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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

I li •» y 



S. li^Jk. 



REPORT 

; OF THE * 

FIFTEENTH MEETING 

OF THE ; 

/ 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 

HELD AT CAMBRIDGE IN JUNE 1845. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 
1846. 



PRINTED BY RICHARD AND JOHN E. TAYLOR, 
BED LIOX COURT, FLEET STREET. 




CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association v 

Officers and Council viii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement ix 

Table of Council from commencement x 

Treasurer's Account xii 

Officers of Sectional Committees and Corresponding Members xiv 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xv 

Synopsis of Money Grants xx 

Arrangement of the General Evening Meetings xxv 

Address of the President xxvii 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir J. Herschel, Bart. ; 
the Master of Trinity College, Cambridge ; the Dean of Ely, 
the Astronomer Royal, Dr. Lloyd and Colonel Sabine, appoint- 
ed to conduct the cooperation of the British Association in the System 
of Simultaneous Magnetical and Meteorological Observations 1 

On some Points in the Meteorology of Bombay. By Lieut.-Colonel 
Sabine, R.A., F.R.S 73 

Report on the Physiological Action of Medicines. By J. Blake, M.B., 
F.R.C.S., &c. &c 82 

On the Comet of 1843. By Dr. von Boguslawski of Breslau, Corre- 
sponding Member of the British Association 86 

Report on the Actinograph. By Mr. Robert Hunt 90 

On Ozone. By Professor Schonbein of Basle 91 

On the Influence of Friction upon Thermo-electricity. By Paul Erman 
of Berlin 102 

On the Self-registering Meteorological Instruments employed in the 
Observatory at Senftenberg. By the Baron Senftenberg 108 

Second Report on Atmospheric Waves. By William Radcliff Birt 112 

Sketch of the progress and present extent of Savings' Banks in the 
United Kingdom. By G. R. Porter, F.R.S 129 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report on the Gases evolved from Iron Furnaces, vfith reference to the 
Theory of the Smelting of Iron. By Prof. Bunsen, of Marburg, 
Hesse Cassel, and Dr. Lyon Plavfair, of the Museum of (Economic 
Geology, department of Her Majesty's Woods and Forests 142 

Report on the Ichthyology of the Seas of China and Japan. By John 
Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.,&c>, Medical Inspector of Naval 
Hospitals 187 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Owen, Prof. E. Forbes, 
Dr. Lankester, Mr. R. Taylor, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Ball, Prof. 
Allman, Mr. H. E. Strickland, and Mr. Babington, appointed 
for the purpose of Reporting on the Registration of Periodical Phae- 
nomena of Animals and Vegetables 321 

Fifth Report of a Committee, consisting of H. E. Strickland, Esq., 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow and Prof. Lindley, appointed to 
continue their Experiments on the Vitality of Seeds 337 



H 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 



The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in diiFerent parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of tlie Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 

h 



VI KULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. 

but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the OfBces of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to IS^S inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, shall pay on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually, [may resume their Membership after inter- 
mission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted or to be admitted in any year since 18S9, 
subject to the payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in 
each following year, [may resume their membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And tlie Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and Two Pounds as a Book Subscrip- 
tion. 

New Life Members who shall have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

2. /it reduced or Members^ Prices, — Old Life Members who have paid 

Five Pounds as a composition for Annual Payments, but no Book 

Subscription. 
Annual Members, who, having paid on admission Two Pounds, have 

intermitted their Annual Subscription in any subsequent year. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for that 

year only.] 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. Vll 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science) to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommen- 
dations. 

lOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

62 



viii OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1845-tG. 



Trustees {permanent).— ^'ir Roderick Impey Murcliison, G.C.S., F.R.S. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. The Very Reverend G. Peacock, D.D., Dean of 
Ely, F.R.S. 

President.— S\x John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Right Hon. The Earl of Hardwicke. The Right 
Reverend the Lord Bishop of Norwich. The Rev. John Graham, D.D., 
Master of Christ's College. Rev. Gilbert Ainslie, D.D., Master of Pembroke 
Hall. G. B. Airy, Esq., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. Rev. Adam Sedgwick, 
F.R.S,, Woodwardian Professor. 

President Elect. — Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, G.C.S., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents Elect. — The Marquis of Winchester. The Earl of Yar- 
borouo-h. Viscount Palmerston, M.P. Lord Ashburton. The Bishop of 
Oxford, F.R.S., F.G.S. The Right Hon. the Speaker, Charles Shaw Le- 
fevre, M.P., F.G.S. Sir George T. Staunton, Bart., M.P., D.C.L. Professor 
Owen, M.D., F.R.S. Rev. Professor Powell, F.R.S. 

General Secretaries. JLje^t.-Col. Sabine, For. Sec. R.S., Woolwich. 

Assistant General Secretary. — John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., York. 

General TreasMrer.— John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, 
London. 

Secretaries for the Southampton Meeting in 1846. — Henry Clark, M.D. 
T. H. C. Moody, Esq. 

Treasurer to the Meeting in 1846.— John Sadleir Moody, Esq. 

Council. — Professor Ansted. Sir H. T. De la Beche. Dr. Daubeny. 
Professor E. Forbes. Professor T. Graham. H. Hallam, Esq. Rev. W. V. 
Harcourt. James Heywood, Esq. Dr. Hodgkin. Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq. 
William Hopkins, Esq. Leonard Horner, Esq. Robert Hutton, Esq. Sir 
Charles Lemon, Bart. The Marquis of Northampton. The Very Rev. G. 
Peacock, D.D., Dean of Ely. Sir John Richardson, M.D. Dr. Roget. 
Prof. J. Forbes Royle, M.D. H. E. Strickland, Esq. Lieut.-Col. Sykes. 
William Thompson, Esq. H. Warburton, Esq. Professor Wheatstone. 
Professor C. J. B. Williams, M.D. Professor Willis. 

Local Treasurers.— ^WWaxn Gray, jun., Esq., York. Dr. Daubeny, Ox- 
ford. C. C. Babington, Esq., Cambridge. Charles Forbes, Esq., Edinburgh. 
John H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. William Sanders, Esq., Bristol. Samuel 
Turner, Esq., Liverpool. William Hutton, Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
James Russell, Esq., Birmingham. Professor Ramsay, Glasgow. Henry 
Woollcombe, Esq., Plymouth. G. W. Ormerod, Esq., Manchester. James 
Roche, Esq., Cork. 

Auditors. — Professor Ansted. Leonard Horner, Esq. Lieut.-Col. Sykes. 



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MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 

Graham, Rev. John, D.D., Master of Christ's 

College, Cambridge. 
Graham, Professor Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
Gray, John E., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan. 
Gray, Wilham, jun., F.G.S. 
Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., F.R.S. 
Hallam, Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hamilton, W. J., M.P., Sec. G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir William R., Astronomer Royal 

of Ireland, M.R.I.A. 
Harcourt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A-* 

F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, The Earl of. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Harris, W. Snow, F.R.S. 
Hatfeild, WilUam, F.G.S. 
Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev.William,Dean of 

Manchester, LL.D., F.L.S. 
Herschel, Sir John F.W., Bai-t., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, F.R.S. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 

Hodgkinson, Eaton, F.R.S. 

Hodgson, Joseph, F.R.S. 

Hooker, Su- William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 

Hopkins, William, M.A., F.R.S. 

Horner, Leonard, Pres. G.S., V.P.R.S. 

Hovenden, V. F., M.A. 

Hutton, Robert, F.G.S. 

Hiitton, William, F.R.S. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. 

Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 

Jerrard, H. B. 

Johnston, Professor J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 

Keleher, William. 

Lardner, Rev. Dr. 

Lee, R., M.D., F.R.S. 

Lansdowne, The Marquis of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, M.P. 

Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 

Liddell, Andrew. 

Lindley, Professor, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Listowel, The Eari of. 

Lloyd, Rev. Bartholomew, D.D., Provost of 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Llovd, Rev. Professor, D.D., F.R.S. 

Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., V.P.R.S. 

Laby, Rev. Thomas. 

Lyell, Charles, jun., M.A., F.R.S. 

MacCullagh, Professor, D.C.L., M.R.LA. 

Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, F.L.S. 

MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 

Meynell, Thomas, jun., F.L.S. 

Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 

MoilLiet, J. L. 

Moody, T. F 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Adamson, J. 

Adare, Viscount, M.P., F.R.S. 
Airy, G. B., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal 
Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Ilall, Cambridge. 
Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 
Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ashburton, Lord. 
Babbage, Charles, F.R.S. 
Babington, C. C, F.L.S. 
BaUy, Francis, F.R.S. 
Barker, George. 
Bengough, George. 
Bentham, George, F.L.S. 
Bigge, Charles. 
Blakiston, Peyton, M.D. 
Brewster, Sir David, K.H., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Breadalbane, The Marquis of, F.R.S. 
Brisbane, Lieut.-GeneralSirThomasM., Bart., 

K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Brunei, Sir M. L, F.R.S. 
Buckland, Very Rev. William, D.D., Dean of 

Westminster, F.R.S. 
Burlington, The Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., Chan- 
cellor of the University of London. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph. 

Cathcart, The Earl, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., Professor of Di- 
vinity, Edinburgh. 

Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., Sec.R.S. 

Clare, Peter, F.R.A.S. 

Clark, Rev. Professor, M,D. (Cambridge). 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T. 

Clift, William, F.R.S. 

Colquhoun, J. C, M.P. 

Conybeare, Rev. W. D., M.A., F.R.S. 

Corrie, John, F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wallace. 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

DanieU, Professor J. F., F.R.S. 

Dartmouth, The Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daubenv, Professor Charles G.B., M.D., 
F.R.S. 

De la Beche, Sir Henry T., F.R.S., Director 
of the Ordnance Geological Survey of 
Great Britain. 

Drinkwater, J. E. 

Durham, The Bishop of, F.R.S., 

Egerton, Lord Francis, F.G.S. 

Egerton, Sir Philip de M. Grey, Bart., F.R.S. 

Eliot, Lord, M.P. . 

Faradav, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Fitzwiliiam, The Eari, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Fleming, H., M.D. 

Forbes, Charles. 

Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. 

Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S. 

Fox, Robert Were. 

Gilbert;, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S 



MEMBERS OP COUNCIL. 



XI 



Morley, The Earl of, 

Morpeth, Viscount, F.G.S. 

Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., P.R.S. 

Mount Edgcumbe, The Earl of. 

Murchison, Sir Roderick I., G.C.S., F.R.S. 

Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 

Northampton, The Marquis of, President of 

the Royal Society. 
Northumberland, The Duke of, K.G., M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Norwich, The Bishop of. President of the 

Linna;au Society, F.R.S. 
Ormerod, G. W. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. 
Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S. 
Oxford, The Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Osier, Follett. 

Palmerston, "Viscount, M.P. 
Peacock, Very Rev. George, D.D., Dean of 

Elv, V.P.R.S. 
Pendarves, E., F.R.S. 
PhilUps, Professor John, F.R.S. 
Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ramsay, Professor W., M.A. 
Rennie, George, V.P.&Treas.R.S. 
Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S., President of the 

Institute of Civil Engineers. 
Richardson, Sir John, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ritchie, Rev. Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 
Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D. 
Robison, Sir John, Sec.R.S.Edin. 
Roche, James. 

Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Ross, Capt. Sir James C, R.N., F.R.S. 
Rosse, The Earl of, F.R.S. 
Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, James. . 



Sabine, Lieut.- Colonel Edward, R.A.. For. 

Sec.R.S. 
Sanders, WiUiam. 
Sandon, Lord. 

Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, F.R.S.E. 
Smith, Lt.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 
Staunton, Sir George T., Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Strang, John. 
Strickland, H. E., F.G.S. 
Svkes, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., F.R.S. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. J. J. 
Taylor, John, F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, jun., F.G.S. 
Thompson, WiUiam, F.L.S. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. 
Turner, Samuel. 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. 
Walker, James, F.R.S. 
Walker, J. N. 

Warburton, Henry, M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N. 
West, Wmiam, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor, F.R.S. 
Whewell,Rev.William,D.D.,Mastcr of Trinity 

College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Chai-les J.B., M.D., F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Winchester, The Marquis of. 
WooUcombe, Henrv, F.S.A. 
Wortley, The Hon.' John Stuart, B.A., M.P., 

Yarreli, William, F.L.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of. 
Yates, Rev. James, M.A., F.R.S. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



£ 


i. 


d. 


781 








452 


2 





260 








1 








8 








164 









TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 

RECEIPTS. 

£ s. 
To Life Compositions received at tlie York Meeting and since 

To Annual Subscriptions Ditto Ditto Ditto 

To Ladies' Ticlcets Ditto Ditto Ditto 

To Sections' Ticket Ditto Ditto Ditto 

To Minors' Tickets Ditto Ditto Ditto 

To received Compositions for Books (future publications) ... 
To received Dividends on j£55U0 in tlie 3 per cent. Consols, 

6 months to January 1845 (less Income Tax) 80 1 11 

To received from tlie Sale of Reports, viz. 

1st vol., 2nd Edition 2 11 3 

2nd vol 3 

3rd vol 4 13 

4th vol 3 15 8 

5th vol 3 8 

0th vol 6 15 4 

7th vol 7 1 

8th vol 7 13 

9th vol 12 3 

10th vol 9 11 8 

11th vol 13 11 3 

12th vol 47 13 10 

13th vol 9 6 8 

Lithographs 1 13 

Dublin Communications 2 



132 18 8 



Balance carried down. 



£2239 13 



On Account of the Printing 

To Balance of the grant from Her Majesty's Government brought on from 

last account 934 2 



£934 2 



British Association for the 

To Balance in hand of the Account for Printing Lalande and Lacaille's 

CEtalogues 634 2 



£634 2 

ROBERT HUTTON, 1 •- 

LEONARD HORNER, )■ Auditors. 

LIEUT.-COLONEL SYKES, J 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



26th of September 1844 to the 19th of June 1845. 

PAYMENTS. 

By Balance due on the General Account brought on 

By Sundry Disbursements by Treasurer and Local Treasurers, 
including tlie Expenses of the Meeting at York, Adver- 
tising, and Sundry Printing 

By Printing, &c. of the 13th Report (12th vol.) 

By Engraving, &c. for the 14th Report (13th vol.) 

By Salaries to Assistant General Secretary, Accountant, &c. 

6 months to end of December 1844 

By Paid to Committees on Account of Grants for Scientific 
purposes, viz. for — 

Publication of the British Association Catalogue of Stars 

Meteorological Observations at Inverness 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co-operation 

Meteorological Instruments at Edinburgh 

Reduction of Anemometrical Observations at Plymouth ... 

Electrical Experiments at Kew Observatory 

Maintaining the Establishment in ditto 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 

Experiments on the Actinograph 

Microscopic Structure of Shells 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 

Ditto ditto 1844 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 

Physiological Action of Medicines 

Statistics of Sickness and Mortality in York 

Registration of Earthquake Shocks 1843 



£ s. d. 

478 1 5 



286 12 10 

397 13 6 

70 15 6 

175 



351 14 


6 


30 18 


11 


16 16 


8 


18 11 


9 


25 





43 17 


8 


149 15 





25 





50 





15 





20 





10 





2 


7 


7 





10 





20 





20 





15 14 


8 




. g3j 9 9 








£2239 13 



of Lalande and LacaiWs Catalogues of Stars. 
By Paid on Account of Printing, &c. since last Meeting 





300 


Balance — 


..... 634 2 




£934 2 



Advancement of Science. 

By Balance due on the General Account 

By Balance in the Bankers' hands 246 19 

Ditto General Treasurer's hands 

Ditto Local Treasurers' hands 



360 10 5 



246 19 10 
14 3 10 
12 7 11 


273 11 


7 






£634 2 






XIV OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES AT THE 
CAMBRIDGE MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Tlie Very Rev. the Dean of Ely. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir D. Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. L. & E. Sir Thomas 
M. Brisbane, F.R.S. L. & E. Professor Challis. Professor J. D. Forbes, 
F.R.S. L. iSr E. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Astronomer Royal of Ireland. 

Secretaries. — Rev. H. Goodwin. Professor Stevelly, LL.D. G. G. 
Stokes, Esq. 

SECTION B. CHEMICAL SCIENCE, INCLUDING ITS APPLICATION TO 

AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President, — Rev. Professor Cumming. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr.Daubeny, F.R.S, Professor Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Professor Thomas Graham, F.R.S. L. & E. Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 
F.R.S. Professor Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Robert Hunt. J. P. Joule. Professor Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 
E. Solly, F.R.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Rev. Professor Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Captain Sir George Back, R.A., V.P.R. Geog. S. Rev. 
W. Buckiand, D.D., F.R.S. The Earl of Enniskillen, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
L. Horner, F.R.S. W. J. Hamilton, M.P., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Rev. J. G. Cumming, M.A. A. C. Ramsay, F.G.S. Rev. 
VV. Thorp, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

President. — The Rev. Professor Henslow, F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Bishop of Norwich, F.R.S. Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, F.L.S. Rev. L. Jenyns, F.L.S. W. Ogilby, F.L.S. 
Secretaries.— E. Lankester, M.D., F.L.S. J. V. WoUaston, B.A. 

SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President, — Professor J. Haviland, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Clark, M.D. Professor Fisher, M.D. Thomas 
Hodgkin, M.D. R. G. Latham, M.D. 

Secretaries. — R. Sargent, M.D. Dr. Webster. 

SECTION F. STATISTICS. 

President. — Earl Fitzwilliam, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents Lord Sandon, M.P. Colonel 6ykes, F.R.S. Sir Charles 

Lemon, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Professor Pryme. 

Secretaries. — Joseph Fletcher, Esq. W. Cooke Taylor, LL.D. 

SECTION G.^ — MECHANICS. 

President, — George Rennie, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Wm. Fairbairn. Sir John J. Guest, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
J. Scott Russell, F.R.S. Edinb. Professor Willis, F.R.S. 
Secretary Rev. W. T. Kingsley, M.A. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. WT 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Professor Agassiz, Neufchatel. M. Arago, Paris. Dr. A. D. Bache> 
Philadelphia. Professor Berzelius, Stockholm. Professor Bessel, Konigs- 
berg. Professor H. von Boguslawski, Breslau. Professor Braschmann- 
Moscow. Professor De la Rive, Geneva. Professor Dove, Berlin. Pro- 
fessor Dumas, Paris. Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. Professor Henry, Princeton, United States. Profes- 
sor Kreil, Prague. M. KupfFer, St. Petersburg. Dr. Langberg, Christiania. 
M. Frisiani, Milan. Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Berlin. M. Jacobi, 
St. Petersburg. Professor Jacobi, Konigsberg. Dr. Lamont, Munich. 
Baron vonLiebig.Giessen. Professor Link, Berlin. Professor CErsted, Copen- 
hagen. M. Otto, Breslau (deceased). Jean Plana, Astronomer Royal, Turin. 
M. Quetelet, Brussels. Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. Professor Schumacher, 
Altona. Baron Senftenbei'g, Bohemia. Professor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Cam- 
bridge Meeting in June 1845. 

Involving Applications to Government and Public Institutions. 

magnetical and meteorological observatories. 

Resolutions adopted hy the Magnetic Conference. 

1. That the Magnetic Observatory at Greenwich be permanently con- 
tinued, upon the most extensive and efficient scale that the interests of the 
Sciences of Magnetism and Meteorology may require. 

2. That it be earnestly recommended to the Provost and Fellows of 
Trinity College, Dublin, to continue the Magnetical and Meteorological Ob- 
servations at the Observatory instituted by that University. 

3. That it be recommended to continue the Observatory at Toronto upon 
its present footing until the 31st of December 1848, unless in the mean time 
arrangements can be made for its permanent establishment. 

4. That it be recommended to continue the Observatory at Van Diemen's 
Land until the 31st of December 1848, unless in the mean time arrange- 
ments can be made for its permanent establishment. 

5. That it be recommended that the Observatory at St. Helena should be 
continued upon its present establishment for a period terminating on the 31st 
of December 1848, for special Meteorological objects. 

6. That it be recommended that the building and materials of the Mag- 
netical and Meteorological Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope should 
be transferred to the Astronomical Observatory there, to which an Assistant. 
should be added, for the purpose of making absolute Magnetical Determi- 
nations. 

7. That it be recommended to the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company, that the Observatories of Simla and Singapore be discontinued at 
the end of the present year ; but that the Magnetic and Meteorological 
Observations now made at Bombay and Madras be permanently continued 
in connexion with the Astronomical Observations at these Stations, and that 
it be further recommended to the Court of Directors, to sanction the pro- 
posal made by Mr. Elliot, for a Magnetic Survey of the Indian Seas, to 
commence at the close of the present year. 

8. That it be recommended that the Canadian Survey be continued until 
the connexion of Toronto with the American Stations be completed. 



Xvi REPORT — 1845. 

9. That it be recommended that advantage should be taken of every op- 
portunity of extending Magnetic Surveys in regions not hitherto surveyed, 
and in the neighbourhood of Magnetic Observatories. 

10. That it be strongly recommended that the Staff of Colonel Sabine's 
establishment at Woolwich be maintained, with such an increased force as 
may cause the observations which have been made, and those which shall 
hereafter be made, to be reduced and published with all possible expe- 
dition. 

11. That this Meeting have recommended the reduction of the Establish- 
ments at present attached to some of the Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observatories, in the full confidence that if, after careful discussion of the 
Observations made to the end of 1845, there should appear to be reason for 
restoring some of those Establishments, and for forming new ones, the 
British Government and the East India Company will give their aid with the 
same liberality which they have displayed in the maintenance of the existing 
Observatories. 

12. That the cordial cooperation which has hitherto prevailed between 
the British and Foreign Magnetic and Meteorological Observatories, having 
produced the most important results, and being considered by us as abso- 
lutely essential to tlie success of the great system of combined observation 
which has been undertaken, it is earnestly recommended that the same spirit 
of cooperation should continue to prevail ; and that the President of the 
British Association be requested to make application to the British Govern- 
ment, to convey the expression of this opinion to the Governments of those 
other countries which have already taken part in the Observations. 

13. The British Association, assembled at Cambridge, cannot permit the 
proceedings of this Meeting to terminate without expressing their sense of 
great obligation to the eminent Foreign Gentlemen who have taken part in 
the discussions of the Conference, and whose unwearied attention has been 
most effectively bestowed on every part of the proceedings. 

14. That the Committee which has hitherto conducted the cooperation of 
the British Association, in the system of combined observations, be re- 
appointed, for the purpose of preparing a report to accompany the presenta- 
tion to the British Government and to the Directors of the East India Com- 
pany, of the resolutions passed at this Meeting, and that the 

Marquis of Northampton, Professor Christie, and 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Professor J. D. Forbes, 

be added to the Committee. 

Resolved, in conformity with the express opinion of the Magnetic Con- 
ference, sanctioned by the Committee of Recommendations — 

" That it is highly desirable to encourage by specific pecuniary reward the 
improvement of Self-recording Magnetical 'and Meteorological Apparatus ; 
and that 

The President of the British Association, and 

The President of the Royal Society, 

be requested to solicit the favourable consideration of Her Majesty's Go- 
vernment to this subject." 

GEOLOGY. 

That the President of the British Association cooperate with the President 
of the Royal Society, the President of the Geological Society, the President 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, Sir H. T. De la Beche, the Rev. Dr. Buck- 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XVU 

land, and R. I. Murchison, Esq., in making a representation to Her Majesty's 
Government for a grant in further aid of the publication of tlie Researches 
of Dr. Falconer and Captain Cautley of the Bengal Artillery, on the Fossil 
Fauna of Northern India. 

That the President of the British Association, the General Secretary, the 
President of the Geological Society, the Director of the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom, the Professors of Geology in Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, G. B. Greenough, Esq., R. Griffith, Esq., Major S. Gierke, T. Sop- 
with, Esq., with power to add to their number, be requested to act as a 
Committee, for the purpose, with special reference to Steam Navigation and 
Steam Power for manufacturing industry, of laying down, by means of 
coloured signs upon a Map of the World, every region in which coal, 
capable of being used as fuel, is known to exist, and to accompany the Map, 
when completed, with an explanatory Report ; showing the geographical 
and geological position of such coal deposit in the several regions and its 
superficial extent ; the amount in number and thickness of the workable 
seams, so far as the same can be ascertained, and the facilities of workino- 
them ; the nearest large towns and sea-ports, and the means of transport 
from the mines to the sea-ports ; the mineral and economical properties of 
the coal ; and whether ores of iron exist in the deposit, accompanied by 
ready access to limestone. 

That the Committee be authorized, on the part of the British Association, 
to solicit the assistance of Her Majesty's Government in carrying this object 
into effect. 

The President of the Geological Society to be the convener of this Com- 
mittee. 



Recommendations for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of Money, 

That M. Dove be requested to carry out his offer to reduce, in the manner 
stated by him, the Meteorological Observations at the Van Diemen's Land 
Observatory. 

That the Astronomer Royal be requested to reduce, in the same manner, 
the Observations at the Greenwich Observatory. 

That Reports be requested from — 

Professor Challis — On the Progress and Present State of Astronomy, 
from the period embraced in the Report by the Astronomer Royal. 

Mr. G. G. Stokes — On recent Researches in Hydrodynamics. 

The Dean of Ely — On the recent Progress of that branch of Analysis 
which relates to the Theory of Equations. 

Mr. Phillips — On the instrumental Methods which have been employed 
in Anemometry. 

Mr. Ellis — On the recent Progress of Analysis. 

That Mr. T. Stevenson be requested to continue his Experiments on the 
Force of Waves at different depths. 

That Reports be requested from — 

Mr. Mallet — On the Corrosion of Iron Rails in and out of use. 

Mr. Hunt — On the Influence of Light upon the Growth of Plants. 

Mr. Hunt — On the Result of Observations with the Actinograph. 

Dr. Percy, Rev. W. V. Harcourt, and Prof. W. H. Miller— On the Re- 
sult of an Examination of Crystalline Slags. 

Dr. Hodgkin and Dr. R. G. Latham — On the Varieties of the Human 
Race. 



xviii REPORT — 1845. 

Prof. Owen, Prof. E. Forbes, Dr. Lankester, Mr. R. Taylor, Mr. Thomp- 
son, Mr. Ball, Prof. AlJman, Mr. H. E. Strickland, Mr. Babington, Rev. L. 
Jenyns, and Rev. Prof. Henslow — On the Registration of Periodical Phae- 
nomena in Animals and Vegetables. 

Dr. Latham — On Ethnographical Philology. 

Dr. Royle — On tlie Geographical Distribution of Plants in India. 

Prof. E. Forbes — On the Results of the Dredging Operations in the 
British Seas. 

Mr. Porter — On the Statistics of the Iron Trade. 

Mr. Rennie, iMr. Paxton, Mr. J. Taylor, jun., Mr. Russell, and Mr. Eaton 
Hodgkinson — On the Hydrodynamical Phenomena of the Reservoir and 
Fountain at Chatsworth. 

That the following Comntiunications, presented to this Meeting, be printed 
entire in the Transactions of the Association, viz. — 

M. Boguslawski — On the Comet of 1843. 

M. Paul Erman — On the Effect of Friction on Thermo-Electricity. 

Baron Senftenberg — On the Self-Registering Instruments in use at Senf- 
tenberg. 

Baron Waltershausen — On Etna. 

Colonel Sabine — On the Meteorology of Bombay. 

Mr. Porter — On Savings' Banlis. 

That Section E. be in future entitled the ' Section of Physiology.' 

That it be referred to the Council to take into consideration previous to 
the next Meeting the expediency of discontinuing the Kew Observatory. 

That a Committee, consisting of Sir J. Herschel, the Astronomer Royal, 
and Lieut. Stratford, be requested to arrange for the gratuitous distribution 
of 150 copies of the British Association Catalogue of Stars to Public Insti- 
tutions, and 25 copies to individuals. 

That 10 copies of tlie British Association Catalogue be placed at the dis- 
posal of Lieutenant Stratford. 



Recommendations of Special Researches in Science, involving Grants of 

Money, 

KEW OBSERVATORY. 

That the sum of £150 be placed at the disposal of the Council for the 
purpose of maintaining the establishment in Kew Observatory. 

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

That Mr. Birt be requested to continue his Researches on Atmospheric 
Undulations, with £7 at his disposal for the purpose. 

That M. A. Erman, Corresponding Member of the British Association, be 
requested to superintend the computation of the Gaussian Constants for 
1839, and of the probable errors of the values so deduced, with £50 at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That certain expenses incurred by Mr. Osier in completing the ar- 
rangements for Anemometry at Plymouth and Edinburgh, amounting to 
£11 17*. 6d., be paid. 

CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

That Dr. Schunck be requested to continue his investigations on Colour- 
ing Matters, with £10 at his disposal for the purpose. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XIX 



That a Committee, consisting of Mr. Murchison, the Earl of Enniskillen, 
and Dr. Buckland, be requested to obtain the continuation and completion, 
by M. Agassiz, of the examination of the Fossil Fishes of the London Clay, 
as compared with those of the Calcaire grossier of the Paris Basin, with 
£100 at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose. 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

That Dr. Carpenter be requested to pursue his investigations on the Mi- 
croscopic Structure of Recent and Fossil Shells, with £10 at his disposal for 
the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Prof. E. Forbes, Mr. Goodsir, Mr. Pat- 
terson, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Ball, Mr. J. Smith, Mr. Couch, Dr. AUman, 
Mr. M'Andrew, Mr. Alder, and the Rev. F. VV. Hope, be requested to con- 
tinue their investigations on the Marine Zoology of Britain by means of the 
dredge, with £10 at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Hodgkin, Dr. R. G. Latham, Dr. 
Prichard, Prof. Owen, Dr. H. Ware, Mr. J. E. Gray, Dr. Lankester, Dr. 
A. Smith, Mr. A. Strickland, and Mr. Babington, be requested to continue 
their investigations into the Varieties of the Human Race, with £15 at the 
disposal of the Committee for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Prof. Owen, Prof. E. Forbes, Sir C. 
Lemon, and Mr. Couch, be requested to aid Mr. Peach in his Researches into 
the Marine Zoology of Cornwall, with £10 at the disposal .of the Committee 
for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Capt. Portlock, Prof. E. Forbes, Mr. 
Thompson, and Mr. Ball, be requested to pursue their Researches on the 
Marine Zoology of Corfu by means of the dredge, with £10 at the disposal 
of the Committee for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. H. E. Strickland, Dr. Daubeny, 
Prof. Lindley, Prof. Henslow, Mr. Babington, Prof. Balfour, Mr. Mackay, 
and Mr. D. Moore, be requested to continue their experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds, with £10 at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose. 

MfitJICAL SCIENCE. 

That certain expenses incurred by Mr. Erichsen during Researches on 
Asphyxia, amounting to £6 IGs, 2d,, be paid. 

STATISTIC3. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Laycock, Dr. Alison, and Mr. E. 
Chadwick, be requested to continue their inquiries into the Statistics of Sick- 
ness and Mortality Jn York, with £20 at the disposal of the Committee for 
the purpose. 

MECHANICS. 

That Mr. Hodgkinson be requested to continue his Experiments on the 
Strength of Materials, with £60 at his disposal for the purpose. 



XX SYNOPSIS. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Cambridge Meeting, June 1845, with the 
Name of the Member, who alone or as the First of a Committee, is 
entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory. £ s. d. 

For maintaining the establishment in Kew Observatory under 

the direction of the Council 150 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

BiRT, W. — For Researches on Atmospheric Undulations 7 

Erman, a. — For Computation of the Gaussian Constants for 

. 1839 50 

OsLER, Mr. — Expenses attending Anemometer 11 17 6 

Chemical Science. 

ScHUNCK, Dr. — For Investigations on Colouring Matters 10 

Geology. 

MuRCHisoN, R. I. — For obtaining the completion of the Exa- 
mination, by M. Agassiz, of the Fossil Fishes of the London 
Clay 100 

Zoology and Botany. 

Carpenter, Dr. — For investigations on the Microscopic Struc- 
ture of Recent and Fossil Shells 10 

Forbes, Prof. E. — For investigations into the Marine Zoology of 

Britain by means of the Dredge 10 

'HoDGKiN, Dr. — For investigations into the Varieties of the 

Human Race 15 

Owen, Professor. — For Researches into the Marine Zoology of 

Cornwall 10 

PoRTLOcK, Captain.— For Researches into the Marine Zoology 

of Corfu by means of the Dredge 10 

Strickland, H. E. — For continuing Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds 10 

Medical Science. 
Erichsen, I. E. — For Expenses incurred in Researches on 

Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Statistics. 

Laycock, Dr. — For inquiries into the Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Mechanics, 
HoDGKiNSON, E. — For continuing Experiments on the Strength 
, of Materials 60 

Total of Grants ^480 13 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



«K1 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



20 



f. d. 




1835. 
Tide Discussions .... 62 
BridshFossillchthyolog y 105 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

BritishFossil Ichthyology 105 
Thermometric Observa- 
tions, &c 50 

Experiments on long- 
continued Heat .... 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£434 14 

1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants .. 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves. 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 89 5 
VitrificationExperiments 150 
Heart Experiments .... 8 4 6 
Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 1118 6 

£918 14 6 

1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes . . 100 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions and Anemometer 

(construction) 100 

Cast Iron (strength of) . 60 

Animal and Vegetable 
Substances (preserva- 
tion of) 19 1 10 

Carried forward £308 1 10 
1845. 



& s. d. 

Brought forward 308 110 

Railway Constants .... 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee . . 50» 
Heart Experiments. .. . 5 3 
Land and Sea Level . . 267 8 7 
Subterranean Tempera- 
ture 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Commit- 
tee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 

£956 12 2 



1839. 
Fossil Ichthyology .... 110 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 63 
Mechanism of Waves . . 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 21 
VitrificationExperiments 9 
Cast Iron Experiments . 100 
Railway Constants .... 28 
Land and Sea Level . . 274 
Steam- Vessels' Engines. 100 
Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 
Animal Secretions .... 10 
Steam-engines in Corn- 
wall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron. 40 
Heat on Organic Bodies 3 
Gases on Solar Spec- 
trum 22 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations, Inver- 
ness and Kingussie . . 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 

£ 1595 
c 







10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 






















7 8 
2 9 




11 



xxn 



REPORT — 1845. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


1840. 








Bristol Tides 


100 








Subterranean Tempera- 








ture c 


13 


13 


6 


Heart Experiments. . . . 


18 


19 





Lungs Experiments . . 


8 


13 





Tide Discussions. . . , . . 


50 








Land and Sea Level . . 


6 


11 


1 


Stars (Histoire Celeste) 


242 


10 





Stars (Lacaille) 


4 


15 





Stars (Catalogue) .... 


264 








Atmospheric Air 


15 


15 





Water on Iron 


10 








Heat on Organic Bodies 


7 








MeteorologicalObserva- 








tions 


52 


17 


6 


Foreign Scientific Me- 




moirs 


112 
100 


1 



6 


Working Population . . 





School Statistics 


50 








Forms of Vessels .... 


184 


7 





Chemical and Electrical 








Phasnomena 


40 








Meteorological Observ'a- 








tions at Plymouth . . 


80 








Magnetical Observations 


185 


13 


9 


£] 


546 


16 


4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves. 30 
Meteorologyand Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks .. 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents . . 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers. . 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste). 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) . . 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Inverness . . 20 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions (reduction of) ., 25 

Carried forward £539 10 8 



£ s. 

Brought forward 539 10 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs .... 62 
Railway Sections .... 38 1 
Forms of Vessels .... 193 12 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 
Magnetical Observations 61 18 
Fishes of the Old Red 

Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edin- 
burgh 69 1 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 



10 



11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instru- 
ments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae . . 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education. . 20 
Marine Steam-vessels' 

Engines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 
Stars (British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of) . . 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites .... 50 
Fossil Reptiles (publica- 
tion of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels .... 180 
Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experi- 
ments at Plymouth.. 68 
Constant Indicator and 
Dynamometric Instru- 
ments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growthof Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of 

Seeds 8 1 11 

Carried forward £1442 8 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXlll 



Brought forward 1442 
Questions on Human 
Race 7 



s. d. 

8 8 

9 



£1449 17 8 



184.^. 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith 

of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations at Kin- 
gussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 

Whewell's Meteorolo- 
gical Anemometer at 
Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Osier's Anemo- 
meter at Plymouth ..2000 

Reduction of Meteorolo- 
gical Observations . . 30 

Meteorological Instru- 
ments and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemo- 
meter at Inverness .. 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation . 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder 

for Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew 
Observatory, Wages, 
Repairs,Furniture,and 
Sundries 183 4 7 

Experiments by Captive 

Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails 

of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles .... 40 

Coloured Drawings of 

Railway Sections. .. . 147 18 3 

Registration of Earth- 
quake Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological 

Nomenclature, 10 



Carried forward £977 6 7 



£ *. d. 
Brought forward 977 6 7 

Uncovering Lower Red 
Sandstone near Man- 
chester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of 

Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits 

of) 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report 
on British Fossil Mam- 
malia 100 

Physiological operations 

of Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments 

on the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments 

on the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Observa- 
tions on the Forms of 
Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and 

Constant Indicator . . 69 14 10 

Experiments on the 

Strength of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and 
Inverness 12 

CompletingObservations 
at Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation. . 25 

Publication of the Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides 
on the East Coast of 
Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars .. 1 842 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment in Kew Ob- 
servatory 117 

Instruments for Kew Ob- 
servatory 56 

Carried forward £384 
c2 







8 4 







2 9 6 



17 3 



7 3 



REPORT — 1845. 



£ 
Brought forward 384 

Influence of light on 
Plants 10 

Subterraneous Tempera- 
ture in Ireland .... 5 

Coloured Drawings of 
Railway Sections. .. . 15 

Investigation of Fossil 
Fishes of the Lower 
Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks 
of Earthquakes, 1842 23 

Researches into the 
Structure of Fossil 
Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of 
the ^gean and Red 
Seas 1842 100 

Geographical distribu- 
tions of Marine Zo- 
ology 1842 

Marine Zoology of De- 
von and Cornwall.. 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds. . 1842 8 

Researches on Exotic 
Anoplura 15 

Experiments on the 
Strength of Materials 100 

CompletingExperiments 
on the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the in- 
ternal Constitution of 
Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and 
Morin's Instrument, 

1842 10 

£981 



s. 
2 


d. 

4 














17 


6 








11 


10 











10 


















3 


7 


3 































3 6 

12 8 



1845. 

£ 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue 
of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Inverness . . 30 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation IC 

Meteorological Instru- 
ments at Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemome- 
trical Observations at 
Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments 
at Kew Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment in Kew Ob- 
servatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometro- 
graph 25 

Gases from Iron Fur- 
naces 50 

Experiments on the Ac- 
tinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 
Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura . .1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds.. 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds.. 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall 10 

Physiological Action of 
Medicines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 
Mortality in York . . 20 

Registration of Eartli- 
quake Shocks ..1843 15 
£831 



14 


6 


18 


11 


16 


8 


11 


9 








17 


8 


15 































7 





















14 


8 



9 9 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Commiltee. 

Committees and individuals to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from tbe funds of the Asso- 



EXTRACTS FROM RESOLUTIONS OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. XXV 

ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be ordered 
by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, London, for 
such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of che amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



On Thursday evening, June 19th, at 8 p.m., in the Senate House, Cam- 
bridge, the late President, the Very Rev. George Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. 
(Dean of Ely), resigned his oflRce to Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S., 
who took the Chair at the General Meeting, and delivered an Address, for 
which see p. xxvii. 

On Friday evening, June 20th, in the same room, G. B. Airy, Esq., F.R.S., 
Astronomer Royal, delivered a Discourse on the recent Progress of Terres- 
trial Magnetism. 

On Monday evening, June 23rd, in the same room, R. I. Murchison, Esq., 
F.R.S. , delivered a Discourse on the Geology of Russia. 

On Wednesday evening, October 2nd, at 8 p.m., in the same room, the 
Concluding General Meeting of the Association was held, when the Pro- 
ceedings of the General Committee, and the grants of money for scientific 
purposes, were explained to the Members. The Meeting was adjourned to 
Southampton, in the month of September, 1 846. 



ADDRESS 



SIR JOHN F. W. HERSCHEL, BART., F.R.S., 

&c. &c. 



Gentlemen, — The terms of kindness in which I have been introduced to 
your notice by my predecessor in the office which you have called on me to 
fill, have been gratifying to me in no common degree — not as contributing 
to the excitement of personal vanity (a feeling which the circumstances in 
which I stand, and the presence of so many individuals every way my su- 
periors, must tend powerfully to chastise), but as the emanation of a friend- 
ship begun at this University when we were youths together, preparing for 
our examinations for degrees, and contemplating each other, perhaps, with 
some degree of rivalry (if that can be called rivalry from which every spark 
of jealous feeling is absent). That friendship has since continued, warm and 
unshadowed for a single instant by the slightest cloud of disunion, and among 
all the stirring and deep-seated remembrances which the sight of these walls 
within which we are now assembled arouse, I can summon none more every 
way delightful and cheering than the contemplation of that mutual regard. 
It is, therefore, with no common feelings that I find myself now placed in 
this chair, as the representative of such a body as the British Association, 
and as the successor of such a friend and of such a man as its late President. 
Gentlemen, there are many sources of pride and satisfaction, in which 
self has no place, which crowd upon a Cambridge man in revisiting for a 
second time this University, as the scene of our annual labours. The de- 
velopment of its material splendour which has taken place in that interval 
of twelve years, vast and noble as it has been, has been more than kept pace 
with by the triumphs of its intellect, the progress of its system of instruction, 
and the influence of that progress on the public mind and the state of science 
in England. When I look at the scene around me — when I see the way in 
which our Sections are officered in so many instances by Cambridge men, 
not out of mere compliment to the body which receives us, but for the in- 
trinsic merit of the men, and the pre-eminence which the general voice of 
society accords them in their several departments — when I think of the large 
proportion of the muster-roll of science which is filled by Cambridge names, 
and when, without going into any details, and confining myself to only one 
branch of public instruction, I look back to the vast and extraordinary de- 
velopment in the state of mathematical cultivation and power in this Uni- 
versity, as evidenced both in its examinations and in the published works of 
its members, noW, as compared with what it was in my own time — I am left 
at no loss to account for those triumphs and that influence to which I have 
alluded. It has ever been, and I trust it ever will continue to be, the pride 
and boast of this University to maintain, at a conspicuously high level, that 
sound and thoughtful and sobering discipline of mind which mathematical 
studies imply. Independent of the power which such studies confer as in- 
struments of investigation, there never was a period in the history of science 



xxviii REPORT — 1845. 

in which their moral influence, if I may so term it, was more needed, as a 
corrective to that propensity which is begiiming to prevail Avidely, and, I fear, 
bale fully, over large departments of our philosophy, the propensity to crude 
and over-hasty generalization. To all such propensities the steady concentra- 
tion of thought, and its fixation on the clear and the definite which a long and 
stern mathematical discipline imparts, is the best, and, indeed, the only proper 
antagonist. That such habits of thought exist, and characterize, in a pre- 
eminent degree, the discipline of this University, with a marked influence on 
the subsequent career of those who have been thoroughly imbued with it, is 
a matter of too great notoriety to need proof. Yet, in illustration of this 
disposition, I may be allowed to mention one or two features of its Scientific 
History, which seem to me especially worthy of notice on this occasion. The 
first of these is the institution of the Cambridge University Philosophical 
Society, that body at whose more especial invitation we are now here as- 
sembled, which has now subsisted for more than twenty years, and which has 
been a powerful means of cherishing and continuing those habits among 
resident members of the University, after the excitement of reading for 
academical honours is past. From this Society have emanated eight or nine 
volumes of memoirs, full of variety and interest, and such as no similar col- 
lection, originating as this has done in the bosom, and, in great measure, 
within the walls of an academical institution, can at all compare with ; the 
Memoirs of the Ecole Polytechnique of Paris, perhaps, alone excepted. 
"Without under-valuing any part of this collection, 1 may be allowed to par- 
ticularize, as adding largely to our stock of knowledge of their respective 
subjects, the Hydro-dynamical contributions of Prof. Challis — the Optical 
and Photological papers of Mr. Airy — those of Mr. Murphy on Definite 
Integrals — the curious speculations and intricate mathematical investigations 
of Mr. Hopkins on Geological Dynamics — and, more recently, the papers 
of Mr. De Morgan on the foundations of Algebra, which, taken in conjunc- 
tion with the prior researches of the Dean of Ely and Mr. Warren on the 
geometrical interpretation of imaginary symbols in that science, have effectu- 
ally dissipated every obscurity which heretofore prevailed on this subject. 
The elucidation of the metaphysical difficulties in question, by this remark- 
able train of speculation, has, in fact, been so complete, that henceforward 
they will never be named as difficulties, but only as illustrations of principle. 
Nor does its interest end here, since it appears to have given rise to the theory 
of Quaternions of Sir W. Hamilton, and to the Triple Algebra of Mr. De 
Morgan himself, as well as to a variety of interesting inquiries of a similar 
nature on the part of Mr. Graves, Mr. Cayley, and others. Conceptions of 
a novel and refined kind have thus been introduced into analysis — new forms 
of imaginary expression rendered familiar — and a vein opened which I can- 
not but believe will terminate in some first-rate discovery in abstract science. 

Neither are inquiries into the logic of symbolic analysis, conducted as these 
have been, devoid of a bearing on the progress even of physical science. 
Every inquiry, indeed, has such a bearing which teaches us that terms which 
we use in a narrow sphere of experience, as if we fully understood them, 
may, as our knowledge of nature increases, come to have superadded to them 
a new set of meanings and a wider range of interpretation. It is thus that 
modes of action and communication, which we hardly yet feel prepared to 
regard as strictly of a material character, may, ere many years have passed, 
come to be familiarly included in our notions of Light, Heat, Electricity and 
other agents of this class ; and that the transference of physical causation 
from point to point in space — nay, even the generation or development of 
attractive, repulsive or directive forces at their points of arrival may come to 
be enumerated among their properties. The late marvellous discoveries in 



ADDRESS. XXIX 

actino-chemistry and the phsenomena of muscular contraction as dependent 
on the will, are, perhaps, even now preparing us for the reception of ideas of 
this kind. 

Another instance of the efficacy of the course of study in this University, 
in producing not merely expert algebraists, but sound and original mathema- 
tical thinkers (and, perhaps, a more striking one, from the generality of its 
contributors being men of comparatively junior standing), is to be found in 
the publication of the Cambridge Mathematical Journal, of which already 
four volumes, full of very original communications, are before the public. It 
was set on foot in 1837, by the late Mr. Gregory, Fellow of Trinity College, 
whose premature death has bereft science of one who, beyond a doubt, had 
he lived, would have proved one of its chief ornaments, and the worthy re- 
presentative of a family already so distinguished in the annals of mathemati- 
cal and optical science. His papers on the ' Calculus of Operations ' which 
appeared in that collection, fully justifies this impression, while they afford 
an excellent illustration of my general position. Nor ought I to omit men- 
tioning the Chemical Society, of whom he was among the founders, as indica- 
tive of the spirit of the place, untrammeled by abstract forms, and eager to 
spread itself over the whole field of human inquiry. 

Another great and distinguishing feature in the scientific history of this 
place, is the establishment of its Astronomical Observatory, and the regular 
publication of the observations made in it. The science of Astronomy is so 
vast, and its objects so noble, that the practical study of it for its own sake is 
quite sufficient to ensure its pursuit wherever civilization exists. But such in- 
stitutions have a much wider influence than that which they exercise in for- 
warding their immediate object. Every astronomical observatory which 
publishes its observations becomes a nucleus for the formation around it of a 
school of exact practice — a standing and accessible example of the manner 
in which theories are brought to their extreme test — a centre, from which 
emanate a continual demand for and suggestion of refinements, delicacies, 
and precautions in matters of observation and apparatus which re-act upon 
the whole body of science, and stimulate, while they tend to render possible 
an equal refinement and precision in all its processes. It is impossible to 
speak too highly of the mode in which the business of this institution is carried 
on under its present eminent director ; nor can it be forgotten in our ap- 
preciation of what it has done for science, that in it our present Astronomer 
Royal first proved and familiarized himself with that admirable system of 
astronomical observation, registry, and computation, which he has since 
brought to perfection in our great national observatory, and which have ren- 
dered it, under his direction, the pride and ornament of British science, and 
the admiration of Europe. 

Gentlemen, I should never have done if I were to enlarge on, or even at- 
tempt to enumerate the many proofs which this University has afforded of its 
determination to render its institutions and endowments efficient for the pur- 
poses of public instruction, and available to science. But such encomiums, 
however merited, must not be allowed to encroach too largely on other objects 
which I propose to bring before your notice, and which relate to the more 
immediate business of the present meeting, and to the general interests of 
science. The first and every way the most important, is the subject of the 
Magnetic and Meteorological Observatories. Every member of this Associa- 
tion is, of course, aware of the great exertions which have been made during 
the last five years, on the part of the British, Russian, and several other foreign 
governments, and of our own East India Company, to furnish data on the 
most extensive and systematic scale, for elucidating the great problems of 
Terrestrial Magnetism and Meteorology, by the establishment of a system of 



XXX REPORT — 1845. 

observatories all over the world, in which the phaenomena are registered at 
instants strictly simultaneous, and at intervals of two hours throughout both 
day and night. With the particulars of these national institutions, and of 
the multitude of local and private ones of a similar nature, both in Europe, 
Asia, and America, working on the same concerted plan, so far as the means 
at their disposal enable them, I need not detain you : neither need I enter 
into any detailed explanation of the system of Magnetic Surveys, both by sea 
and land, which have been executed or are in progress, in connexion with, 
and based upon the observations carried on at the fixed stations. These 
things form the subject of Special Annual Reports, which the Committee 
appointed for the purpose have laid before us at our several meetings, ever 
since the commencement of the undertaking ; and the most recent of which 
will be read in the Physical Section of the present meeting, in its regular 
course. It is sufficient for me to observe, that the result has been the accu- 
mulation of an enormous mass of most valuable observations, which are now 
and have been for some time in the course of publication ; and when thoroughly 
digested and discussed, as they are sure to be, by the talent and industry of 
magnetists and meteorologists, both in this country and abroad, cannot fail 
to place those sciences very far indeed in advance of their actual state. For 
such discussion, however, time must be allowed. Even were all the returns 
from the several observatories before the public (which they are not, and are 
very far from being), such is the mass of matter to be grappled with, and such 
the multitude of ways in which the observations will necessarily have to be 
grouped and combined to elicit mean results and quantitative laws, that several 
years must elapse before the full scientific value of the work done can pos- 
sibly be realized. 

Meanwhile, a question of the utmost moment arises, and which must be 
resolved, so far as the British Association is concerned, before the breaking- 
up of this meeting. The second term of three years, for which the British 
Government and the East India Company have granted their establishments 
— nine in number — will terminate with the expiration of the current year, at 
which period, if no provision be made for their continuance, the observations 
at those establishments will of course cease, and with them, beyond a doubt, 
those at a great many — probably the great majority — of the foreign establish- 
ments, both national and local, which have been called into existence by the 
example of England, and depend on that example for their continuance or 
abandonment. Now, under these circumstances, it becomes a very grave 
subject for the consideration of our Committee of Recommendations, whether, 
to suffer this term to expire without an effort on the part of this Association 
to influence the Government for its continuance, or whether, on the other 
hand, we ought to make such an effort, and endeavour to secure either the 
continuance of these establishments for a further limited term, or the per- 
petuity of this or some equivalent system of observation in the same or dif- 
ferent localities, according to the present and future exigencies of science. 
I term this a grave subject of deliberation, and one which will call for the 
exercise of their soundest judgement ; because, in the first place, this system of 
combined observation is by far the greatest and most prolonged effort of 
scientific co-operation which the world has ever witnessed ; because, moreover, 
the spirit in which the demands of science have been met on this occasion 
by our own Government, by the Company, and by the other governments 
who have taken part in the matter, has been, in the largest sense of the words, 
munificent and unstinting ; and because the existence of such a spirit throws 
upon us a solemn responsibility to recommend nothing but upon the most 
entire conviction of very great evils consequent on the interruption, and very 
great benefits to accrue to science from the continuance of the observations. 



ADDRESS. XXXI 

Happily we are not left without the means of forming a sound judgement 
on this momentous question. It is a case in which, connected as the science 
of Britain is with that of the other co-operating nations, we cannot and ought 
not to come to any conclusion without taking into our counsels the most 
eminent magnetists and meteorologists of other countries who have either 
taken a direct part in the observations, or whose reputation in those sciences 
is such as to give their opinions, in matters respecting them, a commanding 
weight. Accordingly it was resolved, at the York meeting Icist year, to invite 
the attendance of the eminent individuals I have alluded to at this meeting, 
with the especial object of conference on the subject. And in the interval 
since elapsed, knowing the improbability of a complete personal reunion from 
so many distant quarters, a circular has been forwarded to each of them, 
proposing certain special questions for reply, and inviting, besides, the fullest 
and freest communication of their views on the general subject. The replies 
received to this circular, which are numerous and in the highest degree in- 
teresting and instructive, have been printed and forwarded to the parties 
replying, with a request for their reconsideration and further communication, 
and have also been largely distributed at home to every member of our own 
Council, and the Committee of Recommendations, and to each member of 
the Council and Physical Committee of the Royal Society, which, conjointly 
with ourselves, memorialized Government for the establishment of the ob- 
servatories. 

In addition to the valuable matter thus communicated, I am happy to add, 
that several of the distinguished foreigners in question have responded to our 
invitation, and that in consequence this meeting is honoured by the personal 
presence of M. Kupffer, the Director-General of the Russian System of Mag- 
netic and Meteorological Observation ; of M. Ermann, the celebrated circum- 
navigator and meteorologist ; of Baron von Senftenberg, the founder of the 
Astronomical, Magnetic, and Meteorological Observatory of Senftenberg ; of 
M. Kreil, the director of the Imperial Observatory at Prague ; and of M. 
Boguslawski, director of the Royal Prussian Observatory of Breslau, all of 
whom have come over for the express purpose of affording us the benefit of 
their advice and experience in this discussion. To all the conferences be- 
tween these eminent foreigners and our own Magnetic and Meteorological 
Committee, and such of our members present as have taken any direct theo- 
retical or practical interest in the subjects, all the members of our Committee 
of Recommendations will have free access for the purpose of enabling them 
fully to acquaint themselves with the whole bearing of the case, and the ar- 
guments used respecting all the questions to be discussed, so that when the 
subject comes to be referred to them, as it must be if the opinion of the con- 
ference should be favourable to the continuance of the system, they may be 
fully prepared to make up their minds on it. 

I will not say one word from this chair which can have the appearance of 
in any way anticipating the conclusion which the conference thus organized 
may come to, or the course to be adopted in consequence. But I will take 
this opportunity of stating my ideas generally on the position to be assumed 
by this Association and by other scientific bodies in making demands on the 
national purse for scientific purposes. And 1 will also state, quite irrespective 
of the immediate question of magnetic co-operation, and therefore of the fate 
of this particular measure, what I conceive to be the objects which might be 
accomplished, and ought to be aimed at in the establishment of physical 
OBSERVATORIES, as part of the integrant institutions of each nation calling 
itself civilized, and as its contribution to Terrestrial Physics. 

It is the pride and boast of an Englishman to pay his taxes cheerfully when 
he feels assured of their application to great and worthy objects. And as 



xxxii REPORT— 1845. 

civilization advances, we feel constantly more and more strongly, that, after 
the great objects of national defence, the stability of our institutions, the due 
administration of justice, and the healthy maintenance of our social state, are 
provided for, there is no object greater and more noble — none more worthy 
of national effort — than the furtherance of science. Indeed, there is no surer 
test of the civilization of an age or nation than the degree in which this con- 
viction is felt. Among Englishmen it has been for a long time steadily in- 
creasing, and may now be regarded as universal among educated men of all 
classes. No government, and least of all a British government, can be in- 
sensible to the general prevalence of a sentiment of this kind ; and it is our 
good fortune, and has been so for several years, to have a government, (no 
matter what its denomination as respects party), impressible with such con- 
siderations, and really desirous to aid the forward struggle of intellect by 
placing at its disposal the material means of its advances. 

But to do so with effect, it is necessary to be thoroughly well-informed. 
The mere knowledge that such a disposition exists, is sufficient to surround 
those in power with every form of extravagant pretension. And even if this 
were not so, the number of competing claims, which cannot be all satisfied, 
can only harass and bewilder, unless there be somewhere seated a discrimi- 
nating and selecting judgement, which, among many important claims, shall 
fix upon the most important, and urge them with the weight of well-esta- 
blished character. I know not where such a selecting judgement can be so 
confidently looked for as in the great scientific bodies of the country, each 
in its own department, and in this Association, constituted, in great measure, 
out of, and so representing them all, and numbering besides, among its mem- 
bers, abundance of men of excellent science and enlightened minds who be- 
long to none of them. The constitution of sucii a body is the guarantee both 
for the general soundness of its recommendations, and for the due weighing 
of their comparative importance, should ever the claims of different branches 
of science come into competition with each other. 

In performing this most important office of suggesting channels through 
which the fertilizing streams of national munificence can be most usefully 
conveyed over the immense and varied fields of scientific culture, it be- 
comes us, in the first place, to be so fully impressed with a sense of duty 
to the great cause for which we are assembled, as not to hesitate for an instant 
in making a recommendation of whose propriety we are satisfied, on them ere 
ground that the aid required is of great and even of unusual magnitude. 
And on the other hand, keeping within certain reasonable limits of total 
amount, which each individual must estimate for himself, and which it would 
be unwise and indeed impossible to express in terms, it will be at once felt 
that economy in asking is quite as high a " distributive virtue " as economy in 
granting, and that every pound recommended unnecessarily is so mueh cha- 
racter thrown away. I make these observations because the principles they 
contain cannot be too frequently impressed, and by no means because I con- 
sider them to have been overstepped in any part of our conduct hitherto. In 
the next place, it should be borne in mind that, in recommending to Govern- 
ment, not a mere grant of money, but a scientific enterprise or a national 
establishment, whether temporary or permanent, not only is it our duty so to 
place it before them that its grounds of recommendation shall be thoroughly 
intelligible, but that its whole proposed extent shall be seen ; or at least if 
that cannot be, that it should be clearly stated to be the possible commence- 
ment of something more extensive ; and besides, that the printing and publi- 
cation of results should, in every such case, be made an express part of the 
recommendation. And, again, we must not forget that our interest in the 
matter does not cease with such publication. It becomes our duty to forward, 



ADDRESS. XXXIU 

by every encouragement in our power, the due consideration and scientific 
discussion of results so procured — to urge it upon the science of our own 
country and of Europe, and to aid from our own resources those who may be 
willing to charge themselves with their analysis, and direct or execute the 
numerical computations or graphical projections it may involve. This is ac- 
tually the predicament in which we stand, in reference to the immense mass 
of data already accumulated by the magnetic and meteorological observa- 
tories. Let the science of England, and especially the rising and vigorous 
mind which is pressing onward to distinction, gird itself to the work of grap- 
pling with this mass. Let it not be said that we are always to look abroad 
whenever industry and genius are required, to act in union for the discussion 
of great masses of raw observation. Let us take example from what we see 
going on in Germany, where a Dove, a Kamtz and a Mahlmann are battling 
with the meteorology, a Gauss, a Weber and an Ermann with the magnetism 
of the world. The mind of Britain is equal to the task; its mathematical 
strength, developed of late years to an unprecedented extent, is competent to 
any theoretical analysis or technical combination. Nothing is wanting but 
the resolute and persevering devotion of undistracted thought to a single ob- 
ject, and that will not be long wanting when once the want is declared and 
dwelt upon, and the high prize of public estimation held forth to those who 
fairly and freely adventure themselves in this career. Never was there a 
time when the mind of the country, as well as its resources of every kind, 
answered so fully and readily to any call reasonable in itself and properly 
urged upon it. Do we call for facts ? they are poured upon us in such pro- 
fusion as for a time to overwhelm us, like the Roman maid who sank under 
the load of wealth she called down upon herself. Witness the piles of un- 
reduced meteorological observations which load our shelves and archives ; 
witness the immense and admirably arranged catalogues of stars which have 
been and still are pouring in from all quarters upon our astronomy so soon 
as the want of extensive catalogues came to be felt and declared. What we 
now want is thought, steadily directed to single objects, with a determination 
to eschew the besetting evil of our age — the temptation to squander and di- 
lute it upon a thousand different lines of inquiry. The philosopher must be 
wedded to his subject if he would see the children and the children's children 
of his intellect flourishing in honour around him. 

The establishment of astronomical observatories has been, in all ages and 
nations, the first public recognition of science as an integrant part of civili- 
zation. Astronomy, however, is only one out of many sciences, which can 
be advanced by a combined system of observation and calculation carried on 
uninterruptedly ; where, in the way of experiment, man has no control, and 
whose only handle is the continual observation of Nature as it developes 
itself under our eyes, and a constant collateral endeavour to concentrate the 
records of that observation into empirical laws in the first instance, and to 
ascend from those laws to theories. Speaking in a utilitarian point of view, 
the globe which we inhabit is quite as important a subject of scientific inquiry 
as the stars. We depend for our bread of life and every comfort on its cli- 
mates and seasons, on the movements of its winds and waters. We guide 
ourselves over the ocean, when astronomical observations fail, by our know- 
ledge of the laws of its magnetism ; we learn the sublimest lessons from the 
records of its geological history; and the great facts which its figure, 
magnitude, and attraction, offer to mathematical inquiry, form the very basis 
of Astronomy itself. Terrestrial Physics, therefore, form a subject every way 
worthy to be associated with Astronomy as a matter of universal interest and 
public support, and one which cannot be adequately studied except in the 
way in which Astronomy itself has been — by permanent establishments 



XXxiv REPORT — 1845. 

keeping up an unbroken series of observation : — but with tliis difference, that 
whereas the chief data of Astronomy might be supplied by the establishment 
of a very few well-worked observatories properly dispersed in the two hemi- 
spheres — the gigantic problems of meteorology, magnetism, and oceanic 
movements can only be resolved by a far more extensive geographical dis- 
tribution of observing stations, and by a steady, persevering, systematic attack, 
to which every civilized nation, as it has a direct interest in the result, ought 
to feel bound to contribute its contingent. 

I trust that the time is not far distant when such will be the case, and when 
no nation calling itself civilized will deem its institutions complete without 
the establishment of a permanent physical observatory, with at least so much 
provision for astronomical and magnetic observation as shall suffice to make 
it a local centre of reference for geographical determinations and trigono- 
metrical and magnetic surveys — which latter, if we are ever to attain to a 
theory of the secular changes of the earth's magnetism, vvill have to be re- 
peated at intervals of twenty or thirty years for a long while to come. Ra- 
pidly progressive as our colonies are, and emulous of the civilization of the 
mother country, it seems not too much to hope from them, that they should 
take upon themselves, each according to its means, the establishment and 
maintenance of such institutions both for their own advantage and improve- 
ment, and as their contributions to the science of the world. A noble ex- 
ample has been set them in this respect, within a very few months, by our 
colony of British Guiana, in which a society recently constituted, in the best 
spirit of British co-operation, has established and endowed an observatory of 
this very description, furnishing it partly from their own resources and partly 
by the aid of government, with astronomical, magnetic, and meteorological 
instruments, and engaging a competent observer at a handsome salary to work 
the establishment — an example which deserves to be followed wherever British 
enterprise has struck root and flourished. 

The perfectly unbroken and normal registry of all the meteorological and 
magnetic elements — and of tidal fluctuations where the locality admits — 
would form the staple business of every such observatory, and, according to 
its means of observation, periodical phaenomena of every description would 
claim attention, for which the list supplied by M. Quetelet, which extends 
not merely to the phases of inanimate life, but to their effects on the animal 
and vegetable creation, will leave us at no loss beyond the difficulty of selec- 
tion. The division of phaenomena which magnetic observation has suggested 
into periodical, secular, and occasional, will apply mutatis mutandis to every 
department. Under the head of occasional phaenomena, storms, magnetic 
disturbances, auroras, extraordinary tides, earthquake movements, meteors, 
&c., would supply an ample field of observation ; while among the secular 
changes, indications of the varying level of land and sea would necessitate the 
establishment of permanent marks, and the reference to them of the actual 
mean sea level which would emerge from a series of tidal observations, carried 
round a complete period of the moon's nodes with a certainty capable of de- 
tecting the smallest changes. 

The abridgement of the merely mechanical work of such observatories by 
self-registering apparatus, is a subject which cannot be too strongly insisted 
on. Neither has the invention of instruments for superseding the necessity 
of much arithmetical calculation by the direct registry of total effects re- 
ceived anything like the attention it deserves. Considering the perfection to 
which mechanism has arrived in all its departments, these contrivances pro- 
mise to become of immense utility. The more the merely mechanical part 
of the observer's duty can be alleviated, the more will he be enabled to apply 
himself to the theory of his subject, and to perform what I conceive ought to 



ADDRESS. XXXV 

be regarded as the most important of all his duties, and which in time will 
come to be universally so considered — I mean the systematic deduction from 
the registered observations of the mean values and local co-efficients of di- 
urnal, menstrual, and annual change. These deductions, in the case of per- 
manent institutions, ought not, if possible, to be thrown upon the public, and 
their effective execution would be the best and most honourable test of the 
zeal and ability of their directors. 

Nothing damps the ardour of an observer like the absence of an object 
appreciable and attainable by himself. One of my predecessors in this chair 
has well remarked, that a man may as well keep a register of his dreams as 
of the weather, or any other set of daily phaenomena, if the spirit of grouping, 
combining, and eliciting results be absent. It can hardly be expected, indeed,, 
that observers of facts of this nature should themselves reason from them up 
to the highest theories. For that their position unfits them, as they see but 
locally and partially. But no other class of persons stands in anything like 
so favourable a position for working out the first elementary laws of phaeno- 
mena, and referring them to their immediate points of dependence. Those 
who witness their daily progress, with that interest which a direct object in 
view inspires, have in this respect an infinite advantage over those who have 
to go over the same ground in the form of a mass of dry figures. A thou- 
sand suggestions arise, a thousand improvements occur-»-a spirit of inter- 
change of ideas is generated, the surrounding district is laid under contribu- 
tion for the elucidation of innumerable points, where a chain of corre- 
sponding observation is desirable ; and what would otherwise be a scene of 
irksome routine, becomes a school of physical science. It is needless to say 
how much such a spirit must be excited by the institution of provincial and 
colonial scientific societies, like that which I have just had occasion to men- 
tion. Sea as well as land observations are, however, equally required for the 
effectual working out of these great physical problems. A ship is an itinerant 
observatory ; and, in spite of its instability, one which enjoys several eminent 
advantages — in the uniform level and nature of the surface, which eliminate 
a multitude of causes of disturbance and uncertainty, to which land observa- 
tions are liable. The exceeding precision with which magnetic observations 
can be made at sea, has been abundantly proved in the Antarctic Voyage of 
Sir James Ross, by which an invaluable mass of data has been thus secured 
to science. That voyage has also conferred another and most important ac- 
cession to our knowledge in the striking discovery of a permanently low 
barometric pressure in high south latitudes over the whole Antarctic ocean — 
a pressure actually inferior by considerably more than an inch of mercury, to 
what is found between the Tropics. A fact so novel and remarkable will of 
course give rise to a variety of speculations as to its cause ; and I anticipate 
one of the most interesting discussions which have ever taken place in our 
Physical Section, should that great circumnavigator favour us, as I hope he 
will, with a viva voce account of it. The voyage now happily commenced 
under the most favourable auspices for the further prosecution of our Arctic 
discoveries under Sir John Franklin, will bring to the test of direct experiment 
a mode of accounting for this extraordinary phaenoraenon thrown out by 
Colonel Sabine, which, if realized, will necessitate a complete revision of our 
whole system of barometric observation in high latitudes, and a total recon- 
struction of all our knowledge of the laws of pressure in regions where ex- 
cessive cold prevails. This, with the magnetic survey of the Arctic seas, and 
the not improbable solution of the great geographical problem which forms 
the chief object of the expedition, will furnish a sufficient answer to those, 
if any there be, who regard such voyages as useless. Let us hope and pray, 
that it may please Providence to shield him and his brave companions from 



XXXvi REPORT — 1845. 

the many dangers of their enterprise, and restore them in health and honour 
to their country. 

I cannot quit this subject without reverting to and deploring the great loss 
■which science has recently sustained in the death of the late Prof. Daniell, 
one of its most eminent and successful cultivators in this country. His work 
on Meteorology is, if I mistake not, the first in which the distinction between 
the aqueous and gaseous atmospheres, and their mutual independence, was 
clearly and strongly insisted on as a highly influential element in meteorolo- 
gical theory. Every succeeding investigation has placed this in a clearer 
light. In the hands of M. Dove, and more recently of Colonel Sabine, it has 
proved the means of accounting for some of the most striking features in the 
diurnal variations of the barometer. The continual generation of the aqueous 
atmosphere at the Equator, and its destruction in high latitudes, furnishes a wo- 
tive power in meteorology, whose mode of action, and the mechanism through 
which it acts, have yet to be inquired into. Mr. Daniell's claims to scientific 
distinction were, however, not confined to this branch. In his hands, the 
voltaic pile became an infinitely more powerful and manageable instrument 
than had ever before been thought possible ; and his improvements in its 
construction (the effect not of accident, but of patient and persevering experi- 
mental inquiry), have in effect changed the face of Electro-Chemistry. Nor 
did he confine himself to these improvements. He applied them : and among 
the last and most interesting inquiries of his life, are a series of electro-che- 
mical researches which may rank with the best things yet produced in that 
line. 

The immediate importance of these subjects to one material part of our 
business at this meeting, has caused me to dwell more at length than perhaps I 
otherwise should on them. I would gladly use what time may remain without 
exciting your impatience, in taking a view of some features in the present 
state and future prospects of that branch of science to which my own attention 
has been chiefly directed, as well as to some points in the philosophy of 
science generally, in which it appears to me that a disposition is becoming 
pi-evalent towards lines of speculation, calculated rather to bewilder than 
enlighten, and, at all events, to deprive the pursuit of science of that which, 
to a rightly constituted mind,mustever beone of its highest and most attractive 
sources of interest, by reducing it to a mere assemblage of marrowless and 
meaningless facts and laws. 

The last year must ever be considered an epoch in astronomy, from its 
having witnessed the successful completion of the Earl of Rosse's six-feet 
reflector — an achievement of such magnitude, both in itself as a means of 
discovery, and in respect of the difficulties to be surmounted in its construc- 
tion (difficulties which perhaps few persons here present are better able from 
experience to appreciate than myself), that I want words to express my ad- 
miration of it. I have not myself been so fortunate as to have witnessed its 
performance, but from what its noble constructor has himself informed me 
of its effects on one particular nebula, with whose appearance in powerful 
telescopes I am familiar, I am prepared for any statement which may be made 
of its optical capacity. What may be the efl'ect of so enormous a power in 
adding to our knowledge of our own immediate neighbours in the universe, 
it is of course impossible to conjecture ; but for my own part I cannot help 
contemplating, as one of the grand fields open for discovery with such an 
instrument, those marvellous and mysterious bodies or systems of bodies, the 
Nebulae. By far the major part, probably at least nine-tenths of the nebu- 
lous contents of the heavens, consist of nebulae of spherical or elliptical forms 
presenting every variety of elongation and central condensation. Of these 
a great number have been resolved into distinct stars, and a vast multitude 



ADDRESS. XXXVll 

more have been found to present that mottled appearance which renders it 
almost a matter of certainty that an increase of optical power would show 
them to be similarly composed. A not unnatural or unfair induction would 
therefore seem to be, that those which resist such resolution do so only in 
consequence of the smallness and closeness of the stars of which they con- 
sist ; that, in short, they are only optically and not physically nebulous. 
There is, however, one circumstance which deserves especial remark, and 
which, now that my own observation has extended to the nebulas of both he- 
mispheres, I feel able to announce with confidence as a general law, viz. that 
the character of easy resolvability into separate and distinct stars is almost 
entirely confined to nebulae deviating but little from the spherical form ; 
while, on the other hand, very elliptic nebulae, even large and bright ones, 
offer much greater difficulty in this respect. The cause of this difference 
must, of course, be conjectural, but, I believe, it is not possible for any one 
to review seriatim the nebulous contents of the heavens without being satisfied 
of its reality as a physical character. Possibly the limits of the conditions 
of dynamical stability in a spherical cluster may be compatible with less 
numerous and comparatively larger individual constituents than in an elliptic 
one. Be that as it may, though there is no doubt a great number of elliptic 
nebulae in which stars have not yet been noticed, yet there are so many in 
which they have, and the gradation is so insensible from the most perfectly 
spherical to the most elongated elliptic form, that the force of the general 
induction is hardly weakened by this peculiarity ; and for my own part I 
should have little hesitation in admitting all nebulae of this class to be, in fact, 
congeries of stars. And this seems to have been my Father's opinion of their 
constitution, with the exception of certain very peculiar-looking objects, re- 
specting whose nature all opinion must for the present be suspended. Now, 
among all the wonders which the heavens present to our contemplation, there 
is none more astonishing than such close compacted families or communities 
of stars, forming systems either insulated from all others, or in binary con- 
nexion, as double clusters whose confines intermix, and consisting of indivi- 
dual stars nearly equal in apparent magnitude, and crowded together in such 
multitudes as to defy all attempts to count or even to estimate their numbers. 
What are these mysterious families ? Under what dynamical conditions do 
they subsist? Is it conceivable that they can exist at all, and endure under 
the Newtonian law of gravitation without perpetual collisions ? And, if so, 
what a problem of unimaginable complexity is presented by such a system if 
we should attempt to dive into its perturbations and its conditions of stability 
by the feeble aid of our analysis ! The existence of a luminous matter, not 
congregated into massive bodies in the nature of stars, but disseminated 
through vast regions of space in a vaporous or cloud-like state, undergoing, 
or awaiting the slow process of aggregation into masses by the power of gra- 
vitation, was originally suggested to the late Sir W. Herschel in his reviews 
of the nebulae, by those extraordinary objects which his researches disclosed, 
which exhibit no regularity of outline, no systematic gradation of brightness, 
but of which the wisps and curls of a cirrhus cloud afford a not inapt descrip- 
tion. The wildest imagination can conceive nothing more capricious than 
their forms, which in many instances seem totally devoid of plan — as much so 
as real clouds, — in others offer traces of a regularity hardly less uncouth and 
characteristic, and which in some cases seems to indicate a cellular, in others 
a sheeted structure, complicated in folds as if agitated by internal winds. 

Should the powers of an instrument such as Lord Rosse's succeed in resol- 
ving these also into stars, and, moreover, in demonstrating the starry nature 
of the regular elliptic nebulae, which have hitherto resisted such decomposi- 
tion, the idea of a nebulous matter, in the nature of a shining fluid, or conden- 
1845. d 



xxxviii REPORT — 1845. 

sible gas, must, of course, cease to rest on any support derived from actual 
observation in the sidereal heavens, whatever countenance it may still receive 
in the minds of cosmogonists from the tails and atmospheres of comets, and 
the zodiacal light in our own system. But though all idea of its being ever 
given to mortal eye, to view aught that can be regarded as an outstanding 
portion of primaeval chaos, be dissipated, it will by no means have been even 
then demonstrated that among those stars so confusedly scattered, no aggre- 
gating powers are in action, tending to draw them into groups and insulate 
them from neighbouring groups ; and, speaking from my own impressions, 
I should say that, in the structure of the Magellanic Clouds, it is really difficult 
not to believe we see distinct evidences of the exercise of such a power. 
This part of my Father's general views of the construction of the heavens, 
therefore, being entirely distinct from what has of late been called " the 
nebulous hypothesis," will still subsist as a matter of rational and philoso- 
phical speculation, — and perhaps all the better for being separated from the 
other. 

Much has been said of late of the Nebulous Hypothesis, as a mode of re- 
presenting the origin of our own planetary system. An idea of Laplace, of 
which it is impossible to deny the ingenuity, of the successive abandonment 
of planetary rings, collecting themselves into planets by a revolving mass 
gradually shrinking in dimension by the loss of heat, and finally concentrating 
itself into a sun, has been insisted on with some pertinacity, and supposed to 
receive almost demonstrative support from considerations to which I shall 
presently refer. I am by no means disposed to quarrel with the nebulous 
hypothesis even in this form, as a matter of pure speculation,, and without 
any reference to final causes ; but if it is to be regarded as a demonstrated 
truth, or as receiving the smallest support from any observed numerical rela- 
tions which actually hold good among the elements of the planetary orbits, I 
beg leave to demur. Assuredly it receives no support from observation of 
the effects of sidereal aggregation, as exemplified in the formation of globu- 
lar and elliptic clusters, supposing them to have resulted from such aggrega- 
tion. For we see this cause, working itself out in thousands of instances, to 
have resulted, not in the formation of a single large central body, surrounded 
by a few much smaller attendants, disposed in one plane around it, — but in 
systems of infinitely greater complexity, consisting of multitudes of nearly 
equal luminaries, grouped together in a solid elliptic or globular form. So 
far, then, as any conclusion from our observations of nebulae can go, the re- 
sult of agglomerative tendencies may, indeed, be the formation of families of 
stars of a general and very striking character; but we see nothing to lead us 
to presume its further result to be the surrounding of those stars with plane- 
tary attendants. If, therefore, we go on to push its application to that extent, 
we clearly theorize in advance of all inductive observation. 

But if we go still farther, as has been done in a philosophical work of 
much mathematical pretension, which has lately come into a good deal of no- 
tice in this country*, and attempt "to give a mathematical consistency" to 
such a cosmogony by the " indispensable criterion " of " a numerical verifica- 
tion," — and so exhibit, as " necessary consequences of such a mode of for- 
mation," a series of numbers which observation has established independent 
of any such hypothesis, as primordial elements of our system — if, in pursuit 
of this idea, we find the author first computing the time of rotation the sun 
must have had about its axis so that a planet situate on its surface and form- 
ing a part of it should not press on that surface, and should therefore be in 
a state of indiiference as to its adhesion or detachment — if we find him, in 
this computation, throwing overboard as troublesome all those essential con- 
* M. Corate, Phil. Positive, ii. 376. 



ADDRESS. XXXIX 

siderations of the law of cooling, the change of spheroidical form, tlie internal 
distribution of density, the probable non-circulation of the internal and ex- 
ternal shells in the same periodic time, on which alone it is possible to execute 
such a calculation correctly ; and avowedly, as a short-cut to a result, using 
as the basis of his calculation " the elementary Huyghenian theorems for the 
evaluation of centrifugal forces in combination with the law of gravitation "; 
— a combination which, I need not explain to those who have read the first 
book of Newton, leads direct to Kepler's law ; — and if we find him then 
gravely turning round upon us, and adducing the coincidence of the result- 
ing periods compared with the distances of the planets with this law of Kepler, 
as being the numerical verification in question, — M'here, I would ask, is there 
a student to be found who has graduated as a Senior Optime in this Uni- 
versity, who will not at once lay his finger on the fallacy of such an argu- 
ment*, and declare it a vicious circle ? I really should consider some apo- 
logy needed for even mentioning an argument of the kind to such a meeting, 
were it not that this very reasoning, so ostentatiously put forward and so 
utterly baseless, has been eagerly received among usf as the revelation of a 
profound analysis. When such is the case, it is surely time to throw in a 
word of M'arning, and to reiterate our recommendation of an early initiation 
into mathematics, and the cherishing a mathematical habit of thought, as the 
safeguard of all philosophy. 

A very great obstacle to the improvement of telescopes in this country has 
been happily removed within the past year by the repeal of the duty on glass. 
Hitherto, owing to the enormous expense of experiments to private indivi- 
duals not manufacturers, and to the heavy excise duties imposed on the 
manufacture, which has operated to repress all attempts on the part of prac- 
tical men to produce glass adapted to the construction of large achromatics, 
our opticians have been compelled to resort abroad for their materials — 
purchasing them at enormous prices, and never being able to procure the 
largest sizes. The skill, enterprise and capital of the British manufacturer 
have now free scope, and it is our own fault if we do not speedily rival, and 
perhaps outdo the far-famed works of Munich and Paris. Indeed, it is hardly 

* M. Comte (Philosophic Positive, ii. 376, &c.), the author of the reasoning alluded to, 
assures us that his calculations lead to results agreeing only approximately with the exact 
periods, a difference to the amount of one-forty-fifth part more or less existing in all. 
As he gives neither the steps nor the data of his calculations, it is impossible to trace the 
origin of this difference, — which, however, must arise from error somewhere, if his funda- 
mental princ le be really what he states. For the Huyghenian measure of centrifugal force 

( F OC-5 ) " combined " with " the law of gravitation " { f (X — ^^ ), replacing V by its 

p 
equivalent, -5- can result in no other relation between P and Rthan what is expressed in the 

Keplerian law, and is incompatible with the smallest deviation from it. 

Whether the sun threw off the planets or not, Kepler's law must be obeyed by them when 
once fairly detached, and the sun concentrated into a spherical nucleus, such as we now 
find it. 

In the above reasoning, the consideration of the sun's varying oblateness has been omitted 
as complicating the argument. It is easily taken account of, hut with no benefit to the 
theory contended against. It should moreover be noticed that the actual time of rotation 
of the sun on its axis stands in utter contradiction with that theory. 

How, then, can their actual observance of this law be adduced in proof of their origin, one 
way or the other ? How is it proved that the sun must have thrown off planets at those 
distances and at no others, where we find them, — no matter in what times revolving ? 
That, indeed, would be a powerful presumptive argument ; but what geometer will venture 
on such a tour d' analyse ? And, lastly, how can it be adduced as a numerical coincidence 
of an hypothesis with observed fact to say that, at an unknown epoch, the sun's rotation 
(not observed) must have been so and so, if the hypothesis were a true one ? 

t Mill. Logic, ii. 28.^Al8o, ' Vestiges of the Creation,' p. 17. 

d2 



xl REPORT — 1845. 

possible to over-estimate the effect of this fiscal change on a variety of other 
sciences to which the costliness of glass apparatus has been hitherto an ex- 
ceeding drawback, not only fronr) the actual expense of apparatus already in 
common use, but as repressing the invention and construction of new appli- 
cations of this useful material. 

A great deal of attention has been lately, and I think very wisely, drawn 
to the philosophy of science and to the principles of logic, as founded, not on 
arbitrary and pedantic forms, but on a careful inductive inquiry into the 
grounds of human belief, and the nature and extent of man's intellectual 
faculties. If we are ever to hope that science will extend its range into the 
domain of social conduct, and model the course of human actions on that 
thoughtful and effective adaptation of means to their end, which is its funda- 
mental principle in all its applications (the means being here the total devo- 
tion of our moral and intellectual powers — the end, our own happiness and 
that of all around us) — if such be the far hopes and long-protracted aspira- 
tions of science, its philosophy and its logic assume a paramount importance, 
in proportion to the practical danger of erroneous conceptions in the one, and 
fallacious tests of the validity of reasoning in the other. 

On both these subjects works of first-rate importance have of late illustrated 
the scientific literature of this country. On the philosophy of science, we 
have witnessed the production, by the pen of a most distinguished member 
of this Universitj', of a work so comprehensive in its views, so vivid in its 
illustrations, and so right-minded in its leading directions, that it seems to 
me impossible for any man of science, be his particular department of inquiry 
what it may, to rise from its perusal without feeling himself strengthened and 
invigorated for his own especial pursuit, and placed in a more favourable 
position for discovery in it than before, as well as more competent to estimate 
the true philosophical value and import of any new views which may opeo 
to him in its prosecution. From the peculiar and a priori point of view in 
which the distinguished author of the work in question has thought proper to 
place himself before his subject, many may dissent; and I own myself to be 
of the number ; — but from this point of view it is perfectly possible to depart 
without losing sight of the massive reality of that subject itself: on the con- 
trary, that reality will be all the better seen and understood, and its magni- 
tude felt when viewed from opposite sides, and under the influence of every 
accident of light and shadow which peculiar habits of thought may throw 
over it. 

Accordingly, in the other work to which I have made allusion, and which, 
under the title of a 'System of Logic,' has for its object to give "a con- 
nected view of the principles of evidence and the methods of scientific investi- 
gation," its acute, and in many respects profound author, taking up an 
almost diametrically opposite station, and looking to experience as the ulti- 
mate foundation of all knowledge — at least, of all scientific knowledge, in 
its simplest axioms as well as in its most remote results — has presented us 
with a view of the inductive philosophy, very different indeed in its general 
aspect, but in which, when carefully examined, most essential features may 
be recognised as identical, while some are brought out with a salience and 
effect which could not be attained from the contrary point of sight. It cannot 
be expected that I should enter into any analysis or comparison of these re- 
markable works ; but it seemed to me impossible to avoid pointedly mention- 
ing them on this occasion, because they certainly, taken together, leave 
the philosophy of science, and indeed the principles of all general reasoning, 
in a very different state from that in which they found them. Their influence 
indeed, and that of some other works of prior date, in which the same gene- 
ral subjects have been more lightly touched upon, has already begun to be fe 



ADDRESS. XU 

and responded to from a quarter where, perhaps, any sympathy in this respect 
might hardly have been looked for. The philosophical mind of Germany has 
begun, at length, effectually to awaken from the dreamy trance in which it 
had been held for the last half-century, and in which the jargon of the Abso- 
lutists and Ontologists had been received as oracular. An " anti-speculative 
philosophy " has arisen and found supporters — rejected, indeed, by the Onto- 
logists, but yearly gaining ground in the general mind. It is something so 
new for an English and a German philosopher to agree in their estimate 
either of the proper objects of speculation or of the proper mode of pursuing 
them, that we greet, not without some degree of astonishment, the appearance 
of works like the Logic and the New Psychology of Beneke, in which this 
false and delusive philosophy is entirely thrown aside, and appeal at once 
made to the nature of things as we find them, and to the laws of our in- 
tellectual and moral nature, as our own consciousness and the history of 
mankind reveal them to us*. 

Meanwhile, the fact is every year becoming more broadly manifest, by the 
successful application of scientific principles to subjects which had hitherto 
been only empirically treated (of which agriculture may be taken as perhaps 
the most conspicuous instance), that the great work of Bacon was not the 
completion, but, as he himself foresaw and foretold, only the commencement 
of his own philosophy ; and that we are even yet only at the threshold of that 
palace of Truth which succeeding generations will range over as their own 
— a world of scientific inquiry, in which not matter only and its properties, 
but the far more rich and complex relations of life and thought, of passion 
and motive, interest and actions, will come to be regarded as its legitimate 
objects. Nor let us fear that in so regarding them we run the smallest danger 
of collision with any of those great principles which we regard, and rightly 
regard, as sacred from question. A faithful and undoubting spirit carried 
into the inquiry will secure us from such dangers, and guide us, like an in- 
stinct, in our paths through that vast and entangled region which intervenes 
between those ultimate principles and their extreme practical applications. 
It is only by working our way upwards towards those principles as well as 
downwards from them, that we can ever hope to penetrate such intricacies 
and thread their maze ; and it would be worse than folly — it would be treason 
against all our highest feelings — to doubt that to those who spread themselves 
over these opposite lines, each moving in his own direction, a thousand points 
of meeting and mutual and joyful recognition will occur. 

