. 



11. 



Dimensions 

of 
Specimen. 



■sSs 



3 = 



«. 1 

a 2 

a 3 

u. 4 

a 5 

a 6 



a. 9 

«10 

« 11 

a. 12 

«13 



in. in. in. 

5x5x1 

5x5x25 

5x5x1 

5x5x25 

5x4x1 

5x5x1 

5x5x25 

5x5x1 

5x5x25 

5x5x1 

5x5x25 

5x5x1 

5x5x25 



42720 
11384 
43452 
12209 
34469 
43200 
11759 
41176 
10576 
41547 
11169 
43638 
12339 



42327 
10895 
43059 
11886 
34120 
42807 
11388 
40904 
10413 
41090 
10887 
43311 
10949 



393 5-614 
489 8-890 
393 i 5-614 



323 
349 
393 
371 
272 
163 
457 
282 
327 
390 



5-872 
6-017 
5-614 
6-745 
3-885 
2-963 
6-528 
5-127 
4-671 
7-090 



0-633 
1-003 
0-633 
0-662 
0-678 
0-633 
0-761 
0-438 
0-334 
0-736 
0-578 
0-527 
0-899 



0- 

0- 

0- 

0- 

0- 

0- 

0- 

0-894 

0- 

0- 

0- 

0-369 

0- 



1-192 

4-150 

1-672 

5-186 

3-269 

2-142 

4-174 

0- 

3-334 

1-079 

6-300 

0- 

6-952 



0' 


0' 
0' 
0' 
0' 
0- 
0' 
0' 
0' 

8-0 



Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Local. 

Local pitted. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform. 
Local pitted, deep. 



Box a. No. 1. Class No. 2. Irish Cast Iron. 



a 14 
a 15 

a 16 
a 17 



5x5x25 


10479 


10074 


405 7-363 


0-830 


0- |4-158 


0- 


5x5x1 


40331 


39687 


644 9-200 


1-038 


0-023 0- 


0- 


5x5x25 


11453 


11036 


417 7-581 


0-855 


0- 3-862 


0- 


5x5x1 


42695 


42266 1 429 j 6-128 


0-691 


0- 0099 


0- 



Local Plumbago. 
Local Plumbago. 
Uniform Plumb. 
Uniform Plumb. 



Box a. No. 1. Class No. 3. Staffordshire, Shropshire and Gloucestershire 

Cast Irons. 



elS 
«19 
a 20 
a 21 

a 22 
a 23 

o24 
a 25 



5x5 x25 
5x5 xl 
5x4 xl 
5x4 xl 
5x3-63x1 
5x5 x25 
5x3-75x1 
5x3-5 xl 



11789 


11387 


402 


7-309 


0-824 


0- 


3-536 


0- 


44352 


43960 


392 


5-600 


0-631 


0- 


1-870 


0- 


34412 


34141 


271 


4-672 


0-527 


0- 


4-070 


0- 


33770 


33460 


310 


5-345 


0-603 


0- 


2-935 


0- 


31530 


31217 


313 


5-843 


0-659 


0- 


2-281 


0- 


11900 


11573 


327 


5-945 


0-670 


0- 


6-927 


2-0 


32527 


32324 


203 


3-690 


0-416 


0- 


1-670 


0- 


28773 1 28288 


485 


9-327 


0-052 


0- 


11-299 


0- 



Local Plumb. 
Local Plumb. 
Local pitted. 
Local pitted. 
Local pitted. 
Local Plumb. 
Uniform. 
Local Plumb. 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 

Box a. No. 1. Class No. 4>. Scotch Cast Irons. 



31 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


•o 




■■i . 


'im ° 


it 


*^£ 








s 




wo 


Dimensions 

of 
Specimen. 


|| 
"SO 
J-. a 
■g,c 


III 

o£e 


5« 

tf) t^ 

C.5 




111 


o . 

u 


ll 
So 




Character 

of 
Corrosion. 


|a 




■|a 


^ -a 


h£ 


tSg, 


tJ^'s 




P 


1 




«26 


n. in. in. 
5x5x1 


43961 


43505 


456 


6-514 


0-734 


0- 


1-526 


0- 


Uniform Plumb. 


a 27 


5x5x25 


11514 


11117 


397 


7-218 


0-814 


0- 


2-924 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«28 


5x5x1 


43276 


42856 


420 


6-000 


0-676 


0- 


1-798 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


a 29 


5x5x25 


11527 


11193 


334 


6-072 


0-685 


0- 


3-300 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«30 


5x5x1 


43085 


42604 


481 


6-871 


0-777 


0- 


2-565 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


a 31 


5x5x25 


11671 


11395 


276 


5-018 


0-566 


0- 


4-107 


0- 


Uniform Plumb. 


a 32 


5x5x1 


43334 


42975 


359 


5-128 


0-578 


0- 


3-000 


0- 


Uniform. 


«33 


5X5X25 


11404 


11064 


340 


6-181 


0-697 


0- 


6-072 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


34 


5x5x1 


43558 


43279 


279 


3-985 


0-449 


0- 


2-632 


0- 


Uniform. 


«35 


5x5x25 


11275 


10910 


365 


6-636 


0-748 


0- 


4-852 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«36 


5x5x1 


42172 


41844 


328 


4-685 


0-528 


0- 


2-394 


0- 


Uniform. 


«37 


5x5x25 


11265 


10913 


352 


6-400 


0-717 


0- 


5-107 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«38 


5x5x25 


11238 


10747 


491 


8-927 


1-007 


0- 


6-041 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«39 


5X5X1 


43700 


43337 


363 


5-186 


0-585 


0- 


0-399 


0- 


Uniform. 


a 40 


5x5x25 


11147 


10676 


471 


8-563 


0-966 


0- 


7-143 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«41 


5x5x1 


42574 


42275 


299 


4-271 


0-481 


0- 


0-902 


0- 


Uniform. 


a42 


5x5x25 


11701 


11204 


497 


9-036 


1-019 


0- 


3-983 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


a 43 


5x5x1 


44269 


43870 


399 


5-700 


0-643 


0- 


1-627 


0- 


Local pitted. 


a 44 


5x5x25 


10916 


10479 


437 


7-945 


0-896 


0- 


7030 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


a45 


5x5x1 


43184 


42625 


559 


7-985 


0-900 


1-311 


0- 


0- 


Uniform. 


a 46 


5x5x25 


11343 


10830 


513 


9-327 


1-052 


0- 


5-089 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«47 


5x5x1 


42575 


42120 


455 


6-500 


0-733 


0-426 


0- 


0- 


Local pitted. 


«48 


5X5X25 


11449 


10995 


454 


8-254 


0-931 


0- 


3-687 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«49 


5X5X1 


43061 


42736 


325 


4-642 


0-523 


0- 


3-056 


0- 


Local pitted. 


«50 


5x5x25 


11754 


11285 


469 


8-527 


0-962 


0- 


4-852 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


«51 


5x5x1 


43911 


43639 


272 


3-885 


0-438 


0- 


1-196 


0- 


Uniform. 


»52 


5x5x1 


43781 


43277 


504 


7-200 


0-812 


0- 


1-534 


0- 


Local pitted. 


a S3 


5x5x25 


11381 


10942 


439 


7-981 


0-900 


0- 


4-431 


0- 


Local Plumbago. 


a 54 


5x5x1 


43429 


43039 


390 


5-571 


0-628 


0- 


0-795 


110 


Local pitted. 


a 55 


5x5x25 


11380 


10953 


427 


7-763 


0-875 


0- 


5-366 


1-0 


Local Plumbago. 


a 56 


5x5x1 


43026 


42598 


428 


6-114 


0-689 


3-274 


0- 


0- 


Uniform P. 


a 57 


5x5x25 


11025 


10652 


373 


6-781 


0-765 


0- 


8-175 


0- 


Uniform P. 


Box a. No. 1. Class No. 5. The Standard 


Bar of Wrought Iron. 


ee 5S 


5x3X'87 


5 23972 2358 


2 39 


8-86J 


5 1-000 


0- 


5-951 O.j 


Fibre exposed with 
metallic lustre. 


Box a. No. 1. Class No. 6. Scotch Cf 


ist Iron. Chilled. 


a59 


sxsx-i 


42042 


41578 


464 


6-628 0-747 


0- 


2-606 


0- 


Uniform. 


a 60 


5x5x1 


43034 


42525 


509 


7-271 0-820 


0- 


3-806 


0- 


Local pitted. 


4 

Box a. No. 1. Class No. 7. Welsh Ca 


ist Iron. Chilled. 


«61 5x5x1 


41538 41126 412 5-885 


0-663 


0- 


3-33S 


0- 


Uniform P. 


«62 5x5x1 

! 


43251 42619 632 9-028 


l-Olh 


0- 


3-497 


0- 


Local pitted. 



• 



32 REPORT — 1843. 

Box a. No. 1. Class No. 8. StaflPordshire Cast Iron. Chilled. 



5. 



6. 



9. 



10. 



11. 



h 



&2 

Wo 

O u 



Dimensions 

of 
Specimen, 



boa 



= I 






E£ 






ig 



Character 

of 
Corrosion. 



a 63 
a 64 



5x5 xl- 42395 
5x5 xl- 43868 



42000 395 
43381 487 



5-642 
6-957 



0-636 
0-784 



4-207 
2-352 



Local Plumb. 
Local pitted. 



Box a. No. 1. Class No. 9. Irish Cast Iron. Chilled. 



5x5 
5x5 



Xl- 

xl- 



42296 41841 
42288 41781 


455 
507 


6-500 
7-242 


0-733 
0-817 


0- 
0- 



3-624 

2-872 



Uniform P. 
Local pitted. 



Box a. No. 1. Class No. 10. Mixed Cast Irons. 



a 67 
«68 



5x5 
5x5 



Xl- 

xi- 



<«69i5x5 xl- 



42875 


42540 


335 


4-785 


0-5.39 


0- 


2-951 


5-0 


41970 


41534 


436 


6-228 


0-702 


0- 


4-588 


0- 


41140 


40652 


488 


6-971 


0-787 


0- 


2-725 


0- 



Uniform. 
Local Plumb. 
Uniform. 



Box a. No. 1, Class No. 11. Cast Irons of Messrs. Fairbairn's and 
Hodgkin's Experiments. 



«70 

a 71 
a 72 

«73 
«74 

a 75 

«76 



3x1-25x1-25 


8926 


8802 


124 


7-481 


0-844 


0- 


7-445 


0- 


4x1- Xl- 


7332 


7149 


183 


10-166 


1147 


0- 


4-176 


0- 


4x1- Xl- 


7061 


6941 


120 


6-666 


0-752 


0- 


5-931 


0- 


4x1- Xl- 


7733 


7610 


123 


6-833 


0-770 


0- 


4-388 


0- 


4x1- Xl- 


7301 


7112 


189 


10-500 


1-184 


0- 


2-949 


0- 


4x1- Xl- 


7826 


7670 


156 


8-666 


0-977 


0- 


2-859 


0- 


4X1- Xl- 


7215 


7117 


98 


5-444 


0-614 


0- 


5-732 


0- 



Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Uniform P. 
Local Plumb. 
Local Plumb. 
Uniform. 



Box a. No. 1. Class No. 12. Gray Cast Iron. Skin removed by Planing. 



a 77 5x5- X -75 33595 32979 616 



9-477 1-069 



10-556 



Uniform Plumb. 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 



33 



Second Course of Experiments. 

Table III. — Box /3. No. 2. containing Specimens of Cast and Wrought 
Iron immersed in foul Sea Water. 

Sunk and moored a second time in the Foul SeaWater close to the mouth of the Great Kings- 
town main sewer, on a bottom of soft, putrid mud, on the 13th January, 1840, at one 
o'clock P.M. Weighed again and removed January 14, 1842, at same hour. Immersed 
732 days. 

Box /3. No. 2. Class No. 1. Scotch Cast Irons. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4, 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


■a . 
|2 


Dimensions 

of 
Specimen. 


.2fc 


HI 
■§>g- 


IE 

il 


3<5 

p.'S 
II 


2 J 

•C M 

11 

to C 

SB 


Se- 
ll 


si 
<5" 


h 

"S-S 

II 


Character 

of 
Corrosion. 


i3 1 
/3 2 


in. in. in. 
5x5x1 
5x5x1 


42674 
43046 


42164 
42326 


510 
720 


7-285 
10-285 


0-821 
1-160 


0-701 
0- 


0- 
2-983 


0- 
0- 


Uniform. 

Local Plumb, deep. 


Box jS. No. 2. Class No. 2. Welsh Cast Iron. . 


/3 3 
/3 4 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 


42160 
43032 


41930 
42300 


230 
732 


3-285 
10-457 


0-370 
1-179 


0- 
0- 


0-394 0- Uniform. 

3-893 0- Local Plumb, deep 


Box /3. No. 2. Class No. 3. Staffordshire Cast Iron. 


j3 5 
/3 6 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 


42237 41700 
43596 43527 


537 
69 


7-671 
0-985 


0-842 3-978 
0-111 0- 


0- 
1-670 


0- 
0- 


Local Plumbago. 
Uniform. 


Box jS. No. 2. Class No. 4. Irish Cast Iron. 


18 8 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 


41985 
42357 


41442 
41938 


543 
419 


7-757 
5-985 


0-875 
0-675 


2-361 
0- 


0- 
8-236 


0- 
0- 


Uniform. 
Local Plumbago. 


Box /3. No. 2. Class No. 5. Mixed or alloyed Cast Iron. 


|8 9 
iS 10 
/3 11 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 
5x5x1 


43051 
42051 
42029 


42811 
41255 
41548 


240 
796 
481 


3-428 

11-085 

6-871 


0-386 
1-250 
0-775 


0- 

3-280 

0-982 


1-218 

0- 

0- 


0- 
0- 
0- 


Local pitted. 
Local pitted, deep. 
Local pitted. 


Box /3. No. 2. Class No. 6. Standard Bar of Wrought Iron. 


/3 12 


4-875 x3x -875 


23436 


22901 


53. 


) 12-43 


1-402 


0- 


6-000 


0- 


Uniform Fibrous. 


Box /3. No. 2. Class No. 7. Gray Cast Iron. Skin removed by Planing. 


/3 13 5x5-x75 


33150 1 


31554 1596 24-55 


2-769 


0- 


0-580 


0- 


Uniform Plumb. 



184.3. 



34 



REPORT — 1843. 





Table 


[I Wrought Iron and Steel Series. 




Supplementary Box a'. No. 1 . i 


Sunk along with Box No. 1. in Clear Sea Water, Kingstown Harbour, January 11, 1840, 


left to right, going from observer outwards ; and upwards in same order.) Weighed 


Observations of column 3rd ; — T C. Tabular-crystaUine. C C. Coarse-crystalline. F. Fibrous. 


Supplementary Box a'. No. 1. Class 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


1" 




u 


"a 


> 


"S . 


ii 


SS3 2 


S-s 


« o 




eS ^ 


<u 






O-'S 


Cut>. 3 


.o.-. . 


II 


Commercial character, &c. 


■Si 






•ca 

ec-3 


•so 


Hi 


® .2 is 











■3 II 


OS 




•&g-! 


HO 


«' 1 


Finis'' bar. For. of Dean, Glouc. 


F 


rolled 


7-6795 


9-619 


4188 


4091 


97 


«' 2 


Red short bar, Staffordshire.... 


F 


rolled 


7-6983 


11-687 


4736 


4610 


126 


a' 3 


Cold short bar, Burchill's, Staff. 


C 


rolled 


7-6514 


11151 


5604 


5456 


148 


«' 4 


Common bar, Shropshire, soft... 


C 


rolled 


7-5870 


21-50 


7448 


6671 


777 ' 


a 5 


Puddled bar, Ciuderford 


TC 


rolled 


7-5470 


22-25 


9883 


9695 


188 


«' 6 


Common boUer plate, Banks ... 


CC 


rolled 


7-6631 


38-00 


11388 


10985 


403 


a' 7 


Best English bar, Bradley 


F 


rolled 


7-7195 


2200 


7763 


7492 


271 


a' 8 


Finished Welsh bai', Doulais.... 


F 


rolled 


7-6550 


26-50 


13744 


1.3457 


287 


«' 9 


Finished Welsh bar, Doulais.... 


F 


rolled 


7-5909 


25-28 


11983 


11759 


224 


a' 10 


Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais.... 


CC 


rolled 


7-5385 


23-25 


10022 


9742 


280 


«'ll 


Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais.... 


CC 


rolled 


7-6493 


26-25 


11200 


10968 


232 


a' 12 


Damasked bar iron, Birmingham 


F 


hamm'' 


7-7917 


11-88 


2578 


2428 


150 


a' 13 


Low Moor boiled plate 


F 


rolled 


7-7556 


38-00 


11775 


11455 


320 


a'14 


Faggotted scrap iron bar 


F&C 


hamm'' 


7-7562 


22-57 


8251 


8194 


57 


a' 15 


Swedish bar, Damieraora 


FC 


rolled 


7-8204 


22-00 


8004 


7766 


238 


a' 16 


Bar iron of Roscoe's caststeel... 


F 


hamm'' 


7-5839 


21-50 


7670 


7417 


253 


a 17 


Com.bar,Shrops.,casehardeued 


F 


rolled 


7-6533 


2200 


7814 


7591 


223 


a' 18 


Blister steel, Roscoe's, soft 


FC 


hamm"' 


7-8461 


21-50 


8306 


8054 


252 


a' 19 


Shear steel, Roscoe's, soft 


FC 


hamm"" 


7-7395 


21-00 


7756 


7492 


264 


«'20 


Cast steel in ingot, Roscoe 


C 


cast 


7-4413 


22o0 


10652 


10362 


290 


a' 21 


Spring steel, Bradley's, soft 


FC 


rolled 


7-8076 


27-50 5904 


5616 


288 


«'22 


Spring steel, Bradley's, temper'' 


FC 


rolled 


7-7809 


28-45 6272 


5936 


.336 


a' 23 


Caststeel, hard as poss., Roscoe 


FC 


haram"" 


7-6798 


21-75 7605 


7401 


204 


a' 24 


Cast steel, tilted, soft, Roscoe 


FC 


hamm" 


7-7983 


21-75 7626 


7335 


291 


Box a'. No. 1. Classic. Zinked 


«'25 
a26 


Zinked iron x-in. bolt 


F 

CC 

gray 


hamm'' 
■ cast 


7-5830 
7-1380 


7-83 
70-00 


2386 
43296 


2356 
43128 


30 
168 


f Cast iron coated with zinc 1 
\ paint J 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 



35 



First Course of Experiments. First immersion. 

Wrought Iron, Steel, and Zinked Iron. 

at one o'clock p.m. (The lid of box di-aws off to the right of observed; numbers read from 
and removed with Box a. No. 1, January 12, 1842 ; hence immersed 732 days. 

F & C. Fibrous and Crystalline. F C. Fine Crystalline. C. Ciystalline, i. e. mean size. 
No. 13. Wrought Iron and Steel. 



10. 



a" ° 
>-lo, 



10-08 
10-78 
13-27 
36-13 

8-45 
10-60 
12-31 
10-83 

8-85 
1204 

8-83 
12-62 

8-40 

2-52 
10-82 
11-72 
10-01 
11-67 
12-27 
12-88 
1011 
11-77 

9-37 
13-38 



11. 12, 



boo ctf 



1-137 
1-216 
1-497 
4-764 
0-953 
1-195 
1-388 
1-221 
0-998 
1-358 
0-996 
1-423 
0-947 
0-284 
1-220 
1-322 
1-129 
1-316 
1-384 
1-453 
1-140 
1-328 
1057 
1-569 



13. 



Character of Corrosion. 



Skin at the sides sound, ends fibrous 

Fibrous at sides and ends 

Fibrous at sides and ends, principally at sides 

Straight fibre uniformly exposed, lustre silvery 

Fibre everywhere exposed, small patches of skin sound 

Fiue distinct lamina, perpendicular to sides, ends and edges smooth. 

Fibre straight, imiformly exposed 

Fibre equally exposed all over 

Fibre visible all over, but skin sound on edges 

Fibre not very apparent, tangled 

Fibre exposed at ends, skin sound on sides, action local 

Fibre imiformly and beautifully developed 

Edges lamellar, sides smooth and uniformly corroded 

Fibre developed at ends and edges, corrosion local 

Corrosion nearly confined to the ends, reduced to fibrous brushes. 

Fibre visible, corrosion nearly uniform 

Fibre visible, corrosion nearly uniform 

Fibre developed, subcrystalliue, corrosion nearly uniform 

Corrosion nearly uniform, smooth, no fibrous structure visible 

Crystalline structure developed, plumbago of a silvery lustre 

Fibre scarcely visible, corrosion uniform 

Without fibre, smooth, locally pitted 

Without fibre, smooth, nearly uniform 

Fibre scarcely visible, corrosion nearly imiform 



14. 



o 



Hot 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Cold 

Cold 

Cold 



Cast and Wrought Iron. 



3-83 
2-40 



0-432 
0-270 



Corroded at the ends slightly, zinking, black, brittle, and easily 

detached. 
Paint still visible, but reduced to oxides of zinc and iron, skin 

metal sound 



t{ 



all 
Hot 



d2 



36 



REPORT — 1843. 



Table IV. — Wrought Iron Series. 

Box /3. No. 2. Class 8. 



1. 2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 




wo 


Commercial character of Iron, &c. 


5^2 
If 


g 

1 


« II 
1 " 

en" 




1= 

•so 

S 5 
^2 




^.5 . 

lis 


) 




/3 15 
,8 16 
P 17 
/3 18 
/3 19 
j3 20 
/3 21 
i3 22 
/3 23 
/i24 
j3 25 
/3 26 
13 27 
(3 28 

(3 29 

/3 30 
/3 31 
/3 32 

/3 33 

i8 34 

(3 35 
/3 36 
/3 3; 

j8 38 


Finis" bar, For. of Dean, Glouc. 
Red short bar, Staffordshire ... 


F 

F 

C 

C 

TC 
CC 

F 

F 

F 
CC 
CC 

F 

F 
F&C 

FC 

F 

F 

FC 

FC 

C 

FC 
FC 
FC 

FC 


rolled 

rolled 

rolled 

rolled 

rolled 

roiled 

rolled 

rolled 

rolled 

rolled 

rolled 

hamm" 

rolled 

hamm'' 

rolled 

hamm" 

rolled 

hamm* 

haram'' 

cast 

rolled 
rolled 
hamra'" 

hamm^ 


7-6795 
7-6983 
7-6514 
7-5870 
7-5470 
7-6631 
7-7195 
7-6550 
7-5909 
7-5385 
7-6493 
7-7917 
7-7556 
7-7562 

7-8204 

7-5839 
7-6533 
7-8461 

7-7395 

7-4413 

7-8076 
7-7809 
7-6798 

7-7983 


9-62 
11-69 
11-15 
21-50 
22-25 
38-00 
22-00 
26-50 
24-68 
23-25 
26-25 
11-88 
38-00 
22-57 

22-31 

21-50 
22-00 
21-50 

21-50 

22-50 

27-50 
28-05 
21-50 

23-00 


4181 

4758 

5560 

7191 

9164 

11309 

7772 

13902 

11736 

10047 

11115 

2649 

11992 

8206 

7961 

7467 
7818 
8331 

7621 

10838 

5918 
6238 
7911 

7794 


3967 
4465 
5342 
6827 
8645 

10484 
7409 

13243 

11248 
9591 

10635 
2332 

11392 
7872 

7330 

6950 
7118 
7973 

7052 

10508 

5512 
5686 
7549 

7293 


214 
293 
218 
364 
519 
825 
363 
659 
488 
456 
480 
317 
600 
334 

631 

517 
700 
358 

569 

330 

406 
552 
362 

501 


ConimoH bar, Shropshire, soft . 
Puddled bar, Cinderford 


Common boiled plate, Banks... 

Best English bar, Bradley 

Finished M'elsh bar, Doulais ... 
Finished Welsh bar, Doulais ... 
Puddled AVelsh bar, Doulais ... 
Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais ... 
Damasked iron, Birmingham... 


Faggotted scrap iron bar 

Swedish iron, Dannemora 

Bar iron of Roscoe's steel 

Com. bar, Shrops., case harden"" 
Blister steel, Roscoe 


Shear steel, Eoscoe 


Cast steel in ingot, Roscoe 

Spring steel, soft, Bradley 


Cast steel, hard as poss., Roscoe 
Cast steel, tilted, Roscoe 






Box/3 


No. 2. Cla 


ss No. 9. Z 


inked 


i 


/3 39 
(3 40 


Zinked wrought iron bolt 

r Cast iron coated with zinc 1 
\ paint J 


fibrous 

bright 
grey 


hamm'' 
cast 


7-5830 7-83 
7-1380 38-45 


2483 
21790 


2416 
21673 


67 
117 


1 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 37 

Box /3. No. 2. First immersion. 
Wrought Iron and Steel. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



Mb 



&ii 



Character of Corrosion, 



22-25 
25-06 
19-55 
16-93 
23-33 
21-58 
16-50 
24-87 
19-77 
19-61 
1829 
26-68 
15-76 
14-79 

28-28 

24-05 
31-82 
16-65 

26-46 

14-67 

14-76 
19-68 
16-84 

21-78 



2-510 
2-827 
2-205 
1-910 
2-632 
2-436 
1-861 
2-806 
2-230 
2-212 
2-063 
3-010 
1-778 
1-668 

3-190 

2-713 
3-590 

1-878 

2-985 

1-655 

1-665 
2-220 
1-900 

2-457 



0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 
0- 

H 

0- 
0- 
0- 

o.{ 

»•{ 

0- 
0- 
0- 

4 



Fibre straight, developed all over, most at the ends 

Fibre straight, developed all oVer, most at the ends 

Fibre straight, developed all over, most at the ends 

Fibre straight, developed uniformly all over 

Fibre tangled, corrosion local and pitted....^ 

Sides smooth, slightly pitted, edges and ends lamellar 

Fibre straight, developed all over, but unequally 

Fibre finely developed, corrosion nearly uniform at ends and sides 

Fibre straight, corrosion nearly uniform, most at ends ..« 

Fibre tangled, corrosion principally at the edges, local and pitted. 
Fibre badly developed, corrosion chiefly at the edges, local and pitted. 

Fibre straight, deeply and beautifully developed 

Lamellar on the edges, sides smooth, corrosion local and in pits 
Fibre developed at the ends, sides and edges smooth, corrosion local. 
Fibre developed at edges and ends, very deep at one end, corro- 1 

sion local j 

Fibre straight, strongly developed, corrosion local and pitted 

Fibre developed uniformly all over 

Fibre developed at ends only, corrosion uniform at sides and edges . 
Corrosion nearly uniform, metal locally removed in mammillary 1 

pits, fibre or spicula at ends j 

CoiTosion uniform, crystalline structure developed (crystals cross- 1 

ing at angles of 60° and 120°), silvery plumbago J 

Fibre uniformly developed, edges lamellar 

Fibre uniformly developed, edges lamellar, corrosion slightly local... 

Corrosion almost uniform, no fibre developed 

Fibre straight, imperfectly developed, corrosion local in mammil- "1 

lary pits j 



Hot 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Cold 

Cold 

Cold 



Cast and Wrought Iron. First immersion. 



8-55 
304 



9-65 
3-44 



Fibre visible at ends, sides smooth, zinking, black, brittle and easily 

detached. 
Paint still discernible, as a coat of mixed oxides of ziuc and iron,/ 

pitted in some spots ] j" '' 



38 



REPORT — 1843. 



Table VI.— Wrought Iron Series. 
Box a. No. 4. Class No. 8. 





1- 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


1 

j 




g 

• a. 

g,»3 

K o 

I2 


Commercial character of Iron, &c. 


1"! 


'6 

1 
X 




II 
tn 


■u a 

ft 


•si" 


lit 




5 15 

5 16 

6 17 
5 18 
5 19 
20 
S 21 
d 22 
23 
5 24 

5 25 

5 26 
d 27 
^ 28 
5 29 

e 30 

5 31 
5 32 

d 33 

5 34 
S 35 

5 36 

5 37 
S 38 


Finished bar, Forest of Dean... 
Red short bar, Staffordshire ... 


F 
•F 

C 

C 

TC 
TC 

F 

F 

F 
CC 

CC 

F 
F 
F&C 
FC 
F 
F 
FC 

FC 

C 

FC 

FC 

FC 
FC 


rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 

rolled 

hamm'' 
rolled 

hamm"* 
rolled 

hamm'' 
rolled 

hamm'' 

hamrn'' 

cast 
rolled 

rolled 

hamm'' 
hamm'' 


7-6795 
7-6983 
7-6514 
7-5870 
7-5470 
7-6631 
7-7195 
7-6550 
7-5909 
7-5385 

7-6493 

7-7917 
7-7556 
7-7562 
7-8204 
7-5839 
7-6533 
7-8461 

7-7395 

7-4413 
7-8706 

7-7809 

7-6798 
7-7983 


9-62 
11-51 
11-15 
21-50 
19-19 
38-00 
22-57 
26-50 
25-28 
23-25 

25-50 

12-89 
38-00 
22-57 
22-32 
22-49 
2200 
22-32 

21-50 

22-50 
28-04 

28-99 

21-75 
22-50 


4150 

4746 

5620 

7207 

8655 

11126 

7761 

13933 

11906 

10187 

10858 

2771 
11459 

8087 
7817 
7307 
7713 
8271 

7686 

10934 
5963 

6246 

7959 
7918 


3939 

4535 

5331 

6718 

8445 

10639 

7421 

13618 

11577 

9869 

10501 

2521 
11080 
7697 
7643 
6958 
7541 
8073 

7402 

10625 
5659 

5869 

7715 

7680 


211 
211 
289 
489 
210 
487 
340 
315 
329 
318 

357 
250 
379 
390 
174 
349 
172 
198 

284 

309 
304 

377 

244 
238 




Common bar, Shropshire, soft 




Common boiler plate. Banks ... 

Best EngUsh bar, Bradley 

Finished Welsh bar, Doulais ... 
Finishgd Welsh bar, Doulais ... 
Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais ... 

Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais ... 

Damasked iron, Birmingham... 








Swedish iron, Dannemora 

Bar iron of Roscoe's steel 

Com. bar, Shrops., case hardened 








Cast steel in ingot, Roscoe 

Spring steel, soft, Bradley 

Spring steel, tempered, Bradley 

Cast steel, hard as poss., Roscoe 
Cast steel, tilted, Roscoe 








Box a. No. 4. CI 


ass No. 9. Z 


inked 






5 39 
e 40 




F 

CC 1 
gray/ 


hamm'' 
cast 


7-5830 
7-1380 


7-83 
38-45 


2422 
19507 


2391 
19559 


31 






r Cast iron coated with zinc \ 
l_ paint / 








* Weight increased by 


oxidation of th 


e zinc, 





ON THE ACTION OF AIH AND WATER UPON IRON. 



39 



Box S. No. 4. First immersion. 
Wrought Iron and Steel. 



10. 



11. 12 



13. 



14. 



•|.s s 

01 O-CO 



So 5 



Character of Corrosion. 



21-93 
18-33 
25-92 
22-75 
10-94 
12-82 
15-07 
11-89 
13-02 
13-68 

14-00 

19-39 
9-97 

17-28 
7-79 

15-52 
7-82 
8-87 

13-21 

17-73 
10-82 

13-01 

11-22 
10-58 



2-474 
2-068 
2-924 
2-566 
1-234 
1-446 
1-700 
1-341 
1-469 
1-543 

1-579 

2-187 
1-124 
1-949 
0-878 
1-751 
0-882 
1-001 

1-490 

2-000 
1-220 

1-467 

1-265 
1-193 



'•{ 



0- 
0- 

„.{ 

0- 
0- 



Very locally and deeply acted on, fihre developed at the ends 

Very locally and deeply acted on, fibre developed at the ends 

Very locally and deeply acted on, fibre developed at the ends , 

Fibre straight, corrosion uniform , 

Fibre tangled, indistinct, corrosion tiniform 

Lamellar on the edges, sides slightly pitted, corrosion local 

Fibre straight, corrosion nearly imifortn 

Fibre straight, corrosion nearly uniform 

Fibre straight, corrosion nearly uniform, ends more acted on 

Fibre tangled, indistinct, corrosion local 

Fibre tangled, corrosion local and pitted, a fevr spicular crystals "1 

project from the edges j 

Fibre straight, deeply and beautifully developed, lustre silvery 

Lamellar on the edges, corrosion somewhat local, and pitted 

Fibre straight, locally developed, corrosion most at the ends 

Locally pitted, no fibre developed, except at the ends 

Fibre wavy, strongly developed, much corroded locally at both ends . 

Fibre straight, uniform corrosion 

Fibre indistinct, smooth uniform corrosion, sub-cryst. struct, visible 
Corrosion uniform, smooth, no fibre visible, mammillary pits on "| 

sides and ends J 

Corrosion uniform, crystal, structure developed, with silv. plumbago . 

Corrosion local, pitted on sides, lamellar edges and ends 

Corrosion local, pitted on sides, fibre straight, and developed most 1 

at ends and edges j 

Corrosion uniform, smooth, no fibre developed 

Corrosion uniform, smooth, no fibre devel., local pitting at one end . 



Hot 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 

Cold 

Cold 
Cold 

Cold 

Cold 



Cast and Wrought Iron. First immersion. 



3-96 



4-47 



0-0^ 



.. 5-0-f 

* L 



Fibre or spicula at both ends, sides smooth, zinc black and brittle, 
easily detached, surface beneath bright. , 

Surface covered with a crust of oxides of zinc and ii-on, bluish- J 
white coloiir, corroded beneath in spots. 1 



a 77 
hot. 



and also that of the iron in part. 



40 



•fli HOI: 



REPORT — 1843. 



Second Course of Experiments. 

Table V. — Box 2. No. 4. containiDg Specimens of Cast and Wrought Iron, 
&c. immersed in foul River Water. 

Sunk and moored a second time, in mid-stream of the river Liflfey at Dublin, opposite the 
junction of the Poddle river therewith, on the 13th day of January, 1840, at one o'clock 
P.M., on a bottom of putrid mud. ^Yeighed again and removed, January 14, 1842, at same 
hour. Immersed 732 days. 

Box S. No. 4. Class No. 1 . Scotch Cast Iron. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


Wo 
"o-g 


Dimensions 

of 
Specimen. 


"SO 
•Is 


fel 

M 


II 




t-l' w 


2 c 

C.2 


Cm 
O . 

II 

Q 


h 

"c-e 
1 


Cliaracter 

of 
Corrosion. 


d 1 

2 


in. in. in. 

5x5x1 
5x5x1 


41145 

42885 


40894 
42626 


251 
259 


1 

3-585 ! 0-404 
3-700 0-417 


0- 
0- 


2-465 
3-915 


0- 
0- 


Uniform. 

Local Plumb, deep. 


Box S. No. 4. Class No. 2. Welsh Cast Iron. 


S 3 5x5x1 
S 4 5x5x1 


42181 
42903 


42025 156 2-228 
42690 213 3042 


0-251 0- 
0-343 0- 


2-845 
4-547 


0. Uniform. 

0- Uniform Plumbago. 


Box a. No. 4. Class No. 3. Staffordshire Cast Iron. 


S 5 
S 6 


5x5x1 
5X5X1 


44857 
43478 


44703 1 154 
43345 1 133 


2-200 0-343 
1-900 0-214 


0- 
0- 


0-549 
3-036 


0- 
0- 


Pitted. 
Pitted. 




B0X( 


5. No. 4. Class No. 4. Irish Cast Iron. 








d 7 
S 8 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 


40305 
42241 


40095 210 
42033 208 


3-000 
2-857 


0-338 
0-321 


0- 
0- 


4-661 
4-706 


0- 
0- 


Uniform. 
Uniform. 


Box S. No. 4. Class No. 5. Mixed or alloyed Cast Iron. 


S 9 
5 10 
d 11 


5x5x1 44473 
5x5x1 42147 
5x5x1 91981 


44296 177 2-528 0-285 0- 
41919 228 3-257 0-367 0- 
41809 172 2-457 0-277 0- 


3-328 
2-676 
3-525 


0- 
0- 
0- 


Uniform. 
Uniform Plumb. 
Pitted. 


Box B. No. 4. Clas 


sNo. 6. S 


tandard Bar of Wrought Iron. 








S\2 


5X3X-87 


5 2402fi 


23781 


245 5-568 0-635 


0- 


4-314 


o.{ 


Sides smooth, ends 

fibrous, straight, 

silvery lustre. 








Bo 


X a. No. 4. Clas 


s No. 7. Gray Cast Iron. Skin removed by Planing. 


5 13 


5 x5x -751 33674 


33169 


505 


1 7-769 


j 0-8761 0- 


2-70J 


r 0- 


Uniform Plmnb. 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 



41 



Second Course of Experiments. 

Table VII. — Box e. No. 5, containing Specimens of Cast and Wrought 
Iron immersed in clear fresh River Water. 

Sunk and moored in the cleai-, unpolluted water of the River LifFey, above the Tidal Limits, 
at the Royal Military Hospital, Kilmainham, on the 13th of January, 1840, at one o'clock 
P.M. Weighed again and removed on the 14th of January, 1842 ; hence immersed 
732 days. 

Box e. No. 5. Class No. 1. Scotch Cast Iron. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


•a 

H 

aw 

6 a 


■s 

1* 


M 

«J 2 

"go 

too 

'0 


'3 N § 

III 


ft 

3-3 

o 


Hi 

re 


ill 


§ . 
a .2 

ii 

1" 


g 

g.i 

a 1 

is 

a 


5 
ll 


li 

II 


el 

62 


in. in. in. 
5x5x1 
5X5X1 


42940 
43493 


42854 
43415 


86 
78 


1228 
1114 


0-138 
0-125 


0- 
0- 


0131 
0-641 


0- 
0- 


Uniform. 
Pitted. 


Box e. No. 5. Class No. 2. Welsh Cast Iron. 


63 

e4 


5x5x1 
5X5X1 


42485 
42923 


42430 
42847 


55 
76 


0-785 0-088 
1-085 0-122 


0- 
0- 


0-692 

0-886 


0- 
0- 


Uniform. 
Pitted. 


Box e. No. 5. Class No. 3. Staffordshire Cast Iron. 


65 
66 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 


43457 
44095 


43386 
44050 


71 
45 


1-014 
0-642 


0-114 
0072 


0- 0-573 0- 
0- 0-796 0- 


Pitted. 
Pitted. 








Box e. No. 5. Class No. 


4. Irish Cast Iron. 


67 

e8 


5X5X1 
5X5X1 


43024 
43835 


42935 
43768 


89 
67 


1-271 
0-957 


0-143 
0-107 


0- 
0- 


0-409 
1-322 


0- 
0- 


Pitted. 
Pitted. 






1 




Box €. ] 


■^0. 5. Class No 5. Mixed or alloyed Cast Irons. 


e 9 
6 10 
«11 


•5X5X1 
5x5x1 
5x5x1 


44125 
43581 
42975 


44060 
43525 
42907 


65 
56 
68 


0-928 
0-800 
0-971 


0-104 
0090 
0-109 


0- 
0- 
0- 


0-647 
0-394 
0-705 


0- 
0- 
0- 


Pitted. 
Pitted. 
Pitted Plumb, 








Box e. No. 5. Class No. 6. Standard I 


>ar of Wrought 


Iron. 


6 12 


51375x3x875 


24426 24334 


92 


2-041 


0-230 


0- 


0-225 


4 


Fibre locally de- 
veloped most 
on the ends. 


Box e. No. 5. Class No. ?• Gray Cast Iron. Skin removed by Planing. 


el3 


5 X 5 X 75 


33922 1 33846 


76 


1-169 


0-131 0- 


1-942 


0- 


Uniform P. 



42 



REPORT — 1843, 



Table VIII. — Wrought Iron Series. 
Box e. No. 5. Class No. 8. 



7. 



"s-S 



Commercial character of Iron, &c. 



■Sii; 



<c II 



II 









e 15 
e 16 
6 17 
6 18 
el9 

e20 

6 21 

6 22 
e23 
6 24 
6 25 
6 26 
6 27 
6 28 
6 29 

6 30 
6 31 

6 32 

6 33 
6 34 

6 35 

6 36 
6 37 
6 38 



Finished bar, Forest of Dean. 
Red short bar, Staffordshtre.. 

Cold short bar, Burchill 

Common bar, Shropshire, soft 
Puddled bar, Cinderford 



Common boiler plate, Banks .., 

Best English bar, Bradley 

Finished Welsh bar, Doulais .., 
Finished Welsh bar, Doulais ... 
Puddled M'elsh bar, Doulais ... 
Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais ... 
Damasked iron, Birmingham.., 

Low Moor boiler plate 

Faggotted scrap iron bar 

Swedish iron, Dannemora 

Bar iron of Roscoe's steel 



Com.Shrops.bar, case hardened 

Blister steel, Koscoe 

Shear steel, Roscoe 

Cast steel in ingot, Roscoe 

Spring steel, soft, Bradley 

Spring steel, tempered, Bradley 
Cast steel, hard as poss., Roscoe 
Cast steel, tilted, Roscoe 



F 
C 
C 
TO 

CC 

F 

F 

F 
CC 
CC 

F 

F 
F&C 
FC 



FC 

FC 
C 

FC 

FC 
FC 
FC 



rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 

rolled 

rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 

hamm'' 
rolled 

hamm"* 
rolled 

hamm* 
rolled 

hamm"' 

hamm'' 
cast 

rolled 

rolled 
hamm'' 
hamm'' 



7-6795 
7-6983 
7-6514 
7-5870 
7-5470 

7-6631 

7-7195 
7-6550 
7-5909 
7-5385 
7-6493 
7-7917 
7-7556 
7-7562 
7-8204 

7-5839 
7-6533 

7-8461 

7-7395 
7-4413 

7-8076 

7-7809 
7-6798 
7-7983 



9-62 
11-69 
10-96 
21-50 
2013 

38-00 

22-57 
26-50 
23-96 
23-25 
26-25 
12-89 
38-00 
22-57 
22-89 

21-50 
22-00 

23-29 

21-75 
22-50 

27-50 

28-04 
21-50 
21-50 



4161 
4734 
5601 

7184 
8366 

11499 

7750 
13607 
11609 

9833 
11166 

2710 
11776 

8047 

8256 

7045 
7393 

8249 

7711 
11246 

5958 

6180 
7940 
8180 



4146 
4719 
5585 
7146 
8339 

11442 

7715 
13570 
11585 

9814 
11145 

2690 
11723 

8025 

8229 

7023 
7371 

8235 

7689 
11212 

5929 

6117 
7903 
8158 



15 
15 
16 
38 
27 

57 

35 
37 
24 
19 
21 
20 
53 
22 
27 

22 
22 

14 

22 
34 

29 

63 
37 
22 



Box e. No. 5. Class No 9. Zinked 



39 
;40 



Zinked iron bolt 

f Cast iron coated with zinc " 
\ paint < _ 



F 


hamm"' 


7-5830 


7-83 


2361 


2357 


4 


CO 1 
gray/ 


cast 


7-1380 


39-21 


20837 


20899 





* Weight increased by oxidation 



ON THE ACTION OP AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 



43 



Box e. No. 5. First immersion. 
Wrought Iron and Steel. 



10. 



11. 12. 



13. 



14, 



■§"2 

? 9 «j 



Mo S 



Character of Corrosion. 






1-559 
1-283 
1-459 
1-768 
1-341 

1-500 

1-551 
1-396 
1-002 
0-817 
0-802 
1-552 
1-395 
0-964 
1-179 

1-023 
1-000 

0-601 

1012 
1-511 

1055 

2-248 
1-721 
1023 



0-175 
0-144 
0-164 
0-199 
0-051 

0-169 

0-174 
0-157 
0-133 
0-092 
0-090 
0-175 
0157 
0-108 
0-133 

0-115 
0-112 

0-067 

0-114 
0-170 

0119 

0-253 
0-194 
0-115 



0- 
0- 

o.{ 

0- 
0- 
0- 



Corrosion uniform, no fibre visible 

Corrosion uniform, no fibre visible 

Corrosion uniform, no fibre visible 

Corrosion uniform, fibre indistinctly developed 

Corrosion uniform, no fibre developed 

Lamellar structure just visible at ends, sides and edges smooth, "I 

corrosion uniform J 

Corrosion uniform, fibre indistinctly developed on sides and ends. 

Corrosion imiform, fibre indistinctly visible 

Corrosion uniform, fibre indistinctly visible 

Corrosioil uniform, no fibre visible i 

Corrosion uniform, fibre tangled, just visible at the ends 

Corrosion uniform, no fibre visible 

Corrosion uniform, edges lamellar, sides smooth 

Corrosion uniform, no fibre visible 

Corrosion uniform, fibre just discernible at the ends 

Corrosion local, but slight, no fibre visible, forge scale still on in 1 

many places J 

Corrosion uniform and smooth, fibre developed, except on thel 

ends which were smooth J 

Corrosion uniform, no fibre visible, except at the ends where just 1 

discernible J 

Corrosion uniform, smooth, no fibre visible 

Corrosion nearly uniform, crystalline structure developed in spots. 
Fibre developed at the ends, sides smooth, but corroded in many"! 

small pits J 

Corrosion uniform, smooth, fibre imperfectly discernible all orer, 

Con-oded locally, but without development of fibre 

Corrosion uniform, smooth, no fibre developed 



Hot 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 

Hot 

Hot 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Cold 

Cold 



Cast and Wrought Iron. First immersion. 



0-512 



5-77 



.{ 
«{ 



Corrosion slight at the ends, sides, &c. smooth and black, zinc 
brittle and readily detached, siurface beneath bright. j- 

Paint generally still sound, but gone in blotches Where corrosion J 
had taken place, zinc oxidized. ] 



a 77 
hot. 



of the zinc and iron. 



i^^ 



44 



REPORT — 1843. 



First Course 



Table IX. — Box ^. No. 6. First Exposure, containing Specimens of Cast 

Atmospheric Influences 

Placed on the summit of an exposed Building of about 50 feet in height within the City of 

the 21st of January, 18-12; 

Latitude of Dublin 52° 2' 2" N. 

Longitude of Dublin ... 6° 15' W. 
Altitude above mean tide level, 105 feet. 
Prevailing Winds, 

Box C- No. 6. Class No. 1. 



1. 

•a . 

n 

K 1 
? 2 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Commercial character of Iron, &c. 


Hot or 
Cold 
Blast. 


External 

character of 

Fracture. 


How 
Cast, 


Specific 
Gravity of 
Specimen 

w 


Dimensions 

of 
Specimen. 


Calder.No. 1 

Calder, No. 1 


Hot 
Hot 


Dark gray 
Mottled 


Green 
ChiUed 


7-027 
7-079 


in. in. in. 

5x5x1 
5x5x1 








Box ^. No. 6. Class No. 2. 


?4 


Pentwyn, No. 2 

Pentwyn, No.2 


Hot 
Hot 


Mottled Green 
Silvery Chilled 


7-017 
7-129 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 






Box ^. No. 6. Class No. 3. 


?5 
Z 6 




Cold 
Cold 


Mottled 
Silvery 


Green 
ChiUed 


7-268 
7-603 


5x5x1 
5x5x1 






1 
Box ^ No. 6. Class No. 4. 


K 7 Arigna, No. 3 

? 8 Arigna, No. 3 


Cold 
Cold 


Dull gray 
Mottled 


Green 
ChUled 


7141 |5x5xl 
7-308 5x5x1 


Box ^. No 6. Class No. 5. 1 


K 9 
K 10 
K 11 


J Hardestprocurable. Oldfiie- \ 

\ bars,&c J 

r 1. Calder No. 1 


Hot 1 
Hot J 
Coldl 
Hot J 


Silvery crystals 
Close dull gray 
Close dull gray 


ChiUed 

Green 

Green 


7-624 
6-978 
7-050 


5X5X1 
5X5X1 
5x5x1 


1 + i Pentwyn, No. 2. .^.... 

H Arigna, No.2 '..... 

\ + ^ Pentwyn, No. 2 






Box^. No. 6. Class No. 6. 1 


K 12 


Doulais common bar, No. 2. ... 


Hot 


Fibrous 


... 


7-58r 5x3x-875 1 



ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 



45 



of Experiments. 

and Wrought Iron freely exposed t'o air and moisture under the ordinary 
at Dublin. 

Dublin, and exposed on the 1st day of August 1840. Removed, cleaned and weighed on 
hence exposed for 539 days. 

Annual Mean Temperature 50'24 Falir. 

Annual Mean Pressure 29-60 Inches. 

Annual Mean fall of Rain 27'33 ... 

East and West, and South- West. 

Scotch Cast Iron. 





7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


14. 




Weight of 
Specimen 
in Grains. 


Weight of 
Specimen 

after 
S39 days' 
exposure. 


Total loss 

by 
Corrosion 

539 days. 


Loss of 
Weight 
per square 
inch of 
Surface. 


Loss of 

Weight 

referred to 

Standard 

Bar. 


Weight 

of 
Water 

ab- 
sorbed. 


Loss per 

square inch 

of Surface 

in 

732 days. 


Character of Corrosion. 




43149 
43939 


42835 
43720 


314 
219 


4-485 
3-128 


0-506 
0-352 


0- 
0- 


6-128 
4-099 


Uniform minute pitting 
Uniform minute pitting 




Welsh Cast Iron. 




42239 
43239 


41885 
43095 


354 
144 


5-057 
2-057 


0-570 
0-232 


0- 
0- 


6-867 
2-793 


Uniform minute pitting 
Deeply pitted 




Staffordshire Cast Iron. 




43735 43491 
43562 43541 


244 
21 


3-485 
0-300 


0-393 
0-033 


0- 

0- 


4-732 
0-407 


Uniform i f - 
Local pitted '' ' 




Irish Cast Iron. 




41745 
43465 


41435 
43395 


310 4-428 
70 1-300 


0-499 
0-112 


0- 
0- 


4-428 
1-357 


Uniform minute pitting 
Local pitted, shght 




Mixed or alloyed Irons. 




43325 
42241 
41341 


43181 
41898 
41038 


144 
343 
303 


2-057 
4-900 
4-328 


0-232 
0-552 
0-488 


0- 
0- 
0- 


2-793 
6-654 

5-877 


Local pitted, slight 
Uniform minute pitting 
Uniform minute pitting 




Standard Bar of Wrought Iron. 


l 


24274 


24018 


256 


6-818 


0-656 


0- 
0- 


7-901 


f Minute pitting most at 
\ ends, fibre visible 



46 



REPORT— 1843. 



Box^. No. 6. Class No. 7. 



Commercial character of Iron, &c. 



Hot or 

Cold 
Blast. 



External 

Character of 

Fracture. 



How 
Cast. 



Specific 
Gravity of 
Specimen 



Dimensions 
of 

Specimen. 



Z 13 



■ § Calder, No. 1. + i Pent 
■wyn, No. 2. + i Scrap 



:} 



Hot 



Close bright gray 



Green 



M38 



m. in. 

5 X 5 X '75 



Box 4". No. 6. Class No. 8. 



K 14 
K 15 
K 16 
? 17 
? 18 



int-X 
1...J 



("I Calder, No. 1. + i Pent 
\ wyn, No. 2. + | Scrap 
r§ Calder, No. 1. + ^ Pent-1 
L wyn. No. 2. + f Scrap ... J 
Jf Calder, No. 1. + ^ Pent-I 
\ wyn. No. 2. + 3 Scrap ... j 
J ^ Calder, No. 1. + Pentw\'n, "I 

X No. 2. -f i Scrap J 

r I Calder, No. 1. + Pentwyn, "1 
1 No. 2. + § Scrap / 



Hot 
Hot 
Hot 



Close bright gray 
Close bright gray 
Close bright gray 



Hot Close bright gray 



Hot 



Close bright gray 



Green 


7-168 


Green 


7-168 


Green 


7-168 


Green 


7-168 


Green 


7-168 



5x5x1 
5x5x1 
5x5x1 
5x5x1 
5x5x1 



Supplementary Table. 



No. of 


and 


mark of 


Specimen. 


z u 


I 14 


Z 15 


I 15 


I 16 


I 16 


? 17 


K 17 


X. 18 


? 18 



Protective Paint or Varnish. 



Caoutchouc varnish 

Best white lead paint 

Copal varnish 

Asphaltum varnish 

Mastic varnish 

Swedish tar 

Three parts wax + two parts tallow 
Coal-tar, laid on hot 

Tiu-pentine varnish 

Drying oil 



State of covering after 539 days' exposure. 



Caoutchouc not visible, surface rusty 

Paint destroyed in various blotches 

Varnish still, smooth and shining 

Varnish still, smooth and shining 

Varnish wholly invisible and gone 

Tar still ^^sible, but white and hydrated. 
Still visible and sound, but hydrated .... 
Surface still black and shining, smooth... 
/Turpentine hydrated and partly"! 

\, washed away / 

Surface still black and shining 



ON THE ACTION OP AIB AND WATER UPON IRON. 
Gray Cast Iron. Skin removed by Planing. 



47 



7. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



Weight of 
Specimen 
in Grains. 



Weight of 
Specimen 

after 
539 days' 
exposure. 



Total loss 

by 
Corrosion 

in 
539 days. 



Loss of 
Weight 
per square 
inch of 
Surface. 



Loss of 

Weight 

referred to 

Standard 

Bar. 



Weight I Loss per 

of 'square inch 
Water of Surface 

ab- 
sorbed. 732 days 



Character of Corrosion. 



33750 33294 



456 



7-015 0-791 0- 9-526 Unifonn minute pitting 



Gray Cast Iron, protected by Paints or Varnishes. 



' 42594 


42409 


185 


2-642 


0-298 


0- 


3-588 


42644 


42620 


24 


0-342 


0-038 


0- 


0-464 


42399 


42349 


50 


0-714 


0-080 


0- 


1-969 


42007 


41974 


33 


0-471 


0053 


0- 


0-639 


42004 


41971 


36 


0-514 


0-057 


0^ 


0-707 



Box I. No. 6. Class No. 8. 



Condition of surface of Specimen after 539 days' exposure. 



Order of Protective Power. 



Surface uniformly corroded 

Corroded locally in pits, where paint gone 

Rusty spots, chiefly at the edges 

Rusty spots, chiefly at the edges 

Surface uniformly corroded 

Corroded locally in spots 

No corrosion visible 

A few rusty spots at the edges 

Corroded locaUy in spots 

A few rusty spots at the edges 



9 

10 

2 

1 

8 
7 
3 
4 

6 

5 



48 



REPORT — 1843. 



Table X — Wrought Iron 
Box l. No. 6. Class No. 9. 



5. 



Commercial character of Iron, &c. 



How 
formed. 



'^ 3 



W 



I 19 
I 20 
I 21 
I 22 
Z, 23 
Z. 24 
Z, 25 

1 26 
? 27 
^ 28 
^ 29 
? 30 
Z. 31 
? 32 
Z 33 
? 34 

2 35 
? 36 
$ 37 
^ 38 
S 39 
? 40 
2 41 
2 42 



Finished bar, Forest of Dean 

Red short bar, Staffordsliire 

Cohl short bar, B archill 

Common bar, Shropshire, soft ... 

Puddled bar, Cinderford 

Coraniou boiler plate, Banks 

Best Englisli bar, Bradley 

Finished Welsh bar, Doulais 

Finished Welsh bar, Doulais 

Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais 

Puddled Welsh bar, Doulais 

Damasked iron, Birmingham 

Low Moor boiler plate 

Faggotted scrap iron bar 

Swedish iron, Dannemora 

Bar iron of Roscoe's steel 

Com. bar, Shropshire, case hard. 

Blister steel, Roscoe 

Shear steel, Roscoe 

Cast steel in ingot, Roscoe 

Spring steel, soft, Bradley 

Spring steel, tempered, Bradley... 
Cast steel, hard as poss., Roscoe 
Cast steel, tilted, Roscoe 



Hot 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Hot 
Hot 
Cold 
Cold 
Cold 

Cold 

Cold 



F 

F 

C 

C 

TC 
CC 

F 

F 

F 
CC 
CC 

F 

F 

F&C 

FC 

F 

F 

FC 
FC 

C 

FC 
FC 
FC 
FC 



rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
rolled 
hamm'' 
rolled 
hamm'' 
rolled 
hamm"* 
rolled 
hamm'' 
hamm'' 
cast 
rolled 
rolled 
hamm'' 
hamm'' 



7-6795 
7-6983 
7-6514 
7-5870 
7-5470 
7-6631 
7-7195 
7-6550 
7-5909 
7-5385 
7-6493 
7-7917 
7-7556 
7-7562 
7-8204 
7-5839 
7-6533 
7-8461 
7-7395 
7-4413 
7-8076 
7-7809 
7-6798 
7-7983 



&E 



6-48 

5-91 

6-47 

21-50 

30-34 
16-21 
27-25 
9-13 
9-00 
8-88 
11-68 
29-46 
16-21 
16-21 
21-50 
27-00 
12-50 
21-50 
22-50 
19-38 
20-23 
21-50 
21-50 



2095 
2083 
2480 
7579 

8796 
5242 

14174 
3425 
2646 
2402 
2442 
9177 
5654 
5671 
6983 
9124 
4438 
7729 

11403 
4072 
4304 
7904 
7687 



III 



2057 
2026 
2435 
7246 

8437 
5074 

13898 
3348 
2604 
2314 
2324 
8896 
5550 
5452 
6727 
9041 
4326 
7488 

11246 
3897 
4088 
7807 
7496 



Box 'C No. 6. Class No. 10. 



$43 
I 44 


Zinked iron -|-in. bolt 

fCast iron coated with 
\ paint 


zincl 


Hot 


F 

/gray 
ICC 


hamm'' 
-cast 


7-5830 
7-1380 


11-85 
70-00 


2674 
43937 


2674 
43982 






* Slight tarnish. f Increase of 





ON THE ACTION OF AIR AND AVATER UPON IRON. 



49 



Series. Box ^. No. 6. 
Wrought Iron and Steel. 





9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


14. 




o . 


t-s 


f c 


S 


II • 








u » 


eioc - 


tujo n 












>►£* 




•5-^m 


g-a 


s'S^ 










«w 3 3 


n% 


21 




Character of Corrosion. 








o S-oj 


s|l 




« -" 








1° 


ife = 


g M 5 


.iT « 


©"^•S 








^ 


So. 


M " 


^ 


►J .5 








58 


8-95 


1-009 


0- 


12-15 


Uniform minute pitting, or Jine fret. 






57 


9-65 


1-088 


0- 


13-10 


Uniform fine fret. 






45 


6-96 


0-785 


0- 


9-45 


Uniform fine fi'et. 






333 


15-49 


0-748 


0- 


21-03 


Nearly uniform fine fret, most at the ends. 
No specimen. 






sib 


ii'ss 


1-334 


0- 


1606 


Uniform fine fret. 






168 


10-36 


1-168 


0- 


14-07 


Uniform fine fret. 






276 


1013 


1-142 


0- 


13-75 


Uniform fine fret. 






77 


8-43 


0-951 


0- 


11-44 


Nearly uniform fret, some local pitting. 






60 


6-66 


0-751 


0- 


911 


Nearly uniform fret, some local pitting. 






88 


9-91 


1-118 


0- 


13-45 


Uniform fine fret, fibre discernible. 






118 


10-10 


1-139 


0- 


13-71 


Uniform fine fret. 






281 


9-54 


1-076 


0- 


12-95 


Uniform very fine fret. 






104 


6-37 


0-718 


0- 


8-96 


Uniform fine fret. 






219 


13-51 


1-749 


0- 


18-34 


Uniform coarse fret, approaching to local pitting. 






256 


11-91 


1-343 


0- 


16-22 


Uniform very fine fret. 






83 


3-07 


0-346 


0- 


4-16 


Uniform fine fret. 






112 


8-96 


1-010 


0- 


12-16 


Uniform coarse fret. 






241 


11-21 


1-264 


0- 


15-22 


Uniform very fine fret, the pitting mammillary. 






157 


6-98 


0-787 


0- 


9-47 


Uniform fine fret. 






175 


9-03 


1-018 


0- 


12-26 


Uniform fine fret. 






216 


10-67 


1-203 


0- 


14-49 


Uniform fine fret, pitted locally at one end. 






97 


4-51 


0-508 


0- 


612 


Uniform fine fret. 




- 


191 


8-88 


1-300 


0- 


12-5 


Uniform fine fret. 




Zinked Wroug 


tit and Cast Iron. 






0- 


0' 


0- 


0-* 


0- 


J Surface smooth, free from rust where covered with 
\ which has a coppery tarnish , but iron rusty where b 


sine. 














are. 










o-t 


0- 


J Paint sound and good generally, but beginning to 
L through in blotches, and zinc to oxidize. 


rust 
















weight by oxidation 


of zinc and iron. 





t 



1843. 



50 



REPORT — 1843. 



Table XI. — Wrought Iron Standard Bar, in presence of Zinc, Copper, and 
their Alloys, in Sea Water. 



1. 


2. 


3. 4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


No. 


Atomic Constitution 
of Alloy. 


Weight of 
piece pre- 
vious to 
immersion. 


Weight of 

piece after 

immersion 

for I860 

hours. 


Total 
loss of 
Weight. 


Weight of 
Wrought 
Iron pre- 
vious to 
immersion. 


Weight of 
Wrought 
Iron after 
immersion 
for 1 still 
hours. 


Total 
loss of 
Weight. 


Loss of 

Weight 

per square 

inch of 
Surface in 
38/ d.-iys. 


1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 


Cu 
Zll + 10 Cu 
Zii -J- 9 Cu 
Zn + 8 Cu 
Zn + 7 Cu 
Zn + 6 Cu 
Zn + 5 Cu 
Zn 4- 4 Cu 
Zn + 3Cu 
Zn + 2 Cu 
Zn 4- Cu 

2 Zn + Cu 

3 Zn + Cu 

4 Zn + Cu 

5 Zn + Cu 

Zn 

Fe 


504-30 
575'20 
549-81 
559-21 
528-62 
553-34 
492-31 
503-11 
466-22 
493-34 
488-97 
480-00 
424-42 
433-91 
414-10 
420-75 


504-23 
575-14 
549-74 
559-14 
528-56 
553-32 
492-22 
503-04 
466-16 
493-31 
487-13 
479-84 
422-29 
• 431-63 
410-93 
417-24 


0-07 
0-06 
0-07 
0-07 
0-06 
0-02 
009 
0-07 
0-06 
0-03 
0-04 
0-16 
2-13 
2-28 
3-17 
3-51 


1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 


1003-64 
1003-73 
1003-77 
1001-18 
1004-48 
1004-71 
1004-80 
1004-97 
100509 
1005-12 
1005-21 
1004-90 
1005-11 
1006-21 
1008-21 
1008-21 
1006-08 


4-57 
4-48 
4-44 
4-03 
3-73 
3-50 
3-41 
3-24 
312 
3-09 
3-00 
3-31 
3-10 
2-00 
0-00 
0-00 
2-13 


22-85 
22-40 
22-20 
20-15 
18-65 
17-50 
17-05 
16-20 
15-60 
15-45 
15-00 
16-55 
15-50 
10-00 
0-00 
0-00 
10-65 



Table XII. — Wrought Iron Standard Bar, in presence of Tin and Copper, 
and their Alloys, in Sea Water. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 5. i 6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


No. 


Atomic Constitution 
of Alloy. 


Weight of! We'Sl't of' 
piecl pre. P'e'=<= ^^^" 
vious'^to '"?'"!"'«" 
.mmersion.l f-^^fo 


Weight of 

Total Wrought 

loss of Iron pre- 

Weight. viousto 

immersion. 

1 


Weight of 
Iron after Total 
immersion loss of 
• foriseo jWeight. 
hours. I 


Loss of 
Weight 
persquare 

inch of 
Surface in 
38/ days. 


1. 

2. 

3. 

4, 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 


Cu 
Sn + 10 Cu 
Sn -f 9 Cu 
Sn -1- 8 Cu 
Sn + 7 Cu 
Sn + 6 Cu 
Sn 4- 5 Cu 
Sn+ 4Cu 
Sn -f 3 Cu 
Sn + 2 Cu 
Sn 4- Cu 
Sn 4- Cu 
Sn + Cu 
Sn + Cu 
Sn + Cu 

Sn 

Fe 


496-21 
550-00 
508-01 
499-72 
523-80 
513-11 
554-21 
516-90 
471-87 
526-36 
476-91 
490-30 
451-48 
455-65 
446-17 
413-62 


496-12 
549-84 
507-72 
499-62 
523-59 
512-88 
553-93 
516-61 
471-53 
525-98 
475-50 
489-94 
451-24 
455-49 
446-08 
413-36 


0-09 
016 
0-29 
0-10 
0-21 
0-23 
0-28 
0-29 
0-34 
0-38 
0-41 
0-36 
0-24 
0-16 
0-09 
0-26 


1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-30 
1009-.30 
1009-30 


1004-82 
1003-89 
100318 
1002-93 
1002-84 
1002-66 
1002-40 
1002-89 
1004-97 
1004-47 
1003-62 
1003-73 
1004-96 
1003-50 
1003-17 
1001-40 
1007-07 


4-48 
5-41 
6-12 
6-37 
6-46 
6-64 
6-84 
6-41 
4-33 
4-83 
5-67 
5-57 
4-34 
5-80 
6-13 
7-90 
2-23 


22-40 
27-05 
30-60 
31-85 
32-30 
33-20 
34-20 
32-05 
21-65 
24-15 
28-35 
27-87 
21-70 
29-00 
30-65 
39-50 
11-15 



ON THE ACTION OP AIR AND WATER UPON IRON. 



51 






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54 REPORT — 1843. 

Report of the Committee^ consisting of Sir John Herschel, the 
Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, the Dean of Ely, 
Dr. Lloyd, and Colonel Sabine, appointed to conduct the co-ope- 
ration of the British Association in the system of Simultaneous 
Magnetical and Meteorological Observations. 

In this their Fiftli Report on the momentous subject entrusted to them, your 
Committee propose to follow the arrangement of the matter under the several 
heads adopted in their report of last year, and in nearly the same order, as 
on the whole most convenient and perspicuous. 

1 . Antarctic Expedition. 

The Committee congratulate the Association on the approaching return of 
this expedition, having accomplished in the fullest degree all the objects of 
its mission. Three seasons in which they have forced their way at different 
points far within the higher latitudes of the southern hemisphei'c, have fur- 
nished a magnetic survey of these regions equalling, or rather surpassing, 
both in completeness and accuracy, all those sanguine expectations which led 
the Association to urge on the Government the prosecution of this great en- 
terprise. Though not marked by geographical discoveries of equal splendour 
with those which signalised their first camjiaign in the Antartic Circle, and 
which we had the gratification of noticing in our last report, the two suc- 
ceeding seasons have each pi*oduced an equally rich harvest of magnetic 
results. 

The observations as they have reached England have been committed for 
publication (as noticed in our last report) to the superintendence of Colonel 
Sabine, and under the form and in continuation of a series of " Contributions 
to Terrestrial Magnetism," are in process of communication by him to the 
Royal Society, and of publication by that learned body in their Transactions. 
In our last report we gave some account of a communication of this descrip- 
tion, in which the observations made between England and Kerguelen's 
Island are published and discussed. The 5th of these series (which is now 
in progress of printing) contains, comprised in about sixty pages of tables, 
the observations within the Antarctic Circle, made in the summer of 1840-41, 
on board of both the ships, as also those on board of the Erebus, between 
Kerguelen's Island and Van Diemen's Land. In this paper the important 
subject of the corrections due to the iron of the ships is fully considered, 
and by the aid of formulEe furnished by Mr. Archibald Smith of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and founded on the theory of M. Poisson, delivered in 
his Memoir of 1838, " Sur les deviations de la Boussole produites par le fer 
des Vaisseaux," the constant coefficients of these corrections for each ship 
are investigated. These coefficients are four in number for each ship, falling 
naturally into tv.o pairs, the one depending on a series of compass azimuths 
observed and compared with the true azimuths round a whole revolution of 
the ship's head at a fixed station ; the other on a series of inclinations or dips 
observed in the same situations of the ship, and compared iritcr se. Obser- 
vations for this express and most important purpose were made (in confor- 
mity with the general instructions) at several stations, viz. at Chatham, be- 
fore the departure of the expedition, at Hobart Town (Van Diemen's Land), 
and at Auckland Island. From these Colonel Sabine has obtained three sets 
of values of the former pair, and two of the latter, and the results thus pro- 
cured (by no trifling amount of calculation) are found to agree admirably ; 
thus affording ground for the fullest confidence in the corrections depending 
on them, as well as in the theory from M'hich they are derived, and in the general 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS, 59 

approximation to truth of the hypotheses necessarily made as to the distribu- 
tion of the iron in the vessels. In the case of one of these coefficients an 
opportunity M'as afforded of testing its value by a series of observations made 
in a high south latitude, by employing a different formula involving the true 
dip, as actually observed on the ice at the moment ; and the result proved ia 
perfect accordance with the mean of those deduced by the other method. 

There is one other constant, which affects the intensity, entering as a general 
multiplier for the reduction of the observed to the true intensity. The value 
of this for the Erebus is obtained by Colonel Sabine from a series of obser- 
vations made at Hobart Town with Mr. Fox's intensity apparatus, similarly 
instituted throughout a complete revolution of the ship's head ; the partial 
results of which, grouped by pairs, and checked by the use of observed in 
place of computed values of the disturbed inclination, offer an agreement 
highly satisfactory. 

The above statement applies to the Erebus. For the Terror the first pair 
only of constants (those depending on the azimuths) are deduced ; from 
observations at Chatham and Hobart Town, the constants for correction of the 
dip and intensity could not be obtained, the requisite observations not 
having yet reached England. 

Besides these there are a variety of index corrections and other elements 
for the observations of inclination and intensity, which having been com- 
puted and duly applied, the tabulated results have been projected by Colonel 
Sabine in three charts (copies of which accompany this report), exhibiting 
both the individual results, and the approximate course of the isogonic 
and isoclinal lines deduced from them, an inspection of which gives room for 
several interesting remarks. 

1. As great and greater discordances are to be looked for, and must fre- 
quently be experienced in magnetic surveys conducted on land, than in those 
at sea. In effect, the chief and worst cases of discordance occur in observa- 
tions made on the islands at which the expedition touched. 

2. The general form of the curves of higher inclination in the southern 
hemisphere is much more analogous to that in the northern than appears in 
M. Gauss's maps. 

3. Captain Ross's observations of intensity lead also to the conclusion of 
a much closer analogy between the two hemispheres than M. Gauss's maps 
would appear to indicate. No higher intensity than 2'1 has been any where 
observed. 

4. In examining the observations of declination, particularly those which 
point out the course of the lines of 0° and 10° east, a more westerly position 
is indicated than that assigned by M. Gauss for the spot in which all the 
lines of declination unite. 

It cannot be indifferent to the British Association to learn, that first, by 
the blessing of Providence, and next by the watchful care and the expe- 
rienced judgment of the Commander of the Expedition, all those results have 
been obtained without any of those drawbacks to which, from the duration 
and peculiar hazards of the voyage, it might perhaps have been deemed un- 
usually liable. Captain Ross closes his last dispatch to the Admiralty, dated 
from the Cape of Good Hope in April 1843, with the following remarkable 
sentence: — " It affords me the highest gratification for a third time, to report 
that our ships have sustained no material damage ; that we have not been 
visited by casualty or sickness, and that there is not an individual in either 
ship in the Sick Report." 



56 REPORT — 1843. 

2. British and Foreign Observatories. — Publications of Magnetic Observations 
and 3Iemoirs, &c. relating to Terrestrial Magnetism and Meteorology. 

The government of the United States have appropriated funds for the esta- 
blishment of a magnetic observatory at Washington under the direction of 
Lieut. Gillies of the United States Navy. This gentleman has lately visited 
Europe for the purpose of obtaining instruments for this observatory, as well 
as for a national astronomical observatory, which is also placed under his di- 
rection. 

The United States government has also appropriated funds for the support 
during three additional years of the Magnetic Observatory at Philadelphia, 
nnder the direction of our zealous and accomplished Corresponding Member 
Professor Bache. 

In consequence of an application made by the President and Council of the 
Royal Society, through the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to the 
Bavarian government, the Magnetic Observatory at Munich, which under 
Dr. I.amont has rendered such good service to the magnetic cause, has been 
continued for three additional years. The results of the first three years, 
1840, 1841 and 1842, have been published in a memoir in the Bavarian 
Academy of Sciences, which has been translated in the 12th Part of 
Taylor's Scientific Memoirs. 

A second volume of the magnetic and meteorological observations made 
at the Prague Observatory has been published by M. Kreil, containing the 
regular observations for August 1840 to July 1841, and the disturbance ob- 
servations from September 1839 to Nov. 1840. 

The publication of the regular observations made at the Magnetic Obser- 
vatory at Christiania, under the direction of the veteran and indefatigable 
Professor Hansteen, are preparing for publication at the expense of the Nor- 
wegian government. They consist of an unparalleled series with the unifilar 
magnetometer, observed at every ten minutes night and day, from November 
1841 to the end of June 1843 : accompanied by observations of the bifilar at 
every second hour from June to December 1842, and since that period hourly. 

M. Gauss has published in the last volume of the ' Resultate ' a laborious 
analysis of the observations made with the inclinometer, and an examination 
of all the sources from whence error may introduce itself into the results. 
This memoir, which is calculated to be of much practical use, has been trans- 
lated in the 12th Part of Taylor's Scientific Memoirs. The testimony which 
M. Gauss bears to the excellence of the inclinometer made by the late Mr. Ro- 
binson, must be very grateful to the friends of that much-regretted artist. 

The publication of the observations at the British colonial stations still 
awaits the exact determination of the temperature coefficients, for which 
object an auxiliary apparatus has been sent to each observatory. The first 
part of the volume of the disturbance observations has been completed, 
comprising those made in 1840, 1841. The reasons for separating these 
observations from the general series, and commencing the publication of 
the results obtained at the magnetic observatories with them, have been 
assigned in our last report. Colonel Sabine has prefaced this volume with 
a synoptic statement of the general conclusions which it has been found 
practicable to deduce from the observations in their actual uncorrected state 
(the temperature corrections being for the most part, and the scale-coeffi- 
cients, in certain of the series still wanting*), some of the more important of 
which it will be proper here to mention. 

* The reasons for printing these especial observations in the absence of these essential 
elements for their correction, will be found in the preface alluded to. It was not resolved 
on without full consideration. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 5/ 

The object of this publication being to present in their most salient point 
of view the irreffular movements of the needle and variations of the magnetic 
force, it is necessary in the first instance to ascertain and subduct from the 
observed changes everything of a regular periodical nature which the actual 
amount of our present knowledge has enabled us to ascertain. This has been 
accordingly done, so far as Toronto and Van Diemen's Land are concerned, 
both for the diurnal, monthly, and annual fluctuations of the magnetic ele- 
ments as far as it has been practicable yet to deduce them, and the results 
have afforded room for preliminary conclusions of no small interest, which 
have been stated by Colonel Sabine in his preface, and of which the follow- 
ing is a brief outline. 

At Toronto the regular diurnal movement in declination does not consist 
in a simple uninterrupted progress and regress of the needle. Commencing 
from 2^ P.M. its movement is continuous to the eastward till 10 p.m., it then 
returns westward (through a comparatively small angle) until 2^ a.m., when 
its eastward movement is resumed and continued till 8^ a.m., after which its 
return is continuous to the west until 2^ p.m. This second eastward pro- 
gression is more decided in summer than in winter, and the total range 
of diurnal fluctuation is also more considerable. 

At Van Diemen's Land (a station it is to be borne in mind almost 
antipodal to Toronto), the course of the diurnal oscillation corresponds with 
that above stated in all but one essential feature, viz. that the hours (in 
mean time at the station) of easterly movement of the north end of the bar 
at the one station are those of its westerly movement at the other, that the 
diurnal range being nearly the same in both, with a similar inequality in its 
summer and winter amount ; a similar alternate progression and recess also 
prevails, and at the same hours. 

These are certainly very remarkable features, showing a regular connexion 
between two stations so remote, carried out into what may be regarded 
as minute particulars. Falling in however with the generally received im- 
pression of the universality of the causes (whatever they may be) which pro- 
duce the periodical fluctuations of the magnetic elements, they can only be 
regarded as contributions to our knowledge of details. It is otherwise with 
the results deduced by a comparison with each other of the observations 
recorded in this volume, not only at these two stations but also at St. Helena, 
and with those made by M. Kreil at Prague, as respects cases of unusual 
magnetic disturbance which occur (so far as we can yet perceive) casually, 
or at least n on -periodically. Such comparison has enabled us at length, 
unequivocally, to state it as a general proposition, that the whole magnetic 
system of our globe is affected in the majority of cases of great disturbance. 
For it is found that if a list of days of great disturbance, independently noticed 
as such, and marked by extra observations on each station, be made out, 
these lists will be found to coincide in at least a majority of days, and more 
especially on those days when the recorded disturbances have been greatest. 
Of twenty-nine principal disturbances recorded in Colonel Sabine's Synoptic 
Table, some confined to a single day, others running through two or three 
successive days, and comprehending altogether forty-nine days, by far the 
greater part are shown to have manifested themselves at Toronto, Van Diemen's 
Land, and Prague, and fifteen are marked by extra observations at St. Helena. 

But though it is thus rendered certain that the whole globe is affected in 
many and great " magnetic storms," it is equally shown that the minute iden- 
tity of particular shocks, which seemed to result from the earlier observations 
of this nature in Europe, cannot be maintained (as a general proposition) as 
traceable on anything like so extensive a scale. 



58 REPORT — 1843. 

Not the least interesting part of this volume consists in the notices at To- 
ronto of auroral phoenomena accompanying the extraordinary magnetic dis- 
turbances. They are many and remarkable, and can hardly fail to throw 
great light on this branch of the general subject. 

This is not the proper place for theory, nor is anything more than an ana- 
logical illustration intended, if we compare the affections in question to what 
might be supposed to occur if we conceived the earth surrounded, besides the 
ocean and the air, with an electric atmosphere of excessive elasticity and mo- 
bility, in which were propagated from origins unknown to us, undulatory 
movements of every oi-der, from the most minute local oscillations to waves 
affecting (almost in an instant, or in very short intervals of time, but varying 
in depth and amplitude with the geographical coordinates) its whole extent. 
Could such electric waves* be conceived as affecting the magnet, we might, 
form" some idea of the mode in which particular shocks thin off as it were by 
distance of place, and are replaced by others of different local origin. 

The difficult subject of the determination of the earth's magnetic force in 
absolute measure has been subjected to a further investigation by Dr. Lloyd. 
The difficulty, whicli is of a practical rather than a theoretical nature, arises 
from this, that the expression for the tangent of the angle of deflection of one 
magnet by another being expressed approximately by two terms of a series 
according to descending powers of their mutual distance, viz. the inverse cube 
and fifth power, with unknown coefficients, these have to be determined in 
Gauss's method by observations of deflection at two different distances, and 
by eliminations, in which process serious errors are introduced in the result 
by small errors in the observations. The object of Dr. Lloyd's present paper 
is to point out a means by whicli the quantity sought may be obtained with- 
out elimination, by observations at one distance only, thus diminishing both 
the trouble of the observation and increasing the accuracy of the result. This 
method depends on the assumption of an empirical law in the distribution of 
free magnetism in a magnetised bar inferred by Biot from Coulomb's re- 
searches, in virtue of which a simple ratio, dependent only on the lengths of 
the two magnets, subsists between the coefficients of the inverse powers above 
mentioned, — a ratio such, that on a certain simple assumption of the propor- 
tional lengths, the term depending on the inverse fifth power may be made 
to vanish ipso facto, and thereby get rid of the whole difficulty. Dr. Lloyd 
adduces several experiments confirmatory of these results. 

The 'Annalen fur Meteorologie, Erdmagnetismus und verwandte Gegen- 
stande,' published by M. Lamont with the assistance of Messrs. Griinert, 
KoUer, Kreil, Lamont, Pleiniger, Quctelet, and Stieffel, for the year 1842, is 
completed, and will be followed up by similar series in quarterly parts. In 
this collection ai'e contained a multitude of important contributions to these 
subjects from all quarters, and more particularly magnetic observations from 
Munich by M. Lamont ; and meteorological registers from Marseilles by M. 
Benjamin Valz, from Schlosse by M. Bayer, from Dorpat by M. Madler, from 
various stations in Labra<lor and Greenland, from Utrecht by M. Van Rees, 
from Munich by M.Leoniiardt, and a series of comparative observations from 
Stuttgard, Giessen, Carlsruhe, Vienna, and Parma, in Avhich the barometric 
and thermometric observations are not stated absolutely, but only their dif- 

* It is bj' no means necessary in this way of conceiving the subject, to assume an atmo- 
sphere of pure electricity (of which we can form no conception). But we may, for liypo- 
thesis salie, admit the existence of an atmosphere of some medium very much more rare and 
elastic than air, by whose compiessions and dilatations electricity may be momentarily deve- 
loped and absorbed, as caloric is by those of air in the ph.xnomena of sound, manifesting 
itself by its action on the magnet, and' possibly by auroral pidsations also, of which latter 
phsenomenon it seems excessively difficult to give any other account. — (H.) 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 59 

ferences from Munich, an arrangement of which it is not very easy to per- 
ceive the advantage. The volume in question contains also an investigation 
by Dr. Lamont of the law of distribution of magnetism in magnetised bars, 
in which various methods of determining by observation the coefficients of 
an empirical series representing the intensity of free magnetism in ascending 
powers of the distance of a point from the centre of the magnet are proposed. 
By a communication from M. Boguslawski it appears that in spite of great 
difficulties arising from want of regular assistants the observations at Prague 
have been regularly continued, not only on all the term days, but, since Ja- 
nuary 1st of the current year, also daily at four hours in each day with all the 
three instruments. Perceptible magnetic disturbances have been noticed by 
him on January 1 , October 6, February 24, March 29 (very great), April 5, 
May 15, and July 24. 

3. Magnetic Surveys. 

At the request of the East India Company the magnetic observatories of 
Simla ami Singapore have been supplied with a portable magnetic apparatus, 
which we hope will be speedily and extensively employed in magnetic surveys 
having the respective observatories as central points. 

M. Kreil is about to add to his most useful observatory labours a nv^gnetic 
survey of Bohemia, for which he has obtained portable apparatus on the con- 
struction proposed by Dr. Lamont. 

4. North American Survey. 

Letters have been received from Lieut. Lefroy dated from Lachine on the 
28th of April, and from Sault S'^ Marie, May 20th of the current year, giving 
an interesting account of his progress so far on his arduous expedition, and 
detailing his plan of operations, for this and the next year with a sample of 
each day's performance. Lieut. Lefroy reached Montreal on the 22nd of 
April, where also his instruments arrived on the 25th (not altogether without 
injury to the force of his magnets from the extreme badness of the roads). 
Here, on consultation with Sir G. Simpson, he found it advisable to recast 
the plan of his route and to resolve on proceeding first to York Fort, and re- 
turning thence to Norway House, ascend the Sascatchewan to Edmonton, 
which he expects to reach on the 20th of September, whence, crossing the 
Uniga to descend it on the ice to the Slave Lake and return to Athabasca for 
the remainder of the winter, working his way back to Canada in the next 
season and taking Moose Fort on the way back. By the adoption of this 
route a more complete circuit of the focus of maximum intensity will be 
accomplished than by that originally contemplated. Every necessary order 
and instruction and every facility he states to have been most readily ac- 
corded, and in pai'ticular a circular to have been issued to all the officers of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, amounting to a carte blanche, commanding all 
the resources of the Company. The line of no variation Lieut. Lefroy states 
to have been crossed between La Cloche and Sault S"-* Marie, up to which 
point little change of dip had been experienced, liis course leading him nearly 
along the isoclinal line of 77°. 

5. Naval Observatories. 

The second series of Sir Edward Belcher's magnetic determinations at 
thirty-two stations, principally at ports in the Pacific Ocean and in the Indian 
and Chinese Seas, have been reduced by Lieut.-Colonel Sabine and printed 
in the 2nd Part of the Phil. Trans, for the present year. The two series of 
Sir Edward Belcher's observations, which are now printed in the Phil. Trans., 
contain determinations of the three magnetic elements at sixty-one stations 



60 REPORT — 1843. 

widely distributed over the surface of the globe ; and that indefatigable officer 
has again sailed for the coast of China and the Pacific, furnished with an 
improved magnetic equipment, including the portable magnetometer appa- 
ratus and a Fox's inclinometer and intensity instrument for observations at 
sea. 

The observations from Captain Blackwood's expedition have begun to 
arrive, both tliose with Mr. Fox's instrument at sea and with the portable ap- 
paratus on occasions on shore. The observations of this expedition promise 
to be of great value, from the zeal and intelligence which those already re- 
ceived evince on the ])art of Lieut. Shadwell and Mr. Evans, under whose 
particular direction this branch of the public service has been placed by 
Captain Blackwood. 

No expense whatever has been incurred in the present year, but your Com- 
mittee pray the continuance of the grant made to them at the last meeting to 
meet such demands as may arise. 

Signed on the part of the Committee, J. F. W. Hebschel. 



Report of the Committee appointed for the Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations. By Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

Every exertion having been used to complete the series of equinoxial and 
solstitial observations during the years 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, whether by 
writing to parties who have communicated observations, for duplicates of 
missing series, or by searching the records of observatories, meteorological 
reo-isters, scientific journals and periodicals, these endeavours have proved so 
far successful, that at length 334' sets of observations have been collected, 
made at sixty-nine distinct stations, A synoptic statement of these, with the 
geographical elements of the stations, the names of the observers or commu- 
nicators of the observations, and other particulars as far as they could be col- 
lected, or are necessary for our present purpose, is annexed to this report. 
See Appendix (A.). 

It will be at once seen on inspection of this synopsis, that although at a 
few stations (as London, Greenwich, Brussels, Port Louis, Markree, Cadiz) 
consecutive series, extending over a period of three complete years, have been 
procured (within the limit assigned to these reductions), yet that this is not 
the rule but the exception ; and that, taken altogether, the observations form 
anything rather than a connected whole. Under these circumstances, the 
only point of view which seemed to promise any distinct and definite results, 
bearing reference to causes prevailing over extensive regions, was that of the 
barometric fluctuations, considered with a view to the propagation of atmo- 
spheric waves, which, it is manifest, can only be traced over any considerable 
tract of country by this method of inquiry. It is accordingly to these, and 
to these only, that my attention has been directed ; using the observed tem- 
perature (where the original observations have not been corrected by the 
observers) nierelv as elements of reduction, and referring to the registered 
state of wind and weather, whenever such reference has been considered 
elucidatory of any point suggested by the main branch of the inquiry. 

If we consider the trifling depth of the ponderable atmosphere regarded as 
an envelope of the whole globe, the interruption and obstacles off'ered to its 
oscillatory movements as a Avhole by the configuration of the continents and 
the distribution of mountain chains, but above all, by the vast and capricious 
variety of local causes affecting the temperatures of particular districts, and 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 61 

thereby causing partial ascensional and descensional movements and local 
generations and precipitations of vapour, we shall clearly perceive that, so far 
as our present purpose is concerned, the particular dimensions and form of 
our planet have little to do with our inquiiy, and that for the immediate pur- 
poses of that inquiry we may regard our globe as a plane surface of infinite 
extent, over particular districts of which systems of oscillation of local origin, 
and independent of each other, are in progress, and in which we may regard 
ourselves fortunate if we can now and then succeed in obtaining distinct 
evidence of the direction, extent, height and velocity of a single wave. The 
distribution of our stations into groups, grounded on this view of the subject, 
and the mode of referring the observations of each group to a central station 
within it, have been described in my report for 184-0, and need not therefore 
here be recapitulated. These groups, it is true, abstractedly considered, are 
far from those which would be chosen a priori. For example, Mauritius 
and Van Diemen's Land are but ill adapted to form a group with Indian sta- 
tions. But for this there is no remedy, and the Mauritius observations (of 
which, owing to the diligence and zeal qf Captain Lloyd, Surveyor-General 
of that island, we possess a nearly complete series) merit and will receive a 
separate discussion. 

Two objects have been chiefly kept in view in the present inquiry. First, 
the tracing, where it can be accomplished, the course of one particular wave 
over the whole area embraced within one of our groups ; and secondly, 
where this cannot be done, the observation of connexions between particular 
localities with a view to the subdivision of the total area into barometric dis- 
tricts, in which the atmospheric fluctuations shall be, generally speaking, 
similar in their phases. With these objects the projection of the barometric 
curves, for all the stations of a group, one sheet for each separate term, has 
been executed with great care and delicac)'^ by Mr. Birt, and on a scale so 
large as to allow of the minutest corresponding changes, if any, to be 
distinctly followed out. The number of sheets so projected is fifty-three, on 
a scale of an inch to the hour in time, and one inch to 0'066 of barometric 
altitude ; and I must not lose this opportunity of acknowledging many valua- 
ble remarks received from that gentleman on the subject of particular cases 
of much interest, which will be given in his own words, under their several 
heads as they occur. 

I proceed now, therefore, to the discussion of the observations of each 
term, so reduced and projected, seriatim. 

As the whole of the curves of the American group, and seventeen others 
of the European series, together with their tabulated reductions, have been 
on a former occasion submitted to the inspection of the meeting, to the num- 
ber of 105, it has not been thought necessary to risk the loss or damage of 
the remainder by transmitting them herewith, they being in all respects 
similar. 

European Group. 

June 1835. — This term affords only two series, those of London and Brus- 
sels. The projected curves exhibit a pretty regular descent, and tolerably 
well-maintained parallelism during the first sixteen projected hours, or until 
3 A.M. of the 22nd, when the Brussels curve attains a minimum, and pretty 
abruptly ascends again to the end of the series. The London curve, on the 
other hand, continues to descend till 1 1 a.m. of the 22nd, where it also attains 
a minimum, and begins to reascend. If this minimum represent, as it pro- 
bably does, the trough of a barometric M'ave which at 3 a.m. was verti- 
cally over Brussels, and at 1 1 a.m. over London, the wave must have been 



62 REPORT — 1843. 

travelling westwards, but the direction of its length, and therefore that of 
its advance, remaining undetermined for want of other stations, its velocity 
must also remain so, only that it must have equalled or exceeded 12^ miles 
per hour. 

The effect of diurnal oscillation is evident in both these curves, but most 
so in the London one, by a relative nmiimum occurring at 4 p.m., and a rela- 
tive maxitmnn at 10 p.m. The morning minimum is also perceptible enough 
in the London curve, but the corresponding maximum cannot be traced in 
either. 

September 1835. — Markree, London and Greenwich, Brussels, Geneva. 

Diurnal oscillation. — In all the curves the afternoon and nightly minimum 
and maximum are perfectly distinct, and indeed finely developed. The morn- 
ing and forenoon ones less so, except in the Geneva curve, where the fore- 
noon maximum is very evident. 

When these are abstracted and slight irregularities rounded off, the London 
and Greenwich curves exhibit a very steady fall during the whole series, 
amounting to 0'38 in. in twenty-six hours, and being perceptibly accelerated 
towards the end of the series. The same holds good for Brussels and Geneva, 
but at these stations the total fall is much less, viz. O'll in. for Brussels, and 
0*07 in. for Geneva. On the other hand, at Markree, the descent, which from 
noon till midnight of the 21st had been gentle (amounting to 0"08 in.), begins 
then to accelerate, and terminates the curve with a bold and decided down- 
ward sweep, traversing no less than 0*59 in. in the subsequent thirteen hours. 
On referring to the observations of wind and weather on this occasion, this 
fall of the barometer appears to have been the precursor of a pretty stiff gale, 
which was also felt in London, from the south-west. 

December 1835. — Markree, London, Brussels, Geneva, Gibraltar. 

Diurnal oscillation. — Very conspicuous in every one of the curves, both the 
maxima and minima being unequivocally and strongly marked. When the 
eflfect of these is allowed for and abstracted, all the stations exhibit a steady, 
uniform, and (with exception of Markree, M'here it was somewhat slower) an 
equally rapid rise in the barometer during the whole extent of the projected 
series. Considering the season of the year and the extenfof surface embraced, 
this must be allowed to be not a little remarkable. To take in an effect of 
this nature, we must enlarge our conception of an atmospheric wave till it 
approaches in some degree, in the extent of its sweep, and the majestic regu- 
larity of its progress, to those of the tide-waves in the ocean. The total ele- 
vation or barometric height of the portion of tiiis Mave within the limits of 
observation, amounted to about 0'22 in. on an average of the several stations, 
exclusive of Markree, where it did not exceed 0'16. 

March 1836. — iVIarkree, Limerick, Blackheath, Greenwich, London, Brus- 
sels, Maestricht, Geneva, Cadiz, Gibraltar, Tangier. 

The effects of the regular diurnal oscillation are very distinct throughout 
the series for London and its environs, Brussels and Maestricht. The fore- 
noon maximum on the 22nd is also very conspicuous at Geneva, but the 
morning minimum there is marked in its influence on the course of the curve 
by a very curious feature, of which more presently. In Markree, Limerick, 
and the south European stations, the diurnal oscillations are not traceable, 
or but indistinctly. Abstraction made of these oscillations, the English and 
Belgian curves agree in indicating a downward movement tl)rougliout the 
series, at the rate (nearly uniform) of about O'H- in twenty-four hours. In 
this movement Geneva also agrees, with exception of one interruption arising 
from the singular feature above alluded to. But the Irish curves separate 
themselves in the most decided manner from this law of progress, and ap- 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 63 

pear to have been undei- the influence of some cross wave, or local cause of 
disturbance not extending to any of the other stations. These curves both 
commence with a falling barometer, but a minimum is attained about 6 p.m. 
of the 25th (6'^), after which they rise rapidly, and continue to do so ; in the 
case of Markree to the end of the projected series ; in that of Limerick, nearly 
so, a maximum being appai-ently reached about the 25th hour (1 p.m. of the 
22nd). 

The curves for Cadiz, Gibraltar and Tangier, are all marked (and more 
especially the two latter) with that peculiarity which has already been no- 
ticed in the Geneva curve, and which consists in a sudden and temporary 
elevation and depression, forming a kind of hump or abrupt bulge upwards. 
At Geneva and Gibraltar this occupies the interval from tlie 11th to the 15th 
hour (11 P.M. to 3 a.m.). At Tangier it is two hours earlier, viz. from 9** 
to IS*", but in all three cases equally pronounced, and of about the same 
elevation, 0*033 in.; not a very large quantity, it is true, but quite unequivocal, 
and beyond all reasonable limits of error of observation. At Cadiz it also 
occurs, but less distinct and less abrupt, running into the swell caused by the 
nocturnal maximum of the regular oscillation, as is also in some degree the 
case at Geneva, and of which maximum it is probably some abnormal affec- 
tion, rather depending on the general state of the atmosphere as aff'ecting ra- 
diation (of which I shall have more to say presently), than the effect of any 
wave-like disturbance striking on the stations at the times in question. The 
winds and weather noted at the stations aff"ord no elucidation of this curious 
peculiarity. 

June 1836. — Markree, Limerick, Oxford, London (with Greenwich and 
Blackheath), Brussels, Hanover, Geneva, Turin, Cadiz, Gibraltar. 

This term exhibits a considerable want of accordance between the British 
and continental stations. To begin with the latter. The diurnal oscillations 
are well marked at Brussels, Geneva and Turin, hoth the minima and both 
maxima being clearly exhibited. When these are abstracted the curves be- 
come nearly level, a slight tendency to descend only remaining for Brussels 
and Geneva, and to ascent for Turin. At Cadiz and Gibraltar also, the 
afternoon minimum and nocturnal maximum are clearly expressed, and being 
eliminated, the curves up to about the 14th hour at Cadiz, and the 17th at 
Gibraltar, assume the flattened and slightly-descending character of those 
belonging to Brussels and Geneva. But at these hours respectively a re- 
markable change comes on which completely masks the oscillatory move- 
ments. In fact, a bulge upwards rather than a depression takes place in the 
Cadiz curve between the 14th and 18th hours, and a sudden abrupt upward 
start (of 0"03 in.) in that of Gibraltar at tlie 18th, which as it were dislocates 
it, and places all the rest of its course on a higher level. In speculating on 
the origin of these peculiarities, I have been led to consider them as probably 
due to the immense radiation of the African continent, with its cloudless 
skies, chilling and contracting the superincumbent atmosphere, and giving 
rise to a nocturnal influx from all quarters, but chiefly from the adjacent 
ocean. Such an influx, suddenly checked and reversed in its direction by 
the approach of the sun to the eastern horizon, would evidently tend to pro- 
duce phaenomena of the kind. 

The curve for Hanover of this term deviates totally from the type of those 
described, offea'ing a regular and considerable rise and fall, in which the 
effect of the diurnal oscillations is completely merged. The maximum of the 
series occurs at or about IG'', the total rise from the lowest point being 
0*22 in., and that of its subsequent depression to what appears to be a mini- 
mum, at the end of the series, of 0'13 in. These features tend to separate 



64 REPORT — 1843. 

Hanover from the other European stations and to connect it with the British 
group, though under considerable modifications. 

At all the British stations the effect of diurnal oscillation is completely 
merged in, and even for the most part contradicted by, the course of casual 
fluctuation. On the subject of these curves, as connected with each other, 
and with those belonging to the continental stations, Mr. Birt has furnished 
some instructive and elaborate remarks, to which it would be doing injustice 
not to state them in his own words. 

" British Isles and Europe. June ] 836. 

" (B.) These sheets exhibit a beautiful and interesting instance of the trans- 
ference of the atmospheric affections from the wer.t of Ireland across England 
to Brussels. 

"(B.) By taking the whole of the observations at Markree and Limerick, 
the curves obtained at these stations may be divided into three portions. The 
first exhibit a gradual descent of the barometer at both stations : this descent 
was observed during seven hours at Markree, and at Limerick during six ; at 
Markree, the northern station, it was greater than at Limerick : the extents 
are as under. 

Markree -096 

Limerick .... '060 

The vertices of these curves were not obsei-ved at either station, consequently 
the whole amounts of oscillation are not given, but as the descents terminate 
nearly at tiie same time, the oscillations are comparable. 

"(B.) The second portions of these curves are distinguished by their flat- 
ness, and also, especially at Marki-ee, by two complete, though small, undu- 
lations ; these undulations are perceptible, although in a less degree at 
Limerick ; they occupy nine hours at each station. 

" (B.) The third portions exhibit a bold descent of the mercurial column ; 
this descent commenced at Limerick at 9 p.m., and at Markree at 10 p.m.; 
at the latter station it is uncertain if the lower vei'tex was observed, but it is 
probable that it was observed at Limerick at 5 p.m. of the 22nd. Should the 
6 o'clock observation at Markree have been the lowest, the extents of oscilla- 
tion and the durations would have been as under. 

Markree •404 20 hours. 

Limerick .... -350 20 hours. 

"From these facts it appears that the atmospheric movements were one hour 
in advance at Limerick, and that the extents of the undulations were greatest 
at Markree. 

" (B.) The features of these curves were observed at Halifax, but at later 
periods; thus the curve obtained at Halifax commences with a fall of "ISS; 
the vertex is not given, and the duration of the fall is at least sixteen houi's ; 
this fall terminated at 10 p.m., nine hours after the termination of the fall at 
Markree; the flatter portion of the curve is well marked^ extending from 
10 p.m. to 8 a.m., one hour longer than the similar portions at Markree and 
Limerick. At Halifax this portion has three complete, though small undula- 
tions; the extents are given in the table of features of small undulations. The 
termination of tliis portion of the curve at Halifax occurred at 8 a.m. of the 
22nd, 10 hours after the termination of the similar portion at Markree. The 
last portion of the curve was as well marked as at the Irish stations. During 
the remaining ten hours the barometer fell '176, and it is probable that it 
continued to fall, as this portion agrees with the last portions of the Irish 
curves. 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 65 

•' (B.) It appears that the times occupied in the transference from Markree 
to Halifax were nine and ten hours. 