But if Science be really destined to expand its scope, and embrace objects 
beyond the range of merely material relation, it must not altogether and 
obstinately refuse, even within the limits of such relations, to admit conceptions 
which at first sight may seem to trench upon the immaterial, such as we have 
been accustomed to regard it. The time seems to be approaching when a 
merely mechanical view of nature will become impossible — when the notion 
of accounting for all the phsenomena of nature, and even of mere physics, 
by simple attractions and repulsions fixedly and unchangeably inherent in 
material centres (granting any conceivable system of Boscovichian alterna- 
tions), will be deemed untenable. Already we have introduced the idea of 
heat-atmospJieres about particles to vary their repulsive forces according to 
definite laws. But surely this can only be regarded as one of those provi- 
sional and temporary conceptions, which, though it may be useful as helping 
us to laws and as suggesting experiments, we must be prepared to resign if 
ever such ideas, for instance, as radiant stimulus or conducted influence 

* Vide Beneke, Neue Psychologie, s. 300 et seq. for an admirable view of the state of 
metaphysical and logical philosophy in England. 



xlii REPORT— 1845. 

should lose their present vagueness, and come to receive some distinct scien- 
tific interpretation. It is one thing, however, to suggest that our present 
language and conceptions should be held as provisional — another to recom- 
mend a general unsettling of all received ideas. Whatever innovations of 
this kind may arise, they can only be introduced slowly, and on a full sense 
of their necessity ; for the limited faculties of our nature will bear but little 
of this sort at a time without a kind of intoxication, which precludes ail rec- 
tilinear progress — or, rather, all progress whatever, except in a direction 
which terminates in the wildest vagaries of mysticism and clairvoyance. 

But, without going into any subtleties, I may be allowed to suggest that 
it is at least high time that philosophers, both physical and others, should 
come to some nearer agreement than appears to prevail as to the meaning 
they intend to convey in speaking of causes and causation. On the one hand 
we are told that the grand object of physical inquiry is to explain the phae- 
nomena of nature by referring them to their causes ; on the other, that the 
inquiry into causes is altogether vain and futile, and that Science has no 
concern but with the discovery of Imvs. Which of these is the truth ? Or 
are both views of the matter true on a different interpretation of the terms? 
Whichever view we may take, or whichever interpretation adopt, there is one 
thing certain, — the extreme inconvenience of such a state of language. This 
can only be reformed by a careful analysis of this widest of all human gene- 
ralizations, disentangling from one another the innumerable shades of mean- 
ing which have got confounded together in its progress, and establishing 
among them a rational classification and nomenclature. Until this is done 
we cannot be sure, that by the relation of cause and effect one and the same 
kind of relation is understood. Indeed, using the words as we do, we are 
quite sure that the contrary is often the case ; and so long as uncertainty in 
this respect is suffered to prevail, so long will this unseemly contradiction 
subsist, and not only prejudice the cause of science in the eyes of manki id, 
but create disunion of feeling, and even give rise to accusations and recri- 
minations on the score of principle among its cultivators. 

The evil I complain of becomes yet more grievous when the idea of law 
is brought so prominently forward as not merely to throw into the back- 
ground that of cause, but almost to thrust it out of vicAV altogether ; and if 
not to assume something approaching to the character of direct agency, at 
least to place itself in the position of a substitute for what mankind in general 
understand by explanation : as when we are told, for example, that the suc- 
cessive appearance of races of organized beings on earth, and their disappear- 
ance, to give place to others, which Geology teaches us, is a result of some 
certain law of development, in virtue of which an unbroken chain of gra- 
dually exalted organization from the crystal to the globule, and thence, 
through the successive stages of the polypus, the moUusk, the insect, the fish, 
the reptile, the bird, and the beast, up to the monkey and the man (nay, for 
aught we know, even to the angel), has been (or remains to be) evolved. 
Surely, when we hear such a theory, the natural human craving after causes, 
capable in some conceivable way of giving rise to such changes and trans- 
formations of organ and intellect, — causes ivhy the development at different 
parts of its progress should divaricate into different [\nes,— causes, at all 
events, intermediate between the steps of the development — becomes im- 
portunate. And when nothing is offered to satisfy this craving, but loose 
and vague reference to favourable circumstances of climate, food, and general 
situation, which no experience has ever shown to convert one species into 
another ; who is there who does not at once perceive that such a theory is in 
no respect more explanatory, than that would be which simply asserted a 
miraculous intervention at every successive step of that unknown scries of 



ADDRESS. Xliii 

events by which the earth has been alternately peopled and dispeopled of its 
denizens? 

A law may be a rule of action, but it is not action. The Great First 
Agent may lay down a rule of action for himself, and that rule may become 
known to man by observation of its uniformity : but constituted as our minds 
are, and having that conscious knowledge of causation which is forced upon 
us by the reality of the distinction between intending a thing and doing it, 
we can never substitute the Rule for the Act. Either directly or through 
delegated agency, whatever takes place is not merely willed, but done, and 
what is done we then only declare to be explained, when we can trace a 
process, and show that it consists of steps analogous to those we observe in 
occurrences which have passed often enough before our own eyes to have 
become familiar, and to be termed natural. So long as no such process 
can be traced and analysed out in this manner, so long the phaenomenon 
is unexplained, and remains equally so whatever be the number of unex- 
plained steps inserted between its beginning and its end. The transition 
from an inanimate crystal to a globule capable of such endless organic and 
intellectual development, is as great a step — as unexplained a one — as un- 
intelligible to us — and in any human sense of the word, as miraculous as the 
immediate creation and introduction upon earth of every species and every 
individual would be. Take these amazing facts of geology which way we 
will, we must resort elsewhere than to a mere speculative law of develop- 
ment for their explanation. 

Visiting as we do once more this scene of one of our earliest and most 
agreeable receptions — as travellers on the journey of life brought back by 
the course of events to scenes associated with exciting recollections and the 
memory of past kindness — we naturally pause and look back on the interval 
with that interest which always arises on such occasions : " How has it fared 
with you meanwhile ? " we fancy ourselves asked. " How have you prosper- 
ed ? " " Has this long interval been well or ill spent ? " " How is it with the 
cause in which you have embarked ? " " Has it flourished or receded, and ta 
what extent have you been able to advance it ? " To all these questions we 
may, I believe, conscientiously, and with some self-gratulation, answer — 
Well ! The young and then but partially fledged institution has become 
established and matured. Its principles have been brought to the test of a 
long and various experience, and been found to work according to the ex- 
pectations of its founders. Its practice has been brought to uniformity and 
consistency, on rules which, on the whole, have been found productive of no 
inconvenience to any of the parties concerned. Our calls for reports on the 
actual state and deficiencies of important branches of science, and on the 
most promising lines of research in them, have been answered by most valu- 
able and important essays from men of the first eminence in their respective 
departments, not only condensing what is known, but adding largely to it, 
and in a multitude of cases entering very extensively indeed into original in- 
quiries and investigations ; of which Mr. Scott Russell's Report on Waves, 
and Dr. Carpenter's on the Structure of Shells, and several others in the 
most recently published volume of our Reports, that for the York meeting 
last summer, may be specified as conspicuous instances. 

Independent of these reports, the original communications read or ver- 
bally made to our several Sections have been in the highest degree interest- 
ing and copious ; not only as illustrating and .extending almost every branch 
of science, but as having given rise to dil&iif sions and interchanges of idea 
and information between the members present, of which it is perfectly im- 
possible to appreciate sufficiently the influence and value. Ideas thus com- 
municated fructify in a wonderful manner on subsequent reflection, and be-f 



xliv REPORT — 1845. 

come, 1 am persuaded, in innumerable cases, the germs of theories, and the 
connecting links between distant regions of thought, which might have other- 
wise continued indefinitely dissociated. 

How far this Association has hitherto been instrumental in fulfilling the 
ends for which it was called into existence, can, however, be only imperfectly 
estimated from these considerations. Science, as it stands at present, is 
not merely advanced by speculation and thought ; it stands in need of ma- 
terial appliances and means ; its pursuit is costly, and to those who pursue 
it for its own sake, utterly unremunerative, however largely the community 
may benefit by its applications, and however successfully practical men may 
turn their own or others' discoveries to account. Hence arises a wide field 
for scientific utility in the application of pecuniary resources in aid of private 
research, and one in which assuredly this Association has not held back its 
hand. I have had the curiosity to cast up the sums which have been ac- 
tually paid, or are now in immediate course of payment, on account of grants 
for scientific purposes by this Association since its last meeting at this place, 
and I find them to amount to not less than 11,167/. And when it is re- 
collected that in no case is any portion of these grants applied to cover any 
personal expense, it will easily be seen how very large an amount of scien- 
tific activity has been brought into play by its exertions in this respect, to 
say nothing of the now very numerous occasions in which the attention and 
aid of Government have been effectually drawn to specific objects at our 
instance. 

As regards the general progress of Science within the interval I have 
alluded to, it is far too wide a field for me now to enter upon, and it would 
be needless to do so in this assembly, scarcely a man of which has not been 
actively employed in urging on the triumphant march of its chariot-wheels, 
and felt in his own person the high excitement of success joined with that 
noble glow which is the result of companionship in honourable effort. May 
such ever be the prevalent feeling among us I True Science, like true Reli- 
gion, is wide-embracing in its extent and aim. Let interests divide the 
worldly and jealousies torment the envious I We breathe, or long to breathe, 
a purer empyrean. The common pursuit of Truth is of itself a brotherhood. 
In these our annual meetings, to which every corner of Britain — almost every 
nation in Europe sends forth as its representative some distinguished culti- 
vator of some separate branch of knowledge ; where, I would ask, in so vast 
a variety of pursuits which seem to have hardly anything in common, are we 
to look for that acknowledged source of delight which draws us together and 
inspires us with a sense of unity ? That astronomers should congregate to 
talk of stars and planets — chemists of atoms — geologists of strata — is natural 
enough ; but what is there of equal mutual interest, equally connected with 
and equally pervading all they are engaged upon, which causes their hearts 
to burn within them for mutual communication and unbosoming? Surely, 
were each of us to give utterance to all he feels, we should hear the chemist, 
the astronomer, the physiologist, the electrician, the botanist, the geologist, 
all with one accord, and each in the language of his own science, declaring 
not only the wonderful works of God disclosed by it, but the delight which 
their disclosure affords him, and the privilege he feels it to be to have aided 
in it. This is indeed a magnificent induction — a consilience there is no re- 
fusing. It leads us to look onward, through the long vista of time, with 
chastened but confident assurance that Science has still other and nobler 
work to do than any she has yet attempted ; work, which before she is pre- 
pared to attempt, the minds of men must be prepared to receive the attempt, 
— prepared, I mean, by an entire conviction of the wisdom of her views, the 
purity of her objects and the faithfulness of her disciples. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Proceedings connected with the Magnetical and Meteorological Con- 
ference, held at Cambridge in June 1845. 

CONTENTS. 

Seventh Report of the Committee of the British Association 1 

Appendix : — 

Correspondence previous to the Conference in Cambridge 13 

The Marquis of Northampton to Sir R. Peel 67 

Sir J. Herschel to Sir R. Peel 67 

Resolutions of the Magnetic Conference presented to Her Majesty's Go- 
vernment ^7 

Report of the Committee accompanying the same 69 



Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of 8iB. J. Herschel, 
Bart.; the Master of Trinity College, Cambridge; the Dean 
OF Ely, the Astronomer Royal, Dr. Lloyd and Colonel 
Sabine, appointed to conduct the cooperation of the British Associ- 
ation in the System of Simultaneous Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observations. 

Arctic Expedition. 

It having been resolved upon by government to equip a new Arctic Expe- 
dition, under the command of Sir John Franklin, with a view to the comple- 
tion of the discovery of a north-west passage, two ships, the Erebus and Terror, 
the former commanded by Sir J. Franiilin, the latter by Captain Crozier, have 
been commissioned for the purpose, and provided not only with every former 
means of security and comfort, but with a means of applying the power of steam 
for availing themselves of occasional favourable opportunities for its application. 
So far as relates to the prosecution of magnetic and meteorological observa- 
tion, they go provided with all the necessary instruments and instructions. 
The officers, five in number, who will be charged with their use, have availed 
themselves with all diligence and assiduity of the instructions afforded them 
by Colonel Sabine, and should the Expedition pass the winter in the Arctic 
Sea, to the north of America, the opportunities afforded of observing mag- 
netic disturbances, in near proximity to the Magnetic Pole and in the region 
of the Aurora, will be in the highest degree interesting, and will call for every 
practicable exertion in watching for and observing simultaneous disturbances 
in Europe and America, wherever magnetic observation is at the time in 
progress. Among the instruments with which this Expedition is provided, 
1845. B 



2 REPORT — 1845. 

is one of a novel description, contrived by Professor Lloyd, for determining 
the absolute total force by direct observation in dips from 80° to 90°. The 
interesting discovery of Sir James Ross, of a barometric pressure in the 
Antarctic Seas lower by more than an inch than at the equator, will render 
the barometric observations of this Expedition especially important, in con- 
sequence of attention being drawn to circumstances in the usual mode of 
executing barometric observations in severe colds, which have been supposed 
capable of partially maslcing this peculiarity, and upon which we shall now be 
enabled to pronounce definitively. 

As the Magnetic Pole will be again probably approached in this Expedition, 
an opportunity will be afforded of ascertaining (at least by subsequent calcu- 
lation) whether any and what change has taken place in the situation of that 
important point since the date of Sir .Tames Ross's observations, and should 
the Expedition be successful in making their passage home by Behring's 
Straits, an invaluable series of data along the northern coast of America to 
the Straits in question will be secured. 

Neiv Stations for Meteorological and Magnetic Observations. 

The Astronomical and Meteorological Society of British Guiana have re- 
cently established an observatory in that colony for the purpose of making 
astronomical, meteorological and magnetic observations, and have (partly by 
the grant of magnetic and other instruments used by Sir R. Schomburgk in 
his survey of the colony, partly at their own cost) furnished it with in- 
struments. Not content with this, however, they have engaged a competent 
and well-recommended observer, at a liberal salary, so that we have here an 
example which it may be hoped our other colonies will eagerly imitate, of 
scientific cooperation, voluntarily undertaken, in a highly interesting region, 
from which the best results may be hoped. 

The prospect of a colonial observatory at Colombo in Ceylon, though not 
yet realized, appears by a letter received by Colonel Sabine from Capt. Pick- 
ering, dated January 18, 184-5, to be still entertained, since that gentleman 
has received the Governor's directions to prepare estimates for tlie building 
and establishment. 

It is assuredly much to be desired that such of our colonies as are capable 
of bearing the expense of such institutions, should be encouraged by such 
examples to take part in the great and important work which remains to be 
done, in order to place terrestrial magnetism and meteorology in the rank of 
permanently progressive sciences. The government observatories, by im- 
proving the instruments and methods of observation and chalking out the 
course of observation most desirable to be pursued, have laid the foundations 
of a system which must, sooner or later, be carried out in all climates and in 
every part of the globe. But the system is yet susceptible of further perfec- 
tion, which it has been and is receiving. Several important defects have 
been remedied, and as far as the magnetic observations go, a definite and 
well-directed course is taken. The meteorological system is also beginning to 
assume a more distinct and regularly improving form ; distinct notions of im- 
portant objects to be attained, and improvements introduced into the instru- 
mental departments, which by degrees will fit them for objects they are not 
yet competent to. Should the government observatories at Toronto and Van 
Diemen's Land ultimately come to be handed over to their respective colonies 
as part of tiieir domestic institutions, not only would a permanent contribution 
of data be secured to science, but incalculable benefit would arise to the 
colonies themselves, in the possession of establishments in which the art of 
observing has been wrought up to elaborate perfection, and in which practice 



ON MAGNETI CAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 3 

going Land in hand with theory, would act as a powerful engine of public 
instruction. 

Magnetic Surveys. 

The completion of Lieut. Lefroy's North American Survey has furnished 
data in the highest degree satisfactory. Above 100 stations have been ob- 
served by him, at which the three elements have been determined within the 
isodynamic oval of 1'7 in North America. The examination which has been 
instituted of these shows the observations to be satisfactory. His magnetorae- 
tric observations, made hourly during the winter, show some extraordinary 
disturbances; one on the 17th April 1844, gave changes of 8° 10' in declina- 
tion and 0"16 of horizontal force. 

Lieuts. Moor and Clerk sailed on the 9th of January from the Cape, on 
the magnetic survey of that portion of the Antarctic Ocean left unexplored 
by Sir James Ross, to which allusion was made as contemplated in our last 
report. This survey will complete our knowledge of iso-magnetic lines in the 
South Seas. 

In the United States Prof. Renwick has occupied himself with the obser- 
vation of the three magnetic elements at the stations of the Trigonometrical 
Survey from Rhode Island southward to Annapolis in Maryland, while Prof. 
Bache carries on the same process from Annapolis southward, and in the 
course of the current year will probably have extended his operations to the 
Gulf of Mexico. The former of these zealous cooperators in our cause has 
proposed to establish, at Columbia College, a barometrical record simultaneous 
with that at Toronto, in which instruments carefully compared with our 
standards, by means of a portable barometer making the circuit of London, 
New York, Toronto, New York, and London, will be employed. 

Publication of Magnetic and Meteorological Observations. 

The Toronto observations of 1840, 1841 and 1842, are printed, and in the 
hands of most of our correspondents. So are also the first volume of ' Extra- 
ordinary Magnetic Disturbances at the Government. Stations,' and two vo- 
lumes of the ' Greenwich Observations,' containing those of 1840, 1841 and 
1842. An immense arrear remains, and must remain, in spite of every exer- 
tion, unless an increase in the superintendent's establishment afford the means 
of greatei;" despatch. Representations have been made with the view of pro- 
curing such increase, the result of which is not yet known. Should it prove, 
as it is hoped, successful, the work of reduction and publication will proceed 
with all desirable alacrity, and the world be speedily put in possession of the 
whole results. 

The Honourable the Court of Directors of the East India Company has 
been applied to on the part of the Royal Society, to authorize the printing of 
the observations communicated from the four Indian establishments. The pro- 
position has been entertained, and estimates are in course of preparation. No 
final decision has been yet however come to, though there seems no reason to 
fear that it will be unfavourable. The observations which have been received 
from these observatories have been partially examined by Dr. Lloyd, and 
awaiting the appearance of the observations themselves in a public form, 
the following remarks on them, so far as that examination has gone, will pro- 
bably be considered interesting to the Association : — 

Extracts of a Letter from Dr. Lloyd to Sir J. Herschel. 

" Trinity College, Dublin, Feb. 12, 1845. 
" The observations made during the first year and a half at the East India 
Company's Observatories were transmitted to me from the Royal Society, and 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1845. 

their examination has, I hope, enabled me to be of some use to the observers, 
in the correction and improvement of tlieir methods of observing. Much 
valuable time however was lost at the commencement, owing to some diffi- 
culty respecting the transmission of the observations, of the nature of which 
I am not aware ; and, as the last of the records sent were those of June op 
July ISiS, I am unable to say how far the instructions suggested by the 
perusal of the earlier observations may have turned to account. These cir- 
cumstances, over which I had no control, prevented me from sending (as I 
otherwise should) any report on these observations to the Royal Society, as I 
felt that any report, founded upon the data which had come before me, would 
necessarily be unsatisfactory, and in some degree unjust, to the very zealous 
directors of the observatories. 

" I shall best perhaps fulfil the wish expressed in your letter, by sending a 
few notes extracted from the memoranda which I made at the time of the 
perusal of the observations, which you can use as you think fit. 

" The observatory at Simla, under the direction of Major Boileau, is in all 
respects admirably organized, and has furnished a larger amount of work than 
perhaps any of the whole cooperation. 

" In order to save time, Major Boileau erected a temporary wooden build- 
ing at Simla on his arrival, and commenced his series of observations there the 
1st of January 1841. Meanwhile, the site of the permanent observatory was 
selected, the stone available for the building carefully examined for mag- 
netism, &c. ; the building erected on a judicious plan, and the observations 
begun there the 1st of July 1841. 

" At this station the mean height of the barometer is only 23"2 inches ; I 
need not observe upon the value of an extended and complete series of mete- 
orological observations made at this altitude (8000 feet about). The many 
questions, the solution of which has been but partly obtained by the observa- 
tions of meteorologists upon the Faulhorn and the St. Bernard, may be ex- 
pected to receive a complete answer in the Simla observations. 

" Major Boileau has added much to the usual routine of observatory work. 
In September 1841, he commenced observing every fifteen minutes ! and has, 
I believe, continued that immense labour to the present time. He also made, 
daily, two series of corresponding observations taken every five minutes, and 
each lasting one hour. One of these was made in correspondence with the 
Van Diemen's Land Observatory, and the other with Singapore and Trevan- 
drum. He has made a very complete comparison of the wet-bulb and of 
Daniell's hygrometer, and has constructed an elaborate table for reducing the 
results obtained with the former instrument. 

" Among the remarkable results which appear on the face of the observa- 
tions, I may mention that, generally, during magnetic storms, the changes of 
intensity preponderate over those of direction in the results ; while it seems 
to be otherwise in the regular hourly variations. 

" Smart shocks of earthquake were felt at Simla on the 19th of February 
and 5th of March 1842, which disturbed all the magnets violently. Their 
mean positions were however unaltered, so that the effect was merely me- 
chanical. 

" Of the true magnetic disturbances. Major Boileau says, that that of the 
2nd and 4th of July 1842, was ' the greatest which occurred since the esta- 
blishment of the observatory.' It was also the greatest observed in Dublin ; 
considerably greater than that of September 1841. 

" The absolute observations of declination and inclination at Simla are ex- 
cellent. Those of intensity are less so, owing to defects in the method of ob- 
servation, which have been since remedied. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND MKTEOROLOGICAL. OBSERVATIONS. 5 

" Madras. 

" Lieut. Ludlow waited for the completion of the building of his observa- 
tory, and accordingly his regular series of observations commenced only in 
March 1841. He took the precaution of observing the time of vibration of 
all his magnets in Dublin before starting, and on his arrival at Madras, and 
was thus enabled to select for use those whose magnetism was most steady. 

" You are aware that a perfect determination of the changes of the third 
element has been a serious desideratum in most of the observatories, the in- 
strument devised by me for the determination of the variations of the vertical 
component of the force having in most cases failed. The value of the results 
in this case depends entirely on the individual instrument, and I do not know 
any that have given good results, with the exception of those belonging to the 
observatories of Toronto, Madras and Singapore. This circumstance adds 
much value to the results of these observatories, inasmuch as the observations 
made with this apparatus cover a space of nearly three years, and of course it 
furnishes an argument for the publication of the Madras and Singapore ob- 
servations. 

" Lieut. Ludlow cautiously avoided all the difficult work of absolute deter- 
minations, until he found himself master of the methods ; and accordingly his 
results of this kind are free from the errors which are to be found in the earlier 
observations made elsewhere. The absolute determinations commenced at 
Madras with the year 1842. 

" Singapore. 

" The observations made at Singapore, under the direction of Lieut. 
Elliott, commenced earlier than either of the other Indian stations, namely, in 
December 1840, and (as regards term observations) in the month preceding. 

" The vertical force instrument has worked at this station perhaps better 
than at any other, and accordingly the results have a peculiar value. 

" The diurnal changes at Singapore are remarkable for their regularity, so 
much so, that the diurnal curve may be obtained satisfactorily from a very 
limited number of observations. 

" After the example of Major Boileau, Lieut. Elliott has had observations 
taken every fifteen minutes, commencing in April 1842. I am not aware 
whether he still continues this labour. 

" Lieut. Elliott has made, from time to time, a considerable series of obser- 
vations (simultaneous with those of the observatory) at Java, Borneo, and 
other places. 

" The atmosphere at Singapore is loaded with moisture. Lieut. Elliott has 
taken numerous observations of the actinometer ; but the place is unfavoura- 
ble and the observations unsatisfactory. 

" Believe me to be, 

" Dear Sir, very truly yours, 

" H. Lloyd." 

A letter from Professor Bache to Colonel Sabine announces the gratifying 
fact, that the Senate of the United States has ordered the publication, in 
full, at the expense of that government, of the magnetic and meteorological 
observations at Girard College, Philadelphia, and at Washington ; both which 
publications are now proceeding. 

M. Plantamour has commenced the publication of the observations at Ge- 
neva. M. Kreil has published the fifth volume of the Prague observations. 
As regards the circulation of the printed observations, arrangements have 
been made by the Royal Society for the regular communication of the Green- 
wich observations in this department to all the institutions and persons named 



6 REPORT — 1845. 

in the annexed list, and as the demand for them will in all probability be 

hereafter greater than at present, an additional number will henceforward be 

printed. 

List of Observatories, Institutions and Individuals, entitled to receive a Copy 

of tlie Magnetical and Meteorological Observations made at the Royal 

Observato7'y, Greenwich. 

OBSERVATORIES. 

Algiers M. Aime. 

Altona M. Schumacher. 

Armagh t)r' Robinson. 

Berlin M. Encke. 

Bogoslowsk ...... 

Bombay G. Buist. 

Barnaoul M. Prang, 1st. 

Breda 

Breslau 

Brussels M. Quetelet. 

Cadiz M. Cerquero. 

Cairo M. Lambert. 

Cambridge J- Challis. 

Cambridge United States. 

Cape of Good Hope . . . . T. Maclear. 

Catherineburgh M. Rochkoflr. 

Christiana M. Hansteen. 

Cincinnati Mr. Locke. 

Copenhagen IM. Oersted. 

Coimbra 

Dorpat M. Madler. 

Dublin Sir W. R. Hamilton. 

Gotha 

Hammerfest ...... 

Hanover 

Heidelberg M- Tiedemann. 

Helsingfors M. Nervander. 

Hobarton Van Diemen's Land. 

Hudson College United States. 

Kasan M. Simonoflf. 

j^g^ Observatory. 

Konigsberg M. Bessel. 

Kremsmunster 

Leipsic M.Weber. 

Lougan 

Madras J.Ludlow. 

Manheim 

Marburg 

Marseilles 

Milan M. Carlini. 

Munich M. Lamont. 

Nertchinsk M. Prang, 2nd. 

NikolaiefF 

Oxford M. J. Johnson, Esq. 

Palermo 

Paramatta 

Paris M. Arago. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Pgjjjjj M. Gachkevitche. 

Philadelphia — Bache, Esq. 

Prague ^- P"^* 

Pulkowa M. Struve. 

St. Helena ^r ^r ^ 

St. Petersburgh M.Kupffer. 

Seeberg M. Hansen. 

Simla i'?;^T?nT- 

Singapore CM. Elliot. 

Sitka. . Messrs. Homann and Ivanoff. 

Stockholm ,«^ ™ -i j i u- 

-pgfljg M. Philadelphine. 

Toronto . . Lieut. Lefroy. 

Trevandrum J. Caldecott. 

Tubingen 

Upsal ^ ^ . 

Vienna M. Littrow. 

Wilna 

Zlatoouste 

INSTITUTIONS. 

Aberdeen University. 

ggj-lin Academy ot bciences. 

Board of Ordnance .... London. 

Bologna Academy. 

Boston Academy of Sciences. 

Bowden College United States. 

Dublin University. 

Edinburgh Astronomical Institution. 

Edinburgh .* Royal Society. 

Edinburgh University. 

Glasgow University. 

Gottingen University. 

Harvard College United States. 

Leyden University. 

Paris Academy of Sciences. 

Paris Board of Longitude. 

Pa^ris '. '. Depot de la Marine. 

Philadelphia Philosophical Society. 

Queen's Library London. 

Royal Institution London. 

Royal Society » » 

St. Andrews University. 

St. Petersburgh Academy of Sciences. 

Savilian Library Oxford. 

Stockholm Academy of Sciences. 

Trinity College, Library . . Cambridge. 

Upsal Society of Sciences. 

Waterville College .... United States. 

INDIVIDUALS. 

Bessel, Prof. Konigsberg. 

Brisbane, Sir Thomas .... Makerstown, Kelso. 



REPORT 1845. 

Brittingham, Lieutenant, R.A. . Newfoundland. 

Lowndes Professor of Astronomy Cambridge. 

Plumiau Professor of Astronomy Cambridge. 

Colebrook, Sir W. ..... New Brunswick. 

Dove, M Berlin. 

Erman, M Berlin. 

Fox, R. W Falmouth. 

Harris, W. Snow, Esq Plymouth. 

Howard, Luke, Esq Tottenham. 

Humboldt, Baron Berlin. 

Kaemtz, M Dorpat. 

Lloyd, Rev. H University, Dublin. 

Loomis, — , Esq New York. 

Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart . . London. 

MacCuUagh, James, Esq. . . . University, Dublin. 

Phillips, John, Esq York. 

Pickering, Captain, R.A. . . . Ceylon. 

Redfield, W. C, Esq New York. 

Reid, Lieutenant-Colonel . . . Bermuda. 

Smyth, W. H., Captain R.N. . . London. 

South, Sir James London. 



List of Meteorological and Magnetical Observations in the possession of the 
Royal Society. 

Meteorological Observations. 



Observatories. 


Periods of Observation. 


Observers. 


Bombay. 


1842, 1843. 


G. Buist. 


Cape of Good Hope. 


February 7 to November 1841. 


Lieut. Wilmot. 


Cochin. 


July 1842 to January 1844. 


J. B. Taylor. 


Erebus and Terror. 


October 1839 to November 1842. 


Ross and Crozier. 


Lucknow. 


June 1842 to October 1843. 


R. Wilcox. 


Madras. 


January to December 1843, to June 1844. 


J. Ludlow. 


Niger Expedition. 


May to July 1841. 




Penang. 


April 1843 to January 1844. 


J. B. Taylor. 


Port Arthur. 


1840. 


J. Lempriere. 


Ross Bank. 


October 1840 to December 1842. 


Capt. Ross. 


St. Helena. 


February to October 1840. 


Lieut. Lefi-oy. 


Singapore. 


1841, 1842, 1843 to October 1844. 


C. M. Elliot. 


Simla. 


1841,1842, JunetoDec.l843,Jan.toNov.l844. 


J. H. Boileau. 


Toronto. 


Jan. 1840 to August 1842. 


Lieut. Riddell. 



Magnetical Observations. 



Observatories. 


Periods of Observation. 


Observers. 


Bombay. 


November 1841 to April 1842, Sep- G. Buist. 




tember 1842 to May 1844. 




Borneo. 


October 1842. 


C. M. Elliot. 


Lucknow. 


June 1842 to December 1843. 


R. Wilcox. 


Madras. 


1841, March 1842 to December 1843. 


J. Ludlow. 


Singapore. 


1840 to June 1842, August 1842 to 
December 1844. 


C. M. Elliot. 


Simla. 


September 1841 to April 1843, June 
1843 to October 1844. 


J. H. Boileau. 


Trevandrum. 


May 1841 to March 1842. 


John Caldecott, Esq. 



ON MAGNETICAL. AND METEOROLOGICAL. OBSERVATIONS. 9 

The Board of Ordnance has given orders that copies of all the observations 
at the Ordnance observatories shall henceforward be sent to the governors of 
all our colonies, to be by them deposited in the most accessible public li- 
braries for colonial reference. They have been hitherto, and will in future 
continue to be presented to the directors of all foreign magnetic and meteoro- 
logical observatories officially instituted, and to eminent persons in those 
sciences. 

Approaching conclusion of the present system of magnetic and meteorological 
establishments, and considerations thereby rendered necessary. 

The second term of three years for which the British Government and the 
East India Company have granted the existing establishments will conclude 
with the expiration of the current year ; and as the termination of the British 
system of observation will in all probability carry along with it the cessation of 
many or most of the other European series of observations, it has been an 
anxious subject of deliberation with your Committee what course to recom- 
mend to the Association under such circumstances. On the one hand there 
is the serious responsibility of advising the continuance of very heavy expense, 
both to the Government and the East India Company, and of a vast devotion 
of time and labour of eminent individuals in science, and of energetic and 
devoted observers. On the other, the high importance of the objects in view, 
the interest which they yearly continue to excite more and more in the pub- 
lic mind, and the perception that the great problems they propose to resolve 
are of a nature to yield only to continued and persevering inquiry. Under 
these considerations it was resolved at the last meeting of the Association to 
request a conference of the most eminent foreign magnetists and meteorolo- 
gists on the subject, viz. Messrs. Gauss, Weber, Humboldt, Dove, Erman, 
Hansteen, Plana, Plantamour, Kamtz, Gillis, Bache, Loomis, Kupffer, Arago, 
Quetelet, Kreil, Laniont, Boguslawski and Baron Senftenberg, to be held at 
this meeting, and invitations were issued accordingly, the gratifying effect 
of which has been to procure a prospect of the personal attendance at their 
deliberations, of Messrs. Kupffer, Kreil, Dove, Erman, and Baron Senften- 
berg. 

In addition to this, an extensive correspondence has been entered into on 
the part of your Committee for the purpose of learning the sentiments both of 
them, and of such other high authorities in the practical and theoretical de- 
partments of these subjects, on the important matter under deliberation. 
This correspondence will be found attached as an appendix to the present 
report, and it has afforded your Committee the means of presenting to the 
conference for discussion the principal features of the subjec|; in a more 
methodical order than would probably have been the case without some pre- 
liminary communication of the kind. A careful and minute analysis of the 
several letters received has enabled them to classify the various and valuable 
suggestions contained in them, and to arrange under distinct heads the ques- 
tions which will have to be decided on in case the general opinion should 
prove favourable to the longer continuance of the system. 

It has therefore appeared to your Committee advisable to propose for con- 
sideration at the approaching conference, the following heads of inquiry, 
without prejudice to such other points relative to the general question as the 
experience and judgement of any of their distinguished coadjutors may suggest 
for discussion. 

I. Under all the circumstances, is it the opinion of the conference that the 
combined system of magnetic and meteorological observation ought to be 
continued longer ? 



10 REPORT — 1845. 

Should their opinion be in the negative, there is of course no room for 
further deliberation, except in so far as may relate to any changes of appa- 
ratus, methods, &c. which it may be wortli while to make, or any experiments 
to perform in the short interval to the end of the year. In order therefore to 
give room for any further inquiry, it is necessary to suppose, at least provi- 
sionally, that some considerable amount of opinion in favour of continuance 
is manifested, which, should it prove to be the case (as the general tenor of 
the correspondence would appear to indicate), it may perhaps be advisable 
still to wave coming to any Jinal conclusion on this principal head, until the 
subordinate subjects shall have undergone discussion ; and this, if for no other 
reason, because, agreeing in the general principle, it may be found impossible 
to reconcile all opinion respecting the details. Assuming then provisionally 
an affirmative opinion on the general principle, the following are the general 
heads under which it would appear most convenient to arrange the subjects of 
consideration : — 

A. The general si/stem of magnetic observation at fixed stations. 

a. The daily observations. 

b. The absolute determinations. 

c. Term observations. 

d. Disturbances. 

e. Instruments. 

f. Additional observations. 

B. The general system of meteorological observation at fixed stations. 

a. The daily observations. 

b. Term observations. 

c. Instruments. 

d. Additional observations. 

C. Stations, and duration of the system. 

a. The Ordnance stations. 

b. The Admiralty stations. 

c. The East India stations. 

d. Permanence or temporary duration of the stations. 

e. Observers and assistants. 

D. Surveys and auxiliary stations. 

a. Magnetic surveys by land and sea. 

b. Auxiliary barometric stations. 

E. Problems solved and to be solved. 

F. Particular suggestions which deserve consideration. 

Under each of these general heads and their subdivisions, particular sug- 
gestions have been made and alterations proposed or objected to, giving rise 
to questions a great deal too numerous and extensive to admit of their being 
each discussed in full detail at a conference so limited in time as this must be. 
Nevertheless it will be proper to specify under each, in the manner of a re- 
sume, what are the particular questions which have arisen in the minds of our 
correspondents or have been subsequently suggested, with a view to selecting 
those of most importance ; and these are as Ibllows : — 

A a. Daily observations. — Should they be made hourly, two-hourly, four-, 
six- or eight-hourly ? by night as well as by day ? at Gottingen time 
or that of the place ? at constant or variable hours with the season 
of the year? Should they be made two-hourly for a certain time 
and subsequently changed to four- or six-hourly? 
A b. Absolute determinations. — Should they be made monthly, or how often? 
For what elements ? What methods should be pursued in their de- 
termination ? 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 11 

A c. Term observations. — Should they be discarded (as seems the general 
impression) or increased in number and made weekly, as Dr. Lloyd 
recommends ? Should Gottingen time be used in them ? Should a 
term be broken off if no disturbance be apparent at the usual time 
of greatest disturbance ? 

A d. Disturbances. — Should the inquiry into disturbances rely on term- 
observations only, or should extra observations be made whenever 
they are supposed to be in progress ? Should a few continuous ob- 
servations be made at the usual hours of maximum disturbance, to 
detect them ? Ought the readings of the instruments during them 
to be registered at definite instants of Gottingen mean time, or at 
the instants of great jumps or turning points? Ought any special 
provision to be made for their observation during Sir John Frank- 
lin's stay near the pole ? 

A e. Instruments. — Ought the present instruments to continue in use, or 
any, and what changed? Ought magnets to be interchanged? 
Should self-registering magnetic apparatus to register disturbances 
attaining a certain magnitude ? New instruments — induction mag- 
netometer — theodolite ditto — M. Lamont's new inventions ? 

Ay. Additional observations. — Should any, and what, be in future made ? 

B a. Daily Meteorological Observations. — Should any immediate change be 
made in the hours ? in the instruments ? Should night observations 
be discontinued ? 

B b. Meteorological Terms. — Should these be discontinued ? Should they 
be modified as to the extent of the observations ? 

B c. Meteorological Instruments. — Should self-registering instruments be 
used ? and what ? Should encouragements be held out for their 
improval ? and of what sort? who to be the judges, and what the 
conditions of their introduction into use ? At what times and on 
what understandings are new instruments generally to be intro- 
duced ? Should a system of itinerant instruments of comparison be 
adopted ? at what intervals ? and in what order ? 

B d. Additional Observations. — Of thermometers, wet and dry, at several 
elevations in the air ? Of temperatures of soil at several depths ? 
Of atmospheric electricity ? with what instrument ? Peltier's ? 
Gourjon's ? Mr. Wheatstone's new principle and apparatus ? of 
barometer continuously during storms ? Should the wind be regis- 
tered at each observation ? Should any other class of phaenomena 
be observed ? 

Ca,cb. Of the Ordnance and Admiralty Stations. — Should all be con- 
tinued in activity or not, and which ? If the same number be re- 
tained, is it desirable to continue or change the stations ? Should 
any endeavour be made to procure additional colonial stations ? 

C c. The East India Observatories. — Should any and which of them be 
continued ? The expense of Simla being particularly heavy, is it 
desirable to recommend its continuance ? 

C d. Permanence or Temporary continuance. — For how long a period would 
it be desirable to continue each station seriatim ? Should any one 
or more be permanent ? 

C e. Observers and Assistants. — Should the force of each observatory seria- 
tim be diminished or increased ? 

D a. Survey and Auxiliary Stations — Should any and what local surveys 
be recommended ? Should the observatories be given up, would any 
local surveys deserve recommendation ? Should the observations 



12 REPORT — 1845. 

of travellers be encouraged, and how? — by publication of their re- 
sults ? At whose expense ? Are there any extensive tracts of sea 
in which nautical surveys (Magnetic and Meteorological) would be 
desirable ? 
D b. Auxiliary Stations. — By what means can chains or triangles of stations 
of meteorological observation be best encouraged or effected ? 
Should any attempt be made to carry out such a chain of posts 
northward from Toronto ? 

E. Problems Solved and to be Solved. 

Is it the opinion of the conference that the laiu of diurnal change of the 
magnetic elements may be considered as satisfactorily ascertained for any and 
what station ? 

Is the law of daily range (disturbances excepted) of the magnetic elements 
or any of them made out ? 

Is the law of annual (periodical) fluctuation made out? Is its dependence 
on temperature ? — on evaporation ? — on precipitation ? — distinctly ascer- 
tained ? 

Is the direction and amount of secular change for any and what station made 
out? 

Is Toronto favourably or unfavourably situated for, — 1 st, the determination 
of the maximum or minimum quantity of dip, and has it been determined ? 
2ndly, for the epoch of the turning point of dip, and has that been ascertained, 
or in how many years could it be ascertained, or is it now possible to ascer- 
tain it at all ? 

Has any correspondence in the magnitude and direction of great disturb- 
ances been perceived in very distant stations? 

Are days of great disturbance general though the particular phases differ 
in different localities ? 

Shall we, at the end of 1845, be in possession of data for computing the 
Gaussian constants for 1842-4-3, in virtue of the totality of observations 
made or to be made up to that time ? 

If not, is there a reasonable prospect that in a given time, say three or four 
years more, by proceeding as at present with observatories and surveys, we 
shall be so ? 

Have the disturbance observations as yet manifested any intelligible con- 
nexion with aurora further than that certain auroras do and certain do not 
affect the needle ? 

Have the observations hitherto made held out any appearance of connexion 
with any other cause ? 

In Meteorology. — Has any striking discovery been elicited by the observa- 
tions made, either at fixed stations or in the progress of the Antarctic ex- 
pedition besides that of the lower barometric pressure already noticed ? 

Has M. Dove's resolution of barometric fluctuation into two elements 
received any confirmation ? 

F. Particular Suggestions deserving Consideration. 

Is it desirable that meteorological registers made at sea in toto — or re- 
duced — should be published ? 

Would it be desirable if practicable to publish monthly or quarterly returns? 

Would it be advisable to procure from the Royal Society, or other quarters 
where meteorological observations are published, extra copies of these alone 
for circulation among meteorologists ? and how are they to be circulated ? 
and who to bear the expense ? 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL. OBSERVATIONS. 13 

Would it be advisable to recommend to the General Committee to appoint 
M. Erman to act as a committee to superintend the calculation of the 
Gaussian constants for 1829, with a grant of £50 per annum for two years 
according to his proposal ? 

Would it be advisable to accept M. Dove's offer to reduce one station's 
meteorological observations in the mode proposed by him, and to call on 
other members or others who may be disposed to follow his example, and to 
request them to act as a committee with or without money at disposal to do so 
on the system to be proposed by M. Dove ? 

Is there any one ready to undertake a climatology of England according 
to M. Dove's suggestion ? 

Professor Bache proposes general hourly observations for a year all over 
America, to commence a year hence [ ? exact day . . .], would it be right to 
call upon private observers or public bodies to do the same in Europe, and 
in that case to guarantee their publication ? 

Is there any decided improvement capable of being suggested in the mode 
of publication of the colonial observations? 

Your Committee further report, that they have expended out of the grant 
of £50 placed at their disposal the amount of £16 16*. 8d., and request a 
continuance of the grant. 

Signed on the part of the Committee, 

J. F. W. HERSCHEL. 



Appendix. 



I. Circular addressed by Sir John Herschel, on the part of the Com- 
mittee appointed to conduct the co-operation of the British Asso- 
ciation in the system of Magnetical and Meteorological Observa- 
tions. 

December 5, 1844. 

Sir, — It being understood that the term for which the British Government 
and East India Company have pledged their support of the British magnetic 
and meteorological establishments expires with the year 1845, so that, unless re- 
newed, the British co-operation in those observations, on its present extensive 
footing, will cease with the expiration of that year ; — and the Committee of 
the British Association for the advancement of Science, appointed to conduct 
the co-operation of the Association in that system of observations, having to 
make, at the next meeting of the Association in June 1845, a general report 
on the progress made and the objects accomplished by the several establish- 
ments in Europe and elsewhere (so far as they shall be in possession of the 
necessary information), in which report this circumstance will necessarily 
be adverted to, they request the favour of your consideration of and reply to 
the following inquiries. 

1st. Whether in your judgement there are any, and if so, what important 
objects to be accomplished by a continuance of the existing establishments 
for a longer period, — executing as at present both systematic and simultane- 
ous observations, or either class to the exclusion of the other ? 

2nd. Do you consider that private research has to any useful and valuable 
degree been stimulated by the example of the government establishments in 
Europe and elsewhere, and that science has thereby received material con- 
tributions which would probably not otlierwise have arisen ? and can you state 
instances ? 



14 REPORT — 1845. 

3rd. In case of the continuance of the observatories beyond 1845, would 
you be disposed to recommend any, and what modifications, extensions or 
alterations in the system of observing, or in the apparatus to be employed ? 

The full and free communication of your views in reply to these inquiries and 
on every part of the general subject, is very particularly requested ; and the 
Committee will also gladly be informed whether you will object to your reply 
to this letter being printed entire, or in part (by extracts) for mutual circula- 
tion, in continuance of this correspondence, should it appear to the Committee 
to be necessary. 

They further request that you will so time your reply that it may reach 
London before the 10th of March 1845, and tiiat you will address it by post to 
Lieut.-Colonel Sabine, R.A., 
Woolwich, 
Magnetic Committee. England. 

Before the end of the current year, the first volume of the Observations at 
the British government stations, and the second of those at Greenwich, will 
be forwarded to you. A volume of extraordinary magnetic disturbances at 
the former stations, and the first volume of the Greenwich Observations, have 
already been so forwarded, and it is hoped duly received. 

I have the honour to be, with the highest consideration, 
Sir, your very obedient servant, 

J. F. W. Herschel, 
On the part of the Committee. 

THE LETTERS WHICH FOLLOW ARE REPLIES TO THE ABOVE 

CIRCULAR. 

II. Professor Wilhelm Weber to Colonel Sabine. 

Leipzic, 1845, February 20. 

HocHGEEHRTER Herr, — Ich wciss, dassichlhnen auf die vom Magnetic 
Committee vorgelegten Fragen keine Antwort geben kann, welche irgend 
wichtige und neue Notizen fiir Sie enthielte ; dennoch verfehle ich nicht, der 
mir gewordenen Aufforderung zu entsprechen, indem ich Ihnen ganz anheim 
stelle ob und welchen Gebrauch Sie davon machen wollen. 

I. Wir setzen wohl AUe das Vertrauen in diejenigen Regierungen, welche 
zur Begrundung systematischer magnetischer Beobachtungen auf der Erd- 
oberflache beigetragen haben, dass sie auch den regelmdssigen Fortgang dieser 
systematischen Beobachtungen fiir die Zukunft sichern werden. In diesem 
Vertrauen habe auch icii die Errichtung eines magnetischen Observatoriums 
kiirzlich noch hier in Leipzig betrieben. Das in den ersten 6 Jahren ausge- 
fiihrte System von Beobachtungen ist ein sehr umfassendes gewesen, welches 
darauf berechnet war aUe7i Forderungen zu geniigen, sowohl denen welche 
aus der bleibenden Avfgabe entspringen, zu deren Losung jedes Jahr und jedes 
Zeitalter seinen Beitrag liefern soil, als auch denen, welche in einer Menge 
voriibergehender oder ein fiir allemal zu Icisender Aufgaben begriindet waren. 
Welche Aufgaben der letzteren Art nach Ablauf der ersten 6 Jahre nun 
schon als voUkommen gelost und erledigt betrachtet werden diirlen, dariiber 
steht uns hier noch kein Urtheil zu ; aber die Magnetic Committee wird 
vielleicht jetzt schon ein Urtheil dariiber aus den ihr allein vorliegenden Ma- 
terialien fallen konnen. Es muss daher der Magnetic Committee die Ent- 
scheidung iiberlassen bleiben, welche Forderungen in Betreff jener Art vor- 
iibergehender Aufgaben an die Zukunft noch iibrig bleiben, und ich beschranke 
mich auf eine Antwort darauf, ob die bleibende Aufgabe fiir sich allein die 
fernere Beibehaltung des ganzen Beobachtungs- Systems erfordere, welches 



ON MAGNKTICAIi AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 15 

fiir die ersten 6 Jahre angenommen worden war. Wenn es sich kiinftig 
einmal nur noch um die stets hleibende Aufgabe handelt, namlich 

von Jahr zu Jahr die Veranderungen genau zu bestimnien, welche in den 

vier und zwanzig (kiinftig vielleicht 35) Elementen der Erdmagnetismus- 

Theorie Platz nehmen 
so werden wie icii glaube dann betrachtliche Reductionen in dem obigen sehr 

umfassenden Systerae vorgenommen werden diirfen. 

Nothwendig fiir diese bleibende Aufgabe scheint mir 

1. Die Erhaltung aller Observatorien auf entfernten Stationen ausser Europa; 

2. Die regelmassige (monatliche) Wiederholung aller absoluten Messungen in 
alien diesen Observatorien. 

Nicht nothivendig fiir diese bleibende Aufgabe betraehte ich dagegen. 

1. Die bisherigen Termins-Beobachtungen — die vielleicht kiinftig auf die 
europaischen Stationen beschrankt werden diirften ; 

2. Die zweistiindigen taglichen Beobachtuugen — die sich dann vielleicht auf 
achtstiindige reduciren liessen. 

Kurz es scheint mir moglich, wenn man wirklich so Aveit gelangt ist, dass 
bloss die bleibende Aufgabe noch in Riicksicht kommt, das System der Beo- 
bachtungen in der Art zu vereinfachen, dass Ein wohl unterrichtetes und 
geiibter Beobachter aufjedem Observatorium geniigt und keines Assistenten 
bedarf. Ein solches beschrankteres System von Beobachtungen muss stets 
ununterbrochen fortgesetzt werden, wenn die Geschichte des Erdmagnetismus 
kein blosses Stlickwerk bleiben soil und wenn die darauf beruhenden magne- 
tischen Karten diejenige Pracision und Planmassigkeit erlangen soUen, welche 
sie fiir die Praxis so niitzlich machen wiirden. 

II. Was den miltelbaren Erfolg betrifft, welcher die systematische Betreib- 
ung der magnetischen Beobachtungen durch Anregung und Forderung an- 
derer wissenchaftlicher Bestrebungen gehabt habe, so lassen sich zwar diese 
Wirkungen schon jetzt nicht verkennen, doch bedijrfen dieselben Zeit zu 
weiterer Entfaltung, bevor man ihren ganzen Urafang und ihre voile Wich- 
tigkeit iibersehen kann. 

In Deutschland z. B. existirten bisher blosse Sammlungen physikalischer 
Instrumente ohne feste Einrichtungen zu ihrer Benutzung, es gab keine phy- 
sikalischen Laboratorien und Observatorien. Solche Laboratorien und Obser- 
vatorien, welche fiir die Fortschritte der Wissenschaftunentbehrlich geworden 
sind, fangen jetzt an zu entstehen, und die den magnetischen Beobachtungen 
gemachten Bewilligungen geben dabei einen festen und sicheren StUtzpunct, 
wie ich aus eigener Erfahrung bezeugen kann. Seitdem ferner die magne- 
tischen Beobachtungen ihre neuere Ausbildung und Vollendung gewonnen 
haben, haben wir in Deutschland mehrfach begonnen, die galvanischen Beo- 
bachtungen analogen Principien zu unterwerfen und wir haben auch dafiir 
absolute Maase eingef iihrt. Fiir alle diese Untersuchungen bilden aber die 
magnetischen Beobachtungen nothwendige Elemente, die dabei als gegeben 
betrachtet werden miissen. Die magnetischen Beobachtungen sind daher 
nicht bloss zur Erforschung des Erdmagnetismus nothwendig, sondern sie sind 
jetzt auch ein wichtiges Element i'ViVviele andere physikalische Untersuchung- 
en geworden. An unseren Universitaten wird eudlich die Wichtigkeit im- 
mer mehr erkannt, welche die Bildung exacfer JVatur- Beobachter fiir die 
Wissenschaft und fiir das practische Leben hat. Bisher bot nur die Astro- 
nomic eine sehr einseitige Gelegenheit zur Bildung feiner Beobachter dar, 
welche nur von Wenigen benutzt werden konnte. Die Erfahrung hat be- 
wiesen, dass magnetische Observatorien zu vortrefflichen Bildungs-Anstalten 
fiir Beobachter dienen konnen. 

III. Was die Instrumente betrijBft, so scheint mir, wenn die bisherigen Re- 



16 REPORT 1845. 

sultate den Erwartungen der Magnetic Committee entsprechen sollten, kein 
Grund zu einer Aenderung voi'zuliegen ; selbst aber wenn hie und da die 
Erwartungen der Magnetic Committee in den Resultaten sich getiiuscht 
fiinden, wiirde ich doch die Uberzeugung hegen, dass die Schuld davon (die 
verticalen Variationen ausgenommen) nicht in den Instrumenten, sondern in 
Mangel kunstgerechter Behandlung einzelner Beobachter zu suchen sei; und 
dass daher durch Vertiiuschung der Instrumente die Sache eher verschlim- 
mert als verbessert werden mcichte, weil jeder neue Instrument eine neue 
kunstgerechte Behandlung fordern wiirde. Mir scheint es in jeder Beziehung 
rathsam, die bisherigen Instrumente im Wesentlichen beizubehalten. Doch 
wiirde ich es fiir sehr niitzlich halten, wenn haufiger die Gelegenheit be- 
nutzt wiirde, dass Magnetstabe, deren Schwingungsdauer(und Temperatur) in 
dem einen magnetischen Observatorium genau geniessen worden ware, nach 
einem anderen Observatorium versandt m urden, um ihre Schwingungsdauer 
audi dort messen zu lassen, und umgekehrt. Es wiirde dadurch eine Con- 
trole fiir die absoluten Intensitjitsmessungen gewonnen werden, welche von 
Wichtigkeit wiire so lange man noch nicht uberall auf eine ganz zuverlassige 
Ausfiihrung der absoluten Messungen soUte trauen konnen. 

Ich benutze diese Gelegenheit, Ihnen, Hochgeehrter Herr, meinen Dank 
fur den Empfang des Isten Bandes Observations on days of unusual Mag- 
netic Disturbance, fiir mich sowohl als fiir das hiesige Observatorium auszu- 
sprechen; dagegen bemerke ich, dass die anderen im Schreiben des Magnetic 
Committee genannten Biicher mir bisher nicht zugekommen sind, namlich 
the 1st and the 2nd volume of the Greenwich Observations, and the 1st 
volume of the Observations at the Government Stations. 

Mit wahrer Hochachtung 

Ihr stets ergebenster, 

WiLHELM Weber. 

( Translation.) 

Leipsic, February 20, 1845. 

Dear Sir, — I know that I cannot return any answers to the questions pro- 
posed by the Magnetic Committee which shall contain any important matter 
new to you ; I will not however omit to send a reply, leaving it to yourself to 
make use of it or not in any way you may see fit. 

I. We have all confidence in those governments who have aided in esta- 
blishing systematic magnetic observations over the surface of the earth, that 
they will assure the regular continuance of these systematic observations for 
the future. In this confidence I have recently promoted the establishment of 
a magnetic observatory here in Leipsic. The system of observation executed 
during the first six years has been a very comprehensive one, calculated to 
satisfy all demands, both those which arise out of the permane7it problem to 
the solution of which every year and every epoch ought to furnish its share, 
and also those which had respect to a number of temporal-?/ pi-oblems, or such 
as may be solved once for all. In regard to this latter class of problems, we 
have here no means of judging which of them may be already considered as 
completely satisfied and solved by means of the work of the first six years ; 
but the Magnetic Committee may perhaps already possess tlie materials on 
which to found such a judgement. It must therefore remain for them to de- 
cide what demands may still remain to be satisfied in respect to the tempo- 
raiy problems referred to ; I confine myself to the consideration w-hether the 
continuation of the whole observation system adopted for the first six years 
is i-equired for the permanent problem only, this problem being, 

To determine accurately, year by year, the changes taking place in the 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 17 

twenty-four (perhaps in future thirty-five) elements of the ' Erdmagne- 
tismus-Theorie.' 
I believe that as far as this object is concerned considerable reductions may 
be made in the above very comprehensive system. 

It appears to me necessary for the permanent problem, — 

1st. To preserve all the observatories at remote stations out of Europe ; 

2nd. To repeat regularly (every month) all absolute measurements at all 

these observatories. 
I consider it unnecessary for this object to continue, — 
1st. The term observations, which "may perhaps in future be confined to 

European stations ; 
2nd. The two-hourly daily observations, which may perhaps be reduced to 

eight-hourly. 
In short, it seems to me that, supposing we have really been so successful 
that nothing but the permanent problem remains, we may so far simplify our 
system that one well-instructed and practised observer at each observatory 
will suffice and will need no assistants. Such a limited system of observation 
must be constantly continued without interruption, if the history of terrestrial 
magnetism is to be no mere fragmentary work ; and if the magnetic maps 
based upon it are to possess that precision and conformity to system which 
would make them so useful in praxis. 

II. In regard to the indirect results which the systematic prosecution of 
magnetic observations may have had in exciting and furthering other scien- 
tific efforts, such effects are already unmistakeably recognizable, but they re- 
quire time for their further development before their whole extent and full 
importance can be seen. In Germany, for example, there existed hitherto 
mere collections of physical instruments without arrangements for their use ; 
there were no physical laboratories and observatories : these, which are be- 
come indispensable to the progress of science, are now beginning to arise, and 
for this the arrangements made for magnetic observations afford a solid and 
secure point d'appui, as I can testify from my own experience. Further, 
since magnetic observations have received their recent improvement and com- 
pleteness, we have begun in several places in Germany to subject galvanic 
observations to analogous principles, and have introduced for them also abso- 
lute measure ; but for all these researches magnetic observations afford neces- 
sary elements which must be regarded as data. Magnetic observations are 
therefore not only necessary for terrestrial magnetism, but are besides now 
become an important element ybr many other physical investigations. There 
is at our universities a growing recognition of the importance, both for science 
and for practical life, of forming exact observers of nature. Hitherto astro- 
nomy alone has afforded a very partial opportunity for the formation of fine 
observers, of which few could avail themselves. Experience has shown that 
magnetic observatories may serve as excellent training-schools in this respect. 

III. In regard to instruments, it appears to me that if the results obtained 
shall be found to correspond to the expectations of the Magnetic Committee, 
there will be no ground for alteration ; and even if these expectations shall 
have been occasionally disappointed, I should yet be persuaded that (except 
in regard to vertical variations) the cause would be found to be not in the 
instruments, but in the unskilful handling of particular observers, aud that 
a change of instruments would be likely to do more harm than good, as every 
new instrument requires a new skilful mode of handling. In every point of 
view it seems to me advisable to retain the present instruments without ma- 
terial alteration. But I should think it very desirable to take more frequent 
opportunities of sending magnetic bars, whose time of vibration (and correc- 

1845. c 



18 REPORT — 1845. 

tion for temperature) had been exactly determined at one observatory, to 
other observatories where the time of vibration should be also determined and 
the bars sent back ; thus affording a check on the absolute measurements of 
intensity, which is of importance until we can confide entirely in the thoroughly 
good execution of the absolute measurements at all the stations. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my thanks, botli for myself and for the 
observatory at this place, for the first volume of 'Observations on Days of un- 
usual Magnetic Disturbance : ' the other works mentioned in the letter of the 
Magnetic Committee, viz. the first and second volumes of the 'Greenwich Ob- 
servations,' and the first volume of the 'Observations at the Government Sta- 
tions,' have not yet reached me. 

With sincere esteem, always yours, 

WiLHELM Weber. 



III. From M. Kupffer, Director- General of the Magnetic Observatories in 
Russia, to Sir John Herschel. 

Monsieur le President, — En riponse a votre lettre du 5 Decembre 1844, 
j'ai I'honneur de vous adresser les remarques suivantes sur les trois points y 
contenus : 

1°. Selon moi, nous ne sorames, relativement a nos connaissances magne- 
tiques, qu'a I'entree d'une nouvelle carriere, d'un nouveau champ d'exploita- 
tion, qui s'etend indefinement devant nous. Voici effectivement, en peu de 
mots, ce que nous savons deja par nos observations, et ce que nous ne pou- 
vons apprendre que par des observations ulterieures. 

Nous possedons une excellente methode pour determiner la declinaison 
absolue et ses variations, et nous avons etudie avec un soin extreme cet ele- 
ment important du magnetisme terrestre ; nous avons constate et determine 
plus exactement les rapports intimes qui existent entre les variations offertes 
par la position de I'aiguille sur des points tres distans de la surface terrestre ; 
nous trouverons peut-etre meme deja, par une discussion plus approfondie de 
nos observations, les lois qui regissent ces phenomenes, et les causes aux 
quelles on pent les attribuer. Mais nous sommes bien eloignes de poss6der 
des methodes aussi exactes pour I'observation des deux autres elemens du 
magnetisme terrestre. Nous savons bien determiner la valeur absolue de 
I'intensite et ses variations, dans leur composante horizontale, mais I'observa- 
tion de la valeur absolue de I'intensite totale et de I'inclinaison, et de leurs 
variations ont encore offert des obstacles insurniontables aux efforts les plus 
perseverans. D'un autre cote, il n'y a pas lieu de renoncer a I'espoir de re- 
ussir prochainement; la theorie des inductions electriques nous ouvre une 
nouvelle route et une perspective de succes. 

Outre cela, nos observations memes nous ont fait voir, d'une maniere non 
douteuse, que la marche de I'aiguille presente, a cote des phenomenes gene- 
raux, dont la simultaneite sur une grande portion de la surface terrestre a et6 
demontree par des observations anterieures, des irregularites locales, dont la 
cause nous est encore entierement iuconnue et dont les rapports probables 
avec les phenomenes meteorologiques sont encore a decouvrir. 

II y a done encore beaucoup a faire et la matiere est bien loin d'etre epui- 
see ; il me semble au contraire, que la solution du probleme, que nous nous 
sommes propose, n'a ete qu'ebauchee. 

Mais qu'y a-t-il encore a faire ? La rapidite de notre marche nous a em- 
peche de regarder en arriere, nous ne savons pas encore bien nous memes, a 
quels resultats nous sommes arrives ; une reunion des observateurs les plus 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 19 

actifs et les plus influens, qui ont pris part a notre entreprise, est devenu in- 
dispensable, pour discuter la marche a suivre. 

k°. Pour repondre a cette question, il sera necessaire d'etablir avant tout 
le point de vue, dont la science en general est envisagee par notre gouverne- 
ment. En Angleterre, la science a eclaire d'abord, et regie ensuite la marche 
d'une civilisation indigene, elle en est le resultat et la fleur pour ainsi dire, et 
reclame le secours du gouverneraent dans quelques cas seulement, ou il y a 
de tres fortes depenses a faire. La Russie, etant venue plus tard, a pu pro- 
fiter du travail intellectuel de toute I'Europe, elle a re^u chez elle la science 
toute faite, comme une chose, dont I'utiiite est generalement reconnue, et 
comme un des plus beaux ornemens de sa grandeur. Voila pourquoi le 
gouverneraent russe cherche les hommes de science et est pour ainsi dire 
jaloux que rien de vraiment utile et bon ne se fasse en dehors de son influence. 
11 est facile de comprendre I'avantage de ce principe ; il y a unitg partout et 
11 n'y a jamais double emploi ; la science n'est pas la seule a y gagner, I'etat y 
gagne aussi, parceque les memes choses se font plus rapidement, plus sure- 
ment et avec moins de depenses. 

II n'est done pas etonnant qu'il n'y a que fort peu d'hommes prives, qui se 
soient occupes d'observations meteorologiques, et pas un, qui ait consacr6 
une partie de ses moyens et de son temps aux observations magnetiques. 
Mr. Anatole Demidoff' a Stabli un observatoire meteorologique a Nigeney- 
tagnilsk dans I'Oural; Mr. Ougritchitch-Trebinsky, directeur de la douane a 
Taganrog, fait des observations meteorologiques a 23 pieds au dessus du ni- 
veau de la mer noire ; nous avons plusieurs annees d'observations thermome- 
triques faites a Yakoutzk par le Sieur NeverofF negociant ; un autre, simple 
agriculteur, le Sieur Semenoff fait des observations meteorologiques tres com- 
pletes a Koursk (midi de la Russie) ; Mr. Kalk en fait a Baltischport ; plu- 
sieurs medecins en font dans ies lieux respectifs de leurs residences. II est 
en general facile de voir, que le gout des observations meteorologiques a fait 
de grands progres en Russie, depuis I'etablissement de nos observatoires mag- 
netiques et meteorologiques, qui, d'ailleurs, date deja chez nous de 1835; 
I'archive meteorologique de I'Academie des Sciences, dans lequel se concen- 
trent toutes les observations meteorologiques faites hors de notre entreprise 
magnetique, contient deja des series plus ou moins completes de 75 points, 
situes dans toute I'etendue de I'Empire. II faut encore dire que le gouverne- 
ment a bien fourni des instrumens a presque toutes ces stations, mais toujours 
sur la demande des personnes qui ont voulu se charger de ces observations, 
et qu'il n'a donne aucune retribution personnelle. 

3°. Quant aux modifications, qu'il y aurait a faire au plan des observations 
je crois qu'une convocation de tous les directeurs generaux (un representant 
au moins pour chaque pays) : et d'autant de directeurs speciaux, qu'il sera 
possible de reunir, est- indispensable, pour discuter a fond cette importante 
question. Je pense que la reunion de I'Association Britannique a Cambridge, 
qui aura lieu cette annee, ofFre une excellente occasion, qu'il ne faut pas 
laisser passer. 

En vous priant, Monsieur de bien vouloir communiquer ces remarques au 
Comite, dont vous etes le president, et en vous autorisant de les faire impri- 
mer, si vous le jugez convenable, j'ai I'honneur d'etre avec la consideration la 
plus distinguee et les horamages les plus alFectueux. 

Votre tout devoue, 

A. T. KUPFFER, 

Directeur-general des Cbservatoires Magiietiques 
23 de I'Empire de Rassie. 



St, Petersbourg, ce — Fevrier, 1845, 



c 2 



20 REPORT — 1845. 

IV. From Professor Loomis of Neio York University to Lieut.- Col. Sabine. 

New York University, Feb. 28, 1845. 

Dear Sir, — Having been invited to express my opinion respecting the im- 
portance of continuing the establishments so Hberally set on foot by the 
British government for magnetic and meteorological observations, while I 
admire the liberal policy of the government in what has already been done, 
I do not hesitate to express it as my conviction, that the immediate abandon- 
ment of these establishments would prove highly prejudicial to the cause of 
science. The present combined movement for magnetic observations had for 
its object the discovery of the cmise of all terrestrial magnetic phsenomena. 
This was to be accomplished by simultaneous observations of each of the 
magnetic elements at numerous stations scattered over the globe. The 
observations however must not only be made, tiiey must all be brought to- 
gether, compared, discussed, interrogated, before we can know what lan- 
guage they speak ; they must be published and placed in the hands of all who 
are interested in the subject. The observations themselves constitute but the 
raw material; they are of little value until they are reduced, and it is dis- 
covered what general truths can be derived from them. 

But it may be asked, whether, having made our observations, we may not 
now safely pause until we have ascertained what results they are to furnish ? 
To this there are numerous objections ; one of which is, that to suspend tem- 
porarily the present system of observations, would in many cases lead to their 
entire abandonment. But have not observations already been made sufficient 
to secure the object originally proposed ? I presume no one is ready to 
answer this question in the affirmative. It commonly happens in experimental 
research, that after a series of fortunate experiments which have shed light 
on what was before shrouded in mystery, a careful comparison of all the ex- 
periments suggests some new combination, which, like an experimentum crucis, 
would enable us finally to decide between conflicting theories. It is not 
reasonable to anticipate any better success in our magnetic researches. A 
discussion of the past observations will suggest plausible explanations which 
are consistent perhaps M'ith all the observed phaenomena ; but to preclude all 
objections, it may be necessary to observe the phenomena under varied cir- 
cumstances ; perhaps at new stations peculiarly situated, perhaps with pecu- 
liar instruments. To abandon the present system, therefore, before a thorough 
discussion has been undertaken of the observations already made, may be to 
stop short in the race when the prize is just within our reach. Let the obser- 
vations be published as rapidly as possible, let them be freely circulated. 
When the object for which the observatories were founded has been shown to 
be attained, then let them be dismantled. But suppose they are abandoned 
forthwith, and after a comparison of all the observations, we arrive at the pro- 
bable clue to all the phaenomena of terrestrial magnetism ; but still some doubt 
remains, which however might probably be cleared up by a further continu- 
ance of the observations, with perhaps some slight modifications suggested by 
experience. Should we not condemn that ill-judged ceconomy, which, after 
forming a liberal plan for the accomplishment of a glorious end, stopped short 
in its execution before ascertaining whether or not the object in view had been 
attained ? Surely it is the dictate of wisdom to hold on to the present posi- 
tions until we have ascertained whether the enemy has really surrendered ; 
and if he still holds out, let us inquire whether a different system of tactics 
would not promise better success. Let us not then abandon our present posts 
until we ascertain that our objects are accomplished, or until it is clear that 
success is not to be expected. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 21 

In the progress of my own researches, I have been particularly impressed 
with the importance of the observatory at Toronto. In an article published 
in the ' American Journal of Science,' vol. xliii. p. 93, I attempted to deter- 
mine the annual change of dip in the United States ; I found the materials 
for this investigation exceedingly meagre. It is of the utmost importance 
that there should be a few central stations where the mean annual motions of 
all the magnetic elements are accurately measured, as only in this way can 
observations made at scattered stations be reduced to a common epoch. 

The meteorological observations made at Toronto are perhaps no less im- 
portant than the magnetic. Having lately undertaken to investigate two storms 
which occurred in February 184"^, my attention has been particularly called 
to this subject. I collected observations as far as practicable from every part 
of the United States and the adjoining British possessions. The observations 
at Toronto were pre-eminent for their accuracy and completeness ; they were 
made every two hours of the twenty-four, whereas at few other stations were 
there more than three or four daily observations. I attempted to analyse the 
phaenomena on a somewhat novel plan, which rendered the utmost accuracy 
desirable in all the observations of the barometer, thermometer, wind, &c. 
It is believed that a continuance of these observations promises important re- 
sults to the science of meteorology. Observers are now organized all over 
the United States, so that any storm which is embraced within our limits can 
be pretty fully investigated. But our great winter storms, whose features are 
the most strongly marked, and which are therefore best suited to inquiries of 
this kind, are of vast dimensions. On the morning of Feb. 3, 1842, rain was 
falling throughout nearly every portion of the United States, from an unknown 
distance in the Atlantic to far beyond the Mississippi, and from the Gulf of 
Mexico northward to an unknown distance beyond Lake Superior. The area 
upon which rain is ascertained to have been simultaneously falling was more 
than 1400 miles in a north and south direction. Now in order to exhibit a 
complete analysis of a storm, we need observations embracing its wlioJe extent, 
otherwise we are obliged to supply deficiencies by conjecture. But almost all 
our great winter storms project over the British possessions on the north of us 
to an unknown extent ; that is, it is seldom we have an opportunity to inves- 
tigate the phasnomena of a great storm on its northern limit. The storms ex- 
tend northward beyond our present posts of observation. We have one station 
at Sault St. Mary, latitude 46° 29' N., but this is not sufficiently remote. We 
want a chain of meteorological posts extending indefinitely northward from 
the great lakes across the British possessions. There is nothing which would 
hold out a prospect of so rich a harvest to American meteorology as the 
establishment of such a chain of posts ; this can only be effected through the 
agency of the British government. It would be desirable to have stations at 
intervals of 100 miles extending northward to the furthest outpost of civiliza- 
tion. Ten pounds will provide a station with instruments, and with a little 
pains-taking, competent men might probably be found to make the observa- 
tions gratuitously. The United States are admirably situated for a grand 
meteorological crusade. We have here a vast territory, covered by a popu- 
lation all speaking the same language. We have more than a hundred ob- 
servers who are now keeping registers, besides the observations at sixty mili- 
tary posts, mostly situated on the frontier. With a generous cooperation on 
the part of the British government in procuring registers from their extensive 
possessions north of the United States, our own observers would be inspired 
with new enthusiasm, and we might speedily hope for richer conquests than 
have been hitherto known in the domain of meteorology. Moreover, the pro- 
gress made in American meteorology is not exclusively of local value ; a law 



22 REPORT — 1845. 

of nature in America must be a law in Europe ; so that every new principle 
here developed is the common property of the scientific world. 

With much respect I remain, yours truly, 

Elias Loomis. 



V. Dr. Lamont, Director of the Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory 
at Munich, to Lieut.- Col. Sabine. 

Munich, March 1, 1845. 

My dear Sir, — In reply to the letter addressed to me by the Committee 
of the British Association appointed to conduct the cooperation of the Asso- 
ciation with regard to magnetic observatories, I have in the first place to 
regret, that, with the exception of one volume of the ' Greenwich Observa- 
tions,' and the first part of the ' Observations on Days of unusual Magnetic 
Disturbance,' no observations made at the British or colonial observatories 
have come to my knowledge ; and though from the dispositions that have 
been made I have no doubt that the results will be found to answer the dif- 
ferent purposes of theoretical investigation, yet I cannot consider myself en- 
titled to express as yet any positive opinion on the subject*. 

The same question however that is now to be decided by the Committee of 
the British Association, viz. whether and in what manner the magnetic obser- 
vations ought to be continued after 1 845, 1 have been for some time consider- 
ing myself with regard to our own observatory, and after a careful review of 
our results, and others that have come to my knowledge, I have resolved on 
the following plan : — 

1 . At the end of this year I will give up the present system of two-hourly 
observations, and will make only three or four observations a-day ; the times 
of observation to be disposed in such a manner as will seem most advan- 
tageous for obtaining the daily range and the monthly means. As for the 
term days, they were observed at Munich only to the end of 1842, and then 
discontinued, from the reasons I mentioned in my report to the Academy 
(published in the ' Gelehrte Anzeigen') ; the same reasons are also mentioned 
in the ' Bulletins de 1' Academic Royale de Bruxelles' (vol. x. p. i. 178). 

2. I will determine the absolute values of the different magnetic elements 
from time to time as has been done hitherto, both in the observatory and its 
immediate vicinity, and will endeavour to extend my observations to other 
parts of the country as far as circumstances will permit. 

3. Investigations respecting the construction of instruments and the methods 
of observation will be continued. It would, in my opinion, be a great advan- 
tage to science, and is also I believe possible, to render the results less liable 
to error and the methods more simple than they now are. 

4. I will endeavour to have the magnetic observatory kept exactly in its 
present state with regard to the instruments and their arrangement, in order 
that, if anv circumstance be afterwards found to have influence on the obser- 
vations, the amount may be determined and the results corrected. Causes of 
error might yet be discovered, the effects of which it would be impossible to 
determine, except with the same instrument and in the same place. 

I have given this account of the system I myself intend to pursue, in order 
that the Committee may judge how far it might seem expedient to arrange the 
British and colonial observatories for two or three years to come on a similar 
plan, reducing at the same time the personal establishment to one or two as- 
sistants besides the director. On computing my own observations and those 

* Dr. Lamont's opinion on this subject is contained in a subsequent letter, No. XVII. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 23 

of different other places, I have lately remarked a circumstance that seems 
to me in the present discussion not unworthy of attention, viz. that the form 
of the daily curves, as given by the monthly means, is nearly the same every 
year, while the magnitude of the curves or the mean daily range differs con- 
siderably from one year to another ; thus, for instance, the curve representing 
the daily changes of declination for the month of August 184-1 resembles very 
nearly the curve of the same month in 1842, but the ordinates in the former 
year are much greater ; in other words, the law according to which the sun 
produced the daily changes was the same in both years, but the force (repre- 
sented by the ordinates, the greatest of which is equal to the daily range) was 
not the same. On this account the daily range may be considered as the 
most important magnetic element ; and what is most likely to lead us to a dis- 
covery of the causes of magnetic phaenomena is a careful investigation of the 
circumstances (probably meteorological) on which the daily range depends. 
Similar considerations apply to the secular changes, which present remarkable 
irregularities from one month to another ; these irregularities (not the secular 
change itself) are probably connected with the same or similar causes as the 
differences of the daily range. I intend, as I mentioned before, that the ob- 
servations of our establishment shall be for some years to come particularly 
directed to these points ; and I am inclined to suppose that a similar system, 
if followed in the British and colonial observatories, would prove not only in 
this, but also in other respects, beneficial to the magnetic inquiry. The daily 
work of magnetic observatories has been hitherto so considerable, that little 
time was afforded for different minute investigations, that nevertheless are of 
great importance for the final results. By diminishing the daily work as I 
have mentioned, ample time will be afforded for various investigations respect- 
ing instruments, methods and probable errors ; the different methods of deter- 
mining the absolute horizontal force and inclination may be tried and the 
results compared ; the constants of the instruments may be determined by 
repeated experiments and the probable errors ascertained ; experiments may 
be made to determine the effects of the temperature and moisture of the air 
on the suspension, the difference between the temperature indicated by the 
thermometer of the bifilar and the true temperature of the bar, together with 
the corrections depending on this difference, &c. Besides, if the observations 
(which I would think it important to publish with as little delay as possible) 
should at any place show anomalies or peculiarities, new observations may be 
made to any extent that may seem necessary for obtaining a decisive result. 
These I believe are the considerations that may be urged for continuing all 
the magnetic establishments as they now are, but on a reduced scale. As to 
the question whether the present system of observations should be continued 
without alteration, I will simply express my opinion that I do not think it ad- 
visable, and will not attempt to give reasons for this opinion, because I believe 
1 agree on this point with all those who have taken active part in the mag- 
netic inquiry. 

There is one point alluded to in the letter of the Committee on which I 
will add a few words; I mean the powerful influence which the example of 
the British government has had in promoting in other countries the important 
branch of science now under consideration. A general interest in the pro- 
gress of science, and, above all, a willingness evinced in almost every country 
to take part in scientific enterprises that seem to require general cooperation, 
may be considei-ed as characteristic of the present time, at least the effects 
have not at any former period been so conspicuously manifested. A plan of 
great utility for science, if judiciously arranged and once realized to a certain 
extent, can scarcely fail to obtain not only the support of scientific men in 



24 REPORT — 1845. 

every quarter, but also the countenance of the governments, which in most 
countries is indispensable for every great undertaking. In establishing a 
chain of regular magnetic observatories to be extended over the different 
parts of the globe, the first and most powerful impulse was given in England ; 
and I think it may be justly asserted, that all that has been done in magnetism 
during the last six years is in some degree to be attributed to the example of 
the British government, and the zeal and energy with which the vast enter- 
prise, once resolved upon, was carried into effect. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, yours most sincerely, 

Lamont. 

P.S. I do not think that I have been able to answer satisfactorily any of 
the questions proposed by the Committee ; if however it were thought expe- 
dient to publish any part of this letter, I have no objection. 



VI. From Professor Dove of Berlin to LieuL-Col. Sabine. 

Berlin, Marz 1, 1845. 

Dear Sir, — Die Antwort auf die von Sir John Herschel mir vorge- 
legten Fragen habe ich deutsch beantwortet, da jeder sich in seiner Mutter- 
sprache wohl am praecisesten ausdriickt. Ich hoffe, dass sie noch zu rechter Zeit 
in London ankommen werden, obgleich seit einigen Tagen alle unsre Eisen- 
bahnen in Schnee vergraben sind und selbst vermittelst des Militars noch nicht 
haben frei gemacht werden konnen. Ich sage Ihnen meinen herzlichen Dank 
fiir die mir aiisserst interessante Schrift ' Meteorology of Toronto,' in der Sie 
so freundlich meiner Arbeiten gedacht haben. Auch danke ich Hr. Riddell 
freundichst fiir die iibersendeten Magnetical Instructions. Leider habe ich 
nichts entgegenzusenden, da der vierte Theil meines "Non-periodic Variations 
in the Distribution of Temperature on the surface of the Earth between 1729 
and IS-iS," erst im Laufe des Sommers erscheinen wird. 

In dem Briefe von Sir John Herschel erfahre ich, dass an mich a volume 
of Extraordinary Magnetic Disturbances at the British Government Stations, 
and the 1st volume of the ' Greenwich Observations' abgesendet worden sind, 
und dass ich the 1st volume of the ' Observations at the British Government 
Stations,' and the 2nd of those at Greenwich, erhalten werde. Leider habe ich 
nur die Magnetic Disturbances erhalten, wof iir ich meinen herzlichen Dank 
abstatte. 

Sollte es gewiinscht werden, dass ich an den Berechnungen der meteorolo- 
gischen Observationen Antheil nehme, so stelle ich meine Thatigkeit gern zur 
Disposition des Committee. 

Bei den non-periodic variations habe ich oft Gelegenheit gehabt, zu be- 
dauern,dass mir in England erschienene Beobachtungs-journale nicht zugiing- 
lich waren. Sollte es nicht raoglich seyn, dass jemand im Auftrage des Bri- 
tish Association eine Climatologie von England schreibe, in welche die mo- 
natliche Mittel der einzelnen Jahre der verschiedenen Beobachtungs-stationen 
abgedruckt wiirden, wozu meine Arbeit doch bereits eine Vorarbeit ist. Sollte 
es ferner nicht zweckmassig seyn, wenn meteorologische Journale, welche den 
Transactions der Learned Societies und den philosophical Journals beigedruckt 
werden, in mehr Exemplaren abgezogen wiirden um nachher als selbststandige 
Jahrgange in Druck zu kommen. Wie unendlich viel Zeit wiirde gewonnen 
werden, wenn man nicht mehr gezwungen ware sich jeden einzelnen Monat in 
einem besondern Bande aufzusuchen, der, wenn er in einer offentlichen Bi- 
bliothek gerade verliehen ist eine Arbeit oft Monate lang unterbricht. Ein 
von der British Association ausgehender Vorschlag wurde dann wohl auch in 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 25 

andern Landern Nachahmung findern, und man wurde in der Folge schneller 
die Wissenschaft durch Arbeiten iordern konnen. 

I have the honour to be, with the highest consideration, 

Your very obedient servant, H. W. Dove. 



Die Aufgabe, welche meteorologische Observatorien zu Idsen haben, ist eine 
dreifache, sie sollen die mittlern Werthe liefern, die empirischen Gesetze 
ihrer periodischen Verjinderungen, endlich Data an die Hand geben, um die 
gleichzeitige Verbreitung einer meteorologischen Erscheinung und ihr Fort- 
schreiteii liber die Oberflache der Erde auffinden zu konnen. 

Da die Mittel nur nach Elimination der periodischen Veranderungen 
erhalten werden konnen, so kommt es zunachst auf die Feststellung dieser 
an. Dazu sind stLindliche Beobachtungen unerlasslich, fiir Temperatur, Druck 
und Feuchtigkeit. Da aber der Spielraum der taglichen Oscillationen bei 
triibem Wetter viel geringer als bei heiterm, der Gang der taglichen barome- 
trischen Veranderungen in beiden Fallen sogar ein verschiedener, so scheinen 
zur Feststellung der Gesetze derselben mehrere Jahre unerlasslich. Auch 
konnen nur mehrere Jahre die nothigen Correctionselemente geben, um aus der 
Beobachtung einzelnerStundendie monatlichen Mittel der drei oben erwahnten 
Grossen (Temperatur, Druck, Feuchtigkeit) zu berechnen. Ich glaube dass bei 
dem jetzigen Standpunkt der Wissenschaft zweijahrige stiindliche Beobach- 
tungen schon ein sehr werthvolles Material liefern, und dass funfjahrige den 
Anforderungen wohl voUstandig geniigen. 

Was die Veranderungen in der jiihrlichen Periode betrifft, so haben die 
dreimonatlichen Abschnitte, welche man in der Regel meteorologische Jahres- 
zeiten nennt, nur f iir gewisse geographische Breiten diese Bedeutung, wiihrend 
sie fiir andre Breiten heterogenes verbinden und zusammengehoriges ausein- 
ander reissen. Ich halte es daher fiir nothwendig uberall bis auf monatliche 
Mittel zuriickzugehen. Da aber mit der Verkiirzung des Zeitraumes seine 
Veranderlichkeit wachst, so wird eine langer fortgesetzte Beobachtungsreihe 
hier erst sichre Eleraente geben. Da aber ein System stiindlicher Beobach- 
tungen nicht so lange fortgesetzt werden kann, so werden an die Stelle der- 
selben Beobachtungen einzelner Stunden treten miissen. Welche sind zu 
wahlen? 

Will man die Gesetze der taglichen Veranderungen hierbei noch im Auge 
behalten, so wird die Wahl gleichweit von einander abstehender Stunden 
wiinschenswerth seyn, weil empirische Formeln, die ihren Gang darstellen 
sollen, am bequemsten aus diesen berechnet werden konnen. Wie aber 
auch diese gewahlt werden mogen, immer werden einige in die Nacht also 
unbequem fallen. So wie aber die Nachtbeobachtungen wegfallen verliert 
man den Vortheil der Theilung der taglichen Periode in gleiche Abschnitte. 

Die Stunden 6, 9, 12, 3, 6, 9, oder 9, 12, 3, 9, sind mit Rucksicht auf die 
barometrischen Oscillationen gewahlt, sie sind fiir die Berechnung der mit- 

tleren Temperatur — -— ebenfalls bequem. Was aber die RUcksicht auf das 

Barometer betrifft, so halte ich es fiir erwiesen, dass man es hier mit der 
Differenz zweier Veranderungen zu thun hat, und dass es daher grdsseres 
Interesse hat, die taglichen Extreme der Veranderungen des Druckes der 
trocknen Luft und der Elasticitat der ihr beigemengten Wasserdampfe ge- 
nondert zu kennen. Da aber die Stunden 3, 9, 3, 9, in dem Report of the 
Committee of Physics, including meteorology, empfohlen sind, so halte ich es 
fiir gut sie beizubehalten. Nach meiner Ansicht namlich ist es vorzuziehen, 
einen einmal gefassten Beobachtungsplan consequent fortzufuhren, als ihn zu 



26 REPORT — 1845. 

verandern, selbst wenn sich spater herausstellen sollte, dass fur gewisse Zwecke 
andre Stunden vorzuziehen gewesen waren. Denn die Hauptsache bei der 
Beantwortung einer meteorologischen Frage bleibt iramer, iiber eine mog- 
lichst lange Reihe gleichartiger Beobachtungen disponiren zu konnen. 

Meine Antwort auf die Frage 3, "would you be disposed to recommend any 
modification, extension or alteration in the system of observing or in the ap- 
paratus to be employed," wiirde also verneinend seyn. 

Ad I. " What important objects are to be accomplished by the continuance 
of the existing estabUshments for a longer period," erlaube ich mir folgende 
Bemerkungen : 

Wir besitzen von keinem Punkte der siidlichen Halbkugel, von keinera 
Punkte in Nordamerika eine barometrische, thermische oder atmische Wind- 
rose, keine Berechnung der vom Drehungsgesetze des Windes abhangigen 
Veranderungen des Barometer's, Thermometers und Hygrometers, die sich 
auf eine hinlangliche Anzahl von Beobachtungen griindet. Ich wiirde es fiir 
einen wesentlichen Dienst der Wissenschaft halten, wenn auch nur von einera 
extratropischen Station der siidlichen Halbkugel und einer aus Nordamerika 
eine 5- oder lO-jahrige Reihe dreimal taglich angestellter Beobachtungen des 
Barometers, Thermometers, Hygrometers der Windesrichtung und des Re- 
gens vorhanden ware, um den Einfluss des auf der siidlichen Erdhalfte entge- 
gengesetzten Drehungsgesetzes und der Lage des Continentes gegen das Meer 
scharf bestimmen zu konnen. Der Gang des Barometers in der jahrlichen 
Periode, die Vertheilung der Regeumenge innerhalb derselben sind ebenfalls 
wichtige Fragen, welche dadurch ihre Beantwortung erhalten wiirden. Frei- 
lich miissten dazu mehrere Stationen mit einander verglichen werden. 

Ich erlaube mir hier noch einige Fragen anzudeuten, welche wenn sie auch 
nicht durch die bisherigen Stationen erledigt werden, dennoch ihrer Beant- 
wortung naher riicken wiirden. 

1. Die an der aiissern Grenze des N.E. Passats herabfallenden Winterregen 
verwandeln sich in Siideuropa in ein Friihlings- und Herbstmaximum, welche 
wahrend des Winters durch schwachere Niederschlage verbunden sind. An 
den Alpen fallen diese beiden Maxima zusammen in ein Sommermaximum ; 
von da nach Norden hin findet eine regenlose Zeit im Jahre nicht mehr statt, 
indem iiberall im Innern des Continents bis nach Holland hin das Maximum 
auf dem Sommer fallt. Finden ahnliche Verhaltnisse auf der Siidhalfte der 
Erde statt? 