" (B.) The Oxford curve presents us with a portion of an earlier undulation; 
the upper vertex is not given. The first (lower) vertex occurred at 1 p.m., 
the fall from the commencement of the observations being '055. The second 
(upper) vertex took place at 6 p.m., the rise '019. From this point the fea- 
tures of the curve are similar to those of the Markree, Limerick, and Halifax 
curves, and from being moie southerly, the curve is more readily comparable 
with that obtained at Limerick. The fall occupies twelve hours, extent 'lOS. 
The two small undulations are distinctly perceptible, although contracted 
both in length and height; they occupy about four hours. The last fall com- 
mences at 10 A.M. ; the reading at 5 p.m. is 'OOS lower than that at 6 p.m., but 
it is uncertain if this is the vertex. The times occupied in the transference 
of the phaenomena are as under ; — 
From Limerick, 

End of first fall 18 hours. 

End of small undulations . . 13 hours. 



From Halifax, 



End of first fall 8 hours. 

End of small undulations . . 2 hours. 



" (B.) At London the principal features of the foregoing curves were appa- 
rent. The fall, which occupied twelve hours at Oxford, occupied only nine 
hours at London; the commencements of the fall were at the same hour, 6 p.m.; 
previous to this similar phaenomena were observed at the two stations, with 
the exception of the earliest upper vertex, which occurred at London at 8 a.m. 
The next lower and upper vertices occurred at the same hours at both sta- 
tions. Oxford exhibiting the greatest ranges, the mean coincidence of the 
vertices occurred at 3^ 30"^ p.xM. The smaller undulations, so apparent in the 
former curves, are nearly obliterated at London, and a rise of '030, occupying 
seven hours, occurs in their stead. The commencement of the last fall at 
London and Oxford is identical. 

" (B.) The comparison between the London and Brussels curves is highly 
interesting ; the same undulations are exhibited, but at different times, and 
the same diminution of oscillation that has been traced across England is still 
apparent. The tables show these features very distinctly ; and also that the 
small undulations that were scarcely perceptible at London were apparent 
at Brussels. 

" (B.) Throughout the whole of these curves west of Brussels there are two 
very prominent features, namely, the descents of the barometric column an- 
terior and posterior to the small undulations. The complete features of these 
descents are given in the table under the heads Vertex 4 — , and F'all, after 
small undulations. The features of the small undulations form a separate 
table. 

" The European group, including London and excepting Hanover, presents 
a set of sinnlar curves, each exhibiting two complete undulations ; these six 
curves may for convenience be subdivided into three minor groups, each pair 
consisting of stations comparatively near each other. The group consisting 
of the Cadiz and Gibraltar curves is highly interesting, especially on account 
of the abrupt rise at Gibraltar at 5 a.m. and 6 a.m. of the 22nd. By neglect- 
ing this rise, it will be seen that the two curves are very similar, and this 
would induce the opinion, either that the abrupt rise arose from erroneous 
observation or the non-application of a correction, or that some very local 
action took place in the atmosphere. In these curves, Cadiz and Gibraltar, 

1843. F 



66 REPORT— 1843. 

we have two of the vertices coinciding in time to those at 5 p.m., the undula- 
tions in one series being longer than in the other, there is consequently a 
displacement on each side of this central vertex, the first* vertex occurring 
earlier at Cadiz than at Gibraltar, and the second later. Tiie undulation at 
Cadiz is shallower than that at Gibraltar ; tlie time it occupied was fourteen 
hours, and its depth 'OGS, while at Gibraltar the time was nine hours, and 
depth '070. The next undulation is about the same length at both stations, 
the Gibraltar curve being two hours in advance of the Cadiz. 

" (B.) The coincidence of vertices appears to have been generally exhibited 
at the European stations ; also in England, as noticed in the remarks on the 
London curve ; and not only did the Oxford curve exhibit a longer, but also 
a deeper undulation than the London curve. It may be remarked here that 
Oxford and London are similarly situated relatively to each other as Cadiz 
and Gibraltar. 

" (B.) Geneva and Turin are the remaining European stations that exhibit 
a coincidence of vertices ; Geneva, similarly situated with respect to Turin as 
Oxford to London, London to Brusselti, and Cadiz to Gibraltar, generally ex- 
hibits a greater range than Turin. The Turin curve, after the coincidence 
of vertices, is one hour in advance of tlie Geneva curve. 

" (B.) The Hanover curve appears to form part of a distinct system ; it is 
to be regretted tiiat we do not possess observations to compare with it. 

" (B.) From the above remarks, it appears that the affections of the atmo- 
sphere were very different in tlie British Isles and Europe. Those in the 
former gave rise to very extensive barometric undulations, while the obser- 
vations obtained from the latter group showed that the atmosjjhere was but 
slightly disturbed. 

" (B.) The occurrence of the small undulations first observed at Limerick 
and Markree, and traced with only one exception tlu'oughout tiie two groups, 
is a very interesting feature in these curves, as well as the descent of the baro- 
meter immediately following them, and which took place at every station in 
the British Isles and Europe. The small undulations appeared to be very 
irregular, and on two occasions, when they were scarcely observed, the states 
of the barometric column were decidedly different, namely, falling at Lime- 
rick and rising at London. The time, however, of the duration of these 
undulations varies upon the whole but slightly, Halifax exhibiting the longest 
and Oxford the shortest period, being respectively ten and four hours at 
these stations. 

* " There appears to be some discrepancy between the statement that ' the next undula- 
tion is about the same length at both stations' and tlie table. By consulting the curves it 
will be seen that the fall at Gibraltar from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. consists of two imdulations, al- 
though they are not so bold as those at Cadiz ; assuming therefore that the fall agrees with 
the Cadiz fall from 10 to 4, we have 



+ 

10 p.m. 


Cadiz. 


+ 
IOa.m 


•002 


8 A.M. 


•ou 


8 P.M. 


Gibraltar. 


+ 

8 A.M. 


058 


5 A.M. 


•o\^ 



After these times, 10 a.m. and 8 a.m., the barometer fell at both stations, with the exception 
of the rise of -008 at Gibraltar at 1 p.m. ; this will make the fall at Gibraltar from 8 a.m. 
equal 'OZC." 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 6? 
«' (B.) Tables illustrative of the coincidence of vertices. 
Oxford and London. 

+ Oxford. + 

Q 6 p.m. -Iq 
■055 ip.M. '^ 6 a.m. Oxford longest. 



-f- London. + 

"A.M. -Oq^ .,« 6p.m. -0.9^ 



i P.M. ^ 



+ 



Geneva and Turin, 
Geneva. + 



'^•'"^•^* 6 p.m. -or^o 



11 P.M. 



Geneva one hour longer* 



+ 

8 A.M. 



Turin. 



+ 



^•^2 6 p.m. -05^ 



Corfi^ a«rf Gibraltar. 
^ Cadiz. + 



Cadiz five hours longer. 



+ Gibraltar. + 

II A.M. . .033 8 P.M. 

^'0 5 p.M' 



" (B). Features of the small undulations 

Markvee. 

Vertex + 21st 5 p.m. 4 hours 024 

- „ 6 „ 1 „ '036 

„ + ,, 10 ,. 4 „ -015 

Limerick. 

Vertex + 21st 2 f.m. 2 hours -003 

The remainder a continuous fall. 

Halifax. 

Vertex + 21st 12 night 2 hours '032 

„ -22nd 1a.m. 1 „ -019 

+ 4 „ 3 „ -009 

' _ " 7 3 !! 039 

" -1- " 8 " 1 .. -013 

(. -t- !> ° » * " 



Oxford. 

Vertex + 22nd 7iA.M. li hour -014 

.. - ,, 9 ,. H " '^^'^ 

+ 10 , 1 „ -010 



London. 



A continuous rise 



•030 



Brussels. 



Vertex + 22nd 5 a.m. 1 hour "000 

- 6 „ 1 „ -003 

Z 10 „ 3 „ -005 

", + „ 12 NOON 2 „ -018 
F 2 



68 



REPORT — 1843. 



" (B). Features of the small undulations (coniintced). 



Vertex + 22n(l 
Vertex -)- 22nd 



Geneva. 

2 A.M. 

^ » 

6 „ 
8 „ 

Turin. 

2 a.m. 

3 „ 

7 „ 



1 hour 

2 „ 

1 ,, 
6 ,. 

2 „ 

2 hours 
1 ,. 
4 „ 



•002 
•032 
•02G 
•001 
•007 

•009 
•004 
•033 



Vertex + 22nd 
Vertex + 22ud 



Cadiz. 

4 A.M. 

10 „ 



Gibraltar. 

8 A.M. 

10 „ 

1 P.M. 



3 hours 

4 ,) 
2 „ 



3 hours 

2 „ 

3 „ 



•022 
•046 
•014 



•012 
•029 

•008 



station. 


Vertex 1 + 


Vertex 2 - 


Vertex 3 + 


Vertex 4 - 


Time. 


Dur. 
Hrs. 


Ex- 
tent. 


Time. 


Dur. 
Hrs. 


Ex- 
tent. 


Time. 


Dur. 
Hrs. 


tent. 


Time. 


Dur. 
Hrs. 


Ex- 
tent. 


Markree 
Limerick 
Halifax... 




















21 1p.m. 

21 12 NOON 

21 10 p.m. 


7 

6 

16 


•096 
•060 
•133 


Oxford . . . 








21 IP.M. 


7 


•055 


21 6p.m. 


5 


■oi'9 


22 6 A.M. 


12 


•103 


London . 

Brussels 

Geneva... 


21 8 A.M. 
21 1 P.M. 
21 8 A.M. 

21 8 „ 


2 

7 
2 
2 


018 

038 
019 
OOfi 


21 1 „ 
21 6 „ 
21 6 „ 
21 6 „ 


5 
5 

10 
10 


•039 
•034 
■064 
•052 


21 6 „ 

21 12 NT. 

21 11p.m. 
21 10 „ 


5 
6 
5 
4 


•018 
■029 
■050 
•052 


22 3 „ 9 
22 4 „ 4 
22 I „ 2 

21 12NIGHT 2 


•094 
•027 
•042 
•009 


Cadiz . . . 


21 8 „ 


2 


017 


21 5 „ 


9 


•063 


21 10 „ 


5 


■033 


22 1 A.M. 


3 


•038 


Gibraltar 


21 11 „ 


5 


•060 


21 5 „ 


6 


■070 


21 8 „ 


3 


■033 


22 5 „ 


9 


•058 


Station. 


Small Undulations. 


Fall. 


Comm»ncement 


Rise 


Fall. 


End. 


Dur. 
Hrs. 


Commencement. 


Dur. 
Hrs. 


Ex- 
tent. 


End. 


Markree ... 


21 1 P.M. 


■024 


021 


21 10 P.M. 


9 


21 10 P.M. 


20 


•404 


22 6 P.M. 


Limerick ... 


21 12 NOON 


•003 


•052 


21 9 „ 


9 


21 9 „. 


20 


•350 


22 5 „ 


Halifax .... 


21 10 p.m. 


•032 


■036 


22 8 A.M. 


10 


22 8 A.M. 


10 


•176 


22 6 „ 


Oxford 


22 6 A.M. 


•014 


■004 


22 10 „ 


4 


22 10 „ 


7 


•081 


22 5 „ 


London .... 


22 3 „ 


•030 


•000 


22 10 „ 


7 


22 10 „ 


8 


•067 


22 6 „ 


Brussels .... 


22 4 „ 


•018 


•000 


22 12 NOON 


8 


22 12 NOON 


6 


■021 


22 6 „ 


Geneva 


22 1 „ 


•002 


•000 


22 8 a.m. ! 7 


22 8 A.M. 


10 


•075 


22 6 „ 


Turin 


21 12 NIGHT 


^•038 


•000 


22 7 „ 


7 


22 7 „ 


10 


•082 


22 5 „ 


Cadiz 


22 1 A.M. 


•022 


•032 


22 10 „ 


9 


22 10 „ 


8 


•102 


22 6 „ 


Gibraltar 


22 5 A.M. 


•012 


•021 


22 1 P.M. 


8 


22 1 P.M. 


4 


•055 


22 5 „ 



Sept. 1836. — Markree, Limerick, Halifax, Oxford, London (with Green- 
wich and Blackheath), Brussels, Hanover, Geneva, Turin, Gibraltar, Cadiz. 

This series affords a fine instance of a fluctuation traceable over the whole 
area embraced (though gradually modified from station to station), under cir- 
cumstances permitting us to determine the direction, breadth, and velocity of 
transference of an atmospheric wave on a large scale with considerable cer- 
tainty. 

The diurnal oscillations are not only perceptible, but form pretty conspi- 
cuous features of most of the curves. To begin with the southern stations : — 
At Gibraltar the first projected minimum (that of -l I'.M.), and the second or 
morning minimum is thrown somewhat later than its regular epoch (^to 5 or 
6 A.M.). Both the maxima are distinct. At Cadiz the first minimum is con- 
cealed by a casual minimum superposed on it. The adjacent maximum (that 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 69 

of 10 P.M.) is also somewhat displaced, and thrown later than usual by an irre- 
gular elevation or protuberance, which is also traceable in the Gibraltar 
curve ; but the second minimum and maximum (those of the morning and 
forenoon of the 22nd) are very distinct. At Turin and Hanover the effect 
of the periodical oscillations is barely perceptible. At Geneva and Brussels 
it is perfectly distinct, as it is also, and not to be mistaken, at London, Green- 
wich, Blackheath and Oxford. At Halifax, obvious errors in the reading of 
the instrument interfere, but at Markree and Limerick these oscillations re- 
appear with perfect distinctness in the morning and forenoon of the 22nd. 

When these are smoothed off, the charts offer a fine example of a very 
regular and steady wave advancing from N.W. to S.E., perfectly identifiable 
in its greater features, though somewhat modified in its progi'ess. Beginning 
with the Irish stations, Markree and Limerick agree in presenting us with a 
gentle fall of the mercury throughout, only that at the latter of these stations 
the descent is somewhat accelerated towards the end of the series, and 
retarded in its earlier hours (from 6 to 8 hours), so as give rise to a relative 
maximum at ll*^ 30"". At Halifax this descending tendency disappears. 
The curve consists of a slight fall at the commencement with a minimum 
(»«') at 1 hour, followed by a steady rise continued for 13 hours, up to a 
maximum M' at 14 hours ; whence it sinks with much regularity to the end 
of the series, terminating at the same level where it began. This maximum 
(M') I consider as identical with that which passed Limerick at ll'' 30*". 

The Oxford curve begins with a pretty steady ascent, and rising with three 
rather remarkable sub-undulations (whose summits occur at 8 hours, 10 hours, 
12 hours respectively), attains a maximum nearly coincident in respect of 
time with that of Halifax, and descends somewhat more abruptly than it rose, 
to the end of the series. The crown of the wave was vertically over Oxford 
at 13" 20'". 

In London and its environs the ascent of the wave occupies the whole of 
the first 23 hours. It is very regular and gradual, but with the same traces 
of a preceding minimum. The crown of the wave was vertically over this 
locality at 22 hours, and the beginning of its descent is decidedly marked. 

At Brussels and Hanover the whole series is occupied by the ascending 
wave. Its summit, if vertically over either of these stations at all within the 
series, must have been so nearly at its termination, or at 25 hours. 

The cui ve for Geneva commences with a slight fall and a decided and broad 
minimum extending over the 2nd and 3rd hours, clearly demonstrating the 
presence of the trough of a preceding wave. This having passed over to the 
south-east, the rise of our wave commences, and is maintained almost or quite 
to the end, where, however, some indications of a commencing descent may 
be observed. 

At Turin, the trough of the preceding wave was here, as at Geneva, in the 
act of passing during the earlier hours of the series. It is perfectly well made 
out, the epoch of the minimum being 3 hours, which is followed by a steady 
rise to a maximum, which here, £is at Geneva, is just perceived to be on the 
turn where the projected series breaks off. 

At Cadiz, not only the minimum or trough of the preceding wave, but some 
considerable portion of its descent comes into view in the earlier hours, indi- 
cated by a falling barometer from to 5 hours, Avhere the minimum occurs. 
The rest of the series is occupied by the subsequent ascending wave, which 
continues to the 24th hour. Its course however is less uniform ; its upward 
slope marked by an exaggeration of the forenoon maximum; and its turn 
downwards at the end of the series unequivocally expressed. 

In the Gibraltar curve the barometer readings for the 4th and 5th hour 



70 REPOBT — 1843. 

have been obviously misread by two-tenths of an inch. This being corrected, 
a very flat minimum extending over the Ith, .5tii, and 6th hour appears, mark- 
ing, as at Cadiz, the termination of the preceding depression. At 7 iiours, 
and not earlier, the rise of the mercury began, and continued uninterrupted 
(except by the regular periodic oscillations) to tlie end of the series without 
any indication, Avithin its limits, of a rc-commencing descent. 

From a review of the whole of this highly interesting term, the following 
conclusions may be drawn, 

A ])erfectly well-marked and definite atmospheric wave passed over the 
British Isles and the west of Europe on the day in question, the crest of the 
wave having a direction nearly N.N.E. and S.S.W., and its progress being 
from W.N.W. to E.S.E. The half breadth of the wave, which occupied 26 
hours in its passage, covered a space extending from Oxford in a direction 
perpendicular to that of the crest, to a point not far from Halle in Wiirtem- 
burgh, Mhich gives, by rough measurement on a map, about 540 miles, and 
a velocity of about 21 miles per hour. The barometric depth of this wave may 
be stated at 0*2 inch. 

December 1836. — Markree, Edinburgh, Halifax, Oxford, London (with 
Greenwich), Ashurst, Brussels, Hanover, Kremsmiinster, Geneva, St. Jean de 
Maurienne, Turin, Gibraltar, Cadiz. 

The effects of the regular diurnal oscillation are tolerably distinct in the 
curves for London, Greenwich, Oxford, Turin, and Geneva, especially as 
respects the maximum at 22 hours, which appears to have been at all of these 
stations exaggerated into a considerable upward bulge, as it is also at Krems- 
miinster, Hanover, and Brussels, where the other maximum and the minima 
are much less conspicuous. At Gibraltar the bulge in question assumes the 
character of a sustained elevation ; at Cadiz, that of an undulating level. In 
the former of these two stations the other maximum and the minima disap- 
pear entirely, the curve presenting nearly a dead level from to 7 hours, which 
is resumed after a trifling fall at the 8th hour, and continued to the 20th. In 
the latter the morning minimum is not only obliterated, but converted into 
an abrupt protuberance, occupying the interval from 14 hours to 17 hours, — 
a feature which I have already had occasion to notice in the terms of March 
and June 1836, and which appears to constitute a remarkable peculiarity in 
the diurnal movements of the atmosphere in this corner of the European 
continent. At IN.'arkree, Edinburgh, and Halifax, neither of the regular 
maxima or minima can be clearly made out. 

Abstraction made of the periodical oscillations, the features of the conti- 
nental curves, taken as a whole, offer little accordance. The range is least 
(and very small) at Brussels and Gibraltar, especially the former, corrobo- 
rating a general remark to which my attention has been called by Mr. Birt, 
that Brussels may be regarded in some sort as a node of barometric undula- 
tion, departing from which on either side the range increases ; a remark to 
which I shall subsequently have occasion to call attention more pointedly. 
Geneva, St. Jean de Maurienne and Turin, agree in the maintenance of nearly 
an uniform level (a slight downward tendency being only noticeable at Turin) 
for the fourteen hours from to 14 hours, Mhen they all begin to sink to a 
feeble but distinct minimum between the 17th and 18th hours, rising again 
to a maximum at the 22nd, which (as observed above) being more than is due 
to the regular oscillation, must be looked upon as belonging to a passing wave. 
Kremsmiinster belongs also to the same system, but the descent of its curve 
from to 16 hours is greater than at Turin (amounting to 009 inch), and 
marked by two conspicuous undulations in the 4th and 6th hours, which how- 
ever are merely local, as they do not appear in any of the associated curves. 



ON THE REDUCTION OP MfiTEOBOLOOICAL OBSERVATIONS. 7l 

The minimum and maximum of the 17th and 21st hours are hardly more 
marked than what the periodical oscillations will account for. 

Hanover is, as usual, peculiar. The slight tendency to fall as far as the 
5th hour, and preservation of a level from thence to the 12th, indeed would 
tend to connect it with the former system, but instead of going on thence to 
a minimum, the curve begins thence to rise slowly but steadily as far as the 
21st hour (through 0*03 inch), when again a slight but abrupt jirotuberance 
at the 22nd hour recals the corresponding feature in the Geneva group. 

In Britain the Ashurst curve is interrupted from the 7th to the 18th hour, 
but where traced is nearly identical with those of London, Greenwich, and 
Blackheath ; and we may add also, with slight modifications, of Oxford. All 
these four curves agree in a minimum between the hours and 1 of a very 
flattened character, followed by a gentle rise of about 0*08 inch, which con- 
tinues to the 18th hour, where in London and Ashurst a trace of the Geneva 
minimum occurs, followed, in these as well as at Oxford, by the protuberance 
already noticed in the Continental system. 

Proceeding thence to Halifax, Edinburgh and Markree, the range in- 
creases, and the curves undergo a great change of character. In the curves 
of all three, indeed, a minimum in the beginning of the series, and a rapid 
doMMiward tendency at its termination, connect them with the other members 
of the group, but in the intermediate hours their course is very different. 
Halifax rises to a bold maximum at 3 liours, through a range of 0*20 inch, 
after which it descends again with equal decision to the end of the term. 
Edinburgh is marked through its whole course with sudden ascents and de- 
scents, of a very desultory character, neglecting which, if a flowing curve be 
drawn, we find it rise, as in the case of Halifax, to a single strong maximum 
at 10 hours (or 5 hours earlier than at Halifax), and thence descending again 
to and beyond its initial level, giving a total range of 0'13 inch. The wind, 
which was moderate or light at Edinburgh during the afternoon of the 21st, 
gives no clue to the explanation of an extremely abrupt zigzag in the curve at 
3 hours and 4< hours, which therefore have probably originated in misreadings. 

The Markree curve rises from its minimum at hour to a maximum at 
12 hours, through 0*12 inch, thence retains its level nearly unchanged till 
between 17 and 18 hours, when the rise to the diurnal maximum commences, 
followed by a pretty decided slope downward, which beyond the limits of the 
projected curve (as the continuance of the observations show) became rapid, 
and Avas accompanied by a gale of wind from the west. A heavy gale from 
the same quarter is also noted at Halifax attending the decline of the baro- 
meter at that station, and at Edinburgh it is also recorded as freshening to a 
moderate and ultimately to a " high " wind ; the strength of the wind in each 
ctuse increasing with the barometric depression. 

March 1837- — -Markree, Halifax, Edinburgh, London, Greenwich, Brus- 
sels, Hanover, Geneva, St. Jean de Maurienne, Turin, Kremsniunster, Cadiz, 
Gibraltar, Tangier. 

This term presents nothing very distinct. The barometric ranges for the 
most part small, and where moderately large not well agreeing. The follow- 
ing may be noted as features of some interest. 

Diurnal oscillations. — Very perceptible at London, GreeuM'ich, Brussels, 
Geneva, Kremsmiinster. 

Range. — Very small at Brussels, Hanover, Gibraltar, Tangier. Greatest 
at Markree, Halifax, Kremsmiinster. The nodal character of Brussels may 
be regarded as supported by the observations of this term on the whole. 

Sudden and broken undidatory movements. — Remarkable at Edinburgh 
from the 12th to the 17th hour. 



72 REPORT— 1843. 

Abiiormal protuberances — At Gibraltar, as already noticed in the terms of 
1836, a low and unequivocal rise and fall from 14 to 18 hours, where, accord- 
ing to the law of periodicity, the reverse ought to have happened. A relative 
protuberance, similar, no doubt, in character, occurs at Cadiz in the interval 
from 13 to 16 hours, though (owing to the generally descending course of the 
curve from the 11th to the 16th hour) it rather appears as an abrupt shoidder 
than as a positive elevation. 

St. Jean de Maurienne and Geneva, both offering a good deal of irregula- 
rity, yet preserve a good parallelism, notwithstanding the intervening Alps, 
high among which the former is situated. 

June 1837. — Markree, Halifax, Oxford, London, Greenwich, Ashurst, 
Brussels, Hanover, Drachenfels, Kremsmiinster, Geneva, Turin, Cadiz, Gibral- 
tar, Tangier. 

Diurnal oscillatiojis. — Nowhere well made out. At Cadiz and Gibraltar 
the place of the le** minimum is occupied by an abnormal maximum of the 
character already so often noticed. 

Term jluctiuitions, — At Markree, Halifax, London, Oxford, Brussels, a 
regular and (with exception of Markree, where the curve is considerably 
convex on and near 12 hours) a nearly uniform rise, at nearly the same rate 
in all, of about 0"01 incli per hour. 

Beyond Brussels, in this order of sequence, the character changes. At 
Drachenfels the rise was trifling till the 9th hour, when a sudden jump up- 
wards of 0*086 took place, which (as Mr. Forbes's barometer was of course 
a portable one) might be owing to some accident ; especially as the subsequent 
course of the curve is level, or nearly so, as far as 16 hours, when it begins 
to rise in correspondence with the Brussels curve. 

Hanover and Kremsmiinster fall rather than rise, though but verj' slightly, 
during the first 4 or 5 hours. Both thence rise slowly till 15 hours, then 
pretty suddenly. In the Hanover curve the rise continues to the end. And 
at Kremsmiinster it extends only to 20 hours, where a flat maximum is at- 
tained, followed by a slight but continued depression to the end of the 
series. 

Geneva and Turin hold a kind of reversed parallel ; the former, after some 
undulation, rising to a maximum at 12 hours, and thence falling to 14 hours; 
the latter falling to a minimum at 6 hours, and thence rising until 4 hours. 
After these epochs respectively both curves run nearlj^ level to the end. 

Cadiz fluctuates much and irregularly, Gibraltar little, and Tangier main- 
tains throughout an almost unbroken level. Neither of the three offer any 
features of resemblance to the other curves already described. 

Little more can be gathered from this term than that a general rise of the 
barometer took place during its continuance in the north of Europe, which 
was only partially participated in, in its middle, and hardly at all in its 
southern regions. 

Dec. 1837 — Markree, Edinburgh, Halifax, Cambridge, Oxford, Ashurst, 
London, Greenwich, Brussels, Hanover, Kremsmiinster, Geneva, Turin, 
Cadiz. 

The principal feature of this term is a complete separation of Turin from 
all the stations north of the chain of Alps as well as from Cadiz, both in respect 
of the amount and character of its barometric fluctuations. In the curve for 
this station a gentle rise throughout the series of about 0*13 inch, with a flat- 
tened minimum in the earlier hours, a somewhat undulating and gentle rise 
to a relative, or in some cases to an absolute maximum, during the greater 
part of the projected 24 hours; a slight tendency to depression in the morn- 
ing and forenoon of the 2nd day of the term, and a resumption of the gentle 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 73 

rise to the end of the projected series, may be taken as the general character 
of the curves ; in which the diurnal maxima and minima are for the most 
part conspicuously traceable, and which, when allowed for, equalize several 
of the curves nearly into regularly sloping lines, with a slight general con- 
vexity. This is especially the case with Brussels, Greenwich, London, Ash- 
urst, and Oxford ; the curve for Brussels being decidedly the smoothest of the 
whole series. In Markree and Cambridge absolute maxima occur at the 
14th hour, which is followed at Markree by a very gentle and continued 
depression ; while at Cambridge, after descending to a pretty abrupt minimum 
(at 17 hours), the rising tendency is resumed and carried out to the end. 
At Halifax the rise is continued till between 16 and 17 hours, when an abso- 
lute maximum occurs, followed by an undulating level. At Geneva also 
there is an absolute though slight maximum from 13 to 14 hours, followed 
by a very slightly undulating level to the end. At Kremsmiinster the early 
minimum (as is also the case at Geneva) is more marked and prolonged than 
can be referred to the action of the diurnal oscillation. In fact the Krems- 
miinster curve consists of two unequal portions like a vibrating string, having 
a node at the 15th hour, the earlier portion being concave, the later convex 
upwards ; the deflexions in both, however, being small, viz. 0*03 inch and 
0-05. 

Hanover is again peculiar; as far as the 17th hour its curve follows the 
same law of gentle and undulating rise ; but here a sudden irregular action 
commences, indicated by a great protuberance caused by a rapid rise of 0*10 
inch to a maximum at S^ 36™, sinking thence to a minimum at the 22nd hour, 
and again rising to the end. 

From the type of all these curves that of Turin diifers entirely. It com- 
mences by a gentle descent to a slight minimum at 2^ 36™, from which it 
nearly recovers by an undulating rise as far as 5^ 36™, when it takes a sudden 
plunge down of 0'086 inch to an abrupt minimum at 6'' 45'" ; whence it im- 
mediately recovers, and in the three next hours ascends through 0*132 in. 
to a maximum at 9'' 45™, then descends unsteadily through 0"067 inch to 
another minimum ; after which follows a gentle rise to the end of the term. 
Nothing can place in a clearer light the action of the Alpine chain in inter- 
cepting a small wave, of which the undulations might be confined chiefly to 
the lower strata (since nothing prevents the atmospheric strata from being 
very unequally disturbed, as we see in the fluctuations of superposed liquids). 

The curve for Cadiz commences, like that of Turin, with a gentle descent, 
and, like it, has a slight minimum at 2^ 36™, whence it recovers, not as at 
Turin, by violent starts and falls, but by a very gradual and easy slope up to 
j2h i3m^ when it again descends. From 13''36™ to 15'^ 42™, however, we 
are reminded by a protuberance in the descending line, of the feature already 
signalized as a peculiarity of this station on former occasions. 

Hitherto we have foreborne to mention the Edinburgh curve, which exhi- 
bits a strange anomaly, such as neither the course of the changes at Markree 
or Halifax would lead us to expect, and which, if it do not arise from some 
error of reading affecting the first 6 hours, goes to place in a strong light the 
capricious suddenness of the barometric changes at this station, of which we 
have already seen instances. 

The Edinburgh curve commences, like the other British and many of the 
continental ones, with a slight fall to a minimum; anticipatory in this case 
of the regular diurnal minimum, viz. at 1** 24™ ; thence it rises gently enough 
(through 0*059 in.) as far as 6*^ 24™, when on a sudden it starts up, rising in 
the next 2 hours through 0*244 in., after which it maintains this increased 
level with only a very trifling variation up to the end of the series. 



74 REPORT— 1843. 

Dec. 1837. — Markree, Edinl)iirgh, Halifax, Beaumaris, Oxford, London, 
Greenwich, Brussels, Alost, Louvain, Geneva, Kremsmiinster, Turin, Parma, 
Cadiz. 

This term is in every respect full of interest, and fortunately the stations 
are numerous and well-situated. It exhibits the rise, culmination, and fall of 
a great wave, travelling from iiortli to south, or perhaps from nortli-west to 
south-east, and exhiiiiting at its culmination, at many stations very remote 
from one another, features giving it a peculiar character and individuality. 
The breadth of this wave was such that at no single station are both the rise 
and fall wholly included in the terra; so that it is by successive stages as it 
Avere that each station contributes its quota to our knowledge of its progress. 

Not a little remarkable either is it that Cadiz appears to have been entirely 
without its range, the barometrical curve of that station exhibiting nearly a 
level, varied only by the diurnal oscillations, which are unusually and stri- 
kingly prominent, and having, on the Mhole, a slight tendency to descent. 
Markree is the only other station in which (from the otherwise even and 
regular slope of its curve) these periodical movements are apparent. 

The Markree observations, as projected, exhibit only the descent of the 
wave, its culmination having passed that station, or being in the act of passing 
it at the very commencement oi' the projected series or hour. Referring to 
the original register in M'hich 36 hours (6 before and 6 after the projected 
term) are included,! find this partly corroborated, the barometer having been 
on the rise during that whole interval. Nevertheless, as it will appear from a 
consideration of the other curves, that the wave had in fact a double crest, 
separated by an interval of several hours, it is not quite certain that the absolute 
culmination, or true maximum of pressure, is exhibited at all in the Markree 
series. The moderate downward slope of the Markree curve (which de- 
scends on the whole only 0*33 inch in the 30 hours registered from its appa- 
rent maximum) supi)orts this idea, the total fluctuation, as it appears in the 
more southern stations, having been more than double this amount. 

At Edinburgh the absolute culmination of the wave took place at 10 a.m. 
Ed. M.T.=10'* 30'" Brussels m.t. of the 21st hour, being marked in a manner 
characteristic of the locality, by a very sudden upward start of a whole tenth 
of an inch in the hour preceding that epoch, and a fall of very nearly the 
same amount in the hour subsequent, producing a high peak or pinnacle in 
the barometric curve at that hour (22nd hour, Sept. 21), which, as it will be 
hereafter referred to, I shall term the^/irsi culmination of the wave. From 
the 11th hour the Edinburgh curve preserves its level as far as 1'^ 30™ (Sept. 
22), (1 30 p.m., Sept. 21, civil reckonins), when it dips for one hour to a 
slight minimum, and rises again to a maximum at 30 hours, thence descend- 
ing to another minimum at 6" 30". Thus the interval from 2^ 30"' to 6*' 30"' 
is filled with the second cubninafion of our wave, Avhich however is here not 
very marked, the wliole descent to the mininnim being only 004-6. To this 
succeeds a third culmination not quite so high as the second, and occupying 
2 hours (to 8'' 30""), when a very abrupt and sheer descent commences for 
the next 3 hours (through 0'197 inch) to another minimum, or rather to a 
motionless level or pause in the descent, continued for 3 hours more (to 
15'^ 30"). From this point a very trifling rise takes place to a feeble culmina- 
tion at 16'' 30"", after which the descent continues till the end of the registered 
series, which in this case unluckily breaks off' at 18'' 30"", instead of being 
continued to the end of the term. The total observed range is 0'388. 

The Beaumaris curve exhibits a singular contrast with the Edinburgh, 
being as smooth as the other is abruptly broken. It exhibits 4 hours of the 
ascent of our wave and H hours of the descent (the term not having been 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 75 

completely observed), both of a gentle character. The absolute culmination 
occurs at i^ 30™ (Sept. 21), and the total observed range small (0-172 inch). 

The Halifax series (which is complete, including 36 hours) exhibits the 
wave in progress of ascent from 5^30™ a.m. to 5'' 30"" p.m. of the 21st; during 
■which 12 hours the mercury had risen 0-278 inch. At this epoch (5^ 30°') I 
place the first culmination, which is, in fact, the highest of a stories of low 
undulations. The second takes place at 8'' 30™, but is of so flattened and 
obsolete a character that it hardly deserves to be called so, and is rather a 
low convexity interposed between the first and third, which occurs at 10'' 24™, 
and is more marked, though not strongly, and at a lower level by 0"033 inch 
than the first. From this the curve descends very regularly to the end. Total 
observed range = 0"34'8 inch. 

At Oxford the first culmination is 5^ 20"". It is a sharp and sudden pin- 
nacle on the upward general slope of the curve of about O'OY inch in height 
on a base of 2 hours. From its subsidence at 6" 20™, the curve continues 
to rise for three hours more, till it attains a second maximum from 9*^ 30"" to 
10'' 30"", which places the second culmination at 10 hours. The form of this 
culmination is an obtuse bulge extending over the three hours from 8'' 30™ 
to ll** 30™, and is followed by a dead level leading to a shoulder or quick 
slope at 15'' 30™, and which is the last representative of our third culmi- 
nation, whicli seems to have died out or tiiinned off in the progress of the 
wave. 

At London the ascent of the wave continues till 6'' 18™, which is the epoch 
of the first culmination, indicated by a great bulge in the upward slope (as 
at Oxford) of 0"07 inch in height and 3 hours in breadth. The second cul- 
mi'nation occurs at 10'' 18™, and is here the higher of the two, by a very tri- 
fling difference (0*007 inch), and from it the descent of the wave commences 
and continues uninterrupted. 

Greenwich, though so near London, has the epoch of the first culmination 
an hour later ; that of the second coincident, and also (0'007 inch) higher 
than the first. Both too are sliarper. The descent of the curve is also some- 
what more undulating than for London. 

Passing from the British to the continental curves, we are at once presented 
with a marked contrast in respect of smoothness. The Brussels curve offers 
a very uniform and even convexity. The distinction of the culminations is 
obliterated, and an absolute maximum at 13 hours is alone observable. At 
this station the total range of ascent observed (during 19 hours) was 0'957 
inch, and that of descent (during 17 hours) = 0'289. The curves for 
Alost and Louvain appear in all respects similar, but both their vertices are 
wanting. Passing now to Geneva, we find the ascent of the wave observed 
during the first 23 hours, and the descent during only the remaining 13 
hours of the total series of 36 hours. The absolute culmination observed 
occurs at 21 hours, or at 9 a.m. of September 22, and no distinction of what 
have been called above the first, second and third culminations is to be made. 
But in the sloping ascent of the wave 10 hours antecedent to the culmina- 
tion, is a very I'emarkable bulge, extending over the interval from 9 hours to 
13 hours, Avhich, as it appears also in the Turin and Parma curves, deserves 
notice. The whole ascent appears in the Geneva curve, and the minimum 
or trough of the preceding wave occurs at 1 hour ; the total range of ascent 
being 0'343 inch, occupying 20 hours, being preceded by 3 hours of unde- 
cided fluctuation. 

At Kremsmiinster also the ascent of the wave, if not from the absolute 
minimum preceding, at least from a relative minimum but little elevated above 
it, has been observed. The true culmination took place at 21'' 25™, and the 



76 



REPORT — 1843. 



whole curve is remarkable for its smoothness. The range in 22 hours from 
the projected minimum is 0*733 inch. 

At Turin and Parma the absolute minimum of the preceding wave is fairly 
brought into view. In the former it occurs at 1*'42'", in the latter at I'^O'". 
In both series the upward slope of the wave is broken by many subordinate 
fluctuations. Of these, one is evidently correspondent in the two series. It 
occupies at Turin the interval from 13'' 46'" to H*" 46°', and at Parma from 
15'' 36"' to 18'' 36"", forming an obtuse bulge on the slope of the curves, with 
a very remarkable shoulder at the end, or at the later of the two hours above 
indicated in each. After this each curve continues to ascend, and at 9''46'" 
at Turin and 10'' 36"' at Parma, attains a maximum which I consider as iden- 
tical with that noticed at Geneva as extending from 9 hours to 13 hours, 
and of which the corresponding epochs, determined by comparing the middle 
points of each, may be stated at 1 1 hours and 23 hours respectively for Ge- 
neva and Parma. The Turin series unfortunately breaks off at 10'' 46"", so 
that a perfect identification of this feature for that station is prevented, but 
the general parallelism of the two curves for Turin and Parma leaves no 
room to doubt it. The Parma series continues till 6 p.m. on the 22nd, and 
continues to rise to the end, i. e. till 5'' 46"' m.t. at Brussels, at which epoch, 
however, the rise is so small that the true culmination may be considered as 
nearly attained, and would probably have been actually observed had the 
observations been continued another hour or two. Assuming this, and that 
the epoch of culmination for Parma was 31 hours, we have the following 
corresponding epochs : — 



Geneva 




11" + 


20" 52°' 
21 25 

31 + 


Kremsmiinster . 




Turin 


17" 46" 
18 36 


22 + 
23 


Parma 





which give 1 hour for the time of the wave passing from Turin to Parma, 
and 10 hours from Geneva to Parma, while Kremsmiinster is somewhat less 
than half an hour later than Geneva. 

If we compare the culminations only, or what we must suppose to have 
been the culminations, at all the stations, we have as follows : — 





1st culm. 


2nd culm. 




Absolute culm. 


Markree . . 
Edinburgh . . 
Halifax .... 

Oxford 

London 

Greenwich . . 


Doubtful. 
— 1" SO"" 
+ 5 24 
+ 5 20 
+ 6 18 
+ 7 18 


+ 0" 50™ 
+ 4 30 
+ 8 24 
+ 9 50 
+ 10 18 
+ 10 18 


Brussels 

Geneva 

Kremsmiinster . . 
Parma 


+13" O™ 
+ 20 52 
+ 21 25 
+ 31 + 



Assuming the first culmination to have been the true one, and that in the 
progress of the wave they either run together or the second thins off and is 
lost, we have 32" 30™ for the time occupied in traversing the interval from 
Edinburgh to Parma, which in a direct line being about 950 miles, would 
give a mean velocity of 28 miles per hour, supposing the front of the wave 
to have been at right angles to this direction. But if we compare the inter- 
vals with the distances, we shall find this supposition to be inadmissible, for 
we find the progress of the wave to have been as follows : — 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 77 



Stations. 


Angle with meridian 
of line joining them. 


Distance in 
statute miles. 


Time of tra- 
versing it. 


Edinburgh to London ... 

London to Brussels 

Brussels to Geneva 

Geneva to Parma 


21° 
75 
16 
62 


330 
100 
330 
220 


6 -7 

7-9 

10-1 





These stations divide themselves into two classes ; those whose directions 
are little inclined (the 1st and 3rd pairs) to the meridian, and those (the 
2nd and 4th) whose directions are much inclined. The mean of the former 
gives 660™ in 15** 7"^, or i^^'O per hour in a mean direction, 17° 30' inclined 
to the meridian; that of the latter, 320"" in 16^ 8"", or ig^-O per hour in a 
mean direction, 68° 30' inclined. These data, by the resolution of a plane 
triangle whose sides are 42*0 and 19*0 respectively, and the included angle 
= 68° 30' — 17° 30' = 51° 0' give 10° for the inclination of the front of the 
wave to the meridian, or a direction of progress from 10° N. of W. to 10° S. 
of E., and an actual velocity of 18*62 miles per hour. 

From this, as well as from the moderate range of the observations at Mar- 
kree, it would appear that in fact neither of the points which we have termed 
the first and second culminations were observed at that station, and that the 
maximum actually observed was in the nature of a protuberance on the slope 
of the wave analogous perhaps to what we termed the third culmination in 
the Edinburgh observations. 

The winds of this term offer many points of interest. At Edinburgh we have 
mention of " strong winds " rising into " violence " at 17 hours and 21 hours 
from S. and S.W. In London, high wind in the morning of the 21st, from N. 
passing into N.N.E., the mercury being rising, whereas at the time of the 
violent winds at Edinburgh (at a later hour) it was falling. And it is further 
noticeable that in the London series a complete reversal of the direction of the 
wind took place before the end of the term, passing from N. by the E. to S., 
thence ranging to S.W., and finally settling in the S. with abated force. At 
Halifax also a similar reversal of direction from N.E. round by E., S.E., S.W. 
to W., and then settling back to S.W., was observed, as the barometer rose, 
culminated and fell, the strongest indication being from the W. at 20 hours, 
Dec. 21. At Beaumaris, the change of direction was from N.W. (very light) 
by W. (moderate) to W. S.W. (strong), the maximum of strength being about 
midnight of the 21st. The Oxford series begins with a high but subsiding 
wind from N., with rising barometer, passing round by E. to S.W., and dying 
into a calm with a. falling one. At Brussels the changes were as in London, 
beginning from N., passing round by E. as far as N.N.W., then settling back 
through W. and S.W., and at the same time dying away from the time of the 
culmination so as to obliterate the gradations of its shift. At Geneva the 
series began with violent wind from S. and S.W., settling into calm as the 
mercury rose. At Kremsmiinster, gentle from N.W. and N. during the first 
half of the series, calm during the last. On the whole, I am disposed to re- 
gard the winds recorded as the sequel of a more violent gale antecedent to 
the series observed. 

The discussion of this highly interesting tei'm has detained us long. Never- 
theless it is impossible to conclude it without remarking on the elucidation 
which EVEN A SINGLE FiiENCH STATION wouM havB afforded, of the discon- 
nexion of Cadiz from the others ; &nd I cannot but add some expression of 
regret, that in all our accumulated observations we have none from France, 
the whole of whose vast territory thus interposed (with Spain and Portugal) 



78 REPORT — 1843. 

between the line of our European stations and those of Cadiz, Gibraltar and 
Tangier, in great measure cripples the efficiency of these last, and reduces 
to a small outlying disconnected group what would otherwise have been a 
really important integral member of our European series. Let us hope that 
on any future occasion which may arise, a spirit of scientific cooperation will 
prevent our nearest continental neighbours from suffering their country to 
remain a blank in the record. 

March 1838. — Markree, Edinburgh, Halifax, Cambridge, Oxford, London, 
Greenwich, Brussels, Kremsmunster, Cadiz. 

Diurnal OsciUations. — Particularly prominent and indeed exaggerated in the 
curves for London, Greenwich, Oxford and Cambridge. Less conspicuous but 
yet discernible in that for Brussels ; quite imperceptible at Markree and Edin- 
burgh ; and so far counteracted by causes of a contrary character at Halifax, 
that the maxima and minima throughout appear to iiave changed places. 

The most important and indeed the only prominent feature in this terra, is 
the comparative repose of the barometer at Brussels, and its gradually in- 
creasing disturbance in receding from that station. The Brussels curve pre- 
sents a gently undulating line, 'witli a total range of only 0"053 (of which a 
considerable proportion is due to diurnal oscillation), and a very trifling fall 
on the whole of only 0'03. London and Greenwich, on the other hand, ex- 
hibit a rising glass, with a range of 0*195. Oxford and Cambridge a more 
rapid ascent, the latter ranging over 0*260 inch, Avhile at Halifax, Edinburgh 
and Markree the rise was very rapid, amounting in the 26 projected hours 
to 0*515 inch for Halifax, and 0"50S inch for Markree, at which two stations 
the ascent was continuous, and at Markree almost uniform, while at Edin- 
burgh (in conformity with the barometric character of the locality) it was 
irregular and interrupted, ranging over 0*442 inch in 19 hours, the series 
being broken off before the conclusion of the term. 

Departing from Brussels in other directions, we find only two very distant 
stations, Kremsmiinster and Cadiz, both marked by considerable fluctuations. 
At the former we commence with a fall of 0*283, from 6 a.m. to a minimum 
at 6 P.M., March 21 ( — 6'' to + 6'^ ), then a rise of 0'102 to a maximum at 
midnight, followed by another fall of 0*273 to a stationary point at 6 p.m. of 
the 22nd, a fluctuation which has nothing corresponding to it in any of the 
other stations. At Cadiz, a general ascent of 0*224 took place, interrupted 
only by two slight undulations, over the whole interval from the commence- 
ment of the series to 21 hours, Sept. 21, from Avhich point the mercury fell 
(through 0*070) till the end of the series. 

June 1838. — Markree, Edinburgh, Halifax, Cambridge, London, Green- 
Avich, Alost, Brussels, Louvain, Kremsmiinster, Cadiz. 

The general character of the curves in this term is ascending, the diurnal 
oscillations not traceable, except that for Brussels, which, when cleared of 
their visible effect, presents a smooth and nearly straight outline, with an 
ascending range of 0*238 in the 26 projected hours. This smooth character 
(which, as we have so often had occasion to remark, belongs to this locality) 
is departed from even in places so little remote as Alost and Louvain, in both 
of which subordinate but characteristic fluctuations occur, as they do also in 
the London, Greenwich and Cambridge curves. At Alost, indeed, some local 
cause appears to have acted rather powerfully, the ascent being not only in- 
terrupted, but reversed during the tiiree hours before midnight, in the middle 
of the term. At London and Greenwich a similar cause, but of less energy, 
seems to have been in action six hours earlier, but as traces of the same action 
occur simultaneously though more feebly at both Alost and Louvain, it is not 
possible to identify them as phases of a wave in progress. 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 79 

In all the six curves enumerated, abstracting these and other more trifling 
inequalities, the rise is nearly at the same rate, and they form a group in de- 
cided accordance. Halifax and Edinburgh deviate much from their type, 
being nearly level for the first 9 or 10 hours of the 21st, and then suddenly 
and irregularly rising. The Markree curve also, from hour to i hours, runs 
nearly level or with a slight descent, then rises by gentle successive swells 
(through 0-066 inch) to a slight maxinmm at 19 hours, gently dips to a feeble 
minimum at 21 hours, and then suddenly starts up with a bold rise for the 
remainder of the term. 

KremsmUnster and Cadiz are exceptional to the general character, and for 
once they offer considerable agreement with each other. Both descend to a 
decided minimum between the 6th and 7th hour, rise to aljout their original 
level at midnight, dip to a slight minimum between 14? and 15 hours, and 
then rise again, the rise being sustained at Cadiz to the end, but at Krems- 
mUnster only to 19 hours, when another fall commences. The total range 
at Cadiz is 0*119, at Kremsraiinster 0-086, within the limits of the projected 
hours. 

Sept. 1838. — Markree, Halifax, Bristol Channel, Cambridge, London, 
Greenwich, Ghent, Alost, Brussels, Louvain, Cadiz. 

Markree stands in bold contrast with all the other curves of this term. It 
SMeeps down over a range of 0-264 from a maximum at hour to a minimum 
at 22 hours, with a very regular and free curve, while all the other curves, 
except Cadiz, rise with a gentle ascent. None of the diurnal movements are 
seen except the afternoon minimum, which is pretty conspicuous in most of 
them, and in some exaggerated into an extensive depression extending over 
the six or eight first hours of the afternoon (a feature, indeed, of no uncom- 
mon occurrence). At Brussels the forenoon maximum of the 22nd is also 
sensible. 

The curves for Ghent and Louvain are not continued through the night. 
So far as they go they preserve their parallelism with that of Brussels, and 
offer the same eminently smooth character. At Alost this character and par- 
allelism are again broken, precisely as in the June term, by an unexpected 
descent of the barometer during the three hours before midnight. All these 
curves, as well as those for London, Greenwich and Cambridge, begin with 
the depression already noticed, subsequently to which they reascend during 
the rest of the series attaining a higher level, the total range in all being 
nearly alike (0-165 inch). The curve for Cambridge, however, is materially 
more irregular and fluctuating. 

The curves for the Bristol Channel and Halifax manifest the same gene- 
rally ascending character, the former throughout; the latter up to the 18th 
hour, after which it redescends. Both are smooth curves and their total range 
nearly alike, and somewhat less than in the cases of London, Brussels, &c., 
viz. 0-099. 

Cadiz is again exceptional. Its curve offers on the whole a slight descent, 
and a full and somewhat violent development of the eftects of diurnal oscil- 
lation, in botlx maxima and both minima; beyond this no features worth re- 
mark. In this term then the movements of the European atmosphere seem 
to have affected three distinct and independent systems, Cadiz and Markree 
being types of the two exterior, and the rest of the stations of the interior 
system. 

Dec. 1838 Halifax, London, Greenwich, Ghent, Alost, Brussels, Lou- 
vain, Cadiz. 

A generally descending, much undulated curve, for each station except 
Cadiz. The undulations, however, are rather numerous and small than ab- 



80 REPORT — 1843, 

rupt, and (except for stations very nearly adjoining^ not identifiable with each 
other. The Belgian range is the smallest (0"224'), the London and Green- 
M'ich larger (O'SOt), and the Halifax greatest (0*4S7), supposing it continued 
to the end at the same mean rate at which it breaks off at 19''20"' (the term 
not being completed). 

Cadiz again contrasts itself strongly with all the more northerly stations. 
Its curve offers a general and moderate ascent over a range of 0"132, form- 
ing a line deeply indented by the very conspicuous efi'ect of the two diurnal 
minima and their intermediate maxima, which seem to have attained their 
full development on this occasion. In other respects there is no peculiarity. 
The curve too is much smoother as respects subordinate undulations than 
any of the others, Brussels not excepted. 

Having thus discussed seriatim the terras of our British and European 
group, let us briefly review the principal results of our examination. 

1. We have succeeded in tracing distinct barometric waves of many hun- 
dreds of miles in breadth over the whole extent of Europe ; that is to say, at 
least over an area having Markree in Ireland, Cadiz in Spain, Parma in Italy, 
and Kremsmiinster in Austria for its angular points. Not only the breadth 
but the direction of the front, and the velocity of progress of such waves have 
been clearly made out. 

2. Besides these distinctly terminated waves, we have been able, if not to 
trace the rate and law of progress, at least to render very evident the exist- 
ence of undulatory movements of much greater amplitude, so great indeed 
as far to exceed in dimension the area in question, and to require much more 
time than the duration of a term series (36 hours) for their passage over a 
given locality. At the same time it must be recollected that the records of 
every meteorologist bear ample testimony to this conclusion in the fact of 
long-continued rises, falls and stations (both high and low) of the barometer, 
continuing for many days or even weeks. 

3. In Europe, Brussels is clearly entitled to be regarded as a point of com- 
paratively gentle barometrical disturbance. Very deep waves, it is true, and 
very extensive ones, ride over it ; but with regard to smaller ones, it may be 
regarded as in a certain sense a nodal point where irregularities are smoothed 
down, and oscillatory movement in general is more or less checked ; and such 
movements increase in amount as we recede from Brussels as a centre, espe- 
cially towards the north-west, as far as Markree. 

4. The diurnal oscillations are very conspicuous in single days' observa- 
tions houi'ly continued, tiiis being rather the general rule than the exception. 
In particular, the afternoon minimum (4 p.m.) stands forth as a pronrinent 
feature in almost all cases where there is not some violent barometric dis- 
turbance. 

5. But that to render them so conspicuous, it is by no means enough to 
cast up arithmetically heights above and below a mean quantity for the day. 
On the contrary, such a mode of proceeding has a powerful tendency to mask 
and conceal them. A medium curve must be struck, libera manu or libera 
oculo, so as to represent, ivith the least possible amount of general curvature, 
the whole day's observations ; and upon this curve the diurnal fluctuations 
will usually appear as two principal indentations with corresponding inter- 
mediate protuberances, the protuberance and indentation immediately pre- 
ceding and following the hour of noon being by far the most conspicuously 
and constantly visible. 

6. Hanover offers barometric anomalies separating it from the Belgian 
type (to which latter the south of England as well as Geneva belongs). 
Possibly it is connected with a Scandinavian or Polish system. Edinburgh 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 81 

is as remarkable for inequalities and abrupt fluctuations in its barometric 
changes as Brussels is for the reverse. Turin seems to be much afl'ected by 
its proximity to the Alps, which gives its barometric curves frequently a very 
disjointed character. Between the Italian stations (Turin and Parma) and 
the Spanish (Cadiz, Gibraltar, Tangier) no community of character and no 
mutual dependence prevails. Cadiz, Gibraltar and Tangier are subject to an 
anomalous rise and fall of the mercury between midnight and sunrise, which 
interferes with and often counteracts and overcomes the regular tendency to 
depression in that interval, a peculiarity which is probably owing to the proxi- 
mity of the great radiating surface of the African deserts. At Tangier the 
barometric fluctuations seem to be remarkably small. Markree is remark- 
able for the boldness and freedom of contour in its barometric curves, and 
the great range of their fluctuations compared with stations to the south-east 
of it. 

Asiatic group. 

The only stations admitting of mutual comparison are those of the Indian 
Peninsula, Mauritius and Van Diemen's Land being too renaote. Out of the 
nine terms observed in any part of India also, four were only observed at one 
station, and neither of the remaining five at more than two, and those in only 
two instances the same. Under these circumstances we could not expect to 
trace out the propagation of waves even were any great fluctuations included 
in the series. It so happens, however, that in none of the terms, and in no 
station (except Van Diemen's Land) was this the case. The chief interest, 
therefore, in the discussion of this group consists in the information to be 
derived from the separate consideration of each station in respect of its baro- 
metric character, as to the comparative smoothness or abruptness ot its varia- 
tion, and the extent and law of its diurnal oscillations. And these will be 
found by no means devoid of interest, but on the contrary to furnish occa- 
sion for some remarks of moment. 

Mauritius. — Owing to the indefatigable diligence of Captain Lloyd, late 
Surveyor-General of this colony, we possess nearly a complete series for this 
station (Sept. 1838 alone being wanting), and the observations having been 
made half-hourly in every term, we are enabled to trace more minutely on 
each occasion the progress of the barometric march. It appears to be ex- 
tremely regular, a certain trepidation however frequently prevailing in the 
rise and fall through the diurnal phases, which contrasts very remarkably with 
the exceedingly smooth character of several of the curves at the Indian sta- 
tions. 

In all the Mauritius terms there is not one in which liie diurnal maxima 
and minima are not fairly and strikingly developed ; neither is there any one. 
in which (laying out of consideration these phases) any material departure 
from a mean of the whole day is observed. Such a state of things is highly 
favourable for the exact determination of the elements of diurnal oscillation. 
I have therefore assembled in the Table (Appendix B.) the observations on 
all the terms reduced to 32° Fahr., and having taken the means for each hour, 
projected them in a curve on a scale of one inch to the hour of time, and to 
the hundredth of an inch barometric altitude. A straight line being then 
drawn from the point commencing this curve to the point terminating it will 
represent the mean march of the barometer during the 24 hours included. And 
our object being only to represent fluctuations above and below such a mean, 
this line has been taken as an abscissa (representing the level of 30*0000 
inches), and from it, in the direction of the original ordinates, the altitudes 
were read off (by which process all that remains of casual or non-periodical 
movement is obviously eliminated), and thus have been obtained the follow- 
1843. G 



82 



REPORT 1843. 



ing series of numbers, representing the march of the barometer during an 
average 24 hours at Mauritius. 



Hour, 


Altitude of 


Hour, 


Altitude of 


Hour, 


Altitude of 


Hour, 


Altitude of 


M. T. 


barometer. 


M. T. 


barometer. 


M. T. 


barometer. 


M. T. 


barometer. 




inches. 




inches. 




inches. 




inches. 





30-0000 


6 


29-9929 


12 


29-9859 


18 


30-0153 


1 


300098 


7 


29-9759 


13 


30-0007 


19 


30-0031 


2 


30-0164. 


8 


29-9628 


14. 


30-0137 


20 


29-9933 


3 


30-0207 


9 


29-9601 


15 


30-0237 


21 


29-9855 


4- 


30-0180 


10 


29-9619 


16 


30-0291 


22 


29-9829 


5 


30-0071 


11 


29-9726 


17 


30-0248 


23 


29-9884 


6 


29-9929 


12 


29-9859 


18 


30-0153 


24 


30-0000 



The epochs and values of the several maxima and minima, with the sums 
of excursions on both sides of this our medial line, are heuce deduced as 
below : — 

Epoch 3^. 12"" «i' (minimum) 29-9601 

10 .... M' 30-0291 

15 48 .... m- 29-9826 

21 15 .... M2 30-0210 

Sum of greater excursions M'^ — m^ = 0-0609 
Sum of lesser excursions. . M' — m- = 0-0465 

Calcutta. — Two terms only are recorded for tliis station, or three if we 
regard the mouth of the Hoogly as identical with it. The curve for the first 
term (Dec. 1835) is not complete in all its hours, nevertheless such are its 
singular smoothness and regularity, that it admits of the diurnal elements 
being at once read off as follows, taking 30 inches for a mean altitude : 
Epochs 3"^ 0" 9^ 54'" 15'> 48'" 21>> 24'» 

Altitudes 29-945 30-030 29-979 30-054 

M'^ — m' = 0-109 M' — m"- = 0-051 

The term of March 1836 is somewhat disturbed by casual fluctuations, never- 
theless if similarly read off, after smoothing down its angles, it gives 

M'^ — ?«• = 0-135 M' -wi'^ = 0-053 

The Hoogly term gives for the same sums of excursions (Dec. 1836), 
M'^ - ml = 0-096 M'- m"- = 0-013 

Dadoopoor. — Five terms are recorded from this station, which when pro- 
jected, equalized and read off, give for the sums of the excursions due to diur- 
nal oscillation respectively as follows : — • 



Term. 


Sum of greater 
excursions. 


Sum of lesser 
excursions. 


September 1835 

March 1836 

June 1836 

September 1836 

December 1836 


inch. 
0-106 
0-112 
0-138 
0-172 
0-112 


inch. 
0-033 
0-033 
0-013 
0-026 
0-033 


Mean 


0-128 


0-028 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROIiOQICAL. OBSERVATIONS. 83 

Bangalore. — If we may deduce a barometrical character from only two 
recorded terms, this would seem to be a very jDeculiar station, its peculiarity 
consisting in an all but perfect repose of the mercury, and the absence even 
of any appreciable amount of diurnal oscillation. But of course no conclusion 
can be rested on so small a basis, nor am I in possession of any meteorological 
journals or recorded observations from which to institute further inquiry. 

Cathmandu (Nepaul). — A very elevated station, tiie barometer standing 
at 25'3 inches. Three recorded terms only have come to hand, being those 
for March, June and Sept. 1837. In all the diurnal oscillations are very 
strongly marked. In that of March a temporary disturbance at the 6th hour 
P.M., arising doubtless from a misreading of 0*1 inch, mars the regularity of 
the curve, and if this be allowed for, the excursions run as follows : — 



Term. 


Sum of greatest 
excursions. 


Sum of least 
excursions. 


March 1837 

June 1837 

September 1837 


inch. 
0-107 
0-084 
0-152 


inch. 
0-080 
0-084 
0-026 


Mean 


0-114 


0-063 



From Sikkim (? Darjding), a Subhimalayan station, we have a single term, 
that of March 1837. This also is a very high station, the mercury standing 
at 23-2. Its curve is smooth and flowing in an eminent degree, and the 
diurnal oscillations quite as strongly marked as in any of the Indian stations, 
the excursions being as follows : — 

Sum of the greater 0-114 ; sum of the lesser 0-048. 

As a contribution to our knowledge of the periodical movements of the atmo- 
sphere at high levels, these possess no small interest in proportion to the pau- 
city of recorded observations in such circumstances. 

From Hobai't Town and Fort Arthur we have six terms. In all of them 
the barometer was much and irregularly agitated ; but as there is no station 
within comparing distance, nor have any observations from ships at sea in 
that region, simultaneously made, been received, it is impossible to ground 
any conclusion on them, the casual disturbances being top great to admit of 
mutual compensation in so moderate a number of terms. 

In discussing the diurnal fluctuations for the several stations above, I have 
said nothing about the epochs, except for Maui-itius. In fact, these elements 
are too delicate to be obtained with any degree of confidence or precision 
otherwise than by a very much more extensive course of observation. How- 
ever, it is evident that they do not differ widely from the generally received 
hours (4^ 10^ 16'' and 22'^). 

South Africa. 

This group affords but three stations on land, viz. two at the Cape very 
near together, and the other at Bathurst, far to the eastward. There are, 
however, two excellent sets of observations by Captain Henning on board 
the Windsor, within limits of comparison. The whole number of terms ob- 
served is eleven. In all of them the barometric range was moderate. The sea 
observations run nearly parallel to those at the Cape, but there is no prominent 
feature which it is possible to seize capable of identifying any atmospheric 
disturbance in its progress from station to station. On the other hand, so far 

G 2 



64 



REPORT — 1843. 



from any accordance subsisting between the Cape and Bathurst, a tendency 
to contrary movement is apparent, as will become evident by the comparison 
of the changes in twenty-four corresponding hours at Feldhausen and Bathurst 
as follows : — 



Terra. 


Change of barometer in 


Change in 24 hours cor- 


24 hours at Feldhausen. 


responding at Bathurst. 




inch. 


inch. 


December 1835 


+ 0-011 


-0-289 


March 1836 


+ 0-047 


+ 0-138 


June 1836 


-0-04.1* 


+ 0-023 


September 1836 


-0-211 


+ 0-077 


March 1837 


+0-07S 


-0-157 


June 1837 


-0-088 


+ 0-032 


September 1837 


+ 0-059 


+ 0-077 


December 1837 


+0-058 


—0-262 



These are all the terms in wliich there are corresponding observations, and 
among them, three-fourths in number and all the most considerable in respect 
of range, are cases of contrary movement. The fact is certainly remark-able, 
and though it does not appear easy to refer it to any obvious cause, it seems 
well worthy of further inquiry. 

At Bathurst the diurnal oscillations are not well made out, which is no fault 
of the observations or the observer, Mr. Morgan, whose care and assiduity in 
the making and registering of meteorological observations are quite remark- 
able and deserving every encomium. The contrary is the case at the Cape, 
as the following comparison will show -. — 



Term. 


Sums of excursions at 
Feldhausen. 


Sums of excursions at 
the observatory. 


March 1835 

June 1835 

December 1835 

March 1836 

June 1836 

September 1836 

December 1836 

March 1837 

June 1837 

September 1837 

December 1837 


0-023 
0-050 
0-035 
0-049 
0-061 
0-049 
0-072 
0-060 
0-060 
0-057 
0-052 


0-043 
0-041 
0-040 
0-026 
0-007 
0-044 
0-021 
0-026 
0-017 
0-013 
0-041 


0-038 
0-044 
0-025 
0-042 
0-059 
0-057 
0-049 
0-057 


0-034 
0-035 
0-012 
0-051 
0-020 
0-023 
0-016 
0-017 


Means 


0-052 
0-044 


0-029 
0-026 


0-044 


0-026 


Mean of both stations 


0-048 


0-027 



American Group. 
The United States and Canada have furnished us with thirteen terra-series 
up to the end of 1 838, observed more or less connectedly at eighteen stations, 

* In tliis case the observatory lias been compared, and there are, strictly speaking, only 
twenty-two hours in each series which correspond. 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 85 

viz. Quebec, Montreal, Gardiner, Burlington, William's College, Albany, 
Boston, Providence (Rhode Island), New Haven, Middletown, Western Reserve 
College (Ohio), Flushing, New York, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Natchez, Wash- 
ington, and St. Louis (Missouri). These stations form the main body of this 
group, and the only one with which it is possible to deal connectedly. In 
addition to these, as outlying points, five terms have been observed by Cap- 
tain Owen and one by Mr. Lees at the Bahamas, and eight by Captains 
Beechey and Belcher at various stations along the west coast of Mexico and 
Guatemala down to Panama and the Gulf of Guayaquil. Had these terras 
been observed simultaneously it might have been possible to connect them 
with those of Bahama into a distinct West Indian group. But the utmost 
amount of simultaneous terms which can be mustered in such a group is in 
that of September 1836, in which a single series by Mr. Schomburgk in 
British Guiana is recorded, forming with those of Captain Owen and Captain 
Beechey a triangular group, having its angles at Guayaquil, Bahama and 
Ohreala, an area far too extensive, and in which, on comparison of the 
curves, nothing can be made out but a loant of correspondence in every fea- 
ture but the diurnal oscillations, which in all three are very conspicuously 
marked. A single term at Sitka, in Norfolk Sound, on the N.W. coast of 
America, observed by Captain Belcher, is equally incapable of being brought 
into comparison with every other series. Its curve is remarkably flat and 
even, rising with some degree of agitation towards the end of the term, while 
all the observations in the United States indicate a sudden and rapid fall, ex- 
tending over the same hours. 

The greater part of the terms of the American group of the United States 
and Canada have been carefully examined and discussed by Mr. Birt, whose 
remarks (in his own words) I shall subjoin seriatim, confining my own obser- 
vations to points which he has not touched on, and to terms which are not 
included in his notes. 

North American Group. 

December 1835. — This term affords only two series — from Albany and 
Montreal, the curves of which, with a good deal of irregularity, maintain a 
coarse parallelism and agree in a tendency to rise at the end, which is much 
more decided at the latter than at the former station. 

For the terms of 1836 and ] 837, and March 1338, Mr. Birt has drawn out 
the following Table, which exhibits the barometric ranges during 27 and 37 
hours respectively, with a view to the elucidation of the law of oscillation as 
referred to centres of greatest and least excursion. As regards this subject 
I may remark generally, that the stations, Montreal, Quebec and New York, 
but most especially the last, appear remarkable for the smoothness of their 
barometric curves as contrasted with the rest ; but this is in great measure 
owing to the observations at these stations having been made at larger inter- 
vals, 2, 3, and often 4 hours. 

I have completed the table for the remainder of 1838. 

" Tabular View of the Ranges of the Barometer for 27 and 37 hourly obser- 
vations at the Equinoxes and Solstices in the United States, during the 
years 1836, 1837, and part of 1838. 

Storm Curves. March and December 1836. 



March 1836. 27. 37. 

Anterior or Eastern 

portion of storm. 
Montreal -241 "285 



December 1836. 27. 37. 

New York -837 '935 

New Haven -966 1-007 

Flushing 1-039 r042 



S6 



RfiPORf — 1843. 



Storm Curves. 

March 1836. 27. 

Albany -387 

Flushing '397 

Middletown -426 

Extent of oscillation 

from North to South. •! 85 



March and December ISIG. 



37. 
•466 
•447 
•541 

•256 



Posterior or Western 

portion of storm. 
Cincinnati 



■334 •SSI 



December 1836. 27. 37. 

Albany 1-147 M73 

Montreal 1 

Quebec 1-613 P613 

Extent of oscillation 

from Soutli to North 

nearly in the same 

meridian "776 ^678 

Gardiner, Maine, 19"' 

east of Albany ^934 1-014 



" The cause of the increase of oscillation towards points of greatest oscilla- 
tion in the centres of the storms is very apparent, namely the depression to- 
wards the centres of tlie storms producing in the surfaces of the atmosphere 
over them a funnel-shaped character. 

" Complete range at New York during the storm of December from 

the shoulders only "942 

The same at Quebec r625 

Difference of range between the two stations ^683 



" June and September 1836. 



June 1836. 
A meridian passing through Mon- 
treal, the point of least oscillation in 
the series, gives the greatest increase 
of oscillation on the west side, reject- 
ing Quebec, as the hours are not con- 
tinuous. 

27. 37. 



Quebec 


•047 


•078 


Montreal 


'050 


•072 


West of Montreal .... 






Albany 


•139 


•161 


Flushing 


•140 


•166 


Baltimore 


•175 


•181 


Extent of oscillation 






from North to West 






of South 


•125 


•109 


East of Montreal .... 




Williams College .... 


•117 


•117 


Middletown 


•133 


•163 


Extent of oscillation 






from North to East 






of South 


•083 


•091 



37. 
•162 
•175 
•222 
•197 
•200 
•232 
•336 



(N.B. The observations at New 
York do not extend over twenty- 
seven complete hours.) 



•174 
•215 
•218 



September 1836. 27. 

New Haven ^098 

Middletown "101 

Flushing 415 

♦William's College . . ^155 
*Gardiner, Maine ... . ^155 

Albany -179 

Montreal . -. ^273 

Extent of oscillation 

from South to North •I 75 

New York -067 

Burlington "149 

The above two stations rejected as 
the hours are not continuous. 
Cincinnati not a por- 
tion of the system. , -081 '141 
The three stations, New Haven, 
Middletown and Flushing, are not 
placed above according to their rela- 
tive positions ; tlie discrepancies 
would probably disappear if the sta- 
tions were sufficiently numerous as 
to allow of the observations being so 
arranged that the ranges might be 
exhibited as proceeding from a point 
of greatest oscillation on the radii of 
a circle. 



* Gftrditier, Maine, being considerably to the east of William's College, the similarity of 
range at the two stations is interesting. 



ON THE KEDUCTION OF METBOBOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 87 



March 1837. 



« March and June 1837 
27. 37 



Flushing -390 

Albany -227 

Montreal -195 

Decrease of oscillation 
from Flushing to 

Montreal -195 

Flushing -390 

Boston -197 

Decrease of oscillation 
from Flushing to 
Boston -193 



•392 
•274 
•208 



•184 
•392 
•244 



•148 



June 1837. 

William's College . . 

Middletown 

Gardiner, Maine . . 

Boston 

Middletown 

Flushing 


Fall. 

. -050 
. •126 
. -124 
. •114 
. •126 
. ^045 
. -100 
. ^126 
arranged 
and asce 
stations n< 


Rise. 

•229 
•302 
•135 
•256 
•302 
•266 


New Haven 

Middletown 

The above are so 
exhibit the descents 
the barometer at the 


•285 
•302 

as to 
[its of 
imed. 



It will be seen that the ascents are considerably greater than the descents, 
and it is probable that the summit of the barometric undulation was not 
attained at the respective stations at the conclusion of the observations. 
" September and December 1837. 



September 1837. 27. 

Montreal ^353 

William's College -249 

Gardiner, Maine .... '221 
Decrease of oscillation 

from Montreal -132 

Boston ^252 

Providence ^204 

Decrease of oscillation 

from Boston ^048 

Middletown ^292 

New Haven -277 

Flushing ^256 

New York ^250 

Decrease of oscillation 

from Middletown . . ^042 



37. 
•483 
•439 
•336 

•147 
•360 

•287 

•073 
•381 
•372 
•349 
•337 

•044 



December 1837. 

St. Louis 

Western R. College 

New York 

Flushing 

Middletown? 

Boston 

Quebec 

Gardiner, Maine . . 



27. 
•365 
•292 
•197 
•196 
•196 
•202 
•190 
•208 



37. 

•483 

•407 

•251 

•265 

•255 

•245 

•288 

•208 



" March and June 1838. 



March 1838. 
r St. Louis ........ 

< Cincinnati 

[_ Western R. College 

Decrease of oscillation 

from St. Louis .... 

r Montreal 

\ Burlington (H.) , . 

f New York 

Flushing 

New Haven 

Middletown 

Boston 

Gardiner, Maine . . 
Extent of oscillation 
from West to East. . 



27. 
•295 
•253 
•139 

•156 
•131 
•176 
•364 
•371 
•384 
•383 
•410 
•434 



37. 
295 
256 
165 

130 
261 
331 
532 
514 
530 
553 
576 
599 



•070 ^085 



June 1838. (H.) 

Western R. College . 

Gardiner* 

Boston 

Burlington 

Quebec 



27. 37. 

•046 -087 

•174 ^213 

•175 ^222 

•219 ^219 

•339 -339 



* This range supposes an erroneous reading of '1 in one of the hours, which otherwise is 
quite anomalous. 



REPORT 1843. 



" September and December 1838. 



September 1838. (H.) 27. 37. 

Western R. College . . 'IM '194- 

Flushing -155 -192 

Gardiner '172 '234. 



December 1838. (H.) 27- 37- 

Western R. College.. -293 '343 

Flushing -185 '203 

Burhngton -171 '176 

Gardiner -079 "113 



" Table of the Mean Altitudes of Barometer. 








1836. 




1837. 1838. 


March. 


June. 


Sept. 


Dec. 


March . 


June. 


Sept. 


Dec. 


March. 




29-694 
29-785 


29-868 
29-894 
29-297 
29-641 


29-946 
30-086 
29-322 
29-815 
30143 
30-136 
30-162 

29-300 


6 a 

o 
3 

CO 


29-951 
29-974 


29-478 

28-795 
29-250 
29-584 
29-606 


30-070 

29-398 
29-962 
30-336 
30-283 
30-353 


29-969 
29-634 


30-109 

29-875 
30-253 
30-183 
30-247 

29-389 
28-799 








29-614 


29-864 






29-658 


29-799 
29-974 
29-710 


29-969 
30069 














29-267 


Western R College. 










28-762 








30-077 




29-455 
29-542 


36-258 


29-929 30-164 1 








30-203 


30-360 29-986 ;30-256 
30-135 1 1 


























1 1 



March 1836. — Montreal, Albany, Flushing, Middletown, Cincinnati, 
Bahama, St. Catherine's Island. 

(H.) Great contrast between the first mentioned four stations and the last. 
The curves of the former set all descend rapidly, the descent for Montreal 
being smooth, and undulated only by the very evident diurnal oscillations; 
the others are all more or less irregular, but with no distinct correspondence 
in the features of tlieir irregularity. The Cincinnati curve, on the other hand, 
ascends rapidly but smoothly, and the diurnal phases are distinctly seen in- 
denting its slope. In the Bahama curve the diurnal phases are extremely 
prominent ; the sum of the greater excursions being 0*090 and of the lesser 
0*069, reckoned I'rom a line of medium slope. At St. Catherine's Island a 
similar remark applies, the sums of the excursions from a medial line of de- 
scent being respectively 0*090 and 0*051 . 

(B.) In this .series the variations of the barometer are evidently due to a 
storm ; the four stations, Montreal to Middletown, being nearly on the same 
meridian. The rising curve at Cincinnati doubtless arises from the western 
half of the storm passing over that station, while the eastern traversed the 
meridian of Albany. The Bahamas were entirely removed from its influence. 
The increase of oscillation in this case, or rather the decrease of oscillation 
from a central ])oint of greatest oscillation, arises from the depression towards 
the centre of a rotatory storm. 

June 1836. — Quebec, Montreal, William's College, Albany, Middletown, 
Flushing, New York, Baltimore, Bahama. 

(H.) The curves for Quebec and New York are extremely remarkable for 
the perfect smoothness of their gentle upward slope, unbroken by a?ii/ undu- 
lation w/uitever. Those of William's College, and especially Albany, on the 
contrary, are abruptly agitated, and the swells and falls coincide Avith the 

* At Quebec, owing to the observations being for the most part at intervals of 4 hours, the 
means are not comparable with them. 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 89 

epochs and directions of the diurnal phases. Middletown and Flushing 
are intermediate in character. The Baltimore curve is very regular and 
shows the diurnal phases very distinctly, though not extensive. At Ba- 
hama the diurnal oscillations are obliterated at the beginning and end of 
the series, a uniform and perfect level being maintained from 14 hours to 24? 
hours. 

(B.) This group, with the exception of the Bahamas, presents a series of 
curves evidently forming a system of oscillations, the area extending over 
21 ' of longitude and 7° 31' of latitude ; this area, on which most of the Ame- 
rican stations are situated, appears from the succeeding observations to have 
presented the most complete systems of oscillations. 

(B.) In proceeding from north to south there appears to be some irregu- 
larity in the increase, but by arranging the stations as in the Table*, it will 
be seen that there is a gradual increase on each side of the meridian of Mon- 
treal. 

September 1836. — Montreal, Burlington, Albany, Gardiner, William's 
College, New York, Flushing, Middletown, New Haven, Cincinnati, Bahama, 
Ohreala, Guayaquil. 

(H.) All the curves of the first nine stations are on the Avhole nearly level, 
with undecided fluctuations, referable chiefly to diurnal oscillation, until about 
the 20th or 21st hour of September 21, when they begin to dip downwards. 
The Cincinnati curve runs level, in three distinct stages of level, beginning 
and terminating at about 0*07 inch higher than its middle portion ; this, 
however, is merely an effect of the periodical oscillations, in which the nightly 
maximum and morning minimum are blended and obliterated. 

The smoothest curve in this term is that of Gardiner. Middletown and 
New Haven are also smooth. Albany is most broken (chiefly in the evening), 
which seems to be its general character. Of the West Indian curves I have 
already spoken. 

(B.) This sheet exhibits a well-marked and very interesting group, occu- 
pying nearly the same geographical area already noticed, namely from New 
York on the west to Gardiner, Maine on the east, the northern and southern 
boundaries being respectively Montreal and Flushing. The general similarity 
of these curves is very apparent also, the double curve indicating a diurnal 
oscillation at each of the stations ; the increase of oscillation is also distinctly 
marked proceeding towards the north. 

(B.) The intermediate elevations and depressions offer very interesting 
matter for remark, the greatest development of them is at Flushing. At 
Montreal, the station of greatest oscillation, they have nearly disappeared. 
The intermediate curves are generally apparent when the oscillation is less 
than 'lOO. At Cincinnati, to which the system did not extend, the extent of 
oscillation was '081 for 27 and •141 for 37 observations; here the curve was 
simple. 

(B.) The falls at the latter portions of the curves are much steeper than 
those at the anterior portions ; the falls at New York and Flushing are less 
steep than the others. 

December 1836 — Quebec, Montreal, Albany, Flushing, New Haven, New 
York, Gardiner, Bahama. 

(H.) This term exhibits finely the barometric features and local progress 
of a storm. The barometric ranges will be found in the general table. The 
greatest intensity of the storm seems to have prevailed at Quebec, Montreal, 

* Vide the Synoptic Table at the commencement of the American group. 



90 



REPORT — 1843. 



and New York. The greatest depression of the barometer at the several sta- 
tions, where the minimum was within the limits of the term, took place at the 
hours following of December 21 (mean time at each station). 



Flushing Noon. 

New Haven .... 1 p.m. 
Gardiner 5 p.m. 



Quebec 9 a.m. : : 

Montreal .... 9 a.m. 

New York . . 10 a.m. : : 

Albany 11 a.m. 

At Montreal and Quebec the rise of the barometer from its greatest de- 
pression was singularly steady and unbroken by any convulsive movements. 
At Quebec, indeed, this might be ascribed to the system of 4-hourly obser- 
vation pursued, but not so for Montreal, where the observations were hourly. 
At New Haven, New York, and Flushing also, the same remark applies with 
almost equal force ; this places in a strong light the peculiarity of Albany, to 
w^hicli I have before alluded, viz. the broken and abrupt character of its 
curves ; for in this instance its curve is most remarkably zigzaged over the 
whole of its upward slope. 

The following Table, exhibiting the movements of the barometer at Quebec 
and New York, before as well as during the storm, has been constructed by 
Mr. Birt from its records. 

(B.) Table of Barometric Altitudes at New York and Quebec during the storm 
of December 20, 21 and 22, 1836, reduced to a temperature of 32° Fahr. 



Day. 


Hour. 


New York. 


Quebec. 


Day. 


Hour. 


New York. 


Quebec. 


19. 
20. 

21. 


10 P.M. 

6 A.M. 

10 A.M. 

Noon. 

2 P.M. 

3 P.M. 
6 P.M. 
9 P.M. 

10 P.M. 

Midnight. 

3 A.M. 
6 A.M. 
9 A.M. 

10 a.m. 


30-689 
-600 
•627 

-445 

•342 ' 

•183 ' 

29-723 
-685 


30-387 

•314 
•257 
•168 

•080 

29-809 

-525 

-292 


21. 
22. 


Noon. 

2 P.M. 

3 P.M. 
6 P.M. 
9 P.M. 

10 P.M. 

Midnight. 

3 A.M. 

6 A.M. 

9 A.M. 

10 A.M. 

Noon. 

2 P.M. 
6 P.M. 


'"•779' 
30-036 
-275 

'"•521 ' 

•616 

-576 
-620 


28-762 

29-082 
•311 
•467 

•726 

•932 

30^135 

•295 

•375 



(H.) This storm was not felt at Bahama, the curve for which during this 
term exhibits a state of tranquillity, the diurnal phases only being observable 
and very well developed. 

(B.) Mr. Redfield remarks, that " the period allotted for the observations 
includes, on this occasion, a portion of an extensive inland storm of marked 
character and rapid development ; " at nearly all the stations the latter portion 
only was observed ; the progressive character of the storm is very apparent 
from the curves. In consequence of the very extensive range of the barometer 
the scale is half of that which is employed for the other projections, namely 
■75 of the larger divisions = •I. 

(B.) The observations at New York and Quebec include, at intervals of 3 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 91 

and 4 hours, the almost complete barometric development of the storm. I 
have accordingly projected the two curves on an additional sheet scale 1* of 
the larger divisions =•]. The immense and rapid fall at Quebec, at the 
middle of the storm, as compared with the phsenomena presented at New 
York at the same time, is interesting ; also the shoulders at New York at 
10 A.M. of the 20th, and at 10 a.m. of the 22nd, exhibiting a wave at the 
circumference of the funnel. 

(B.) In comparing the ranges, I have taken the range at New York from 
the shoulders only, as the observations at Quebec do not include them. 

March 1837. — Boston, Flushing, Albany, Montreal, Bahama, Magnetic 
Island. 

(H.) The observations at Magnetic Island break off at midnight of the 
21st. All the other curves, Bahama included, descend, but with different 
rapidities and degrees of irregularity. 

(H.) The Boston curve is very smooth (hourly observations). It con- 
tinues nearly level till 1 1 p.m., then dips gracefully to a minimum at 25 hours 
(1 hour, March 22nd). Its range within the 26 projected hours is 0"192. 

(H.) The Flushing and Albany curves are much and abruptly broken, 
but exhibit no correspondence in their zigzags. Both attain minima at the 
25th hour. Their ranges, as above, are 0*387 and 0"225. 

(H.) The Montreal curve exhibits the diurnal oscillations superposed on 
a regular line of descending slope, the evening maximums being somewhat 
broken. In other respects the curve is very smooth. The general slope is 
rectilinear and less steep than in the others, viz. at the average rate of 0*145 
in 24 hours. 

(H.) The Bahama curve is still less steep, sloping at the average rate of 
0*13 in 24 hours. Its diurnal fluctuations, though very visible, are not nor- 
mally developed. 

(B.) Among the curves on this sheet that were obtained from the eastern 

?iortion of the United States, there is a general similarity. It is probable they 
brmed part of a system of oscillation having a point of greatest oscillation. 
The curve obtained at Flushing exhibits the greatest oscillation, but as there 
are no observations south or south-west of this station it cannot be considered 
as the point of greatest oscillation. Observations from the south-east and 
south on the Atlantic would have been very interesting at this term. 

June 1837. — Quebec, Montreal, Burlington, Gardiner, Boston, Middletown, 
New Haven, William's College, Flushing, Natchez, Washington (incom- 
plete). 

(H.) The curves of this term may be classed in two systems, the first con- 
sisting of those of Quebec, Montreal and Burlington ; the second, of all the 
rest. The character of the first class is a general tendency to ascent, inter- 
rupted somewhat irregularly by the diurnal phases, in which the morning 
minimum is anticipated by two or three liours, a particular, however, which 
cannot be traced at Quebec, the observations having been discontinued from 
midnight till 6 a.m. 

The other stations may be divided into subclasses, graduating into one 
another; those which exhibit a strong maximum in the earlier and a strong 
minimum in the later hours of the projected series (Gardiner and Boston) ; 
those in which this maximum merges in the maximum preceding the noon of 
June 21, and is separated from the strong characteristic minimum by 8 or 10 
hours of level, the said minimum itself beginning at an earlier epoch (at about 
2 or 3 A.M., as Middletown, New Haven, William's College) ; and lastly, those 
in which no such characteristic maximum can at all be traced, and in which 



92 REPORT — 1843. 

the minimum assumes the character of a flat and gentle depression, coming 
on progressively earlier and earlier in the series (as at Flushing, Natchez and 
Washington). 

(H.) In all these but Natchez and Washington, the curve, after the cha- 
racteristic minimum, rises very rapidly, but at Natchez this rise does not take 
place. At Washington the series terminates at 7 p.m. on the 21st, so that it 
remains undecided what course the curve takes in the later hours. 

(B.) This sheet exhibits a well-marked and prominent grouj) of similar 
curves, which occupies an extent of longitude from Flushing to Gardiner, 
Maine = 19 minutes. The depression of the curve at each station is one 
of the most interesting features. By inspecting the Table of Ranges it 
Avill be seen that the greatest oscillation was observed at Middletown, and 
it appears probable that the oscillations decreased on radii from this point. I 
have endeavoured to exhibit this by terminating each set of ranges with the 
range at Middletown. It is, however, a matter of regret that the observa- 
tions were not more numerous by which this interesting point might have 
been more strikingly illustrated. The descents as well as the ascents of the 
curves increase towards Middletown, with the exception of the curve at Gar- 
diner : this curve appears to partake of the character of the curve obtained 
at Montreal in its anterior portion. The curve at Montreal evidently does 
not belong to this system. 

(B.) The order of time in which the lowest altitudes of the barometer at 
the several stations were observed, is as under : — 

Flushing 21st .... 8 p.m. 

New Haven 22nd .... 1 a.m. 

William's College .... 22nd .... 2 a.m. 

Middletown 22nd 5 a.m.? (series broken.) 

Boston 22nd 6 a.m. 

Gardiner 22nd .... 10 a.m. 

(B.) The curves to the north of this group, namely, those obtained at 
Quebec and Montreal, are decidedly different, and that obtained at Natchez 
evidently belongs to a different system. The oscillation at this station being 
under "100, exhibits the diurnal oscillation. 

(H.) I incline to regard both Natchez and Washington as belonging to 
this system, or at least on the verge of it ; and if so, the minima there observed 
(though very feebly marked) ought to be added to the above Table, thus 

Natchez 21st .... 8 p.m. 

M''ashington 21st .... 6 p.m. 

Sept. 1887. — Providence, Boston, Gardiner, Burlington, Flushing, New 
York, Nev/ Haven, Middletown, William's College, Montreal. — Sitka. Also 
a few hours of the end of the term at Quebec. 

(H.) Sitka is entirely disconnected and has already been sufficiently cha- 
racterized. All the other stations exhibit descending curves, and in all, the 
final rate of descent is much more rapid than the initial, so that they obviously 
belong to one system. 

(H.) The curves in this term are generally smooth, especially those for 
Providence, Boston, Flushing, New York and New Haven. Traces of the di- 
urnal oscillations prevail in most of them, though a good deal distorted in 
their epochs. The Montreal is the only curve which (abstraction made of 
these) offers much undulation. In this the descent is suspended during all 
the interval from 7 p.m. Sept. 21 to 2 a.m. Sept. 22, and replaced by a gentle 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 93 

ascent, after which the rapid descent begins. Beyond this I have nothing to 
add to Mr. Birt's remarks which follow. 

(B.) This group, which extends only from New York l'"west to Gar- 
diner, Maine 19™ east of Albany, exhibits a general agreement among the 
curves, all of them descending. The group, however, may be divided into 
minor portions, in which different features are well marked. The three 
flattest curves, especially in their anterior portions, were obtained at Provi- 
dence, Boston and Gardiner. The curves at New York, New Haven and 
Middletown, also agree tolerably well with each other, especially the two 
last, New York agreeing more with Flushing, which connects as it were the 
two minor groups. William's College is nearly similar to the Middletown 
group, and the curve at Montreal differs from the others mostly in the 
depression at 6 and 7 p.m. Gardiner, Maine presents the nearest similarity 
to it. 

(B.) The curves in this sheet present a different phaenomenon, inasmuch 
as the increase of oscillation does not appear to be regular; but when we 
separate the curves into groups, as above, we perceive it. Flushing appears 
to be an exception. By including Flushing in the Middletown group, we 
have stations exhibiting smaller ranges between those presenting larger; Wil- 
liam's College between Montreal and the New Haven or Middletown group ; 
Providence between Middletown and Boston ; and Gardiner nearly in the 
same parallel with William's College. This exhibition of smaller ranges in 
connection with the minor groups of curves is highly interesting, exhibiting, 
as the Middletown group does, the increase of oscillation towards that sta- 
tion. 

(B.) This group is perhaps one of the most interesting, particularly as 
relates to the extent of oscillation at the several stations. By referring to 
the Table of ranges for June and September 18S6, it will be seen that the 
oscillations at William's College were less than those at the neighbouring 
station, Albany. The mean altitude of the barometer is also less at William's 
College than at Albany. 

(B.) On this occasion (Sept. 1837) the altitude of the barometer was 
greater than on any other at all the stations except at Montreal, which ex- 
hibited the greatest oscillation. By taking a similar view of these as of the 
June observations, there appears to be three centres of oscillation, namely, 
Montreal, Boston and Middletown. The oscillations are accordingly arranged 
in this manner in the Table. 

Dec. 1837. — St. Louis, Western Reserve College, New York, Flushing, 
Quebec, Montreal, Middletown, Burlington, Boston, Gardiner, Bahama, 
St. Bias. 

(H.) All the curves for the above stations, in the order in which they are 
here arranged, down to Boston inclusive, begin by descending to a minimum, 
in the case of New York only coinciding in epoch (4 p.m.) with the afternoon 
minimum; in all the others anticipating of it by 1, 2, or 3 hours, the times 
being as follow : — 

Boston 2 P.M. 

Western Reserve Coll. . . 2 p.m. 

Flushing 3 p.m. 

New York 4 p.m. 

From this minimum they all rise, with more or less subordinate undulation, 
and with degrees of rapidity corresponding to the order of succession of the 
stations above set down. In the Boston, Burlington, New York and Flushing 



Burlington. , . 


. 1 P.M. 21st. 


Middletown . 


. 1 P.M. 


St. Louis . . . 


. 1 P.M. 


Quebec 


. 2 P.M. 



94 REPORT — 1843. 

curves, the diurnal oscillations (and especially the maximum of the forenoon 
of the 22nd) arc strongly indented on the upward slope. 

(H.^ The curve for Gardiner is peculiar, and indicates some local disturb- 
ance. In place of the minimum with which the others commence being of a 
concave or basin-shaped form, this is deeply cuspidated, being formed by a 
bold convex sweep, plunging down to an abrupt point at 5 hours mean time, 
whence it immediately rises and slopes up in three distinct stages to the end. 
The St. Bias curve has no resemblance to any of the rest, but offers a fine 
specimen of diurnal oscillation boldly developed. 

(B.) The curves on this sheet exhibit a greater extent of area over which 
similar attections of the atmospliere were observed than any of the others. 
From Western Reserve College (31™ west of Albany) to Boston (ll"" east of 
the same station), a group of similar curves is apparent ; the depressions oc- 
curring about 3 P.M., and the apices about 10 a.m.: 42™ of longitude appear 
to be the extent of this group. 

(B.) The ranges of the barometer from New York to Boston are nearly 
similar (rejecting the 5 p.m. observation at Middletown, which appears to be 
in error). For twenty-seven observations, Boston, the easternmost station, 
exhibits the greatest range. For thirty-seven observations. Flushing exhibits 
the greatest, the difference between this station and Boston being '022. 

(B.) The curve at Gardiner, Maine, while exhibiting to a certain extent 
similar features to the curves westward, does not belong exclusively to the 
system. The range for twenty-seven observations is rather more than that 
at Boston, but considerably less for thirty-seven. The anterior portion of 
the curve as far as 5 p.m. is decidedly diflerent from the preceding curves, 
and the continuous portion of it after 1 p.m. also differs very materially. 

(B.) The curve at St. Louis, while it generally agrees with the curves of 
the Maine group during the hours projected on the sheet, differs from them 
during the afternoon hours of the 22nd, being somewhat similar to Gardinei-, 
Maine. 

Mai-ch 1838. — Western Reserve College, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Montreal, 
Burlington, New York, Flushing, Newhaven, Middletown, Boston, Gardiner ; 
— Realejo. 

(H.) The Realejo curve is disconnected with the rest and incomplete ; the 
observations breaking off before the conclusion of the terms. Its general 
form is a flat concavity, with its minimum at 5 p.m.. Mar. 21. 

The rest of the stations may be classed as follows : — 

A. B. C. 

Gardiner. Burlington. St. Louis. 

Boston. Montreal. Cincinnati. 

Middletown. Western Reserve College. 

New Haven. 

Flushing. 

New York. 

Group A. consists of eastern stations. Its curves rise steadily from the 
first commencement of the observations at daybreak of the 21st to a sub-cul- 
mination at about 1 a.m. of the 22ud (13 hours, 21st), whence they slightly 
dip to the morning minimum about 15 hours or 16 hours, and rising again, 
attain their absolute culmination at or about the regular epoch of the forenoon 
maximum, viz. 22 hours (10 a.m., Mar. 22nd). They all run closely parallel 
with exception of Boston and Gardiner, which manifest some irregularities 
and abruptnesses. 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 95 

(H.) Group B. of northern stations show a kind of transition state of the 
curves. The true cuhnination comes on mucli earlier (at midnight between the 
21st and 22nd), and the upward slope is much less steep, and shows signs of a 
minimum having been attained shortly before the commencement of the term. 

(H.) In the group C. this minimum comes clearly within the range of the 
observations, but at very different hours, viz. for 

St. Louis at 3 p.m., m. t. at Station, 21st. 

Cincinnati „ 6 „ „ ,, „ „ 

Western Reserve College. , „ 3 a.m., „ „ „ 22nd. 

(H.) The minimum in question for St. Louis, falling nearly on the regular 
epoch of the afternoon minimum of the diurnal oscillations, is reinforced by it, 
and is very decided and well rounded. At Cincinnati this has not been the 
case ; and a kind of struggle of tendencies seems to have taken place, marked 
by a double depression and abrupt intermediate elevation. At Western Reserve 
College the minimum we are tracing falling nearly on the gentler depression 
of the regular morning minimum, and being accompanied with less general 
movement of the mercury, forms a long flat depression, ending in a gentle 
and continued upward slope extending beyond the limits of the term. 

(B.) This sheet presents three well-marked and distinct groups of curves 
in the United States, The most prominent is that of the eastern states, ex- 
tending from New York to Gardiner, Maine : here the apices occur about 
the same hour, but the minimum altitudes of the barometer were not observed, 
the first observation of each series being the lowest. 

(B.) The next group, namely, Western Reserve College, Cincinnati and 
St Louis, increases towards the west. The curves do not, however, present 
that similarity noticed in the eastern curves : the marked difference between 
the curves at Western Reserve College and New York indicates that the 
western limit of the eastern group passed between these stations. Again, the 
curve at Montreal being decidedly different from all the others, shows that 
the eastern group did not extend so far north. Observations are wanted to 
define the eastern limits of this group. 

(B.) Upon reviewing the projections it appears that the area included within 
a line passing from Baltimore north-east towards Quebec, inclosing Albany, 
from thence south-east to Gardiner, and thence south-west along the coast, 
passing New York and joining itself at Baltimore, and upon which are situ- 
ated the following stations, Baltimore, Albany, William's College, Burling- 
ton, Montreal, Quebec, Gardiner, Maine, Boston, Providence, R. L, Middle- 
town, New Haven, Flushing, L. L, and New York, is characterized by the most 
complete systems of oscillation afforded by the group, the curves obtained at 
the above-mentioned stations more or less agreeing with each other. There 
are two principal lines of these stations, one from north to south, the other 
from west to east, or rather from south-west to north-east. 



North to South. 
Montreal. 
Burlington. 
Albany. 

William's College. 
New York. 
Flushing. 



South-west to North-east. 
Baltimore. 
New York, 
Flushing. 
New Haven. 
Middletown, 
Providence, 
Boston. 
Gardiner, Maine. 



96 REPORT — 1843. 

(B.) In order to examine more particularly the nature of the increase of 
oscillation, it will probably be requisite to obtain stations in other parts of 
this area should futui-e observations be undertaken. 

(B.) With respect to the increase of oscillation, the following questions 
have suggested themselves : — Do the oscillations increase from a single point 
of least oscillatio7i ? or do they decrease from a single point of greatest oscil- 
lation ? The observations appear to indicate that they decrease from a single 
point of greatest oscillation, particularly those of June 1837. On this occa- 
sion the changes of the wind indicated the passage of a body of air in a state 
of rotatory motion, although it appears difficult to suppose that this body 
was of a cylindrical form, as the greatest depression of the barometer at each 
of the stations occurred with a north-west wind, consequently the centre of 
rotation must have been north-east of the station at the time : perhaps some 
other form, a body the horizontal section of which is an ellipse, for instance, 
may explain this. Upon the whole, the small number of stations over so large 
an area, and these occurring on two lines only, is a matter of much regret, as 
we can only at present obtain a glance at the affections of the atmosphere 
over this vast space. Probably if the stations were more numerous, the cha- 
racter of the decrease of oscillation from a point of greatest oscillation would 
be distinctly marked. 

June 1838. — Quebec, Burlington, Gardiner, Boston; — Western Reserve 
College. 

(H.) The first four stations in their order form a group in wliich the pro- 
gressive modifications of a fluctuation of considerable extent may be clearly 
traced. It is best developed at Quebec (where fortunately the observations 
of this term are for the most part hourly, or at furthest two-hourly), and con- 
sists of a complete wave, with its lowest depression and culmination fully in 
view, and both very decided and regularly formed, the epochs being as 
below : — 

Lowest depression . . 5 p.m., 21st m.t., at Station. 

Culmination 9 a.m., 22nd „ „ „ 

Amplitude 0'355 in. 

At Burlington the wave is flatter, and somewhat less regular. Epochs and 
amplitude as below : — 

Lowest depression 7 p.m., 21st. 

Culmination Noon, 22nd. 

Amplitude of oscillation 0"219 in. 

At Gardiner the wave is still more flattened, and the culmination protracted 
and rendered indistinct, so as to make it doubtful whether it falls fairly within 
the series, or whether another rise commences : — 

Lowest depression 7 p.m., 21st. 

Culmination 2 „ 22nd. 

Amplitude O'lOO in. 

Lastly, at Boston the wave is wholly obliterated, and we have a gently-de- 
scending curve undulated only by the regular diurnal oscillations. 

The curve of W^estern Reserve College oflers a level, unbroken except by 
the regular maxima and minima, which are however far from conspicuous in 
their development. 

Sept. 1838. — Gardiner, Flushing, W^estern Reserve College. 

(H.) W^estern Reserve College, on the moderately descending slope of its 



ON THE KEDUCTION OB MKTEOBOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 97 

curve, exhibits the diurual oscillations strongly but rather irregularly. Both 
minima, however, and both maxima are unequivocally made out. 

The Flushing and Gardiner curves both slope downwards nearly at an 
equal rate ; the former very smoothly and gradually, the latter by four suc- 
cessive stages with levels between. In the former the descent is continued to 
the end of the term of 36 hours ; in the latter a minimum is attained, and the 
last two hours of the series exhibit the commencement of a rise. The terms 
are too few for available comparison. 

Dec. ] 838. — Gardiner, Burlington, Flushing, Western Reserve College ; 
— Estero Real. 

(H.) The Gardiner curve exhibits a series of small and gentle undulations, 
superposed on a gentle and even convexity, culminating about 3 a.m., Dec. 22. 
In that for Burlington, with the same general aspect, the convexity is more 
considerable and its culmination occurs earlier, viz at 8 p.m., Dec. 21. Be- 
fore the end of the series, however, a point of contrary flexure occurs, and a 
minimum is attained at 2 p.m., Dec. 22, which is not the case at Gardiner. 
At Flushing the swell, the contrary flexure and the minimum are all more 
decided, giving a distinct culmination at 10 p.m., 21st, and point of greater 
depression at 3 p.m., 22nd. 

(H.) At Western Reserve College the whole series of thirty-six hours offers 
only one great concavity, the lowest point occurring at 4- a.m. of the 22nd. 
But we have no intermediate observations to connect this with the minima 
observed in the later hours of the Burlington and Flushing series, and the 
general aspect of the curves, as well as the much greater fluctuation, renders 
such connexion improbable. 

(H.) Estero Real is of course quite out of connexion with the above stations, 
but its curve is remarkable as exhibiting the finest specimen of the diurnal 
fluctuations of any we have yet passed in review. Its epochs and sums of 
excursions are as follow in mean time : 

ml M' w^ M« 

4.^ 10*^ IS'' 2l^K 

Sum of greater excursions. . (M- — w') = 0'168. 
Sum of lesser excursions . . (M' — w*) = 0*037. 

Concluding Remarks (H.). — Having now discussed in their order the ob- 
servations of each term, and stated the conclusions which have presented them- 
selves in the course of their examination, it may be expected that I should 
express some opinion as to the utility of prosecuting a similar series of observa- 
tions more extensively, and on the objects chiefly to be aimed at in so doing. 
And here I must first observe, that supposing any such continued series set on 
foot, it would be highly desirable, by previous communication and concert, to 
secure a multitude of cooperators on chosen lines of connexion, so as tp obtain, 
at least for those stations, more regularly continued series of terms than those 
which are comprised in our list, and to narrow in some degree the field of in- 
quiry by limiting it (as 1 have been compelled to do) to some distinct point of 
meteorology, such as the tracing of atmospheric waves and the determination 
of the coefficients of the diurnal periods. To the latter point the hourly system 
of observation alone is applicable, and monthly series (on the 21st of each 
month) of such observations from a vast number of stations in which abso- 
lutely nothing else was set down than the hourly march of the barometer 
for twenty -five consecutive hours (so as to begin and conclude the twenty-four 
hours with an observation), would in itself, if continued for a few years, leave 

1843. H 



98 REPORT — 1843. 

nothing to be desired on this important head. I need not insist on each ob- 
server reducing his own observations. The time is arrived in meteorology 
wlien unreduced observations (at least barometrical ones) can no longer be 
tolerated, and must henceforward (except at very peculiar stations) be con- 
sidered as not having been made. The tables for the purpose are in eveiy 
one's possession who can be considered competent to use the barometer sci- 
entifically ; and if the correction be applied at once at the time of reading off, 
the trouble is so subdivided as to be reduced almost to nothing. It should, 
however, be remembered by all who may undertake such observations, that 
unless made at each hour of the twenty-Jive and at the exact hours, a series 
loses much of its value ; and if two or more hours be deficient, it is hardly 
■worth using, as its comparability -with others ceases. We have seen, from 
the instance of Mauritius (and the remark applies to most inter-tropical sta- 
tions), that from twelve to sixteen unexceptionable series of the kind in 
question suffice to afford a perfect solution of the problem of the diurnal 
movements when mean quantities only are concerned ; and in all probability 
three or four years' continuance of monthli/ terms would lead to a knowledge 
of the annually periodic variations in their coefficients. For such an object, 
dew-points, clouds, temperatures (other than needed to reduce the barometer 
to the freezing standard), and even winds, might be pretermittedi though I am 
far from advising their neglect. 

As regards, however, the exceedingly interesting subject of the atmospheric 
waves, it is right I should observe that, without setting on foot (except witli 
special views and in highly civilized localities) any express series of observa- 
tions, but simply by comparing and reducing what already stand on record, 
— or even by projecting them unreduced, wher.i great undulations only are 
to be traced, — the way lies open to most valuable conclusions. The fluctua- 
tions we have been able to trace by projecting the term observations, are 
those only whose total duration of rise and fall is comprised witliin or does 
not mucli exceed the twenty- four or thirty-six hours over which the term 
extends. But these are by no means those Avhich either theoretically or in- 
deed practically speaking are to be regarded as most important. I have the 
pleasure to lay before the Section specimens of barometric projections by 
Mr. Birt, laid down from his own observation, in which the interval between 
two successive maxima of pressure occupied in the one case seventeen days 
without any intervening maximum; in another, a similar period tcith two 
subordinate maxima interposed ; and another where a beautifully symmetrical 
ware of an extremely remarkable character occupied thirteen days for its 
complete rise and fall. [See curves designated as " Barometric Waves," 
respectively annexed. Plates I. and II.] 

For such objects (as before observed) we need not travel beyond existing 
records. In the records of our own magnetic and meteorological observa- 
tories, and those which stand in corresjjondence with them throughout the 
world, we have ample materials ; and when dealing with undulations of such 
extent, it is by no means a visionary speculation to consider the possibility of 
tracing them over the tohole of our globe ; nay, perhaps of obtaining evidence 
of their performing, tide-like, two or more revolutions round its surface. And 
although the pressure of other avocations will (unfortunately perhaps for 
myself) entirely preclude my taking any further personal share in this most 
interesting inquiry, lam authoi-ized by Mr. Birt to state, that should it be the 
pleasure of the liritish Association to intrust the subject to his inquiries by 
appointing him a committee for that purpose, he is prepared to pursue it if 
provided with a moderate grant to clear unavoidable expense. 



ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOBOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS, 99 

Before concluding this report it may not be irrelevant to add a few words 
on the subject of the winds generally as connected with barometrical move- 
ments. In the mode in which I have been accustomed to consider the sub- 
ject, the winds may be divided into two classes, — winds of translation and 
winds of oscillation ; nearly in the way in which the movements of the ocean 
may be divided into oceanic currents and tide-streams, and these again (re- 
garded as the result of oscillatory movements) may be referred to the general 
laws Avhich regulate the molecular movements of water in contact with the 
bottom of the sea, when under the intlueuce of undulatory agitation. The 
trade- winds and greater aerial currents of a similar character, to which the 
name of monsoons is given, are winds of translation. They have a distinct ba- 
rometrical origin, in the diminution of pressure in approaching the equator, 
caused by the expansion of the equatorial atmosphere and the overflowing of 
the upper strata outwards towards the poles. But this cause is not oscilla- 
tory but permanent. Monsoons also arise in the same way ; from local heat- 
ing and cooling periodically renewed, it is true ; but in long periods of six 
months in duration, so as to give rise to steady currents. With such winds 
the present research has little connexion, except in so far as their powerful 
influence mixes with and masks the effect of the other class of winds, — those 
which arise from barometric oscillation, and which are connected with such 
oscillation in a more direct and intimate manner. The oscillations themselves 
perhaps take their rise in local and temporary causes prevailing over great 
areas simultaneously, the principal no doubt depending on the prevalence of 
cloud or clear sky, rain, or dryness over great tracts for several days or weeks 
in succession. But once produced, and an extensive atmospheric undulatio i 
once propagated, a wind or system of winds dependent on such undulation ne- 
cessarily arises also. Every wave-like movement in a fluid (see Weber's 'Wel- 
lenlehre') consists of two distinct things, an advancing form and a molecular 
movement, which latter consists in a two-fold motion of each particle, vertical 
and horizontal. Laying aside at present the consideration of the vertical 
movement (which belongs only to the strata not in contact with the ground, 
and with which probably many interesting particulars respecting the forma- 
tion and dispersion of clouds, the precipitation of rain, and the generation of 
lightning are connected), those strata which are in immediate contact with 
the ground, in obedience to the general laws of fluid movement, have their 
vertical movement zero and their horizontal a maximum, and for the most 
part (in periodical waves) alternately progressive and retrogressive. 

Now, the advancing form is indicated to us by the barometer, the mole' 
eular movement by the wind, and between these two phaenomena there sub- 
sists of necessity a close and purely dynamical connexion. And it would 
be no small meteorological discovery if, by the study of the characters and 
progress of barometrical fluctuations, we could either make out any law of 
the greater ones which would enable us even roughly to predict them, or any 
peculiarity in their physiognomy by which we could recognize them in their 
earlier stages, as by this we might possibly be led to the prediction of great 
storms. 

Everybody must have remarked the sudden reversion of wind which often 
accompanies short and brisk storms accompanied with thunder and lightning 
(I do not now speak of the great so-called " revolving" gales). This phse- 
nomenon I consider as quite a case in point. But the horizontal motion of 
a particle of air in contact with the earth's surface need not be a straight 
line or even a returning curve. It would be the former only in the case of a 
straight, cylindriform wave once passing or periodically repeated ; it would 
be the latter in the case of an oscillatory movement revolving round a node 

H 2 



100 REPORT— 1843. 

in the way in which Mr. Whewell has proved the tide-wave to do round cer- 
tain definite points in the Channel. Now it is a fact, which has of late been 
a good deal insisted upon, viz. that in certain stations the winds do revolve in 
one uniform direction. The vane, for example, at Greenwich (as I am in- 
formed by the Astronomer Royal) makes five revolutions per annum in one 
uniform direction. May not this phaenomenon, which, I confess, offers 
otherwise some difficulty of conception, be in effect an indication of some 
such atmospheric node, where a line perpendicular to the strata of the atmo- 
sphere may be regarded as describing a conical surface round the true verti- 
cal? If it be true (as the discussion of the term-observations has led to sus- 
pect) that Brussels is in effect such a nodal point, the examination in this 
view of its "Wind-Rose" would be interesting. 

On the subject of "revolving" storms I am not fully prepared to speak; 
but there is certainly one point of view in which some of the principal of 
their phgenomena would seem capable of explanation in this way of conceiving 
winds of oscillation, and in which they would become traced up, not to "fun- 
nel-shaped revolving depressions" in the nature of waterspouts, but simply to 
the crossing of two large long waves running in different directions thus : — 
where A A' A" represent the progress of one wave, B B' B" that of the 
other, and 1 1' t" that of the tornado made by their intersection. The way in 
which a rotary movement in an ellipse or circle, or in some other partly oval 
and partly rectilinear figure, may result from the combination of two recti- 
linear movements of advance and recess, will easily be understood by the 
analogy of the circular and elliptic polarization of light, where rectilinear 
movements of the aethereal molecules are conceived to be similarly combined. 
Some features in such storms are strongly in harmony with this view, viz. 
the fact that in them the direction of the wind at a given locality never 
makes more than one rotation, and not always that ; and that in the central 
line of the storm's progress there is a simple and sudden reversal of direction. 
On the other hand, it must not be concealed that some features militate 
against it; for instance, the fact that such gales are stated always to "re- 
volve" in one direction, whereas on this view" of their origin the changes of 
■wind ought to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the medial line. 
But for the present it must suffice to have pointed out a mode of considering 
the subject of at least certain sorts of winds which, being in the nature of a 
vera causa, resulting from dynamical considerations perfectly general and in- 
defeasible, cannot be Avithout some influence, the only question being that 
of amount. 

Fifty-five pounds of the original grant of 100/. have been expended : should 
the Association order the printing of this report, a poi'tion of the remainder 
may be applied to cover the expense of engraving or lithographing the curves 
above noticed and accompanying this report, expressing Mr. Birt's observed 
waves. The publication of all the projected term-curves would incur a more 
serious additional expense without a corresponding benefit. In furnishing 
the basis of the above discussions they have performed their office, though as 
records they should be carefully preserved. 

(Signed) J. F. W. HERSCHEL. 



ERRATA. 

Page 72, line 44, for Dec. read Sept. 

Page 74, lines 36, 38, 39, /or Sept. read Dec. 

Page 75, lines 2, 43, for Sept. read Dec. 



ON THE REDUCTION OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 101 






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ON THE REDUCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL, OBSERVATIONS. 103 



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104 REPORT — 1843. 

Report of the Committee appointed by the British Association for 
Experiments on Steam-Engines. Members of the Committee : — 
Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq., F.R.S. ; J. Enys, Esq. ; Rev. Pro- 
fessor MosELEV, M.A. F.R.S. ; and Professor William Pole. 

Your Committee, in reporting the progress of the experiments entrusted to 
their care, have the pleasure of stating that they have succeeded in accom- 
plishing the principal object which has engaged their attention during the 
past year ; namely, to ascertain by actual experiment the velocity of the 
piston of a single-acting Cornish pumping-engine, at all points of its stroke. 

Unfortunately, however, from delays and accidents, arising from causes in- 
herent in the delicate nature of the operations required and the machine used, 
there has not been yet time to obtain the data and work out the calculations 
necessary for comparing the results of experiment with those of theory, and 
by that means eliciting the useful information which it is hoped this com- 
parison will ofler to practical science. 

The velocity-measuring machine constructed by Breguet of Paris, under 
the kindly proffered direction of M. Morin, was received a few months ago. 
It is on the same principle as those with which the beautiful experiments of 
M. Morin on friction were made, and which are described minutely in the 
works of this writer (Nouvelles Experiences sur le Frottement, or Descrip- 
tion des Appareils Chronometriques). These may be referred to for a full 
and complete explanation of the construction and action of the machine, but 
the principle of it may be briefly explained as follows. 

A circular disc, covered with card or paper, is made to revolve with a uni- 
form motion by means of clockwork regulated by air vanes. Upon this disc, 
a revolving pencil, whose motion is caused by and corresponds with that of 
the body whose variable velocity is to be measured, describes a curved line : 
and from this curve, which results from a combination of the variaMe with 
the uniform motion, the velocity may be easily ascertained by processes and 
formulae adapted to the purpose. 

This beautiful and ingenious contrivance, by which spaces described in 
the 10,(X)0dth part of a second may be easily discerned, is the invention of 
M. Poncelet, carried into execution by M. Morin. 

On examining the machine, it was found necessary to make some few re- 
pairs of injuries it had received in carriage, and also some alterations to fit it 
for the particular purpose it was proposed to apply it to. These were done 
by Mr. Holtzapffel. 

The instrument, when put in order, was first tried at King's College, a 
variable motion being given by a small carriage made to descend an inclined 
plane. The correspondence of the velocity shown by the machine, with that 
deduced by the known laws of dynamics, was such as to give great confi- 
dence in its accuracy ; and after a few minor alterations suggested by fre- 
quent trials, it was removed to the East London Water Works, Old Ford, 
and, by the kind permission of Mr. Wicksteed, the engineer, was attached to 
the Cornish engine at work there. This was considered a very favourable 
engine to experiment upon, inasmuch as the constants involved in its work- 
ing had been so accurately ascertained by Mr. Wicksteed in his previous ex- 
periments, and so amply confirmed by the long trial of the constant indicator 
upon it by your Committee during the years 1841 and 1842. 

After several preparatory trials and adjustments, some diagrams were taken 
on the 8th of August, and the velocities calculated from these have been ex- 
pressed in the form of geometrical curves, whose abscissae represent the 
spaces passed over by the piston of the engine, and whose ordinates indicate 
the corresponding velocities at the different points of the stroke. 

The velocity of the in-door, or descending stroke of the piston, is taken from 
the mean of three experiments, differing very little from each other. The 



ON THE GROWTH AND VITALITY OF SEEDS. 105 

velocity begins from zero, accelerating as the piston descends, until at about 
four feet of the stroke it attains a maxijnum of about 10"4' feet per second. 
This is the point where the pressure of the steam in the cylinder has, by ex- 
panding, become exactly equal to the resistance opposed to the motion of the 
piston ; and from this point the velocity gradually decreases as the steam be- 
comes more attenuated, until the piston is gradually brought to rest by the 
exhaustion or expenditure of the whole of the work accumulated in the mo- 
ving mass (in the shape of vis viva) during the early part of the stroke, while 
the steam power exceeded the resistance. 

The velocity of the out-door, or pumping stroke, is much less than that of 
the former, the greatest velocity being only about 3"8 ft. per sec. 

Your Committee are still engaged in the necessary investigations connected 
with these experiments, and hope to be able to furnish a more complete report 
in time for publication in the Transactions of the Association*. 

It is desirable to take this opportunity of acknowledging that the thanks of 
the Committee are particularly due to Mr. Wicksteed and his sub-engineer, 
Mr. Price, for the accommodation rendered at Old Ford ; to Mr. Covvper, of 
King's College, for his kind and able assistance in the experiments ; to Mr. 
HoltzapfFel and Mr. Timme for the attention paid to the repairs and adjust- 
ments of the machine ; and to Mr. Penn, of Greenwich, for the loan of an 
excellent indicator. H. Moseley. 

London, 14th August, 1843. William Pole (Reporter). 



Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. H. E. Strickland, Prof. 
Daubeny, Prof. Henslow and Prof. Lindley, appointed to con- 
tinue their Experiments on the Vitality of Seeds. 

The Committee have to report, that a considerable addition has been this year 
made to the collection of seeds deposited at the Botanic Garden, Oxford. As, 
however, it is very desirable that the seeds of a great variety of plants should 
be collected, so that at least one representative of every natural family may be 
obtained, they beg to solicit further contributions of seeds (addressed to Dr. 
Daubeny, Botanic Garden, Oxford), from any persons who may be interested 
in the inquiry. The seeds should of course be of good quality, and the dates 
when gathered should be noted, in the mode explained in our last year's report. 

The Committee have expended 1/. lis. in printing circulars, 21. 10s. 3c/. in 
the purchase of seeds, and 9/. 6s. 8d. in expenses connected with the conduct 
and registration of the experiments. They estimate that a grant of I5l. for 
the ensuing year Avould suffice for the pursuance of the inquiry. 

During the autumn of 1842, seeds of one species of eighty-five genera of plants 
were collected in addition to those noticed in the report submitted in 1812. 
These have been in every instance preserved according to the mode specified in 
the resolutions of the Committee appointed to investigate the same, and are de- 
posited in a room devoted exclusively to them in the Oxford Botanic Garden. 

Of the eighty-five additional kinds of seeds, 

34 were gathered in the Oxford Botanic Garden, 
21 from the Horticultural Society's Garden at Chiswick, 
1 from H. E. Strickland, Esq., 
1 from Colonel P. Yorke, 
1 from Thomas Hankey, Esq., favoured by Prof. Lindley, 

85 — 27 purchased of Mr. Charlwood, Covent Garden, London. 

A portion of the preceding kinds of seeds were sown in May 1843, in the 
Oxford Botanic Garden, the garden of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick, 
and also in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. These seeds were all gathered 
in 1842, with the exception of Nos. 1 and 85. The result of the experiments 
made in each garden is shown in the following table. 

* This Report has been completed, but at too late a period for insertion in the present 
volume of the Transactions. — Ed. 



106 



REPORT 1843. 









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Oxford. 




Names. 


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1. 


Seeds from an ancient Egj^p- 








Sown on the 24th of 




tian shoe, found at Thebes; 








May, with the excep- 






presented by Col. Yorke, 








tion of those which 






1842 


8 






required bottom heat, 




2. 


Aconitum Napellus . . 




100 






on a bed of soil, in a 




3. 


Adonis autumnalis . . 




50 


33 


18 


cold frame, the light 




4. 


Amaranthus caudatus . 




100 


81 


4 


being on only during 




5. 


Anagallis arvensis . . 




100 


23 


11 


night-time, to protect 




6. 


Buffonia annua . . . 




100 


47 


4 


the germinating seeds 




7. 


Buphthahnum cordifolium . 


100 


52 


7 


from snails, slugs, &c. 




8. 


Bupleuruni rotundifoiium . 


100 


4 


19 


The seeds were all 




9. 


Conium maculatum . . . 


100 


80 


11 


sown in shallow drills 




10. 


Cytisus Laburnum . . 




50 


14 


5 


of uniform depth, and 




11. 


Dipsacus laciniatus . 




50 


39 


8 


the time of germina- 


' 


12. 


Elsholtzia cristata . . 




100 


83 


4 


ting registered when 




13. 


Erysimum Peroffskianua 


I . 


100 


81 


4 


the seed-leaves first 




14. 


Helianthus indicus 




25 


24 


5 


appeared above the 




15. 


Heracleum elegans . 




50 


1 


20 


surface of the soil. 




16. 


Hyoscyaraus niger 




100 


3 


30 


Of Nos. 15 and 19 




17. 


Iberis umbellata . . 




100 


100 


5 


many seeds are still 




18. 


Iris sibirica .... 




50 






perfect. 




19. 


Lathyrus heterophyllus 




50 


26 


21 






20. 


Leonurus Cardiaca 




100 


66 


8 






21. 


Maleomia maritima . 




100 


87 


3 






22. 


Malope grandiflora . 




100 


54. 


4 






23. 


Momordica Elaterium 




25 










24. 


Nepeta Cataria . . . 




100 


14 


16 






25. 


Nicandra physaloides 




100 


86 


6 






26. 


Nigella nana . . . 




50 


39 


11 






27. 


Orobus niger . . 




50 










28. 


Stenactis speciosa . . 




100 


34 


5 






29. 


Tetragonolobus purpureus . 


25 


22 


6 






30. 


Trigonella fcBnum-grsecum . 


50 


45 


3 






31. 


Tropseolum majus . . . 


25 


17 


7 


r Sown on hot-bed (heat 




32. 


Cucurbita ovifera var. 




15 


13 


6 


< very gentle, as in other 




33. 


Gilia achilleaefolia 




100 






peases). 




34. 


Capsicum .... 




25 


20 


9 


On hot-bed. 




35. 


Medicago maculata . 




100 


46 


14 






36. 


Calandrinia speciosa . 




100 


39 


3 






37. 


Callichroa platyglossa 




100 


58 


4 






38. 


CoUomia coccinea. . 




100 


48 


7 






39. 


Coreopsis atrosanguinea 


100 


78 


6 






40. 


Cotoneaster rotundifolia 


20 


... 


... 


Not yet vegetated. 




41. 


Crataegus macrantha . . . 


50 






Ditto. 




42. 
43. 


iiimr'tn ti 


50 
100 






Ditto. 




Cynoglossum glochidatum . 


16 


9 







ON THE GROWTH AND VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



107 







Cambridge*. 




Chiswick. 




■g 

s 


t^ 




i 


11- 








!> 


<b B 


Remarks. 




1 


■s4 


Remarks. 






o 








> 










^ 


H3 






1 


S2 






1. 




... 


These were carefully tried with 
Mays (from catacombs of 
Peru) in three pots, watered 
respectively with water, so- 
lution of nitrate of soda, and 
chlorine weak, but none ger- 


1. 






Sown May 28th. 




2. 






minated. 


2. 










3. 


26 


21 


Largest portion ger- 


3. 


31 


29 


Very healthy. 




4. 


68 


6 


minated after forty- 


4. 


61 


28 


Weakly. 




5. 


48 


13 


four days ; not yet 


5. 










6. 


49 


8 


ceased ? 


6. 


13 


44 


Weak. 




7. 


15 


11 




7. 


10 


46 


Very unequal. 




8. 


19 


17 




8. 


8 


45 


Very weakly. 




9. 


31 


16 




9. 


49 


34 


Good. 




10. 


24 


14 




10. 


42 


30 


Good. 




11. 


11 


14 




11. 


13 


28 


Very strong. 




12. 


18 


9 




12. 










13. 


69 


8 




13. 


84 


23 


Strong. 




14. 


26! 


6 




14. 


21 


32 


Good. 




15. 








1.5. 










16. 


2 


37 


Probably more will 


16. 










17. 


82 


8 


come up. 


17. 


98 


12 


Very strong. 




18. 








18. 










19. 


14 


50 


Ditto. 


19. 


4 


45 


Very weak. 




20. 


54 


11 




20. 


45 


29 


Good. 




21. 


86 


4 




21. 


79 


11 


Very strong. 




22. 


34 


5 




22. 


70 


34 


Good. 




23. 








23. 










24. 








24. 










25. 


71 


11 




25. 


86 


24 


Good. 




26. 


45 


13 




26. 


26 


34 


Good. 




27. 








27. 










28. 








28. 


79 


42 


Very unequal. 




29. 


21 


13 




29. 


15 


27 


Very strong. 




30. 


40 


4 




30. 


37 


19 


Very strong. 




31. 


22 


12 




31. 


25 


32 


Good. 




32. 


12 


12 




32. 


10 


20 


Good. 




33. 








33. 










34. 


15 


18 


Perhaps more will 


34. 


21 


38 


Good. 




35. 


20 


8 


come up. 


35. 


10 


20 


Very healthy. 




36. 


51 


4 




36. 


27 


29 


Weakly. 




37. 


34 


4 




37. 










38. 


45 


8 




38. 


42 


40 


Strong. 




39. 


7 


25 




39. 










40. 






[* Sown June 2nd, 1 843. Pro- 


40. 










41. 






fessor Henslow remarks that 


41. 














this year, and also last, the seeds 










42. 






were not sown at Cambridge, 


42. 










43. 


4 


19 


but at Hitcham, Suffolk, and 
watched by himself.] 


43. 


5 


42 


Weak. 



108 



REPORT — 1843. 





Names. 


if 


Oxford. 




i 

2 


ri 










la 


g> 




Remarks. 








1 


> 


01 w 

S5 






44. 


Digitalis lutea 


100 


95 


9 






45. 


Eutoca viscida 


100 


72 


7 






46. 


Glaiicium rubrum. . . . 


100 


5 


16 






47. 


Godetia Lindleyana . . . 


100 


37 


7 






48. 


Gladiolus psittacinus . . . 


100 


28 


25 






49. 


Impatiens glanduligera . . 


50 






On hot-bed. 




50. 


Lupinus succulentus . . . 


100 


54 


3 






51. 


Nolana atriplicifolia . . . 


100 


14 


5 






52. 


Oxyura chrysanthemoides . 


100 


18 


5 






53. 


Papaver atucenum .... 


100 


50 


8 






54. 


Phacelia tanacetifolia . . 


100 


34 


4 






55. 


Potentilla nepalensis . . . 


100 


49 


10 






56. 


Sphenogyne speciosa . . 


100 


45 


7 






51. 


Acacia pseud-acacia . . . 


100 


14 


9 


Some seeds still perfect. 




58. 


Alslroemeria pelegrina . . 


20 


6 


20 


On hot-bed. 




59. 


Betula alba 


200 










60. 


Carpinus Betula .... 


100 










61. 


Catalpa cordifolia .... 


50 


10 


16 






62. 


Cercis canadensis .... 


50 


4 


20 


Many seeds still perfect. 




63. 


Cerinthe major 


50 


45 


7 






64. 


Cichoiium Endivia var. 


150 


80 


5 






65. 


Cobaea scandens .... 


6 






On hot-bed. 




66. 


Cuphea procurabens . . . 


50 


17 


"7 


Ditto. 




67. 


Doliclios lignosus .... 


25 


21 


9 






68. 


Galinsogea triiobata . . . 


100 


69 


9 






69. 


Ilex Aquifolium .... 


100 




... 


Not yet vegetated. 




70. 


Juniperus communis . . . 


100 






Ditto. 




71. 


Liriodendron Tulipiferum . 


50 


"l 


83 






72. 


Loasa nitida 


100 


67 


8 


On hot-bed. 




73. 


Magnolia sp 


15 










74. 


Martynia proboscidea . . 


20 


8 


19 


Ditto. 




75. 


Mesembryanthemum crj'stal- 














liuum 


100 


45 


7 


Ditto. 




76. 


Mirabilis Jalapa .... 


25 


9 


7 


Ditto. 




77. 


Morus nigra 


100 


41 


32 






78. 


Ricinus communis . . . 


\5 


7 


10 


Ditto. 




79. 


Rudbeckia amplexicaulis . 


150 


10 


26 






80. 


Scorpiurus sulcata . . . 


25 


21 


7 






81. 


Tetragonia expansa . . . 


15 


15 


12 






82. 


Ulex europaea 


100 


20 


12 


Some seeds still perfect. 




83. 


Quercus Robur .... 


10 




... 


Acorns rotten. 




84. 


Phoenix Dactylifera . . . 


3 


"2 


45 


On hot-bed. 




85. 


Melon seed from Persia ?, 
1817 


6 


... 




Ditto. 
(Made up to Nov. 25.) 


_ 



ON THE GROWTH AND VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



109 







Cambridge. 






Chiswick. 




1 
1 


^1 


Remarks. 


1 




Remarks. 




44. 


> 

1 








d 


a, 60 

h2 






26 


25 




44. 


92 


39 


Very equal. 




45. 


24 


11 




45. 


72 


30 


Very unequal. 




46. 


1 


? 




46. 


4 


45 


Very weak. 




47. 


21 


6 




47. 


81 


32 


Very healthy. 




48. 


6 


50 


Probably more will 


48. 


8 


31 


Very weak. 




49. 






come up. 


49. 










50. 


63 


5 




50. 


98 


28 


Very strong. 




51. 


56 


7 




51. 


50 


30 


Good. 




52. 


22 


9 




52. 


14 


42 


Weakly. 




53. 


39 


9 




53. 


90 


20 


Strong. 




54. 


74 


4 




54. 


23 


12 


Very healthy. 




55. 








55. 










56. 


18 


12 




56. 


94 


25 


Very healthy. 




57. 


17 


16 


Ditto. 


57. 










58. 


13 


27 




5S. 










59. 








59. 










60. 








60. 










61. 








61. 


1 


41 


Very weak. 




62. 


5 


26 


Ditto. 


62. 










63. 


42 


12 




63. 


24 


27 


Very equal. 




64. 


81 


5 




64. 


67 


17 


Good. 




65. 








65. 










66. 


8 


15 




66. 


21 


29 


Weakly. 




67. 


20 


43 


Ditto. 


67. 


23 


45 


Strong. 




68. 


25 


16 




68. 










69. 








69. 










70. 








70. 










71. 








71. 










72. 


59 


11 


Several much later. 


72. 


27 


30 


Very strong. 




73. 








73. 










74. 


8 


23 


Most much later. 


74. 


12 


38 


Good. 




75. 


8 


16 




75. 










76. 


7 


13 




76. 


10 


42 


Strong. 




77. 


15 


23 


Probably more will 


77. 


26 


43 


Good. 




78. 


8 


19 


come up. 


78. 


6 


29 


Very strong. 




79. 








79. 










80. 


23 


11 


Mostly much later. 


80. 


15 


18 


Good. 




81. 


14 


16 




81. 


9 


28 


Good. 




82. 


16 


17 




82. 










83. 








83. 










84. 








84. 










85. 






(Made up to August 4.) 


85. 








W. H. Baxter, Curator. 


H 


. E. STRICKtAND. 
















C. 


B. Daubbny. 



XIO REPORT — 1843. 

Report of a Series of Observations on the Tides of the Frith of Forth 
and the East Coast of Scotland. By J. S. Russell, Esq. 

These observations extended over several seasons, and no complete report 
had been yet presented, as the observations of each foi'nier season had only 
shown the necessity of further extending the observations. The observations 
of the first season had shown the existence of certain anomalous tides, which 
had not formerly been accurately examined, and proved that these anomalies 
■were more extensive than was at first conceived. Next season the observa- 
tions were more widely extended, so as to include many adjacent places, to 
which the same anomalies were traced, and thus the general nature and extent 
of the phaenomena were determined with accuracy and precision, and reported 
to the last meeting. But it was ibund that great differences of opinion existed 
with reference to the cause of these ascertained phaenomena, which rendered 
it obvious that the observations required to be extended still furtiier in time 
and extent, in order conclusively to settle the questions which had arisen out 
of the former inquiries. This last series, from its extent and completeness, 
had now been so fully examined and discussed, as to afford ample means 
of deciding on the nature of the phaenomena, and determining tiieir origin. 
Simultaneous observations had been made at nearly twenty stations on the 
eastern coast, from Newcastle and Shields to Inverness ; and as many as 2000 
observations in a day registered and discussed. The results of these were ex- 
hibited in the tables and diagrams accompanying the report. And the result 
of the whole had been to elucidate in a remarkable manner, the mechanism 
which propagates along our shores and rivers the great ocean-wave which 
carries from one place to anotiier the successive phaenomena of the tides, in 
such a manner as could not have been attained by any system of observation 
less extensive tlian that which had been adopted. 

It is pretty generally known that the phaenomena of the tides, with re- 
ference to their generating cause, the influence of the mass of the sun and 
of the moon, in the various relations of distance and direction of these lumi- 
naries, have recently been examined with great success, in a series of re- 
searches carried on first by Mr. Lubbock, and then by Mr. Whewell, partly 
with the co-operation of this Association. By means of their labours we are 
now enabled to predict with unlooked-for accuracy, the time of high water and 
the height of the tide in many of the harbours of Great Britain. But many of 
the local phaenomena of tides remained unaccounted for, and these had been 
the object of a special series of researclies, of which the present formed a 
part, the object being to determine in what way the conformation of the 
shores, and of the bottom of the sea, and the forms of the channels of rivers 
and friths affect the phaenomena of the tidal-wave. The rivers Dee and Clyde 
had been formerly examined with this view. To these were now added the 
Forth, the Tay, and the Tyne, and the northern shores of the German 
Ocean. [The author then described the general character of the coast, and 
pointed out the peculiarities of position and form which render the Frith of 
Forth so remarkable a feature of it.] 

The manner in which these observations were conducted is not the usual 
one, of noting down simply the hour at which high water occurs, and then 
the hour of low water, along with the height at which the water stands at 
these times ; such a method had been found quite inadequate to the purposes 
for which such observations are required; and indeed Mr. Russell thought 
it of importance that all tide observations should, if possible, be made in the 
manner he was now about to describe, especially all tide observations made 
for scientific purposes. He had adopted this method in all his observations, 



ON THE TIDES OP THE FRITH OF FORTH. Ill 

those published formerly in the Transactions being on a similar plan, but in 
this case it had been more fully carried out, and found of greater importance 
than in former cases. This plan was to carry on simultaneously at tlie places 
examined, a series of continuous observations every five minutes night and 
day, by successive observers, without intermission, for the period of a month, 
or of several months, as might be required. Printed forms were sent to all 
the stations, and in them the observer simply noted down every five minutes 
the height of the tide on a graduated scale placed before him. Every day 
at noon all these papers were sent by post to the central station, and im- 
mediately on their arrival the papers of the different stations were compared 
and their observations laid down on paper, so as to give a graphical repre- 
sentation to the eye of all the observations, by means of which they were at once 
verified and compared with great facility ; and accuracy of observation was 
by this means made very certain, as carelessness or incorrectness in the ob- 
servatiojis was at once manifest to the eye. 

These tide-waves were represented to the eye in the following way. A 
horizontal line is divided into equal parts, which represent time or hours, 
thus, — VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, I, &c. ; and these spaces are again 
subdivided into twelfth parts of an hour; a scale of feet is placed vertically, 
and numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. ; then the observations are taken, and if 
is found that at VI o'clock the w ater stood at 0, and then was low water ; 
at VII the water had risen to 1 foot, and a mark is made one fool high above 
the hour VII ; at VIII a mark is made at the corresponding height of 2^ feet ; 
at IX a mark is placed above it to the corresponding height. When this 
has been done for every hour and also for every five minutes, these points 
form a line, which exhibits the form of the tide-wave as it passed that station 
on the day of observation ; in this way are laid down on the same paper all 
the observations of the same day at the different stations. 

From the examination of the form of these tide- waves thus laid down, cer- 
tain characters of the tide-wave peculiar to each locality had been discovered. 
As in the former observations of the Clyde and the Dee, so in this series it had 
been found that the form and dimensions of a channel produce important 
changes on the form of the tide-wave. Where the sea was deep and the shore 
open and abrupt, the tide-wave was symmetrical, and of the form predicted 
by Laplace, when he says that in rising and falling the water covers in equal 
times equal arcs of a vertical circle. This is the form of the ocean tide-wave ; 
but on approaching a shallow shore and travelling along a shelving coast, the 
tide-wave undergoes two changes ; its summit becomes displaced forvfards 
in time, its horizontal chords become dislocated, and the wave ceases to be 
symmetrical. This peculiar dislocation and displacement are characteristic 
of a littoral tide, and in the case of running streams, the currents still further 
affect the tide-wave, and give to it a peculiar distortion characteristic of flu- 
vial tides. To these were further added the exaggeration and elevation of the 
tide by means of narrow channels. All these phenomena were fully proved 
by the present series of observations. 

The author also considers it to have been fully established, by the obser- 
vations on the Frith of Forth, that there exists on the eastern coast satisfac- 
tory evidence of tlie presence of a second tide-wave in that part of the German 
Ocean, and that the southern tide-wave, a day older than the uortliern tide- 
wave, sensibly affects the phaenomena of that part of tiie coast. To this he 
attributes the double tides of the Frith of Forth, the nature of which he fully 
explained. Regarding these double tides various theories had been formed ; 
and there were various ways in which such tides might happen, whenever 
tide-waves arrive by different paths in different times. But this kind of double 



112 REPORT— 1843. 

tide was in this case only to be explained by the method he had adopted, 
which removed the difficulties in which the subject had formerly been 
involved. 

He then proceeded to explain the mode of discussion which Iiad been adopted. 
It Avas the semi-diurnal inequality, so accurately examined by Mr. Whewell, 
which enabled us to decide on the ages of two tides. If the two tides whicli 
appeared together presented opposite inequalities both in time and in height, 
regularly alternating, varying with the moon's declination, disappearing with 
it and reappearing with it, and following it regularly without regard to other 
simultaneous changes of a different period, then it becomes plain that no 
other inference could be drawn tlian that he had mentioned ; and when 
further, he had proceeded to treat these tides as compounded of two success- 
ive tides, one due to a transit l^*" Si™ later than the other, and had used for 
this purpose two simple river tides superimposed at a distance in time cor- 
responding to that at which the northern and southern tides could enter the 
Frith, he had obtained a close representation of the double tides of the 
Frith of Forth ; when these two methods of examination ended in the same 
conclusion, he conceived that it had attained a very high degree of pro- 
bability. 

By means of these observations tide tables had been formed which were 
designed to afford a more accurate means of predicting the local tides of the 
east coast of Scotland than any we now possessed. 

The author of the report took occasion to express the deep regret with 
which he appeared as the only representative of this Committee, having been 
deprived of the valuable services of his coadjutor by the lamented death of 
Sir John Robison, a zealous promoter of science and a valuable member of 
the British Association. 



Notice of a Report of the Committee on the Form of Ships. 
By John Scott Russell, Esq. 

This report was voluminous, containing the reductions of a large number 
of experiments, and about 20,000 observations, made on more than 100 
vessels of different forms, accurate drawings of all of which, on a large 
working scale, were laid on the table. It is the hope of the Committee that 
this report may be published in order to give the public all the benefit 
which accurate knowledge on this point was likely to con^'ey. The present 
abstract does not therefore enter fully into the details of their voluminous 
results, but is confined to a general account of the objects which this Com- 
mittee had in view, the methods of inquiry which they had adopted, and a 
few of the more general conclusions to which they had been conducted. 

It had long been the reproach of science that so little liad been done to 
enable the practical man to proceed with certainty in his attempts to improve 
the speed of ships. There were some points in which science had done all 
that can be desired. The immersion of a ship, her trim, her centre of buoy- 
ancy, her stability, can all be determined with accuracy beforehand, and the 
scientific naval constructor can proceed with certainty upon fixed scientific 
principles. It is otherwise witii the speed and resistance of a ship. In 
nothing does calculation more completely fail than in the attempt to deter- 
mine beforehand the speed of a ship constructed on given lines, or to show 
how a form may be so altered as to render it faster than before. To calcu- 
late the resistance opposed by the water to the passage of a ship through it, 
and to find that form which at a given velocity Avill pass through the water 
with least resistance, and of course with the smallest expenditure of powei;.; 



ON THE FORM OP SHIPS. 113 

such was the problem hitherto the least resolved, and always one of the most 
important which these experiments were intended to investigate. 

There were also two phases in which the problem presented itself, the 
scientific and the practical view of the subject : there were therefore two 
classes of experiments — those designed to advance our knowledge of the laws 
of hydrodynamics which govern the phaenomena of resistance of fluids, and the 
other the experiments serving as a basis to the operations of the practical 
construction of ships, the Experimenia Lucifera and the Eocperimenta Fruc- 
tifera of Lord Bacon. 

Many experiments had formerly been made on this subject, but we had at 
that time so imperfect a system of hydrodynamics, that the conclusions 
drawn from them could not be relied on with confidence in the applications 
to be made on a large scale by the practical man. The Academy of Sci- 
ences had made a series of such experiments at large expense, defrayed by 
the French government. Colonel Beaufoy in our own country had made an 
important series of such experiments, at an expense of £30,000, but these 
were of comparatively little value for the same reason, viz. that the forms did 
not comprehend such forms as were actually required for the purposes of naval 
construction, and because the slate of science was not such as to enable us, 
from the resistance of one form, to deduce with certainty that of another. 
One experiment of Colonel Beaufoy was of value, as it told us the resistance 
produced by the adhesion of water to the surface of a body independent of 
form, at various velocities. But the others were made on bodies not ana- 
logous to the forms of ships, and many of them on forms moved through the 
water far below the surface, and so suited to the construction of fishes or 
submarine navigation, but not for the purpose of sailing on the surface. For 
the purpose of giving practical value to the present series, experiments had 
been made on many different scales of magnitude, some in narrow channels, 
others in large canals, and finally on the open sea. Some were made on 
models of 3 feet in length, others of 10 feet; some on vessels 25 feet long, 
75 feet long, and some on vessels 200 feet long and nearly 2000 tons capa- 
city. Thus it was trusted that the scale of the experiments was such as to 
give confidence in the results. Next, as regards the forms of vessels made 
the subject of experiment, they were similar to those required for the prac- 
tical purposes of construction. One class consisted of such forms as were 
required for steam navigation ; plans of steam ships of the best construction, 
and others of worse forms, were accurately laid down on the same scale, in 
the same way and with the same accuracy of proportion as if they had been 
for actual construction, and along with these were some of new forms. A 
given form having been found to be a good one, was then varied by length- 
ening, first in one manner, then in another; now in the middle, now at the 
rear, now at the entrance, and so on, to discover the best mode of improving 
a given good form. In sailing vessels some of the celebrated Chapman's best 
forms were taken and treated in a similar manner, and along with them were 
compared the common forms of merchantmen and other ships. The class of 
fast-sailing yachts and cutters was treated in the same way, by taking some 
of the best known forms and determining by experiment the effects produced 
by lengthening and shortening them, making them fuller here, and finer there, 
and so ascertaining with accuracy the effect of each alteration of form on the 
great object of inquiry, namely, the determination in given circumstances of 
the method of giving such a form to a ship as shall enable her to pass through 
the water with the least resistance, the greatest velocity, and of course the 
smallest expenditure of force, power, and money. To these were added a 
number of theoretical and geometrical forms. 

1843. I 



114 



REPORT — 1843. 



The methods of drawing these vessels through the water varied with the 
scale on which the experiments were made. Those on the smallest scale 
were drawn by a weight arranged in such a manner as to supply a uniform 
force through any given distance. Those on a larger scale combined the 
power of horses with the action of a weight, so as to apply their force, when 
freed from irregularities, to the same object. On a still larger scale the power 
of steam was employed, and on the largest scale the experiments were made 
on the sea by means of powerful towing vessels. In this way the experiments 
were made on a wide range of magnitude, both as regarded the vessels them- 
selves and the sheet of water on which they were propelled — an element of 
resistance not always sufficiently taken into account. 

The resistance was accurately measured by dynamometric apparatus of 
great accuracy, through which the moving force was communicated to the 
vessel ; the velocity being determined in certain cases by a peculiar appa- 
ratus designed for this purpose, and in other cases by instruments for mea- 
suring and marking time with accuracy. The observations were registered 
by independent observers ; carefully recorded by individuals employed for 
that purpose ; then finally passed through a series of operations of reduc- 
tion so as to fit them for immediate reference and use in calculation. After 
this process had been gone through by independent calculators, and not till 
then, were they made the subject of special examination with reference to 
every theory, and thus it was conceived that the greatest amount of authen- 
ticity had been secured. 

The author then proceeded to give to the Meeting a number of specimens 
of the results which the experiments afforded, such as he knew were likely to 
interest those members of the Section who were acquainted with the princi- 
ples of naval consti-uction. He demonstrated a remarkable law by which it 
appears that each velocity has a coi-responding form and dimension peculiar 
to that velocity ; and he showed in a variety of diagrams the means of con- 
structing such forms. To show how nmch in^nence form alone, without any 
other element or dimension, affects the question of resistance, he adduced the 
following as one of the most important experiments. Four vessels were taken, 
having all the same length, the same breadth, the same depth, the same area 
and form of midship section, and all loaded to the same weight, displacement 
and draft of water, the only difference being in the character of the water- 
lines ; No. I., being of the new form indicated by these experiments as that 
of least resistance ; No. III., the old form, very nearly the reverse of the first; 
No. II., intermediate between them; and No. IV. intermediate between No. I. 
and No. II. The following table shows the result of the comparative trial : — 





Resistance 


Resistance 


Resistance 


Resistance 


Speed in Miles per hour. 


in pounds. 


in pounds. 


in pounds. 


in pounds. 




No. I. 


No. II. 


No. III. 


o. IV. 


3 miles. 


10 


12 


12 


11-3 


4 


18 


22 


23 


21- 


5 


'2H 


38 


42 


35- 


6 


39 


61 


72 


56- 


7 


.52 


96 


129 


84- 



These differences showed how much might be gained, everything else being 
equal, by the adoption simply of judicious forms in the construction of the 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF MEDICINES. 115 

water-lines of a ship. The vessel No. I. was constructed on the wave-line ; 
the methods and rules for which he proceeded to explain by diagrams. 

Mr. Scott Russell expressed to the Section the regret which he felt in the 
loss of Sir John Robison, who had been a zealous member of this Committee. 
One of his last acta had been to express his interest in their labours. 



Report on the Physiological Action of Medicines. 
% J. Blake, M.R.C.S. 

In regard to the following observations on the action of medicines I must 
beg to observe, tliat I have used the word medicine in its most general sense, 
and considered it as comprehending any body or force capable of exerting 
an influence on the animal economy. Under this point of view it is evident 
that the field of investigation is most extensive. The part of it to which I 
have more particularly directed my attention has been, the phsenomena pro- 
duced by the introduction of various substances directly into the blood. 
Although such an inquiry does not promise to lead to any direct practical 
results, it nevertheless offers to us the means of producing certain definite 
changes in the cii'culating fluid and in the tissues, in a much readier manner 
than we can hope to do by any other method ; and there can be little doubt 
that a careful analysis of the facts thus obtained, will afford data which 
must sooner or later prove available for the advancement of medical science. 
In the last memoir which I published on this subject, I alluded to a fact 
which seemed indicated rather than proved by the experiments I had then 
made; this was, the apparently analogous action of isomorphous substances 
when introduced directly into the blood. But experiments which would bring 
into one class, as regards thejr physiological action, substances so dissimilar 
in their therapeutical properties as common salt and nitrate of silver, mag- 
nesia and iron, evidently required to be carefully repeated and extended, before 
they could admit of being received as data for founding so extraordinary a 
generalization : at the same time the importance of such a law, if discovered, 
affording, as it would do, the first step to a more scientific insight into the 
action of substances on the animal economy, appeared to me so evident, that 
I considered I could not better carry out the objects proposed to me by the 
Association, than by extending my researches in this direction, so as to verify 
or disprove the law in question. 

I have also instituted a series of experiments to ascertain if in animals, 
with whose food foreign substances were mixed, these substances would com- 
bine with or be deposited in the tissues ; and if so, whether they would be 
found in greater quantity in one tissue or organ than in another. For this 
purpose I have fed rabbits on food with which salts of strontian in one in- 
stance, and in another salts of lead, were mixed ; conceiving that the stron- 
tian might possibly replace the lime in the bones, and that the lead would 
readily furnish me with facts, from the facility with which it can be detected, 
and from its uniting easily with the animal tissues, at least according to the 
generally-received opinion. The first series of experiments, or those with the 
salts of strontian, have led to only negative results, owing to the difficulty of 
separating strontian from lime. In my experiments with the salts of lead, I 
have arrived at conclusions which are opposed to the opinions generally en- 
tertained on the absorption and deposition of this substance : I therefore think 
it necessary to relate the experiments in detail. 

I procured two full-grown healthy rabbits, and mixed six grains of ace- 
tate of lead with their food daily, so that each was taking three grains a-day : 

I 2 



116 REPORT — 1843. 

either from the presence of the lead or some other cause, the animals did 
not appear at first to relish their food, but after a few days they ate as well 
as ever. After they had been taking this dose for ten days, the quantity of 
the acetate of lead was increased to six grains daily for each rabbit, and in 
five days more the quantity was increased to ten grains daily for each : 
they did not appear to suffer from this large dose, and it was again aug- 
mented to fifteen grains. After this dose had been taken for eighteen days 
one of the animals died, apparently from gradual inanition — there was no 
paralysis. The quantity of acetate of lead taken was 380 grains in the 
space of seven weeks. The only morbid appearances discovered after death, 
were redness of the lungs, and a thickened leathery state of the mucous 
membrane of the stomach, which was also lighter in colour than natural : the 
different viscera and the body were preserved for analysis. The other rabbit 
lived six weeks longer, the dose of the acetate of lead being gradually in- 
creased ; for six days before its death, it was taking a drachm of the acetate 
daily ; no symptoms of paralysis were observed, on the animal being allowed 
to run about, two days before it died. A post-mortem examination showed 
that the mucous membrane of the stomach had been the part principally 
acted on by the poison ; it was so softened, that when the stomach was 
opened it remained adhering to the mass of food which the stomach con- 
tained, and without a careful investigation it was difficult to say if it was 
thickened mucus or the membrane itself that covered the food. The lining 
membrane of the small intestines and caecum was also softened and reddened 
in patches ; the colon and rectum natural. The mesenteric glands were 
enlarged and converted into a cheesy substance ; tubercles were also found 
in the liver. The other viscera appeared healthy. At the time of its death 
this animal had taken upwards of four ounces of the acetate of lead, this sub- 
stance having been mixed with its food during nearly three months. A care- 
ful analysis of the different viscera, with the exception of the stomach and 
intestinal canal, enabled me to detect the presence of lead only in the brain, 
in which organ it was found in both rabbits. Nor was I more successful in 
discovering it in the muscular tissue, or in the bones. 170 grains of the dried 
muscle from the first rabbit were heated with nitric and sulphuric acids, and 
then incinerated in an unglazed porcelain crucible : dilute hydrochloric acid 
was added, and the soluble portions removed by filtration ; as by this means 
the greater portion of the salts, which interfere with the perfect combustion 
of the organic matter, was got rid of. What remained on the filter was 
moistened with nitric acid, and again burnt ; this process being repeated until 
all the organic matter appeared quite destroyed : not the slightest trace of 
lead was discovered. The same process was pursued with the whole of the 
body of the other animal, with the exception of the viscera, which were 
analysed separately, and not the slightest trace of lead was discovered, 
although the animal had been taking it for three months, during which time 
it had swallowed more than four ounces. As in the last rabbit, the brain was 
the only part in which any trace of the poison could be detected ; and here 
the quantity was so small as not to be appreciable by the balance, and must 
have been less than the hundredth of a grain, as that quantity could have 
been collected and weighed. 

I think these experiments suffice to prove that, at least in rabbits, lead is not 
deposited in the muscular tissue. This result is certainly opposed to the 
commonly -received opinion on this point. I have only to observe, that the 
experiments have been conducted with the greatest care, and under favourable 
circumstances, as from the kindness of my friend Professor Graham, I had the 
advantage of conducting my analyses in his laboratory. A series of analogous 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF MEDICINES. Il7 

researches have been conducted with the salts of mercury, but they are not 
yet completed. I trust on a future occasion to lay the results befoie this 
Section ol' the Association, 

The experiments that have been performed on the action of substances 
when introduced directly into the blood, embrace salts of iron, nickel, man- 
ganese and cadmium, thus completing, with the experiments already pub- 
lished, the whole of the magnesian class *. I have also investigated the 
action of the acids of arsenic and phosphorus, between which well-marked 
isomorphous relations are known to exist. 

As the action of each substance in the same isomorphous group closely 
resembles that of the others, I shall, for the first class, state generally the 
effects they give rise to, referring to the experiments which have already been 
published for more minute details. The most marked symptoms that follow 
the introduction into the blood of anj"- of the salts of the magnesian family, are 
evidently due to an action they exert on the nervous system, an action so well- 
marked and so peculiar, as readily to distinguish this class of salts from any 
other substance derived either from the vegetable or mineral kingdoms with 
which I have yet experimented. Whilst most poisons that act on the nervous 
system, seem to exert their influence more particularly on the motor or sensi- 
tive properties of the nerves, these, on the contrary, afford an example of a 
specific action on the voluntary functions of the brain, or on the power of 
volition. When these salts are injected into the veins in proper quantities, 
the first effect that follows is generally vomiting ; the animal then either falls 
or lies down, and will remain for many minutes in the same position, or in 
any position in which it may be placed, without once attempting to move, 
although it possesses the power of standing and walking about : the state in 
which it lies may be compared to that of catalepsy, were it not that, whilst 
in catalepsy the position of the limb remains imchanged from a want of power 
to move it, in the state induced by the injection of these salts, the limb i» 
capable of being moved, but retains its position from the animal making no 
effort to change it. During the whole of the time the animal lies in this inert 
state, the sensibility remains perfect, and it appears quite free from pain ; it 
turns its eyes in the^ direction of the person who may speak to it, and shows 
its sensibility when caressed, by slight movements of the tail, although lying in 
all other respects like an inert mass, with the exception of the respiratory 
movements, which continue with the greatest regularitj'. Sometimes the 
animal will remain in a most constrained position for many minutes, although 
so placed as to require a considerable degree of muscular exertion to retain 
it. I have, for instance, seen a dog remain for full five minutes with its fore 
legs bent under it, resting on the head and thorax and hind legs, although 
at the time it could walk about very well. Such are the symptoms that 
characterize the action of the whole of these substances on the nervous 
system : besides this, they exert a decided effect on the heart, destroying the 
irritability of that organ, when injected into the veins in larger doses. I have 
described fully in my former memoirs the action of this class of substances 
on the vascular system, and have only to add, that the salts of iron, nickel, 
manganese and cadmium, are perfectly analogous in this respect with those 
of magnesia, copper and zinc. The only difference between them is, as to the 
quantities required to produce the same train of symptoms ; the quantity of 
sulphate of iron, dissolved in six drachms of water, which, when introduced into 
the jugular, will arrest the action of the heart, is from thirty to forty grains; 
of sulphate of nickel from ten to twenty grains ; of sulphate of cadmium from 
five to eight grains ; and of sulphate of manganese from ten to twelve grains. 
=•= See Edinb. Med. and Surg. Journal, No. 148. 



118 REPORT 1843, 

These quantities, however, must depend, to a certain extent, on the size of 
the animal, and on the rapidity with which the injection is introduced. 

The marked and peculiar action which these substances exert on the ner- 
vous system, and the entire absence of any unpleasant symptoms when they 
are injected in moderate quantities, suggests the idea as to how far this pro- 
perty might be made available against some of the more violent convulsive 
diseases, such as tetanus and hydrophobia, against Avhich the resources of our 
art are at present so poM'erless. Should any cases of these diseases come 
under my care, I certainly should try the effect of injecting some of these 
substances into the veins. I think the acetate of magnesia might be the most 
useful salt to employ ; its permanent effects when introduced into the blood 
do not seem at all deleterious, as I ha\'e kept dogs ten or twelve days without 
any ill consequences, after introducing in one instance fifteen grains, and in 
another twenty grains into the veins. I should consider that from two scru- 
ples to a drachm dissolved in two ounces of water, could not possibly be in- 
jurious if introduced into the veins of a human being, and probably a much 
greater quantity might be borne without danger. 

The only other class of substances with which I have experimented has been 
arsenic and phosphorus, which have been used under the form of arsenic, arse- 
nious and phosphoric acids. It is a curious fact, that arsenic, one of the most 
violent of poisons, should, when introduced into the veins, even in much larger 
quantities than would be required to produce death if given by the stomach, 
give rise to no particular action on any organ which permits us to localize its 
effects, or to say that it kills by the changes it produces in any one tissue in 
preference to another. It certainly does not kill by its action on the heart, for 
when as much as twenty grains of arsenic acid are introduced into the veins, 
the action of the heart is but very slightly affected. Nor are the functions of 
the brain at all interfered with by so large a dose, at least not for some time. 
It would seem that it is not on any organ in particular that the poison acts, 
but that the whole of the tissues of the animal gradually lose their vitality, by 
changes which appear to require time for their production. After death, the 
mucous membrane of the lungs and the intestinal canal are the parts which 
present the most marked effects of the action of the poison, but the amount of 
lesion of these parts is often not sufficient to produce death. The similarity 
of action of the arsenic, arsenious and phosphoric acids is such, that I shall only 
give a detail of some experiments made with the former of these substances. 

On injecting a solution containing three grains of arsenic acid, dissolved in 
six drachms of water, into the jugular vein of a dog, there was a diminution 
of pressure in the arterial system, as indicated by the hemadynamometer ; 
after a short time the action of the heart became quicker, and the pressure 
in the arteries again increased ; the functions of the nervous system did not 
appear deranged : on again injecting six grains the same phenomena pre- 
sented themselves ; the respiration, however, was now becoming very rapid, 
and this was the only marked symptom, when two other injections, one of four- 
teen and the other containing forty grains of the acid, had been introduced ; 
at this time, however, the action of the heart had become much weaker, and 
the pressure in the arteries was only equal to a column of mercury of two 
inches ; sensibility appeared unimpaired, and there were no convulsions. On 
again injecting sixteen grains of the acid, the action of the heart ceased after 
a few seconds. A post-mortem examination showed that both the mucous 
membrane of the lungs and intestinal canal had been much affected by the 
poison ; they were both reddened, and were covered with a frothy secretion, 
which in the lungs must have greatly interfered with the arterializatiou of the 
blood. Iq another experiment a drachm of the acid was injected at once, 



ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 119 

without producing any marked symptoms, and the animal did not die until 
fifteen minutes after another draclim had been introduced into the vein. In 
most instances the blood has been found to coagulate less firmly than usual, 
but this has not always been the case. The symptoms produced by arsenious 
and phosphoric acids, when injected into the veins, are strictly analogous to 
those above described ; the arsenious acid appears rather more poisonous 
than the arsenic, and the phosphoric may be considered as about equal to 
the arsenic. If concentrated solutions of either the arsenic or phosphoric 
acids are injected into the veins, the passage of the blood through the lungs 
appears impeded, and the irritability of the heart is destroyed. 

These are the results at which I have arrived, and taken in connection with 
those I have already published, I think they fully justify us in concluding, 
that there exists a close relation between certain chemical properties of sub- 
stances, and their action on organized beings. I am aware that such a doc- 
trine has often been vaguely advanced, under a general point of view, but I 
think the experiments which I have brought forward are the first that tend 
to point out any scientific connection between the properties of bodies, and 
their action on organized beings : under a scientific point of view, too, this 
relation is the more interesting, as being connected with a property of mat- 
ter which is manifested more particularly by the form it assumes ; and it is 
well known, that in physiology, form is an important element in every phe- 
nomenon. As to the nature of the changes which these substances exert on 
the blood and tissues, and on which their physiological action would appear 
to depend, it would be absurd, in the present state of chemistry and physio- 
logy, even to hazard a conjecture. The mere fact of the nitrate of soda and 
the nitrate of silver, when injected into tiie veins, giving rise to analogous 
reactions on the animal economy, must suffice to show how far our present 
gross means of chemical analysis are incapable of seizing those more delicate 
changes of which living fluids and tissues are the seat; nor could any facts 
than those above brought forward, more strongly teach us the necessity of 
caution in admitting the hasty generalizations of those, who would attempt to 
explain the whole of the phenomena of living beings, by the glimmering light 
which chemistry in its present embryo state can aflbrd. 



Report of a Committee appointed to print and circulate a Report on 

Zoological Nomenclature. 

The Committee, whose Report on the above subject appeared in the last vo- 
lume of the Association, having recommended that extra copies of it should 
be circulated among British and foreign zoologists, and the sum of 10/. having 
been last year voted for that purpose, they now beg leave to report as follows : — 
They have paid 4/. 10s. to Messrs. Taylor for printing two editions of the Re- 
port in its incomplete state for the use of the members of the Committee ; 
another sum of A^L 105. to Messrs. Taylor for printing 350 extra copies of the 
complete Report, and also for the cost of its insertion on an extra sheet in the 
Philosophical Magazine, and in the Annals of Natural History; and \l. has 
been assigned towards the cost of transmitting the extra copies by post, making 
in all 10/. About 250 of the extra copies have already been distributed among 
scientific societies and individuals at home and abroad. 

There seems every reason to believe that the principles of zoological lan- 
guage embodied in the Report alluded to are becoming very generally adopted 
and acted upon by foreign as well as British zoologists. The Committee 
have much gratification in announcing that their Report has met with a most 



120 REPORT — 1843. 

favourable reception from the naturalists of Italy. At the scientific Congress 
held last year at Padua, the Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte submitted to the 
meeting an Italian translation of our code of rules, which was generally ap- 
proved of, and a committee of six zoologists and as many botanists was ap- 
pointed to consider them in detail, and to report thereon to the meeting at 
Lucca in the present year. A French translation of our Report has appeared 
in the scientific journal called ' L'Institut,' in which paper much stress is laid 
on the importance of the measure. A very gratifying review of it has also 
appeared in the American Journal of Science. Let us hope that these efforts 
to produce uniformity in the scientific language of zoology will tend to faci- 
litate intercourse between the naturalists of all countries, at once aiding the 
progress of their sciences and strengthening the bonds of their mutual amity. 

H. E. Strickland 
(on the part of the Committee). 



Report of the Committee appointed by the British Association in 1842, 
for registering the Shocks of Earthquakes, and making such Meteoro- 
logical Observations as may appear to them desirable. 

The Committee take leave to report, that during the last twelve months the 
earthquakes in Perthshire have been more quiet than usual. From the end 
of June 1 812 (down to which date its movements were last year reported by 
the Committee) only about thirty shocks have occurred at Comrie, to the first 
of Julv, 1843. The dates of these (the last year's shocks) will be found in a 
table annexed to this report; and in the same table has been inserted some 
meteorological information, furnished by Mr. Macfarlane of Comrie, who 
takes charge of the instruments belonging to the Association. 

None of the Comrie shocks were so violent as to produce much, or indeed 
almost any, heave or undulation of the ground. They seem to have con- 
sisted of a sudden concussion only, accompanied by the usual trembling of the 
earth and rumbling subterranean noise. 

In the table annexed to this year's report, and in compliance with the. in- 
structions given to the Committee, there is stated the quantity of rain and 
also the average height of the barometer for each month. If (as has been 
suggested) the rain which descends into the earth has some connection with 
the causes of earthquake shocks — perhaps the remarkable dryness of last au- 
tumn may, in part at least, account for the scarcity and slightness of the shocks 
at a season when they have been generally most frequent. 

It is also not undeserving of attention, with reference to another specula- 
tion on this subject, that the barometer seems to have been particularly low 
at the time of the shocks. This at least was the case on the only two occa- 
sions on which the height of the barometer was marked at the instant of the 
'shocks, viz. on the 24th of September 1842 and 23rd of March 184.3. The 
barometer was then lower, not only than the average height for the month, 
but also than that of the day when the shock occurred. Thus, on the 23rd 
of March 1843 (as the table shows), the height of the barometer was at the 
moment of the shock, at 8 p.m., 29-12, and of another shock at 11 p.m., 29-10, 
whilst the average height for that day was 29-26, and for the month 29*72. 
The height of the barometer at the instant of the shock on the 24th of Sep- 
tember 1842 will also be seen to have been lower than the average height 
for that month. 

It is to be regretted that the height of the barometer was not registered on 
the occasion of all the shocks, so that there might have been on this point a 



ON EARTHQUAKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 121 

wider field of induction. The Committee will endeavour to get this defect 
supplied in the observations of the ensuing year. 

The first shock at Comrie on the 24th of September 184-2, though by no 
means violent, was well marked by the instruments. The inverted pendulum 
placed in the steeple there (and which is ten feet long) had its head thrown 
to the north-west about one-eighth of an inch, indicating that its base had 
been suddenly moved thus much to the south-east. Another instrument, on 
the principle of the common pendulum, about four feet long, had its lower 
extremity thrown also one-eighth of an inch to the westward, indicating that 
its point of suspension had been suddenly pushed thus much eastward. Two 
other instruments, constructed so as to be affected by vertical concussions, 
indicated an upward heave of the ground to the extent of y^th of an inch. 

The instruments were affected on other two occasions, as stated in the re- 
gister, but not in any very marked degree. Their indications entirely accord 
with the inference derived from the experience of shocks in previous years, — 
that the point from which they emanate is west-north-west from Comrie, and 
distant from it about a mile, or a little more. 

The Committee will next notice the other places in Great Britain where 
during the last year they have learned that shocks have been felt. They will 
mention them in chronological order : — 

August 19, 1842. At Pitlochry, between Dunkeld and Blair, about 8 p.m., 
three shocks were felt. It was remarked that the night was warm and sultry, 
with a drizzling rain, and that at midnight the thermometer stood at the un- 
usual height of 72°. 

August 22, 1842. A shock was felt in North Wales, and extended through 
the whole of Anglesea. The south-east portion of that island was most affected. 

February 25, 1843. At Oban and Lochgilphead, in Argyleshire, as also in 
the intervening district, a shock was felt about 8 p.m. A person who felt this 
shock near Oban, described it to one of the Committee as producing a motion 
" such as one feels when standing near a heavy cart passing on a hard road 
made on a deep mossy bottom, — a sort of heaving and trembling at the same 
time." In a paragraph which appeared in the newspapers, it was stated that 
a person near Oban observed a flash of lightning about the time of the shock. 

March 3, 1843. A.i Lochgilphead a shock was again felt about S^ 40'" p.m. 
It was attended by the usual trembling and subterranean noise. It lasted from 
thirty to forty seconds. 

March 10, 1843. Through the district to the north-east of Manchester an 
earthquake was felt about 8 a.m. Its most violent action was said to have 
been in the chain of hills separating Yorkshire and Lancashire. 

March 17, 1843. About 1 a.m., the same district was again affected by a 
shock, but which on this occasion had a much wider range. It was felt 
simultaneously in Lancashire, Cumberland, Dumfriesshire, Isle of Man, 
Belfast, and even in the islands of Jersey and Guernsey. It does not appear 
to have been felt in the intervening district of the south and south-east of 
England. 

This shock was accompanied by a noise which is described as resembling 
the hissing of steam or the rushing of wind. The ground also trembled, and 
in some places heaved. Even at Belfast and its neighbourhood, where the 
effects produced have been reported on by Mr. Bryce, a member of the Com- 
mittee, the particular phsenomenon now adverted to was perceived. Mr. Bryce 
says, " that the motion was that of a ship in a heavy swell, and the feeling 
was given that the room and bed were rolling over." By another it is de- 
scribed as like " that rolling motion of a ship which induces nausea ; " and 
this individual actually experienced that sensation in a slight degree. Another 



122 REPORT — 1843. 

compared the concussion to " what a sudden and strong gust of wind would 
produce, or a loaded cart passing along the street." 

Mr. Ronchetti, who resides at Salford, near Manchester, found his baro- 
meter at 8 P.M. on the preceding evening (viz. about five hours before the 
shock) standing at 29"90. He sat up reading till 2 a.m., i. e. an hour after 
the shock, but witliout perceiving it. His barometer was then standing at 
29"70, so that it had fallen nearly two-tenths during the five hours preceding 
the shock. A correspondent at Ulswater states that he observed his baro- 
meter also falling during the previous afternoon. Mr. Atkinson's Meteoro- 
logical Register, near Carlisle, shows that at 9 p.m. on the 16th of March the 
barometer was 29'794' ; at 9 a.m. on the 17th it was 29*736 ; and at 9 p.m. on 
the same day 29'750, being lowest therefore near the time of the shock. 
There thus seems to be little doubt that the shock occurred with, as usual, a 
falling barometer. 

In a notice of the same shock, dated at Fleetwood-on-Wyre, it is mentioned, 
that during the w hole of the previous afternoon the sky presented a gloomy 
and lowering appearance. The air was unusually close, and a dense haze 
hung over the sea. 

At and near Manchester the shock was said to have been felt coming from 
a few points to the south of east. In the Isle of Man the shock was followed 
by a sensible vibration from east to west. At Keswick, Gosforth and other 
places in Cumberland, the shock was felt to come from the south. In the 
counties of Dumfries and Selkirk it was perceived to come from the soitth- 
west. These data appear to indicate pretty clearly that the shock had radi- 
ated from some point between Yorkshire and Lancashire, and accordingly it 
was stated to have been felt in Newcastle and its neighbourhood, though not 
so severely as on the west side of the island. 

This shock produced, as might have been expected, sensible effects below 
the earth's surface. It was distinctly felt in the coal-mines between Bury and 
Bolton, and alarmed the people so much as to make them run to the bottom 
of the shaft and call to be drawn up. In the same neighbourhood some 
workmen were engaged in boring, and had gone down about thirty yards, of 
which the lowest, ten yards, consisted of rock, above which there was a thick 
bed of sand, gravel and marl. On account of the looseness of these materials, 
seven or eight yards of the hole was piped w ith a strong tin casement, out of 
which, when the men left the work in the evening preceding tiie earthquake, 
a clear stream of water was issuing. When they returned to their work next 
mornins the stream was not issuing ; and, moreover, in attempting to put their 
boring-irons down the hole, it was found that they would not pass as usual. 
The tin casement was then drawn up to be examined, when it was found to 
have been completely flattened and slightly bent, so that the light could not 
be seen through it. These effects were at the time attributed to the action of 
the earthquake on the materials of the strata through which the bore had been 
made. 

It is scarcely necessary to observe, that the different shocks above referred 
to as having occurred in Perthshire, Argyleshire, Wales, and the district of 
Eno'land last mentioned, all originated in these different localities, or rather in 
depths immediately below these respective portions of the earth's surface. But 
whilst, as the experience of former years shows, these districts are very liable 
to be affected by earthquakes, they do not seem to have any common bond 
of connection. That is to say, a shock which rises up in any one of these 
districts is not felt in the others ; from whicli it is reasonable to conclude, 
that the cause of the shocks (whatever that may be) was in these cases at 
least not seated at any great depth below the surface. 



ON EARTHQUAKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 123 

It is supposed by many, that when shocks occur in this country they are 
produced by subterranean changes taking place in the volcanic regions of the 
earth. If this opinion were well-founded, shocks should occur in this coun- 
try and in those regions almost always at the same time. But seldom is there 
such coincidence perceivable ; though of course it may sometimes accidentally 
happen, that shocks should occur in this and in some other part of the earth 
about the same time. As an example of these accidental coincidences, it 
may be observed, that on the 3rd of March IS-iS, when, as already mentioned, 
a shock was felt at Lochgilphead, there was a slight earthquake at Guadaloupe. 
But, on the other hand, the more serious earthquake of the 8th of February 
1843, which convulsed the whole West India Islands, and destroyed several 
towns in Saint Domingo, was not marked in this country by any correspond- 
ing pheenomenon, as would undoubtedly have been the case if the shocks in 
this country are produced by the excitement of volcanic action in other re- 
gions. 

The reference now made to the West India earthquake of 8th of February 
last, affords an opportunity of submitting to the Association a suggestion for 
extending the field of the Committee's inquiries. Though, by the terms of 
their appointment, they are not expressly limited in their inquiries to Great 
Britain, they certainly did not understand that they Avere to have a wider 
range. But if it be an object worthy the attention of the Association to col- 
lect from all quarters information calculated to throw light on the causes of 
earthquakes, there seems no reason why they should not make it part of the 
business of this Committee to receive and digest notices of foreign earthquakes. 
The one above referred to, which occurred in the beginning of the present 
year in the West Indies, and the effects of which were sensibly felt even in 
the Brazils, as well as in Mexico and in Ohio, affords very instructive details, 
which the Committee would have gladly availed themselves of but for the 
doubt above suggested. 

The Committee have had their attention drawn to this proposed enlarge- 
ment of their field of inquiry, by two letters received by one of their number 
from two gentlemen, one of whom is now in India, and the other of whom is 
about to settle in Peru. 

The former gentleman. Lieutenant Baird Smith of the Engineers, and 
superintendent of the Doab Canal in Upper India, thus writes from the Hi- 
malayas on the 9th of September last : — " Having occupied myself for some 
time past in collecting information relative to the occurrence of earthquakes 
throughout British India, I venture to place myself in communication with 
you, and through you to offer to the Committee my most cordial co-operation, 
so long as I may remain in this country. My attention was first specially 
attracted to the subject of earthquake-shocks by the occurrence of that of the 
19th of February last, to which many circumstances combined to give to the 
English in India a peculiarly exciting interest. Its most destructive influence 
was experienced in the valley of Jellalabad, the chief town of which of the 
same name was at the moment occupied by the small but gallant brigade 
under Sir Robert Sale. The details of this earthquake, which were felt from 
Jellalabad to Shalkur in Thibet on the north, and to Saharampore on the 
south, I collected as they became known, and have arranged and published 
in the local journals. The effect more than equalled my anticipation, for a 
large amount of additional information was furnished to me, and I have re- 
ceived assurances of active co-operation. Numerous corrections are neces- 
sary in my paper on the Jellalabad earthquake, and these it is my intention 
to make when I prepare the ' Register of Indian Earthquakes for the year 
1842,' materials for which are rapidly accumulating. 



124 REPORT— 1843. 

" It would be a source of pleasure and satisfaction to me to work in con- 
nection with the Committee of the British Association, and to receive from it 
from time to time such information and advice as would facilitate my labours 
here. It has often struck me that the Association, in neglecting any syste- 
matic effort to link colonial science with that of the mother country, is losing 
noble fields of exertion, and has failed in what ought to have been one of its 
essential objects. Looking to India only, — to how many points of the deep- 
est interest might not materials be contributed from it ? Yet the Association 
seeks not to stimulate and guide the necessary inquiries. There are many 
qualified men in the Indian army and civil service who require only a little 
encouragement to ensure their co-operation in any scientific efforts ; and to 
those interested in India, the apathy and indifference regarding it that prevail 
at home are painful topics of remark. When the Association was first 
established an Indian sub-committee was appointed ; but no correspondence 
appears to have been maintained with it, and no steps taken to fill vacancies 
in it. It is now quite extinct, but might easily be called again into being 
and activity were it considered advisable that it should be." 

The letter from which these extracts have been quoted contains some inter- 
esting information in regard to those portions of India most affected by earth- 
quakes, which it would be out of place to embody in the present report, the 
more especially as it was published in the last January Number of the Edin- 
burgh PliilosophicalJournal. But the above extracts are given, in order that 
the Association may consider the two points submitted to them by Lieutenant 
Smith, viz. — (L) Whether they will authorise this Committee to receive from 
him, to be embodied if they see fit in their annual report, such information as 
may be sent to them by him or others in regard to Indian earthquakes. (2.) 
Whether the Association would reappoint the Indian sub-committee to which 
he refers, the precise objects or duties of which are however not known to the 
present reporter. 

The other letter above referred to is from Mr. Mathie Hamilton, M.D., 
the author of various articles on South American earthquakes, and on the 
Lama, Alpaco, and other animals in South America, which were published in 
the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal. 

Mr. Hamilton, who has resided for many years in Peru, and had turned 
his attention to more than one branch of its natural history, intimates in his 
letter the intention of returning to Peru, and of permanently residing there. 
The object of Mr. Hamilton's communication is hinted at in the following 
extract from his letter, which is dated the 6th of August 1843 : — " My object 
in this communication is, that if either you or any of your friends would sug- 
gest any inquiries connected with the causes and phaeuomena of earthquakes, 
I will most cheerfully, in so far as may be in my power, attend to such sug- 
gestions. I am a subscriber to the book-fund and a life member of the British 
Association, and if in any mode I can assist the objects of the Association I 
will do so. On the 6th of June last I was at Comrie, and saw some of the 
instruments ; I think that the 39-inch pendulum (not the noddy) and the in- 
strument which is attached to the wall in Mr. Macfarlane's attic for measuring 
the vertical movements, are those which will be found most convenient in Peru. 
I wish to go to the meeting in Cork, but I fear that the necessary arrangements 
for my projected voyage may prevent me." 

The member of your Committee to whom Mr. Hamilton addressed this 
communication had some conversation with him, and is impressed with the 
conviction, that if the Association thinks it desirable to receive information 
respecting earthquakes in Peru, a better opportunity could scarcely present 
itself than that which now occurs. Considering, as he does, that it is desirable 



ON EARTHaUAKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 125 

to receive information on this important and yet ill-understood subject, not 
merely from Peru and India, but from every other country where the phae- 
nomena are well developed, he would suggest that both Lieutenant Smith's and 
Mr. Hamilton's offers should be accepted ; and, moreover, that two or more 
instruments, at the expense of the Association, should be put under Mr. Ha- 
milton's charge, if he will undertake to register their indications and report 
them half-yearly to the Committee. 

With regard to British earthquakes, and particularly those which occur so 
frequently, indeed almost periodically in Perthshire, the Committee entertain 
a hope, that if the Association will authorize them to continue their superin- 
tendence, they may eventually gather much information which will prove 
valuable in any inquii-y into the origin of them. In Perthshire, where instru- 
ments have, at the expense of the Association, been erected, it is quite neces- 
sary that means should, as before, be supplied to watch and register their in- 
dications. There are other two localities in that part of Scotland where instru- 
ments should be placed, viz. Ardvoirlich (about ten miles west of Comrie) 
and Tyndrum (about forty miles north-west of Comrie). Most of the instru- 
ments now in Perthshire are either in the town of Comrie or to the east of it, 
and it is considered desirable that there should be the means of marking the 
directions of the shocks on opposite sides of the supposed focus of action. 
Mr. Stewart, the proprietor of Ardvoirlich, has undertaken the charge of the 
instrument proposed to be sent there ; and Lord Breadalbane has authorized 
the manager of his mines at Tyndrum also to take charge of one, and to re- 
gister its indications. Instruments for these places have been ordered. 

The Committee take leave to repeat the wish which they expressed in last 
year's report, — to have instruments placed at Comrie for the purpose of mark- 
ing more frequently meteoi'ological changes in that district. There is already 
at Comrie a barometer and a thermometer belonging to the Association, the 
state of which is registered only in the morning and evening. But it would 
be desirable that this town should be one of the stations of the Association 
for hourly observations of the barometer, for reasons which are well known 
to all who have studied the subject. Moreover, if there be any instrument 
sufficiently perfect to indicate the varying electrical condition of the earth and 
atmosphere, there certainly should be one sent to Comrie. 

But perhaps it would be proper to leave this part of the subject in the 
hands of the Meteorological Committee of the Association, a duty which it is 
understood that they are willing to undertake, and the importance of which is 
well appreciated by the convener of that Committee. 

(The Committee annexed to their report an account of the expense in- 
curred by them during the last year, which amounted only to £10.) 

They respectfully suggest that the Committee should be reappointed, with 
such additional or such other persons to be members of it as the Association 
may see fit, and with the sum of £100 at their disposal, as hitherto. If the 
Committee might venture to suggest any new names to the Association, it 
would be those of Mr. Darwin, so well known for his paper on South Ame- 
rican volcanoes, and also Mr. Mathie Hamilton, if the Association should 
agree to the proposal which has been made to them. 

Wm. Buckland. 
David Milne. 



126 



REPORT — 1843. 



REGISTER FOR 



EXPLA- 

A The hours of the day before noon indicated by A, the hours after noon indi- 

the after- 
B Marking the least perceptible shock as 1, and a shock equal to that on Oct. 23, 1839, as 10, 

loud as the shock re- 
C If the concussion be single, to be marked C ; if double, CC ; but if the second be smaller 

would indicate two shocks, the 

D Entered C, H, or T, according as it is a Crash, Heave, or Tremor, or two, or all ; 

indicate a shock beginning with a shght concussion, then a considerable heave, and 

the three qualities 
E The first column here is merely for entering the direction the shock appeared to the 

the Dip to be entered of course only where the 
F In like manner, in these columns the height of Barometer and Thermometer is en- 
wind indicated by 1 for the gentlest current, 
G Where there is no lain-gauge the quantity of rain to be marked in general by the letters 



Year 


Time of the 
day. 


I'iolence 
of the 


Dura, 
tion in 
Seconds. 


3 

3 






Direction. I 


Instant of Shock 




' 


1842-3. 








% 

s 


g 




! 













1 1 
























1 1 














Marked by the 






Wind. 


% 










I 










B 


to 




Seismometer. 




i 












1 












> 






» 1 








^ 




Day of 

the 
Month. 


3 


i 


5 

<! 


1 

CO 


i 
1 


M 


i 
% 

CO 


1 

i 


■s' 

5 


1 
< 


•Si 

If 


°§ 1 
... 1 


P.C 


i 

1 

1 


i 
I 


1 

3 


i 






July 1. 


2 


30 


"Fl 


1 


1 
















^^— 1. 


4 


30 


p 


1 


'' 


'' 




























?' 


9 




A 


1 




1 


























10.1 


3 


30 


P 


2 
































Aug. ? 


? 
? 




? 

? 


? 
? 














... 






... 












? 


? 




? 


? 
































27. 


11 


45 


P 


1 


... 


>.. 












... 
















Sept. 2. 

—— 24. 


3 
S 


... ' A 
63 i A 


1 
3 


"4 


3 1 "3 


c"c 


c'tT 




w 


i 


-rV 






ji 




CI. 




24. 


6 


59 , P 


2 


3 


3 3 


c 


cTt 


NW 


w 


i 




29-538 


s'si 


]!J 


"2 


D 




25. 


? 


...1 A 


1 




1 


























25, 


? 


... j A 


1 
































Oct. 




1 
























... 










Nov. 18. 


1*2 


... 1 P 


"i 
































29. 


13 


11 P 


1 


1 


1 


2 




t 












... 










Dec. 4. 


2 


... A 





1 


? ' 




u 


















... 




—^ 17. 


8 


... A 


1 


1 


1 


1 




t 






















17. 


? 




A 


1 


1 


1 


1 




t 






















17. 


? 




A 


1 


1 


1 


1 




t 






















Jan. 








... 






... 


























Feb. 
Hat. 23. 


"s 


30 


"p 


"2 


"2 


"2 


"3 




ct 










29-12 




E 


"i 


D 




33. 


11 




P 


1 


1 


... 






t 










29*1 












Aptil. 
May 14. 


1 




A 


"i 


"i 








t' 














SE 


2 


D 




14. 


2 




A 


1 


I 








t 






















28. 


12 


20 


P 


1 


1 






























June 4. 


12 


15 


P 


2 


2 


3 


3 


c 


T 


E 


E&W 


i 


iV 










CI. 






3 




P 


































10. 


2 


30 


A 


2 


2 


2 


2 


























10. 


3 




A 


1 


1 


1 


1 


























15. 


... 






1 


1 


1 


1 








... 


















17. 


4 

1 




A 


2 


2 


1 2 


2 


c 


T 




1 


l... 


... 


... 


Z. 












ON EARTHQUAKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

EARTHQUAKE SHOCKS. 



127 



NATIONS. 

cated by P ; thus, 4 o'clock in the morning is marked in the Table 4 A ; 4 o'clock in 

noon, 4 P. 

and intermediate degi-ees of intensity by intermediate numbers ; thus, one half as violent or 

ferred to, to be entered 5. 

than first (which is almost always the case) the latter to be marked with a small c ; thus C c 

second weaker than the first. 

using the small letters here too to mark the relative force of each ; thus c H t would 

ending in a slight tremor; and C H T, one such as that of Oct. 23, 1839, where all 

were intense. 

observer to proceed from, most needed in slight shocks that do not affect the instruments ; 

instrument enables the observer to ascertain it. 

tered only by those observers who have such instruments at hand. The strength of the 

and 10 for a hurricane ; and a calm, 0. 

M, much, and L, little. 

F G 



29'S26 55i 



Five minutes after 
Shock. 



Other particulars not included in preceding list, that 

might be considered as either directly or indU 

rectly connected with the shocks. 



July 2-59 July 2978 July I. Fine day and night. Wind westerly. 



Aug. 1-56 Aug. 29-93 



Sept. 2'86 Sept. 2975 



Oct. 
Nov. 



0'88 Oct. 
2-80; Nov. 



Dec. frlO Dec. 2975 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 



2-9rJan. : 
1-04 Feb. ! 
3-22 Mar. S 



April 
May : 



Apr. 
May 



June 29-t 



July 10. Wind moderate and westerly. Day showery. 



Aug. 27. Beautiful sunny morning. Light easterly wind. 

Sept. 24. Barometer and thermometer were stationary for 
three quarters of an hour after shock. At Comrie 
shake most violent in middle; at Cluan most violent 
in commencement. Whilst one of Seismometers 
had head thrown to north-west one-eighth of an 
inch, another of a different kind thrown west to same 
extent. 

Nov. 29. Fine day, but cloudy and showery. 

Dec. 4. Morning and evening cloudy. A red sun-set. 

Dec. 17. Cloudy and showery day; towards evening rain 
and wind. These three shocks served only at Tom. 
perran, not at Comrie. 



March 23. Day very foggy, dark and rainy ; very heavy 
showers at 4 p.m. Barometer at 9 a.m. 29- 17 ; at 9 p m. 
29'35. 

May 14. Showers and cloudy ; a blink at noon ; at 1 p.m. 

and after, chill and cloudy. 
May 28. Cloudy ; cold wind ; slight showers after 5 p.m., 

very cold. 
June 4. The first shock felt with equal severity at Com- 

rie, Clatheck (two miles east) and Invergeldy (six miles 

north of Comrie). The seeond shock observed only at 

Clatheck. 
June 10. Cloudy, with occasional sunshine; rather cold, 

and windy evening. 
June 15. Clearsunshineand very warm. Two additional 

shocks thought to have occurred today, 
June 17. Clear sunshine and very warm. 



128 REPORT — 1843. 

Report of the Committee for conducting Experiments with Captive 

Balloons. 
Thk requisite apparatus is nearly complete. The balloon, 18 feet in diameter 
and 25 feet high, has been received at Woolwich by Colonel Sabine. Mr. 
Wheatstone's electric thermometer has been tried, and found to act in the 
most perfect manner at distances of some miles, and we have ordered the 
addition of another part for giving the hygrometric indications. A series of 
experiments has been made on the strength and weight of cordage of various 
kinds of fibre ; the proper quality has been decided on, and I am happy to 
state that Mr. Enderby, who has taken great interest in these inquiries, will 
present the necessary quantity of it to the Association. 

Of the original grant of 250/., 81/. 8s. have been expended. 

The Directors of the Woolwich Gas-works have shown every wish to ac- 
commodate us, and assisted us in our preliminary experiments so as to make 
the inflation of the balloon perfectly manageable. 

To complete the advantages of our position at Woolwich, I would suggest 
it as extremely desirable that a request should be made by the Association to 
the Master-General of the Ordnance, entreating his assistance. 

T. R. Robinson, 

August 17, 1843. Chairman of the Committee. 
Appendix to the Report, by Professor Wheatstone. 
The Telegraph Thermometer which is intended to be carried up by the bal- 
loon, weighs, with its case, about four pounds. It is thus constructed : — The 
movement of a small clock causes a vertical rack to ascend and descend re- 
gularly in six minutes, three minutes being occupied in the ascent and three 
in the descent. The rack carries a fine platina wire, which moves within the 
tube of a thermometer ; the extent of motion of this wire corresponds with 
28° of the thermometric scale, but it is capable of adjustment so that it may 
pass over any 28° of the range. Two very fine copper wires, covered with 
silk, and of sufficient length to reach from the ground to the balloon when at 
its greatest elevation, are connected with, the instrument in the following man- 
ner : The extremity of one wire is connected with the mercury in the bulb 

of the thermometer, and that of the other wire with the frame of the clock, 
which is in metallic continuity with the platina wire. On the ground the 
lower extremities are united together ; in the wire, whose opposite end is con- 
nected with the mercury in the thermometer, a sensible galvanometer is in- 
terposed, and in the course of the other wire a single, very small voltaic ele- 
ment is introduced. The galvanometer having been properly adjusted to its 
zero point, it will remain so during the time that the platina wire is not in 
contact with the mercury in the tube, but the needle will deviate as soon as 
the contact takes place, and will remain deflected until contact is again 
broken during the ascent of the rack. During each half-second of time, cor- 
responding with the beats of the clock, the wire moves through the 360th 
part of its range, and a different point of the range consequently corresponds 
with a different beat or half-second of each alternate three minutes. If, there- 
fore, an observer below be furnished with a chronometer timed to coincide 
■with the clock in the balloon above, and note at what instant the needle of 
the galvanometer is deflected, he may infer from that observation the tempe- 
rature indicated by the thermometer in the balloon ; for according to the dif- 
ferent expansion of the mercury in the thermometer the contact is broken at 
a different half-second. Should the rates of the two time- pieces not exactly 
correspond at the conclusion of a series of observations, the results -will not 
be vitiated, as a correction may be easily made. 



ON THE HABITS OP THE MARINE TESTACEA. 129 

It is intended to add to this apparatus a wet-bulb thermometer ; this will 
involve only the addition of another platina wire to the rack, and of another 
insulated wire, reaching from the balloon to the earth, witli its interposed 
galvanometer. 

For other meteorological instruments, the indications of which are to be 
transmitted to a distance, I occasionally employ the agency of electro-mag- 
netism to ring a bell, to mark with a type or pencil, &c. ; but for the purpose 
in question such methods cannot be so conveniently employed as the deflection 
of the needle of a galvanometer, on account of the necessity of having the 
long conducting wire extremely fine in order to avoid adding too much to the 
weight of the balloon. If the electro-motive force of the rheomotor were in- 
creased, which it would be necessary to do were stronger currents required, 
sparks would occur at the surface of contact of the mercury, which would pro- 
duce injurious effects. 



Report of the Committee for the Translation and Publication of 
Foreign Scientific Memoirs. 

Since the last meeting of the British Association the Committee have ob- 
tained and published in the lOth and 11th Numbers of Taylor's " Scientific 
Memoirs," translations of the four following works, viz. — 

1. Gauss's Dioptric Researches. 

2. Dr. Lamont's Account of the Magnetical Instruments in use at the 
Observatory in Munich. 

3. Gauss on the Magnetic Inclination at Gottingen. 

4. Dr. Lamont's Results of Three Years' Magnetical Observations at Munich. 
The first of these translations was presented to the Committee by Professor 

Miller of Cambridge, and the three others by Lieut.-Colonel Sabine. A plate 
accompanying the translation of one of Dr. Lamont's memoirs has been en- 
graved at the expense of the Association, but as the account of its cost, though 
requested some time since, has not yet been sent in, there has been no expen- 
diture under the direction of the Committee in the past year. 

(Signed in the name of the Committee) Edward Sabine. 



On the Habits of the Marine Testacea. By C. W. Peach. 

The author commenced with stating that Purpura lapillus deposits its nidi 
all the year round, but most actively in the first four months of the year ; the 
young escape from the nidi in about four months. 

Buccinum reticulatum deposits its nidi on weeds, stones, and the wicker- 
work of the store pots of the crab-catchers ; they are strung together and 
overlie each other like the brass scales on the straps used for holding on the 
caps of soldiers ; they are of the shape of the spade on playing cards. 

The author is of opinion that the Patella Imvis and Patella pellitcida are 
the same shell, the one being the young state of the other. He then went 
on to describe the Fissurella nubecula, and to show that this shell has a 
serrated instead of a plain margin, and that the apex is surrounded by three 
teeth. In consequence of it having been asserted at the Meeting of the 
British Association at Plymouth that the Saxicava rugosa was not an inha- 
bitant of deep water, the author stated that he had got specimens alive in 
limestone five leagues from the land and in thirty fathoms water. Pholas 
lamellata was found also under similar circumstances in I'ed sandstone. He 

1843. K 



130 REPORT — 1843. 

next proceeded to describe the Pholas dactylus which he had found in clay- 
slate in Cornwall, and to describe particularly the form and actions of the 
animal, which he had kept alive in his house more than a month (there were 
fifteen or sixteen shells of all sizes), and although he marked the slab in 
which they were, he could not perceive that they turned round for the purpose 
of boring. In the same slab he also found Pholas parva. 



Report on the Mollusca and Radiata of the ^gean Sea, and on their 
distribution, considered as bearing on Geology. jB?/Edward Forbes, 
F.L.S., M.W.S., Professor of Botany in King's College, London. 
The British Association having done me the honour of requesting a report 
on the Mollusca and Radiata inhabiting the iEgean and Red Seas, considered 
more especially in their bearings on questions of distribution and of geology, 
I have now the pleasure of laying before this meeting such portion of it as 
relates to the eastern Mediterranean. The data upon which it is founded 
have been entirely derived from personal research during a voyage of eigh- 
teen months in the ^gean, when but few days passed by without being devoted 
to natural history observations. The calculations in the following pages have 
been based upon more than 100 fully recorded dredging operations in various 
depths, from 1 to 130 fathoms, and in many localities from the shores of the 
Morea to those of Asia Minor, besides numerous coast observations whenever 
opportunity offered. The circumstances under which these researches were 
made were peculiarly propitious. The merit of the results obtained is mainly 
due to Captain Graves in command of the Mediterranean Survey, at whose 
invitation the reporter joined H.M.S. Eeacon as Naturalist, in April 1841, 
from which time, until his departure for England in October 1842, every 
possible assistance and means of observation were put at his disposal by that 
distinguished officer, and every cooperation afforded by the officers of the 
Survey. Without such aid it would have been quite impossible to have ob- 
tained the results now laid before the Association, which, from their having 
been made in connection with the Hydrographical Survey, may assume a 
value to which no private observations could lay claim*. 

The ^gean Sea, although most interesting to the naturalist as the scene 
of the labours of Aristotle, has been but little investigated since his time. 
The partially-published observations of Sibthorpe, and the great French work 
on the Morea, include the chief contributions to its natural history. In the 
last-named work are contained catalogues of the Fishes and Mollusca, with 
notices of one or two Annelides. In all the marine tribes my lists greatly 
exceed the French catalogues, more than doubling the number of Fishes, and 
exceeding that of Mollusca by above 160 species, not to mention Radiata, 
Amorphozoa and Articulata. In the present report I propose to give an 
account of the distribution of the several tribes of Mollusca and Radiata in 
the eastern Mediterranean, exhibiting their range in depth, and the circum- 
stances under which they are found ; to inquire into the laws which appear 

• A great portion of the observations among the Cyclades were made jointly with Lieut. 
Spratt, Assistant Surveyor of the Beacon, and of those relating lo the coasts of Asia Minor with 
Mr. Hoskyn, hite Master of the Beacon, and now Assistant Surveyor of H.M.S. Lucifer. Many 
independent observations of great value to the author were made by Lieut. Freeland, Lieut. 
Mansell, Mr. Chapman, and other officers of the Beacon, and he is desirous of recording his 
thanks to all the gentlemen named for their kindness in placing their collections at his disposal. 
He is happy to say that the iEgean researches have not ceased with his departure, Capt. Graves 
and his officers being actively engaged in natural history investigations in addition to their 
inany scientific duties during the survey now in progress of the Island of Candia. 



ON iEGEAN INVEBTEBRATA. 131 

to regulate their distribution, and to show the bearings of the investigation 
on the science of geology. 

I shall commence with an enumeration of the species of Mollusca and 
Radiata, prefacing the tabular view of each tribe with a few general remarks. 

Mollusca. 

Cephalopoda. 

Octopus vulgaris and macropodius. Sepia officinalis and Sepiola rondeletii, 
were the cuttle-fishes which I met with in the eastern Mediterranean. They 
are all inhabitants of the shallows, and are found in or near the littoral zone, 
where they are much sought after by the Greeks as articles of food. They 
are speared at night by torchlight when on their foraging excursions. The 
sandy shores of the island are thickly covered with the shell of the Sepia, 
sometimes forming beds of considerable thickness. In no instance did the 
shell occur when dredging, so that we may suppose that species to be con- 
fined to the littoral zone. The Sepiola rondeletii was taken on the coast of 
Asia Minor, as deep as 29 fathoms in a bottom of weed. Octopus macro- 
podius only occurred once, and then among the rocks near watei-mark, in the 
Island of Cerigo, at the entrance of the ^gean. The Argonauta was much 
sought after, but never found. It is, however, a recorded inhabitant of the 
shores of Greece. 

Pteropoda. 

Eight species of Pteropoda, members of the genera Hyalcea, Cleodora and 
Criseis, inhabit the ^gean, and appear to be equally diffused in all parts of 
the eastern Mediterranean. The white mud which forms the sea bottom 
between 100 and 200 fathoms abounds with their remains, many hundreds 
coming up in a single dredge, chiefly Criseis and Cleodora. In the muddy 
deposits of upper I'egious they are scarce, in those of shallow water altogether 
absent. Though immense numbers of their dead shells were taken, compa- 
ratively few of these testacea occurred in a living state. Of the eight species 
four were taken alive, three of which were Criseis, and the fourth Hyalaa 
tridentata. The last was only observed once in the Baj' of Cervi, at the en- 
trance of the iEgean, in August IS^l : the Criseis were abundant in the 
spring of the same year. They usually abound about three hours after noon 
and towards nightfall, sparkling in the water like needles of glass. Through- 
out the summer and autumn they were very seldom met with. It would 
appear that great flocks of Pteropoda live in the deeper parts of the sea, 
ascending to the surface only occasionally, and at definite seasons. That 
their range in depth is limited, is evident from the fact that their remains 
abound only between 100 and 200 fathoms, diminishing above and below that 
region. 

NucleobrancJiiata. 

Seven species of undoubted Nucleobranchiata, with three probable mem- 
bers of that order, inhabit the i^gean, representatives of genera, four of 
which are shell-bearing and two naked. The observations regarding habitat 
and time of appearance apply equally to the members of this order and those 
of the last, with the exception of the Firolte, which may be seen during most 
months of the year. Of the testaceous nucleobrancs, the Atlanta jjerofiii 
and two species of Ladas appear to be universally diffused in the ^gean. 
Carinaria is very rare, having only occun-ed twice, and then dead. A little 
shell of Bellerophou-like appearance is abundant in the mud of great depths, 
and frona its resemblance to the young state of Carirtaria I have placed it 
here. Two species of that verv anomalous genus Sagitta were met with 

K 2 



132 



REPORT— 1843. 



occasionally, and were frequently examined in the hope of throwing new light 
on their true position in the animal kingdom. All the naked nucleobrancs 
of the JEgean are extremely active animals, rapid in their movements, and 
ferocious in their habits. 

Pteropoda atid Nucleobranchiata. 



No. of 
JEgean 
Species. 



Pteropoda. 

Hyalau, Lam 

J . tridentata, Forsk. . 

2. gibbosa. Rang . . . 

3. vaginellina, Cantr. . 
Cleodora, Per. and Less. 

1. cuspidata, Bose. . 

2. pyramidata, Peron. 
Criseis, Rang 

1. spinifera. Rang . . 

2. striata. Rang. . . • 

3. clava, Rang . . . . 



Nucleobranchiata. 

Atlanta, Less 

1. peronii, Less. . . . 
_Ladas, Cantr 

1 . planorboides, Forb. 
Bellerophina, D'Orb. . 

1. minuta, Forb. . . . 
Carinaria, Lam 

1. mediterranea, Per. 
Peracle, Forb 

1. physoides, Fo7-b. . 
Firola, Per. and Less. . 

1. frederica, Ze5S. . . . 