2. Die Vertheilung des atmospharischen Druckes in der jahrlichen Periode 
giebt wohl das sicherste Mittel darviber zu entsclieiden, ob ein in der Region 
der Passate oder Monsoons liegender Ort meteorologisch zur Siidhalfte oder 
Nordhalfte der Erde gehbrt. Wo liegt diese Grenze und wie breit ist unter 
verschiedenen Liingen die indilferente Zone, welche als diese Grenze anzu- 
sehen ist ? 

3. Die sogenannten unregelmassigen Veranderungen des Barometers 
werden von einigen nur als Wirkungen verschieden temperirter und ungleich 
feuchter Luftstrome angesehn, andere unterscheiden hingegen die Wirkung 
der Strdme von der Wirkung nach Art der Tonwellen fortschreitender Un- 
dulationen, welche sich iiber sehr grosse Theile der Erdfliiche mit erheblicher 
Geschwindigkeit fortpflanzen. Aus der letzen Annahme scheint mir zufolgen : 

a. dass sie sich nicht einseitig nach einer Richtung fortpflanzen werden, 
sondern peripherisch. 

b. dass sie aus der gemassigten Zone auch in die heisse dringen miissen. 

c. dass sic zu luterferenzerscheinungen Veranlassung geben werden. 
Die Beobachtungen an einzelnen Tagen (stiindlich) konnen daruber ent- 
scheiden welche Ansicht die richtige. 



ON MAGNKTICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 27 

4. Nachdem durch Untersuchungen uber die nichtperiodischen Verande- 
rungen der Temperaturvertheilung auf der Oberflache der Erde, sich heraus- 
gestellt hat, dass keine ungewohnliche Kalte irgendwo hervortritt ohne eiu 
entgegengesetztes Extrem eirier ungewohnlichen Warme als Compensation 
neben sich zu haben fragt sich 

a. ob diese Gegensatze stets auf einer Erdhalfte sich finden 
h. oder ob auch solche Gegensatze zwischen beiden Erdhalften statt- 
finden ? 

5. Findet in der Gegend des Monsoons nach den avissern Grenzen hin 
sine Zunahme des mittleren jahrlichen atmospharischen Druckes statt, wie 
in der Passatzone ? 

6. 1st man berechtigt, bei der Vertheilung des mittleren atmospharischen 
Druckes auf der Oberflache der Erde den Druck der troknen Luft zu sondern 
von dem der Dampfatmosphare,wie es sich bei der Betrachtung der periodisch- 
en Veranderungen als erfolgreich ergeben hat? 

Die Frage II. Do you consider that private research has to any successful 
and valuable degree been estimated by the example of the government esta- 
blishment in Europe and elsewhere, and that science has thereby received 
material contributions, which would probably not otherwise have arisen, and 
can you state instances ? glaube ich mit Ja beantworten zu konnen. 

Die Wirkung grossartiger wissenschaftlicher Unternehmungen ist eine 
nachhaltige, nicht auf die Gegenwart beschrankte. Was ware die Meteoro- 
logie ohne die Mannheimer Societat, welche es zuerst moglich machte, atmo- 
spharische Erscheinungen mit verglichenen Instrumenten durch gleichzeitige 
Beobachtungen einer schiirfern Prufung zu unterwerfen. Welche wichtigen 
wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten sind auf diese Collectanen gegriindet worden. 
Aber diese Arbeiten datiren alle aus einer viel spatern Zeit als die ihrer 
Wirksamkeit. Daher wiirde es nicht auffallend seyn, wenn die j etzt wahrnehm- 
bare Folgen des jetzigen Unternehmens noch unerheblich Avaren. Doch ist 
diess nicht. Die Feststellung dass die aus der Gegend des Monsoons friiher 
bekannte periodische Veranderung des atmospharischen Druckes im Verlauf 
des Jahres sich auf ganz Centralasien erstrecke (wie ich ausf iihrlich in Pogg. 
Annal. 58, p. 176, gezeigt habe) und die vollstandige Sonderung des continen- 
talen Klima vom Seeklima ist eine Entdeckurig, welche wir den russischen Ob- 
servatorien verdanken ebenso wie die Moglichkeit in der heissen Zone die tag- 
lichen Aenderungen des Barometers in die constituirenden Elemente (Dampfund 
trockne Luft) zu zerlegen, nur den englischen Observatorien zu verdanken ist. 
Das wichtlge Resultat der allgemeinen Verbreitung eines geringen atmospha- 
rischen Druckes vom Cap Horn bis in die siidarktischen Gegenden ist endlich 
das dritte erhebliche meteorologisclie Resultat, welches ohne die Siidpolarex- 
pedition noch lange unbekanntgeblieben ware. Rechnet man dazu, wie viel- 
versprechend das System gleichzeitiger Beobachtungen ist, welches Hr.Lamont 
gegriindet hat, wie in den von Hrn. Herschel und Quetelet gesamraelten und 
veranlassten stUndlichen Beobachtungen Data vorhanden sind, einzelne 
auffallende Phaenomene in erwiinschten Detail zu controlliren, so glaube ich 
wohl kaum noch hinzufiigen zu diirfen, dass jeder, welcher seine Thatigkeit 
vorzugsweise der Meteorologie zugewendet hat, nun im Stande sich fiihlt, 
Probleme von Neuem aufzunehmen, deren Losung er einer viel spatern Zeit 
vorbehalten glaubte. 

Meine schliessliche Ueberzeugung ist daher, dass vorzugsweise durch langere 
Fortsetzung der systematischen Beobachtungen der Wissenschaft die erhe- 
blichste Dienst geleistet werden wird. 

H. W. Dove. 

Vorstehende Bemerkungen, so unbedeutend sie sind, stelle ich ganz zur 



28 REPORT — 1845. 

Disposition des Committee indem ich zugleich mich zu entschuldigen bitte, 
dass ich sie deutsch geschrieben habe, um meine Ansicht mit der Bestimmt- 
heit auszudiiicken, wie sie jedem in seiner Muttersprache gegeben ist. 

( Translation.) 

Berlin, 1st March 1845. 
Dear Sir, — I have answered the questions proposed to me by Sir John 
Herschel in German, because every one can express himself with greater pre- 
cision in his native language than in any other. I hope my letter will arrive 
in sufficient time, although all our railways have been for some days buried 
in snow, and are not yet opened even by the exertions of the military. I re- 
turn you my hearty thanks for the to me exceedingly interesting paper, 
' Meteorology of Toronto,' in which you have so kindly referred to my works. 
Prav also give Mr. Riddell my very friendly thanks for ' Magnetical Instruc- 
tion's.' I am sorry I have nothing to send in return, as the fourth part of my 
' Non-periodic Variations in the Distribution of Temperature on the Surface 
of the Earth between 1729 and 184<3,' will only appear in the course of the 
summer. 

From Sir John Herschel's letter, I perceive that a volume of ' Extraordinary 
Magnetic Disturbances at the British Government Stations,' and the first 
volume of the ' Greenwich Observations,' have been sent to me, and that I 
am to receive the first volume of the ' Observations at the British Government 
Stations,' and the second volume of the ' Greenwich Observations.' Unfor- 
tunately I have received only the 'Magnetic Disturbances,' for which I 
return my cordial thanks. Should it be wished that I should take part in the 
calculations of the meteorological observations, I place my activity entirely 
at the disposal of the Committee. 

In the study of the non-periodic variations, I have often had occasion to 
regret that the journals of observations published in England were not acces- 
sible to me. Would it not be possible that some one should undertake, at 
the request of the British Association, a Climatology of England, in which 
the monthly means of the several years at the different observation stations 
should be printed, for which my work is even already a preparatory work ? 
Would it not further be very advantageous if the meteorological journals 
which are printed to accompany the Transactions of Learned Societies and 
Philosophical Journals had more copies taken off, that they might afterwards 
be bound up in complete and independent years ? What an infinity of time 
would be saved if one was no longer forced to look for every single month 
in a different volume, which, if it happens to be lent away from a public 
library, often interrupts a work for months ! A proposition emanating from 
the British Association would soon be imitated in other countries as well, and 
we should then be enabled to advance science more quickly. 
I have the honour to be, with the highest consideration, 

Your very obedient servant, 

(Signed) H. W. Dove. 

The problem to be solved by meteorological observations is a threefold 
one : they are to give mean values, empirical laws for the periodic variations 
of these values, and finally, to furnish data for tracing the simultaneous ex- 
tension and the progressive march of a meteorological phaenomenon over the 
surface of the earth. 

As the mean quantities can only be obtained after the elimination of pe- 
riodical variations, the determination of the latter is directly demanded for 
both these objects, and hourly observations of temperature, pressure, and hu- 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 29 

inidity are indispensable for this purpose. As the range of the diurnal 
variations is mucli less in clouded than in clear weather, and the diurnal 
march of the barometer is even diflPerent in the two cases, more years than 
one appear to be indispensable for the establishment of their laws ; more years 
than one are also required to give the necessary elements of coi-rection for 
calculating the monthly means of temperature, pressure, and humidity, from 
the observations at the several hours. I believe that in the present state of 
science, even two years of hourly observation will give us very valuable ma- 
terials, and that five years will completely satisfy what is required in this 
respect. In regard to variations within the annual period, the three monthly 
sections ordinarily employed as meteorological seasons, are only truly such 
for certain latitudes ; in other latitudes they combine heterogeneous data and 
dissever corresponding ones ; I therefore hold it better to return everywhere 
to monthly means ; but as the shortening of the intervals increases their va- 
riability, a longer continued series becomes necessary to give assured ele- 
ments. As however the system of hourly observations cannot be continued 
so long, certain hours must be selected ; which are they to be ? 

If it is desired to keep the laws of the diurnal variations still in view, hours 
at equal intervals will be desirable for the convenience of empirical formulae ; 
but this would necessitate the inconvenience of night observation ; and if this 
is avoided, the advantage of equal intervals must be given up. 

The hours of 6, 9, 12, 3, 6, 9, or 9, 12, 3, 9, have been chosen with a view 
to the barometric oscillations ; they are also convenient for the calculation of 
the mean temperature. But as respects the barometer, I regard it as proved 
that we have here to do with the difference of two variations, and that it is 
therefore of greater interest to learn separately the daily extremes of the va- 
riations of the pressure of the dry air and of the elasticity of the aqueous 
vapour mingled therein. As however the hours 3, 9, 3, 9 have been recom- 
mended in the ' Report of the Committee of Physics,' I hold it good to keep 
to them, thinking it better to continue consistently a system of observation 
once begun than to alter it, even though it be afterwards shown that other 
hours are preferable for certain objects : the command of as long a series as 
possible of precisely similar observations is always that which is chiefly to be 
desired for the solution of a meteorological question. 

To question 3, " Would you be disposed to recommend any modification," 
&c. &c., my answer would therefore be negative. 

To question 1, "What important objects are to be accomplished by the 
continuance of the existing establishments for a longer period," I permit my- 
self the following remarks: — 

We possess from no point of the southern hemisphere, and from no point 
in North America, a barometric, thermic, or atmic windrose, no calculation 
of the variations of the barometer, thermometer, and hygrometer, dependent 
on the law of rotation of the wind, founded on a sufficient number of obser- 
vations. I should regard it as an essential service to science, if from only one 
extra-tropical station in the southern hemisphere, and from one in North 
America, we had a five or ten years series of observations three times a day 
of the barometer, thermometer, and hygrometer, direction of the wind, and 
quantity of rain ; to enable us to determine the question of the opposite law 
of rotation in the southern hemisphere, and the influence of the relative po- 
sition of continent and sea. The annual march of the barometer and annual 
distribution of the quantity of rain are also important questions which would 
thus be answered. It would however require the intercomparison of different 
stations. 

I will now permit myself to allude to some questions, which if not solved 



30 REPORT — 1845. 

by the stations hitherto established, will be at least brought nearer to a 
solution. 

1. The winter rain which falls at the extei'nal limit of the N.E. trade, is 
changed in southern Europe to a spring and autumn maximum, connected 
by a less precipitation in winter ; these two maxima, when we come to the 
Alps, join themselves to form a summer maximum, and from thence north- 
wards we find no season free from rain ; everywhere on the interior of the 
continent and as far as Holland the maximum is in summer. Does the 
southern hemisphere show similar relations ? 

2. The annual distribution of the atmospheric pressure gives the most cer- 
tain means of deciding whether a station within the region of trades or of 
monsoons belongs meteorologically to the northern or to the southern half of 
the globe. Where lies this limit, and how broad under different meridians is 
the indifferent zone, which is to be regarded as this limit ? 

3. The so-called irregular variations of the barometer are regarded by some 
persons as only the effects of currents of air of unequal temperature and 
moisture ; other persons distinguish the effect of currents from the effect of 
undulations progressing in the manner of waves of sound, and propagating 
themselves with great velocity over large portions of the earth's surface. 

From the latter hypothesis the consequences appear to me to be, — 

a. That they will not propagate themselves towards one side, but peri- 
pherically. 

b. That they must penetrate from the temperate into the torrid zone also. 

c. That they will give rise to phsenomena of interference. 

Hourly observations on single days are capable of showing which view is 
correct. 

4. Investigations on the non-periodic variations of the distribution of tem- 
perature on the surface of the earth having shown that no unusual cold takes 
place anywhere without an unusual warmth by its side as a compensation, 
we ask, — 

a. Whether these oppositions are always in the same hemisphere ? 

b. Or whether similar oppositions exist also between the two hemispheres? 

5. Is there towards the outer limits of the monsoons an increase of the 
mean annual atmospheric pressure as in the trade zones ? 

6. Are we justified, in regard to the distribution of the mean atmospheric 
pressure on the surface of the earth, in distinguishing the pressure of the dry 
air from that of the atmosphere of vapour in the manner which in the consi- 
deration of the periodical variations has shown itself fruitful in consequences? 

To question 2, " Do you consider that private research has," &c., 1 think I 
may answer, — The effect of great scientific undertakings is an enduring one, 
not limited to the present. What would meteorology have been without the 
Manheim Society, which first made it possible to subject to a closer exami- 
nation simultaneous observations made with compared instruments? What 
important scientific works are founded on these collections I yet these works 
all belong to a period much later than that of the activity of the system of 
the Manheim Society. It would not therefore be surprising if we could not 
yet see any important consequences from the present undertaking. It is not so 
however: the fact that the previously-known periodic annual variation of the 
atmospheric pressure in the region of the monsoons extends from thence to the 
whole of central Asia (as I have shown in detail in Pogg. Annal, 58, p. 176), 
and the complete distinction of the continental from the sea cUmate, are a 
discovery for which we have to thank the Russian observatories. The possi- 
bility within the torrid zone of resolving the diurnal variations of the baro- 
meter into their coexistent elements (vapour and dry air) is due to the 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 31 

English observatories. A third important meteorological result, which would 
have remained long unknown to us without the Antarctic Expedition, is the 
general extension of a lo<v atmospheric pressure from Cape Horn to the An- 
tarctic regions. If we include also the much-promising system of simultaneous 
observation founded by Laraont, and the data which, in the hourly obser- 
vations called for and collected by Herschel and Quetelet, exist for con- 
trolling with the desired detail single striking phaenomena, I believe that I 
need hardly add^ that every one who has devoted his activity to meteorology 
now feels himself in the case to take up afresh problems of which he formerly 
believed the solution to be reserved for a much later period. 

In conclusion, my conviction is that by longer continuance, especially of 
the systematic observations, the greatest service will be rendered to science. 

(Signed) H. W. Dove. 

1 place entirely at the disposal of the Committee the foregoing remarks, 
inconsiderable as they are, and I ask them to excuse my having written them 
in German, in order to express my views with that definiteness which it is 
given to every one to do in his mother tongue. 



VII. M. Quetelet of Brussels to Lieut.- Col. Sabine. 

Bruxelles, le 5 Mars, 1845. 

MoN CHER Monsieur, — Je me hate d'accuser reception de votre lettre du 
6 Decembre dernier, qui ne m'est parvenue que depuis trois jours, avec le pre- 
mier volume des ' Observations de Toronto.' Je regrette vivement que le 
retard qu'a eprouve votre lettre, et le pen de jours qui nous separent du 10 
Mars, ne me perraetttont que de repondre partiellement aux questions que 
vous m'avez fait I'honneur de m'adresser. 

1°. En ce qui concernela premiere demande,il meseraitbien difficile dejuger 
des a present de tous les avantages que la science pourrait retirer de la con- 
tinuation du systeme des observations magnetiques actuellement existant, je 
n'ai pas encore ete a meme d'etablir des comparaisons entre les observations 
de I'Europe et celles des autres parties du globe, et de juger si les resultats 
qu'on etait en droit d'attendre de I'Association si heureusement constituee, 
sont suffisamment realises, pour qu'on puisse renoncer desormais a en recueil- 
lir encore. 

II est un point cependant dont je me suis occup6, et sur lequel je me per- 
mettrai d'attirer I'attention du comite ; je veux parler du systeme des ob- 
servations meteorologiques. Malgre les efforts perseverants de quelques 
savants, parmi lesquels il faut surtout ranger votre digne President, nos con- 
naissances sur le mouvement des ondes atmospheriques sont encore bien 
bornees. Nous ne savons a-peu-pres rien sur les lieux ou ces ondes se for- 
ment, sur la maniere dont elles se propagent, sur les directions qu'elles suivent 
plus particulierement, sur leur vitesse de translation, sur les modifications que 
leur font subir la forme et la nature des asperites du globe ainsi que les vents ; 
en un mot, nous sommes dans I'impossibiiite de construire une carte qui lie 
entr'eux les mouvements propages a travers I'atniosphere ; nous ne savons 
pas meme si une pareille carte est possible. Pour expliquer ma pensee, je 
suppose qu'on represente au moyen de lignes, les oscillations atmospheriques, 
accusees par le barometre,*n faisant usage des observations qui s'executent de 
deux en deux heures, a Greenwich, Dublin, Edimbourg, Bruxelles, Munich, 
Prague, St. Petersbourg, et les autres vilies qui ont adopte le systeme d'ob- 
servation propose par la Societe Royale, on se trouvera dans I'impossibiiite 
de lier entre elles les diverses oscillations par la loi de continuite. Entre 



32 REPORT — 1845. 

Prague et St. Petersbourg par exemple, la distance est trop grande pour qu'on 
puisse reconnaitre les ondulations qui sont dues aux memes causes. Les 
mouveinents se trouvent presqu'entiereraent modifies en passant de I'une a 
Tautre ville; ct rien sur le passage ne constate ces modifications. On pour- 
rait J' suppleer, en prenant des stations intermediares, ou Ton observerait ne 
fut ce qu'une fois par jour pour etablir la continuite, car les sommets consecu- 
tifs de deux ondes atmospheriques sontsepares en general par plusieurs jours 
d'intervalle ; or, ce systeme secondaire qui rattacherait ensemble les points 
du reseau principal, n'existe pas meme pour I'Europe ; et par suite il est a 
craindre que nous ne puissions tirer des observations actuelles, que des bien 
faibles secours pour resoudre la question qui nous occupe. 

Des observations isolees sur les variations de pressions atmospheriques de 
temperature, etc. pourront toujours se faire a une epoque quelconque; niais 
il n'existera peut-etre plus jamais une occasion aussi favorable pour embrasser 
dans leur generalite plusieurs importantes questions de la physique du globe, 
et particulierement I'interessant probleme de la formation et de la transmission 
des ondes atmospheriques. 

Je pense done que, dans le cas ou I'existence de I'association serait pro- 
longee, le comite rendrait le service le plus important, si autour des grands 
points du reseau meteorologique qu'on est parvenu a former, elle etablissait, 
dans les localites qui le permettraient et notamment dans toute I'Europe, un 
reseau secondaire de points separes par des intervalles de 60 a 80 lieues seule- 
raent, et ou Ton se bornei'ait a observer ne fut ce qu'une seule fois par jour a 
une heure determinee. Ces observations suffiraient pour etablir la continuite 
entre les observations des stations principales, et pour leur donner une con- 
nection d'utilite que malheureusement elles n'ont pas a present. Assez d'ob- 
servateurs zeles repondraient sans doute a I'appel qui leur serait fait. 

2°. Vous avez bien voulu me demander encore si je pense que I'exemple 
du gouvernement Britannique a pu faire naitre des recherches particulieres, et 
provoquer des travaux qui n'auraient pas ete faits autrement? Votre ques- 
tion m'autorise a citer ce qui s'est passe en Belgique ; ce n'est qu'en m'appu- 
yant sur I'invitation que la Societe Royale m'avait fait I'honneur de m'adresser, 
que j'ai obtenu du gouvernement, les aides et les moyens necessaires pour 
entreprendre une serie d'observations qui manquaient completement pour 
notre royaume. Nous ne connaissions absolument rien sur les variations 
diurnes et annuelles qui subissent, chez nous, les elemens magnetiques du 
globe. Pour la meteorologie, nous avons pu recueillir egalement un ensem- 
ble d'observations qui ne sont pas sans importance pour la connaissance de 
notre climat. L'appel qui nous a ete fait, a done eu d'heureux resultats pour 
la science, en dehors meme de son objet special ; car j'ignore encore si ces 
penibles travaux repondront au but que le comite s'etait propose en les de- 
mandant ; il ne m'appartient pas de decider cette question. 

3". J'ai repondu en partie a la troisieme demande du comite, en lui pro- 
posant de rattacher au grand reseau meteorologique actuellement existant, un 
reseau secondaire, forme de triangles n'ayant que 60 a 80 lieues de cote. 

Quant aux instruments qu'on pourrait employer avec succes, je crois devoir 
specialement recommender I'electrometre de M. Peltier, dont je me sers depuis 
quelque temps avec le plus grand avantage. Cet instrument extremement 
sensible accuse I'electricite de I'air avec plus de surete que tous les autres in- 
struments que j'ai employes; il fonctionne I'apidement et a I'avantage de 
donner des resultats comparables. Conjointement avec cette electrometre, 
nous observonsun galvanometre de Gourjon; mais cet instrument, malgreson 
extreme sensibilite, ne parle gueres qu'a I'approche des orages, et pendant 
les grandes commotions atmospheriques. Vous jugerez sans doute que I'elec- 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 33 

tricite joue un trop grande role dans les phenomenes meteorologiques pour 
qu'on ne lui accorda pas la plus serieuse attention. 

Depuis 1 839, aux observations meteorologiques, je joins des observations 
sur la floraison des plantes, et en general sur les phenomenes periodiques 
naturels. A la reunion de I'association Britannique a Plymouth, j'ai appel6 
I'attention des observateurs sur ce genre d'etudes ; je me permettrai de le faire 
encore aupres du comite, bien persuade que si Ton se bornait a enregistrer 
les phenomenes les plus frappants, et les plus faciles a observer, on en retire- 
rait des avantages reels pour la science, et Ton completerait le systeme des 
observations relatives aux phenomenes qui modifient periodiquement I'etat de 
notre planete. 

Permettez-moi d'ajouter encore quelques mots a cette lettre, pour vous faire 
connaitre ou en sont les travaux executes a I'observatoire de Bruxelles pour 
repondre aux demandes de la Societe Royale. Les observations a termes 
fixes, pour les trois instruments magnetiques, ont ete comraencees en Janvier 
IB-iO, et continuees regulierement, de mois en mois, jusqu'a ce jour. Les 
difFerents resultats ont ete successivement publics pour ISiO, 184-1, 1842, et 
184'^; on acheve en ce moment I'impression pour IB^i. 

Les observations magnetiques et meteorologiques regulieres ont ete faites, 
nuit et jour, de deux en deux heures; et, de plus, a quelques heures de rang 
impair, depuis le mois de Juin 1841. Tons les resultats ont ete publics 
egalement jusqu'a la fin de 1842 ; et Ton acheve d'imprimer ceux de 1843. 

Si le comite de I'association se proposait de continuer le systeme actuel 
d'observations au dela de 1845, et s'il jugeait encore utile la cooperation de 
I'observatoire de Bruxelles, je serais charme de pouvoir en etre informe a 
temps, afin de prendre les mesures necessaires pour que les travaux n'eprou- 
vent pas d'interruption. 

Agreez, je vous prie, mon cher Monsieur, I'expression de mes sentiments 
les plus distingues et les plus devoues. 

Tout a vous, 

QUETELET. 

Si vous croyez que la lettre pr6cedente puisse int^resser, je vous prierais de 
la communiquer au comit6 qui pourra en faire tel usage qui lui conviendra. 



VIII. Sir T. M. Brisbane to Lieut.-Col. Sabine. 

Makerstoun, Kelso, 7th March, 1845. 
Sir, — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of the Toronto Magnetic Observa- 
tions, accompanied by the inquiries for the information of the Committee 
appointed in that system of observation. I herewith transmit the replies to 
these inquiries by Mr. Broun my first assistant, who has evinced the utmost 
zeal and attention throughout, and he has been steadily supported by the 
others. Should the government decide on continuing the magnetic and me- 
teorological observations, I shall feel equally disposed to extend those made 
here, but on this point I shall decide hereafter. I hope shortly to furnish a 
copy of an abstract made by Professor Forbes, of the paper read to the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh on these observations ; the abstract is short, but shows 
what has been done. It is now in types, and as soon as I receive it, a copy 
shall be sent. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Thomas Makdougal Brisbane. 

1845. D 



34 REPORT — 1845. 

From J. A. Broun, Esq., First Assistant in the Magnetical and Meteorohgi- 
cal Observatory at Makerstoun. 

(^Extracts) 

Query I. "Whether in your judgement there are any, &uA'\i so,tohat 
important objects to be accomplished by a continuance of the existing esta- 
blishments for a longer period, executing as at present both systematic and 
simultaneous observations, or either class to the exclusion of the others." 

The declination, the easiest ascertained of all the magnetic elements, be- 
cause unconnected with the varying magnetic moment of the needle, is still 
mixed up with many errors which we are only discovering. This reniark 
holds much more strongly for the components of intensity. The imperfections 
of our instruments and methods are only beginning to be ascertained. What 
shall we say of magnetic disturbances ? Have we found out the laws which 
connect these wonderful irregularities ? Have we ascertained their connexion 
with other terrestrial phsenomena, aurora for example ? 

I am afraid that to these and many other questions of a like nature, the 
answer would be unsatisfactory. A sifting investigation of the observations 
already made may do much. Dr. Lament's deductions of the law which seems 
to connect the excursions of the declination needle at different places during 
disturbances, while they show what may be done, likewise show how much 
there is to do. 

But are accurate and complete results to be obtained by the allotment ot 
any short period for their determination? No. It is only gradually that we 
discover erroi-, gradually remove it ; time alone can show us what we ought 
and we need not observe. 

I am inclined to believe that it is from a thorough and careful investigation 
of magnetic disturbances and their collateral phaenomena, that we shall first 
arrive at a solution of the great questions of terrestrial magnetism. To observe 
disturbances well requires a continuous watch upon the magnetical instru- 
ments, and no watch is better than that which hourly or two-hourly observa- 
tions impose, besides their utility in determining the regular variations. 

It has long been my opinion that regular term observations are, at least at 
present, unnecessary. There is little doubt that magnetic disturbances occur 
for the most part simultaneously over the whole world ; what use then of pre- 
arranged periods of observations, when the earth itself telegraphs the time, 
and the magnets point to the zealous observer, when he should and when he 
need not observe ? 

I have spoken chiefly of magnetism, but my remarks will apply equally to 
meteorology ; with it also much has to be done. The work of a few well- 
placed observatories in a few years will do more for science than all the 
scattered observations made loosely and irregularly for the last century. 

One great use of these observatories should be to co-ordinate the scattered 
observadons made by travellers or others around them ; for this purpose there 
should be some provision for publishing these along with the observations of 
the observatory, especially when the instruments have been compared and are 
trustworthy. 

To the second query I cannot give any general answer. It may not be 
amiss, however, to mention this, the Makerstoun Observatory, as a consequence 
of the foundation of the government observatories, nor to state that hourly 
magnetical and meteorological observations have been made here throughout 
1844, and are being continued in 1845, while a large mass of extra observa- 
tions have been obtained. 

Query 3. " In case of the continuance of the observatories beyond 1845, 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAIi OBSERVATIONS. 35 

would you be disposed to recommend any, and what modifications, extensions 
or alterations in the system of observing, or in the apparatus employed ?" 

Under Query 1, I have pointed out the preference which I would give to 
extra observations of disturbances, and have recommended the discontinuance 
at present of term observations. 

I am inclined to prefer hourly observations to two-hourly, as the first com- 
pared with the second does not add so greatly to the labour of the observer 
or the computer as might at first appear, at least when the whole work of the 
observatory is taken into account. 



IX. Dr. Lloyd to Sir John Herschel. 

Trinity College, Dublin, March 8, 1845. 
Dear Sir, — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, on the part of 
the Magnetic Committee of the British Association, and to reply to its several 
queries as far as I am able. 

The first question, viz. " Whether there are any, and if so, what important 
objects to be accomplished by a continuance of the existing establishments 
for a longer period," necessarily suggests the inquiry, — how far the objects 
originally proposed have been attained, or are likely to be attained, by the 
course of observation now in progress, and terminating with the present year ? 
We may afterwards inquire, whether there are any new objects suggested by 
the results themselves, or otherwise. 

In reference to the first inquiry, it will be convenient to keep in mind the 
distinctions of magnetic determinations into those of the absolute values of the 
direction and intensity of the magnetic force at particular epochs, and those 
of the changes which they are continually undergoing ; and again, the sub- 
division of the latter mio periodic variations, secular changes, and disturbances. 
Of these, the diurnal variations are those whose determination demands the 
greatest amount of labour, and they are fortunately also those which seem 
now to be best determined. I am of opinion that five years of uninterrupted 
hourly or two-hourly observation is fully adequate to the establishment of 
their empirical laws, with all the requisite precision ; and this opinion is con- 
firmed by the examination of the results of two years at the Toronto obser- 
vatory, I'ecently published. 

The knowledge of the annual variations of the magnetic elements, and that 
of their secular changes, can be obtained with precision only by means of 
absolute determinations, often repeated at particular epochs, and reduced to 
their mean values by the help of the differential instruments. The instru- 
mental means which we at present possess are probably sufficient to furnish 
the data required in both parts of this delicate deduction with all tiie neces- 
sary exactness ; but the difficulty seems to lie in the irregular fluctuations of 
the elements themselves, or in other words, in the want of regularity in the 
annual period, and in the progression of the secular change. To eliminate 
completely the effects of these irregularities, a longer course of observation 
is probably necessary; but in carrying it on it is by no means requisite that 
the daily observations should be as numerous as heretofore. 

Enough has probably been done to ascertain the more obvious phaenomena 
of disturbances, and perhaps also to furnish the jjrincipal data for theory. 
But it is not improbable that the application of theory may suggest or demand 
additional data respecting them, and other methods of combined observation. 
With respect to the meteorological results, it is probable that the diurnal 
and annual }ieriods of the pressure, temperature and moisture, will have been 
taffiiciently determined by the course of observation now in progress ; and in 

d2 



36 REPORT — 1845. 

any case, should further data be required, they may be furnished by self- 
registering uppuratiis. It would, however, be desirable to ascertain, at more 
than one latitude, the influence of height upon the temperature and moisture, 
by the means devised by Prof. VVheatstone, and about to be employed at 
Woolwich. To this we may add, as a desideratum, the determination of the 
laws of the electrical changes, taken in connexion with other meteorological 
phaenomena. The observatory of the Association at Kew, and that of Green- 
wich, are the only stations which have furnished such results. 

On the whole, I cannot but consider the continuance of the observatories 
for a longer period, if not jjermanently, to be important to the branches of 
science which they were intended to elucidate, although I believe that their 
number may be somewhat diminished, and that the amount of systematic 
work (and therefore also the observing staff) may, without detriment, be re- 
duced at all. 

In reply to the second query, I am not able to state any instance in which 
the establishment of the combined system of observation has elicited privae 
research, with the exception of the signal one of the Brisbane observatory. 
The very magnitude of the plan itself is a sufficient reason for this. It is 
however no inconsiderable boon to science that it has enlisted in her cause 
many zealous young men, willing and able to promote it, and whose talents 
probably might not otherwise have received this direction. It may be added, 
that private research may naturally be expected in the theoretical discussion 
of the experimental data. 

The answer to the third query is connected with that already given to the 
first. Assuming that the general features of the diurnal changes are suffi- 
ciently determined, I Avould recommend the discontinuance of the daily ob- 
servations, except at those hours in which the magnetic elements are in their 
most stable state, whether as respects the influence of the periodic changes, or 
of disturbances. Both these conditions are satisfied for Europe and America 
at the hour of the maximum of westerly declination, and that of the principal 
minimum of the horizontal force. 

I would recommend that more time be allotted to absolute and occasional 
observations, and in particular, that the absolute determination of the decli- 
nation should be made from time to time, like those of the other two elements, 
with a separate instrument. 

I would suggest that simultaneous observations at short intervals should be 
made on one day in each week during the year 1846. The objects which may 
be expected to be attained by such an extension of this class of observations, 
are — 

1. To furnish a record of a sufficient number of disturbances without the 
help of occasional observations. 

2. To supply a number of undisturbed series, sufficient to determine the 
diurnal curves for summer and winter from observations at short intervals. 

3. To afford the means of separating from one another the two classes of 
changes. 

4. To supply the simultaneous observations which are required in absolute 
and occasional determinations. 

It would probably in most cases be possible to obtain the occasional as- 
sistance necessary for such observations, without keeping up the whole of the 
present observing staff. 

With respect to magnetic instruments, I am not disposed to recommend any 
considerable alteration in the declinometer and Bifilar Magnetometer already 
in use. Most of the improvements suggested by experience have been added 
from time to time ; and the advantage of strict comparability in method seems 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 37 

to outweigh any which might be derived from more perfect instrumental 
forms. Neither should I recommend the discontinuance of the Balance 
Magnetometer where (as at Toronto) it has given good results. I would how- 
ever propose to add the Induction Inclinometer as an additional means of de- 
termining the variations of the third element, if in any case it has not been 
already furnished ; and for the observation of the absolute declination and 
absolute intensity, I have suggested a form of instrument (the Theodolite 
Magnetometer') which appears to combine exactness with facility of manipu- 
lation. Of the two latter instruments I send printed descriptions. To these 
I would propose to add a self-registering apparatus for recording the disturb- 
ances of the declination, which should reach a certain limit, constructed on 
Professor Wheatstone's fertile principle of employing the force of a closed 
electrical circuit; and it would be easy to contrive it so as to distinguish 
positive and negative deflections on the record. 

In Meteorology, self-registering instruments (on Prof. Wheatstone's prin- 
ciple, or some other) will probably soon supersede all other means of obser- 
ving. It will of course be desirable that each observatory which is to remain 
in operation should be furnished with such instruments as soon as their most 
convenient form shall have been determined. If to these be added an appa- 
ratus for the observation of atmospheric electricity, on the principle of that at 
Kew, the equipment would probably be adequate to the present demands of 
meteorological science. 

I fear I have been somewhat prolix, and have only to add, that you are of 
course at liberty to make use of the foregoing suggestions in any manner you 
may think expedient. 

Believe me to be, dear Sir, yours very faithfully, 

H. Lloyd. 



X. John Phillips, Esq., to Lieut.' Col. Sabine. 

1 Islington Terrace, Kingstown, March 8, 1845. 

Dear Sir, — 1. The objects to be sought for in observations of magnetical 
and meteorological phaenomena appear to be the following : — 

a. Observations coincident with the local occurrences of unusual or unex- 
plained phaenomena, such as meteors, rotatory storms, remarkable hail- 
storms, &c. 
)8. Observations to detect the laws of extensive disturbances in magnetical 
and meteorological elements, for in all such cases laws must be presumed 
to exist, and may probably be detected and determined, 
y. Observations to determine precisely the laws oi general periodical oscil- 
lation and progression, whose ordinary aspect is known or supposed, such 
as daily oscillation, annual oscillation, and secular variation. 
In reference to all these points,\t appears to me that the observatories already 
established should be continued. There can be no question that these objects 
are worthy of continued effort ; that they are not yet fully attained, but are 
in progress of being attained by the steady employment of the present ob- 
servation-power ; and that to cease this effort when the laws of phaenomena 
are only just beginning to appear, would be quite unworthy of the scientific 
spirit which dictated this great combination. 

2. I am not aware that the establishment of the magnetical and meteoro- 
logical observatories has yet had any great effect in stimulating private experi- 
mental research. This may be in part attributed to the very slight degree in 
which the peculiar character of these establishments has become known to 
the public by their published fruits. It appears to me, however, that it is 



38 REPORT— 1845. 

rather as consequent on the published results of the observatories, than as 
coincident with their labours, that we may expect to see private exertion 
stimulated and directed, and science advanced by these means. Individual 
efforts may be useful at the beginning to indicate, and finally to complete the 
application of great natural laws, but in such branches of knowledge as mag- 
netism, the great body of facts must embrace areas of surface, duration of 
time, and frequency of observation, which remove all but special problems 
from the domain of private exertion. Nor can these special problems be 
properly defined or prosecuted by good methods until the more general re- 
sults to which they are supplementary are further advanced. 

If indeed self-registering instruments can be found for magnetism, it may 
become popular, as meteorology undoubtedly is popular, however little ad- 
vanced by the circumstance. 

3. In respect of maguetical phaenomena, the systematic, simultaneous and 
extraordinary observations appear to include all that is essential. To the 
meteorological registration something may be added. 

To complete the data for studying the relations of heat and moisture, it is 
desirable to have observations of the thermometer and wet-bulb hygrometer 
at more than one height above the ground. If at three or four levels, say 
3, 6, 12, 24 feet above the surface, these instruments were frequently ob- 
served, information would be gained concerning the distribution of heat and 
moisture, in the part of the atmosphere where these conditions are the most 
variable, which could not fail to be important. 

There would probably be little difficulty in adding to the observations a 
register of long thermometers, sunk 3, 6, 12, and 24 feet below the surface, so 
as to extend the basis of the laws of distribution of daily and annual heats at 
small depths, which have been developed by Quetelet and Forbes. 

The rate of evaporation of water appears worthy of record, in connection 
with so complete a system of two-hourly (better hourly) temperature and 
hygrometry, especially as this observation may be found hereafter a valuable 
check upon the mechanical indications of the anemometers, which taken alone 
are liable to some objection. 

Very truly yours. 
To Col. Sabine, R.A., Woolwich. John Phillips. 



XI. Dr. Adolphe Erman, of Berlin, to Sir John Herschel and the Com- 
mittee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Berlin, March 11, 1845. 
Gentlemen, — I had the pleasure, a few days since, of receiving the volume 
entitled ' Observations at the Toronto Observatory, 1840 to 1842,' and take 
the earliest opportunity of expressing my thanks to the British Government, 
through your kind intervention, for this most important present. Magnetical 
and meteorological observations made so uninterruptedly, and with such per- 
fect regard of ail important circumstances as those contained in this volume, 
are of immeasurable value for the physical knowledge of our globe. The 
true object of meteorology appears more and more to be twofold, viz. — 

1. The representation of the periodical changes of every phaenomenon by 
function of sines ; and 

2. The representation of the mean values of the various phaenomena by the 
V functions of Laplace, which must be applied to the values of atmospheric 
pressure, temperature, &c. observed in different points of the globe, as they 
have been by Gauss to the phaenomena of terrestrial magnetism. 

Which part soever of these two we may employ ourselves with, it is always 



ON MAGNETICAIi AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 39 

most welcome, and indeed indispensable, to be possessed of such a stock of 
exact facts relating to several parts of the earth as have been furnished by 
the English magnetical and meteorological observatories. In the first place, 
as regards the laws of periodical changes, the probable error of each particular 
observation has been exceedingly reduced by the exemplary and successful 
care your observers bestowed on the examination of the instruments employed. 
If therefore the phsenomena under investigation were strictly periodical,! am 
inclined to think that a set of five years' observations would suffice for deter- 
mining exactly the constants of the series that must represent them. But in 
reality this is not the case. In almost every one of the phaenomena examined, 
the particular values for a given day varied so much from the average peri- 
odical range, and the discovery of the law of these variations relative to many 
of these phEenomena is of so much importance, that the prolongation of the 
activity of the Enghsh observatories beyond the period of five years is ren- 
dered pai'ticularly desirable by this same circumstance. Let me quote only 
one example of this fact, out of the great number that actually exist. The 
English observations have first demonstrated that the instantaneous changes 
of terrestrial magnetism do not take place at so strictly contemporaneous mo- 
ments in America and in Europe as we were led to surmise by the European 
observations only. The proofs of this important fact however have not been 
obtained for every day of the period of observations, but only during the so- 
called term days, in which the English operations corresponded with those of 
the German Magnetic Association ( Verein). How desirable would it be, 
notwithstanding, to discover on which of the stations a given perturbation 
has first occurred, and in what degree and rate of proceeding it has extended 
to the other points of observation ! It is only by this course that we may 
hope to fathom the true law of these momentary variations of magnetic 
power ; or, in other words, the real position of their active cause and the pro- 
pagation of its effects. It will certainly be of material service to a future in- 
quirer on this subject to be provided with simultaneous observations of all the 
principal meteorological phaenomena ; but nevertheless it may be confidently 
predicted that he will be highly gratified to be furnished with the results of a 
longer series of observations than those given by a period of five years. Any 
one who has been engaged in similar investigations will recollect the pleasure 
he has often felt if, after having had a limited number of observations as the 
basis of his work, he has been able to strengthen it by the addition of some 
new ones. It seems to me, therefore, that the English Government will give 
a new proof of the zeal so worthy of a free and happy nation which they have 
displayed in the patronage and promotion of science, by granting a prolonga- 
tion of their magnetical and meteorological observations, in exactly the same 
irianner as they have been proceeding hitherto^ even after the expiration of the 
year 1845. A sufficient encouragement for the continuation of this institu- 
tion is afforded indeed by the brilliant results already obtained, which would 
immortalize it, even if its visible existence should be prematurely discontinued. 
I allude particularly to the exactitude of the mean annual values obtained at 
the different stations for every particular phsenomenon. Toronto, for instance, 
affords in meteorological respects a highly interesting comparison with the 
opposite (western) coast of America. In an article on the climate of Ross 
in California, which I take the liberty of inclosing, I fixed the isothermal line of 
y°-267 R. = the mean temperature at the level of the sea, in 38° 34' lat, 233° 41 ' 
long, east of Paris. A further investigation proved that there is scarcely a 
point on our globe where in an equal latitude the mean temperature is as low 
as under this meridian, although in higher latitudes it is distinguished by re- 



40 



REPORT — 1845. 



latively high temperatures. I found on this occasion the isothermal points to 
be as follows: — 



Longitude 


Mean temperature 


Mean temperature 


Distance of both 


east of Paris. 


9°-267. 


5°-700. 


isothermal lines. 


5-0 


47-82 lat. 


60-32 lat. 


12-5 


25-0 


45-25 ... 


— ... 


— 


30-0 


— 


53-30 ... 


8-9 


35-0 


43-51 ... 


— ... 


— 


127-0 


40-41 ... 


45-51 ... 


5-1 


228-0 


— ... 


57-40 ... 


18-9 


233-7 


38-56 ... 


— ... 


— 


263-0 


41-16 ... 


— ... 


— 


285-0 


40-45 ... 


43-95 ... 


3-5 



This remarkable want of parallelism of the isothermal lines of 9°-267 and of 
5°-70, is confirmed in a surprising manner by the results obtained at Toronto. 

In 43°-659lat. "1 

In 280°-642 east of Paris, >the mean temperature is = + 5°-489 R. 

At 320-74 Paris feet elevation, J 

or reduced to the level of the sea = + 5°-934 R. 

The above statements relative to the meridian of 285° east of Paris are 
founded on the following equation derived from former observations {p being 
the latitude, / the longitude east of Paris, both in degrees) : — 
Mean temperature at the oceanic level = 9°-267 — (p — 40°-45) l°-]6 

-(l- 285°'00) 0°-10, 
which gives for the point of the sea's level, lying vertically under Toronto, 
. . , + 5°-969 R mean temperature ; i. e. a result differing only by 0°-035 R 
from the one observed. From this it appears evident that it is well worth 
while to take the laws of these phaenomena into serious consideration. 

Again, from the values observed at Toronto, viz. — 

Pressure ofthe whole atmosphere = 333"'-223 Parisian,^ ^.j^j^^^^ ^^^^^^. 

Pressure of aqueous vapour =,2-914 ... i tion for differen- 

Results for the seas level m the same latitude : > ^^^ ^^^ ^.j^^ inten- 

Pressure of the whole atmosphere = 337"'-474 ... ^j. ^j. 3^yjj.„ 

Press, of aqueous vapour (about) = 3"'-0 —J ^ ^ 

From my three years' observations at sea, I concluded* the following meaii 
annual values : — 



Latitude. 


Pacific Ocean. 


Atlantic Ocean. 


Pressure of 
the whole 
atmosphere. 


Pressure of 
aqueous va- 
pour. 


Pressure of 

the whole 

atmosphere. 


Pressure of 
aqueous va- 
pour. 


40 

45 


Ill 

337-10 
336-46 


4-25 
3-62 


339-59 
338-10 


5-53 "1 T) 
4-26 I 2. 


43 39 


336-62 


3-78 


338-50 


4-61 J P 



corrected 



For calculating, as at Toronto, by the heights of mercury in the barometer, correcte 
for temperature (viz. reduced to 0° R.) but not for differences in the intensity of gravity. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROIiOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 41 

The pressure of the whole atmosphere at Toronto is therefore, as was to 
be expected, superior to that of the Pacific and inferior to that of the Atlan- 
tic in the same latitude. The pressure of vapour at this point, however, is 
considerably less than under the same latitude in either of the two oceans. 
This circumstance is explained, partly, by the hygrometrical observations 
giving the humidity of the air at Toronto = 0"78, and on the ocean at 40° 
lat. = 0*84, and on the ocean at 45° = 0*85 ; partly by the mean temperature 
of the continent at Toronto having been found to be considerably lower than 
under the same parallel at sea. 

You will pardon these superficial reflections, considering how difficult it is 
to avoid the temptation of making & preliminary use of a treasure like the 
Toronto observations, even when hoping to devote one's leisure to its further 
study and development. 

In conclusion, I avail myself of your kind permission to submit two pro- 
posals relative to future magnetical and meteorological labours. 

1. The determinations of mean magnetic values for the year 1829 have not 
yet been completely applied to the deduction of the Gaussian constants of 
terrestrial magnetism for the same year. A comparison of the magnetical 
maps, representing the empirical results on the one hand and those calculated 
by the Gaussian constants on the other, is still far from presenting a perfect 
agreement. For the above year there is still wanting, therefore, — 

1 . Those values of the constants which best correspond to the existing 
observations ; and 

2. The probable errors of each of those first bases of the theory. 

This deficiency appears to me a material one as regards science. The 
English and Russian observations combined will afford the most probable 
values of these constants for the year 1845, and it is consequently most de- 
sirable to learn, by a comparison with equally probable values of the same 
for the year ] 829, their annual variation. Even should these values for 1 829 
be somewhat less exact than the later ones, this circumstance is not of mate- 
rial importance, if the amount of their probable error is ascertained. Now 
both these requisites, i\ie best possible determination of the constants for 1829 
and the calculation of their probable error, can be effected in the following 
manner : — 

1. By forming from each magnetic element observed in 1829 an equation 
containing on the one hand a known numeric value (i. e, the difference 
between the observed value of this element and the same calculated 
theoretically with the assumed preliminary amounts of the constants), 
and on the other certain given multiples of the corrections to be ap- 
plied singly to each of the 24 Gaussian constants ; and 

2. By resolving, according to the method of least squares, the linear equa- 
tions with 24 unknown elements, obtained in this manner (amounting 
in all to about 1000). i 

By this means we shall obtain not only the most probable corrected values of 
the above constants, but likewise the probable error of each of them. 

In Schumacher's Astronomical Notices (Astron. Nachrichten, Nos.450, 452 
and 454), the commencement of this undertaking has been published as exe- 
cuted at my request with exemplary zeal by a scientific young friend of mine. 
At my own suggestion, however, the prosecution and conclusion of this work 
has been deferred to a period when it might be performed without a ruinous 
sacrifice of time and trouble on the part of the individual engaged in it. It 
became evident indeed that a calculation of this extent A\ould necessitate an 
entire devotion to the task of one or two years, for which the pecuniary assist- 
ance of some government would be indispensable. If you should be of the 



42 REPORT — 1845, 

same opinion as I am concerning the importance of this undertaking, you 
would confer an essential obligation on me by expressing your approval in a 
manner that would give it a sufficient weight to induce some government to 
grant the requisite means ; 40/. or 50/. a year, for the term of two years, would 
suffice foi: a person residing in this country, and I could guarantee the com- 
plete and satisfactory performance of the whole, if completed in the same 
manner as it was begun. I leave it to the decision of the Committee of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science to recommend this work 
to the attention of one of the two governments (the English and Russian) 
that have already displayed their zeal for the advancement of the magnetic 
science, or to some other, the Prussian for instance, that may wish to follow 
so laudable an example. At all events, I am convinced that the recommen- 
dation of a committee enjoying so deserved a reputation as yours would be 
attended with the most complete success, a success so desirable for the ad- 
vancement of science. 

The second desideratum that occurs to me, refers to the form of publica- 
tion of meteorological observations at sea. Such observations having been 
regularly made during the many scientific expeditions of later years, the 
journals of these voyages would easily furnish us with the diurnal value of 
the observed phsenoniena, accompanied by a section of the latitude, longitude 
and date on each day of observation. 

The acquisition of similar tables, as afforded by the different voyages, is in 
my opinion of the greatest possible value as regards all questions of scientific 
meteorology. What imparts particular impoi'tance to the meteorological ob- 
servations as made at sea is, 

1. The equal elevation of the instruments; 

2. The equal constitution of the surface on which the observations take 
place. 

As such tables would greatly facilitate the due combination of the observa- 
tions, I consider them in fact as indispensable. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servant, 

A. Erman. 



XII. M. Gauss to Sir John Herschel. 

Gottingen, March 14, 1845. 
Dear Sir, — In answer to your letter of December 5th, 1844, 1 shall begin 
by replying to your lust question, that I have no objection against your 
making what use you please of this letter, were it not my consciousness of its 
utter insignificancy. At all events, as I do not pretend to correctness in 
writing in your idiom, I beg your leave to put down what little I may have to 
say in German, the more so as yourself are perfectly master of the language 
of your forefathers. 

So sehr ich mich geehrt f iihle, dass Sic auf mein Urtheil in Beziehung auf 
das langere Fortbestehen der rait grossartiger Munificenz von der Britischen 
Regierung in fremden Welttheilen errichteten magnetischen Anstalten einen 
Werth zu legen scheinen, so leid thut es mir dass ich ausser Stande bin, auf 
die mir vorgelegten bestimmten Fragen eben so bestimmte Antworten zu geben, 
und zwar hauptsiichlich aus dem Grunde, weil mir die Resultate der bisher 
in jenen Anstalten ausgefiihrten Arbeiten noch fast ganzlich unbekannt sind. 
In der That sind mir zwar der erster Band der zu Greenwich gemachten mag- 
netischen Beobachtungen und ein Band ausserordentliche magnetische Std- 
rungen zu seiner Zeit richtig zugekommen, wofvir ich meinen ergebensten 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 43 

Dank abstatte, allein der erste Band der Beobachtungen auf den aussereuro- 
paischen britischen Stationen, dessen Empfang Ihr gutiges Schreiben mioh 
vor Schluss des vorigen Jahres hoffen liess, und der nach einem spatern 
Schreiben des Herrn Obristlieutenants Sabine spatestens bis zuni 25 Februar 
hier eintrefFen sollte, ist bis diese Stunde nocli nicht angelangt. So lange aber 
noch nicht die Beobachtungen aus einer Anzahl von Jahren wirklich vorliegen, 
und, wie ich hinzusetzen muss, bevor solche nicht einer in gewissem Grade 
schon ins Einzelne gehenden Verarbeitung unterworfen sind, lasst sich un- 
moglich ein Urtheil dariiber fallen, ob und in welchem Maasse die vorgeset- 
sten Zwecke bereits erreicht seien. 

Von meineni Standpunkte aus muss ich demnach, gerade dieser Ungewiss- 
heit wegen, dringend wunschen, dass diese Arbeiten wenigstens noch einige 
Jahre in der bisherigen Art und Ausdehnung fortgesetzt werden. 

Ich muss aber noch weiter gehen, und meine unversichtliche HofFnung 
aussprechen, dass das Britisches Gouvernement vorzugsweise diesem Zweige 
wissenschaftlicher Bestrebungen eine fortdauernde Pflege zuwenden, und 
jenen Anstalten auf unbestimmte Zeit ihren Bestand sichern werde, mochte 
es auch nur mit gewissen Einschrankungen sein. Sollte es, der Kosten we- 
gen, fiir nothige erachtet werden, gewisse Beschrankungen eintreten zu las- 
sen, so wurden solche meines Erachtens sich auf die Terminsbeobachtungen 
und auf die stiindlichen Aufzeichnungen beziehen konnen, und zwar so, dass 
man die erstern demnachst ganz aufhoren liesse, die letztern aber, anstatt wie 
bisher von 2 zu 2 Stunden, kiinftig nur von 6 zu 6, oder allenfalls auch nur 
von 8 zu 8 Stunden ausfiihrte, in Folge welcher Abanderungen das Personal 
und die Unterhaltungskosten wesentlich wurden verringert werden konnen. 
Ob aber diese Einschrankungen schon sofort, oder erst nach einigen Jahren 
eintreten sollen, dariiber kann ich, aus oben angefiihrten Griinden, fiir jetzt 
noch kein bestimmtes Urtheil aussprechen. 

Neben jenen taglich drei oder viermahl, in gleichen Zwischenzeiten zu 
machenden Aufzeichnungen der magnetischen Elemente, wiirde die jahrlich 
mehreremahl mit ausserster Sorgfalt auszufahrende absolute Bestimmung 
derselben das Hauptgeschaft bilden, unbeschadet derjenigen andern Arbeiten, 
welche die Vorsteher der Anstalten nach gemeinschaftlich unter sich zu tref- 
fenden Verabredungen ausfiihren mochten, und wobei haufiger wechselseit- 
iger Austausch von Magnetstaben und Apparaten manche lehrreiche Resul- 
tate geben, auch dieThatigkeit und dieGeschicklichkeit der Vorsteher vielfach 
bewahren und controUiren konnten. Dass iiberhaupt denjenigen Vorstehern, 
die auf angemessene Art ihre Talente und ihrer Eifer schon bewahrt haben, 
ein etwas freierer Spielraum fiir ihre Thatigkeit gelassen wurde, mochte ich 
fiir sehr rathsam halten. 

Die Griinde fiir das nachhaltige Fortbestehen dieser Anstalten liegen iibri- 
gens so nahe,,dass es unnothig scheint, sie weitlauftig zu entwickeln. Unsere 
kenntniss des Erdmagnetismus ist nur erst ein diirftiges Stiickwerk, so lange 
wir uns nur auf eine bestimmte Zeitepoche beschranken, und nicht die schon 
nach wenigen Jahren sich merkliche machenden Sacularanderungen mit 
gleicher Sorgfall und Liebe verfolgen. Allerdings ist dazu das Zusaipmen- 
wirken sehr vieler Wissenschaftsfreunde an sehr vielen Punkten der Erdober- 
flache nothvvendig, und ein halbes oder ganzes Dutzend magnetischer Obser- 
vatorien iiber die ganze Erde zerstreuet kann fiir sich allein betrachtet nur 
einen kleinen Beitrag liefern. Aber diese Muster Observatorien werden zu- 
gleich die Pflanzschulen von vielen tiichtigen Beobachtern werden, die ihre 
Thatigkeit iiberall hin verbreiten. Sie werden ferner reisenden Beobachtern 
zu Wasser und Lande Gelegenheit geben, ihre Instrumente zu priifen urld zu 
berichtigen, und ihre Beobachtungsgeschicklichkeit zu bewahren und zu ver- 



44 REPORT — 1845. 

voUkommnen. Sie werden endlich dazu beitragen den Sinn fiir Erreichung 
moglich grb'sster Scharfe, der sonst nur in der Astronomic und hohern Geo- 
diisie zu treffen war, audi fiir die andern Theile der Naturwissenschaften zu 
beleben, zu niihren und zu verbreiten. 

Die Privatthiitigkeit ira Felde der magnetischen Beobachtungen liegt ubri- 
gens was Deutschland und die benachbarten Lander betrifFt seit einer Reihe 
von Jahren offenkundig vor. Obgleich man nicht sagen kann, dass die Bri- 
tischen Austalten dieselbe erst erweckt haben, da sie bekanntlich schon vor 
denselben vorhanden war, so baben doch diese Anstalten an mehrern Orten 
Erweiterung jener ThJitigkeit veranlasst. ' Daran aber ist jedenfalls nicht zu 
zweifehi, dass wenn die Britische Regierung ihre aussereuropaischen An- 
stalten eingehen liesse, dies auch einen entmuthigenden Einfluss auf die in 
Deutschland und anderwerts bestehenden Anstalten haben wiirde, um so 
mehr, da das Erscheinen des Organs dieser Thatigkeit, der Resultate des 
Magnetischen Vereins, seit der Entfernung des Professors Weber von Gottin- 
gen auf unbestimmte Zeit suspendirt ist. 

This indeed is all I have to say under present circumstances. I had de- 
layed my reply, which you expected to receive before 10th March, till today, 
in hopes to get the promised volume for inspection. But I can tarry no longer 
now (though Mr. Sabine's letter seems to prorogate the ultimate term to 31st 
March), because, even if that volume should arrive tomorrow or in the next 
days, I am for the next weeks so overcharged with other affairs, that it would 
be impossible to give it a close examination. I conclude therefore with the 
assurance that I ever remain 

Faithfully yours, 

Ch. Fr. Gauss. 
(^Translation.) 

Much as I feel honoured by your appearing to attach a value to my judge- 
ment in regard to the longer continuance of the magnetic establishments 
which the munificence of the British government has founded in different 
parts of the world, my regret is equally great that I cannot give to your 
questions answers as definite, and this chiefly because the results of the work 
executed in those establishments are still almost wholly unknown to me. I 
have as yet only received the 1st volume of the Greenwich magnetic obser- 
vations, and one volume of extraordinary magnetic disturbances, both which 
arrived duly, and I return my best thanks for them; but the 1st volume of 
the observations of the extra European British stations, which your letter 
made me hope for before the close of the year, and which, by a later letter 
from Colonel Sabine, should have arrived at latest on the 25th of February, 
has not yet reached me. But until the observations of some years are actually 
seen, and I must add, until they have undergone a certain degree of discus- 
sion and examination in detail, it is impossible to pronounce a judgement as 
to whether, and how far, the proposed objects are already obtained. 

In my present position, therefore, and on account of this very uncer- 
tainty, I can only urgently desire that these labours may be continued at 
least for some years longer, in the same manner and to the same extent as 
hitherto. 

But I must go still further, and must express my confident hope that the 
British government will apply to this branch of science especially its perse- 
vering care, and that it will secure these establishments for an indefinite 
period, even should it be with certain limitations, should such be thought 
necessary on account of expense ; if so, the reductions might, I conceive, 
apply to terms and to hourly observations, discontinuing the former altogether, 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROIiOGICAL. OBSERVATIONS. 45 

and reducing the latter to six-hourly or even eight-hourly records, which would 
materially lessen the personal staff and therefore the expense. But whether 
such reduction may take place yet, or whether only at the end of some years 
longer, is a question concerning which for the I'easons already given I can 
pronounce no decided opinion at present. 

The principal employment at each observatory, in addition to the daily 
observations at equal intervals of six or eight hours, will be to make, several 
times a year, absolute determinations with the most extreme care, and this 
without prejudice to other work which the directors of the different establish- 
ments may concert together; among which, frequently-repeated interchange 
of magnetic bars and apparatuses will give many instructive results, and will 
also keep up and check the activity and the skill of the directors in many 
Avays. I should also think it very advisable that those directors who have 
shown in a suitable manner their talents and their zeal, should be allowed 
somewhat freer scope for their activity. 

The reasons for continuing such establishments are so direct, that it seems 
unnecessary to develope them at much length. Our knowledge of terrestrial 
magnetism is but a fragment, so long as we confine it to one period of time 
only, and do not follow with equal care and interest those secular changes 
which make themselves felt even in the course of a few years. There is in- 
deed required the concurrence of very many friends of science at very many 
points on the earth's surface ; and half a dozen, or even a dozen observato- 
ries scattered over the whole earth can, if taken alone, give only a small con- 
tribution. But these normal observatories may at the same time be schools 
for many good observers, who will extend their activity over a wider range. 
They will also afford to travelling observers the opportunity of testing and 
correcting their instruments, and keeping up and perfecting their skill in ob- 
servation, and they will contribute to arouse, to nourish, and to extend to 
other parts of natural knowledge that desire for the greatest possible accuracy 
in observation which was formerly met with only in astronomy and the higher 
geodesy. 

Private activity in the field of magnetic observation has, it is well known, 
existed for several years in Germany and the adjacent countries ; but though 
it cannot be said to have been first awakened here by the British under- 
takings, since it existed before them, yet they have caused its further exten- 
sion. It cannot be doubted that if the British government were now to dis- 
continue its extra-European-establishments, this would have a discouraging 
influence on the existing establishments in Germany and elsewhere ; the more 
so, as the publication of the organ of their activity (the ' Resultate des Magne- 
tischen Vereins') has been indefinitely suspended since the removal of Pro- 
fessor Weber from Gottingen. 



XIII. M. Kreil, Director of the Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory 
at Prague, to Lieut.- Colonel Sabine. 

Verehrter Herr, Prag,23Marz,1845. 

Ich erhielt vor wenigen Tagen die werth vollenmagnetischen und me- 
teorologischen Beobachtungen von Toronto 1840-41-42, und beeile mich 
nun das Schreiben zu beantworten, womit mich unterm 5 Dec. 1844, das 
magnetische Comite beehrte, und in welchem meine Ansicht iiber einige 
dort vorgelegte Fragen gewunscht wird. 

Mit grossem Vergniigen durchblatterte ich den Band, so wie auch den 
schon friiher erhaltenen der ' Observations on days of unusual disturbances;' 



46 REPORT — 1845. 

denn ich ersah daraus, dass den hochgespannten Erwartungen, die ich von 
den Leistungen dieser Anstalten hegte, nicht nur entsprochen, sondern dass 
sie in vieler Beziehung noch iibertroffen worden waren. Die Geschichte der 
Wissenschaften biethet kauni ein zweites Beispiel dar, wo so viele und mit so 
reichen Mitteln versehene Kriifte gleichzeitig und fiir denselben Zweck waren 
in Bewegung gesetzt worden ; und da ein miichtiger Impuls in der physischen 
wie in der moralischen .Welt seine Wirkungen stets nacli alien Seiten hin 
iiussert, so haben auch die grossartigen Anordnungen, wit welchen England 
auf die von aussen her ergangenen Aufforderungen antwortete, auf dem euro- 
paischen Continents wieder manche Bestrebungen hervorgerufen, welche 
nicht ohne wesentlichen Nutzen fiir die Wissenschaft voriiber gehen werden. 
Um nur die nachsten dieser Bestrebungen zu nennen, so besitzen wir in der 
ostreichischen Monarchie zwei Anstalten fiir magnetische und meteorolo- 
gische Untersuchungen, Kremsmiinster und Senftenberg, von denen die erste 
wohl schon seit einem Jahrhunderte fiir Astrononiie wirksam in den letzten 
Jahren ihre Thatigkeit auch dem Magnetismus zugewendet, und ihre Leist- 
ungen in den ' Annalen fiir Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus ' bekannt 
gemacht ; die zweite aber, wenn gleich erst ein Jahr alt, doch ihre Erstlings- 
friichte bereits der OefFentlichkeit iibergeben hat. Bei beiden ist es mehr als 
zweifelhaft, ob sie ohne dem vorziiglich durch Englands Beitritt hervorge- 
brachten Ausschwunge, sich dem magnetischen Vereine angeschlossen hat- 
ten. Auch die nun in Aussicht stehende Bereisung der ostreichischen 
Monarchie zu magnetischen Zwecken, welche ich in diesem oder dem nach- 
sten Jahre zu beginnen hofFe, wiirde kaum zur Wirklichkeit gebracht worden 
seyn, hatte man nicht auf England's Beispiel hinweisen konnen. 

Ich bescliranke mich hier diese unserem Staate angehorigen Beispiele als 
Beweise aufzufiihren, dass die von der grossbritanischen Regierung errich- 
teten Anstalten manche andere Bemiihungen ins Leben gerufen haben, von 
denen die wissenschaftwerthvoUe Resultate theils schon erhalten hat, theils 
noch ervvarten kann, und iiberlasse es anderen Gelehrten diese Thatsache 
durch die in ihrem Gebiethe vorfindigen Beweise noch mehr zu bekraftigen. 

Wenn aber gleich durch das Zusammenwirken so vieler ausgezeichneter 
Gelehrter fast aller gebildeten Nationen, berlihmter Gesellschaften und er- 
leuchteter Regierungen im Fache des Magnetismus und der Meteorologie in 
den letzten Jahren mehr geleistet worden ist, als in irgend einem andern 
wissensschaftlichen Zweige in so kurzer Zeit je erreicht wurde, so darf man 
sich doch nicht schmeicheln, viel weiter als, wenigstens in den meisten Fallen, 
zur Erkenntniss der ersten, in die Augen fallendsten Thatsachen gelangt zu 
seyn. Der vorliegende Band der Toronto Beobachtungen iiefert hiezu selbst 
den Beweis, da in vielen Fallen die bisher ausgefiihrte dreijahrige Beobach- 
tungsreihe noch nicht ausreichend erscheint zur Erziehung sicherer Ergeb- 
nisse ; so musste die Erkenntniss der jiihrlichen Periode der Declinations- 
anderung (pag. 11), manche Einzelnheiten bei den Stcirungserscheinungen 
(pag. 21, 49), die Aenderungen der Vertical-Kraft (pag. 62.) und der Inclina- 
tion (pag. 65.) einer langeren Beobachtungsreihe vorbehalten bleiben. Es ist 
zu vermuthen dass die Jahre 184'3-45 die iiber manche dieser Punkte schwe- 
benden Perioden eingeschlossenen, sogenannten Sacular- Aenderungen so 
voUstandige Aufkliirung zu geben, dass sie fiir alle in Zukunft dariiber anzu- 
stellenden Untersuchungen eine vollkommen feste Grundlage bilden kbnnten. 
Um nur ein Beispiel anzufiihren, -so wurde in diesen drei Jahren die Sacular- 
Aenderung der Inclination in Toronto so klein gefuiiden, dass ans den Beo- 
bachtungen nicht erkannt werden konnte in wclcher Richtung sie vor sich 
gienge. Daman doch nicht annehmen kann, dass eine solche Aenderung gar 
nicht bestehe, oder immer zu klein sey, um sich in einem dreijiihrigen Zeit- 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 47 

raura selbst durch so scharfe Beobachtungen zu offenbaren, so muss man vor- 
aussetzen, dass sie an diesem Orte eben jetzt im Stillstande begrifFen sey. 
Diess ist aber fur alle zukiinftigen Untersuchungen iiber die Natur der mag- 
netischen Kraft ein eben so wichtiger Moment als z. B. die Erforschung der 
Sonnennahe eines Planeten zur Bestimmung seiner Bahn, und ein Abbrechen 
der Beobachtungen ehe dieser, und so viele andere nicht minder wichtige 
Punkte gehorig festgestellt sind, wiirde von den Gelehrten unseres und der 
kiinftigen Jahrhunderte, welche ihre Thatigkeit diesem Zweige widmen, 
hoehlieh bedauert werden. 

Wenn aber aucli manche Punkte ihrer Natur nach nicht durch eine sechs-* 
jahrige Beobachtungsreihe festgestellt werden konnten, so sind doch gewiss 
andere dadurch zur volligen Evidenz gebracht worden, und was daran noch 
fehlt, ist nur der Mangelhaftigkeit der Ins^rumente zuzuschreiben, welche 
noch nicht jenen Grad von VoUendung erlangt haben, den wir an den fiir 
andere Beobachtungen bestiramten Apparaten zu sehen gewohnt sind. Dahin 
gehoren die taglichen Aenderungen und die davon abhangigen Grossen. Selbst 
von vielen der in langere Perioden eingeschlossenen Aenderungen wie z. B. 
den monatlichen und jahrlichen wurden die meisten Umstande wo nicht mit 
Gewisheit doch mit einem hohen Grad von Wahrscheinlichkeit erkannt. 

Wenn also, wie gewiss alle Theilnehmer an ahnlichen Untersuchungen 
hoffen und wiinschen, das Bestehen der von der grossbritanischen Regierung 
errichteten magnetischen und meteorologischen Observatorien noch um 
einige Jahre verlangert wird, so soUten die saculdren Aenderungen und die 
Gesetze der Storungen als Hauptzweck im Auge behalten werden, und es ware 
die kiinftige Thatigkeit der Anstalten diesem Zwecke gemass cinzurichten. 
Demnach scheint es mir hinreichend zu sein, statt stiindlichen oder zwei- 
stiindigen Beobachtungen, vierstiindige, also an jedem Tage sechs Beobacht- 
ungen auszufiihren, um Mittag, 4'', 8", Mitternacht, \6^, 20\ undzwar nicht 
nach Gdttinger- sondern nacli Ortszeit, weil es sich vorzugsweise um eine 
griindliche Kenntniss der Erscheinungen handelt, wie sie am Beobachtungsorte 
vor sich gehen, und weil fast alle rvicksichtlich ihrer Periode von dem Stande 
der Sonne gegen den eigenen Meridian, nicht gegen einen fremden abhangen, 
ein Grundsatz, den man schon von jeher bei Ausfiihrung der meteorologischen 
Beobachtungen befolgt hat. Bei den magnetischen Terminsbeobachtungen 
war eine strenge Gleichzeitigkeit der Ablesungen allerdings wiinschenswerth, 
bei den taglich zu fixen Stunden anzustellenden Beobachtungen aber, glaube 
ich, soUte man sich eben so an die Ortszeit halten, als man es bisher bei den 
meteorologischen Terminen gethan hat. Hiebei ware es gut, wenn die sechs 
zu fixen Stunden anzustellenden magnet. Beobachtungen doppelt ausgefiihrt 
wiirden, namlich jedes Element soUte nach 5 Minuten zum zweitenmale beo- 
bachtet werden, weil die in der Zwischenzeit eingetretene Aenderung sehr oft 
das Vorhandenseyn einer Storung anzeigt, welche bei einer einfachen Beo- 
bachtung unbemerkt bleibt, und weil bei gut aufgestellten und gegen Luft- 
stromungen gehorig geschiitzten Apparaten diese Aenderungen auch uber 
den taglichen Gang naheren Aufschluss geben konnen. 

Die magnetischen Terminsbeobachtungen, welche hauptsachlich zur ge- 
naueren Erforschung der Gesetze der Storungen eingefiihrt wurden, haben 
diesem Zwecke nicht vollkommen entsprochen, weil wenige Storungen gross- 
erer Art an den fiir diese Beobachtungen vorausbestimmten Tagen eingetroffen 
sind, daher viele Miihe vergebens angewendet wurde. Da man voraussetzen 
darf, dass die Beobachter sich fiir den Erfolg ihrer Arbeiten selbst interessiren, 
und alles aufbiethen werden, was sie fiir die Wissenschaft niitzlich machen 
kann, so diirfte man, wie ich glaube, die ausser den festgesetzten sechs Beo- 
bachtungsstunden anzustellenden Storungsbeobachtungen ihrem eigenen Er- 



48 REPORT — 1845. 

messen iiberlassen, und ihnen hochstens iiber die Zeit-Intervalle, in welchen 
die Ablesungen zu geschehen haben, und vvelche bei gut aufgestellten Ap- 
paraten die moglichst iciirzesten seyn sollen, einige Instruction ertheilen. Ihr 
Hauptaugenmerk soil hiebei auf die Wendungspunkt, d. h. jene Zeit-Momente 
gerichtet seyn, wann ein Wachsen in ein Abnehmen und umgekehrt iibergeht. 
Will man aber noch fernei* Beobachtungen an vorherbestimmten Tagen an- 
stellen lassen, so konnte diess versuchsweise, d. h. so geschehen, dass man an 
diesen Tagen zu jenen Stuuden, an welchen die Storungen am oftesten ein- 
zutreten pflegen, niimlich von 4'» bis 10" Abends so beobachtet, wie es bisher 
bei Terminen zu geschehen pflegte, und die Beobachtungen nur in dem Fullc 
iiber 24 Stunden ausdehnt, wenn sich Spuren einer Stdrung zeigen. 

Da barometrische Storungen dieselbe Wichtigkeit haben, wie magnetische, 
wenn gleich ihr Umfang niclit so ausgedehnt ist, so ware es wiinschenswerth, 
dass audi an Tagen, wo solche eintreten, die Ablesungen des Barometers in 
kiirzeren Intervallen als gewohnlich ausgefiihrt wiirden, etwa von Stunde zu 
Stunde, und in der Niihe de Wendepunkte, welche audi hier ganz besonders 
beriicksichtigt werden sollen, noch ofters, weil aus der Vergleichung naher 
gelegener Beobachtungsorte die Richtung und Schnelligkeit der Luftwellen 
erkannt werden kann. 

In Hinsicht auf Instrumente scheint es mir zweckmassiger zu seyn, die ein- 
nial eingefiihrten so lange zu behalten, als nicht eine neue Erfindung sie we- 
sentlich verbessert hat, weil bei Differenzbeobachtungen, urn welche es sich 
hier vorziiglich haudelt, der Nachtheil, den eine Unterbrechung und die An- 
wendung eines verschiedenen Apparates herbeifiihrt, nicht immer durch die 
grossere Genauigkeit des letzteren aufgehoben wird. Ueberall sollte man, so 
gut es angeht, die Arbeit durch Autographen zu erleichtern und zu vervoU- 
standigen trachten. Wenn die von hier nach England gesandten Exemplare 
der Baro- Thermo- und Hygrometrographen sich als zweckmassig bewahren, 
so ist fiir die Meteorologie viel gewonnen, und sie sollten verbreitet werden. 
Ich habe manche Versuche angestellt, nach demselben Principe auch magne- 
tische Autographen zu verfertigen ; allein diese Versuche f iihrten zu gros- 
seren Auslagen, als ich bestreiten konnte. Ich musste sie aufgeben, ohne von 
der Unmoglichkeit des Gelingens iiberzeugt zu seyn. In England, wo die 
practische Mechanik auf einer so hohen StJife steht, wiirde man leichter damit 
zu Stande kommen. 

Die Mittheilungen der Beobachtungen und ihrer Resultate haben stets um 
so grosseres Interesse, je frischer sie sind, und oft kann eine Vergleichung 
der Wahrnehmungen, so lange der erste Eindruck noch nicht erloschen ist, 
auch zu nicht unwichtigen Folgerungen fiihren, welche uns entgehen, wenn 
man die Vergleichung bloss nach den Ziffern austellen muss. Deshalb konnte 
vielleicht die Herausgabe der Beobachtungen in kleineren Parthien und in 
kiirzeren Fristen, nach Art einer Zeitschrift, etwa von Monat zu Monat ge- 
schehen. 

Da durch die Vereinfachung des Beobachtungssystems walirscheinlicli 
mehrere Beobachter disponibil werden, so konnte man diese vielleicht dazu 
verwenden, die Umgebungen des Beobachtungsortes zu bereisen, und einen 
magnetischen Survey auszufiihren. Meines Erachtens ist die Vervielfciltigung 
dieser Reisen, und die damit verbundene Untersuchung iiber die Vertheilung 
des Erdmagnetismus, derjenige Schritt, welcher in diesem Fache zuniichst zu 
thun ist. Die Beobachtungen sollten sich hiebei nicht nur iiber alle mag- 
netischen Elemente, sondern wo moglich auch iiber die geognostische Be- 
schafFenheit des Bodens ausdehnen, weil der Zusammenhang zwischen dieser 
und dem Erdmagnetismus ein Punkt von der grdssten Wichtigkeit ist. 

Diess sind die Ansichten welche ich iiber diese grosse wissenschaftliche 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 49 

Unternehmung hege, und die ich hiemitfrei und unumwunden ausgesprochen 
habe. Findet die Association es fiir zweckmassig sie gaiiz oder theilweise 
zu verciffentlichen, so stebt von meiner Seite nichts im Wege. 
Mit ausgezeichneter Hochachtung, 

Ergebenster, 

Kkeil. 



( Translation.) 

Prague, 23rd March, 1845. 

Dear Sir, — I received a few days ago the valuable ' Magnetical and 
Meteorological Observations at Toronto, 184;0-4'2,' and I now hasten to reply- 
to the communication with which the Magnetic Committee have honoured 
me under date of the 5th of December 1844, in which my views respecting 
some questions therein proposed were requested. 

I have looked over this volume and that which I had previously received, 
entitled ' Observations on Days of unusual Magnetic Disturbance' with great 
pleasure, for I have seen by these volumes that the highly-wrought expecta- 
tions of the results of these establishments which I cherished, are not only 
met but have in many respects been even exceeded. The history of science 
hardly offers a second example where so many and such richly-provided forces 
have been put into action simultaneously and for the same object ; and as a 
powerful impulse, whether in the physical or in the moral world, always ex- 
tends its effects on every side, so the great system of action by which England 
has responded to the call which proceeded from hence has reacted on the con- 
tinent of Europe, and has called forth several efforts which will not pass 
away without having done essential service to science. Among these I will 
name only the two which fall most immediately under my notice. We have 
in Austria two establishments for magnetical and meteorological researches, 
Kremsmiinster and Senftenberg ; at the first of which places astronomy has 
been actively followed for a century, magnetism only since the last few years, 
and its results are published in the ' Annalen f lir Meteorologie und Erd- 
magnetismus.' The Senftenberg establishment, though only a year old, has 
already published its first fruits. It is more than doubtful whether either 
would have joined the magnetic cooperative system, had it not been for that 
great development which is due to England especially. The magnetic survey 
of Austria, which I hope to begin either this year or the next, would hardly 
have been brought to pass if we had not been enabled to point to the example 
of England. I confine myself to adducing instances belonging to our own 
state, to show that establishments and other endeavours which have pro- 
duced, or which promise to produce, valuable results, have been stimulated 
by the example of England ; and I leave to other cultivators of science to con- 
firm this fact by instances more particularly belonging to their own spheres 
of observation. 

But although the concurrence of so many distinguished men of science, 
and of almost all the civilized nations, illustrious societies, and enlightened 
governments, has done more for magnetism and meteorology than was ever 
accomplished for any other branch of science in so short a time, yet we ought 
not to flatter ourselves that we have done more, at least in the majority of 
cases, than arrive at the knowledge of the first and most obvious facts. The 
volume of the ' Toronto Observations' now before me itself affords proof of 
this, for in many cases it appears that the series of three years' observations 
is not sufficient to afford assured results ; the knowledge of the annual period 
of declination changes (p. xi.), of some peculiarities in the phaenoraena of 

1845. K 



50 BEPORT— 1845. 

disturbances (pp. xxi. and xlix.), the variations of the vertical force (p. Ixii.), 
and of the inclination (p. Ixv.), require a longer series of observations. We 
may hope that the years 1843-45 will have done much to clear away the 
doubts remaining on these particular points, but they certainly cannot afford 
such a complete elucidation of the variations comprehended within longer 
periods, otherwise called secular variations, as may be capable of forming a 
perfectly solid foundation for all future researches. To allude only to one 
instance ; the secular change of the inclination at Toronto during the last 
three years has been found to be so small, that it cannot even be discovered 
in which direction it taices place. As we cannot assume that there is no such 
change, or that it is always so small as to escape detection even by such exact 
observations during an interval of three years, we nmst suppose that at To- 
ronto the inclination was stationary at that time. But such a moment is, for 
all future investigations concerning tlie nature of the magnetic forces, of an 
importance similar for instance to that of the perihelion of a planet for the 
determination of its path, and to breaic off the observations before this and so 
many other no less important points are properly established, would be greatly 
lamented by those men of science who may devote their activity to this 
branch of science either in the present or in the ensuing century. 

If however there are many points which from their very nature cannot be 
settled by a six years' series of observations, there are others certainly for 
which the evidence will be complete ; or if anything be still wanting, it will 
be owing solely to the incompleteness of the instrumental means which have 
not yet attained to that high degree of perfection to which we are accustomed 
in the apparatus belonging to other kinds of observation. The diurnal varia- 
tion and all the quantities depending thereon are of this class ; and even for 
the variations comprised by longer periods, the monthly and annual variations 
for example, most of the circumstances belonging to them will be known, if 
not with certainty, yet with a high degree of probability. 

If, then, as is assuredly wished and hoped by all who take part in investi- 
gations of this nature, the magnetical and meteorological observatories esta- 
blished by the British government be continued for some years longer, the 
secular variations and the laivs of disturbances should be regarded as tlie 
principal objects to be kept in view, and the activity of the different establish- 
ments should be directed accordingly. In this view it might suffice if four- 
hourly observations were substituted for hourly or two-hourly, taking for in- 
stance, 0, 4'', S'', 12^, \6^ and 20^ and employing not Gottingen time but the 
time of the station, as the special object in view is to obtain a thorough know- 
ledge of the phcenomena as they present themselves at the place of obser- 
vation, inasmuch as their march depends in almost all cases on the position of 
the sun relatively to their own meridian, not to that of another and distant 
station, a principle always followed in meteorological observations. In mag- 
netic terms, no doubt strict simultaneity of reading is always desirable, but 
the daily observations at fixed hours should I think be taken by the time of 
the station, as has hitherto been done in meteorological terms. Tlie magnetic 
observations, if made at fixed hours each day, might be taken doubly by re- 
peating the reading of each element at the end of five minutes. By this 
means, the presence of disturbance, which might escape detection by a single 
observation, would often be discovered, and with well-established instruments 
properly protected against currents of air, the alterations taking place in those 
short intervals would also furnisli inferences concerning the diurnal march. 

The magnetic term days, which were principally designed for the more 
accurate investigation of the laws of disturbances, have not perfectly answered 
to this view, because few of the greater disturbances occurred on the pre- 



ON MAQNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 51 

scribed days of observation, so that much labour has been bestowed in vain. 
As we may assume that the observers are themselves interested in the results 
of their labours, and will willingly supply all the useful service to science in 
their power, we may, I think, leave to themselves what they may do at times 
of disturbance, in addition to the six daily observations, directing them at the 
utmost in some degree as to the intervals at which the readings should be 
taken, and which, with well-established instruments, ought to be as short as 
possible. The chief attention of the observers should be directed to the 
turning points, /. e. to the moment of time when an increase is changed into 
a decrease, and vice versa. If however it be still desired to institute obser- 
vations on prescribed days, it might be done tentatively, i. e. by observing on 
such days, in the manner hitherto followed on term days, at those hours when 
disturbances most frequently begin, i.e. from 4 to 10p.m., completing the 
twenty-four hours of observation only when indications of disturbance are 
perceived. 

As barometric disturbances have the same interest as magnetic ones, al- 
though their range is more limited, it would be desirable on days when they 
occur to take more frequent readings than usual, it may be every hour, and 
oftener near the points of turning, which ought to receive especial attention, 
as the comparison of neighbouring stations of observation may make known 
the direction and velocity of the atmospheric wave. 

In respect to instruments, it appears to me better to retain those already in 
use, unless newly-devised ones offer very important improvement ; because in 
differential observations, which are chiefly in question, the disadvantages at- 
tendant on breaks and on the introduction of a different apparatus, are not 
always compensated by the greater exactness of the new instrument. As far 
as can be done, it will be desirable to lighten the work, and to render it 
more complete by the use of self-registering apparatus. If the barometro- 
thermometro- and hygrometro-graphs sent to England are found to answer, 
their advantage to meteorology will be great, and their use ought to be 
extended. I have made many trials at constructing magnetic autographs on 
the same principle, but have found the experiment too expensive, and have 
therefore relinquished it, though without being convinced of the impossibility 
of success. In England, where there are such good artists, it might be less 
difficult. 

The earlier the observations and their results are communicated the greater 
will be their interest, and it may often happen that a comparison made while 
the first impression is still fresh on the mind may lead to not unimportant de- 
ductions, which escape when the comparison has to be made with the figures 
merely. Possibly it might be advantageous to publish the observations in 
smaller parts after the manner of a periodical journal, — it might be monthly. 

As the simplification of the system of observation would probably leave 
several observers at liberty, they might perhaps devote the time thus gained 
to the execution of magnetic surveys in adjoining districts. The multiplica- 
tion of such journeys and their results concerning the distribution of terres- 
trial magnetism appears to me to be the step most immediately needed. These 
observations ought to include, besides all the magnetic elements, a notice of 
the geognostic character of the ground, as its connexion with terrestrial mag- 
netism is a point of great importance. 

I have now given freely my views respecting this great scientific under- 
taking, and if the Association would think it useful to publish them, either in 
whole or in part, they are entirely at their disposal. 

With highest esteem, yours, Kreil* 

e2 



52 REPORT — J 845. 

XIV. — G. B. Airy, Esq., Aslronomer Royal, to Sir John Herschel. 

Royal Observatory, Greenwicli, April 7, 1845. 

My dear Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of the circular letter 
issued by you on the part of a Committee of the British Association, dated 5th 
December 1S4'4', and proposing certain queries regarding the propriety of 
continuing the existing magnetic and meteorological observatories beyond the 
termination of the present year, to which answers are invited. 

In the answers which I subjoin, I beg leave to refer to the numbers at- 
tached to the questions in your letter. 

In reply to question 1. 

Several important points have already been made out from the observa- 
tions; and undoubtedly, by continuing the observations, these same points 
would be established with an accuracy somewhat (but not much) greater 
than at present. I do not expect to obtain anything new ; but it is scarcely 
possible yet to tell, for want of reduction and digestion of the observations as 
far as they are made. It seems not improbable that a great part of what 
future theory may suggest can be made out by sinmltaneous observations 
conducted at a comparatively trifling expense : at the same time it is certain 
that great light has been cast upon the interpretation of the simultaneous ob- 
servations by using them in conjunction with the hourly and two-hourly 
observations. All things considered, I do not see sufficient ground for con- 
tinuing the systematic two-hourly observations. 

In reply to question 2. 

If by " private research" is meant " research by persons not officially con- 
nected Avith the various Magnetical, &c. Observatories," I do not believe that 
private I'csearch has been stimulated in the smallest degree. The research of 
persons connected with the observatories, in subjects nearly related to but 
not exactly included in the routine of the observatories, has naturally been 
much stimulated. 

In reply to question 3. 

I am totally unable, from want of discussion of the observations already 
made, to suggest anything. I perceive that strict simultaneity of observations 
and precisely similar construction of instruments are desirable ; and I urge the 
latter point the more strongly, because there has been a sensible change in 
the construction of the instruments adopted for many observatories, and be- 
cause it is far more difficult to carry out any general regulation regarding 
the instruments than anything which depends on mere personal arrange- 
ments. 

I now advert generally to the general question, as requested in the last 
paragraph of the circular letter. 