2. hyalina, Forsk. . . 

3. sp 

Sagitta, Q. and Gaim. . 

1 . mediterranea, Forb. 

2. Sp.alt.? 



No. of 
Mediter- 
ranean 
Species. 



Observations. 



2 or 3 



Living, Cervi. Dead, Lycia, VIII. 
Dead in Region VIII., common, 
Dead in Region VIII., frequent 

Dead, v. r. Region VIII. 
Dead, common. Region VIII. 
I [abundant. 

Living, common. Dead, R. VIIL, 
Living,rare. Dead,R.VIII.frequent 
Living, common. Dead, R. VIIL, 
abundant. 



Living,rare. Dead, R.VIII.frequent. 

Dead, R. VIIL, not rare. 

Dead, R. VIIL, common. 

Dead, R. VIIL, v. r. Nid. 

Dead, R. VIIL, not common. 

Frequent. 
Frequent. 
Rare. 

Not frequent. 
Not frequent. 



Gasteropoda Nudibranchia. 

The absence of tides is extremely unfavourable to the presence of animals 
of this beautiful tribe, nevertheless numerous species are recorded as inhabit- 
ants of the Mediterranean. In the eastern division of that sea, however, they 
are scarce, and but seldom met with. The only species observed in any 
quantity was a large red Doris (Z). argo) which frequents the rocks of 
the coast of Lycia, close to the water-mark, laying its bright red spawn in 
sponge-like masses on their surface. Another member of this genus was 



ON iEGEAN INVKRTEBRATA. 



133 



found at a depth as great as fifty fathoms. Of the allied genus Goniodoris 
several very beautiful species were obtained. The characteristic Nudibranc 
of the Mediterranean, a giant among its tribe, Teihys leporina, was only met 
•with once, swimming foot up on the surface of the sea in the Gulf of Smyrna, 
in an exhausted state, its sides being infested by that extraordinary parasite 
the Vertumnus tethydicola. Out of fifteen species of Nudibranchia taken 
in the ^gean, three are certainly, and four probably identical with species 
inhabiting the coast of Great Britain, living at similar depths and under 
similar circumstances. 

Nudibranchia. 



Species. 



Spec, 



Species 

in 
^ffigean. 



Range 

in 
Depth. 



Locality. 



Geographical 
Range. 



Doris, Lin 

coccinea,i^or6... 

testudinaria ?, Cuv. 

argo, Lin 

aurata, i^orJ 

pilosa, Mul, 

Goniodoris, Forb. .., 

gracilis, Rupp 

vivida, Forh 

tenerrima, Forh. ... 

regalis, Forh 

Tethys, Lin 

leporina, Lin 

Tritonia, Cuv 

plebeia, Johnst 

Scyllaa, Lin 

pelagica, Lin 

Melihoea, Rang 

coronata, Gm.t 

? minuta, Forh 

Eolida, Cuv 

erabletoni, Johnst. ? 
Elysia, Risso. 

timida, Risso 



fathoms. 
30-45 
lit. 
lit. 
50 
13 

40 

8-28 

40 

lit. 

pelagic. 

25 

4 

30 
5 

lit. 

lit. 



weedy, 
rock, 
rock. 



weedy. 

weedy, 
weedy, 
weedy. 



mud 



mud 



and corallines, 
zostera. 



and corallines, 
weed. 



stony, 
rocky. 



Syra, Naxia. 

Lycia. 

Lycia. 

Cyclades. 

Cyclades. 

Cyclades. 
Cyclades. 
Cyclades. 
Skanousi. 

G. of Smyrna. 

G. of Smyrna. 

Milo. 

G. of Smyrna. 
Despotico. 

Paros. 

Paros. 



Med., Celt. Seas, 
Celtic, North. 



Med., Celt., N. S, 



Mediterranean. 
Med., Celt. Seas 
Mediterranean. 
Med., Cer Seas. 

Celtic Seas. 



Gasteropoda, Inferobranchiata, Tectibranchiata, Scutibranchiata, Cyelo- 
branchiata, and Cirrhobranchiata. 

Of these orders there are sixty iEgean species, among which six are Infero- 
branchiata, twenty-two Tectibranchiata, fifteen Scutibranchiata, eleven Cyclo- 
branchiata, and one Cirrhobranchiata. Of the sixty species fifty-one have 
calcareous shells, the remainder belonging to the genera Aplysia, Phuro- 
branchus, and Gasteropteron. The genus Doridium was not met with. Of 
the testaceous species eight are new, four inhabiting very deep water. Of 
the remainder, Bulla convoluta has hitherto been known only in a fossil 
state. Thirteen species range to the British Seas. Four or five testaceous 
species, inhabiting the western Mediterranean, do not reach the Mgea.n. 
Associated with the Dentalia are several species of tubicoJar annelides of tlie 
genus Ditrupa, most of them inhabiting very deep Avater. The slight con- 
traction of the mouth of the shell in this curious genus enables us to distin- 
guish between it and its moUuscan analogue when the animal is absent. 



1S4 



REPORT — 1843. 



Species. 



Range. 



Inferobranchiata. 

Pleurobranchus, Cuv. 

aurantiacus, Risso 

liraacoides, Forb. . 

scutatus, Forb. . . 

calyptrseoides, Forb. 

sordidus, Forb. . . 
Umbrella, Lam. 

inediterranea, Lam. 

Tectibranchiata. 

Aplysia, Lin. 

depilans? Lin. . . 
depressa, Cantr. . . 
1 saltator, Forb. . . 
Icarus, Forb. 

gravesi, Forb. . . . 
Bullcea, Lam. 

aperta, Lin 

angustata? Bivon. 

alata, Forb 

Bulla, Lin. 

lignaria, Lin. . . . 

retifer, Forb. . . 

akera, Mul. . . . ■ 

hydatis, Lin. . . 

cornea, Lam. . . 

striata, Brug. . . 

utricuius, Broc. . 

convoluta, Broc. . . 

turgidula, Forb. . . . 

cretica, Forb 

truncata, Adams . . 

truncatula, Brug. . ■ 

striatula, Forb. . . 
Gasteropteron, Meckel 

meckelii, Kosse . . 
Volva, Montf. 

? acuminata, Brug. 



ScUTIBRANCniATA. 

Haliotis, Lin. 

lamellosa, Lam. . . 
Crepidula, Lam. 

fornicata, Lin. . . . 

unguiforrais. Lam. 
Cahjptraa, Lam. 

sinense, Lin. . . . 



fathoms. fathoms 



40 
lit. 
20 
20 
40 

70 



5-7 
5-15 
12-30 



Found 
living at 



Ground. 



29-110 

lit.-119 
119 

40 

20 

20 

6-30 

0-69 

1 

40-140 

20-50 

10 

120 
13-40 
7-40 
7-30 

25-30 

40 



lit. 

lit.? 
10-20 

7-55 



40 
lit. 
20 
20 
40 





5-7 
5-15 
12-30 



10-25 10-25 



29 









10 

20-55 

1 


25-40 







10-40 

10 

25-30 



lit. 


10-20 

7-40 



weedy, 
rocky, 
weedy, 
weedy, 
weedy. 

nuUipore. 



Geographical 
Distribution. 



v.r.l 
r. 

v.r.l 

V. r. 
V. r. 



mud. 

mud. 

weedy. 

weedy. 

weedy, 
mud. 
mud. 

nullipore 

weedy. 

weedy. 

mud. 

mud. 

mud. 

mud, nullipore 

weed. 

mud. 

mud. 

mud. 

sand, mud, &c 

mud. 

mud. 

weed. 



rock. 



f. Lus., Celt., N, 
l.,r. 
l.,r, 

1. 



1. Lus., Celt., N. 
V. r, 

v.r. 

V, rJLus., Celt., N. 

V. r. 

V. i-JLus., Celt., N, 



1. 

a. 

1. 

1. 

r. 
v.r. 
v.r. 

1. 

a. 

f. 



Lus., Celt., N. 



Celt., N. 



shell J', 
shelly. 



Senegal. 



1 iLus., Celt., N. 
i [Eux. 



ON iEGBAN INVERTEBRATA. 



135 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 

living at 


Ground. 




Geographical 
Distribution. 


Capulus, De Montf. 

ungaricus, Lin 

Emarginiila, Lamk. 

cancellata, Phil. ... 

elongata, Costa 

huzardii, Payr 

capuliformis, Phil. . 
Fissurella, Brug. 

neglecta, Desh 

grseca, Lin 


fathoms. 
105 

100 
40-100 

40-95 

lit. 

14-95 

lit. 

41-69 
55-150 

lit.? 


fathoms. 



40 


40 

lit. 
24 
lit. 


60-105 




nullipore. 

nullipore. 
nullipore. 

nullipore. 

rock. 

weed, &c. 

rock. 

nullipore. 
nullipore. 


v.r. 

V. r. 
f. 

r. 

a. 

f. 
a. 

r. 
f. 

r. 


Lus.,CeIt., N. 
Can. 

Lus., Celt., N. 


gibba, Phil 


Loltia, Gray. 

gussoni, Costa 

unicolor, Forh 

Gadinia, Gray. 

garnoti, Payr 


Cyclobranchiata. 












Patella, Lin. 

scutellaris. Lam. ... 


T 










ferruginea, Gm. ... 
bonnardi, Payr. ... 

lusitanica, Gm 

Chiton, Lin. 
squamosus, Lin. ... 

freelandi, Forh 

cajetanus, Bl 

rissoi, Payr 


!> lit. 
i 
J 

lit. 
30-50 

lit. 
5-10 

4 
31-80 

lit. 


lit. 

lit. 
30-50 

lit. 
5-10 

4 
31-80 

lit. 


rock. 

rock. 

nullipore. 

rock. 

stony. 

stony. 

nullipore. 

stony. 


a. 

a. 
r. 
1. 
r. 
r. 
1. 
I. 


Can. 

Lus., Celt., N. 

Lus„ Celt,, N., 

[Can. 


polii, Phil 


\?e\\s, Penn 


fascicularis, Lin. ... 

CiRRHOBRANCHIATA. 


Dentalium, Lin. 

9-costatum, Lam — 
multistriatum?,Z)es/j. 
entalis, Lin 


4-150 
7-10 
1-16 

10 
20-28 
80-230 


7-70 



7 



20-25 

150-230 


weed, &c. 
weed, &c. 
weed, &c. 

weed, 
mud. 


a. 
r. 
r. 

v.r. 
1. 
a. 


Lus. 

Lus., Celt., N. 


fissura. Lain 


rubescens, Desh. ... 
quinquangulare,i^or. 



Note. — The figures in the first cohimn of the above and following tables indicate 
the extent of the range at which the species was met with, whether alive or dead ; in 
the second, the greatest and least depth at which it was taken alive ; in the third, the 
kind of sea-bottom is named ; in the fourth, the letters express the degree of frequency 
of occurrence : — a, ahundaid, generally distributed and plentiful ; i, frequent ; 1, local, 
move or less plentiful in a few localities; r, rare; and v. r, very rare, when but few 
examples occurred. In the fifth column, the extra-Mediterranean distribution (as far 
as known with certainty') is given, the European seas being divided into Arctic, North- 
ern, Celtic, Lusitunian, and Euxine. The abbreviation " Can." refers to the seas of 
the Canary Islands. 



136 



REPORT — 1843. 



Gasteropoda Pulmonifera. 

A single marine species of this order, Auricula myosotis of Draparnaud, is 
found under stones in muddy places on the shores of several of the Cyclades, 
and also, though local, on the coast of Asia Minor. It ranges to the shores 
of Britain. 

Gasteropoda Pectinibranchiata. 

One hundred and ninety species inhabit the MgeSiW. Of these ninety-eight 
are Holostomatous univalves, eighty-two Siphonostomatous, and ten Convo- 
lute. There are among them thirty-four new species, one-half of which in- 
habit great depths. More than two-thirds of the Holostoniata do not range 
beyond fifty fathoms in depth, whilst of the Siphonostomatous and Convo- 
luted univalves more than half the species exceed that limit. Of the first 
division, twenty-two species extend their range to the British shores, ten of 
the second, and two of the third. Eight species of pectinibranchiate univalves 
now living in the iEgean have hitherto been observed only in a fossil state. 
Two of them, viz. Fusus crispus and Buccinum semistriatum, have long been 
regarded as characteristic shells of certain tertiary formations. 

Of species recorded as inhabitants of the western Mediterranean which 
were not met with in the eastern, there are twenty-four Holostomata, twenty 
Siphonostomata, and nine Convolute. 

Nearly a third of the following one hundred and ninety Pectinibranchiata 
are found fossil in the pliocene deposits of the Archipelago, mingled with 
species of a more southern character, some of which, as Terebra duplicata 
and Phorus agglutinans, are existing inhabitants of the Red Sea. In the 
corresponding tertiaries of Sicily, Atlantic species occur of which there are 
no traces either recent or fossil in the Egean. These facts would seem to in- 
dicate the connexion of a Mediterranean basin on the one hand with the 
Indian Ocean by the Red Sea, and on the other with the Celtic Seas during 
the last tertiary period. 

Pectin ibra?! ch iata . 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 


g" 1 Geographical 
u. Distribution, 


Coriocella, Blainv. 

perspicua, Gmel. .. 
Natica, Brug. 

millepunctata, Lam. 

valenciensii, Payr. . 

pulchella, Pisso 

guilleminli, Payr... 

olla, M. de Serres . . 
Eulima, Risso. 

polita, 3Ioiit. 

distorta, Desk. 

nitida, Lam 


fathoms. 

69 

10-70 
10-60 
2-80 
13-20 
4-10 

7-29 
69-HO 
2;5-41 
7-140 

69 

10-41 
41 


fathoms. 




10 

20-45 



4-7 

41 
29 



30 





v. r. 

1. 
1. 
f. 
r. 
1. 

f. 
1. 
I. 
I. 
V. r. 

1. 
V. r. 


Lus., Celt. 
Lus. 

Lus., Celt., N. 
Can. 

Celt., N. 


weedy. 

weedy. 

weedy, nuliipore 


saud. 

sand. 

weed}'. 

weedy, nuliipore 

weedy. 

nuliipore. 

weedy. 


subulata, Don 

unifasciata, i^07-6 ... 
Parthenia, Lowe, 
acicula, Phil 


pallida, PM. 



ON ^GEAN INVEBTEBRATA. 



137 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 




Geographical 
Distribution. 


Parthenia, Lowe. 


fathoms. 


fathoms. 








ventricosa, Forb. ... 


110-150 





mud. 


f. 




turris, Forb 








V. r. 




elegantissima, Mo7i. 


4-31 


10-31 


mud. 


a. 


Celt., N., Can. 


scalaris, Phil 


30 





nuUipore. 


V. r. 




fasciata, Forb 


110-150 





mud. 


V. r. 




varicosaj Forb 


29 





weed. 


v.r. 




humboldti, i2es5. ... 


lit.? 





sand. 


1. 




Odostomia, Flem 












conoidea, Broc 


7-41 


35-40 


sand, weed. 


f. 




Trwwatella, Risso ... 












truncatula, Drap.... 


lit. 


lit. 


sand. 


1. 


Lus., Celt. 


Rissoa, Frem. 












desmaresti, Forb. . . . 


10 


10 


mud. 


a. 




( = costata, Desm.) 












ventricosa, Desm — 


10-80 


10-80 


mud,weed,sand. 


a. 


LuS,, Celt. 


oblonga, Desm 


10 


10 


mud. 


1. ILus. 1 


violacea, Desm 


7-16 


7-16 


mud. 


1. 


Lus., Celt. 


raonodonta, Bivon. . 


sublit. 


sublit. 


sand? 


1. 




radiata, Phil 


10 
sublit. 


10 
sublit. 


mud. 
sand. 


V.r. 
1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


rubra, Adams 


caucellata, Desm. . . . 


sublit. 


sublit. 


sand. 


f. 


Lus. 


cimicoides, Forb. ... 


2-69 


4-29 


sand, weed. 


f. 




granulata, Phil 


19 


sublit. 


sand. 






montagui, Payr. ... 


10-29 


10 


sand, weed. 


a. 




buccinoides? Desh. . 


4 


4 


mud. 


r. 




reticulata, Mont. ... 


30-185 


55 


nuUipore, mud. 


a. 


Celt., N. 


ovatella, Forb 


69-150 





mud. 


r. 




acuta, Desm 


4-110 





weed, mud. 


r. 


Lus. 


pulchella, P/it7. 


10-31 


10-31 


weed, &c. 


f. 




conifera, Mont. 


10 


sublit. 


sand. 


a. 


Celt. 


striata, Adams 


20 





nuUipore. 


V. r. Celt., N. 


cingilus, Mont 


20 





nuUipore. 


V. r. Celt., N. 


pulchra, Forb 


lit. 





sand. 


v.r. 




elongata, Phil. 


25 





nuUipore. 


r. 




Littorina, Fer. 












ccerulescens, Zm. ... 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


a. 


General in N. 


Fossarus, Pliil. 










& S. Atlantic, 


adansoni, P7«7. 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


r. 


[Eux. 


Scalaria, Lam. 












communis, Latn. ... 


10 


10 


mud. 


1, Lus., Celt., N. 


lamellosa. Lam. ... 


sublit.? 





sand. 


1. Lus., Can. 


planicosta, Bivon ... 


45 





nuUipore. 


r. 




hellenica, Forb 


110 





mud. 


V.r. 




Turritella, Lam. 












triplicata, Broc 


6-95 


30-69 


mud, &c. 


a. 


Can. 


terebra, Lin 


7-60 
25 


7-60 



mud. 
mud. 


1. 
V.r. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


suturalis, Forb 


Vermetus, Adanson 












eiffas, Bivon 


sublit. 
lit. 


sublit. 
lit. 


rock, &c. 
rock, &c. 


a. 
a. 




sublamellatus, Bivon 



lis 



REPORT — 1843* 



Species. 



Vermetus, Adanson. 
arenarius, Desh. .. 
glomeratus, Lin. . 
granulatus, Forb. . 
corneus, Forb. 
Siliquaria, Brug. 
anguina, Gmel. 
Nerita, Lin. 

viridis, Lin 

Adeorbis, S. Wood. 

subcarinata, Mont. 
Scissurella, D'Orb. 

plicata, P/«7. 

Solarium, Lam. 

stramineum, Gmel. 
Trochus, Lin. 

coutourii, Payr 

vielloti, Pai/r 

jussieui, Pai/r 

tineis, Chacci 

magus, Lin 

canaliculatus, Lam 

racketti, Payr 

villicus, Phil. 

pallidus, Forb 

umbilicaris, Gmel. 

lyciacus, Forb 

spratti, Forb 

fanulum, Gmel 

richardi, PflT/r 

adansoni, Payr. ... 

divaricatus, Lin. . . . 

articulatus, Lam. ... 

fragarioides, Lam... 
therensis, Forb...... 

ziziphinus, Lin. .. 

conulus, Lam 

laugieri, Payr 

crenulatus, Broc. .. 

gravesi, Forb 

exasperatus, Penn. 
millegranus, Phil. 
Turbo, Lin. 
sanguineus, Gmel... 

rugosus, Gmel 

Phasianella, Lam. 

puUa, Gmel. 

intermedia, Phil. . . 

vieuxii, Payr 

lanthina, Lam. 
nitens, Menhe 



Range. 

fathoms. 
lit. 

lit. 

lit. 

25-48 

45-69 

4-24 

lit. 
70-150 

69 

15-69 

lit. 

lit. 

69-105 

25-40 

6-13 

4-14 

14 

lit. 

lit. 

lit. 

3-30 

9-60 

lit. 

3-30 

lit. 

lit. 

lit. 

lit. 

19-55 

8-27 

sublit. ? 

3-10 

3-41 

10-165 

41-110 

27-105 
8-80 

2-80 
8-10 
6-24 



Found 
living at 



Ground. 



fathoms. 
lit. 

lit. 

lit. 

40-45 



4-16 







69 
lit. 
lit. 



25 

6-8 

sublit. 

14 



lit. 

lit. 
3-24 

9 

lit. 
3-20 

lit. 

lit. 

lit. 

lit. 
19-55 
8-27 



3-10 

8-40 

10-105 

41-110 

27-60 
8-80 

3-80 
8-10 
6-24 



Geographical 
Distribution. 



rock, &c. 

rock, &c. 

rock, &c. 

weedy. 

nullipore. 

weedy. 

sand ? 

mud. 

nullipore. 

weed. 

rock. 

rock. 

nullipore. 

weedy. 

weedy. 

mud. 

mud. 

rock? 

rock. 

rock. 

weed. 

weed. 

rock. 

weed. 

rock. 

rock. 

rock. 

rock. 

weed. 

mud, weed. 

sand ? 

sand, mud, &c. 

sand, weed, 
mud, nullip.,&a 
mud, nullipore. 

nullipore. 
mud, weed. 

sand. 

mud. 

sand, &c. 



West Indies 
Lus., Celt. 



1. r. 

a. Eux. 
f. 



pelagic, pelagic. 



Lus., Celt., N., 
[Can. 



Lus. 



Eux. 

Lus,, Can. 

Lus., Celt., N. 

Lus. 

Lus. 

Lus. 

Lus., Celt. 
Lus., Celt., N. 



Can. 

Lus., Celt., N. 
[Eux., Can. 



Atlantic. 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



139 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 




Geographical 
Distribution. 


Cerithium, Brug. 


fathoms. 


fathoms. 








vulgatuni, Brug. ... 


11-40 


11-40 


mud, weed. 


a. 


Eux., Can. 


fuscatuni, Costa. ... 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


a. 




mammillatuni,i?mo. 


lit. 


lit. 


sand. 


La. 




WviiSk, Brug 


3-140 
lit.? 


3-80 



weed, &c. 
sand? 


a. 
r. 


Lus., Celt, N., 
[Can. 


trilineatum, Phil.... 


lacteum, Phil. 


29-30 





nuUipore. 


r. 




angustissimum,i<'or6. 


7-55 





weed. 


1. 




Triforis, Desh. 












ad versura, Lin 


4-95 


7-41 


weed. 


f. 


Lus., Celt. 


perversum, Lain. ... 


55-69 


69 


weed. 


1. 


Lus,,Celt.,Can. 


Pleurotoma, Lam 












albida, JDesh 


lit.? 





sand? 


f. 




formicaria. Sow. ... 


10-80 


10-80 


weed. 


a. 


Peru? 


rude, Phil. 


lit.? 
40-105 




70-80 


sand? 
mud, sand. 


r. 
1. 




crispata, Jan 


bertrandi, Payr. ... 


13 





weed. 


r. 




purpurea, Mont.. ... 


30-50 


35 


weed. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


reticulata, Bron. ... 


20-105 


30 


weed. 


1. 


Lus. 


/3 spinosa, Forb. ... 


3-55 


3-40 


weed, &c. 


a. 




maravignae, Biv. . . . 


20-105 


20-80 


weed, &c. 


f. 




vauquelini, Payr. . . 


24-55 


31 


gravel. 


1. 




gracilis, Mont. 


13-80 


50-80 


nullipore. 


f. 


Lus., Celt. 


attenuata, Mont 


7-35 


8-31 


weed. 


1. 




laevigata, Phil. 


8 





sand. 


V. r. 




teres, ^or6 


45 





nullipore. 


V r 




lefroyi, Mich 










philberti, Mich 


20-55 


24-31 


weed, &c. 


f. 




turgida, Forb 


25-30 


30 


weed. 


r. 




fallax, Forb 


8-31 


8 


weed. 


r. 
1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


linearis, Mont. 


fortis, Forb 


70 







V. r. 




lyciaca, i^ori 


80 






V. r. 




minuta, Forb 


92-105 






r. 




abyssicola, Forb. ... 


110 






r. 




segeensis, Forb 


13 


13 


weed. 


V. r. 




Fasciolaria, Lam. 












tarentina. Lam 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


a. 




Fusus,\^sim 












lignarius, Lam 


lit.-30 


lit.-7 


rock, mud. 


a. 




syracusanus. Lam. . 


3-41 


3-41 


sand. 


1. 




lavatus. Bast. 


10-60 


10-60 


mud, weed. 


a. 


Lus. 


muricatus, Mont . . . 


50-150 


80-95 


nullipore, &c. 


f. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


crispus, Broc 


40-60 





nullipore. 


f. 




fasciolarioides, Forb. 


20-58 


23-30 


weed. 


f. 




karamanensis, Forb. 


30 


30 


mud. 


V. r. 




Murex, Lin. 












brandaris, Lin 


2-40 


3-28 


sand, mud, &c. 


a. 


Can. 


trunculus, Lin 


lit. 10-28 


lit.-10 


rock, mud. 


a. 


Can. 


cristatus, Broc 


20-80 


50-80 


sand, weed. 


a. 




edwardsii, Payr. ... 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


a. 





140 



REPORT — 1843. 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 




Geographical 
Distribution. 


Murex, Lin. 


fathoms. 


fathoms. 








vaginatus, Cr.^Jan. 


150 





mud. 


V. r. 




distinctus,Cr. ^Jart. 


40-69 





nullipore. 


r. 




breviS) Fovb 


24 
6-50 


24 
6 


mud. 
mud. 


V. r. 
r. 




fistulosus, i?roc 


Aporrhais, Da Costa. 












pes-pelecani, Lin.... 


12-70 


20-45 


weed, mud. 


a. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


Ranelkt, Lam 












lanceolata, Menke. . . . 


lit.? 





rock? 


V. r. 




Triton, Lam. 












variegatum, Lam.... 


7 


7 


weed. 


V. r. 




Purpura, Lam. 












hsemastoma, Lam. . 


lit. 





rock. 


v.r. 


Atlantic. 


Cassidaria, Lam. 












tyrrliena, Lin 


40-48 





weed. 


v.r. 




Dolium, Lam. 












^alea, Lin 


10-31 





sand? 


1. 


Can. 




Pollia, Gray. 






rock. 






maculosa, Lam 


lit. 


lit. 


a. 




candidissima, Phil. . 


lit. 





sand ? 


v.r. 




minima, Phil. 


55-69 


60 


nullipore. 


1. 




Nassa, Lam. 

macula, Mont 


7-10 


9 


weed. 


v.r. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


variabile, Phil 


0-27 


0-7 


mud. 


a. 




d'orbignyi, Payr.... 
varicosa, Turt 


lit.? 
27 






sand? 


r. 

r. 










intermedia, Forb. . . . 


45-185 





nullipore, mud. 


1. 




granulata, Phil 


7-10 





mud. 

nullipore. 

weed. 


r. 




prismatica, Broc. ... 
reticulata, Lin 


19-20 
7-10 




7 


r. 
a. 


Eux., Can. 


rausiva?, Broc 


7-10 


8 


weed. 


1. 


Lus.,CeIt.,Brit. 


cornicula, Olivi. ... 


0-19 


2 


rock, &c. 


1. 




semistriata, Broc... 


70-78 





mud. 


v.r. 




mutabile, Lin 


lit.-10 


lit.-lO 


sand, mud. 


a. 


Lus., Can. 


gibbosula, Lin 

neritea, Lin 


lit. 
lit. 




lit. 


sand? 
sand. 


v.r. 
a. 


Lus., Eux. 


Columbella, Lam 










Eux., Can. 
Eux. 


rii«itif*a. T^am 


0-55 
Iit.-60 


lit,-20 
lit.-10 


rock, &c. 
rock, &c. 


a. 
a. 


X UOliJl*./!*, ^^t^fiv ......... 

linnsei, Payr 


gervillii, Payr 


30-40 


30 


weed. 


1. 




Mitra, Lam. 

ebenus. Lam 


20-80 


20-80 


weed, mud. 


f. 
1 


Can. 


cornGEii x^cviift* • • 


lit.? 
16-30 



16-20 


weed, 
weed, 
weed. 

sand ? 


1. 
f. 
f. 




savignii, Paijr 


obsoleta, ^row 


3-69 


6-30 




littoralis, Forb 


lit. 





a. 




phillippiana, Forb. . 
granum, Forb 


45-105 
20-60 


45 
20 


nullipore. 
weed. 


r. 
1. 




Tornalella, Lam. 
fasciata, Lam 


29-80 


80 


sand. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


pusilla, Forb 


100 





nullipore. 


v.r. 





ON .^GBAN INVERTEBRATA. 



141 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 




Geographical 
Distribution. 


Tomatella, Lam. 

globulina, Forb. ... 
Marginella, Lam. 

clandestina, Bron... 

secalina, Br 


fathoms. 
95 

4-105 
25-69 
lit.-20 

19-55 

7-10 

lit. 

lit. 

lit. 

23-60 

2-41 


fathoms. 


10-40 
30 


40-45 






lit. 
55 

lit.-10 


nullipore. 

mud, &c. 
weed, 
sand. 

weed, nullip. 

sand? 

sand? 

sand? 

rock. 

nullipore. 

rock, mud. 


V. r. 

a. 
1. 
f. 

1. 

r. 

V. r. 
V. r. 

1. 

f. 

a. 


Lus., Celt. 
Can. 

Lus. 
Eux. 


miliacea, Lam 

Erato, Risso. 

\di\\s, Don 


Ringuicula, Desh. 

auriculata, Menard. 
CyprcRa, Lin 


lurida, Zyiw 


pyrum, Lin 


spurca, Lin 


europsea, Lin 

Conus, Lin. 
mediterraneuSjSrw^'. 



Palliobranchiata. 

Eight species of Brachiopoda inhabit the ^Egean, seven of which are TerC' 
hratulcB and one a Crania. They range from 25 to 230 fathoms, but abound 
between 70 and 100 on a bottom of nullipore and coral, where the number of 
individuals belonging to this tribe taken in a single dredge usually far ex- 
ceeds that of all the other Testacea accompanying them. Their presence and 
abundance is an unfailing clue to the region from whence the produce of the 
dredge has been obtained. They are gregarious, living on clean ground, and 
were found only in a dead state in the neighbouring mud. Of the largest species, 
the Terebratula vitrea, two broken specimens only were taken, one of them 
at the great depth of 1380 feet below the surface. No living examples of 
any of the species, however, were found below 105 fathoms. The uniform 
muddy bottom below that depth is unfavourable to their presence. The same 
remarks apply to Crania ringens. It is remarkable that Terebratula caput 
serpentis, which is not uncommon in the western Mediterranean, is altogether 
absent in the eastern. Thecidia, also, was never met with in the latter. 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 




Geographical 
Distribution. 


Terebratula,'LaiXQ.. ... 


fathoms. 


fathoms. 








vitrea, Gm 


92-250 
55-105 



60-105 


nullip., mud. 
nullipore. 


V. r. N. Atlantic. 1 


truncata, Gm 


a. 


North., Lus., 


detruncata, Gm. ... 


27-110 


45-105 


nullipore. 


a. 


[Can. 


cuneata, Risso 


28-69 


28-69 


nullipore. 


r. 




lunifera, PAi7. 


95 


95 


nullipore. 


v.r. 




seminulum, Phil. ... 


45-105 


60-105 


nullipore. 


f. 




appressa, Forb 


95 


95 


nullipore. 


v.r. 




Crania, Retz. 












ringens, Honing, ... 


40-150 


40-90 


nullipore. 


a. 





142 



REPORT — 1843. 



LamellihrancMata Dimyaria. 

One hundred and fifteen species of this division of bivalve Mollusca were 
observed in the JEgean. Of these ten are undescribed forms, most of which 
arc inhabitants of great depths. Two are species formerly known only in the 
fossil state {Solen tenuis and Neccra costellata). Forty-five extend their range 
to the British shores ; six do not reach beyond the oceanic coasts of the pe- 
ninsula. Of the more abundant lai-ger forms, the greater part are littoral 
species ; among the smaller deep sea forms some, such as Ligula profundis- 
sima and Kellia abyssicola, are very abundant. The majority of species in 
this division inhabit muddy or sandy ground. 

None of the new species found were observed fossil in the neighbouring 
tertiaries. Among the pleiocene fossils were four species, which, though 
three of them are not unfrequent in the western INIediterranean, were not met 
with in the eastern (Isocardia cor, Pholas candidus, Artemis exoleta, and 
Veiitis casino). It is worthy of remark that these are all existing Celtic 
forms. Neither was Diplodonta apicalis met with alive, which is abundant 
in the tertiaries of the Archipelago, and is an existing inhabitant of the Red 
Sea. There are thirty-seven species inhabiting the coasts of Sicily which 
were not met with in the ^gean ; of these twenty-two are oceanic forms. 
Lamellibranchiata Dimyaria. 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 


a* 


Geographical 
Distribution. 




fathoms. 


fathoms. 








Teredo, s^ 


119 







v.r. 




Clavagella, Lam. 












melitensis ? 


lit. 


lit. 


calc. rock. 


1. 




Gastrochana, Speng. 


cuneiformis,Xc;H. .. 


30 


.0 


mud. 


v.r. 




Solen, Liu. 












siliqua, Lin 


1 
7-iO 
7-50 




7-40 

20 


sand. 

sandy &: nullip. 

nullipore. 


r. 
r. 
f. 


Lus., Brit. 
Celt., N. 


tenuis, Phil 


coarctatus, Lin 


Solecurtus, De Bl. 












strigillatus, Lin. ... 


1 


1-1 


sand. 


1. 


Celt. 


Ligula, Mont. 












sicula, Sow 


lit. 
4-50 



10-45 


sand, 
mud. 


r. 
a. 


Cell., N. 


boysii, Mont. 


prismatica, Mont.... 


25-55 


55 


mud. 


r. 


Northern. 


♦profundissima, Farb. 


72-30 


80-185 


white mud. 


a. 




Mactra, Lin. 












stultorum, Lin 


lit. 


lit. 


sand. 


1. 


Celt., N., Lus. 


Kellia, Turt. 












corbuloides, Phil.... 


lit. 


lit. 


sand. 


I 




suborbicularis,i^/ow<. 


29-45 


30-55 


mud. 


r. 


Celt., N. 


rubra* 3Tont 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


1. 


N. & S. Atl. 


abyssicola, Forb. ... 


70-200 


70-180 


mud. 


a. 




transvei-sa, Forb. ... 


119 





white mud. 


v.r. 




Montacuta, Turt. 












sp. und 


7 





mud. 


v.r. 




Solcnomya, Lam. 












mediterranea, Lam. 


2 





sand. 


v.r. 




Byssomya, Payr. 












guerinii, Payr 


8 





sand. 


v.r. 





ON ^GKAN INVERTEBRATA. 



143 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 




Geographical 
Distribution. 


Corbula, Lam. 


fathoms. 


fathoms. 




nucleus, Lam 


7-80 


7-40 


mud, sand. 


a. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


Poromya, Forb. 












anatiuoides, Forh.... 


40-150 





mud. 


f. 




Necera, Gray. 












cuspidata, Bron. .. 


12-185 


12-185 


nudjweed, sand. 


f. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


costellata, Desh. ... 


20-185 


30-185 


nud,grav.Aveed. 


f. 




attenuata, Forb. .. 


110-150 


140 


mud. 


r. 




abbreviata, Forb. ... 


75-185 


140 


mud. 


r. 




Pandora, Lam. 












rostrata, Lin 


4 





sand. 


V. r. 


Lus., Celt. 


ohtusa, Leach 


7-110 


20-70 


mud, weed. 


f. 


Lus., Celt. 


Lyonsia, Turt. 












striata, 3Iont 


20-70 


20-70 


weed, nullip. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


Thracia, Leach. 












pubescens, Mont. ... 
phaseolina, Kiener. 


70 







V. r. 


Lus,, Celt., N. 


7-30 


7 


sand. 


V. r. 




pholadomyoides,Po?'. 


150 





coral. 


V. r. 




Saxicava, Lam. 












arctica, Fabr 


20-80 


20-80 


weed, sand. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N., 


Venerupis, Lam. 










[Can. 


Irus, Lam 


lit. 







a. 


Lus., Celt., N., 


decussata, Ptiil 


lit. 





sand ? 


a. 


[Eux. 


Psammobia, Lam. 












vespertina. Lam. ... 


7-40 





sand. 


r. 


Lus.,Celt.,C£(n, 


discors, Lam 


25-40 





nullipore. 


V. r. 




ferroensis, Mont. ... 


20-40 





nuUipore. 


V. r. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


Tellina, Lin. 












pulchella. Lam 


11 





sand ? 


r. 


[Eux. 


donacina, Gm 


7-45 


7-12 


mud. 


a. 


Lus., Celt., N., 


serrata, Broc 


7-45 





weed. 


1. 




balaustina, Poll ... 


6-48 


40 


sand. 


f. 




fragiiis, Lin 


lit. 





sand. 


r. 


Lus.,Celt.,Eux. 


-r ' 

planata, Lin 


lit. 





sand. 


1. 


L\is 


depressa, Gm 


lit. 





sand. 


1. 


Lus., Celt. 


distorta, PoJi 


5-10 


7 


weed. 


1. 




Lucina, Brug. 












flexuosa, Mont 


7-11 


11 


mud. 


r. 


Celt. 


lactea, Lam 


0-25 
lit. 


10-24 

lit. 


mud. 
sand. 


a. 
1. 


Lus.,Celt.,Eux. 
[Can. 


desmarestii, Payr. . 


rotundata, Mont 


6 





mud. 


r. 


Celt. 


spinifera, Mont 


4-30 


13-40 


weed, nullipore. 


f. 


Lus., Celt. 


pecten, jLa>w 


0-16 





sand. 


f. 


Can. 


digitalis, Lam 


25 





sand ? 


V. r. 


Lus., Celt. 


commutata, Phil.... 


11-75 





nullipore. 


1. 




bipartita, Phil. 


55-95 


69 


nullipore. 


1. 




transversa, 5row« ... 


10-25 


10 


mud. 


f. 




ferr uginosa, Forb. . . . 


119 


119 


mud. 


1. 




Donax, Lin. 












trunculus, Lin 


lit. 


lit. 


sand. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


venusta, Poli 


8 


8 


mud. 


r. 


[Eux., Can. 


complanata, Mont. 


lit. 


lit. 


sand. 


1. 


Lus., Celt. 



144 



REPORT — 1843. 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 
living at 


Ground. 


fa 


Geographical 
Distribution. 


Donax, Lin. 


fatlioms. 


fathoms. 








semistriata, Poll ... 


lit. 





sand. 


r. 




IHesodesma, Desh 












donacilla, Desh 


lit. 


I 

2 


sand. 


a. 1. 


Lus. 


Astarte, Sow. 












mcvassaii&,DelaJonk. 


30-80 




nullipore. 


r. 




pusilla, Forb 


70-112 


70 " 


nuUipore. 


1. 




Artemis, Poll. 












lincta, Mont 


0-16 


1 


sand. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


Cytherea, Lam. 


apicalis, Phil. 


4-95 


30-40 


weed, coral. 


a. 




venetiana, Lam 


20-40 





mud. 


f. 




chione, Lin 


7-10 







r. 


Lus., Celt. 
[Eux.&Casp. 


Venus, Lin. 




gallir ia, Lin 


0-2 
2-40 


1-2 



sand. 


1. 
1. 


Lus., Celt., N., 
Lus.,Celt.,Can. 


verrucosa, Li7i 


ovata, Mont 


29-135 
27-40 


27-80 
40 


nullipore, mud. 
nullipore. 


a. 
1. r. 


Lus., Celt., N. 
Lus., Celt., N. 


fasciata, Mont 


incompta? Phil. ... 


20-30 







r. 




Pullastra, Sow. 












virginea, iw 


15 





weed. 


r. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


aurea, Lin 


4-10 
10-15 


7 
10 


mud. 
mud. 


1. 
1. 


Lus., Celt. 
Lus. 


geographica, Lin.... 


decussata, Lin 


lit. 


lit. 


sand. 


f. 


Lus., Celt. 


Cardium, Lin. 












echinatum, Lin 


7-50 


. 


weed. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


erinaceum, Lam. ... 


20 





weed. 


v.r. 




laevigatum, Lin 


20-40 





weed. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


papillosum, Pali ... 


6-75 


7-45 


weed, mud, &c. 


a. 




exiguum, Lin 


7-30 


16-24 


weed. 


f. 


Lus., Celt. 


punctatum, Re)i. ... 


12 


12 


sand. 


r. 


[Can. 
[Eux.jCasp., 


minimum, Phil. 


70-142 


80 


mud 


f. 


edule, Lin 


lit. 
lit. 


lit. 
lit. 


sand, 
sand. 


1. 
r. 


Lus., Celt.,N., 
Lus., Eux., 


rusticum, Chemn.... 


Cardita, Brug. 










[Casp. 


sulcata, .BrM<7 


7-30 


10-20 


weed. 


f. 




squamosa, Lam. ... 


25-150 


40-95 


nullipore. 


f. 




trapezia, Mull 


0-95 


1-25 


rock, weed. 


f. 




calyculata, Lam. ... 


0-1 


0-1 


rock. 


a. 


Lus., Can. 


Area, Lin. 












barbata, Li7i 


lit.-4 


O-l 


rock. 


a. 


Lus., Celt. 


lactea, Lam 


0-150 
70-105 


10-150 
100 


r''.,weed,nul.&c. 
nullipore. 


a. 
r. 


Lus., Celt. 


scabra, Poli 


imbricata, Poli ... 


35-230 


90-230 


nullipore, mud. 


f. 


Can. 


antiquata, Lin 


45-50 





nullipore. 


r. 




tetragona, Poli 


20-80 


30-80 


nullipore. 


f. 


Lus., Celt. 


nose, Lin 


0-27 


1-3 


rock. 


f. 


Lus., Can. 


Pecfunculus, Lam. 


glycimeris. Lam, ... 


6-24 


6 


mud. 


r. 




pilosus. Lam 


25-69 
10 


69 



nullipore. 
gravel. 


r. 

y.r. 


Lus., Celt., N., 
[Can. 


v iolaceus, Zam 


lineatus, Phil. 


4-30 





nuUipore. 


r. 





ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



145 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 


Ground. 


o- 


Geographical 






living at 




b 


Distribution. 


Nucula, Lam. 


fathoms. 


fathoms. 








polii, Phil. 


45-140 





mud, nullipore. 
mud, &c. 


1 




margaritacea, Lam. . 


2-95 


3-40 


a. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


segeensis, Forh. ... 


185 


185 


mud. 


r. 




emarginata, Lam 


7-50 


7-45 


mud, weed. 


f. 




striata, Phil. 


40-185 


40-11 


sand, mud. 


f. 




Chama, Lin. 


gryphoides, Lin. ... 


0-50 


12-0 


rock, nullipore. 


f. 


Lus., Can. 


Modiola, Lam. 












barbata, Lam 


7-95 


7-95 


mud,weed,null. 


I. 


Lus., Celt. 


tulipa, Zam 


2-50 


6-45 


mud, &c. 


1. 


Lus., Celt. 


discrepans, illfow^ ... 


10-40 


10 


weed. 


r. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


marmorata, Forh.... 


19-45 


19 


gravel. 


r. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


Lithodomus, Lam. 












lithophagus, Lam. . . . 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


f. 




Mytilus, Lin. \_Lam. 












gallo-provincialis, 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


r. 




minimus, Poli ...... 


lit. 


lit. 


rock. 


a. 




Pinna, Lin. 












squamosa, Lin 


1-24 


1 


sand, mud. 


f. 


Can. 



Lamellibranchiata Monomyaria. 

There are twenty-eight species of this division of bivalve Mollusca inha- 
biting the iEgean. Of these six are undescribed forms inhabiting the greater 
depths, being all found between 40 and 200 fathoms. Of the remainder, eight 
extend their range to the shores of Britain. Many of the sjjecies which else- 
where attain a considerable size are small in the jffigean. The gregarious 
species do not there form great banks or beds as in other places. 

Of the new species found one only {Pecten Jioskynsii) was observed fossil 
in the neighbouring tertiaries, and that one in a deposit of considerable age 
(ante-pliocene). Of the others, several ai*e abundant in the pleiocene de- 
posits, at the period of the formation of which, however, they seem to have 
attained their full dimensions, and not to have been dwarfed as at the present 
day. Generally speaking, the proportion of dead valves greatly exceeds that 
of living shells of this section, brought up in dredge, and in the majority of 
species the valves become disunited after death and scattered. There are 
about twelve Monomyaria, which though inhabiting the western Mediterra- 
nean, do not seem to extend their range to the Mgeaxi. 

Lamellibranchiata Monomyaria. 



Species. 



Avicula, Lam. 

tarentina, Lam 

Lima, Brug. 

squamosa, Lam. ... 

tenera, Turt. 

fragilis, Mont. 

subauriculata, Mont. 

1843. 



Range. 



fathoms. 

20 

1-69 
0-30 
20-40 
15-30 



Found 
living at 



fathoms. 
20 

1-28 



20-40 





Ground. 



mud. 

rock, gravel. 

sand. 

nullipore. 

weed. 



Geographical 
Distribution. 



Lus., Can . 
Lus.Celt. [Can. 
Lus., Celt., N., 
Lus., Celt., N. 
L 



146 



REPORT — 1843. 



-^ 



Species. 


Range. 


Found 


Ground. 


o- 


Geographical 






living at 




£ 


Distribution. 


Lima, Brug. 


fathoms. 


fathoms. 








elongata, Forb 


55-140 


55 


nullipore, mud. 


f. 




cuneata, Forb 


40 





nullipore. 


r. 




crassa, Forb 


70-150 





nullipore, mud. 


f. 




Pecten, Brug. 


jacobaeus, Lam. ... 


12-70 


25 


nullipore. 


r. 


Lus., Can, 


dumasii, Payr 


70-150 





nullipore, mud. 


1. 




pesfelis, Lam 


60-69 





nullipore. 


r. 




sulcatus, Lam 


7 







1. 




opercularis, Lin. ... 


10-70 


31-55 


nullipore, &c. 


a. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


varius, Lin 


7-55 


25-55 


nullipore, &c. 

weed. 

weed, &c. 


f. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


pusio, Z/CJWJ 


10-69 
8-69 


40 
28-41 


f. 

a. 


Lus., Can. 
Eux. 


polymorphus,i9ron». 


liyalinus, Phil. 


6-60 


6-40 


sand. 


a. 




testae, Bivon 


29-69 


30-50 


weed. 


f. 




similis, Laskey 


27-185 


40-70 


mud. 


a. 


Celt., North. 


- -^ fenestratus, Forb..,. 


4-5-140 





mud, nullipore. 


f. 




concentricus, Forb. . 


70-185 





mud. 


f. 




hoskynsii, Forb. . . . 


185-200 





mud. 


1. 




Spondylus, Lam. 












gadseropus, Lin. ... 


1-14 


1 


rock. 


1. 


Can. 


gussonii, Costa 


105 


105 


nullipore. 


r. 




Ostrea, Lin. 












plicatula, Lin 


lit.-30 


lit. 


rock, &c. 


1. 




cochlea, Po/« 


60-110 





nullipore. 


r. 


Can, 


Anomia, Brug. 












ephippium, Zm 


20-40 


20 


weed, &c. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 


polyraorpha, Phil.... 


20-140 


20-30 


weed, &c. 


1. 


Lus., Celt., N. 



Mollusca Tunicata. 

Of the simple Ascidians seventeen species were met with. Five of them 
were Pelagic species, among which Salpa maxima and S. democratica were 
the most abundant, especially in the spring of the year, when great numbers 
of them approached the surface in fine weather in the afternoon. The 
remainder were fixed species, chiefly belonging to the genera Phallusia, 
Ciona, and Cynthia, some of which were found as deep as fifty-five fathoms ; 
they were most abundant between twenty and forty fathoms, generally on 
weedy ground. A number of compound Ascidians were also met with in 
similar depths of water*. 

Radiata. 
Arachnodermata. 

Tliere are fifty-seven species of acalephous animals recorded as inhabitants 
of the Mediterranean sea ; but few of these occur in the .^Egean. Though 

* The working out of the species procured of this difficult tribe and of some of the 
radiate families, especially the smaller Zoophytes, demands more disposable time than 
the reporter's professional avocations (at present) permit ; he is constrained therefore 
reluctantly to give only a general sketch in these departments, hoping at some future 
meeting to present supplementary details. 



ON iEGEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



147 



continually on the look-out for these beautiful creatures only fifteen species 
were met with, mostly described forms. The sheltered bays of Asia Minor 
and the squally seas of the Cyclades were alike unprolific ; twice only were 
considerable numbers met with ; once in the Gulf of Scopfea, where during 
the winter months great numbers of ^wre/m, most species of which genus are 
gregarious, assembled, and once in the bay of Smyrna, where the presence ot 
gigantic Rhizostomce afforded full occupation for several days, in September 
1842. In neither case were the individuals widely spread, but confined to a 
limited space. Besides the two species named, six other members of the order 
Pulmograda were met with in the months of July, August and December. Ot 
the Ciliograda, the Beroe forskalii was taken in May 184.1, off the island ot 
Milo, and in company with it a single example of the Cestu7n veneris. A few 
days after a Cydippe was seen, but not taken, in the bay of Syra. Of the 
Physograda, several examples of a large Stephanomia were met with in the 
Gulf of Macri, in December, where they were seen floating a few feet below the 
surface, about 3 p.m. on sunny days. Of the DiphydcB occasional individuals 
were seen, probably species of Calpe or Pyramis. Of the Cirrhgrada, Ve- 
lella spirans was collected by Lieut. Spratt on the shore at Rhodes, in De- 
cember 1842, and Porpita glandifera occurred once on the sandy shore be- 
tween Patara and the mouth of the Xanthus in February 1842. 

We must attribute the great abundance of Medusce in the western Medi- 
terranean, as compared with their scarcity in the eastern, to the oceanic in- 
fluence in the former. They abound near the gut of Gibraltar, a locality 
prolific in species as well as individuals. Their numbers decrease as we 
approach the shores of Greece. In the iEgean, as we have seen, they play 
an unimportant part. The few gregarious species extend their range to the 
Black Sea, where great herds of Aurelice are not unfrequently met with. 
Pelagic as these animals are, there is reason to believe that the range of the 
species is extremely limited, and that they afford a valuable means of defining 
zoological provinces in the open sea. 

Arachnodermata. 



No. of 

/Egean 

Sp. 



Pulmograda. 

Rhizostoma, Cuv 

cu vieri ?, Eschs 

Cephea, Peron 

tuberculata, Macri 

Oceama, Peron 

cruciata, Forsk,... 
Thaumantias 

laxa, Forb 

Aurelia, Peron 

granulata ?,Zam. ... 
Geryonia, Peron 

nov.sp.? 

proboscidalis, Forsk. 
Mesonema, Eschs 

ccelum pensile, Mod. 



No. of 

Medit. 

Sp. 



29 
1 



Date 
when taken. 



Locality. 



Sept. 1842. 

Aug., Sept., 
Nov. 1842, 

July, 1841. 

Aug. 1841. 

Dec. 1841. 

Aug. 1841. 
Dec. 1841. 

May 1841. 



Bay of Smyrna. 

1 Cyclades, Sporades, 
J Cervi. 

Serpho Bay. 

Off Milo. 

Gulf of Scopasa, Caria. 

Bay of Cervi. 
Gulf of Macri. 



Off Milo. 



L 2 



148 



REPORT — 1843. 



CiRRHIGRADA. 

Velella, Lam 

spirans, Forsk 

Porpita, Lam 

glandifera, Lam.... 

Physograda. 

Stephanomia, Peron 
coutorta?, 31. Ed.. 

CiLIOGRADA. 

Beroe, Mul 

forskalii, iHf. £y. .. 
Cestum, Le Sueur ... , 

veneris, Le Sueur . 
Cydippe, Eschs 

sp 



DiPHYDiE. 

Pyramis, Otto 

tetragona, Otto 

Calpe, Quoy & Gaim... 

pentagona, Quoy^ G. 



No. of No. of 

/Egean Medit. 

iSp. Sp. 



Date 
when taken. 



Dec. 1841. 
Feb. 1842. 

Dec. 1841. 

May, 1841. 
May, 1841. 
May, 1841. 

various, 
various. 



Locality. 



Rhodes. 
Lycia. 

Gulf of Maori. 

Off Milo. 
Off Milo. 
Syra. 

Throughout. 
Throughout. 



Echinodermata. 

Crinoidea. — The only crinoid animal inhabiting the jEgean is the common 
European Comatula (C. rosacea'), identical in every respect with the northern 
examples of the species. It is local, and lives on weedy ground in from 
20 to 30 fathoms water. I met it only among the Cyclades. In no instance 
was it found in the young or Phytocrinus state. 

OphiuridcB. — Eleven species of OphiuridcB inhabit the i^gean, ranging from 
the surface to the greatest depths explored. Four of the ^gean species are 
identical with northern forms ; viz. Ophiura texturata and alhida, Amphiura 
neglecta and Ophiothrix rosula. They are all found in habitats similar to 
those in which they occur in the British seas. The last-named species is 
invariably smaller tlian northern individuals. Five, viz. Pectinura vestita, 
Ophiura abyssicola, Ophiomyxa lubrica, Ophiopsila aranea, and Amphiura 
•neglecta, are entirely new species. Three of these new forms were found only 
In very deep water 100 fathoms and under, one of them, the second named, 
having been taken alive in 200 fathoms. One of the ^gean Ophiuridm is 
an instance of a most extensive range, being found in all muddy bottoms 
between 7 and 180 fathoms, the specimens from the greatest depths exactly 
resembling those from the shallows. 

TheEuryale has not as yet been found in the eastern Mediterranean ; it inha- 
bits the Eastern and the Adriatic. Deducting synonyms from previous enume- 
rations of the Mediterranean Ophiuridce proper, my list exceeds by four species 
all former catalogues. 

Askriadce. — Thirteen species of Asteriadce inhabit the iEgean ; of these, 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



149 



seven do not range deeper than ten fathoms. A Goniaster and an Asterina 
were the species met with in deepest water, the first coming up from 60 
fathoms off Cnidus, the second ranging from 20 to 70 fathoms. Four species 
were identical with Celtic forms, one of them being the Uraster glacialis, 
which ranges northward to the shores of Greenland. The northern seas 
greatly exceed the Mediterranean in the number of species and abundance 
of individuals of this order. Out of the small number of Asteriadce which were 
taken in the ^gean, one half the number occurred only as single specimens. 

Echinidce. — The extreme abundance of Echinus lividus, which lines the 
rocks a little below water-mark in most parts of the Mediterranean, is a cha- 
racteristic feature of that sea. Otherwise (especially in the ^Egean) EchinidcB 
are not extensively represented. The true esculentus has a wide range in 
the eastern Mediterranean, extending from Cerigo to Asia Minor, but indivi- 
duals are very scarce. A small species (£". jnonilis) is abundant on nulli- 
pore ground at all depths between 1 5 and 1 00 fathoms. Spatangi are very 
rare : a few examples occurred in the sandy shores, and fragments were 
dredged as deep as 150 fathoms. Spatangus piirpureus, identical with the 
British species, is extremely scarce in the TEgean, but more frequent, and 
attaining a large size in the Sicilian seas. The Mediterranean Cidaris is 
very characteristic of this sea: its spines are frequently taken, and sometimes 
the living animal, which dwells on coral ground, mostly in from 60 to 70 
fathoms. It would appear to be gregarious. 

HolothuriadcB. — The number oi Mged,xiHolothuriad(B is seven, of which four 
belong to the typical genus of the family, the species of Avhich are very cha- 
racteristic of the Mediterranean. They all live in shallow water, attain to 
large size, and usually occur in great numbers. The only Celtic species 
observed was the Cucumaria pentactes, dredged in II fathoms off the mouth 
of the Hermus, and exactly resembling specimens taken in similar situations 
on the British coast. The Holothuriadce are much more numerous in the 
western Mediterranean. Mud and sand are their most usual habitats. 

SipunculidcB Out of six iEgean species of this family, three inhabit cre- 
vices of the rocks near water-mark, two live among fuci in a muddy bottom, 
and one (^Syrinx nudus), the only one which is common to the Egean and 
Celtic seas, is found on sand. The rock-inhabiting species are frequent, the 
others rare. There is no diminution in the number of individuals or their 
size as we travel eastwards. 

Echinodermata. 



Species. 



Crinoidea. 

Comatula, Lam 

rosacea. Link 

OphiuridjE. 
Pectinura, Forb 

vestita, Forb 

Ophiura, Lam 

texturata. Lam 

albida. Fori 

abyssicola, Forb 

Ophioderma, Mul. &Tros. 

lacertosa, Lam 



jEgean 



Medit. GrounJ. 



weedy. 



nuUipore. 

j weedj'. 
j sand, weed. 
j white mud. 

I weedy, mud. 



Depth. 



fathoms. 
20-30 

100 

28 

5-50 

100-200 

10-30 



Geog. Distrib. 



Celtic seas. 



Celt. & North, 
British seas. 



Can. 



160 



REPORT — 1843. 



Species. 



jEgean. 



Ophiuuid.'e. 
Ophioruyxa, I\Iul. & Tros 

lubrica, Forb 

Ophiopsila, Forb 

aranea, Forb 

Amphiura, Forb 

florifera, Forb 

neglecta, Johnst 

chiagii, Forb 

Ophiothrix, Mul. & Tros. 

rosula, Forb 

AsTERIADiE. 

(/raster, Ag 

glacialis, Lin 

Ophidiaster, Ag 

laevigata, Lam 

Cribrella, Ag 

seposita, Lam 

Gomaster, Agass 



sp 

Asterina, Nardo 



sp 

sp '•• 

Luidia, Forb. 



Medit. 



1 



] 



Asterias, Lin 3 

sp 

sp 

sp 

sp •. 

Palmipes, Link 

membranaceus, Relz , 

ECHINID^. 

Cidaris, Leske 

histrix, Lam 

Echinus, Lin 

esculentus, Lin 

lividus, Lam 

monilis, Def. 

Echinocyamus, Leske 

pusillus, Mul , 

Spatangus, Klein . . . . , 

purpureas, il!/i</.. ... 
Amphidetus, Ag 

mediterraneus, Forb. 
Brissus, Klein 

atropos?, Lam 

sp. und 



1 
1 

5? 



1? 



Ground. 



Depth. 



3? 



2? 



2or3 



weedy. 

weedy. 

mud. 
weedy, 
mud. 

weedy. 

rock. 

rock. 

weedy. 

nullipore. 

rock, 
nullipore. 
sand & zost. 

mud. 

sand, 
sand, 
mud. 
mud. 



nullipore. 

Aveedy. 

rock. 

nullipore. 

nullipore. 

weedy. 

sand. 

weedy, 
mud, nul. 



Geog. Distrib. 



fathoms. 

10-20 
20-50 



100 
20-30 |North.&Celt 
7-180 



20-30 
1 

2 

lit. 

20-30 

60 

lit. 
20-70 
10-20 

20 



1-8 

1-8 
5 
3 



30 

55-105 

7-40 

lit. 

15-105 

8-200 

20 

20-30 

20-30 
60-130 



North. & Celt 
[Can, 

North. & Celt. 



North. & Celt 



Bay of Biscay, 
[Ireland 

Celt. & North 

[seas. 

Atlantic. 



ON ^GEAN INVEBTEBRATA. 



i5i 



Species. 



HOLOTHURIAD^. 

Holothuria, Lin 

tremula, Li7i 

SP 

SP 

sp 

Cucumaria, Blainv. . . 

pentactes, Mul. . ., . . 
Ocnus, Forb 

sp 

Chirodota, Eschs. ... 

sp 

SiPUNCULIDiE. 

Syrinx, Bohadsch. 
nudus, Lin 

sp 

Sipunculus, Lin. 

sp 

sp 

sp 

BonelUa. 



/Egean, 



Medit. 



6? 



4? 



1? 



Ground. 



sand. 

weed. 

rock. 

rock, weed. 

mud. 

rocky. 

mud. 



sand, 
rocky. 

weedy, 
weeds, 
rock. 

rock. 



Depth. 



fathoms. 



11 



6-11 



lit.1. 
lit. 

0-8 
2-3 
lit. 

lit. 



Geog. Distrib. 



Celt. & North 
[seas 



Celtic, Lus. 



Zoophyta. 

Zoophytes are, on the whole, scarce in the .^gean. They seem to suffer 
the same diminishing influence as to size with the Mollusca, very numerous 
minute specimens occurring of Corallium rubrimi, for instance, but none 
being met with of sufficient size as to render them of value in commerce. 
Corallines are scarce, a very few species only being common, among others 
Farcimia fistulosa. FlustrcB are very rare ; incrusting corallines frequent. 
The only corals met with of any size were Cladocora ccEspitosa and Porites 
dcedaha. The former is extremely abundant near water-mark on the coast 
of Asia Minor, where it forms elegant cauliflower-like patches of bright 
orange, from the hue of the animals, adhering to the rocks. The latter is 
rare, and was dredged alive in about 12 fathoms in the Bay of Serpho. 

Among the soft Zoophytes there are several beautiful and curious species 
inhabiting the i^gean. In all six species were met with, of which one, the 
Edvardsia vestita, was remarkable for living in a tube of its own construc- 
tion, formed of gravel and shells ; and another for living entirely on the sur- 
face of the ocean, where it was frequently met with swimming during the 
winter months. 

Alcyonia were not uncommon, but no species of Pennatula was met with, 
nor of Gorgonia* . 

The range of Zoophytes is very great in the j^gean, extending nearly to 
the greatest depths explored. A beautiful little waxy green Idmonea ? was 
characteristic of depths below 100 fathoms, extending to 180. Caryophyllia 
(cyathus) ranged from 5 to 90 fathoms. Hornera at 40. Plumularice ranged 
to 40. Myriapora truncata was found as deep as 70 fathoms alive. Tubic- 

* Two species of Pennaltda have since been procured in abundance off the mouth of the 
Hermus in 7 fathoms, by Lieut. Spratt. 



152 REPORT — 1843. 

lipora serpe7is in 20 to 4-0 fathoms. Retepora abundant between 15 and 30. 
Alecto incrusting shells in 150 fathomw. Four species of coral were taken, 
though dead, at 105 fathoms. Eudendrium ^A'ssionnd at 20 fathoms. Val- 
keria and Campamdaria at 30. Crista at £0. Actinia ranged from the 
surface to 20 fathoms. • Alcyonium as deep as 70. 

Aynorphozoa. 

Sponges abound in tlie iEgean, inhabiting all depths of water between sea- 
mark, where the rocks are often of a brilliant scarlet with incrusting species, 
to nearly 200 fathoms, a sponge allied to Grantia having been dredged alive 
at 180 fathoms, and a small species of another genus at 185. The sponge of 
commerce is procured by divers from rocks in various depths between 7 and 30 
fathoms. Most of tlie larger species are found at lesser depths, very large ones 
occurring in the second zone or region. The forms of the species do not appear 
to bear any relation to the depth in which they are found, tubular sponges, 
globular, incrusting and palmate species all inhabiting the littoral zone. I met 
with about twenty species of AmorpJiozoa in the eastern Mediterranean. 



The distribution of marine animals is determined by three great primary 
influences, and modified Ijy several secondary or local ones. The primary 
influences ai'e climate, sea-composition and depth, corresponding to the three 
great primary influences which determine the distribution of land animals, 
namely climate, mineral structure and elevation. The first of these primary 
marine influences is uniform in the eastern Mediterranean. From Candia to 
Lycia, from Thessaly to Egypt, we find the same species of Mollusca and 
Radiata assembled together under similar circumstances. The uniformity 
of distribution throughout the Mediterranean is very surprising to a British 
naturalist, accustomed as we are to find distinct species of the same genera, 
climatally representative of each other, in the Irish and North seas, and on the 
shores of Devon and Zetland. The absence of certain species in the JEgesxi 
which are characteristic of the western Mediterranean, is rather to be attri- 
buted to sea-composition than to climate. The pouring in of the waters of 
the Black Sea must influence the fauna of the Mgean and modify the consti- 
tution of its waters. To such cause we must attribute the remarkable fact, 
that with few exceptions individuals of the same species are dwarfish com- 
pared with their analogues in the western Mediterranean. This is seen most 
remarkably in some of the more abundant species, such as Pecten opercidaris, 
Venerupis irus, Veiitis fasciata, Cardita trapezia, Modiola barbata, and the 
various kinds of Bulla, Rissoa, Fusus, and Pleurotoma, all of which seemed 
as if they were but miniature representatives of their more western brethren. 

To the same cause may probably be attributed the paucity of Medusee 
and of corals and corallines. Sponges only seem to gain by it. The 
influence of depth is very evident in the general character of the iEgean 
fauna, in which the aborigines of the deeper recesses of the sea play an im- 
portant part numerically, both as to amount of species and individuals. 

The secondary influences which modify the distribution of animals in the 
^gean are many. First in importance ranks the character of the sea-bottom, 
which, though uniform in the lowest explored region, is very variable in all 
the others. According as rock, sand, mud, weedy or gravelly ground pre- 
vails, so will the numbers of the several genera and species vary. The 
presence of the sponges of commerce often depends on the rising up of peaks 
of rock in the deep water near the coast. As mud forms by much the most 
extensive portion of the bottom of the sea, bivalve Mollusca abound more indi- 
vidually though not specifically than univalves. As the deepest sea-bottom is 



ON iEGEAN INVEBTEBRATA. 153 

of fine mud, the delicate shells of Pteropoda and Nucleobranchiata are for the 
most part only preserved there. Where the bottom is weedy we find the 
naked Mollusca more numerous than elsewhere ; where rocky, the strong- 
shelled Gasteropoda and active Cephalopoda. Few species either of Mollusca 
or Radiata inhabit all bottoms indifferently. 

The nature of the sea-bottom is mainly determined by the geological 
structure of the neighbouring land. The general character of the fauna of 
the ^gean is in a great measure dependent on the great tracts of scaglia which 
border it, and of which so many of its islands are formed. The degradation 
of this cretaceous limestone fills the sea with a white chalky sediment, espe- 
cially favourable to the development of Mollusca. Where the coast is formed 
of scaglia numerous marine animals abound which are scarce on other rocks. 
The genera Lithodoraus and Clavagella among Mollusca, the Cladocora 
ccEspitosa among Zoophytes, are abundant in such localities only. 

In a report on the distribution of British terrestrial and fluviatile Mollusca, 
which I had the honour of presenting to the Association at Birmingham, I 
asserted that a remarkable negative influence was exercised by serpentine on 
the distribution of pulmoniferous Mollusca. This I have had peculiarly 
favourable opportunities of confirming in the ^gean, where whole islands 
being formed of serpentine, the almost total absence of those animals which are 
abundant on the islands of other mineral structure is most striking. But I 
found further, that not only does serpentine exercise a negative influence on 
air-breathing Mollusca, but also on marine species. An extensive tract on the 
coast of Lycia and Caria, indented with deep and land-locked bays, is formed 
of that rock. In such bays, with the exception of a few littoral species 
which live on all rocks, we find an almost total absence of Testacea; whilst in 
correspondent bays in the neighbouring districts, formed of scaglia, of sac- 
charine marble, and even of slate, we find an abundance of Testacea, so that 
it can hardly be doubted that the absence or scarcity of shelled Mollusca in 
such case is owing to negative influence exercised by the serpentine. The 
outline of the coast is evidently an important element in such influences, or in 
modifying it. 

Tides and currents in most seas are important modifying influences. In 
the ^gean the former are so slight as scarcely to affect the fauna ; the latter, 
in places, must be powerful agents in the transportation of species and of the 
spawn of marine animals. Their action, however, like that of storms, appears 
materially to affect the upper regions only ; the transportation of the species 
of one region into another seldom extending further than that of the regions 
immediately bounding that in which it is indigenous. Certain species, such 
as the RissocB, which live on sea-weed, may occasionally fall to the bottom 
region, of which they are not true natives, and may live for a time there, but 
such cases appear to be rare, and the sources of fallacy from natural trans- 
portation are fewer than might be imagined at first thought, and in most 
cases have arisen rather from the form of the coast than from currents. 
Thus where the coast-line is very steep, the sea suddenly deepening to 60 or 
70 fathoms close to the rocks, limpets, littoral Trochi and other shells, when 
they die, fall to the bottom, and are found along with the exuviae of the 
natural inhabitants of those depths. Several instances of this occurred during 
dredging. 

The influx of fresh tvater, whether continual, or where a river empties 
itself into the sea, or temporary, as on the coast of Asia Minor during the 
rainy season, when every little ravine becomes suddenly filled with a raging 
torrent, bearing down trees and great masses of rock, and charged with 
thick mud, frequently modifies the marine fauna of certain districts very 



l64 REPORT — 1843. 

considerably. The first generates great muddy tracts, which present a fauna 
peculiar to themselves : the second, though of short duration, deposits de- 
tached patches of conglomerate, and by the sudden settling of the fluviatile mud 
forms thin strata at the bottom of the sea, often containing the remains of ter- 
restrial and fluviatile animals, soon to be covered over by marine deposits with 
very different contents. From the influx of a great river we may have tropical 
or subtropical, terrestrial or fluviatile forms mingled with temperate marine. 
Thus among forty-six species of Testacea collected by Captain Graves andMr. 
Hoskyn on the shore at Alexandria, there are four Egyptian land and fresh- 
water MoUusca, three of which are of truly subtropical forms, viz. Ampullaria 
ovata, Paludina unicolor, and Cyrena orientalis. The marine associates of 
these are, however, noways more southern in appearance, and for the most 
part identical as species with the Testacea which strew the shore at Smyrna 
or at Toulon, in the former case mingled with Melanopsis, in the latter with 
characteristic European Pulmonifera. 

When the sea washes the shores of Egypt, remains of vegetables of a sub- 
tropical character become mingled with similar associations of marine Mol- 
lusca with those in which the relics of more northern plants become im- 
bedded in the waters of the Black Sea. The Nile may carry down the woods 
and animals of Upper Egypt, the Danube those of the Austrian Alps. De- 
posits presenting throughout similar organic contents of marine origin, may 
contain at one point the relics of marmots and mountain salamanders, at 
another those of ichneumons and crocodiles. 

Vegetable remains are being imbedded in strata forming at very different 
depths. Thus olive leaves were scattered among the mud dredged from a 
depth of 30 fathoms on the coast of Lycia, at Symboli, and date stones and 
monocotyledonous wood from a depth of nine fathoms off Alexandria. Of 
course the associated Mollusca were very distinct in each instance, in the 
first being members of the fourth, in the second of the second region of 
depth. 

Provinces of Depth. 

There are eight well-marked regions of depth in the eastern Mediterranean, 
each characterised by ils peculiar fauna, and when there are plants, by its 
flora. These regions are distinguished from each other by the associations 
of the species they severally include. Certain species in each are found in 
no other, several are found in one region which do not range into the next 
above, whilst they extend to that below, or vice versa. Certain species have 
their maximum of development in each zone, being most prolific in indivi- 
duals in that zone in which is their maximum, and of which they may be re- 
garded as especially characteristic. Mingled witli the true natives of every 
zone are stragglers, owing tlieir presence to the action of the secondary in- 
fluences which modify distribution. Every zone has also a more or less ge- 
neral mineral character, the sea-bottom not being equally variable in each, 
and becoming more and more uniform as we descend. The deeper zones are 
greatest in extent ; so that whilst the first or most superficial is but 12, the 
eighth, or lowest, is above 700 feet in perpendicular range. Each zone is 
capable of subdivision in smaller belts, but these are distinguished for the 
most part by negative characters derived from the cessation of species, the 
range of which is completed, and from local changes in (he nature of the sea- 
bottom. 

FiusT Region, or Littoral Zone. 
The first of the provinces in depth is the least extensive, and two fathoms 



ON iEGfBAN INVERTEBRATA. I65f 

may be regarded as its inferior limit. Its mineral nature is as various as the 
coast-line, and its living productions are influenced accordingly ; sand, rock 
or mud presenting their several associations of species. Limited, too, as is its 
extent, it nevertheless presents well-marked subdivisions. That portion which 
forms the water-mark, and which (though in the Mediterranean the space be 
very small in consequence of the very slight tides) is left exposed to the air 
during the ebb, presents species peculiar to itself. Such on rock are Littorina 
ecerulescens, Patella scutellaris, Kellia rubra, Mytilus minimus, and Fossarus 
adansoni ; on sand, Mesodesma donacilla, a bivalve which buries itself in great 
numbers immediately at the Avater's edge ; in mud, a mineral character almost 
alwaj's derived from the influence of the influx of fresh water, Nassa mtita- 
bile and neritoidea ; Cerithium mammillatum on all bottoms, usually under 
stones or weed ; Truncatella truncata and Auricula. All these species are 
gregarious, most of them occurring in considerable numbers, and they are 
almost all MoUusca having a great geographic range ; eight out of the eleven 
being widely distributed in the Atlantic, and one, the Littorina ecerulescens, 
extending from Tristan d'Acuna to the shores of Norway. The fuci of the 
coast-line, such as Dictyota dichotoma and Corallina officinalis, are also spe- 
cies of wide geographic difl^usion. The bottomless barnacles (^Ockt/iosia) are 
characteristic of this belt. 

Immediately below this boundary line between the air and the water, we 
have a host of MoUusca of peculiar forms and often varied colours, associated 
with numerous Radiata and Articulata. In this under-belt we find the most 
characteristic Mediterranean forms, those which exhibit the action of the 
climatal influence most evidently. Boring in the sand live Solen strigil- 
latus, Lucina desmarestii, Amphidesma sicula, Venerupis decussata, and va- 
rious species of Donax, Tellina and Venus ; in the mud abounds Lucina 
lactea ; on the rocks we find Cardita calyculata. Area barbata, Chama gry- 
phoides, Lithodomus, Chiton squamosus and cajetanus, Patella bonnardi, 
Fissurella costaria, several species of Vermetus, Haliotis, numerous and pecu- 
liar Trochi, Cerithium fuscatum, Fasciolaria tarentina, Fusus lignarius, 
Murex trunculus, Pollia maculosa, Columbella rustica, Cyprcea spurca, and 
Conus mediterraneus, with various Radiata and Articulata, most of them 
peculiar forms. In this belt, in fact, we have the characteristic species of the 
Mediterranean fauna, those animals which give a subtropical aspect to the 
general assemblage of forms in that sea. It is worthy of note, that not only 
is the climatal influence evident in the colouring and size of the shells of Mol- 
lusca in this region, but also in that of the animals themselves, which often 
present the most varied combinations of brilliant hues, sources of well-marked 
specific character. This is especially the case with the Gasteropoda, and is 
equally true with the sublittoral forms of the Northern as of the Southern 
seas. 

It is only in this subdivision of the highest zone that we see distinct in- 
stances of local distribution of species in the jEgean. This is especially the 
case with the genus Trochus, some of the species of which have a very limited 
distribution, though always abundant where thej'' occur. It is also the case 
with the naked MoUusca and with Zoophytes. Among the last, the rocks of the 
first zone in Asia Minor are well distinguished from those in the islands, by 
the great abundance of a beautiful coral, Cladocora ccespitosa, which is 
found in large masses, but does not appear to live deeper than six or eight 
feet below the surface of the water. In the sheltered gulfs of Lycia and Caria, 
sponges (not the kinds used in commerce) of singular shapes and bright 
colours abound in this region, growing to a considerable size. In the Cy- 
clades the beautiful Actinea rubra abounds in similar localities. Padina 



156 



REPORT— 1843. 



pavonia is the characteristic Fucus of the belt of the first region, and among 
its elegant fronds may be seen innumerable Crustacea prowling, whilst iu the 
crevices of the rocks on which they grow live numerous fishes of the blenny 
and wrasse tribes, like all the other natives of this province, remarkable for 
the vivid painting of their skins. 

The inhabitants of the lowest portion of this narrow but varied belt are 
equally characteristic, especially such £is live on the sandy tracts covered with 
Zostera. The Pinna squamosa is most abundant here, and in rocky places 
the cuttle-fishes abound. On the Zostera live numerous Rissocc. 

Besides its true inhabitants, the littoral zone is continually receiving acces- 
sions to its fauna from tlie washing up of the exuviae of the animals of the 
succeeding region, especially after storms, which strew the sandy shores with 
the remains of Mollusca. Mingled with these are the remains of freshwater 
animals carried into the sea by the streams. These are not necessarily found 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the streams by which they are brought 
down, but seem to be carried along the shore by eddies and currents, so that 
in a deep bay they may frequently be found at the opposite part of the shore 
to that where the stream which doubtless wafted them to the sea emptied 
itself, the depth of the intermediate gulf precluding the notion that they could 
have been washed across. Whilst the sea one day casts up numerous shells, 
Crustacea, &c., it often covers them up with silt the next, so that increasing 
alternations of organic bodies and sand or mud must be continually in pro- 
cess of formation in this region. 



Testacea of Region I. 



Lamellihr and data . 



Clavagella * 

Solen siliqua. 
Solecurtus strigillatus. 
Ligula sicula. 
Mactra stultorum.* 
Kellia corbuloides.* 

rubra.* 
Tellina donacina. 

fragilis. 

planata. 
Lucina pecten. 

digitalis. ? 

lactea.* 

desmarestii.* 
Venerupis irus.* 

decussata.* 
Donax trunculus.* 

complanata. 

semistriata. 



Mesodesraa donacilla.* 
Venus gallina.* 

decussata.* 

geographica. ? 
Cardium rusticum. 

edule.* 
Cardita calyculata.* 

trapezia.* 
Area barbata.* 

lactea.* 

nose.* 
Lithodomus lithophagus.* 
Mytilus gallo-provincialis.* 

minimus.* 
Pinna squamosa.* 
Lima squamosa.* 

tenera. ? 
Spondylus gadoeropus.* 
Ostrea plicatula.* 



Chiton squaniosus.* 
cajetanus.* 
fascicularis.* 



Gasteropoda. 

Patella scutellaris.* 
ferruginea.* 
bonnardi.* 



Note. — The asterisk indicates that the species attains its maximum of development iu that 
region; the note of interrogation implies that the species is probably a straggler. 



ON AEGEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



157 



Patella lusitanica.* 
Gadinia garnoti. ? 
Crepidula fornicata. 

unguiformis.* 
Emarginula huzardi.* 
Fissurella costaria.* 

gibba.* 
Bullaea angustata. ? 

aperta. ? 
Bulla striata. 

cornea. ? 

truncatula. ? 

truncata. ? 

striatula. ? 
Eulima polita. ? 
Partheiiia elegantissima. ? 

humboldti. 
Truncatella truncatulum.* 
Rissoa desmarestii.* 

ventricosa.* 

oblonga.* 

violacea.* 

monodonta.* 

fulva. 

cancellata. 

granulata. 

raontagui.* 

acuta. 

pulchella. 

conifera. 

cingilus. 

pulchra. 
Littorina ccerulescens.* 
Fossarus adansoni.* 
Scalaria lamellosa. ? 
Verraetus gigas.* 

subcancellatus.* 

arenarius.* 

glome ratus.* 

granulatus.* 
Nerita virldis. ? 
Haliotis lamellosns.* 
Adeorbis subcarinata. 
Trochus vielloti.* 

jussieui.* 

pallidus.* 

umbilicai'is.* 

lyciacus.* 

richardi.* 

divarioatus.* 

articulatus.* 



Trochus fragarioides.* 

therensis.* 

laugieri. ? 
Phasianella pulla. ? 
lanthina nitens,'* strag. 
Cerithium fuscatum.* 

maramillatum.* 

lima. ? 

trilineatum. ? 
Triforis adversum. ? 
Pleurotoma albida. ? 

rude. ? 

purpurea.? 

laevigata. ? 

lefroyi. ? 

fallax. ? 

linearis. ? 

lyciaca. ? 
Fasciolaria tarentina.* 
Fusus lyciacus. ? 

lavatus. ? 
Murex brandaris. ? 

trunculus.* 

edwardsii.* 
Ranella lanceolata. ? 
Purpura haemastoma. 
Pollia maculosa.* 

candidissima. ? 
Nassa reticulata. 

d'orbignii. ? 

variabile. ? 

cornicula.* 

mutabile.* 

gibbosula.* 

neritea.* 
Columbella rustica.* 

linnaei.* 
Mitralittoralis.? 

cornea. ? 
Marginella miliacea. ? 
Ringuicula buceinea. ? 
Cypraea lurida. 

rufa.* 

spurca.* 
Conus mediterraneus.* 
Dentalium 9-costatum. ? 
multistriatum. ? 

entalis. ? 

rubescens. ? 
Auricula myosotis.* 



158 



REPORT — 1843. 



Second Region. 

The ground in the second region, which extends from two to ten fathoms, 
is most generally mud or sand, the former green with a beautiful Fucus, Cau- 
lerpa prolifera, abundant in the Archipelago, but I believe rare elsewhere, 
the latter abounding in Zostera oceanica. Great Holothuriec are here found 
in abundance, and, among Mollusca, chiefly burying Conchifera. Nucula 
margaritacea and Cerilhium vulgatum are the Testacea most generally distri- 
buted through this region. Those most prolific in individuals are, among 
Gasteropoda, Ceritkinm vulgatum and lima, Trochus crenulatus and spratti, 
Rissoa ventricosa and oblonga, and Marginella clandestina. Among Lamelli- 
branchiata, Tellina donacina, Lucina luctea, Nuctda margaritacea, and Car- 
dium exigtmm. Storms disturb this zone by washing up its inhabitants into 
the littoral region. 

The smaller zoophytes, especially encrusting species and such as attach 
themselves to the leaves of Zostera, are frequent. Caryophyllia cyuthus 
begins to appear here, ranging however through all the succeeding zones. 

Testaceous Mollusca inhabiting the Second Region. 



Lamellibranchiata. 



Solen tenuis.* 

antiquatus. 
Solecurtus strigillatus. 
Ligula boysii.* 
Solenomya mediterranea.* 
Montacuta sp. 
Byssomya guerinii. 
Corbula nucleus.* 
Pandora obtusa. 

rostrata. 
Thracia phaseolina. 
Psammobia vespertina. 
Donax venusta. 
Cytherea chione. 

lunata. 

apicalis. 
Venus gallina.* 

verrucosa.* 

aurea.* 

geographica.* 
Tellina donacina.* 

serrata. 

balaustina. 

distorta.* 
Lucina flexuosa. 

pecten. 

lactea.* 



Lucina rotundata. 

spinifera. 

transversa. 
Cardium papillosum.* 

rusticum. 

exiguum. 
Cardita sulcata. 

trapezia. 
Area barbata. 

lactea.* 
Pectunculus glycimeris.' 
Nucula eraarginata.* 

nuclea. 
Modiola barbata.* 

tulipa.* 

discrepans.* 

marmorata.* 
Pinna squamosa. 
Lima squamosa. 

tenera. 
Pecten polymorphus.* 

hyalinus.* 

varius. 

sulcatus. 
Spondylus gadaeropus. 
Ostrea plicatula.* 
Chama gryphoidea. 



Palliobranchiata. 
0. 



Gasteropoda. 



Chiton rissoi.* 
polii.* 



Calyptreea sinense.* 
Crepidula unguiformis.* 



ON iEGEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



159 



Emarginula huzardli. 
Bulla hydatis.* 

cornea. 

ovulata. 

striatula. 

truncatula.* 

turgidula. 
Natica valenciensii.* 

pulchella. 

olla.* 
Eulima polita.* 

subulata. 
Parthenia elegantissima. 
Odostomia conoidea. 
Rissoa desmarestii.* 

ventricosa.* 

oblonga.* 

violacea.* 

radiata.* 

cimicoides.* 

montagui.* 

buccinoides.* 

pulchella.* 

acuta. 
Scalaria communis. 
Turritella triplicata. 

terebra.* 
Nerita viridis.* 
Dentalium 9-costatum.* 

multistriatum.* 

entalis.* 

fissura.* 
Trochus canaliculatus.* 

racketti.* 

spratti.* 

fanulum.* 



Trochus adansoni.* 

conulus.* 

crenulatus.* 

gravesi.* 

exiguus.* 
Turbo rugosus.* 
Phasianella pulla.* 

intermedia.* 

vieuxii.* 
Cerithium lima.* 

angustissimum. 
Triforis adversum.* 
Pleurotoma formicaria.* 

reticulata spinosa.* 

attenuata.* 

linearis.* 
Fusus syracusanus.* 

lavatus.* 

lignarius. 
Murex brandaris.* 

trunculus.* 

edvvardsii.* 

fistulosus.* 
Ranella gigantea.* 
Nassa reticulata.* 

variabile.* 

musiva. 

granulata.* 

macula.* 

mutabile.* 
Columbella rustica.* 

linnaei.* 
Mitra obsoleta.* 
Marginella clandestina.* 
Ringuicula buccinea.* 
Conus mediterraneus.* 



Third Region. 

In this region, which extends from ten to twenty fathoms, the sea-bottom 
is very generally gravelly in places, great tracts of sand also being common. 
The Caulerpa and Zostera are still found, but cease towards its lower part. 
It may be regarded as a zone of transition presenting but few peculiarities. 
A very small and beautiful species of Asterina abounds on the fronds of 
Zostera here, and the large Holotlmrice. are still abundant. Aplysice and the 
blue Goniodoris are the characteristic MoUusca. Lucina lactea, Cardium 
papillosum, Tellina donacina, and Cerithium lima are the Testacea most 
generally distributed. Tlie species most prolific are Cerithium lima, Cardium 
papillosum, Ligula hoysii, Nucula margaritacea and emarginata, Lucina lactea 
and hiatelloides, so that bivalves would appear to prevail. 

Testacea of Region III. 
Lamellibranchiata. 
Solen tenuis. ? \ Solen antiquatus.* 



160 



REPORT — 1843. 



Ligula boysii.* 
Corbula nucleus.* 
Neaera cuspidata.* 
Pandora obtusa. 
Thracia phaseolina. 
Psammobia vesperti na.? 
Tellina pulchella.* 

donacina.* 

serrata. ? 

balaustina. 
Lucina flexuosa.* 

pecten. 

commutata. 

transversa.* 

lactea.* 

spinifera.* 
Cytherea chione. 

lunata, 

apicalis. 
Venus verrucosa. 

geographica. 

virginea.* 
Cardium echinatuni. 

papillosum.* 

exiguum.* 



Calyptraea sinense. 
Fissurella grseca. 
Bulla convoluta. 
ovulata. 
striatula. 
truncatula. 
truncata. 
akera. 
Natica millepunctata. 
pulchella. 
guilleminii. 
valenciensii. 
Eulima polita. 
subulata. 
Parthenia elegantissima. 
Odostomia conoidea. ? 
Rissoa ventricosa.* 
violacea.* 
cimicoides.* 
montagui. 
acuta. ? 
conifera. ? 
pulchella. 
Scalaria communis. 
Turritella triplicata, 

terebra*. 
Nerita viridis. 



Cardium punctatum.* 
Cardita sulcata. 

trapezia.* 
Area lactea. 
Pectunculus glycimeris. 
Nucula margaritacea. 

emarginata. 
Chama gryphoides. 
Modiola barbata. 

tulipa. 

discrepans.* 

marmorata.* 
Pinna squamosa. 
Lima squamosa. ? 

tenera. ? 

subauriculata. 
Pecten jacobseus. 

polymorphus. 

hyalinus. 

opercularis. 

varius. 

pusio. 
Spondylus gadaeropus. 
Ostrea plicatula. 



Gasteropoda. 

Troohus coutourii. 

canaliculatus.* 

racketti.* 

villicus.* 

spratti.* 

fanulum. 

adansoni. 

ziziphinus.* 

conulus.* 

crenulatus.* 

gravesi.* 

exiguus. 
Turbo rugosus. 
Phasianella pulla. 

vieuxii.* 
Cerithium vulgatum.* 

lima.* 

angustum.* 
Triforis adversum.* 
Pleurotoma formicaria. 

bertrandi. 

reticulata spinosa.* 

gracilis. 

attenuata. 

aegeensis.* 

linearis.? 



Fusus lignarius. 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



161 



Fusus syracusanus. 

lavatus.* 
Murex brandaris.* 

trunculus. ? 

fistulosus. ? 
Apoi'rhais pes-pelecani.* 
Dolium galea. ? 
Nassa prismatica. 

variabile.* 

granulata. ? 



Nassa cornicula? 
Columbella rustica.* 

linnaei.* 
Mitra savignii.* 

obsoleta. 
Marginella clandestina. 
Erato Isevis. 
Conus mediterraneus.? 
Dentalium 9-costatum.* 

multistriatum. 



Fourth Region. 

It extends through fifteen fathoms of length between twenty and thirty-five 
fathoms. The sea-bottom is very various, mud and gravel prevailing, sandy 
tracts being very rare. Fuci are abundant, the characteristic species being 
Dictyomenia volubilis, Sargassum salicifolium, Codium bursa and Jlabelli- 
forme, and Ci/stoceira. The rare and curious Hydrodiclyon umhilicatum was 
procured in this region on the coast of Asia Minor. Corallines are more 
frequent here than in the other zones. Pontes dcudalea occurs, but is verj'' 
local. Retepora cellidosa is very abundant ; several species of Tubvlipora 
occur ; Myriapora truncata and C'ellaria ceramioides are characteristic spe- 
cies of this zone. Sponges abound, and some of the finest of those used in 
commerce grow here. Nullipore is abundant. EcJdnidce are frequent, and 
Comalida. Crustacea are common, also Annelides. 

Among Testacea the most generally distributed are Nucula margaritacea 
and emarginata, and Dentalium Q-costatum : those most prolific are Nucida 
margaritacea. Area lactea, Cardiiim papillosum, Corbula nucleus, and Ligula 
boysii ; Dentalium 9-cosiatum and Cerkhium lacteum. Mollusca tunicata are 
common in this region. 



Testacea of Region IV. 



Lam£llibranchiata. 



Gastrochsena cuneiformis. 
Solen tenuis.? 

antiquatus.* 
Ligula boysii.* 

prismatica. 
Kellia suborbicularis.* 
Corbula nucleus.* 
Nesera costellata.* 

cuspidata.* 
Pandora obtusa.* 
Lyonsia striata.* 
Thracia phaseolina. 
Saxicava arctica.* 
Psammobia discors. 

ferroensis. 
Tellina donacina. 

serrata. 

balaustina. 
Lucina commutata. 

digitalis. 
1843. 



Lucina transversa. 

lactea.? 

spinifera. 
Astarte incrassata. 
Cytherea apicalis.* 

venetiana. 
Venus verrucosa. 

ovata.* 

fasciata. 
Cardium echinatum. 

erinaceum. 

Isevigatum. 

papillosum.* 

exiguum.* 
Cardita sulcata.* 

squamosa. 

trapezia. 
Area lactea.* 

tetragona.* 

nose. ? 



162 



REPORT — 1843. 



Pectunculus glycimeris. 
pilosus. 

lineatus. 
Nucula margaritacea.* 

emarginata.* 
Chama gvyphoides. 
Modiola barbata.* 

tulipa.* 

discrepans.* 

marmorata.* 
Pinna squamosa. 
Avicula tarentina. 
Lima squamosa.* 

teneva. 



Lima fragilis.* 

subauriculata. 
Pecten jacobaeus.* 

polymorplius.* 

hyalinus.* 

testae.* 

opercularis.* 

varius.* 

pusio.* 

similis. 
Ostrea plicatula. 
Anomia epliippium.* 

polymorpha.* 



PalUobranch lata. 

, , , t„ Terebraiula cuneata." 

Terebratula detruncata. a^'*^" 



Gasteropoda. 



Chiton laevis.* 

freelandi.* 
Calyptraea sinehse. 
Emarginula elongata. 
Fissurella grseca.* 
BuUaea aperta.* 
Bulla hydatis. 
cornea.* 
ovulata.* 
striatula. 
truncatula. 
truncata. 
convoluta. 
Natica millepunctata. 
valenciensii. 
pulchella. 
Eulima polita. 
nitida. 
subulata.* 
Parthenia acicula. 
elegantissinia.* 
scalaris. 
varicosa. 
Odostomia conoidea.* 
Rissoa ventricosa.* 
cimicoides. 
montagui. 
reticulata, 
acuta. ? 
pulchella.* 
striata, 
elongata. (?) 
Turritella triplicata.* 
terebra. 



Vermetus corneus. 
Nerita viridis. ? 
Trochus coutourii. 
magus.* 
spratti.* 
fanulum. 
adansoni. 
zlziphinus.* 
conulus.* 
gravesi. 
exiguus.* 
Turbo sanguineus.* 

rugosus.* 
Phasianella puUa. 

vieuxii.* 
Cerithium vulgatum.* 
lima.* 
lacteum. 
angustissimum. 
Triforis adversum.* 
Pleurotoma formicaria.* 
reticulata var. spinosa.= 
maravignae.* 
vauquelini.* 
gracilis. 
attenuata.* 
philberti.* 
turgida.* 
linearis. 
Fusus lignarius. ? 
syracusanus.* 
lavatus. 
Murex brandaris.* 
trunculus. ? 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



16^ 



Murex cristatus. 

brevis.* 

fistulosus. 
Aporrhais pes-pelecaui. 
Nassa variabile. 

varicosa. 

granulata. 

prismatica. 
Columbella rustica.* 

linnaei. 

gervillii. 
Mitra ebenus.* 



Mitra savignii.* 

obsoleta.* 

granum.* 
Marginella clandestina.* 

secalina.* 

miliacea. 
Erato Isevis. 
Tornatella fasciata. 
Cypraea europaea. 
Conus mediterraneus.? 
Dentalium 9-costatum.* 

rubescens.* 



Fifth Region. 



From thirty-five to fifty -five fathoms, an extent of five fathoms more than 
the last, presents a well-marked fauna, and constitutes a fifth region. Fuci 
are much scarcer than in the last, but among its vegetable products are Ryti- 
phhxa tinctoria, Chrysimenia uvaria, and Dictyomenia volubilis ; the last, 
which gives a marked character to the preceding zone, being rare in this. 
Echinodei'mata are frequent here. Zoophytes not abundant. Myriapora trun- 
cata is frequent. The bottom is very generally nullipore and shelly. Muddy 
bottoms are scarce. The Testacea most generally distributed are Nucula 
margaritacea, Pecten opercularis, and Turritella tricostata. Those most 
abounding in individuals are Nucula emarginata and striata, Cardium pa- 
pillosum, Cardita aculeata, and Dentalium 9-costatum. 



Testacea of Region V. 



Lamellibranchiata. 



\ 



Solen tenuis.* 

antiquatus.* 
Ligula boysii. 

prismatica. 
Kellia suborbicularis.' 
Corbula nucleus.* 

anatinoides. 
Nesera cuspidata* 

costellata.* 
Pandora obtusa. 
Lyonsia striata. ? 
Saxicava arctica. * 
Psammobia discors. 

ferroensis. 
Tellina donacina. 

serrata. 

balaustina.* 
Lucina commutata. 

spinifera.* 
Astarte incrassata. 
Cytherea venetiana. 

apicalis.* 
Venus verrucosa. 

ovata. 

fasciata. 



Cardium echinatum. 

Isevigatum. 

papillosum. 
Cardita squamosa. 

trapezia. 
Area lactea.* 

imbricata. 

antiquata. 

tetragona.* 
Pectunculus pilosus. 
Nucula polii. 

margaritacea.* 

emarginata.* 

striata.* 
Chama gryphoides. ? 
Modiola barbata.* 

tulipa.* 

discrepans. 

marmorata. 
Lima squamosa. 

fragilis.* 

subauriculata. 

cuneata. 
Pecten jacobaeus. 

polymorph us.* 



M 2 



164 



REPORT — 1843. 



Pecten hyalinus.' 
testae.* 
opercularis. 
varius.* 



Pecten pusio.* 
laevis.* 
fenestratus. 

Anomia ephippium. 



Palliobranchiata. 



Terebratula detruncata. * 
cuneata. ? 



Terebratula seminula. 
Crania ringens.* 



Gasteropoda. 



Chiton laevis* 

freelandi.* 
Lottia gussonii. 
Calyptrsea sinense.* 
Emarginula capuliforrais.* 

elongata. 
Fissurella grseca.* 
Volva acuminata. 
BullEea aperta. ? 
Bulla cornea.* 

utriculus. 

lignaria. 

ovulata. 

truncatula.* 

truncata. 
Natica millepunctata. ? 

valenciensii. ? 

pulchella.* 
Eulima distorta. 

nitida.* 
Parthenia acicula.* 

elegantissima. ? 

pallida. 
Odostomia conoidea. 
Rissoa ventricosa.* 

cimicoides. 

reticulata. 
Scalaria planicosla. 
Turritella triplicata.* 

terebra. ? 
Vermetus corneus.* 
Siliquaria anguina. 
Trochus coutourii. 

magus=* 

fanulum. 

ziziphinus.* 

gravesi. 

exiguus. 

millegranus.* 
Turbo sanguineus.* 



Turbo rugosus.* 
Phasianella puUa. ? 
Cerithium vulgatum.* 

lima.* 

angustum.* 
Triforis adversum.* 
Pleurotoma formicaria.* 

purpurea. 

reticulata. 

maravignte.* 

vauquelini. 

gracilis.* 

attenuata. 

teres. 

philberti. 
Fusus lavatus. 

muricatus. 

crispus. 

fasciolaria. 
Murex brandaris. 

muricatus. 

distinctus. 

fistulosus. 
Aporrhais pes-pelecani.* 
Cassidaria tyrrhena. 
Nassa intermedia. 
Columbella rustica. 

linnsei. 
Mitra ebenus.* 

obsoleta. 

phillippiana. 

granum. 
Tornatella fasciata. 
Marginalia clandestina.* 

secalina. 
Erato laevis.* 
Cypraea europaea.* 
Conus medlterraneus.? 
Dentalium 9-costatum. 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



165 



Sixth Region. 

It extends through a range of twenty-four fathoms, between fifty-five and 
seventy-nine fathoms. Nullipore is the prevailing ground. Fuci have become 
extremely rare. Cidaris histrix is the characteristic Echinoderm. Several 
starfishes are not uncommon. Venus ovata, Cerithium lima, and Pleurotoma 
maravignce are the most generally diflPused species. Turho sanguineus, JEmar- 
ginula elongata, Nucula striata, Venus ovata, Pecten similis, and the various 
species of Brachiopoda those most prolific in individuals. 

It will be observed, that although Fuci have become extremely scarce, and 
in the next zone altogether disappear, there are still a considerable number 
of Phytophagous Testacea. These are mostly found on " coral " ground, that 
is, on a clean bottom abounding in nullipore. Now that the observations of 
M. Decaisne, M. Kutzing and others have so clearly proved the vegetable 
nature of that singular production, so long regarded as a zoophyte, the source 
of the food of the Holostomatous Testacea in these deep I'egions is no longer 
problematical. 

Testacea of Region VI. 



Lamellibranchiata. 



Ligula profundissima. 
Kellia suborbicularis.* 
Corbula nucleus.* 

anatinoides. 
Neaera cuspidata. 

costellata.* 

abbreviata. 
Pandora obtusa.* 
Lyonsia striata.* 
Thracia pubescens. 
Saxicava arctica.* 
Kellia abyssicola.* 
Lucina commutata. 

bipartita.* 
Astarte incrassata. 

pusilla. 
Cytherea apicalis. 
Venus ovata.* 

fasciata. 
Cardium papillosum. 

echinatum. 

minimum. 
Cardita squamosa.* 
trapezia. 



Terebratula truncata.* 
detruncata.* 
cuneata.* 



Chiton laevis. 
Lottia gussonii. 



Area lactea.* 

scabra. 

imbricata. 

tetragona.* 
Pectunculus pilosus.* 
Nucula polii. 

margaritacea. 

striata.* 
Modiola barbata. 
Lima squamosa. 

elongata.* 

crassa. 
Pecten jacobaeus. 

dumasii. 

polymorphus. 

hyalinus. 

testse. 

varius.* 

pusio. 

pes felis. 

similis.* 

fenestratus. 

concentricus. 
Anomia polymorpha. 



Palliobranchiata. 



Terebratula serainula.* 
Crania ringens. 



Gasteropoda. 

I Lottia unicolor.* 
j Calyptraea sinense. 



166 



REPORT — 1843. 



Emarginula eloiigata. 

capuliformis. 
Fissui'ella grseca. 
BuUaea aperta. ? 
Bulla cornea.* 

utriculus. ? 
Coriocella perspicua. 
Natica millepunctata. 

valenciensii. 

pulchella. 
Eulinia distorta. 

subulata. 

unifasciata. 
Parthenia elegantissima. ? 
Rissoa ventricosa. ? 

ciuiicoides. 

reticulata.* 

ovatella. 
Turritella 3-plicata.* 

terebra.* 



Siliquaria anguina. 
Scissurella plicata. 
Solarium straniineum. 
Trochus coutourii. 

fanulum. 

exiguus.* 

inillegranus.* 
Turbo sanguineus. 

rugosus.* 
Phasianella pulla. 
Cerithium lima.* 

angustum. 
Triforis adversum. 

perversum.* 
Pleurotoma Ibrmicaria.* 

crispata.* 

reticulata var.spiuosa. 

maravignse.* 

vauquelini. 



Seventh Region. 

The depths between 80 and 105 fathoms (an extent of 25), yield a cha- 
racteristic fauna of their own. The sea-bottom is usually nullipore, more 
rarely sand or mud. Herbaceous Fuci have disappeared. Echinodermata are 
here not uncommon ; Zoophyta and Amorphozoa scarce. Among the former 
are species of Hornera, Lepralia and Cellepora ; among the latter a small 
round species of Grantia is frequent. Echinus monilis, Cidaris histrix and 
Echinocyamus, with some of the Ophiuridce, are frequent alive : no Asteriadce 
occur. Mollusca tunicata have ceased ; as also Nudibranchaa. Crustacea 
are not unfrequent, as well as testaceous annelides, among which the glassy 
Serpula is very characteristic of this region. 

The Testacea most generally distributed are Lima elongata, Cardita acu- 
leata, Rissoa reticulata, and Fusus muricatus. 

Tliose most prolific are Rissoa reticulata, Turbo sanguineus, Vetius ovata, 
Nucula striata, Pecten similis, and the various species of Brachiopoda, which 
tribe abounds in this region. 

Testacea of Region VII. 



Lamellibranchiata. 



Ligula profundissima. 
Corbula nucleus. 
Poromya anatinoides. 
Nesera cuspidata. 

costellata.* 

abbreviata. 
Pandora obtusa. 
Saxicava arctica.* 
Lucina commutata. 

bipartita. 
Astarte incrassata. 

pusilla. 
Cytherea apicalis. 



Venus ovata.* 
Cardium minimum.^ 
Cardita squamosa.* 
Area lactea.* 

scabra. 

imbricata. 

tetragona. 
Nucula polii. 

margaritacea. 

striata.* 
Modiola barbata.* 
Lima elongata. 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



167 



Pecteu dumasii. 
similis. ? 
fenestratus. ? 
concentricus. ? 



Terebratula truncata.* 
detruncata.* 
lunifera.* 
serainula.* 



Chiton laevis.* 
Lottia unicolor.* 
Pileopsis ungaricus. 
Emarginula cancellata. 

elongata. 

capuliformis. 
Fissurella graeca. 
Bullaea aperta. ? 
Bulla utriculus. 
Natica pulcliella. 
Eulima distorta. 

subulata. ? 
Parthenia elegantissima. 
Rissoa ventricosa.* 

reticulata.* 

ovatella. 
Turritella triplicata. 
Scissurella plicata ? 
Trochus tinei. 

exiguus.* 

millegranus.* 



Spoudylus gussonii.* 
Ostrea cochlear. 
Anemia polymorpha. 



Palliobranchiata. 



Terebratula vitrea. 

appressa.* 
Crania ringens.* 



Gasteropoda. 



Turbo sanguineus. 

rugosus.* 
Phasianella puUa.* 
Ceritbium lima.* 
Triforis adversum. 
Pleurotoma formicaria. ? 

crispata.* 

reticulata, 

maraviguae.* 

gracilis.* 
Fusus muricatus.* 
Murex cristatus.* 
Nassa intermedia. 
Mitra ebenus.* 

phillippiana. 
Tornatella fasciata.* 

pusilla. 

globulosa. 
jNIarginella clandestina. 
Dentalium 9-costatum. 

5-angulare. 



Eighth Region. 

The eighth region includes all the space explored below 105 fathoms, 
extending from that depth to 1380 feet beneath the surface of the sea, having 
a range of 125 fathoms, being more than twice the extent of all the other 
regions put together. Throughout this great, and I may say hitherto un- 
known province, for the notices we have had of it have been but few and 
fragmentary, we find an uniform and well-characterized fauna, distinguished 
from those of all the preceding regions by the presence of species peculiar to 
itself. Within itself the number of species and of individuals dnumishes as 
we descend, pointing to a zero in the distribution of animal life as yet unvi- 
sited. It can only be subdivided according to the disappearance of species 
which do not seem to be replaced by others. , . , c 

Sixty-five species of Testacea were taken in the eighth region, eleven ot 
which were procured alive. Of the total number 22 were Univalves, 3 of 
which were found living ; 30 Lamellibranchiate Bivalves, 8 living ; 3 Pallio- 
branchiate Bivalves, all dead, and possibly derived from the preceding region ; 
and 10 Pteropoda and Nucleobranchiata, also dead. Of these, 1 7 Univalves, 
23 Lamellibranchiata, and 3 Palliobranchiata occurred above 140 and under 
180 fathoms; 4 Univalves, 11 Lamellibranchiata, and 1 Palliobranchiate Bi- 



168 REPORT— 1843. 

valve above 180 and under 200; and 1 Univalve, 4 Lamellibranchiate, and 1 
Palliobranohiate Bivalve above 200 fathoms. 

The Mollusca found alive at the greatest depths were Area imhricata in 
230 fathoms ; accompanied by Dentalium qidnquangulare. At 180 fathoms 
living examples of Nuciila (Bgeensis, Ligula profandissima, Necera attenuata 
and costellata, Area laetea, and KeUia abyssicola occurred. Trochus mille- 
granus was taken alive in 110 fathoms, along with the Dentalium pusillum of 
author.?, which proved to be an annelide of the genus Ditriqm, and of which 
three species live in this region. 

Pecten hoskynsii, Lima crassa, Nucula cegeeiisis, Sealaria hellenica, Par- 
thenia fasciata and ventricosa, all new species, have been found in no other 
region. Ligula jji'ofimdissima, Pecten similis, Area imhricata, Dentalium 
quadrangidare and Rissoa reticidata, are more prolific of individuals in 
this region than in any other. Ligula profimdissima and Dentalium qui7i- 
quangulare are the most generally diffused species below 105 fathoms ; the 
former being present in eleven localities, the latter in seven. The localities 
examined were eleven in number and far apart from each other, extending 
from Cerigo to the coast of Lycia. 

The Bullcca angustata, Rissoa acuta, Cerithium lima and Teredo are pro- 
bably only stragglers in this region. 

Several Opliiurida are true inhabitants of the eighth region ; as Ophiura 
abyssicola, Amphiurajlorifera, Amphiura chiagi and Pectinura vestiia, all well 
adapted by their organisation to live in the white mud of great depths. The 
only other Echinoderm was Echinocyamus at 200 fathoms, which however 
was not taken alive. The Zoophytes are Caryophyllia cyathus, Alecto and 
an Idmonea, which occurs in very deep water. Small sponges of three 
genera were taken alive as deep as 180 fathoms. The deepest living Crus- 
tacea occurred at 140 fathoms, and the carapaces of small species are fre- 
quent. Besides the Ditrupa, annelides of the genus Serpula. were taken 
in the greatest depths explored. Foraminifera are extremely abundant 
through a great part of the mud of this region, and for the most part appear 
to be species very distinct from those in the higher zones. Representatives 
of the genera Nodosaria, Textidaria, Rotalia, Operculina, Cristellaria, Bi- 
loculina, Quinqueloculina and Globigerina are among the number. 

Testacea of Region VIII. 
Iximellibranchiata . 



Teredo. 

Ligula profundissima. 
Corbula anatinoides. 
Neaera cuspidata.* 

costellata.* 

attenuata. 
Pandora obtusa. 
Thracia pholadomyoides. 
Kellia abyssicola.* 

oblonga. 
AsLarte pusilla. 
Venus ovata. 
Lucina ferruginosa. 
Cardium minimum. 
Cardita squamosa. 



Area laetea. 

scabra. 

imbricata. 

tetragona. 
Nucula polii. 

striata.* 

aegeensis.* 
Lima elongata. 

crassa. 
Pecten dumasii. 

similis. 

fenestratus. 

hoskynsi. 
Ostrea cochlea. ? 
Anomia polyniorpha. 



ON ^GKAN INVERTEBRATA. 



169 



Terebratula detruncata. 
vitrea. 

Lottia unicolor. 
Bulleea aperta. 

angustata. ? 

alata. 
Bulla utriculus. 

cretica. 
Eulinia subulata. 
Parthenia ventricosa. 

turris. 

fasciata. 
Rissoa reticulata. 

ovatella. 



Palliobranchiata . 

I Crania ringens. 

Gasteropoda. 

Rissoa acuta. ? 
Scalaria hellenica. 
Scissurella plicata. 
Trochus millegranus. 
Cerithium lima. ? 
Pleurotoma abyssicola. 
Fusus echinatus. 
Nassa intermedia, var. 
Marginalia clandestina. 
Dentalium quinquangulare. 
9-costatum ? 



The following Diagram exhibits the comparative characters and relations 
of the several regions : — 

Diagram or Regions of Depth in the JSgean Sea. 



Sea-Bottom = deposits forming. 


Region. 


Depth in 
fathoms. 


Characteristic Animals and Plants. 


Extent — 12 feet. 

Ground various. Usually rocky or 

sandy (conglomerates forming). 


I. 


2 


Littorina coevulescens, 
Fasciolaria tarentina. 
Cardium edule. 

Plant: — Padina pavonia. 


Extent— 48 feet. 
Muddy. Sandy. Rocky. 


II. 


10 


Cerithium vulgatum. 
Lucina lactea. 
Holothurise. 

Plants : — Caulerpa and Zostera. 


Extent — 60 feet. 

Ground mostly muddy or sandy. 

Mud bluish. 


III. 


20 


Aplysiae. 

Cardium papillosum. 


Extent— 90 feet. 

Ground mostly gravelly and weedy. 
Muddy in estuaries. 


IV. 


35 


Ascidiae. 

Nucula emarginata. 

Cellaria ceramioides. 

Plants : — Dictyomenia volubilis. 
Codium bursa. 


Extent— 120 feet. 
Ground nulliporous and shelly. 


V. 


Cardita aculeata. 
Nucula striata. 
Pecten opercularis. 

Myriapora truncata. 

55 Plant :— Rityphloea tinctoria. 


Extent — 144 feet. 

Ground mostly nulliporous. Rarely 
gravelly. 


VI. 


79 


Venus ovata. 
Turbo sanguineus. 
Pleurotoma maravign£e. 

Cidaris histrix. 

Plant:— NuUipora. 



170 



REPORT — 1843. 



Diagram of Regions of Depth in the ^gean Sea (continued). 



Sea. Bottom = deposits forming. 


_ . 1 Depth in 
Region. 1 fathoms. 


Characteristic Animals and Plants. 


Extent — 156 feet. 

Ground mostly nulliporous. Rarely 
yellow mud. 


VII. 


105 


Brachiopoda. 
Rissoa reticulata. 
Pecten similis. 

Echinus monilis. 

Plant : — NuUipora. 


Extent— 750 feet. 

Uniform bottom of yellow mud, 

abounding for the most part in 

remains of Pteropoda and Fora- 

minifera. 


VIII. 


230 


Dentalium 5-angulare. 
Kellia abyssicola. 
Ligula profundissima. 
Pecten hoskynsi. 

Ophiura abyssicola. 

Idmonea. 

Alecto. Plants : — 0. 


Zero of Anima 


1 Life probably abou 


t 300 fathoms. 


Mud 


without organic remains. 



True Scale of the above Diagraj 




To all the eight regions only two species of Mollusca are common, viz. 
Ai'ca lacfea and Cerithium lima : the former a true native from first to last, 
the latter probably only a straggler in the lowest. Three species, namely, 
Nucula margaritacea, Marginella clandestina and Dentalmm 9-cosfafum, are 
common to seven regions ; the second possibly owing its presence in the lower 
ones to its having dropped off floating sea-weeds. Nine species are common 
to six regions. 

Corbula nucleus. 
Necera cuspidata. 
Pandora obtusa. 



Venus apicalis. 



Turritella 3-plicata. 
Triforis adversum. 
Columbella linncei. 
Cardita trapezia. 

Modiola barbata. 



Seventeen .species are common to five regions. 



Necera costellata. 
Tellina pulchella. 
Venus ovata. 
Cardita squamosa. 
Area tetragotia. 
Pecten polymorphus. 



Pecten hyalinus. 
varius. 
Crania ringens. 
Natica pulchella. 
Rissoa ventricosa. 
cimicoides. 



i 



ON iEGEAN INVERTEBBATA. 



171 



Eissoa reticulata. \ Columbella rustica. 

Trochus exiguns. \ Conus mcditerraneus. 

Terebratula detruncata. 

When we inquire into the history of the species having such extensive 
ranges in depth, we find that more than one-half of them are such as have 
a wide geographic range, extending in almost every case to the British seas, 
and in some of those exhibiting the greatest range in depth, still further north ; 
many of them also ranging in the Atlantic far south of the gut of Gibraltar. 
If, again, we inquire into the species of MoUusca which are common to four 
out of the eight iEgean regions in depth, we find that there are 38 such, 21 
of which are either British or Biscayan, and 2 are doubtfully British, whilst 
of the remaining 15, 6 are distinctly represented by corresponding spooics in 
the north. Thus among the Testacea having the widest range in depth one 
third are Celtic or northern forms, whilst out of the remainder of iEgean Tes- 
tacea, those ranging through less than four regions, only a little above a fifth 
are common to the British seas. One-half of the Celtic forms in the iEgean 
which are not common to four or more zones in depth, are found among the 
cosmopolitan Testacea, inhabiting the uppermost part of the littoral zone. 
From these facts we may fairly draw a general inference, that the extent of the 
range of a species in depth is correspondent loith its geographical distribution. 

The proportion of Celtic forms in the faunje of the zones varies in the 
several great families of Testacea. In the accompanying tables I have exhibited 
this variation conchologically,in order that they may be more useful to the geo- 
logist than if the unpreservable species were included. It will be seen that 
there is a great disproportion in several of the regions between the number 
of Celtic forms of Univalves and of Bivalves, that whilst the Monomyaria 
and Dimyaria range as high as 35 and 30 per cent., the highest range of the 
Holostomatous univalve is only 13 and a fraction, and of the Siphonostoma- 
tous but 8, whilst the Aspiral species preserve a uniform per-centage of 6 in 
the three highest zones and of 3 in the three following. 

Conchological Table, No. I. 
Distribution of Shells in depth. 



Multivalves (molluscous). 

Patelliform univalves . . 

Tubular univalves (Den- 
talia) 

Holostomatous spiral uni- 
valves (with Bullae and 
Auricula) 

Siphonostomat. and con- 
volute spiral univalves. 

Testaceous Pteropoda and 
Nucleobranchia 

Brachiopoda 

Conchifera Lamellibran 
chiata 



jEgean 
total, 



7 
20 



115 

104. 

12 

8 

135 
408 



50 

40 

1 


28 

147 



II. 



40 

27 




53 

129 



III. 



40 

30 




52 

126 



IV. 



44 
41 



2 

68 
142 



V. 



35 
36 



4 

58 
141 



VI. 



VII. 



28 17 
30 ! 16 



48 



119 



3 

7 

34 

85 



VIII. 



15 

5 

12 
3 

28 

66 



172 



REPORT — 1843. 

Conchological Table, No. II. 
Distribution of Celtic forms in the several zones. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


Multivalves 


I 







1 


1 


1 


1 





Patellifonn univalves 





1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 





Tubular univalves 


1 


1 




















Holostomatous spiral uni- 


















valves 


12 


9 


13 


16 


14 


11 


8 


4 


Siphonostomatous spiral uni- 


valves 


4 


5 


7 


8 


9 


6 


5 


2 


Testaceous Pteropoda, and 


















Nucleobranchia 














U 





Brachiopoda 























ConchiferaLamellibrauchiata 


16 


'IB 


28 


S9 


33 


19 


11 


7 


S4 


41 


50 


66 


57 


39 


27 


13 




II 


11 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 




K> 


w 


1^ 


^^ 


I*" 


w 


SS 


52 






05 


ti 


w 


o 


Cn 


05 


o 




'O 


►a 


•n 


13 


V 


•13 


TJ 


-o 




n> 


fD 


(D 


fB 


n 


rti 








1 


►< 


>-« 


n 


1 


►< 




1 




o 


o 


O 


o 


«i 


rt 


O 


Q 






n 


tt) 


n> 


fD 


(T> 


m 


n 




□ 


a 


s 


s 

r 


a 


£3 


3 

r 


a 



The importance of these results must be obvious to the geologist. The 
inductions as to climate or distribution which he may draw from his exami- 
tion of the Testacea of a given stratum, will vary according to the depth in 
which those Testacea lived and the ground on which they lived ; for every 
zone of depth yields a different percentage ; and as the nature of the ground 
determines the tribe of Testacea which frequents it, and as every tribe yields 
a different per-centage, according to the variation of character of the sea-bot- 
tom, so will the conclusions of the geologist vary and become uncertain. The 
remedy is however obvious. By carefully observing the mineral character of 
the stratum in order to ascertain the nature of the former sea-bottom, by 
noticing the associations of species and the relative abundance of the in- 
dividuals of each in order to ascertain the depth, and by calculating the per- 
centage of northern or southern forms separately for each tribe, our conclu- 
sions will doubtless approximate very nearly to the truth. 

A comparison of the Testacea and other animals of the lowest zones with 
those of the higher exhibits a very great distinction in the hues of the species, 
those of the depths being for the most part white or colourless, whilst those 
of the higher regions, in a great number of instances, exhibit brilliant combi- 
nations of colour. The results of an inquiry into this subject are as follows : 

The majority of shells of the lowest zone are white or transparent : if tinted, 
rose is the hue ; a very few exhibit markings of any other colour. In the 
seventh region white species are also very abundant, though by no means 
forming a proportion so great as in the eighth. Brownish-red, the prevalent 
hue of the Brachiopoda, also gives a character of colour to the fauna of this 
zone : the Crustacea found in it are red. In the sixth zone the colours 
become brighter, reds and yellows prevailing, generally, however, uniformly 
colouring the shell. In the fifth region many species are banded or clouded 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 173 

With various combinations of colours, and the -"^^^^^ ^^ ;;;^'*;„^f fj^as's 
greatly diminished. In the fourth, purple hues are frequent anc ^^n* s^ 
of colour common. In the third and second green and blue tmts are met 
wittso".etlmes very vivid, but the gayest combinations of colour are seen m 
the littoral zone, as well as the most brilliant whites. 

The animak of Testacea and the Radiata of the higher zones are much moi-e 
brilliantly coloured than those of the lower, where they are usually white, what- 
eve t e hue of the shell may be. Thus the genus Trochus is an exainple 
oFagrou of forms mostly presenting the most brilliant hues both of shell 
and fnhnal • but whilst the animals of such species as inhabit the littoral zone 
a?e gXchequered with many vivid hues, those of the greater deph, though 
reif^lell'aie almost as brightly coloured as the coverings of their a^^lies 
n^a^Jei the surface, have theii' animals for the most part of an uniform yellow 
or reddi-;h hue, or else entirely white. , • j v*. 

Sie chief cause of this increase of intensity of colour as we ascend is doubt- 
less the increased amount of light above a certain depth. But the teed ng 
grounds of the animals would appear to exert ^ modifying influence and the 
feds and greens may be in many cases attributed to the abundance of nulh 
pore andTf Se Caulerpa prjlifera, a sea-weed of the most brilliant pea- 
g?eenrSe fronds of which the MoUusca of that colour, such as Nenta viridis, 
make their chosen residence. , , 

The eight regions in depth are the scene of incessant change. The death 
of the individuals of the several species inhabiting them, the continual acces- 
In deposition and sometimes washing away of sediment and coarser de- 
Sosit. the action of the secondary influences and the changes o elevation 
whth appeaV to be periodically tking place in the eastern Mediterranean, 
Tre eveSifying tLir character. As each region shallows or deepens its 
an ml nhabitintf must vary in specific associations, for the depression which 
may cause one species to dwindle away and die wi 1 cause another to multiply. 
S animals theLselves, too, by their over-mult.pl.cation appear o be the 
cause of their own specific destruction. As the influence of the nature ot 
sea-bottom determines in a great measure the species present on that bottom, 
?he multiplication of individ'uals dependent on the rapid reproduction of suc- 
ceS^We generations of Mollusca, 6cc. will of itself change the ground and 
rendir it unfit for the continuation of life in that locality until a new ayer of 
sedimentary matter, uncharged with living organic contents, deposited on the 
bed formed by the exuvi* of the exhausted spec es, forms a fresh soil for 
similar or other animals to thrive, attain their maximum, and from the same 
cause die off. This, 1 have reason to believe, is the case, from my observa- 
t?ons in the British as well as the Mediterranean seas. The geologist wdl 
see in it an explanation of the phenomenon of interstratification of lossihfe- 
rniis and uon-fossiliferovis beds. . , , . u- 

Every species has three maxima of development,-in depth, in geographu. 
spacrin time. In depth we find a species at first represented by tew mdi- 
Sairwhichbecomimore and more numerous "»tiUh7 reach a certain 
point, Lfter which they again gradually diminish, and at length altogethei 
dSpean So also in thi geo|raphic and geologic d.stribu ion of animals. 
SomeUmes the genus to which the species belongs ceases with its disappear- 
ance Ct not unfrequently a succession of similar species are kept up repre- 
seTative as it were of eac'h other. When there is sudi a representa Jon he 
minimum of one species usually commences before that «f ^^'l"«l^j\J *;/ 
representative has attained its correspondent mmimum. Forms of repre- 
seEve species are similar, often only to be distinguished by critical exami- 
KUion When a genus includes several groups of forms or subgenera, we 



174 



REPORT 1843. 



LiGULA 



NUCULA 



Cardium. 



Arca 



Trochus 



may have a double or treble series of representations, in which case they are 
very generally parallel. The following examples from the ^gean fauna 
will serve to illustrate the representation in depth. 

f Ligula boysii. Min. II. Max. III. Min. V. 

\ Ligula profundissima. Min. VI. Max. VIII. 

/ Nucula margaritacea. Min. II. Max. IV. Min. VI. 

\ Nucula polii. Min. V. Max. VIII. 

( Nucula emarginata. Min. II. Max. IV. Min. V. 

\ Nucula striata. Min. IV. Max. VI. Min. VIII. 

f Cardium papillosum. Min. II. Max. IV. Min. VI. 
\ Cardium minimum. Min. VI. Max. VIII. 

[■ Cardita calyculata. Max. I. 
Cardita. -j Cardita trapezia. Min. I. Max. IV. Min. VI. 

I Cardita squamosa. Min. IV. Max. VI. Min. VIII. 

ibarbata. Max. I. 
lactea. Min. I. Max. IV. Min. VIII. 
scabra. Min. IV. ? Max. VII. Min. VIII. 

imbricata. Min. V. Max. VIII. 

^ f crenulatus. Max. II. Min. III. 
I \ exiguus. Min. II. Max. V. Min. VII. 

' I / ziziphinus. Min. III. Max. IV. Min. V. 
*■ 1 millegranus. Min. V. Max. VII. Min. VIII. 

r variabilis. Min. I. ? Max. II. Min. IV. 
Nassa... "I prismatica. Max. IV.? Min. V. 

L intermedia. Min. V. Max. VII. Min. VIII. 

In cases equally evident, but whei-e the maxima and minima ai'e not so 
definite, the succession of representations may be exemplified thus : 

{subauriculata. III. IV. V. , 

cuneata. V, 

elongata. VI. VII. VIII. 

fgranulata. I. II. 
RissoA . ■{ cimicoides. II. III. IV, V. VI. 

L reticulata. V. VI. VII. VIII. 

Genera like species have a fixed maximum of development in depth, not 
being irregularly distributed in the several zones, but presenting their greatest 
assemblage of species in some one, whilst the numbers fall away more or less 
gradually in the preceding and following zones. In making calculations of 
the maxima of genera in depth, we must be careful to exclude all stragglers 
from the zones in which they may occur, otherwise our figures will be un- 
true. In the following table I have exhibited the specific distribution in 
depth of such of the JEgean genera as present the greatest number of species. 





total. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


Cardium 


9 


2 


3 


3 


6 


3 


3 


1 


1 


Pecten 


14 





4 


6 


8 


9 


11 


4 


5 


Bulla 


14 


5 


6 


8 


8 


6 


2 


1 


2 : 


Rissoa 


21 


14 


10 


7 


7 


3 


3 


3 


2 


Trochus 


28 


10 


10 


13 


10 


9 


t 


5 


1 


Pleurotoma. . . . 


24 


3 


5 


7 


10 


11 


9 


5 


1 


Nassa 


14 


3 


6 


4 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 17^ 

The consideration of the representation in space forms an important ele- 
ment in our comparisons between the faunas of distinct seas in the same or re- 
presentative parallels. The analogies between species in the northern and 
southern, the eastern and western hemispheres, are instances. But there is 
another application of it which I Avould make here. The preceding tables 
and list afford indications of a very interesting law of marine distribution, 
probable a priori, but hitherto unproved. The assemblage of cosmopolitan 
species at the water's edge, the abundance of peculiar climatal forms in the 
highest zone, Avhere Celtic species are scarce, the increase in the number of 
the latter as we descend, and when they again diminish the representation of 
northern forms in the lower regions, and the abundance of remains of Ptero- 
poda in the lowest, with the general aspect of the associations of species in 
all, are facts which fairly lead to an inference that parallels in latitude are 
equivalent to regions in depth, correspondent to that law in terrestrial distri- 
bution which holds that jJctrallels in latitude are representative of regions of 
elevation. In each case the analogy is maintained, not by identical species 
only, but mainly by representative forms ; and accordingly, although we find 
fewer uorthern species in the faunas of the lower zones, the number of forms 
representative of northern species is so great as to give them a much more 
boreal or subboreal character than is presented by those regions where iden- 
tical forms are more abundant. 

The consideration of the law of representation in time illustrates importantly 
the history of the very few species hitherto known only as distinct, which 
were discovered during the course of these researches in the jEgean. They are 
either such species as have had their maxima during the tertiary aera and are 
now fast approaching extinction, or such as had their infancy in the latest 
praeadamic formations and are now attaining their maxima. Of the first, 
Nassa substriata, hitherto regarded as a characteristic tertiary shell, is an in- 
stance. Abounding in all the latest tertiaries of the Archipelago and of 
Europe generally, apparently gregarious, half a dozen straggling individuals 
were all that occurred in above 150 dredgings throughout the ^gean, those 
too in a region below their usual habitation when the species was in its prime. 
Of the second, Neazra costulata is an example ; a few specimens of which 
only had been derived from tertiary deposits. 

The result of the examination of the Mgeaxi fauna does not hold out much 
prospect of the discovery of any more important extinct forms in a living 
state. The very few which I liave been so fortunate as to discover are not 
such as materially to disturb the calculations of the geologist, especially if he 
takes into consideration the relations of each species to others and to its own 
maximum and minimum in time and geographic distribution. To those who 
have looked forward to the finding of lost foi'ms in the greater depths of the 
sea, the catalogues I here present to the Association must be unsatisfactory ; 
for though two or three such have occurred, the majority of species in the 
great depths are either described existing forms, or altogether new. The zero 
of animal life in depth has been too nearly approached to hold out further 
hopes. The indefatigable researches of Captain Graves and his officers have 
supplied me, since my return, with a mass of new data from all depths and 
from many new localities ; but the result of their examination has been to 
confirm the calculations I had made from my own observations, and to lead 
to the pleasing hope that the researches embodied in this report will form a 
safe base-line for future investigations in the same department of philosophic 
zoology. 

Were the bottom of the iEgean sea, with its present inhabitants, to be ele- 
vated and converted into dry land, or even that sea be filled up by a long 



176 REPORT 1843. 

series of sedimentary depositions, the evidences of its fauna which would be 
presented niaj"^ be summed up as follows : — ■ 

1. Of the higher animals, the marine Vertebrata, the remains would be 
scanty and widely scattered. 

2. Of the highest tribe of INIollusea, the Cephalopoda, which though poor 
in species is rich in individuals, there would be but few traces, saving of the 
Sepia, the shell of which would be found in the sandy strata forming parts 
of the coast lines of the elevated sea-bed, 

3. Of the Nudibranchous MoUusca there would not, in all probability, be 
a trace to assure us of their having been ; and thus, though we have every 
reason to suppose from analogy that those beautiful and highly character- 
istic animals lived in the tertiary periods of the earth's history, if not in older 
ages, as well as now, there is not the slightest i-emain to tell of their former 
existence. 

4. Of the Pteropoda and Nucleobranchiata the shell-less tribes would be 
equally lost with the Nudibranchia, whilst of the shelled species we should 
find their remains in immense quantity characteristic of the soft chalky deposits 
derived from the lowest of our regions of depth. 

5. The Brachiopoda we should lind in deeply-buried beds of nullipore and 
gravel, and from their abundance we could at once predict the depth in which 
those beds were formed. 

6. The Lamellibranchiate MoUusca we should find most abundant in the 
soft clays and muds, in such deposits generally presenting both valves in their 
natural position, whilst such species as live on gravelly and open bottoms 
would be found mostly in the state of single valves. 

7. The testaceous Gasteropoda would be found in all formations, but more 
abundant in gravelly than in muddy deposits. In any inferences we might 
wish to draw regarding the northern or southern character of the fauna, or 
on the climate under which it existed, whether from univalves or bivalves, 
our conclusions would vary according to the depth in which the particular 
stratum examined was found, and on the class of MolUisca which prevailed 
in the locality explored. 

8. The Chitons would be found only in the state of single valves, and pro- 
bably but rarely, for such species as are abundant, living among disjointed 
masses of rock and rolled pebbles, which would afterwards go to form con- 
glomerate, would in all probability be destroyed, as would also be the case 
Avith the greater number of sublittoral MoUusca. 

9. The MoUusca tunicata would disappear altogether, though now form- 
ing an important link between the Mediterranean and more northern seas. 

10. Of the Arachnodermatous Radiata there would not be found a trace, 
unless the membranous skeleton of the Velella should under some peculiarly 
favourable circumstances be preserved in sand. 

11 . Of the Echinodermata certain species of Echinus would be found en- 
tire ; species of Cidaris, on account of the depth at which that animal lives, 
would be not unfrequent, in certain strata, as the region in which it is found 
bounds the great lowermost region of chalky mud ; the spines would be found 
occasionaUy in that deposit, far removed from the bodies to which they be- 
longed. Starfishes, saving such as live on mud or sand, would be only evi- 
denced by the occasional preservation of their ossicula. Of the extent of 
their distribution and number of species no correct idea could be formed. 
Of the numerous Holothuriadce and Siptinculidm it is to be feared there 
would be no traces. The single Crinoidal animal would be rarely preserved 
entire, but its ossicula and cup-like base would be found in the more shelly 
deposits. 



ON iEGEAN INVERTEBRATA. 17^^ 

12. Of the Zoophyta the corneous species might leave impressions resem- 
bling those of Graptolites in the shales formed from the dark muds on which 
they live. The Corals would be few, but perhaps plentiful in the shelly beds, 
mostly however fragmentary. The Cladocora ccespitosa, where present, would 
infallibly mark the bounds of the sea, and from the size of its masses, might 
be preserved in conglomerates where the Testacea would have perished. The 
Actinice would have disappeared altogether. 

13. Of the Sponges, traces might be found of the more siliceous species 
when buried under favourable circumstances. 

14. The Articulata, except the shelled Annelides, would be for the most 
part in a fragmentary state. 

15. Foraminifera would be found in all deposits, their minuteness being their 
protection ; but they would occur most abundantly in the highest and lowest 
beds, distinct species being characteristic of each. 

16. Tracts would be found almost entirely deficient in fossils ; some, such 
as the mud of the Gulf of Smyrna, containing but few and scattered, whilst si- 
milar muds in other localities would abound in organic contents. On sandy de- 
posits formed at any considerable depth they would be very scarce and often 
altogether absent. Fossiliferous strata would generally alternate with such 
as contain few or no imbedded organic remains. Whilst at present the littoral 
zone presents the greatest number and variety of animal and vegetable in- 
habitants, including those most characteristic of the Mediterranean sea, when 
upheaved and consolidated, their remains would probably be imperfect as 
compared with those of the natives of deeper regions, in consequence of the 
vicissitudes to which they are exposed and the rocky and conglomeratic strata 
in which the greater number would be imbedded. A great part of the con- 
glomerates and sandstones found would present no traces of animal life, which 
would be most abundant in the shales and calcareous consolidated muds. 

Supposing such an elevation of the sea-bottom of the i^gean to have taken 
place, a knowledge of the associations of species in the Regions of Depth 
would enable us to form a pretty accurate notion of the depth of water in 
which each bed was deposited. This I had an opportunity of exemplifying 
at Santorin. During a visit to that remarkable volcanic crater, in company 
with Lieut. Spratt, we carefully examined the little island of Neokaimeni, 
which came up in 1707, with a view to ascertain, if possible, the depth at 
which the eruption took place from any portion of the sea-bottom which 
might be included in its substance. Our search was successful, for imbedded 
in the pumice was a thin stratum of sea-bottom with its testaceous inhabitants 
in beautiful preservation. The following were the species : — 

Pectuncuhis pilosus, fine and double, the valves closed ; Area tetragotm, 
Cardita trapezia, Cytherea apicalis. 

Trochus ziziphinus, large and fine ; T.famdum, T. exiguus, and T. cou- 
fourii ; Turbo rugosus and sanguineus ; Phasianella pulla, Turritella S-cos- 
tata, Rissoa cimicoides, Cerithium lima, Pleurotoma gracilis. 

A Serpula, fragments of Cellepora and Millepora. 

Now there are only two of the I'egions in depth in which such an associa- 
tion of species would be met with, — the fourth and the fifth. Had it been the 
sixth, Trochus ziziphinus would have been replaced by its representative 
Trochus millegranus. In the third Area tetragona has not commenced its 
range, but in the fourth and fifth we found all the species named. The state of 
the Peetuneulus and the Trochus ziziphinus indicating their maxima, with 
the numbers taken of some of the others, refer us to the fourth region as the 
province in which the sea-bottom on which they lived was formed, i. e. in 

1843. N 



178 REPORT — 1843. 

a depth between twenty and thirty-five fathoms. The thinness of the layer 
of organic remains resting in pumice indicated that no long period had past 
since a former disturbance of the bottom. The state of tihe bivalves, their 
shells double and their valves closed, with the epidermis remaining, indicated 
that they had been suddenly destroyed, for when Pectuncidi and Arcm die 
naturally the valves either separate or remain gaping. They had, doubtless, 
been smothered in the shower of pumiceous ash which now covers them. 
The Bay of Santorin, close to the island in question, afforded us no sound- 
ings witli 150 fathoms line, so that either a high bank, on which lived the 
MoUusca enumerated, existed there in 1707, before tlie eruption, or the bot- 
tom was uniformly such as the association of animals on it certainly indicates, 
in which case a depression of more than 100 fathoms must have taken place 
in consequence of tlie convulsion. 

A similar application may be made of the knowledge of associations of 
species in depth to the elucidation of the deposits of the tertiary and even of 
older periods. The determination of the depth by such means is of great 
importance, for we have already seen how calculations as to climate and 
northern or southern character of fauna may mislead, unless we attain a 
knowledge of the region in which the strata were deposited. 

The bottomof the ^Egean is probably gradually shallowing. The streams 
which pour into it are thickly charged with sediment. The lowest depth 
explored was 230 fathoms. Now when the sedimentary deposit shall have 
filled up that region and brought it to the lowest range of the region next 
above, it will present a thickness of 725 feet. We have seen that this lowest 
region had everywhere a bottom of yellowish mud, and that similar animal 
forms prevailed throughout its extent. Now the strata Avhich shall have been 
formed by the filling up of that region will present throughout an uniform 
mineral character closely resembling that of chalk, and will be found charged 
with characteristic organic remains and abounding in Foraminifera. We shall 
in fact have an antitype of the chalk. But the ^Egean is far deeper through 
a great portion of its extent than 230 fathoms. The depth below this point 
Avill doubtless be filled with a similar mineral deposit, in places perhaps several 
thousand feet in thickness. But we have seen that the diminution in the 
number of species and of individuals as we descend in this lowest region 
pointed to a not far distant zero ; therefore the greater part of this immense 
under-deposit will in all probability be altogether void of organic remains. 
When indurated it would present the appearance of a great portion of the 
immense beds of scaglia or Apennine limestone which form such extensive 
districts in the South of Europe and West of Asia. This is supposing no 
change of level takes place during the deposition of the chalky mud. But 
any depression, rapid or gradual, will add to the extent of this great stratum, 
and by supposing such phaenomenon to occur, — and the probability of its 
occurrence is attested by numerous examples of such in the Archipelago, — 
we may have a cretaceous formation produced of uniform mineral character 
and of indefinite thickness. On the other hand, any elevation, by raising the 
upper portions of the lower zone into the region next above it, will cause a 
correspondent change in its fauna, and if a depression ensue, we shall have 
an alternation of faunas, indicating very different depths and presenting very 
distinct zoological combinations. 

Similar considerations respecting the other regions in depth must occur to 
the zoo-geologist who examines the facts embodied in the catalogues and 
tables of this report. I shall not swell its pages further by entering more at 
length into this attractive portion of my subject, which I leave to the conside- 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. l79 

ration of more experienced inquirers, with the exception of calling attention 
to one other point in zoo-geology, which interested me in the course of my 
researches. It is this. 

A very slight depression of land in the Gulf of Macri on the coast of 
Lycia, would now plunge below tiie sea muddy tracts, abounding in Melania, 
Melanopsis, Nerifina and other freshwater Mollusca. Their successors in the 
first formed shallo^v•s would heCerithium mammillatum and a few bivalves, the 
former mollusk in myriads. A drift of sand over this Cerithium mud would 
call into existence a new fauna, and every successive depression or elevation, 
however slight, would produce considerable zoological changes, for the sub- 
divisions of the uppermost region are of small extent in depth, and very 
liable to be affected by secondary influences. 

Now an inspection of the ancient monuments of the ruins of Telmessus 
proves that such elevations and depressions of small, but as regards animated 
nature, important extent, have occurred several times during the historical 
period ; and a section of the great plain of Macri would doubtless exhibit 
such alternations of freshwater and marine strata with their characteristic 
organic contents. 

In the preceding pages I have put forward several generalizations which to 
many may appear to be founded on inductions drawn from too limited a 
number of facts. The objection is, to a certain extent, true ; though my 
data have been more numerous than would appear from this report, since 
the general conclusions embodied in it have not been founded only upon the 
observations in the jEgean, but also on a long series of researches previously 
conducted in the British seas. In the present state of the subject specula- 
tion is unavoidable, and indeed necessary for its advancement. If it be as 
important as the author believes, further researches are imperatively called 
for ; and since this branch of inquiry, as at present conducted, may be said 
to have originated entirely with the British Association, he hopes that 
through encouragement afforded by that body, other and abler observers 
may be induced to enter the field, one in which the labourers require support, 
involving as it does time, expense and personal risk. Should the officers of 
the Navy and the members of Yacht Clubs take an interest in the sub- 
ject, much might be done through their aid. To the surveying service the 
author from experience looks forward confidently for most valuable observa- 
tions. Since questions of importance to navigation and commerce are inti- 
mately connected with this inquiry, it is not too much to look forward even- 
tually to government for its support, the more so as the means of most natu- 
ralists — votaries of a science in which the pleasure of discovery is the only 
reward — do not warrant their adventuring privately in such researches. 

Note. — In drawing up the tables of species embodied in this report, I have 
derived valuable assistance from several scientific friends, especially from 
Mr. Thompson of Belfast, who enabled me to compare my collections with a 
series of Mediterranean Testacea named by Michaud ; from Mr. Cuming, in 
whose splendid collection is a series of Sicilian shells from Philippi ; and from 
Mr. Harvey, who most kindly examined the Algas necessary for the elucida- 
tion of the regions of depth. 



N 2 



180 



REPORT — 1843. 



APPENDIX No. I. 



Examples of Dredging Papers, selected in order to show the associations of species 
in the several regions. The numerous dredging operations on which this Report is 
founded were all registered in a similar manner. 

The accentuated numbers in the column of " dead specimens" refer to the disunited 
valves of Conchifera and Brachiopoda. 



I. 

Date May 29th, 1841. 

Locality Noitsa Bay, Paros. 

Depth.. Five to six fathoms. 

Distance from shore (Within the Bay.) 

Ground Mud and sandy mud. 

Region 11- 



II. 

Date September 12, 1842. 

, ,._ /Gulf of Smvma, oft 

^°<=^^ 1 Mouth of Hermus, 

Depth Seven fathoms. 

Distance from shore Half a mUe. 

Ground Dark mud. 

Region II. 



Species. 



Species. 



on I Observations. 



Pinna squamosa 

Modiola tidipa 1 

Pecten polymorphus. 4 

hyalinus 1 

Nucula margaritacea. 

Cytherea chione ' 

venetiana \ 1 

apicalis ' 1 

Artemis lincta 

PuUastra virginea ...■ 

Venus verrucosa 

Tellina donacina .... 

balaustina 

Ligula boysii 

Lucina lactea \ 







squamosa ..., 

rotundata ... 

Cardium rusticum 

exiguum 

Cardita sulcata ... 
PateUa scutellaris 
Calyptraea sinense ...i 

Buiiahydatis 

Turriteila 3-pUcata. . . 
Trochus canahculatus 

Cerithium lima 

-^-ulgatum 12 

Murex fistulosus 1 

Aplysia depUans 1 

Ostra;a phcat ula 



1 



6' 


40' 

1' 
3-5' 
2-12' 

1' 

5' 

5' 
1-3' 

2' 
2-10' 
2-38' 

3' 

4' 

1' 

7' 

i'{ 

1 
1 
4 
3 
8 


10' 



In sandv mud. 



In dark mud. 



I A strong valve. 

Washed in from 
shore. 



In dark mud. 



Radiata. — Asterias, sp. Ophiura albida. Holo- 
thuria tubulosa. Caryophyllia cyathus. Sponges. 

Several Crustacea. Five specimens of a Gobius. 

Plants. — Zostera oceanica. Caulerpa prolifera. 
Dictvomenia volubilis. .\cetabiilaria. 



vanus 

Modiola barbata 

Solen tenuis 

coarctatus 

Thracia pubescens .. 

Ligula boysii 

Pandora obtusa 

Tellina donacina 

Corbula nucleus 

Cardium echinatum., 

[Artemis lincta 

'Montacuta, sp 

Nucula margaritacea 

emarginata 

Dentalium9-costatumi 
Turriteila terebra — 6 
Parthenia elegantissi-j 
Eulima subulata [ma' 

BuUa truncatula 1 

striatula 

Rissoa monodonta .... 
^Ringuicula auriculata. 
Pleurotomaformicaria 
Cerithium angustis- \ „ 

simum J ' 

Buccinum variabUe ... 

granulatum 

Murex brandaris , 

Natica pulchella ' 

Calyptraea sinense ....' 2 



4' Full grown valves, 

3' Full size. 

2' 

3' Hitherto a fossil. 

8' j 

3' 

2' 

4' 
IC 
8-50' I 

3' J Young speci- 
10'\: mens. 

1 Much worn. 
30 ! 
3-15' j 
30 
12 I 

'? I 

4 
6 



New. 

AU young. 



10 
8 Hitherto a fossil. 

2 I 
2 

18 I 



Radiata. — Amphiura chiagi. Two specimens of Chi- 
rodota. Cucumaria pentactes, 2. No Zoophytes. 

Two species of Serpula. A few Annelides. Two 
Crustacea. 



ON iEGEAX INVERTEBRATA. 



181 



III. 

Date Aug. 17,1841. 

Locality Bay of Vathy , Amorgo. 

Depth 10 to 15 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...AVithiu the port. 

Ground Sand,graveUyand shelly. 

Region III. 



Species. 



Modiola tulipa 

Pecten polymorphus . 

— opercularis 

Cardita trapezia 

— sulcata 

Cardium exiguura .... 

— papillosum 

Nucula margaritacea. 

— emarginata 

Ligula boysii 

Lucina transversa .... 

— lactea 

— hiatelloides 

Pleurotoma attenuata 

— segeensis 

Rissoa pulchella 

Trochus magus 

Cerithium lima 

Nerita ^aridis 

Natica millepunctata . 

— guiUeminii [ma 
Parthenia elegantissi- 
Marginella clandesti- 
BuUa striatula [na 

— o\ailata 

Deutalium9-costatum 



z-s 



1' 

30' 
3' 

1' 
3' 

1' 
50' 
50' 
15 
50' 

1' 
50' 
30 

1 

1 

5 

1 
60 

2 

2 

1 
10 

1 

1 

2 
10 



Species. 



All very small. 



New. 

Hitherto a fossil. 



Tellina balaustiua 

Hiatella arctica 

Dentalium9-costatum 
Natica valenciensii ... 

Chitoulaj^is 

Turbo rugosus 

Trochus crenulatus... 

— exiguus 

— ziziphiuus 

Cerithium vulgatum.. 

-Uma 

Triforis adversum [ni 
Chenopus pes-peleca- 

Nassa prismatica 

ColumbeUa rustica . . . 

— linnaei 

Fusus lignarius 

— fasciolarioides... 

Murex cristatus 

Pleurotomaformicaria 

—reticulata spinosa 
Mitra obsoleta 

— savignii [traeoides 
Pleurobranchus calyp- 



New. 



Ophioderraa lacertosa, one specimen, 
cyamus, dead. A few Crustacea. 



Echiuo-i 



IV. 

Date August 29, 1841. 

Locality Head of Cervi Bay, Morea. 

Depth 20 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...One mile. 

Ground Weedy. 

Region III. (commencement of.) 



Modiola tulipa 1 

Anomia ephippium ... 

Pecten polymorphus . 

opercularis 2 

pusio 1 

Cytherea apicalis 

Cardiiuu exiguum 4 

— Isevigatura 

C ardita trapezia 5 

Nucula emarginata... 

Area lactea 16 

tetragona 2 

barbata 2 

Ligula boysii I 



'A young shell. 

4' I 

4' iVery small. 

1 I Young specimens 
2-3' I 

3' I 

1 Full size. 



10' I 

lYouug specimens 

1 I 
1' 



• n 


^ 






^ a. 


o a. 










S = 


z « 




■a 





3' 


2 





1 


3 





1 


1 





4 


1 





1 


4 


2 





2 


1 


1 





1 





1 





1 





1 





2 





3 





1 





2 





2 





1 


1 








1 





2 





2 



New. 



In crevices of 
sponge. 



1 Asterias. 2 Ophioderma lacertosa. 
Many sponges, anneUides and corallines. 



V. 

Date Sept. 14, 1842. 

Locality Gulf of Smyrna. 

Depth 26 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...Two miles and a half. 

Ground Fine brown mud. 

Region III. 



Avicula tarentina. 
HiateUa arctica .. 



3' 



["FuU grown, ad. 

•< heringto each 

I [ other. 



Amphiura chiagii. 
Plumularise and other Sertulariadse adhering, with 
small sponges, to the Aviculae. 



VI. 

Date Sept. 16, 1842. [Smyrna. 

LocaUty Off Long Island, Gulf of 

Depth 28 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...One mile and a half. 

Ground ... Yellow sand. 

Region III. 



Lucina spinifera .. 
Ligida prismatica 
Pandora obtusa ... 
\starte pusilla.' .. 



1 


2' 





3 





3 


1 






Sertularian zoophytes. 

Ophiura texturata. Comatula mediterranea. 



Note. — The two preceding dredges are examples 
selected from many such, of improlific tracts in a 



182 



REPORT— 1843. 



region usually fertile in living inhabitants. In this 
case a sea-bottoiu derived from the debris of fresh 
water tertiary formations seems to be the negativei 
influence. i 



VII. 

Date Dec. 1, 1841. 

Locality Port of Sumboli under Cra- 

Depth 30 fathoms. [gus, Lycia. 

Distance from shore ...Within the basin. 

Ground Ash-coloured mud. 

Region IV. 



Species 



Modiola tiilipa 

Lima tenera 

Pecten jacob:eus 

— polymorphus . . 

— opercularis 

Ostraea plicatula, jun. 

Area noae 

Pectunculus lineatus. 
Nucula emarginata.. 

— margaritacea . . 
Cardita sulcata 

— trapezia 

Cardium lievigatum.. 

— papillosum 

— exiguum 

— ecliinatum 

Venus ovata 

— iucompta? 

Cytherea venetiana.. 

— apicalis 

Lucina spiuifera 

— sinuosa 

— commutata 

Tellina douacina 

Saxicava arctica 

Thracia pubescens . . 

Corbula nucleus 

Ligula prismatica ... 

boysii 

Solen coarctatus [mis 
Gastrochaenacuneifor- 
Murex brandaris . . 
Aporrhaispes-pelecani 
Cerithium vidgatum.. 

bma 

Conus mediterraneus. 
Turritella 3-plicata... 

Rissoa cimex 

Trochus exiguus 

contourii 

sanguineus 

Natica pulchella 

Bulla hydatis 

Dentalium9-costatum 
Bidimus acutus 



1' 

1' 
frag. 
10' 

2' 
10' 
frag. 

1' 

2' 
12' 

1' 

1' 

1' 
10' 

3' 
20' 

2' 

1' 

2' 
12' 
10' 

1' 

1' 

2' 

2 
frag. 
40' 

6' 

4' 

6' 

2' 
frag. 

2 

1 

5 
frag. 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



« 5S 5 

g'Sl 



.s , *^ 

« U V 

III 






S3 S g ^ 
fill 



^■S""^ 

i'^!l 



S « " s 

5 " e £ 

SE " t. 
O ..- p ^ 

;3 "a -^ C 
is _o ^ Oj 

t- & bo 



VIII. 

Date Augusts. [Pares. 

Locality Off northern extremity of 

Depth 40 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...Three miles and a half. 

Ground Weedy. 

Region V. 



Species 



Pecten pusio 5 

opercularis , 

Nucula margaritacea .' 

Cytherea apicalis 

Cardita squamosa .... 1 

Cardium paj)illosum ..] 

Fusus fasciolarioides J 1 

Miu^ex brandaris ' 

Vennetus gigas , 

corueus 3 

Trochus exiguus : 8 

Turbo rugosus [dus^ 1 

Pleurobranchus sordi- 1 

Doris tenerrima 2 

gi-acilis i 2 

coccinea < 1 

Ascidia, four species, i 
Aplidiura, two species.! 



Small. 



Nevp. 



iNew. 



New. 

INew. 



Echinocyamus, alive and dead. Plumularia. Seve. 
ral Crustacea. 

Codiimi tomentosum. 



IX. 

Date October 11, 1841. 

Locality Off Cape Crio, Asia Minor. 

Depth 53 to 70 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...Three-fourths of a mile. 

Ground Millepore. 

Region VI. 



' Pecten pes-felis 

;\ hyalinus 

j pusio 

Venus ovata 

pCytherea apicalis 

I' Lucina bipartita 

Astarte incrassata ..., 

Cardita trapezia 

Area l)arbata 













■lactea I 

10 
18 



Leaves of olive and of 
found imbedded in the mud. 



Quercus coccifer were 
No zoophytes occurred. 



Terebratula truncata 

detruucata 

seminulum 

Crania ringens 

Fusus lavatus 

crispatus , 

turritellatus ... 

Pleurotoma 

Columbella linnxi ... 
Cerithium lima 



20 



frag. 

1' 

2' 

1' 
2-2' 

3' 

4' 

2' 

1' 

1' 

6-8' 

30-10' 



8' 

2 

3 

5 



frag. 
2 



/Hitherto only 
\ fosslL 



ON ^GBAN INVERTEBRATA. 



183 



Species. 



6^ 



Species. 



•i s 








£ e 


l-s 




•o 


1 








1 


1 






Tiiforis adversum 
Mitra obsoleta 

— granurn 

— ebeims 

Mure.\ cristatus ... 
Troclms familum... 
Turbo sanguineus . 
Turritella 3-plicata 
Natica valenciensii 
Cypraea emopEea [mis 
Emarginula capulifor. 

Lottia unicolor 

Chiton rissoi 

— lfe\'is , 

— fascicularis - 

— irelaudi 



:New. 



1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
3' 
frag. 
1 
2 
3 



A new species. 



Tornatella fasciata 
Emarginula elongata , 
Chiton laevis . . . 



Well grown. 



Annelides. — S erpulse . 
Crustacea. — Some small species. 
Radiata. — Echinus moniUs and Echinocyamus 
pusillus. Species of Cidaris. 



Goniaster, sp., 1 spec. Asterina, sp., 3 spec. 
Echinus moniUs, many specimens. Cidaris histrix, 
abundant, alive. 
Echinocyamus, many specimens. 
Myriapora truncata, alive. 
A small yellow Goby. 



XI. 

Date Jidy, 1841. 

Locality Off Serpho-Poulo. 

Depth 95 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...Two miles. 

Ground Millepore. 

Region VII. 



X. (by Lieut. Spratt.) 

Date July, 1842. 

Locality Oflf east coast of Naxia. 

Depth 80 to 95 fathoms. 

Distance from shore . ..Three miles from N.E. Cape, 

Ground Nullipore. 

Region VII. 



Terebratula tnuicata . 

I detruncata 

iPecten varius 

opercularis 

testae 

: Lima elongata 

[Modiola 

Hiatella ai'ctica 

Cardita aculeata 

Astarte incrassata .' . . . 

Cytherea apicalis 

Venus ovata 

Area tetragona 

— scabra 

Murex cristatus, var. . 
Plem'otoma maravig- 

— graciUs [use 

— crispata 

— reticulata 

— formicaria 

Cerithium lima 

Trochns exiguus 

Phasianella pulla 

Rissoa reticulata 

— ventricosa 

Turbo rugosus 

Natica pulchella 




6 
4' 
1' 

2' 

l\ 

V 

V 

3' 

2' 

1' 

2 

2 

2 



1 

1 



6 

1 



3 





1 



AU small. 
A small valve. 

Young and small, 
apparentlyfrag, 
of M. barbata. 



Small. 
Small. 



Hitherto fossil. 



Terebratula truncata 

— detruncata 

— lunifera 

Crania ringens 

Lima elongata 

crassa 

Modiola 

Pecten testfe 

concentricus .. 

similis , 

Cardita squamosa ... 

Cytherea apicaUs , 

Venus ovata 

Astai'te pusilla , 

Lucina commutata . . , 

bipartita 

Area lactea 



A straggler : 



Pleurotoraa crispata.. 

abyssicola 

marivignae 

reticulata 

minuta 

Fusus muricatus 

Triforis perversum ... 

lima 

Turritella 3-costata. .i 

Trochus exiguus 

iTurbo sanguineus .... 
Rissoa reticulata [na 
.Marginella clandesti- 
Tornatella pusilla .... 
Emarginula elongata .j 

capuUformis ... 

Fissurella grseca \ 

Cleodora pyramidata.l 



6-4' 
10-6' 


35' 

2' 

3' 

1' 
1-3' 

4' 

6' 

7' 

2' 

4' 

2 

1' 

1' 

6' 



3 
7 
1 
4 
5 
1 
7 
2 
2 
2 

36 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 



New. 
New. 
Veiy young. 

New. 



New. 



Hitherto known 

only fossil. 
New. 



New. 



New. 



I Two species of sponge. 

Several zoophj'tes, including Caryophyllia. 

Ecliinocyamus, alive. Echinus monilis, alive and 
dead. 

Several small Crustacea. 



184 



REPORT — 1843. 



Terebratula vitrea . . . . 

— truncata 

— detruncata 

— semimilum 

appressa 

Crania ringens 

Lima elongata 

Pecten coiicentricus .. 

— fenestratus 

Spondylus gussonii . . . 
Area lactea 

— scabra 

Nesera cuspidata 

— attenuata 

Fusus echinatus 



XII. 

Date Sept. 16, 1841. t 

Locality Off Ananas Rocks. | 

Depth 105 fathoms. | 

Distance from shore . . . From rocks three miles, from 

Groimd Nullipore. [Milo ten miles. 

Region VIL j 



Species. 



Species. 



manviguie .. 
abyssicola ... 

Mitra phillipiaua. . 

Ceritliium lima . . 

Trochus tinei 

exiguus 

Turbo sanguineus j 

Rissoa reticulata ' 4 



1 








Emargiuula elougata . 
Pileopsis hungarica . . . 

Lottia uuicolor 

Atlanta peronii 

Hyalaea gibbosa 

Cleodora pyramidata . 

Criseis clava 

spinifera 



2' 

100-20' 

400-6' 

10-8' 



6' 

5' 

1' 

2' 

1' 

7' 

2' 

1' 

1' 

2 



2 

4 

4 

8 

G 

9 
24 
11 

8 

1 
24' 

2 

1' 

3' 

7 
10 



Dead and worn. 
Of all ages. 
Of all ages. 

Adhering to T. 

vitrea. New. 
New. 
New. 
New. 



New. 

Hitherto known 

only fossil. 
New. 
New. 
New. 



Hitherto known 
onlyfossilin the 
Mediterranean 
basin. 

Small. 

New. 

Encrusted with 
nidlipore, and 
thus rendered 
solid. 



Limacrassa 

Nucula polii 

striata 

Area lactea 

Poromya anatinoides 

Neaera costellata 

cuspidata 

Hiatella nigosa 

Pandora obtusa 

KeUia abyssicola 

Cardium minimum . . 

Rissoa reticulata 

Bulla utriculus 

Trochus miUegranus 
Parthenia veutricosa 
Dentalium quinquan 
Atlantaperonii[gulare 
Ladas planorboides... 
? Limacina minuta . . . 

Hyalaea gibbosa 

vagineUina 

Cleodora pyramidata . 
3 species of Criseis ?. . 



4' 
5' 
6' 
1' 
2' 
4' 
2' 
frag. 
3' 
8' 
3' 
6 
1 
1 
1 
4 
3 
2 
3 
3 
1 
4 



New. 



Young shell. 
New. 



FiUl grown. 
New. 



New. 
Hitherto fossil. 



Abundant. 



Annelides. — Ditrupa subulataand pusilla,the latter 
alive. 

Crustacea. — Several small species. 

Radiata. — Amphiura chiagi. Spines of Cidaris, 



Pectinura vestita, one (new). Echinocyamus, 
many, dead. Young Cidaris, alive. Echinus mo- 
nilis, alive and dead. Four species of zoophyte 
Several species of Serpula. Fragment of a Balanus. 
Small crabs. Foraminifera. 



' XIV. 

Date August 2, 1841. 

Locality Off Island of Amorgo. 

Depth 140 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...Ten miles. [of pumice, 

Ground White mud with fragments 

Region VIII. 



XIII. 

Date Sept. 2. [and Cerigo. 

Locality Channel between the JMorea 

Depth 110 fathoms. [coast 

Distance from shore... Three miles from Cervi 

Ground Sandy mud. 

Region VIII. 



Pecten simUis . 
Lima elongata . 



'{ 



New to Mediter- 
ranean. 
New. 



Anomia polymorpha . 

Lima elongata 

crassa ' 

Pecten simiUs 

I dumasii ' 

I fenestratus ' 

jNucula polii : 

'Area tetragona ! 

I lactea 

Cardiimi minimum ... 

Kellia abyssicola 

Ligula profundissima. 

NeKra costellata 

cuspidata 

Murex vaginatus 

Cerithium lima 

Rissoa ovatella 

Parthenia ventricosa .1 

Euhma subulata 

distorta [gidare' 

JDentalium quinquan- 
iBulla utriculus [nea 
ICarinaria mediterra-' 



1-4 
12' 

5' 
30' 

1' 

2' 

1' 

1 
10' 

1' 

2-4' 

5-17' 

7' 
12' 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
30 

1 

1 



Perhaps a strag- 
New. [gler. 

New. [ranean. 
New to Mediter- 

New. 



New. 
New. [only fossil. 
Hitherto known 
[only fossil. 
iHitherto known 
A straggler. 
New. 
New. 



Small. 



ON ^GEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



185 



Atlanta peronii .... 
? Liinacina minuta. 
Hyalaea gibbosa . . . 

— vaginellina . . . 
Criseis clava 

— spinifera 

— striata 



■Jii 


<g g 


tM p. 








o" a" 


?:^ 


14 ■? 


-o 





6 





8 





10 





1 





40 





100 





4 



New. 



Idmonea and another zoophyte. 
Ophiura abyssicola, alive. 
Fragments of a Brissus. Serpula, one species 
Ditrupa pusilla, and three species of Crustacea. 



XV. 

Date Sept. 17, 1841. 

LocaUty Off Milo. 

Depth 150 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...Four miles. 

Ground Fine white sandy mud. 

Region VIII. 



Pecten concentricus.. 

— hoskynsi 

— shnilis 

Area imbricata 

Nucula striata 

— segeeusis 

KeUia abyssicola 

Nesera cuspidata 

— costeUata 

— abbreviata 

Ligula profundissima. 
Pleurotoma abyssicola 
Nassa intermedia, var, 



Rissoa reticulata 12 



Pecten similis 

concentricus ....I 

dumasii j 

Lima elongata 

crassa i 







0? 





























Arcalactea 

— scabra 

Poromya anatinoides . 

KeUia abyssicola 

Neaera cuspidata 

— costeUata 

— abbreviata 

Cardita squamosa . . . 
Ligula profundissima. 
Crania ringens [ta 
Terebratula detrunca. 

Miurex vaginatus 

Fusus muricatus [na 
MargineUa clandesti 

Rissoa reticulata 

ovulata 

Parthenia ventricosa 

Cerithium lima j 

Lottia unicolor 



Scissurella plicata - 
Peracle physoides 
Hyalaea gibbosa . . 

— vaginellina .. 

— cornea '• 

Cleodora pyramidata.' 

— : 



30' New to Mediter. 

2' I [ranean 

frag. 

8' 'New. 

8' New. 
10' 

1' 

1' 
10-50' 

2' 

3' 

2' 

1' 
1-15' 

2' 

2 

1 

4 

1 
12 

2 

1 

1 

1 

3 

3 
22 

1 

2 
many 

2 



New. 
New. 

[only as fossil. 
Hitherto known 
New. 
A young valve 



Stragglers. 
And two frag. 

ments (hitherto 

fossil). 



New. 
Straggler ? 



Depth 185 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...Two miles. 

Ground Pale yellowish mud. 

Region VIII. 



Species. 



Z-g 



[na 
MargineUa clandesti- 
Dentahum quinquan- 
Hyalaea cornea [gulare 

gibbosa 

vaginelHna 

Cleodora pyramidata . 

Criseis clava 

spinifera 

striata 

? Limacina minuta.... 
Carinaria mediterra- 
Peracle physoides [nea 



New. 
New, 



New. 

New. 

[only fossil 
Hitherto known 
New. 

New. 

New. 

Hitherto fossU 
only in Medi- 
terranean, re 
cent in North 
Seas. 



Many Nodosarice and other Foraminifera. The 
carapace of a crab. A very small Uving sponge. 
Arms of Amphiura chiagii. 



XVII. 

Date Nov. 25, 1841. [AsiaMinor. 

Locality S. extremity of Gulf of Macri, 

Depth 230 fathoms. 

Distance from shore ...One mile (shore steep). 

Ground Fine yellowish mud. 

Region VIII. 



Criseis, the three species abundant. 



XVI. 

Date Dec. 23, 1843. [AsiaMinor, 

Locality S.E. side of Gulf of Macri, 






2' 





3' 


1 


1' 


1 








1 





8 





5 



Terebratula vitrea ... 

Ligula profundissima. 3' New. 

Area imbricata [gulare 

Deutalium quiuquan 

Hyalcca gibbosa 

Cleodora pyramidata 
Criseis spinifera 

A glassy Serpula, and the corneous tube of an 
AnneUde adhered to the Terebratula ; also a species 
of Alecto and a Lobatula. 



186 REPORT — 1843, 



APPENDIX No. II. 

Brief Diagnoses of new species of JNIoUusca named in the preceding tables. 
The new Radiata are described in the Linnsean Transactions. 

Order Nucleobranchiata. 
Genus Ladas, Cantraine. 
Ladas planorboides, sp. nov. 

L. testa pellucida, alba, leevi, compressa, carinata, exalata, anfractibus 4. 
Diam. OjV Reg. VIII. (frequent.) 

Genus Peracle, Forbes. 
(I propose this genus for certain small reversed, spiral shells, having the 
aperture more or less prolonged into a pointed canal. Fuller details will be 
given elsewhere.) 
Peracle physoides, sp. nov. 

P. testa ovata, alba, pellucida (cpidermide ? reticulata); caud^ longa, 
arcuata, acutissima. 

Long. OyV- I^eg. VIII. Cyclades, Lycia. 

? Bellerophina miiiuta. 
I have enumerated among the Nucleobranchiata a shell under this name, 
which I have now good reason to believe is the shell of the larva of (perhaps 
many) species of several orders of MoUusca. It is extremely minute, helicoid, 
transparent, and of two or three whorls. It abounds in the mud from very 
deep water. 

Gasteropoda. 

Order Nudibranchia. 
Fam. DoridcB. Genus Doris, Lin. 
Doris aurata, sp. nov. 

D. corpore ovali, convexo, Isevi, succineo, maculis stellatis albis ; branchiis 
5 — 6, flavidis ; tentaculis aurantiacis apicibus flavis ; pede flavo. 

Long. 0| unc. Hab. 50 fathoms. Paros (Lieut. Mansell). 
Genus Goniodoris, Forbes. 
Goniodoris regcdis, sp. nov. ^ 

G. corpore elongato, lanceolato, piano, Isevi ; dorso viridi, longitudinaliter 
flavo-vittato, albo-marginato ; lateribus griseis flavo-maculatis ; pede albo ; 
branchiis 10 — 12, viridlbus, flavo-marginatis ; tentaculis azureis. 

Long. "tunc. ^«6. Littoral. Port Massini, Skanousi. (Lieut. Freeland.) 
Goniodoris lenerrimu, sp. nov. 

G. corpore cuneato, alto, dorso lateribusque griseis lineis interruptis albis 
cceruleisque pictis ; margine flavo ; pede angustissimo albo ; branchiis 10 — 
12, griseis, peduuculatis; tentaculis azureis. 

Long. 3 unc. Hub. 4 miles from Paros in 40 fathoms, weedy ground. 
Goniodoris rivida, sp. nov. 

G. corpore subquadrato cceruleo, dorso fascia centrali alba, albo marginato ; 
branchiis 7, coeruleis. 

Long. 0^ unc. Hub. 7—30 fathoms, weedy ground, Cyclades. 
Fam. Meliboeadce. Genus Melibcea, Rarig. 
Melibcea ? minuta, sp. nov. 

M. corpore oblongo, flavido, lateribus in branchiis binis rotundatis lobi- 
formis productis. 

Long. 0/p. Hab. 5 fathoms. Despotico. 



ON iEGEAN INVERTEBRATA. 



m 



The form of the branchice approaches those of Sajllaa, whilst the tentacula 
are characteristic of Melibcea. This minute nudibranc may possibly belong 
to an intermediate genus. 

Order Inferobranchiata. 
Fam. PleurobranchacecB. Genus Pleurobranchus, Cuv. 
Pleurobranchus Ihnacoides, sp. nov. 

P. eovpore (repente) obloiigo, Ifevi, aurantiaco ; pallio ovato piano, contra- 
subemarginato ; caudR exserta lanceolata ; tentaculis elongatis, Imeanbus. 

Long, 2f unc. Hab. under stones near water-mark among the Lyclaaes. 
Allied °to P. oblongus of Cantraine. 
Pleurobranchus cali/ptrcsoides, sp. nov. 

P. corpore ovato, tevi, citrino, pallio orbiculari convexo, cauda exserta 
lata obtusa, tentaculis linearibus. ^ . „ 

Long, li unc. Hab. on sponges, 20 fathoms, Cervi Bay, Morea. 
Pleurobranchus scutatus, sp. nov. ^ 

P. corpore rotundato, rubro-aurantiaco ; pallio lato scabro, convexo, antice 
producto ; cauda pallio occulta ; tentaculis linearibus. 

Long. 1 unc. Hab. on Codium tomentosum, in 20 fathoms, Cyclades. 
Pleurobranchus sordidus, sp. nov. , ^ 

P. corpore rotundato convexo ; pallio rugoso, sordide brunneo, antice pro- 
ducto ; pede quadrate, albo ; cauda brevissima ; tentaculis albis linearibus ; ore 
aurantiaco. 

Long. Of unc. Hab. 4-0 fathoms off Paros. 

Order Tectibranchiata. 
Fam. Aplysiacece. Genus Aplysia, Lin. 
Aphjsia saltator, sp. nov. i . ^ u 

A. corpore globoso, griseo albo nigroque maculato, tuberculato, tuber- 
culis mucronatis ; sinu branchiali parvo ; pede angustissimo, tentaculis bre- 

vibus. „ , o 1 r> 

Long. 2 unc. Alt. I ^. Hab. 20—30 fathoms. Serpho Bay. 

Genus Icarus, Forbes. 

(The animal for which I propose to constitute the genus Icarus differs 
horn Aphjsia in having but two tentacula, and in being prolonged posteriorly 
into a slender lanceolate tail. The dorsal shield resembles the shell oi ^BulltBa. 
A full account of the genus will be published elsewhere.) 
Icarus ffravesi, sp. nov. n ■ i 

Animal viridum purpureo, alboque variegatum. lesfa alba, peliucicla. 

Long. Wt unc. Long. test. 5^o unc. Syra, Serpho. 

Fam. Aceridce. Genus Bull-EA, Lamarck. 
Bullcea alata, sp. nov. 

B. testa orbiculari, spiraliter punctato-striata, labro expanse, spiram exce- 
dente, margine integro. fn l n 

Long, and lat. OA- Suda Bay, Candia, in 119 fathoms. (Capt. Graves, 

184^3.) 

Genus Bulla, Lm. 

Bulla retifer, sp. nov. . . • ,« 

B. testa oblonga, laxe convoluta, longitudinaliter trans versimque^ striata, 

epid'ermide reticulato-vestita, spira truncata, umbilicata, apertura ovata 

superne coarctata ; columella marginata. 
Long. OtV. Lat. OtV unc. Serpho. 



188 REPORT— 1843. 

Bulla striatula, sp. nov. 

B. testa oblonga, cylindrica, lactea, transverse undulato-striat^, longitudi- 
naliter obsolete striata, vertice subtruncato concavo ; spira manifesta ; aper- 
tui"a supernfe lineari, inferne dilatata. 

Long. Oi'r^ line. Ilio, Macri, Servi, Crete, &c. 
Bulla turgidula, sp. nov. 

B. testa inflata, ovata, alba, polita, inferne superneque transverse striata, 
medio Isevissimo ; apice truncato, umbilicato, uiargine creuato ; spira occulta ; 
apertura angusta, utrinque subrostrata. 

Long. OWV unc. Servi, Aniorgo. 
Bulla cretica, sp. nov. 

B. testa globosa, alba, laevigata, spira manifesta, umbilicata, uiargine rotun- 
data ; apertura superne contracta, inferne dilatata ; columella perforata. 

Long. O^^j unc. Crete in 119 fathoms. (Capt. Graves, isis.) 

Order yCUTIBRANCHIATA. 

Fam. Patelloidece. Genus Lottia, Gray. 

Patelloidea, Quoy and Gaim. Acuma, Harbnan. 
Lottia unicolor, sp, nov. 

L. testa parva, rotundata, subconica, liEvigata, rubra, apice centrali. 
Long. Of* unc' Asia Minor, Crete, Cyclades. 

Order Cyclobranchiata. 
Fam. Chitonidce. Genus Chiton, Lin. 
Chiton freelandi, sp. nov. 

C. valvulis omnibus granulatis, carinatis, areis inferioribus elevatis longitu- 
dinaliter obsolete excavatis ; areis superioribus depressis transverse profunde 
sulcatis ; carina laevigata ; margine squamoso, squamis tessellatis. 

Long. O5 unc. Lat. O^^g "°'^* Caria, Delos, Crete (in deep water). 

Order Cikrhobranchiata. 
Genus Dentalium, Lin. 
Dentalium qumquangulare, sp. nov. 

C. testa arcuata, alba, longitudinaliter striata, pentangular!. 
Long. Ot2. Everywhere in the deepest region. 

Order Pectinibranchiata. 
Fam. Scalariada. Genus Eulima, Risso. 
Eulima unifasciata, sp. nov. 

E. testa turrita, laevigata, polita, alba, fascia fulva cincta; anfractibus 11, 
planiusculis ; apertura ovata. 

Long. Ot2 uiic. Lycia. Reg. VIIL 

Genus Parthenia, Loive. 

= TuRBONiLLA,jRmo, Fyrgihcvs, PkHtppi, = Chemnitzia, d' Orbiguy. 
Parthenia vcntricosa, sp. nov. 

P. testa turrita, acuta, alba, pellucida, laevi, polita; anfractibus 1) tumidis, 
apertura subquadrata, columella recta, subunibilicatii. 

Long. O^V unc. Cerigo, Cyclades, Lycia. Reg. VIIL 
Parthenia turris, sp. nov. 

P. testa aciculata, alba, pellucida, l^vi, polita ; anfractibus 1 1 convexis, 
apertura subquadrata, columella recta, imperforata. 

Long. OtV unc. Cyclades. Reg. VIIL 



ON iEGEAN INVERTEBRATA. 189 

Parthenia fasciata, sp. nov. 

P. testa turrita, alba, fascia flava ; anfractibus 7, planis, ad suturas sub- 
angulatis, longitudinaliter costatis, ultimo anfractu 16-costato, basi suban- 
gulato, lasvi ; apertura quadrangular!. 

Long. Ot2 unc. Cyclades, Lycia. IJeg. VIII. 
Parthenia varicosa, sp. nov. 

P. testa turrita, albida, fasciis fulvis ; anfractibus 1 1 convexis, varicosis, 
spiraliter striatis, longitudinaliter (18 — 20) costatis, basi rotundato, ecostu- 
lato, apertura subquadrata. 

Long. 0|. Lat. 0^^ unc. Cyclades. 

Genus Rissoa, Trem. 
Rissoa cimicoides, sp. nov. 

R. testa ovato-conica, albida, anfractibus 7 convexiusculis, sulcis longitu- 
dinalibus spiralibusque granulato-decussatis, ad suturam niarginatis, crenu- 
latis ; apertura ovata, labro externo incrassato. 

Long. Ot2 unc. Crete, Cyclades, Lycia, Smyrna. 
Rissoa ovatella, sp. nov. 

R. testa oblonga, alba, - anfractibus 5, spiraliter punctato-striatis ; apertura 
ovata inferne angulati; columella recta.' 

Long. OA unc. Cyclades, Asia Minor. 
Rissoa piilchra, sp. nov. 

R. testa turrita, alba, anfractibus 6 convexis, longitudinaliter sulcato-striatis 
(striis 19), suturis profundis ; apertura ovata, labro simplici. 

Long. OtV unc. Paros. 

Genus Scalaria, Lam. 
Scalaria hellenica, sp. nov. 

S. testa turrita, alba, imperforata, anfractibus 10 convexis, varicosis, spi- 
raliter striatis longitudinaliter costatis, costis rotundatis crassiusculis, in ultimo 
anfractu 10 ; apertura marginata, margine radiato-crenato. 

Long. Oto uuc. Cervi. 

Genus Turritella, Lam. 
Turritella suturalis, sp. nov. 

T. testa elongata, alba, anfractibus ventricosis, spiraliter pauci-costatis, ad 
suturas excavatis, Isevigatis. 

Long. tV- Caria. 

Fam. Siliquariada. Genus Vermetus, Adanson. 
Vermetus corneus, sp. nov. 

V. testa tenui, cornea, pellucida, tereti, transverse corrugata, striataque. 

Long. 3 unc. Lycia, Cyclades, Crete. 

Fam. Troc/iidci'. Genus Trochus, Lin. 
Trochiis pallidus, sp. nov. 

T. testa conoidea, lata, grisea maculis obscuris, anfractibus 5 — 6 spiraliter 
striatis (sub lente striis longitudinalibus), ad suturas planiusculis, idtimo in 
medio subexcavato, basi piano angulato; umbilico profundo, albo, margine 
acuto. 

Alt. Oi\. Lat. bas. OA unc. Amorgo. 
Trochus hjciacus, sp. nov. 

T. testa conoidea, lata, albida, purpureomaculata (ad urabilicum flammulata), 
anfractibus 5 — 6 spiraliter sulcatis, sulcis transverse striatis, ad suturam pla- 
natis, in medio excavatis ; basi piano, marginato ; umbilico parvo ; apertur^ 
quadrangular!, columella incrassata. 

Alt. Oa\. Lat. bas. 0/? unc. Lycia, Peraea. 



190 REPORT— 1843. 

Trochus spratti, sp. nov. 

T. testa conoidea, nigro-brunnea, niaculis albis tessellata ; anfractibua 6 con- 
VGxis spiraliter sulcatis, transverse oblique striatis, ad suturam planiusculis ; 
basi iTiargine rotundato ; umbilico parvo, albo ; apertnr^ subquadratft. 

Alt. OoV. Lat. bas. Oa\ unc. Servi, Cyclades, Lycia, Smyrna. 
Trochus gravesi, sp. nov. 

T. testa conica, alba, brunnea, maculis albidis, epidermide iridescente, an- 
fractibus 8 planis, spiraliter transverseque striatis, in feme ad suturam bicin- 
gulatis, cingulis planiusculis, crenulatis ; basi niargine subangulato, spiraliter 
sulcato, radialiter striate; umbilico nuUo; aperturl subquadrata. 

Alt. Ot\. Lat. bas. Ot\ unc. Cyclades, Morea, Lycia. 

Fam. CerithiadcE. Genus Cerithium, Brug. 
Cerithium angustissimum, sp. nov. 

C. testa lineari, anfractibus 13, convexis, longitudinaliter costatis, spiraliter 
4<-sulcatis, ad suturam niarginatis. 

Long. Oto . Lat. Oj^^ unc. Sporades. 

Fam. Muricidce. Genus Pleukotoma, Lam. 
Phurotoma teres, F., v. Reeve, Conchologia Iconica. 
„ turgidq, F., loc. cit. 

„ fortis, F., loc. cit. 

„ lyciaca,V., loc. cit. 

„ minuta, F., loc. cit. 

„ ahyssicola, F., loc. cit. 
„ ageensis, F., loc. cit. 

„ fallax, F., sp. nov. 
P. testa fusiformi, fulva, fascia albida, anfractibus 8, tuniidis, longitudina- 
liter (16) costatis, spiraliter sulcato- striatis, suturis impressis, apertura ovato- 
lanceolata, cauda brevi, lata. 
Long. O5 unc. Paros. 

Genus Fusus, Lam. 
Fusus fasciolarioides, sp. nov. 

F. testa oblong^, aurantia fascia interrupta albi, anfractibus 5, spiraliter 
striatis, noduloso-(9) costatis, ad suturas appressis, ultimo subangulato; 
apertura lanceolate, canali obliqua, longiuscula. 

Long. OtV. Lat. Oa\. Apert. OfW unc. Cyclades, Lycia. 
Fusus haramanensis, sp. nov. 

F. testa elongata, succineo-brunnea, fasciS, centrali angusta flavS, albo ma- 
culata, anfractibus 7, angulatis, longitudinaliter 7-costatis, costis in carinam 
tuberculatis ; apertura lanceolata, canali latiusculo. 
Long. Oif . Lat. O^^. Apert. O/^ unc. Lycia. 

Genus Murex, Lin. 
Murex brevis, sp. nov. 

M.testa alba, ovato-ventricos&,subumbilicata, anfractibus 6 (ultimo maximo), 
longitudinaliter 8-costatis, spiraliter costato-striatis, costis spiralibus nume- 
rosis, alternatis majoribus, omnibus squamosis ; canali brevi, angusto, labro 
externo fimbriato-plicato. 

Long. Oi§. Lat. 0^. Apert. 0\ unc. Paros, Crete. 

Genus Nassa, Ixim. 
Nassa intermedia, sp. nov. 

N. testa ovato-oblonga, ventricosS, alba fascia flavfi, anfractibus 6, ultimo 



ON ^GBAN INVERTEBRATA. 191 

spiratn excedente, omnibus longitudinaliter costatis, spiraliterque striatis; 
costis 12 fortibus, rotundatis ; apertura rotundata, canali brevi. 
Long. Ot\. Lat. 0^\. Apert. Ot\. Asia Minor, Sporades. 

Fam. Iiivolutcc. Geiuis Mitra, Lam. 
Mitra phillippiana, sp. nov, 

M. testa lanceolata flava, fascia obscura albida ; anfractibus 7 convexius- 
culis, lajvigatis, politis, labro coluniellari 3-plicalo. 

Long. 0-t'^. Lat. O^?. Apert. OfV unc. Milo, Cerigo. 
Mitra granum, sp. nov. 

M. testa lineavi, laevigata, nigrida, fascia alba maculis nigris interruptis, an- 
fractibus 7 ; apice costulato, labro interno plicis y fortissimis. 

Long. t\. Lat. ^t- Naxia. 
Mitra liftoralis, sp. nov. 

M. testa lanceolata, viridi-fusca, fascia albR maculis fulvis interruptis ; an- 
fractibus 6, apice costulato, labro interno 3-plicato. 

Long. tV. Lat. /^. Paros, &c. 

Genus Tornatella, Lam. 
Tornatella pusiUa, sp. nov. 

T. testa ovato-globosa, albida, anfractibus 4 regulariter profundeque punc- 
tato-striatis, apertura oblonga. 

Long. Ot\. Lat. OxV unc. Lycia, Naxia. 
Tornatella glohulina, sp. nov. 

T. testa alba, globosa, spira brevi, anfractibus 4 spiraliter striatis, striis 
numerosis, simplicibus ; apertura pyriformi, columella incrassata. 

Long. Oto- Serpho. 

Lamellibranchiata. 

Section Dimyaria. 

Fara. Pylorid<B. Genus T«racia, Leach. 
Thracia pholadomyoides, sp. nov. 

T. testa ventricosa, sinuosa, granulata, concentricd sulcata, sulcis longitu- 
dinalibus paucis (6) decussata; umbonibus acutis. 

Long. OtV- Lat. ItV unc. Cape Artemisium (1808). 

Genus Ligula, Montagu. 
Ligula profundissima, sp. nov. 

L. test^ oblonga, depressa, tenui, pellucida, candid&, posticS angulatft, an* 
tic6 rotuhdat^ ; fovea ligamentali lanceolate. 

Long. OaV. Lat. 0| unc. 

In the 8th Region of depth, everywhere : nearly allied to L. boysii. 

Genus Nejera, Gray. 
NecEra attenuata, Forbes in Zool. Proc. 1843. 
„ abbreviata, Do. do. 1843. 

Genus Poromya, Forbes. 

Testa transversa, subasquivalvis, omnino clausa, punctata seu granulata; 
cardo in utraqne valvulii dente cardinali erecto, subspathuliformi, dentibus 
obliquis duobus ad alterum anticum. 
Poromya anatinoides, sp. nov. 

Testa convexa, oriaicularis, subcarinata, ovata, minute granulata, antice 
truncata, postice subtruncata. 

Long. OsV unc. Lat. Ot\. Reg. VIIL Asia Minor, Cyclades. 



192 REPORT — 1843. 

Fam. Concliacea. Genus Kellia, Turton (=Bornia, Philippi). 
Kellia abyssicola, sp. nov. 

K. testa minuta, laevi, polita, Candida, tenui, orbiculari, convex^, umbo- 
nibus prominentibus. 

Long. OtV- Lat. OtV unc. In the 8th Region of depth, everywhere. 
Kellia transversa, sp. nov. 

K. testa tenuissima, laevi, alba, pellucida, valde inagquilaterali, transverse 
oblonga, extreraitatibus rotundatis. 

Long. OjV unc. Lat. Os\. Crete (1 19 f.) [Capt. Graves and Lieut. Spratt] . 
Morea. 
Kellia ferruginosa, sp. nov. 

K. testa orbiculari, subinsequilaterali, inflate, interne purpurea, externe fer- 
ruginosa. 

Long. OtV. With the last. 

Genus Astarte, Sowerby. 
Astarte jnisilla, sp. nov. 

A. testa minuta, triangulari, concentrice striata, margine interno denti- 
culato. 

Long. OtV' Naxos. (Mr. Hoskj'n.) 

Fain. Arcacece. Genus Nucula, Lamarck. 
Nucula cegeensis, sp. nov. 

N. testa ovata, subdepressa, laevi, inaequilaterali, antice rotundata, postice 
angulata, marginibus internis laevibus. 

Long. OtV- Lat. Oi\. Macri (180 f.), Crete (119 f.). 

Section Monomyaria. 

Fam. Pectinidce. Genus Pecten, Brugiere. 
Peden fenestratus, sp. nov. 

P. testa minuta (aequivalvi), orbiculari, costis (5) longitudinalibns, striis 
(10 — 15) transversis, interstitiis minutissime longitudinaliter striatis ; auricu- 
lis asqualibus, magnis, longitudinaliter striatis. 

Lat. OtV- Region VIII. Cyclades, Asia Minor. 
Pecten concentricns, sp. nov. 

P. testa minuta (aequivalvi) oi-biculari, coucentrice striata ; auriculis inae- 
qualibus transverse radiato-costatis. 

Lat. Ot\. With the last. 
Pecten hoskynsi, sp. nov. 

P. testa minuta (aequivalvi), orbiculari, alba, pellucid^, costis longitudinali- 
bus distantibus squamosis, squamis vesiculosis. 

Lat. Ot%. Reg. VIII. Asia Minor. 

Genus Lima, Brvg. 
Lima (^Limatula} elongata, sp. nov. 

L. testa aequilaterali pellucida, elongata, fragilissima, valde tumida, clausa, 
longitudinaliter costato-striata ; costis laevibus, auriculis aequalibus, umboni- 
bus valde prominentibus. 

Long. OtV- Lat. OtV- Cyclades, Cerigo, Lycia. Reg. VIII. 
lAma (^Limatula) cuneata, sp. nov. 

L. testd aequilaterali, ovata, Candida, fragili, convexa, clausa, longitudina- 
liter costata, costis crenulatis, interstitiis longitudinaliter striatis, striis laevi- 
bus; auriculis inaequalibus, umbonibus valde prominentibus; margine fron- 
tali argute (12) dentato. 

Long. OtV. Lat. OtV- Cyclades. 



ON iEGEAN INVERTEBRATA. 193 

Lima {Limatula) crassa, sp. nov. 

L. testa aequilaterali, ovata, alba, crassa, subdepress^, clausa, longitudinalitcr 
costata, costis crenulatis, auriculis sequalibus, umbonibus prominentibus. 

Long. Oa\. Lat. OtV- Everywhere in Reg. VIII. 

Order Brachiopoda. 

Fam. TerebratulidcB. Genus Terebratula, Brug. 
Terebratula appressa, sp. nov. 

T. testa transverse ovata, planiuscula, fusca, punctata, margine frontali 
recto, foramine magno incompleto, sceleto e dissepimento simplicissimo den- 
tiformi, erecto, versus foramen arcuato. 

Lat. Ot2 unc. Lycia. 



APPENDIX No. III. 

In the tables of species of Mollusca, several, which are familiar to conti- 
nental authors under other names, are there enumerated under the specific 
appellations by which they had originally been described by Montagu and 
other authors. In order to prevent mistakes I add a concordance of such 
Mediterranean species as are now identified with described British forms, or 
have received new names in consequence of their old ones having been pre- 
occupied. 

Doris coccinea, Forbes = Doris argo of many British authors. 

Bulla truncata, Adams = B. semisulcata, Philippi. 

Eulima subulata ( Turbo, sp.), Donovan =^Melania Cambessedesii, Payraudeau. 

Eulima polita (Helix, sp.), Montagu = Rissoaboscii, Payraudeau. 

Parthenia elegantissima (Turbo, sp.), Montagu = 3Ielania campanellce, 

Philippi. 
Rissoa rubra (Turbo, sp.), Adams = Rissoa fulva, Michaud. 
Rissoa reticulata (Turbo, sp.), Montagu = Rissoa reticulata, Philippi. 
Rissoa conifera (Turbo, sp.), Montagu = Rissoa Brugieri, Payraudeau. 
Rissoa striata (Turbo, sp.), Adams = Rissoa minutissima, Michaud. 
Pleurotoma gracilis (Murex, sp.), Montagu = Pleurotoma suturale, Bronn. 
Pleurotoma attenuata (Murex, sp.), Montagu = Pleurotoma gracile, Philippi. 
Fusus muricatus (Murex, sp.), Montagu = Fusus echinatus, Philippi. 
Ligula sicula (Amphidesma, sp.), Sowerby ^ Lutraria cottardi, Payraudeau. 
Ligula boysii, Montagu = Erycina renieri, Bronn. 
Kellia suborbicularis (Mya, sp.), Montagu = Bornia infiata, Philippi. 
Lyonsia striata (Mya, sp.), Montagu = Pandorina coruscans, Philippi. 
Lucina Jiexuosa (Venus, sp.), Montagu = Ply china biplicata, Philippi. 
Lucina spinifera (Venus, sp.), Montagu = Lucina hiatelloides, Basterot. 
Venus ovata, Montagu = Venus radiata, Brocchi. 
Venus fasciata, Montagu = Venus Brongniarti, Payraudeau. 
Modiola marmorata, Forbes = Modiola discors of British authors. 
Lima subauriculata, Montagu = Lima nivea, Risso. 

P.S. Since the Repoi't was read and the preceding papers laid before the 
British Association at Cork, an additional and extensive set of researches 
with the dredge in various parts of the Archipelago, including the shores of 
Crete, have been forwarded to the reporter by Captain Graves, R.N., having 
been obtained by that distinguished officer and the officers of Her Majesty's 
surveying vessel Beacon during ISiS. It is no small satisfaction to be able 
to state, that they fully confirm the inferences and observations embodied in 
this Report. E. F. 

1843. o 



194 REPORT — 1843. 

Synoptical Table of British Fossil Fishes, arranged in the order of 
the Geological Formations. By M. Agassiz. 

SILURIAN SYSTEM. 

I. Placoides. 

Ichthyodorulithes. 

Onchus Murc^iisoni, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 6. 1. 1. Onchus tenuistriatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 7. 1. 1. 
f. 1, 2. Murch. Sa. Syst. p. 607. t. 4. f. 10. Murch. Sil. Syst. p. 607. t. 4. f. 57 

f. 9-11. Ludlow. -59. Ludlow. 

Species of tohich the family has not yet been strictly decided. 

Thelodus parvidens, Ag. in Murch. Sil. Syst. Plectrodus pleiopristis, Ag. in Murch. Sil. 

p. 605. t. 4. fig. 34, 36. Ludlow. Syst. p. 606. Ludlow. 

Sclerodus pustuliferus, Ag. in Murch. Sil. Sphagodus pristodontus, Ag. in Murch. Sil. 

Syst. p. 605. t. 4. f. 27-32, 60-62. Lud- Syst. p. 605. t. 4. f. 1-3, 6. Ludlow. 

low. Pterygotus problematicus *, Ag. in Murch. Sil. 

Plectrodus mirabilis, Ag. in Murch. Sil. Syst. Syst. p. 605. t. 4. f. 4, 5. Ludlow. 

p. 605. t. 4. f. 14-26. LucUow. 

DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 

I. Placoides. 
Ichthyodorulithes. 

Onchus arcuatiis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 7. t. 1. Ctenacanthus ornatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 12. 

f. 3-5. Mtirch. Sil. Syst. p. 598. t. 2. t. 2. f. 1. Murch. Sil. Syst. p. 597. t. 2. 

f. 10, 11. Bromyard.' f. 10. Wales. Sapey. 

Onchus semistriatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 8. 1. 1. Ptychacanthus dubius, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 176. 

f. 9. Murch. Sil. Syst. p. 598. t. 2. f. 12, Abergavenny. 

13. Southstone Rock. Clematius reticulatus, Ag. Msc. Balniddery. 
Parexus recurvus, Ag. Msc. Balruddery. 

Cestraciontes. 

Ctenoptychius priscus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 173. Ecosse. 

II. Ganoides. 
Lepiddides. 

Dipterus raacrolepidotus, Sedgw. ^- Murch. Osteolepis microlepidotus, J'al. S{ Pentl. Geol. 

Geol.Tr. 1. 15. f. 1-3; 1. 16. f.2. Ag.?. Trans, iii. p. 143. ^y. P. foss. ii. p. 121. 

foss.ii. p.ll5.t.2.f.l,4;t.2a. M Rep. t. 2e. f. 14. W. Rep. 1842. Murch. ^W. 

1842. £ro». Leth. ii. p. 125. Murch. Syst. p. 601. Caithness. Pomona. Ork- 

Sil. Svst. p. 599. D. brachvpygopterus, nev. 

S. 4- M. Geol. Tr. 1. 17. f. 1-3. Ag. 1. c. Osteolepis major, Ag. Rep. 1842. Lethen. 

t. 2. f. 2. D. Valeuciennesii, Geol. Tr. Gamrie. 

1. 16. f. 1, 3. Ag. 1. c. t. 2. f. 3. (Catoptc- Acantliodes piisillus, Ag. Rep. 1842. Gor- 

rus analis, p. 23-27.) Caithness. How- dou Castle. 

burn Head. Pentland Firth. Widel. Ban- Diplacanthus crassispinus, Ag. Rep. 1842. 

niskirk. Clythe. Liebster. Latherou Stromuess. Orkney. Caithness. 

Wheele. Downton Hall. Diplacanthus longispinus, Ag. Rep. 1842. 

Osteolepis arenatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 122. Lethen Bar. Cromarty. 

t.2d.f.l-4. /rf. Rep.1842. Esox, Pew/A Diplacanthus striatulus, ^(/'. Rep. 1842. Le- 

Geol. Tr. (n. s.) ii. p. 364. 0. arenaceus, then Bar. 

Murch. Sil. Syst. p. 601. Garorie. Diplacanthus striatus, Ag. Rep. 1842. Cro- 

Osteolepis macrolepidotus, Val.SfPentl.Geo\. marty. 

Tr. iii. p. 143. Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 1 19. t. 2b. Cheiracanthus Murchisoni, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 

f.l-4;t.2e.f.5, 6. /rf.Rep.l842. iUwrcA. 126. t. le. f. 3, 4. /rf. Rep. 1842. Gara- 

Sil. Syst. p. 601. Caithness. Pomona. rie. 

Orkney. Cromarty. Cheiracanthus minor, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 127. 

* I am lately persuaded that this fossil belongs to the class of the Crustaceans. 



FOSSIL PISHES. 



195 



t. le. f. 5. Td. Kep. 1842. MurcJt. Sil. 

Syst, p. GOl. Pomona. Stromness. 
Cheiracanthus microlepidotus, Ag. Rep. 1842. 

Letheu Bar. Cromarty. 
Cheii-olepis Traillii, Jff. P. foss. ii. p. 130. t. 

Id; t.le.i.4. /rf. Rep. 1842. Miirch. 

Sil. Syst. p. 601. Pomona. Strom- 
ness. 
Cheirolepis Uragus, j4g. P. foss. ii. p. 132. 

t. le. f. 1-3. Id. Rep. 1842. Pentl. 

Geol. Tr. (n. s.) ii. p. 364. no. 2. Gamrie. 
Cheirolepis Cummingiae, Ag. Rep. 1842. Le- 

then Bar. Cromarty. 
Cephalaspis Lewisii, Jg, P. foss, ii. p. 149. 

t. Ii. f. 8. Id. Rep. 1842. Murch. Sil. 

Syst. p. 593. t. 2. f. 6. Whitbach. 
Cephalaspis Lloydii, Jg. P. foss. ii. p. 150. 

t. lb. f. 9-11. Id. Rep. 1842. Murch. 

Sil. Syst. p. 594. t. 2, f. 7, 9. Whitbach. 

TheWyle. Sutton Hill. DowntonHall. 

Menai Bridge. Abergavenny. 
Cephalaspis Lyelhi, Jg. P. foss. ii. p. 142. 

t. la. f. 1-5 ; 1. 1*. f. 1-5. Id. Rep. 1842. 

Murch. Sil. Syst. p. 589. 1. 1. f. 1, 2; t. 2. 

f. 1-3. Hereford. Brecknock. Whit- 

bach. Kidderminster. Glammis. 
Cephalaspis rostratus, Jg. P. foss. ii. p. 148. 



t. lb. f. 6, 7. Id. Rep. 1842. Murc/i. 

Sil. Syst. p. 592. t. 2. f. 4, 5. Whitbach. 

Pterichthys cancriformis, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
Orkney. 

Pterichthys cornutus, Ag. Rep. 1842. Le- 
then Bar. 

Pterichthys hydrophilus, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
Dura Den. 

Pterichthys latus, Ag. Rep. 1842. Lethen 
Bar. 

Pterichthys Milleri, Ag. Rep. 1842. Gamrie. 
Cromarty. 

Pterichthys oblongus, Ag. Rep. 1842, Gam- 
rie. Cromarty. 

Pteiichthys productus, Ag. Rep. 1842. Le- 
then Bar. 

Pterichthys testudinarius, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
Cromarty. 

Coccosteus cuspidatus, Ag. Rep, 1842. Cro- 
marty. Gamrie. 

Coccosteus latus (v. decipiens), Ag. Rep. 
1842. Caithness. Orkney. 

Coccosteus oblongus, Ag. Rep. 1842. Le- 
then Bar. 

Chelonichthys Asmusii, Ag. Msc. Elgin. 
(Riga). 

Chelonichthys minor, Ag. Msc. Elgin, (Riga.) 



Saurdides. 



Diplopterus afflnis, Ag. Rep. 1842. Gam- 
rie. 

Diplopterus borealis, Ag. Rep. 1842. Ork- 
ney. Stromness. 

Diplopterus macrocephalus, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
Lethen Bar. (Printsclika.) 

Platygnathus paucidens, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
Caithness. 

Platygnathus Jamesoni, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
Dura Den. 

Platygnathus minor, Ag. Rep. 1842. Dura 
"Den. 

Dendrodus latus, Ow. Ag. Rep, 1842. Mur- 
rayshire. 



Ag. Rep. 1842, 



Ag. Rep. 1842, 

Dendrodus bi- 
Murray- 



Dendrodus strigatus, Ow. 

Murrayshire. (Riga.) 
Dendrodus sigmoideus, Ow. 

Murrayshire. 
Lamnodus biporcatus, Ag. 

porcatus, Ow. Ag. Rep. 1842. 

shire. (Riga.) 
Lamnodus Panderi, Ag. Dendrodus com- 

pressus (s. hastatus), Ow. Ag. Rep. 

1842. MuiTayshire. (Riga.) 
Cricodus incurvus, Ag. Dendrodus ineur- 

vus, 0%o. Ag. Rep. 1842. Murray- 
shire. (Riga.) 
Megalichthys priscus, Ag. Msc. Orkney. 



Ccelacanihes. 



Holoptychius giganteus, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
(Coelacauthus s. Gyi-olepis giganteus.) 
Glammis. Gamrie. Clashbennie. 

Holoptychius Flemingii, Ag. Rep. 1842. 
Dura Den. 

Holoptychius nobihssimus, Ae/. Rep. 1842. 
Alurch. Sil. Syst. p. 599. t. 2 bis. f. 1-4, 
8, 9 .' Clashbennie. (Printschka.) 

Holoptychius Andersoni, Ag. Msc. Dura Den. 

Holoptychius Murchisoni, Ag. Msc. Clash- 
bennie. 



Glyptosteus favosus, Ag. Msc. Elgin. (Print- 
schka.) 

Glyptosteus reticulatus, Ag. Msc. Clashben- 
nie. Elgin. (Printschka.) 

Phyllolepis concentricus, Ag. Msc. Clash- 
bennie. 

Glyptolepis elegans, Ag. Rep. 1842. Gam- 
rie. 

Glj'ptolepis leptopterus, Ag. Rep. 1842. Le- 
then Bar. 



CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. 

I. Placoides. 

Ichthyodorulithes, 

Onchus sulcatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 8. 1. 1. f. 6. Onchus hamatus, Ag. P, foss. iii. p. 9. t. 1, 
Ichthyodoruhthes Bristoliensis, Buckl. f. 7, 8. Blackrock. 