First, it must be remarked that the object of these observatories is totally 
difiPerent from that of astronomical observatories. It is not intended to attach 
very great importance to the accurate determination of the present state of 
certain elements, or of their secular changes (as in astronomical determina- 
tions), not because they are unimportant, but because they can be determined 
in a very much less expensive way. It is scarcely an object to ascertain the 
co-efficients or argument-epochs of inequalities following known laws (as in 
astronomy), because the present state of the science does not admit of it. 
The object is, to make out such laws as we can, to use our discoveries for the 
suggestion of other observations, and from these to make out other laws, &c. 
Now it is to be remarked that we shall have at most of the observatories full 
five years of continuous and simultaneous observations. I certainly do 
think that these are sufficient to give us, with reasonable accuracy, the first 



ON MAGNETIOAIi AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 53 

laws to which I have alluded above (if they are not, I can hardly conceive 
that any number of years would be found sufficient). And if they are suffi- 
cient, then I see that very great mischief is done by continuing them. At pre- 
sent, by the greatest efforts which it is possible to make, the Prague observa- 
tions are published in a roughly reduced form, only as far as 1843 ; those of 
Toronto and Greenwich as far as 1842, and no other so far. While the ob- 
servations continue, with the existing establishment of computers, there is no 
possibility of hastening this reduction and publication. Now we want leisure 
to complete the publication (to the same extent to which it has already gone). 
We want leisure further to discuss with reference to more scientific principles 
the observations at each station. We want leisure calmly to compare the 
results obtained at different stations. And above all, we want leisure to unite 
all by some such comprehensive theory as that by which Gauss united the 
then accessible observations of declination, dip, and intensity, all over the 
earth. As long as the observations shall be continued, so long at least will 
those discussions be delayed, and so long at least will the real intellectual pro- 
gress of the science be put off. 

I am therefore clearly of opinion that it is desirable to terminate the pre- 
sent system of observations at the end of the present year. 

In thus terminating the existing system of observations, I do not consider 
that the attention to the subject is at all suspepded. I consider that the at- 
tention is diverted to a more favourable direction ; and I look to the resump- 
tion of the observations at some future time as a probable consequence of it. 
Such observations would probably be undertaken under very different cir- 
cumstances from those of the present series. New points of theory would . 
have been suggested, new stations selected, new instruments adopted ; and the 
object of the new series of observations would be, to make out the new laws to 
which I have alluded above. 

In all that I have said thus far, I have alluded only to the interests of sci- 
ence as involved in the decision as to the time of terminating the observations. 
But I think that I should be wrong if I omitted to call attention to the ex- 
pense of the observations. The annual expense of the Greenwich Magnetical 
and Meteorological Observatory, including printing, is almost £1200. This 
expense, while the observations and reductions are printed in the same detail, 
can scarcely be diminished. 

I request that you will use your discretion as to printing the whole or any 
part of this letter. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Very truly yours, 

G. B. Airy. 



XV. — Lieut.- Colonel Sabine to Sir John Herschel, Bart. 

Woolwich, April 21, 1845. 

My dear Sir, — It has been intimated to me that the consideration of the 
questions now before the Committee may be materially aided by such a brief 
notice as I may be able to take in the compass of a letter, of what the colonial 
observatories will have accomplished at the close of 1845, towards the fulfil- 
ment of the objects originally proposed ; and of what further they may be 
expected to accomplish if their continuance is prolonged for another period. 
I propose to comply with this suggestion, and at the same time to state the 
opinions to which my own judgement at present inclines. 

I. Magnetical Observations. — We shall have determined the absolute values 
of the different magnetic elements at the several stations with as much, or 



54 REPORT — 1845. 

almost as much precision, as such determinations can be made with the most 
recent instruments, and in a manner which will probably leave little to be de- 
sired on that head. 

We shall also have determined satisfactorily the mean values of the diur- 
nal variations ; including under that expressioa the effects both of the so- 
called irregular disturbances, now ascertained* to have a sensible mean influ- 
ence on the diurnal variation of the magnetic direction and force, and of the 
more regular diurnal fluctuation connected with the sun's hour angle. In 
the first two years of the Toronto Observations these eff'ects have been 
in a great degree separated from each other, and the mean values of each 
ascertained. 

In respect to secular changes, we have learnt that neither the instrumen- 
tal means which were originally furnished, nor the methods of observation 
originally directed, were fully competent for this part of the inquiry ; and 
■we have substituted a system of absolute determinations made monthly with 
instruments subsequently contrived, combined with the observations of the 
differential instruments used with various precautions stated in the pub- 
lished volume of the Toronto Observations f. This process has already 
been some months in opei'ation, and we are able to say with confidence that 
it will accomplish the purpose, if a sufficient time be given. I fully con- 
cur with those who consider, that the endeavours which we are making, to 
place on record and transmit to posterity the present magnetic state of the 
globe, would be deficient in a most essential particular, if they failed to deter- 
mine the secular changes which are at present taking place at our stations of 
observation. 

There is also a very important class of determinations which are in progress 
of accomplishment by the same improved means that have been resorted to 
for the secular changes, which yet require some further time for their satis- 
factory completion. I allude to the annual variations of the magnetic ele- 
ments. The evidence brought forward in the volume of the Toronto Observa- 
tions appears to leave little doubt of the general fact, that the terrestrial 
magnetic force is at that station considerably greater in summer than in 
winter, and that the annual variation forms a regular progression intimately 
connected with the march of the temperature J. The complete establishment 
of this important fact in terrestrial physics, and a satisfactory measure of its 
mean value at each of the stations, together with similar determinations in 
respect to the annual variation of the magnetic direction (which is also indi- 
cated at Toronto, though in a less decided manner), may be confidently 
expected by perseverance in the means which have been adopted in the last 
few months. 

For the sake therefore of the secular and annual changes, I concur in opi- 
nion with those who desire a somewhat longer continuance of the magnetic 
observations at the stations which are now occupied ; though I am at the same 
time of opinion that an observatory starting with our present instruments, and 
our present methods of observation, might be expected to satisfy in a reason- 
able manner all the desiderata which have been mentioned, in a period of five 
years. 

With respect to the simultaneous observations made at the periods now fa- 
miliarly known by the name of magnetic term-days, the objects sought were 
of a less definite character, and it is therefore not so easy to say to what ex- 
tent the purposes which called them forth have been fulfilled by what has 
already been done. Much has undoubtedly been learned respecting the phae- 

* Toronto Observations, pp. xxvii and xlix. 

f Pp. xi, xxxiii. 1. vii. (note). J Pp. xxxvii. el seq. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 55 

noraena of disturbances. They have been shown by the Toronto observa- 
tions to follow a certain order, in frequency, iij force, and in direction, con- 
nected with the hours of the day. The comparison of the observations at 
Toronto and Van Diemen Island, in the volume of ' Unusual Magnetic Dis- 
turbances,' — the intercomparison of the observations at the several European 
stations in the 'Resultate' of MM. Gauss and Weber, — the comparison of the 
American stations with each other and with a European station in the Toronto 
volume, — have all shown that highly interesting and important conclusions are 
derivable from this class of observations. It cannot be doubted that a more 
general and elaborate examination of what has been already done, will both 
add to the number of these conclusions, and will point out special problems to 
be solved by a continuance, and possibly by some modification, of the system 
of simultaneous observation. Meanwhile it may perhaps be desirable to dis- 
continue, for the present at least, pre-arranged term observations, and to sub- 
stitute for them the most comprehensive and assiduous observation of the 
phaenomena at times of great disturbance that the strength of each observa- 
tory will permit ; holding all things ready, however, to cooperate in any pro- 
position of conjoint observation, that may grow out of the further examina- 
tion to which the great body of observations already collected will doubtless 
be subjected. Whilst the Arctic Expedition is in the northern seas, the 
phaenomena during periods of great disturbance ought to be particularly at- 
tended to at stations in high magnetic latitudes in Europe and America, and 
specially at Toronto ; as, should the Expedition be detained during a winter, 
their instruments will be established in a locality which may render simulta- 
neous observations of extraordinary interest and value. I think also that it 
may be more advantageous on some occasions to observe the precise instants 
of the occurrence of remarkable phaenomena, than to record the indications 
of the instruments at fixed intervals of regular recurrence. 

II. Meteorological Observations. — The periods during which hourly oh' 
servations have been maintained at our observatories is probably sufficient in 
the greater part of instances to meet the problems now presenting themselves ; 
if so, the attention bestowed on them might now be advantageously directed 
to observations having more special objects in view. I feel by no means con- 
fident, however, that more than three and a half years of hourly observation 
may not be desirable at Toronto, to meet questions which, if not already be- 
ginning to be considered, are not unlikely to be so in the rapid march which 
this science is now making ; and I am inclined to think that it may be ex- 
pedient that there should be a full series of at least five years of hourly ob- 
servation, obtained at some one station in Europe and another in America; 
and that for the latter, Toronto is remarkably well situated. 

There are a variety of special problems requiring systematic observation, 
of which the solution is extremely important in theoretical respects, and in- 
dispensable if anything like completeness is desired in the record to be left 
by our observatories. 1°. The separation of the pressures of the air and vapour, 
which united constitute the barometric pressure, has only been feasible since 
the invention of instruments to measure the tension of the vapour. The facts 
which this most important addition to our instrumental means has disclosed 
in the different observatories, some portion of which is already before the 
public*, are sufficient to show that a new aera has opened in scientific meteor- 
ology ; that observations conducted as they have been at the observatories 
reveal as their immediate fruits tiie laws of the periodical and systematic va- 
riations of the aqueous and gaseous pressures, and their connection with the 
variations of the temperature and those of the direction and force of the wind. 
* Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1844, pp. 42-62. 



56 REPORT — 1845. 

There are however many points yet to be ascertained, which have grown out 
of the observations ah-eady made, and whicli are essential to our perfect 
acquaintance with the mutual relations and dependencies of the periodical 
variations ; such, for example, as a more precise knowledge of the several 
turning periods of the different variations. These are now occupying atten- 
tion, and will require some further time. 2°. A meteorological record can 
scarcely be considered as otherwise than imperfect that does not show, with 
some satisfactory degree of approximation, the volume of air which, on the 
average of the year, passes the station of observation, and the direction in 
which it moves. For this purpose our instrumental means need, and are re- 
ceiving, further improvements. 3°. The investigations into the Imvs of storms 
have shown the importance of continuous records being made of the several 
meteorological phasnomena at periods of great atmospherical disturbance : at 
Toronto in particular these are likely to be very valuable, on account of the 
excellent field afforded by the North American continent for the prosecution 
of this inquiry. 

I have named a few of the meteorological objects which are likely to be 
obtained by a prolongation of the term for which the observatories have been 
sanctioned. Other objects have been pointed out in the letters of several of 
the correspondents who have addressed the Committee. Those which I have 
mentioned are all more or less involved in the original instructions, though 
the instrumental means, or the methods of observation, required to carry them 
out, may not have been so clearly perceived then as they are now. Amongst 
these may also be classed, observations on the important subject of atmo- 
spherical electricity. 

I am of opinion, therefore,^ — with reference to the observatories originally 
recommended by the British Association, — that it is now desirable to recom- 
mend, — 

1st. That the time for which the observatory at Toronto is sanctioned 
should be prolonged. 

2nd. That the time for which the observatory at Van Diemen Island is 
sanctioned should also be prolonged ; but that the establishment of that ob- 
servatory should be reduced to a director and one assistant, reducing the 
routine of daily observation proportionally. The personal establishment of this 
observatory is on a different footing from that of the Ordnance observatories, 
and the reduction will there be attended with a considerable saving of expense. 

3rd. That one, at least, of the observatories at the Cape of Good Hope and 
St. Helena should be continued. If the astronomical observatory at the Cape 
will undertake the monthly absolute magnetical determinations, and their con- 
nexion by means of the differential instruments, the Ordnance observatory at 
the Cape may be discontinued, and that at St. Helena maintained. 

Before I close this letter, I wish to advert to the expediency of extending 
the system of observation now in operation at Toronto, St. Helena, and the 
Cape of Good Hope, to other of the British colonies, where the same objects 
can be accomplished in an equally effective and economical manner. 

In cases where the institution of similar establishments is strongly urged 
by the governor of a colony, — where competent persons are present and dis- 
posed to superintend the observations, — and where soldiers of the artillery are 
stationed whose services may be available, and whose employment has now 
been shown to be economical and effective in a high degree in the execution 
of a laborious and exact routine of observation, — there is wanting only a sup- 
ply of instruments, — the temporary allotment of a building to contain them, — 
extra pay such as the individuals at the above-named observatories receive, — 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. §7 

and an authoritative connexion with the head-quarter establishment, whence 
they may derive instruction and guidance. 

The cost of one of the Ordnance observatories (including 100/. a-year for 
incidentals of all kinds) is 392/. a-year, exclusive of publication. It may be 
assumed that five years of hourly observation is a sufficient time of continu- 
ance for obtaining in any particular colony the mean values of the magnetical 
and meteorological elements, and their diurnal, annual, and secular variations, 
as well as the peculiarities of climate bearing on the health and industrial oc- 
cupations of man. If the observations were printed in full detail for the five 
years, they would occupy two quarto volumes ; but if it were thought suffi- 
cient that duplicate or triplicate manuscript copies should be deposited in 
different public libraries, and that publication should be confined to abstracts 
and an analysis, the cost of the publication would form but a small addition. 

The colonies of Ceylon, New Brunswick, Bermuda, and Newfoundland are 
in the described case ; their respective governors are recommending the esta- 
blishment of magnetical and meteorological observatories in them ; competent 
directors are on the spot ; and they are all artillery stations. 

The volume of the Observations at Toronto in 1840-1 842 is now before 
the public, and affords a fair example of what these institutions accomplish 
at the above-named cost*. It furnishes also the means of estimating the ad' 
vantages to the sciences of magnetism and meteorology, of accomplishing the 
same objects in other and different parts of the globe, at an expense which is 
small in comparison with that of civil establishments, and which may in some 
instances at least (as at Ceylon) be offered from the colony itself. 
Believe me, my dear Sir, sincerely yours, 

Edward Sabine. 



XVI. — Professor Dove to Lieut.-Colonel Sabine. 

Berlin, April 21. 
AuF Ihren Wunsch fUge ich diesen Zeilen noch einige Bemerkungen 
iiber die Toronto Beobachtungen bei, welche ich so wie die beiden Theile 
des Greenwich Magnetical and Meteorological Observations erhalten habe, 
fiir welche Geschenke ich mich auf das Dankbarste verpflichtet fiihle. Ich 
ersuche Sie, diese Bemerkungen nur als meine individuelle Ansicht anzusehen, 
und iiberzeugt zu sein, dass ich mein Urtheil bereitwillig dem der Manner 
unterordne, von welchen dieses grossartige Unternehmen veranlasst worden 
ist und geleitet wird. Die meteorologischen Beobachtungen in Toronto sind 
nach meinem Urtheil voUkommen geeignet, um weiter in demselben Weise 
fortgesetzt, jede Frage zu beantworten, welche in Beziehung auf die barometri- 
schen, thermischen und hygrometrischen Vei'haltnisse der Atmosphare in 
Riicksicht auf die periodischen Veranderungen derselben auf dem jetzigen 
Standpunkte der Wissenschaft aufgeworfen werden konnen. Auch lasst die 

Redaction derselben in dieser Beziehung, so viel ich sehe, nichts zu wiinschen 

« 
* dE392 is the annual amount of the sum paid by the public for one of these establish- 
ments, which would not be paid if the establishment did not exist. It does not include the 
regimental pay (nearly an equal sum) of the officer and men employed in the observatory, 
because they continue to form a part of the peace estabhshment of the regiment of artilleiy, 
and of the available strength of the corps in the particular colony. A discretionary power 
has been given by the Master-General of the Ordnance to the commanding officer of artillery 
in each colony, to stop the work of an observatory on the occurrence of an emergency 
requiring the military services of all ; but at all other times, whilst thus temporarily occupied 
in rendering scientific services, their mihtary duties are performed gratuitously by their 
brother officers and soldiers, and form to that extent a contribution to science on the part of 
the whole regiment. 



58 REPORT — 1845. 

iibrig, denn sie ist vollkommen iibersichtlich und gewahrt die bedeutende 
Erleichterung einer bereits bereckneten Elasticitat der Dampfe. 

Detaillirte Beobachtungsjournale dieueii aber ausserdem dazu, die niit den 
periodischen Veranderungen sich verwebenden Veranderungen kennen zu 
leriien, welche vorzugsweise von einer Anderung in der Windesrichtung 
abhangen. Ziehe icli zumBeispiel an alien den Tagen, an welchen Mittags 
N.W. beobachtet wurde, die vorhergehende Ablesung des Barometers um 10'' 
von der Mittagsbeobachtung, oder diese von der um 2^ erhaltenen ab, so 
werde icli unmittelbar erfahren, ob auch in Nordamerika mit N.W. das 
Barometer steigt d. h. ob der N.W. der Uebergang eines warmeren leichteren 
Windes in einen schwereren kiilteren ist. Bei den grossen Bogen, durch 
welche die Windfahne sich dreht, sind nahe abstehende Beobachtung wiinsch- 
enswerth, und bei der Seltenheit mancher Richtungen wird man bei solchen 
Rechnungen so viel Aufzeichnungen der Windesrichtung wiinschen, als iiber- 
haupt Ablesungen andrer Instrumente erfolgt sind. In Beziehung auf die 
Auffindung der Gesetze der von der Windesrichtung abhangigen Veran- 
derungen, scheint es mir dalier hdchst wiinschenswerth, auch samtliche Auf- 
zeichnungen der Windesrichtungen zu erhalten. Um den Raum zu ersparen, 
konnte zugleich the pressure etwa so angegeben werden, SWg SW, wo die 
danebenstehende Zahl den Druck bezeichnete. 

Was bei dem grossartigen Englischen und Russischen Unternehmen, denen 
sich die Stationen Briissel, Miinchen und Prag so verdienstlich angeschlossen 
haben, rair vorzugsweise wiinschenswerth scheint, ist dass das erhaltene Beo- 
bachtungsmaterial nicht bios publicirt werde, um wie die Mannheimer 
Ephemeriden fast ein halbes Jahrhundert unbenutzt zu liegen, sondern dass 
sobald als moglich Resultate daraus gezogen werden, um zu zeigen, was auf 
diesem Wege geleistet werden kann. Die grossen damit verkniipften Reck- 
nungen verlangen aber eine Theilung der Arbeit. Ich Aviirde daher vorschla- 
gen, dass die British Association diese Vertheilung iJbernehme, wie sie in 
ahnlicher Weise in Beziehung auf die Sterncharten von der Berliner Akade- 
mie ausgegangen ist. Um zum Beispiel also die von der Windesrichtung 
abhangigen Veranderungen des Druckes der Luft und der Dampfe, ebenso 
die der Temperatur kennen zu lernen, miisste z. B. fiir jede Windesrichtung 
die Verandcrung jener drei Grossen in 4 Stunden berechnet werden. Um 
aber die periodische Veriinderung zu eliminiren, miissten die Beobachtungen 
um 12, 2, 4 ... . noch nicht zu einem gemeinsamen Mittel vereinigt werden. 
Ich wiirde mich z. B. gern anheischig machen, fiir eine der Stationen in 
jedem Jahre diese Rechnung zu iibernehmen. Nach einem Zeitraum von 
5 Jahren konnten die so gesammelten Data dann vereinigt werden und man 
wiirde durch die Stationen Greenwich, Newfoundland, Toronto, Van Diemen's 
Land, Petersburg, Barnaul, Nertchinsk, Peking, Briissel, Miinchen, Prag eine 
sehr geniigende Beantwortung der Frage erhalten, welchen modificirenden 
Einfluss die Lage an der Ost- oder Westseite eine Meeres, im Innern der 
Continente oder an der Kiiste, auf der nordlichen oder sUdlichen Erdhalfte 
habe. 

Da man annehmen darf, dass, so wie zwischen den Tropen die Luftmenge, 
welche unten nach dem ^Equator hinfliest, compensirt wird durch einen ent- 
gegengesetzten Strom in der Hohe, auch die neben einander liegenden Strome 
in der gemassigten Zone einander in der Weise das Gleichgewicht halten, 
dass, was innerhalb eines Jahres iiber gewisse Stellen eines Parallels dem 
Pole zufliesst, iiber andre Stellen desselben Parallels zum ^Equator zuriick- 
kehrt, so sollte man zunachst mit Berlicksichtigung der Intensitat entweder 
an keinem Orte eine vorherschende Windesrichtung erwarten, oder an einigen 
eine der andern entgegengesetzte. Aber die Luft, welche vom ^Equator 



ON MAGNETICAli AND METEOROLOGICAIi OBSERVATIONS. 59 

her den Parallel vibewchreitet, kommt bei diesetn mit einer hohen Tempera- 
tur an, welche sie bei ihrem weitern Fortschreiten nach dem Pole immer mehr 
an den Boden* iiber welchen sie stromt, abgiebt, welche sie daher bei ihrer 
Riickkehr zum Parallel nach dem Equator hin nicht wieder mitbringt. Kal- 
tere Luft nimmt einen geringeren Raum e.in als warmere. Der Luftstrom 
ist daher, wenn er vom Pole zum jEquator fliesst, schraaler als wenn er dem 
Pole zustromt. Findet diess Hin- und Herstromen in veranderlichen Bet- 
ten statt, so wird derselbe Beobachtungsort nothwendig ofter in einem Siid- 
strome sich befinden, als in einem Nordstrome, die Anzahl der siidlichen 
Winde also im ganzen Jahre die der nordlichen iibertreffen. Da aber aus- 
serdeni die siidlichen feuchten Winde in immer erneuerten Niederschlagen 
ihren Wasserdampf in Foi-m von ilegen, &c. absetzen, so kehrt zwar in dem 
trocknem nordlichen Winde dieselbe Luftmasse nach dem ^Equator zuriick, 
welche als Siidstrom dem Pole zufloss, aber das, was als luftf ormiger Begleiter 
auf dem Hinwege mit die Quecksilbersaiile hob, fliesst theilweise unter dem 
Gefasse des Barometers als tropfbar Fliissiges zuriick, ohne zur Hebung des 
Quecksilbers mitzuwirken. Bei Erwagung der eben besprochenen Verander- 
ungen, welche die Luft zwischen Hingang nach den Polen und Riickkehr 
von ihnen erf ahrt, sieht man ein, dass in der ganzen gemassigten Zone die 
mittlere Windesrichtung eine sequatoriale sein kann, welche wegen der Dre- 
hung der Erde in der nordlicher Erdhalfte eine siidwestliche, in der siidli- 
cher eine nordwestliche wird. Es ist aber klar, dass innerhalb einzelner Theile 
der jahrlichen Periode an einem Ort die Luft nach dem Pole, an andern nach 
dem Equator stromen wird, ja es scheint diess im AUgemeinen in der Weise 
stattzufinden, dass wahrend in Nordamerika im Sommer die Windesrichtung 
verhaltnissmassig siidlicher ist als im Winter, das Umgekehrte in Europa 
stattfindet. Bei der Veranderlichkeit der mittlern Windesrichtung iiberhaupt 
lasst sich diese Frage nur durch gleichzeitige Beobachtungen entscheiden, ein 
neuer Grund die beobachteten Windesrichtungen in aller VoUstandigkeit zu 
erhalten. 

Bezeichnet byb^b^b^ . . . . bg den mittleren Barometerstand respective bei 

den Winden S.S.W. W S.Ej tii Wo n^ die Anzahl der beobachteten 

Richtungen, so wird der mittlere Barometerstand 

, n, by + Wj be. + n^ b^ . . . , + Hg bg 

n^ +n^ + «8 

werden. Hatten also Winde glfeich oft geweht, so wiirde die Windesrichtung 
keinen Einfluss auf den Barometerstand gehabt haben. Es ware dann da 

ill = Wj = W3 . . . = rtg der Barometerstand bg = -^-— — '^ J ' " ■■ ' ^ « Der 

8 

Unterschied b — b^ giebt also den Einfluss der mittleren Windesrichtung auf 
den mittleren Barometerstand. Besitzt man also eine barometrische Windrose, 
so kann man entscheiden, ob der mittlere Druck ein auf diese Art normaler 
oder anomaler ist. Dasselbe gielt fiir Temperatur, Feuchtigkeit. Aber an 
solche Berechnungen ist nur zu denken, wenn die Windesrichtungen mit den 
entsprechenden Ablesuhgen vollstandig publicirt sind. Ob der so ungenugsam 
Einfluss erheblich oder nicht ist, ist ganz gleichgiiltig, denn es ist ein eben 
solcher Fortschritt, wenn man eine mogliche Erklarung als ungenugsam 
beseitigt, als wenn man eine vermuthete rechtfertigt. Die Aufnahme der 
Intensitatsbestiinmungen verandert die Aufgabe. Bis jetzt nennt man die 
mitlere Temperatur eines Ortes das arithmetische Mittel einander nahe lie- 
gender gleichweit abstehender Beobachtungen innerhalb der zu betrachtenden 
Periode. Da aber wahrend der Wind stiirmischer weht mehr Luft iiber den 
Beobachtungsort stromt als bei langsamen Luftstrome, so ist die Zahl, welche 



60 REPORT — 1845. 

die mittlere Teraperatur der uber den Beobachtungsort stromenden Luft 
angiebt eine andre als das was man als mittlere Temperatur des Zeitraumes 
bis jetzt allein betrachtet hat. Es ist nicht unwahrscheinlich, dass bei gewisse 
meteorologischen Fragen es sicli um diese Zahlen handelt, und es wird daher 
ein wenn auch anniiherndes Intensittitsmaass ein wichtiger Beitrag wo aber 
ebenfalls jede Intensitatsmessung mit der gleichzeitige barometrischen, ther- 
mischen und hygroraetrischen combinirt werden muss. 

Die wichtige Frage, ob bei liorizontaler Bewegung der atmospharischen 
Luft eine Sonderutig der trocknen Luft und der ihnen beigemengten Was- 
serdanipfe zu machen sei, wie es bei den periodisehen Anderungen wohl nun 
erwiesen ist, wird durcli die angestellten Beobachtungen ebenfalls erledigt 
werden. 

Diess sind die Griinde welche es mir wiinschenswerth erscheinen lassen, den 
speciellen Angaben des Standes der Instrumente auch noch die der Windes- 
richtungen hinzuzufiigen. Es ist diess aber auch der einzige Wunsch, dei^ 
mir bei einer aufmerksamen Prufung erheblich schien. Vortrefflich ist, dass 
ausser die quantitative Bestimmungen auch eine Art Commentar dem Jour- 
nale beigefiigt ist. Die Physionomie des Wetters liisst sich nur so beschrei- 
ben und es ist dabei wieder hochlich anzuerkennen, dass die vortreffliche 
Terminologie von Howard beibehalten ist. 

Die Beobachtungen von Van Diemen's-land erwarte ich mit der grossten 
Spannung. Ein meteorologisches Journal von der siidlichen Erdhalfte in sol- 
cher Vollstiindigkeit fiillt eine Liicke aus, welche seit lange so sehr fiihlbar 
war. Auch die Station St. Helena ist sehr gliicklich gewiihlt, in der Passat- 
zone ohne Monsoons und dabei das Cap als Controlle an der aussern Grenze 
des Passat. 

Entschuldigen Sie alle diese fliichtigen Bemerkungen, die ich deutsch 
schreibe, um den Brief nicht aufzuhalten. Ich freue mich ini Voraus an den 
Besprechungen Theil nehmen zu konnen, welche iiber ein so grossartiges 
Unternehmen unter Mannern stattfinden werden, die im Stande sind unter so 
verschiedenen Himmelstrichen der Natur Fragen vorzulegen. Das einzige 
was ein deutscher Naturforscher zu bringen im Stande ist, ist das Versprechen 
sich bei den Arbeiten, welche nun erfodert werden, zu betlieiligen, so Aveit 
diess der Sache forderlich sein kann. Meteorologische Untersuchungen 
konnen im giinstigsten Falle von eineni Einzelnen m ohl angeregt werden, 
sie bediirfen aber zu ihrer weitern Forderung des Zusammenwirkens einer 
Gesammtheit. Dass die Meteorologie diess finden wiirde, war immer bei mir 
eine stille Hoffnung, dass sie es aber so bald und in so grossem Maasstabe 
gefunden hat, ist selbst iiber meine kiihnsten Erwartungen. 

Believe me, sincerely yours, 

H. W. Dove. 

( Translation.) 

Berlin, April 21. 

At your wish I add some remarks on the Toronto Observations, which I 
have received, as well as the two volumes of the ' Greenwich Magnetical and 
Meteorological Observations,' for all of which I return my grateful thanks. I 
desire that the following remarks may be regarded as only my own individual 
views, which I submit to those of the persons by whom this great undertaking 
has been promoted and guided. 

The meteorological observations at Toronto, continued in the same manner, 
appear to me to be perfectly fitted to answer every question which, in the 
present state of science, can be proposed concerning the barometric, thermic 
and hygrometric relations of the atmosphere, in respect to their periodical 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 61 

changes. The redaction also leaves nothing to be desired in this respect, for 
it is perfectly lucid, and has the great advantage of the tension of the vapour 
being already computed. 

But detailed observation-journals offer the further advantage of enabling 
us to trace the changes, depending chiefly on variations in the direction of 
the wind, which are mixed up with the periodical changes. If, for example, on 
every day when the direction of the wind at noon was noi'th-west I deduct the 
preceding or IC reading of the barometer from the noon-observation, or the 
noon-observation from that at 2 hours, I shall infer directly whether in North 
America, as in Europe, the barometer rises with the north-west wind, i. e. 
whether north-west is the passage from a warmer lighter wind to a heavier 
colder one. Considering the large arcs through which the wind-vane moves, 
it is desirable to have observations near together, and the rare occurrence of 
several directions is an additional reason why we should have as many records 
of the direction of the wind as of the readings of the other meteorological 
instruments. With the directions the pressures also may be given, and to 
save space they might perhaps be thus recorded : SW, SWj, where the num- 
ber expresses the pressure. 

That which appears to me most desirable in the great English and Russian 
undertaking, to which Brussels, Munich and Prague have so meritoriously 
joined themselves, is, that the materials gathered should not only be published 
as was done with the Mannheim Ephemerides, which remained unemployed 
for more than half a century afterwards, but that results should be deduced 
from them as soon as possible. The extensive calculations connected here- 
with will require a division of labour : I would propose that the British As- 
sociation should undertake the distribution of the parts, as the Berlin Aca- 
demy did in regard to the maps of the stars. For example ; in order to learn 
the variations in the pressures of the air and vapour, and in the temperature, 
dependent on the direction of the wind, we must not combine in a common 
mean the values at the several observation-hours when any particular wind 
has blown, but we must first eliminate from these values the periodical varia- 
tions by which they have been affected. I would willingly offer to undertake 
this calculation for each year for one station. If at the end of five years the 
data from the stations of Greenwich, Newfoundland, Toronto, Van Diemen 
Island, Petersburg, Nertchinsk, Pekin, Brussels, Munich and Prague were 
combined, we should obtain from them a satisfactory reply in respect to the 
modifying influence of situation, whether on the east or on the west side of the 
sea, — whether in the interior of a continent, or on the coast, — whether in the 
northern or in the southern hemisphere. 

As ■within the ti'opics the lower current of air flowing towards the equator is 
compensated by an opposite current above, so we may assume that in the tem- 
perate zone the equipoise is maintained by currents on the same level flow- 
ing in opposite directions, and thus that the air, which in the course of the 
year passes over certain stations on a given parallel towards the pole, returns 
towards the equator, passing over other stations on the same parallel. We 
should expect, that if we find (taking the intensity into account) a prevailing 
direction of the wind at some stations, we should find an opposite direction at 
other stations. But the air which passes over the parallel coming from the 
equator brings with it a higher temperature, which it gradually parts with as 
it flows over the surface of the earth, and which it cannot therefore bring 
back with it when it passes the same parallel on its return towards the equator. 
Now colder air occupies less space than warmer air, and therefore the current 
of air flowing from the pole to the equator is narrower than when it flows 
from the equator to the pole. If the beds in which these opposite currents 



62 REPORT — 1845. 

flo\y are shifting ones, the same station will necessarily be oftener in a south- 
erly than in a northerly curi-ent (in the northern hemisphere), and the pro- 
portion of southerly wind will in the course of the year exceed that of north- 
erly. Moreover the southerly winds bring with them a quantity of vapour, 
with which they are continually parting in the form of rain and other preci- 
pitations : the returning northern dry winds do indeed bring back the same 
mass of air, but without its aeriform companion, which having now assumed 
the form of liquid, no longer contributes to raise the column of mercury in the 
barometer. On considering the above-described alterations to which the at- 
mosphere is subjected on its passage from and return to the equator, we see 
that throughout the temperate zones the mean direction of tlie wind may be 
from the equator, converted by the rotation of the earth into a south-westerly 
direction in the northern, and a north-westerly in the southern hemisphere. It 
is plain, however, that taiving the year in detached parts, the air may be flowing 
towards the pole in one place and towards the equator in another : and we do 
find that in summer the direction of the wind in North America is relatively 
more southerly than in winter; whilst the contrary is the case at the same 
season in Europe. To arrive at decided conclusions, however, on this point, 
we require simultaneous observations, and on account of the great variability, 
the full record oi i\\e direction and pressure of the wind. 

If by bo b^ b^ . . . . bg denote the mean height of the barometer respect- 
ively for the winds S., S.W., W., .... S.E., w, Wo . . . . n^ the number of 
the observed directions, then the mean height of the barometer b will be 

_ Wi bj + n^bo, + ??3 &3 + n^bg 

Ml + «2 + W3 + ng 

If all the winds had blown with equal frequency, the direction of the wind 
would have had no influence on the mean height of the barometer. If, then, 

«, = Wo =: Mg . . . . ^ Mg, the barometric height b'= ' - — ^ ' ' ' ' ^ ' 

8 

Thus the diflPerence b — b' gives the influence of the mean direction of the 
wind on the mean height of the barometer. If we thus possess a barometric 
wind-rose, we are enabled to decide whether the mean pressure is in this way 
normal or anomalous. The same holds good for temperature and moisture. 
But such calculations require the directions of the wind to be given as fully 
as the corresponding readings of the other instruments. No matter whether 
the result be to find a material influence or not, for progress is equally made 
by a proposed possible explanation being set aside as insufticient, or by its 
being justified and confirmed. The taking in determinations of intensity 
alters the problem. Hitherto we have regarded as the mean temperature of 
a place, the arithmetical mean of observations at equal and short intervals 
during the period under consideration. But inasmuch as when the wind 
blows strongly more air passes over the place of observation than when the 
current is slower, the number which should give the mean temperature of the 
air flowing over the station may diifer from that which is given by the arith- 
metical mean of the observations. It is not impi-obable that in certain meteo- 
rological questions these hitherto unconsidered values may be those treated 
of, and hence even an approximate measure of intensity may be an im- 
portant contribution ; in this case also every measurement of intensity must 
he combined with the corresponding barometric, thermic and hj'grometric 
record. 

These observations will also determine the important question, whether, in 
the horizontal movement of the atmosphere, we are to separate the dry air 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 63 

and the aqueous vapour mingled therein, as has been proved to be just with 
respect to the periodical changes. 

These are the reasons for which jt appears to me desirable that the direc- 
tions of the wind should be given in every instance in addition to the other 
observations. But this is the only wish which I can form after attentive ex- 
amination. It is excellent, that besides the quantitative determinations, a kind 
of commentary has been added to the journal. It is only thus that the phy- 
siognomy of the weather can be described, and it is deserving of acknowledge- 
ment, that in this commentary the approved nomenclature of Howard has 
been employed. 

I await the observations of the Van Diemen Island observations with the 
greatest earnestness. A meteorological journal of such completeness from 
the southern hemisphere supplies a want which has long been greatly felt. 
St. Helena also is very happily chosen, being in the trade zone without mon- 
soons ; and the Cape being at the outer limit of the south-east trade will be 
valuable as a check. 

Excuse these passing remarks being written in German, not to delay the 
letter. I rejoice in the anticipation of being enabled to take part in the con- 
versations and discussions which will take place at Cambridge on the subject 
of this great undertaking, between men who are in the position to interrogate 
nature in such various regions of the earth. All that a German cultivator of 
science can bring is the promise to take part in the work which may be now 
required, so far as may aid the furtherance of the cause. Meteorological in- 
vestigations may indeed in the most favourable cases be excited by one indi- 
vidual, but for their more extended prosecution they need the cooperation of 
many. That meteorology should receive this advantage was always with me 
a hope, which I scarcely ventured to express ; but that she should find it so 
soon, and on such a scale, has indeed surpassed my boldest expectations. 

Believe me, sincerely yours, 

H. W. Dove. 



XVII. — Extract from a Letter from Dr. Lamont to Lieut.- Colonel Sabine, 

Munich, April 26.. 1845. 

My dear Sir, — I have received a short time ago the volume which you 
had the kindness to send me, containing the observations of Toronto, 1840- 
1842, and can assure you that the results have greatly surpassed my expecta- 
tions. Indeed, I believe that very few European establishments have been 
conducted with so much skill and care and scrupulous attention to the various 
circumstances on which the accuracy of the observations depend. This is 
deserving of particular acknowledgement, because those entrusted with the 
care of the observatory might have contented themselves with simply exe- 
cuting the instructions of the Royal Society : in this way also a series of ob- 
servations would have been made, but the value of the results would have 
' been very different. The historical details prefixed to the Toronto observa- 
tions agree perfectly with what has been experienced at other observatories, 
and particularly at ours : the same difficulties were met with and the same 
reforms gradually introduced. At present the Toronto observatory, by the 
accounts given in the Introduction to the Observations, must be considered 
as being in the most efficient state ; all the arrangements seem to me to be 
very judiciously made. It must be considered as an immense advantage, that 
the same observations can be made with diff"erent instruments : the agreement 
of the results obtained in different ways affords the best means of judging how 
far confidence can be placed in the observations. I have been comparing the 



64 REPORT — 1845. 

daily changes at Toronto with those observed at Munich and other places in 
Europe, but do not think that any law can be found out till a greater num- 
ber of places in both hemispheres can be compared. 

* **■-** * 

The beginning of this letter might, if you think proper, be added to the 
one T wrote you in answer to the questions of the Committee. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, 

Yours most sincerely, 

Lamont. 



XVIII. — From Professor Ch. F. Gauss to Lieut.-Colonel Sabine. 

Gottingen, May 5, 1845. 

My dear Sill, — It has been long a nourished favourite wish of mine to 
pay once at least a visit to your happy island, the seat of so much grandeur 
in all pursuits that ennoble and embellish life, and certainly there could not 
be a more favourable opportunity than the congregation of the British Asso- 
ciation, where almost all, eminent in science, may be expected to be met 
with. 

The invitation of the President, and your kind offers to clear perplexities 
a stranger might be exposed to, have therefore been very strong temptations 
to me, and I have long balanced before submitting to the weighty reasons 
my state of health opposes at present to undertaking such a journey. Be 
pleased therefore to express to the President my excuses, and my deep regret 
for my not being able to profit by the honourable invitation, and accept 
yourself my warmest thanks for your kind intentions. 

Also I feel highly obliged to you for the volume of ' Toronto Observations,' 
and the Vlth part of your Contributions, which I received a few weeks ago. 
Beset as I have been by a train of urgent business, I could till now only look 
over hastily these precious materials. My anxious wishes for the permanent 
continuance of the Foreign British Magnetic Establishments have indeed 
been strengthened by the inspection of the ' Toronto Observations ; ' but a 
work of this description deserves and requires a much closer scrutiny than at 
this moment is in my power to afford. For this same reason, and in consi- 
deration of the extremely short term prescribed by Sir John Herschel (which 
would have left only two or three days for gathei'ing materials and writing 
down the note he desired), I felt disqualified to send any important addition 
to Avhat I had already written on that head. 

Probably Dr. Weber will be under less impediment than myself to be pre- 
sent at the approaching meeting of the British Association, in which case I 
hope he will take his road by Gottingen, and favour me with some sojourn 
here. We may then confer between ourselves on the matter in hand, and 
exchange and rectify our views on that head, so that he may take to the de- 
bates the result of our joint opinions. 

Believe me to remain always, dear Sir, 

Your obliged, faithful servant, 

C. F, Gauss. 



XIX. — Baron A. Von Humboldt to the Committee of the British Association. 

Par, le 15 Mai, 1845. 
Infiniment sensible aux marques de confiance bienveillante dont j'ai ete 
honorg de la part du Committee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, je ne puis plus explicitement repondre a la question qui m'a 



ON MAGNETICAIi AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 65 

ete addressee par cette illustre societe qu'en exprimant le plus vif desir de 
voir continuer les observations des stations magnetiques au dela du terme de 
I'annee 1845. Tout ce qui a ete publie jusqu'ici aux frais et par la noble 
munificence du Gouvernenient Britannique est d'une si haute importance 
pour I'etude des perturbations simultanees dans les regions les plus eloignges 
du globe que cette importance meme suffit pour motiver le desir que j'ex- 
prime. II ne me parait pas douteux que le gouvernement Russe s'associera 
a cette continuation des observations magnetiques et meteorologiques de sorte 
que pendant le sejour du Capitaine Franklin dans les regions arctiques ; les 
stations restees en activite dans les deux hemispheres ofFriront des points de 
comparaison dont il serait bien regrettable de se priver lorsqu'il s'agit d'un 
interet si generalement reconnu. 

Je supplie le Committee et individuellement nion excellent ami Sir John 
Herschel d'agreer I'hommage de mon respectueux devouement. 

Le Baron de Humboldt. 



XX From W. C Redfield, Esq. of Neio York to Lieut-Colonel Sabine. 

New York, March 13th, 1845. 
Received at Woolwich, June 5th. 

Sir, — I had the honour to receive by the last steamer a letter from the 
President of the British Association relating to the combined system of mag- 
netical and meteorological observations, which will close on the first of 
January next, and inviting my attendance at the consultations which are pro- 
posed to be held on this subject by the principal cultivators of the sciences 
of magnetism and meteorology at the next meeting of the Association in the 
University of Cambridge, on the 1 9th of June. 

I regret to say that pressing engagements will prevent me from being pre- 
sent on that interesting occasion, and compel me to forego the pleasure of 
attending the proceedings and deliberations of that distinguished body. But 
I ardently desire that some means may be devised for procuring the further 
continuance of this invaluable system of combined observations in magnetism 
and meteorology. These observations, if continued, appear likely to have an 
important influence upon the progress of these sciences, and their suspension 
at this early period, when the difficulties of concerted action have been so far 
overcome and the importance of the observations has begun to be realized, 
would be greatly lamented by the friends of science throughout the world. 

I have long desired that these combined observations might be made avail- 
able for determining the course of the main current of the lower atmosphere, 
in different regions, as shown by the observed courses of the clouds, apart 
from the particular and varying directions of the winds at the earth's surface, 
and also as apart from the low scuds or cumuli which are borne by the sur- 
face winds, for I deem this knowledge as being perhaps essential to a just 
estimate of the laws or forces which control the circulation of our atmosphere. 

With my best wishes for the continued prosperity and usefulness of the 
Association, and with sentiments of high consideration and regard, 

I have the honour to be. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

W. C. Redfield. 

Lieut.- Col. Sabine, Woolwich. 



XXI. — In compliance with a resolution passed at a meeting of the General 
Committee of the British Association at York in October ISii, the following 
letter has been addressed to those foreign gentlemen who have taken a leading 

1845. F 



66 REPORT — 1845. 

part in the combined system of magnetical and meteorological observations 
now in progress. 

" Cambridge, February 22nd, 1845. 

« Sir, — As the second triennial period of the combined system of Mag- 
netical and Meteorological Observations will close on the 1st of January 1846, 
it becomes extremely desirable to ascertain, as far as may be practicable, the 
opinions of the various distinguished philosophers who have taken a promi- 
nent part in suggesting or making them, with respect to the expediency of 
continuing them for a longer term. 

"It was with this view that a letter was addressed to you. Sir, by Sir John 
Herschel, the President Elect of the British Association, respectfully request- 
ing your opinion, as far as the results of the observations had come to your 
knowledge, of the extent to which you considered the objects for which they 
were instituted as already accomplished, and also of the advantages which the 
sciences of Magnetism and Meteorology might derive from their longer con- 
tinuance. 

" Considering, however, the great difficulty of communicating by writing 
the latest results of observations made at such distant stations, and of con- 
centrating into one view the united experience of so many observers, the 
British Association at their last Meeting at York unanimously adopted a 
suggestion made by M. Kupffer of St. Petersburg, to invite the attendance at 
their next Meeting in the University of Cambridge on the 19th of June, of 
the principal cultivators of the sciences of terrestrial magnetism and meteor- 
ology, for the purpose of conferring together upon the course which thev 
might judge to be most expedient hereafter to pursue, and of recommending 
to their respective Governments such measures as they might consider best 
calculated to give full effect to this great scientific operation, 

" I have been, consequently, requested by the Council of the British Asso- 
ciation to solicit the honour of your attendance at their next meeting at Cam- 
bridge, which begins on the 19th and closes on the 25th of June; and I beg 
further to inform you that arrangements will be made by Lieut.-Colonel Sa- 
bine and the Staff of Computers placed under his orders by the British Go- 
vernment, to bring under your notice the results of the observations brought 
down to the latest possible period, and to furnish every information which 
an extensive correspondence with the observers and others interested in this 
important inquiry may place at his disposal. 

" I have reason to believe that the railway between London and Cambridge, 
and between Yarmouth and Cambridge, will be opened before the 19th of 
June ; and I am further authorized to state that the leading Members of the 
University of Cambridge will feel highly favoured by your appearance 
amongst them, and will endeavour to make every arrangement in their power 
which may contribute to your comfort and convenience during your visit. 

"If it should be your intention to attend the proposed conference, I should 
feel obli""ed to you if you would communicate your intention to Lieut.-Colonel 
Sabine at Woolwich, who will gladly furnish you with any further informa- 
tion which you may require. 

" I have the honour to be. Sir, 
" With the greatest consideration and regard, 

" Your most obedient servant, 
(Signed"* " George Peacock, 

'^ President of the British Association" 



ON MAGNETICAL AND I4BTEOBOLO6ICAL OBSERVATIONS. 6? 

From the Marquis of Northampton, President of the Royal Society, to 
the Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart. 

London, July 3, 1845. 
Dear Sir, — The Council of the Royal Society having had before them 
the resolutions of the Magnetic Conference at Cambridge, to which, as a 
member of that Conference, I drew their attention, entirely concur in the 
recommendations that they contain, and request the favourable consideration 
of Her Majesty's Government to the subject, to which they attach the highest 
importance. 

The Council of the Royal Society having named the same gentlemen to 
draw up an accompanying explanatory report as the British Association, it is 
of course the report of the Royal Society. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) Northampton. 



From Sir J. Herschel, Bart., President of the British Association, to the 
Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart. 

London, July 3, 1845. 
Sir, — I have the honour to forward for your perusal the accompanying 
resolutions of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, as- 
sembled at Cambridge on the 25th ult., and respectfully to request your favour- 
able consideration of them on the part of Her Majesty's Government, and 
more particularly of the 1st, ard, 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, and 
14th, in which the aid and countenance of Government are solicited in favour 
of the continuance of the magnetic and meteorological operations now in 
progress, and which terminates on the 31st of December 1845. 

Accompanying this letter, I have moreover the honour to enclose the re- 
port alluded to in resolution 1 4th, explanatory of the proceedings which have 
led to this application, and which I trust will place their whole bearing in a 
distinct and satisfactory light. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Very respectfully, your obedient and humble Servant, 
(Signed) J. F. W. Herschel, 

President of the British Association. 



Resolutions of the Magnetic Conference, adopted by the General Committee of 
the British Association, June 'iSth, 1845. 

1. That it be recommended that the Magnetic Observatory at Greenwich 
be permanently continued upon the most extensive and efficient scale that the 
interests of the sciences of Magnetism and Meteorology may require. 

2. That it be earnestly recommended to the Provost and Fellows of Trinity 
College, Dublin, to continue the magnetical and meteorological observations 
at the Observatory instituted by that University. 

3. That it be recommended to continue the Observatory at Toronto upon 
its present footing until the 31st of December 1848, unless in the m^an 
time arrangements can be made for its permanent establishment. 

4. That it be recon^mended to continue the Observatory at Van Diepien's 

F 2 



68 REPORT — 1845. 

Land until the 31st of December 1848, unless in the meantime arrangements 
can be made for its permanent establishment. 

5. That it be recommended that the Observatory at St. Helena should be 
continued upon its present establishment for a period terminating on the 31st 
of December 184-8, for special meteorological objects. 

6. That it be recommended that the building and instruments of the Mag- 
netical and Meteorological Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope be trans- 
ferred to the Astronomical Observatory, to which an assistant should be 
added, for the purpose of making absolute magnetic determinations. 

7. That it be recommended to the Court of Directors of the Honourable 
East India Company, that the Observatories of Simla and Singapore be dis- 
continued at the end of the present year; but that the Magnetic and Meteo- 
rological Observatories now made at Bombay and Madras be permanently 
continued in connexion with the Astronomical Observatories at those stations ; 
and that it be further recommended to the Court of Directors to sanction the 
proposal made by Lieutenant Elliot for a magnetic survey of the Indian 
Seas, to commence with the close of the present year. 

8. That it be recommended that the Canadian survey be continued until 
the connexion of Toronto with the American stations be completed. 

9. That it be recommended that advantage should be taken of every 
opportunity of extending magnetic surveys in regions not hitherto surveyed, 
and in the neighbourhood of magnetic observatories. 

10. That it be strongly recommended that the staff of Colonel Sabine's 
establishment at Woolwich be maintained, with such an increased force as 
may cause the observations which have been made, and those which shall 
hereafter be made, to be reduced and published with all possible expedition. 

11. That this Meeting have recommended the reduction of the establish- 
ments at pi-esent attached to some of the magnetic and meteorological obser- 
vatories, in the full confidence, that if, after careful discussion of the observa- 
tions made to the end of 18^5, there should appear to be reason for restoring 
some of those establishments and for forming new ones, the British Govern- 
ment and the East India Company will give their aid with the same libera.'ity 
which they have displayed in the maintenance of the existing observatories. 

12. That the cordial co-operation which has hitherto prevailed between 
the British and Foreign Magnetic and Meteorological Observatories having 
produced the most important results, and being considered by us as abso- 
lutely essential to the success of the great system of combined observation 
which has been undertaken, it is earnestly hoped that the same spirit of co- 
operation will continue to prevail ; and that the President of the British 
Association be requested to make application to the British Government to 
convey the expression of this opinion to the governments of those other 
countries which have already taken part in the observations. 

13. The British Association assembled at Cambridge cannot permit the 
proceedings of this Meeting to terminate without expressing their sense of 
great obligation to the eminent foreign gentlemen who have taken part in the 
discussions of the Conference, and whose unwearied attention has been most 
effectively bestowed on every part of the proceedings. 

14. That the Committee which has hitherto conducted the co-operation of 
the British Association in the system of combined observations, be reappointed, 
for the purpose of preparing a report to accompany the presentation to the 
British Government and to the Directors of the Honourable East India Com- 
pany, of the resolutions passed at this meeting ; and that the Marquis of North- 
ampton, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Professor Christie, and Professor J. D. 
Forbes, be added to the Committee. J. F. W. Herschel. 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 69 

Report, explanatory of the proceedings which have led to an application on the 
part of the British Association and of the Royal Society to Her Majesty's 
Government and to the Honourable Court of Directors of the East India 
Company, for a continuance of the Magnetic and Meteorological Observa- 
tio7is now carrying on under their respective sanctions : drawn up by a 
Committee appointed by those bodies, consisting of Sir J. Herschel, the 
Marquis of Northampton, the Dean of Ely, the Master of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, Col. Sabine, Dr. Lloyd, the Astrojiomer Royal, Sir J. Lubbock, 
Professor Christie, and Professor J. D. Forbes. 

It being understood that the second term of three years for which the 
Magnetic and Meteorological Observatories established under Her Majesty's 
Board of Admiralty at Greenwich and in Van Diemen's Island, those sup- 
ported by Her Majesty's Board of Ordnance at Toronto, St. Helena, and the 
Cape of Good Hope, and those of the Honourable East India Company at 
Simla, Madras, Bombay and Singapore, was granted, will terminate at the 
expiration of the current year, unless provision be made for their continuance, 
and that with their cessation the combined system of British and Foreign co- 
operation for the investigation of magnetic and meteorological phagnomena, 
which h£is now been five years in progress, must be broken up, — it be- 
came a subject of deep consideration to the British Association, in which the 
conception of this operation was matured, and at whose instance, conjointly 
with that of the Royal Society, it was set on foot and supported by the mu- 
nificence of the Government" and the Honourable East India Company, 
whether it were consistent with the interests of science that they should suffer 
this term to expire without an effort on their part to procure its continuance, 
or the contrary. 

Connected as the science of Britain is with that of the other nations whose 
Governments have taken an interest in these operations, it appeared alike un- 
just to those nations and unsatisfactory in itself to come to any conclusion 
without calling for the opinion and judgement, not only on those of our own 
countrymen who have most distinguished themselves in these departments of 
science and have taken active part in the observations, but also of the most 
eminent magnetists and meteorologists of other countries, especially such as 
have superintended observatories established for these objects. 

Accordingly it was resolved, at a meeting of the British Association held at 
York in the year IS^^, to invite to a conference on the subject all the most 
eminent persons in those sciences in Russia, Germany, Prussia, Belgium, 
France, Italy and America, who had taken any part in the observations, and 
some others particularly distinguished in the sciences of Magnetism and Me- 
teorology whose opinions appeared entitled to great weight ; and in the mean- 
time also to solicit the written communication of their sentiments on the sub- 
ject in question, as a further guide to the formation of a well-considered 
opinion. 

In reply to the request for written communications, which was also made to 
such of our own countrymen as were known best to understand the subjects 
and to have advanced them by their researches, a number of very valuable 
letters were received, which were forthwith printed (with translations of 
those written in the German language) and placed in the hands of every 
person likely to take any part in the discussion or effective consideration of 
the subject, including the President and Council of the Royal Society, and 
also the members of the Committee of Physics of the Royal Societj', and the 
Council and Committee of Recommendations of the British Association itself. 

Pursuant to the invitation of the Association above alluded to, the follow- 



70 REPORT 1845. 

ing gentlemen attended the proposed Conference, which was held at Cam- 
bridge in the week terminating on the 25th of June, viz. — 

M. Kupffer, Director-General of the Magnetic Observatories of the Em- 
pire of Russia. 

M. Kreil, Director of the Meteorological and Magnetic Observatory at 
Prague. 

Baron von Senftenberg, Founder of the Astronomical, Magnetic and 
Meteorological Observatory at Senftenberg in Bohemia. 

Dr. Adolphe Erman, Professor of Physics in the University of Berlin, 
and author of a work entitled ' Reise um die Erde in den Jahren 
1828 bis 1830. Physikalische Beobachtungen.' 

Herr Dove, Professor of Physics in the University of Berlin, author of 
a work entitled ' Ueber die nicht periodischen Verander ungen der 
Temperatur Vertheilung auf die Oberflache der Erde." 

Dr. von Boguslawski, Conservator of the Royal Observatory at Breslau, 
and Professor of Astronomy of that University. 

The Conference was also attended by the Baron von Waltershausen, a gen- 
tleman who has taken part in the magnetic observations of Messrs. Gauss and 
Weber at Gottingen, and executed a magnetic survey of portions of Italy 
and Sicily. 

In addition to these gentlemen and to a Committee consisting of Sir John 
Herschel, Bart., the Very Rev. the Dean of Ely, Dr. Lloyd, Dr. Whewell, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sabine, and the Astronomer Royal, the following gentle- 
men, eminent as maguetists or meteorologists, were also requested especially 
to attend the meetings of the Conference, viz. — 

J. Phillips, Esq., author of several works on magnetism and mete- 
orology. 

Sir Thomas Macdougall Brisbane, Bart., P.R.S. Edin. 

J. A. Broun, Esq., Director of Sir T. Brisbane's Magnetic and Mete- 
orological Observatory at Makerstown. 

J. D. Forbes, Esq., Professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh. 

Capt. Sir James C. Ross, R.N. 

The Rev. Dr. Scoresby, author of several well-known publications on 
magnetism. 

A. Lawson, Esq., Founder of a Meteorological Observatory at Bath. 

Lieut. Riddell, R.A., Assistant-Superintendent of Ordnance Magnetic 
Observatoi'ies. 

W. Snow Harris, Esq., author of several well-known publications on 
meteorology. 

The Conference was also attended by the Marquis of Northampton, Pre- 
sident of the Royal Society, and by Colonel Sykes, one of the Directors of 
the Hon. East India Company. 

And to secure at once the due publicity for its discussions by the attendance 
of persons whose opinions are entitled to weight, but who inight be acci- 
dentally omitted in the above list, and an impartial judgement by that body 
on whose recorded judgement the British Association is accustomed to rely 
in matters of scientific importance, every member of the Committee of Re- 
commendations of that Association was requested to attend the meetings of 
the Conference, which were held at Cambridge on the 20th, 21st, 23rd, 24th, 
and 25th of June, and in which every part of the subject underwent discus- 
sion upon a plan previously arranged and placed in the hands of all present, 
in the report drawn up for that purpose by the Magnetic Committee. 

In these meetings the following opinions of the Conferience were recorded, 



ON MAGNETICAL AND METEOROIiOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 71 

on aii understanding that the general question of continuance should be de- 
ferred till it should appear whether or not the members of the Conference 
were sufficiently agreed on the details of the observations desirable to be pur- 
sued to enable them to come to any affirmative conclusion thereupon : — 

In reference to the daily magnetic observations, after discussing a variety 
of suggestions as to the hours at which observations might most advantage- 
ously be made, in case the curtailment of the two-hourly system were deemed 
necessary, it was agreed that the Conference was unable to suggest a scheme 
less comprehensive fhan the one- or two-hourly system, which would provide 
with sufficient security for the accomplishment of all the objects of the daily 
observations ; and that therefore, in observatories whose strength will permit, 
it is expedient that the system be carried on henceforth as heretofore, and at 
the Gottingen hours. 

In reference to the absolute magnetic determinations, it appeared to be the 
general opinion that such determinations of the declination and horizontal 
force should be made at least monthly, in connexion with the differential 
magnetometers, and that observations of inclination should be made weekly, 
and that care should be taken that all absolute determinations should be made 
beyond the influence of the other magnets and with separate instruments. 

In reference to the subjects of term-observations and disturbances, it ap- 
peared to be the opinion of the greater part of the members of the Confer- 
ence, that it is expedient to continue the same yearly number of term-days 
as at present, and with the intervals which are in use, and that it is very de- 
sirable to continue to give the same attention as hithlsrto to observations of 
unusual disturbances, leaving however the intervals and mode of observation 
during disturbances to the discretion of the directors of observatories. 

In reference to the magnetic instruments most desirable to be used in the 
observatories, it appeared to be the general opinion that the differential in- 
struments had better continue as at present ; that the absolute determinations 
of declination and horizontal force should be made with distinct instruments, 
and that the lengths of the bars of the latter should be left to the discretion 
of the directors. 

The employment of bars of small dimensions, having short times of vibra- 
tion, was strongly recommended for observations during disturbances. 

It appeared to the members desirable that an instrument should be con- 
trived to serve the purposes of an alarm on the occurrence of disturbances 
exceeding a certain limit. ' Such an instrument would be particularly useful 
in observations where the observing staff was smaller, and where therefore the 
daily observatories were not made hourly or two-hourly. 

The importance of obtaining observations of the third element (viz. of 
the vertical force) and the occasional imperfection of the balance magneto- 
meter, appear to render it the opinion of the members that Dr. Lloyd's in- 
duction inclinometer might be advantageously employed in the observatories 
in addition to the balance magnetometer. 

In reference to the question, whethei" any and what additional magnetic 
observations should be made in future^ it did not appear that any were 
deemed desirable. 

As regards the system of meteorological observation and instruments, the 
recorded Opinions of the Conference were as follows : — 

That the instruments and times of observation at present in use should be 
continued. 

That it is very highly important that self-recoi-ding meteorological instru- 
ments should be improved to such a degree as to enable a considerable por- 
tion of the observing staff of an observatory to be dispensed with ; and that 



72 REPORT — 1845. 

it might be desirable to hold out some specific pecuniary encouragement for 
the invention or improvement of such instruments, under such regulations as 
might seem most likely to be effective for the purpose. 

That it is desirable to add to the meteorological observations now made, 
observations of the thermometer and wet bulb hygrometer, at more than one 
height above the ground, and to register the temperature below the surface 
by means of long thermometers, sunk in the ground at depths of three, six, 
twelve, and at extra-tropical stations twenty-four French feet below the 
surface. 

That the meteorological instruments should be observed at short intervals 
in disturbed states of the atmosphere, during extreme depressions or eleva- 
tions of the barometer, and during rapid changes ; and that the simultaneous 
directions of the wind should be carefully noted. 

That instruments for the observation of atmospheric electricity on the prin- 
ciple of the apparatus at Kew should be employed in the observatories, and 
that an instrument should be devised and employed for the purpose of indi- 
cating the variations in the electricity induced from the earth. 

That it is desirable to have rain-gauges established at different heights, the 
heights to be dependent on local circumstances. 

As I'egards the general question of the continuance of the system, the sta- 
tions and their duration, surveys and auxiliary stations, and other points con- 
nected with the prolongation of the observations, fourteen distinct resolutions 
were entered into by the Conference, which are contained in the paper marked 
(A) accompanying this report; all which were subsequently adopted by the 
Committee of Recommendations, and being thus brought before the General 
Committee of the British Association, were further adopted as part of the 
proceedings of the Association, and as such are hereby most respectfully 
submitted to the favourable consideration of those authorities by which alone 
they can be carried into effect. 

Among particular suggestions deserving consideration, it was agreed that 
Professor Erman's offer to act as a committee to superintend certain calcula- 
tions connected with the Gaussian constants for 1829 with a grant of £50 per 
annum, to be placed at his disposal, out of the funds of the British Association 
for two years, ought to be accepted and recommended for adoption. And it 
was accordingly subsequently adopted by the Committee of Recommendations 
and by the General Committee. 

M. Dove's offer to reduce the meteorological observations at one station, 
viz. Van Dieraen's Island, was also recommended to be accepted, as well as a 
similar offer from the Astronomer Royal to do the same on the same plan for 
those at Greenwich ; and both were accordingly accepted and placed on the 
list of reconmiendations not involving grants of money for the year. 

During the continuation of the Conference, in an interval of its meetings, 
an inspection took place by its members of several magnetic instruments of 
recent construction. Among these were a dipping-needle by Repsold, Dr. 
Lamont's apparatus for magnetic surveys, and several of the smaller instru- 
ments in use in the British Colonial observatories. 

The Committee appointed to prepare this report cannot conclude it with- 
out recording their opinion of the very great and important advantages se- 
cured to science by the zeal and disciplined regularity of the officers, non- 
commissioned officers, and men of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and of 
the Naval and East India Service, who have been employed on the duties of 
the observatories ; advantages which could hardly have been secured in so 
eminent a -degree at all the stations by other means. Nor ought they to omit 
attributing their due share of merit to those officers and non-commissioned 



ON SOME POINTS IN THE METEOUOLOGY OF BOMBAY. 73 

officers, who by voluntarily performing the duties of their absent comrades, 
have enabled them to undertake and perform the duties of the observatories 
without detriment or inconvenience to the service in general. * 
Signed, on the part of the Committee, 

J. F. W. Herschel. 



On some Points in the Meteorology of Bombay. 
By Lieut.-Colonel Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 

[A communication read to the Mathematical and Physical Section, and ordered to be printed 
entire amongst the Reports.] 

In a communication which I had the honour to make to the Section at the 
York meeting of the British Association, on the subject of the meteorological 
observations made at Toronto in Canada in the years 1840 to 1842, 1 noticed 
some of the advantages which Avere likely to result to the science of meteor- 
ology, from the resolution of the barometric pressure into its two constituents 
of aqueous and of gaseous pressure. It was shown that when the constituents 
of the barometric pressure at Toronto were thus disengaged from each other 
and presented separately, their annual and diurnal variations exhibited a very 
striking and instructive accordance with the annual and diurnal variations of 
the temperature. The characteristic features of the several variations when 
projected in curves were seen to be the same, consisting in all cases of a single 
progression, having one ascending and one descending branch ; the epochs 
of maxima and minima of the pressures being the same, or very nearly the 
same, with those of the maxima and minima of temperature ; and the corre- 
spondence in other respects being such as to manifest the existence of a very 
intimate connexion between the periodical variations of the temperature, and 
those of the elastic forces of the air and vapour. The curve of gaseous pres- 
sure was inverse in respect to the other two ; that is to say, as the tempera- 
ture increased the elastic force of the vapour increased also, but that of the 
air diminished, and vice versa ; and this was the case both in the annual and 
the diurnal variations. 

Such being the facts, I endeavoured to show, in the case of the diurnal va- 
riations, that the correspondence of the phaenomena of the temperature and 
gaseous pressure might be explained, in accordance with principles which 
had been long and universally admitted in the interpretation of other meteo- 
rological phaenomena, by the suppositions, — of an extension in height and 
consequent overflow in the higher regions of the atmosphere of the column 
of air over the place of observation, during the hours of the day when the 
surface of the earth was gaining heat by i-adiation, — and of a contraction of 
the column during the hours of diminishing temperature, and consequent re- 
ception of the overflow from other portions of the atmosphere, which in 
their turn had become heated and elongated. 

According to this explanation there should exist, during the hours of the day 
when the temperature is increasing, — 1st, an ascending current of air at the 
place of observation, of which the strength should be measured by the amount 
of the increments of temperature corresponding to given intervals of time ; and 
2nd, a lateral influx of air at the lower parts of the column, of proportionate 
velocity, constituting a diurnal variation in the force of the wind at the place 
of observation, which should also correspond with the variations of the tem- 
perature in the epochs of its maximum and minimum, and intermediate gra- 
dation of strength. The anemometrical observations at Toronto were shown 
to be in agreement with the view which had been then taken, confirming the 



f4 REPORT 1845. 

existence of a diurnal variation in the force of the wind, corresponding in all 
respects with the variation of the temperature. 

Admitting the explanation thus offered to be satisfactory in regard to the 
diurnal variations, it was obvious that tiie correspondence of the annual va- 
riations of the temperature and pressures might receive an analogous expla- 
nation. 

A comparison of the results of the observations at Toronto with those of 
the observations of M. Kreil at Prague in Bohemia, (published in the Mag. 
und Met. Beob. zu Prag, and in the Jahrbuch fiir Prag. 1843,) showed 
that the characteristic features of the periodical variations at Toronto were 
not peculiar to that locality, but might rather be considered as belonging to 
stations situated in the temperate zone and in the interior of a continent. 
The annual and diurnal variations at Prague were also single progressions, 
and the same correspondence was observable between the variations of the 
temperature and of the gaseous pressure. 

The publication of the volume of magnetical and meteorological observa- 
tions made at Greenwich in 184-2, which took place shortly after the meeting 
of the Association at York, enabled me to add a postscript to the printed 
statement of my communication in the annual volume of the Association 
Reports, showing the correspondence of the results at Greenwich with the 
relations which had been found to exist in the periodical march of the phse- 
nomena at Toronto and at Prague. 

From the concurrence of these three stations, it was obvious that a consider- 
able insight had been obtained into the laws which regulate the periodical 
variations in the temperate zone, and into the sequence of natural causes and 
effects, in accordance with which the annual and diurnal fluctuations of the 
elastic forces of air and vapour at the surface of the earth depend on the va- 
riations of temperature : and from these premises it was inferred, that the 
normal state of the diurnal variations of the pressures of the air and vapour 
and of the force of the wind, in the temperate zone, might be regarded as 
that of a single progression with one maximum and one minimum, the epochs 
of which should nearly coincide with those of the maximum and minimum 
of temperature *. 

* Siuce this communication was read at Cambridge I have received from AI. Dove a copy 
of a paper read to the Academy of Berlin, entitled ' Ueber die periodischen aenderungen der 
druckes der Atmosphare im Innern der Continente,' in which the remarkable facts are stated, 
that at Catherinenbourg and Nertchinsk (on the mean of several years), and at Barnaoul (in 
the years 1838 and 1840), the mean diurnal barometric curve itself exhibits but one maxi- 
mum and one minimum in the twenty-four hours ; the maximum coinciding nearly with the 
coldest, and the miuimum with the hottest hours of the day. At these stations therefore, 
and in the years referred to, the forenoon maximum disappeared, and the barometric curve as- 
similated in character to the curve of the dry air in other places in the temperate zone. 
These stations are situated far in the interior of the greatest extent of dry land on the surface 
of our globe, and at a very great distance from an expanse of water, from whence vapour 
can be suppUed. The diminished pressure of the dry air produced by the ascending current 
and overflow as the temperature of the day increases, is not therefore compensated by an 
increased elasticity of vapour, and the curve of the diurnal variation of the barometer ap- 
proximates to the form assumed when the elasticities of the vapour at the several hours of 
observation are abstracted. This assimilation in character of the barometric and (inferred) 
gaseous curves, which is thus found to take place in cases where, from natural causes, the 
influence of the vapour is greatly lessened, ajipears a confirmation of the propriety of sepa- 
rating the effects of the elastic forces of the dry air and vapour in their action on the baro- 
meter. 

M. Dove considers that the single progression of the diurnal barometric cun'e, which takes 
place at the three Asiatic stations referred to in this note, is characteristic of a true continen- 
tal climate. It is, without doubt, characteristic of an extreme climate, and as such is highly 
instructive. There appears reason to doubt whether an extreme climate of corresponding 
character exist at all in the temperate latitudes of the continent of America. 

If, however, vpe examine the record of the observatioas made hourly in the year 1842 at 



ON SOME POINTS IN TttE HBTfeOttOLOGY OF BOMBAY. 75 

That exceptions should be found to this state of things in particular loca- 
lities in the temperate zone was far from being improbable ; it could not be 
expected that the influences of temperature should always be so simple and 
direct as they appeared to be at Toronto ; and a more complex aspect of the 
phsenomena might particularly be looked for, where a juxtaposition should 
exist of columns of air resting on surfaces differently affected by heat (as 
those of land and sea), and possessing different retaining and radiating pro- 
perties. In such localities within the tropics, the well-known regular occur- 
rence of land and sea breezes for many months of the year made it obvious 
that a double progression in the diurnal variation of the force of the wind 
must exist, and rendered it highly probable that a double progression of the 
gaseous pressure would also be found. It was therefore with great pleasure 
that I received, through the kindness of Dr. Buist, a copy of the monthly- 
abstracts of the two-hourly meteorological observations, made under that 
gentleman's superintendence at the observatory at Bombay in the year 1843 ; 
accompanied by a copy of his meteorological report for that year, possessing 
a particular value, in the full account which it gives of the periodical varia- 
tions of the wind, and in the means which it thereby affords of explaining 
the diurnal variation of the gaseous pressure. This pressure presents at 
Bombay an aspect at first sight more complex thafa at the three above-named 
stations in the temperate zone, but I believe it to be equally traceable to va- 
riations of the temperature, and to furnish a probable type of the variations 
at intertropical stations similarly circumstanced in regard to the vicinity of 
the sea. 

The observatory at Bombay is situated on the island of Colabah, in N. lat. 
18° 54' and E. long. 72° 50' at an elevation of thirty-five feet above the level 
of the sea. In the copy of the observations received from Dr. Buist, this 
monthly abstracts are given separately for each month, of the standard ther- 
mometer, — of the wet thermometer, and of its depression below the dry, — and 
of the barometer. In Table I. I have brought in one view the thermbmetrical 
and barometrical means at every second hour, and the mean tension of the 
vapour and mean gaseous pressure at the same hours. The tension of this 
vapour at the several observation hours has been computed from the monthly 
means, at the same hours, of the wet thermometer and of its depression 
below the dry thermometer. The values are consequently somewhat less 
than they would have been, had the tension been computed from each indi- 
vidual observation of the wet and dry thermometers, and had the mean of 
the tensions thus obtained been taken as the value corresponding to the hour. 
The difference is however so small, that for the present purpose it may be 
regarded as quite insignificant. It would not amount in a single instance to 
the hundredth part of an inch ; and as in every instance the difference would 
be in the same direction, the relative values, which are those with which we 

Catherinenbourg, Barnaoul and Nertchinsk, in the ' Annuaire Magnetique et Meteorologique 
de Russie,' we find that at Catherinenbourg in that year the barometer exhibits a double pro- 
gression, but that the morning maximum, which occurs at the observation hour of S*" 22™ a.m., 
exceeds the antecedent minimum only by a quantity less than 0003 in. At Barnaoul there is 
also a double progression in the barometric mean in that year, the morning maximum being 
still small, and taking place between the observation hours of O*" 54" and lO"" 54°" a.m. At 
Nertchinsk also there is a morning maximum occurring at the observation hour of Q"* 1 7"° a.m. 
In all the three cases the double progression shown by the barometer disappears wholly in 
the curve of the dry air, which curve exhibits at these three stations, as Avell as at Toronto, 
Prague and Greenwich, but one maximum and one minimum in the twenty-four hours. At 
the three stations of extreme dryness cited by M. Dove, therefore the vapour was stiU suffi- 
cient to impart, in the year 1842 at least, a double progression to the diurnal variation of the 
barometer ; but the hour of the morning maximum was earlier than where the increase of 
vapour, as the day advances, is greater. 



76 



REPORT — 1845. 



are at present concerned, would be scarcely sensibly affected. The pressures 
of tlie dry air (or the gaseous pressures) are obtained by deducting the ten- 
sion of the vapour from the whole barometric pressure. 

Table I. 

Bombay, 1843. — Mean Temperature, Mean Barometric Pressure, Mean Ten- 
sion of Vapour, and Mean Gaseous Pressure at every second hour. 



Hours of Mean Bombay 






Tension of 


Gaseous 


Time. Astronomical 
Beckoning. 


Temperature. 


Barometer. 


Vapour. 


Pressure. 






in. 


in. 


in. 


18 


78-4 


29-805 


0-750 


29-055 


20 


79-6 


29-840 


0-766 


29-074 


22 


81-8 


29-852 


0-771 


29081 





83-2 


29-817 


0-768 


29-049 


2 


84-1 


29-776 


0-795 


28-981 


4 


83-9 


29-755 


0-800 


28-955 


6 


82-3 


29-774 


0-802 


28-972 


8 


81-2 


29-806 


0-801 


29-005 


10 


80-3 


29-825 


0-780 


29045 


12 


79-8 


29-809 


0-775 


29-034 


14 


79-4 


29-786 


0-766 


29-020 


16 


78-9 


29-778 


0-761 


29-017 


Mean of the year ... 


8M 


29-802 


0-780 


29022 



The sun is vertical at Bombay twice in the year, viz. in the middle of May 
and towards the end of July. The rainy season sets in about the commence- 
ment of June (in 1843 on the 2nd of June), and terminates in August, but 
with heavy showers of no long duration continuing into September. During 
the rainy season, and in the month of May which immediately precedes it, 
the sky is most commonly covered with clouds, by which the heating of the 
earth by day, and its cooling at night by radiation, are impeded, and the 
range of the diurnal variation of the temperature is greatly lessened in com- 
parison with what takes place at other times in the year. The strength of 
the land and the sea breezes in those months is also comparatively feeble, and 
on many days the alternation of land and sea breeze is wholly wanting. Du- 
ring the months of November, December, January and February, the diurnal 
range of the temperature is more than twice as great as in the rainy season, 
and the land and sea breezes prevail with the greatest regularity and force. 

In addition to the monthly tables, we may therefore advantageously collect 
in one view, for purposes of contrast, the means of the months of May, 
June, July and August, as the season when the sky is generally clouded, — and 
of the months of November, December, January and February, as the season 
of opposite character, when the range of the diurnal temperature is greatest, 
and the land and sea breezes alternate regularly, and blow with considerable 
strength. These seasons are contrasted in Table II. 

If we direct our attention to the diurnal variations, commencing with those 
of the temperature, we find them exhibiting a single progression, having a 
minimum at IS** and a maximum at 2^; the average difference between the 
temperature at ] 8*' and 2'' being 7°*77 in the clear season, 3°'71 in the clouded 
season, and 5°*7 on the mean of the whole year. 

When however we direct our attention to the gaseous pressure, we perceive, 
very distinctly marked, the characters of a double progression, having one 
maximum at 10'' and another at 22*" ; one minimum at 4:^ and another at 16^ 



ON SOME POINTS IN THE METEOROLOGY OF BOMBAY. 



77 



The double progression is exhibited both in the clouded and in the clear 
seasons, with a slight difference only in the hours of maxima ; the principal 
maximum in the cloudy season being at 20** instead of 22^ and the inferior 
maximum in the clear season being at 12^ instead of 10**. The range of the 
diurnal variation, like that of the temperature, is more than twice as great in 
the clear as in the clouded season, marking distinctly the connexion subsist- 
ing between the phsenomena of the temperature and of the gaseous pressure. 

Table II. 

Bombay, 1843. — Comparison of the Temperature and of the Gaseous Pres- 
sure in the months of May, June, July and August, when the sky is usually 
covered with clouds ; and in November, December, January and February, 
when the sky is usually clear. 



Hours of Mean Time at 

Bombay. 
Astronomical Beckoning. 


Temperat 


jre. 


Gaseous Pressure. | 


November, December, 
January and February. 


May, June, July 
and August. 


November, December, 
January and February. 


May, June, July 
and August. 


18 


74-1 


81-9 


in. 

29-344 


in. 

28-782 


20 


75-3 


83-1 


29-368 


28-806 


22 


781 


84-3 


29-391 


28-798 





80-8 


85-1 


29-353 


28-782 


2 


81-9 


85-6 


29-230 


28-746 


4 


81-7 


85-4 


29-195 


28-724 


6 


79-6 


84-3 


29-199 


28-740 


8 


78-4 


83-4 


29-248 


28-754 


10 


76-9 


830 


29-308 


28-800 


12 


76-2 


82-7 


29-316 


28-775 


14 


75-7 


82-6 


29-295 


28-754 


16 


74-9 


82-2 


29-285 


28-753 


Means 


77-8 


83-7 


29-298 


28-763 



If we now turn our attention to the phtenomena of the direction and force 
of the wind, we find by Dr. Buist's report, that for 200 days in the year there 
is a regular alternation of land and sea breezes. The land breeze springs up 
usually about 10^ or between 10*^ and 14'^, blows strongest and freshest towards 
daybreak, and gradually declines until about 22^", at which time the direction 
of the aerial currents changes, and there is generally a lull of an hour or an 
hour and a half's duration. The sea breeze then sets in, the ripple on the 
surface of the water indicating its commencement being first observed close 
in shore, and extending itself gradually out to sea. The sea breeze is freshest 
from 2^ to 4^, and progressively declines in the evening hours. 

The diurnal variation in the force of the wind during these 200 days is 
therefore obviously a double progression, having two maxima and two mi- 
nima ; one maximum at or near the hottest, and the other at or near the cold- 
est hour of the day, — being the hours when the difference of temperature is 
greatest between the columns of air which rest respectively on the surfaces 
of land and sea ; and two minima coinciding with the hours, when the surface 
temperature over the land and over the sea approaches nearly to an equality. 

In the remaining portion of the year the diurnal range of the temperature 
is most frequently insufficient to produce that altei'nation in the direction of 
the wind, which prevails uninterruptedly during the larger portion. There 
appears however to have been only one month, viz. July, in the year 1843, in 
which there were not some days in which the alternation of land and sea 
breezes was perceptible. The causes which produce the alternation are not 



78 REPORT — 1845. 

therefore wholly inoperative, though the effects are comparatively feeble du^ 
ring the clouded weather which accompanies the south-west monsoon*. 

If we now view together the diurnal variations of the wind and gaseous 
pressure, as shown in the Plate, we find a minimum of pressure coinciding 
with the gi'eatest strength of the sea breeze ; a second minimum of pressure 
coinciding with the greatest strength of tiie land breeze ; and a maximum of 
pressure at each of the periods when a change takes place in the direction of 
the aerial currents ; or, otherwise stated, we find a decrease of pressure coin- 
cident with the increase of strength both of the land and sea breezes, and an 
increase of pressure coincident with their decline in strength. 

The facts thus stated appear to me to admit of the following explanation : — 
the diminution of pressure which precedes the minimum at 4^ is occa- 
sioned by the rarefaction and ascent of the column during the heat of the 
day, and its consequent overflow in the higher regions of the atmosphere, 
which is but partially counterbalanced in the forenoon by the influx of the 
sea breeze at the lower part of the column. Shortly after the hottest hour 
is passed, the overflow above and the supply below become equal in amount, 
and the diminution of pressure ceases. As the temperature falls towards 
evening, the column progressively contracts, when the influx from the sea 
breeze more than counterbalances the overflow, and the pressure again in- 
creases until a temporary equilibrium is restored, when the sea breeze ceases 
and the pressure is stationary. 

As the night advances, the air over the land becomes colder than over 
the sea; the length of the column over the land contracts, and the air in its 
lower part becomes denser than in that over the sea : an interchange then 
commences of an opposite character to that which prevailed during the 
day. The outward flow is now from the lower part of the column, or 
from the land towards the sea, causing the pressure to diminish over the 
land ; it continues to do so until towards daybreak, when the strength of the 
land breeze is greatest, because the air over the land is then coldest in com- 
parison with that over the sea. As the sun gains in altitude and the tempe- 
rature of the day advances, the land heats rapidly ; the density of the air 
over the land and sea returns towards an equality ; the land breeze declines 
in strength, and the drain from the lower part of the column ceases to coun- 
terbalance the overflow which the land column is at the same time receiving 
in the higher regions ; the pressure consequently having attained a second 
minimum at or near the hour of the greatest disproportion of temperature, 
again increases until the temperature and height of the column over the sea 
and land are the same, and the pressure again becomes stationary. But now 
the rarefaction of the column over the land continuing, its increase in height 
above the less heated column with which it is in juxtaposition, and its con- 
sequent overflow, occasion the pressure to decrease until the minimum at 
^ o'clock is reached. 

We have thus therefore at Bombay a double progression of the diurnal 
variation of the gaseous pressure; the principal minimum occurring at 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon, occasioned by an overflow from the column in the higher 
regions of the atmosphere ; and the second minimum occurring at IS'', occa- 
sioned by an efflux from the lower part of the column. The first minimum 
is similar to that which has been shown to take place at Toronto, Prague and 

* There are no data in Dr. Buist's report from which the diurnal variation in the force of 
the wind may be judged of in the days during the south-west monsoon, wlien no alternation 
takes place in its direction. It would seem probable that on such days the variation should 
be a single progression, weakest towards daybreak, and strongest about the hottest hour of 
the day. 



ON SOME POINTS IN THE METEOROLOGY OP BOMBAY. 



79 



Greenwich, and is similarly explained: the second minimum, which does not 
take place at the three above-named stations, is owing to the juxtaposition of 
the columns of air over the sea and land, which diifer in temperature, and 
therefore in density and height, in consequence of their resting respectively 
on surfaces which, are differently aft'ected by heat. 

The Plate shows the curve of the gaseous pressure, and the curve of the 
elastic force of the vapour ; and between them is placed a diagram illustrating 
the hours of pi-evalence and of the greatest strength of the land and sea 
breezes. At Toronto and at Greenwich the diurnal curve of the vapour is 
a single progression, having its maximum at or near the hottest hour of the 
day, and its minimum at or near the coldest hour. We perceive in the Plate 
which represents the phsenomena at Bombay, the modification which takes 
place in consequence of the supply of vapour brought in by the sea breeze 
continuing until a late hour in the evening, and prolonging the period during 
which the tension is at or near its maximum. The minimum occurs as usual 
at or near the hour of the coldest temperature. 

If, then, the explanation which I have offered to the Section, of the physical 
causes which produce the diurnal variation of the gaseous pressure at Bom- 
bay, be correct, the diurnal variation of the barometric pressure occurring 
there is also explained, since it is simply the combination of the two elastic 
forces of the air and of the vapour. 

The solution of the problem of the diurnal variation of the barometer is 
therefore obtained by the resolution of the barometric pressure into its con- 
stituent pressures of vapour and air ; since the physical causes of the diurnal 
variation of the component pressures have been respectively traced to the 
variations of temperature produced in the twenty-four hours by the earth's 
revolution on its axis, and to the different properties possessed by the mate- 
rial bodies at the surface of the globe in respect to the reception, conveyance, 
and radiation of heat. 

Annual variation — We now proceed to the annual variations, which are 
shown in the subjoined table. 

Table III. 



1843. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Vapour 
Pressure. 


Gaseous 
Pressure. 


Barometer. 


'a 

3 


Monthly Means greater (+ ) or less 
( — ) than the Annual Means. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Vapour 
Pressure. 


Gaseous 
Pressure. 


January ... 
February ... 

March 

April 

Mav 


76-4 
77-7 
79-7 
84-2 
85-9 
85-4 
82-1 
81-2 
81-1 
82-2 
80-5 
76-6 


d'-578 
0-648 
0-710 
0-853 
0-921 
0-935 
0-896 
0-859 
0-859 
0-819 
0-675 
0-592 


2°9-352 
29-246 
29128 
28-961 
28-743 
28-718 
28-737 
28-869 
28-920 
29-026 
29-213 
29-368 


29-930 
29-894 
29-838 
29-814 
29-664 
29-653 
29633 
29-728 
29-779 
29-845 
29-888 
29-960 


#7 
71 

74 
76 
78 
80 
85 
84 
84 
78 
Q7 
67 


-°4-7 
-3-4 
-1-4 
+3-1 
+4-8 
+4-3 
+ 1-0 
+0-1 
00 

+1-1 

-0-6 

-4-5 


-0-202 
-0132 
-0 070 
+0-073 
+0-141 
+0155 
+0-116 
+0-079 
+0079 
+0039 
-0105 
-0-188 


+0-329 
+0-223 
+0105 
-0062 
-0-280 
-0-305 
-0-286 
-0154 
-0-103 
+0-003 
+0-190 
+0-345 




July 


August 

September. . 
October ... 
November . . 
December.. 




811 


0-780 


29023 


29:803 


76 









We here perceive that the leading features of the phsenomena arg clearly 
analogous to those which have been seen to present themselves at Toroptp, 



80 REPORT — 1845. 

Prague and Greenwich; viz. a correspondence of the maximum of vapour 
pressure and minimum of gaseous pressure with the maximum of tempera- 
ture, — and of tlie minimum of vapour pressure and maximum of gaseous 
pressure with tlie minimum of temperature ; and a progressive march of the 
three variations from the minimum to the maximum, and back to the mini- 
mum again. The epochs, or turning-points of the respective phaenoraena, are 
not in every case strictly identical ; but their connexion, which is the subject 
immediately before us, is most obvious. 

We have thus a further illustration of the universality of the principle of 
the dependence of the regular periodical variations, annual as well as diurnal, 
of the pressures of the dry air and of the vapour, on those of the temperature*. 

* In the tropics and in the temperate zone the heat of summer produces and accompanies 
a low gaseous pressure, and the cold of winter a high gaseous pressure. When we consider 
how large a portion of the northern liemisphere is occupied by land, which becoming greatly 
heated in summer rarefies the superincumbent atmosphere, causing it to overtop the adjacent 
less heated masses, and to overflow them, we should be led to expect that in parts of the 
Arctic Cu-cle situated to the north of the great continents, the gaseous pressure should be 
increased in summer, and that the cui-ve of annual variation should become the converse of 
what it is in the lower latitudes. It appears from the meteorological observations made in 
1843 by Messrs. Grewe and Cole, and presented to the British Association at the York meet- 
ing by Dr. Lee, that such is the case at Alten, near the north cape of Europe. The barometer 
and thermometer were obsei-ved three times a day, from October 1842 to December 1843 
inclusive. The hours of observation were 9 a.m., 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. No hygrometric 
observations were made, but we are able to infer the approximate tension of the vapour from 
the record of the thermometer. The quarterly means of the barometer and thermometer in 
1843 are as follows ; the barometer being reduced to the level of the sea, and corrected for 
gravity : — 

Barometer. Thermometer, 

in. o 

December, January, February 29375 24 F. 