Si Be la B. (Msc.) Black Rock, Bris- Onchus rectus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. Ar- 
tol. magb. 

o 2 



196 



REPORT — 1843. 



Onchiis plicatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. Ar- 
magh. 

Onchus falcatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. Ar- 
magh. 

Onchus subulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. 
Rhuabon. 

Ctenacanthus major, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 10. 
t. 4. Bristol. 

Ctenacanthus teuuistriatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 
p. 11. t. 3. f. 7-11. Bristol. Gorstley 
Rough. 

Ctenacanthus brevis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 11. t. 2. 
f. 2. Ichthyodorulithes brevis, Buckl. i^' 
De la B. (Msc.) Bristol. Armagh. 

Ctenacanthus heterogyrus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 
p. 177. Annagh. 

Ctenacanthus arcuatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. 
Armagh. 

Ctenacanthus crenulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 
177. Armagh. 

Ptychacanthus sublsevis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 23. 
t. 5. f. 1-3. Burdie House. 

Sphenacanthus serrulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 
24. 1. 1. f. 11-13. Burdie House. 

Asteroptjchius ornatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 1 76. 
Armagh. 

Asteroptychius Portlockii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 
176. Ireland. 

Physonemus subteres, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 176. 
Armagh. 

Gvracanthus formosus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 1 7. 
t. 5. f. 4-8. /fiW. Tr. Ed. Roy. Soc. xiii. 
Smv. Zool. Journ. ii. t. 8. Burdie House. 
Dudley. Newcastle. Rhuabon. Sun- 
derland. Alnmck. Burnt Island. 



Gyracanthus tuberculatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 19. t. la. f. 1-7. Sunderland. 
Gyracanthus Alnvicensis, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 19. t. la. f. 8. Ichthyodorulithes Aln- 

viceasis, Buckl. i^' De la B. (Msc.) Aln- 
wick Castle. 
Gyi'acanthus ornatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. 

North Wales. 
Oracanthus Milleri, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 13. t. 3. 

f. 1-4. Ichthyodorulithes curvicostatus, 

BucM. ^- De la B. (Msc.) Bristol. 
Oracanthus minor, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 16. t. 3. 

f. 5, 6. Bristol. Armagh. 
Oracanthus pustulosus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 15. 

t. 2. f. 3, 4. Bristol. 
Oracanthus confluens, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. 

Armagh. 
Lepracanthus Colei, Egert. Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 177. Rhuabon. 
Leptacanthus priscus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 176. 

Armagh. 
Tristychius arcuatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 22. 

t. la. f. 9-11. Greenside near Glasgow. 
Cladacanthus paradoxus, ^(/. P. foss. iii. p.l 76. 

Armagh. 
Cricacanthus Jonesii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 176. 

Armagh. 
Orthacanthus cylindricus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 330. t. 45. f.'7-9. Leeds. 
Pleuracanthus laevissiraus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 66. t. 45. f. 4, 5. Dudley. 
Pleuracanthus planus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 177. 

Leeds. 
Pleuracanthus cylindricus, Eyer/. Msc. North 

Wales. 



Cestraciontes. 



Orodus cinctus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 96. 1. 11. 

f. 1-4. Bristol. 
Orodus ramosus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 97. 1. 11. 

f. 5-9. Bristol. 
Helodus simplex, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 104. 1. 19. 

f. 8-10. N.Stafford. Coalbrook Dale. 
Helodus Ijevissimus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 104. 

1. 14. f. 1-15. (Psammodus laevissimus.) 

Bristol. 
Helodus subteres, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 105. 1. 12. 

f. 3, 4. (Psammodus subteres.) Bristol. 
Helodus gibberulus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 106. 

1. 12. f. 1, 2. (Psammodus gibberulus.) 

Bristol. 
Helodus tiu-gidus, .^^. P. foss. iii. p. 106. 1. 15. 

f. 1-12. (Psammodus turgidus.) Bris- 
tol. Armagh. 
Helodus mitratus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 173. 

Carluke. 
Helodus didymus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 173. 

Armagh. 
Helodus mammillaris, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 173. 

Annagh. 
Helodus planus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 173. Ar- 
magh. 
Chomatodus cinctus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 107. 

t. 15. f. 13-21. (Psammodus cinctus.) 

Bristol. 
Chomatodus lineaiis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 108. 



t. 12. f. 5-13. (Psammodus linearis.) 

Bristol. 
Chomatodus truncatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Cochliodus contortus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 115. 

1. 19. f. 14; 1. 14. f. 16-33. (Psammodus 

contortus.) Bristol. Armagh. Clifton. 
CochUodus magnus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Cochliodus oblongus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Cochliodus acutus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
CochUodus striatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Psammodus rugosns, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 111. 

1. 12. f. 14-18 ; 1. 19. f. 15. Con. ^ Ph. 
Geol. vi. p. 356. Dens tritor rugosus, 
Mill. Cat. Mus. Brist. Bristol. Armagh. 
Easky. (Eifel.) 

Psammodus porosus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 112. 

1. 13. f. 1-18. Bristol. Armagh. 
Psammodus cornutus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Psammodus obtusus, Ag. Msc. Stafford. 
Poecilodus Jonesii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Poecilodus parallelus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 



FOSSIL FISHES, 



197 



PcEcilodus transversus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 1 74. 

Armagh. 
Poecilodus obliquus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. Carluke. 
Poecilodus sublaevis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Pcecilodus angustus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Carluke. 
Pleurodus affinis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Rhuabon. Carluke. 
Pleurodus Rankinei, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Carluke. 
Ctenoptychius apicalis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 99. 

1. 19. f. 1, la. Stafford. Manchester. 
Ctenoptychius pectinatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 

100. 1. 19. f. 2-4. Burdie House. Man- 
chester. 
Ctenoptychius denticulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 101. t. 19. f. 5-7. Bui-die House. 

Manchester. 
Ctenoptychius cuspidatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 173. Glasgow. 
Ctenoptychius dentatus, Ag. P. foss.iii. p.l73. 

Armagh. 
Ctenoptychius serratus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 173. 

Armagh. 
Ctenoptychius macrodus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

^' ' ■ S • Hybodontes 



Ctenoptychius crenatus, Ag. P.foss.iii. p.l73. 

Carluke. 
Ctenodus cristatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 137. 

1. 19. f. 16. Toiig neai- Leeds. 
Ctenodus Robertsoni, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Burdie House. 
Ctenodus alatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. Ai-d- 

wick. 
Ctenodus Murchisoni, Ag. Msc. Botwood. 
Petalodus acuminatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Chematodus acuminatus, Ag. 1. c. p. 108. 

t. 19. f. 11-13. Durham. Yorkshire. 

Glasgow. 
Petalodus Hastingsise, Ow. Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 174. Armagh. 
Petalodus psittacinus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Petalodus lavissimus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Petalodus rectus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. Ar- 
magh. 
Petalodus radicans, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174, 

Armagh. 
Petalodus mai-ginalis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 
Petalodus sagittatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

Armagh. 



Cladodus acutus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 199. t. 226. 

f. 21. Laughgal. 
Cladodus Hibberti, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 200. 

t. 22J. f. 25. Burdie House. 
Cladodus parvus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 200. t. 22S. 

f. 26, 27. Burdie House. 
Diplodus gibbosus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 204. 
t. 22*. f. 1-5. Edinburgh. Carluke. 
Derbyshire. North Stafford. 
Diplodus minutus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 205. 
t. 22*. f. 6-8. Bui-die House. 
Sqiialides. 
Carcharopsis prototypus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 313. Yorkshire. Armagh. 
II. Ganoides. 



Cladodus mirabilis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 197. 

t. 22*. f. 9-13. Bristol. Armagh. 
Cladodus striatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 197. 

t. 22*. f. 14-17. Armagh. 
Cladodus marginatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 198. 

t. 22*. f. 18-20. Armagh. 
Cladodus MiUeri, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 199. t.22*. 

f. 22, 23. Bristol. 
Cladodus conicus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p.l99. t.22*. 

f, 24. Bristol. 



Lepiddides. 



Acanthodes sulcatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 125. 
t. le. f. 1, 2. New Haven. 

Amblypterus nemopterus, ^^r.P.foss.ii.p.lO?. 

t.4*.f.l,2. Wardie. New Haven. Incli- 

keith. 
Amblypterus punctatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 109. 

t. 4e. f. 3-8. New Haven. 
Amblypterus striatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 111. 

t. 4*. f. 3-6. Rep. of Brit. Assoc, for 

1834, p. 76. New Haven. 
Palseoniscus carinatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 104. 

t. 4c. f. 1 , 2. Rep. of Brit. Assoc, for 1834, 

p. 76. New Haven. 
PalKoniscusEgertoni, Ag.Msc. Staffordshire. 
Paljeoniscus Monensis, Egert. Msc. Anglesea. 



Palseoniscus ornatissimus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p.92. 

t. 10a. f. 5-8. Burnt Island. Biu-die 

House. 
Pal^oniscus Robisoni, Hibb. Tr. Edinb. Roy. 

Soc. xiii. t. 6. f. 7 ; t. 7. f. 3. Ag. P. foss. 

ii. p. 88. t. 10a. f. 1, 2. Burdie House. 
Palseoniscus striolatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 91. 

t. 10a. f. 3, 4. Hibb. Tr. Edinb. Roy. Soc. 

xiii. t. 6. f. 6; t. 7- f. 1. Burdie House. 
Eurynotus crenatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 154. 

t. 14a, 14*. Burdie House. 
Em-ynotus fimbriatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 157. 

t. 14e. f. 1-3. New Haven. 
Platysomus parvulus, Ag. Msc. Leeds. 
Plectrolepis rugosus, Ag. Msc. Carluke. 



Sauro'ides. 



Megalichthys Hibberti, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 87. 
t. 63, 64. Bron, Leth, ii. p. 129. 1. 10. 



f. 8. Burdie House. Newcastle. North 
Stafford. Leeds. Glasgow. Carluke. 



198 



REPORT — 1843. 



■Megalictthys tnaxillaris, Ag. Msc. Leeds. 
Diplopterus carbouarius, Ag. Msc. Leeds. 
Diplopterus Robcrtsoni, Ag. Msc. Burdie 

House. 
Pygopterus Biicklandi, Ag. P. foss. ii. part 2. 

p. 77. Biirdie House. 
Pygopterus Jamesoni, Ag. P. foss. ii. part 2. 

p. 78. Burdie House. 

Ccelacanthes. 



Pygopterus Greenockii, Ag. P. foss. ii. part 2. 

p. 78. New Haven. 
Acrolepis acutirostris, Ag. Msc. Carluke. 
Orognathus conidens, Ag. Msc. Carluke. 
Graptolepis ornatus, Ag. Msc. Carluke. 
Pododus capitatus, Ag. Msc. Carluke. 



Coelacanthus Phillipsii, Ag. P. foss. ii. Hali- 
fax. 

Coelacanthus lepturus,^^.Msc. Leeds. Man- 
chester. 

Holoptychius Hibberti, Ag. P. foss. ii. (Rhi- 
zodus, Oiv.) Burdie House. 

Holoptychius sauroides, Ag. Msc. Edin- 
burgh. Leeds. 

Holoptychius falcatus, Ag. Msc. Greenside 
near Glasgow. 

Holoptychius Portlockii, Ag. Msc. Ire- 
land. 



Holoptychius Garneri, March. Sil. Syst. p. 

474. Lanesfield. 
Holoptychius granulatus, Ag. Msc. Rhua- 

bon. North Stafford. 
Holoptychius striatus, Ag. Msc. (Megalich- 

thys.) (Millst. Gr.) Edinburgh. 
Holoptychius minor, Ag. Msc. Leeds. North 

Stafford. 
Hoplopygus Binneyi, Ag. Msc. Manchester. 
Uronemus lobatus, Ag. Msc. Biurdie House. 
Phyllolepis tenuissimus, Ag. Msc. Burdie 

House. 



PERMIAN SYSTEM. 

I. Placoides. 
IchthyodoruUthes. 

GjTopristis obliquus, ^y. P. foss. iii. p. 177. (C. magn.) Belfast. 

II. Ganoides. 



Lepiddides. 



Palffioniscus comtus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 97. 
1. 104. f. 1-3. Palaeothrissum magnum, 
Geol. Tr. (S. 2.) iii. t. 8. f. 1, 2. Pate- 
othr. macrocephalum, Ibid. t. 9. f. 2. 
(C. magn.) East Thickley. Midderidge. 
Darlington. Clar. Railw. West Bolden. 
Houghton. Whitley. Rushyford. 

PalKoniscus elegans, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 82, 95. 
1. 106. f. 4, 5. Scdgw. Geol. Trans. (S. 2.) 
iii. t.9.f. 1. (Pala;othrissum.) (C.magn.) 
East Thickley. Midderidge. Darling- 
ton, &c. 

Palaeoniscus glaphyrus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 98. 
t. 10c. f. 1, 2. (C. magn.) Midderidge. 
East Thickley. Darlington. Clar. Rail- 
way. West Bolden. Houghton. Whit- 
ley and Rushj'ford. Ferry Hill. 

Palseoniscus longissimus, Ag.V. foss. ii. p.lOO. 
t. lOe. f. 4. (C. magn.) East Thickley. 

Sauroides. 



Midderidge. Darlington. Clar. Rail- 
way. West Bolden. Houghton, &c. 

Palfeoniscus macrophtlialmus, Ag. P. foss. ii. 
p. 99. t. 10c. f. 3. (C. magn.) East Thick- 
ley. Midderidge. Darlington. Clar. 
Railway. West Bolden. &c. 

Platysomus macrurus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 1 70. 
1. 18. i. 1, 2. Sedgw. Geol. Tr. (S. 2.) iii. 
1. 12. f. 1, 2. Uropteryx undulatus, Ag. 
Msc. 7TafcA.Geol.p.270. East Thickley. 

Platysomus parvus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 170. t.l8. 
f. 3. Clanny, Ann. of Phil. vi. p. 115 
(Chaetodou). Winch. Geol. Tr. iv. t. 2. 
(C. magn.) Low Pallion, Northumb. 

Platysomus striatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 168. 
t. 17.f. 1-4. Uroptervx striatus, ^jr.JIsc. 
Walchn. Geol. p. 720. Sadaw. Geol. Tr. 
(S. 2.) iii. 1. 12. f. 3, 4. (C. magn.) Ferry 
Hill. Wliitlev. Durham. 



Acrolepis Sedgwickii, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 11. 

t.52. Geol.Tr. (S.2.)iii.t.8.f.3. Bron. 

Leth. ii. p. 120. t. 10. f. 6. (C. magn.) 

East Thickley. Ferry HiU. 
Pygopterus mandibularis, Ag. P. foss. ii, p.lO. 

t. 53, 53a. Geol. Tr. (S. 2.) iii. t. 10. 



f.1-3. Nemopteryx mandibularis, s. Sau- 
ropsis scoticus, Ag. (Anc. Cat.) P. sco- 
ticus, Ag. Bron. Leth. ii. p. 128. (C. 
magn.) East Thickley. Fcriy Hill. 
Pygopterus sculptus, Ag. P. foss. ii. part 2. 
p. 77. (C. magn.) 



Ccelacanthes. 



Coelacanthus granulatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 62. 
ley. 



(C. magn.) Durham, Feriy Hill, East Thick- 



FOSSIL FISHES. 



199 



TRIASIC SYSTEM. 

I. PLACOifDES. 



Hyboiius minor, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 48. t. 8i 
f. 2, 3. (p. 183. t. 23. f. 21-24.) (Boneb.) 
Bristol. Austcliff. Westbury. Pyrton- 
on-Severn. 

Nemacanthus monilifer, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 26. 
t.7.f.lO-15. (Boneb.)Bristol. Westbury. 



Ichthyodorulithes. 

Nemacanthus filifer, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 26. 

t. 7. f. 9. (Boneb.) Bristol. Austclifif. 

AVestbury. 
Leiacanthus (spec, ined.), Ag. Msc. (Boneb.) 

Austcliff. 



Acrodus minimus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 145. t. 22. 
f. 6-12. (Boneb.) Austcliff. Lyme Re- 
gis. Axmouth. 

Ceratodus latissimus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 131. 
t. 20. f. 8, 9. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 

Ceratodus curvus, Ay. P. foss. iii. p. 131. t. 20. 
f. 10. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 

Ceratodus planus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 132. t. 20. 
f. 6, 7. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 

Ceratodus parvus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 132. t. 20. 
f. 1. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 

Ceratodus emarginatus. Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 133. 



Cestraciontes. 

Ceratodus gibbus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 133. t. 20. 

f. 14, 15. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 
Ceratodus dsedaleus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 133. 

t. 20. f. 16. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 
Ceratodus alius, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 134. 1. 18. 

f. 1, 2; t. 20. f. 2-5. (Boneb.) Aust- 

cliff. 
Ceratodus obtusus, Ag. P. foss. m. p. 134. 

1. 19. f. 20, 21. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 
Ceratodus disauris, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 135. 

1. 19. f. 19. (C. bicornis, Feuil. p. 112.) 

(Boneb.) Austcliff". 



t. 20. f. 11-13. (Boneb.) Austcliff. 

Hybodontes. 
Hybodus minor, Ag. P. foss. iii. (p. 48. t. 8*. Bristol. Austcliff. Westbury. 

f. 2, 3.) p. 183'. t. 23. f. 21-24. (Boneb.) on-Severu. 

II. Ganoides. 
Lepiddides. 



Pyrton- 



Gyrolepis Albertii, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 173. 1. 19 
Bron. Leth. ii. p. 135. 1. 13. f. 8. (Gr. 
big.) Wickwarr near Bristol. (Boneb.) 
Axmoutb. (Mschk.Friderichshall. Rott- 
weil. Baireuth. Rietheim. Biberfeld. 
Rottenmiinster. Breslau. Vosges. 
Meurthe.) 

G\-rolepis maximus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 175. 

' t. 19. (Gr. big.) Wickwan-. (Mschk. 

Friderichshall. Rottenmiinster. Bi- 



berfeld. Baireuth. Breslau. Lune- 

\Tlle.) 
Gyrolepis tenuistriatus, Ag. P. foss. li. p. 

174. 1. 19. Alb. Monogr. p. 120. (Gr. 

big.) Wickwarr. (Boneb.) Axmouth. 

(Mschk. Rottweil. Biberfeld. Rietheim. 

Tubingue. Baireuth. Breslau. Luhe- 

ville. .. 

Palaeoniscus catopterus, Ag. P. foss. u. (N. 

Red.) Roan hill. 

Saurdides 



Saurichthys apicalis, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 12. 
Miinst. Beitr. i. p. 116. t. 14. f. 1, 2. 
Bron. Leth. ii. p. 185. (Boneb.) Ax- 
mouth. (Mschk. Baireuth. Laineck. 
Benk. Gottingen. Hildesheim. Jena.) 



Saurichthys acuminatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. (S. 

conicus ohm.) (Boneb.) Austcliff. 
Saurichthys longidens, Ag. P. foss. ii. (Bo- 

neb.)" Austchff. Pyrton-on-Severn. 



OOLITIC SYSTEM. 
I. Placoides. 
IchthyodorulitJies. 
Leptacanthus tenuispinus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. Nemacanthus brevispinus, Ag. Msc. 



27. t. la. f. 12, is. (Lias.) Lyme Re- 
gis- 

Leptacanthus semistriatus, Ag. P. foss. lu. 
p. 28. t. 7. f. 3-8. Ichthyodorulithes 
Stonesfieldensis, Buckl. ^ Be la B. (Gr. 
ool.) Stonesfield. 

Leptacanthus serratus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 29. 
t. 7. f. 1, 2. (? Gr. ool.) ? Stonesfield. 



. . „ (Gr. 

ool.) Stonesfield. 
Myriacanthus paradoxus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 

38. t. 6. Geol. Tr. (2nd series) i. p. 65. 

f. 1,2. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Myriacanthus retrorsus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 39. 

t. 8a. f. 14, 15. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Myriacanthus granidatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 

40. t. 8a. f. 16. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 



200 



REPORT — 1843. 



Asteracanthus Stutchburyi, Ag. P, foss. iii. 
p. 177. (Lias.) Charmouth. 

Asteracanthus acutus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 23. 
t. 8a. f. 1-3. (Up. Cornbr.) Castle Miles. 

Asteracanthus minor, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 33. 
t. 8a. f. 4-6. (Ool.) 

Asteracanthus semisulcatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 
p. 34. t. 8a. f. 7-10. Ichthyodorulithes 
Purbecensis, B.i^-Z>efaZ>. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. (Purb.) Swanwick. 

Asteracanthus ornatissimus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 
p. 31. t. 8. Ichthyodorulithes Hcdding- 
tonensis, B. i^- De laB. A. ornatissimus, 
Bron. Leth. ii. t. 8. Gressly in Leonh. u. 
Br. N. Jalirb. 1836. p. 663. Fitt. Geol. 
Trans, iv. p. 367. (Kimm.) Shotover. 
Heddiugton. (Portl. Soleure.) 

Hybodus crassispinus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 48. 
t. M. f. 7. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 

Hybodus reticulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 50. 
t. 9. f. 1-9. (H. incurvus et curtus, Ag.) 
Con. Sc Ph. Geol. ^^. p. 267. Geol. Tr. 
(2nd series) i. t. 4. f. 7-10 ; t. 5. f. 3, 4. 
Ichthvodorulithes Dorsetiensis, B. &(■ De 
la B. ' Bicckl. Geol. Miner, t. 27 d. f. c. 
1-4. Geol. Trans, (n. s.) iii. t. 9. (Lias.) 
LymeRegis. Neston. Keynsham. (Wilr- 
temberg.) 

Hybodus formosus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 51. t. 9. 
f. 10, 11. (H. speciosus, ornatus, gros- 
sispiuus.) (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 

Cesiracionfes. 



Hybodus ensatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 51. t. 9. 

f. 12. (H. crassus olim.) (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Hybodus marginalis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 43. 

t.lO.f. 18-21. (Ool.) Stonesfield. TU- 

gate. (Lias.) Keynsham. 
Hybodus crassus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 47. 1. 10. 

f. 23. (Ool. inf.) Rochnore Pits. (Ool. 

ferr. Wasseralfingen.) 
Hybodus apicalis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 43. 1. 10. 

f.22; p.l95.t.23.f.l6,20. (OoL)Stones. 

field. Tilgate. (Lias. )Lyme Regis. (Keup. 

Hildesheim). 
Hybodus dorsalis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 42. 1. 10. 

f. 1. (OoL) Stonesfield. Tilgate. ?Bath. 

Hastings. 
Hybodus leptodus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 44. 1. 10. 

f. 2, 3. (? Ool.) ? Shotover Hill. 
Hybodus striatulus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 44. t. Sb. 

f.l,la. Man#.Tilg.t.l0.f.4,6. (Weald.) 

Hastings. 
Hybodus acutus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 45. 1. 10, 

f. 4-6. (Kimm.) Shotover. 
Hybodus strictus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 45. 1. 10. 

f. 7-9. Portland. Purbeck. 
Hybodus subcarinatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 46. 

1. 10. f. 10-12. Geol. Tr. (n. s.) ii. t. 6. 

(Weald.) Tilgate. 
Pristacanthus Securis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 35. 

t.8a.f.ll-13. (Ool.) Stonesfield. (Caen.) 



Acrodus nobilis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 140. t. 21. 

Con. Sf Ph. Geol. i. p. 267. Geol. Tr. (n. s.) 

i. t. 4. f. 6. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Acrodus latus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 144. (Lias.) 

Lyme Regis. 
Acrodus gibbendus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 144. 

t. 22. f. 1, 3. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Acrodus undulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 144. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Acrodus Anningise, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 174. 

t. 22. f. 4. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Acrodus leioplem-us, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 145. 

t. 22. f. 5. (Ool.) Bath. ? Stonesfield. 
Acrodus Hirudo, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 148. t. 22. 

f. 27. (Weald.) Tilgate. 
Acrodus leiodus, Egert. Msc. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. 
Ceratodus PhiUipsii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 135. 

1. 19. f. 17. (Ool.) Stonesfield. 



Strophodus raagnus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 126. 

1. 18. f. 11-15. (Psammodus magnus, Ag, 

Msc). Luid. 1. 16. f. 1448, 1445, 1442. 

C. Prev. Ann. Sc. nat. iv. Nos. 10-14. 

(Gr. ool.) Stonesfield. Dundry. (C.jur. 

Ranville.) 
Strophodus tenuis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 127. 

1. 18. f. 16-25. (Gr. ool.) Stonesfield. 

Dundry. 
Strophodus radiato-piinctatus, ^f?. P. foss. iii. 

p. 128. 1. 18. f. 27. (Kellow. R.) 
Strophodus favosus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 175. 

(Gr. ool.) Stonesfield. 
Strophodus reticulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 123. 

t.l7. (Psammodus reticulatus.) (Kimm.) 

Shotover. 
Strophodus subreticvdatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 125. 1. 18. f. 5-10. (Ool. inf.) Dun- 
dry. (C. a Tort. Soleure.) 



Hyhodontes 

Hybodus reticulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 180. 

t. 24. f. 26 ; t. 22a. f. 22, 23. (Lias.) 

Lyme Regis. Neston. Keynsham. 
Hybodus pyramidaUs, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 182. 

t. 22a. f. 20, 21. (H. pachyprion et John- 

soni, Ag. Msc.) (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Hybodus medius, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 184. t. 24. 

f. 25. (H. homoprion, Ag. Msc.) (Lias.) 

Lyme Regis. 
Hybodus grossiconus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 184. 

t. 23. f. 25-41. (Gr. ool.) Stonesfield. 

(Weald.) Tilgate. (Ool. Caen.) 



Hybodus polyprion, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 185. 

t. 23. f. 1-15. (Ool.) Stonesfield ?Dun- 

drj'. (Caen.) 
Hybodus obtusus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 186. t. 23. 

f. 43, 44. (Ool.) Malton .' (Caen.) 
Hybodus raricostatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 187. 

t. 24. f. 24. (Ool.) Stonesfield? (Lias.) 

Bristol. 
Hybodus dubius, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 188. t. 22a. 

f. 8-10. (Purb.) Linksfield. 
Hybodus undulatus, Ag. P. foss. ui. p. 188. 

t. 22a. f. 1 1 . (Purb.) Linksfield. 



FOSSIL FISHES. 



201 



Sphenonchus elongatus, Ag. P. foss.iii. p. 202. 
t. 22a. f. 18, 19. (Weald.) Tilgate Forest. 

Sphenonchus Martini, Rob. Ag. P. foss. iii. 
p. 203. t. 22a. f. 15-17. (Portl.) Links- 
field. 



Hybodus carinatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 52. t. 9. 

f. 13, 14. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Sphenonchus hamatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 202. 

t. 22a. f. 12-14. (Onchus et Leiosphen 

ohm). BucM. Min. Geol. t. 27«?. f. 6, 7. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. 

Squalides. 

ThyeUina prisca, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 378. t. 39. Oxyrhina (Meristodon) paradoxa, Ag. P. foss. 
f. 1, 2. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. iii. p. 286. t. 36. f. 53-56. (Ool.) TUgate. 

jRaies. 



Arthropterus Rileyi, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 379. 

(Lias.) Bristol. 
Cyclarthrusmacropterus,^(/.P.foss.iii.p.382. 

t. 44. f. 1, (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Squalorajapolyspondyla,y^^.P.foss.iii.p.381. 



t. 42, 43. Squaloraja dolichognatha, Ri- 
ley, Proc. GeoL Soc. 1833. Lond. and 
Edinb. Phil. Journ. iii. p. 369. Spinaco- 
rhinus polyspondylus, Ag. T. cit. et Feuill. 
p. 94. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 



Chimerides. 



Chimaera (Ischyodon) emarginata, Egert. Ag. 

P. foss. iii. p. 345. (Ool.) Stonesfield. 
Chimaera (Ischyodon) Egertoni, Buckl. Proc. 

Geol. Soc. ii. p. 206. Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 

340. t. 40e. f. 1-10. (Kimm.) Shotover. 
Chimaera (Ischyodon) Townsendii, BucM. 

Proc. Geol. Soc. ii. p. 206. Ag. P. foss. 

iii. p. 343. t. 40. f. 20-22 ; t. 40c. f. 17, 

18. (Portl.) Great MUton. 
Chimasra (Ischyodon) Johnsonii, Ag. P. foss. 

iii. p. 344. t. 40e. f. 22. (Lias.) Char- 
mouth. 
Chimaera (Ganodus) Colei, Buc&l. Ag. P. 

foss. iii. p. 346. t. 40. f. 8-10. (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 
Chimaera (Ganodus) Owenii, BucM. Ag. P. 



foss. iii. p. 347. t. 40. f. 6, 7. (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 
Chimffira (Ganodus) rugulosa, Egert. Msc. 

Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 347. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. 
Chimaera (Ganodus) neglecta, Egert. Msc. 

Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 347. t. 40e, f. 11. (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 
Chimaera (Ganodus) curvidens, Egert. Ag. 

P. foss. iii. p. 348. 
ChimEera (Psittacodon) falcata, Egert. Msc. 

Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 349. t. 40e. f. 13. (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 
Chimaera (Psittacodon) psittacina, Egert. Msc. 

Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 350. t. 40c. f. 12. (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 



II. Ganoides. 
Lepiddides, 



Dapedius areuatus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Dapedius Colei, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 195. t. 255. 

f. 1-7. t. 25e. Dapedium poUtum, Cole 

(non De la B.) (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Dapedius granulatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 190. 

t. 25. f. 2-5, 6a, I. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Dapedius micans, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Whitby. 
Dapedius Orbis, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 218. t. 2bd. 

(Lias.) Barrow. Wlutby. 
Dapedius poUtus {Leach), De la B. Geol. Tr. 

(2nd ser.) i. t. 6. f. 1-4. Ag. P. foss. ii. 

p. 185. t. 25. f. 1, 6c. Kriig. Naturg. i. 

p. 219. Holl. Petref. p. 113. Woodw. 

p. 37. Goldf. ap. Deck. p. 419. Bron. 

Leth. ii. p. 484. (Lias.) LjTiic Regis. 
Dapedius punctatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 192. 

t. 25a ; t. 25. f. 6rf, 7, 8, 9. (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Tetragonolepis angulifer, ..^^r.P.foss. ii. p. 213. 

t. 23. (T. TraiUii, pp. 7, 214.) (Lias.) 

Stratford on Avon. 
Tetragonolepis confluens, Ag.V.io&%.n. p. 199. 

t. 23a. f. 1. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Tetragonolepis dorsalis, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 211. 

t.21.f.l,2; t.21a.f.l. (Lias.) Byrford. 
Tetragonolepis heteroderma, Ag, P. loss, ii. 



p. 206. t. 23e. f. 1. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 

(Boll.) 
Tetragonolepis Leachii, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 203. 

t. 2?>d, bis. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Tetragonolepis leiosomus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 202. 

t. 23a. f. 3. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Tetragonolepis mastodontus, Ag. P. foss. ii. 

p. 216. t. 23e. f. 3-5. Geol. Tr. (2nd se- 
ries) ii. t. 6. (Weald.) Hastings. 
Tetragonolepis monilifer, Ag.'P.ioss. ii. p.212. 

t. 21a. f. 2-5. (Lias.) Banwell. Ban-ow. 
Tetragonolepis ovalis, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 209. 

t. 21.f. 3. (Lias.) Whitby. (BoU.) 
Tetragonolepis phohdotus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 

207. t. 23e. f. 2. (Lias.) Lyme Regis, 

(BoU.) 
Tetragonolepis pustulatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 

201. t. 23c. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Tetragonolepis radiatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 201. 

t. 23a. f. 2. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Tetragonolepis speciosus,^^.P.foss. ii. p.l99. 

t. 236. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Tetragonolepis striolatus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Barrow. 
Centrolepis asper, Egert. Msc. (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Amblyurus macrostomuSj/^^r.P.foss.ii. p.220. 



202 



REPORT — 1843. 



t. 25c. Bron. Leth. ii. p. 284. (Lias.) 

LjTue Regis. Street. 
Semionotus rhombifer, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 228. 

t. 26a. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Lepidotus fimbriatus, Jff. P. foss. ii. p. 247. 

t. 335. (Dapediiis fimbriatus, Aff. Feuill. 

p. 9.) (Lias.) Lyme Regis. (C.jur. Ty- 
rol. .' Keup. Coburg.) 
Lepidotus Fittoni, Jff. P. foss. ii. p. 265. t. 30. 

f.4-6 (non ^fant.) ; t. 30a, 30*. (Weald.) 

TOgate. 
Lepidotus Gigas, Jg. P. foss. ii. p. 235. t. 28, 

29. Walchn. p. 628. GoUf. ap. DecJi. 

p. 419. £ron. Leth. ii. p. 486. Cyprinus 

Elvensis, DeBl. Ichth. p. 90. Krug. Natg. 

p. 214. //o«. p.l23. (Lias.) Northamp- 
ton. (BolL Elve. Mistelbach. Schwarz- 

bach. Banz. Altdorf.) 
Lepidotus latimanus, Egert. Msc. (Oxf. cl.) 

Chippenham. 
Lepidotus MantelUi, Ag. P.foss. ii. p. 262. t. 30. 

f.l0-15;t.30a.f.4-6;t.30S.f.2;t.30c.f. 

1-7. Man#.TiIg.t.5.f.3,4,15,16. Park. 

Org.Rem.iii.t.l8.f.l9. (Weald.) Tilgate. 
Lepidotus minor, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 260. t. 34. 

(Ool.) Stonesfleld. Purb. Portl. (HU- 

desheim.) 
Lepidotus rugosus, ^jr.P.foss.ii.p.246.t.33a. 

f. 1-8. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. Whitby. 
Lepidotus semiserratus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 240. 

t.29a,295. yoMn//,Geol.York.t.l6.f.7,8. 

(L. latissimus et umbouatus,^5r. I.e. p.8. 

? Palaeoniscus, Ag. 1. c. p. 82.) (Lias.) 

Whitby. Scarborough. Lottus, &c. 
Lepidotus serrulatus.^/i^.Msc. (Lias.)Barro\v. 
Lepidotus subdenticulatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p.9. 

t. 30. f. 4-6. L. Fittoni, Mant. (Hast. 

s.) Hastings. 
Lepidotus tuberculatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 256. 

t. 29c. f. 7. (Gr. ool.) Stonesfleld. 



Lepidotus undatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 245. t. 33. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. (Jur. .'Caen.) 
Lepidotus unguiculatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 251. 

t. 30. f. 7-9 ; t. 29c. f. I. Lepidosaurus, 

H. V. Meg. Palaeol. p. 208. Rupp. Ab- 

bild. u. Beschr. p. 11. t. 4. (L. maximus, 

Ag.) (Gr. ool.) Stonesfield. (Jur. So- 

lenhofen. Daitingen.) 
Pholidophorus Bechei, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 272. 

t. 39. f. 1-4. Geol. Tr. (2nd ser.) i. t. 7. 

f. 1. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Pholidophorus Flesheri, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 281. 

t. 37. f. 8. (Inf. ool.) Northampton. 
Pholidophorus Hastiugsije,/^y.P.foss.ii.p.284. 

t. 42a. f. 1. (Lias.) Banow. 
Pholidophorus latiusculus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p.9, 

287. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. (Seefeld.) 
Pholidophorus leptocephalus, Ag. P. foss. ii. 

p. 288. (Lias.) Street. 
Pholidophorus limbatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 9, 

282. t. 37. f. 1-5. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Pholidophorus minor, Ag^ P. foss. ii. p. 286. 

t. 42a. f. 5. (Gr. ool.) Stonesfleld. 
Pholidophorus onychius, Ag. P. foss. ii. p.274. 

t. .'^9. f. 5-7 (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Pholidophorus ornatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 280. 

t. 37. f. 6, 7. (Ool.) Purbeck. 
Pholidophorus Stricklaudi, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 

284. t. 42a. f. 3, 4. (Lias.) Barrow. 
Pholidophorus pachysomus, Egert. Msc. Ag. 

P. foss. ii. p. 288. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Pholidophorus crenulatus, Egert. l\Isc. Ag. 

P. foss. ii. p. 288. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Nothosomus octostychius, Ag. Msc. P. foss. 

ii. p. 294. (Lias.) Street. 
Ophiopsis dorsalis, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 291. t. 36. 

f. 5. (Ool. inf.) Northampton .' 
Ophiopsis penicillatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 290. 

t. 36. f. 2-4. (Ool.) Piu-beck. 



Saumides. 



Eugnathus Chirotes, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 574. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Eugnathus fasciculatus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Whitby. 
Eugnathus leptodus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Eugnathus raandibularis, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Lyme Regis. 
Eugnathus minor, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 58a. f. 1. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
EugnatlmsoperculariSjii^if.Msc. (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Eugnathus ornatus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Eugnathus orthostomus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 57«. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Eugnathus Pliilpotine, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 58. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Eugnathus polyodon, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 58a. 

f. 2. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Eugnathus scabriusculus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Lyme Regis. 
Eugnathus speciosus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 56. 

f. 1-6. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 



Eugnathus teniudens, Ag. P. foss. ii. (Lias.) 

Street. 
Ptycholepis BoUensis, Ag. P. foss.ii. p.ll. t.D. 

f. 2 Bron. Leth. ii. p. 488. t. 24. f. 8. 

(Lias.) Lyme Regis. Whitby. (Boll.) 
Conodus ferox, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Pachycornuis acutirostris, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Wliitljy. 
Pachycormus curtus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 59. 

(Lias.) Whitby. 
Pachycormus gracilis, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 12. 

(Uracus gracilis, ui/y.Cat.) (Lias.)Whitby. 

(Wiirtemberg.) 
Pachycormus lieteriu'us, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 58a. 

f. 4. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Pachycormus latipennis, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Lyme Regis. 
Pachycormus latirostris, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Whitby. 
Pachycormus latus, y^^r. Msc. (Lias.) Whitby. 
Pachycormus leptosteus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Lyme Regis. 
Pachycormus macrurus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 58a. 

f. 3. (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 



FOSSIL FISHES. 



203 



Caturus Bucklandi, Ag. Msc. 
Regis. 

Caturus pleiodus, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. 

Caturus augustus, Ag. Msc. (Pachycormus 
angustus olira.) (Portl.) Garsington. 

Thrissonotus Colei, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Lyme 
Regis. 
V. Amblysemius gracilis, Ag. Msc. (Ool.)North- 
ampton. 

Sauropsis latus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 11. (Lias.) 
? Lyme Regis. (Wiirtemb. Baden.) 

Sauropsis mordax,y^^.Msc. (Gr. ool.) Stones- 
field. 

Leptolepis Bronnii, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 13. Cy- 
priuus corypliEenoides, Bron. (Lias.) 
LjTiie Regis. (Neidingin. Baireuth. 
Caen, &c.) 



(Lias.) Lyme Leptolepis caudalis, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) liyme 



Leptolepis filipennis, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Street. 
Leptolepis macrophtlialmus, Egert. (Oxf. cl.) 

Cluppenham. 
Saurostomus (sp. ined.), Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

Lincolnshire. 
Aspidorlivnclius anglicus, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) 

\ATiitby. 
Aspidorhynchus euodus, Egert. Msc. (Oxf, 

cl.) Chippenham. 
Belonostomus acutus,^5'.Msc. (Lias.)Whitby. 
Belonostomus leptosteus, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 
Belonostomus tenellus, Ag. Msc. (B. Annin- 

giae olim.) (Lias.) Lyme Regis. 
Macrosemius brevirostris, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 



Ctenolepis Cyclus, Ag. Msc. 
field. 



Gyrodus Mantellii, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60a. f.l8. 

(Ool.) Tilgate. 
Gyrodus Cuvieri, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 16. t. 60a. 

f. 21-23. (Ool.) Sandfort. (Jui-. m. 

Boulogne.) 
Gyrodus radiatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60a. f. 20. 

(Ool.) Piu-beck. Stonesfield. (Caen.) 
Gyrodus trigonus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60a. f. 15. 

(Ool.) Stonesfield. 
Gyrodus umbihcus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p.l6. t. 60a. 

f. 27, 28. Bron. Leth. ii. p. 493. t. 25. 

f. 11. (Ool.) Stonesfield. (Diirrheim.) 
Gyrodus punctatus, Ag.Y. foss. ii. t. 69a. f. 24. 

(Ool.) Malton. 
Sphaerodus Gigas, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 15. Merc. 

De Buf. p. 184. Barr. t. 2. n. 9. Brilck. 

Ep. 64. t. 1. no. 6, 7. }Park. Org. Rem. 

iii. t.l9. f. 6. (Ool.) Stonesfield. (Kim.) 

Shotover. (Jur. sup. Suisse.) 
Sphajrodus microdon, Ag. Msc. (Lias.) Lyme 

Regis. 
Sphaerodus minor, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. 
Gvronchus oblongus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60a. 

f. 10, 11. (Scaphodus olim.) (Ool.) 

Stonesfield. 
Microdon radiatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 59c. f. 1 , 2. 

(Ool.) Stonesfield. Purbeck. 
Microdon trigonus, Ag. Msc. (Pycnodus.) 

(Ool.) Stonesfield. 
Periodus marginalis,^(/.Msc. (Ool.)Diindry? 

Stonesfield ? 

Acipenserides. 
Chondrosteus acipenseroides, Ag. Msc. 



Ccelacanthes. 

(Ool.) Stones- Gyrosteus mirabilis,//^.Msc. (Lias.) Whitby. 
Lyme Regis. 
Pycnodontes. 

Pycnodus Bucklandi, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 16. t. 
72a. f. 15-22. Prev. Ann. Sc. uat. xviii. 
no. 8. Brm. Leth. ii. p. 494. t. 25. f. 3. 
(Ool.) Stonesfield. (Caen.) 

Pycnodus didymus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 72a. f. 24, 
25. (Ool.) Stonesfield. 

Pvcnodus Hugii, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 17. t. 72a. 
f. 49-54. (Ool.) Stonesfield. (Jur. So- 
leure. Portl. Le Banne. Villars.) 

Pvcnodus latirostris, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. 

Pycnodus Mantellii, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 72a. f. 
6-14. Tl/anMng. 1. 17. f. 26,27. ( = P. 
microdon, Ag. 1. c. p. 17.) (Ool.) Tilgate. 
Sussex. (Ratisbonne.) 

Pycnodus obtusus, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. 

Pycnodus ovalis, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 72a. f. 5. 
(Ool.) Stonesfield. 

Pycnodus parvus, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) Stones- 
field. 

Pycnodus rugulosuSj^^^'.P.foss. ii. t. ?2a. f.23. 
(Ool.) Stonesfield. Northampton. 

Pycnodus tristychius, Ag. Msc. (F. marble.) 

Pvcnodus umbonatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 16. 
t. 72a. f. 1-4. (Ool.) Stonesfield. York- 
shu-e. (Jur. m. Normaudie.) 

Pycnodus biserialis, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) Little 
Gibraltar near Oxford. 

Pycnodus discoides, Ag. Msc. (Ool.) Little 
Gibraltar near O.vford. 



(Lias.) Lyme Regis. 



CRETACEOUS SYSTEM. 

I. Placoides. 

Ichthyodorulithes. 



Ptychodus acutus, Egert. Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 
177. (Gault.) Folkstone. 



Ptvchodus spectabilis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 57. 
t. 10a. f. 1,3. (Cr.) Lewes. 



204 



REPORT — 1843. 



Ptj-chodus gibberulus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 58. 

t. 10a. f. 4. (Cr.) Lewes. 
Ptychodus arcuatus, Ay. P. foss. iii. p. 58. t. 

10a. f. 2. (Cr.) Lewes. 
Ptychodus articulatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 58. 

t. 10a. f. 5, 6. (Cr.) Lewes. 



Hybodus sulcatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 44. t.lOS. 

f. 15, 16. (Cr.) Lewes. 
Chimaera (Psittacodon) Mantellii, Buckl. Proc. 

Geol. Soc. ii. p.206. Ag. P. foss. iii. p.348. 

t. 40a. f. 1, 2. (Cr. bl.) Kent. 
Spinax major, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 62. t. lOJ. f. 8 

-14 ; t. 40a. f. 6-8. (Cr.) Lewes. 
Cestraciontes. 



Ptychodus mammiUaiis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p.l51. 

t. 25*. f. 11-20. Park. Org. Rem. iii. t. 

18. f. 12. Mant. South. D. t. 32, 39, 40. 

?Pt. Knorrii, Sternb. Verb. Nat. Mus. 

Bohm. 1 829. 1. 1 . f. 5. (Cr. bl.) Sussex. 

Kent. (Cr. Paris. Quedlinburg. Bel- 

luno. ]3ennatek. Delaware. Plan. 

Strehla.) 
Ptychodus decurrens, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 154. 

t. 25*. f. 1-8. (Cr.) Sussex. (Passy. 

Bennatek. Belluno. Mount Saint Ca- 
therine. Gr. V. Bocknm. Ratisbon. 

Quedlinburg.) 
Ptychodus altior, Ag. P. foss. iii. p.l55. t. 25*. 

f. 9, 10. Mant. South. D. t. 32. f. 17, 21, 

27. (Cr.) Sussex. 
Ptychodus polygyrus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 156. 

t.25*. f.21-23; t.25. f.4-11. Park.Oig. 



Rem. iii. 1. 19. f. 18. Bruckm. Ep. 64. t. 

4. no. 5. Mant. South. D. t. 32. f. 23, 24. 

(Cr.) Sussex. Kent. Cambridge. (Bel- 

gique.) 
Ptychodus latissimus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 157. 

t. 25a; t. 25*. f. 24-26. Mant. t. 32. f. 19. 

Pt. Schlotheimii, Miinst. (Cr.) Sussex. 

(Belgique. Bockimi. Belluno. Benna- 
tek.) 
Acrodus transversus, Ag. P. foss. iii. (oublie 

dans le texte) 1. 10*. f. 4, 5. (Cr. bL) 

Lewes. 
Strophodus asper, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 128*. t. 

10*. f. 1-3. (Psammodus asper). (Cr.bl.) 

Lewes. 
Strophodus sulcatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 176. 

(Gr. V.) Maidstone. 



Squalides. 

Scylliodus antiquus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 378. 
t. 38. (Cr.) Kent. Burham. 

Notidanus microdon, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 221. 
t. 27. f. 1 ; t. 36. f. 1, 2. (Cr.) Sussex. 
Kent. Cambridge. (Quedlinburg.) 

Notidanus pectinatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 221. 
t. 36. f. 3. (Cr.) Angleterre. 

Corax falcatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 226. t. 26a. 
f.1-15; t. 26. f.l4. (Galeus pristodontus). 
(Cr. bl.) Brighton. Kent. (Cr. Qued- 
linburg. PI. Strehla.) 

Otodus appendiculatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 270. 
t. 32. f. 1-25. (Cr.) Sussex. Kent. Cam- 
bridge. (Gaiilt.) Speeton. (Cr. Maas- 
tricht. Aix-la-Chapelle. Delaware. Nor- 
mandie. Gr. v. Essen. Quedlinbm'g. 
Plan. Strehla, &c. 

Oxyrhina MantelUi, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 280. t. 
33.f.l-9.(Lamna crassissima olim.) (Cr.) 
Sussex, &c. „, . , . , 

Chimerides. 



Lamna acuminata, ^^. P. foss. iii. p. 292. t. 37a. 

f. 54-57. Mant. Geol. Suss. t. 32. f. 1. 

(Squalus cornubicus.) Cceloptycliium 

acaule, Goldf. Petr. Germ. i. p. 220. t. 65. 

f. 12. Ag. in Leon. u. Br. Jahrb. 1834. 

p. 382. Bron. Leth. ii. p. 743. t. 27. f. 24. 

(Cr. bl.) Kent. Sussex. Yorkshire. (Gr. 

V.) Prewsey. (Cr. Maastricht. Qued- 

linbiu-g. Aix-la-Chapelle. Amerique 

Nord. Plan. Saxe.) 
Lamna (Odontaspis) raphiodon, Ag. P. foss. 

iii. p. 296. t. 37a. f. 11-16. Bron. Leth. 

ii. p. 744. Squalus rhapliiodon, Ag. (Coll. 

Bron.) Squale Roussette, Fauj. Mt. St. 

Pien-e, p. 110. 1. 18. f. 2. (Cr. bl.) Lewes. 

(Delaware. Gr. v. Ratisboune.) 
Lamna (Odontaspis) subulata, Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 296. t. 37a. f. 5-7. (Gr. v.) Bognor. 

(Ratisbonne. Cr. mam. Quedlinburg.) 



Chimaera (Ischyodon) Agassizii, Buckl. Proc. 

GeoL Soc. ii. p. 206. Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 

341. t. 40a. f. 3-5 ; t. 40e. f. 14-16. (Gr. 

V.) Maidstone. 
Chimfera (Ischyodon) brewostris, Ag.V. foss. 

iii. p. 344. (Gault.) Folkstone. 
Chimaera (Ischyodon) Gigas, Egert. Msc. 

(Cr.) Sussex. 



Chimaera (Psittacodon) ManteUii, Buckl. Proc. 

Geol. Soc. p. 206. Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 348. 

t. 40a. f. 1, 2. (Cr. bl.) Kent. 
Chimaera (Psittacodon) Sedgwickii, Ag. P. 

foss. iii. p. 349. t. 40. f. 17, 18. (Cr.) 

Cambridge. 



II. Ganoides. 

Lepiddides. 

Lepidotus punctulatus, Ag. Msc. (Cr.) Biu-ham. Kent. 

Saurdides. 
Caturus similis, Ag. P. foss, ii. t. 66a. f. 9. (Cr.) Lewes. 



FOSSIL FISHES. 



205 



Codacanthes. 



Macropoma Mantellii, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 65a, 
65i, 65e, 65(7. Bron. Leth. ii. Amia 
Lewesiensis, Mant. Geol. Suss. t. 38, 37. 
(Coprol.) t. 9. f. 5-11. Geol. Tr. iii. p. 
207. Geol. S. E. Engl. p. 142. 377. (Cr. 

Pycnodontes, 

Acrotemnus Faba, Ag. P. foss.ii. t. 66a. f. 16 

-18. (Cr.) Lewes. 
Gyrodus angustus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 66a. f. 14, 

15. (Cr.) Lewes. Maidstone. 
Gyrodus cretaceus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60a. f. 13. 

(Cr.) Lewes. 
Gyrodus mammillaris, Ag, P. foss. ii. t. 73. 

f. 1, 2. (Sphaerodus mammillaris olim.) 

(Cr.) Clayton. (Cr. bl.) Lewes. 
Gyrodus minor, Ag. P. foss. ii. p. 16. t. 60a. 

f. 14. Phill. Geol. York. (Speet. cl.) 

Yorkshire. 



bl.) Lewes. (Cr.) Sussex. Cambridge. 
Chimay. 
MacropomaEgertoni,.<f5'.Msc. (Gault.) Spee- 
ton. 



Pyenodus angustus, Ag. Msc. Fauj. 1. 19. f. 2. 

Burt. 1. 1. S. Lind. 1399. (Cr.bL) Kent. 

(Cr. Maiistr. Aix-la-Chapelle.) 
Pyenodus cretaceus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 72a. 

f. 60. (Cr. bl.) Kent. 
Pyenodus elongatus, Ag. Msc. (Cr. bl.) 

Lewes. 
Pyenodus minor, Ag. Msc. (Speet. cl.) Spee- 

ton. 
Pyenodus subclavatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 72a. 

f.59. (Cr. bl.) Kent. (Cr. Maestricht.) 
Sphserodus ^5'. Msc. (Cr.bl.) Lewes. 



ScUrodermes. 



Dercetis elongatus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 66a. f. 1 
-8. Bron. Leth. ii. Miu-aena Lewesi- 
ensis, Mant. Geol. Suss. t. 40. f. 2; t. 34. 



f.10,11. Geol. Tr. iii. p. 207. Geol. S. E. 
Engl. p. 377. (Cr. bl.) Lewes. Sussex. 



III. Ctenoides. 
Percdides. 



Beryx omatus, Ag. P. foss. iv. p. 115. t. 14a; 
t. 14i. f. 2 ; t. 14e. f. 1-6 ; 1. 14^. Zeus 
Lewesiensis, Mant. Geol. Suss. t. 34. f. 6; 
t. 35, 36. Geol. Tr. viii. p. 207. Geol. 
S. E. EngL p. 136, 377. (Cr. bl.) Sussex. 
Kent. (Continent. Boheme, &c.) 



Beryx radians, Ag. P. foss. iv. p. 118. t. 14e, 

f. 7-9 ; t. Ub. f. 7. (Cr, bl.) Lewes. 

Kent. 
Beiyx microcephalus, Ag. P. foss. iv. p. 119. 

1. 14*. f. 3-6 ; t. 14c. f. 10. (Cr.) Lewes. 

Kent. 



IV. CycLoi'DES. 



Hypsodon Lewesiensis, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 25a, 

25i. (Megalodon et Cladocyclus olim.) 

= H. sauroides, Ag. Mant. t. 42. f. 1-5 ; 

t. 33. f. 8. (Cr.) Lewes. 
Enchodus Halocyon, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 25e. 

f. 1-16. Esox Lewesiensis, Mant. Geol. 

Suss. t. 44. f. 1, 2 ; t. 33. f. 2-4 ; Geol. 

Trans, iii. p. 207 ; Geol. S. E. Engl. p. 

140, 377. (Cr.) Lewes. Sussex. Nor- 
folk. (Belgique. Maestricht. Amerique 

Nord.) 
Saxu^ocephalus lanciformis, Harl. J. Philad. 

iii. p. 331. t. 3. f. 1-5. (?S. cuneiformis.) 

Ag. P. foss. V. t. 25e. f. 21-29. Mant. 

Geol. Suss. t. 33. f. 7, 9. Brmvst. J. i. 

p. 382. Firms. Bull. iv. p. 32. Kriig. 

Urvv. Nat. ii. p. 253. i/o«. p. 91. Wagl. 

Syst. Amph. p. 140. Harl. Edinb. Phil. 

J. xviii. p. 28. H. v. Mey. Pal. p. 1 14, 222. 

5ro7j.Leth.ii.p.751. (Cr.)Lewes. (New 

Jersey.) 
Saurocephalus striatus, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 25c. 

f. 17-20. (Cr.) Lewes. (New Jersey.) 



Saurodon Leanus, Hays. Tr. Amer. Phil. Soc. 

1830. iii. p. 476. 1. 19. Ag. P. foss, v. 

t. 25c. f. 30, 31. Feruss. Bull. xxii. p. 

127. Leon. u. Br. Jahrb. xviii. p. 246. 

//. w. Afey. Pal. p. 114, 223. Ag.inL.u. 

Br. Jahrb. 1835. p. 107. Harl. Tr. Geol. 

Philad. i. Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. xviii. 

p. 28. Bron. Leth. ii. p. 752. (Cr. bl.) 

Lewes. (Amerique Nord.) 
Tetrapterus minor, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 60a. f. 9- 

13. (Cr. bl.) Lewes. 
Acrognathus hoops, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 60a. f. 1- 

4. (Cr.) Lewes. 

Aulolepis Typus, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 60a. f. 5-8. 

(Cr.) Clayton. Lewes. Burham. 
Osmeroides Lewesiensis, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 60J, 

60c. (Halec olim.) Salmo Lewesiensis, 

Mant. Geol. Suss. t. 40. f. 1 ; t. 33. f. 12 ; 

t. 34. f. 1-3. Geol. Tr. iii. p. 207. Geol. 

5. E. Engl. p. 138, 377. O. MantelU, 
Egert. Cat. (Cr.) Lewes. Sussex. 

Osmeroides grauulatus, Ag. Msc. (Cr. bl.) 
Lewes. 



906 



REPORT — 1843. 



TERTIARY SYSTEM. 
I. PlacoVdes. 



Ichthyodondithes. 

Mvliobaies toliapiciis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 331 

t. 47. f. 15-20; p. 331. t. 45. f. 21-23 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Mj'liobates Owenii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 331. t. 

45. f. 11-13. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Mvliobates acutus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p.331. t.45. 

f, 14-17. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 



Myliobates canaUculatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 331 . 

t. 45. f. 18-20. (Loud, cl.) Sheppy. 
Myliobates lateralis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 331. 

t. 45. f. 24-27. (Loud. cL) Sheppy. 
Myliobates niarginalis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 331. 

(Lond. cl.) Barton. Sheppy. 
ZvgobatesWoodwardii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 329, 

333. t. R. f. G, 7. (Crag.) Norfolk. 
Squalides. 



Notidanus serratissimus, ^(/.P.foss.iii.p.222. 

t. 36. f. 4, 5. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Glyphis hastalis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 244. t. 36. 

f. 10-13. (Lond. cL) 
Carcharodon toUapicus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 257. 

t. 30a. f. 14. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Carcharodon subserratus,y^y. P. foss. iii. p.260. 

t. 36. f. 14, 15. (Carcharias svibserratus, 

Ag. in Egert. Cat.) (Loud, cl.) Shej)py. 
Otodus obhqmis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 207. t. 31 ; 

t. 36. f. 22-27. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Otodus macrotus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 273. t. 32. 

f. 29-31. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. (C. gi-. 

Veteuil. Chaumont. Parme.) 
Lamna elegans, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 289. t. 35. 

f.l-7;t.37a.f.58,59. (Lond.cl.) Sheppy. 

(C. gr. Paris. Griguon. Dax. Bor- 
deaux, &c. ItaUe.) 



Raies. 



Lamua coujpressa, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 290. t. 3 7a. 

f. 35-42. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. (C. gi-. 

Chaumont.) 
Lamna (Odontaspis) Hopei, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 

293. t.37a.f. 27-30. (Lond.cl.) Sheppy. 
Lamna (Odontaspis) verticaUs, Ag. P. foss. 

iii. p. 294. t. 37a. f. 31, 32. (Lond. cl.) 

Sheppy. 
Lamua (Odontaspis) contortidens, Ag. P. foss. 

iii. p. 294. t. 37a. f. 17-23. (Crag.) An- 

gleten'e. (Mol. Suisse. Grav. Flonheim. 

C. mol. Thiengen.) 
Pristis bisulcatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 382*. t. 

41. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Pristis acutidens, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 382**. 

(Sabl.) Bagshot. 
Pristis Hastingsiae, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 382*. 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. Hampshire. 



Myliobates toliapicus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 321. 

t. 47. f. 15-20; p. 331. t. 45. f. 21-23. 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Myliobates goniopleurus, /?^. P. foss. iii. p. 3 1 9. 

t. 47. f. 9, 10. (Lond. el.) Sheppy. 
Myliobates Dixoni, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 319. 

(Lond. cl.) Sussex. 
Myliobates striatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 320. 

Buckl. Min. Geol. t. 21d. f. 14. (Lond. 

cl.) Sheppy. 
MyUobates punctatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 322. 

t. 47. f. 11, 12. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Myliobates gjTatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 323. 

t. 40. f. 1-3. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Myliobates jugahs, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 324. t. 

47. f. 13, 14. (.' M. heteropleuri, var.) 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 

Chimerides, 



Myliobates nitidus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 325. 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. Barton. 
Myliobates Colei, ^/?. P.foss.iii. p. 325. (Lond , 

cl.) Sheppy. 
Myliobates heteropleurus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 

323. t. 47. f. 6-8. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy ? 
Aetobatis irregularis, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 327. 

t. 47. f. 3-5. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. Sus- 
sex. 
Aetobatis subarcuatus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 328. 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. Barton. 
Zygobates Woodwardii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 329, 

333. t. R. f. 6, 7. (Crag.) Norfolk. 
Raja antiqua, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 371. t.37. f.33. 

(Crag.) Norfolk. 



Elasmodus Hunterii, Egert. Ow. Odontogr. 

p. 66. Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 350. (Lond. 

cl.) Sheppy. 
Edaphodon Bucklandii, Ag. P. foss. iii. p. 351, 

t. 40d. f. 1-4, 9-12, 19-24. Ed. latidens, 

Buckl. (Sabl.) Bagshot. 
Edaphodon euiygnathus,. /^.P.foss.iii. p. 352. 

(Lond. cl.) Sussex. 

II. Ganoides 



Edaphodon leptognathus, Ag. P. foss. iii. p.352. 

t. Md. f. 5-8, 13-18. Ed. angustidens, 

BucM. (Sabl.) Bagshot. 
Passalodon rostratus, Ag. P. foss. hi. p. 352. 

(Sabl.) Bagshot. 
Psaliodus compressus, Egert. Ag. P. foss. iii. 

p. 351. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 



Phyllodus irregularis, Ag. Msc. 
Sheppy. 



Pycnodontes. 

(Lond. cl.) Phyllodus medius, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) 
Sheppy. 



FOSSIL FISHES. 



207 



Phyllodus marginalis, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60a. 

f. 8-9. (Lond. cl.) 
Phyllodus planus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60fl. f. 4, 5. 

(Lond. cl.) 
PhvUodus polyodus, Ag, P. foss. ii. t. 60a. f. 6, 

7. (Lond. cl.) 
Phyllodus toliapicus, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 60a. f. 1 

-3. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 



Pycnodus toliapicus, Ag.V.io%%. ii. t. 72a. f.55. 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Periodus Koenigii, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 72«. f. 61, 

62. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Gyrodus lfe\ior, Ag. P. foss. ii. t. 69a. f. 12. 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Pisodus Oweni, Ag. Ow. Odont. p. 138. t. 47. 

(Lond. cl.) Hampshire. 



Acipenserides. 

Acipenser toliapicus, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 

Sclerodermes. 

Glyptocephalus radiatus, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 

III. Ctenoides. 

Scienoides. 

Scifenurus Bowerbankii, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Sciajnunis crassior, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 



CMtodontes. 
Platax Woodwaidii, Ag. P. foss. iv. p. 250. 1. 19. f. 3. 

IV. Cycloides. 
Scombero'ides. 



(Crag.) Norfolk. 



Cybium macroponium, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 26. 

f. 1-3. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Sphyra;nodus priscus, Ag. P. foss. v. (Dicty- 

odus, Ow.) t. 26. f 4-6. (Lond. cl.) 

Sheppy. 
Sphyrsenodus crassidens, Ag. Msc. (Lond. 

cl.) Sheppy. 
Hypsodon oblongus, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cL) 

Sheppy. 
Hjnpsodon toliapicus, Ag. Msc, (Lond. cl.) 

^^^^' Clupedides. 



Tetrapterus priscus, Ag. P. foss. v. t. 31. f. 1- 

3. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Goniognathus coryphajnoides, Ag. Msc. 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Goniognathus niaxillaris, Ag. Msc. (Lond, 

cl.) Sheppy. 
Coelorhynchus rectus, Ag, Msc. (Lond, cl.) 

Sheppy. 
Ccelorhynchus sinuatus, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl,) 

Sheppy. 



--Megalops priscus, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. - 

- Halecopsis laBvis, Ag, Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 

- Coelocephalus salmoneus, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 

Genera adhiie incertce sedis. 



CcelopomaColei,y^^.Msc. (Lond.cl.^ Sheppy. 
Coelopoma Iseve, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 
Brachygnathus tenuiceps, Ag. Msc. (Lond. 

cl.) Sheppy. 
Rhynchorhinus branchialis, Ag, Msc. (Lond. 

cl.) Sheppy. 
Pachycephalus cristatus, Ag, Msc. (Lond. 

cl.) Sheppy. 



Podocephalus nitidus, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) - 

Sheppy. 
Bothrosteus latus,^(/.Msc. (Lond.cl.) Sheppy. 
Bothrosteus brevifi-ons, Ag. Msc. (Lond. cl.) 

Sheppy. 
Rhinocephalus planiceps, Ag, Msc. (Lond, - 

cl.) Sheppy. 
Ampheristus toliapicus, Kiinig, Jeou, Sect, . 

(Lond. cl.) Sheppy. 



208 REPORT — 1843. 

Report on the British Fossil Mammalia. 
By Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S. 
Pait II. Ungulata. 
Order Pachydermata. 
Genus Elephas. 
When the science of fossil organic remains was less advanced than it is at 
present, when its facts and generalizations were new, and sounded strange 
not only to the ears of the unscientific but to anatomists and naturalists, the 
announcement of the former existence of animals in countries where the like 
had not been known within the memory of man, still more of species not 
known to exist in any part of the world, was received with distrust and 
doubt, and many endeavours were made to explain the former phaanomena 
by reference to known circumstances that might have led to the introduc- 
tion of tropical animals into temperate zones within the historical period. 
When Cuvier first announced the existence of Elephants, Rhinoceroses and 
Hippopotamuses in the superficial unstratified deposits of continental Europe, 
he was reminded of the Elephants that were introduced into Italy by Pyrrhus 
in the Roman wars, and afterwards more abundantly, and with the stranger 
quadrupeds of conquered tropical countries, in the Roman triumphs and games 
of the amphitheatre. Cuvier's minute anatomical distinctions, proving the 
disinterred fossils to have belonged to extinct species of Elephas, Hippopo- 
tamus, Rhinoceros, &c., were at first hardly appreciated, and, by some of his 
contemporaries, were explained away or dissallowed. Cuvier, therefore, ap- 
pealed with peculiar satisfaction to the testimonies and records of analogous 
Mammalian fossils in the British Isles, to the origin of which it was obvious 
that the hypothesis of Roman or other foreign introduction within the histo- 
rical period could not be made applicable. 

" If," says the founder of palaeontological science, " passing across the 
German Ocean, we transport ourselves into Britain, which, in ancient history, 
by its position, could not have received many living elephants besides that 
one which Caesar brought thither according to Polinaeus*; we shall, never- 
theless, find there fossils in as great abundance as on the continent." 

Cuvier then cites the account given by Sir Hans Sloane of an elephant's 
fossil tusk, disinterred in Gray's Inn Lane, oixt of the gravel twelve feet be- 
low the surface. Sir Hans Sloane had obtained also the molars of an elephant 
from the county of Northampton, which were found in blue clay beneath 
vegetable mould and loam, from 3 to 6 feet below the surface ; these spe- 
cimens were explained by Dr. Ciiper as having belonged to the identical 
elephant brought over to England by Ceesar ; but Cuvier remarks that too 
many similar fossils had been found in England to render that conjecture 
admissible. He then proceeds to quote the instances recorded at the period 
of the publication of the ' Ossemens Fossiles.' 

Dr. Buckland adds the weighty objection, that the remains of these Ele- 
phants are usually accompanied in England, as on the continent, by the bones 
of the Rhinoceros and Hippopotamus, animals which could never have been 
attached to Roman armies ; and I may add, that the natural historians of Ire- 
land, Neville and Molineux, made known in 1715 the existence of fossil molar 
teeth of the Elephant at Maghery, eight miles from Belturbet in the county of 
Cavan, and similar evidences of the Elephant have since been discovered in 
other localities of Ireland, where the armies of Caesar never set foot. Some 
other hypothesis must therefore be resorted to in order to explain these phse- 
uomena. 

* Lib. viii. c. 23. § 5. cited in Ossem. Fossiles, 4to, 1821, torn. i. p. 134. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 209 

Observation, which ought to precede all hypothesis, as it alone can form 
the basis of any sound one, has shown in the first place that the remains of 
the Elephants which are scattered over Europe in the unstratified supei-ficial 
deposits called ' Diluvium,' ' Drift,' ' Till,' ' Glacio-diluvium,' as well as those 
from the upper tertiary strata, are specifically different from the teeth and 
bones of the two known existing Elephants, the FAephas Indicus and El. 
Africanus. This fundamental fact, when first appreciated by Cuvier, who 
announced it in 1796, opened to him, he says, entirely new views of the 
theory of the earth, and a rapid glance, guided by the new and pregnant 
idea, over other fossil bones, made him anticipate all that he afterwards 
proved, and determined him to consecrate to this great work the future years 
of his life. 

The differences which the skull of the fossil Elephant presents as compared 
with the recent species are, the more angular form and relative shortness of 
the zygomatic processes ; the longer, more pointed and more curved form 
of the postorbital process ; the larger and more prominent tubercle of the la- 
chrymal bone ; the greater length of the sockets of the tusks ; the more parallel 
position of the right and left sockets of the grinders, making the anterior in- 
terspace and channel at the junction of the rami of the lower jaw proportion- 
ably wider than in the existing Elephants. Of the differences in the confor- 
mation of the skull above enumerated, I have verified the last-mentioned 
instance, taken from the lower jaw, by observation of English specimens ; 
they are well displayed in the lower jaw of a young Mammoth disinterred 
from a Pleistocene bed near Yarmouth in the county of Norfolk, and now in 
the possession of Mr. E. Stone, of Garlick Hill, London. 

This lower jaw shows also that the outer contour of one ramus meets that 
of the other at a more open angle than in the African or Asiatic Elephant, 
and that the symphysis itself, though acute at this period of life, is less pro- 
longed. In the older Mammoths the symphysis becomes obtuse ; were it 
otherwise, the prolonged alveoli of the fully-developed tusks would have in- 
terfered with the motion of the lower jaw. 

The difference between the extinct and existing species of Elephant in re- 
gard to the structure of the teeth, has been more or less manifested by every 
specimen of fossil elephant's tooth that I have hitherto seen from British 
strata, and those now amount to upwards of three thousand. Very few of 
them could be mistaken by a comparative anatomist for the tooth of an 
Asiatic Elephant, and they are all obviously distinct from the peculiar molars 
of the African Elephant. 

Cuvier, who had recognized a certain range of variety in the structure of 
the numerous teeth of the Mammoth from continental localities, found never- 
theless that the molars of the fossil Elephant were broader in proportion to 
their length or antero-posterior diameter than in the existing species ; that 
the transverse plates were thinner and more numerous in the fossil molars 
than in those of the Indian Elephant ; that a greater number of plates entered 
into the formation of the grinding surface of the tooth, and that the lines of 
enamel were less festooned ; but to this character there are exceptions, espe- 
cially in the large molars of aged individuals. 

Varieties. — Question of Species. 

The varieties to which the grinders of the different species of Elephants 
are subject in regard to the thickness and number of their plates, increase in 
the ratio of the average number of the plates which characterizes the molar 
teeth of the different species. Thus in the African Elephant, in which the 
lozenge-shaped plates are always much fewer and thicker than the flattened 

1843. V 



210 aEPORT — 1843. 

ones in the Indian species, the variation which can be detected in any number 
of the grinders of the same size is very slight. 

In the Asiatic Elephant, which, besides the difference in the shape of the 
plates, has always thinner and more numerous plates than the African one, 
a greater amount of vaination in both these characters obtains ; but it is 
always necessary to bear in mind the caution which Cuvier suggested to 
Camper, that a large molar of an old elephant is not to be compared with a 
small molar of a young one, otherwise there will appear to be a much greater 
discrepancy in the thickness of the plates than really exists iu the species ; 
and the like caution is still more requisite in the comparison of the molars of 
the Mammoth or fossil Elephant (^Elephas primigetiius), which, having nor- 
mally more numerous and thinner plates than in the existing Asiatic Elephant, 
present a much greater range of variety. 

Of the extent of this variety in the British fossils some idea may be gained 
by the fact, that in one private collection, that of Miss Gurney of Cromer, of 
fossil Mammalian remains from a restricted locality, there are Mammoth's 
teeth from the drift of the adjacent coast, one of which, measuring 10 inches 
9 lines in antero-posterior diameter, has nineteen plates, whilst another grinder, 
1 1 inches in antero-posterior diameter, has only thirteen plates. 

A greater contrast is presented by two grinders of the Mammoth from 
British diluvium in the collection of the late Mr. Parkinson, one of which, 
with a grinding surface of 5| inches in antero-posterior extent, exhibits the 
abraded summits of seventeen plates, whilst the other shows only nine plates 
in the same extent of grinding surface. 

Some palzeontologists have viewed these differences as indications of distinct 
species of Elephas. But the vast number of grinders of the Mammoth from 
British strata which have been in my hands in the course of the last three 
years have presented so many intermediate gradations, in the number of 
plates, between the two extremes above cited, that I have not been able to 
draw a well-defined line between the thick-plated and the thin-plated varieties 
of the molar teeth. And if these actually belonged to distinct species of Mam- 
moth, they must have merged into one another, so far as the character of the 
grinding teeth is concerned, in a degree to which the two existing species of 
Elephant, the Indian and African, when compared together, offer no analogy. 
Five or six molars of the Mammoth, and even a greater number, if the 
peculiar changes superinduced by friction on the grinding surface were not 
taken into account, might be selected from such a series as I have above re- 
ferred to, as indications of as many distinct species of Mammoth : such speci- 
mens have been so interpreted by Parkinson, and likewise by Fischer, Gold- 
fuss, Nesti and Croizet, cited in the Palceologica of Hermann V. Meyer, as 
authorities for eight distinct species of extinct Elephant. 

We must, however, enter more deeply into the consideration of these varie- 
ties, before concluding that the Mammoths which severally exemplify them 
in their molar teeth were distinct species. In the first place, whatever dif- 
ference the molars of the Mammoth from British strata have presented in 
the number of their lamellar divisions, they have corresponded in having a 
greater proportion of these plates on the triturating surface, and likewise, with 
two exceptions, in their greater proportional breadth, than the molars of the 
Asiatic Elephant present. The first exception here alluded to was from the 
diluvial gravel of Staffordshire, and formed part of the collection of Mr. 
Parkinson, the author of the ' Organic Remains ; ' the second exception was 
from the brick-earth of Essex, and is now in the collection of my friend Mr. 
Brown of Stanway ; tliis molar, though it combines the tliicker plates with the 
narrower form of tlic entire tooth characteristic of the Indian Elephant, differs 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 211 

in the greater extent of the grinding surface and the greater number of plates 
entering into the composition of that surface. 

With regard to the first-cited exception, the following is the result of a 
close comparison instituted between it and a corresponding grinder of the 
Indian Elephant. 

The fossil in question is an inferior molar of the right side of the lower 
jaw. It exhibits the most complete state in which so large a grinder can be 
met with, the anterior division of the crown not being quite worn down to 
the fang, and the hindmost plate being just on the point of coming into 
use. The whole length of the tooth is 13 inches ; the total number of lamellar 
divisions of the crown seventeen, of which the summits of fourteen are 
abraded in a grinding surface of 9 inches' extent. The greatest breadth of 
this surface is 2y inches. The first three fangs supporting the common 
dentinal base of the anterior lamellae are well developed. The transverse 
ridges of enamel are festooned. Compared with the thin-plated grinders of 
the Mammoth, these differ not only in their more numerous, thinner and 
broader plates, but likewise in the thicker coat of external cement which fills 
the lateral interspaces of the coronal plates, and in having the fangs developed 
from the whole base of the tooth, even from the posterior plate, the summit 
of the mammillary process of which has just begun to be abraded. But from 
the corresponding molar of the Indian Elephant the present tooth of the Mam- 
moth differs in the more equable length of the coronal plates, which in the 
Elephant, by their more progressive elongation, give a triangular figure to the 
side-view of the crown ; it differs also in the greater length of the grinding 
surface, which includes two additional plates, although these are not thinner 
and are not characterized by superior breadth as in the ordinary teeth of the 
Mammoth. 

These differences from the teeth of the Indian Elephant, and the interme- 
diate gradations in the fossil molars by which such rare extreme varieties are 
linked to the normal type of the Mammoth's dentition, justify us in rejecting 
the conclusion that the Elephas Indicus coexisted with the Mammoth in the 
latitude of England during the antediluvial or anteglacial epoch : and I think 
it probable that such differences as have been pointed out in the molar from 
the Museum of Parkinson, and that of the existing Elephant, might likewise 
have been detected in the large molar, found at the depth of 6 feet, in brick 
loam, at Hove near Brighton, and alluded to by Dr. Mantell as decidedly 
that of the Asiatic Elephant *. One of the molars from the Elephant bed at 
Brighton, now in the possession of Mr. Stone of Garlick Hill, exhibits the nar- 
row-plated variety of the Mammoth's grinder. The molars of the Mammoth 
generally contain a greater proportion of cement in the intervals of the plates 
than the Indian Elephant's grinders do. Those in which the plates are more 
numerous have the enamel less strongly plicated ; but in some of the large 
molar teeth of old Mammoths with the thicker plates, I have seen the enamel 
as strongly festooned as in the teeth of the Indian Elephant. 

The bones of the Mammoth that have hitherto been disinterred present no 
variations from the characteristic extinct type indicative of distinct species ; 
and it might reasonably have been expected that the lower jaw, for example, 
■with the broad-plated tooth should offer as recognizable differences from that 
with the narrow-plated teeth, as this does from the lower jaw of the Indian 
Elephant, if those modifications of the teeth of the Mammoth indicated distinct 
species. The lower jaw, however, of the ancient British Mammoth has the 
same distinctive modification of the symphysis as that of the typical Siberian 

* Fossils of the South Downs, 4to, 1822, p. 283. 



212 REPORT — 1843. 

specimen figured by Cuvier, and which is equally presented by that of the 
Mammoth of Auvergne, figured by the Abbe Croizet *, and by that described 
by Nestif. 

Both these authors being unacquainted with the intermediate varieties, in- 
cline to regard the Mammoth with the thick-plated molars as a distinct species, 
which V. Meyer in his work cites as the Elephas meridionalis. In regard, 
however, to the proposed distinctive name, I may remark that the variety of 
molar on which this species is founded occurs not only in England, but in 
Siberia, and as far north as Eschscholtz Bay. 

Most of the molars of the Mammoth from North America are characterized 
by thinner and more numerous plates than those of England, but the differ- 
ence is not constant. The Mammoth's molar from the Norfolk coast in the 
collection of Miss Gurney, which shows nineteen plates in a length of 10 
inches, equals several of the molars from North America in the number of 
the plates. An upper molar of a Mammoth from the gravel of Ballingdon, 
with a total antero-posterior diameter of 7 inches, consists of twenty plates. 
Mr. Parkinson cites a molar, now in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, 
from Wellsbourne in Warwickshire, in which twenty plates exist in a length 
of 65 inches ; and he figures another molar from the till of Essex, which, in a 
length of 8^ inches, contains twenty-four plates. On the other hand, the 
molars of the Mammoths from Eschscholtz Bay, North America, figured by 
Dr. Buckland, manifest the same kind of variety as those from the English 
drift ; one with a grinding surface 7i inches long, exhibiting nineteen plates, 
whilst another in the same extent of grinding surface shows only thirteen 
plates ; both these teeth are from lower jaws, which, like the lower jaw con- 
taining the broader-plated tooth described by Prof. Nesti, are precisely simi- 
lar in form to the other fossil jaws of the Mammoth ; they present the same 
specific differences from the Asiatic Elephant, and offer no modification that 
can be regarded as specifically distinct from the Mammoth's jaws with nar- 
row-plated molars of Siberia or Ohio. 

Mr. Parkinson has figured a Mammoth's molar from Staffordshire, which 
he deemed to differ from every other that had come to his knowledge in the 
great thickness of the plates, the smoothness of the sides of the line of ena- 
mel, and the ajDpearance of the digitated part of the plates even in the anterior 
jjart of the tooth J. 

This specimen, which is now in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, is 
the posterior part of a large grinder of an old Mammoth. The superior thick- 
ness of the plates arises from the circumstance of the posterior plates being 
thicker than the anterior ones ; these thick plates are more deeply cleft, or 
their digitated summits are longer, and advance further forward upon the 
grinding surface of the molar before they are worn down to their common 
base ; they appear also in the specimen to be more advanced than they really 
are, because of the deficiency of the fore-part of the tooth, which has been 
broken away. In my opinion this molar has the characters of the thick-plated 
variety, simply exaggerated from the accidents of age and mutilation above- 
mentioned. It manifests the more constant and characteristic modifications 
oi the Elephas primigenius in its relative breadth, and, notwithstanding their 
thickness, in the number of the plates (nine), which have been exposed by 
attrition. I have seen a very similar molar of the Mammoth from the Norfolk 
freshwater deposits in the collection of Mr. Fitch of Norwich. 

The abraded summits of the component plates of the Mammoth's molars 
most commonly present a slight expansion, often lozenge-shaped, at their 

* Fossiles (lu Puy-de-Dome, p. 125. pi. 3. fig. 1. 

f Nuov. Giorn. d. Letter. 1825, p. 195. % Organic Remains, iii. p. 344, 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL. MAMMALIA. 313 

centre ; the summits of the plates are originally divided, with more regularity, 
in general, than those in the Indian Elephant, into three digital processes, 
the middle being usually the broadest and thickest ; this character is shown 
by the middle dilatation Avhen the three digitations are worn down to their 
common base. Only in one small molar, from the brick-earth at Grays, Essex, 
in the collection of Mr. Wickham Flower, have I seen the median rhomboidal 
dilatation, extending, in the abraded plates, so near the end of the section as to 
approximate the characteristic shape of the plates of the African Elephant's 
molar; from which, however, the fossil was far removed by its thinner and 
more numerous plates. The fictitious character of the Elephas priscus of 
Goldfuss and of V. Baer, one of the eight fossil species admitted in the com- 
pilation of V. Meyer, has been demonstrated by Cuvier. I have met with no 
nearer approach to this nominal species among the numerous British Mam- 
moth's grinders that I have examined, than the example just quoted from 
Grays ; I need hardly say that I regard it as another of the numerous varie- 
ties to which the molars of the Mammoth were subject. 

The clefts that separate the transverse plates are deeper at the sides than at 
the middle of the tooth in all Mammoths' grinders ; hence the ridges of enamel 
in a much-worn molar are confined to the outer and inner sides of the grinding 
surface, which is traversed along the middle by a continuous tract of dentine. 
The layer of enamel extends to this exposed tract, is reflected back upon the 
opposite side of the lateral cleft, bends round the outer margin of the remain- 
ing base of the plate, and is continued into the next fissure, and so on. When 
the edge of this sinuous coat of enamel is exposed by friction, it describes what 
Mr. Parkinson has called a " Daedalian line," and he has figured two examples 
of teeth so worn down in the 'Organic Remains*.' Having noticed the 
structure in three specimens, Mr. Parkinson conceives it to be characteristic 
of a distinct species of Mammoth. But the ordinary teeth of the Mammoth, 
from the unequal vertical extent of their plates above described, must neces- 
sarily produce the continuous undulating lateral lines of enamel when worn 
down to a certain extent. I have seen it only in a few amongst the numerous 
molars of the Mammoth examined by me, for teeth so worn down are rare. 
It is well shown in the remains of a very large molar, found in the beach near 
Happisburg, Norfolk, which on a grinding surface of 4 inches 9 lines in length 
and 4 inches wide, shows seven dentinal plates worn down to their common 
uniting base of dentine, along the middle of the surface. 

It sometimes happens that the outer and inner margins of a plate, which 
are always deeper than the middle part, are not on the same transverse line, 
but one is inclined a little in advance of the other. In this case the abraded 
crown of the tooth, when M'orn down to the common middle base of dentine, 
displays an alternating disposition of the folds of the outer and inner sinuous 
lines of enamel. This variety aiFords grounds of the same kind and value for 
a distinct species of Mammoth as for the two other new species proposed by 
Mr. Parkinson. 

A consideration of the anatomical structui'e and an extensive comparison 
of the teeth in question have led me to the conclusion, that Avhilst some of 
the supposed specific characters are due to eff'ects of changes produced by 
age, the others are due to the latitude of variety to which the highly complex 
molars of the Elephas primigenius were subject. 

In proof of such variety we have the analogy of existing species : that such 
variety is the characteristic of a particular part of the enduring remains of 
the Mammoth, may be inferred from the absence of any corresponding dif- 

* PI. 20. figs. 5 and 7. 



214 REPORT— 1843. 

ferences in the bones of the Mammoth that have hitherto been found; 
all of which indicate but one species. And this conclusion harmonizes 
with the laws of the geographical distribution of the existing species of 
Elephant. 

Throughout the whole continent of Africa but one species of Elephant has 
been recognized. A second species of Elephant is spread over the south of 
Asia and some of the adjacent islands ; and the results of the more extensive 
and accurate observations of this species, whilst they make known some well- 
marked varieties, as the Mooknah, the Dauntelah, &c., founded on modifica- 
tions of the teeth, establish the unity of species to which those varieties be- 
long. If the observed varieties in the dentition of the Mammoth are to be 
interpreted, as Parkinson, Nesti, Croizet, V. Meyer and others have done, as 
evidences of distinct species, we must be prepared to admit not merely three, 
but six or more distinct species of gigantic Mammoths to have roamed through 
the primeval swamps and forests of England. 

Ticsks. — The complete or nearly complete tusks of the Elephas primigenius 
from British strata which have fallen under my observation, possess the same 
extensive double curvature as the tusks of the great Mammoth in the museum 
of St. Petersburgh, from the icy clift' at the mouth of the Lena in Siberia, 
and as those brought to England by Capt. Beechey from Eschscholtz Bay, 
which have been figured by Dr. Buckland, and are now in the British 
Museum. 

A very perfect specimen, but of moderate size, was lately dug up twelve 
feet below the surface out of the drift gravel of Cambridge ; it measures 5 
feet in length and 2 feet 4 inches across the chord of its curve, and it is 11 
inches in circumference at the thickest part of its base. 

In the collection of Mr. Brown of Stanway there is a fragment of a tusk 
of the Mammoth, from the freshwater formation at Clacton in Essex, which 
measures 2 feet in circumference, thus exceeding the size of the largest of 
the tusks brought home by Capt. Beechey from Eschscholtz Bay. 

A very fine tusk of the Mammoth from British strata forms part of the 
remarkable collection of remains of the Mammoth obtained by the Rev. J. 
Layton from the drift of the Norfolk coast, near the village of Happisburgh ; 
it was dredged up in 1826, measured 9 feet 6 inches in length, and weighed 
ninety-seven pounds. 

At Knole-sand, near Axminster, about twenty miles from the coast, Sir 
H. De la Beche obtained a tusk 9 feet 8 inches in length. The finest tusk 
of a British Mammoth forms part of the rich collection of fossil Mammalian 
remains obtained from Ilford by the late Joseph Gibson, Esq. of Stratford, 
Essex ; this tusk measured 12 feet 6 inches in length, following the outward 
curvature. 

The smallest Mammoth's tusk which I have seen is in the museum of Mr. 
Wickham Flower; it is from the drift or till at Ilford, Essex, and has be- 
longed to a very young Mammoth ; its length measured along the outer 
curve is 12^ inches, and the circumference of its base is 4? inches. It has 
nevertheless been evidently put to use by the young animal, the tip having 
been obliquely worn. 

The small tusk from the Cambridge gravel has not belonged to a young 
animal, but is fully formed, and it most probably indicates a sexual character, 
analogous to that in the existing Indian Elephant ; the tusks in the female 
Mammoth, although more developed than they are in the female Elephas In- 
dicus, yet being much shorter than in the male Mammoth. 

Bones. — Of the bones of the trunk and extremities of the Mammoth, a few 
examples may be briefly noticed. Of two specimens of the atlas of the Mam- 



I 



111. 


Lines. 


16 


6 


7 


10 


9 


8 


10 






ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 215 

moth from the newer Pliocene near Cromer, in the collection of Miss Gurney, 
the most perfect measures 

In breadth 

Breadth of the anterior condyles 

Breadth of the posterior ditto 

In vertical diameter 

A vertebra dentata from the freshwater deposits at Clacton, Essex, twenty 
feet above high water mark, in the collection of Mr. Brown of Stanway, mea- 
sures 6 inches 9 lines in transverse diameter, 5 inches in vertical diameter, and 
has a spinal canal 3 inches in transverse diameter. 

A dorsal vertebra, in the same collection, measures in height 1 foot 10 
inches, the spinous process being 9 inches high. The transverse diameter 
of the vertebra is 8 inches 6 lines, that of the spinal canal being 3 inches. 

In Mr. Brown's collection is also preserved the os sacrum of a Mammoth from 
the freshwater formations of Essex. It is of a triangular form ; the transverse 
diameter of the forepart of the body of the first sacral vertebra is 6 inches 
6 lines ; the diameter of the largest nervous foramen was 2 inches 4 lines. 

A scapula, with the spine, the supra-spinal plate and base broken away, 
from the same formation, shows the characteristic superior breadth of the 
glenoid articular cavity at its inferior part, and the shortness of the neck of 
the scapula, which Cuvier has recognized in the scapula of the Siberian 
Mammoth. 

This scapula gave the following dimensions : — Ft. In. 

From the glenoid cavity to the inferior angle. ... 1 10 

From ditto to the spine 4- 

From the middle of the spine to the lower costa 1 « o 

of the scapula J 

In a fragment of a Mammoth's scapula from Happisburgh, in the collection 
of Mr. Fitch of Norwich, the long diameter of the glenoid articulation was 
10 inches, its short diameter 4^ inches. The head of the humerus, in the 
state of an epiphysis, found with the above fragment, measures 10|^ inches ia 
its longest diameter. These parts, notwithstanding their dimensions, have 
belonged to an immature specimen of the Mammoth. 

Of the stupendous magnitude to which some individuals, doubtless the old 
males, of the Elephas primigenius arrived, several fossils from the British 
drift afford striking evidence. 

In the noble skeleton of the Mammoth now at St. Petersburgh, which was 
found entire in the frozen soil of the banks of the Lena, the humerus is 3 
feet 4 inches in length ; that of the skeleton of the large Indian Elephant 
(Chuny) which was killed at Exeter Change in 1826, is 2 feet 11 inches in 
length. In the rich collection of Mammalian remains from the Norfolk coast, 
belonging to Miss Gurney of North-repps Cottage, near Cromer, there is an 
entire humerus of the Mammoth which measures 4 feet 5 inches in length. 

Subjoined are a few of the dimensions of this enormous bone and of its 
analogue in the above-mentioned skeleton of the Indian Elephant in the 
Museum of the College of Surgeons : — 

El. primigenius. El. Indicus. 
Ft. In. Lin. Ft. In. Lin. 

Humerus, entire length 4 5 2 11 

Circumference at the middle 22 6 116 

Ditto at proximal end ,. 35 280 

Breadth of distal end 1 2 10 6 

From summit of supinator ridge to\ , ^ ^ 

end of outer condyle / ^ ^ 10 6 



216 REPORT — 1843. 

The humerus of the Maunnoth was found in 1836, after a very high tide, 
partially exposed in the cliff, composed of interblended blue clay and red 
gravel, near the village of Bacton in Norfolk. The outer crust of the bone 
is much shattered ; it manifests the specific distinction of the humerus of the 
Mammoth in the relatively shorter proportions of the great supinator ridge, 
as is shown by the last admeasurement, and the bicipital canal is also rela- 
tively narrower. 

A portion of a large tibia was obtained from the same bed in 1841 ; this 
bone likewise is in Miss Gurney's collection. 

A humerus of the Mammoth, wanting the proximal end, from Clacton, 
Essex, in the collection of Mr. Brown of Stanway, measures 2 feet 10 inches 
in length, and 15 inches 6 lines in median circumference, showing the thicker 
proportions as compared with the existing Elephant. 

The bones of the fore-arm of the Mammoth from British localities have not 
offered any characters worthy of notice. 

Of those of the fore-foot I have examined some magnificent specimens ob- 
tained by Mr. Ball from the brick-loam near Grays, Essex, and which have 
belonged to a Mammoth as large as that which must have furnished the 
liumerus above described. 

The following are the comparative dimensions of some of those bones and 
of their analogues in the skeleton of Chuny, the great Asiatic Elephant of 
Exeter Change : — 

El. primigetiius. El- Asiaticus. 
In. Lin. In. Lin. 

Os magnum, vertical diameter 4 3 3 

Middle metacarpal, length 10 7 

Middle breadth of distal end 4 9 3 4 

Mr. J. Wickham Flower possesses a fine and perfect specimen of the femur 
of the Mammoth from the Essex till, which offers the usual characteristic of 
the extinct species in the relatively narrower posterior interspace between the 
two condyles and in the thicker shaft. The outer ridge of the femur extends 
about two-thirds down the bone. The following are some of its dimensions 
compared with that of the Indian Elephant : — 

El. primigenius. El. Indicus. 

Ft. In. Lin. Ft. In. Lin. 

Length 3 4 3 6 

Breadth across proximal end 116 110 

Breadth across back part of condyles . 7 6 7 

Circumference of shaft 126 100 

A femur of the Mammoth, from the drift gravel at Abingdon, is preserved 
in the Ashraolean Museum. It is remarkable for its fine state of preserva- 
tion, and exhibits the same character of the extinct species as the foregoing 
specimen. 

The femur of the Mammoth, described by the notable French Surgeon 
Habicot,in his ' Gigantosteologie, 1613,' as the thigh-bone of Theutoboclius, 
king of the Cimbrians, which was said to be 5 feet in length, indicates a 
specimen larger than that to which the humerus from Cromer belonged. 
M. de Blainville is, however, of opinion that the femur in question belonged 
to a Mastodon. 

Strata and Localities.— Oi all the extinct Mammalia which have left their 
fossil remains in British strata, no species was more abundant or more widely 
distributed than the Mammoth or Elephas primigenius. 

Wliercver the last general geological force has left traces of its operations 
upon the present surface, in the form of drift or unstratified transported frag- 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 2l7 

ments of rock and gravel, and wherever the contemporary or immediately 
antecedent more tranquil and gradual operations of the sea or fresh waters 
have formed beds of marl, of brick-earth or loam, there, with few exceptions, 
have fossil bones or teeth of the Mammoth been discovered. 

It would be tedious to specify all the particular localities from which, in 
collecting the materials for the present report, I have entered records of the 
existence of the fossil remains of this gigantic quadruped. They are most 
remarkable for their abundance in the drift along the east coast of England, 
as at Robin Hood's Bay near Whitby ; at Scarborough, at Bridlington, and 
various places along the shore of Holderness. 

Mr. Woodward, in his ' Geology of Norfolk,' supposes that upwards of 
two thousand grinders of the Mammoth have been dredged up by the fisher- 
men off the little village of Happisburgh in the space of thirteen years. The 
oyster-bed was discovered here in 1820, and during the first twelve months 
hundreds of the molar teeth of Mammoths were dredged up. Great quan- 
tities of the bones and tusks of the Mammoth are doubtless annually destroyed 
by the action of the waves of the sea. Remains of the Mammoth are hardly 
less numerous in Suffolk, especially in the pleistocene beds along the coast 
and at Stutton ; they become more rare in the fluvio-marine crag at South- 
wold and Thorp. The village of Walton near Harwich is famous for the abun- 
dance of these fossils, which lie along the base of the sea-cliffs, mixed with 
bones of species of Horse, Ox and Deer. 

Reference has already been made to other localities in Essex, as Clacton, 
Grays, Ilford, Copford and Kingsland, where, in the freshwater deposits, the 
remains of the extinct Elephant occur, associated with the above-mentioned 
Herbivora, and with more scanty remains of Rhinoceros. 

In the valley of the Thames they have been discovered at Sheppey, Wool- 
wich, the Isle of Dogs, Lewisham ; in the drift gravel beneath the streets of 
the metropolis, as in Gray's Inn Lane, twelve feet deep ; in Charles Street, 
near Waterloo Place, thirty feet deep. 

Passing westward we encounter Mammoths' remains at Kensington, at Brent- 
ford, at Kew, and at Hurley-bottom, Wallingford near Dorchester ; in the 
gravel-pits at Abingdon and Oxford, and at Witham Hill and Bagley Wood*. 
Bones of the great extinct Elephant again occur in the valley of the Medway, 
at the Nore, at Chatham, and at Canterbury. On the south coast of England 
they have been discovered at Brighton, Hove and Worthing ; at Lyme Regis and 
Charmouth ; also at Peppering near Arundel, about 80 feet above the present 
level of the Arun. Passing inland from the south coast we find remains of the 
Mammoth at Burton and Loders, near Bridport, and near Yeovil in Somerset. 
At Whitchurch, near Dorchester, Dr. Buckland observes that the remains of 
the Mammoth lie in gravel above the chalk, and are found in a similar posi- 
tion on Salisbury Plain ; they again occur at Box and Newton near Bath, and 
at Rodborough in Gloucestershire. 

Mr. Randall of Stroud has lately acquainted me, that in some recent rail- 
way excavations in the neighbourhood of that town, tusks and molar teeth of 
a Mammoth have been discovered in drift gravel from fourteen to twenty 
feet below the surface : one of the tusks was recovered in a tolerably perfect 
state, and measured 9 feet in length ; it is in the possession of — Carpenter, 
Esq., of Gannicox House, near Stroud. 

In Worcestershire, on the borders of the Principality, remains of the Mam- 
moth are noticed by Mr.Murchison as occurring in a gravel-pit south of East- 
nor Castle. This pit is in the midst of a group of Silurian rocks, and the frag- 

* Dr. Kidd's Geological Essays. 



218 REPORT—1843. 

ments consist exclusively of those rocks and of the sienite of the adjacent 
hills, whence Mr. Murchison rightly infers that this extinct species of Ele- 
phant formerly ranged over that country. In North Wales Pennant mentions 
two molar teeth and a tusk found at Holkur, near the mouth of the Vale of 
Clwyd, in Flintshire, and near Dyserth ; they occurred in a bed of drift gravel 
containing pebbles of lead-ore, which are worked like the analogous stream- 
Avorks which contain pebbles and sand of tin-ore in Cornwall. 

Rones of the Mammoth, with those of the Rhinoceros and Hippopotamus, 
have been found in coarse gravelly drift with overlying marl and clay in the 
valley of the Severn, at Fleet's bank near Sandlin. Marine shells occur in 
the coarse drift, and freshwater shells in the superticial fluviatile deposits. 

Mr. Strickland found remains of the Mammoth associated with Hippopo- 
tamus, Urus, &c. in the valley of the Avon, in apparently a local fluviatile 
drift, containing land and freshwater shells : this geologist supposes that after 
those parts of VVorcestershire and Warwickshire had been long under the sea, 
an elevation of some hundred feet converted them into dry land, and that a 
river or chain of lakes then descending from the north-east, re-arranged 
much of the gravel of the great northern glacial drift, disposing it in thin 
strata and imbedding in it the shells of moUusks and the bones of the extinct 
quadrupeds. 

In the centre of England, Dr. Buckland notices the occurrence of the 
Mammoth at Trentham in Staffordshire, in different parts of Northampton- 
shire, and at Newnham and Lawford, near Rugby in Warwickshire ; there the 
Mammoth's bones lay by the side of those of the Rhinoceros and Hyaena. 

Mammoth-fossils occur at Middleton in the Yorkshire Wolds, in Brands- 
burton gravel-hills, and at Overton near York. Remains of the Mammoth, 
valuable from the condition of the ivory of the tusks, have been discovered 
at Atwick, near Hornsea, in the county of York. 

In Scotland remains of the Mammoth have been found in the drift-clay 
between Edinburgh and Falkirk, at Kilmuir in Ayreshire. 

In Ireland remains of the Mammoth have been found at Maghery in the 
county of Cavan, and in the drift near Tully-doly, county of Tyrone. 

The celebrated cave at Kirkdale concealed remains of Mammoths : the 
molars here detected were all of small size ; very few of them exceed 3 inches 
in their longest diameter, and they must have belonged to extremely young 
animals, which had been dragged in by the Hyaenas for food with Rhinoce- 
roses, Hippopotamuses, and large Ruminantia. 

The molars of the Mammoth which I have hitherto seen from the cave 
called Kent's Hole near Torquay are of similar young specimens ; here they 
are associated with the Hyaena, the great Cave Tiger, the Cave Bear, &c. : 
and I entirely accede to Dr.Buckland's explanation, that the bones or bodies of 
these young Mammoths were dragged into the cave by the Carnivora which 
coexisted with them. 

Quitting the dry land and caves of Great Britain, we find the bed of the Ger- 
man Ocean a most fertile depository of the remains of the Elej)has jmmigenius, 
and they are generally remarkable for their fine state of preservation. 

Capt. Byam Martin, the harbour-master at Ramsgate, possesses several 
well-preserved specimens which have been from time to time brought up by 
the deep-sea nets of the fishermen, to whom this strange catching of elephants 
instead of turbot is a matter of disappointment and often of loss. A fine lower 
jaw of a young Mammoth, in the possession of Mr. G. B. Sowerby, was thus 
dredged up off the Dogger Bank, and a femur and portion of a large tusk, 
before described, were raised from 25 fathoms at low water, midway between 
Yarmouth and the Dutch coast. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 219 

Remains of the Mammoth have also been raised in the British Channel 
from the shoals called Varn and Redge, which lie midway between Dover 
and Calais. 