March, April, May 29-948 277 

June, July, August 29-905 52-4 

September, October, November ... 29-716 34-2 

Mean of the year 29-736 34-6 

Assuming the humidity in each quarter of the year to be 75, or the vapour to be in each 
case three-fourths of that required for saturation at the respective temperatures, we shoiUd 
have the following gaseous pressures : — 

in. 

December, Januai-y, Febi-uary 29-257 

March, April, May 29-804 

June, July, August 29616 

September, October, November, December ... 29-566 

29-561 
It appears therefore that in the six summer months the mean barometric pressure exceeded 
that of the winter months by 0-381 inch; and the mean gaseous pressure of summer ex- 
ceeded that of winter by about 0-3 inch. As in this case the curve of the gaseous pres- 
sure, as well as that of the aqueous vapour, accords in character with the curve of tempera- 
ture, i. e. ascends with ascending temperature, and descends with descending temperature, — 
the barometric annual range is greater than the gaseous annual range, which is contrary to 
what takes place in the temperate and equatorial zones. It is not improbable that in the 
Antarctic Circle the phaenomenon which we have just noticed as taking place in the Arctic 
Circle, viz. the summer increase of the gaseous pressure, — may not be found in the same degree, 
if at all ; for the two hemispheres present a remarkable contrast in their respective propor- 
tions of sea and land, and the rarefaction of the atmosphere over the middle latitudes of the 
southern hemisphere during its summer must be greatly less than in the same latitudes of the 
northern hemisphere in the corresponding season. The barometrical observations made by 
Sir James Ross in summer in the Antarctic Circle accord with this inference ; since after cor- 
recting them for the shortening of the column of merciury by the increased force of gravity 
in the high latitudes, and abstracting the small tension of vapour corresponding to the tem- 
perature, the mean gaseous pressure deduced from them, though nearly equal to the mean 
gaseous pressure of the year at Bombay, does not exceed it ; whereas at Alten it is only in 



ON SOME POINTS IN THE METEOROLOGY OF BOMBAY. 81 

The humidity exhibits also a single progression ; but may perhaps be rather 
characterized as evidencing a very dry season from November to February, 
and a very humid one from June to September, the latter season being that 
of the rains. The average degree of humidity in the year is very slightly 
lower than either at Toronto or at Greenwich, but is still closely approaching 
to a value expressing the presence of three-fourths of the quantity of vapour 
required for saturation. 

The mean gaseous pressure in 1843, derived from the two-hourly obser- 
vations, appears to have been (29-023 + 0*025, an index correction which 
Dr. Buist gives as that of the barometer with which the observations were 
made =)29'04'8 English inches; or, measured by the height of a mercurial 
column in the latitude of 45°, 28-988. The height above the sea is thirty-five 
feet, and the latitude 19° N. 

The mean height of the barometer in the year 1843, derived from obser- 
vations at every second hour, appears to have been (29*803 + 0-025=) 
29-828, or, with the correction applied for gravity, 29-768, the elevation being 
thirty-five feet above the sea. This is less than what is generally received 
as the average height of the barometer in the same latitude. From the careful 
comparison described in Dr. Buist's report of the standard barometer with 
several other barometers, there seems great reason to believe that the mean 
height shown by it must be a very near approximation at least to the true 
mean atmospheric pressure in the year 1843 at Bombay. 

The mean height of the barometer in the four clouded months of May, 
June, July and August, is 29-667 ; and in the four clear months of November, 
December, January and February, 29-921. The mean vapour pressure in 
the same seasons is respectively 0-904 and 0-623, and the gaseous pressure 
consequently 28-763 and 29-298. There is therefore between the two sea- 
sons a difference of 0*535 in. of gaseous pressure, and of 5°-84 of tempera- 
ture ; the lowest pressure corresponding to the highest temperature, and vice 
versa. If we may allow ourselves to make a rough proportion drawn from 
a single case, we may estimate a decrement of 0-1 in. of pressure to an in- 
crement of 1" F. The highest temperature and lowest pressure are accom- 
panied for nearly the whole of the period by the southern monsoon ; the 
lowest temperature and the highest pressure are accompanied by the north- 
ern monsoon. 

The curves of the annual variation of the gaseous, barometric, and vapour 
pressures, which are represented in the Plate, show how much of the influ- 
ence produced on the gaseous pressure, by the alternation of the overflow 
in the high regions of the atmosphere as either side of the equator becomes 
heated in its turn, is masked in the barometric curve by the combination 
in the latter of the vapour pressure, the variations of which take place 
throughout the year in the opposite direction to those of the gaseous pres- 
sure. From this cause the range of the barometric curve during the year 
is only 0-327 inch, whilst that of the gaseous pressure is 0-650 inch. 

The analogy of the annual and diurnal variations, considered in respect to 
the explanation which has been attempted of the latter, is too obvious to be 
dwelt upon. The decreased gaseous pressure in the hot season is occasioned 

the winter months that the gaseous pressure descends so low as to approximate to the usual 
mean gaseous pressure of the tropical regions. 

It is much to be desired that the zealous observers at Alten should observe the wet ther- 
mometer at the same time as the barometer ; the register would also be rendered much more 
complete by the addition of another observation-hour, about 6 a.m., which might not perhaps 
be incouvenient. The atmospheric pressure and the tension of vapour at or near the coldest 
hour of the twenty-four, are important data in meteorological discussions. 
1845. G 



82 REPORT — 1845. 

by the rarefaction of the air over the land whilst the sun is in the northern 
signs, and its consequent overflow in the higher regions, producing a return 
current in tlie lower strata ; and the increased pressure in the cold season is 
occasioned by the cooling and condensation of the air, whilst the sun is on 
the south side of the equinoctial, and its consequent reception of the overflow 
in the upper strata from the regions which are then more powerfully warmed, 
and which is but partially counteracted by the opposite current in the lower 
strata. 

In concluding this communication, I beg respectfully to submit to the con- 
sideration of the eminent meteorologists here present, that it is very important 
towards the progress of this science, that the propriety (in such discussions 
as the present) of separating the effect of the two elastic forces which are 
considered to unite in ibrming the barometric pressure, should be speedily 
admitted or disproved. The very remarkable fact recently brought to our 
notice by Sir James Ross, as one of the results of his memorable voyage, that 
the mean height of the barometer is full an inch less in the latitude of 75° S. 
than in the tropics, and that it diminishes progressively from the tropics to 
the high latitudes, presses the consideration of this point upon our notice ; 
for it is either explained wholly or in greater part by the diminution of the 
vapour constituent in the higher latitudes, which diminution appears nearly 
to correspond throughout to the decrease of barometric pressure observed 
by Sir James Ross; or it is a fact unexplained, and I believe hitherto unat* 
tempted to be explained, on any other hypothesis, and of so startling a cha- 
racter as to call for immediate attention. 

If, by deducting the tension of the vapour from the barometric pressure, 
we do indeed obtain a true measure of the pressure of the gaseous portion 
of the atmosphere, the variations of the mean annual gaseous pressure, which 
will thus be obtained in different parts of the globe, — and the differences 
of pressure in different seasons at individual stations, — may be expected to 
throw a much clearer light than we have hitherto possessed on tliose great 
aerial currents, which owe their origin to variations of temperature proceed- 
ing partly from the different angles of inclination at which the sun's rays 
are received, and partly from the nature and configuration of the material 
bodies at the surface of the earth : and a field of research appears to be thus 
opened by which our knowledge of both the persistent and the periodical 
disturbances of the equilibrium of the atmosphere may be greatly extended. 



Report on the Physiological Action of Medicines. By J. Blake, 
M.B., F.R.C.S. ^c. S^c. 

The present report is but a continuation of that which was read at the last 
Meeting of the Association, and which has since been published in the Trans- 
actions. The investigation of the action of medicines has been confined to 
the observation of the effects that follow their direct introduction into the 
blood, by means of injections into the arteries or veins, and in most instances 
the haemadynamometer has been used, in order to ascertain more accurately 
the effects produced on the heart and vascular system. Although this view 
of the subject may appear to be of no practical utility, yet I trust that the 
results arrived at will justify the course that has been pursued. In ray for- 
mer memoirs on this subject I have endeavoured to prove that isomorphous 
substances, when introduced directly into the blood, exert an analogous in- 
fluence on the animal economy. The experiments I am about to bring fori 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OP MEDICINES. 83 

ward afford additional confirmation of the views I have already advanced, 
and, with the facts that have been published, will, I trust, constitute a sufficient 
amount of evidence to firmly establish the truth of the law in question. The 
experiments I have now to bring forward have been performed with the 
tartrate of antimony, the salts of palladium and platinum, and with the chloric, 
liydrochloric, bromic and iodic acids. 

Tartrate of Antimony. — This substance when injected into the veins gives 
rise to exactly the same phasnomena as would the arsenic or phosphoric acids, 
and which have been detailed in the last report. The quantity required to 
cause death was about a drachm of the salt. 

Chloride of Palladium — This salt is very poisonous, for when introduced 
into the veins it possesses the power of arresting the action of the heart, in 
smaller doses than any other substance I have experimented with. On inject- 
ing half a grain, dissolved in half an ounce of water, into the jugular of a dog, 
the action of the heart became rather fluttering after a few seconds, and then 
slower ; there was no expression of pain. On injecting a grain of the salt, the 
action of the heart was arrested in about 12". The respiration is often sus- 
pended for a n>inute or two, and then recommences, continues regularly for 
about a minute, and is again suspended. I have observed this to recur five 
times after the injection of two doses of a quarter of a grain each ; the animal 
lay on its side without the slightest expression of pain, although perfectly 
sensible ; there were no convulsions : after death the heart was found quite 
still, the blood in the left cavities of a dirty scarlet, showing that the heart 
had not been arrested from asphyxia; it coagulated slowly; the lungs were 
almost white and anaemic. On injecting a solution containing half a grain 
into the arteiial system, violent spasm was immediately produced : the 
pressure rapidly increased from 5 to 12 inches, as indicated by the hsemady- 
namometer* ; respiration continued at intervals, and the pressure in the 
arterial system gradually fell, but was still at six inches four minutes and 
a half after all regular respiratory movements had ceased. The salts of pla- 
tinum give rise to precisely similar phsenomena when injected into the arteries 
and veins ; they do not appear to be so poisonous as those of palladium, 
as it requires three or four grains to be injected into the vein before the action 
of the heart is arrested. Osmium and iridium, the other members of this 
isomorphous group, have not been experimented with on account of their 
great rarity. 

I have only now to notice the phasnomena that are produced by the well- 
known isomorphous group — iodine, chlorine and bromine. The forms under 
which these substances have been used are as iodic, bromic, chloric and 
hydrochloric acids. I shall only allude to the effects that have been ob- 
served after the introduction of the iodic acid into the veins and arteries, 
as the acids of chlorine and bromine give rise to effects perfectly analogous. 
Iodic acid and the substances that are related to it present an analogy with 
the salts of silver and soda in their action on the animal economy ; they are 
however perfectly distinct in one or two particulars, in which also they closely 
agree amongst themselves. 

When injected into the veins, iodic acid evidently exerts an influence on 
the passage of the blood through the lungs: immediately after the injection 
of a solution containing 10 grains of the acid into the veins, the pressure in 
the arteries becomes lowered. In a short time we have most unequivocal 
proofs of its action on the lungs, by the escape of a quantity of frothy fluid 
from the air-passages, which soon causes the death of the animal by asphyxia. 

* The pressure in the arterial system is given in inches of mercury, as ascertained by the 
lisemadynamometer. 

g2 



84 REPORT — 1845. 

If the dose be larger (25 grains of iodic acid for instance), the passage of the 
blood through the lungs becomes at once arrested, and the animal rapidly 
dies from congestion of the venous system. After death the lungs are found 
congested and red, serous effusion having taken place in their tissue as well 
as in the air-passages. The heart generally contains a medium quantity of 
dark blood, which coagulates firmly. If tiie thorax is opened immediately 
after death, the ventricles are found beating rhythmically, although the auri- 
cles have lost all trace of irritability, — a fact which forms a curious exception 
to the general rule, and Avhich has only been observed in connection with 
this class of substances. When injected into the arteries, the phaenomena 
produced by iodic acid are very extraordinary. The first effect that followed 
the introduction of six grains of the acid into the artery was an immediate 
diminution of the pressure in the arterial system : in the instance alluded to, 
it fell in the course of a few seconds from six to eight inches down to two, 
the heart's action being very slow ; the animal cried, respiration became sus- 
pended, and in about a minute it lay to all appearance quite dead ; after an- 
other minute however the pressure in the arterial system suddenly increased to 
nine inches, the heart beating quite regularly, although the animal still lay as 
if dead ; the pressure gradually diminished, and at four minutes after the in- 
jection, and three minutes after every external sign of life had ceased, it had 
again sunk to five inches. A most curious phsenomenon now presented itself, 
viz. a sudden rise of full three inches, in the pressure of the blood in the 
arterial system. This increase in the pressure was followed by two respira- 
tory movements, and by slight motion in the legs and tail. After this the 
pressure gradually sunk, and the heart stopped seven minutes after the injec- 
tion. The chloric and bromic acids give rise when injected into the arteries 
to phaenomena exactly analogous to tiiose just described: with hydrochloric 
acid the action of the heart does not continue so long after respiration has 
ceased, nor has the augmentation in the pressure after the cessation of re- 
spiratory movements been observed with this substance ; this might possibly 
be owing to its not containing oxygen. 

Having now brought forward the facts whicli have been ascertained since 
my last report, in support of the analogous action of isomorphous substances 
on animals, I propose to take a general review of the whole of the evidence 
we are now in possession of relating to this law, and also of those facts which 
appear to militate against it; merely premising, that, in the present imperfect 
state of our knowledge as regards the isomorphous relations of bodies, it is 
not to be expected that a first attempt to arrive at any generalization found- 
ed on these properties should not present many anomalies and apparent 
contradictions, which it will require further investigations to clear up, or 
which may lead to important modifications in the expression of the law itself. 
The evidence in favour of the law is derived from the following facts : — first, 
the similarity of action of the following isomorphous substances belonging 
to the magnesian class ; viz. magnesia, lime, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, 
zinc, cadmium, copper andbismuth, — substances whichpresent striking differ- 
ences in their ordinary chemical affinities, but which agree in being isomor- 
phous, and also in producing analogous phaenomena on animals when intro- 
duced directly into the blood. The salts also of another well-marked isomor- 
phous group, viz. lead, strontia and baryta, closely agree in their actions on 
the animal system. Palladium and platinum, in the effects they produce 
when introduced directly into the blood, lend their support to this law. 
Phosphorus, antimony and arsenic, a strictly isomorphous group, give rise to 
analogous reactions on the animal economy. The chlorine group also fully 
bears out the law, at least as regards iodine, bromine and chlorine, for fluorine 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF MEDICINES. 85 

has not been experimented with. The salts of soda and silver also agree in 
the effects they produce, although presenting a more striking contrast in many 
of their chemical properties than is to be found in any other class. On the 
other hand, potash and ammonia, two substances between which well-marked 
isomorphous relations exist, differ to a certain extent in the phsenomena they 
give rise to when introduced into the blood. It is possible that the compound 
nature of the radical of ammonia, differing so completely as it does from the 
other inorganic radicals, may introduce certain modifications in its relation 
to organized compounds. The only other fact that my investigations have 
made me acquainted with, which appears to oppose itself to this law, is, the 
analogy that exists to a certain extent between the salts of lead and the 
chlorine group and silver. As regards the more marked phsenomena pro- 
duced by the salts of lead, they are such as its connection with strontian and 
baryta would lead us to suppose ; but in one respect, viz. in their action on 
the lungs, they resemble the salts of silver. As regards this anomaly I would 
merely observe, that galena and sulphuret of silver are found under the same 
form. 

Such is the evidence with which my researches have furnished me, in sup- 
port of the law of the analogous action of isomorphous substances on 
organized beings, and I think it sufficient to justify us in admitting that the 
molecular reactions that take place between the elements of living bodies 
and inorganic substances are to a great extent independent of chemical affi- 
nity, but are connected with those properties of matter which are expressed 
by its isomorphous relations. It is evident that this law must lead to important 
modifications in the investigation of physiological phaenomena : in considering 
the action of unorganized substances on organized beings, it is clear that 
our attention must not be so exclusively directed to the chemical properties 
of these substances: it must not be as alkalies or acids or salts that their 
action on organized beings must be investigated, but as regards their isomor- 
phous relations, or those properties of matter which are evidently connected 
with the form it assumes, and which have recently been elucidated by the 
researches of Kopff. But whilst this law Avould tend to remove the inves- 
tigation of physiological phsenomena from the domain of ])ure chemistry, it is 
far from leading us to conclude that the reactions that take place amongst 
materials of which organized beings are composed are essentially of a different 
character from those which we observe amongst the simpler forms of matter. 
The difference between the more simple combinations of the elements with 
one another and those they form with the more complicated compounds of 
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that exist in the living body, seems 
to be, that in the former instance they combine under the influence of che- 
mical affinity, whilst in the latter it would appear to be a physical polarity 
that influences the formation of the compound : it is the former power that 
gives rise to the union of sulphuric acid and soda, whilst the latter causes 
the compound to assume a definite crystalline form. It would appear, in fact, 
as if the force of chemical affinity was more or less neutralized in living 
beings, and that their elements are held together by other forces than those 
which prevail amongst unorganized compounds. In the present early stage 
of these researches, I would not attempt to generalize this law beyond that 
class of facts to which it has been proved experimentally to apply ; it may 
admit of a far more extended application, embracing in its expression not 
merely the combinations of the compound elements of organized beings, but 
also the combinations of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, of which 
these elements consist. In the present imperfect state of our knowledge, it 
would be hazardous to offer an opinion on the nature of the compounds 



86 REPORT — 1845. 

that are formed under the influence of this law, when inorganic substances 
are introduced into the blood ; it remains even to be proved if the phseno- 
mena they give rise to are owing to the formation of any definite compounds 
between them and the elements of the blood and tissues. In the absence of 
all direct proof on this point, I would offer one or two considerations which 
would tend to indicate that the probability is in favour of the formation of 
definite compounds between the inorganic element and the blood and tissues. 

The researches of Mulder on the composition of albumen and fibrine 
prove, that the presence or absence of certain elements in very small pro- 
portions may essentially alter the properties of the protein compounds. The 
whole of the fibrine, for instance, in the blood of a small animal does not 
contain more than two grains of sulphur, which however appears to form as 
essential an element in its composition as it does in sulphuric acid ; if there- 
fore we introduce into the blood any substance which should deprive the 
fibrine of its sulphur, either by combining with the sulphur itself, or by re- 
placing it in the protein compound, we should immediately have a fluid cir- 
culating over the body which would not contain any fibrine, and which might 
be totally unfitted for carrying on the vital phagnomena ; two or three grains 
of baryta for instance, supposing it capable of producing such a reaction, 
would suffice to defibrinize the whole of the blood. Another consideration 
that would favour the supposition that isomorphous substances form certain 
definite analogous compounds with the blood and tissues, is, that we gene- 
rally find that the diff'erent substances belonging to the same isomorphous 
group give rise to certain physical changes in the blood which are readily 
recognizable ; thus the whole of the magnesian family agree in depriving the 
blood in a greater or less degree of its property of coagulation ; the same re- 
marks will apply to most of the other groups. It is highly probable that 
these physical changes are owing to the formation of certain definite com- 
pounds between the elements of the blood and the substances mixed with it. 
A careful analysis of the organs on which different classes of substances ap- 
pear more particularly to act, would probably elucidate this point. 

Before concluding, I would offer a remark on the relative poisoning powers 
of the substances that have been experimented with. The salts of palla- 
dium, platinum and baryta are those which prove fatal in the smallest doses ; 
and it is a curious fact, that, under an isomorphous point of view, these three 
substances are those which have the least analogy with the elements that 
enter into the formation of the animal solids and fluids ; on the other hand, 
arsenic, which might have been supposed to be rapidly fatal, is so inert when 
introduced into the blood that it will not speedily produce death, unless indeed 
it is injected in quantities sufficient to directly coagulate the blood. It re- 
mains for future experiments to determine if this is owing to its being iso- 
morphous to one of the elements of the fluids and solids, the phosphorous. 



On the Comet q/'I843. By Dr. von Boguslawski of Breslau, Cor- 
responding Member of the Br-itish Association. 

[A communication made to the Mathematical and Physical Section at Cambridge, 
and ordered to be printed entire amongst the Reports.] 

The great Comet of 1843 was regarded with much interest by the whole 
world, more particularly by astronomers, and has left us some very import- 
ant questions to solve ; that is, we require to know whether it be periodic 
or not, and the marvellous appearance of its magnificent tail should be 



ON THE OOMET OF 1843. 8/ 

explained. The series of observations of the comet is far too short to enable 
us to derive from it a calculation on the eilipticity of the orbit. Some attempts 
have given negative results, and even a hyperbola, which is however less 
probable than that the observations were imperfect. The review would have 
promised better success, if there had been any comets in former days whose 
appearances resembled this, since this inquiry is extremely limited, from 
unavoidable reasons. The principal are these : — 

The comet of 1843 is one of those whose visibility in broad daylight near 
the sun at the time of perihelion is incontestably proved. In our hemisphere 
it can never be seen near midnight, either before or after. Nor can it ever 
be seen to the north of the ecliptic ; and even in the south of the zodiac there 
are but few constellations in which it can rise above our horizon ; only in 
Eridanus, or in the feet of Cetus during the months of February and March ; 
*9xi6. afterwards in Corvus, and in Hydra during the months of October and 
November. 

Guided by these considerations, in the excellent ' Cometography ' of Pingre 
we meet with the comet of 1695, seen in Brazil, in India, at Macao, and in the 
islands of St. Anne in America, pursuing its path through Corvus into Hydra. 
The magnificent tail upholds the supposition that the head was in the prin- 
cipal extremity. 

On the 7th of February 1106, a comet appeared in Palestine (and was after- 
wards seen in China) which occupied that part of the heavens in which the 
sun sets in winter. From it there proceeded a long whitish ray resembling 
a linen cloth, which came to an end below the constellation of Orion. 

Aristotle makes use of nearly the same words in describing (in his ' Meteor- 
ology ') the comet which appeared 371 years b.c, " In the severest part of 
the winter," says he, " this prodigious star was seen to appear in the evening. 
It set soon after the sun ; but its light extended something like an avenue 
of trees over a third of the heavens. It rose up to the belt of Orion and 
then disappeared." Thus we hfive two striking portraits of the comet of 
184.3 ; but resemblance alone decides nothing. 

Of the three comets here cited, only that of 1695 affords us details of its 
apparent path through the heavens. Three .Jesuits, who it appears possessed 
astronomical knowledge, — Father Noel at Macao, Father Bouvet at Surat, 
and Father Jacob at All Saints' Bay in Brazil, — give us a learned description 
of it according to the taste of their time ; whilst an anonymous observer on 
one of the islands of St. Anne in America, carefully notes down five or six 
times, between the 2nd and 19th of November, those stars of Corvus and 
Hydra through which the head of the comet had continued its route. 

Pingre owns that he attempted in vain to combine these observations, 
in order to derive from them some approximation to the comet's orbit ; and yet 
the whole of them, including the daily progress of the comet, are represented 
in the most satisfactory manner by the elements of the comet of 1843 ; that 
is, supposing the same distance of perihelion, the same longitude for the peri- 
helion and for the ascending node, and the same inclination, and admitting 
the 24th of October 1695 as the day of the perihelion passage. 

The elements of an entirely different orbit, calculated by Mr. Burckhardt 
from the inedited observations of Mr. Delisle, do not give at all the same re- 
sults, and perhaps owe their existence to the same cause which M. Bessel has 
revealed in the ' Ast. Nach.' of Schumachei". The details of my calculations 
will soon appear in that work, and will prove the great probability of the 
assertion which, in the presence of this illustrious Association, I have today 
made for the first time. 

Meanwhile I may be permitted to draw the conclusion that the period of 



S8 KEPORT — 1845. 

the last revolution occupied 147 j'ears and 127 days, and to mention the 
consequences which result therefrom. 

Four anterior revolutions of 147 years and 5 months, conduct us to the 
comet of the year 1 106, of which we have already spoken ; and from thence, 
ten revolutions of 147 years and 9 months, carry us back to the comet of 
Aristotle, 371 years b.c. 

The difference of several months between the earlier times of revolution 
and those of the present day, far from disturbing our hypothesis, serve to 
confirm it. It is the effect of the resisting medium in space, which has already 
manifested itself in the comets of Encke and Biela, and which we might ex- 
pect to find acting with far greater force on a comet which buries itself in 
the densest beds of aether which surround the sun. This may perhaps afford 
a new opportunity for studying this interesting force, which, by diminishing 
the excentricity of the orbits, and constantly decreasing the time of their re«»«- 
volutions, will accomplish in the course of ages the reunion of these celestial 
bodies, which possess very large resisting surfaces, but very small masses, 
with the great centre of general gravity. 

Other comets have also appeared at intervals corresponding to a number 
of complete revolutions, the probability of whose identity with that of 1843 
is greater or less according to the circumstances which accompany them. 

These are, — the great comet of 1548, or that of the Turks ; that of 1401, 
during Lent ; the comet which appeared before the death of Pope Innocent IV. 
in 1254; that of 367 seen in broad daylight; the comet of 219; and 
finally, that of the year 74 a.d. If I may be allowed to include these, we 
have accounts of ten reappearances of this famous comet from the time of 
Aristotle up to the present day ; and it is worthy of remark that all were seen, 
as it appears, only after the epoch of the perihelion. Perhaps, when I shall 
have furnished them with the demonstration of my assertion, astronomers may 
like to name this comet after Aristotle, and to look upon it as the symbol of 
that immortal philosopher. 

If it is considered that the ellipticity of this comet's orbit is established, 
it is declaring it at the same time to be both more esoteric and more exoteric 
than any other vassal of the sun with which we are more closely acquainted. 

Immersed on the day of perihelion in the photosphere of the sun itself, 
our comet hastened, with a velocity of more than 414 English miles in a second 
of time, to escape from the great attractive force, making the semi-circuit 
of the sun in the short space of one hour and a half, in order to pursue its 
distant route in an ellipse, whose length exceeds the breadth by nearly 57 
times, the latter not being equal to the diameter of the earth's orbit ; whilst 
the aphelion is 5,316,000,000 English miles from the sun, — nearly three 
times more than the orbit of the most distant planet discovered by William 
Herschel of immortal memory. 

There our comet proceeded at the very slow pace of 1^ English feet in a 
second, which however was just the means of reconducting it to the sun. 
If this be true, our posterity will see it return in the summer of 1990, 
that is to say, if accident favour it at a season when the comet is never above 
the horizon during the absence of the sun ; but it will be more surely seen 
in the autumn of the year 2137, when it will present a similar appearance to 
that of 1695. 

I trust I may be allowed to trespass on a little more time, in order to add 
a few words on the tail of this comet, which reasonably enough attracted so 
much general attention. 

How is it that no one saw either the comet or its magnificent tail before 
the perihelion, neither in Europe, nor even in the tropics? Was it impossi- 



ON THE COMET OF 1843. 89 

ble? Not at all. Beginning from the 27th of January, the comet appeared above 
our horizon, and rose up higher day by day. The visibility of the tail should 
have commenced still sooner, and with a splendour surpassing that which it 
assumed in the month of March, increasing daily through the month of Fe- 
bruary, crossing the meridian every evening with the stars in the constellation 
Lepus. Nothing of all this occurred. It was seen suddenly immediately after 
the perihelion in full daylight only a few degrees from the sun, five or six 
degrees in length, which probably answers to more than ten times as much 
seen in the night time. The spectators of it in tropical countries know not 
how to find words to express the greatness and magnificence of its appear- 
ance. When it unfolded itself to our eyes towards the 18th or 19th of March, 
it was already much diminished in splendour, as we find by the unanimous 
assertions of witnesses, and yet it excited general surprise in these countries. 

On the 21st of March my pupils observed the tail, already sensibly shortened 
to the naked eye, as far as j> Leporis, whilst 1 could follow it in the finder 
beyond Sirius, leaving that star to the south. Thus the naked eye only saw 
a length of tail = 2| the distance of the earth from the sun, whilst the 
finder showed it six times the radius of the orbit of the earth, or 581 millions 
of English miles, being of far greater extent than the orbit of Jupiter. And 
assuredly my finder would not show the extreme limit of this phsenomenon, 
which manifested on this occasion the common law of all the tails of comets, 
that of taking a direction exactly opposite to the sun, followed by the 
comet from the first day of its appearance after the perihelion. But ivhere 
was its tail before this epoch ? will be demanded at each reappearance. 

Is it always lost during the long absence from the sun, and regained by 
the reunion ? Where is the force which has each time engendered a body of 
such gigantic dimensions ; the force, in a body so feeble and unshapen as the 
comet, which can project an enormous luminous mass in a short -space of time 
as far as beyond the orbit of Jupiter ; to conduct it half round the sun in 
I'' 30™ 39^ for the extreme limit perceived by the finder, a route of 1826 
millions of English miles ? That is a celerity of more than a third of a million 
of English miles in a second, — a velocity which surpasses that of light by 
three-fourths ! This really pronounces the impossibility of a mechanic nature 
in comets' tails ; it ranges them amongst dynamic appearances. 

However, nothing is as yet explained by this assertion. I consider even 
that only a profound study and perfect knowledge of the works of the late 
Brandes of Breslau, of M. Bessel's calculations of Halley's comet before the 
perihelion, and Sir John Herschel's after this epoch (including the aspect of 
the comet of 22nd January 1836 just like a fixed star), can conduct us to a 
more or less plausible theory of this most highly interesting phaenomenon. 

Nevertheless, in such a case it appears to me necessary to endeavour to 
establish a tolerably probable hypothesis, and which may explain a certain 
number of the facts according to the new principle. It will serve, not only 
to show by an example the possibility of the new conjecture, but also to guide 
us, when there is a discordance amongst the observations, to points of view 
more just and more admissible. 

It is now some time since I endeavoured to demonstrate, that, from the 
circumstance of there being no loss of intensity nor refraction from a ray of 
light passing through the volume of a comet, the law of the intensity of 
their light (which as with the planets follows that of the inverse ratio of the 
square of the distance from the sun, but in an abnormal manner that of the 
simple distance from the earth) leads us to regard these stars as an accumu- 
lation of an immense number of very small bodies, of which each one possesses 
sufficient mass to play the part of a centred body, and which all move round 



90 REPORT — 1845. 

their common centre of gravity in regular orbits, whilst this dynamic centre 
describes the cometary orbit rotmd the sun. 

What we see at the head of the comet is the brightness formed by these 
numerous particles being lighted up by the sun, each one being too small to 
be distinguished separately. Thence the cause of the nebulous aspect of 
comets, resembling that of the accumulations of stars, which often from the 
same cause are seen as nebulae. The form of each individual of these corpus- 
cles decides the fact of its having a rotatory movement or not. The form 
must be amorphous or crystalline, according to the matter and conditions at 
the moment of the first formation. This formation may be renewed as often 
as these atoms are put into a state of fusion, or subjected to a species of ce- 
mentation, which might very possibly occur when a comet passes very near 
the sun. Endowed with the facets of crystals, andobligedby their form always 
to preserve the same direction towards tlie sun, these corpuscles may unite all 
the requisite conditions up to an eyitire reflexion of the solar rays. 

He who knows how much may be united in this phaenomenon of entire re- 
flexion, will understand the considerable illumination which it may spread to 
the greatest distance in space. 

We have only to admit that the atoms which form the zodiacal light, seen 
lighted up only by simple rays of the sun, are spi'ead over far more distant 
spaces, to enable us to explain a dynamic origin for the tails, thus placing 
them amongst the phaenomena of the zodiacal light, the parhelia, halos, the 
rainy bauds of the Indian summer, and even the general world of atoms lighted 
up by the sun. 

Thus may comets be perhaps the grand reflectors of our solar system, 
sent us from time to time by the Creator of the world to throw light upon 
hitherto unknown parts of his Creation, too immense for our senses, and even 
for our minds ! 



Report on the Actinograph. By Mr. Robert Hunt. 
Many circumstances have conspired to prevent the author from completing 
any observations with this instrument. A few rough experiments made with 
a view of testing the merits of it, comprise all that has as yet been done. 

The importance of a method of registeiing the amount of chemical in- 
fluence associated with the solar rays, is evident. When we consider the 
ever-varying conditions of these radiations, producing remarkable phaeno- 
mena, not merely during the changes of the year, but over the vegetable 
world, within the brief period of a day — when we find the practical photo- 
graphist stating that two hours before noon he can produce effects, which he 
cannot produce two hours after the sun has crossed the meridian, it will be 
clear to every one, that some accurate means of registering the relations be- 
tween the amount of light and actinic (chemical) power, which are evidently 
not in strict ratio to each other, is desirable. 

The instrument constructed for the Association, although not yet com- 
plete, answers this purpose remarkably well. It consists essentially of a 
fixed brass cylinder, about which is wound a piece of prepai-ed photographic 
paper. This paper is so prepared with the bromide of silver, that it is 
equally sensitive to all the rays of the prismatic spectrum. Over this is 
placed another cylinder which is driven by clock-work, and it performs a 
revolution in twenty-four hours. In the moveable cylinder is a triangular 
slit, the largest part being exactly one hundred times the size of the smallest, 
which is a mere point, and this opening is divided by bars into one hundred 



ON OZONE. ftl 

parts. In passing round, the opening exposes regularly to solar influence 
different parts of the photographic paper, — the smallest part of the opening 
allowing the influence to be exerted for considerably less than a minute, 
whilst the largest part admits of the action of the sun's rays for more than 
an hour. The paper, by experiment, is so adjusted, that the greatest amount 
of actinic power darkens it completely during the shortest exposure, whilst 
the weak light of winter is just sufficient to produce the effect during the 
passage of the longest part of the opening. The degrees between these 
points become of course, under the ever-varying conditions of solar radia- 
tion, unequally darkened, and the paper being carefully marked to the hours 
of the day, it is quite easy to register numerically the varying effects pro- 
duced. It will not therefore be necessary to have recourse to any plan of 
fixing the impressions made, which is always an uncertain process. It is 
hoped that by the next meeting of the Association the author v/ill be enabled 
to furnish registers complete for twelve months, and he thinks he shall then 
be enabled to show that the actinic influence is one which must be taken 
into account in many inquiries, and to prove that the actinic or chemical 
power, and the phaenomena of luminous and thermic action, are not found 
in any constant ratio in the solar rays, but that they are liable to continual 
variation. 



On Ozone. By Professor Schonbein of Basle. 

The British Association has done me the honour of inviting me to prepare 
a report on my researches regarding a peculiar agent to which I have given 
the name " Ozone." Flattering as such a charge must have proved to me, I 
undertake its execution with great difiidence, less on account of the subject 
of the report itself, than in consequence of my being obliged to make use of 
an idiom which I am not in the habit of speaking. Having fully experienced 
on former occasions the kindness of the same Association I have now the 
honour to address, I count upon your indulgence, and am convinced that 
you will receive with your wonted urbanity the very imperfect communica- 
tion of a man who is certainly in one respect an alien to this country, but who 
feels himself nevertheless intimately connected with your land by many ties 
of friendship and scientific intercourse, and considers old hospitable England 
as his second home. 

Were I not actuated by such feelings, I would not have ventured to come 
forward on this occasion, and it is to those feelings alone* that I owe the 
courage requisite for a stranger who is to speak before an Association count- 
ing amongst its members the very essence of British philosophers. In taking 
the liberty to give you an account of the results obtained from researches 
with which I have been occupied these last six years, I shall chiefly keep in 
view the most novel facts I have been fortunate enough to ascertain, and I 
shall try to be as concise and clear as possible in stating them. Now and 
then, as the occasion occurs, I intend to enter into theoretical considerations 
and draw inferences from the phaenomena observed. After having made you 
fully acquainted with the subject of my report, I need not say how much you 
will oblige me by making any observation or suggestion calculated to clear 
up a matter which I readily allow is yet very far from being thoroughly un- 
derstood and sifted to the bottom. I shall feel myself fully repaid for the 
many pains I have taken these last five or six years in investigating the 
nature of the electrical smell, if I happen to succeed in convincing you that 
my subject is worthy of philosophical research and likely to open a new field 



92 REPORT — 1845. 

of inquiry. First of all permit me to state the reasons which induced me to 
undertake that series of investigations, the principal results of which will form 
the substance of my communication. 

The peculiar smell developed during electrical discharges and the pecu- 
liar odour disengaged by lightning, have been the subject of a good deal 
of conjecture ; but as far as I know, philosophers have not yet succeeded in 
clearing up the nature of that smell. The obscurity in which that phae- 
nomenon is enveloped, and the fact, I think first stated by myself, that on elec- 
trolysing water an odour makes its appearance very like to that called the 
electrical smell, excited my curiosity so much the more, that the circumstances 
under which the two sorts of smells are produced are apparently so very 
different from each other. 

I made up my mind to investigate the subject as closely as possible, and in 
spite of its peculiar difficulty and many fruitless endeavours, 1 succeeded at 
last in ascertaining some facts which seemed to open a path for further and 
accurate inquiry. 

These facts were, — 1, that the odoriferous principle developed during 
the electrolysis of water is only disengaged at the positive electrode ; 2, 
that the same principle may be preserved in well- closed bottles for any length 
of time ; 3, that this principle polarizes negatively gold and platinum ; 4, that 
the odoriferous substance is destroyed by heat and a number of oxidizable 
bodies ; 5, that the electrical brush has the same odour as the oxygen dis- 
engaged at the positive electrode ; 6, that the brush has the power of polar- 
izing negatively gold and platinum; 7, that on heating the points out of 
which electricity is passing into the atmosphere, they no more develope the 
electrical smell. From these and some other facts, I was inclined to infer that 
the electrical brush produces the same principle which is disengaged at the 
positive electrode during the electrolysis of water, and as chlorine, with regard 
to its voltaic bearings, acts very similarly to this odoriferous principle, I sus- 
pected the latter to be a body analogous to chlorine. To decide on the cor- 
rectness of that conjecture, there seemed to be no other way left open than 
to isolate the principle in question ; but considering the infinitely small 
quantities in which the odoriferous substance is produced under the cir- 
cumstances mentioned, the carrying into efiect that isolation assumed the 
appearance of a thing lying beyond the reach of possibility. Yet after many 
trials undertaken with a view of producing more abundantly and by other 
than electrical means, ray peculiar principle, I succeeded at last in doing so, 
and phosphorus proved to be the substance most convenient to obtain that 
end. And from the discovery of the most remarkable action which that body 
under certain circumstances exerts upon common air, I was led to ascertain 
the whole series of the curious and rather surprising facts I am about to state, 
and to arrive, if not at the complete solution of my problem, at least at the 
opening of the path which will ultimately lead to that goal. 

And now I am touching upon that part of ray report which, as to its mat- 
ter of fact contents, is the more interesting one of the whole of the commu- 
nication I have to make to you, and I beg leave to call your attention to the 
following statements : — 

1. If at a temperature of 32° a piece of phosphorus, having a clear surface, 
be placed in a bottle filled with common air, a peculiar smell makes its ap- 
pearance which is considered to be due to the vapour of phosphorus ; at the 
same time that the included air assumes the power of polarizing positively a 
plate of platinum or gold which happens to be brought in contact with it. 

2. Everything remaining in the state indicated, except the temperature 
being raised to about 60°, a change will very soon take place both with re- 



ON OZONE. 9B 

gard to the smell of the air and the electro-motive power of the latter. The 
former will resemble the electrical smell, and the air will now be able to po- 
larize negatively gold or platinum. 

3. Atmospheric air completely deprived of its moisture and put in contact 
with phosphorus, does not give rise to the production of the electro-negative 
principle. 

4. Atmospheric air, which contains only small quantities of the vapours of 
aether, alcohol, olefiant gas, sulphurous acid, nitrous acid, sulphuretted, phos- 
phuretted or seleniuretted hydrogen, is not capable of developing the elec- 
trical smell, or assuming the state of the electro-negative polarity. 

5. A mixture of oxygen and carbonic acid, or of oxygen and hydrogen, 
acts with regard to phosphorus like the common air, or an artificial mixture 
of oxygen and nitrogen. 

6. Pure oxygen, or nitrogen, or hydrogen, or carbonic acid gas, whether 
moist or anhydrous, being placed in contact with phosphorus, becomes posi- 
tively polarized ; but none of those substances produce our electro-negative 
principle or the electrical smell. 

7. To generalize the circumstances under which phosphorus is prevented 
from generating the said principle, it may be said that anything that stops the 
slow combustion or the emission of light of phosphorus at the common tem- 
perature, also renders impossible the development of the electrical smell, whilst 
the latter is always produced in an atmosphere in which phosphorus exhibits 
in the dark the phasnomenon of a lively emission of light. 

8. The positive polarity and alliaceous odour assumed at zero by common 
air in contact with phosphorus, is most likely due to the vapour of that body, 
whilst the negative polarity and the electrical smell developed at a higher 
temperature in the same air, originate in that peculiar principle, which, on 
account of its strong odour, I have called ozone. 

As far as my experiments go they show that ozone enjoys the following 
properties : — 

1. Stripes of blue litmus paper, being plunged into an ozonized atmosphere, 
are within a very short time completely bleached without being reddened 
in the least degree. Stripes of paper, having been coloured blue by a solu- 
tion of indigo, and placed under the same circumstances, turn white. A 
solution of indigo or of litmus, being shaken with an ozonized air, loses also 
its colour exactly in the same way as if the solution had been treated by 
chlorine. 

2. Most metals, silver even not excepted, being in a state of minute me- 
chanical division and put in contact with ozone, almost instantaneously de- 
stroy that principle at the common temperature. Silver being changed 
under the circumstances into a compound containing nothing but metal and 
oxygen, it seems that the other metals are also oxidized by ozone. 

3. Iodine put into an ozonized atmosphere is changed into iodic acid. 

4. Powder of charcoal very rapidly destroys ozone. 

5. Phosphorus quickly takes up ozone, being transformed into phosphoric 
acid. 

6. Sulphuretted, seleniuretted, phosphuretted, carburetted, and ioduretted 
hydrogen rapidly destroy ozone, and are themselves decomposed by that 
principle. 

7. Sulphurous acid and ozone being mixed together disappear and produce 
sulphuric acid. 

8. Nitrous acid and ozone destroy each other with instantaneous quick- 
ness, producing nitric acid. 

9. A number of metallic protoxides being put in contact with an ozonized 



94 REPORT — 1845. 

atmosphere are changed into peroxides. Solutions of the alkaline bases, as 
potash, soda, baryta, &c., take up rather slowly ozone, producing peroxides. 
The hydrates of the protoxides of manganese, lead, cobalt, nickel, or silver, 
being attached to stripes of paper and suspended in an ozonized atmosphere, 
are rather rapidly changed into the peroxides of those metals. Potash takes 
up ozone and water too. 

10. A solution of iodide of potassium is rapidly decomposed by being 
treated with ozonized air, iodine being eliminated. At the same time iodate 
of potash is produced, which production is however preceded by the forma- 
tion of a peculiar compound most likely consisting of iodide and peroxide of 
potassium. Hence it comes that paste of starch being mixed up with some 
iodide of potassium and exposed to ozonized air, instantaneously turns blue, 
and proves to be the most delicate test for ascertaining the presence of ozone. 

11. Crystals of bromide of potassium, put into paste of starch and exposed 
to the action of ozone, colour that paste orange-yellow. 

12. A solution of the yellow ferro-cyanide of potassium readily takes up 
ozone, yielding the red ferro-sesquicyanide. 

13. The white cyanide of iron, being exposed to the action of an ozonized 
atmosphere, is instantaneously changed into the blue one. 

14. The salts of the protoxides of iron and tin rapidly destroy ozone, and 
are transformed into peroxide salts. 

15. A great number of metallic sulphurets, being put in contact with ozo- 
nized air, lose their colour and are changed into sulphates ; a piece of paper 
having been written over with a solution of acetate of lead and blackened by 
sulphuretted hydrogen, rapidly turns white within ozonized air. 

16. A number of organic substances, both of vegetable and animal origin, 
being placed within ozonized air, almost instantaneously destroy the odori- 
ferous principle; for instance, saw-dust, straw, ulmin, vegetable mould, albu- 
men, fibrine, caseous matter, and therefore blood, milk and common cheese. 

17. If ozonized air be caused to pass through a narrow tube into the open 
air, that current, of course, produces all the chemical reactions before men- 
tioned ; but if part of the tube of emission is heated not quite red-hot, the 
peculiar smell of the current disappears at once, and along with it all the 
chemical and voltaic properties belonging to ozone. Its bleaching and po- 
larizing power, its capability of decomposing iodide of potassium, &c., are 
gone. 

18. Common air, being as richly as possible charged with ozone, has a smell 
resembling very much that of chlorine, bromine and iodine ; but if ozone is 
much diluted with common air, its smell cannot be distinguished from that 
developed near points of electrical emission. 

19. If common air, strongly charged with ozone, be inhaled only in mode- 
rate quantities, effects are produced similar to those caused by the respira- 
tion of chlorine, i. e. coughing, and an inflammation of the mucous mem- 
branes. Small animals put into richly ozonized air die very soon. I saw a 
mouse, which had been placed in a large bottle filled with strongly ozonized 
air, succumbing within the space of five minutes. As the quantity of the 
ozone which killed the animal must have been iuuneasurably small, it appears 
that this principle proves highly deleterious to the animal system. 

20. Chemically pure water, being acidulated by pure sulphuric acid or 
phosphoric acid and eiectrolyzed, yields oxygen charged with the same prin- 
ciple, which is produced when phosphorus acts upon common air; for that 
oxygen enjoys all the properties belonging to ozone engendered by the agency 
of phosphorus. To obtain ozone by voltaic means, it is necessary that the 
acidulated water employed for that purpose be entirely free from any sub- 



ON OZONE. 95 

stance having a tendency to unite with oxygen or ozone, and that besides 
the temperature of the liquid to be electrolyzed be as low as possible. When 
the conditions indicated are fulfilled, the disengagement of ozone taking place 
at the positive electrode will last as long as the current continues to pass 
through the said liquid. Hence it follows that no production of ozone will 
take place if the electrodes consist of other metals than gold or platinum, or 
if the liquid to be electrolyzed contains small quantities of sulphuretted 
hydrogen, sulphurous acid, proto-sulphate of iron, gether, alcohol, &c. An 
aqueous solution of potash does not yield a trace of ozone, because free ozone 
is taken up by that solution. 

21. The electrical brush developes, as is well known to philosophers, a 
peculiar odour which cannot, as I have already mentioned, be distinguished 
from that of diluted ozone, be that ozone produced by the agency of phos- 
phorus or by the electrolysis of water. But the chemical and voltaic reac- 
tions exhibited by the electrical brush are also quite the same as those pro- 
duced either by chemical or voltaic ozone. Platinum foil being exposed 
to the action of that brush assumes the state of negative polarity, a piece of 
litmus paper is bleached, iodide of potassium or hydro-iodic acid decomposed, 
iodine being eliminated, the ferro-cyanide of potassium transformed into the 
sesqui-cyanide, the hydrate of protoxide of lead changed into the brown 
peroxide, provided the substances mentioned be sufficiently long acted upon 
by the electrical brush. If only small quantities of sulphurous acid, nitrous 
acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, defiant gas, or vapour of aether or alcohol are 
present in the air into which the electrical brush is passing, the latter does 
not develope the peculiar electrical smell, neither does it produce any of the 
chemical or voltaic reactions before mentioned. A point of electrical emis- 
sion being heated not quite red-hot, yields a brush which has no smell what- 
soever, has no polarizing or bleaching power, does not decompose iodide of 
potassium, &c. ; but as soon as the point in question is suffered to cool down 
again below a certain degree of temperature, the peculiar smell reappears, and 
along with it we obtain again all the reactions peculiar to ozone. From these 
facts we are allowed I think to draw the inference, that the odoriferous prin- 
ciple disengaged by the electrical brush is identical with the odoriferous sub- 
stance which is developed at the positive electrode during the electrolysis 
of water, and identical also with the electro-negative principle resulting from 
a peculiar action exerted by phosphorus upon the moist atmospheric air. 

In order to ascertain the nature of that remarkable principle, I have tried 
a variety of methods with the view of procuring it in an isolated state, but all 
ray endeavours made to that etfect have hitherto failed, and I am not yet 
able to give quite a decisive answer to the question, What is ozone ? 

That principle being developed by phosphorus within a mixture of oxygen 
and nitrogen, but not in pure oxygen; having in many experiments obtained 
no ozone from electrolyzing water which had been boiled and deprived of its 
atmospheric air; producing the same principle within the atmosphere by the 
agency of common electricity; and considering the striking analogy which 
exists between ozone and chlorine ; I was for a time induced to think the 
former to be an elementary substance forming a constituent part of azote, and 
to give up my first idea, according to which I considered ozone as a peculiar 
compound consisting of oxygen and hydrogen. 

The impossibility of isolating the principle, and the fact that nothing but 
oxidizing eflPects could be obtained from making ozone to act upon a great 
number of substances, induced me to resume the first view I took of the 
subject in question, and to institute a series of experiments with the intention 
of ascertaining more accurately the conditions required for the formation of 



96 HEPORT — 1845. 

ozone. In that inquiry I found that the presence of water is quite indispen- 
sable for engendering ozone, and that it is the more abundantly produced the 
larger the quantity of water which is put into contact both with phosphorus 
and common air. I likewise ascertained that no ozone is formed by phos- 
phorus if free oxygen be excluded. Nitrogen may be replaced by carbonic 
acid or hydrogen without stopping the generation of ozone. Hence it fol- 
lows that nitrogen has directly nothing to do with the production of ozone, 
and that the latter cannot be a constituent part of azote. From the fact 
that dry ozone passing along a heated tube is found to be destroyed, we must 
also infer that it is no elementary principle. 

Now, taking together all the facts regarding both the circumstances under 
which ozone is formed and the chemical effects produced by that substance, 
we can hardly help admitting that the odoriferous principle is a compound 
consisting of oxygen and water. The experiments made independently of 
myself by my friend, the excellent and accurate chemist of Geneva, M. Ma- 
rignac, and by M. de la Rive also, have led to results quite in accordance 
with the view I originally took of the nature of ozone. Marignac and De la 
Rive have ascertained that acidulated water, containing not the slightest trace 
either of free nitrogen or azotic matter, yields ozone as long as a voltaic 
current is made to pass through that liquid, provided however it be kept as 
cold as possible. M. Marignac has also found that mixtures of oxygen and hy- 
drogen, or oxygen and carbonic acid gas, charged with aqueous vapour, pro- 
duce ozone as well as a moist mixture of oxygen and azote. That able chemist 
has further ascertained that silver in a state of minute mechanical division 
readily takes up ozone, yielding nothing but a compound of silver and oxy- 
gen. Agreeably to my own experiments, M. Marignac has shown that ozone 
transforms iodide of potassium into iodate of potash. 

Now these facts, combined with those ascertained by myself, seem to leave 
hardly any doubt about the nature of ozone, and confirm the view I took of it 
six years ago. 

Thenard has made us acquainted with a compound consisting of one equi- 
valent of water and one of oxygen. The question now is, whether the known 
peroxide of hydrogen be identical with my ozone. According to Thenard's 
own statements, peroxide of hydrogen has no odour, is soluble in water in 
any proportion, is less volatile than the latter, in decomposing itself it de- 
composes oxide of silver, i-educes the peroxide of lead to a lower degree of 
oxidation, is not affected by iron, tin, or antimony, does not oxidize silver, but 
is decomposed by that metal, undergoes a spontaneous slow decomposition 
at the common temperature, and cannot exist at the boiling-point of water. 
The experiments of Becquerel and my own have shown that platinum, on 
being plunged into dilute oxygenized water, assumes the state of positive po- 
larity. On the other hand, ozone has a strong and peculiar odour, is insolu- 
ble in water, exists, as far as we know, always in a gaseous state, readily oxi- 
dizes iron, tin, antimony, and even silver at the common temperature, changes 
the hydrates of the protoxides of lead and silver into the peroxides of those 
metals, seems not to be acted upon at all by gold or platinum, or the per- 
oxides of lead and silver, and can bear a temperature considerably higher than 
that of boiling water without suffering decomposition ; it seems to be stable 
at the common temperature, is decomposed not only by fibrine, but also by 
albumen, caseine and a variety of organic substances, and polarizes nega- 
tively gold or platinum. Now these facts seem to prove that ozone is dif- 
ferent from peroxide of hydrogen. Whether the former contains more or 
less oxygen than the latter, or whether it is an isomeric modification of oxy- 
genized water, can only be ascertained after having submitted isolated ozone 



ON OZONE. 97 

to analysis ; I am however inclined to think that ozone will turn out to be a 
compound isomerical with peroxide of hydrogen, a conjecture which seems 
to be supported by the fact, that the odoriferous principle acts in so many 
cases the part of chlorine. On that subject however I shall speak hereafter. 
As to the production of ozone, we must, as far as our experiments go, account 
for it in the following manner:— Phosphorus, being placed under certain cir- 
cumstances, enjoys the peculiar faculty to determine a chemical combination 
between oxygen and water. The same compound is produced in a secondary 
way on electrolyzing water ; part of the oxygen, being in a nascent state and 
eliminated at the positive electrode, unites with water, and ozone, being inso- 
luble in the latter liquid, is disengaged along with another part of oxygen 
that does not combine with water. It is possible that gold or platinum 
acting the part of the positive electrode may have something to do with the 
fact, that not the whole quantity of oxygen set free by the action of the cur- 
rent is united with water and transformed into ozone, for it may be that 
ozone being in a peculiar state (for instance, in the fluid state), happens to 
be decomposed by the metals mentioned just in the same way as common 
peroxide of hydrogen is. 

Common electricity passing through atmospheric air acts upon that mix- 
ture like phosphorus, i. e. determines part of the atmospheric oxygen to unite 
with aqueous vapour to form ozone. 

Before concluding the first part of my report, allow me to say a word or 
two about the well-knoM-n phcenomenon which phosphorus exhibits when 
placed in moist atmospheric air. At the common temperature, and under 
the circumstances mentioned, that substance gives out in the dark rather a 
lively light, and is changed into a mixture of phosphoric and phosphorous 
acids. In dry atmospheric air scarcely any emission of light takes place, and 
in oxygen none at all. My experiments have invariably shown that no ozone 
is produced if phosphorus does not shine in the dark, and that the emission 
of light is the more lively the more i-ichly common air or any other gaseous 
mixture happens to be charged with ozone. As phosphorus, like all other 
readily oxidizable substances, quickly takes up ozone at the common temper- 
ature, there can be entertained hardly any doubt that the shining of phos- 
phorus which takes place within moist atmospheric air chiefly depends upon 
the reaction exerted by ozone on phosphorus, and that the oxidation of that 
substance is eifected less by the free atmospheric oxygen than by the oxy- 
gen contained in ozone. By dint of some peculiar power, phosphorus de- 
termines, first, the formation of ozone out of the oxygen and aqueous 
vapour of the air ; and so soon as this compound is generated, part of it be- 
gins to act upon phosphorus, and change the latter into acid, whilst another 
portion of ozone is dissipated into the surrounding air. If the bottle con- 
taining common air and a sufficient quantity of phosphorus happen to be 
completely closed, the production of ozone and its subsequent decomposition 
effected by phosphorus will continue so long as there is free oxygen present 
in the air ; and we find therefore, after a certain time, in the bottle nothing 
but nitrogen and phosphatic acid. According to this view, the disappear- 
ance of the atmospheric oxygen is not due to the direct oxidation of phos- 
phorus, but to the previous formation of ozone determined by that element, 
and to the subsequent decomposition likewise brought about by phosphorus. 
As to the cause of the emission of light alluded to, I am quite confident that 
it lies in'the ozonization of phosphorus, if I am allowed to use that expres- 
sion, that is to say, in the oxidation of phosphorus being effected by the 
agency of ozone. 

The correctness of that explanation is put beyond a doubt, by the fact that 
1845. H 



98 REPORT — 1845. 

a number of gaseous substances being mixed witli common air, phosphorus is 
prevented from shining in the dariv. Gaseous, nitrous, or sulphurous acid, 
sulphuretted hydrogen, olefiant gas, liydro-iodic acid gas, vapour of aether, or 
alcohol, have this effect. Now according to the results of my experiments, 
all the substances mentioned instantaneously take up or destroy ozone, and 
such being the case, we can easily conceive why those gases and vapours 
present in the atmospheric air do not prevent phosphorus both from shining 
in the dark and from being changed into phosphatic acid. No ozone is or 
can be produced under those circumstances ; for if that compound did ever 
happen to exist in that air, it would be instantaneously destroyed by the 
agents mentioned. Any gaseous substance therefore which readily unites 
with free ozone will prevent phosphorus from shining in that atmosphere, 
and of course also hinder the formation of ozone. Water being an indis- 
pensable ingredient for the generation of ozone, we can now easily see why 
in completely dry air the shining of phosphorus is nearly imperceptible. It 
is true, under these circumstances, some emission of ligVit takes place, but it 
is exceeding! jf slight if compared to that exhibited in moist air. It is possible 
that that feeble phosphorescence results from a very small portion of oxygen 
directly uniting with phosphorus. 

As ozone, in its action upon metals and a variety of other bodies, exhibits 
a very striking similarity to tiiat which chlorine exerts upon the same sub- 
stances, and as the remarkable analogy existing between these two principles 
extends itself even to the way of producing them, I shall take, on a future 
occasion, the liberty to submit to you some considerations regarding that 
subject, and bearing upon the two rival theories which have been founded 
with reference to chlorine. 

On the part which Ozone acts in the Atmosphere. 

Paste of starch, being mixed up with some chemically pure iodide of potas- 
sium and exposed for some time to the action of the open air, turns blue, 
whilst the same paste, shut up in a bottle filled with atmosplieric air, re- 
mains colourless. Pieces of white linen, having been drenched with a so- 
lution of pure iodide of potassium, and left for some time in the open air, 
assume a brownish tint, which is due to iodine set free under the circum- 
stances mentioned. That elimination of iodine does not, as far as my expe- 
riments go, take place in air inclosed within a bottle, though that air should 
contain even half its volume of carbonic acid gas. Iodide of potassium, 
after having for some time been exposed to the action of the open air, re- 
tains traces of a peculiar peroxide of potassium, of iodate and carbonate of 
potash, whilst in iodide of potassium kept in well-closed vessels nothing of 
the kind is found. From these facts it appears that the before-mentioned 
elimination of iodine, and the formation both of peroxide of potassium and 
iodate of potash, are not due to the action of free atmospheric oxygen nor to 
that of carbonic acid. According to my former experiments, air having 
been artificially ozonized, and made to pass through a solution of pure iodide 
of potassium, eliminates iodine, and causes the production of the said perox- 
ide, iodate and carbonate of potash. Hence it follows that ozone produces, 
with the iodide of potassium, the same chemical changes as those which are 
effected by the open air, and between the two actions there is a difference of 
degree only and not of kind. 

Now neither free oxygen, nor azote, nor carbonic acid being able to pro- 
duce that effect, we must conclude that there is something peculiar in the 
atmosphere which causes the decomposition of our iodide, and has up to this 
present moment escaped the attention of chemists. But of what nature is 



ON OZONE. 99 

that oxidizing agent? My experiments have shown that during the electri- 
cal discharges which we effect by artificial means within atmosplieric air, 
ozone makes its appearance, and from that fact we are allowed, I think, to 
draw the inference that ozone is also produced as often as the electrical equi- 
librium of the atmosphere suffers disturbance from natural causes. Now 
electrical discharges of that description continually taking place in that at- 
mosphere, it follows that the odoriferous principle is continually formed there. 

This conclusion, taken together with the before-mentioned fact, that iodide 
of potassium is changed by ozone exactly in the same way as it is by atmo- 
spheric air, renders it highly probable, if not altogether certain, that the pe- 
culiar oxidizing agent contained in our atmosphere is nothing but ozone 
produced by atmospheric electricity. Starting from that supposition, it is 
very easy to see why the freely circulating air only acts upon tlie iodide, and 
why stagnant or inclosed air does not. The quantity of ozone contained in 
a small volume of air must be exceedingly minute, and large quantities of air 
are therefore required to pass over a particle of iodide in order to cause a 
perceptible elimination of iodine. 

If ozone is to be considered as a constituent part of our atmosphere, and 
it be a well-ascertained fact that ozone is capable of oxidizing a great 
number of substances at the common temperature, we can hardly help ascri- 
bing to that subtle agent many slow oxidations which are effected in the 
atmosphere. As electrical discharges take place not only during a thunder- 
storm, but daily and hourly, and as those discharges give rise to the produc- 
tion of ozone, that principle would by degrees accumulate to an alarming 
amount, and so as to endanger animal life, if nature had not taken care to 
remove it almost as quickly as it is formed. That removal is principally 
effected by the large quantities of organic matter which cover the surface of 
the earth, and which are suspended in the waters of the ocean. 

Not one single elementary body, and very few oxidizable compounds, com- 
bine at the common temperature with free oxygen ; oxidizable substances must 
be more or less heated in order to unite with that element. And it is a 
well-known fact, that oxygen, being in certain states of combination, is able 
to combine at the common temperature with a great variety of substances. 
Such being the case, we must be rather surprised at the facility with which 
organic substances, placed in contact with the atmosphere, are decomposed 
and transformed into carbonic acid and water, and that circumstance must 
strike us still more if we consider that carbon and hydrogen require high 
temperatures to be united with free oxygen. On account of the facts men- 
tioned, it is rather difficult to admit that it is the gaseous oxygen of the at- 
mosphere which combines with the carbon and hydrogen of organic mat- 
ters. According to the statements I have made, ozone has the power to de- 
stroy all vegetable colours, and is taken up by a variety of organic substances. 
I think there can be hardly any doubt that the reactions mentioned are due 
to the oxygen of ozone being thrown upon the oxidizable constituent parts of 
vegetable and animal matter, and it is therefore very likely that atmospheric 
ozone acts some part in the slow decomposition which organic substances 
undergo in the open air, and that atmospheric ozone has also something to 
do with the common bleaching process. I however do not mean to say that 
the mentioned oxidations are exclusively to be ascribed to that ozone which 
is produced by the agency of atmospheric electricity. 

We know that ozone may be produced in another than electrical manner, 
namely, by what the French call action de presence, or by the catalytic force 
of Berzelius. Phosphorus, in its action upon moist atmospheric air, exhibits 
the most interesting example of the kind, so that we may consider it as a 

h2 



100 REPORT — 1845. 

fundamental phsenomenon which will best serve us to develope our ideas re- 
garding the course of the slow oxidations which take place in the atmosphere. 

Though phosphorus be one of the most readily oxidizable substances, it 
does not, to a perceptible degree, combine at the common temperature with 
the oxygen of atmospheric air, if the latter be completely deprived of its 
moisture. But no sooner has aqueous vapour been added to that air, than 
the oxidation of phosphorus begins, and along with it the emission of light 
and the production of ozone. Of that agent Ave know that it oxidizes readily 
at the common temperature even silver and iodine, and of course pliosphorus 
too. Hence it appears that ozone, at the very moment of its being formed 
under the catalytic influence of phosphorus, out of atmospheric oxygen and 
water, reacts upon phosphorus, and causes both the formation of phosphatic 
acid and the emission of light. 

Every chemist knows the fact that dry atmospheric air is not capable of 
oxidizing at the common temperature even the most oxidizable metals, and 
that under the same circumstances dry organic matters are not acted upon 
by anhydrous atmospheric air. Hence we conclude, that besides the atmo- 
spheric oxygen, water acts an important part in the slow oxidations which 
both the inorganic and organic substances undergo in the open air. 

As far as I know, chemists entertain the opinion that in the cases men- 
tioned water acts only a secondary part, that is to say, the part of a solvent 
for oxygen. It is supposed that the gaseous state of that body weakens consi- 
derably its affinity for the oxidizable substances, and it is said that the affinity 
is much increased by depriving oxygen of its gaseous condition, for instance, 
by dissolving that body in water. 

As long as we had not been acquainted with the remarkable action exerted 
by phosphorus upon moist atmospheric air, the notions alluded to appeared 
to be plausible enough, and notably the rapid acidification which phosphorus 
at the common temperature undergoes in humid air could satisfactorily be 
accounted for in the way mentioned. But in the present state of science Ave 
can no longer keep up that vicAV, and are obliged to admit that the sIoav com- 
bustion which phosphorus undergoes in damp air is principally, if not exclu- 
sively due to the exalted oxidizing power of ozone engendered by the cata- 
lytic force of phosphorus. Now if phosphorus enjoys the poAver of deter- 
mining the atmospheric oxygen to unite with Avater into ozone, I think the 
conjecture is not over-bold Avhich ascribes the same faculty to some other 
oxidizable substances. In this respect shining Avood offers a very remarkable 
case. It is well knoAvn that the substance mentioned exhibits the sIoav com- 
bustion under circumstances very similar to those under Avhich phosphorus 
undergoes the same change. Water being taken aAvay both from atmo- 
spheric air and the rotten Avood, that Avood ceases to shine in the dark, and 
the formation of carbonic acid is also stopped. Noav we cannot say that it is 
the Avant of Avater on account of Avhich the oxidation of the Avood is prevented, 
because out of the product of the sIoav combustion a protecting film is formed 
x'ound the combustible matter, as might be said regarding phosphorus ; car- 
bonic acid, being a gaseous substance, leaves the Avood as soon as it is produced. 
It seems not unlikely that the peculiar bearing of shining Avood is due to the 
same cause to Avhich phosphorus OAves its remarkable properties, and if that 
conjecture is allowed to be made, Ave may go further, and admit the possibility 
that the organic substances which undergo a decomposition in the open air 
possess the power of producing ozone out of free oxygen and Avater, and that 
it is on this account that those substances require, besides oxygen, some 
water, in order to be resolved at the common temperature into carbonic acid 
aiid water. 



ON OZONE. 101 

Why that power is not enjoyed by uncombined carbon or hycjrogen we 
know no more than we can as yet give a good reason for the fact that 
oxygen, being in a certain state of combination, is more apt to unite with 
oxidizable substances than uncombined oxygen. The phosphorescence of the 
sea, which never fails to strike with astonishment every man who witnesses 
for the first time that beautiful phsenomenon, seems to originate in organic 
matter, which in a state of minute mechanical division is mixed up with the 
waters of the ocean. If I am not mistaken, one of the first-rate philoso- 
phical observers of the day, Ehrenberg, takes that view of the subject. The 
intensity of this phospliorescence is not everywhere the same ; in the tropical 
climates the phasnomenon is more brilliant than in the seas of the colder 
regions. It is also well known that the phosphorescence of the sea is inti- 
mately connected with the motion of its waters, or to speak more properly, 
that the pheenomenon is dependent upon the particles of those waters being 
brought in immediate contact with the atmosphere. When a ship moves 
about, or the wind happens to agitate the sea, the surface of the brine is 
continually renewed, and consequently new particles of organic matter are 
every moment brought into contact with the surrounding air. As under 
these circumstances the phosphorescence is always called forth, the German 
philosopher has come to the conclusion that the phsenomenon mentioned is 
principally due to an action exerted by the atmosphere upon the waters of 
the ocean, and ingeniously enough Ehrenberg considers that phosphorescence 
as the effect of a sort of respiration of the sea. If the waters of the ocean 
were found to contain phosphorus dissolved, nobody would doubt in the 
least that the phosphorescence in question depended upon the slow com- 
bustion of that substance taking place at the surface of the sea, and we could 
easily see why the motion of its waters, the temperature, &c., exert an in- 
fluence upon the phaenomenon. Now as we have got in shining wood an 
organic matter which, like phosphorus, undergoes the slow combustion in 
moist air, and as it is not unlikely that phosphorus and shining wood act in 
the same way upon atmospheric air, that is to say, that both substances pro- 
duce ozone out of the oxygen and aqueous vapour of the atmosphere, it ap- 
pears not improbable that there exist some other organic substances enjoying 
the property of shining in the dark. The organic matter occurring in the 
waters of the sea, and originating in the remains of a countless number of 
animal beings which are daily dying in the depths of the ocean, may very 
possibly enjoy that property, so much the more as that matter happens to be 
in a state of extremely minute mechanical division. 

According to the conjecture suggested, we may consider that animal matter, 
with regard to its bearing to the atmosphere, as a representative either of 
phosphorus or shining wood, and we can account for the phosphorescence 
of the sea in the same way as we have explained the slow combustion which 
phosphorus undergoes in moist atmospheric air. Agreeably to that view, 
the light given out by the waters of the ocean must be considered as the 
effect of a process of oxidation taking place on a most extensive scale, which 
process is carried on less by the free oxygen of the atmosphere, than by that 
of the ozone which we suppose to be produced by the catalytic force of the 
animal matter of the sea. 

It is possible that the glow-worm and other animals shining in the dark 
generate a matter which acts upon atmospheric air in the same way as phos- 
phorus does. 

It is one of the facts best known, that carbonic acid is continually pro- 
duced in the animal body, and that the formation of that compound is inti- 
mately connected both with the functions of respiration and the change of 



102 REPORT 1845. 

blood. Wherever that carbonic acid may be produced, certain it is that the 
carbon required for its production comes from the body, and that the oxida- 
tion of that element takes place at a temperature at which carbon, being in a 
free state, does not combine with oxygen. From the large quantities of carbonic 
acid produced during the respiration of an, animal, and the minute quantities 
of free ozone inhaled, it appears that that carbonic acid cannot be engendered 
by atmospheric ozone. May we be allowed to suppose that blood being 
put in contact with atmospheric oxygen acts upon the latter as phosphorus 
does upon the same oxygen ? Is it perhaps to ozone being formed in the 
way alluded to that the carbonic acid breathed out owes its origin ? May 
we compare, in a chemical point of view, phosphorus placed in atmospheric 
air to an animal breathing in the same air? Strangely as these questions 
may sound, we can hardly help putting them, after having discovered in 
ozone so powerful an oxidizing agent, and found in phosphorus so remark- 
able a means to produce it. 

In spite of the floods of light which recent chemical and physiological re- 
searches have thrown upon the function of respiration, we are still very far 
from understanding thoroughly that phaenomenon, and for that very reason 
every fact which promises to unveil further that mystery is, in my opinion, 
highly worthy of all the attention both of physiologists and chemical philo- 
sophers. And as the subject I have treated of is such as to remind, as it 
were of itself, of its possible bearings to respiration, I think it will not be left 
entirely unnoticed. 

Considering the great importance of the part which the atmosphere acts 
in different departments of organic and inorganic nature, it is very desirable 
that it should become more and more the subject of the most careful and ex- 
tensive researches, and that chemists in particular should direct their atten- 
tion to those phaenomena which take place in atmospheric air, or are depen- 
dent upon the latter ; for much as modern science has done in that field of 
inquiry, it cannot be denied that the greatest mysteries are yet to be unveiled 
in it. Holding the opinion that the extraordinary action which phosphorus 
exerts upon atmospheric air discloses to us a fundamental phaenomenon, I 
am inclined to believe that that action, once fully understood, will give us 
an insight into the cause of a series of phaenomena which at this present 
moment are yet enveloped in utter darkness. 



On the Influence of Friction upon Thermo-electricity. 
By Paul Erman of Berlin. 

[A communication read to the Mathematical and Physical Section, and ordered to be printed 
entii-e amongst the Reports.] 

Are the forces that govern the interior constitution of bodies tivo in number, 
and essentially distinct ; or do the effects usually called chemical, proceed 
from the same cause as those to which we give the appellation of mechanical ? 
The future progress of science depends on the solution of this problem, which 
the recent development of physics has brought almost entirely within the 
province of electricity. In this province, the two schools, the chemical and 
the contact of theorists, rival each other in the sagacity and energy they 
display in the defence of their tenets. Let us indicate however a strategical 
position, the importance of which the contact party do not appear to have 
sufficiently seized. Friction is merely a repeated molecular contact, so that 
the mathematical expression of its effects would perhaps only consist in higher 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF FRICTION UPON THERMO-ELECTRICITY. 103 

powers of the quantity that expresses the effect of contact. We have known 
from time immemorial that it developes heat, without understanding the 
reason of its so doing ; subsequently it was found that it developes the static 
electricity of isolators ; and at length Mr. Faraday has found that it modifies 
equally the dynamic electricity produced by the contact of thermo-electrical 
conductors. In spite of the importance of this last fact and the weight of 
so great a name, it does not appear to have met with sufficient attention in 
scientific circles. Some observers, who appeal to the authority of iVTr. Em- 
met, express what they consider to be the law of this action, by saying that 
thermo-electricity of contact is changed invariably into the opposite state by 
the friction of the two metallic factors. Others, on the contrary, deny in 
toto the influence of friction on thermo-electric phsenomena. Thus it was 
recently adverted to in a scientific journal as a highly paradoxical fact, that 
in a given case the friction had caused a change of sign in the thermo-elec- 
tric declination produced by the contact of two heterogeneous metals ; but 
at the same time this " unheard-of" fact, as it was called, was explained by 
supposing gratuitously that the friction had been effected whilst keeping the 
metal to be rubbed in the naked hand, and in thus producing an accidental 
change of temperature. This explanation was offered on the assumption 
that friction in itself is not capable of producing any effect. Between the 
two extremes of tribothermo-electric omnipotence and nullity, I have tried to 
discover the middle course of truth. If I am bold enough to call your atten- 
tion to some of the preliminary results of these labours, it is solely with a 
view of contributing to the more general discussion of this question, and 
with the hope of some observers joining me in these researches, and con- 
trolling, rectifying, and extending my experiments. 

For the experiments now to be mentioned, one of Nobili's thermo-electric 
multiplicators of particularly delicate structure is requisite. Being furnished 
with an instrument of this kind, I proceeded in the following manner. A 
bar of bismuth was joined to that branch of the rheophore of this instru- 
ment where the silver of a voltaic element (silver and zinc) produces an 
eastern deviation, and a bar of antimony to the other branch of the rheo- 
phore. Both these bars were provided with handles, so that they could be 
employed without undergoing any change of temperature in the manipu- 
lation. When, through these being stationed in the same room, the two bars 
had previously arrived at the temperature of the surrounding space, no de- 
viation whatsoever was produced by their contact, but the slightest friction 
of either of them against the other gave immediately an eastern deviation. 
This latter extended even to an entire revolution of the needle in the same 
sense if the friction proceeded rather more rapidly. By gently raising the 
common temperature of the two bars to 30° or 35° of lleaum. scale, their 
contact in a state of repose always produced a stationary eastern deviation of 
about 30°, which by rubbing was further increased to 60°, and there likewise 
remained invariable as long as friction continued. At length, when I cooled 
the bars (below the temperature of the room) by the evaporation of naphtha 
vitrioli, their contact continually produced a western deviation, which by rub- 
bing was instantaneously changed into a contrary or eastei-n one of apparently 
the same amount as before, and this likewise remained stationary as long as 
the friction continued, but by the interruption of it the western deviation was 
immediately restored. This simple sketch of the phaenomena of changes of 
intensity or even of sign, which friction at the point of contact gives to the 
deviation of a multiplicators needle, will already suffice to exhibit it as a mere 
consequence of the heat produced by the action of rubbing. Indeed, by 
joining to the point of contact of the two metals a button somewhat warmed 



104 REPORT — 1845. 

or cooled (in comparison with the surrounding space), the influence on de- 
viation was just as the above-mentioned effects of friction might lead us to 
expect. I was confirmed in this position by operating on many groups or 
combinations of the substances which form the thermo-electric series. Thus, 
for instance, the sulphuret of molybdenum, which when joined to bismuth 
gives no deviation by difference of temperature, appeared likewise with- 
out any influence when rubbed on the same metal. The sulphuret of lead 
(galena), which alone in the whole series makes bismuth negative by heat, 
renders it also negative by friction. Omitting for the present some very 
interesting details, which I reserve for a monograph of tribothermic elec- 
tricity, it seems evident, therefore, that in these experiments the metallic 
conductors of electricity are thoroughly devoid of such specific or direct 
faculty of producing positive or negative electrodynamic actions, as the iso- 
lating substances possess for producing electrostatic efl'ects ; if you should not 
incline, with some of our philosophers, to regard even the electricity pro- 
duced by friction of isolators as but a modification of heat. But postponing 
this question, let us see in what manner the theory, and perhaps even the 
practical application of electricity, may be promoted by the researches on 
tribothermic electrization. For this purpose we must enter into some further 
details: — 1. The tribothermical effect is an instantaneous one. Indeed, at 
the very beginning of friction of any intensity, the needle moves. There 
is no trace whatever of the retardation undergone by heat when spreading 
through the mass of any substance. 2. The tribothermic effect is likewise in- 
dependent of the masses put in action. The point of a needle rubbed against 
a considerable heterogeneous mass, gives immediately the deviation ; and an 
increase of extent of the surfaces in friction does not appear even to add 
materially to the intensity of electrization. 3. The deviation vanishes quite as 
instantaneously as it commenced, and the immediate return of the needle to 
its primitive station is even one of the most striking features of the phseno- 
meuon. These three facts are very instructive, and seem by far more likely 
to be effected by a vibratory motion of molecules, than by the continuous 
efflux of a calorific fluid. Indeed, if we suppose any mass imbued with a 
given quantity of heat, and producing, when brought into contact with the 
other elements of a couple, a certain deviation proportionable to this quan- 
tity ; the slightest increase of deviation would then require a considerable 
addition of heat, and, such addition taking place, the deviation could but 
augment very slowly, while, on the contrary, we find by experiment that the 
slightest friction produces a strong deviation. Moreover, supposing once 
more that the very quantity of heat, represented by the temperature and by 
the mass of the whole body, were the efficient cause of the deviation, the in- 
crease of deviation produced should be durable, while by experiment we 
always see it instantaneously vanish when friction ceases, just as should be the 
case were it produced solely by a molecular action of the rubbing-points. In 
the event of the refrigerated metal giving a western deviation, Avhich a nio- 
mentaneous friction inverts into an eastern one, but only as long as the fric- 
tion lasts, the result is still more paradoxical, and we have probably no other 
explanation of it, but by admitting a specific difference between the mode 
of production of heat in this case on the one hand, and in that of heat per- 
manently residing in the body on the other. The type of molecular vibra- 
tions will once more, and very naturally, be recalled by this remarkable fact. 
4. The tribothermic deviations attain in every case a maximum, which under 
similar circumstances is different for different couples of metals. Indeed the 
friction produces, while it exists, new increments of heat which must give rise 
to increments of deviation. These latter however become more and moi'e 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF FRICTION UPON THERMO-ELECTRICITY. 105 

insensible, and at length seem only active in causing the persistence of the 
maximum of deviation. I found the values of the maxima for different 
couples just in the same proportion as their thermo-electric effects. 

The four above-mentioned facts require an assiduous inquiry, supported 
by numeric determinations. The quantity of permanent heat, which by a 
friction of given duration accumulates in the metals, should be measured, 
and it must be ascertained whether this residue is equal in each of them ; in 
other words, whether at the end of a continued friction the needle returns 
precisely to its primitive position, or only approaches to it ; and, if an excess 
of temperature is denoted, in which of the two metals it has taken place. 
Any one who knows tlie difficulty of managing such delicate instruments, 
will understand why, after innumerable essays, I am not yet able to give a 
categorical answer to these questions. 

After a friction somewhat prolonged the needle does not return imme- 
diately to its original position, but the difference is very trifling, and some- 
times doubtful or ambiguous. Whenever, by a very efficacious friction, I 
had carried the deviation to a maximum of 60°, the needle, on the friction 
ceasing, underwent a vibration of six or eight degrees, but as the slowness of 
these oscillations enabled the temperature to become equal for the two bars, 
the first position of equilibrium remained ambiguous. In one apparatus a 
disc of bismuth was uniformly rubbed during twenty minutes on a disc of 
antimony. When the friction ceased, I immediately inserted between the 
two metals a highly susceptible thermopile, and it appeared by this process 
that antimony was constantly the most heated. Nevertheless, I regard this 
point as not yet fully proved. 

In excusing the defectiveness of my results by the arduous nature of the 
observations required, I consider it my duty to indicate to the philosophers 
who would co-operate in the eminently important tribothermical researches, a 
circumstance which most decidedly conti*ibutes to their difficulty. The metals 
to be examined must be joined to the multiplicator by rheophoric wires, and 
these are mostly heterogeneous to the metals, as bismuth, antimony and cobalt 
cannot yet be wiredrawn by any known process. In employing wires of cop- 
per, of platinum, or of nickel, we might hope that their specific action on the 
thermo-electrical elements could be neglected, and that therefore the observed 
deviation might be assumed to result only from the temperature, or from the 
friction of the thermo-electric couple. A course of rather tedious experiments 
has shown me that this supposition is most erroneous and utterly deceptive, 
when applied to refined investigations and highly susceptible instruments. A 
multitude of contradictory and incoherent facts accumulated themselves like 
a chaos, before I arrived at the source of error. Thus, when I broke a bar of 
chemically pure antimony in the middle, and I'ubbed against each other 
the once contiguous surfaces of these two parts, I obtained very sensible 
deviations, but sometimes positive and sometimes negative. It was the same 
with the bismuth when similarly treated. It appeared at length that these 
strange results were merely owing to the action of the thermo-electric metals 
on their heterogeneous rheophores, for two copper elements with copper 
rheophores, and two zinc elements with rheophores of zinc, never give the 
slightest trace of tribothermo-electric effect, whilst any of these two metals 
produces a strong deviation, when after friction it is singly applied to the 
button of the multiplicator. A voluminous journal of attempts to decide the 
questions treated in the former part of this paper was nullified by the unex- 
pected thermo-electric influence of the rheophores destroying its value. The 
best means I ultimately discovered for reducing this source of error, whose 
entire elimination is impossible, consists in the interposition of a plate cut 



106 REPORT — 1845. 

from a piece of pure graphite, between the thermo-electric agent and its 
rheophore. The graphite acts but very feebly by its contact with heteroge- 
neous substances, and at the same time proves an excellent conductor for 
electricity excited in any other manner. It is desirable that other means may 
be found to obviate the impediments resulting from the extreme sensibility of 
the apparatus which must be necessarily employed, as a minute absolute in- 
tensity is a characteristic feature of all tribo-electric actions, and can alone 
explain the reason of their having been so long either unnoticed or errone- 
ously estimated. When, by immersion in a vessel of warm water, the tempe- 
rature of a bar of bismuth and of another of antimony is elevated to upwards 
of 45° R., they will give by this contact a very strong eastward deviation, but 
the friction will not cause it to increase any more in a sensible degree. When, 
on the contrary, the same two bars are greatly refrigerated by being plunged 
in triturated ice, tiieir contact gives a strong negative or western deviation, but 
the friction in this case, far from inverting this effect, is not even able to di- 
minish it in any material degree. The calorific increments produced by fric- 
tion are in themselves very feeble ; the tribothermic multiplicator acts, in 
respect to them, as a microscopic apparatus ; but the fact that its indications 
are circumscribed within certain limits, and becomes insensible when these 
limits are passed, is of striking importance. We need only to ascertain by 
very careful experiments the degrees of heat and of refrigeration given to the 
metals, by which their friction loses its influence on the needle, in order to 
obtain for a scale of tribothermic production of heat, two fixed points which 
can be reproduced in any instance, in exactly the same manner as the fixed 
terms of our ordinary thermometer. The philosophers who may apply them- 
selves to tribothermic experiments, will not fail to meet with the paradox of two 
electric currents acting simultaneously in contrary directions. In the frequent 
cases where the contact produces a deviation of the needle in a certain sense 
and the friction in the contrary one, we can so modify these actions that the 
needle remains in equilibrium in an intermediate position, obeying the two 
currents that travel along the same wire in contrary directions. As to the 
obscure question of the relation between the direction in which the heat moves, 
according to the received terminology of the thermo-electric phaenomena, and 
the direction in which electricity proceeds, it is not impossible, although 
highly improbable, that tribothermo-electric researches may throw some 
light upon it. The following Table presents the state of this question : — 

Being at the temperature 
Being heated, of the surrounding space. 

_. , . ^. f The contact gives an eastern deviation. 

Bismuth. Antimony . . | bj^^^^i^ ^^.^^ l^^^t ^^^ g^^^^, electricity. 

. . T>. ., f The contact gives an easfe»7i (/et7af20?i. 

Antimony. Bismuth . . | ^-^^^^^^ ^^^ heat and gains electricity. 

Being at the temperature 
Being refrigerated, of the surrounding space. 

_ . , ... f The contact gives a western deviation. 

Bismuth. Antimony . . | ^^^^^^^ ^^-^^ heat and loses electricity. 

. . „. ^, f The contact gives a loestern deviation. 

Antimony. Bismuth . . j gismuth to heat and loses electricity. 

The friction increases the eastern deviations and changes all the western 
into eastern ones, that is to say, that bismuth becomes equally positive by an 
increase or a diminution of heat. May it be inferred that heat when nascent 
by the act of friction has a property specifically different from that of heat 
residing previously in a metal ? Are we perhaps on the eve of finding at 
length something analogous to the brilliant discovery of Peltier, that gal- 
vanic electricity produces heat in proceeding from antimony to bismuth, 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF FRICTION UPON THERMO-ELECTRICITY. 107 

and cold when travelling inversely, by which M. Lenz has produced conge- 
lation ? 

The electric telegraph is becoming popular at present, but it generally re- 
quires an apparatus which is variable in its effects and expensive in its employ- 
ment. It would therefore be advantageous to substitute the purely mecha- 
nical principle of the tribothermic telegraph. For by removing the stopper 
of a wheel-work, a disc of bismuth rubs against another of antimony, and 
at the same instant the needle at the opposite extreme of the rheophore is 
put in motion. I have ascertained the instantaneousness of this operation for 
tolerably considerable distances. Employed as a signal, it would have the 
advantage, that after the interval of some days or months, when the clockwork 
is put in motion, the effect of friction would take place, whereas in tiie vol- 
taic telegraph there would be a chance of the combination having lost its 
efficacy by the lapse of time. 

P.S. — Berlin, August. A highly competent judge (Mr. Grove) being of 
opinion that I have imperfectly explained the grounds for my suspicion of a 
possible analogy between certain effects of the heat which is generated in the 
act of friction and the discovery of M. Peltier, I regret that in my paper I have 
affected a form too strictly aphoristic. I shall endeavour to remedy this by 
selecting, among many others, one tribothermo-electric fact, whose very para- 
doxical character first induced me to suppose such an analogy. Let a crystal 
of sulphuret of lead (galena) be placed at one of the poles of the multiplier, 
and at the other pole (to be alternately placed in action) of the rheophore a 
bar of bismuth and a bar of antimony ; the bismuth being rubbed against the 
crystal, takes immediately a negative electric charge. This exception was 
already known for the same metal heated. From all the analogies hitherto 
known, it results that antimony being rubbed in the same way should become 
positive, and that to obtain by it a negative declination of the magnetic needle, 
it ought to be refrigerated. Now I find by experiment that the friction of 
antimony against a crystal of galena gives absolutely the same declination as 
the bismuth : in fact, the direction, the intensity and the quickness of the 
effect, are in the two cases sensibly equal ; and we cannot deny that in this 
very paradoxical case, it appears that an increment of nascent heat produces 
in the antimony the effect of cooling. The singular effects which are ob- 
served when uncrystallized masses of sulphuret of lead are substituted for the 
single crystal of galena, confirm the supposition that the effects of friction 
depend on molecular movements. I am anxious that more practised observers 
may succeed in obtaining tribothermical effects by simple internal vibration 
of elastic sound-plates. I have not yet succeeded in this. But the great 
prize in this race of discovery would fall to him who should discover a dif- 
ference of thermo-electric action, according as a magnetically polarized bar 
should be rubbed (that is, molecularly heated) at the one or the other of 
its poles. 

The magnet-stone and the magnetic sulphuret of iron, exert, when rubbed, 
a strong thermo-electric action. I have employed these substances, as well 
as magnetic steel bars, in this curious investigation, but hitherto without 
success. 



108 REPORT — 1845. 

On the Self-registering Meteorological Instruments employed in the 
Observatory at Senftenberg. By the Baron Senftenberg. 

[A commuuication read to the Mathematical and Physical Section, and ox4ered to be printed 
entire among the Reports.] 

If any branch of natural philosophy can derive advantage from comparison 
of observations made at different localities, this is particularly the case with 
meteorology. Isolated observations made at one and the same spot may 
furnish valuable data ; but the ultimate benefit that can by them accrue to 
science, however carefully they be made, is only obtained by their combina- 
tion with corresponding ones, made at more or less remote stations on our 
globe, thus establishing a first basis, succeeded by others, to form the links 
of that chain of arguments which may lead to the discovery of the primary 
causes of atmospheric changes. 

It is by this process that Me have already been enabled to ascertain that me- 
teorological phsenomena are but the M'heels of that great mechanism, whereof 
change of temperature is the motive power, whence the greater commotions 
extending over vast regions, as well as also minor local alterations, can be traced. 
Although the results of phaenomena included in the first class are in general 
of higher importance than those in the second, these latter ones are not the less 
deserving of minute attention, for the purpose of arriving at a just perception 
of the process that takes place in the higher regions of the atmosphere, and are 
even indispensable for ascertaining the effect of local causes, from which each 
single observation must first be cleared before it can be made use of in com- 
parison with others made possibly under different influences. For this pur- 
pose observations made at two observatories at no great distance, but in other 
respects very differently situated, whereof the one is in a valley, the other on 
a mountain, or the one on an island surrounded by a great extent of water, 
the other on an extended level sandy plain, may lead to important results ; 
and such have indeed already been derived from comparative observations 
made at Geneva and at the Hospice on the St. Bernard. The success to be 
derived from such observations depends, however, mainly on their regularity 
and multiplicity at both stations at stated intervals ; for phaenomena arising 
from local causes are generally of short dumlion, and would escape the notice 
of an observer who makes but two or three observations in the course of 
a day, and of others he would have seen but the beginning or the end, 
which would furnish but imperfect data for comparison. It is on this account 
tiiat self-registe)-ing instruments, regularly compared with the usual ones, 
afford great advantages, as no phaenomenon, of however transient a duration, 
can occur without being registered by them. Such instruments have for 
nearly two years been in use at the Senftenberg Observatory, and the proofs 
of what can be accomplished by them are detailed in vol. v. of the Magnetic 
and Meteorological Observations at Prague, which contain, however, only 
those made with the barometrograph. More recently thermo- and hygrome- 
trographs have also been in active use there. Of course such instruments 
are complicated in their construction, and require practice in their manage- 
ment, whence the first series of observations are not so regular as those made 
with the usual ones, nor are the specimens now produced* intended to fur- 
nish the foundation for establishing new data or hypotheses ; they are only 
intended as specimens to show what results might be obtained by these means 
under more favourable circumstances. A detailed description of these in- 
struments is contained in the third and fourth volume of the Magnetic and 

* Consisting of a selected series of tables, and diagrams of observations recorded contem- 
poraneously at Prague and Senftenberg. 



ON SELF-REGISTERING METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. 109 

Meteorological Observations made at Prague ; it is therefore deemed suffi- 
cient now only to state that they register from five to five minutes the va- 
riations of pressure, temperature and moisture of the atmosphere. The 
appended numerical Tables contain the hourly variations, and are of course 
only extracts made from the original curves marked from five to five minutes 
by the autograph, which was deemed sufficient for ascertaining the numerical 
value of any point of the curve. The series now submitted to observation 
is selected from and confined to days when considerable atmospheric changes 
occurred, so as to afford a proof of the advantage to be derived by em- 
ploying such instruments. On other days, where the variations are more 
confined to the ordinary rates, fewer observations and at greater intervals are 
sufficient to make these apparent, as on such days the differences in variation 
at less distant places are so insignificant that they become scarcely percepti- 
ble ; no doubt however the medium of extended regular observations would 
afford the means to appreciate such, but for the present and first attempt and 
trial, days when the atmosphere was more agitated seem better suited for 
the proposed purpose. [Table II. contains the Observations for the 18-1 9th 
June as an example.] 

The two stations where these observations were made are, — 1. Senftenberg, 
which is nearly due east 100 English miles from Prague, a distance quite 
sufficient to produce variations in these phsenomena, which are however in- 
creased by other local causes. The observatory there is situated on the 
centre of the property on the river Adler, 1281 Paris feet above the level of 
the sea, in latitude 50° 5' 8"-8, and longitude, east of Greenwich, 1^ 5' 46"-98. 
Its immediate site is on lias and mica slate, but at no great distance it is more 
or less surrounded by higher ground with granite, gneiss and old red sand- 
stone, and considerable forests\ 2. Prague, situated in a more level country, 
and the river Moldau flowing through the town with a breadth of about 200 
fathoms, is only 524 Paris feet above the level of the sea, without much 
woodland in its neighbourhood, the lower strata of the surrounding hills 
being principally lias, sandstone and argillaceous schist, — all circumstances 
which may produce influence on the atmospheric variations. 

After these preliminary remarks, a little attention to the curves described 
by both barometrographs will soon convince us that they run nearly parallel, 
and that it is more particularly the deviation from parallelism which should 
be more nearly examined. The pressure of the air at Prague being 0'9 
inch greater than at Senftenberg, and the curve of Prague being the lower 
one, their approach towards each other when the curves are rising proves 
that the rising commenced earlier at Prague than at Senftenberg ; whereas 
an approach when the curves are descending denotes a quicker diminution 
of the pressure at Senftenberg. This is applicable to the extreme bends, or 
those points of the curve where a maximum in either sense has taken place, 
where the rising passes into falling, or the reverse ; and in those cases when 
a curve that was before running nearly in a horizontal direction gradually 
begins to rise or fall ; but if two curves continue for a while both to rise or 
to fall, a gradual convergency or divergency must also be accounted for by 
the weight of the atmosphere undergoing a change of the same nature at 
both places, but a greater one in the one than the other. Variations, how- 
ever, observed during a longer period, embracing a succession of days, are 
generally so nearly of the same value at both stations, that by present expe- 
rience no decided opinion can be expressed in which of them the total 
amount of change is greatest. 

The annexed Table shows the amount of barometric variation during forty- 
five days, by which it appears that the medium at Prague was only 0'005 inch 



110 REPORT 1845. 

greater than at Senftenberg, a difference so small that no conclusion can by- 
it be arrived at to determine at whicli of the two stations it was greater. 

It may thus be concluded that the deviation of the curves from parallelism 
is produced by tlie difference in time at which the maximum and minimum 
took place at the two stations. By a closer inspection of the curves, it ap- 
pears that when they are either approaching to or receding from each other, 
this is produced by a minimum which has taken place sooner at Prague than 
Senftenberg. Thus tiie first curve on the 18th and 19th of June at Prague 
shows a minimum between the hours nineteen and twenty, whilst in the 
Senftenberg curve it is not perceptible till the hours of twenty-two to twenty- 
three. This fact becomes still more conspicuous on other days, for on the 
24th and 25th of August, where a minimum occurs in Prague at 4 o'clock, 
and at Senftenberg only at 10 o'clock, on the 29th and 30th of September we 
find the minimum at Prague already at the eleventh hour, which was only 
reaehed at Senftenberg on the nineteenth hour. Further, Oct. 3 and 4, 
minimum at Prague at the fifteenth hour, at Senftenberg at the sixteenth 
hour ; Oct. 7 and 8, minimum at Prague at the second hour, at Senftenberg 
at the fifth hour ; Nov. 8 and 9, minimum at Prague at the seventeenth hour 
forty-five minutes, at Senftenberg at the nineteenth hour; Nov. 13 and 14, 
minimum at Prague at the twelfth hour, at Senftenberg at the thirteenth 
hour; and Nov. 15 and 16, minimum at Prague at the sixteenth hour, at 
Senftenberg at the twenty-second hour. [The curves for the 18-19th June, 
24-25th June, and 25th-26th June, are given in Plate II. as examples.] 

These facts have recurred so regularly, that although the number of ob- 
servations is not great, the law may be established between the above-named 
two places of observation with a degree of certainty the more to be relied on, 
as it invariably takes place whatever the direction of the wind may be. It 
thus follows that it has its origin in the higher regions, and is independent of 
local influences. A change in the opposite direction, that is, a transition from 
rising to falling, does not appear greatly to affect the parallelism of tlie curves ; 
at all events no decisive proofs to that effect can be traced from the maxima 
of Sept. 30 and Oct. 1 , Oct. 3 and 4, Oct. 4 and 5, Oct. 6 and 7, Oct. 7 and 8, 
Oct. 14 and 15, and Nov. 15 ^nd 16. 

But it is not only the minima terminating a long-continued decrease of a 
curve that follow the above-mentioned law, but also disturbances that hitherto 
have been considered as proceeding from local causes, such as transient gales 
of wind, thunder-storms, sudden changes of temperature and moisture, all 
which are indicated earlier at Prague than at Senftenberg by the autographs. 
It must however be owned, that the number of such cases hitherto observed 
is too small to draw certain inferences from. As an instance, the barome- 
tric curve at Prague on the 24th and 25th of June shows between the hours 
twenty and twenty-one a sudden transitory increase of pressure of the air, oc- 
casioned by a storm which came from the west-north-w^est wheeling round to a 
breeze from the east-north-east. The barometer at Senftenberg did not begin 
to rise before the twenty-first hour and thirty minutes, and continued to do 
so till the twenty-third hour, the wind at east-south-east. On the following 
day both places were visited by thunder-storms, which greatly affected the 
state of the barometer, causing it alternately to rise and fall. At Prague 
the first indications in the curve were perceptible at 7 o'clock, and the undu- 
lations extended to 10 o'clock. The phenomenon occupied the southern part 
of the hemisphere, the wind at south-west. In Senftenberg the thunder- 
storm lasted from 9 till 11, and at 9 o'clock the wind was north-west. On 
the 27th of June the thermometrograph at Prague indicated a rapid decrease 
of temperature between 3 and 4 o'clock, which was also perceived at Senf- 



ON SELF-REGISTERING METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS. Ill 

tenberg between 4> and 5 o'clock, and this falling lasted for one hour and 
twenty minutes. The beginning of this phasnomenon was marked so pre- 
cisely by the autographs, that no uncertainty greater than five minutes could 
have occurred. 

These first trials are only intended as examples to show the method of 
using such instruments with the view of furnishing dates for the advancement 
of science. The proposed object to be effected by the hourly observations 
for thirty-six successive hours, at a fixed time, may by such instruments be 
more readily and minutely attained. It is hardly to be expected that the 
phsenoraena suited for such studies should exactly occur on such days as 
have been previously selected, whilst by the assistance of such instruments 
they cannot fail to be registered at all times and whenever they may occur. 

The example here furnished may suffice as a first attempt to show in what 
manner such an apparatus may be applied for the promotion of science by 
multiplying the materials fit to be studied. If they should be deemed of too 
voluminous a nature, the consideration should not be lost sight of, that such 
studies have never suffered from too great a multiplicity of useful data, but 
frequently from the contrary cause. 

Table I. Barometric Maxima and Minima at Senftenberg and Prague, 
August 1844'. 





Senftenberg. 


Prague. 


Difference. 




Senftenberg. 


Prague. 


Difference. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. Min. 


Senf. 


Prag. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Senf. 


Prag. 


10. 


322-56 


32"l-68 


332-5o' 33"l-50 


g-88 


Ill 

1-00 


Oct. 7. 


321-47 


316-76 


33l'-23 


32'7-01 


4-71 


4-22 


18. 


321-88 


319-44 


331-95 328-71 


2-441 3-24 


„ 8. 


321-61 


319-07; 331-71 


329-88 


2-54 


1-83 


19. 


319-28 


317-66 


328-90! 327-61 


1-62 1-29 


„ 11. 


321-32 


317-86 331-41 


327-21 


3-46 


4-20 


J5. 


319-33 


315-24 


328-54: 325-05 


4-031 3-49 


„ 12. 


322-14 


320-341 332-27 


330-80 


1-80 


1-47 


i6. 


318-25 


315-47 


328-37 325-78 


2-78 


2-59 


„ 15. 


318-42 


315-69 328-23 


325-33 


2-73 


2-90 


6. 


318-79 


315-72 


328-92 326-70 


307 


222 


„ 20. 


320-15 


316-05 330-16 


325-56 


4-10 


4-60 


[9. 


319-48 


317-75 


329-33: 32800 


1-73! 1-33 


„ 29. 


322-16 


319-62 332-47 


330-16 


2-54 


2-31 


». 


321-69 


319-24 


332-29 329-00 


2-45 j 3-29 


Nov. 1. 


321-96 


318-71 33214 


328-49 


3-25 


3-65 


)0. 


319-00 


318-64 


329-40; 328-59 


0-3610-81 


,, 2. 


318-58 


315-62 328-31 


32518 


2-96 


3-13 


8. 


32106 


317-34 


330-79' 328-09 


3-72 2-70 


,, 3. 


315-53 


313-95:325-69 


323-62 


1-62 


2-07 


9. 


319-34 


317-76 


329-60 328-73 


1-58 0-87 


„ 8. 


31902 


316 30 329-17 


325-48 


272 


3-69 


11. 


31909 


317-50 


329-75 


326-95 


I-59I2-8O 


„ 9. 


316-21 


314-42 325-33 


324-42 


1-79 


0-91 


14. 


31815 


316-21 


328-71 


325-80 


1-9412-91 


„ 9. 


316-34 


314-42 326-04 


324-42 


1-92 


1-62 


16. 


318-06 


315-63 


328-91 


325-72 


2-43' 3-19, 


„ 10. 


318-13 


316 25 327-33 326-42 


1-88 


0-91 


i2. 


319-90 


318-94 


329-51 328-69 


0-96 


0-82 


„ 14. 


322-92 


317-75 333-69 327-88 


5-17 


5-81 


55. 


32109 


318-62 


331-10' 328-72 


2-47 


2-38 


„ 15. 


325-08 


323-04' 335-84 33386 


2-02 


1-98 


}8. 


324-04 


321-82 


333-99! 331-35 


2-22 2-64! 


„ 15. 


325-08 


323-09 335-84 332-49 


1-99 


3-35 


». 


321-71 


32000 


331-251 329-67 


1-711 1-58' 


„ 16. 


322-66 


320-73 332-31 331-64 


1-93 


0-67 


to. 


32306 


319-60 


334-05! .329-70 


3-4614-35 


>, 16. 


322-76 


320-73 333 96i 331-64 


2-03 


2-32 


1. 


323-68 


321-89 


334-25 


331-87 


1-79,2-38. 


„ 17. 


324-36 


322-97! 335-06, 334-13 


1-39 


0-93 


2. 


321-77 


316-49 


331-69 


326-17 


5-28 5-42' 


„ 20. 


324-27 


32213 334-72 332-47 


2-14 


2-25 


3. 


317-81 


315-49 328-51 


326-00 


2 32 2-51! 


„ 21. 


321-84 


318-59' 3.32-231 329-60 


3-25 


2-63 


4. 
6. 
6. 


321-22 
322-28 


315-30 
320-74 


331-78 
332-23 


32604 
330-32 


5-92 5-74 
l-.i4 l-9ll 
1-20 l-07i 

1 1 


Dec. 30. 


323-43 


320-95 


333-54 330-94 
Sum 


2-48 


2-60 


119-91 


122-58 


321-69 


320-49 


331-42 


330-35 








Mean. 


2-498 


2-554 































112 



REPORT 1845. 



Table II. 
ISth June, 1844. 



state of Barometer. 



Senf. Prag. P.— S 



321-88 
21-87 
21-86 
21-85 
21-84 
21-83 
21-82 
21-81 
21-68 
21-59 
21-49 
21-38 
21-19 
2099 
20-80 
20-65 
20-30 
20-22 
20-10 
2002 
2000 
19-92 
19-65 
19-44 



331-95 
31-94 
31-94 
31-87 
31-79 
31-79 
31-60 
31-62 
31-63 
31-44 
31-25 
31-05 
30-81 
30-44 
30-23 
29-98 
29-67 
29-52 
29-40 
29-22 
29-05 
28-96 
28-87 
28-71 



10-07 
10-07 
10-08 
10-02 
9-95 
9-96 
9-78 
9-81 
9-95 
9-85 
9-76 
9-67 
9-62 
9-45 
9-43 
9-33 
9-37 
9-30 
9-30 
9-20 
9-05 
904 
9-22 
9-27 



state of 
Thermometer. 



Senf. Prag. P.— S 



7-0 
6-4 
6-0 
5-8 
6-0 
6-0 
7-0 
9-3 
10-0 
11-2 
12-0 
12-8 
13-7 
14-5 
15-2 
15-5 
15-7 
15-0 
14-7 
14-0 
12-0 
9-4 
8-6 



+ 9-0 

8-6 

8-1 

7-G 

7-3 

6-9 

7-1 

8-5 

10-5 

11-7 

12-9 

140 

15-2 

16-4 

16-6 

18-2 

18-2 

18-5 

17-8 

16-5 

15-3 

14-8 

14-3 

13-6 



+2-0 

+2-2 

+21 

+1-8 

+ 1-3 

+0-9 

+0-1 

-0-8 

+0-5 

+0-5 

+0-9 

+ 1-2 

+1-5 

+ 1-9 i 

+ 1-4 1! 

+2-7 

+2-5 

+3-5 

+3-1 

+2-5 

+3-3 

+5-4 

+5-7 

+4-8 



Relative Humidity. 


Expansive 
Force of Vapour. 


Direction of 
Wind. 


Forc«^ 
Win. 


Senf. 

76 


Prag. 


p.— s. 


Senf. 


Prag. 


P.-S. 


Senf. 


Prag. 


Senf. P 


64 


-12 


2-86 


2-84 


-0-02 








75 


64 


-11 


2-69 


2-74 


+0-05 








75 


66 


- 9 


2-60 


2-71 


+011 








74 


71 


- 3 


2-53 


2-81 


+0-28 








76 


74 


- 2 


2-64 


2-86 


+0-22 








77 


73 


- 4 


2-67 


2-68 


+0-01 








75 


72 


- 3 


2-82 


2-74 


-008 




S.W. 




71 


66 


- 5 


3-20 


2-80 


-0-40 


N.W. 




b-5 


64 


60 


- 4 


3-00 


2-93 


-0-07 




s.w. 




55 


50 


- 5 


2-82 


2-68 


-0-14 








57 


41 


-16 


3-14 


2-43 


-0-72 




S.W. 




51 


40 


-11 


2-98 


2-56 


-0-42 








54 


40 


-14 


3-37 


2-77 


-0-60 




0. 




45 


39 


- 6 


2-99 


2-64 


-0-35 




o. 




48 


38 


-10 


3-36 


2-93 


-0-43 


O.S.O. 


0. 


io 


45 


33 


-12 


3-38 


2-91 


-0-47 








41 


36 


- 5 


3-00 


3-22 


+0-22 




0. 




44 


32 


-12 


303 


2-89 


-0-14 








50 


35 


-15 


3-38 


3-05 


-0-33 




0. 




62 


42 


-20 


3-97 


3-27 


-0-70 








72 


50 


-22 


3-96 


3-97 


-0-39 




0. 




85 


54 


-31 


3-86 


3-66 


-0-20 


O.S.O. 




i-o • 


88 


59 


-29 


3-76 


3-84 


+0-08 








81 


64 


-17 


3-54 


3-96 


+0-42 





















19th June, 


1844 


. 












12. 319-28 


328-51 


9-23 




+ 12-9 




88 


70 


-18 




4-13 






1 




IS 


18-97 


28-32 


9-33 




12-3 




88 


78 


-10 




4-38 










14 


18-81 


28-26 


9-45 




11-8 




86 


81 


- 5 




4-38 










15 


18-57 


27-95 


9-38 




11-4 




80 


80 







4-19 










16 


18-29 


27-85 


9-56 




11-1 




76 


80 


+ 4 




4-09 










17 


18-13 


27-80 


9-67 




11-0 




73 


80 


+ V 




4-05 










IS 


17-96 


27-65 


9-69 




11-0 




70 


80 


+ 10 




4-07 






O.S.O. ' 




1<) 


17-80 


27-65 


9-85 


15-2 


12-6 




65 


74 


+ y 


4-5'5 


4-25 




s.o. 




2-5 


•>o 


17-79 


27-61 


9-92 




14-1 




65 


71 


+ « 




4-o8 






s.o. 


... 


^1 


17-77 


27 69 


9-92 




14-7 




65 


68 


+ a 




4-59 




, 






^f 


17-66 


27-77 


10-11 




22-7 




60 


77 


+ 17 


... 


4-51 






w.s.w. 




9S 


17-69 


28-10 


10-41 




12-2 


... 


50 


81 


+31 


... 


4-53 













17-78 


28-21 


10-43 




12-4 


... 


50 


85 


+35 


... 


4-/a 






w. 




1 


17-86 


28-57 


10-71 




12-4 




67 


82 


+25 




4-68 






w. 




? 


1805 


28-65 


10-60 




12-5 




73 


81 


+ 8 




5-19 




W.N.W. 


w. 


2-8 


8 


18-20 


28-75 


10-55 




12-7 




77 


lb 


- 2 


... 


4-3o 










4 


18-35 


28-85 


10-50 




12-6 




80 


70 


-10 




405 






w. 




5 


18-50 


28-88 


10-38 




12-9 




80 


74 


- 6 




4-36 










6. 


18-65 


28-90 


10-25 


... 


12-6 




80 


78 






4-04 






s.w. 





Second Report on Atmospheric Waves. 
By William Radclifp Birt. 
The Report which I have the honour to present to the Association on the 
present occasion will consist of three portions : — 

1st. Of some remarks on the regular monthly altitude of the barometer 
above 30 inches, as obsesrved at Greenwich by the Astronomer Royal ; the ap- 
parent regularity of the flowing of the waves, producing certain of the maxima 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 113 

and their intervals ; also the determination of the direction in whicli they move, 
from observations at the three stations, Greenwich, Prague, and Munich. 

2nd. Of the recurrence of the symmetrical wave observed in November 
1842, in November 1843, and October 1844, with the mean wave deduced 
from combining the three. 

3rd. Of an extension of the investigation of the waves A 1 and B 1, forming 
the subject of the last report. This portion is confirmatory of the views then 
advanced, and will include evidence of the existence of two larger waves on 
which those noticed last year were superposed. 

Section I. 
Rise of the Barometer above 30 inches. 

In Table IV. of the abstracts of the results of meteorological observations 
made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1840 and 1841, Mr. Airy has 
shown that in every month the barometer rose above 30 inches. The same 
result is shown in Table V. of the abstracts for 1842. The observations made 
at the Colonial Observatory at Toronto indicate the same general fact ; in 
every month during 1841 and 1842 the barometer rose above 29"750. The 
altitudes, when reduced to the level of the sea, agree with those at Greenwich, 
showing a rise on both sides of the Atlantic above 30 inches in every month. 
When, however, the dates of the maxima at the two stations are compared, 
we find in almost all instances considerable difference, that is, the absolute 
maxima at both stations are generally several days' interval from each other. 
On turning to the daily records of barometric pressure at both stations, we 
find maxima occurring at but few days' interval from each other, so that cor- 
responding to the greatest altitude for the month at one, we obtain shortly 
before or after a maximum at the other. This leads us to a fact of a very 
interesting nature, and one that is generally borne out by the Greenwich ob- 
servations, namely, that twice in each month the barometer passes a maximum 
above, or but very slightly depressed below 30 inches, but more usually above. 

Upon subjecting the Toronto observations to a closer scrutiny and clearing 
them from every extraneous influence, so that the pure gaseous pressure may 
alone be contemplated, the rise to this gauge-point (30 inches, or with the 
tension of the aqueous vapour deducted 29*900) is much more frequent, and 
there are but few exceptions to the general fact, that the pressures at the 
epochs of maxima are confined to small excursions, seldom amounting to '1 
inch above or below the mean — 30'030, including those observations that 
are evidently of an extraordinary character — 29*983, excluding them and the 
lower readings marked (f ) in the following Table, which includes all such 
maxima observed at Toronto during the period of the regular flowing of the 
waves at Greenwich, hereafter to be noticed. The observations, as recorded 
in the volume of Toronto observations, have been reduced to the level of the 
sea ; the tension of aqueous vapour has been subtracted in each case, and the 
gaseous pressures resulting have been corrected for the diurnal and annual 
oscillations as determined from the two years' observations. During the pe- 
riod embraced by the table at the station Toronto, the gaseous pressure 
appears to have passed a maximum about or not far removed from the 3rd 
of each month, and another about the 16th or 17th ; intermediate maxima, 
about the 10th and 27th, have also been observed, but with less regularity. 
From observations made during so short a period at only one station it would 
be premature to draw any conclusions. It however appears very desirable that 
some approximation to the Canadian normal wave should be attempted, by 
combining the observations in a manner somewhat similar to that which I 
have adopted with regard to the great November wave (see the second 
part of this report). 

1845. I 



114 



REPORT — 1845. 



Table I. 
Maxima of the Gaseous Atmospheric Pressure observed at Toronto between 
January 24 and September 15, IS^l, corrected for tlic Annual and Di- 
urnal Oscillations, and reduced to the level of the sea. 



Month. 


Epoch. 


Altitude. 


Month. 


Epoch. 


Altitude. 




d h 


in. 




d h 


in. 


January.... 


25 18' 


29-912 


Mav 


18 20 


29-900 


28 8' 


29-994 




29 0' 


29-932 


February... 


3 22« 
7 22 


30-098 
30-245* 


June 


2 20" 
9 0' 


30-036 
29978 




" 


17 12 


29994 


,, 


16 14" 


29-999 


" 


24 


30-011 


^j 


20 16' 


29-923 


March 


1 22 


29-900 


July 


2 20' 


30067 


4 20" 


30-345* 




7 18 


29-868t 




8 18 


29-977 


J, 


10 4' 


29-986 


" 


9 20' 


30019 


1 


16 22^ 


29-980 


" 


11 8» 


30103* 


■ 


20 4 


30048 




16 20 


30-383* 


1 11 


26 


30-003 


' 


30 6' 


30026 


>> 


27 22 


29-988 


April 


2 18 


29-914 


August 


1 22' 


29-950 




5 22 


29-997 




11 14' 


29-942 


" 


15 2 


30 410* 


,^ 


15 18 


29-923 


" 


22 


30-245* 


1 


19 16* 


29-853t 


" 


27 18" 


29-875t 


1 


23 18 


30-156» 


May 


3 6 


30-029 


September 


14 18 


30-148* 




6 20 


30011 


1 







Upon carefully collating the Greenwich observations for the same period 
and reducing all maxima above 29*800 to the level of the sea, we obtain the 
results recorded in the following Table. The same frequency of rise above 
the gauge-point (30-000) noticed at Toronto is observable at Greenwich ; 
and to a certain extent there is some agreement in the epochs of the maxima ; 
epochs difFerin less than 30 hours, both series being reduced to Gottingen 
mean time, are ii:arked (^) in both tables. 

Table If. 

Barometric Maxima observed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, between 

January 23 and September 20, 1841, reduced to the level of the sea. 



Month. 


Epoch. 


Altitude. 


Month. 


Epoch. 


Altitude. 




d h 


in. 




d h 


in. 


January ... 


24 22» 


30-437 


June 


3 22» 


30-426 




28 0' 


•394 


„ 


8 10' 


-031 




31 18 


•452 




13 20 


-122 


February... 


3 4' 


•114 




15 22« 


-289 




10 


•123 


II 


21 20' 


-136 




21 22 


30-452 


1, 


27 14 


-179 


March 


3 22' 


29-988 


July 


2 I'i" 


-220 




10 22' 


30-572 


J, 


9 12' 


•019 




24 


30-329 


„ 


16 20' 


•096 




28 


29-998 


„ 


24 10 


-232 




30 2' 


29-998 


August .... 


1 20» 


•014 


April 


9 22 


30 133 




12 10» 


•010 




13 10 


-202 




18 22' 


•293 




18 


•Oil 


ij 


26 10 


■353 




26 10 


•ISO 


September 


1 


-082 




27 22' 


-224 


II 


8 20 


-108 




29 20 


-240 


II 


10 22 


-1-10 


May 


10 


-235 


II 


16 22 


-047 




13 20 


•441 


„ 


19 22 


30-197 




23 20 


. -260 








" 


28 22' 


30168 


i 







• Maxima more than -1 inch above 30 in. t Maxima more than •! inch below 30 in. 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 



115 



The passages of maxima about or not far removed from the 3rd of each 
montn, appears to have failed at Greenwich for April and May. On turning, 
however, to the Greenwich records we find maxima within 12 hours of the 
epochs at Toronto of the following values, when corrected for sea level. April 
2, 14? hours, 29-815 ; May 3, 4 hours, 29-851. It consequently appears that the 
two series so I'ar agree in the general fact, that about the 3rd of each month 
for the period included in the tables, the barometer passed maxima on both 
sides of the Atlantic, the excursions above or below the gauge-point at Green- 
wich being much greater than those at Toronto. 

Upon a still closer comparison of the maxima at both stations, it appears 
highly probable that, with few exceptions, they are nearly contemporaneous, 
the excursions at Greenwich being, as just noticed, by far the greatest. It 
is a matter of regret that at present this most interesting subject cannot be 
followed out in all its details, and that the announcement cannot extend much 
beyond the high probability that during nearly eight months of the year 1841 
the barometric movements on both sides of the Atlantic (Toronto and Green- 
wich being at present the extreme stations) were connected, in so far as the 
observations indicate a tendency to increased pressure at both stations at 
nearly the same epochs, and that these epochs appear to observe some regu- 
larity, exhibiting a periodicity of about 30 days' interval, especially that of 
maximum pressure, about the 3rd of each month, which is clearly traced at 
both stations. The greater excursions at Greenwich, the insular station, are 
perfectly in accordance with facts of a similar character developed in the 
course of the reduction of meteorological observations (see Sir John Her- 
schel's Report in the volume for 1843). 

A comparison of the Table of Barometric Maxima in the Greenwich Abs- 
tracts, with a similar table in the 15th volume of the Memoirs of the Royal 
Academy of Brussels, p. 17, leads to the same result as that obtained from 
a comparison of the Greenwich and Toronto observations, in so far as the 
absolute maxima at both stations, Greenwich and Brussels, are not in all 
cases contemporaneous, or separated only by a short interval. The table 
alluded to gives only one maximum in the month, the highest reading. In 
the Greenwich records we find corresponding maxima to these, with short 
intervals between the transits at each station. From a consideration of the 
two series of maxima the following Table has been formed. 

Table III. 

Exhibiting the symmetrical disposition of Barometric Waves on each side 
a central Axis, June 3 : 22, 1841. 



Month. 


Epoch. 


Altitude.. 


Interval. 


M'^ave. 


March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 


d h 
10 22 
24 
13 10 

26 10 
13 20 

23 20 
3 22 

15 22 

27 14 
9 12 

24 10 
12 10 
26 10 


in. 

30^572 
•329 
•202 
•180 
•441 
•260 
•426 
•289 
•179 
•019 
-232 
-010 

30-353 


d h 
13 2 
20 10 

13 
17 10 

10 

11 2 

12 
11 16 
11 22 

14 22 
19 
14 


6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 
Axis. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



i2 



IIG 



REPORT — 1845. 



The barometric curve accompanying the Greenwich observations for 1840 
and 184<1, exhibits a considerable interval between the minima of January and 
February in the latter year ; tliis interval is 36 days, and may be advantage- 
ously compared with a long interval between the maxima of September 19 
and October 21, of 31 days 16 hours. This long interval is remarkable for a 
considerable and symmetrical depression of the barometer, nearly midway 
between the two maxima, namely from October 5, 22 hours 57 minutes to 23 
houi-s 65 minutes ; the reading uncorrected for sea level was 28'697. If we 
consider the point equally distant from the January and February minima to 
be the summit of a normal wave, we shall have the epoch of its transit January 
28 : 18 : now the period from this apex to the depression in October will equal 
250 days. The middle point of this period falls on the 2nd of June ; on the 
3rd of June, 22 hours, the barometer passed a maximum. On each side of 
this maximum are 6 maxima with a mean interval of 14 days 1 hour. It is 
interesting to observe, that the minimum of the 16th of February, and that 
of the 5th of October, are the boundaries of the period of least range ; mean 
range for the seven months 1*029. Upon the hypothesis that the maxima were 
the crests of waves, it appears that during the period of least range sixteen 
waves traversed England, having a mean interval between their crests of 14 
days 5 hours. The column of intervals clearly exhibits a considerable regu- 
larity in the succession of these waves, as well as their symmetrical position 
relative to the axis, and their altitudes support the same idea. Taking the 
middle wave June 3 : 22, we find corresponding altitudes on either side ; thus 
the highest wave passed Greenwich on March 10 : 22, altitude 30'572. Six 
waves on the other side of the axis, we also have the highest reading, namely 
August 26 : 10, altitude 30"S53. The following Table places this regularity 
both as respects altitudes and intervals in a clearer light. 

Table IV. 
Altitudes of Waves equally distant from the Axis, June 3 : 22. 



Wave. 


Epoch. 


Altitude. 


Mean 
Altitude. 


Mean 
Interval. 


6th. 
5th. 
4th. 
3rd. 

2nd. 

1st. 

Axis. 


d h 

March 10 22 

August 26 10 

March 24 

August 12 10 

April 13 10 

July 24 10 

AprU 26 10 

July 9 12 

May 13 20 

June 27 14 

May 23 20 

June 15 22 


in. 

30-572 X 
•353 / 

•329 1 
•010 / 

•202 \ 
•232/ 

•180 1 
•019 / 

•441 ■) 
•179/ 

•260 "1 
•289 J 

30-426 


in. 

30-462 
30-169 
30-217 
30-099 
30-310 
30-274 


d h 
14 1 

14 3 

12 18. 

12 8 

11 4 

11 13 


June 3 22 



On pursuing the investigation beyond the period of least range and ex- 
tending it into that of the great winter oscillations, the same regularity of 
perturbation is still apparent ; there appears to be a symmetrical movement 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 117 

of the barometer on a large scale, of a somewhat similar character to that of 
the great November wave. The oscillations on each side the central maximum 
June 3 : 22 have evidently a symmetrical relation, and are to be distinguished 
from the monthly maxima before alluded to. It is highly probable that a 
further examination of the Toronto observations will furnish us with the Ca- 
nadian type of atmospheric waves, in the same manner as Sir John Herschel 
found various continental types, and that in some localities (Hanover for in- 
stance) the barometric curves were exceedingly anomalous, arising most pro- 
bably from an interference of different systems of waves. It is also pro- 
bable that a further examination of the Greenwich observations relative to 
the monthly maxima will develope the corresponding British type, and that 
an investigation of the greater symmetrical movements will conduct us to 
phaenomena of a highly interesting character. 

Directions of Waves, 

The apparent regularity of the flowing of these waves, has induced the 
hope that by a more detailed examination of the transits of the maxima at 
distant stations, a tolerable idea may be formed of the direction in which 
they move, and thus a step may be gained in ascending to their causes. If 
we take Greenwich, Prague and Munich, as three stations, the order of transit 
will vary, as the direction of the axis of translation of each wave varies. 
The following appear to be some of the phaenomena presented by waves mo- 
ving in different directions. 

I. Waves from W.N.W., or nearly so. — The crests will first pass Green- 
wich, and at a considerable period after they will pass Munich and Prague ; 
these stations they will pass about the same time ; Munich and Prague will 
therefore have simultaneous maxima. 

II. Waves from S.W. — The crests will pass the stations in the following 
order : Greenwich, Munich, Prague. 

III. Waves from S.S.W. — The crests will pass Greenwich and Munich 
simultaneously, and afterwards Prague. 

IV. Waves from S. by W. — The crests pass the stations in the following 
order : Munich, Greenwich, Prague. 

V. Waves from S. — The crests will pass the stations nearly at the same 
time. 

VI. Waves from S.S.E — The crests pass the stations in the following or- 
der: Munich, Prague, Greenwich. 

The fact that numerous systems of waves traverse Europe at the same time 
renders it very difficult to determine the intervals between the transits of two 
successive maxima of the same system ; the only mode appears to be, to ar- 
range all the maxima and minima, and to classify and examine those that are 
moving in the same direction and that transit the stations under the same 
circumstances. 

Table V. exhibits the maxima and minima that passed Munich between 
the transits of two minima, which apparently marked the passage of the an- 
terior and posterior troughs of a normal wave ; the altitudes are converted 
into English inches and reduced to the level of the sea. 

During this period we find three maxima from the S.S.W. ; the intervals 
between them are nearly equal ; the first 104< hours, and the second 97 hours. 
The middle wave is the highest, 30'667 ; those on each side are nearly of the 
same altitude SO'SO^ and 30-275 ; the central wave is the highest of the series, 
M'hich opens with a small wave from W.N.W. Table VI. exhibits the features 
of this wave. 



118 



REPORT 1845. 



Table V. 

Barometric Maxima and Minima observed at Munich during tiie transit of 
a supposed normal wave *. 



No. 


Phase. 


Direction. 


EP-'>- '^e' 


Altitude. 


Refer- 
ence. 


Wave. 


1 


Min. 


W.N.W. 


March. 18 4 


30-103 


I. 




2 


Max. 


W.N.W. 


18 23 


•238 


I. 


1 


3 


Min. 


W.N.W. 


19 4 


•171 


1. 




4 


Max. 


s.s.w. 


19 14 


-304 


III. 


2 


.5 


Max. 


W.N.W. 


19 20 


•304 


I. 


3 


6 


Min. 


s.w. 


„ . 20 15 


•238 


II. 




7 


Max. 


s.w. 


21 11 


•342 


II. 


4 


8 


Min. 


s.w. 


22 4 


•218 


II. 




9 


Max. 


s.s.w. 


23 22 


•667 


III. 


5 


10 


Min. 


W.N.W. 


27 4 


•123 


I. 




11 


Max. 


s.s.w. 


27 23 


•275 


III. 


6 


12 


Min. 


W.N.W. 


30 4 


•218 


I. 




13 


Max. 


W.N.W. 


30 18 


•390 


I. 


7 


14 


Min. 


s.w. 


31 14 


•027 


II. 




15 


Max. 


s.w. 


AprU.. 1 10 


30095 


II. 


8 


16 


Min. 


W.N.W. 


2 12 


29^884 


I. 





Table VI. — First Wave from W.N.W. 



Anterior Trough (A). 


Crest. 


Posterior Trough (P). 


Station. 


Epoch of Transit. 


Altitude. 


Epoch of Transit. 


Altitude. 


Epoch of Transit. 


Altitude. 


Greenwich . 

Prague 

Munich 


d h 

March 17 18 
18 4 
18 4 


Eng. in. 

29-501 
30009 
30103 


d h 

March 18 14 

18 22 

18 23 


Eni;. in. 

29-721 
30089 
30-238 


d h 

March 18 20 
19 1 
19 4 


Eng. in. 

29-682 
30-071 
30171 



Co-ordinates. 



station. 


Altitude from 
Anterior Trough. 


Amplitude 
in Time. 


Diff. Anterior and 
Posterior Troughs . 


Greenwich . 

Munich 

Prague 


Eng. in. 

•220 
•135 
•080 


hours. 

26 
24 
21 


P — A. Eng. in. 

•181 
•068 
•062 



It is probable that as the posterior slope of this wave passed oiF, it was met 
by the anterior slope of the first S.S.W. wave, so that the true posterior trough 
was not observed, the minimum being anticipated and the readings being 
higher than they would otherwise have been. It is al.so probable that this 
wave rode on the anterior slope of a normal wave. 

The succeeding maxima4 and 5, from S.S.W. and W.N.W., passed Greenwich 
and Pra^-ue at both stations about the same hour, and Munich within six 
hours of each other. The posterior troughs of both were obliterated by a 
well-developed wave from S.VV^., interval 37 hours, after which the 2nd S.S.W. 
wave appeared. 

* It appears probable that the nia.tima recorded in Table III. indicated the crests of 
normal waves. The maxima and minima in this Table are those resulting from secondary 
waves. 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 

Table VII.— Wave from S.W. 



119 



Anterior Trough (A). 


Crest. 1 


Posterior Trough (P). 


Station. 


Epoch ofTransit. 


Altitude. 


Epoch ofTransit. 


Altitude. 


Epoch ofTransit. 


Altitude. 


Greenwich . 

Munich 

Prague 


d h 

March 20 

20 15 

21 2 


Eng. in. 

29-672 
30-238 
30038 


d h 

March 20 22* 
„ 21 11 
» 21 18 


Eng. in. 1 

29-718 
30-342 
30-112 


d h 

March 21 20 
22 4 
22 16 


Eng. in. 

29-420 
30-218 
29-988 



Co-ordinates. 


station. 


Altitude from 
PosteriorTrough. 


Amplitude 
in Time. 


DifF, Anterior and 
Posterior Troughs. 


Greenwicli . 

Munich 

Prague 


Eng. in. 

•298 
•124 
•124 


hours. 

44 
37 
38 


A— P. Eng. in. 

•252 
•020 
•050 



The next and fifth wave that transited the area was from the S.S.W,; the 
anterior trough was obliterated, as before noticed ; shortly before the crest 
of the succeeding wave of this system passed ; the W.N.W. system again made 
its appearance ; the anterior trough of the third observed wave passed Munich 
March 27 : 4. The following Table exhibits its features : it is altogether a 
much larger wave than the first. 

Table VIIL— Third observed Wave from W.N.W. 



Anterior Trough (A). 


Crest. 


Posterior Trough (P). 


Station. 


Epoch ofTransit. 


Altitude. 


Epoch ofTransit. 


Altitude. 


Epoch ofTransit. 


Altitude. 


Greenwich . 

Munich 

Prague 


d h 

March 26 4 
27 4 
27 6 


Eng. in. 

29-631 
30-123 
29-947 


d h 

March 30 2 
30 18 
30 20 


Eng. in. 

29-998 
30-390 
30-071 


d h 

April.. 1 16 
2 12 
2 10 


Eng. in. 

29-596 
29-884 
29-674 



Co-ordinates. 



station. 


Altitude from 
PosteriorTrough. 


Amplitude 
in Time, 


Diff. Anterior and 
Posterior Troughs. 


Greenwich . 

Munich 

Prague 


Eng. inch. 

•402 
•506 
•397 


hours. 

156 
152 

148 


A — P. Eng. inch. 

•035 
•239 
•273 

. . , 



The minimum from W.N.W., March SO-A, appears to have been of a secon- 
dary character, that is, it was not a true trough, but was most probably pro- 
duced by the apex of the third S.S.W. wave which transited during the pas- 
sage of the anterior slope of the wave. During the transit of the posterior 
slope, the anterior slope of a small wave from S.W. passed. 

The 10th of March was characterized by exhibiting the highest barometri- 
cal reading during the year. The two highest readings of the month occurred 

* A maximum occurred March 20 : 2, two hours after the transit of the anterior trough, 
altitude 29-699. The very short interval between the anterior trough and this maximum 
most probably arose from the depresshig influence of the posterior slope of the S.S.W. wave, 
which passed Greenwich March 19 : 14. The semi-interval of the S.S.W. wave would oc- 
casion its minimum to pass Greenwich March 21 -. 16, four hours earlier than the posterior 
trough of this, so that it is highly probable that the great depression then observed resulted 
from both troughs. 



120 



REPORT — 1845. 



on the 10th and 24th, with an interval of fourteen days; the semi-interval would 
give the included minimum on the 17th. Upon the assumption that the crest 
of the normal wave passed the stations on the 24th, the preceding crest having 
passed on the 10th, we have the normal trough passing on the 17th: the 
numbers in Table V. appear to indicate a gradual rise and fall preceding and 
succeeding the highest reading of the 24th, such as might be expected from 
the transit of a large wave, the anterior and posterior slopes being indented 
and masked by the transits of smaller waves flowing in various directions. The 
numbers and directions in the table convey the idea of a certain regularity 
in the flowing of these secondary and superposed waves. During the transit 
of the normal wave three systems of waves appear to have traversed the area 
included by the stations, from W.N.W., S.W. and S.S.W. The crests of the 
latter system (3 waves) were only observed, but the intervals being so nearly 
equal, induces the opinion that they succeeded each other with great regularity, 
and were accompanied with troughs, although those troughs were masked and 
concealed by the other systems. It is also probable that the altitudes of these 
waves were nearly equal, the apex of the central wave being elevated by that 
of the normal. The W.N.W. system appears to have been a system the 
waves of which were increasing in size ; the altitudes do not appear to have 
been sufficiently high to have occasioned them to ride above the upper por- 
tion of the normal wave. The waves of the S.W. system were rather larger 
than the earliest W.N.W. wave. 

If we consider the low readings of the 18th to mark the anterior trough of 
the normal wave and the maximum of the 24th to indicate its crest, we have 
the following elements and co-ordinates. 

Table IX. — Normal Wave. 



Anterior Trough. 


Crest. 


Co-ordinates. 


Station. 


(Supposed) 
Epoch of Transit. 


Altitude. 


(Supposed) 
Epoch of Transit. 


Altitude. 


Altitude. 


Semi-interval. 


Greenwich . 

Munich 

Prague 


d h 

March 17 18 
18 4 
18 4 


Eng. in. 

29-501 
30103 
30009 


d h 

March 24 
23 22 
25 8 


Eng. in. 

30-329 
30-667 
30-400 


Eng. in. 

-828 
•564 
•391 


hours. 

150 

138 
172 



The close of Table V. gives the lowest reading for the period included by it, 
and did not the barometer continue to fall, we might consider this point as the 
posterior trough of the normal wave. The following are the altitudes of the 
wave from this point, with the semi-intervals. 



station. 


Altitude. 


Semi-interval. 


Greenwich .... 
Munich 


Eng. in. 

•733 
•783 
•726 


hours. 
208 

230 
194 





It is clear that the above elements of the normal wave, as well as those of 
the superposed or secondary waves, are greatly modified, the first by the 
secondary wave.'?, and these again by the normal wave, and by each other. 
There is great reason to believe that the troughs of the S.S.W. waves were 
concealed. It will be shown in another part of tliis report, that by compa- 
ring observations at two stations and examining their barometric differences, 
the passage of a crest or trough may be rendered apparent, which by this 
mode of investigation remains concealed. Nevertheless it is highly probable 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 121 

that, by discussing a long series of observations in this manner, a tolerable idea 
of the succession and systems of waves may be formed, and the general fea- 
tures of the normal waves made out. The one under consideration appears 
to have had an interval of fifteen days. The great symmetrical wave of Nov. 
I84'2 had nearly the same interval, and succeeding waves, possessing a simi- 
larity of character both in interval and curve, were observed about the same 
period of the year in 1843 and 1844'. The examination of these recurring 
atmospheric movements forms the subject of the next portion of the report. 

Section II. 

Recurrence of Symmetrical Wave. 

The diagram which accompanies this report (see Plate III.) exhibits three 
curves to a great extent similar, at least in so far as there is a general tendency 
in the barometer to rise during the period of the anterior half, and a similar 
tendency in it to fall during the period of the posterior half. From what has 
just been advanced, as well as from the discussions which were reported last 
year, there is great reason to consider the indentations on the anterior and pos- 
terior slopes of the curve of 1842 as distinct secondary and superposed waves ; 
the same may be said of the indentations on the curves of 1843 and 1844. 
Now it is probable that were we to separate the barometric effects of these 
waves, we should obtain a much clearer conception of the form and general 
elements of the normal wave which on the three occasions recorded passed 
London. For this purpose the following steps have been taken. The gene- 
ral contour of the curves indicates that the respective maxima passed about 
the following dates. 

1842. November 18, noon. 

1843. „ 14, „ 

1844. October 27, „ 

These days (noon) are therefore assumed as the axes of the curves, and 
the altitudes at intervals of two hours have been carefully read off from the 
original projections, and a mean of the three taken, from which the follow- 
ing Table has been constructed. The table is arranged in two compartments, 
the first containing the ordinates of the anterior slope, the second those of 
the posterior. The first column in the first compartment indicates the hours 
before the transit of the crest ( — ) ; the second the mean ordinate correspond- 
ing to any given hour. In like manner, the first column in the second compart- 
ment indicates the hours after the transit of the crest ( + ), and the second the 
mean ordinate corresponding to any given hour after transit. These num- 
bers have been used in the construction of the fourth curve, which exhibits 
to the eye the general form of the normal wave, freed to a certain extent of 
the effects of the superposed waves. 

There are several drawbacks to the value of any conclusions that may be 
drawn from these numbers and projections in their present state : — 

1st. They are deduced from unreduced observations. The projections of 
the three upper curves are laid down from observations as read off from the 
scale without any reduction whatever, and the mean curve has been obtained 
from these unreduced observations. 

2nd. The observations themselves were made at irregular intervals, so that in 
deducing the mean, the quantities observed have not been used. The altitudes 
at the given hours of the curves drawn through the points indicating these 
observed quantities, are the quantities from which the mean has been obtained. 

3rd. The curves, and consequently the mean, consists of two distinct ele- 
ments, namely, the pressure of the gaseous atmosphere and the pressure of 



122 



REPORT 1845. 



the aqueous vapour. The normal wave of the gaseous atmosphere is there- 
fore greatly modified by the pressure of the aqueous vapour in these projec- 
tions. 

Table X. 

Ordinates of the Mean Normal Curve, deduced from the recurring Curves 
of 1842, 1813, 184.4, November. 



Hours be- 
foreTransit, 



hours. 

Apex 

2 - 

4 - 

6 - 

8 - 

10 - 

12 - 

14 - 

16 - 

18 - 

20 - 

22 - 

24 - 

26 - 

28 - 

30 - 

32 - 

34 - 

36 - 

38 - 

40 - 

42 - 

44 - 

46 - 

48 - 

50 - 

52 - 

54 - 

56 - 

58 - 

60 - 

62 - 

64 - 

66 - 

68 - 

70 - 

72 - 

74 - 



I Hours af- 
ter Transit. 



30-321 
•330 
•331 
•327 
•323 
•321 
•314 
•299 
•274 
•229 
•204 
•169 
•152 
•132 
•106 
•081 
•057 
•026 

30006 

29-991 
•967 
•941 
•919 
•909 
•908 
•900 
•892 
•883 
•866 
•853 
•843 
•835 
■821 
•811 
•809 
•791 
•794 

29-791 



j I hours. 

!;Apex 

11 2 + 

li ^ + 

6 + 

!! 8 + 

10 + 

12 + 

14 + 

16 + 

18 + 

20 + 

22 + 

24 + 

26 + 

28 + 

30 + 

32 + 

34 + 

36 + 

38 + 

40 + 

42 + 

44 + 

46 + 

48 + 

50 + 

52 + 

54 + 

56 + 

58 + 

66 + 

20 + 

64 + 

66 + 

68 + 

70 + 

72 + 

74 + 



30321 
•302 
•301 
•298 
•295 
•302 
•300 
•296 
•278 
•261 
•236 
•204 
•169 
•130 
•091 
•061 

30-031 

29-986 
-968 
-941 
•933 
•934 
•943 
•956 
•950 
•932 
•932 
•924 
•914 
•895 
•883 
•871 
•870 
•862 
•845 
•841 
-829 

29-803 



Hours be- .,.., , 
foreTransit.! Altitudes. 



hours. 

76 - 

78 - 

80 - 

82 - 

84 - 

86 - 

88 - 

90 - 

92 - 

94 - 

96 - 

98 - 

100 - 

102 - 

104 - 

106 - 

108 - 

110 - 

112 - 

114 - 

116 - 

118 - 

120 - 

122 - 

124 - 

126 - 

128 - 

130 - 

132 - 

134 - 

136 - 

138 - 

140 - 

142 - 

144 _ 

146 - 

148 - 



29-775 
•766 

•758 
•758 
•761 
•763 
•760 
•748 
•747 
•735 
•730 
•722 
•712 
•689 
•682 
•687 
•687 
•681 
•675 
•664 
•669 
•685 
•728 
•744 
•741 
•734 
•722 
•711 
•688 
•659 
•625 
•588 
•532 
•482 
•455 
•428 
29411 



Hours af- Ai»i*..j« 
terTransit.h^'t'*"'*^'' 



hours. 


in. 


76 


+ 


29-789 


78 


+ 


•788 


80 


+ 


•771 


82 


-1- 


•755 


84 


+ 


•733 


86 


■f 


•717 


88 


+ 


•696 


90 


+ 


•667 


92 


+ 


•630 


94 


+ 


•590 


96 


+ 


•555 


98 


+ 


•543 


100 


+ 


•546 


102 


+ 


•555 


104 


+ 


•562 


106 


+ 


•558 


108 


+ 


•565 


110 


+ 


•571 


112 


+ 


•576 


114 


+ 


•583 


116 


+ 


•590 


118 


+ 


•589 


120 


+ 


•578 


122 


+ 


•552 


124 


+ 


•538 


126 


+ 


•498 


128 


+ 


•459 


130 


+ 


•405 


132 


+ 


•332 


134 


+ 




136 


+ 




138 


+ 




140 


+ 


•179 


142 


+ 


•214 


144 


+ 


•240 


146 


+ 


•255 


148 


+ 


29-282 



4th. The curves are projected for one station only. It is not only proba- 
ble, but in the case of the curve for 1842 it has been ascertained, that even 
for comparative short distances N.E. and S.W. of the line joining Dublin 
and Munich, the symmetry is considerably depai'ted from, as will be shown 
in the further examination of that curve ; it is therefore important, as well as 
deducing the mean normal curve from a combination of the three curves at 
one station, to examine the character of the superposed waves at several 
stations previous to drawing any conclusions relative to the normal wave. 

5th. The projections are affected by the diurnal and annual variations of 
gaseous and aqueous pressure, the causes of which are known. 

We have however the means of obtaining at four important stations, the 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 123 

elements of this normal wave freed from all extraneous circumstances. At 
Munich we possess barometric records every hour for the three years ; these 
are reduced to the freezing temperature and accompanied with observations 
from which the tension of the vapour may be obtained. It will be. necessary 
for the three periods embraced in the diagram to express the barometric al- 
titudes in English inches, and reduce them to the level of the sea. When 
so reduced the vapour pressure must be deducted, leaving the gaseous pres- 
sure only, and this must be further corrected for the diurnal and annual 
variations of the gaseous pressure ; we shall thus obtain three curves repre- 
senting the variations of gaseous pressure, the causes of which we are seeking, 
and the mean of these three curves will to a certain extent be freed from those 
indentations which appear to result from the passage of secondary waves. 

The same process must be adopted with respect to the observations at 
Prague, Brussels and Greenwich ; when this is accomplished we shall obtain 
four normal curves, the comparison of which will be highly instructive and 
important. 

The curve of 1842 is tinted for the purpose of indicating the prevalent 
wind during the period occupied by one coloured portion. There does not 
appear much apparent relation between the colours and the flexures of the 
curve. Two points, however, claim our especial attention, — the change in 
the direction of the wind to nearly the opposite point, on the transit of the 
crest, — and the calms intervening between that and other changes nearly of a 
similar character. N.E. winds are coloured blue, S.W. pink, and S.E. green. 
The direction has been obtained from the Greenwich observations. 

Sir John Herschel has shown in his ' Report on the Reduction of Meteoro- 
logical Observations' (Report, 184-3, p. 99), that there must be a close and 
purely dynamical connexion between the advancing form of the wave and the 
molecular movement of the air ; the character of the molecular movement will 
greatly depend on the order of the wave. In the absence of data for deter- 
mining the precise characters of the waves under consideration, it may not be 
uninteresting to offer a few remarks on the two points to which our atten- 
tion has been directed : — 1st. The calm preceding the reversion of wind on the 
transit of the crest, Nov. 18th, 1842. A very casual comparison of the direc- 
tion of the wind at several stations marked on the area, shown in Plate XLII. 
(Report, 1844), indicates that the molecular movement was directed towards 
the point of least pressure, a result to be expected, and perfectly in accordance 
with the beautiful deductions of Col. Sabine (see his Report on the Meteor- 
ology of Toronto, Report, 1844). Now in the case of a large wave stretch- 
ing over an extensive area, the anterior and posterior troughs would mark out 
parallel or nearly parallel lines of least pressure ; the molecular movement 
would be strongest in these troughs, and directed towards them from each 
side ; at stations removed from them the force of the wind would be greatly 
diminished, and at the intervening crest it would be so small as to be inap- 
preciable ; but however small it might be, upon the crest passing any station, 
the direction of the wind at that station would be reversed, and it would in- 
crease in intensity until the transit of the posterior trough. In this manner 
it is apprehended that the reversion of the wind, and the calm preceding it, 
Nov. 18th, 1842, are explained. The Greenwich observations offer a fine 
illustration of the increase of intensity. November 19th, 6 and 8 hours, the 
anemometer recorded a pressure of 2 to 41bs. to the square foot 30 hours 
after transit. 2nd. The remaining calms in the diagram may be explained 
in the same way, but the synchronous traversing of different systems of waves 
masks the effects and prevents the relations between the wind and the advan- 



124 REPORT — 1845. 

cing wave-form becoming so perceptible, as in the first instance, namely the 
transit of the crest of the normal wave. 

Section III. 

Investigaiion of secondary Waves A ], A 2, B 1 (reported last year). 

In my letter to Sir John Herschel published in the last Report, I stated that 
the coloured projections indicated three things as connected with the disposi- 
tion of the atmosphere : — " 1 st, the depth or extent of colour will show the 
depression of the lower station below the upper ; 2nd, the intersections of the 
curves will indicate that at the time of intersection the stations had an 
equality of pressure ; and 3rd, the change of the position of the same colour 
will point out that the station which exhibited or experienced the higher or 
lower pressure, afterwards experienced the lower or higher, with its amount." 
In addition to these three indications, the coloured projections and the barometric 
differences they exhibit may be very extensively and advantageously used 
in this investigation, as at the time when any one intersection of the curves 
shows an equality of pressure at the respective stations, the intersection also 
indicates that either a crest or trough was passing between them. Now if, 
from other considerations, it is found that at any intersection atrough is passing, 
the next intersection will exhibit the passage of tlie crest ; the differences 
therefore between the curves, or in other words, the differences of pressure 
between the stations, will augment and decrease as the anterior slope passes, 
the greatest differences occurring as the middle of the slope transits. The 
same result will obtain as the posterior slope passes, but the affections of 
pressure will be altered ; the station which exhibited the greatest pressure 
under the anterior slope will manifest the least under the posterior. This 
principle will indicate the passage of a wave independently of the state {i. e. 
rising or falling) of the barometer at the time. The mercury may be falling 
from the transit of the posterior slope of a wave passing in a certain direc- 
tion, and this may occur at both stations ; yet, although both curves may be 
descending from a posterior slope in one direction, the opening between them 
may indicate the transit of an anterior slope in another. 

Wave B°. 
The last report brought the investigation as far as the determination of 
the waves A 1 and B 1 (Report, 1844, p. 273). The dimensions and velocity 
of the latter were given ; also the character of the trough between A 1 and 
A 2. In the note to (24.), page 274, it is shown that these waves, especially 
B 1, were small waves superposed on much larger ones. The principle just 
alluded to enables us to determine the phases of the larger wave on which 
B I rolled, not however uninfluenced by the transits of others, but sufficiently 
well-marked to contemplate it in its individuality as it passed over the area 
from the S.S.W. This wave we shall call B". 

Wave B". Between Scilly and Longstone. 
Anterior Trough. Crest. Posterior Trough. 

1842. Between h h h m 

Nov. 6 : 15. Nov. 9 : 18 and 19. Nov. 11:0: 30. 

„ 6 : 21. 

Amplitude in time 102 hours (about). 

„ space 2600 miles „ 

Velocity, about 25 miles per hour. 
N.B. The above determinations subject to correction in examining this 
wave at other stations. 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 



1^5 



Table XI. Wave B°. 
Barometric Differences arising from the Anterior and Posterior Slopes of B". 



Epochs. 


Longstone. 


ScUly. 


Scilly ±. 


Phaaes. 


1842. 












d h 


in. 


in. 


in. 




Nov. 6 15 


30-316 


30-276 




-040 


Anterior trough. 


21 


•306 


M -324 


+ 


-018 




7 3 


•266 


-283 


+ 


-017 




9 


•215 


-270 


+ 


■055 




15 


30054 


m -241 


+ 


-187 


, 


21 


29983 


M -273 


+ 


-290 


0) 


8 3 


•889 


-170 


+ 


•281 


•i 


9 


•747 


30066 


+ 


•319 


u 


15 


•470 


29-849 


+ 


-379 


s 


21 


•296 


•702 


+ 


-406 


-g Greatest curve of 


9 3 


m ^225 


m -594 


+ 


-369 


< anterior slope. 


9 


•324 


M -645 


+ 


-321 




15 


•426 


-553 


+ 


-127 


Crest. 


21 


•570 


-491 




-079 


t-, 


10 3 


M ^590 


-286 





-304 


o 


9 


•511 


-162 




-349 


« g, Greatest curve of 


15 


•286 


-081 





•205 


S S posterior slope. 
Posterior trough. 


21 
11 3 


29164 

28-990 


m -061 
29081 


+ 


■103 
•091 



This Table exhibits the barometric differences arising from the passage of 
that section of B" which passed the extreme stations of the line given on page 
277, Report, IS-i^. In order to investigate the entire transit of this wave, it 
will be requisite to commence the examination of the distribution of pressure 
over the area at least two days earlier than the epoch chosen last year, namely, 
Nov. 6:15 instead of Nov. 8:15; and this is the more desirable, as during eight 
days previous to this epoch (Nov, 6 : 15) the barometer had maintained an 
altitude (with only one exception) above 30 inches. See Plate I. illustrating 
Sir John Herschel's 'Report on Meteorological Reductions' (Report, 1843). 
The table shows a very considerable fall during the transit of the anterior 
slope of B°. Now should there be no counteracting influence in operation, 
or in other words, should only one wave be passing, the barometer must rise 
during the transit of its anterior slope. We are therefore prepared, in accord- 
ance with the views advanced relative to the intersection of curves, to find 
another large wave moving in a different direction ; and a comparison of the 
reduced altitudes at Glasgow. Bardsey, South Bishop, Birmingham, Greenwich 
and St. Catherine's Point, indicates that such a wave traversed the area, its 
crest passing the line joining Scilly and Bardsey Nov. 7:21, and its trough 
Nov. 9:3: this trough has already been noticed. The details of this wave 
will be presented to the Association on a future occasion. By commencing 
the examination at this earlier period, we shall include the whole of the 
barometric movements immediately succeeding the state of comparative re- 
pose during the eight days already alluded to : the first great disturbance is 
evidently of a negative character, producing a great depression of the barome- 
ter, this was followed by those undulations which gave rise to the symmetrical 
wave exhibited in the diagram, and shown in Plate II. (Report, 1843). An- 
other advantage resulting from the earlier commencement of the investiga- 
tion, is that the complete transit of the wave producing the bulge noticed in 
the last report, (3.) (4.) (5.), page 271, is traced completely across the area. 

The principal phases of B° are given at the foot of p. 124. 
Wave A 1. 

A careful comparison of the reduced altitudes at Glasgow, Bardsey, Bir- 



126 



REPORT — 1845. 



mingham, South Bishop, and St. Catherine's Point, from November 6 : 21 to 
7: 21, leads to the very interesting fact that the anterior slope of this wave 
extended in tiie direction from Glasgow to St. Catherine's Point. In the 
Report of last year we have this statement, "that a line cutting the crest of 
•wave A 1 transversely appears to have passed through Genevaand Brussels." — 
Report, ISM, p. 270 (2.). Now the line joining Glasgow and St Catherine's 
Point is nearly parallel with that joining Geneva and Brussels, and a line cut- 
ting the crest of wave A 1 transversely appears to have passed through Glas- 
gow and St. Catherine's Point at 6 : 21. There can be but little doubt that 
from results so nearly similar at pairs of stations a considerable distance from 
each other and at epochs separated by an interval of 48 hours, we have iden- 
tified a distinct and well-developed wave. It will be the object of future 
research to trace this wave entirely across the area. 

Wave A°. 
The large wave alluded to in the remarks on B° is designated A°. Table XII. 
exhibits the barometric differences or variations at the stations on the line 
Scilly to Longstone ; at November 7 : 21, the stations Bardsey, South Bishop 
and Scilly, experienced a rise indicating the transit of the crest ; the greatest 
curvature occurred on this line at 8 : 15, and the posterior trough at 9 : 3. By 
combining these epochs we have the principal phases of the posterior slope 
of this wave ; all these phases occur on the same line, clearly indicating that 
they are connected, and result entirely from a distinct and different cause to 
that which produced the bulge or posterior slope of A 1 . 

Table XII. Wave A°. 
Barometric Differences every six hours, exhibiting the Phases of A°. 



Epochs. 


Longstone. 


Bardsey. 


Sth.Bishop. 


ScUIy. 


Phases. 


6 21 


- -010 


- Oil 


_ -010 


-1- -048 




7 3 


- 040 


- -031 


- -010 


- -041 




9 


- -051 


- -020 


- -000 


- -013 




15 


_ -161 


- -031 


- -000 


- -029 




21 


- -071 


+ 041 


+ -020 


-f- -032 


Apex. 


8 3 


- -094 


_ -311 


- -216 


- -103 




9 


- -142 


- -152 


- -165 


- -104 




15 


- -277 


- -206 


- -126 


_ -217 


Greatest curvature. 


21 


- -174 


- -169 


- -299 


_ -147 




9 3 


- -071 


- 073 


- -083 


- -108 


Posterior trough. 



During the whole of this period B° exerted its elevating tendency. 
The projections of the synchronous curves for Munich, Prague, Geneva, 
Brussels, Paris, Haisboro, Greenwich, St. Catherine's Point, Birmingham, 
Bardsey, South Bishop, and Dublin, November 8 : 15 to 9 : 3, exhibit four di- 
stinct areas of elevation, so that there are only certain curves of the group that 
intersect from the passage of B° ; the remaining differences most probably 
arise to a great extent from the transit of A°. 

The crest of A° passed Scilly to Bardsey, Nosember 7 :2l 
The trough passed Scilly to Bardsey, ...November 9: 3 

diff. 30 hours 

Half breadth of wave in time 30 hours 

Altitude of crest at South Bishop 30-317 

Altitude of trough at South Bishop 29-428 



Altitude of wave from posterior trough 



•889 diff. 
-889 inch. 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 



127 



November 9 : 3 we have the following altitudes reduced to the level of the 

sea: — November 9 : 3, Munich 30*256 

November 9 : 3, Bardsey 29*385 

•871 diff. 
The close approximation of these differences appears to indicate that the 
slope from Munich to Bardsey was due to, and a representation of, the form 
of the posterior slope of A", and that at this epoch the crest of the wave was 
situated near Munich ; if so, we have for the first approximate amplitude and 
progress of this wave the following numbers : — 

Amplitude 1856 miles 

Progress 31 miles per hour 

Wave A 2. 

Table XIII. 

Barometric Differences arising from the Anterior and Posterior Slopes of A 2. 



Epochs. 


Dublin. 


Bardsey. 


Dublin. ± 


Phases. * 


8 21 


m29-391 


29-458 


- -067 


Anterior trough. 


9 3 


•395 


m -385 


+ -010 




9 
15 


•530 
M ^576 


•468 
M -537 


+ -062 
+ ^039 


9 31 

a 21 ^ Anterior slope. 


21 


•555 


•506 


+ -049 


Crest. 


10 3 

9 


■323 
•189 


•342 
•208 


- -019 

- -019 


10 9 f Pos'^'^o'" slope. 


15 


•021 


28-979 


+ -042 


Posterior trough. 



9:15 M Dublin, m Bardsey. Crest of B". 

This Table exhibits the barometric differences at Dublin and Bardsey 
arising from the transit of wave A 2 ; it is an instance in which the transit of 
a crest is rendered apparent from the relative changes of pressure at the 
Btations, although the barometer is falling at both from the passage of the 
posterior slope of B°. The following are the elements of the wave : — 

Wave A 2. Between Bardsey and Dublin. 
Anterior Trough. Crest. Posterioi Trough. 

184'2. November 9 : 2 November 10:2 November 10 : 14< 

Amplitude in time, 36 hours. 

Elements of Waves. 
In the following Table the elements of the waves hitherto detected are 
brought together in one view. It is necessary to mention, that, from the na- 
ture of the inquiry and the present state of the investigation, these numbers 
are subject to correction. 

Table XIV. Elements of Waves, Nov. 6 to 12, 1842. 



Epoch of 
Anterior Trough , 



Epoch of 
Crest. 



Epoch of 
Posterior 
Trough. 



Time. Miles. 



Amplitude. 



Velocity, 

Milesper 

hour. 



Scilly to Longstone 

Scilly to Longstone 

South Bishop to St. Catherine's Point, 
r Glasgow to St. Catherine's Pt. 1 
\ Brussels to Geneva. J 
Dublin to Bardsey 



Nov, 



re 15-1 

I62l| 

9 3 



d h 

9 18 

9 9 

7 21 



d h m 

11 30 



9 3 



60 



2600 

341 

1856 



25 

25 
31 



9 2 



10 2 



10 14 



36 



It appears highly probable that the direction of wave A^was similar to that 
of wave A' which it succeeded. The direction of wave A^ is well-determined. 



128 REPORT— 1845. 

Table XV. Exhibiting the Order of Succession of the Crests. 




Crest of A^ about entering on the area at Glasgow. 

„ A" entered on the area at Bardsey, South Bishop, Scilly. 

„ B' entering on the area at Scilly. 

„ B^ extending from Dublin to Geneva. 

„ A^ entered on the area between Dublin and Bardsey. 



Should A2 be found to be the succeeding wave to A', the above Table indi- 
cates an interval of 3 days 5 hours (about) between these two successive crests. 
The altitudes are very different in consequence of the large posterior slope of A°. 

At the commencement of this investigation, it was stated that the only ef- 
ficient test that can be brought to bear on the theory that the non-periodic 
oscillations of the barometer are due to waves, appears to be the comparison 
of barometric observations reduced to the level of the sea. This view appears 
to be supported as far as the investigation has yet proceeded. It is cha- 
racteristic of waves that different systems pass onward without destroying 
each other ; each wave of each system pursues its own path, although crossed 
by others ; and it can be followed in all its individuality. In the course of 
this inquiry three systems of waves have been detected, or at least three 
barometric maxima ; these maxima have been found to move across the area 
in three different directions, having on each side a diminution of pressui'e. The 
progress of each of these maxima appears to have been quite independent of 
the others : thus at the opening of the observations, the line of greatest 
diminution of pressure on the English area was from Glasgow to St. Cathe- 
rine's Point ; at a later period the observations indicated the direction of max- 
ima at right angles to this line, and that a line cutting this transversely passed 
through Geneva and Brussels ; it is in this latter direction that the wave 
was considered to have been moving. The barometric phaanomena in this 
direction progressed very slowly. While these movements were proceeding 
over the area, the barometric differences between Scilly and Longstone in- 
creased ; and the latter station exhibited a much less pressure than the former ; 
at length a decided line of maximum pressure is traced from Dublin to Ge- 
neva, after which the barometric affections at the stations are reversed, Scilly 
being the lowest and Longstone the highest. We have therefore a cause simul- 
taneously operating on the barometer with that which produced the move- 
ments from Glasgow to St. Catherine's Point, and from Brussels to Geneva, 
but evidently distinct, as the phaenomena progressed in a different direction, 
namely from Scilly to Longstone. During the period that these two distinct 
but contemporaneous causes are in operation, producing certain barometric 
phaenomena in certain directions, and from the last of which we should expect 
at certain stations, Scilly and Longstone, for instance, a rising barometer, we 
actually find it falling rapidly, but not without exhibiting the same phaeno- 
mena that we apprehend characterizes this fall as resulting from a wave. A 
decided line of maxima is observed ; and in the same line, at a subsequent 
period, we find a line of minima; we can therefore, as previously remarked, 
trace each of these distinct sets of barometric phaenomena in their own pe- 
culiar directions. It is hovvever the reduction of the observations to the level 
of the sea that alone enables us to do this. The rise and fall at any one 
station, as exhibited by the curves (times being used as abscissae), give us 
the combined effects of the three systems, and unless they are carefully sepa- 
rated, as we have endeavoured to do in the preceding investigation, and which 
can only be done by taking the distance of the stations into account, we are 
perplexed with the apparent irregularity and capriciousness of the atmo- 
spheric changes. 



ON savings' banks in the united kingdom. 129 

We have already alluded to the molecular movement of the aerial particles 
or the wind as connected with these waves, and an opinion has been expressed 
that it is probable that generally the wind will be found directed towards the 
troughs. It has also been remarked that the great disturbance of the atmo- 
sphere, after the period of comparative repose previous to the 6th of Novem- 
ber, was of a negative character, producing a great depression of the mercu- 
rial column. Now the result of any great increase of temperature at any 
station would be a diminution of the pressure of the gaseous atmosphere (see 
Col. Sabine's Report on the Meteorology of Toronto, Report, IS^^). A cur- 
rent, or rather currents of air, would be produced in consequence ; the baro- 
meter would fall, and the wind Mould be directed towards the line of least 
pressure (minima). This diminution of pressure would not however be con- 
fined to the locality in which the disturbance was produced, or even to those 
lines towards which the wind was directed, or the aerial current moved, it 
would gradually recede from the point of disturbance, giving rise to a wind 
in its progress still directed towards the line of least pressure ; the phagno- 
mena presented would be a rapidly falling barometer with an increasing force 
in the wind. This receding movement must be in the nature of a wave ; indeed 
it is difficult to conceive of a disturbance of the aerial ocean being imme- 
diately confined to the locality in which it originated. 

Mr. Scott Russell has determined that a wave of the first order does not 
diff'use itself equally in all directions around the place of disturbance, but 
that there is in one direction an axis along which it maintains the greatest 
height, has the widest range of translation, and travels with the greatest velo- 
city. Sufficient progress has not yet been made in this investigation, nor is 
the area included by the extreme stations of observation extensive enough 
to enable us to form any idea of the real character of these waves ; much 
light however will be thrown on them by a careful comparison of the wind 
at each observation ; and it appears essential to bear in mind the distinction 
of Mr. Russell between waves of the first and second order, as any tests that 
may be applied having reference only to the characteristics of Avaves of the 
second order must necessarily fail, should these, especially the larger waves, 
be found analogous to waves of the first order. 

Postscript, Nov. 27, 1845 — Section II. of the preceding Report treats of 
the recurrence of certain symmetrical atmospheric movements in or near the 
month of November. These symmetrical oscillations were observed in 1842, 
1843 and 1844, and great hopes were entertained that during the present au- 
tumn they would again be observed. These hopes have been fully realized, 
the symmetrical wave has returned and has exhibited all its essential features. 
The barometric curve on the present occasion more nearly resembles that of 
1842 than those of the years 1843 and 1844 ; the large oscillation forming the 
crest isvery distinctly marked. The apex passed London about noon of the 14th. 
Observations have been made at nearly thirty stations in the united kingdom. 



Sketch of the progress and present extent of Savings' Banks in the 
United Kingdom. By G. R. Porter, F.R.S. 

Among the " signs of the times " which it is most satisfactory to contem- 
plate, because it affords at once evidence of social progress, and furnishes the 
best assurance for its continuance, must be placed the fact, that among the 
classes of our countrymen who are in circumstances of ease and comfort 
there has of late arisen a great and growing concern for the well-being of the 
less favoured and more numerous class — those whose daily subsistence must be 
1845. K 



130 REPOET — 1845. 

acquired by their daily toil. Influences to this end have long been quietly 
but steadily at work, set in motion by individuals, few in number and, for 
the most part, of small account in the eyes of the world, who were at first 
sustained only by the consciousness of duty performed, and who long remained 
uncheered by any evidences of success ; those influences are now, however, 
openly and even ostentatiously employed, they have found their way into 
every circle, and have even received the homage of the senate. It has be- 
come fashionable to express the desire of promoting the general welfare of 
the working classes, and even to make some exertion to secure it, and we can 
hardly conceive that this stage of the question could have been reached, un- 
less through the sense of its importance having taken a firm hold of the pub- 
lic mind, enlisting among its promoters men who, by means of their station 
and intellectual endowments, must command the attention of society. 

The present is not an occasion on which it would be proper to enlarge upon 
the moral obligation to which allusion has now been made, but it is clearly with- 
in the province of statistical inquiry to ascertain, as correctly as possible, the ac- 
tual condition of those whom we would seek to benefit. Without such inquiries 
we must always be, as it were, groping in the dark, and liable to make a pro- 
fitless use of our energies, if even they should not be hurifully employed. 

Various eff'orts, which have been attended with more or less of success, have 
been made of late years by our statistical societies, and by means of govern- 
ment commissioners, to place before the world true pictures of the social 
condition of great masses of our fellow-countrymen, who form what, by a 
somewhat arbitrary distinction, are called the working classes ; and from a 
variety of journals and parliamentary reports much is to be learned concern- 
ing their means of living, as well as the manner in which such means are em- 
ployed. Our hours of leisure could hardly find better employment than in 
studying the different volumes in which this subject is authoritatively treated, 
in weighing the reconmiendations which they offer, and in helping to carry 
into execution those among them which appear to call for adoption, and which 
it may be in our power to forward. The volumes in question are within the 
reach of every one, and it would be productive of but little good to call 
away attention from them, by offering an analysis, or pretended analysis, of 
their contents. There is, however, one subject, intimately connected with 
the matters of which they treat, and which at the same time has become a 
thing of national importance, inquiry into which may throw light upon every 
branch of the subject, and which has not been made the matter of any recent 
investigation — the progress of savings' banks, — in describing which I would 
now venture to solicit a few minutes of attention on the part of the Section. 

Savings' banks, it is well known, are to be placed among the inventions of 
the present century. They are of English origin, although, happily, they are 
not now confined to these kingdoms. We owe their institution to a well- 
known benevolent lady, Mrs. Priscilla Wakefield, who in 1804? induced six 
gentlemen, residing at Tottenham, near London, to receive deposits from la- 
bourers and servants, and to be responsible for their safety and return when 
needed to the depositors, with 5 per cent, interest thereon, provided the sum 
were not less than 20,?., and had remained for a year at least in their hands. 
Deposits of not less than Is. were received. Four years later (1808) eight 
individuals, of whom four were ladies, took upon themselves the like respon- 
sibility at Bath, engaging to pay 4 per cent, interest upon all deposits up to 
50/., but limiting to 2000/. the whole sum to be deposited. In the same year, 
the late Mr. Whitbread tried, without success, to procure legislative sanction 
for a plan, whereby the small savings of the industrious labourer and artisan 
would be placed under the safeguard of public commissioners. 

The first savings' bank, regularly and minutely organized, was " The 



1 



ON savings' banks in the united kingdom. 131 

rish Ban k Friendly Society of Ruthwell" in D umf ries-shire, established through 
the exertions of Mr. Henry Duncan in 1810, and it was mainly owing to its 
success, as set forth in the published reports of that gentleman, that many 
other institutions were formed upon the model of that at Ruthwell, so that 
before any legislative provision had been made for their encouragement there 
existed 70 savings' banks in England, 4 in Wales, and 4 in Ireland. 

In July 1817 two acts received the royal assent for encouraging the esta- 
blishment of banks for savings in England and Wales, and in Ireland. It was 
not until 1835 that these institutions were placed under legislative regula- 
tion in Scotland, a circumstance which in all probability is to be ascribed to 
the facilities given by bankers in that part of the kingdom for the profitable 
deposit with them of small sums. Under the acts of 1817, the sums depo- 
sited were placed by the trustees of each bank in the hands of the Commis- 
sioners for the reduction of the National Debt, who thereupon issued deben- 
tures for the amount bearing interest at the rate of 3d. per centum per diem, 
or 4/. lis. 3d. per cent, per annum. It was customary for the trustees to allow 
4 per cent, only to the depositors, retaining the balance of the interest received 
from government to defray tlie necessary charges of the establishment for 
office-rent, clerks, &c. 

The progress of these savings' banks, after receiving the sanction of the 
legislature, has become a matter of national importance, not only as affording 
means forjudging concerning the actual and comparative condition, from 
time to time, of those classes of persons Avho make deposits, but also as in- 
centives to prudence, and in some degree, too, as security for good citizen- 
ship, among a very numerous body, now numbering more than a million of 
our fellow-subjects, who are thus made to feel that they too have an interest 
in the stability of government, and something to lose from acts of violence. 
By this means some slight degree of sympathy in feeling and interest has been 
created between classes as toM^hom that link was previously wanting, so that the 
untaught or ill-taught labourerorartisanwhohasasmall,but to him important, 
capital arising from his savings and deposited in the savings' bank,can no longer 
look with the same feelings of estrangement as formerly upon those whose 
savings, or those of their prudent ancestors, may have exceeded his own. 

During the five months that followed the passing of the acts of 18173 ^iz. 
to January 5, 1818, the savings deposited with the Commissioners for the re- 
duction of the National Debt amounted to 328,282/. In each of the following 
thirteen years, to January 5, 1831, the sums so deposited were — 

Ytar ending 5th January 1819 £1,567,667 

5th „ 1820 1,019,612 

„ 5th „ 1821 707,106 

„ 5th „ 1822 1,205,960 

5th „ 1823 1,632,166 

„ 5th „ 1824 1,932,448 

„ 5th „ 1825 2,586,219 

„ 5th „ 1826 1,261,290 

5th „ 1827 526,155 

„ 5th „ 1828 979,641 

„ 5th „ 1829 931,361 

„ 5th „ 1830 450,137 

5th „ 1831 549,459 

forming an aggregate sum of 15,677,503/., the greater part of which appears 
to have been permanently lodged, since the sum remaining in deposit on the 
20th of November 1830, is stated to have been 13,507,565/., so that the sums 
witlidrawn must have amounted in all that time to but little more than two 
miiliona in addition to the interest allowed. 

k2 



13^ 



REPORT — 1845. 



From and after the 20th of November 1829, detailed statements have 
been made up from year to year, showing the sums remaining in deposit in- 
cluding interest, and the number of depositors in various classes according 
to the amount of their deposits, in each division and in each county of the 
kingdom. The aggregate numbers of depositors and sums deposited are 
shown in the following summary. 



Year 
end- 
ing 
2Uth 


England. 


Wales. 


Ireland. 


Scotland, 


United Kingdom. 


Deposit- 


Amount. 


Deposit- 


Amount. 


Deposit- 


Amount. 


Deposit- 


Amount. 


Deposit- 


Amoimt, 


Nov. 


ors. 




ors. 




ors. 




ors. 




ors, 




1830 


367,812 


12,287,600 


10,204 


314,903 


34,201 


905,056 




£ 


412,217 


£ 
13,507,565 


1831380,130 


12,354,617 


10,374 


322,546 


38,999 1,042,332 






429,503 


13,719,495 


1832373,704 


11,956,289 


10,014 


301,509 


43,755 1,178,201 






427,473 


13,435,999 


1833402,607 


12,680,512 


11,015 


329,887 


49,170 1,327,122 


... 




402,792 


14,337,521 


1834 434,845 


13,582,102 


11,183 


336,976 


53,179 1,450,760 






499,207 


15,369,844 


1835466,862 


14,491,316 


12,173 


356,135 


58,482 1,608,653 






537,517 


16,456,104 


1836515,444 


16,491,949 


13,110 


422,585 


64,019 1,817,264 


6;753 


74,086 


599,326 


18,805,884 


1837544,449 


17,178,041 


13,963 


455,846 


64,101 1,829,226 


13,553 


160,902 


636,006 


19,024,015 


1838595,425 


18,566,490 


15,232 


498,359 


69,933 2,048,469 


22,640 


279,994 


703,236 


21,393,312 


1839 622,468 


19,246,221 


15,893 


525,320 


75,296 2,218,239 


34,739 


436,032 


748,396 


22,425,812 


1840662,338 


20,203,438 


15,825 


521,918 


76,155 2,206,733 


43,737 


538,961 


798,055 


23,471,050 


1841695,791 


21,036,190 


16,220 


527,688 


78,574 2,302,302 


50,619 


608,509 


841,204 


24,474,689 


1842 723,374 


21,780,373 


16,434 


.531,928 


80,604 2,354,906 


54,303 


052,129 


874,715 


25,319,336 


1843773,551 


23,344,273 


17,077 


555,849 


82,486 ,2,447,110 


62,236 


830,083 


935,530 


27,177,315 


1844|832,290 


25,112,865 


18,690 


599,796 


91,243 2,749,017 

1 


69,824 


1,043,183 


1,012,047 


29,504,861 


The number of savin 


^s' banks existing in the different divisions of the 


kingdom on the 20th of 


November of each year, be| 


ginning with 1830, was 


as follows : — 






England. 


Wales. Ireland. 


Scotland. Total. 


1830 379 


.... 25 .... 72 ... 


. — .... 476 


1831 . 


. .. 383 


.... 22 .. 


. 68 ... 


— 


. . . . 473 


1832 . 


.. 380 


.... 22 . . 


. 70 ... 


— 


472 


1833 . 


. . . 380 


.... 23 . . 


. 75 ... 


. — 


478 


1834 . 


.. 379 


.... 22 . . 


. 74 ... 


. — 


. . . . 475 


1835 . 


. . . 383 


.... 23 . . 


. 75 ... 


. — 


.... 481 


1836 . 


.. 387 


.... 23 . . 


. 79 ... 


2 


. . . . 491 


1837 . 


.. 398 


.... 23 . . 


. 78 ... 


9 


. . . . 508 


1838 . 


.. 407 


.... 23 . . 


. 80 ... 


. 12 


522 


1839 .. 


.. 418 


.... 23 . , 


. 80 . . . 


. 20 


. . . . 541 


1840 . 


.. 421 


.... 23 . . 


.. 79 ... 


. 23 


546 


1841 . 


. . . 427 


.... 23 . . 


. 76 ... 


. 27 


. . . . 553 


1842 . 


.. 434 


.... 23 . . 


. 75 ... 


. 31 


. . . . 563 


1843 . 


.. 437 


.... 23 . . 


. 73 ... 


. 34 


.... 567 




1844 




, , 


439 


.... 


23 . 


. 


. 73 


. . . 


. 36 


.... 571 



In addition to the numbers and the amounts shown in the foregoing sum- 
mary should be reckoned certain friendly societies, which, during the last 
five years, have been included in the accounts as being in direct communi- 
cation and account with the Commissioners for the reduction of the National 
Debt. These were, — 
In the year ending 1 gg^ f societies, having deposits 1 ^j 217,765 

20th November . . J ' (. amountmg to J 

„ 1,306,949 

„ 1,449,244 

„ 1,609,288 



1841, 354 

1842, 371 

1843, 395 

1844, 428 



1,770,775 



ON savings' banks in the united kingdom. 133 

Making the total deposits inl ^g^^ ^^ £24,688,815 
those years amount m . . J 

„ „ 1841 to 25,781,638 

„ „ 1842 to 26,768,580 

„ „ 1843 to 28,786,603 

„ „ 1844 to 31,275,636 

It will be seen, that with the exception of only one year in the entire 
series, there has been a constantly increasing sum thus deposited. In 1832, 
doubtless owing to the political ferment in which the nation was then in- 
volved, there was a positive decrease in England and Wales, both in the 
number of depositors and the amount of their balances, viz. — 

England. . . . 6,426 fewer depositors £398,328 less deposits. 

Wales 360 ditto 21,037 ditto. 

The preceding year, also a time of political excitement, was marked by a 
much smaller addition than usual to the numbers and amounts of 1830, the 
increase having been, in 

England.. . . 12,318 depositors £67,011 deposits. 

Wales 170 ditto 7,643 ditto. 