These, therefore, with the fishing-banks above mentioned in the German 
Ocean, seem to be the furthest limits to which it is allowable to trace the re- 
mains of lost species in a record of the British Fossil Mammalia. 

Indicatiofis of the Physical Forces lohich operated on the unstratified drift 
containing Bones and Teeth of the Mammoth. 

The evidences of an enormous crushing and breaking power are very re- 
markably exemplified in some of the Mammalian fossils from the * till' or 
drift at Walton in Essex. Mr. Brown of Stanway possesses molars of the 
Mammoth from this locality which have been split vertically and lengthwise, 
across all the component plates of dentine and enamel ; other molars have 
been so crushed and squeezed that the enamel-plates are shivered in pieces, 
which are driven into the conglomerate of the different substances, and the 
fragments of enamel stick out like the bits of glass from the plaster which caps 
a garden wall. 

The ramus of a lower jaw of a Rhinoceros from the drift near the 
sea-coast of Essex, has been split vertically and lengthwise through all the 
molars. 

A similar condition of some of the mammalian fossil remains, including 
parts of the Mammoth, discovered by Mr. Stutchbury in a cavernous fissure 
at Durdham Down near Bristol, has been explained on the hypothesis of 
considerable relative movement having taken place in the walls of the fissure 
of the cavern since the deposit of the organic remains ; and Mr. Stutchbury 
adduces, in confirmation of this view, the fact, that a calcareous spar-vein in 
the vicinity bears undoubted evidence of having been moved and recon- 
structed. 

Other forces than the concussion of rocks by earthquakes seem, however, 
to have operated in producing the fractures of the teeth and bones in the 
beds of Essex gravel or drift above adverted to ; and I cannot suggest any 
more probable dynamic, than the action of masses of ice, on the supposition 
of such being chiefly concerned in the deposition and dispersion of the super- 
ficial drift itself. 

It is remarkable that the bones and teeth of the Elephant are very rarely 
rolled or water-worn ; the fractured surfaces are generally entire, and some- 
times the bones are found, like that in the Ashmolean Museum, in a remark- 
able state of integrity. 

Genus Mastodon. 

Remains of any species of this extinct genus are extremely rare in Great 
Britain, and have been hitherto only found in those deposits consisting of 
sand, shingle, loam and laminated clay, containing an intermixture of the 
shells of terrestrial, freshwater and marine MoUusca, which extend along 
the coast of Norfolk and Suffolk, and have been accurately described by Mr. 
Lyell under the name of the ' Fluvio-marine Crag.' 

The first fossil submitted to my examination bj' Mr. Lyell from this forma- 
tion, referable to the genus ilS/astorfon, was a small part of the left superior 
maxillary bone containing the second true molar and the remains of the 
socket of the one anterior to it. The molar was not distinguishable from 
the corresponding one figured and described by Dr. Kaup in the magnificent 
remains of the Mastodon named by him longirostris, which were discovered 
in a similar fluvio-marine deposit at Epplesheim, Hesse-Darmstadt. 



220 REPORT — 1843. 

At present, however, I have not been able to appreciate the distinction be- 
tween the molar teeth of the Mast, longirostris, Kaup, and those of the 
Mast, angustidens, Cuvier, the supposed specific distinction being, in fact, 
afforded by the form and proportion of the lower jaw, which may prove to 
be a sexual character. As the other molars of the Mastodoji correspond 
equally with the Mast, angustidens and Mast, longirostris, I shall refer them 
to the species first defined by Cuvier. The British fossil above mentioned 
was discovered by Mr. J. B. Wigham in 1838, in the fluvio-marine crag at 
Postwick. 

The first representation of any fossil relic of a Mastodon from British 
strata was given by William Smith : it forms the frontispiece of his original 
■ito work, ' Strata identified by Organized Fossils,' 1816. The fossil figured 
is the last molar tooth of the left side of the upper jaw of the Mast, an- 
gustidens, and was discovered in the fluvio-marine crag at Whitliugham, on 
the right bank of the Yare, within five miles of Norwich. The crown of the 
tooth supports five subalternate pairs of mammilloid cones, with a tuberculated 
posterior ridge: the summits of the first three pairs of cones are worn down 
by mastication, as in a corresponding molar of the Mast, angustidens from 
Peru, figured by Cuvier in the ' Ossemens Fossiles,' torn. i. Divers Masto- 
dontes, pi. 1 . fig. 6 : the resemblance is extremely close. 

Mr. Wigham likewise discovered a molar tooth of the Mast, angustidens 
in one of the pits excavated in the fluvio-marine crag at Thorpe near Nor- 
wich. Here, likewise, another molar tooth of the Mast, angustidens was found 
by Mr. Fitch of Norwich. Detached molars, or fragments of molars of the 
same species of Mastodon, have been discovered in the same formation, at 
Horstead by the Rev. J. Gunn, at Bramerton by the late Mr. Woodward, 
and at Easton cliff between Dunwich and Sizewell by Capt. Alexander, who 
possesses likewise two specimens from the sea-shore, washed out of tiie same 
fluvio-marine crag. Thus the not-long-since questionable occurrence of 
genuine mastodontal remains in England is placed beyond doubt : they have, 
hitherto, been exclusively found in a formation referable to the older pliocene 
division of the tertiary period. 

Genus Rhinoceros. 

The remains of this genus are much more abundant in this country than 
those of the Mastodon, and are associated in the more superficial strata with 
the remains of the Mammoth ; extending, however, like these, as low as the 
fluvio-marine crag, but being more commonly found in caverns than are the 
bones or teeth of the more bulky Mammoth. 

Those fossils of the Rhinoceros from British formations, hitherto examined 
by me and susceptible of satisfactory identification with determinate species, 
belong to the great two-horned Rhinoceros tichorhinus of Cuvier, which is 
associated in like manner with the Mammoth in Siberia. A few fossils have 
yielded indications of a second species. 

Cuvier says with respect to a portion of the lower jaw discovered in digging 
a well at Tiiame in the county of Oxford, and formerly in the Leveriau 
Museum, that, judging from the figure given of it in Douglas's ' Dissertation 
on the Antiquity of the Earth*,' it seems to belong to the Rhinoceros lepto- 
rhinus. I have not been able as yet to trace out this specimen, in order to 
ascertain how far the original would confirm the conjecture of Cuvier. 

The molar tooth from the fluvio-marine crag at Bramerton, preserved in the 
Museum of Natural History at Norwich, has l3eeu supposed to belong to the 
Rhinoceros leptorhinus ; it bears a closer resemblance to the corresponding 

* 4to, 1785. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 221 

molar of the Rh. Schleiermacheri of Kaup, but a solitary molar tooth is not 
a very satisfactory ground for pronouncing absolutely of the species of Rhi- 
noceros. 

The most complete skeletons of one and the same individual have been found, 
as might be expected, in caverns or cavernous fissures, vchere the carcass of 
the fallen animal has been best protected from external changes and move- 
ments of the soil. 

Dr. Buckland has recorded one of the most remarkable examples of this 
kind which was brought to light in the operation of sinking a shaft through 
solid mountain limestone, in a raining operation for lead-ore near Wirks- 
worth, Derbyshire. A natural cavern was thus laid open, which had become 
filled to the roof with a confused mass of argillaceous earth and fragments 
of stone, and had communicated with the surface by a fissure or opening 
58 feet deep and 6 feet broad, similarly filled to the top, where the outlet 
had been concealed by the vegetation. Near the bottom of this fissure, but 
in the midst of the drift, and raised by many feet of the same material from 
the floor of the cavern, was found nearly the whole skeleton of a Rhinoceros 
with the bones almost in their natural juxtaposition : one part of the skull 
which was recovered showed the rough surface for the front horn; the back 
part of the skull and one half of the under jaw were detached. All the bones 
were in a state of high preservation. There were no supernumerary bones 
to indicate the presence of a second Rhinoceros, but a few remains of Ru- 
minants, apparently of extinct species. 

A less proportion, but still a considerable one, of the skeleton of a ticho- 
rhine Rhinoceros was discovered by Mr. Whidbey, Engineer of the Ply- 
mouth Breakwater, in one of the cavernous fissures of the limestone quarries 
at Oreston, near Plymouth: the following parts, most of which were determined 
and have been figured by Mr. Clift, were recovered and preserved ; — 

Two molar teeth of the upper jaw. 

Four do. do. lower jaw. 

Portion of the first vertebra, atlas. 

Portions of four dorsal vertebrae. 

Portions of two caudal vertebrae. 

Portions of four ribs. 

The symphysial end of an os pubis. 

Portions of the right and left scapulae. 

Both articular extremities of the left humerus. 
Do. do. right ulna. 

Do. do. left radius. ■ 

The right os unciforme. 

The middle metacarpal bone of the right fore-foot. 

A phalanx of the same toe. 

Botli articular extremities of the right femur. 

Part of both extremities of the left femur. 

The left patella. 

A fragment of the left tibia. 

Two portions of metatarsal bones of the right hind-foot. 

The state of the epiphyses of the long bones indicate that the animal had 
not quite reached maturity ; but in the same cavernous fissure there was found 
part of the right humerus of an older individual of the Rhmoceros tichorJiinus. 

The broken bones have suffered from clean fractures ; none of them are 
gnawed or waterworn : the cavern containing them was 15 feet wide, 12 feet 
high, 45 feet long ; it was filled with solid clay. 

In similar and adjoining cavernoua fissures, detached bones and teeth of 



222 REPORT— 1843. 

the same extinct species of Rhinoceros were found : they M'ere associated in 
one of the fissures with remains of a large species of Deer and of the Ursus 
spelcBus; in another fissure with fossil bones of Equus, Bos, Cerviis, Ursus, 
Canis, Hycena, and Felis spelcBa; none of the bones exhibit marks of having 
been gnawed or broken by the teeth of the great cave-haunting Carnivora ; 
but both these and the herbivorous species appear to have perished by acci- 
dentally falling into the cavernous fissures before these were filled up by the 
mud, clay and drift. 

The aljundant remains of the Rhinoceros discovered in the cave at Kirk- 
dale tell a very different history: they manifest, as Dr. Buckland has demon- 
strated, abundant evidence of the action of the powerful jaws and teeth of 
the Hyaenas, whose copros and other vestigia prove that ancient cavern to 
have been their habitual place of refuge. The fossil bones of the Rhino- 
ceroses found in this cavern, as well as in that near Torquay, called Kent's 
Hole, belonged to animals which inhabited England during the period im- 
mediately preceding the deposition of the uustratified drift, and they coexisted 
with the Mammoth, Hippopotamus, huge Aurochs, Ox and Deer, which like- 
wise became the occasional prey of the Hya2nas, whose dwelling-place was 
thus converted into a kind of charnel-house of the large Herbivora. 

The circumstances under which remains of the Rhinoceros have been dis- 
covered in the limestone caves of the Mendips, and in those on Durdham 
Down, lead to similar explanations of their introduction. 

The humerus of a Rhinoceros was discovered, associated with remains of 
the Hycena spelcea, in one of the caves in the carboniferous limestone at Cefn 
in Denbighshire, at a height of about 100 feet above the present drainage of 
the country. 

Remains of the Rhinoceros were found associated with the entire under 
jaw of the old Hyaena in the drift at Lawford near Rugby ; where likewise, 
as has already been stated, fossils of the Elephas jjrimigeuius were found. 

With regard to the most instructive remains from this locality, as, for ex- 
ample, the cubitus, Cuvier expressly states that it belongs to the ' espece 
cloisonnee*;' and again, with regard to the ' os innominatum,' that it seems 
to belong to the species with the osseous septum, viz. the Rhin. tichorhinus ; 
and with regard to the tibia and the cervical vertebrae, Cuvier confines his 
observations to their diff'erences as compared with the recent Rhin. Indicus 
(p. 84), or to their want of sufficiently distinguishing characters, p. 76. 

Cuvier expressly refers the two skulls of the Rhinoceros discovered in the 
drift at Newhaven, 15 feet below the surface, to the Rhin. tichorhinus. 

The teeth of the Rhinoceros from the cave at Kirkdale appear to me not 
to be distinguishable from those of the Rhin, tichorhinus. 

The finest and most entire specimens of the tichorhine Rhinoceros from 
the superficial drift or freshwater formations are in the collection of John 
Brown, Esq., of Stan way. He possesses the upper part of the skull, 29 inches 
in length ; showing the rough elliptical surfaces for the attachment of the two 
horns, and demonstrating more clearly than in any other British specimen, 
the osseous septum of the nose which characterizes the present extinct species. 
This specimen was discovered at Clacton : associated with it was a part of the 
lower jaw with the anchylosed symphysis, the length of which is 2 inches 
9 lines, and its breadth across the alveoli of the second molar teeth 4 inches. 
Cuvier seems disposed to admit, from the testimony of Pallas, that the Rhin. 
tichorhinus might have had small incisive teeth in tiie lower jaw : every 
trace of their alveoli, if such had existed, have disappeared in the instructive 
specimen above noticed. 

* Ossein. Foss. t. ii. pt. i. p. 80. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 



223 



A right ramus of the lower jaw of the same species of Rhinoceros, dis- 
covered by Mr. Brown in the till at Walton in Essex, indicates, like the 
molars of the Mammoth described in the former part of this report, the ac- 
tion of enormous and peculiar forces posterior to their deposition in the 
matrix : it has been split vertically and lengthwise tlirough the seven molar 
teeth which it contains, and in this clearly fractured state it was discovered 
when first exposed in the till; and to obviate an unnecessary length in the 
present report, I shall give the following citations of the discovery of the 
remains of Rhinoceros in British strata, in a tabular form. 



Museum. 
Norwich. 
Miss Gurney. 



Locality. 
Bramerton. 
Mundesley. 



Yorkshire. Bielbecks. 

Ld.Enniskillen. Maidstone. 



Stratum. Parts. 

Fluvio-marine crag. Molar tooth. 
Lacustrine blue clay. Portion of lower 
jaw with three 
teeth. 
Lacustrine blue clay. Molar teeth*. 
Beneath the gravel. Atlas, and other bones 



Mr. Flower. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mr. Bossey. 

Brit.Mus. 



Parkinson. 

Do. 
Mr. Morris. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Ilford. 
Grays. 
Ilford. 
Wickham, 

near Woolwich 
Drift near 

Canterbury 



Fox Hill, 

Gloucestersh. 
Chatham. 
Ilford. 
Erith. 
Grays. 
Harwich. 
Kingsland. 



Pleistocene. 
Pleistocene. 

Do. 

Do. 
Pleistocene. 



Drift. 

Drift. 
Pleistocene. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



and teeth. 
Upper molar. 
Lower molar. 
Femur. 
LTpper jaw, and bones. 

Molar tooth, described 
by Grew, Rarities of 
Gresham College, 
pi. xix. fig. 3. 

Molar teeth. 

Molar teeth. 

Teeth. 

Teeth and phalanges. 

Teeth and bones. 

Bones. 

Teeth. 



Genus Hippopotamus. 

Remains of this remarkable genus appear to have been first unequivocally 
determined by Mr. Trimmer f in a pleistocene formation at Brentford, over- 
lying the London clay ; they include several tusks, two lower incisors, an 
entire molar and the fragment of a second, and were discovered after pene- 
trating through nine feet of brick-earth and seven feet of sandy gravel, in a 
stratum from one foot to nine feet deep of calcareous earth Avith freshwater 
shells : here the remains of the Hippopotami were associated with those of the 
Mammoth and of species of Deer. The locality is forty feet above the pre- 
sent level of the Thames. Six of the Hippopotamuses' tusks lay within an 
area of 120 yards. These fossils are referred by Cuvier to the extinct species 
which he has named Hippopotamus major. 

Mr. Parkinson obtained from the till at Walton, in Essex, the following re- 
mains of the Hippopotamus : — a right lower incisor, the upper extremity of 
a lower canine, an anterior upper molar, and an ultimate lower molar tooth. 

Dr. Buckland discovered molar teeth of the Hippopotamus in the Hyaena- 
cave at Kirkland, whence he infers that this pachyderm, like the Rhinoceros 

* The Bielbecks fossils, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Felis, Urus, &c. &c., are all mentioned in 
Phillips's Geol. of Yorkshire, vol. i. (2nd edition), 
t Philosophical Tiausactions, 1813. 



224 REPORT — 1843. 

and Elephant, had been the prey of the Hyaenas, which inhabited England 
immediately preceding the formation of the drift. 

The entire skull of a Hippopotamus, which was discovered in the drift- 
gravel below a peat-bog in Lancashire, is figured by Lee in his Natural 
History of that county. 

Amongst the fossils of the Hippopotamus which I have personally examined 
from British strata, one of the finest is a considerable portion of the lower 
jaw, now in the museum of Miss Gurney, from the freshwater deposits over- 
lying the fluvio-marine crag near Cromer. It contains six molars on one 
side, which occupy an alveolar extent of 1 foot The first molar is se- 
parated by an interval of 9 lines from the second. In. Lin. 

The depth of the jaw at the third molar tooth is 4- 9 

From the back part of the last socket to the under margin 1 g q 
of the descending angular process / 

In the same rich collection there are several detached molar teeth of Hip- 
popotamus from the same formation, a tusk 12 inches in length, and an 
incisor of the upper jaw; all establishing the identity of the present species 
with the Hippopotamus major of Cuvier, the remains of which occur in the 
drift of various parts of continental Europe. 

In the Yorkshire Museum there is a molar tooth of the Hippopotamus ma- 
jor, from Overton near York. 

In the Norwich Museum there is a tusk of the Hippopotamus major, which 
was dredged up from the oyster-bank at Happisburgh : it is black and heavy, 
being penetrated by iron. 

Mr. Brown of Stanway possesses a portion of the tusk of the Hippopotamus 
from the till at Walton in Essex ; it is referable to the Hippopotamus major : 
remains of the same extinct species have been found at Grays and Harwich. 

Remains of the Hippopotamus have been found in several of the limestone 
caves in England besides that at Kirkdale ; as, for example, at Kent's Hole, 
Torquay. Several teeth of the Hippopotamus were found, associated with 
Mammoth, Rhinoceros, Aurochs, Ox, Hyeena, and Bear, in the cavern at 
Durdham Down, recently described by Mr. Stutchbury. 
Genus Lophiodon. 

Prior to the year 1839, no fossils referable to any member of the Mammalian 
class had been detected in the eocene formation called the London and plastic 
clay. A fossil canine tooth brought up from a depth of 160 feet, out of the 
plastic clay, while sinking a well in the neighbourhood of Maidstone, un- 
equivocally establishes the fact that the genns Lophiodon has contributed to the 
organic remains of that formation. For the opportunity of examining this 
rare and interesting fossil I am indebted to Mr. Alport, who has recorded the 
circumstances attending its discovery, with my note of identification, in his 
interesting work, ' The Antiquities and Natural History of the Town of 
Maidstone in Kent.' The size of the canine tooth agrees with that in the 
Lophiodon which Cuvier has called " La grande espece d'Argenton," ren- 
dered by Fischer* Lophiodon Isselense, properly Isselensis. The matrix yield- 
ing the original fossils of this species is a freshwater hard marl, full of the 
shells of Planorhis and LymncBU, with remains of Crocodiles and Trionyces. 

The corresponding formation at Binstead in the Isle of Wight belongs to 
the eocene tertiary period, and has likewise furnished a fossil referable to the 
genus Lophiodon, and by its size to the Loph. Isselensis. It is a median 
phalanx of the right fore-foot, and was submitted to me as the bone of an 
Iguanodon. There is, in fact, a considerable general resemblance between 
the middle phalanges of this great herbivorous reptile and those of the larger 
hoofed Mammals ; but with respect to the fossil in question, the configura- 
* Systema Mamnialium, p. 413. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 225 

tion of tlie lateral surfaces for the attachment of the ligaments ; the produc- 
tion of the inferior border of the distal articulation into a process for the 
insertion of the flexor tendon ; and the greater curvature or portion of a 
circle described by the distal articular extremity, which indicates a greater 
extent and freedom of flexion and extension of the toe than the cold-blooded 
reptiles possess ; all prove the fossil to have belonged to the more agile, 
warmer-blooded and higher organized Pachyderm. This fossil phalanx forms 
part of the collection of the Marchioness of Hastings. 

A fine fragment of the right ramus of the lower jaw, including the two 
posterior molar teeth, of a large Lophiodon, was dredged up from the bottom 
of the sea between St. Osyth and Harwich on the Essex coast. It is in the 
possession of Mr. Brown of Stanway. 

Genus Palceotherium. 
Most of the British fossils referable to this genus have been obtained from 
the freshwater eocene marls at Binstead or Seafield in the Isle of Wight. I 
am indebted for the opportunity of determining the specimens here recorded 
from this locality to Mr. S. P. Pratt, F.R.S., and the Rev. Darwin Fox. 
They are as follows : — 
Palceotherium magnum . . . Antepenultimate molar, upperjaw. 

medium . . . Posterior molar, lower jaw. 

Do Portion of ditto ditto. 

Do Posterior molar, upper jaw. 

Do Penultimate molar, upperjaw. 

Do Antepenultimate molar, upper jaw. 

Do Anterior spurious molar. 

Do Crown of canine. 

Do Complete incisor. 

crassum . . . Second molar, right side, lower jaw. 

curium (?) . . A molar tooth. 

minus .... Portion of the base of the skull. 

Do Right ramus of the lower jaw with six grinders. 

Do Proximal end of the right radius. 

Do Shaft and distal end of right tibia. 

minimum . . Anterior molar tooth. 

A shaft and distal articular end of a humerus, black, heavy and completely 
mineralized, from the eocene clay at Hordwell Cliff, Hampshire, in the col- 
lection of Mr. Wickham Flower, belongs to the genus Palceotherium, and 
agrees in its size and proportions with the humerus of the Pal. crassum. 
Mr. Wickham Flower likewise possesses an inferior molar tooth of a species 
of Palceotherium, corresponding in size with the Pal. crassum, from the same 
stratum and locality. 

Genus Anoplotherium. 
The remains of this genus have hitherto been met with in Great Britain 
only in the freshwater eocene deposits in the Isle of Wight, associated with 
quadrupeds of the same extinct genera as those with which the Anoplotherium 
was originally discovered by Cuvier in the eocene gypsum quarries at Mont- 
martre. The British fossils consist of molar teeth referable to the Anoplo- 
therium commune and A. secundarium. 

Genus Dichobunes. 
The most complete fossil referable to the Anoplotherioid family indicates a 
species of the subgenus Dichobunes, differing from those therein placed by 
Cuvier, and which I have named Dich. cervinum*. The fossil consists of the 

* Geological Transactions, 2nd Series, vol. iii. p. 451, and iv. p. 44. See also Annals of 
Philosophy, New Series, 1825, vol. x. p. 360. 

1843. Q 



226 REPORT — 1843. 

posterior half of the left ramus of the lower jaw with the three true molar 
teeth : it was found in the lowest bed of the freshwater marl at Binstead. 

Molar teeth of the same species of Dichobunes have been obtained by Mr. 
Flower from Hordwell Cliff, associated with the Palceotherium crassum, and 
with other lower organized Vertebrate fossils of the Eocene period, as Cro- 
codilus Spenceri, Trionyx, PalcBophis, Lepidosteus, &c. 

Genus Charopotamus. 

Cuvier had recognized amongst the fossil fragments extracted from the 
gypsum at Montmartre, indications of extinct genera different from the Pa- 
Iceotheria and Anoplofkeria, and to one of the rarest and least satisfactorily 
represented of these he gave the name of Charopotamus. The fossil to be 
here noticed not only extends, by its association with the Palaotheria and 
Anoplotheria, the analogies of the eocene marls of the Isle of \\'ight with 
the gypsum beds at Paris, but affords additional information of tlie osteology 
and dentition of the extinct genus, which is essential to the determination of 
its exact affinities. The details of the comparisons illustrating this part of 
the history of the Chceropotamus are given in my paper in the Geological 
Transactions* ; they show that the extinct Chceropotamus constituted one of 
the numerous examples in palaeontology of lost links in the chain of animated 
nature, tending in the present case to connect the Pachydermata through the 
Hog-tribe with the plantigrade Carnivora. 

The fossil in question is the right ramus of the lower jaw, with all the 
teeth in place except the second premolar and the incisors. It was discovered 
by the Rev. D. Fox in the Seafield quarry, near Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

Genus Hyracotherium. 

The freshwater eocene marls of the Isle of Wight are much richer in mam- 
malian remains than the contemporaneous formation called the London clay; 
here, however, one genus, Lophiodon, has been found which exists in the 
eocene gypsum in France, the remains of which also occur in the eocene 
marls of the Isle of Wight ; and the interesting fossil to be described in the 
present section, although it indicates a genus not, hitherto, found in the older 
tertiary beds on the continent, demonstrates the extinct quadruped of which 
it formed part to have been as distinct generically, as the Anoplotherium or 
Palceotherium, from any living Mammalia, and to have had the nearest affinity 
to the Chceropotamus. 

The fossil in question consists of a mutilated cranium about the size of that 
of a hare, containing the molar teeth of the upper jaw nearly perfect and the 
sockets of the canines. It was discovered in the London clay forming the 
cliffs at Studd Hill, about a mile to the west of Heme Bay, by William 
Richardson, Esq., who kindly gave me the opportunity and permission of 
describing it. 

The molars are seven in number on each side, and resemble more nearly 
those of the Chceropotaiuus than the molars of any other known genus of ex- 
isting or extinct Mammalia. They consist of four premolars and three true 
molars. 

The first and second premolars, counting from before backwards, have 
simple subcompressed crowns, surmounted by a single median conical cusp 
■with a small anterior and posterior tubercle at the outer side, and a ridge 
along the inner side of its base : they are separated from each other by an 
interspace nearly equal to the antero-posterior diameter of the first premolar, 
which measures two lines and a half. The second and the remaining molars 

* Geo). Trans. Second Series, vol. vi. p. 41. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 



227 



are in close juxtaposition. The third and fourth premolars present a sudden 
increase of size and of complexity of the grinding surface, with a correspond- 
ing change of form. The plane or transverse section of the crown is sub- 
triangular with the base outwards and nearly straight, the apex inwards and 
a little forwards, rounded off, to which the anterior and posterior sides con- 
verge in curved lines; the grinding surface supports three principal tubercles 
or cusps, two on the outer and one on the inner side : there are two smaller 
elevations, with a depression on the summit of each, situated in the middle of 
the crown, and the whole is surrounded with a ridge, which is developed into 
a small cusp at the anterior and external angle of the tooth. These teeth 
form the principal difference between the dentition of the present genus and 
that of the Chceropotamus, in which the corresponding false molars are rela- 
tively smaller and of a simpler construction, having only a single external 
pyramidal cusp, with an internal transverse ridge or talon at its base. The 
true molars, three in number on each side, closely correspond in structure 
with those of the Chceropotamus. They present four principal conical tuber- 
cles, situated near the four angles of the quadrilateral grinding surface. 
Each transverse pair of tubercles is connected at the anterior part of their 
base by a ridge, which is raised midway into a smaller conical tubercle with 
an excavated apex. The crown of the tooth is surrounded by a well-marked 
ridge, which is developed, as in the third and fourth false molars, into a sharp- 
pointed cusp at the anterior and external angle of the tooth. The hindmost 
molar is more contracted posteriorly, and its quadrilateral figure less regular 
than the two preceding molars. 

The sockets of the canines or tusks indicate that these teeth were relatively 
as large as in the Peccari, and that they were directed downwards. The 
temporal muscles were as well-developed as in the Peccari, the depressed sur- 
face for their attachment extending on each side of the cranium as far as the 
sagittal suture. 

The frontal bones are divided by a continuation of the sagittal suture. The 
nasal suture runs transversely across the cranium parallel with the anterior 
boundary of the orbits. The lachrymal bone reaches a very httle way upon 
the face. The external angle of the base of the nasal bone, which is of con- 
siderable breadth, joins the lachi'ymal, and separates the superior maxillary 
from the frontal bone. The anterior margin of the malar bone encroaches a 
little way upon the face at the anterior boundary of the orbit. The external 
aperture of the sub-orbital canal is situated about three-fourths of an inch 
from the anterior boundary of the orbit. The under surface of the palatal 
processes of the maxillary bones is rugose, as in the Peccari ; the portion of 
the skull, including the intermaxillary bones and the incisive teeth, is unluckily 
broken off and lost. 

That the eye was full and large, is indicated by the size of the optic foramen 
and the capacity of the orbit, the vertical diameter of which equals 1 inch. 
The upper part of the cranium, anterior to the sagittal suture, is slightly 
convex from side to side ; its longitudinal contour is nearly straight. The face 
gradually becomes narrower anteriorly ; it is slightly concave at the sides. 

The general form of the skull was probably intermediate in character be- 
tween that of the Hog and the Hyrax. The large size of the eye must have 
given to the physiognomy of the living animal a resemblance to that of the 
Hare and other timid Rodentia. 

Without intending to imply that the present small extinct Pachyderm was 
more closely allied to the Hyrax than as being a member of the same order, 
and similar in size, I have proposed to call the new genus which it unques- 
tionably indicates, Hyracotherium, witli the specific name leporinum. 

In the eocene sand underlying the red crag at Kingston or Kyson in 

q2 



228 REPORT — 1843. 

Suffolk, from which the remains of Quadrumatia have been obtained*, Mr. 
Colchester, the discoverer of those remains, has subsequently found the teeth 
of small mammalian animals, some of which are referable to the genus Hy- 
racotheritcmf. 

The teeth from Kyson are three true molars and one of the false molars, 
all belonging to the upper jaw. The crowns of the true molars present the 
same shortness in vertical extent, the same inequilateral, four-sided, transverse 
section, and nearly the same structure, as in Hyracothertum leporinum ; the 
grinding surface being raised into four obtuse pyramidal cusps, and sur- 
rounded by a well-developed ridge, produced at the anterior and outer angle 
of the crown into a fifth small cusp. 

These teeth are, however, of smaller size, and differ in a point not expli- 
cable on the supposition of their having belonged to a smaller individual or 
variety ; for the ridge which passes transversely from the inner to the outer 
cusp is developed midway into a small crateriform tubercle in the teeth of the 
Hyracotherium leporinum, but preserves its trenchant character in the Hyrac. 
Cuniculus, even in molars which have the larger tubercles worn down. 

The premolar in the series of detached teeth from Kyson, which is either 
the third or fourth, presents the same complication of the crown which distin- 
guishes the Hyracotlmrium from the CJmropotamus, but with the same minor 
modification which distinguishes the true molars of the Kyson species from 
those of the Hyrac. leporinum of Heme Bay ; i. e. the two ridges which con- 
verge from the two outer tubercles towards the internal tubercle are not de- 
veloped midway into the small excavated tubercle, as in the Hyrac. leporinum, 
but are simple. The disparity of size between the true and false molars ap- 
pears to be greater in the Hyrac. Cunictilus than in the Hyrac. leporinum. 

This discovery of a second species of the genus Hyracotherium, which, 
hitherto, has been found only in the London clay, tends to place beyond 
doubt the equivalency of the Kyson sand, underlying the red crag, with the 
eocene deposits at the estuary of the Thames. 

I may add, that the collection of teeth and other small organic fragments 
from the Kyson clay, which included the molars of the small extinct Pachy- 
derm above desci'ibed, likewise contained several vertebree of a serpent, agree- 
ing in every respect, save size, with those of the Palaophis toliapicus from 
the Isle of Sheppey. 

Genus Sus. 
When Cuvier communicated his memoir on the fossil bones of the Hog to 
the French Academy in 1809, he had met with no specimens from formations 
less recent than the mosses or turbaries and peat-bogs, and knew not that 
any had been found in the drift associated with the bones of elephants. He 
repeats this observation in the edition of the 'Ossemens Fossiles' in 1822; 
but in the additions to the last volume published in 1825, Cuvier cites the 
discovery, by M. Bourdet de la Nievre, of a fossil lower jaw of a Sus, on the 
east bank of the lake of Neuchatel, and a fragment of the upper jaw from the 
cavern at Sandwich, described by Goldfuss. 

Dr. Buckland X includes the molar teeth and a large tusk of a boar found 
in the cave of Hutton in the Mendip Hills, with the true fossils of that re- 
ceptacle, as the remains of the Mammoth, Spelaean Bear, &c. With respect 
to cave-bones, however, it is sometimes difficult to produce conviction as 
to the contemporaneity of extinct and recent species. MM. Croizet and 
Jobert, in their account of the fossils of Auvergne, give more satisfactory 
evidence of the coexistence of the genus Sus with Elephas, Mastodon, &e., 
by describing and figuring well-marked fossils of a species of Hog, whicli 

• See Report of British Association for 1843. 

t Geological Transactions, 2nd Series, vo). vi. p. 203, J Reliq. Diluvianje, p. 59. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 229 

they discovered " au milieu de nos couches a ossemens," in the midst of their 
rich fossiliferous tertiary beds. These observers found, however, that the 
facial part of their fossil Hog was relatively shorter than in the existing Sus 
scrofa, and they have conceived it to represent a distinct species, viz. the *S'm* 
Avemensis. Dr. Kaup has described fossils referable to the genus Stis from 
the miocene Epplesheim sand, in which they were Eissociated with fossils of 
the Mastodon and Dinotherium. 

The oldest fossils of the genus Sus from British strata which I have yet 
seen, are portions of the external incisor of the lower jaw, from fissures in 
the red crag (probably miocene) of Newbourne near Woodbridge, Suffolk. 
They were associated with teeth of an extinct Felis about the size of a leo- 
pard, with those of a bear, and with remains of a large Cervus. These 
mammalian remains were found with the ordinary fossils of the red crag ; 
they had undergone the same process of trituration, and were impregnated 
with the same colouring matter as the associated bones and teeth of fishes 
acknowledged to be derived from the regular strata of the red crag. These 
mammaliferous beds have been proved by Mr. Lyell to be older than 
the fluvio-marine or Norwich crag, in which remains of the Mastodon, Rhi- 
noceros and Horse have been discovered ; and still older than the freshwater 
Pleistocene deposits from which the remains of the Mammoth, Rhinoceros, 
&c. are obtained in such abundance. 

I have met with some satisfactory instances of the association of fossil 
remains of a species of Hog with those of the Mammoth in the newer plio- 
cene freshwater formations of England. 

In the collection of Mr. Wickham Flower there are good specimens of the 
teeth of the Hog (molars, and a long and sharp tusk), which were taken from 
the brick-earth at Grays in Essex, twenty feet below the present surface ; these 
teeth were associated with teeth and bones of a deer, and portions of dark 
charred M'ood. Mr. Brown of Stanway has likewise some fossil remains of 
a young specimen of Sus from the freshwater deposits at Grays. 

A left upper tusk of a Boar from the Pleistocene beds uear Brighton pre- 
sented a broader longitudinal internal strip of enamel than in those tusks of 
the Wild Boar of Europe or India which I had for comparison ; the longitu- 
dinal groove along the unenamelled part was deeper. 

These instances of fossil remains of the Hog tribe are, however, very rare. 
The usual situation of bones of the Hog is that mentioned by Cuvier in peat- 
bogs. In the Norwich Museum there is the anterior part of the lower jaw of 
a Hog, which was found four or five feet below the surface in peat-bog upon 
drift-gravel. 

A molar tooth with the upper and lower tusks of a Wild Boar have been 
found, associated with remains of the Wolf, Beaver, Goat, Roebuck, and large 
Red-deer in freshwater marl, underlying a bed of peat 10 feet thick, itself 
covered in some places by the same thickness of shell-marl and alluvium, at 
Newbury, Berkshire. 

In the most recent deposits where the remains of the Hog are usually met 
with, their identity with the Sus scrofa is unequivocal. 

I have received from Dr. Richardson a collection of bones, not much altered 
by time, from a gravel-pit in Lincolnshire, near the boundary between the 
parishes of Croft and Ikeness ; among these were remains of the common Hog. 

The tusks and molar teeth of a Boar which were discovered, ten feet be- 
low the surface of a peat-bog, near Abingdon, Berkshire, were associated 
with quantities of hazel-nuts in a blackened or charred state, the whole 
resting on a layer of sand which was traced extending eighteen feet hori- 
zontally. 

The anterior part of the left ramus of the jaw of a Hog has been obtained 
from the drift formation at Kesslingland, Suffolk. 



230 REPORT — 1843. 

Genus Equus. 

In England, as on the Continent, remains of the genus Equus attest that a 
species equalling a middle-sized Horse, and one of the size of an Ass, or 
Zebra, have been the associates of the Mammoth, Rhinoceros, and other ex- 
tinct quadrupeds whose remains are so generally dispersed in the drift forma- 
tions, bone-caves, and the newer tertiary deposits. Almost every geological 
author who has had occasion to notice the mammalian fossils of these recent 
periods has made mention of such a combination. It has been observed by 
Dr. Mantell* in the "Elephant-bed" at Brighton; by Mr. Cliftf in the caver- 
nous fissures at Oreston ; by Dr. BucklandJ in the ossiferous caves at Kirk- 
dale, in the Mendips and at Paviland ; by Mr. Lyell§ in the tertiary de- 
posits on the Norfolk coast; by Col. Hamilton Smith || in the bone-caves 
near Torquay; and by Mr. Morris^ in the mammaliferous deposits in the 
valley of the Thames, as at Wickham, Ilford, Erith, Grays and Kingsland. 

No critical anatomical comparison appears hitherto to have been instituted 
with regard to the relations of these equine fossils Avith the existing species. 
That the fossils vary in size amongst themselves has been more than once 
noticed ; and Dr. Buckland makes a remark** expressive of his suspicion that 
they belonged to more than one species. 

The largest-sized fossil Equus from British strata is indicated by a molar 
tooth, the second of the left side, lower jaw, obtained by Mr. Lyell from a 
bed of laminated blue clay, with pyrites, eight feet thick, overlying the Nor- 
wich crag at Cromer, where it was associated with remains of the Mammoth, 
Rhinoceros, Bos, Cervus, and Trogontherium. The antero-posterior dia- 
meter of this tooth was 1 inch ^-lOths, equalling that in the largest dray- 
horses of the present day : other corresponding fossil teeth of Equus have 
measured in the same diameter 1 inch 2-IOths, and 1 inch. The intermediate 
size, which equals that of the teeth of a horse of between fourteen and fifteen 
hands high, is the most common one presented by fossils. A middle upper 
molar tooth from Kent's Hole, Torquay, indicates a horse as large as that 
from the blue clay at Cromer, but the size of the fossil species would be 
incorrectly estimated from the analogy of the teeth alone. Although the 
equine fossils are far from rare, yet they have hitherto in England been 
always found more or less dispersed or insulated, and no opportunity has 
occurred of ascertaining the proportions of one and the same individual by the 
comparison of an entire skeleton with that of the existing species of Equus, 

The best-authenticated associations of bones of the extremities Avith jaw 
and teeth, clearly indicate that the fossil Horse had a coarser and larger head 
than in the domesticated races ; resembling in this respect the Wild Horses 
of Asia described by Pallasff, and in the same degree approximating the 
Zebrine and Asinine groups. 

It is well known that Cuvier failed to detect any characters in the skele- 
tons of the different existing species of Equus, or in the fossil remains of the 
same genus, by which he could distinguish them ; except by their difference 
of size, which yields but a vague and unsatisfactory approximation. 

The second and third molars of both jaws in every fossil specimen of these 
teeth which I have examined, are narrower transversely in comparison with 
their antero-posterior diameter than in the existing horse ; and a similar cha- 
racter appears to have been recognized by M. H. v. Meyer in the fossil 
equine teeth from continental localities, since he cites the Equus angustideus 

* Fossils of the South Downs, 4to. 1822, p. 283. f V'hil.Tians. 1823, p. 86. 

X Reliquiae Diluvians, pp. 18, 75. § Phil. Mag. vol xvi. (1840), pp. 349, 362. 

II Naturalist's Library, Horses, p. 63. f Mag. of Nat. History, 1838, p. 539. 

** Loc. cit. p. 75, with respect to the equine remains discovered in the Oreston caverns : — 
" Horses about twelve, of different ages and sizes, as if from more than one species." 
tt Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, torn. i. p. 255. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 231 

as a synonym of the species which he subsequently described under the 
name of £quus asinus primigenius*. 

Amongst the numerous teeth of a species of Equus, as large as a horse 
fourteen and a half hands high, collected from the Oreston cavernous fissures, 
I have found specimens clearly indicating two distinct species, so far as spe- 
cific differences may be founded on well-marked modifications of the teeth. 

One of these, like the ordinary Equus fossilis of the drift and pleistocene 
formations, most resembles the existing Equus caballus in its dental cha- 
racters ; the other, in the more complex and elegant plication of the enamel, 
and in the bilobed posterior termination of the grinding surface of the last 
upper molar, more closely approximates the extinct Horse of the miocene 
period which H. v. Meyer has characterized under the name of the Equus 
caballus primigenius\. The Oreston remains differ, however, from this in the 
form of the fifth or internal prism of dentine in the upper molars, and in its 
continuation with the second anterior prism ; the fifth prism being oval and 
insulated in the Equus primigenius of V. Meyer. 

The Oreston fossil teeth, which in their principal characters manifest so 
close a relationship with the miocene Equus primigenius, differ like the 
later drift species {Eq. fossilis') from the recent Horse, in a greater propor- 
tional antero-posterior diameter of the crown of the second upper molar, and 
also in a less produced anterior angle of the first molar. In neither of the 
fossil species is the entire tooth so much curved as in the extinct Equus cur- 
videns, nob., the contemporary of the Megatherium in South America. 

The more common species of fossil Horse from the drift formations and 
ossiferous caverns, which differs from the existing domestic Horse in its 
larger proportional head and jaws, resembling in that respect the Wild Horse, 
but apparently differing in the transversely narrower form of certain molar 
teeth, may continue to be conveniently indicated by the name of Equus 
fossilis, as Cuvier's " cheval fossile " has been translated by M. H. v. MeyerJ. 
Of this species, the largest bone of an extremity which I have seen, is a se- 
cond phalanx from the upper pliocene deposits at Walton-on-Naze, Essex, 
where it was discovered by Mr. Brown of Stanway ; it measures 2 inches 8 
lines in extreme breadth, and 2 inches 4 lines in length. The correspond- 
ing bones from Oreston are smaller. 

The contemporary but distinct species, indicated by the teeth above de- 
scribed from the Oreston caverns, I propose to name Equus plicidens, on 
account of the characteristic plications of the enamel-island in the centre of 
the molar teeth. I have not yet seen any teeth from British strata having 
the well-marked characters of those of the Equus caballus primigenius of 
M. H. v, Meyer ; but the teeth of the extinct slender-legged Horse, trans- 
mitted by Capt. Cautley to the British Museum, are identical with those of 
the above species from the European miocene. 

In the more recent or diluvial formations, a fossil species of Equus, smaller 
than any of the preceding, and about the size of the Wild Ass, is indicated 
by molar teeth. Of these I may cite a middle molar of the left side of the 
upper jaw, from the drift overlying the London clay at Chatham ; a corre- 
sponding molar from the opposite side of the upper jaw, from the drift at 
Kesslingland in Suffolk ; and a fifth molar, left side of lower jaw, from a ca- 
vernous fissure at Oreston : all these teeth were in the same fossilized con- 
dition as the associated remains of extinct Mammals Avith which they had 
clearly been contemporaneous. If we admit the subgeneric separation of those 
species of the genus Equus, Cuv., that have callosities on the fore-legs only, 
the tail furnished with a terminal brush of long hair, and a longitudinal dor- 
sal line, the last indicated fossil species may be named Asinus fossilis. 

* Palacologica, p. 80. f Nova Acta Acad. Nat. Curios, torn. xvi. p. 448. 

J Palaeologica, p. 79. 



232 REPORT — 1843. 

Several bones of a large Ass were associated with the teeth of the Wild 
Boar above mentioned, from the marl beneath the peat formation at Newbury, 
Berks. 

I have been favoured with the following notes of the discovery of fossil 
teeth of a species of Equus in Ireland, by John Thompson, Esq. of Belfast. 
In sinking a well near Downpatrick, in the county of Down, two teeth were 
found in a stratum of gravel far below the present surface. A tooth was 
found at Newry under similar circumstances. In the county of Antrim teeth 
of the Horse have been found four feet below the surface in drift gravel near 
Belfast, and at the bottom of a turf-bog near Broughshane. 

Order Ruminantia. 

Family Bovid^. 

Subgenus Urus*. 

Urus priscus, Fossil Aurochs. 

The former existence of a gigantic species of this subgenus is unequivo- 
cally established by fossil remains of the cranium and horn-cores from various 
newer tertiary freshwater deposits, especially in Kent and Essex. 

One of these specimens was dug out of a stratum of dark-coloured clay be- 
low layers of brick-earth and gravel, thirty feet below the surface, at Wool- 
wich ; it presents the broad convex forehead, the advanced position of the 
horns, which rise three inches anterior to the upper occipital ridge, and the 
obtuse-angled junction of the occipital vvith the coronal or frontal surface of 
the skull, all which characters distinguish that part of the skeleton of the 
Aurochs. The bony cores of the horns extend outwards, with a slight curva- 
ture upwards : from the mid-line between their bases to the extremity of one 
core, in a straight line, measures 2 feet 5 inches. 

Another specimen of the fossil cranium of the Urus, dug out of a brick- 
field at Ilford in Essex, presents, with the same essential characters as the 
preceding, relatively thicker, shorter and more curved horn-cores. This fossil 
in the shorter horns differs from the preceding, as the American Bison or Ass 
differs from the European Aurochs ; but in the absolute length of the horns 
it resembles the European Aurochs : it may indicate the female Urus priscus, 

A broken skull with perfect horn-cores of the Uriis priscus, discovered by 
Mr. Strickland in the freshwater drift at Cropthorne, Worcestershire, yields 
the following dimensions : from tip to tip of the horn-cores, following the 
anterior curves, 3 feet 8 inches ; the same in a straight line, 3 feet 4 inches. 

Hitherto no fossil skeleton of the same individual has been discovered in a 
state of such completeness as to enable the anatomist to ascertain the number 
of the ribs; a fact which would be of singular importance in determining the 
relations of the ancient British Aurochs, since the European existing Wild 
Aurochs has fourteen pairs, and the American Aurochs or Bison has fifteen 
pairs, whilst all the varieties of Ox and Buffalo have but thirteen pairs of ribs. 
The number of the true vertebrae is however the same in all the Bovine ani- 
mals, the costal or dorsal being increased at the expense of the lumbar series 
in the subgenus Urus. Cuvier expresses his opinion of the importance of a 
precise knowledge of the formations containing remains of the great fossil 
Aurochs, and regrets that the information on this point is somewhat vague. 

The brick-earth from which the two specimens of fossil Aurochs above-cited 
were found, underlies a layer of sand with pebbles and concretions, containing 
shells of Unio and Cyclas ; and the remains of both Mammoth and Rhinoceros 
are unquestionably associated with those of the Aurochs in this formation. 
The other localities which may be cited, from the less certain character of the 

* Bos Urus, Linn., but not the Urus of the ancients, which Cuvier regards as the true 
original of our domestic cattle. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 233 

proportion of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones — those of the slenderest 
proportions being referred to the Aurochs, — are Brentford, Wickham, Ilford, 
Erith, Woolwich, Grays, Whitstable, Gravesend, Copford, and Clacton. 

Prof. Phillips has recorded the discovery of the skull with the cores of the 
horns and the teeth of the great Aurochs at Beilbecks in his ' Geology of York- 
shire,' vol. i. 2nd edition, accompanied by land and freshwater shells, and by 
remains of the Mammoth, Rhinoceros, Felis, large Horse, large Deer, Wolf, &c. 

Subgenus Bos. 
Bos primigenius, Bojanus. Bceuf fossile, Cuvier. 

The fortunate discovery of the cranium and horn-cores of this great extinct 
species in drift and recent tertiary deposits in this country, has enabled me to 
enter it without hesitation in the list of British Fossil Mammalia, and at the 
same time to determine its equal antiquity with the Aurochs. The charac- 
ters of the Bos primigenius, as contrasted with the Urus prisons, may be 
advantageously studied in the magnificent specimen of an almost entire ske- 
leton discovered in the drift overlying the London clay at Heme Bay, and 
now in the collection of Mr. Wickham Flower. The concave forehead with 
its median longitudinal ridge ; the origin of the horns at the extremities of the 
sharp ridge which divides the frontal from the occipital regions ; the acute 
angle at which these two surfaces of the cranium meet to form the above 
ridge, all identify this specimen with the Bos primigenius described by Cuvier*, 
Bojanusf and FremeryJ. The cores of the horns bend at first slightly back- 
ward and upward, then downward and forward, and finally inward and up- 
ward, describing a graceful double curvature : they are tuberculate at the 
base, moderately impressed by longitudinal grooves, and irregularly perfo- 
rated : the length of each horn-core along the outer curve is 3 feet 3 inches; 
the circumference of the core at its base 18 inches 10 lines ; the longest dia- 
meter of the base 6^ inches ; the chord of the arc described by the core is 
7^ inches ; from the middle line of the forehead to the tip of the core is 2 
feet 2 inches. 

The length of the lower jaw of this specimen is 1 foot 8 inches ; that of the 
series of molar teeth is 7 inches. All the true vertebrae except the atlas ap- 
pear to have been recovered, and they include the six remaining cervical 
vertebrae ; thirteen dorsal and six lumbar vertebrae ; thus yielding another 
important character by which this great primeval Ox agrees with the do- 
mestic species of the present day. One of the dorsal vertebrae which retains 
its spinous process measures 1 foot 7 inches in height ; a development not 
greater than might have been expected for the support of the head and horns. 
One of the scapulae shows a diseased external surface, ossific inflammation ha- 
ving extended from two depressions in the bone, probably inflicted by the horns 
of another bull in conflict. The metacarpal bones give additional exemplifica- 
tions of the true Bovine character of the present extinct species, by their 
stronger proportions as compared with those of the Aurochs ; the length of 
one being 10 inches, and its circumference 5^ inches. 

Mr. Brown of Stanway has recorded his discovery, in a mass of drift-sand 
overlying the London clay at Clacton on the Essex coast, of the frontal part 
of the cranium, with the cores of the horns of a large Bovine animal, which, 
from the direction and degree of curvature of the horns, agrees with the fossil 
Bos primigenius. Each core measured 3 feet along the outer curve from the 
base to the tip; the chord of the arc of such curve being 8 inches : the dia- 
meter of the base was 6 inches in one direction and 5 inches in the other. With 
these parts of the Bos primigenius was found a perfect Mammoth's tooth, 11 
inches in length, 8 inches in depth, and 3 inches across the grinding surface. 

* Ossein. Foss. iv. p. 150. f Nova Acta Acad. Nat. Cur. xiii. pt. 2. 

X N. Verb. Koninkl.-Nederlandsch Instituut, Derde Deel, 1831. 



234 REPORT— 1843. 

The most complete skull of the Bos primigenius is that of which the dis- 
covery is recorded in the Bath and Cheltenham Gazette for June 26, 1838. 
The specimen was obtained from the bed of the river Avon, at Melksham, 
Wilts, and it gives a distinctive character of the present subgenus which 
could not be deduced from the former specimens on account of their fractured 
state, viz. the greater length of the frontal region in proportion to its breadth, 
as compared with that part of the skull of the Urus. 

Cuvier states with regard to fossil remains of the Bos primigenius, " il 
s'en trouve en Angleterre," apparently on the authority of draM'ings trans- 
mitted to him by Mr. Crow. 

Mr. Parkinson* refers his specimens of Bovine fossils dug up in Dumfries- 
shire to the Bos jJritnigeniiis, but without assigning the grounds for this 
choice. Cuvier himself devotes a distinct section to the detached fossil 
bones of the trunk and extremities of the Bovine tribe, expressing his regret 
at the numerous sources of uncertainty and difficulty attending their deter- 
mination when unassociated with the skull ; whilst he acknowledges the great 
importance of ascertaining the species of Bovidce to which the bones from 
each stratum belonged ; whether, for example, an Aurochs, an Ox, or a Buf- 
falo had been the companion of the Elephants, Rhinoceroses, &c. which for- 
merly lived in climates of Europe. At the period of the publication of the 
second edition of the ' Ossemens Fossiles' (1823), no authentic example had 
been recorded of a cranium of either Urus prisons or Bos primigenius in 
strata containing bones of the Mammoth and Rhinoceros ; and this statement 
is repeated in the posthumous edition of the 'Ossemens Fossiles,' 8vo, 1835. 
The two examples above cited of crania of the Urus prisons from newer 
pliocene freshwater deposits in Kent and Essex, leave no reasonable doubt 
that a large Aurochs was the associate of the gigantic Paohyderms, whose re- 
presentatives at the present day have the Bufi'alos for their companion in the 
tropical swamps and forests. It is true that species of true Bos are found 
wild in the warmer parts of Asia; but no true Aurochs has been discovered 
within the tropics. The great fossil Urus was likewise associated with as 
large a species of Bos in England during the period antecedent to the de- 
position of the drift. 

To determine to which subgenus of Bovidce detached teeth, vertebrae, 
ribs and other bones of the skeleton belonged, is still attended with much 
difficulty ; such remains, however, sufficiently attest that species as large as 
the Urus prisons and Bos primigenius were very extensively distributed 
throughout England : they have been found in almost all the drift and cave 
localities, and in the newer tertiary deposits that have been cited in the fore- 
going part of the present report as yielding the fossil remains of Elephas, 
Rhinoceros, Hycena and Ursus. 

Cuvierf affirms, as the result of his numerous comparisons of the recent 
and fossil bones of the Bovine animals, that the detached bones resemble each 
other too much to yield certain specific characters, and that it is necessary to 
have skulls in order to determine the species. I have however noticed a cha- 
racter in a few fossil metatarsal bones of difl'erent sizes from the cavernous 
fissures at Oreston,and from the freshwater tertiary deposits in Essex, which 
I have not observed or found recorded in any known existing species of the 
Bovine family, and which would serve easily and unequivocally to determine 
the fossil species if once these bones could be found in such connexion or 
juxtaposition with a cranium as to justify the conclusion that they belonged 
to the same skeleton with such cranium. At present, unfortunately, this 
link, essential to a reference of the bones in question to their true subgenus, 
is wanting, and I can only cite them with a notice of the peculiar character 
* Organic Remains, vol. iii. p. 325. t Ossem. I'oss. iv. p. MO. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 235 

adverted to, in the hope that some fortunate ulterior discovery may determine 
whether they belong to a species of Aurochs ( Urus), or of Ox (Bos), or some 
other subgenus of a Bovine family. 

The character in question is an unusual prominence of the inner border of 
the anterior groove for the extensor tendon which traversed the middle of that 
surface of the metatarsal bone, bending the groove obliquely outward ; it is 
well shown in a large fossil metatarsal bone, heavily impregnated with iron, 
from the freshwater formation at Clacton, Essex, and now in the collection of 
Mr. Brown. I should perhaps have regarded this production of a ridge 
of bone as due to ossific inflammation, had not two fossil metatarsal bones 
of a smaller Bovine animal, from the cavernous fissures at Oreston, presented 
the same character. Both these metatarsals and the larger one from Clacton 
present more slender proportions than those of the Bos primigenius, and in 
the same degree approach the genus Urus. 

Bos longifrons. 

This species belongs to the subgenus Bos, by the form of the forehead and 
the origin of the horns from the extremities of the upper occipital ridge, but 
is distinguished from the Bos primigenius by its much smaller size, its much 
shorter horns in proportion to its size, and by its longer and narrower fore- 
head. The horns have a simple curvature forward, and a little downward. 
Remains of this species were first described by Robert Ball, Esq., Secretary 
to the Zoological Society of Dublin, in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy for January 1839, as indicating " a variety or race differing very re- 
markably from any previously described in works with which the author was 
acquainted." They consisted principally of parts of the skull with the horn- 
cores, which had been found at considerable depths in bogs in Westmeath, 
Tyrone and Longford. 

One of the specimens from Westmeath gives the following admeasure- 
ments : — In. Lines. 
Length from the supra-occipital ridge to the nasal bones. ... 8 

Breadth of the skull between the roots of the horns 5 5 

Breadth of the skull across the middle of the orbits 6 5 

Circumference of base of horn-core 4 3 

Length following outer curvature 3 6 

In the Hunterian collection there is a frontlet and horn-core of the same 
species likewise obtained " from a bog in Ireland." Had no other localities 
for the Bos longifrons been known, it might have been held to be of later 
date than the Bos primigenius and Urus priscus. of whose existence as the 
contemporaries of the Mammoth and tichorhine Rhinoceros we have the 
most satisfactory evidence ; 1 have however been so fortunate as to ascertain, 
in the survey of the collections of Mammalian Fossils in the Eastern Counties, 
indubitable specimens of the Bos longifrons from freshwater deposits, which 
are rich in the remains of Elephas and Rhinoceros. 

A specimen of the back part of the cranium and horn-cores in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Brown of Stanway, obtained by that gentleman from the fresh- 
water deposits at Clacton on the Essex coast, gives the admeasurement from 
the supra-occipital ridge to the upper margin of the foramen magnum, which 
is 3 inches 9 lines ; the breadth of the skull between the roots of the horns 
is 5 inches. 

A fossil frontlet and horn-cores of the Bos longifrons, from a similar fresh- 
water of the newer pliocene period, at Walton, presents the same characters 
as the specimens from below the Irish bogs, and it is interesting to find that 
remains of the gigantic Deer (Megaceros) are Eissociated with the Bos longi- 
frons in the English freshwater deposits, as in the under-bog marls in Ireland. 



236 REPORT— 1843. 

Remains of the Bos longifrons occur in the freshwater drift at Kensington, 
associated with those of the Mammoth. 

The above-described contemporaneous fossil remains of Bovine animals 
from the British newer tertiary and drift formations clearly establish the im- 
portant fact, that species of that subgenus, to which belong the domesticated 
races of the Ox, are as ancient as those of the subgenus Urus, now represented 
by the great Aurochs of the Lithuanian forests ; and that the distinguishing 
characters of that wild race have not needed to be modified to produce the 
domestic breed, since wild species oi Bos, as distinct as the domestic Ox now 
is from the Lithuanian Aurochs, coexisted with a gigantic species of Urus 
during the later tertiary periods of geology. 

Genus Capra, 

Frequent evidence of the smaller ruminating animals is afforded by fossil 
jaws, teeth and detached bones of the skeleton, and in a few cases by the 
characteristic appendages of the skull — horns or antlers, which then serve to 
identify the species or the genus of such fossils. 

A fragment of a lower jaw, containing one of the lateral series of six molar 
teeth, with a part of the skull having the perfect cores of the horns attached, 
was discovered by Mr. Brown in the newer pliocene deposits at Walton in 
Essex: these fossils were in the same condition as the bones of the large 
extinct Mammalia from the same formation. The jaw and teeth agreed in 
size and configuration with the same parts in the common Goat, and also 
in the Sheep ; and the highly interesting question, which of these had ex- 
isted contemporaneously with the Mammoth and Rhinoceros, was satisfac- 
torily determined by the cranial fragment : in its shape and size, and espe- 
cially in the character of the cores of the horns, which were 2 inches in 
length, subcompressed, pointed, directed upwards, with a slight bend out- 
wards and backwards, it closely agreed with the common GosX {Capra Hir- 
cus^, and with tlie short-horned female of the Wild Goat (Capra jEffogrus), 
the probable origin of the half- domesticated Goat of Europe. 

Whether the Capra JEgagrus or the Capra Ibex should be regarded as 
the stock of our domestic breed, has long been a question among naturalists; 
the weighty argument which may be drawn from the character of the wild 
species which was contemporary with the Bos primigenius and Bos longifrons, 
is shown by the present fossil to be in favour of the Capra ^gagrus. 

Genus Cervus, 
Subgenus Capreolus. 

In the collection of British fossils belonging to Mr. Purdue of Islington, 
there is an entire left ramus of the lower jaw of a small Ruminant, identical 
in size and conformation with that of the Roebuck ( Cervus Capreolus). It 
was found in a lacustrine deposit of marl, with freshwater shells, below the bed 
of peat, at Newbury in Berkshire. Antlers of the Roebuck have been found 
at ten feet deep below the fen-land of Cambridgeshire. The characteristic 
antlers, with portions of the jaws and teeth of the Roebuck, have been found 
in the bone-caves in Pembrokeshire, and in the neighbourhood of Stoke- 
upon-Trent. I have been favoured with specimens from the limestone caverns 
of the latter locality by Robert Garner, Esq., the author of the 'History of 
Staffordshire.' Almost the entire skeleton of a small Ruminant, agreeing in 
size and general characters with the female Roe, has been discovered in the 
lacustrine formation at Bacton, with the remains of the Trogontherium, 
Mammoth, &c. 

Subgenus Elaphus. 

A large round-antlered Stag, nearly allied to, if not a variety of, the existing 
Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus, Linn.), was the associate of the great Aurochs, 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 237 

the Mammoth and the Rhinoceros, and its fossil remains have been discovered 
in ahnost all those formations and localities which have yielded those of the 
before-mentioned extinct Mammals. 

The oldest stratum yielding evidence of a Cervus of the size of the Red 
Deer, is the Miocene Red Crag at Newbourne, and remains of this species 
attest its existence through intermediate strata up to the period of the for- 
mation of the turbaries and peat-bogs. 

Dr. Buckland makes mention of the discovery of an entire skull of a Deer, 
in the bone-cave at Paviland, as large as a Red Deer, but of a different 
species. The rounded base of a shed antler, measuring 3 inches in dia- 
meter above the brow-antler, and sending forwards the second or bezantler 
within three inches of the former, indicates a species of the Elaphine group, 
equalling the Cervus Megaceros in the size of the beams of the antler ; and 
therefore, from the known proportions of the body to the antlers in the Red 
Deer, probably exceeding that great extinct species from the Irish bogs in 
size, and at least equalling the Wapiti Deer ( Cervus Canadensis, Brisson). 
The fossil in question was found in Kent's Hole, where also remains of the 
Megaceros occur. 

Subgenus Dama. 

Antlers slightly palmated, most nearly resembling those of the Fallow 
Deer {Cervus Dama, Linn.), with teeth, portions of jaws and other bones 
agreeing in size with those parts in the Fallow Deer, have been found in 
several of the newer tertiary deposits and the bone-caves of England, asso- 
ciated with the usual extinct Mammalia. I received similar remains with the 
tusks of the Wild Boar from the marl under the peat-moss at Newbury. 

The lower jaw of a Deer, about the size of the Fallow, occurs in the plio- 
cene at Bacton. 

Subgenus Megaceros. *" 

Megaceros Hibernicus. 

The most remarkable of the unquestionably extinct species of the Cervine 
family is that which is commonly called the Irish Elk. The most abundant 
and the most perfect examples of this noble animal have been furnished by 
the bogs ol' Ireland, where they occur below the peat in the lacustrine marl, 
but the species is by no means peculiar to Ireland ; an entire skeleton having 
been found in the newer pliocene deposits in the Isle of Man, and charac- 
teristic portions of the skeleton and antlers in freshwater deposits of a cor- 
responding age, and in some of the bone-caves of England. 

Dr. Molyneux*, the original describer of the antlers of the Megaceros, 
points out their distinction from the true Elk, and the true affinities of the 
extinct species have been more exactly determined by Cuvier and later 
anatomists. 

The rounded beam of the antler expands, sooner than in the true Dama, 
into a broad palm, which sends off all the processes or snags, save one, from 
its anterior border, in which respect Megaceros differs from Dama and re- 
sembles Alces; it differs from the Elk in having one posterior branch or 'spil- 
ler,' and more especially in having both brow-antler and bezantler. The 
Reindeer (Rangifer) makes the nearest approach to the Megaceros in the 
large development of the antlers, but the extinct species far surpasses all known 
CervidcR in the enormous proportions of the antlers as compared with the 
skull. In the occasional bifurcation of the expanded end of the brow-antler 
it again approximates the characters of the Reindeer (^Rangifer), but does 
not push its affinity to this genus so far as to have antlers developed in both 
sexes, as Cuvier suspected. 

* Philos. Trans, vol. xiv. p, 489. 



238 REPORT— 1843. 

My friend Col. Hamilton Smith, the founder of the subgeneric divisions of 
the Linnaean Cervus, has referred the gigantic Deer of Ireland to the section 
Dama, or the Fallow Deer* ; but the peculiar proportions and modifications 
of the antlers of the extinct species in question afford as good grounds for a 
special subgenus for its reception, as those on which the subgenus Dama 
itself has been proposed. 

I subjoin the following dimensions of the skull and antlers of a few of the 
most perfect specimens that have come under my notice :— 

No. 1, ft. in. No. 2, ft. in. No. 3, ft. in. 

Length of skull 17 18 17 

Between the extreme tips of the antlers in a 

straight line 8 4 8 9 9 2 

Length of a single antler, following its curve 5 9 7 3 /5 10 

The difference in the extent of the interspace between the tips of the antlers 
depends on their direction and degree of curvature. Dr. Hart states that it 
is not uncommon to find the fossil antlers 10 feet between the extreme tips ; 
the same interspace between the largest antlers of the true Elk does not ex- 
ceed 4 feet. 

With regard to the skeleton, if the peculiar size and strength of the cervical 
vertebrae in "the male Megaceros be excepted, which have a physiological 
adaptive relation to the enormous weight of the head when the antlers are 
fully developed, the forms and proportions of all the other bones, and espe- 
cially those of the nose and of the upper and lower jaws, closely agree with 
the type of the Fallow and Reindeer. 

Prof. Phillips first described the skull of the female Megaceros, and showed 
that, as in the typical Deer, it had no trace of antlers. 

I have had the opportunity, through the kindness of the Earl of Enniskillen, 
of examining three other skulls of the female Megaceros. The skull in this 
sex is chiefly characterized by a longitudinal angular prominence, which rises 
from the posterior half of the frontal suture, and very much resembles the 
median prominence, sometimes called the third horn of the Giraffe. An irre- 
gular subquadrangular vacancy intervenes between the angular extremities 
of the frontal, nasal, lachrymal and superior maxillary bones. The roof of 
each orbit is perforated by a circular foramen, smaller than in the male. 

The earliest observations bear testimony to the abundance of the remains 
of the Megaceros in Ireland. In the account given by Molyneux in 1697, 
three specimens were disinterred from the same bog within the extent of a 
single acre, at Dardiston in the county of Meath. 

The first specimen discovered in England consisted of a skull and antlers 
from beneath a peat-moss at Cowthorpe, near North Deighton, in the county 
of York. 

Mr. Parkinson refers the beams of two antlers found in the till at Walton 
in Essex, on account of their large size, to the great Irish Deer, and I have 
obtained more satisfactory evidence of the 3Iegacei-os from the same newer 
pliocene stratum, by inspection of the collection of fossils belonging to Mr. 
Brown of Stanway, in which is preserved, not only the large round beam, but 
the characteristic brow- antler and part of the palm, as far as where it has 
expanded to a breadth of 10 inches. The length of the brow-antler is 5\ 
inches, but its extremity is broken oft'. 

Mr. Brown has obtained from the same freshwater formation on the Essex 
coast, the entire lower jaw of the Megaceros. 

The base of an antler as large as that of the Megaceros has been dredged 

* Griffith's Translation of Cuvier, vol. iv. p. 87; vol. v. p. 30C. 



ON BRITISH FOSSIL MAMMALIA. 239 

up from the oyster-bed at Happisburgh, already referred to as famous for the 
numerous teeth of the Mammoth which it has yielded. 

Remains of the Megaceros found S^ feet below the surface of a peat-bog 
at Hilgay, Norfolk, are preserved in the collection of Mr. Flower, of Hunter- 
street, London. Antlers of the Megaceros have been disinterred from the 
marl or gi-avel beneath peat-bogs in Lancashire. 

The formerly unique skeleton of the Megaceros in the Museum of the 
University of Edinburgh was obtained from a formation in the Isle of Man, 
which Mr. E. Forbes, Prof, of Botany in King's College, London, informs 
me is a white marl, with freshwater shells found in detached masses, occu- 
pying hollows in the red marl, which, by the proportion of marine shells of 
the species found in the neighbouring seas, is referable to the newer plio- 
cene period. The cervine fossils have never been met with in the marine or 
red marls in the Isle of Man, but only in the white marls occupying the fresh- 
water basins of the red marl ; and from the position of the beds containing 
the remains of the Megaceros, Prof. Forbes concludes that this gigantic 
species must have existed posterior to the elevation of the newer pliocene 
marl, which is probably continuous with the same formation in Lancashire 
and at the mouth of the Clyde, forming a great plain, extending from Scot- 
land to Cheshire, and now for the most part covered by the sea. 

Fragments of the huge antlers and other remains of the Megaceros have 
been discovered in some of the ossiferous caverns in England. A characteristic 
specimen, now in the British Museum, was obtained by Mr. M'Enery from 
Kent's Hole ; it consists of part of the upper jaw with both series of molar 
teeth ; it precisely corresponds with the same parts in the skull of a 3Iegaceros 
from Ireland. Since, however, other large Ruminants have been introduced 
into the same cavern, I have compared it with the nearest analogues from that 
order. The molar teeth and intervening palate are broader transversely in 
the fossil than in the Ox ; the molars differ from those of the Aurochs in the 
small cusp betM'een the two internal crescents ; the posterior palatine fora- 
mina, which in the Ox are opposite the interspace of the penultimate and last 
grinders, and which in the Elk are advanced to opposite the antepenultimate 
molars, are, in the fossil, opposite the middle of the penultimate molars, as in 
the Megaceros. 

Thus the evidence of the former existence of the gigantic extinct Deer, 
Megaceros Hibernicus, though less striking and abundant in England than in 
Ireland, is complete, and of greater value, inasmuch as it establishes the con- 
temporaneity of tliat species with the Mammoth, Rhinoceroses, and other ex- 
tinct Mammalia of the period of the formation of the newest tertiary fresh- 
water fossiliferous strata. 

Conclusion. 

Collections of Mammalian bones from turbaries and peat-bogs, from the beds 
of rivers and from gravel-pits, with parts of the human skeleton, and other 
evidences of their deposition within the human period, have not unfrequently 
been submitted to my inspection. Such collections have never presented any 
evidence of an extinct species, and have for the most part included unequivocal 
remains of the domesticated quadrupeds. Thus a collection of Mammalian 
bones, transmitted to me by Dr. Richardson of Haslar, from a gravel-pit in 
Lincolnshire, contained the remains of a Dog, Cat, Hog, Horse, Ass, Ox, and 
Sheep. A similar collection obtained from the banks of the river Avon, in 
sinking the foundations of a bridge over the river near the town of Chippenham, 
included bones of the Dog, Horse, Hog, Ox, Red Deer, and Goat or Sheep. 

Such remains have undergone but little change, are not adhesive or absor- 
bent from the loss of the animal matter, nor weighty from the addition of 
mineral or metallic salts ; and are here adduced, though not strictly belonging 



240 ^ REPORT— 1843. 

to a record of fossil Mammalia, to exemplify how readily and exclusively the 
remains of existing species and varieties of Mammalia, of which so few pre- 
sent themselves in the formations anterior to the human period, are detected 
when they occur in places of later date. 

In fens, turbaries and bogs, the remains of Mammalia indicate recent 
species, but such, for the most part, as have either existed but are now ex- 
tirpated in Great Britain, as the Wolf, the Bear, and the Beaver ; or which 
still remain in a wild or domesticated state, as the Fox, the Wild Boar, the 
primitive short-horned Ox {Bos longifrons), the Goat, &c. 

In the freshwater marls beneath the bogs, and in similar deposits overlying 
newer pliocene strata with marine shells, we first meet with extinct species, 
as the Cervus Megaceros, Urus priscus, &c., belonging to genera which con- 
tinue to be represented in Great Britain or in Europe by existing species. 
The unstratified drift or ' till,' so widely dispersed over this island, yields evi- 
dence of extinct species belonging to genera still represented, but not in 
Britain or in Europe, by living species; i\xe Elephas primigenius, Rhinoceros 
tichorhinus, Hippopotamus major, Hycena spelcea, are familiar examples. 

Most of the testaceous MoUusks, which lived contemporaneously with these 
extinct quadrupeds in England, belong to species which still exist in this 
island ; indicating, as Mr. Lyell* has justly observed, that the climate was not 
so hot as that of the latitudes to which the Elephant, Rhinoceros and Hip- 
popotamus are now confined. 

The freshwater deposits, as those discovered by Mr. Brown at Clacton in 
Essex, and described by Mr. Lyell at Mundesley and other parts of the 
Norwich coast, which, from the occurrence of a few species of shells distinct 
from any at present known in a living state, are referable to the newest ter- 
tiary epoch, contain similar evidence of extinct species of Mammalia ; some 
belonging to genera, as Canis, Ursus, Felis, Putorius, Arvicola, Castor, 
Equus, Bos, Cervus, still represented by European species, and others to 
genera, as Elephas, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Hycena, now confined to the 
warmer parts of Asia and Africa. 

The same association of Mammalian fossils in the ossiferous caverns of 
Great Britain, indicates the period of their introduction to have corresponded 
with that of the deposition of the remains above alluded to in the newer 
pliocene strata ; in some of the latter, however, as in the lacustrine ligni- 
ferous beds near Bacton, on the Norfolk coast, we obtain evidence of extinct 
subgenera of Insectivora and Rodentia, as ihePalceospalax and Trogontherium. 

When we descend to the older pliocene tertiary formations, as the fluvio- 
marine crag at Whitlingham, Postwick, Thorpe, and Bramerton in Norfolk, 
remains of the Mastodon occur. 

The Eocene tertiary formations reveal more numerous extinct Mammalian 
genera, and more remote than the Mastodon from existing types ; while the 
indications of existing genera, as of the Macacus, and perhaps Didelphys, 
are very scanty, and such as one might have least expected to meet with in 
the latitudes of England. 

The constancy of the association of particular organic remains with parti- 
cular geological strata, is most strikingly illustrated by discovering in the 
Eocene deposits of England the same peculiar extinct Mammalia which had 
been determined by Cuvier's masterly investigations of the fossil remains from 
the corresponding formations on the Continent. In addition to Lophiodon, 
PalcEoiherium, Anoplotherium, Dichobunes, and Chceropotamus, only one other 
extinct genus has been discovered in the Eocene strata of Britain, viz. the 
Hyracotherium, and the nearest affinities of this little Pachyderln are to the 
Chceropotamus of the same epoch. 

* Principles of Geology, ed. 1835, vol. i. p. 142. 



ON AN EXCAVATION AT COLLYHURST. 241 

Thus the existing species and genera of maramiferous animals gradually re- 
cede from our view, and new and strange forms appear, as we successively 
reinstate and bring before the mind's eye the animated beings of the more 
remote tertiary jieriods of the earth's history. 

The most extraordinary feature in the Palaeontology of this island is the 
proof of the high antiquity of the Mammalian class which has been derived 
from the oolitic slate at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire. If the existing generic types 
are almost lost when we reach in a retrospective survey the oldest tertiary 
periods, we might anticipate that the Mammalia of the oolitic epoch would 
differ as much from the peculiarly eocene generic forms as these do from those 
which now exist, and we accordingly find such an anticipation fully borne out 
by the ascertained characters of the Amphitheriutn and Phascolotherium— 
the most ancient Mammalian inhabitants of this planet. 



Report on the excavation made at the junction of the Loiver New Red 

Sandstone with the Coal Measures at Collyhurst, near Manchester. 

By E. W. BiNNEY. 
The vicinity of Manchester affords many examples of those great dislocations 
in the carboniferous strata which took place prior to the deposition of the 
members of the new red sandstone formation, and into which the waters that 
deposited the new red sandstone flowed until the hollows formed by such 
dislocations were at length filled up. A small patch of coal measures, situate 
on the north-east of the town, known by the name of the Manchester coal 
field, is an isolated tract entirely surrounded by the new red sandstone. The 
valley of the Irk cut through the " till," runs nearly in a line with the rise and 
dip of the strata, and exposes successively the outcrops of the upper new 
red sandstone, magnesian limestone, and lower new red sandstone, the last- 
named rock lying upon coal measures 600 yards down in the series. The ac- 
companying section (No. 1) will best show the relative position of the strata 
(see Section I., p. 242). 

As the absolute point of contact between the coal measures and the lower 
new red sandstone had not been seen, a deep cutting was made at a place 
called Tinker's Brow, adjoining Mr. Buckley's sand delph, about one mile 
north-east of the Manchester Exchange. This cutting was visited by many 
members of the Association at the last meeting, and displayed some interest- 
ing facts connected with the till as well as the lower new red sandstone and 
the coal measures. 

In the accompanying section No. 2, a portion of the excavation made in 
working Mr. Buckley's sand delph, as well as the cutting made on the occasion 
above mentioned, is shown. 

Section II. 

Section of Strata at Collyhurst, near Manchester. 




1. Silt - , i-i, _ Ml 3. Contorted Silt. 

4. Lower New Ked Sandstone ilipiiina at an ancient is 'i. Coal Mea-iuresdippmeatanangleof 24. 

1843. ^ P 



242 



REPORT — 1843. 






g" I 






S- 3. 




Exchange. 



Union Bri<lf;e. 



•■Bull's Head Inn. 



*//. Tinker's Brow. 



•SmecUey Bridge. 



^\l 



Sraedley Hall. 



Smedley Mill. 






p cc 



en f3 






C-1 



CO 

B 



Mri J< Andrews's Works. 



ON AN EXCAVATION AT COLLYHURST. 243 

The different beds will be described in the descending order : — 

1st, The Till. — Throughout Lancashire this deposit is known in the country 
by the name of marl, and near towns as brick-clay, and in an economical point 
ct" view is the most valuable deposit in the drift series. It is composed of a 
stiff brown clay, mixed with a little sand, and containing a small proportion of 
carbonate of lime. On being treated with hydrochloric acid, it effervesces with 
considerable briskness. The clay when cut down with a knife presents a brown 
colour, but when allowed to cleave in the open air, which it will do both ver- 
tically and horizontally in the act of drying, the sides of the cleavages are 
coated with a covering of dull blue colour, probably arising from the pre- 
sence of a small quantity of carbonate of iron. In it are mingled without 
any order of position blocks of red and light-coloured granites, sienites, por- 
phyries, greenstones, basalts, and various other rocks of igneous origin, clay 
slates, Silurian rocks, mountain limestones, cherts, millstone grits, all the in- 
durated rocks, ironstones, and coals of the carboniferous series, magnesian 
limestones, and waterstones (the last-named lying in situ amongst the upper 
red marls), but no other rocks of a more modern date have as yet been found 
in it. These fragments are of various sizes, from the size of an ordinary pea 
to blocks of five tons in weight, and lie mingled together without any order 
of deposition. 

The external characters of the boulders in the till are remarkable ; some 
present well-rounded surfaces, others having lost the angles on one or two 
sides, the edges of the remaining sides are quite sharp ; some are scored with 
striae and polished, and many are quite angular, as if they had been recently 
separated fi'om their parent rocks, having scarcely undergone any attrition. 

The granites, porphyries, greenstones, and all the hard slate rocks, none of 
which novv occur m sitic within a less distance than near 100 miles, are for 
the most part, but certainly not all of them, well-rounded, and many of them 
are marked with striee on one or both of their sides. Rocks at present found 
in situ nearer Manchester, such as mountain limestones and cherts, are more 
angular and less striated and polished than those last mentioned, but the mill- 
stone grits, carboniferous strata, magnesian limestones, and waterstones, al- 
though some of them are striated, polished and rounded, have generally sharp 
edges. 

Boulders in the till at CoUyhurst near the edge of the great fault there 
are both more numerous and larger than those found in the same deposit in 
any other place around Manchester. A well-rounded block of greenstone, 
three tons in weight, was found some years ago in Mr. Buckley's delph, and 
since the last meeting of the Association at Manchester, a block of millstone 
grit, of between four and five tons in weight, has been met with in the same 
place. Three of the sides of this last-named mass have lost their edges, while 
the remaining one bears evidence of having undergone considerable friction. 

It has been stated that the boulders occur in the clay without any distinct 
lines of deposition, mingled together pell-mell. This is the case at CoUyhurst, 
but still there are at one point distinct lines of a regular deposition from water. 
At about a yard from the bottom of the till occurs a deposit of fine laminated 
silt, something resembling the warp of our English rivers, with thin layers of 
fine sand : it is from ten to twelve inches in thickness. This bed is quite 
free from pebbles, although the till both above and below it is full of them. 
Generally speaking the silt lies level, but there are several places where it is 
seen much contorted and twisted without the underlying lower new red 
sandstone exhibiting any corresponding appearances. The total thickness of 
the till is twenty-one feet, and it rests on an uneven surface of lower new 

R 2 



244 REPORT — 1843. 

red sandstone rock, apparently water-worn. No fossil organic remains have 
as yet, to my knowledge, been found in it at Collyhurst. 

2. The lower new red sandstone is composed of a dark red sand, varie- 
gated by patches of a yellowish drab colour. The upper part of it is much 
used for the purpose of iron-moulding, but the lower portion is not fitted for 
such use, owing to nodules of iron occurring in it. Its grains of sand are 
well-rounded, and are composed chiefly of white quartz, with some few pieces 
of jasper, all coloured red by a slight coating of sesquioxide of iron. So uni- 
form in size are the grains, tliat a pebble as large as a good-sized pea has never 
yet to my knowledge been found in the rock. The thickness of the rock is 
full forty yards, but it has never been thoroughly proved by absolute ad- 
measurement. The main dip is to the S.W. at an angle of 16 to 18 degrees, 
but it has also a considerable inclination to the N.W. 

No fossil remains, either of animals or plants, have to my knowledge been 
found in it. 

The upper parts of the rock bear evident marks of erosion by the water 
which deposited the till. In some places holes two or three feet deep, called 
by the workmen " posts," are found in the sandstone filled with till, while at 
other places the surface of the rock is only slightly marked or scooped out. 

3. The coal measures consist of a bed of salmon-coloured argillaceous 
shale, of thirty feet in thickness, containing impressions of Neuropteris cordata 
and many common coal plants. Their position in the carboniferous series is 
immediately above the Collyhurst sandstone, and under all the coals which 
have as yet been worked in the Munchester coal field, say about 600 yards 
below the uppermost of the carboniferous strata at Ardwick. Their dip is 
10° east of south, at an angle of 24°. This inclination is not the usual one 
in the adjoining mines of Mr. Buckley, where it is only 18° to the S.S.W., 
and must be attributed to the fault which has thrown down the coal measures 
at the point of junction with the new red sandstone formation, and now 
forms the trough in which the latter lies. In the collieries above alluded to, 
the coals in their strike abut against, or as the miners express it, are " cut 
off" by the new red sandstone. 

The chief object for which the excavation was made, was to ascertain the 
condition of the lower new red sandstone, and the coal measures at the 
point of contact. The latter were mixed with the loose sand of the former, 
and the measures, to the depth of three feet, had lost their original laminated 
structure and become homogeneous, presenting the appearance of drift clay, 
so that the absolute line of demarcation of one formation from the other could 
not be determined with any degree of nicety ; their colour was a deep red 
mottled with marks of a dirty yelloM'; in fact their M'hole appearance, as well 
as the red and salmon colours of the underlying strata to a great depth, seemed 
to show that they had long been exposed to the action of water before they 
were covered up by the sandstone. 

The dip of the two formations does not differ much, that of the coal mea- 
sures being at an angle of 24° to a little east of south, that of the lower new 
red sandstone 17° to the S.W., while the usual dip of the former, the Man- 
chester coal field, is 18° to S.S.W., the latter from 5° to 10° to the S.W. 
The coal measures were partly elevated before the deposition of the new red 
sandstone formation, but it is evident that the latter have been raised by 
forces which have subsequently elevated the coal measures, as tlie similarity 
of the dip in both strata testifies. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 245 

Report on the Fauna of Ireland : Div. Invertebrata. Drawn up, at the 
request of the British Association, 5y William Thompson, Esq., 
President of the Natural History and Philosophical Society of Bel- 
fast. 

IntrodvAition. 

In the former portion of my Report on the Fauna of Ireland, laid before the 
meeting of the British Association at Glasgow in 1840, the Vertebrata only 
were included*. In the continuation now presented, are all the native species 
of Invertebrata — MoUusca, Crustacea, Cirrhipeda, Annelida, Foraminifera, 
Entozoa, Echinodermata, Acalepha, Zoophyta, Amorphozoa — excepting In- 
secta and Infusoria, using the former term in its widest sense. 

For the whole of the information in some departments I am indebted to 
others : of a portion undertaken by myself, I have only yet obtained a super- 
ficial knowledge. A want of unity will be observable throughout in the treat- 
ment of the various subjects, the most obvious point of which to some natu- 
ralists will be in the nomenclature : — the first names bestowed on the species, 
which according to the just rule of priority (see British Association Rules 
of Nomenclature) should be those used, could only be partially ascertained, 
within the allotted time. 

This Report does not embrace so comprehensive a view as I originally con- 
templated with respect to widely-extended comparisons, and the causes which 
seem to operate on the distribution of the various classes, &c. of Inverte- 
brata, but as now given, it may afford data to others better qualified to do 
justice to that subject. It will in its present state only have a value in record- 
ing the species indigenous to Ireland, and oft'ei'ing a comparison between them 
and those of Great Britain, but this is not unimportant with regard even to 
the general geographical distribution of species. The European Fauna, it 
need scarcely be observed, could not be perfected without that of Ireland 
being known, which latter is again especially interesting, in consequence of 
our island being within its latitude the extreme western limit to which all the 
species included in it range that are peculiar to the eastern, or in other words, 
are not found in the western hemisphere. 

The Fauna of Ireland, compared with that of Great Britain, exhibits the 
falling off of species westerly compared with that island, which again on its 
part (though not treated of here) presents a similar falling off westerly com- 
pared with the opposite shore of the continent. An example may be neces- 
sary in explanation, and the most striking will be selected, though the subject- 
jnatter belong to the former part of this Report. Thus, of the class Heptilia 
there are in 

BELGiuMf. Great Britain, Ireland. 

Order Sauria. 

Lacerta 3 species .. . 2 species (same as B elg.) • . . 1 species (same as Brit.) • 

Anguis 1 „ ... 1 „ „ ... „ 

* The species of Vertebrata since added to our catalogue are— 

2'urdus Wliitei, Eyton, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xi. p. 78. 

Pycnonotus chrysorrhaus, Swains. See present volume. 

Cuculus glandarius, Lin., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xii. p. 149, and present volume. 

Glareola praiincota, Lin. (sp.) See present volume. 

Naucrates ductor, Cuv. and Val. See present volume. 

The Lepus Hibernicus and L. variabilis are now proved to be of the same species 
(see present volume) : respecting the animal provisionally called Mus Hibernicus no 
further information has been obtained. 

f According to the excellent ' Faune Beige ' of De Selys-Longchamps. 



246 REPORT — 1843. 

Belgium. Great Britain. Ireland. 

Order Ophidia, 

Coluber 2 „ ... „ 

Natrix 1 „ ... 1 „ (saraeasBelg.)... 

Vipera 2 „ ... 1 „ „ ... 

Order Batrachia. 

Rana 2 „ ... 1* „ „ ... 1 species (same as Brit.). 

Bombinator . . 3 „ ... „ 

Hyla 1 „ ... „ 

Bufo 2 „ ... 2 „ (sameasBelg.)... 1 „ 

Salamandra... 1 „ ... „ 

Triton 4 „ ... 3* „ (sameasBelg.)... 2 „ „ 

22 n 5 

It appears therefore that the deficiency of Ireland compared with Great 
Britain in the Reptilia, is much upon the same scale as that of the latter island 
compared with Belgium. 

There is not any island of similar extent to Ireland, and in like manner 
situated with respect to other lands, with which to compare it. The islands of 
New Zealand within temperate latitudes in the southern hemisphere may how- 
ever be mentioned as possessing of indigenous Mammalia\, Bats alone, of which 
one species has been described % ; and no Ophidian reptiles. " Throughout the 
present Report (to quote from the former portion) it must be borne in mind, that 
all species found from the Channel Islands in the south, to the Shetland Islands 
in the north, are included in the fauna of Great Britain, and that within the 
degrees of latitude over which it extends, Ireland occupies but one-third. Ire- 
land is comprised within four degrees, while the Shetland Islands range nearly 
six degrees further to the north, and more than two degrees to the south the 
Channel Islands are situated. The Fauna of Great Britain also extends over 
ten degrees of longitude, while that of Ireland is limited to half the number." 

The physical geography and climate need not be dwelt on here, as in the 
case of the Mammalia Terrestria, Aves, and Reptilia, as the land MoUusca 
and Annelides only will be directly affected by such influences. The fresh' 
water MoUusca, Crustacea, Annelida and Amorphozoa will be affected, but 
less directly, by the physical geography, taken in connection with the mine- 
ralogical structure of the country ; as will the marine species in some degree, 
by the nature and quantity of the residuum brought by rivers to the sea. 
The physical geography of the bottom of the sea will have a powerful effect 
on the marine Invertebrata of all kinds, even greater than that of tlie dry land 
on its animals. According to the configuration and depth, to the mineralo- 
gical character of the rocks, the vegetation, &c., shall we find particular fami- 
lies, genera, and species. Even where the configuration and depth are similar, 
the oozy, sandy, gravelly, or rocky bottom, will have each its peculiar animals. 

It has not been thought desirable, as in the Report on the Vertebrata, to 
treat distinctly of every species, as to its being common or rare, &c. ; but in- 

* Rana Scotica and Triton Bibronii, of which so little is known, either as to distri- 
bution or otherwise, are not enumerated. 

■\- In Mammalia, Belgium has two genera — Crocidura and Cricetus — not found in 
Great Britain, in which are four — Jihinoloj}hus, Talpa, Myoxus, Arvicola — luiknown 
to Ireland. De Selys-Longchamps believes Belgium to be the most northern limit of 
the genus Crocidura, and states that it is not met with in Holland or Denmark. 

X The sjoecies is VcspcrliUo tuberculatus, Forster. J. E. Gray in Deiffenbach's 
New Zealand, vol. ii. p. 181. According to the Report of tlie United States' Exploring 
Expedition, publislfcd in the Edinburgh Philosophical Joiu'nal for January 18t4; — 
" none of the Pacific Islands, including New Zealand, contain any native Mammalia 
except Bats," p. 32. 



ON THE FAUNA OP IRELAND. 247 

stead, to leave this to be indicated by the tabular mark of distribution, al- 
though it may often prove unsatisfactory. Thus, species which have been 
found but once on each side of the island are marked as conspicuously under 
north, east, west and south, as those which ai'e abundant round the coast. 
But naturalists will not be deceived by this ; none will imagine that because 
Eulima subulata exhibits the same number of asterisks as Rissoa ulvce, that 
the species are equally plentiful ; but all will know that the former, though 
widely distributed, is found in extremely limited numbers, and the latter in 
abundance where they respectively occur. Nor, was it deemed necessary in 
so brief a summary, to give the authorities for the occurrence of the various 
species ; but reference is made throughout to the works in which all the details 
published respecting them will be found. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Catalogues of the testaceous MoUusca of Ireland, elaborated during the 
residence of their respective authors in this country, were drawn up about the 
same lime by Capt. Brown and Dr. Turton*, in which they were aided by the 
collections of Mr. O'Kelly of Dublin, Dr. Thomas Taylor (species contributed 
by Miss Hutchins of Bantry), Mr. Samuel Wright of Cork, Mrs. Clewlow, Dr. 
M'^Gee, Dr. M-^Donnell, and Mr. Templeton of Belfast f. Mr. Templeton, 
before and after the period of their researches, was silently noting down for 
future publication all that he could learn upon the subject, but, stationary 
at his country residence, he was less favourably circumstanced than either of 
those gentlemen, by whom various parts of tlie country and coast were 
visited. Their inquiries, directed to a single branch of natural history, 
were naturally more productive in that one department than his, whose sur- 
vey embraced the whole Flora and Fauna of Ireland, for the illustration of 
which he was diligently collecting materials. To Bryce's ' Tables of Simple 
Minerals, Rocks and Shells,' found in three of the northern counties, Mr. 
Hyndman contributed a few hitherto unnoticed species. The native Mol- 
lusca, more especially of Youghal and Dublin, have been effectively collected 
and studied by Mr. Robert Ball, aided by his sister Miss M. Ball ; as have 
those of Limerick and Miltown Malbay, on the western coast, by Mr. Wm. 
Henry Harvey ; those of Cork by Mr. John Humphreys, and those of the 
northern shores by Mr. Geo. C. Hyndman. A few species of the highest 
interest from the northern province have been obtained by Dr. J.L.Drummond, 
as have some from the southern by Dr. Geo. J. AUnian. The extensive and 
beautiful collections of Mr. T. W. Warren and Dr. Farran of Dublin, more 
particularly of species from the neighbouring coast — the richest in Ireland — 
have rendered most important aid towards an elucidation of the subject. 
The Ordnance collection has contributed in so far as the comparatively poor 
coast investigated could afford. Mrs. Hancock has rendered essential service 
by assiduously collecting the species of the western shores, at Ballysodare 
in the county of Sligo, and Bundoran in the county of Donegal, and trans- 
mitting them to Belfast, where they came under the inspection of Mr. Hynd- 
man and myself. 

* Capt. Brown's memoir was dated from Naas Barracks, Ireland, Aug. 20, 1815, 
and read before the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh on the 16th of December in that 
year (see Wern. Mem. vol. ii.). Dr. Tuvton's appeared in the 'Dublin Examine!-, 
or Monthly Miscellany of Literature, Science and Art,' in July 1816. In the 
subsequent works of these authors additional Irish species were described : all in the 
following catalogue that are noticed by them only (i. c. unknown to my correspondents 
and myself) are marked as on their authority. 

t At a subsequent period, the collection of James Rose Clealand, Esq. of Bangor in 
the county of Down, contributed some interesting species to Sowerby, &c. 



248 



REPORT — 1843. 



Those who have given attention to the Testaceous Mollusca generally have 
hitherto been alluded to. The native land and freshwater species exclu- 
sively have been well studied by the Rev. Benj. J. Clarke, Mr. Edward Wal- 
lei", and the Rev. Thomas Hincks (late of Cork). Several other naturalists 
and collections might be named, but those enumerated are among the principal. 

The species added to our Fauna from the preceding sources and from per- 
sonal investigation, have been noticed in ' Additions to the Fauna of Ireland,' 
published in the 'Annals of Natural History' (vol. v. vii. xiii.); in vol. v. a 
description of Limneus involutus, and a contribution on the Mollusca Nudi- 
hranchia and Moll. Tunicata will be found : in vol. vi. is a catalogue of the 
land and freshwater Mollusca. 

Although I had some time since with considerable labour brought together 
in manuscript all that has been published on the Irish Mollusca, and looked 
over all the collections possible, I have critically studied a small portion only 
of the subject. Without the aid therefore of my scientific friends, Mr. Alder 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Professor Edward Forbes, the Mollusca as a 
whole could not have been undertaken. In the Gasteropoda Nudibranchia 
and the marine Testaceous tribes their assistance has been most valuable. 

Some naturalists will consider the number of British species alluded to in 
the remarks on the different Orders much under what it should be. This 
arises from my adoption of the British list, as expurgated by the two distin- 
guished malacologists whose aid has been alluded to. A number of species 
which have from time to time been introduced without sufficient evidence are 
omitted ; a number more are reduced to mere varieties; and species figured 
or described in such a manner as not to be understood by the best informed 
on the subject, are unnoticed. 

In the Classes and Orders, Rang's 'Manuel des MoUusques' is chiefly fol- 
lowed. Distribution, 



Class Cephalopoda. 



Sepia oflScinalis, Lin., Lam.* 

„ rupellaria, J'er. &D'qr6.?(I.)t 

Loligo vulgaris. Lam. ; Sepia loligo, Lin 

„ sagittata. Lam. var.? 

„ subulata, Fer.&D'Orft. var. 1. (I.) 

„ „ „ var. 2 

„ media, Lin. (sp.) 

„ EblanEe, Ball (I.) 

Octopus vulgaris. Lam 

Eledone octopodia, Penn. (sp.) ; Sepia octopodia, Penn, ; Octopus oc- \ 



topodia, Flem. 



Sepiola Rondeletii, Risso ; Sepia sepiola, Lin. 

Rossia Oweni, Ball (I.) 

„ Jacobi, J5a« (I.) 

Spirula australis ; Naut. spirula, iiw 



* It has been considered sufficient throughout this Report simply to indicate the 
north, east, west and south. The Mollusca of the following localities have been more 
or less investigated : — North, Coasts of Londonderry and Antrim. — East, Counties 
of Antrim, Down, Louth, Dublin, Wicklov,-. — West, Bundoran, co. Donegal; Bally- 
sodare, co. Sligo; Birterbury and Roundstone bays (Dr. Farran) ; Clifden, Killery 
and Clew bays,&c., (R. Ball, E. Forbes, G. C. Hyndman,W.T.) in the counties of Mayo 
and Galway ; Miltown Malbay, co. Clare. — South, Bantry Bay, Youghal, Cork harbour. 

t (L) throughout the Report denotes species known as Irish, and not as British. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



249 



The larger native Cq)halopoda were noticed in the old county histories, 
and a few additional species have been briefly indicated by myself in the 
'Proceedings of the Zoological Society' (1834'), p. 31, and in the ' Annals of 
Nat. Hist.' vol. v. p. 10. Mr. R. Ball, in bringing before the Royal Irish 
Academy a notice of a new species of Loligo {L. EhlaiKB) on Nov. 30, 1839, 
announced the other indigenous species of that genus*, and on the 10th of 
January, 184-2, described before the same Society two new species of Rossia, 
and noticed all the Irish species of Cephalopoda of which he was cognisant. 
These are published in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy of that 
date. An Eledone in my possession, from Belfast bay, though closely allied 
to E. octopodia, seems to be distinct. Octopus vulgaris is given on the au- 
thority of Templeton only, who remarks that it is " not uncommon," an ex- 
pression which, taken in connection with the omission oi Eled. octopodia from 
his catalogue, leads me to believe that this latter was probably the species 
meant. If the Octopus vulgaris be included, the Irish list contains all the 
British species excepting Eledone Aldrovandi, described by Mr. Macgillivray 
within the present year in his 'Mollusca of Aberdeenshire.' Five of the 
Irish Cephalopoda — Sepia rupellaria, Loligo stibulata, L. EhlancR, Rossia 
Oioeni, R. Jacobi — are not known as British species. 



Class Pteropoda. 

Hyalaea trispinosa, Cuv. (Anim. King, by GrifF. vol. xii. Mollusca, pi. 3. \ 

f. 7.) (I.) / 

f Peracle Flemingi, JFbries f ; Fusus retroversus, Flem 



No species of this class can be noted with certainty as taken on 
the coast of Great Britain, it being doubtful whether the Peracle 
Flemingi belong to the Pteropoda. This species is only known 
as Irish from some specimens being found by Mr. Hyndraan in 
shell-sand collected by Mrs. Hancock at Bundoran, on the coast of 
Donegal, in the summer of 1840. Of Hyalcea trispinosa, a single 
example with the contained animal was found by Mr. R. Ball on 
the beach near Youghal, county of Cork, some years ago, and at 
the same time with three species of the pedunculated Cirrhipeda, 
(-4. Icevis, A. sulcata, A. fascicularis} a Spirula australis, and an 
lanthina communis. The Anatifce were attached to the mast of a 
vessel, and in their "tangled xasss" the HyalceadiaA Spiruia occurred 

Class Gasteropoda. 

Order Nucleohranchiata. 

Sagitta Britannica, Forbes ? Report in present volume 



This order was first introduced to the British Fauna at the present meet- 
ing by Professor E. Forbes, who a few years since obtained examples of it in 
the Frith of Forth and British Channel in a species which he has named 
Sagitta Britannica. About the same time. Dr. G. J. Allman obtained similar 
Mollusca (of which he made drawings) on the coast of Cork, but whether 
they be of the same species is uncertain. 



* Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. i. p. 362, where L. 'Ehlan<B is well 
figured. 

t See his Report in present volume. 



250 



REPORT — 1843. 



Class Gasteropoda. 
Order Nttdibranchiata. 



Doris tubcrculata. Cm.; D. argo, Pe»m 

„ repanda. Alder Sf Hancock, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 32 

„ bilamellata, Lin.; D. verrucosa, Penn 

„ affinis, Thomp. Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 85 (I.) 