The increase in 1833, when the public mind had become more tranquillised, 

was, in England 28,903 depositors £724,223 deposits. 

Wales 1,001 ditto 28,378 ditto. 

It is worthy of remark, that although the same cause agitated the public 
in Ireland to which we have attributed this effect in England, it was not 
accompanied by the same result, possibly because the condition of agitation 
is one to which the people of Ireland are more accustomed than their fellow- 
subjects in England. The accounts for those years do not include Scotland. 
The increase, embracing England, Wales and Ireland, up to 1835, and there- 
after including Scotland also, has been 
1831 as compared with 1830 £211,930 

1833 „ 1832 901,522 

1834 „ 1833 1,032,323 

1835 „ 1834 1,086,260 

1836 „ 1835 2,265,694 including £74',086 Scotland. 

1837 „ 1836 818,131 

1838 „ 1837 1,769,297 

1839 „ 1838 1,032,500 

1840 „ 1839 1,045,238 

1841 „ 1840 1,003,639' 

1842 „ 1841 844,647 

1843 „ 1842 1,857,979 

1844 „ 1843 2,327,546 

Including the sums already mentioned as deposited by certain friendly so- 
cieties, the increase, year by year, since 1840, has been — 

1841 as compared with 1840 £1,092,823 

1842 „ 1841 986,942 

1843 „ 1842 2,018,023 
*'" 1844 „ 1843 2,489,033 

It is impossible not to remark the superiority over the other years of the 
series of 1836, 1838, 1843 and 1844, all of which were years of great com- 
mercial activity, and all, with the exception of 1838, years of cheapness. 

It would have added unreasonably to the number of figures with which 
any statement of this kind must be more or less accompanied, if the depo- 
sitors had in each year been classified according to the amount of their de- 
posits. This classification for the year 1844 was as follows: — 



134 



REPORT — 1845. 



England. Wales. Ireland. Scotland. 
Not exceeding £20 .. 461,195 9,459 41,546 52,442 



Exceeding 



50.. 207, 129 

100.. 91,729 

150.. 32,083 

200 . . 18,551 

, 200 . . 2,914 



5,584 

1,998 

634 

294 

38 



33,298 

10,601 

3,024 

1,583 

92 



12,259 

3,249 

640 

201 



Total. 

564,642 

258,270 

107,577 

36,381 

20,629 

3,044 



813,601 


18,007 90,144 


68,791 


990,543 


Charitable institutions . 9,789 


205 677 


630 


11,301 


Friendly societies .... 8,900 


478 422 


403 


10,203 


832,290 


18,690 91,243 


69,824 


1,012,047 


Friendly societies in direct accoui 


it with Commissioners 

Total 


.... 428 




1,012,475 


The centesimal proportions in 


which the different classes stand to the 


whole number of individual depositors are as follows :- 


_ 










United 


England. 


Wales. Ireland. 


Scotland. 


Kingdom. 


Not exceeding £20 . . 56-68 


52-53 46-09 


76-24 


57-00 


50.. 25-46 


31-01 36-94 


17-82 


26-08 


„ 100.. 11-28 


IMO 11-76 


4-72 


10-86 


„ 150 . . 3-94 


3-52 3-35 


0-93 


3-67 


200 . . 2-28 


1-63 1-75 


0-29 


2-08 


Exceeding 200 . . 0-36 


0-21 0-11 




0-31 



100- 



100- 



100- 



100- 



100- 



It thus appears that the largest proportion of small deposits is made in Scot- 
land, more than three-fourths of the whole being in sums under 20/., a cir- 
cumstance which may be ascribable to the facility afforded by bankers, as 
already noticed. The smallest proportion of deposits of lowest amount is 
found in Ireland, a fact which probably results from the extreme poverty of 
the peasantry, and which deprives them of the power of making any savings, 
causing the savings' banks to be the resort of classes in more easy circum- 
stances than the generality of those who make deposits in England. 

The average balances to the credit of each depositor in the different divi- 
sions of the kingdom have been (discarding all fractional parts of a pound) — 





England. 


Wales. 


Ireland. 


Scotland. 


Total. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


20th Nov. 1830 


33 


31 


26 




33 


1831 


32 


31 


26 




31 


1832 


31 


30 


26 




31 


1833 


31 


29 


27 




31 


1834 


31 


30 


27 




30 


1835 


31 


29 


27 




30 


„ 1836 


31 


29 


28 


9 


30 


1837 


30 


30 


28 


11 


30 


1838 


30 


30 


29 


11 


30 


1839 


30 


30 


29 


11 


29 


1840 


29 


29 


29 


11 


28 


1841 


29 


29 


29 


11 


28 


1842 


29 


29 


29 


11 


28 


1843 


30 


33 


30 


13 


29 


1844 


30 


32 


30 


14 


29 



ON savings' banks in the united kingdom. 135 



With the exception of the last two years of the series, in which there has 
been a general increase observable in the average deposits, the above figures 
exhibit a marked difference between England and Ireland, the average sum 
having regularly diminished in the former division, while it has as regularly- 
increased in the latter division. 

During the fifteen years for which the accounts have been regularly made 
up, the per-centage increase in the number of depositors and amount of their 
balances has been — 

Depositors. Amount. 

England . . • . 126 per cent. . . 104- per cent. 

Wales 83 „ . . 90 „ 

Ireland 167 „ . . 203 „ 

Scotland (from 1836) 934. „ . .1308 „ 

England. 



County. 



Population 
in 1841. 



Number of 
depositors. 



Amount of 
deposits. 



Average 
sum depo- 
sited. 



Proportion 
of deposi- 
tors to po- 
pulation. 



Sum deposit- 
ed per indi- 
vidual of the 
whole popula- 
tion. 



Bedfordshire 

Berks 

Bucks 

Cambridge 

Chester 

Cornwall 

Cumberland 

Derby ^ 

Devon 

Dorset 

Durham 

Essex 

Gloucester 

Hereford 

Hertford 

Huntingdon 

Kent 

Lancaster 

Leicester 

Lincoln 

Middlesex 

Monmouth 

Norfolk 

Northampton 

Northumberland .... 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Rutland 

Salop 

Somerset 

Southampton 

Stafford 

Suffolk 

Surrey 

Sussex 

War\rick 

Westmoreland 

Wilts 

Worcester , 

York, East Riding 
„ North Riding 
„ West Riding 



107,937 
160,226 
155,989 
164,509 
395,300 
341,269 
177,912 
272,202 
533,731 
174,743 
324,277 
344,995 
431,307 
114,438 
157,237 
58,699 
548,161 

1,667,064 
215,855 
362,717 

1,576,616 
134,349 
412,621 
199,061 
250,268 
249,773 
161,573 
21,340 
239,014 
436,002 
354,940 
510,206 
315,129 
582,613 
299,770 
402,121 
56,469 
260,007 
233,484 

1,591,584 



3,584 
12,020 

4,657 

3,831 
15,302 
12,915 

7,538 
10,099 
49,866 
11,470 

7,323 
14,413 
25,526 

8,350 

3,785 

1,765 
33,392 
65,402 

6,803 

18,451 

176,049 

3,099 
18,336 

8,410 
12,862 
15,763 
10,246 
Not any 
16,452 
22,019 
23,942 
15,368 
11,972 
31,250 
15,709 
21,221 
942 
11,706 
12,218 

69,545 



111,526 

359,676 

128,025 

121,777 

554,400 

492,013 

211,741 

321,897 
1,492,072 

412,628 

201,354 

428,202 

818,157 

211,251 

113,425 
52,001 

945,273 
1,980,143 

173,581 

497,509 

4,521,589 

76,651 

527,300 

243,600 

459,390 

420,345 

285,713 
savings' bank 

557,190 

679,072 

687,493 

452,306 

348,176 

749,199 

420,570 

468,270 
24,719 

413,941 

401,330 

2,105,866 



31 

29 
27 
31 
36 
38 
28 
31 
29 
35 
27 
29 
32 
25 
29 
29 
28 
30 
25 
26 
25 
24 
28 
28 
35 
26 
27 
in this 
33 
30 
28 
29 
29 
23 
26 
22 
26 
35 
32 

30 



lin30 
lin]3 
1 in 33 
lin43 
lin26 
lin26 
lin23 
lin27 
1 in 11 
linl5 
lin44 
lin24 
linl7 
lin 13 
lin41 
] in 33 
lin 16 
iin25 
lin 32 
lin 19 
lin 9 
lin 43 
lin 22 
lin 23 
lin 19 
lin 16 
lin 15 
county. 
1 in 14 
lin 19 
lin 14 
lin 33 
lin 26 
lin 19 
lin 19 
lin 19 
lin 59 
1 in 22 
1 in 19 

1 in 23 



s. d. 
20 8 
44 10 

16 5 
14 9 
28 
28 10 
23 9 

23 4 
55 11 
47 2 
12 5 

24 9 
37 11 
36 10 
14 5 

17 8 
34 5 
23 9 
16 1 
27 5 
57 2 
11 5 



25 
24 



36 8 

33 6 

35 4 

47 

31 1 

38 8 

17 8 



22 
25 



28 

23 3 

8 9 

31 10 

34 4 

26 5 



m 



RKPORT — 1845. 



Wales. 



County. 



Population 


Number of 


in 1841. 


depositors. 


50,890 


1,990 


53,295 


1,073 


106,482 


527 


(i8,380 


816 


81,068 


408 


89,291 


1,903 


66,547 


2,771 


173,462 


3,695 


39,238 


587 


69,220 


2,127 


88,262 


2,110 


25,186 


Not any 



Amount of 
deposits. 



Average 
sum depo- 
sited. 



Proportion 
of deposi- 
tors to po- 
pulation. 



Sum deposit- 
ed per mdi- 
vidual of the 
whole popula- 
tion. 



Anglesea .... 

Brecon 

Carmarthen . 
Cardigan .... 
Carnarvon . 
Denbigh .... 

Flint 

Glamorgan . 
Merioneth . 
Montgomery, 
Pembroke . 
Radnor 



58,115 
25,045 
14,177 
20,637 
11,612 
46,003 
86,683 
1 15,604 
15,646 
58,502 
66.324 



29 
23 
26 
25 
28 
24 
31 
31 
26 
27 
31 



n 26 
n 49 
n202 
n 83 
n 198 

46 
n 24 

47 
n 66 
n 32 
n 41 



22 10 
9 5 
2 8 
6 
2 

10 

26 

13 
7 




10 
3 

4 
U 
16 10 
15 



savings' bank in this county. 



Ireland. 



County. 



Population 
in 1841. 



Nmnber of 
depositors. 



Amount of 


Average 


deposits. 


deposited. 


£ 


£ 


129,922 


21 


69,492 


30 


8,904 


28 


24,328 


29 


506,246 


32 


152,380 


31 


683,487 


28 


54,303 


35 


10,063 


25 


37,969 


25 


29,070 


28 


48,021 


34 


42,937 


31 


146,731 


33 


49,686 


25 


92,413 


29 


43,904 


31 


47,324 


31 


25,473 


27 


35,437 


31 


32,256 


35 


27,493 


31 


111,431 


31 


54,034 


29 


110,133 


29 


33,243 


45 


47,907 


32 


31,111 


25 



depositors 



Sum depo- 
sited per indi- 
vidual of the 

popidation. 



Antrim 

Armagh 

Cavan 

Clare 

Cork 

Down 

Dublin 

Fermanagh 

Gahvay 

Kerry 

KUdare 

Kilkenny 

King's County 

Limerick 

Londondeny .. 

Louth 

JIayo 

Meath 

Monaghan 

Queen's County 
Roscommon .. 

Sligo 

Tipperai-y 

Tyrone 

Waterford 

Westmeath . . 

Wexford , 

AVicklow , 



360,875 
232,393 
243,158 
286,394 
854,118 
361,446 
372,773 
156,481 
440,198 
293,880 
114,488 
202,420 
146,857 
330,029 
222,174 
128,240 
388,887 
183,828 
200,442 
153,930 
253,589 
181,002 
435,552 
312,956 
196,187 
141,300 
202,033 
126,143 



6,168 
2,264 

308 

834 

15,684 

4,805 

24,178 

1,535 

396 
1,510 
1,018 
1,398 
1,365 
4,318 
1,961 
3,126 
1,406 
1,486 

926 
1,128 

921 

865 
3,512 
1,846 
3,782 

733 
1,457 
1,214 



lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
4 in 



58 

102 

789 

343 

33 

75 

15 

102 



1 in 1111 



lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
1 in 
1 in 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
1 in 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 
lin 



194 
112 
144 
108 

76 
113 

41 
276 
122 
216 
136 
275 
209 
124 
169 

51 
192 
138 
103 



7 2 
5 11 

10 

1 8 
11 10 

8 5 



36 
6 

2 
5 
4 
5 



14 
2 
5 
2 

4 
2 
3 
5 
3 
11 
4 
4 
4 



8 10 
4 5 



11 



Not any savings' bank in Carlow, Donegal, Drogheda, Leitrim, or Longford. 



ON savings' banks in the united kingdom. 137 

Scotland. 



County, 



Population 
in ISll. 



Number of 
depositors. 



Amount of 


Average 


deposits. 


deposited. 


£ 


dG 


22,750 


13 


3,353 


13 


6,733 


14 


3,177 


16 


8,155 


14 


3,225 


14 


1,627 


11 


4,061 


11 


322,346 


13 


48,125 


16 


48,006 


10 


9,341 


10 


22,549 


19 


2,591 


9 


294,726 


14 


27,472 


14 


2,212 


11 


60,721 


12 


36,107 


15 


4,126 


10 


20,188 


25 


4,812 


15 


9,746 


12 



Proportion of 

depositors 
to population. 



Sum depo- 
sited per indi- 
vidual of the 

population. 



Aberdeen 

Argyle 

Banif 

Berwick 

Bute 

Caithness 

Clackmannan ... 

Dumfries 

Edinburgh 

Fife 

Forfar 

Inverness 

Kincardine 

Kircudbright 

Lanark 

Moray 

Nairn 

Perth 

Renfrew 

Ross and Cromarty 

Roxburgh 

Selkirk 

Stirling 



192,283 

97,140 

50,076 

34,427 

15,695 

36,197 

19,116 

72,825 

225,623 

140,310 

170,400 

97,615 

33,052 

41,099 

427,113 

34,994 

9,218 

138,151 

154,755 

78,980 

46,003 

7,989 

82,179 



1,710 
240 
462 
189 
561 
218 
140 
344 
23,859 

2,972 

4,616 
856 

1,149 

265 

19,774 

1,838 
198 

4,735 

2,361 
415 
804 
315 
770 



nll2 
n404 
nl08 
nl82 
n 28 
nl66 
nl36 
n211 
n 9 
n 47 
n 37 
n 114 
n 28 
nl55 
n 21 
n 19 
n 46 
n 29 
n 65 
nl90 
n 57 
n 25 
nl06 



2 

2 
1 
I 
1 
1 
1 
28 



6 10 
5 7 
1 11 



13 
1 

13 
15 

4 
8 
4 
1 
8 

12 
2 



Not any savings' bank in Ayr, Dumbarton, Haddington, Kinross, Linlithgow, Orkney and 
Shetland, Peebles, Sutherland, or Wigton. 

In the preceding Tables the present condition is shown of each county of 
England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland, respectively, as regards the savings 
deposited in these banks by the people. Assuming, as the basis for the cal- 
culation, the population of IS-tl, it will there be seen what proportion among 
them has deposits in a savings' bank, and the sum per head to which those 
deposits would amount if equally divided among the whole number of inha- 
bitants. 

It may appear strange, that with the exception of Middlesex, the metro- 
politan county, and the great centre of wealth and of the employments which 
wealth creates, the largest amount of deposits, in proportion to the population, 
should be found in Devonshire, an agricultural county, in which there were, 
in a population of SSSj^GO persons in 1841, fewer than 7000 employed in all 
kinds of manufactures. This fact is, however, capable of easy and satisfac- 
tory explanation. The Devon and Exeter Savings' Bank has been for many 
years placed under very zealous and able management, and in addition to the , 
constant services of Mr. Lee, its actuary, has received the support of con- 
siderably more than a hundred clergymen and gentlemen residing at differ- 
ent places within the county, who have taken pains to make known among 
the labouring poor in their respective neighbourhoods the benefits to be de- 
rived from even the smallest savings, and who have, at the cost of some per- 
sonal trouble, received such savings and transmitted them to Exeter for in- 
vestment, an operation which, unaided, the depositors could hardly have 
accomplished. This fact should serve as a stimulus to others who have the 
like opportunity of benefiting their poor neighbours, showing as it does that 
even in the least promising soil they may reap a large harvest of success if 



138 REPORT — 1845. 

the needful labour be not withheld. On the other hand, it may create sur- 
prise that Lancashire, at the head of our manufacturing population, should 
stand so low in the scale with regard to the savings of the working classes, 
that there should be twenty-five counties of England, the average deposits in 
which are greater. This too is capable of explanation that must be satisfac- 
tory. In towns, and especially in places that are rapidly increasing, as the 
manufacturing towns and villages of Lancashire and the neighbouring counties 
have long been, more profitable opportunities present themselves for the in- 
vestment of small sums than are offered by savings' banks. Among these 
opportunities building-clubs are common in those localities, and absorb the 
working man's savings to an extent which few persons who have not inquired 
into the subject would conceive probable. 

The advantage held forth by the government to the working man as an in- 
ducement for him to save a portion of his earnings, was greater under the 
acts of 1817 than it is at present. The rate of interest then fixed was, as 
already stated, 3d. per centum per diem, or 4/. lis. 3d. per cent, per annum, 
out of which the allowance made to depositors was usually i per cent., the 
remaining lis. 3c?. being retained to defray expenses. There was no restric- 
tion then placed upon depositors as to the amount of their savings ; they might 
deposit 100/. the first year and 50/. every year after, so long as they might 
be inclined or able to do so, and they might make investments in as many 
different savings' banks as they judged proper and could effect. In time, 
however, parties not contemplated by the legislature in framing the law, find- 
ing that they could thus secure a higher rate of interest than was yielded by 
the public funds, and at the same time save all risk of fluctuation in the value 
of their deposits, used the savings' banks to an inconvenient extent, and in 
1824 an act was passed limiting the amount that might be deposited the first 
year to 50/., and all future yearly deposits to 30/., with the further restrictions 
that no person should receive interest upon any amount beyond 200/., nor 
should be allowed to leave deposits in more than one savings' bank. In 
1828 the rate of interest was reduced to 2^^?. per centum per diem, or 3/. 8*. 
5^. per cent, per annum ; the largest sura to be received in any one j'^ear 
was fixed at 30/., and 150/. was adopted as the largest sum upon which inter- 
est would be paid to any one depositor. In 1833 the laws relating to savings' 
banks were extended to the Channel Islands, and in 1835, as already stated, 
they were made to embrace Scotland. The latest act for the regulation of 
these institutions was passed in 1844 ; it further lowered the rate of interest 
paid by the public to 3^ per cent, per annum, reducing to 2c?. per centum per 
diem, or 3/. Os. 10c?. per cent, per annum the allowance to depositors. This 
change took effect from and after the 20th of November 1 844, the day to which 
the statements now brought forward are made up. Whether or not the allow- 
ing of a liberal rate of interest has much influence on the minds of the work- 
ing classes, leading them to spare a portion of their earnings, is a question 
which the result of this change may enable us to answer. If that answer 
should be in the affirmative — if the now diminished allowance for interest 
should in any degree check the disposition to saving on the part of the classes 
for whom savings' banks are opened, the economy of parliament in thus re- 
stricting that allowance will prove a measure of very doubtful wisdom, and 
one as to which the legislature cannot too soon retrace its steps. 

It is to be regretted that the managers of savings' banks have not generally 
availed themselves of the opportunities which they possess for throwing light 
upon the condition and habits of the various classes making deposits, by re- 
cording and publishing their occupations. Many years ago the Statistical 
Society of London addressed circular letters to each savings' bank then exist- 



ON savings' banks in the united kingdom. 



139 



ing, accompanied bv forms to be filled up, and pointing out the advantage 
of possessing correct knowledge upon the subject. This well-meant effort 
proved however wholly abortive. Some feAV of these establishments are ac- 
customed to publish such information; among these are the "Devon and 
Exeter Savings' Bank," already mentioned, and the " Manchester and Salford 
Bank for Savings." As it may be useful to know the result exhibited by the 
accounts of two establishments, similar in their object but differing so mate- 
rially in their circumstances, I shall close this sketch by calling attention to 
their several statements. 

Analysis of Depositors in the Devon and Exeter Savings' Bank from 1837 

to 1833. 



Male servants 

Female servants ... 
Children of servants 



Total servants . 



Small shopkeepers 

Artificers and mechanics 

Labourers 

Females in trade 

Apprentices 

Carriers, drivers, porters, &c. .. 
Teachers, clerks, and shopmen 
Children of the above 



Total traders and manufacturers 



Small farmers 

Labourers 

Children of the above 



867 

3,574 

344 



4,785 



503 
2,365 
118 
612 
448 
194 
470 
3,778 



Amount of 



Average 
deposit. 



43,612 

106,022 

3,284 



152,918 



26,900 

90,839 

2,916 

20,269 

2,615 

8,535 

21,224 

50,840 



224,138 



Total agricidturists 

Soldiers, sailors, revenue-officers, &c. 
Miscellaneous 



788 
2,050 
3,844 



6,691 



1,080 



879 



40,190 
65,757 
53,933 



159,880 



40,977 



£ s. d. 

50 6 

29 13 3 

9 10 11 



31 19 2 



53 9 7 

38 8 2 

24 14 1 

33 2 4 

5 16 9 

43 19 11 

45 3 2 

13 9 1 



26 8 1 



51 3 
31 18 8 
14 7 



23 17 11 



32,654 



37 18 10 



37 2 11 



X4a 



REPORT — 1845. 



Classification of Depositors, with the Balance due to each Class at 20th of November 
1843, in the Manchester and Salford Bank for Savings. 



Pescription of Depositors. 



Total number of 

accounts opened under 

each class. 



Male. Female. Total 



No. of 
accounts 
of each 
class re- 
maining 
open at 
Nov. 20, 
1843. 



Total amount be- 
longing to each 
class, 20th Not. 
1S43. 



•a 2 ,• 



sS^; 



Domestic servants 

Clerks, shopmen, warehousemen, porters, and"! 

wives J 

Minors 

Milliners, dressmakers, and needle-women 

Shoemakers, tailors, hatters, and wives 

Cotton-spinners, weavers, and their assistants... 

SUk-spinners, weavers, and their assistants 

Calico-printers, bleachers, dyers, packers, ma- \ 

kers-up, &c., and wives J 

Engravers, pattern designers, &c., and do 

Mechanics and handicraftsmen, and do 

Bookbinders and letter-press printers, and do.... 
Masons, bricklayers, and their labourers, and do. 
Joiners, coach-makers, and cabinet-makers, "I 

and do J 

Cab and omnibus drivers, mail-guards, &c., anddo. 
Policemen, soldiers, and pensioners, and do. ... 

Professional teachers and artists, and do 

Tradesmen and small shopkeepers 

Farmers, gardeners, and their labourers, and \ 

wives J 

Other descriptions not particularly specified 



1,301 
4,867 
3,514 

i,55] 

3,717 

244 

1,606 

565 
1,298 

224 
1,525 

2,031 

124 

323 

648 

1,443 

1,102 

2,160 



7,854 



3,489 
1,530 

276 
1,431 

236 

134 

45 

2,306 

22 

176 

177 

28 

28 

370 

848 

133 

5,064 



9,155 

5,253 

7,003 
1,530 
1,827 
5,148 
480 

1,740 

610 
3,599 

246 
1,701 

2,208 

152 
351 

1,018 
2,291 

1,235 

7,224 



3,277 
1,794 

3,458 
534 
427 

1,118 
150 

490 

229 
1,109 

86 
428 

550 

50 
116 
358 
664 

509 

2,186 



^ «. d. 

86,131 13 1 



49,659 12 

55,134 6 
13,807 11 
11,984 8 
29,273 8 

4.263 1 10 

14,472 12 11 

7.264 1 
32,370 4 

2,029 18 
11,372 

16,237 13 

1,597 19 1 

3,189 11 10 

11,739 4 3 

23,772 11 2 

15,823 18 6 

76,784 4 6 



26 

27 

15 
25 

28 
26 
28 

29 

31 

29 
23 

26 

29 

32 

27 
32 
35 

31 

35 



28,238 



24,533 



Friendly societies 

Charitable institutions, including clothing so- 
cieties 



52,771 
565 

207 



17,533 
223 

110 



466,908 2 2 
16,128 19 5 

5,787 17 7 



26 

72 

52 



28,238 24,533 53,543 17,866 488,824 19 2 



ON savings' banks in the united kingdom. 141 



Classification of Depositors, with the Balance due to each Class at 20th of November 

1844. 



Description of Depositors. 



Domestic servants 

Clerks, shopmen, warehousemen, porters, and 1 

wives J 

Minors 

MiUiners, dressmakers, and needle-women 

Shoemakers, tailors, hatters, and wives 

Cotton-spinners, weavers, and their assistants... 

Silk-spinners, weavers, and their assistants 

Calico-printers, bleachers, dyers, packers, ma- \ 

kers-up, &c., and wives J 

Engravers, pattern designers, &c., and do 

Mechanics and handicraftsmen, and do 

Bookbinders and letter-press printers, and do.... 
Masons, bricklayers, and their labourers, and do. 
Joiners, coach-makers, and cabinet-makers, "I 

and do J 

Cab and omnibus drivers, mail-guards, &c., anddo. 
Policemen, soldiers, and pensioners, and do. ... 

Professional teachers and artists, and do 

Tradesmen and small shopkeepers 

Farmers, gardeners, and their labourers, andl 

wives J 

Other descriptions not particularly specified 



Total number of 

accounts opened under 

each class. 



Male. Female. Total. 



1,331 
5,290 
3,855 

1,704 

3,989 

273 

1,807 

609 
3,735 

250 
1,697 

2,208 

156 

361 

709 

1,639 

1,171 

2,225 



8,641 

459 

3,835 
1,723 

311 
1,582 

274 

199 

47 
393 

26 
229 

215 

42 

41 

409 

1,040 

172 

5,248 



No. of 
accounts 
of each 
class re- 
maining 
open at 
Nov. 20, 
1844. 



9,972 

5,749 

7,690 
1,723 
2,015 
5,571 
547 

2,006 

656 
4,128 

276 
1,926 

2,423 

198 

402 

1,118 

2,679 

1,343 

7,473 



3,500 
2,002 

3,775 
609 
471 

1,311 
193 

680 

238 

1,601 

97 

566 

683 

76 
135 
398 
919 

538 

2,474 



Total amount be- 
longing to each 
class, 20th Nov. 
1844. 



£ s. d. 

92,302 11 9 

57,645 5 9 

*62,747 3 11 

15,968 17 6 

13,904 5 6 

37,391 5 11 

5,058 7 3 

19,119 8 

8,668 7 

39,626 

2,690 11 

14,591 3 

19,474 9 

2,164 14 

3,999 1 

13,982 18 

28,970 15 

19,354 19 

t83,719 1 10 



33,009 



24,886 



Friendly societies 

Charitable institutions, including clothing so- ' 
cieties 



33,009 24,886 58,779 



57,895 
655 

229 



20,266 

287 

127 



541,379 1 
19,702 5 11 

7,231 12 7 



20,680 



568,313 3 



* The greatest proportion of this class are no longer minors, the designation as originally 
entered being retained. 

t This class contains a great number of depositors of different trades belonging to the 
other classes whose callings were not noted in the Register in the early years of the bank. 



142 REPORT — 1845. 

Report on the Gases evolved from Iron Furnaces, with reference to the 
Theory of the Smelting of Iron. By Prof. Bunsen, of Marburg, 
Hesse Cassel, and Dr. Lyon Playfair, of the Museum of (Economic 
Geology, department of Her Majesty's Woods and Forests. 
In laying before the Association the report which we have now the honour 
to present, we are desirous, at the commencement of our subject, to examine 
closely the methods employed in the analyses of gases, not only as an argu- 
ment in favour of the processes used by ourselves, but also with the hope of 
improving the present state of eudiometry. 

Two distinct methods are employed in the analysis of combustible gases ; 
one of which consists in an exact determination of the volumes of the gas 
about to be examined, and of those resulting from the combustion of its con- 
stituents with oxygen. By the other method, the products of combustion 
are collected in the liquid and solid form, and estimated directly according 

to WEIGHT. 

The last method would doubtless deserve the preference if we had to ope- 
rate upon a mixture of gases capable of being determined by the products of 
combustion without reference to the quantity of oxygen necessary to effect it ; 
in other words, when we have to examine a mixture containing only two 
combustible gases. In such a case, the combustion by means of oxide of 
copper aifords products well-adapted for exact determination by weight. 
But, on the contrary, when the quantity of oxygen necessary for the com- 
bustion must be introduced as an element into the calculation, as is the case 
with the gases examined by us in the present paper, the method of analysis 
by weight is not only inexpedient, but also inexact. If that method were to 
be adopted, it is necessary to determine the loss (often not amounting to 
above a few centigrammes) sustained by a heavy combustion-tube, by weigh- 
ing it before and after the experiment, and thus subjecting it to all the sources 
of error due to a varying hygroscopic condition, and to the loss in weight oc- 
casioned by the long exposure of a considerable body of glass to a red heat. 
Another source of error equally great consists in the necessity for filling the 
whole apparatus for combustion and condensation with nitrogen gas previous 
to the commencement of the experiment. The smallest quantity of oxygen 
which may remain in the gas, or in the porous oxide of copper, or which 
may be introduced by diffusion, must derange the results, and cause great 
uncertainty in the determinations. Any error arising from this source is so 
much the more to be feared, because it does not affect one constituent merely, 
but extends its influence equally to the ascertained value of all the other in- 
gredients. 

We cannot afford better arguments for the reception of our methods of 
investigation than by briefly reviewing the results obtained by different in- 
quirers in the examination of the gases evolved from furnaces worked by 
charcoal. It is obvious that the composition of these gases cannot be the 
same under all circumstances, for the nature of the fuel, the pressure of the 
blast, and even the shape of the furnace itself, must exert a varying influence 
in modifying the processes which affect the composition of the gases. But 
when we consider, at the same time, that these modifying influences have 
their maximum and minimum in corresponding parts of furnaces treated in a 
similar manner, we still have a right to expect an elucidation of the law regu- 
lating the formation of the gases by a careful comparison of their compo- 
sition. One of us first endeavoured to solve this problem by an examination 
of the gases issuing from the furnace of Vickerhagen, although he did not 
then consider the results obtained in the inquiry as expressive of a general 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 



143 



theory of the nature of the processes in the furnace. This research was 
afterwards pursued in a similar manner, and with confinnatory results, by 
Scheerer and Langberg in the iron-works of Baerum. Both these chemists 
have conferred a lasting benefit on this new field of metallurgical inquiry 
by their elaborate investigations ; and as their experiments agree with those 
performed in Germany, the generality of the law regulating the production 
and action of the solid and gaseous products of charcoal-furnaces is esta- 
blished. This is shown by a comparison of the results obtained at Vicker- 
hagen and Baerum : — 



Height above the tuyere ... 


Composition* according to volume of the gases at Vickerhagen. 


17|feet. 


16^. 


14|. j 13i. 


lU- 


8|t. 


H- 


Nitrogen 


62-34 
877 

24-20 
3-36 
1-33 


62-25 

11-14 

22-24 

3-10 

1-27 


66-29 
3-32 

25-77 
4-04 

0-58 


62-47 
3-44 

3008 

2-24 

- 1-77 


63-89 
3-60 

29-27 
1-07 
2-17 


61-45 
7-57 

26-99 
3-84 
0-15 


64-58 
5-97 

26-51 
1-88 
1-06 


Carbonic acid 




Light carburetted hydrogen 
Hydrogen 




100-00 


100-00 


10000 


10000 


10000 


10000 


100-00 





Composition according to volume of the gases at Baerum. 


Height above the tuyere ... 


23 feet. 


20^. 


18. 


15*. 


13. 


10. 




64-43 

22-20 

8-04 

3-87 

1-46 


62-65 

18-21 

15-33 

1-28 

2-53 


63-20 

12-45 

18-57 

1-27 

4-51 


64-28 
4-27 

29-17 
1-23 
1-05 


66-12 
8-50 

20-28 
1-18 
3-92 


64-97 
5-69 

26-38 
0-00 
2-96 




Carbonic oxide 


Light carburetted hydrogen 




100-00 


10000 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



A simple inspection of the comparison now instituted is sufficient to 
show that the law, regulating the changes suffered by the ascending column 
of gas in furnaces supplied with charcoal as fuel, is the same in those of Vick- 
erhagen and Baerum. In both cases the carbonic acid diminishes as we de- 
scend from the upper part of the furnace towards the hearth, until it attains 
a minimum, when it again begins to increase, without however reaching the 
proportion which it at first possessed. In both cases the carbonic oxide at- 
tains its maximum about the middle of the furnace, and diminishes in a 
greater ratio upwards than downwards. In both furnaces the quantity of 
carburetted hydrogen remains constant in the upper part, and diminishes, 
although still relatively constant, in the lower region; and finally, in both 
cases, an irregularity in the quantity of hydrogen, probably caused by local 
influences, is observed at all depths. It could scarcely be expected that 
these phaenomena should proceed at proportional heights of furnaces of dif- 
ferent sizes ; but it would not be difficult to explain the influence exerted 
upon the maximum and minimum composition of the gases at diff'erent 
positions by the dimensions of the furnace, the nature of the materials, and 

* "We have found it necessary to correct the calculations given in the original memoir in 
Poggendorff's ' Anualen,' as they are, almost without exception, erroneously calculated. 

t The gas taken from a depth of Sf feet is anomalous in composition, but as this is ob- 
viously due to one of those disturbances which frequently take place in furnaces of small 
dimensions, we neglect the consideration of this analysis. 



144 



REPORT — 1845. 



the pressure of the blast, as soon as proper data are furnished bj continued 
inquiries in this field of research. 

The great accordance between the results of the two series of experiments 
now detailed, executed as they were quite independently of each other, the 
one series in Germany, the other in Norway, renders it surprising that a similar 
inquiry instituted by Ebelmen on the furnaces of Clerval and Audincourt 
sliould have led to results differing so essentially from those now described. 
This chemist gives the following composition, according to volume, for the 
gases of the furnace at Clerval : — 



Height above the tuyere ... 


25^ feet. 


22i. 


17i. 


13^. 


9^. 


8. 




57-79 

12-88 

23-51 

000 

5-82 


57-80 

13-96 

22-24 

000 

6-00 


58-15 

13-76 

22-65 

000 

5-44 


5914 
8-86 

28-18 
0-00 
3-82 


60-54 
2-23 

33-64 
0-00 
3-59 


6307 
0-00 

35-01 
000 
1-92 






Light carburetted hydrogen 




100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



The difference of these results from those detailed above is verj' striking, 
especially when we consider that carburetted hydrogen is entirely absent 
from Ebelmen's analyses, and that the hydrogen is as great as 6 per cent. 
The close relation between the nitrogen and oxygen of these gases, and 
especially the great regularity in the increase and diminution of their respec- 
tive constituents, would cevtainly appear to be a guarantee for the accuracy 
of the analyses. Indeed Ebelmen himself seems so deeply impressed with 
their value and with their exclusive accuracy, that he has considered it quite 
unnecessary even to refer to the previous elaborate investigations on this 
subject in Germany. As he has not honoured one of us, the author of these 
investigations, with a reference, of course the difference between his results 
and those of that paper still remain unexplained, and we shall therefore en- 
deavour to fill up this gap in our knowledge. 

The analyses of Ebelmen differ from our own in being quite destitute of 
earburettedhydrogen. It would be a great error to suppose that the absence 
of this ingredient is not essential. The gas escaping from the furnace at 
Baerum contains, according to tveight^ — 

Nitrogen 58*95 

Carbonic acid 31*68 

Carbonic oxide 7*28 

Carburetted hydrogen . . . 2*00 

Hydrogen 0*09 

100-00 
The two parts of carburetted hydrogen contained in this mixture give, 
on combustion, 26938 units* of heat; and no less than 10-76 parts of car- 
bonic oxide would be necessary to generate the same amount. An error of 
2 in the quantity of carburetted hydrogen, with respect to the combustible 
value of the gas, is equivalent to a loss of 10*76 parts of carbonic oxide gas. 
But surely a theoretical conclusion must be of small value when based upon 
an analysis in which there are errors of more than 10 per cent, of the car- 
bonic oxide. It therefore becomes a most important question to determine 

* Unit of heat is a convenient term to employ in the present report, because it expresses 
a standard amoimt. The amount of heat necessary to elevate 2-204 lbs. of water (1 kilo- 
gramme) from 0° Cent, to 1° C, we assume as unity. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 145 

whether carburetted hydrogen ought to be considered as an essential con- 
stituent of the gases, and whether its absence in the cases cited is due to an 
error in Ebelmen's analyses. 

It is well known that ordinary charcoal is very far from being pure carbon, 
and that it in fact contains about 20 per cent, of foreign matters, which 
escape as gaseous and liquid products when it is heated to redness. If car- 
buretted hydrogen form, as is generally supposed, an essential constituent of 
the gases resulting from the distillation of wood-charcoal, it is quite clear that 
it cannot be absent from the gases of furnaces supplied with that fuel. Al- 
though the presence of carburetted hydrogen in the gases obtained by the 
distillation of charcoal is generally acknowledged, we have thought it not 
superfluous to put this fact beyond all doubt by a renewed examination. The 
charcoal subjected to experiment was heated in a narrow glass tube, con- 
nected with a long dry tube to retain the liquid products of distillation, and 
the gases, after passing through this, were collected over mercury. In order 
to remove any elayl or hydrated oxide of methyl, which might possibly have 
accompanied the gases, they were conducted through a long tube filled with 
fuming sulphuric acid, attached to which was another tube moistened with 
water. The analysis of the gases was then effected in an exact eudiometer, 
and according to the methods which we describe in an after part of this report. 

I. A specimen of very well-burnt charcoal, from beech-wood, yielded a 
gas of the following composition, according to volume : — 

Carbonic acid 23*65 

Carburetted hydrogen . . . 11 "00 

Carbonic oxide I5'96 

Hydrogen . 49-39 

100-00 

II. A good specimen of charcoal from fir-wood, also well-burnt, gave a 
gas constituted as under. 

III. 0-6500 gramme of oak-charcoal, of a similar nature to the last, left 
behind O-^? carbon, and yielded 70 cubic centimetres of gas at 0° C. and 0-76 
bar., consisting as under. 

IV. 0-733 imperfectly burnt beech -wood charcoal, pulverulent, and of a 
blackish-brown colour, left 0-443 carbon and 250 cubic centimetres of gas 
at 0° C. and 0*76 bar., which gas was composed as under. 

II. III. IV. 

Gas of Gas of Gas of 

Fir-charcoal. Oak-charcoal. Beech-charcoal. 

Carbonic acid 15-96 19-58 35*36 

Carburetted hydrogen . . 20*32 20-75 20*78 

Carbonic oxide 13-62 20-57 14-41 

Hydrogen 50*10 39*10 29-45 

100-00 100-00 100-00 

If we assume the most unfavourable condition to the calculation, that the 
charcoal used in the furnace of Clerval was of the most select quality, which 
could not have been the case, it follows from the analysis and consumption 
of charcoal at that place, that no less than 479 cubic feet of light carburetted 
hydrogen must have escaped from the top of the furnace every hour, and yet 
not a trace of this large quantity is to be found in Ebelmen's analyses. The 
above experiments prove beyond contradiction that the carburetted hydrogen 
found by Scheerer and by us in the gases from charcoal, is actually an essen- 
1845. L 



146 REPORT— 1845. 

tial constituent of furnace- gases. Tlie absence of tins important ingre- 
dient from Ebelmen's analyses might be explained on the supposition that 
the gases upon which he operated were collected from a part without the 
column of charcoal, and between it and the lining of the furnace. However, 
we cannot reproach Ebelmen with drawing a theory of the mutual action of 
the gaseous and solid products of the furnace from a mixture of gas which 
had only partially been subjected to this action, because the presence of 7 per 
cent, of hydrogen indicated by his analyses would be still more inexplicable 
on this supposition. Hence we must look to another source for the errors in 
his analyses, and it will be found to lie in the incompleteness of the methods 
used by him. His method of determining the nature and composition of the 
combustible gases, was to pass them over red-hot oxide of copper, collecting 
the products of combustion in the usual way, and forming an opinion of the 
presence or absence of carburetted hydrogen by the loss in weight of the 
combustion-tube. In order to show the degree of inaccuracy of this method, 
it will be best to choose a special case as an example, and as such we select 
the first analysis of the gases of Clerval. The volume of gas used in his ex- 
periments, 1500 cubic centimetres*, contained 87'3 cubic centimetres of 
hydrogen and 352*65 cubic centimetres of carbonic oxide gas. In order to 
burn this quantity, the combustion-tube suffered a loss in weight of 0'3160 
gramme. If we supposed the whole of the hydrogen to be present as car- 
buretted hydrogen, taking its cai'bon from a corresponding quantity of car- 
bonic oxide, the 1500 cubic centimetres of gas must have contained 43*65 
carburetted hydrogen and 309*0 carbonic oxide ; and, on this supposition, the 
combustion-tube must have diminished in weight 0*3473 gramme, instead of 
0*3150 gramme. It will be seen from this calculation, that the question as 
to whether the mixture of gases contains 5*82 per cent, hydrogen, or instead 
of that quantity, 3*09 light carburetted hydrogen, is entirely dependent upon 
a difference in weight of not more than 0'0323 gramme. Let us assume 
that the weight of the combustion-tube and its contents was 80 grammes, 
then an error of y^^-g^ in the weighing would cause a change in the results 
from the composition, as found by Ebelmen, to that placed beside it calculated 
on this supposition : — 

On the supposition that he 
According to was liable to an error of only 

Ebelmen. j^^ in weighing. 

Nitrogen 57*79 61*36 

Carbonic acid 12*88 13*68 

Carbonic oxide 23*55 21*87 

Carburetted hydrogen . . 0*00 3*09 

Hydrogen 5*82 O'OO 



100*00 100*00 

Such uncertainties as these are never to be feared in a eudiometric ana- 
lysis conducted with proper precautions; for they would imply errors in 
measurement which could not take place without the most gross negligence. 
Now when we consider the circumstances which would tend to diminish the 
loss in weight of the combustion-tube in Ebelmen's experiments, and con- 

* In the details of our analyses we always employ the French weights and measiires, now 
universally used on the cojitinent, and by most of our eminent chemists in tliis country. 
Their convenience is very great, and as science is universal and not local, English memoirs 
are more readily adojited on the continent when the translators have not the trouble of re- 
ducing our weights and measures. Where the numbers are absolute a)id not relative, we 
employ English measures. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 147 

sequently diminish the quantity of carburetted hydrogen, while it increased 
that of hydrogen, we shall be the more inclined to attribute the erroneous 
results of his experiments to the uncertain methods employed by him in ana- 
lysis. The smallest quantity of oxygen remaining in the nitrogen with which 
the apparatus was filled previous to the experiment, the gases retained by the 
porous copper formed during the reduction, the carbon also retained by this 
copper, the smallest quantity of foreign substances which may attach them- 
selves to the combustion-tube, softened as it is by heat during the experi- 
ment, — all these must tend to increase the chances of an error of ^otoo ^^ 
weighing ; a difference so small as even without the operation of these causes 
almost to be within the errors of observation, and sufficient to account for 
the erroneous results obtained by Ebelmen. But whatever may have been 
the grounds which induced Ebelmen to avoid referring to the original inves- 
tigations in Germany, when we consider the great labour which he bestowed 
on the inquiry, it will ever remain to be regretted that he did not introduce 
into his memoir an explanation of the grounds upon which he accorded the 
preference to his method of analysis, which differs from that of his prede- 
cessors in the inquiry more by its tediousness than its accuracy, and which 
we consider it necessary altogether to avoid in the following research. At 
the same time it cannot be denied, that eudiometric analysis, as usually 
performed, is little deserving of high commendation, or of universal adoption, 
although this is less owing to its incompleteness than to the neglect of the 
many precautions which should be adopted to procure accuracy. 

Before proceeding to our investigation, we thought it necessary to examine 
with great care all the conditions essential to obtain a proper degree of ac- 
curacy. It cannot, therefore, be thought superfluous to describe in detail 
the methods employed in the inquirj'^, especially as these must form the foun- 
dation for the reception of the conclusions which we draw from the experi- 
ments. 

The combustion and measurement of the gases is most conveniently and 
accurately performed in uniform glass tubes of 18-19 inches in length and 
about 0"6 inch internal and 0*8 inch external diameter ; in the closed end of 
the tube there is inserted by fusion two platina wires of the thickness of horse 
hair, for the purpose of passing the electric spark. The tube is divided into 
millimetres, and with this view, is covered with common etching paste, or 
still better, with a thin layer of wax containing a little turpentine, which may 
be laid very uniformly on the warmed surface of the glass by means of a 
hair pencil. The glass is then minutely graduated by a peculiar instru- 
ment, and subjected to the action of gaseous hydrofluoric acid, which, when 
evolved from a paste of fluoride of calcium and concentrated sulphuric acid 
placed in a vessel of lead slightly warmed, effects the etching in ten to fifteen 
minutes, and much more legibly than the liquid hydrofluoric acid usually 
employed in the graduation of thermometers. 

The capacity of the tube, which has thus been divided into millimetres, 
is easily determined by measurement. For this purpose, the tube is placed 
vertically with the table, its hermetically sealed end being downwards, and 
is then filled with successive portions of mercury carefully measured. The 
different lengths occupied by these equal volumes correspond to equal capa- 
cities of the tube. If the mercury in the successive parts of the tube ab, be, 
cd, de, &c. take up the lengths measured on the graduation L L' L" L'", and 
the short parts of the tube ab, be, cd, &c. be considered uniform in calibre, 
we obtain respective values of the divisional marks between ab, be, &c. with 
respect to the volumes corresponding to them expressed by the unity cor- 
responding to the length L, when V L" L'", &c. are divided bv L. On add- 

l2 



148 REPORT — 1845. 

ing together these quantities, a graduation originally arbitrary becomes a 
comparable measure corresponding to the capacity of the tube. We obtain 
by this means a table of correction which gives the true volume of the tube 
corresponding to each mark. 

It is necessary, in order to obviate the parallax on reading from the surface 
of the mercury, to use a small moveable mirror (Plate IV. fig. 1), which is 
placed on the opposite side of the tube. If the pupil of the eye seen through 
the tube in the mirror appears halved by the mark corresponding to the con- 
vexity of the mercury, the reading may be considered as exact. If the 
volume of the measured gas be read, as must always be the case, from the 
highest point of the convexity of the mercury, we must add to the correc- 
tions a small constant quantity deduced from the value found in the plate, 
and which may be named the fault of the convexity, the necessity for which 
will be rendered obvious by the following consideration : — If the reading of 
the volume of the mercury during the measurement of the instrument be at 
the mark a, the capacity a ab is not measured, but only the volume c g eb 
(fig. 2). Now on using the instrument, if we read a volume of gas at the 
same mark a, while the convexity takes the place dgZ, this volume as read 
does not correspond to c g e b, but to the real capacity c^ei + dcgel. 
Hence the quantity dc g el is not measured by the reading, and must there- 
fore be added to the volumes observed, whicli otherwise would be too small. 
This quantity may be ascertained by an experiment, and serves for all fu- 
ture corrections. If a dilute solution of bichloride of mercury be placed in 
contact with the convexity, it disappears immediately, on account of the for- 
mation of a thin layer of protochloride of mercury which adheres to the glass. 
The mercury now shows the horizontal surface fb. The quantity caae'\& 
obviously equal to fc a a (if, which may be measured directly by the divi- 
sions on the tube. Hence the quantity edle must be equal to 2 X a a ^f, 
which is the quantity that must be added to the observed volume on every 
reading. 

Another source of error may arise from air bubbles, which are apt to at- 
tach themselves to the glass during the filling of the tube, and being loosened 
when gas is admitted, render the latter impure. If these bubbles of air be 
visible to the naked eye, it is easy enough to separate them by means of a 
wire ; but the walls still remain covered with microscopic bubbles which 
cannot be removed in this way. In order, therefore, to prevent altogether 
this danger to the experiment, it is necessary to clean very carefully with 
unsized paper the walls of the tube after every experiment, and to introduce 
the mercury by means of a funnel with a long neck ending in a narrow 
opening at the lower end, and placed at the bottom of the tube. The mer- 
cury flowing from this funnel adheres to the walls of the tube, with a perfectly 
clear mirror-like surface. 

Especial care must be taken that air neither enters nor escapes during the 
combustion of the gas in the eudiometer. This evil is perfectly avoided by 
pressing the open end of the instrument, during the explosion, upon a per- 
fectly smooth sheet of caoutchouc placed under the mercury in the pneumatic 
trough. However, it is quite necessary to take care that the caoutchouc has 
not carried down with it any air, which might easily find its way into the 
eudiometer by the diminished tension of the gas. The caoutchouc is there- 
fore moistened with a solution of corrosive sublimate, and very slowly sunk 
into the mercury ; the protochloride of mercury formed between the mercury 
and the caoutchouc causes such complete adhesion as to exclude all air. 

Finally, the reading can only be made exact by using the mirror formerly 
described, and estimating the position of the level of the column of mercury 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 149 

in the eudiometer above that in the trough, so that the difference may be 
brought into the calculation. By reading in this manner the error is avoided, 
which otherwise would result from heating the gases by the hand in adjust- 
ing the outer and inner levels, and it also enables us to record the results 
without touching the apparatus, which thus preserves a constant temperature. 
It is quite necessary, in estimating the volumes of the gases, to use the sub- 
stances for absorption in a bulk as small as possible, and in a form which 
may easily and completely be removed from the tubes, so that the gases may 
neither be rendered impure by air introduced, nor their reading rendered 
erroneous by some of the absorbing substance adhering to the sides of the 
tube. This is best effected by casting the materials into the form of bullets, 
by means of a common bullet-mould, into which a thin piano wire has, been 
previously introduced. If there are to be two determinations of carbonic 
acid, the one before the combustion of the gas, the other after, it is neces- 
sary to transfer the gas from one eudiometer to another, after the first deter- 
mination, in order to avoid the chance of error which might result from potash 
adhering to the side of the tube during the first absorption ; and for this 
purpose it is obviously of little consequence whether the whole or only a part 
of the volume of the gas be transferred. The adhesion of air to the piano 
wire is so insignificant, that it might be completely neglected ; but to avoid 
error, it is better to amalgamate the outer surface of the iron wire ; this may 
be done by rubbing it with an amalgam of potassium and mercury, without 
destroying its tenacity. Rusty iron wire must not on any account be em- 
ployed, and equal care must be taken to keep its inferior end under the mer- 
cury during the absorption ; for if it be exposed to the air, an endosmose 
and exosmose is effected to such an extent, as in certain cases to endanger 
the value of the analysis. 

In order to estimate olefiant gas and the hydrocarbons accompanying it, 
we have invented a very simple and efficacious method, which may be use- 
fully employed in the analysis of coal-gas. A little bullet is prepared out of 
the same materials as those used for making the negative element of the coal 
battery. For this purpose a bullet-mould, supplied with a platinum-wire 
having a bent end, is filled with a pounded mixture of two parts of coke and 
one part of coal, and is then heated before the blowpipe flame. The ball 
made in this way is afterwards dipped into a concentrated solution of sugar, 
and heated very strongly in the open reducing flame of the blowpipe ; it is 
now ready, and must be preserved for use carefully protected from moisture. 
This lump of charcoal, about the size of a small pistol-bullet, is capable of 
absorbing into its pores 0*5 gramme of sulphuric acid without appearing wet 
on the surface, and it can be introduced into and withdrawn from the eudio- 
meter without moistening it to any appreciable extent. For the purpose of 
experiment, it is made to absorb a mixture consisting of one part of anhy- 
drous and two parts of concentrated hydrated sulphuric acid. The proof 
that the acid contained in the bullet has been sufficient for the absorption of 
the olefiant gas, is the emission of white fumes in the air after its withdrawal 
from the mixture of gases, which of course must be quite dry. As the an- 
hydrous sulphuric acid emits vapour possessing considerable tension, and is 
never obtained free from sulphurous acid, and as the latter gas is also formed 
by the action of sulphuric acid on the hydrocarbons, an augmentation of the 
volume of the mixture is thus produced. To remove both these sources of 
error, after the conclusion of the above experiment, a little dry ball made of 
gypsum and peroxide of lead is introduced into the eudiometer. This has 
the double effect of removing both, for while the peroxide of lead absorbs 



150 



REPORT — 1845. 



the sulphurous acid, the anhydrous sulphuric acid robs the gypsum of part 
of its water, thus becoming hydrated sulphuric acid and losing its tension. 

When the oxygen is estimated, not by combustion with hydrogen, but by 
absorption with phosphorus, the precaution must always be taken to sepa- 
rate the vapours of phosphorous acid by a bullet of caustic potash, before 
effecting the measurement. 

As the tension of the aqueous vapour, and in fact every known precau- 
tionary means were adopted in our experiments, we believe it to be unne- 
cessary to enter into further detail. But, at the same time, a^ it is necessary 
that we should submit to the Association some proofs of the degree of accu- 
racy which we profess to have attained in this mode of analysis, we do not 
consider it superfluous to lay before it a series of analyses of common air, 
made with eudiometers such as have been described, but of various sizes, 
and with air collected at different times, the analyses being made with the 
precautions recommended by us. And we are less afraid of being accused 
of unnecessarj' detail, because these analyses show most decidedly that the 
presence of nitrogen during the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen does 
not cause the formation of ammonia, or of any degree of oxidation of ni- 
trogen. We thought this question, involving as it does the whole value of our 
labours, so important as to be submitted to rigorous experimental research. 

The air employed in these experiments was collected in the neighbour- 
hood of Marburg in the open air, and carefully freed from carbonic acid : 
the measurement of the respective volumes of gases was eflfected at the maxi- 
mum of moisture. 

I. Experiments with a eudiometer of small dimensions. 
1st Experiment, June 14, 184'4. 



Volume of air used 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 
Volume after the combustion 



VoluMe. IZl' "^evr"' «— '- 



230-1 
307-1 
211-8 



18-0 
17-8 
180 



0-2075 
0-1343 
0-2250 



2nd Experiment, June 15. 



Volume of air used ? 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 
Volume after combustion 



193-9 


18 


0-2420 


346-4 


18 


0-0962 


280-2 


18 


0-1600 



0-7480 
0-7480 
0-7480 



0-7476 
0-7476 
0-7476 



3rd Experiment, June 18, with the same air as the last. 



Volume of air used 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 
Volume after combustion 



231-4 


16-4 


322-9 


16-2 


230-8 


16-4 



0-1963 
0-1092 
0-1969 



^th Experiment. 



Volume of air used 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 
Volume after combustion 



214-4 
313-5 
234-3 


17-3 
17-3 
17-1 


0-2305 
01367 
0-2224 



0-7451 
0-7433 
0-7410 



0-7467 
0-7478 
0-7474 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 



151 



II. Experiments with a eudiometer of larger dimensions, such as that used 
in our experiments. 

5th Experiment, June 30. 



Volume of hydrogen used 

Volume after admission of air . 
Volume after combustion 



Volume. T^-P- ^^^^^^^ "^ Barometer. 



1461 
3130 
216-9 



171 
171 
17-1 



0-2149 
00593 
0-1506 



6th Experiment, July 1. 



Volume of hydrogen used 

Volume after admission of air 
Volume after combustion 



155-6 


16-8 


0-2069 


297-1 


16-9 


0-0750 


214-3 


170 


0-1528 



0-7460 
0-7460 
0-7449 



0-7447 
0-7442 
0-7444 



III. Experiments with a large, long and wide eudiometer. 
7th Experiment, July 1. 



Volume of air used 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 
Volume after combustion 



663-2 
881-3 
735-0 



Temp. Difference of 
Cent. level. 



16-0 
16-2 
16-5 



0-2301 
0-0237 
0-1658 



8th Experiment, July 10. 



Volxune of air used 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 
Volume after combustion 



676-8 


16-4 


0-2160 


878-7 


16-5 


0-0225 


716-6 


16-2 


0-1667 



9th Experiment, July 12. 



Volume of airnsed 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 
Volume after combustion 



657-2 


16-8 


0-2408 


890-9 


16-8 


0-0099 


752-8 


16-8 


01460 



0-7453 
0-7453 
0-7448 



0-7444 
0-7444 
0-7444 



0-7457 
0-7457 
0-7449 



From the preceding experiments, the composition of air is as follows : 



Nitrogen. 
78-92 
78-93 
78-98 
78-99 
79-10 
79-09 
79-14 

79-10 
79-19 
79-05 



Oxygen. 

21-08'] 

21-07 I 

21-02 /■Determined by the smallest eudiometer. 

21-01 J 



Determined by a larger eudiometer, such as that 
used in our experiments. ,, 



20 90 
20-91 
20-86 

20-90"] 

20-81 > Determined by the largest eudiometer. 

20-95 J 



The great agreement of these experiments with one another, and with the 
results obtained by the extremely careful experimental determination of the 
composition of air by Dumas, proves that the eudiometric analyses of gases 
admit of a degree of exactness which certainly is not surpassed by the most 
minute analytical methods ; and they further show, that the presence of ni- 



152 REPORT — 1845. 

trogen does not exercise any disturbing influence on the estimation of explo- 
sive mixtures of gases. 

The nature of the gases ascending through the various parts of an iron 
furnace is obviously dependent upon the nature of the fuel used in it. 
Coke, brown coal and wood yield a gas containing as combustible consti- 
tuents only carburetted hydrogen, carbonic oxide and hydrogen. The ana- 
lysis of such a mixture offers no difficulties, and the proportion of the gases 
may be easily calculated if we are acquainted with the volume occupied by 
the oxygen which disappears, and that of the carbonic acid produced, re- 
ferring them to the volume of gas employed. 

A mixture of gas consisting of 1 vol. H + 1 vol. H^C + l vol. CO =3 vol. 

requires for combustion |^ vol. + 2 vol. 0+^ vol. O =3 vol. 

andyields 1 vol. COg+l volCOa =2vol. 

If we call any given mixture of gas A, consisting of x hydrogen, y light 
carburetted hydrogen, and p carbonic oxide ; and further call the oxygen 
necessai-y for the combustion B, and the carbonic acid produced C, we ob- 
tain the following equations: — 

x + y -\-p = A, 

^x+2y+\p = By 

y+p = C; 



and out of these follow 



1. a; = A-C. 

2B- A 



2. y = 



3 
2B-A 



3. p = C- 

But the gas generated, when coal is used as fuel, may contain, in addition to 
the above gases, olefiant gas, gaseous hydrocarbons of various compositions, 
and sulphuretted hydrogen. The examination of such a complex mixture of 
gases offers rare difficulties, which may be overcome by estimating directly 
the sulphuretted hydrogen and the hydrocarbons differing in composition 
from light carburetted hydrogen. Sulphuretted hydrogen is easily enough 
determined, but for the estimation of hydrocarbons, not even an approximative 
method is known. It is quite true that they may be condensed by free chlorine 
in the dark ; but the necessity of making such experiments over water render 
the results wholly inexact. This method also gives a source of error, which 
becomes materially increased by the circumstance that the tension of the sub- 
stance containing chlorine formed by the condensation cannot be brought into 
the calculation. We have therefore tried to condense the gases in a proper 
apparatus by means of perchloride of antimony. In order to be sure of the 
applicability of this substance, it was necessary to be certain that this com- 
pound of chlorine kept back the desired hydrocarbon without acting upon 
the remaining constituents of the mixture. It may easily be proved that 
carbonic oxide, light carburetted hydrogen and hydrogen are left quite un- 
changed by it, for after streaming through the liquid contained in a Liebig's 
potash apparatus, they are again obtained unaltered in quantity or in proper- 
ties. But it was not so simple to decide whether olefiant gas and the other 
hydrocarbons of unknown composition were separated in this way pure and 
capable of quantitative determination. We have endeavoured to decide this 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 153 

question in a way certainly somewhat tedious, but not the less positive. In the 
first place, it was necessary to be satisfied of the correctness of the opinion 
generally received, but, as far as we are aware, unproved, that the gaseous 
products of distillation of coal, in addition to carbonic oxide, hydrogen, ole- 
fiant gas and carburetted hydrogen, still contained other hydrocarbons. If 
the latter be absent, we are able by a eudiometric analysis to determine the 
constituents of a mixture of gases containing four ingredients, if we estimate 
for a given volume of the mixture A, the quantity of oxygen necessary for its 
combustion B, and the carbonic acid thus formed C, and also the proportion 
of the latter to the amount of aqueous vapour produced. Thus it requires 

A mixture consisting of 1 vol. H+ 1 vol. H^C + 1 vol. HC + 1 vol. CO =4 vol. 

for combustion x vol. + 2 vol. + 3 vol. 0+| vol.0 =6vol. 

from which is produced 1 vol. 00^+2 vol. 00^+ 1 vol. CO^ =4. vol. 

and also 1 vol. HO + 2 vol. HO +2 vol. HO =5vol. 

If we denote these quantities by the same letters as above, the olefiant 
gas by z, and the proportion of the aqueous vapour produced by the com- 
bustion to the carbonic acid as — , the following four equations result : 

X + 1/ + z + p =A, 

%x + 2y+3z + ip = B, 
y + 2z +p =C, 

a; + 2y+ 2z _ D 

1/ + 2z +p E 

The value of the four unknown quantities x, y, z and p, are thus deter- 
mined : — 

4. :c = 2A + 4B-3c(^+-|y 

5. 2^ = -2A-6B + 5c(H + iY 



6. ^ = A+4B-3c(5 + iY 

7. p=-2B + c(^ + 2y 



If the mixture of gases contain actually only the four assumed consti- 
tuents, we obtain positive values for x, y, z and p. If one of these quan- 
tities be negative, this is a proof that the mixture must contain other com- 
pounds than those assumed. 

In order to obtain something conclusive as to the nature of coal-gas, a 
quantity of coal was heated to redness in a combustion-tube, in such a man- 
ner that the gaseous products of distillation were not obliged to traverse the 
red-hot layers of coal. The gas was first conducted into a cool receiver, 
where it deposited the liquid products of distillation, after which it was freed 
from carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen by means of a solution of 
oxide of lead in potash, and also from water by being made to pass through 
a tube filled with chloride of calcium, leading into a eudiometer standing 
over mercury. An indefinite quantity of the gas was also led over red-hot 
oxide of copper, and yielded 0-23749 grm. carbonic acid and 0-2239 grm. 
water, which correspond with 120-55 cubic centimetres of carbonic acid, and 



154 



REPORT — 1845. 



with 277*27 cubic centimetres of aqueous vapour. The eudiometrio analysis 
gave the following result : — 



Volume. 


Temp. 
Cent. 


1321 


2-3 


3487 


0-3 


241-3 


0-2 


182-8 


-3- 


300-3 


-2-5 


106-1 


-1-7 


295-0 


-1-7 


106-2 


-1-5 



Volume of gas used 

Volume after admission of oxygen 

Volume after combustion 

Volume after absori>tion of carbonic acid 

Volume after admission of hydrogen 

Volume after combustion 

Volume after another admission of hydrogen 
Volume after combustion 



0-4127 
0-6289 
0-5277 
0-4794 
0-5952 
0-3987 
0-5863 
0-4194 



5406 
219-10 
127-25 

88-61 
180-39 

42-57 
174-04 

44-79 



In these data, and also in all those which follow, the tension caused by the 
aqueous vapour formed during the combustion is never neglected, and the 
correction necessary for it at the given pressure is already brought into the 
calculation. A simple consideration of these experiments gives us the fol- 
lowing values for the elements necessary to the calculation : — 

~ = 2-2993, 

A = 54-06, 

B = 76-02, 

C = 38-64. 

These quantities lead us to the following composition : 

Light carburetted hydrogen ... +73-18 

Carbonic oxide +14-08 

Hydrogen - 8-89 

defiant gas -24-33 

In this case, therefore, the formula leads to an impossible result, which 
proves that other constituents must be in the mixture of gases. From these 
facts we may also derive another conclusion. If we deduct in the last four 
experiments the excess of oxygen left after the combustion from the volume 
of gas measured after the absorption of carbonic acid, the remainder will 
o-ive the nitrogen originally contained in the mixture, or that liberated by 
the combustion. This calculation shows that the nitrogen = 0-01, from 
which we conclude that the gas from coal, distilled and collected as we have 
described, does not contain in appreciable quantity nitrogen, cyanogen, or 
any other nitrogenous substance. Hence it follows that the gaseous mix- 
ture must contain, in addition to the hydrocarbons already mentioned, others 
of unknown composition. It was now quite necessary to ascertain positively 
whether perchloride of antimony completely effected the separation of the 
latter as well as of olefiant gas. This question is easily decided by conduct- 
ing coal-gas freed from carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen through a 
Liebig's potash tube containing perchloride of antimony, behind which is 
placed another containing potash for the purpose of arresting the volatile 
perchloride, and a tube filled with chloride of calcium to prevent the escape 
of aqueous vapour. The gas treated in this way is collected over mercury, 
and exploded with the necessary quantity of oxygen, which is determined 
as well as that of the carbonic acid generated ; and the proportion of the 
latter to the amount of aqueous vapour produced is obtained by leading an- 
other portion of the gas over red-hot oxide of copper. With this knowledge 



ON THE GASES EVOIiVED PROM IRON FURNACES. 



155 



we possess all the data for estimating the amount of light carburetted hy- 
drogen, carbonic oxide and hydrogen, not only by the formulas 1, 2, 3, but 
also by those afterwards described (4, 5, 6, 7) for calculating the quantities 
of light carburetted hydrogen, carbonic oxide, olefiant gas and hydrogen 
contained in a mixture. When both these calculations agree, and when we 
obtain by the last of them c as the value of the olefiant gas, this result may 
be viewed as a certain proof of the complete retention of the olefiant gas and 
other hydrocarbons of unknown composition by the perchloride of antimony 
without any change in the other gases. An experiment instituted for this 
purpose gave the following result : — 



Temp. 
Cent. 



Gas used 

After admission of O... 

After combustion 

After absorption of CO, 
After admission of H 
After combustion 



155-4 
343-4 
197-6 
122-8 
330-3 
130-7 



-4-3 
-4-3 
-4-3 
-3-7 
-3-7 
-3-7 



0-4497 
0-6351 
0-4872 
0-4109 
0-6171 
0-4041 



71-00 
221-57 

97-81 

51-15 
206-62 

53-53 



The relation of aqueous vapour to carbonic acid 0*2035 grm. : 0*21 13 grm. 
The values deduced for calculation are — 

J. = 2-3488, 

A = 70-88, 
B = 99-54, 
C = 46-66. 
The formulae 1, 2, 3 give us the composition, — 

Hydrogen 24*22 

Light carburetted hydrogen... 42-73 

Carbonic oxide 3-93 

Nitrogen 0-12 

The formulae 4, 5, 6, 7 give, on the other hand, — 

Hydrogen 24*50 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . . 42*27 

Carbonic oxide 3*83 

Nitrogen 0*12 

Olefiant gas +0*28 

The agreement of these results may be considered as a proof of the appli- 
cability of perchloride of antimony for our purposes, as the differences are 
quite within the errors of observation, and as similar differences might arise 

by a variation from unity in the third decimal of the expression -p. But to 

remove every possible doubt as to the accuracy of our results, we have taken 
the specific gravity of the mixture of gases treated with perchloride of anti- 
mony, and compared this result with the theoi-etical density as calculated from 
the known composition. 

In estimating the specific gravity, it was of importance to operate upon a 
smaller volume of gas than usual, because it was necessary to have the same 
gas collected over mercury, not only in the combustion with oxide of cop- 
per, and in the eudiometric analysis, but also in taking the density of the 



156 REPORT— 1845. 

gas. We have therefore used in our experiments a plan somewhat deviating 
from that usually adopted, and which for simplicity and accuracy merits to 
be followed in other cases. The vessel used for weighing the gas consisted 
of a flask such as that used for digestion, and of a capacity of 200 cubic cen- 
timetres ; the neck of this flask was drawn out before the blowpipe until the 
opening was narrowed to the thickness of a straw, and was then supplied 
with a well-fitted ground glass stopper. This flask, the capacity of which 
had been previously accurately determined, was filled with mercury, with the 
precautions already described (page 148), and the gas to be weighed was then 
introduced, leaving however the mercury still in the vessel, to the height of 
one- or two-tenths of an inch. The apparatus, with its mouth placed under 
mercury, is placed as vertically as possible, and allowed to acquire a uniform 
temperature. When this has taken place the stopper is introduced, and by 
means of an etched graduation on the neck, the height of the mercury over 
the level of that in the trough is accurately noted, in order to deduct this 
from the column of mercury in the barometer observed at the same time. 
The flask, removed from the trough, and carefully cleaned on the outside, is 
then weighed, with all the necessary data for corrections employed in such 
cases, after which it is filled with dry air, care being taken that none of its 
liquid contents are lost in doing so ; and then it is again weighed. An ex- 
periment made in this way with gas purified by perchloride of antimony, gave 
the following result : — 

Volume of the gas weighed at 9° C. and 0'7337 pressure, 211*05 cubic 
centimetres. 

Weight of the flask filled with gas at 9°-9 C. and 0-7557 pressure, 49-0262 
grms. 

Weight of the flask filled with air at — 3°-5 C.and 0-7557 pressure, 49-1920 
grms. 

The specific gravity, 0-4073, which results from this experiment, does not 
differ from 0-41, the density calculated from the above analysis, more than we 
might expect, from the possibility of error of observation in such experiments. 

The experiments now detailed prove that other hydrocarbons must be 
present, besides defiant gas and light carburetted hydrogen, but they do not 
show whether olefiant gas itself is contained in the mixture. Its presence is 
however easily shown, by the circumstance that the perchloride of antimony 
used in the absorption yields by distillation with water chloride of elayle 
with all its characteristic properties. 

When a stream of gas, obtained by the distillation of coal, is conducted 
through a Liebig's tube filled with a solution of oxide of lead in potash, a pre- 
cipitate falls, consisting of sulphuret and carbonate of lead : sulphuretted 
hydrogen and carbonic acid gases are therefore constituents of the mixture. 
But there is not a trace of the vapours of sulphuret of carbon in the gas, for 
the gas thus purified does not in the least degree smell of sulphuret of carbon, 
being in fact quite destitute of smell. 

The gases evolved from iron furnaces must contain nitrogen, in addition 
to those described, for this gas enters with the air supplied by the blast. The 
preceding investigations show us that the gases from furnaces contain the 
following constituents : — 

1. Nitrogen. 

2. Ammonia. 

3. Carbonic acid. 

4. Carbonic oxide. 

5. Light carburetted hydrogen. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 157 

6. Olefiant gas. 

7. Carburetted hydrogen, of unknown composition. 

8. Hydrogen. 

9. Sulphuretted hydrogen. 
10. Aqueous vapour. 



An iron furnace must be viewed as an apparatus destined to carry on 
chemical processes of the most various kind. These operations begin at the 
top of the furnace, and stretch downwards to its hearth in well-defined suc- 
cession. The final products of all these operations appear partly at the hearth 
and partly at the mouth ; in the latter in the form of a column of combustible 
gas, in the former in the liquid form of slag and cast iron. The nature of 
the combustible gas stands in a relation so intimate to the changes suffered 
by the materials put into the furnace, that its different composition in the 
various regions of the furnace indicates the changes suffered by the materials 
introduced as they descend in their way to the entrance of the blast. Now as 
the examination of this column of air in its various heights in the furnace 
must be the key to the questions upon which the theory and practice of the 
manufacture of iron depend, it is of the first importance to subject it to a 
rigid examination. The successive changes suffered by the column of gas 
in its passage can only be elucidated by a direct examination of its com- 
position in the various regions of the furnace. We can however employ a 
method to ascertain the average composition of the gas escaping from the 
mouth of the furnace ; for although tlie method does not give the compo- 
sition itself, it enables us to fix the narrow limits between which it varies. 
In order, however, to understand the part played by the coal itself in the 
formation of gas from the furnace, it is necessary to examine closely the 
phaenomena which would ensue were the furnace filled with nothing else ex- 
cept the fuel. On this account we must recapitulate the results obtained 
in an inquiry formerly instituted in Germany by one of us, as this may 
be considered established by the repetition of the experiments by others, and 
by the numerous appliances to practice which have already resulted from 
them. It was shown by these experiments, which receive renewed confir- 
mation and extension from our present inquiry, — 

1st. That the oxygen introduced by the blast is burned in the immediate 
vicinity of the tuyere ; 

2nd. That the oxygen is converted into carbonic oxide also in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the tuyere ; and finally, 

3rd. That the coal loses all its gaseous products of distillation much above 
the point at which its combustion commences. 

It is therefore clear that the gasification of the coal, if such a term be ad- 
missible, must take place in the regular course of the furnace, at two points 
quite separated from each other. At a certain depth from the mouth of 
the furnace the gases due to the distillation or coaking of the coal must 
escape. Further down in the furnace the gasification will be completed, be- 
cause the coal freed from its volatile products must here enter into combus- 
tion. These products of distillation and combustion, mixed with the nitrogen 
of the atmospheric air, forms the column of gas which appears as a combus- 
tible gas at the mouth of the furnace. Now when we consider that the 
quantity of coal which loses its gases in traversing the distillatory part of the 
furnace must correspond to that burnt before the tuyere by the air intro- 
duced in the blast, it follows that the composition of the gases evolved from 
the furnace will be given if we add the products of distillation of any given 



158 REPORT — 1845. 

quantity of coal to the products of combustion of the coke formed from that 
coal. 

As no further experiments are required to determine the products of com- 
bustion, the question as to the constitution of gases evolved from coal fur- 
naces is reduced to the examination of the liquid and gaseous products re- 
sulting from the distillation of any given kind of coal. These products will 
be very different, according as they come in contact with the red-hot coal, 
or escape without passing over it. In the last case we obtain the immediate 
products resulting from the decomposition of coal, while in the first we have 
the products arising from their action upon it. The conditions essential to 
the production of the first case are more or less combined in furnaces in which 
the materials are put in in a finely-divided state, and go slowly down from the 
top to the bottom of the furnace. Under these circumstances the coal be- 
comes heated pretty equably throughout its entire mass by the larger heating 
surface which it offers to the ascending column of gas ; and the tar conden- 
sing in the upper parts of the furnace is carried away by this stream of air, 
before the coals saturated with it reach that point in the furnace where the 
temperature is sufficient for the further decomposition of the products^ of di- 
stillation. The gases generated from the furnace, under such conditions, must 
contain a smaller quantity of combustible matter. It is therefore of import- 
ance to determine the average composition of the gases formed from the 
products of distillation unmixed with the substances-arising from their ac- 
tion upon the red-hot coal. The composition of a gaseous mixture of this 
kind is also interesting, because it points out the limits to which the quan- 
tity of combustible constituents in furnace gases may be reduced. In order 
to obtain gases of this kind, the most convenient way is to fill a combustion- 
tube with the coal to be examined, which is placed in a horizontal layer 
and heated from the closed end of the tube to the open end, so that the gases 
are not obliged to traverse over red-hot coal in their escape from the tube. 
The apparatus used by us in the determination of the liquid and gaseous 
products of distillation is drawn in fig. 4. a a is a common combustion fur- 
nace, in which is placed the tube coating the coal. The tube is made of 
difficultly fusible green glass, about f inch wide, and surrounded by a 
thin sheet of copper containing between it and the glass a layer of powdered 
charcoal, so that the weight may not alter during the heating. The end of 
the tube is drawn out before the flame of the blowpipe, and connected by 
means of a weighed strong caoutchouc tube with the receiver b, which is 
destined to receive the tar and ammoniacal water : c is a bent tube filled with 
chloride of calcium for the double purpose of retaining the water and am- 
monia which passes over with the gases : </ is a Liebig's tube filled with a 
solution of oxide of lead in caustic potash, behind which is placed another 
tube filled with chloride of calcium for the reception of the aqueous vapour 
carried off from the potash. This arrangement enables us to determine the 
amount of sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid, each of which is de- 
termined by boiling the black precipitate in a platinum vessel with caustic 
potash, and then weighing the precipitate thus freed from carbonate of lead. 
The receiver filled with perchloride of antimony (/) serves for the deter- 
mination of defiant gas and the volatile hydi'ocarbons accompanying it. On 
account of the great volatility of this compound of chlorine, it is necessary 
to connect it with a potash apparatus {g), which itself is connected with an 
absorbing tube containing sulphuric acid. As the chloride of antimony is 
apt to become hot during the condensation, and thus cause an escape of a 
volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon, we prefer to use an alcholic instead of an 
aqueous solution of potash. If this be neglected, subchloride of mercury is 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 159 

sometimes observed in the succeeding eudiometric analyses. The gases pro- 
cured after this treatment, consisting of hydrogen, light carburetted hydro- 
gen and carbonic oxide, are entirely destitute of smell, and without action 
upon mercury. As soon as all the atmospheric air is expelled from the ap- 
paratus, which we find by analysis to be effected by the distillation of about 
300 grains of coal, the conducting tube (k) is dipped under mercury and the 
gas collected. In order to have it of average composition, the gas is col- 
lected over mercury in a glass vessel, of a capacity of 800 to 1000 cubic cen- 
timetres. 

The glass tubes conveying the gas into the vessel is connected with the rest 
of the apparatus by means of a caoutchouc joint, and a tube, rather narrowed 
in the middle. This contracted tube is fused when the receiver is filled, 
but immediately opened again with a pair of tongs in that part which still 
remains in contact with the system of absorption, so that the experiment may 
be continued until the coal ceases to yield gas. As soon as this point is at- 
tained, the fire is removed from the combustion furnace, and the distillatory 
tube opened by cutting away with a diamond its drawn-out neck, so far as it 
is filled with coal-tar. The part of the absorptive system formerly in con- 
nection with the mercurial apparatus is now attached to a hand air-pump, 
and the apparatus filled with atmospheric air by a few gentle strokes of the 
pump. The loss in weight of the distillatory tube, after being filled with air, 
adding the weight of the part cut off, gives the amount of coal left behind 
by the distillation, and also the total weight of the liquids and gases which 
have escaped from the coal. The quantity of fluid matter is determined by 
the weight of the receivers b, c, and by the loss in weight of the fragment of 
glass tube when freed from tar. The receivers d, e give the quantity of car- 
bonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen, the receiver f,g,h the weight of the 
defiant gases and condensable hydrocarbons. By subtracting the weight of 
these collected products of distillation from the loss sustained by the distil- 
latory tube, the remainder indicates the weight of the non-condensable gases, 
the composition of which in hydrogen, carburetted hydrogen and carbonic 
oxide, is easily determined by a eudiometric analysis. 

The amount of tar produced by the distillation may be determined by 
throwing the contents of the first receiver on a weighed filter moistened with 
water, washing it, and, after drying both it and the moist receiver, the weight 
of these, added to that of the tar in the cut fragment of tube, gives a very 
exact result as to its amount. The ammonia contained in the water is 
best obtained by distilling it with a large excess of potash into a receiver 
containing muriatic acid, until at least two-thirds of the liquid have passed 
over, and it is then collected in the usual way by evaporation and precipi- 
tation with chloride of platinum, the washing of the double salt being best 
effected by a mixture of alcohol and JEther, according to Varrentrapp and 
Wills' recommendation. The amount of water is of course known by de- 
ducting the weight of the tar and ammonia from the total weight. 

In order to draw conclusions as to the composition of the gases of the fur- 
nace, it is of importance to ascertain the composition of those absorbed by 
the perchloride of antimony. To determine this point, a quantity of coal 
was heated to redness with the precautions already described, and collected 
in a gasometer filled with milk of lime. This gas, carefully dried by passing 
over chloride of calcium, was led into perchloride of antimony until the 
latter was saturated. An indefinite quantity of the black liquid thus ob- 
tained was put into a combustion-tube with oxide of copper, the front part of 
the tube being supplied with copper shavings, and on combustion, 0*1226 
water and 0*3626 carbonic acid were obtained, which correspond to 



160 REPORT — 1845. 

Found. defiant gas. 

Carbon 87-90 85-71 

Hydrogen 12-10 14--29 

100-00 100-00 

This result agrees so closely with the composition of olefiant gas, that we 
may calculate the hydrocarbon as that gas, especially as any fault, arising 
from so doing in the case of gases from furnaces, would be appreciable only 
in the fourth decimal place. Gasforth coal, analysed in the manner now 
described, gave the following results : — grms. 

1 . Weight of the coal used 16*7457 

2. „ coke remaining ll-54'20 

3. „ distilled gases and liquids 5-2037 

4. „ liquid products themselves 3-3506 

5. „ the water contained in them 1'3027 

6. „ platinum salt obtained from it 0-4592 

7. „ quantity of tar 2'0479 

8. „ sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid . 0-2715 

9. „ sulphuret of lead formed 0-6423 

10. „ condensed hydrocarbons 0-1262 

11. „ the uncondensed gases 1-4554 

The results of the analysis of the uncondensed gases have already been 

used in a former calculation, and gave — 

Composition according to volume. 

Hydrogen 24-22 

Carburetted hydrogen .... 42-73 

Carbonic oxide 3-93 

Nitrogen 0-12 

71-00 

The 1-4554 grm. obtained by the distillation consist of — 

grm. 

Hydrogen 0-0836 

Carburetted hydrogen .... 1-1758 

Carbonic oxide 0-1901 

Nitrogen 0-0059 

1-4554 
Hence the coal examined is converted by dry distillation into the following 
products : — 

Carbon 11-5420 . . 68-925 

Tar 2-0479 . . 12-230 

Water 1-2674 . . 7-569 

Light carburetted hydrogen 1-1758 . . 7-021 

Carbonic oxide 0-1901 . . 1-135 

Carbonic acid 0'1797 . . 1-073 

Condensed hydrocarbons and olefiant gas . 0'1262 . . 0-753 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 0-0918 . . 0-549 

Hydrogen 0-0836 . . 0-499 

Ammonia* 0-0353 . . 0-211 

Nitrogen 0-0059 . . 0-035 

16-7457 100-000 

* The ammonia which may have passed over without condensing in the water is neglected 
in this calcivlation. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 161 

These results enable us to determine the composition of the furnace-gases. 
It is clear that the 68'92 per cent, of carbon found in the analysis will be 
converted by the blast into carbonic oxide above the tuyere. As we have 
already seen that the coal loses its gases by distillation near the top of the 
furnace, a corresponding weight of coiie must burn before the tuyere, and 
hence we require only to add to the composition of the furnace-gases the 
carbonic oxide produced by the combustion of 68*92 per cent, of carbon and 
the nitrogen of the air expended in the combustion. This calculation gives — 

Nitrogen Gi'lSS 

Carbonic oxide 33-758 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . . . I'iG* 

Carbonic acid 0-224< 

Condensed hydrocarbons 0154 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 0"114< 

Hydrogen 0-107 

Ammonia 0-044< 

100-000 
If we calculate, with reference to these circumstances, and according to 
volume, the composition of the gases escaping from a furnace filled with Gas- 
forth coal, we obtain — 

Nitrogen 62-423 

Carbonic oxide 33'163 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . . 2-527 

Carbonic acid 0-139 

Condensed hydrocarbons 0-151 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 0-091 

Hydrogen 1-431 

Ammonia 0-070 

100-000 vols. 
The result thus obtained affords a very simple means of determining the 
influence exerted upon the composition of furnace-gases by the. gaseous pro- 
ducts of distillation of the coal. If Ave suppose the coal to be freed from its 
volatile products, and exposed to the action of a stream of air in a furnace, 
a volume of air containing 62-423 nitrogen will be converted by the influence 
of the red-hot coal into a gaseous mixture of the following composition : — 

Nitrogen 62-423 

Carbonic oxide .... 32-788 

Accordingly, we obtain a gaseous mixture — 

^c X J 1 u 1- f Nitrogen 62-423 

Of gases generated by combustion . I (.^^^^^j^^^jj^ 32-788 

I Carbonic oxide 0*380 

J Light carburetted hydrogen . 2-527 
Carbonic acid 0-139 
defiant gas 0-151 

Sulphuretted hydrogen . . 0-091 

Hydrogen 1*431 

Ammonia 0'070 

100-000 
Thus we see that there is a considerable influence exerted by the gaseous 
products of distillation on the composition of the gases produced by com- 
bustion. 

1843. M 



162 REPORT — 1845. 

The heat lost in a furnace may be easily compared with that actually 
realized. The following numbers exhibit the quantities of heat (expressed 
by the unities which we formerly described) generated during the combustion 
of the gases, and they show at the same time the part played by each con- 
stituent in the development of the heat : — 

I. II. 

64*135 Nitrogen yields 00000 

33'758 Carbonic oxide yields 84463 

1-464 Light carburetted hydrogen yields . . 19719 

0-224 Carbonic acid yields 00000 

0-154 Olefiant gas yields 1898 

0-114 Sulphuretted hydrogen yields . . . 510 

0-107 Hydrogen yields 3713 

0-044 Ammonia yields 267 



s 


Cm 
O 






(11 




a 


a 


s 


bb< 


2 


bJD^ / 




'^^ 


■.^ 


^ 


M 


IT) 






^^ 





100-000 Furnace-gases yield 110570 units of heat. 

The numbers (II.) representing the units of heat are calculated from the 
data on the heat of combustion found in the posthumous papers of Dulong. 
"Carbon burning to CO, heats 15444 grains of water to 1499°C. 

5> » CO^j „ „ 7371 

Carbonic oxide „ „ „ 2502° 

Hydrogen „ „ 34706° 

Light carburetted hydrogen „ „ 13469° 

Olefiant gas ' „ „ 12322° 

Sulphuretted hydrogen „ „ 4476°* 

Ammonia „ „ 6060°* 

The quantity of heat actually generated in the furnace during the escape 
of the unused 110570 units of heat may be determined by the amount of 
nitrogen in the gases, which corresponds to the quantity of the air consumed 
during their escape. The amount of nitrogen found, viz. 64-126, corresponds 
to 83-29 of atmospheric air, which is able to effect the conversion of 14*367 
carbon into carbonic oxide gas. Proceeding on the experiments of Dulong, 
the quantity of heat thus liberated will be 21536°. Thus it follows that a 
furnace filled with Gasforth coal could realize in the most favourable condi- 
tions only 16-30 per cent, of its combustible material. The remainder, 83-70 
per cent., escapes as unused but useful combustible matter. The practical 
use of these gases does not depend merely upon the quantity of heat generated 
during their combustion, but involves another equally important considera- 
tion, viz. the temperature capable of being attained by their use as fuel. This 
may be determined without any new experiments, by founding the calculation 
on the composition of the gas, its combustible value, and the capacity for heat 
of the products generated during combustion. 

1 kil. of the gas gives, by its combustion, as we have already seen, 1105-7 
units of heat. The products of combustion weigh 2-1385 kil.; and if this 
last quantity! consisted of water, the heat liberated would raise it to a tem- 
perature ^ , . Now as the capacity of heat of water is to that of the pro- 
ducts of combustion as 1 : 0-2665, and the elevation of temperature produced 
in difl^erent bodies of equal weight, by equal quantities of heat, is in inverse 

* The ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen are calcidated from their constituents, 
t In this, and also in other similar calculations, the small quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen 
has been left out of the calculation. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED PROM IRON FURNACES. 



163 



proportion to their capacity for heat, we obtain, as the expression for the tem- 
perature of the mixture of gas burning with air, Q.iQQr xO-2rfi'^ ~ 194()°C., 

or 3522° Fahr. 