„ Ulidiffi, Thomp. MSS. (I.) 

„ muricata. Mull. Thomp. Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 86 

„ aspera. Aid. 8f Hanc. Ann. N. H. vol. ix. p. 32 

,, pilosa, C'«i!. ; D. nigricans, i'7e»i , 

„ sublsevis, TJtomp. Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 87 (I.) 

Goniodoris nodosa, Mont, (sp.)* 

var. G. Barvicensis, Johnst. (sp.) 

„ elongata, Thomp. Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 88 (I.) 

Polycera quadrilineata. Mull, (sp.) 

',, typica, Thomp. Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 92 (I.) 

„ ocellata, Aid. 8f Hanc. Ann. N. H. vol. ix. p. 33 

„ citrina, ^/rf. Ann. N. H. vol. vi. p. 340 

,, cristata. Aid. „ „ ,, 

Euplocamus cjaviger, Mull, (sp.) 

syn. E. plumosus, Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 90 

E. pulcher, Mag. N. H. vii. p. 490. & Ann. N. H. vii. p. 480. 

Tritonia Hombergii, Cuv 

„ plebeia, Johns. Ann. N. H. vol. i. p. 115 

„ arborescens, Cuv 

var. T. lactea, Ann. N. H. vol.v. 88 

Meliboea fragilis, Forbes; Malacol. Monensis 

„ coronata, Johnst. ; var. M. ornata. Aid. &( Hanc. Ann. N. H. 

vol. ix. 34 

CalliopiEa ? bifida ; Doris bif., Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. p. 198. 1. 14. f. 3 ; 

Tliomp. Ann. N. H. vol. vii. 480 

Eolis papillosa, Lin. (sp.) 

„ Zetlandica, Forbes, Atheneeum, 1839, p. 647 

„ Cuvieri, Lam., Johnst. Ann. N. H. vol. i. 120. pi. 3. f. 9-11 

„ coronata, Forb. Athen. id 

„ pallida. Aid. 8f Hanc. Ann. N. H. vol. ix. p. 35 

„ alba, „ „ „ vol. xiii. (I.) 

„ Farrani, „ „ „ „ (I-) 

„ Drummondi,T/io>njj. ; E. rufibranchialisf, Ann.N.H. vol.v.p.89(I.) 

? (I.)l 

Proctonotus mucroniferus. Aid. 8{ Hanc. Ann. N. H. vol. xui. (I.)... 

Alderia amphibia§, Allnian, MSS. (I.) 

Twenty species of Nudihranchia were recorded as Irish in ISIO ||, a number 
equal to that known to be British in 1828, when Dr. Fleming's 'British Animals' 
* " (sp.)" throughout the Report denotes the specific name, and it only, to be that 
of the author quoted. 

t Mr. Alder, after an examination of the specimens so designated, considers that 
they are not the true E. rufibranchialis : I have therefore proposed the above naiiie, as 
from the sketches and minute description of the species in Dr. J. L. Drummond's 
journal, it has become properly understood. 

X The species of Eolis not named was dredged at Donaghadee in May 1843, by 
Dr. Drummond, but unfortunately a description was not made out at the time of its 
capture. The specimen on being submitted to Mr. Alder was stated to be cerjiainly 
distinct from any of the preceding and to come nearest in form to his E. conciniia 
and E. vittata, though probably distinct from either of them. 

§ Alderia is a new genus of Dr. Allman's, as Proctonotus is of Messrs. Alder and 
Hancock. 

II Annals Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 84 et seq., and vii. p. 480. 



w ^ 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 251 

appeared. Since the latter period the British catalogue of species belonging 
to this beautiful order of MoUusca has been greatly augmented by the labours 
of Dr. Johnston*, Mr. Edward Forbes f, Mr. Alder |, and Mr. Hancock, and 
above all by the two latter gentlemen, who, studying the subject conjointly, 
have by the very complete and philosophical manner in which their investiga- 
tions were conducted, thrown the greatest light upon the order Nudibranchia. 
The number of British species now known is sixty-five §, of which twenty- 
three have been met with in Ireland ; to these latter are to be added eleven 
species unknown as British, making the number of Irish altogether thirty-four 
— of these eleven, two constitute new genera, and the remaining nine are, 
with the exception of the Doris muricata of the ' Zoologia Danica,' believed 
to be new species and are indicated in the preceding catalogue by the initial 
" (I.)" All of the British genera but two — Eubranchus and Calliopcea\\ — 
have been procured on the Irish coast ; the former is known only from its 
occurrence in one instance to Mr. Forbes in the Isle of Man ; the latter was 
as a British genus announced for the first time at the present meeting: upon 
the Irish coast only the new genera Proctonotus and Alderia have been ob- 
tained. The genus Proctonotus, together with two new species of Eolis and 
seven species known as British, but not hitherto as Irish ^, were added to our 
catalogue by Mr. Alder last autumn during little more than three days' exami- 
nation of the Dublin coast : within a similar time about equally good results 
have been obtained by Mr.Hyndman and myself in another locality, Strangford 
lough ; instances which show how much may be done in ihe Nudibranchia with- 
in a very limited period. Mr. Alder (who in conjunction with Mr. Hancock is 
engaged in a monograph of the whole of the British species belonging to this 
order) having expressed a desire to examine my specimens noticed in the fifth 
and seventh volumes of the ' Annals of Natural History,' they were at once 
placed in his hands. This has unexpectedly proved serviceable to myself on 
the present occasion, as I have had the benefit of his revision of what had 
been written on the Irish species. Mr. Alder's information on the subject so 
far surpasses my own, that his opinion has been implicitly followed through- 
out the preceding catalogue with respect to what are good species, what only 

varieties, &C. Distribution. 



Class Gasteropoda. 
Order Inferobranchiata. 

Pleurobranchus pluraula; Bulla plum. Mont , 

„ ? membranaceus ; Lamellaria memb. il/ojj^ 

Are the British species of the order Inferobranchia. 
Class Gasteropoda. 
Order TectibraneJiiata. 

Aplysia depilans, Lin 

,, punctata, Cuv. 

* Annals Nat. Hist. vol. i. 

t Annals Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 102 et seq. ; Malacologia Monensis, Report, British 
Association, 1839, p. 80. 

X Annals Nat. Hist. vol. vi. ix. xiii. 

§ Messrs. Alder and Hancock have contributed about twenty-five species to this 
number within the last two or three years. 

II Mr. Alder marks Doris hijida, Mont, (which has been obtained in Belfast bay) 
with doubt, as belonging to this genus. Montagua he considers not to be generically 
distinct from Eolis. CalUopcea dendritica — the British species — is described in Annals 
Nat. Hist, for Oct. 1843. 

^ Two of these species, obtained by Dr. Geo. J. Allman on the coast of Cork in 
August 1842, have been forwarded to me since the preceding was written. 



252 



REPORT 1843. 



Class Gasteropoda. 
Order Tectibranchiata. 



Bulla lignaria, Lin 

,, akera, Mont 

„ hydatis, Lin., Don 

„ Cranchi i, Leac/t ; B. striata, jB/'own 

„ umbilicata, Mont 

„ diaphana, Turt. ; Diaphana pellucida. Brown, Illus. 

„ cylindracea. Pen., Mont 

„ truncata, Adams., Mont 

„ obtusa, Mont 

„ hyalina, Turt 

„ pectinata, Dillw. ; B. scabra. Mull. Zool. Dan 

Bulla^a aperta ; Bulla aperta, Lin., Mont 

„ punctata, Adams, (sp.) 

„ catena, Mont., (sp.) 



In this order are six British species of Sulla (the rarest, four of 
them being late additions), which have not a place in the Irish 
catalogue : — one species included only in the latter is believed 
to be new. Elysia viridis (Aplt/sia viridis, Flera., Brit. Anim.), 
a singular species discovered by Montagu in Devonshire, is the 
remaining desideratum. 

Class Gasteropoda. 

Order Pulmonifera Inoperculata. 

Fam. LimacidcB. 



Arion ater, Lin., (sp.) 

„ hortensis, Fer 

Geomalacus maculosust, Allman (I.) 

Limax maximus, Lin.; L. cinereus, Drap 

arboreus, Bouchard % 

flavus, Lin., Drap., ; L. variegatus, Fer. 

agrestis, Lin 

carinatus. Leach; L. Sowerbii, Fer 

gagates, Drap.X (I.) 

Testacellus haliotideus, Fer 



Fam. HelicidcB. 

Vitrina pellucida. Mull, (sp.) 

Helix aspersa. Mull 

hortensis, Lister 

nemoralis, Lin 

arbustorum, lAn 

pulchella. Mull 

fusca, Mont 

fulva. Mull 



• The species to which specific names are not applied are unknown as British, and 
cannot be identified in the many works referred to ; all of them have been seen by 
Mr. Alder, and are unknown to him, as are the few which have been seen by Pro- 
fessor Edw. Forbes to him also. They, together with the species to which manuscript 
names have been applied, will be described in the Annals of Natural History. 

f See Proceedings of Section Zoology and Botany at Cork Meeting, present volume. 

X See Annals Nat. Hist. vol. vi. p. 204 and 20'>, and same work, vol. xii. (Novem- 
ber 1843) article by Rev. B. J. Clarke, " On the species of Limax found in Ireland." 



ON THE FAUNA OP IRELAND. 



253 



Class Gasteropoda. 
Order Pulmonifera Inoperculata. 
Fam. HelicidcB, 



% 



Helix aculeata, Mull 

„ lamellata, Je/f. ; H. Scarburgensis, 5eaw 

„ granulata, ^Wer. ; H. hispida, Moni 

„ hispida. Mull 

var. sericea. Mull 

var. concinna, Jeff. 

„ rufescens, Penn., Mont 

„ pisana. Mull.; H. cingenda, Mont 

„ yirgaXa, Mont. ; H. variabilis, i)»-a^ 

„ caperata, Mont.; H. striata, Drap 

„ ericetorum, Mull 

„ rotundata. Mull.; H. radiata, Mont 

„ umbilicata, Mmit.; H. rupestris, Dra^ 

,, pygmaea, Drap 

„ alliaria, Miller ,., 

„ cellaria, Mull.; H. nitida, Drap 

„ pura. Alder 

„ nitidula, Drap 

„ radiatula. Alder 

„ lucida, Drap 

„ excavata, Bean 

„ ciystallina, Drap 

Succinea putris, Lin. (sp.) ; S. amphibia, Drap 

„ Pfeifferi, iJossra. ; S. gracilis, ^Wer 

Bulimus obscunis. Mull, (sp.) 

„ acutus, jBrMf/. ; B. fasciatus, Pcmm. (sp.) 

„ lubricus. Mull, (sp.) 

Achatina acicula. Lam 

Pupa umbilicata, Drap 

„ Anglica, Fer. (sp.) 

„ marginata, Drap 

Vertigo edentula, Drap. (sp.) , 

„ pygmaea, Fer 

„ substriata, Jeff. Gray's ed. Turt. Man. ; V. sexdentata, Turt. ' 

Man 

„ palustris, LeacA ; V. septemdentata, i^er 

„ pusilla. Mull. ; Pupa vertigo, Drap 

„ angustior, Je^". ; Pupa vertigo, iV/o?i^ 

Balaea perversa, Mont, (sp.) 

Clausilia bidens. Mull, (sp.) 

nigricans, Pult., Dillw. (sp.) C. rugosa, Uro/j 



Fam. AiirieuladcB. 



Carj'chium minimum, Mull 

Acme fusca. Boys 8{ Walker (sp.) ; Auricula lineata, Drap 

Auricula denticulata, Mont, (sp.) ; A. personata. Desk., Lam 

„ bidentata, Mont, (sp.) ; Fer 

„ alba, Mont, (sp.) 

? „ fusiforrais, Turt. (sp.); Vol. fusiformis, Turt. Conch. Diet. p. 251 

Fam. Limneadce. 

Limneus auricularius, Mo»i. (sp.) 1 „r m 

pereger, Mo«#. (sp.) ..„. j one species, W. T 



involutus, Harvey, Ann. N. 
stagnalis, Mont, (sp.) 



H. vol. v. p. 22. pi. 1 (I.) 



254 



REPORT 1843. 



Class Gasteropoda. 

Order Palmonifera Inoperculata. 

Fam. Limneadce. 



Limneus palustris, Mont, (sp.) 

,, truncatulus, il/«/Z. (sp.) ; L. fossarius, Mont, (sp.) ; L. minu- 
tus, Drap 

„ glaber. Mull, (sp.) ; L. elongatus, Drap 

Amphipeplea glutinosa. Mull, (sp.)* 

Ancylus fluviatilis, ATulL, Drap 

„ lacustris. Mull., Drap 

Physa fontinalis, Mont, (sp.) 

,, hypnoTum, Mont, (sp.) 

Planorbis corneus. Motif, (sp.) 

„ albus, Mull. ; P. hispidus, Drap 

, , lsi\h, Alder 

„ imbricatus. Mull.; P. cristatus, D)-ap 

„ carinatus. Mull 

„ umbilicatus, iVftt?Z. ; P. marginatus, Dra^ 

„ vortex. Mull 

„ spirorbis, ikf«?L ; P. vortex, /3 Urap 

„ nitidus. Mull. ; P. fontanus, Mont, (sp.) ; P. complanatus, 
Drap 

„ contortus, Mull 

The Pulmonifera of Ireland being treated of very fully in the sixth 
volume of the Annals of Natural History, it need only be stated here, that 
the British catalogue contains nineteen speciesf, which are not in the Irish, 
and the latter three, -which are not in the former. These are Geomalaciis 
maculosus, Limax gagates, and Limneus involutus ; the Limax arboreus, 
though unpublished as a British species, is not included, as I have found it to 
be as common in Ayrshire and the Isle of Wight, as in Ireland. The generic 
forms which have not a place in the Irish catalogue are Azeca and Seg- 
mentina. 

Class Gasteropoda. 
Order Pulmonifera Operculata. 
Cyclostoraa elegans. Mull, (sp.) , 

This is the only British species of the Order. A single speci- 
men of the Cyclostoraa productum is stated by Dr. Turton to have 
been found by himself in the west of Ireland. Manual Brit 
Land, &c. Shells, p. 9^. 

Class Gasteropoda. 

Order Pectinibranchiata. 

Fam. TurbinidcB. 

Eulima polita, Pult., Mont, (sp.) 

„ subulata, Don. (sp.) ; E. bilineata, Jpff. 

distorta, Phil, (sp.) ; Melania distorta, Phil. (I?) } 

* I have been enabled to include the Amjih. fflutino.ia since this Report was sent to 
press, through the kind attention of Mr. Wm. Andrews of Dublin, who favoured me 
witli specimens collected by him last sunnmev in the canal near that city. 

t In this number, two species are included which have not been found northward of 
the Channel Islands ; the others are partially distributed in England, and two or three 
only reach so far north as Scotland. 

X Mr. Alder thinks E. polita of Macgillivray's Aberdeenslure MoUusca may be this 
species. 



ON THE FAUNA OP IRELAND. 



255 



Class Gasteropoda. 

Order Pectinibranchiata. 

Fam. Turbinidcc. 



Eulima? Jeflfreysii. (Gen. Parthenia?) 

Parthenia {Lowe) decussata, Moh<. (sp.) ; Turbo, Mont,, 

„ elegantissima, Mont, (sp.) „ ,, 

„ indistincta, Mont, (sp.) „ „ 

„ fulvocincta, Tliomp. (sp.) ; Turritella indistincta, Ffem 

„ unica, ilfoni. (sp.) ; Tarho, Mont 

„ nitidissima, Mont, (sp.) ; Turbo, Mont 

„ ascaris, Turt. (sp.) 

„ glabra. Leach, (sp.) ; Alvania glabra. Leach, Brit. Mus. * .. 

Turritella terebra, Liu. (sp.) 

Truncatella Montagui, Lowe; Turbo subtruncata, Mont 

Paludina vivipara, Mull, (sp.) 

„ tentaculata, Lin. (sp.) ; P. impura. Lam 

Littorina communis; Turbo littoreus, Lin 

„ caerulescens, ii«. (sp.) ; Turbo petrsea, ilfoMif 

„ rudis, Mont, (sp.) 

„ tenebrosa, Mont, (sp.) 

var? saxatilis. Bean 

„ neritoides. Lam. ; Nerita littoralis, Linn 

Lacuna puteola, Turt 

„ pallidula, Don., Mont, (sp.) 

„ crassior, Mont, (sp.) 

„ quadrifasciata, Mo?j<. (sp.) lone 

Turbo vinctus, Mont. ; T. canalis, Mont.... ) 

Rissoacimex, Lin., Don. (sp.) ; R. crenulata, Mich.l 

„ calatbisca, Laskey (sp.) 

„ striatula, Mont, (sp.) 

„ punctura, Mont, (sp.)f 

„ Harveyi, Thomp. (I.) 

„ costata, Adams., Mont, (sp.) 

„ parva, Mont, (sp.) 

„ rufilabrum, jLeacA ; R. violacea, Z)esm. ? 

„ reticulata, Mont, (sp.) ■ 

„ semicostata, Mont, (sp.) , 

„ Bryerea, Mont. (sp.)J (on Brown's authority) 

„ striata, Adams., Mont, (sp.) 

„ labiosa, Mont, (sp.) 

„ ventricosa, Mont, (sp.) , 

„ auricularis, M)w^. (sp.) (on Turton's authority) 

,, ?ulv8e, Penn., Mont, (sp.) 

,, ? subumbilicata, Mont, (sp.) 

„ interrupta, Adams., Mont, (sp.) 

„ rubra, Adams., Mont, (sp.) 

„ vitrea, iWoM^. (sp.) 

„ nivosa, Mont, (sp.) (on Turton's authority) 

„ unifasciata, Mont, (sp.) (on authority of Turton's Catalogue of 1 

Irish Shells) j 

„ rupestris, Forbes 

„ cingilla, Mont, (sp.) 

„ alba, Adams., (sp.) 

„ Balliee, Tliomp. (I.) 



* " Possibly a worn T. ascaris," Alder. 

t Obtained in a subfossil state by the Rev. D. Landsborough in Ayrshire. 
j Brown, referring to Turbo Bryereus as described and figured by Montagu and 
Donovan, mentions one specimen having been found at Portnjarnock. 



256 



REPORT — 1843. 



Class Gasteropoda. 

Order Pectinibranchiata. 

Fam. TtirbinidcB. 

Rissoa semistriata, Mont, (sp.) ; R. tristriata, Thomp. Ann. Nat. Hist. "I 

vol. V. p. 98. pi. 2. f. 10 / 

„ dispar, Mont, (sp.) ; Turbo ziczac, Mat. Sf Rack, (on authority) 

of Turton and Brown)* j 

„ glabra, jBroww, I llus. ; R. ? albella, ^Wer 

„ decussata, Mont, (sp.) (on Turton's authoritjO 

Odostomia pallida, Mont, (sp.) ' » 

„ unidentata, Mont, (sp.) 

„ plicata, Mont, (sp.) |» 

„ spiralis, Mont, (sp.) ' « 

„ interstincta, Mont, (sp.) j... 

„ cylindrica, Jlder L.. 

„ obliqua. Alder '... 

?(I.) |... 

Skenea depressa, Mont, (sp.) 1 1^ 

„ serpuloides, Mont, (sp.) (on Turton's authority) 

Valvata piscinalis. Mull, (sp.) Lam. ; V. obtusa, Brard I » 

„ cristata. Mull. ; V. spirorbis, Drap ! # 



Fam. Trochidce. 



Neritina fluviatilis. List., Lin. (sp.) f 

Phasianella puUa, Lin. (sp.) 

Trochus magus, Lin 

urabilicatus, Mont 

cinerarius, Penn 

littoralis. Brown (on Brown's authority) 

tumidus, Mont 

papillosus, Don 

ziziphinus, Lin 

exasperatus, Penn 

millegranus, Phil.; T. Martini, Smith 

striatus, Mont. ; T. Montagui 

Monodonta crassa, Mont, (sp.) ; Trochus crassus J 

Margarita communis ; Turbo margarita, Mont 

Adeorbis§ subcarinatus ; Helix subc, ikfow/ 

lanthina communis. Lam,; „ lanthina, -Lire 

„ exigua. Sow 

„ nitens, Menke (I.) 

Scalaria clathrus, Penn. (sp.) 

„ clathratulus, JValk. (sp.) 

„ Turtoni, Turt. (sp.) 

„ Trevelyana, Leach 

Planaxis lineata.. Da Costa, (sp.) ; Bucc. lineatum || 

* Noticed by Mr. John Humphreys likewise as found in Cork harbour. 

f Turton mentions his finding " several specimens of Nerita virginea (Lister, pi. 60(5. 
f. .35-37} among the sand at Seafield, in the west of Ireland, on the Atlantic." Conch. 
Diet. p. 127. 

X 54-2° lat. most northern locality. 

§ Adeorhis, Wood (S. V.), Annals Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 530. 

II A specimen of this shell was found by Mr. Warren at Bray near Dublin, and 
several specimens were obtained by Mr. Hyndman from shell- sand collected at Bun- 
doran, county of Donegal, by Mrs. Hancock. Professor E. Forbes remarks, — "al- 
though this shell is called ' Planaxis ' I tliink it is much more probably a Nassa ; 
especially if the Irish specimens be truly native." 






ON THE FAUNA OP IRELAND. 



257 



Class Gasteropoda. 

Order PectinihrancJiiata. 

Fam. CerithiadcB. 

Cerithium Pennantii, Thomp.; Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 12; Turbo \ 

tubercularis, Peww. ; Murex fuscatus, ilfo»^ J 

„ tubercularis, Mont, (sp.) 

„ reticulatum, Mont, (sp.) ; C. lima. Lam 

„ costatum, Don., Mont, (sp.)* 

Triphoris adversus, Mont, (sp,) ; Murex adv., Mont. ; Terebra per- \ 
versa, Flem j 

Fam. JBuccinidcBf. 

Nassa reticulata, Lin. (sp.) 

„ macula., Mont, (sp.) ; N. incrassata 

„ ambigua, Pult,, Mont. (sp.)J 

Purpura lapillus, Lin, (sp.) 

Monoceros hepaticus, Mont, (sp.) (on the authority of Brown & Turton) 

Buccinum undatum, Lin 

„ var. B. carinatum, Turt 

„ Humphreysianum, Bennet (!.)§ 

„ fusiforme, Brod. Zool. Journ. v. p. 44. t. 3. f. 3. (I.) 

„ ovum. Turf , 

?(I) 

Fusus antiquus, Lin. (sp.) ; F. despectus, Lin 

„ corneus, Lin. (sp.) ; Bucc. angustior, its/er 

var. ? F. fenestratus, Turt. Mag. N. H. vol. viii. (E. Forbas) ... 

„ muricatus, Mont, (sp.) 

„ Barvicensis, Johnst 

„ Banffius, Don., Mont, (sp.) 

Pleurotoma Boothii, Smith, (sp.) Wern. Mem. vol. viii 

turricula, Mont, (sp.) 

costata, Penn., Mont, (sp.) 

septangularis, Mont, (sp.) 

attenuata, Mont, (sp.) 

nebula, Mont, (sp.) 

rufa, Mont, (sp.) ; Murex chordula, Turt. Conch. Diet. 

p. 94. young? 

linearis, Mont, (sp.) ..i... 

purpurea, Mont, (sp.) 

gracilis, Mont, (sp.) 

sinuosa, Mont, (sp.) (on Turton's authority) 

Trevellyanum, Turt., Mag. N. H. vol. viii 

? (!•) 

? (I.) 

^. . ? (I.) 

Triton ennaeeus, Penn. (sp.) 

Aporrhais pes-pelecani, Lin. (sp.) 



* This is considered by some naturalists as a doubtful Irish species. Dillwyn was 
the first to notice it, and the locality he gave was Bantry bay. I have seen specimens 
which were said to be from this locality, and others stated to be from the Waterford 
coast, but by whom collected I could not learn with certainty. 

t Pyrula carica. Turton was imposed on with respect to this shell having been 
found in the county of Down coast. 

I Noticed by Turton as found at Portmarnock (Conch. Diet. p. 16), and by Mr. 
John Humphreys (in a MS. catalogue) as obtained in Cork harbour. 

§ B. Anglicanum, made synonymous with this in Flem. Brit. Anim., is considered a 
distinct species by Mr. Alder, to whom B. Humphreysianum is unknown as British. 

1843. « 



258 



REPORT — 1843. 

Class Gasteropoda. 

Order Pectinihranchiata. 

Fam. Involutce. 



Cj-prsea Europrea, Mont 

Erato Ixvis, Don. (sp.) ; Marginella voluta 
Tornatella fasciata. Lam. ; T. tornatilis 



Fam. SigaretidcB. 

Sigaretus perspicuus, Zt«. (sp.); Bulla haliotidea, Mo«^ 

„ tentaculatus ; Lamellaria tent. Mont., Linn. Trans, xl. 
Velutina laevigata, Lin. (sp.) 

„ Otis, Ttirt 



^ 



Fam. Naticidce. 

Natica monilifera. Lam.; N. glaucina, British authors 

„ A\deT\, Forbes ; N. canrena, AfoH< 

„ ? Ann. N. H. vol. v. p. 99. " var. N. Alderi ?" Mr. Alder > 

in litt / 

„ sulcata, Titrt. (sp.) 

„ glabrissima. Brown (sp.) Irish Test. Wern. Mem. vol. ii. p. 532 

pi. -24. f. 12. — doubtful species 

„ nitida, Don. (sp.) ; Ner. mammilla, Turt. (on Turton's authority) 

Of about 160 species of British PectinibrcmcJiia, 35 are unknown as Irish ; 
they are the rarest sjjecies, and the greater number of them have been met 
with only in a single locality — not one is of common occurrence. About 12 
species obtained in Ireland have not a place in the British catalogue. The 
British genera unknown as Irish, are Turbo*, Delphimda, Stylina, Flem., 
Volva (Ovula?), Volvaria, Dolium, Terebra\, and Assiminea. 

Class Gasteropoda. 
Order Scutibranchiata. 



Haliotis tuberculata, Lin.X 

Calyptrsea Sinensis; Patella, Lin 

Capulus Ungaricus ; „ „ 

„ ?antiquatus; „ „ 

„ militaris; „ Mont 

Fissurella grseca ; „ Lin.; F. apertura, young 

Emarginula fissura ; „ „ , 

Lottia virginea. Mull, (sp.) ; Patella parva, Mont "1 

syn. L. pulchella, Forb j 

„ testudinalis. Mull, (sp.) ; Patella Clealandi, Sow 

„ fulva. Mull, (sp.) Zool. Dan. ; Patella Forbesii, Smith 

The above Scutibranchia include all but three British species, 
and which are very rare, viz. Scissurella crispctta, found at Zetland 
by Dr. Fleming ; Emarginula rosea at Poole in Dorsetshire by Pro- 
fessor Bell ; and Ptmcturella noachina at Oban, in Ai-gyleshire, by 
the Rev. R. T. Lowe. 

* T. mammillatus and T. tuberosissimus, the Brit, species. — Cyclostrema Zeilandiea 
comes under the genus Rissoa. 

f T. siibulata, the Brit, species. 

j In Mr. Templeton's journal, the following note appears — " Oct. 24, 1811. 
Received a Haliotis tuberculaius dredged up on the comity Down shore, near Grooms- 
port." Capt. Brown in his ' Irish Testacea' mentions on the authority of Templeton, 
that specimens had been obtained at another locality in the same county. Mr. 
O'Kelly states — in Walsh and Whitelaw's Dublin — that " one specimen was found at 
Bullock [Dubhn coast] and is in the possession of James Tardy, Esq." 



ON THE FAUNA OP IRELAND. 



259 



Gasteropoda. 
Order Cirrhobranchiata. 



Dentalium den talis, ZiM. ; D. eburneum 

„ entalis, Lin.; D. labiatura, -BrowM 

„ striatulum, Turt. CD 

„ seraistriatum, Turt. CD. (on Turton's authority) * 

The Dentalium glahrtun, Mont., and Dent, trachea, Mont., which come 
under the genus Cacum of Fleming and Brochus of Brown, have been found 
at Miltown Malbay, on the coast of Clare, by Mr. W. H. Harvey, and at Bun- 
doran, co. Donegal. Capt. Brown figures (pi. 1. Illustrations) three species 
of Brochus, which he calls new, from the coast of Ireland, viz. B. reticulatus 
and B. annulalus, from the county of Down ; B. arcuatus from Bantry bay — 
at this last locality B, striatits, Brown, occurred to myself. Naturalists seem 
not yet to have agreed about the position of this genus ; some make it Anne- 
lidan. Mr. Clark of Bath (as I learn from Mr. Alder) proved it to belong to 
the Gaste7-opodous Mollusca. Philippi brings it— his genus Odontidium-^ 
under Pteropoda. 

Gasteropoda. 
Order Cyclobranchiata. 

Patella vulgata, Lvn. (var. P. depressa, Perm., Dublin coast) 

„ ? intorta, Penn. (on Turton's authority.) 

„ pellucida, Lin 

„ \?&\is,List.; P. coerulea, Mo?i? 

„ ? zxigxxa, Forles ; P. ancyloides, ForJes 

Chiton fascicularis, Lin 

„ marginatus, Penn. Fiem. Br. Anim 

„ ruber, Lin. Flem. B.A 

„ cinereus, Lin. Flem. B.A 

„ fuscatus. Brown 

„ lEevis, Mont. Flem. B.A 

„ albus, Lin. Flem. B.A 

„ Isevigatus, Flem. B.A 



The above species of Cyclohranchia perhaps include all those 
published that can be given with certainty as British. 

Class ACEPHALA. 

Order Brachiopoda. 



Terebratula psittacea, Turl 

,, aurita, Flem 

Crania personata. Sow. ; Criopus anoraalus, Flem 

Turton mentions a single specimen of " Anomia terebratula" dredged alive 
in Dublin bay and placed in the museum of the Dublin Society. In August 
last, when visiting this collection in company with Mr. Alder, a Terebratula 
psittacea (sp.) labelled " Dublin bay," was observed, but whether it was the shell 
alluded to by Turton we could not ascertain. On looking over the Ordnance 
Museum we saw a specimen of T. aurita, which was dredged at the entrance 
of Belfast bay. Crania personata has been brought up from very deep water 
off Youghal by Mr. R. Ball, and has been obtained by Mr. John Humphreys 
on Pinna ingens, &c., dredged in Cork harbour and off Kinsale. The British 

* Turton's Dentalium clausum is advisedly omitted as a species. 

s 2 



260 



REPORT — 1843. 



list contains but one species in addition to those named as Irish — the Ter. 
cranium, which is occasionally taken at Zetland. 

Class ACEPHALA. 

Order Lamellibranciiiata. 

Div. MONOMYARIA. 

Fam. Ostreadce. 



An., j 



Anemia electrica, Lin 

„ ephippium, Lin. ; A. cepa, Lin 

„ squamula, Lin 

„ undulata, Gm., Mont 

„ punctata, Turt 

„ cylindrlca, T«r^ ; A. cymbiformis 

„ aculeata, Mont 

Ostrea edulis, Lin. ; O. parasitica, Turt. (young) 



one species , 



Fam. Pectenida. 



Pecten maximus, Lin. (sp.)* 

„ opercularis, Lin 

var. P. lineatus 

„ sinuosus, Turt 

„ glaber, Penn., Mont 

syn. ? P. nebulosus. Brown 

„ laevis, Penn., Mont. ; P. tumidus, Turt. ; P. similis, Laskey, ' 

one species ? {E. Forbes) 

„ obsoletus, Penn., Don 

„ varius, Lin. (sp.) 

Lima fragiiis, Mont 

„ tenera, Turt. Zool. Journ. vol. ii 

„ subauriculata, Mont, (sp.) 



Div. DIMYARIA. 

Fam. Aviculadce. 



Avicula atlantica> Lam.\ 



Fam. ArcadcB. 



Area Nose, Lin 

„ fusca, il/ow^ (not Xom.) ; A. tetragona of authors 

„ lactea, Lin. ?, Mont, (the species marked with doubt by Turton) 

„ barbata, Brown, Wern. Mem. vol. ii. p. 512. pi, 24. f. 3. (I.) ... 

Pectunculus pilosus, Lin. (sp.) ; P. decussatus, Turt. ; P. nummarius, Tnrt. 

Nucula margaritacea. Lam. ; Area nucleus, Lin 

„ minuta, Mont, (sp.) 

„ tenuis, Mont, (sp.) i... 

„ nitida. Sow. Conch. lUus. f. 20 



Fam. Mytilidee. 

Mytilus edulis, Lin, ; M. incurvatus, M. subsaxatilis, &c 

Crenella decussata, Laskey (sp.) ; Myt. decussata, Mont, ; Cren. ellip 

tica. Brown, lUus 

Modiola vulgaris ; Myt. modiola, Penn. ; Mod. papuana. Lam 

„ tulipa. Lam 

* P.jacobeBus is noticed by Turton, &c. as an Irish shell, but I believe erroneously, 
f The specimens of Avicula hirundo obtained by Miss Hutchins at Bantry bay and 
Mr. Wanen at Portmarnock, are most probably this species. Vide Lam. torn. vii. p. 99. 
2nd edit. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



Fam. MytilidcB. 



Modiola Gibsii, Leach 



(I.) 



„ discrepans, Mont, (sp.), not Lam 

„ marmoratus, Forb. Malacol. Monensis, p. 44 ; Myt. discors, ' 

Mont, (see Lam. vii. p. 23, 2nd ed.) 

Pinna fragilis, Twr^ Brit. Biv...."! r 

pectinata, „ „ ... I .1 



muncata, 
papyracea. 



one species 



Fam. Unionidce. 



Anodon cygneus ; Mytilus cyg., Mont. ; A. cyg. and A. anatina, Drap. ; 1 

A. intermedia and A. cellensis, Pfeiff. (one species) J 

Alasmodon margaritiferum ; Mya marg., Mo«^. ; Unio marg., Dro^p- -• 

Fam. Camacadce. 

Isocardia cor; Chama cor, Lin. ; I. Kibernica, Bulwer 

Fam. Conchacece. 

Cardium echinatum, Lin 

„ elongatum, Mont 

,, nodosum, Mont 

. „ exiguum, Mont 

„ edule, Lin ,. 

„ var. fasciatum, Mont 

„ medium, Lin 

„ Isevigatum, iiM. ; C. serratum 

» ? (I) •. 

Donax trunculus, Lin- ; D. rubra, Turt. Br. Biv. (young) 

„ denticulata, Lin. (noticed by Brown and Turton only) 

„ complanata, Mont 

Tellina punicea. Tart 

„ fabula, Don 

„ similis. Sow 

„ donacina, Lin 

„ bimaculata, Lin., Don.* 

„ squalida, Mont. ; T. depressa, Don , 

„ tenuis, Don , 

„ crassa, Pe»OT. ; T. maculata, Twr^ Br. Biv 

„ solidula, Mont 

„ carnaria, Lin., Don. (on Turton's authority) 

Lucina radula; Tell, rad., Mont 

„ rotundata; Tell, rot., Mont 

„ spinifera; Venus spin., Mom<. ; Myrtea spin., Twr^ 

„ flexuosa; Tell, flex., ilfowi 

Amphidesmaf prismaticum, Laskey (sp.) 

„ Boysii, Turt. Br. Biv 

„ tenue; Ligula tenuis, Mo?i^ 

? (I.) 

Cyprina Islandica; Venus Isl., Lin 



261 

Distribution. 



* As this species is considered by some naturalists to have been erroneously intro- 
duced into our catalogues, it may be stated that Mr. R. Ball has specimens of it col- 
lected on the coasts of Clare and Cork, and that Mr. Warren of Dublin obtained one in 
a living state at Ardmore, county Waterford. 

t Montagu's generic nameii^M^a should perhaps be adopted instead oi Amphidesma. 



262 



REPORT — 1843. 



Fam. ConchacecE, 



Cjrprina minima; Venus min., Mont 

„ triangularis; Venus tri., Mont, (on Turton's authority) 

Mactra solida, Penn., Mont.; M. crassa 

„ elliptica. Brown, Illust 

„ truncata, Mont 

„ subtruncata, Mont 

„ stultonim, Lin 

var. M. cinerea, Mont 

Goodailia triangularis ; Mactra tri., Mont 

„ minutissiraa; Mactra min., Mo/j^ (on Turton's authority) .. 

Lepton squamosum ; Solen squam., Mont 

Kellia suborbicularis ; Mya sub., Mont 

„ rubra; Cardiura rubrura, Mont 

Montacuta substriata; Ligula sub., Mont 

„ bidentata; Mya bid., Mon^ 

,, ferruginosa ; Mya fer., Mont , 

„ ovata; Tellimya ovata, i?ro«(;w, Illust 

„ purpurea; Mya purp., Mont 

Ervilia nitens; Mya nitens, LasJcey, Mont, (on Turton's authority)...., 

Cycias cornea; Tellina cornea, Lin 

„ lacustris; Tellina lac, M«7/. ; C. calyculata, Z)rajj 

Pisidium obtusale, Pfeif.} Jenyns 

„ nitidura, Jen 

„ pusillum, Jen 

„ pulchellum, Jew 

„ Henslowianum, Jen. ; Cyc. appendiculata, Turt. Man 

„ amnicum ; Cardium amni, Ifow^. ; Cycias palustris, Dra^ 

„ cinereum. Alder 

Astarte Damnonife; Venus Damn., Mont 

„ Scotica; Venus Scot., Mon^ 

„ ?(I.) : 

Artemis exoleta; Venus ex., Lin 

„ lincta; Venus lincta, Pult 

„ ? undata ; Venus undata, Pemi., Mow^ 

Cytherea tigerina ; Venus tig., Lin. (on Brown's authority) 

„ ovata; Venus ovata, Pe?in., iVfoH^ 

Venus verrucosa, Lin. ; V. cancellata, Lin., Turt. (young) 

„ cassina, LtM. ; syn. V. reflexa, iasA:., Mon< 

„ fasciata, Don* 

„ Pennantii, Forh., Malac. Monensis, 52 ; V. rugosa, Penn. ; ' 

V. laminosa, Laslcey 

„ gallina, Lin 

„ sinuosa, Penn. (on the authorit)' of Brown and Turton) 

„ i (I.).... 

„ ? (I.).... 

Pullastra aurea ; Venus aurea, Moiit. ; syn. V. nitens, Turt. ; V. aenea, ' 

Turt., E. Forbes , 

„ perforans ; Venus perf., Mo«< 

„ vulgaris, Sojt'. ; Venus pullastra, W^ooeZ, iVfon< 

„ decussata; V. dec, Lin 

„ virginea; V. virg., Lin 

var. V. Sarniensis 

Vcncrupis irus ; Donax irus, Lin • 

Petricola ochroleuca, Lam. ; Psam. fragilis, Turt. Br. Biv. (I.) 



* Venus Jysera of Bryce's Tables, &c, is a variety of F, fasciata. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



Fam. Pylorida;. 

Corbula striata ; Mya ineequivalvis, Mont 

Sphenia Binghami, Turt. Br. Biv , 

Pandora obtusa. Leach, Lam.* , 

Thracia convexa; Anatina conv., I^r^. Br. Biv 

„ pubescens; „ pub., „ „ , 

„ declivis; „ dec, „ „ , 

„ distorta; „ dist., „ „ 

Anatina praetenue, „ „ , 

Mya truncata, Lin. ; Sphenia Swainsoni, Turt., young, E. Forbes ... 

„ arenaria, Lin , 

Lyonsia Norvegica ; "MyaNorv., Turt., Lin." 

Lutraria vulgaris ; Mactra lutraria, Lin 

„ hians ; Mactra hians, PmZ^., Z)ow 

„ compressa; Listera comp., jpier^. Br. Biv 

Psammobia tellinella. Lam.; P. florida, Turt. Br. Biv 

P. costulata, Turt., syn. witli last 

„ Ferroensis ; Tellina Fer., JVfoMf 

„ vespertina, Turt. ; P. florida. Lam. (but not of British au- 
thors) is the form found in Scotland (^E. Forbes) 

Solen vagina, Lin 

„ siliqua, Lin 

syn.? S. novacula, Mont 

„ ensis, Lin , 

„ pellucidus, Penn., Don 

„ legumen, Lin 

„ antiquatus, Pult., Don 

„ fragilis, Pult., Mont 

„ strigillatus ; Psammobia strig., T^rt 

Saxicava rugosa ; Mytilus rug., Lin. ; syn. Hiatella arctica, Flem 



263 

Distribution. 



3 ^ 



Fam. TubicolcB. 

Gastrochaena pholadia, Mont, (sp.) ; Mya phol., Mont. ; Gast. hians, 

Flem.; Mya dubia, Penn 

Pholas crispata, Lin 

lamellata, Turt 

striatus, Lin., Don. ; " conoides, Parsons," Flem, Br. Anim. . 

dactylus, Lin , 

parvus, Mont , 

candidus, Lin 

Teredo bipinnata, Turt 

„ navalis, Lin r 

Xylophaga dorsalis, Turt < 



About 220 species of Lamellibranchia are included in the British Fauna, 
of which 155 are Irish: to these, eight onlj' — indicated in the usual manner 
in the preceding table — can be added, which have not a place in the cata- 
logue of Great Britain, making the total number of Irish species 163. The 
marine species of that island unknown to us are the rarest there, not one of 
the many being common, and nearly all being local and confined to one district. 
It is not so with the/resAt^a^er species, Unio pictorum, U. (u7nidus, and Cyclas 
rivicola, which are more widely diffused, but at the same time become rare 

* Pandora incequivalvis (P. rostrata, Lam.). In Turton's catalogue of Irish Shells 
it is stated that specimens said to be from Bantry were shown him, but in his sub- 
sequent works (Conch. Diet, aud Brit. Biv.) no Irish station is given for the species. 



264 



BBPORT — 1843. 



towards the north of England, and are not found at all in Scotland. The 
generic forms wanting in Ireland are Lithodomus, Capsa, Panopcea, Galeonia, 
Unio, Crenatula, Necera*, all of which, with the exception of Unio, are very 
rare : — they have each but one representative British species. 

Distribution. 



Molliisca Tunicata. 

Ascidia mentula. Mull. Zool. Dan. vol. i. p. 6. t. 8. f. 1-4. (Phallusia, Sav.) 
„ rustica, „ „ „ p. 14.t. 15.f. 1-5. (Phallusia) 

„ venosa, „ „ „ p. 25. t. 25. (I.) 

„ prunum, „ „ „ p. 42. t. 34. f. 1-3 

„ conchilega, „ „ „ p. 42. t. 34. f. 4-6 

„ parallelogramma, „ vol. ii. p. 11. t. 49. (I.) 

„ canina, „ „ „ p.l9.t.55.f. l-6.(Phallusia)(l.) 

„ aspersa, „ „ ,, p. 32. t. 65. f. 2. (I.) 

„ scabra, „ „ „ p. 33. t. 65. f. 3. (I.) 

„ orbicularis, „ „ „ p. 53. t.79.f. 1 & 2. (I.) 

„ echinata, „ „ vol.iv. p. 10. 1. 130. f. 1 

„ maramillaris, Delle Cbiaje, vol. iii. p. 187- 197- 1. 45. f. 14. (I.) ... 
„ gemina, Templeton (R.) Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. vii. p. 129. f. 24. (I.) 
„ anceps, „ „ „ „ p. 130. f. 25. 1 

A. prunum? (I.?) J 

„ communis, Forbes MSS 

Phallusia intestinalis, Sav. Mem. p. l69.t. ll.f. 1 

Cynthia microcosmus, „ „ p. 144. t. 2. f. 1. (I.) 

claudicans, „ „ p. 150. t. 2. f. 1. (I.) 

Clavellina lepadiformis, Sav. ; Ascidia lepad.. Mull. Z. D. vol. ii. p. 54, T 

t. 79.f.5 J 

Distoma rubrum, £fa?;. Mem. p. 177- 1. 3.f. 1. and 1. 13. (I.) 

variolosum, Gaer^ Sav. Mem. p. 38. & 178 ? 

Aplidium ? (more than one species) 

Sydneum turbinatum, Sav. Mem. p. 239? 

Amaroucium proliferum, Edw. Ascid. Compos., p. 67. pi. 1. f. 3. (I.) ... 

Leptoclinum gelatinosum, „ „ „ p. 83. pi. 8. f. 1. (I.) ... 

„ maculosum, „ „ „ p. 81. pi. 8. f. 2. (I.) ... 

asperum, „ „ „ p. 82. pi. 8. f. 3. (I.) .. 

dumm, „ „ „ p. 82. pi. 8. f. 4. (I.) .,, 

Botryllus Schlosseri, Lin. (sp.) Phil. Trans, vol. xlix. p. 449. pi. 14 

Leachii, Sav. Mem. p. 199. pi. 4. f. 6. & pi. 20. f. 4 

„ polycyclus, Sav. Mem. p. 47. pi- 4. f. 5 (I.) 

„ gemmeus, Sav., Edw. Ascid. Comp. p. 89. pi. 6. f. 5. (I.) 

bivittatus, £(Zm;. „ „ „ p. 92. pi. 6. f. 7. (I.) 

In Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, vol. vii. p. 129, Mr. R. Temple- 
ton described and figured two species of the Moll. Tunicata, and eighteen 
more were recorded by myself in the Annals of Nat. Hist., vol. v. p. 93 : — in 
the 13th volume of the latter work the additional species introduced here will 
be more particularly noticed. My knowledge of the Tunicata not being ad- 
vanced beyond the identification of the species with those of tbe authors cited, 
the names are given in the consecutive order in Avhich they ajipear in their 
works, without any attempt being made to bring the species ("simple" Asci- 
dise) under their modern genera. Such of MuUer's species as Savigny brought 
under certain of his genera have these added within brackets in the accom- 
panying table. 

* The introduced Dreissena is not included. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 265 

So little attention has been bestoAved on the Mollusca Tunicata of Great 
Britain and Ireland, that it is perhaps unnecessary to draw the usual com- 
parison. More Irish than British species can however be announced. Of the 
thirteen British simple Ascidians recorded, seven are Irish, in addition to which 
are eleven unrecorded as indigenous to the coasts of the largep island. Of 
the ten " compound " species published as British five are Irish, to which latter 
nine, unnoticed as indigenous to the seas of Great Britain, are to be added : 
all the species of the preceding catalogue marked (I.) are probably to be 
found on the British coast. So little of the history or geographical distribu- 
tion of the Moll. Tunicata is known that the mere record of the species ob- 
tained in any locality possesses interest. The greater number of those here 
noticed are identical with the species found by Muller on the coast of Den- 
mark ; several, both of the "simple" and " compound," are the same as those 
of France described by Savigny and Milne Edwards, and a few of each divi- 
sion to those procured by Delle Chiaje on the coast of Naples. 

Nearly all the species enumerated here were taken by dredging, as were a 
number of others (simple and compound) which are still undetermined. 
Professor Edward Forbes and Mr. John Goodsir, in the course of their 
dredging, have collected many species from various parts of the British coast, 
a very few of which are yet published. 

To take a general view of the Mollusca of Ireland, as exhibited in the pre- 
ceding catalogue, it would seem, regarding the subject positively, that a re- 
spectable knowledge of all the classes and orders has been acquired, and re- 
garding it comparatively, that on the whole the species have been perhaps as 
well ascertained as those of Great Britain. The relative difference in the 
number of species (except perhaps in Nudibranchia) will probably hold good 
after the closest investigation of the subject in both islands : in the Bivalves 
only among the Testacea is the diiference very striking. Considering the 
geographical position of the two islands, the smaller one being the farther 
removed from the great continental coast, the shores of Ireland being only 
about one- third the extent of those of the larger island, and what is of more 
consequence, limited to one-third of the degrees of latitude over which Great 
Britain with its neighbouring islands (whose fauna it includes) extend, the 
relative number of species known as Irish is as great as would a priori be 
anticipated. 

CIRRHIPEDA. 

The species of Irish Cirrhipeda known to Brown and Turton were included 
in their catalogues of " Testacea." Capt. Portlock, in bringing before the 
Royal Irish Academy (Jan. 23, 1837) a notice of A?iatif a vitrea, read a list 
of the native Pedunculated Cirrhipeda, communicated to him by Mr. R. Ball* ; 
and additional species have been contributed by myself to the Annals of Nat! 
Hist. vol. xiii. 



Cirrhipeda. 
Cirr. Pedimculata. 

Anatifa Isevis, Lam. ; Lepas anatifera, Lin 

„ dentata. Lam. ; var. A. IebvIs, W. T. 
„ striata. Lam. ; Lep. anserifera, Lin. 



Distribution, i 


J3 
O 


1 


1 


3 


— 


— 


— 





* 


* 


» 


» 


* 








» 


* 


• 


* 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. i, p. 30, 



266 



REPORT— 1843. 



CiRRHIPEDA. 

Cirr. Pedu7iculata. 



Anatifa vitrea, Lam.', L. fascicularis, Mont 

„ sulcata. Lam.; L. sul., Mont 

Scalpellum vulgare. Leach', L. scalp., Lin 

Pollicipes cornucopise, Leach', L. pollicipes, Chnel *. 

Cineras vittata. Leach; L. membranacea, Mont 

Otion Cuvieri, Leach; L, aurita, Lin # 



Cirrhipeda Sessilia. 

Balanus costatus, Mont.; B. angulosus. Lam 

„ communis*, Mont.; Lepas balanus, Lin.'i Bal. sulcatus, 
Brug. Lam 

tintinnabulum, Lin. (sp.) 

ovularis. Lam. ; Bal. balanoides, Mont 

rugosus*, Mont > 

Scoticus, Wood (sp.), Brown's lUust. pi. 7. f. 22t 

candidus, Z-eacA, „ „ pi. 6. f. 8-10 

punctatus *, Mont 

fistulosus, Brvg. Lam. ; B. clavatus ; Lepas elongata, Chem. 
Creusia verruca, Leach, Lam. ; Lepas striata, Penn I ^ 



The preceding catalogue exhibits nearly all the species of Cirrhipeda which 
have a place in the British Fauna ; but as these have not been satisfactorily- 
determined, the usual comparison is omitted. Several of the species can 
hardly be called natives of our seas, although found living on the bottoms of 
ships in our harbours, and attached to timber cast ashore ; but by including 
them here I only follow British and French authors. Some species, if not 
native, have become naturalized to a limited extent, and take up their abode 
on the " wooden walls" of our docks, flood-gates, &c. The Coronula diadema, 
which has been obtained on the skin of whales killed on the British coast, 
and the Acasta Moiitagid, Leach, found imbedded in sponge, cannot be an- 
nounced with certainty in the Irish catalogue. 



CRUSTACEA. 

Some species of Irish Crustacea have been recorded in the celebrated 
' Zoological Researches' of Mr. John Vaughan Thompson, and his other wri- 
tings t ; by Templeton's catalogue of all the species known to him, publislied 
in the ninth volume of Loudon's Magazine of Natural History ; by contribu- 
tions of Mr. Robert Templeton, to the second volume of the Entomological 
Transactions ; and by communications of my own to the Annals of Natural 
History, vols. v. (pp.221 & 255), vii. (p. 482), x. xi. & xiii. 

The collections of Dr. Druramond, Mr. Hyndman and the Ordnance Sur- 
vey, from the north-east coast; of Mr. R. Ball from Youghal and Dublin ; of 
Dr. Bellingham (in Syphojiostomata) from the last-named locality ; and of 

• The names oi Balanvs communis, B. rugosus, and B.jjunctatushave been applied 
to other species on the continent. See Lamarck, vol. v. 2nd edit. 

t See correction of B. Scoticus and B. candiJus in description of plate 32. 

% Papers in the Philosophical Transactions, 1835, and Entomological Magazine 
(vol.iii.), and Museum Catalogue of the Royal College of Surgeons, Dublin : — his whole 
collection of Crustacea now belongs to this College, and is exhibited in its museum ; 
the Irish species are indicated by the iuitial " I." 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



267 



Lithodes maia. Leach 

Pagurus Bernhardus, Edw. ; P. streblonyXj Leach 

„ Prideauxii, Leach 

„ erinaceus, Tliomp. (/. V.) (I.) 

„ Hyndmani, T/iomp. (W.) MSS. (I.) 

„ Cuanensis, 77iOTOp. (W.) MSS. (I.) 

„ Ulidiffi, Thomi). (fF.) MSS. (I.) 

„ leevis, Thomp. {TV.) MSS. (I.) , 

Porcellana platycheles, Edw ■ 

„ longicornis, Edw 



Dr. Geo. J. AUman {Syphonostomata) from the coast of Cork, have, in ad- 
dition to my own, aided in this department. 

I have throughout followed the arrangement adopted in the excellent 
' Histoire des Crustaces' of Milne Edwards. 

CRUSTACEA. 

1st Legion Podophthalmata. 

Order Decapoda. 

1st Section Brachrjura. 

Macropodia phalangium, Leach* 

Achseus Cranchii, Leach 

Inachus Dorsettensis, Leach 

„ leptochirus. Leach 

„ dorhynchus. Leach 

Pisa tetraodon. Leach • 

Hyas aranea. Leach 

„ coarctata. Leach 

Maia squinado, Latr., Leach 

Eurynome aspera. Leach • 

Xantho floridus. Leach 

„ rivulosus, Risso, Edw 

Cancer pagurus. Leach 

Pilumnus hirtellus. Leach 

Pirimela denticulata. Leach • 

Carcinus lUEenas, Leach 

Portumnus variegatus. Leach 

Portunus puber. Leach; Cancer velutinus 

„ depurate r. Leach 

„ lividus. Leach 

„ corrugatus, Penn. (sp.) 

„ pusillus. Leach 

„ arcuatus. Leach •■• 

Pinnotheres pisum. Leach; P. varians. Leach; P. Latreilli, Leach ., 

„ pinnae; P. veterum, Z/eocA 

Gonoplax angulata, Edw. ; G. bispinosa. Leach 

Ebalia Bryerii, Leach ■ 

„ Cranchii, Leach 

„ Pennantii, Leach ' 

Atelecyclus heterodon. Leach 

Corystes cassivelaunus. Leach 

Order Decapoda. 
2nd Section Anomoura. 



• For the sake of brevity the names applied by Leach are generally given without 
reference to those first applied to the species. 



268 



REPORT — 1843. 



Order Decapoda. 
3rd Section Macroura, 



Galathea strigosa, Edw.; G. spinigera. Leach 

„ rugosa. Leach 

„ squaniifera. Leach 

„ nexa, Emhleion, Proceedings Berwickshire Club, vol. i. p. 71- \ 

pl. 1 / 

Palinurus vulgaris. Leach 

Callianassa subterranea. Leach 

Astacus fluviatilis, Edw. (Introduced to some places.) 

Homarus vulgaris, Edm 

Nephrops Norvegicus, Leach 

Crangon vulgaris. Leach 

Pontophilus spinosus. Leach 

Processa canaliculata. Leach 

Atbanas nitescens. Leach 

Hippolyte varians. Leach 

„ Crancbii, Leach 

Pandalus annulicornis. Leach 

Palsemon serra'tus. Leach 

„ squilla. Leach 

„ varians. Leach 

„ Leachii, Thomps. {J. V.) (I.) 

Pasiphsea sivado, Risso (I.) 

?Alauna rostrata, Goodsir, Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. xxxiv. p. 130. pl. 4. ?... 
?Cuma trispinosa, „ » » 129. » 3. f. 1 

Order Stomapoda*. 

Mysis spinulosus. Leach ; M. Leachii, Thomp. Zool. Research 

„ chamEeleon, Thomp. (J. V.) 

„ vulgaris, Thomp. (J. V.) 

Scorpionura vulgaris, Thomp. (J. V.) Museum Catalogue Royal College \ 

of Surgeons in Ireland, p. 229 J 

„ longicornis, „ „ „ „ „ 

„ maxima, „ „ „ „ „ 

2nd Legion Edktophthalmata. 

Order Amphipoda. 

Talitrus locusta, Latr.; T. saltator, Edw 

Orchestia littorea. Leach i 

Dexamine spinosa. Leach 

Gammarus locusta. Fair 

„ fluviatilis, Edw.f 

Corophium longicorne. Lair 

Hyperia ? 



Order L(EMOBipoda. 
Caprella phasma, Latr. ; Cancer phasma, Mont 

* From this to the end of the Crustacea little attention has been given to noting the 
distribution of the species on our coasts. 

t All my specimens from many localities are of tliis species as distinguished from 
G. piilex, Edw. Crust, vol. iii. p. 45 & 48. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



Order Lcemodipoda. 



Caprella linearis, Latr 

Proto pedatum. Leach ; Leptomera pedata 



Order Isopoda. 



Arcturus longicornis, Westwood 

Idotea pelagica. Leach; I. tricuspidata, fie. only* ; Desmarest, Cons./l 

Crast. pl.46. f. 11 :. ....' J 

„ tricuspidata, ^rfw. ; I. entomon, Z-eacA ]].,. 

„ emarginata, £rfw. ; I. oestrum, ieacA ,,,', 

„ linearis, Edw. ; Stenosoma lin.. Leach 

Limnoria terebrans. Leach " 

Asellus aquaticus, Oliv.; A. vulgaris, Latr., Edw !..!.!!!!!!!! 

Lygia oceanica. Fair " 

Oniscus asellus, Lin ]] 

Philoscia muscorum, Latr 

Porcellio scaber, Latr !..!!!!!.!!!!!!!!!!! 

„ Isevis, Latr 

Armadillidiumt vulgaris, Edw. ; Armadillo vaXg., Latr. ............ ...^^ 

Anceus maxillaris. Lam. ; A. rapax, Edw., vol. iii. p. 196. pi. 33-. f. 12 j!! 

Sphseroma serratum. Leach 

„ Hookeri, Leach 

„ rugicauda. Leach [_ 

Nessea bidentata, Desm !!!!!!!!]!!!!! 

Dynamena rubra. Leach !!!!!!!! 

Cirolana Cranchii, Leach !!"!!!!!!! 

^ga bicarinata. Leach ]!!!!!!!!!! 

„ tridens. Leach !!!!!!!! 

Bopyrus squillarum, Latr 



galatea, Thomp. (/. V.) MSS.(| 



269 

Distribution 



3rd Legion Branchiopoda. 
Order Phyllopoda. 

Apus cancriformis. Lair 

Branchipus stagnalis, Latr 

Order Cladoceka. 

Daphnia pulex. Mull 

„ longispina. Mull 

Polyphemus oculus. Mull ,,,,[ 



• See Edw. Crust, vol. iii. p. 129, note. 

t Genus established by Brandt. See Edw. Crust, vol. iii. p. 1 80. 
J I have no doubt of the identity of Montagu's Cancer maxillaris, Linn. Trans, vol 
vii. p. 65. pi. 6 f 2, and Edw. J. rapax, above cited. See remarks on this subject in 
Jidw. Crust, vol. ui. p. 197. •' 

§ I find a ^o^yj-M* commonly in Hippolyte varians, Leach, but have not vet criti- 
cally examined It. Two species of Bopyrus~B. hippolyte and B. abdominalis-are 
cle.=cribed by Kroyer as found m the genus Hippolyte. See Edw. Crust, vol. iii. p. 283, 
and Ann. Sci. Nat. vol. xvii. p. 142. pi. 6. 1842. F-^co, 

II In Galatkea squamifera in Mr. R. Ball's collection there is a species oi Bopyrus. 



270 



REPORT— 1843. 



4th Legion Entomostraca. 
Order Ostrapoda. 



Cypris conchacea, Besm 

„ Candida, Desni., Batrd 



Cytherea viridis. Lair 

„ lutea, Latr 

Order Copepoda. 

Cyclops quadricornis, I-«?r. ; C. vulgaris, JErfw. Crust » 

„ longicornis. Mull 



Cyclopsina staphylinus, Edw. Crust. ; Cyclops minutus. Mull 

Anomalocera Pattersonii, Tempi. (R.), Entom. Trans, vol. ii. p. 34. pi. 5.' 

Order Siphonostomata. 

Argulus foliaceus, Jurine 

Caligus MuUeri, Leachf 

" „ salarig," J. V. Thompson's Catal. Mus. Coll. of Surg. Ireland 

" „ scombri," „ „ „ „ » 

productus, Mull.\ 

Cecrops Latreillii, Leach 

Dichelestion sturionis, "Hermann," Edw 



Order Lerneada. 



Lemea uncinata, Midl.^ 

Chondracaathus cornutus, Cuv., Edw 

„ lophii, Johnst. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 81. f. 16 

Entomoda canicula, Thomp. (J. V.) Catal. Coll. Surg 

„ puellall, „ „ „ „ 

Brachiella salmonea. Tempi. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 239|| 

Lerneonema raonillaris, Edio.'^ 

Lernea branchialis, Lin 



Order Pychnogonida. 



Nymphum gracile. Leach 

grossipes, Lin. (sp.) 



Orj'thia coccinea, Johnst. Mag. Zool. & Bot. vol. i. p. 378. pi. 
Pvchnogonum littorale, " Strom." (sp.) ; Edw. P. balsenarui 



13.f.4-e 



Of the thirty-six British species of Brachyura, all but six are known as 
Irish, and of these, one — Portunus marmoreus — is recorded as such, but the 
specimens so named which have come under my observation are P. pusillus 
(see Annals Nat. Hist. vol. x.) ; another — Portunus emarginatus—\s believed 
to be only a variety of P. arcuatus, which is found around our coast. The 
other four species are Macropodia tenuiroslris, Pisa Gibbsii, Polybius Hen- 
sloivii, and Pinnotheres Montagui, all of which were known to Leach as in- 

* Probably a species in its immature state. 

f See Edw. Crust, vol. iii. p. 450. % Ibid., p. 4G5. § Ibid., p. 49.5. 

II Merely indicated here; no author's name appended to the species. 

^ Forociilum Spratli is the name applied to a species in J. V. Thompson's Catal. 
Mus. Coll. Suig. ^ . , . _ ,- 

** A species oi Ammothea is named A. a-ruginosa, and marked as Irish m J. V. 
Thompson's collection. Mus. Catal. Royal Coll. Surg. Ireland. See Edw. Crust, vol. iii. 
p. 534, for genus Ammothea. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. S^l 

habiting only the extreme southern coast of England. One species — Xantho 
rivulosus — has a place in the Irish and not in the British catalogue, but Pro- 
fessor Bell informs me that he has seen English specimens. 

Of the Anomoura there are five British species, all of which are likewise 
Ii-ish, and to the latter are to be added four or five species of Pagiirus above 
indicated : what the P, erinaceus of Mr. J. V. Thompson is I do not know, 
but the four species named by myself are very distinct from each other, and 
unknown as British : whether they be all undescribed is yet to be determined. 
They were taken by Mr. Hyndman and myself when dredging in deep water 
in the loughs of Strangford and Belfast. 

Of the twenty-six British Macroura * all but seven are recorded as Irish. 
Five of these — Axia stirhynchus, Gebia stellata, G. deltura, Hippolyte Pri- 
deauxiana, and H. Moorii — were known to Leach as from the south of 
Devonshire only : Hijjpolyte Sowerbm was obtained at Newhaven, near Edin- 
burgh ; PencBus trisulcatus on the coast of Wales. Two species — Pasiphcea 
sivado and Palcemon Leachii — have a place in the Irish and not in the British 
list. 

The Decapodous Crustacea alone, I have critically studied throughout; 
consequently, so far only can a particular comparison of the species of the 
two islands be instituted : indeed of the British species belonging to the fol- 
lowing orders, from Stomapoda to Pychnogonida inclusive, no proper cata- 
logue is extant, and were those now known brought together and compared 
with the Irish species, the result would, as in the instance of the Annelida, 
simply denote how many belonging to each island had been determined, with- 
out giving any idea, as in the better studied portions of the Invertebrata, of 
the number positively, of each locality, or relatively, of the one island to the 
other. The undetermined Irish species in my own collection are perhaps 
thirty in number. 

ANNELIDA. 

About one-half of the Annelides in this catalogue were known to Tem- 
pleton (Mag. Nat. Hist, ix.) ; the remainder, with the exception of a very 
few indicated by myself (Annals Nat. Hist. v. 247, vii.482, and xiii.), have been 
investigated by my friend Dr. Johnston of Berwick-upon-Tweed, who kindly 
undertook to describe the species collected on the Irish shores (Annals Nat. 
Hist. V. p. 168 and 305, and vol. xiii.). He has likewise favoured me with a 
very elaborate manuscript catalogue of all the British Annelides on record 
with their numerous synonyma, and which it is but proper to mention, was 
drawn up with especial reference to a comparison of the British and Irish 
species in this Report. But, it is to be hoped that this catalogue will serve 
as the foundation of a work on the subject by Dr. Johnston. 

Annelida. 
Order 1. Apod a. 
Tribe Nemertina. 



Distribution. | 


£ 






i 


:i 


a 


^ 


GQ 


* 








* 

* 


* 


* 





Gordius aquaticus, Li7i.f ,„.,. 

Borlasia? alba, Thomp., MSS. (I.) ; 

Lineus longissitnus. Sow. ; Nemertes Borlasii, Cuv 

* In this number the species published by Mr. Harry Goodsir in the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Joimial, vol. xxxiv., are not included, as he does not feel certain that 
they should be brought under Macroura. 

•f That little trouble has yet been taken to ascertain the distribution of the Irish 
Annelides is indicated in connection with the first species named, which doubtless is 
not confined to the north. 



272 



REPORT— 1843. 



Order 1. Apod a. 

Tribe Nemertina. 

Meckelia trilineata ; Carinella trilineata, Johnst. Mag. Nat. Hist, vol 

vi. p. 232. f. 24 

Prostoraa gracilis, Johnst. (sp.) ; Nemertes grac, Johnst. Mag. Zool 

and Bot. vol. i. p. 534. t. 17. f. 1 

„ lactiflorea, Johnst. (sp.) ; Nem. lac, Johnst., Mag. Zool. "1 

and Bot. vol. i. p. 535. t. 17. f. 2 J 

armatum, Templeton, Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 236. f. 29. (I.) 

Planaria vittata, Mont., Linn. Trans, vol. xi. p. 25. t. 5. f. 3 

„ tremellaris. Mull., Zool. Dan. (I.) 

„ stagnalis, MmZ^., Temp. (I.) 

„ fusca. Pall. Id 



Tribe Hirudina. 

Phylline hippoglossi. Mull, (sp.) 

Erpobdella tessulata. Mull, (sp.) 

Glossipora complanata, Lin. (sp.) ... "] 

„ crenata >■ one species 

„ tuberculata J 

„ hyalina. Mull, (sp.) ; Clepsina hyal., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. 
ix. p. 15. pi. 1. f. 20 

„ biocuiata, M?</;. (sp.) ; Hirudo stagnalis, JLinn 

Piscicoia geometra, Lin. (sp.) 

„ percfe, Temp, (sp.) ; Ichthyobdella percse. Temp., Loud. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 236. f. 28. (L) 

„ marina, TItomp. MSS. (L) 

Pontobdella muricata, Lin. (sp.) 

„ spinulosa. Leach, "probably notdistinct from last," Dr. J. 
Hsemopsis sanguisuga, Mei-r. (sp.) Lin. (sp.) 

Tribe Lumbricina. 

Nais vermicularis. Mull. (L) , 

„ serpentina. Mull , 

Stylaria lacustris, Lin. (sp.) 

Tubifex rivuloriim. Lam.; Lumbricus tubifex. Mull 

Lumbricus lineatus. Mull 

„ pellucidus. Temp., Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. "i 

vii. p. 131. f. 27. (L) I 

Clitellio minutus. Temp., Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist, f °"^ species 

vol. ix. p. 235 J 

„ omilurus, Temp., Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 235. (L) 

„ lividus, (L). „ „ „ „ „ 

„ gordianus, (L) „ „ „ „ ,, 

„ zanthurus, (L) „ „ „ „ „ 

„ annularis, (L) „ „ „ „ „ 

„ terrestris, Lin 

Cirratulus medusa, JoAws^, Mag. Zool. and Bot.voL ii. p. 7l.t.3. f. 7-12. 

„ tentaculatus, Mont, (sp.) 

Trophonia Godsiri, Johnst., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 371. t. 11. f. 1-10. 

Order 2. Polypoda. 
Tribe Serpulina, 

Pectinaria belgica. Pa ZL (sp.) ; Amphitrite auricoma, JJfwZ^ 

Sabellaria alveolata, Lin. (sp.) 

„ crassissima, Penn. (sp.) , 

Terebella conchilega. Pall, (sp.) 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



273 



Order 2. Polypoda. 

Tribe Serpulina. 

Terebella cirrhata, Mont.^lAxia. Trans, vol. xii. 

„ cristata. Mull, (sp.) ...■ 

Sabella reniformis, Turt. (sp.) ; Tubularia penicillus. Mull., Zool. Dan. "I 
t. 89. f. 1, 2 / 

Amphitrite ventilabrum, PewM. j " 

„ carnea, Johnst., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xiii 

„ tubularia, ilfoB^. (sp.) ; Serpula tubularia, Jlfow^ 

Spirorbis communis, Flem. ; Serpula spirgrbis, Linn 

„ spirillum, Lin. (sp.) 

„ granulatus, Lin. (sp.) 

„ minutus, Afow^. (sp.) 

„ conicus, Flem. Edin. Ency. vol. vii. p. 68. pi 205. f. 3 

„ lucidus, Mont, (sp.) 

Serpula vermicularis, Lin. ; S. intricata, Lin.; S.vermicularis, Mull., Mont 

„ triquetra, iyire "1 

„ contortuplicata, iwj i-one species ... 

„ contortus, spiralis, perversa of Brown, lUus. ... J 

„ serrulata, Mem., Edin. Ency. vol. vii. p. 67. t. 204. f. 8.; tri-"l 
cuspidata. Sow J 

„ vitrea. Fab.} ■ 

Filograna implexa. Berk. ; Serpula minima. Lam. {Temp.)}* 

Ditrupa subulata, DesA. (sp.) (I.) 

Arenicola piscatorum. Lam.; Lumbricus marinus, Lin 

Tribe Nereidina. 

Nereis viridis, Johnst., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. v 
„ pelagica „ „ „ 

,, Dumerilii „ „ „ 

„ fucata „ „ „ 

„ renalis „ „ „ 

„ longissima „ „ „ 

Syllis armillaris. Mull, (sp.) 

Phyllodoce lamelligera, Johnst., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 225. t. 7. f. 1-3 
viridis „ „ „ iv.p. 228. t. 6. f. 11-15 

Bebryce peripatus, Johnst. MSS • 

Nephtys margaritacea, Johnst., Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. viii. p. 34 1 . f . 33 
Spio calcarea. Temp., Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. p. 234. "| 

f. 27. (I?) i-one species 

„ seticornis, Penn .....J 

Sigalion boa, Johnst., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 439 

Polynoe squamata, Johnst., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 432. and v. p. 307- 
„ cirrhata „ „ „ p. 434. „ \ 

„ Halithsea clava. Temp., Mag. Nat. Hist. lUd J 

„ scolopendrina „ „ „ vol. v. p. 307 

Aphrodita aculeata, Lin 

„ hystrix, Sav 

Annelida ? 
Campontia eruciformis,7o/j«5<., Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist, vol.viii. p. 179- f-lS 

According to Dr. Johnston's catalogue, there is in the tribe Nemertina, one 
genus — Dalyellia, Flem. — known as British and not as Irish. Of twerity-nine 
British species seven are Irish ; in addition to which are four — Borlasia ? alba, 
JProstomaar malum, Planar iastagnalis and P. tremellaris — unnoticed as British. 
* Templeton gives " Serpula JiUformis, figured in Rees s Cyclop." without further 
remark. It is noted as a fossil species in Morris's Catal. Brit. Foss. 

1843. T 



171. f. 2 

172. f. 3 and 4 

174. f. 5 and 6. (L). 

175. f. 7. (L) 

176. f. 8. (L) 

178. f. 9. (I.) 



274 REPORT — 1843. 

In the tribe Hirudina are four British genera unknown as Irish — Udmiella, 
Johnst., MalacohdeUu, Blain., Tristoma, Cuv., Hirudo*. Of the eighteen 
British species nine are Irish, and in addition to the latter are Piscicola 
perccB and a new species of Piscicola f which is marine. 

In Lumbrici7ia, there is but one genus, Travisia, Johnst., unknown as 
Irish. Of the seventeen British species, eight are Irish, to which seven un- 
recorded as British are to be added;}:. 

The tribe Serpulina% contains one British genus — Othonia, Johnst — un- 
known as Irish, but as such only, the genus Ditrupa, Berk.||, is recorded. 
Of the fifty-three British species, twenty-two are described as Irish, in addi- 
tion to Avhich is the Ditrupa subulata. 

Under Nereidina are nine British genera, Eunice, Schweig., Onuphis, Aud. 
and Edw,, Myriana, Aud. and Edw.,Psa»m^7je, Johnst., /oerfa, Johnst., Glycera, 
Lam., Leucodore, Johnst., Nerine, Johnst., Pholoe, Johnst., not included in the 
Irish catalogue. Of forty-five British species, fourteen are recorded as Irish, 
in addition to Avhich are five undescribed as British, viz. Nereis Dumerilii, N. 
fucata, N.renalis, JS.longissima, Spio calcarea {S.seticornis, Penn?). 

Of doubtful Annelides Dr. Johnston enumerates four species, belonging to 
as many o-enera ; these are Campontia, Brnnchiarius, Mont., Diplotis, Mont., 
Derris, Adams : the first only is known as Irish. 

The whole of the recorded Annelides of Great Britain according to Dr. John- 
ston's catalogue are 167 species: the number known as Irish is 80^. These 
numbers are useful only in denoting the species already known as indigenous to 
the respective islands, and give no idea of the number of species inhabiting our 
coasts and inland waters. In a forenoon's search several species might be 
added to either catalogue. About one-third of the British species were made 
known by Dr. Johnston, nearly all of which were previously undescribed. 

FORAMINIFERA. 

The native Foraminifera were included in the catalogues of Irish " Tes- 
tacea" published by Capt. Brown and Dr. Turton, whose species have nearly all 
come under my own observation. The additional species, obtained and deter- 
mined by Templeton and Mr. W. H. Harvey, were published in the Annals of 
Natural History, vol. v. p. 10, and those by Mr. Hyndman and myself will 
appear in vol. xiii. of the same work. 



Spirolina carinatula; Naut. carin., Mont 

Renoidea rotundata. Brown, Illus. pi. 1. f. 14 and 15. 

glabra, Broivn, Illus. pi. 1. f. 20,21 

„ oblonga. Brown, „ f. 16, 17** 



* As now limited, Hir. medicinalis is the only British species. 

t Dr. Johnston has since informed me that he likewise has an undescribed marine 
Piscicola. 

X These six are earthworms of the genus Lumbriciis (see preceding catalogue) 
described by Templeton, with whom I agree in constituting them distinct species, but 
whether they be described as such by other authors I am not aware. 

§ The genus Lohutula included in this tribe by Dr. Johnston is omitted here, but 
brought in under Foraminifera. 

II D. subulata only is brought under this genus in Dr. Johnston's catalogue. 

«[[ Many undetermined species are in my collection. 

** In the second edition of Brown's lUustrations (of which a few parts are pub- 
lished) the term Renoidea is restricted to oblonga: the Ren. glabra and Re7i. rotundata 
are placed in D. Orbigny's genus Triloculina. 



1 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND, 



FORAMINIFERA. 



275 

I Distribution 



Nautilus, Mont, with specific 
f names here used 



J 



w 1^ 



Poh'stomella crispa ; Nautilus crispus, Lin. 

Lenticulina calcar 

„ Isevigatula , 

„ depressula 

Nonionina urabilicatula 

Rotalia beccarii. 

„ beccarii-perversus... 

„ inflata 

Lobatula vulgaris ; Serpula lobata, Mont i., 

Vermiculum intortum ; Nautilus, Mont ! » 

,, oblongum, Mont j 41^ 

„ subrotundum, Mont '... 

Lagenula striatula ; Vermiculum str., Mont 1^ 

„ globosa, Flem ,1, 

,, li£vis, Flem !... 

Nodosaria legumen ; Naut. leg., Lin., Mont .,'.., 

„ recta; Naut. rec, Mont 1... 

Nautilus pulchella, T^p. Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 99. (I.) 1 » 

„ dentatus, „ „ „ ,, (I.) \^ 

All the Foraminifera of the preceding list, except the two species de- 
scribed by Mr. R. Templeton, are known as British, and include about the 
one half of those brought together in Fleming's ' British Animals,' in 1828*. 
In Brown's ' Illustrations' seven species designated as new are figured : — three 
of these have now a place in the Irish catalogue. Mr. Macgillivray has in the 
present year added eight British speciesf. 

ENTOZOA. 

A catalogue of the species of Irish Entozoa known to Templeton appeared 
in the ninth volume (p. 238-240) of Loudon's Magazine of Natural His- 
tory. In the second and third volumes of the new series of the same work 
conducted by Chailesworth, Dr. J. L. Drummond published a series of 
articles on the subject, and in the fourth volume (p. 240 and p. 343) will be 
found a paper from Dr. BellinghamJ, in which the species of Filaria, Tri- 
chosoma, Trichocephalus, Oxyurtis and Cucullanus, which had come under 
his observation in Dublin, are recorded : also a notice of four species which 
occurred to him in the dissection of a sun-fish ( OrtJiagoriscus mold). A re- 
markably copious manuscript catalogue of the Entozoa observed by Dr. 
Bellingham, has by his kindness been placed in my hands, and I shall give it 
just in the order (though much abbreviated)§ in which it has been com- 

* The " Nautilid(s" of that work are all now considered Foraminifera, except 
Spirnla australis (a cephalopodous mollusk), Ortliocera imperforata, 0. trachea, and 
O. glabra. The last three come under the genus Ctscum, Fleming, Brocus, Brown, 
Odonlidium, Philippi. 

\ In Morris's ' Catalogue of British Fossils' just published, a great addition is 
made to the number heretofore known of the extinct species of Foraminifera. 

X Dr. B. has likewise published some papers in the Dublin Medical Journal 
and Dublin Medical Press on this subject. 

§ The notes necessarily omitted here, are the most valuable portion of the ec- 
logue, recording as they do the whole of the various animals in which upwards of 220 
species of Entozoa were fomiH'by the author. These notes will be published in the 
thirteenth vol. of the Annals of Natural History. 

T 2 



276 



REPORT — 1843. 



municated, adding M'ithin brackets in their proper places the species noticed 
by other naturalists, so as to present at one view the whole of the Entozoa 
known as Irish. Dr. Drummond has also contributed several species which 
were not treated of in his published papers. Dr. Bellingham remarks, " In 
furnishing this list of the indigenous Entozoa, I wish it to be understood that 
I have only inserted the species discovered and examined by myself, with the 
exception of two or three forwarded to me by my friends. The classification 
is that of Rudolphi, whose names for the species are adopted throughout un- 
less otherwise expressed." 

ENTOZOA. 

Order Cystica. 



Cysticercus fasciolaris. 
„ tenuicollis. 

„ cellulosa. 

[ „ „ Temp. Mag. Nat. 

Hist. vol. ix. p. 240.] 
„ pisiformis. 

[ „ hydatlgena. Pall, (sp.). Temp. 

M. N. H. vol. ix. p. 240.] 
[Coenurus cerebralis, Gm. (sp.). Temp. 
M. N. H. vol. ix. p. 240.] 

In this Order are a Cysticercus and five species of Anthocephalus undeter- 
mined by Dr. Bellingham. 

Order Cestoidea. 



[Echinococcus humanus, Ed., Temp. M. 

N. H. vol. ix. p. 240.] 
Anthocephalus elongatus. 
„ granulum. 

[„ paradoxus, DrMTO. Charles- 

worth, M. N. H. vol. ii. p. 655.] 
[ „ rudicomis. Drum. id. vol. 

iii. p. 227.] 



Taenia expansa. 

„ pectinata [Dr. D.]*. 

„ lanceolata [Dr. D.]. 

„ cucumerina. 

„ filicoUis. 

„ nasuta. 

„ sphserophora [Dr. D.]. 

„ laevigata. 

„ cyathiformis. 

„ infundibuliformis. 

„ setigera. 

„ platicephala. 

„ angulata. 

„ laevis. 

„ sequabilis. 

„ tenuirostris. 

„ filum. 

„ elliptica. 

„ gracilis. 

„ pusilla ? 

„ farciminalis. 

„ stj'losa. 

„ solium. 

t„ „ Tewij^.M.N. H.ix.239.] 

„ serrata. 

„ crassicollis. 

„ sinuosa [Dr. D.]. 

„ inflata. 

„ porosa ? 

[„ vulgaris, Lin., Temp. M. N. H. 
ix. 239.] 



Botriocephalus claviceps. 

„ latus, Br ems. 

„ proboscideus. 

„ infundibuliformis ? 

„ microcephalus. 

„ solidus. 

„ punctatus. 

[ „ „ Brum. M. N. 

H. new series, ii. p. 574.] 
„ nodosus. 

„ macrocephalus. 

„ tumidulus. 

„ coronatus. 

„ corollatus [Dr. D.]. 

„ paleaceus. 

[ „ auriculatus, Rud. Drum. 

MS.] 
[ „ crassiceps, B.ud. Drum. 

MS.] 
Ligula sparsa. 
Scolex polymorphus. 
[„ „ Druwi. M.N.H. new 

series, vol. iii. p. 229.] 
[Tetrarhynchus grossus, Rud., Drum. 
M. N. H. new series, ii. 571.] 
[ „ solidus. Drum. M. N. 

H. new series, vol. ii. p. 573.] 
[Tetrantarus {Temp.) truttae. Temp. M. 
N. H. vol. ix. p.239. fig. 32.] 



Species soraarked noted in Dr. Drummond's MSS. in addition to Dr. Bellingham 's. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



271 



In this Order are twenty-three species of Tcenia and five of Botriocephalus 
undetermined by Dr. Bellingham. 

Order Trematoda. 

Pentastoma tsenioides. 
Distoma hepaticum. 
[Distoma hepaticum. Temp. M. N. H. 
vol. ix. p. 239.] 

„ tumidulum. 

„ oxycephalum. 

„ fulvum. 

„ clavigerum. 

„ cylindraceum. 

„ gibbosum ? 

„ appendiculatum. 

„ rufoviride. 

„ globulus. 

„ reflexum? Creplin. 

,, excisum. 

„ trigonocephalum. 



Distoma echinatum. 
militare. 
spinulosum. 
scab rum. 
contortum. 
nigro-flavum*. 

anguillse, Zool. Dan. t. 91 ? 
Drum.] 
Amphistoma longicolle. 

„ macrocephalum. 

„ isostomum. 

„ gracile. 

„ cornu. 

„ sphrerula. 

Monostoma attenuatum. 
„ verrucosum't-. 



In this Order are ninety-nine species of Z>«5to»i« and three of Amphistoma 
undetermined by Dr. Bellingham. 



Order Acanthocephala. 

Echynorhynchus tereticollis. 
„ nodulosus. 

strumosus. 



H 



Echinorhynchus angustatus [Dr. D.]. 
„ transversus. 

„ acus. 

[,, „ Draw. M.N. H. new 

series, ii. 515. E. candidus and 
E. lineolatus. Mull. Zool. Dan. [ „ 

same as E. acus. Drum, id.] 
„ filicoUis. 

[ „ „ Drum. M. N. H. 

new series, iii. 66. E. sphsero- 
cephalus same as E. filicollis ? 
Drum. id. p. 67.] 

In this Order are fiye species of Echinorhynchm undetermined by Dr. 
Bellingham. 

Order Nematoidea. 

Ascaris lumbricoides. 



striatus ? 
versicolor. 

„ Drum. M. 
new series, iii. 65.] 
hystrix.. 

Drum. M. N. 
new series, iii. 63.] 



N. 



H. 



[„ „ reTOp.M.N.H.ix.239.] 

„ megalocephala, Cloquet. 

„ vesicularis. 

„ inflexa. 

„ constricta. 

„ rotundata. 

„ osculata. 

„ acuminata. 

„ marginata. 

„ triquetra. 

„ mystax. 



Ascaris depressa. 

„ ensicaudata. 

„ nigrovenosa. 

„ sacus. 

„ angulata. 

„ vermicularis. 
[ „ „ Temp. M. N. H. ix. 239-] 

„ obvelata. 

„ maculosa. 

„ dentata. 

„ brevicaudata. 

„ spiculigera [Dr. D.]. 



* " Two more species of Distoma may be here mentioned ; D. flexuosum from 
the small intestines of a Mole, Talpa Europea, and another (species undetermined) 
from the oesophagus of the common Snake, Natrix torquata—\iOih. Mole and Snake 
were brought from England." — Dr. Bellingham. 

t " Monostoma octonatum, found in the small intestines of a Mole {Talpa Europea) 
from England, may here be noticed." — Dr. Bellingham. 



27B 



REPORT — 1843. 



Order Nematoidea. 



Ascaris variegata. 

obtusocaudata. 

labiata. 

capsularia [Dr. D.]. 

heteroiira, Creplin. 

cuneiformis. 

clavata [Dr. D.]. 

collaris. 

tenuissima. 

succisa. 

alata, Bellingham, Dublin Medi- 
cal Press, vol. i. (head figured.) 

simplex, Rud., Drum. MS.] 

rigida, „ „ „ ] 

crenata, „ „ „ ] 
Stirongylus tubifex. 
„ contortus. 
„ retorteformis [Dr. D.]. 
„ trigonocephalus. 
„ tetragonocephalus. 
„ suis. 

„ trachealis; Syngamus trach., 
Siebold. 
Spiroptera strumosa. 
,, anthuris. 



Spiroptera cystidicola [Dr. D.]. 

„ leptoptera. 
CucuUanus elegems. 
„ faveolatus. 

[ „ platessse, Reinh., Drum. M. 

N. H. new series, ii. 519.] 
[ „ marinus, Rud., Drum. MS.] 

Oxyurus curvula. 

[„ „ Temp. M. N. H. ix. 238.] 

„ ambigua. 
[ „ gadi. Temp. ibid. fig. 31.] 
Trichocephalus dispar. 

[„ „ Tem^.M. N.H.ib.] 

,, crenatus. 

„ nodosus. 

Trichosoma obtusum ? 
„ inflexum ? 

„ longicolle. 

„ plica. 

Filaria attenuata. 
[ „ capsularia, Rud., Drum. M. N. H. 
new series, iii. 230.] 
[Trichina spiralis, Owen, AUman, Mi- 
croscopic Journal, vol. ii. p. 94.] 



In this Order are nine species of Ascaris, two of Strongylus, six of Spirop- 
tera, nine of Tric/iosoma, and three of Filaria undetermined by Dr. Belling- 
ham. 

The Irish species given in the preceding catalogue so far outnumber the 
British species known, that the usual comparison is uncalled for. Dr. Belling- 
ham remarks, " The little attention which these animals have attracted in these 
countries will be apparent from the fact, that in the only works which con- 
tain lists of the British species of Entozoa, viz. Pennant's British Zoology, 
and Turton's British Fauna, but twenty-eight are described as indigenous, 
and four of these are noticed twice under different nayies, leaving but twenty- 
four distinct species ; while in the limited opportunity which I have had, I 
have discovered and preserved upwards of 220 species, and several of these 
occurred in six, others in ten, and one species in as many as fifteen different 
animals." The number of Irisii species determined by Dr. Bellingham is 
143*; of species undetermined, but brought under their respective generaf, 
eighty: — from the many works consulted, but in vain, for these latter, there is 
little doubt that the greater portion must be undescribed. Dr. Drummoud 
too informs me that he has obtained many Entozoa which he believes to be 
new. The species recorded by Dr. Bellingham ;}: were procured in Dublin ; 
those by Templeton and Dr. Drummond in Belfast. 

* Three species as indicated in a foot note are from British animals. 

\ Dr. Bellingham has some Entozoa which he cannot refer to any genus, and 
knows of several species having been obtained in Dublin, which are not included in 
his catalogue. 

X Botriocephalus solklus is an exception, having been found by Dr. G. J. Allman in 
a Gasterosteus nculeatus taken in the co. of Cork — in specimens of this fish captured 
in the neighbourhood of Dublin Dr. Bellingham could never find this Entozoon. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 

ECHINODERMATA. 



279 



The Irish species of Echinodermata Icnown to Templeton were published 
in the ninth volume of Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, and subse- 
quent additions were contributed by myself to the Annals of Nat. Hist, 
vol. V. (p. 99 and 245) and vol. xiii. 

Distribution. 



ECHINODERMATA. 
Order Pinnigrada. — Crinoide(B. 
Comatula rosacea. Link, (sp.) 



Order Spinigrada. — Ophiuridce. 

Ophiura texturata. Lam 

„ albida, Forbes , 

Ophiocoma neglecta, JbAns^. (sp.) 

„ Ballii, Tfiomp , 

„ filiformis. Mull , 

„ brachiata, Mont, (sp.) 

„ granulata. Link (sp.) 

„ bellis. Link (sp.) 

„ rosula. Link (sp.) 

„ minuta, Forbes 



Order Cirrhigrada — AsferiadcB. 



Uraster glacialis, Lin. (sp.) .. 

„ rubens, Lin. (sp.) .... 
Uraster violacea. Mull, (sp.) . 

„ hispida, Penn. (sp.) . 
Cribella oculata, Penn. (sp.) . 

„ rosea. Mull, (sp.) 

Solaster endeca, Lin. (sp.) ... 

,, papposa, Lin. (sp.) . 
Palmipes membranaceus, Rctz 

Asterina gibbosa, Pen7i 

Goniaster Templetoni, Thomp. 

Asterias aurantiaca, Lin 

Luidia fragilissima, Forbes 



Order Cirrhi-Spinigrada. — Echinidce. 



Echinus sphsera. Mull 

„ miliaris, Leske ; var. E. pustulatus, Agass. 

„ Fiemingii, Ball 

„ lividus, Lam. (I.) 

Echinocyaraus pusiilus, Mull, (sp.) 

Spatangus purpureus. Mull 

Amphidotus cordatus, Penn. (sp.) 

„ roseus, Forbes 



Order Cirrhi-Vermigrada Holothuriadce. 



Psolus phantapus, Lin. (sp.) 

Cucumaria pentactes. Mull, (sp.) 

„ communis, Forbes 8f Goodsir. 

„ fusiformis, Forbes 8f Goodsir , 

„ Drummondii, Thomp. (I.) 

„ Hyndmani, Thomp. (I.) 

Ocnus brunneus, Forbes 

„ lacteus, Forbes 8f Goodsir 



280 



REPORT — 1843. 



Order CmB.ui-YEB.MlG^AT>A.-Solothuriadce. 



Thyone papillosa. Mull, (sp.)-- 

„ Portlockii, Foi'hes (I.) , 

Chirodota digitata, Mont, (sp.) i 



Order Vermigrada. — Sipunculidce. 



Syrinx papillosus, Thomp. (sp.) 

Sipunculus Bernhardus, Forbes 

Pallasii, TJiomp. MSS. (I.) 

Priapulus caudatus. Lam 

Thalassema Neptuni, Geertn. (sp.) 



In the arrangement and nomenclature of the preceding catalogue, the 
excellent work of Professor E. Forbes on the British EcJmiodermata is im- 
plicitly followed. The fullness with which the subject is treated in that 
work — to Avhich all the information on the Irish species was contributed*, — 
renders a few words only desirable here on the distribution of the species 
as yet unknown to our Fauna. 

Of the twenty-nine f species of British " Starfishes " — Crinoide<e, Ophiic- 
rid(B and Asteriadce — all but five are recorded as Irish. These are Oph. 
punctata and Oph. Goodsiri, both of which were first described in Forbes's 
Brit. Echin. ; the former has been taken only at Anstruther in Fifeshire ; the 
latter there and at Shetland. Astrophyton scutatum and Goniaster equestris 
are both very rare, but have occurred at a few localities from north to south 
of Great Britain. Of Goniaster Abbensis (Forbes, Annals Nat. Hist. vol. xi. 
April 1843,) but a single individual has yet been met with, and as its name 
indicates, at St. Abb's Head. 

Of the eleven species of British EchinidcB, four are unknown to Ireland, 
but, one species — E. lividus — found on the western and southern coasts of 
the latter island, and unknown as British, makes our number eight. Of the 
desiderata, two — Cidaris papillata and JEchinarachnius placenta — are ex- 
tremely rare, and have been taken only in Shetland ; Echinus neglectus there 
and in Orkney. Brissus lyrifer (first described in Forbes's Hist. Brit. Echin.) 
has been obtained only in the estuary of the Clyde. 

Of the twelve British species of Holothuriada, eight are known as Irish, and 
three — ^Cuc. Drummondii, Cue. Hyndmani&nA Tliy one Portlockii — discovered 
on the coast of the latter country and unknown as British, make the Irish spe- 
cies eleven in number. Of our desiderata, two species — Cucumaria hyalina 
and Cuc.fucicola — are known only to Shetland ; Psolinus brevis to the same 
locality and the Kyles of Bute ; Cucumaria frondosa to the same and the 
coast of Fife. 

Of the eight species of British Sipunculidce four are known as Irish, in ad- 
dition to which is the Sipu7i. Pallasii, that cannot be announced with cer- 
tainty as British. Our desiderata ai'e so rare that they have each been ob- 
tained in a single locality only on the British coast, namely. Syrinx nudus 
(with certainty) and Syr. Harveii at Teignmouth in Devonshire ; Sipunculus 
Johnstoni at Berwick-upon-Tweed ; Echiurus vulgaris at St. Andrews. 

• Four species liave since been added. 

f The original descriptions of two species — Oph. Ballii and Goniaster Templetoni — 
were drawn up from Irish specimens, and the first Cribella rosea noticed in the British 
seas was obtained ofl'tlie south of Ireland. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



281 



ACALEPHA. 

A catalogue of the Acakpha of Ireland known to Templeton was published 
in the ninth volume of Loudon's Magazine of Natural History ; subsequently 
papers on the subject have been published by Mr. Patterson* and Mr. Hynd- 
manf, and some additional species to our Fauna recorded by myself in the 
Zoological Proceedings for 1835, (p. 78):j: and Annals of Natural History, 
vol. V. p. 248. Mr. R. Ball has, from observations made at Youghal and 
Dublin, contributed to our knowledge in this department. Distribution 



ACALEPHA. 



Velella mutica, Lam.l^ 

„ emarginata, Thomp. MSS. (I.) 

Physalia pelagica, Esclischoltz (not iyom.2 

Beroe cucumis. Fair. {Otho) 

,, fulgens. Macartney 

Cydippe pileus, Lin. , 

„ lagena, Forbes 

„ pomiformis, Patterson , 

Alcinoe Smithii, Forbes 

„ Hibernica; BoVmSi Hih., Patterson (I.) 

Melicertum campanulatum, Ehrenb 

Hippocrene Britannica, Forbes 

Sarsia tubulosa, Lesson; Oceania ? tubal. Sars 

Oceania papillata. Mull, (sp.) ; Medusa papil. Zool. Dan. (I.) 

Thaumantias hemisphaerica. Mull, (sp.) 

„ pileata^ Forbes 

„ Thompsoni, Forbes (I.) 

Ephysa simplex, Pe>m. (sp.) || 

„ hemisphcerica, Templeton^ (I.) 

Obelia vitrea, Peiin. (sp.) ; Piliscelotus vLtreus, Templeton 

? Ocyroe Pcruciata, Temp. (I.) 

Chrysseora tuberculata, Penn, (sp.) ** 

Aurelia aurita, Lin. (sp.) 

„ bilobata, Forbes, MS. (I.) 

Rhizostoma Cuvieri, Peron; Med. undulata, Penn 

Cyansea Lamarckii, Peron 

„ capillata, Lin. (sp.) ; " C. inscripta. Temp, young" (Forbes) .... 

?.iEquorea Jradiata, Temp 

? Callirhoe ? dubia, Temp.ff (I.) 

" Medusa scintillans," MacartneyH 

Diphya elongata, Hyndman, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. vii. (!.)§§ 

Apolemia ? Gettiana, iTyntZmaw, (I.) |{|{ 

* Edin. Phil. Journ., Jan. 1836. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xix. part 1. 

^ Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. vii. p. 164. and vol. xiii. 

X Physalia pela(jica only is here noticed; two fine examples of this species have at 
different times been obtained at Youghal by Miss Ball. 

§ A species of Velella is not uncommonly found thrown ashore on the north and 
west coasts, but being generally in an injured state, its species is uncertain. The 
V. emarginata is in all respects different from, and twice the size of the ordinary 
species. It was obtained on the coast of Cork some years ago by Dr. Geo. J. Alhnan. 

II " Probably as Cuvier suggests, some species in a mutilated state." Forbes, 

IT " Perhaps a young state of ^wre/ia." Forbes. 

** " This and the preceding are badly observed species." Forbes. 

ft " Of doubtful position, but apparently a good species." Forbes. 

XX " Probably the fry of some species." Forbes. Lesson names it Thaumantias 
Iticida, p. 335. 

§§ Among shell-sand collected at Bundoran on the western coast by Mrs. Hancock, 
and sent to Mr. Hyndman, several DiphycB (apparently D. elongata) were met with. 

nil This species will be described in the Annals of Natural History. 



282 REPORT — 1843. 

Professor Edw. Forbes, who has bestowed more attention on the Acalepha 
than any British author, and successfully studied the species in a living state, 
has kindly contributed for my use on the present occasion a catalogue of the 
native species, in which those observed by him when dredging in various 
parts of the Irish coast are noted: some of these have already been published 
in the Reports of the British Association for 1839 (p. 85, Transactions of 
Sections), and Annals of Nat. Hist. vol. vii. p. 81. The recorded species of 
British and of Irish Acalepha are about the same in number ; the latter ex- 
clusively (as yet observed) are above indicated in the usual manner : those 
known as British and not as Irish, according to Professor Forbes's catalogue, 
are the following : — 

Cydippe Flemingii, Forb. 

Rataria (Esch.) pocillum, Mont, (sp.) 

Alcinoe rotunda, Forbes ^ Goodsir. 

Dianaea ? Bairdii, Johnst. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. vi. 

Thaumantias punctata, Forbes, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. vii. 

„ Sarnica, „ „ „ 

" Cyanaea" coccinea, Davis, Ann . Nat. Hist. vol. vii. p. 234. pl.2. (Gen. Oceania.) 
" Geryonia " octona, Flem. Brit. Anim. (Gen. Oceania.) 
Aurelia granulata, Esch. 
„ purpurea, Penn. 
Cassiopea lunulata, Penn. 
" Eulimena" quadrangularis, Flem. Brit. Anim. (probably a Beroe.) 



ZOOPHYTA. 

The Zoophytes of Ireland are well known. In Ellis's British ' Corallines' 
some species from the coast of Ireland are described ; in the ninth volume 
of Loudon's Magazine of Natural History a complete catalogue of the native 
Zoophytes known to Templeton appeared; in the 'Zoological Researches' of 
Mr. John Vaughan Thompson is a "memoir" (5th) partly upon the subject; 
in the Annals of Natural History, vol. v. p. 249, and vol. vii. p. 481, additional 
species to the Irish Fauna are given by myself; in vols. vi. vii. and ix. of this 
work Mr. Hassall has very fully entered into the subject ; in the Proceedings 
of the Royal Irish Academy for 1843*, and in a communication brought be- 
fore the present meeting!. Dr. Geo. J. Allman has given the results of his 
investigation of the freshwater species. 

The collections of Dr. J. L. Drummond and Mr. Hyndman from the north 
and north-east coast; of Mr. W. H. Harvey (communicated to me in 1834), 
Miss Ball, and Mr. R. Ball from the Dublin coast; of the two last-named 
from Youghal (co. Cork) ; of Mrs. Hancock from Ballysodare (co. Sligo), and 
others of less extent have added much — in addition to those of the naturalists 
who have written upon the subject — to our knowledge of the native species. 

To my kind friend Dr. Johnston I am indebted for a manuscript catalogue 
of the British Zoophytes as known to him at the present time : the nomencla- 
ture and synonyma of the following list are taken from it, as are, also, the 
data on which the concluding remarks are founded. 

* The title of this paper is " On the Muscular System of Paludicella articulata and 
other Ascidian Zoophytes of fresh water." 
\ See present volume. 



ON THE FAUNA OP IRELAND. 



283 



ZOOPHYTA*. 
Order Hydroida. 



Clava