In these calculations we have neglected the influence exerted on the com- 
position of the products of combustion by the gases escaping from the iron 
ore and limestone. Of course this must differ according to the quantities of 
materials used in the furnaces, and we therefore select as a basis for the cal- 
culation the iron furnaces of Alfreton, belonging to Mr. Oakes, the dimen- 
sions of which are given in fig. 6. We proceed on the supposition that the 
carbonic acid of the limestone and the oxygen of the ore are separated as 
carbonic acid. The coal used in the furnace was subjected to distillation 
with the precautions already described, and the composition thus obtained 
gives us the limits to which the combustible constituent of the gases from 
the furnace might be deteriorated under the most unfavourable conditions. 

grm. 

1. Weight of the coal used 25-7170 

2. „ coke remaining „ 17'2894< 

3. „ gaseous and liquid products of distillation . 8'4276 

4. „ liquid products alone 5*7239 

5. Quantity of tar in the latter 2*4945 

6. „ water 3-2294. 

7. „ chloride of platinum and ammonium from the 

latter 0-5428 

8. „ sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid . . 0-3574 

9. „ sulphuret of lead formed 0*4530 

10. Weight of the condensed hydrocarbons 0-1321 

The eudiometric analysis of the uncondensed gases gave the following re- 
sults : — 



Volume. 


Temp. 


119-9 


10' C. 


304-4 


10 


189-9 


10 


125-9 


9-9 


350-1 


9-9 


129-2 


10 



Gas used , 

After arlraission of oxygen , 

After the explosion 

After absorption of C Og . . . , 
After admission of hydrogen 
After explosion 



0-4739 
0-6542 
0-5335 
0-4801 
0-6850 
0-4625 



54-81 
192-11 

97-73 

58-33 
231-44 

57-64 



If we suppose that the very inconsiderable quantity of nitrogen found in 
the calculation (0-4) was an unavoidable impurity, we obtain, by the use of 
the formula 1, 2, 3, the following composition for the gas examined: — 

According to volume. According to weight. 

Hydrogen 15-41 0-001377 

Light carburetted hydrogen*. . . 34-64 0-024656 

Carbonic oxide 4-76 0-005954 

54-81 0-031987 

The 2-2142 carbonic oxide, carburetted hydrogen and hydrogen found in 
the analysis consist therefore of — 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . . 1-7067 

Carbonic oxide 0-4122 

Hydrogen ......... 0-0953 

2-2142 

m2 



164 REPORT — 1845. 

Thus 100 parts of the coal were broken up into the following products ; 

Carbon 17'289 . . 67-228 

Tar 2-494 . . 9-697 

Water S'lSS . . 12-397 

Carburetted hydrogen 1*707 . . 6'638 

Carbonic oxide 0-412 . . 1-602 

Carbonic acid 0-293 . . 1-139 

Condensed hydrocarbons . . . . 0-132 . . 0-513 

Sulphuretted hydrogen .... 0-065 . . 0-253 

Hydrogen 0-095 . . 0-370 

Ammonia* . . , 0-042 . . 0-163 



25-717 100-000 

The 67-228 carbon in the above analysis must escape altogether as car- 
bonic oxide, if a part of it were not converted into carbonic acid at the ex- 
pense of the oxygen of the iron ore. In order to determine the quantity of 
carbonic acid thus produced, we must refer to the details of the Alfreton 
iron-works, in which the following materials are used for the production of 
140 lbs. of pig-iron : — 

420 lbs. calcined iron ore; 390 lbs. coal; 170 lbs. limestone. 
According to the above experiment, 100 parts of the coal used give 67-228 
of coke ; but this quantity of coke does not correspond exactly to that of the 
carbonic oxide formed during its combustion. It is necessary before calcu- 
lating this to deduct the amount of ashes contained in the coal, and the fol- 
lowing analysis of the Furnace-coal of Alfreton gives us the data for the cal- 
culation : — 

Carbon 74-83 

Hydrogen ........ 5-10 

Oxygen 9-71 

Nitrogen 0*18 

Hygrometric water 7*50 

Ashes 2-68 



100-00 



As the 2-68 of ashes must be deducted from the 67-228 of coke, the latter 
corresponds to 64-548 of pure carbon. Part of this carbon however enters 
into combination with the iron, and is thus withdrawn from combustion. If 
we take, according to the analysis of Bromeis t, 3-3 per cent, as the average 
amount of carbon in cast iron, there must be 1*18 subtracted from the 64*548 
of carbon, because the proportion of iron produced to coal used is 35-8 : 100. 
If we conceive the remainder 63-368 carbon to be burnt with air to carbonic 
oxide, we obtain as the product of combustion a mixture of — 

Nitrogen 285-100 

Carbonic oxide .... 147-858 
Of this 147-858 carbonic oxide, part is converted into carbonic acid at the 
expense of the oxygen in the iron ore. The quantity of cast iron produced 
from 100 of coal is 35-8, and corresponds to 34-62 of pure iron, for the re- 
duction of which 14-83 oxygen must have been given over to the carbonic 
oxide gas. By this means 25-952 of the latter would be converted into 40*782 

* The ammonia escaping witli the gases out of the condensed alcoholic water is neglected 
in this calculation. 
t Bromeis, Liebig's Ann. dcr Chem. B. xliii. S. 243. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED PROM IRON FURNACES. 165 

of carbonic acid. The quantity of limestone added to 100 of coal is 43'59. 
This limestone consists, according to our analysis, of — 

Lime 54<'4 

Carbonic acid 42*9 

Magnesia 0*6 

Alumina 0*8 

Moisture and loss I'S 

100-0 
We must therefore introduce into the calculation, that 18'7 of carbonic 
acid are evolved from the limestone for every 100 parts of coal. By noticing 
all these observations the result is obtained, that 100 parts of coal thrown 
into the mouth of the furnace is reduced to 67*228 coke, by the loss of ga- 
seous matter, and that this quantity, by passing into combustion when it has 
descended to the tuyere, produces a gas which, mixed with the nitrogen of 
the air and the carbonic acid from the limestone, passes back to the mouth 
of the furnace in the form of a gas consisting of — 

Nitrogen 282-860 

Carbonic acid .... 59*482 
Carbonic oxide .... 121-906 
464-248 
If this quantity be added to the products of distillation of 100 parts of 
coal, the following composition is obtained for the gases escaping from the 
furnace : — 

I. II. 

According to weight. According to volume. 

Nitrogen 59-559 60*907 

Carbonic acid 12-765 8'370 

Carbonic oxide 26*006 26*846 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . . 1*397 2*536 

Hydrogen 0*078 1-126 

Condensed hydrocarbons .... 0*108 0*112 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 0*053 0*045 

Ammonia 0-034 0*058 

100*000 100*000 
From the numbers given in I. we may compare the proportion of the heat 
realized in the furnace during the process with that which escapes in the 
form of useful combustible matter. 

These are generated by the combustion of — 

59*559 Nitrogen 0000 

12*765 Carbonic acid 0000 

26*006 Carbonic oxide 65067 

1*397 Light carburetted hydrogen . . . 18826 

0*078 Hydrogen 2704 

0*108 defiant gas 1331 

0*053 Sulphuretted hydrogen 238 

0-034 Ammonia 208 

100-000 88374 

And therefore out of 100 of the gases, 88374 units of heat are generated. 

The units of heat, 88374, may be considered as the measure of the quanti- 
ties of heat capable of being realized by the combustion of the furnace-gases. 
In order to find the proportion of the fuel actually realized in the furnace to 
that lost, we have only to calculate the units of heat produced in the furnace 



166 REPORT — 1845. 

itself during the development of 100 parts of the furnace-gases. The only 
source of heat in the furnace is the oxidation of carbon, and this oxidation is 
effected at the cost of the air introduced by the bl&st, and that of the oxygen 
contained in the oxide of iron. Let us now consider the influence on the 
units of heat occasioned by the combustion of the carbonic oxide at the ex- 
pense of oxygen in the oxide of iron. From the posthumous results of Du- 
long on the heat of combustion, it follows that the quantities of heat evolved 
by the combustion of 1 lit. (61*028 cubic inches) of oxygen with iron or with 
carbonic oxide is almost quite equal. The first gives 6216 and the latter 
6260 units of heat. The trifling difference between these numbers is quite 
within the limits of error of observation, and therefore we may draw the con- 
clusion, as Ebelmen has already done, that the reduction of the oxide of iron 
is without influence upon the development of heat in the furnace; for in the 
reduction of the oxide of iron at the cost of the carbonic oxide a thermo- 
neutrality takes place. Hence the combustion of the oxygen of the air is the 
only source of heat in the furnace. It suffices to determine the amount of 
oxygen which has accompanied the 59*559 nitrogen into the furnace in the 
form of atmospheric air, in order to fix the amount of heat generated. The 
carbonic oxide formed by the combustion of this oxygen is the only source 
of heat realized in the furnace, and corresponds, as will be seen in the follow- 
ing calculation, to 20001. For every 20001 units of heat realized in the 
furnace, 88374 are lost by the gases which escape. 

Hence follows the remarkable conclusion, that in the furnaces of Al- 
freton not less than 81*54 per cent, of the fuel is lost in the form of combus- 
tible matter still fit for use, and that only 18*46 per cent, of the whole fuel 
is realized in carrying out the processes in the furnace. 

The maximum temperature which might be obtained by the combustion 
of the gases may easily be deduced by the following considerations. 1 kil. 
(15444 grains) of the gas burned with atmospheric air gives 1*9338 kil. pro- 
ducts of combustion, of the following composition and specific heat : — 

Nitrogen 68*016 . . 0*1859 

Carbonic acid 29*896 . . 0*0661 

Aqueous vapour 2*088 . . 0*0176 

100*000 0*2696 

If we divide the units of heat, viz. 883*74, arising from the combustion of 
1 kil. of the gases, by the number resulting when the quantity of the pro- 
ducts of combustion is multiplied by their specific heat (1*9338x0*2696), 
we obtain for the temperature of the flame 1695°*2 C, or 3083° Fahr. It is 
obvious that the gases escaping from the furnace must be of still more value 
as fuel than that expressed by our calculations founded upon their compo- 
sition when of minimum value. They must be of a higher value, from the 
circumstance that the reaction of the liquid products of distillation on the 
red-hot coals produces a number of gaseous substances which must necessarily 
increase their value as fuel. The upper layers of coal, limestone and iron, 
being cold, cause a condensation of the water and tar, both of which drop 
back upon the red-hot coals in the inferior layers, and become partly decom- 
posed into hydrogen and carbonic oxide gas ; whilst another part of the tar is 
broken up into hydrogen, light carburetted hydrogen and charcoal. The 
portions escaping this decomposition are condensed anew by the cold layers 
above, and finally themselves suffer change. For the purpose of determining 
the influence exerted by this circumstance on the composition of the gases, we 
have repeated the experiment on the distillation of the coal, reversing however 
the mode of heating the tube ; we began at the front part instead of the closed 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 167 

end of the tube, so that the products of distillation might have to traverse 
the red-hot coals, and thus sufler a similar process of decomposition to that 
which they experience in iron furnaces. The ammonia in this experiment 
was collected in a Liebig's condenser filled with muriatic acid, and the 
gases were detained in a gasometer filled with boiled water. The determi- 
nation of the other data necessary for the calculation was done as in the pre- 
vious experiments, and the following results were obtained : — 

Weight of the coal used 20-4.550 

„ coke remaining 13"6568 

„ liquid and gaseous products of distillation . . 6*7982 

„ liquid products alone 3*5389 

„ chloride of platinum and ammonium obtained . 0"7681 

„ sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid . . 0"5159 

„ sulphuret of lead 0*2500 

„ gases evolved 3*2593 

The quantity of gas collected had the following composition : — 
In First Eudiometer. 



Temp. 



Original volume 116'2 

After absorption of HC 111-9 



0-6321 
0-6294 



110 
10-8 



In Second Eudiometer. 



Original volume 

After admission of . . 

After explosion 

After absorption of COg 
After admission of H . . 
After explosion 



108-6 


0-4441 


111 


282-1 


0-6152 


110 


193-8 


0-5308 


111 


159-2 


0-5040 


10-4 


383-5 


0-7080 


11-1 


75-4 


0-4201 


11-3 



70-61 
67-75 



46-35 
166-84 

98-86 

77-30 
260-92 

30-42 



Hydrogen 51*32 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 28*28 

Carbonic oxide 16*35 

Olefiant gas 4*05 

100*00 
The 3*259 grms. of the gases obtained by distillation must therefore be 
composed as follows : — 

Hydrogen 0*298 

Light carburetted hydrogen . • 1*307 

Carbonic oxide 1*327 

Olefiant gas 0*327 

3*259 
100 parts of the coal distilled in this way gave — 

Coke 13*657 . . 65*123 

Tar and water 3*480 . . 16*594 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . . 1*307 • . 6*233 

Carbonic oxide 1*327 . . 6*328 

Carbonic acid 0*480 . . 2*289 

Olefiant gas 0*327 . • 1*559 

Sulphuretted hydrogen .... 0*036 . . 0*172 

Hydrogen 0*298 . . 1*421 

Ammonia 0*059 . . 0*281 

20-971 100*000 



168 REPORT — 1845. 

This result, contrasted with that obtained when the coal was distilled so 
as to prevent the products of distillation passing over the red-hot coal, 
enables us to see clearly the influence exerted upon the tar and steam by the 
glowing fuel. The liquid products of distillation and the coke are diminished 
in quantity, and in their place we find an increase of carbonic oxide, olefiant 
gas and hydrogen, arising from the carbon being oxidized at the expense of 
water, and from the decomposition of tar at an elevated temperature. Now 
if we calculate the composition of the furnace-gases from the principles now 
laid down, we obtain the following result : — 

I. II. 

According to weight. According to volume. 

Nitrogen 58-218 57-878 

Carbonic acid 15-415 9-823 

Carbonic oxide 23-956 24.-042 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . . 1-555 2-743 

Hydrogen 0-354 4-972 

Olefiant gas 0-389 0-392 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 0-043 0-035 

Ammonia 0-070 0-115 



100-000 100-000 

The proportion of the substances in this mixture of gases may be viewed 
as the limits to which the quantity of combustible constituents may increase, 
when formed under the conditions such as those existing in the Alfreton 
iron-works. We observe at the same time, that the increase of combustible 
materials effected by the reaction of the liquid products of distillation on the 
red-hot coal, principally depend upon the augmentation of hydrogen and ole- 
fiant gas. If we calculate from the above numbers, according to the princi- 
ples already laid down, the quantity of heat evolved in the furnace by the 
formation of 100 parts by weight of the gases, and compare it with the heat 
which might be derived by the combustion of these gases themselves, we 
obtain the proportion 98583 : 19550, a result showing that in the Alfreton 
furnaces, under favourable circumstances, only 16-55 per cent, of fuel is 
realized ; while 83-45 per cent, is actually lost by escaping in the form of 
inflammable gases. 

1 kil. of the gas burnt with air gives 1*9290 kil. products of combustion, 
which consist of 

Nitrogen 67-33 

Carbonic acid 29*83 

Aqueous vapour .... 2-84 

100-00 

The specific heat of the products of combustion calculated from this com- 
position corresponds to 0-2740, from which it follows that the temperature of 
the flame of this gas burned with air would be 1768° C, or 3214° Fahr. 

Thus then the temperature of the gases of the Alfreton furnaces is 3214° 
Fahr., when generated under conditions approaching to the favourable cir- 
cumstances in the furnaces themselves. 

Theory of the Hot-Blast Furnaces. 

The previous inquiries have led us to a knowledge of the average compo- 
sition of the furnace-gases, as they are produced during the processes in 
operation in various parts of the furnace. We have endeavoured to point 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 169 

out the influence exerted on the average composition of the gases by the 
materials introduced into the furnace, the ultimate products of all of which 
changes appear at the mouth of the furnace. We now proceed to the most 
important part of our inquiry by endeavouring to elucidate the nature and 
mutual relation of all the processes in the reduction of iron. To obtain a 
knowledge of them, it was necessary to become acquainted with the changes 
suffered by the ascending column of air from the blast to the mouth of the 
furnace. We have collected the gases from various depths of the furnace in 
the manner employed by one of us in his inquiries into the theory of German 
furnaces in which charcoal is used as fuel. This method has been more 
lately used by Ebelmen, with several changes which we have been compelled 
to reject, because in them he introduced a source of error which vitiated his 
results. 

The apparatus for collecting the gases in our experiments consisted of 
a system of tubes twenty-six feet in length, made of soft malleable iron. 
The tube was one inch in diameter, and consisted of pieces of five feet in 
length, screwed together so as to be air-tight. The depth of the tube in the 
furnace was known by white marks placed at the distance of one foot, and 
we found that about three of these sunk in an hour during the first part of 
the experiment, although more slowly afterwards. The top part of the tube 
was furnished with a lead pipe, through which the gases were conducted to 
a place fit for experiment. The system of tubes was balanced by a chain 
passing over a block fixed to a stout wooden upright, and fastened by chains 
round the furnace. The strong heat of the flame issuing from the top of the 
furnace rendered it necessary to wet the support from time to time, and this 
was effected by a fire-engine placed at some distance on the platform. The 
gases themselves were collected in glass tubes four inches long and | inch 
wide, these tubes being drawn out at both ends and connected with each other, 
and also with the lead tube, by caoutchouc joints. The pressure of the gas, 
which amounted often to several inches of water, was too powerful to allow 
the glass tubes to be hermetically sealed while they remained in connection 
with the lead pipe. We therefore found it necessary to heat the tubes so as 
to expand the air to a certain extent, then to tie the caoutchouc joints, and 
not to seal the tubes hermetically until they had cooled down sufficiently to 
prevent any small explosion during the melting of the glass. A vertical sec- 
tion of the furnace upon which our experiments were made is represented in 
fig. 6 ; it is of the usual size of furnaces in this country, and is supplied with 
air heated to 626° Fahr., 330° C. This air passes into the furnace under a 
pressure of mercury of 6'75 inches, out of a nozzle of 2*73 inches in diameter. 
The iron ore melted in this furnace is an aluminous sphareosiderit, which 
is previously roasted so as to free it from moisture and carbonic acid, and 
by this means is converted into an argillaceous peroxide of iron. The fur- 
nace is supplied with eighty charges in the course of twenty-four hours ; 
each of these charges, as we have already mentioned, consisting of 420 lbs. 
of calcined ironstone, 390 lbs. of coal, and 170 lbs. of limestone, the product 
of which is 140 lbs. of pig-iron. The limestone is broken up into pieces 
about the size of the fist before being introduced into the furnace, but the 
coal and ironstone are projected in lumps which not unfrequently weigh above 
twenty pounds. Iron ore and limestone are thrown into the furnace without 
any previous mixture. We have collected the gases in all the regions below 
and above the zone of fusion, for in the latter the collection was impossible, 
owing to the high temperature, which softened the tubes, or melted them 
completely. Although the gases under the zone of fusion are actually at a 
higher temperature than they are at that point of the furnace, we succeeded 



170 



REPORT 1845. 



in obtaining them by boring through the Froiit over the hearth of the fur- 
nace, and introducing an iron tube*. 

The gases collected over the zone of fusion were first examined, and gave 
the following results : — 

Experiment I. 

The depth of the tube was five feet below the upper stratum of fuel and 
materials. The gases issuing from the tube possessed a peculiar smell dif- 
ferent to that of coal-gas, but very similar to the characteristic odour of 
acrolein ; they burned with a yellowish red flame, and were not accompanied 
with brown vapours of tar. Number of charges, 6. 

A. Estimation of olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Temp. 



Gas used 

After absorption of olefiant gas . 
After absorption of carbonic acid 



1320 
131-5 
122-4 



0-6558 
0-6550 
0-6471 



120 
11-8 
110 



82-93 
82-57 
76-13 



B. Examination of the gas freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 

After admission of , 

After combustion 

After absorption of CO2 
After admission of H . 
After combustion 



125-2 
205-8 
179-6 
149-7 
321-6 
179-6 


0-4626 
0-5452 
0-5168 
0-4946 
0-6537 
0-5172 


11-0 
11-3 
11-1 
11-0 
11-0 
110 



55-67 
107-74 

89-20 

71-17 
202-09 

89-29 



Nitrogen 5.5*35 

Carbonic acid 7*77 

Carbonic oxide 25*97 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 3'75 

Hydrogen 6*73 

Olefiant gas 0-43 



100-00 



Experiment II. 

The depth of the tube was eight feet. The blast had been interrupted for a 
w hole hour previous to the experiment, but the gases were not collected until 
the furnace had been for some time in tranquil action. The flame and smell 
Avere exactly the same as in the first experiment. Number of charges, 14. 

* We have already stated that the principal experiments on which our present inquiry is 
founded were instituted at Alfreton iron-works, the property of Mr. Cakes of Riddings House. 
The Uberality with which this gentleman opened all his processes to our inspection, and the 
zeal with which he aided us in our inquky, under circumstances of no ordinary difficulty, 
cannot be acknowledged by us with .sufficient gratitude. A few short months however have 
deprived industry of a most scientific manufacturer and society of a most amiable man. Our 
acknowledgments that our success in the inquiry is mainly owing to the facilities which he 
offered to us must now fall upon the dead instead of upon the living ; but we cannot refrain 
from expressing our thanks to his sons, who aided us materially in our experiments with 
their practical knowledge, and especially to Mr. C. Cakes, whose well-appointed laboratory 
and skill in chemical manipulation were placed at our disposal during our residence at Rid- 
dings House. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 
A. Estimation of defiant gas and carbonic acid. 



171 



Volume. Pressure. Temp. 1 m. at 0° C 



Gas used 

After absorption of olefiant gas . 
After absorption of carbonic acid 



105-4 

104-6 

95-5 



0-6254 
0-6248 
06173 



no 

110 
10-1 



63-36 
62-82 
56-85 



B. Examination of gas freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 125-4 

After admission of 211-9 

After combustion 185-5 

After absorption of CO2 155-3 

After admission of H 344*8 

After combustion 195-5 



0-4623 
0-5680 
0-5221 
0-5032 
0-6757 
0-5342 



10-5 
11-0 
110 
100 
10-5 
10-9 



55-83 

115-70 

93-10 

75-39 

224-36 

100-43 



Nitrogen 54'77 

Carbonic acid 9"4'2 

Carbonic oxide 20*24 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 8*23 

Hydrogen G'iS 

Olefiant gas 0*85 

100-00 
Experiment III. 

The depth of the tube in the furnace was eleven feet, and the gases evolved 
were accompanied by vapour of tar, and possessed the smell of coal-gas. The 
flame was of a clear yellow, with a strong illuminating power. The number 
of charges was twenty-three. 

A. Estimation of carbonic acid and olefiant sas. 



Volume. Pressure. Temp. 1 m. at 0° C 



Gas used 

After absorption of olefiant gas . 
After absorption of carbonic acid 



108-3 
107-6 

98-8 



0-6377 
0-6357 
0-6274 



9-0 
9-0 
9-4 



66-86 
66-22 
59-93 



B. Examination of the gas freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 

After admission of . . 

After combustion 

After absorption of COj 
After admission of H . . 
After combustion 



1310 


0-4773 


9-4 


218-9 


0-5639 


9-4 


186-4 


0-5322 


9-4 


155-7 


0-5126 


9-3 


290-2 


0-6336 


9-3 


119-9 


0-4540 


9-5 



60-45 

119-33 

95-90 

77-19 

177-82 
52-60 



Nitrogen 52-57 

Carbonic acid 9*41 

Carbonic oxide 23*16 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 4'58 

Hydrogen 9*33 

Olefiant gas 0*95 

100*00 
Experiment IV. 
The depth of the tube in the furnace was fourteen feet; the number of 
charges twenty-six ; the smell of the gases was ammoniacal and tarry ; va- 



172 



REPORT — 1845. 



pours of tar were visible, and the flame was yellow, but of small illuminating 
power. 

A. Estimation of olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Volume. Pressure. Temp. 1 m. at 0° C. 



Gas used 

After absorption of olefiant gas . 
After absorption of carbonic acid 



124-2 
1210 
111-5 



0-6462 
0-6529 
0-6430 



7-5 
7-5 
7-5 



78-12 
76-89 
69-78 



B. Examination of gas freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 

After introduction of 

After combustion 

After absorption of COo 
After introduction of H 
After combustion 



147-2 


0-4956 


7-5 


232-6 


0-5800 


7-5 


188-4 


0-5363 


7-7 


156-1 


0-5108 


7-4 


291-6 


0-6361 


7-7 


144-0 


0-4927 


7-7 



71-01 
131-31 

98-27 

77-63 
180-40 

69-00 



Nitrogen 50*95 

Carbonic acid 9'10 

Carbonic oxide 19*32 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 6'64< 

Hydrogen 12*42 

Olefiant gas 1*57 



100*00 
Experiment V. 

Depth of the tube in the furnace seventeen feet, thirty-two charges ; the 
stream of gas which had been interrupted for a short time possessed a peculiar 
tarry smell. There were no vapours of tar, and the flame was yellow and 
only slightly illuminating. 

A. Estimation of carbonic acid and olefiant gas. 



Temp. 



Gas used 

After absorption of olefiant gas . . . , 
After absorption of carbonic acid 



114-5 

1130 

990 



0-6414 
0-6412 
0-6320 



11-6 
11-7 
10-9 



70-45 
69-48 
60-72 



B. Examination of the gas freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 

After admission of .... 

After combustion 

After absorption of COj 
After admission of H .... 
After combustion ■ 



125-5 


0-4740 


213-4 


0-S615 


186-2 


0-5345 


160-7 


0-5197 


332-6 


0-6784 


171*4 


0-5237 



12-0 
11-8 
11-8 
11-5 
11-7 
11-8 



56-99 
114-86 

95-40 

80-14 
216-38 

86-04 



Nitrogen 55*49 

Carbonic acid 12*43 

Carbonic oxide 18*77 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 4*31 

Hydrogen 7*62 

Olefiant gas 1*38 



100*00 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 



173 



Experiment VI. 
Depth of the tube twenty feet, thirty-eight charges. The gases were not 
accompanied by vapours of tar, they smelt ammoniacal and burnt with a pale 
blue flame. 

A. Estimation of olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 

After absorption of olefiant gas . 
After absorption of carbonic acid. 



Volume. Pressure. 



Temp. 



Im. atCC. 



96-2 
96-2 

87-0 



0-7284 
0-7274 
0-7175 



12-3 
12-1 
12-2 



67-05 
67-01 
59-75 



B. Examination of the gas freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 

After admission of 

After combustion 

After absorption of CO2 

After admission of H 

After combustion 



113-9 


0-4586 


12-2 


213-0 


0-5590 


12-7 


192-8 


0-5391 


12-7 


169-8 


0-5285 


12-1 


335-5 


0-6777 


12-7 


130-7 


0-4890 


12-2 



50-00 
113-78 

99-32 

85-93 
117-27 

61-18 



Nitrogen SO-^S 

Carbonic acid 10*83 

Carbonic oxide 19*48 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 4'*40 

Hydrogen ^'83 

100-00 
Experiment VII. 
Depth of the tube twenty-three feet, forty-two charges. The gas was 
unaccompanied by tarry vapours, but smelt slightly, although distmctly, ot 
cyanogen, and burnt with a pale blue flame of no illuminating power, 
A. Estimation of olefiant and carbonic acid gases. 



Gas used ' 

After absorption of olefiant gas 

After absorption of carbonic acid gas 



Volume. 



121-6 
121-6 
113-0 



Pressure. 



0-6517 
0-6517 
0-6441 



Temp. 



8-0 
8-0 
80 



lm.atO°C, 



7702 
7702 
70-71 



B. Examination of the gases freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid 



Gas used 

After admission of 

After combustion 

After absorption of CO3 

After admission of H 

After combustion 



134-9 


0-4817 


80 


230-9 


0-5770 


8-0 


208-9 


0-5560 


80 


180-1 


0-5312 


7-3 


333-6 


0-6720 


7-7 


127-7 


0-4730 


7-8 



63-14 
129-46 
112-86 

93-18 
21803 

58-75 



Nitrogen 58*25 

Carbonic acid 8*19 

Carbonic oxide 26*97 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 1*64< 

Hydrogen **92 

100*00 
Experiment VIII. 
Depth of the tube twenty-four feet; the number of charges and character 
of the gases was the same as in the last experiment. 



174 REPORT — 1845. 

A. Estimation of olefiant and carbonic acid gases. 



Volume. Pressure 



Temp. 



Gas used 

After absorption of olefiant gas . 
After absorption of carbonic acid. 



141-8 
141-8 
128-3 



0-6562 
0-6562 
0-6523 



10-9 
10-9 
110 



89-48 
89-48 
80-46 



B. Examination of the gases freed from olefiant gas and carbonic acid. 



Gas used 

After admission of 

After combustion 

After absorption of CO2 

After admission of H 

After combustion 



139-7 


0-4792 


11-0 


207-9 


0-5479 


11-0 


181-6 


0-5215 


11-0 


148-1 


0-5011 


110 


286-3 


0-6267 


11-2 


164-6 


0-5075 


11-5 



64-36 
109-50 

9105 

71-35 
172-36 

80-16 



Nitrogen 56*75 

Carbonic acid 10"07 

Carbonic oxide 25"I0 

Light carburetted hydrogen . . 2*33 

Hydrogen 5'65 

100-00 
The gas which we collected within two feet nine inches of the tuyere, pos- 
sesses such a remarkable composition that we are obliged to devote to it par- 
ticular attention. The gases, although collected only two feet nine inches 
above the entrance of air, are entirely free from oxygen, and, what is still more 
remarkable, do not contain a trace of carbonic acid. Olefiant gas and light 
carburetted hydrogen could not be present, as the gases produced in the re- 
gion of the furnace are evolved from materials long exposed to a white heat. 
Cyanogen, however, was found in the gaseous mixture in such quantity as 
to be quite sensible by its smell, and by giving the flame its characteristic 
purple colour. 

The analysis of the mixture was effected in the same manner as in the 
preceding cases, but it is necessary to use the following equations in the 
calculation of its composition. _« 

We call the quantity of gas used in the analysis A, the quantity of its 
constituents hydrogen, carbonic oxide, cyanogen, and nitrogen, respectively 
X, y, z,n; and designate the oxygen used in the combustion as O, and that 
remaining after combustion as p, and the volumes of gas remaining after the 
combustion, and then after the absorption of the carbonic acid, as B and C ; 
we then obtain the following expressions : — 
A-=x + y-\-z-\-n. 
^=Oj^n + z + ly-^x. 
C =0 + n — z — ^y — ^x. 
O —p = \x + \y'-\- '2.Z. 
The values of the unknown quantities deduced from these equations are — 



a; = 0-B + 
M=B-0+ 



(C-jo + A) , 

2 
(A - 3 C + 3p), 



C- A + 20-3p, 



3C 



4 
■p+ K 



2 0. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED PROM IRON FURNACES. 



175 



The gas collected six feet above the hearthstone of the furnace, and two 
feet nine inches above the tuyere, gave the following results by eudiometric 
analysis : — 



Gas used 

After admission of 

After combustion 

After absorption of CO2 

After admission of H 

After explosion 



Volume. Pressure 



141-3 

1801 
156-5 
110-1 
199-2 
155-7 



0-4935 
0-5323 
0-5083 
0-4688 
0-5493 
0-5077 



Temp. 



8-5 
8-5 
8-7 
9-0 
9-0 
9-0 



67-63 
92-98 
77-10 
49-97 
105-93 
76-53 



The composition of this gas, calculated out of the preceding numbers by 
the equations just given, is — 

Nitrogen 58"05 

Carbonic oxide . . . 37"43 

Hydrogen 3'18 

Cyanogen 1*34< 

100-00 

If we calculate the proportion of the nitrogen (including also that in the 
cyanogen) to the oxygen contained in the gas, after subtracting a quantity 
corresponding to the hydrogen, we obtain the numbers 79"2 : 22'8, which 
differ only 2 per cent, from the quantity of oxygen in atmospheric air. Now 
by calculating this gaseous mixture on the supposition that it does not con- 
tain cyanogen and consists merely of nitrogen, carbonic oxide, carburetted 
hydrogen and hydrogen, using the formulae which we have provided for such 
cases, the following composition would result, which is not admissible under 
the circumstances in which the gas is formed : — 

Nitrogen 59'39 

Carbonic oxide . . . 38-33 

Carburetted hydrogen . 1-79 

Hydrogen . . . ' . 0-49 

100-00 

Hence this calculation leads us to a composition in which nearly 2 per cent, 
of light carburetted hydrogen is present, an assumption which at once proves 
its inaccuracy, when we consider the point of the furnace at which the gas 
was collected. A consideration of the previous analyses explains the change 
suffered by the column of air in its ascent in the furnace. 



Depth under the top 


I. 

5 feet. 


II. 

8. 


III. 
n. 


IV. 

14. 


v. 
17. 


VI. 

20. 


VII. 
23. 


VIII. 1 IX. 

24. 1 34. 




55-35 
7-77 

25-97 
3-75 
6-73 
0-43 
000 


54-77 
9-42 

20-24 
8-23 
6-49 
0-85 
000 


52-57 
9-41 

23-16 
4-57 
9-33 
095 
000 


50-95: 55-49 


60-46 
10-83 
19-43 
4-40 
4-83 
000 
000 


58-28 
819 

29-97 
1-64 
4-92 
000 

trace. 


56-75 58-05 
10-08; 0-00 




9-10 
19-32 

6-64 
12-42 

1-57 

000 


12-43 
18-77 
4-31 
7-62 
1-38 
000 




25-19 
2-33 
5-65 
0-00 

trace. 


37-43 
0-00 
3-18 
0-00 
1-34 


Light carburetted hydrogen 









A glance at the tabulated results shows that light carburetted hydrogen must 
be considered an essential constituent of the gaseous mixture, even at a depth 



176 REPORT — 1845. 

of twenty-four feet in the furnace. Now as one of us has elsewhere shown that 
carburetted hydrogen can neither be formed by the direct combination of 
carbon with hydrogen, nor by the decomposition of water at the expense 
of the coals, it must be viewed as a product of distillation, a fact of consider- 
able importance in the theory of the process of smelting in this country, and 
which leads to the following conclusion, — That the region of the furnace in 
which the coking of the coal is effected extends to a depth of twenty-four 
feet from the mouth. 

When we consider that the coals are thrown into the furnace in large 
masses, sometimes 20 lbs. in weight, it will scarcely excite surprise that the 
space required by the coal, before being converted entirely into coke, is above 
one-half of the whole depth of the furnace. 

The tabulated composition of the gases further shows that the quantity of ni- 
trogen in the gaseous mixture, taken at a depth of fourteen feet, is at a minimum, 
while the olefiant gas, carburetted hydrogen and hydrogen is at a maximum. 
As the latter gases are formed from coal only under the influence of an ele- 
Tated temperatui-e, we draw from this circumstance the conclusion, that the 
process of distillation of the coal reaches its maximum at a depth of fourteen 
feet. We remarked, in describing the experiments in detail, that the gases 
were free from the vapours of tar to a depth of fourteen feet, but that they 
became richly laden with them on attaining a depth of seventeen feet. The 
absence of these vapours from the upper part of the furnace proves that they 
suffer decomposition as they pass through the upper layers of red-hot coal. 
The water ascending through these layers must also suffer decomposition, 
and this fact explains the irregularity in the proportions between the car- 
bonic acid and carbonic oxide. 

When we compare with each other the different quantities of carbonic 
oxide and carbonic acid at various depths of the furnace, we see a complete 
absence of any mutual dependence, contrary to what was observed to be the 
case in the smaller German furnaces fed with charcoal. In order to under- 
stand this phsenomenon, it is necessary to consider attentively the conditions 
under which the materials are exposed. 

We have already seen that the coal has to travel twenty-four feet, from 
the mouth to the boshes of the furnace, before it is deprived of its volatile 
carbonaceous products, hygroscopic water, and water formed by the distilla- 
tion. Now even if we admit that the temperature in this part of the furnace 
is never so much lowered by the uninterrupted gasification of the coal as to 
prevent the reduction of the iron ore, by which carbonic oxide is converted 
into carbonic acid, still the ore would always be exposed not only to the de- 
oxidizing influence of the furnace-gases, but also to the oxidizing powers of 
the steam evolved from the coal, which has escaped being coked. The pro- 
jection of the coal into the furnace in large pieces has therefore the effect of 
subjecting the ore to a simultaneous reduction and oxidation, on account of 
which the relation between the carbonic acid, carbonic oxide and hydrogen 
is made to depend upon local circumstances in the upper pait of the furnace. 
Now when we further consider that the carbonic oxide and carbonic acid 
escaping from the mouth of the furnace, and from the part superior to the 
boshes, are almost in equal proportion, we are compelled to look for the 
cause of reduction of the ore in a region of the furnace still deeper. How- 
ever, all doubt as to this fact disappears when we refer to the proportion be- 
tween the nitrogen and oxygen of the gases collected. If the reduction of 
the ore and evolution of carbonic acid from the limestone had been com- 
pletely effected above the point of the furnace to which we reached, the gases 
formed below would have contained their nitrogen and oxygen in the same 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FKOM IRON FURNACES. 



177 



proportion as in air, and would not have become richer in oxygen gas. But 
it will be seen that this is really not the case by the following table of the 
varying proportions of oxygen and nitrogen in the gases collected from the 
various depths : — 



Nitrogen 


79-2 
24-9 


79-2 
23-6 


79-2 
24-6 


79-2 
19-5 


79-2 
25-7 


79-2 
23-7 


79-2 

28-2 


79-2 
27-7 


79-2 




27-8 







We see from this series of numbers, that the relation of the gases, as re- 
gards their proportions from the mouth of the furnace downwards, is quite 
the reverse of that observed in the German furnaces. At first sight the cir- 
cumstance strikes us as very inexplicable, because we do not know any che- 
mical process in the furnace capable of diminishing the amount of oxygen 
contained in the gases ; but we are enabled to explain this anomaly on an 
attentive consideration. The diminution of oxygen begins chiefly at the 
point where the gases generated by the combustion of coal become developed. 
The proportion of these gases to each other, shows that, when liberated from 
the coal, they cannot mix quite uniformly with the column of air ascending 
from the lower parts of the furnace. Hence the gas collected at this region 
of the furnace is richer in the gaseous products of distillation of coal than 
would correspond to its average composition ; the hydrogen, for example, 
actually increases to above 12 per cent. If we suppose, as we have done in 
the above numerical series, that the hydrogen is derived from the decompo- 
sition of water at the expense of the carbon, the quantity of oxygen could 
not decrease, whatever may be the proportion of the gases generated in this 
way at the various points of the furnace. But if, as we must suppose, the 
hydrogen is principally derived from the olefiant gas and empyreumatic oils 
decomposed by the high temperature, the calculation leads us to a smaller 
quantity of oxygen than really represents the truth. This fact warrants the 
conclusion, — That the mean composition of the gases cannot be determined 
at that point of the furnace where the evolution of gas by distillation is at its 
maximum. 

The source of this uncertainty disappears in the deeper parts of the furnace, 
where the olefiant gas and the higher hydrocarbons are no longer present. 
The result obtained at the depth of twenty-three and twenty-four feet, giving the 
constant mean proportion 79'2 : 27, proves that under the twenty-four feet, there 
is an evolution of carbonic acid caused either by the reduction of the ore, or by 
the escape of carbonic acid from the limestone, or perhaps by both causes 
together. Now we conclude, from the average composition of the gases 
evolved from the materials used in the furnace, that this evolution of car- 
bonic acid is really owing to the reduction of the ore, and that the process 
of reduction takes place only in the boshes. The average composition must 
be somewhere between the following numbers : — 

Nitrogen 60*907 57*878 

Carbonic acid 8-370 9-823 

Carbonic oxide 26-846 24-042 

Light carburetted hydrogen . 2-536 .... 2"743 

Hydrogen 1-126 4-972 

Olefiant gas 0-112 0-392 

Sulphuric hydrogen . . . 0-045 0-035 

Ammonia 0-058 0-115 



100-000 



1845. 



100-000 



178 REPORT — 1845. 

This mixture of gases contains, — 

1. The products of distillation af the coal. 

2. The products of its combustion. 

3. The carbonic acid generated during the reduction of the ore, and ex- 
pelled from the limestone. 

The proportion of nitrogen to oxygen, as deduced from these analyses, 
is 79-2 : 27-33, and 79-2 : 26-67, or an average of 79-2 : 27. The products 
of combustion of the coal give the proportion existing in atmospheric air 
79*2 : 20*8. Now as the amount of oxygen in the products of distillation of 
the coal is quite insignificant, and may be safely neglected in the calculation, 
the increase of oxygen from 20'8 to 27 must depend upon the carbonic acid 
of the limestone, and the oxygen of the ore given to carbon during the re- 
duction. But the gas collected at twenty-three and twenty-four i'eet deep, 
contains 27"6 and 26"5 oxygen to 79'2 nitrogen. Hence at this depth the 
gas must have already accumulated all the oxygen of the iron, and the car- 
bonic acid of the limestone. These facts warrant us in drawing the follow- 
ing conclusion, — That in hot-blast furnaces fed with coal, the reduction of 
the iron and expulsion of carbonic acid from the limestone takes place in 
the boshes of the furnace. 

We cannot define by direct observation the exact region of the furnace 
in which the melting of the iron and formation of the slag are effected, but as 
the large masses of ironstone cannot enter the hearth in any form except as 
a liquid, we may safely assume that the point of fusion is at the top of the 
hearth in hot-blast furnaces. 

With the object of rendering these processes more intelligible, we have 
shaded a section of the furnace so as to represent the different parts em- 
ployed in their special functions, the drawing being made to an exact scale. 
A B is the space in which the distillation proceeds, B C and C D show the 
region in which the reduction of the ore and evolution of the carbonic acid 
are effected, and in which the materials attain the temperature necessary for 
fusion. 

The marked difference between the results obtained in the continental fur- 
naces and those in this country will cease to excite surprise, when we bear in 
mind the different nature of the fuel employed. The principal reason of the 
great depression of the region of reduction in the furnaces of this country, is 
that almost all the body of the furnace is taken up in the process of coking ; 
and hence the point of reduction must be still further lowered if the pieces 
of coal be of a large size. These pieces, often in bulk equal to a cubic foot, 
must remain a long time before the heat penetrates thoroughly through them, 
and the column of air ascending through this material must yield its heat in 
order to render gaseous above 30 per cent, of the fuel. Hence the depres- 
sion of the temperature of the upper half of the furnace becomes so great 
that it does not suflfice for the reduction of the ore, nor is it sufiicient for 
the expulsion of carbonic acid from the limestone. Another important 
cause lowei'ing the region of reduction, is the high pressure at which the 
blast is thrown into the furnace, the pi-essure being six or seven times the 
amount of that used in Germany. The materials, on this account, traverse 
through the furnace much more speedily, and therefore require to pass 
through a larger space to become heated. All these circumstances have 
much less influence in the German and Swedish furnaces. The charcoal 
with which the latter are fed is a fuel almost completely coked, and the ma- 
terials, being in small fragments and thoroughly mixed, offer a heating sur- 
face at least a hundred times greater than that exposed in English furnaces. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 179 

The small pressure of the blast also effects a slow combustion, so that the 
fuel frequently takes twice or three times the jDeriod to pass through the 
same region of the furnace. 

On the application of Furnace- Gases to practical purposes. 

In this division of the subject we have to consider the useful purposes to 
which these gases may be applied when employed as fuel. Their practical 
value does not so much depend on the amount of heat capable of being ge- 
nerated by their combustion, as upon their maximum temperature ; and both 
these conditions may be exhibited by examining the composition of the vari- 
ous mixtures of gases obtained from different depths in the furnace. But it 
would be erroneous to suppose that the values thus obtained by calculation 
expressed in all cases the average practical effects capable of being derived 
by their application on the large scale, for such a conclusion would only be 
justifiable when the numbers obtained by analyses expressed the average 
value. That this is not the case has been shown in the above considerations 
as to the proportion between the nitrogen and oxygen, for we observed at the 
depth of fourteen feet, when the gases were richest in combustible materials, 
this relation was the least observed. Even in the highest layer of the 
gaseous mixture, the constituents of which may be viewed as most intimately 
mixed, we obtain a combustible value more than one-third greater than the 
above, when we estimate it according to the composition of the materials 
thrown into the furnace, and the products of distillation of the coal. In 
order, therefore, to found our calculations on a firm basis, we will estimate 
the practical value of the gases according to the results obtained in our 
former calculations, as to the limits of variation in the value of the gases, 
when deduced from the composition of the materials with which the furnace 
is supplied. This mode of proceeding will safelj lead us to numbers ex- 
pressing the average value, and will enable us to repose upon them with 
confidence, from the assurance that the results capable of being obtained on 
the large scale, must be much greater than those expressed by calculation. 

Our experiments have proved the combustibility of the entire column of gas, 
even when cold, from a depth of twenty-four feet to the mouth of the furnace. 
Hence it follows that the gas collected from any point to this depth is capable 
of being applied as fuel. It would be objectionable, however, to conduct the 
gas from a deep region of tiie furnace, because we should thus draw off the 
heat necessary to support the process of coking the coal in its upper part. 
The gas might be collected from the upper part of the furnace without any de- 
triment to the process, and with additional advantage as fuel, because, while it 
contains all the combustible products of distillation, it is not deteriorated by 
having taken up any incombustible ingredients. This circumstance greatly 
facilitates the application of the combustible gases, for it removes the obstacle 
to their use in furnaces fed with charcoal. In the latter, the zones of distilla- 
tion and reduction lie more closely together, and the proportion of ore and 
limestone to the coal is so much greater than in this country, that the amount 
of carbonic acid evolved obliges the withdrawal of the combustible gases 
from a low region of the furnace, where the reduction of the ore and evolu- 
tion of carbonic acid have been completed. But the withdrawal of the gaseous 
fuel from a region below that of the reduction necessarily produces such 
disturbance in the operations of the furnace, that only a small part of these 
gases dare be removed, while the largest portion must still be allowed to re- 
main and administer to its necessities. The advantage to be derived from 
the use of the gaseous fuel in this country will therefore be the more obvious, 
when we consider that its apolication cannot derange any of the processes 

n2 



180 REPORT — 1845. 

essential to the reduction and smelting of the ore. In furnaces fed with char- 
coal, the gaseous fuel has been collected and applied without any great diffi- 
cultj-, by building into the wall of the furnace a circular channel supplied in 
the inner part with a grating so as to prevent its obstruction by the materials 
introduced into the furnace. The gases stream freely through this channel, 
even though the furnace is left entirely open, and though the pressure is so 
inconsiderable as scarcely to affect a water manometer. The great pressure 
of blast used in English furnaces led us to the conviction that in them the 
column of gas must be much more compressed, and we have confirmed this 
opinion by a series of measurements on a water manometer attached to the 
tube through which the gases were collected for experiment. The pres- 
sure of the gases expressed by the height of the column of water at various 
depths is as follows : — 

5 feet . . . 0-12 inch. 
8 „ ... 0-40 „ 

11 „ ... MO „ 

14 „ ... 1-60 „ 

20 „ ... 1-80 „ 

23 „ ... 4-70 „ 

24 „ ... 5-10 „ 

This table proves that even in the highest portion of the gaseous column, 
the pressure is considerably greater than in that region of the furnace from 
which the gases are withdrawn in Germany. 

Hence it follows that hot-blast furnaces fed with coal are peculiarly well- 
adapted for the economy of gaseous fuel, which may be conducted from the 
furnace and applied without in any way interfering with its operations. 

We have already shown, on the very lowest calculation, that at least 81*54 
per cent, of valuable fuel must escape from the mouth of the Alfreton furnace. 
Now as about fourteen tons of coal are used in that furnace every twenty-four 
hours, it follows, according to our experiments, that 1 1*4 tons of coal are lost 
every twenty-four hours lay escaping in the form of gases still capable of 
being used as excellent fuel. 

We have previously shown, that the temperature capable of being attained 
by the combustion of these gases is 3083° Fahr. (1695°*2 C), and, by using a 
blast sufficiently heated, this could easily be raised to 3632° Fahr. (2000° C). 
Now as Pouillet has shown that cast iron melts at 2192° Fahr. (1200° C), it 
follows that the gases of hot-blast furnaces fed with coal, when burned with 
hot air, would yield a temperature more than sufficient to melt iron. 



The gases of our furnaces fed with coal contain a very valuable consti- 
tuent, which is entirely absent from the charcoal furnaces of the continent. 
This substance is ammonia, which is present in such abundance, as to be 
sensible to the smell in the gases collected from the deeper parts of the fur- 
nace. We have therefore devoted our special attention to this valuable in- 
gredient, and have arrived at the conclusion that it is possible to economise 
it in the most simple manner. The ammonia may be obtained in the form 
of sal-ammoniac, if the gas previous to its application as fuel be conducted 
through a chamber containing muriatic acid. In collecting the ammonia in 
this manner, there need be little fear of any considerable deposition of tar, 
for the product of distillation flows back upon red-hot coal, and is so com- 
pletely decomposed, that the tube, thirty feet long, used by us for a period of 
twelve hours in collecting the gases, scarcely contained a trace of tar, although 
its temperature was not sensibly higher than that of the surrounding air. 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 181 

If the solution of sal-asrimoniac produced by the condensation of the am- 
monia be allowed to flow into an evaporating pan, over the surface of which 
a small part of the flame of the combustible gas is allowed to play, a conve- 
nient arrangement of the liquid and of the burning stream of gas would en- 
able us to obtain a constant flow of a concentrated solution of sal-ammoniac 
as an auxiliary in the manufacture. The advantage of its collection is, that 
without any further consumption of fuel, or any considerable expenditure of 
labour, a valuable commercial ingredient would be economised. Hence it is 
of importance to estimate how much ammonia we might hope to obtain in 
this way ; and this is easily determined by the quantity generated during the 
distillation of coal. We have subjected the furnace-coal of Alfreton to 
various trials, both by distilling it per se, and along with a mixture of soda 
and lime, and then by separating the ammonia in the usual way from the 
liquid products of distillation by means of chloride of platinum. 

I. 2-887 furnace-coal of Alfreton, heated with soda and lime, yielded 
O'OSOl chloride of platinum and ammonia. 

II. The experiment repeated with 5'687 coal gave 01 75 chloride of plati- 
num and ammonium. 

III. 20*455 grms. distilled per se, gave a product collected in muriatic acid, 
which, after separation of the tar, yielded 0'7681 chloride of platinum and 
ammonium. 

Hence 100 parts of the furnace-coal of Alfreton yields the following quan- 
tities of sal-ammoniac : — 

I. Experiment . . . 0*666 

II 0-739 

III. „ ... 0-902 



Mean .... 0-769 

Now, as 280 cwt.of coal are consumed in the Alfreton furnace every twenty- 
four hours, it follows that more than 2 cwt. sal-ammoniac might be obtained 
from it as a subsidiary product, without increasing the cost of manufacture, or 
in the slightest degree disturbing the process of smelting. 

We have confined ourselves in this examination principally to the con- 
sideration of the furnace-coal of Alfreton, but we may naturally expect con- 
siderable differences as to the amount of nitrogen in other coals used in this 
and in other countries. The estimation of the nitrogen, with regard to the 
possibility of applying the ammonia generated by their distillation, thus be- 
comes a question of considerable importance. We therefore reserve for 
ourselves the prosecution of this inquiry in a succeeding paper. Before 
leaving this subject, however, we have to allude to some experiments, show- 
ing the facility of condensing the ammonia. 

As the gases from the upper parts of the furnace are saturated with aque- 
ous vapour, which condenses along with the ammonia in the lead tube with 
which they were collected, we have taken the proportion of the ammonia 
carried away in the gases, so as to compare it with that which had sufiered 
condensation. For this purpose, the gases flowing through the iron and lead 
pipes, sunk from eight to ten and a half feet beneath the charging-plate, 
were conducted through muriatic acid for two hours seven minutes. We 
determined the volume of the gas passing through the acid by collecting it at 
various times during the experiment in a balloon made of gold-beater's skin, 
of the capacity of 380-8 cubic inches, observing the time which was re- 
quired to fill the balloon. The mean result, which deviated only slightly 
from the individual trials, showed that the gas required 1' 7" to fill the bal- 



182 REPORT — 1845. 

loon, and therefore that 43304;"76 cubic inches have jDassed through the mu- 
riatic acid. The examination of the muriatic acid used in the experiment 
gave 0*198 grm. chloride of platinum and ammonium, corresponding to 
0"0152 ammonia. If we assume as the composition of the gases that formed 
at a depth of eight feet, we can easily calculate the quantity of coal necessary 
to produce the above 43304'"76 cubic inches of gas. According to analysis, 
1000 cubic centimetres of this gas contain 54'7'7 cubic centimetres of nitro- 
gen. We have already seen that nitrogen is not produced from the materials 
introduced into the furnace, and hence all the amount present must have 
been introduced by the blast as atmospheric air, which, burning before the 
tuyere, mixed with the gaseous products of distillation in the upper parts of 
the furnace, and produced the above 54-7*7 cubic centimetres of nitrogen. 
But as this amount of nitrogen is derived from atmospheric air, it implies that 
MS'Si cubic centimetres, or 0"2066 grm. of oxygen has been consumed in 
the lower part of the furnace by uniting with 0*1549 grm. of coke, in the 
formation of carbonic oxide. But, as has already been shown by a previous 
experiment, 0*2304 grm. of coal must have been distilled to produce the 
0*1549 grm. of coke ; and as the above quantity of coal is required to gene- 
rate one litre of the above gaseous mixture, 163*5 grm. must have been em- 
ployed in the generation of the 43304 cubic inches of gas washed by the 
muriatic acid. Hence it follows that only 0*0093 grm., or 3'77 per cent, of 
the ammonia generated from 100 parts of the coal (which according to our 
experiments amounts to 0*2463 grm.) pass over along with the gases ; so that 
the remaining 0*2370 grm., or 96*23 per cent, of ammonia, must have been 
condensed in the water of distillation found in the tube. In fact we ascer- 
tained that the lead tube contained a clear liquid so strongly charged with 
ammonia as instantly to render blue reddened litmus paper held over it. 
These experiments prove how easily the ammonia might be condensed, even 
without the intervention of an acid. 

It will be observed that the gases from the inferior parts of the furnace 
contain cyanogen, the presence of which is highly interesting, not only in a 
theoretical, but also in a practical point of view. This gas appears imme- 
diately over the point of entrance of the blast, and again disappears at a 
small elevation above it, so that at the top of the boshes only traces of it are 
observed. The compound of this substance M'ith potassium appears to play 
a most important part in the furnace, although its functions have apparently 
been altogether overlooked. This is the more surprising, as it has long been 
known that cyanide of potassium effloresces on the walls in certain states of 
the furnace. We have been fortunate enough to elucidate tlie conditions of 
its formation and to fix its region in the furnace. In obtaining information 
with regard to the formation of this cyanogen gas, it M-as necessary to with- 
draw the gases from the vicinity of the hearth of the furnace, and through 
the kindness of Mr. Oakes we were enabled to bore a hole over the Front of 
the furnace two feet nine inches above the level of the tuyere. As soon as 
this hole was made a gas issued from it possessing strong illuminating powers, 
and burning with a yellow flame, from which came abundant vapours of white 
smoke. On introducing an iron pipe into the hole, without allowing it to 
pass into the furnace, it was retained sufficiently cool to prevent its fusion, 
and we were enabled to collect the volatile products. The gases which poured 
out of this tube under a pressure of several feet of water were so richly laden 
with vapours of cyanide of potassium, that we were obliged to use precautions 
in approaching its opening, so as not to suifer injurious consequences from 
this poisonous material. Although the conducting-tube was twenty-two feet 
in length, the amount of cyanide of potassium carried along with the gas was 



ON THE GASES EVOLVED FROM IRON FURNACES. 183 

SO considerable as to fill in a very short time glass tubes of one-eighth of an 
inch in width, and we therefore endeavoured to obtain an approximative result 
as to the amount which thus passed over with the gases and escaped con- 
densation in the long tube. The opening of the iron tube was connected 
with an empty Wolf's-bottle, to which another was attached containing water, 
in such a manner that the gas had to stream througii a layer of four inches of 
the latter. The first of these bottles became quickly filled with a rich white 
sublimate of dry cyanide of potassium, while the water in the second became 
a tolerably concentrated solution of the same substance. It was now neces- 
sary to determine tha quantity of gas which passed through the bottles, and 
this we ascertained by accurately noting the time employed in the experi- 
ment and the exact period necessary to fill a balloon of known capacity 
attached to the second bottle. 

1. Duration of the experiment, 24 minutes; 

2. Mean time required to fill the balloon, 25 seconds ; 

3. Capacity of the balloon, 380*8 cubic inches. 

Hence it follows that 21933 cubic inches of gas passed through the bottle. 
The cyanide of potassium in the Wolf's-bottles and their connecting tubes 
were made into one solution, which weighed 381 "024 grms., and 129"211 grms. 
of this solution yielded 0*62208 grm. cyanide of silver, which was easily de- 
composed by fuming sulphuric acid. Hence, in the 21933 cubic inches of 
gas which had passed througii the flasks, there must have been 0'8944' grm. 
of cyanide of potassium held in mechanical suspension. We have already 
seen that the gas possessed the following composition : — 

Nitrogen 58*05 

Carbonic oxide . • . . . 37*4-3 

Hj'drogen 3*18 

Cyanogen 1*34 



100*00 



The 21933 cubic inches of gas, admitting only its approximative estima- 
tion, its temperature being neglected, must contain 1192*97 grains of carbon, 
corresponding to 1774*79 grains of coal. Hence out of 100 parts of coal, at 
least 0"778 of cyanide of potassium are generated; and as 31200 pounds 
of coal are consumed every day in the furnace, it is obvious that at least 
224*7 lbs. of cyanide of potassium are generated daily in the Alfreton fur- 
nace and hitherto have been altogether lost. 

When the iron tube used in the experiment was withdrawn from the fur- 
nace, it was found to be encrusted with melted cj'anide of potassium, which 
speedily deliquesced in the air. On bringing it in contact with water, a con- 
siderable quantity of hydrogen gas was evolved, obviously due to the pre- 
sence of reduced potassium, or to its compound with cai-bonic oxide. In 
the tube itself at least three or four times the amount of cyanide of potassium 
was condensed, so that we may be quite certain that the amount formed is 
far more considerable than we have stated. With these unexpected results 
before us, it became of importance to determine the origin of the large quan- 
tity of potassium in the furnace. At first we conceived that it might be 
present in the limestone, which not unfrequently contains carbonate of potash, 
according to the researches of various chemists; but on examining as much 
as 30 grammes, Ave were unable to detect in it the smallest trace. However, 
we were informed by Mr. Charles Oakes that he had detected the presence 
of potash in the iron ore, and we are glad to be able to confirm the result of 
this talented young chemist. We have subjected an average sample of the 



184 REPORT — 1845. 

calcined ore to analj'sis, according to the methods usually employed in such 
cases. The quantity used in the analysis was 2"324 grras,, which yielded 
1-400 peroxide of iron, 0*153 alumina, ()-145 carbonate of lime, 0-202 phos- 
phate of magnesia, and 0*599 silica. In order to estimate the amount of 
potash, 17-936 grms. were ignited with carbonate of barytes, dissolved in mu- 
riatic acid, and the bases, after separation of the silica, were as much as pos- 
sible precipitated by carbonate of ammonia. The solution was then freed 
from barytes by means of sulphuric acid, and the excess of the latter removed 
by evaporation with chloride of strontium. In this way the remaining bases 
were converted into chlorides soluble in alcohol, and the solution mixed with 
chloride of platinum and evaporated to dryness in the water-bath left a resi- 
due, which, treated with alcohol to dissolve out the other chlorides, consisted 
of pure chloride of platinum and potassium, and weighed 0*689 grm. This 
analysis gives the following composition for the calcined ore : — 

Silica 25-775 

Peroxide of iron .... 60*242 

Alumina 6*583 

Lime 3-510 

Magnesia 3-188 

Potash 0*743 

Manganese traces. 

100*000 
Another source of the potash was found to be in the coal, although to a 
less extent than in the ore: 1*627 grm. of the coal, dried at 212°, yielded 
0*122 grm. of water; 0*2865 grm. gave 0*7865 grm. of carbonic acid and 
0*153 grm. of water ; 2*887 grms., heated with the mixture of soda and lime, 
gave 0*0801 of chloride of platinum and ammonium. The experiment, re- 
peated with 5-687 grms. gave 0-175 of the above salt; 13-059 grms. of coal 
yielded 0*3505 grm. of ashes, which did not effervesce with acids ; and this 
quantity of ashes, treated as in the case of the iron ore, gave 0*046 grm. of 
chloride of platinum and potassium. The coal therefore is composed as 
follows : — 

Carbon 74*98 

Hydrogen 4*73 

Oxygen 10*01 

Nitrogen 0-18 

Water 7-49 

Silicates 2*61 

Potash 0*07 



100*00 



The quantity of ironstone consumed by the furnace every twenty-four hours 
is 33600 lbs., and tliat of coal 31200 lbs., so that the furnace receives every 
day in these materials 271*48 lbs. of potash, corresponding to 377*3 lbs. of 
cyanide of potassium. Thus these analyses render intelligible the large 
quantity of potash which we observed in the inferior parts of the furnace. 

But we have yet to discuss the most interesting and important question bear- 
ing upon the presence of cyanide of potassium, viz. the origin of its cyanogen. 
We know how easily ammonia in contact with carbon at high temperatures 
is converted into cyanide of ammonium. Hence we should be apt at once 
to admit that the formation of cyanogen is due to the ammonia so freely 
evolved from the coal during its distillation ; and if this view were correct, 



ON THK GASES EVOLVED FROM lEON FURNACES. 185 

the existence of one must arise from the destruction of the other. But when 
we view more closely the circumstances under which the cyanogen is pro- 
duced, we are compelled to admit that the ammonia cannot take part in its 
formation. The hearth, at which the formation of cyanogen takes place, is 
the deepest and hottest part of the furnace, and it would be absurd to 
suppose that the coal which reaches this part could contain a trace of am- 
monia, exposed as it has been for eighty hours to a red heat, and in one 
part to a temperature sufficient to reduce potash. Hence we are compelled 
to adopt the only remaining conclusion, that the nitrogen of the air intro- 
duced by the blast combines directly with carbon to form cyanogen. This 
direct formation has been argued for by various chemists, and supported in 
this country by the experiments of Fownes and Young. But as it has been 
objected to experiments of this kind, that they were instituted without refer- 
ence to the ammonia of the air, which is apt to be taken by most substances 
exposed to it, it is scarcely to be wondered at that the direct generation of 
ammonia is still doubted by distinguished chemists. We have therefore 
thought it necessary to determine this disputed question by an experiment 
which seems to banish all sources of error. We have led simultaneously, and 
under exactly the same conditions, a stream of carbonic acid and another of 
nitrogen, at a very high temperature, over a mixture of two parts of charcoal 
from sugar and one part of chemically pure carbonate of potash, and have 
subjected the products to careful examination. The apparatus used by us 
in these experiments is represented in fig. 9 : a is a gasometer, from which a 
uniform stream of air is made to pass through a bottle filled with sulphuric 
acid (b), and then through a gun-barrel (c c) filled with copper turnings. 
The gun-barrel is kept in a furnace, so that the air passing through it is 
thoroughly deprived of oxygen and passes into the gun-barrel (d d) filled with 
the mixture of charcoal and potash, and heated to a temperature sufficient 
to reduce potassium. In the same furnace is placed another gun-barrel (e e), 
filled with the same mixture, and over which is passed a stream of dry car- 
bonic acid from the apparatus/^. When both the systems were completely 
filled, one with nitrogen, the other with carbonic acid, the streams of gas were 
allowed to pass slowly over the mixture of potash and charcoal, both the 
tubes in the same furnace being kept at a temperature sufficient to reduce 
potassium. The gas passing out of the tube filled with carbonic acid had all 
the characters of pure carbonic oxide, being transparent, inodorous, and 
burning with a pale blue flame, without depositing any kind of sublimate. 
The tube over which nitrogen passed emitted a gas richly laden with a white 
smoke of cyanide of potassium, which sublimed in such quantity as to stop 
the conducting-tube. When the nitrogen was passed so slowly through the 
sulphuric acid that the bubbles passed only once in a second, its absorption 
by the potash was complete, and no gas appeared at the mouth of the gun- 
barrel ; but as soon as the temperature was lowered, so as to be under that 
necessary for the reduction of potassium, the absorption of nitrogen ceased. 
The contents of the tube over which carbonic acid had passed were examined 
after cooling without the detection of the smallest trace of cyanide of potas- 
sium. The mixture treated with nitrogen, on the other hand, dissolved (with 
the exception of its charcoal) with a very powerful odour of hydrocyanic 
acid. The solution exhibited all the reactions of cyanide of potassium, and 
yielded 6*982 grms. of cyanide of silver, which dissolved (with decomposition) 
in fuming sulphuric acid without leaving any residue of chloride of silver after 
being diluted with water. Hence we cannot for a moment demur to the fol- 
lowing conclusion, — That a considerable quantity of cyanide of potassium is 
formed in iron furnaces immediately above the point where the blast comes 



186 REPORT-— 1845. 

in contact with the glowing fuel, and that it owes its formation to a direct union 
of carbon with potassium and nitrogen of the air. 

Our experiments have further shown that cyanide of potassium is volatile 
at high temperatures, and this property is of much influence in the part wliich 
it takes in the reducing process of the furnace. Carried up by the ascending 
current of gas, the cyanide of potassium, partly in a state of vapour, partly 
as a solid, reaches the region of the furnace in which the reduction is effected, 
and here it exerts its well-known reducing power. In consequence of this 
it is decomposed into nitrogen, carbonic acid, and carbonate of potash, the 
former of which passes up with the ascending gaseous column to the mouth 
of the furnace, while the latter, not being volatile, falls back with the other 
materials in the furnace to that point where it is again converted into cyanide 
of potassium, under the influence of the carbon and nitrogen. Hence a large 
quantity of ore may in this way be reduced in the lower part of the furnace, 
by comparatively a small quantity of regenerated cyanide of potassium. The 
importance of this view of the part played by cyanide of potassium, although 
previously entirely neglected, will be seen when we consider that this power- 
ful reducing agent must accumulate in the furnace to a considerable extent. 
The region of the furnace where the highest temperature prevails forms a 
limited space, beyond which the cyanide of potassium cannot extend to the 
lower parts of the furnace until its quantity is so much increased by the pot- 
ash descending in the materials supplied that the excess of cyanide of potas- 
sium escapes volatilization and reaches the blast, where it is burnt and con- 
verted into nitrogen, carbonic acid and carbonate of potash, the basis of M-hich 
unites with the slag. We have already shown that the relation of the nitro- 
gen to the oxygen in the gaseous mixture, collected only two and a half feet 
over the tuyere, is 79'2 : 22'8, after deducting a quantity of oxj'gen corre- 
sponding to the hydrogen. If the gas generated at this place contained only 
the nitrogen and oxygen due to the air, the proportion would be 79'2 : 20*8 ; 
and hence it follows that the gases at this point must either have obtained 
oxygen from a source independent of the air, or that a proportion of nitrogen 
has been abstracted from them. Any one who has had the opportunity of 
observing the temperature of the furnace at this part will at once agree with 
the opinion that the excess of oxygen cannot be derived from the carbonic 
acid or iron ore. A simple inspection of the materials enables us to reject 
such an explanation as erroneous, for the fused materials flowing from the fur- 
nace do not evolve gas, although they come from a point in the immediate 
vicinity of that where the oxygen has been taken up. 

We must therefore admit that this phsenomenon is connected with the for- 
mation of cyanide of potassium in the furnace. The potash, as it yields its 
oxygen to carbon during its conversion to cyanide of potassium, assumes for 
every volume of oxygen lost by it two volumes of nitrogen in the form of 
cyanogen, and consequently the proportion of nitrogen to oxygen is neces- 
sarily increased. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 187 

Report on the Ichthyology of the Seas of China and Japan. By John 
Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., ^c, Medical Inspector of 
Naval Hosjntals. 
The following report is essentially a list of the fish which are known to 
inhabit the waters of the Chinese empire, to which I have added the Japanese 
species that have been named in the ' Fauna Japonica ' of Siebold, edited by 
Temminck and Schlegel, and now in the course of publication. The po- 
sition of the southern islands of Japan, in the same parallels of latitude 
with the northern coasts of China, and with only a narrow sea intervening, 
would lead us to believe that the species of fish which resort to the op- 
posing shores of the two kingdoms are the same, and such is the fact as 
far as our evidence goes. Accurate local catalogues of animals are of much 
utility to the zoologist, being indispensable instruments for eliciting the geo- 
graphical distribution of forms and species; but in respect of documents of 
this kind, ichthyology is far behind the other departments of natural history. 
We have ample lists of the quadrupeds, birds, reptiles and plants of most of 
the larger districts of the globe, but out of Europe we cannot refer to an 
enumeration of the fish of any country that can be said to approach com- 
pleteness, with the exception of the ichthyology of the Red sea, which has 
been made known by the labours of Forskal, Ehrenberg and Riippell. The 
fish of Madeira have been catalogued by the Rev. R. T. Lowe, and those of 
the Canaries, collected by Webb and Bertholet, have been described in the 
ichthyological part of their work by M. Valenciennes. The fish of British 
India also have been extensively figured by Russell, Buchanan-Hamilton and 
M'^Clelland; but much comparative examination of the species of that wide 
country is still required to enable us to distinguish those which are com- 
mon to other countries or districts of the ocean from those which are pecu- 
liar to it. Some of the northern states also of the North American union have 
very laudably caused catalogues to be formed of the animals of their respective 
territories, and from the great ' Histoire des Poissons ' of Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes, we may extract lists, though by no means full ones, of the Acantho- 
pterygian fish that inhabit the coasts of Brazil, the Caribbean sea, Polynesia, 
and the Malay archipelago; but of the ichthyology of the extra-tropical 
seas of the southern hemisphere, and of the whole I'ange of the North and 
South American coast washed by the Pacific, it is almost silent. About a 
score of Japanese and Chinese fish were discovered in the time of Linnseus 
by Lagerstroem, Houttuyn, Osbeck and others, and a few were added by 
LangsdorfF, who accompanied the Russian admiral in his voyage to the isles 
of Japan and the South Sea. With these exceptions, the fish of the eastern 
coasts of Asia, from the sea of Ochotsk down to Cochin China, were, till 
very recently, known to European naturalists merely by drawings of native 
artists, several collections of which are to be found in the British and Paris 
libraries*. Within the last two years Temminck and Schlegel have com- 
menced the pviblication, which we have already alluded to, of Siebold's ich- 
thyological researches in Japan, and have carried on the work to the eighth 
fasciculus, and through the great families of PercidcB, TriglidcB, ScicenidcBy 
SparidcB and Scomberidce. Several novel and interesting forms have been 
already illustrated in this important work, most of them ranging to the 
southern coasts of China, and not unknown to English iclithyologists, though 
published for the first time in the ' Fauna Japonica.' For upwards of fifteen 

* A paper published in the third vohirne of the Chinese Repository, and partly reprinted 
l)y Dr. Cantor in his account of the Flora and Fauna of Chusan (Annals and Mag. of Nat. 
Hist., vol. ix.), gives a more detailed account of what has been done by Eiu-opeans in illus- 
tration of the natural history of China. 



188 REPORT— 1845. '";?■, ?inT -av 

years materials for an ample account of the fish of China have existed in 
England. John Reeves, Esq., who was long resident at Macao, filling an 
important oflice in the employ of the India Company, with an enlightened 
munificence, caused beautiful coloured drawings, mostly of the natural size, 
to be made of no fewer than 340 species of fish which are brought to the 
markets at Canton. These drawings are executed with a correctness and 
finish which will be sought for in vain in the older works on ichthyology, 
and which are not surpassed in the plates of any large European work of the 
present day. The unrivalled brilliancy and effect of the colouring, and cor- 
rectness of profile, render them excellent portraits of the fish they are intended 
to represent; but further details of a technical kind, such as the distribution 
of the teeth in the roof of the mouth, the numbers of the gill-rays, and the 
fine serratures and denticulations on the edges of the opercular pieces, are 
required for the location of the species in their proper genera. Such minute 
characters, which can be detected, in many instances, only by aid of a lens, 
require to be exaggerated to be shown in a drawing, and indeed, when the 
serratures of the gill-pieces were sufficiently large to be conspicuous to the 
naked eye, the Chinese artist has seldom failed to represent them. Mr, 
Reeves had four copies of these drawings made. One set, which he presented 
to General Hardwicke, is bound up with that officer's large collection of 
sketches of Indian fish, in four folio volumes, which he bequeathed to the 
British Museum. These volumes have been inspected by many English and 
foreign ichthyologists, and, among others, by Miiller and Henle, who refer to 
them in their excellent ' Plagiostomen.' Another copy, left by Mr. Reeves at 
Macao with Mr. Beale, formed the groundwork of the enumeration of Chi- 
nese fish in j3ridgtman's ' Chrestomathy,' in which, by the way, very nume- 
rous mistakes in the generic names occur. A third copy, which he liberally 
lent to me, is the foundation of this report*. The Banksian library also 
contains a work entitled ' Figurge Piscium Sinensium a Pictore Sinensi pictae,* 
•which is referred to by M. Valenciennes in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
volumes of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' treating of the Cyprinidce ; the same 
library possesses a Japanese treatise on fishes, with their Chinese names ap- 
pended, and with coloured plates ; and a manuscript work entitled, " Descrip- 
tions of Animals," being an account, in the Linnsean method, of the various 
species, both terrestrial and marine, observed in a voyage to India and China, 
with pen and ink figures of small size, but well-executed. The author is un- 
known. There are also several Chinese works in the library of the British 
Museum containing figures of fishes, but they are far inferior to the others 
we have mentioned, and look more like fanciful designs than natural history 

* General Hardwicke began his collections of illustrations of Asiatic zoology in the last 
century, and continued them till his final return to this country in 1818. He lost many 
specimens and the fruit of much labour by three several shipwreclis ; but this, instead of 
damping his ardour, roused him to fresh exertions, and he was busy up to the time of his 
death in preparing his collections for pubUcation, the scientific part having been undertaken 
by Mr. Gray. Among the drawings of fish whicli he procured, there are some by Major 
Neeld. others by Major Farquhar, and a considerable number copied from the drawings of 
Buchanan Hamilton, by that gentleman's consent, and by the same artists which he em- 
ployed. This is mentioned because a charge of piracy has been made in the Calcutta Journal 
against General Hardwicke, who was however too high-minded to appropriate to himself 
the labours of others without due acknowledgement ; and the careful references in his own 
writing on the drawings of Buchanan Hamilton, show that he had no intention of claiming 
anything that belonged to that distinguished naturalist. The General bequeathed his speci- 
mens and the whole of his collections of drawings, amounting to twenty folio volumes, to the 
British Museum, and also set apart a sum of money to defray the expense of publishing the 
scientific description of them. His collections have been deposited, as he wished, in the 
national institution, but his intentions respecting the pubhcation have beeu entirely frustrated 
by a chancery suit, which was instituted soon after his death. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 189 

illustrations. Mr. Reeves deposited in the British Museum specimens of 
Chinese fish, both dried and preserved in spirits, part of them the very ex- 
amples which are figured in his drawings. His son, J. R. Reeves, Esq., has 
likewise presented various fish procured at Macao to the British Museum ; 
among which are several species not figured in his father's drawings. The 
Rev. George Vachell, who was Chaplain to the India Company at Macao 
fifteen years ago, collected about 100 species of fish there, and presented 
them to the Philosophical Institution at Cambridge, in whose museum they 
are preserved in spirits, and mostly in good condition. One or two small 
collections made at Chusan have reached the India House from officers 
serving there during the late war, and several have been sent to Haslar 
Hospital by the naval officers employed on various parts of the coast, more 
especially by R. A. Baiikier, Esq., surgeon in the Royal Navy, and Captain 
Sir Edward Belcher, whose specimens are figured in the ' Ichthyology of 
the Voyage of the Sulphur,' recently published by aid from the Treasury 
under the auspices of the Government. The College of Surgeons of Lon- 
don also possesses a small number of Chinese fish, procured by Sir Everard 
Home in the estuary of the Yang tsze keang, the great river which falls 
into the entrance of the Yellow sea. An assemblage of Chinese fish, ex- 
ceeding all these in number, exists in the Chinese collection, made by Mr. 
Dunn, and now exhibiting at Hyde Park. The proprietor most liberally 
permitted me to examine this important collection ; but owing to my re- 
sidence at a distance from London, and the way in which the bottles hold- 
ing the fish are secured in screwed-up cases, I have not been able to avail 
myself of this permission to the necessary extent for the identification 
of known species or the description of new ones. In the same collection 
there are also many coloured drawings of fish. The following list is drawn 
up from these various sources. Looking to the number of species which it 
includes, I cannot but consider it as a pretty full enumeration of the fresh- 
water and marine fish of the eastern coasts of the Chinese empire, and it will 
furnish the inquirer into the geographical distribution of forms with several 
important facts. The ichthyology of China forms a material link in the 
evidence by which we are enabled to trace the variations in the numbers and 
grouping of species from the seas of Ochotsk, Kamtschatka and Behring's 
Strait southwards, by the Philippines, Malay archipelago, Javan sea and 
Torres Straits to the coasts of Australia. The ' Ichthyology of the Voyage 
of the Erebus and Terror,' under the command of Sir James Clark Ross, 
another work which owes its existence to the support of Government, will 
contain a much fuller account of the fish of the higher southern latitudes 
than any previous ichthyological jjublication, together with figures of at least 
100 new species, some of them taken beyond the Ylst parallel. In fact, the 
gradual disappearance of the arctic forms in the seas of Japan and the north 
of China, their replacement by other assemblages in the warmer latitudes, 
and their re-appearance on the coasts of Van Diemen's Land, the southern 
islands of New Zealand, the Aucklands and other antarctic lands, may be 
followed with equal, if not more accuracy than similar gradations can be 
traced through the Atlantic ocean. 

General ichthyology has not made sufficient progress to enable us to de- 
duce the laws by which the geographical distribution of species is regulated. 
The only modern work which professes to describe all the species is yet in 
progress, and judging from the numerous additions of new species made by 
every scientific expedition that has left Great Britain or France since the pub- 
lication of the first ten or twelve volumes of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' we 
are assured that very many fish remain to be incorporated in it when it sees 



190 REPORT — 1845. 

a new edirion, or in any other work that embraces tlie same objects : and in 
regard to the extent of range of the described species, the alterations will be 
no less important. I sliall not therefore attempt more in this paper in refer- 
ence to the geographical distribution of fish than merely to mention one or 
two facts that have some bearing on opinions at present entertained by geo- 
logists. Much stress has been laid upon the existence of tropical forms of 
fish in the ancient deposits of northern latitudes as a proof of the high tem- 
perature of the earth in former ages; but I believe that the range of inter- 
tropical species is less restricted than it has been supposed to be. Among 
the Bermudas, on the 32nd parallel, the ChcctodontidcE are so abundant that 
they are preserved in basins inclosed from the sea as an important article of 
food for the garrison and inhabitants ; and a considerable number of fish 
range northwards from the Brazils to the coasts of the United States, some 
of them even to tlie banks of Newfoundland. It is probable that the gulf- 
stream has something to do with this, as fewer tropical forms seem to reach 
the same parallels on the coasts of Europe. If so, there is probably a cur- 
rent of a similar kind setting to the northward on the coasts of China, for 
many species which abound in the Indian ocean range as far north as Japan. 
M. Agassiz says, " Les Xiphio'ides de Sheppy ont tous le bee arrondi comme 
le Tetrapture et les Histiophores ; or ces derniers ne quittent jamais les mers 
du Sud." (Rep. Br. Ass. for 1844', p. 305.) Yet M. Biirger has discovered 
a Histiophorus on the south-west coasts of the Japanese isles, and the same 
or another species exists in the seas of New Zealand. 

Several remarkable generic forms described in the ' Fauna Japonica,* such 
as Hoplegnathus or Scarodon, Histiopferns, Melcmichthys or Crenidens and 
others, have been detected also in the Australian seas. In short, from the 
4.2nd degree of south latitude to the same parallel north of the equator, be- 
tween the meridians which include Australia, New Zealand, the Malay ar- 
chipelago, China and Japan, there is but one ichthyological province, though 
towards tlie respective extremes there is a mingling of antarctic and arctic 
forms with a corresponding diminution in the numbers of the intertropical 
ones. But in the middle portion of this province its dimensions in longitude 
are vastly extended. Very many species of the Red sea, the eastern coast 
of Africa, Madagascar and the Mauritius, range to the Indian ocean, the 
southern seas of China, the Malay archipelago, the northern coasts of Au- 
stralia, and the whole of Polynesia, — the almost continuous ranges of islands 
apparently favouring their distribution. A comijaratively small number of 
these species enter the Atlantic, and such as do are mostly Scomberoids, 
Scopelines, Lophobranchs, Plectognathes or Sharks. It is repeatedly re- 
marked in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' that few species of fish cross the 
Atlantic. From this observation, the Scomberoids which skim the surface 
of the high seas ought perhaps to be excluded ; and some allowance must 
also be made for South American species discovered on the African coasts 
and islands since the time that the passages in the ' Histoire dcs Poissons,' to 
which I allude, were written. But with these qualifications, the remark ap- 
pears to bo well-founded, and the great bulk of species on different sides of 
the Atlantic are different. When we seek for some cause which may explain 
this difference in the distribution of the fish of the two oceans, we observe 
that the bounding shores of the Atlantic run north and south, with a deep 
sea between them, and no transverse chains of islands. On the other hand, 
we have from Africa eastward, within the warmer districts of the ocean, a 
continuous range through the Indian ocean and archipelago, the Malay ar- 
chipelago and Polynesia, which embraces three-fourths of the circumference 
of the globe; there being no points of continent which cut through that 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 191 

great zone and project into the colder regions to the southward*. Could 
we suppose so extensive a belt, having a breadth of sixty degrees of latitude, 
to be suddenly elevated, we should find the remains of fish scattered over it 
to be everywhere nearly alike; — the species having a local distribution being 
comparatively few and unimportant. These spoils of fish Avould of course, 
if the opinions of Professor E. Forbes be well-founded, be associated with as- 
semblages of moUusks and other marine animals, varying according to the 
depth at which the deposit took place. When we advance northwards in 
the Atlantic, beyond the 44th parallel, the number of species common to 
both shores increases. The salmon of America is identical with that which 
frequents the British Isles and the coasts of Norway and Sweden, and the 
same is the case with the codfish and several other members of the Gadoid 
family, and also with some Cottoids. The Cottoids increase in number and 
variety as we approach the Arctic circle, and this is the case also in the 
northern arm of the Pacific, though the generic forms differ from those of 
the Atlantic. From the near approach probably of the Asiatic and Ame- 
rican coasts at Behring Straits, the fish on both sides are nearly alike, down 
to the sea of Ochotsk on the one side, and Admiralty inlet on the other. In 
the sea of Japan, and the neighbouring coasts of China, we find northern 
forms associated with many common to the temperate and warmer parts of 
the ocean. In the colder regions of the southern hemisphere there is again 
a predominance of the Cottoid and Gobioid families, but with a dissimilarity 
in some of the generic forms, though there are also many genera identical 
with those of the northern ones. We again find in the southern seas codfish 
much like those of the north, and Notacanthus and Macrourus, two very re- 
markable Greenland genera, Avhich inhabit deep water, and are seldom pro- 
cured except when thrown up by storms, have recently been discovered 
on the coasts of New Zealand and South Australia. Several genera are 
peculiar to the southern hemisphere, such as Notothenia, JBovichthys and 
Harpagifer; and of these we find the same species at the Falklands, Cape 
Horn, Auckland Islands and Kerguelen's Land ; in fact, in the whole circle 
of the high latitudes. The fish of the New Zealand seas differ little from 
those of- Van Diemen's Land and South Australia. 

From what has been stated, it appears that the ichthyology of the Austra- 
lian seas has an Asiatic character f as opposed to the Atlantic or South 
American assemblages of species. The fish of the Pacific coasts of America 

* Neither the objects nor the limits of this report admit of a full consideration of the 
manner in whicli an archipelago extending in longitude favours the diffusion of many spe- 
cies of fish ; but I may remark cursorily, that the multiplication of places of deposit for 
spawn on the shores of the islands and intervening coral banks, and tlie appropriate food 
that many fish find in such places, may have much influence. The Chmtodonlhltv, Lahridm, 
Balisfidte and other groups of littoral fish, are among the most remarkable for tlie extensive 
range of species. Some oi theXophobranchi who inhabit floating beds of sea-weed, to which 
they adhere by their prehensile tails, have also an extensive range; the moveable and e.\.ten- 
sive beds of Sagasso being, in fact, as far as they are concerned, so many islands. 

t Mr. Gray informs us, that setting aside the Marsupials of Australia, which are of a dif- 
ferent group from the South American ones, the ordinary quadrupeds, of which many species 
are now known, have an Asiatic character; and that all the Australian reptiles are like those 
of the Old World, wliile those which inhabit the Galapagos belong to American groups. The 
genera, he goes on to remark, of the Australian reptiles are mostly pccuhar, but belong to 
Asiatic, or at least to Old World families. One species, named Gecko veriis, is common to 
Austraha and to India and its islands, and the P/estiodon b-lhieatum, which is very common 
in Nortli America, exists also in Australia and Japan, and may perhaps have been introduced. 
The genus, which is a very natural one, and well-characterized, consists of five sjjecies, viz. 
the cosmopoUte one that we have mentioned, a second one inhabiting America, a third one 
belonging to North Africa, and two to China. Specimens fi'om different localities have been 
carefully examined by Mr. Gray, who considers the diffusion of the species of this geuus 
as an anomaly in the geograplucal dietributiou of reptiles. 



192 REPORT— 1845. 

are too imperfectly known to enable us to ascertain how many of them range 
to tiie other side of the great ocean. Is there a marked change either in 
generic forms or species between the eastern limits of Polynesia and the 
American coasts ? 

The desultory observations 1 have thrown out respecting the distribution 
of fish apply more particularly to the marine osseous fish, but those which 
compose the sub-class of Cartilaginei have even a more extensive range. The 
sharks of the China seas and of Australia are for the most part identical. 
One of them, the Cestracion, has attracted the attention of geologists on ac- 
count of the teeth of an ancient species having been found in European de- 
posits, associated with fossil palms and other plants of the warmer regions. 
But whatever inference may be drawn from the character of the plants, no 
great reliance ought to be placed on the teeth of the Cestracion as an indi- 
cation of the temperature when the deposit was made. The Australian 
species, or one differing from it chiefly in colour and little in form, inhabits 
likewise the seas of China and Japan ; and when deposits now forming are 
revealed to the eyes of future geologists, its spoils will be found associated 
with the Huon pines of Van Diemen's Land, the Eucalypti of New Holland, 
the fern trees of New Zealand, or with the vegetation of the temperate parts 
of Asia, according to the locality that is explored. 

With regard to freshwater Jish, China agrees closely with the peninsula of 
India in the generic forms, but not in species. It abounds with Cyprinidce, 
Ophicephali and Siluridce. As in the distribution of marine fish the inter- 
position of a continent stretching from the tropics far into the temperate or 
colder parts of the ocean separates different ichthyological groups ; so with 
respect to the freshwater species, the intrusion of arms of the sea running 
far to the northwards, or the interposition of a lofty mountain chain, effects the 
same thing. The freshwater fish of the Cape of Good Hope, and the South 
American ones are different from those of India and China. The remarkable 
mailed Siluroids of intertropical America are unlike any freshwater fish of 
Africa or Asia, while the OphicepJiali are almost exclusively Asiatic ; a genus 
of the same family being found at the Cape of Good Hope but none in Ame- 
rica. The Cyprinidce have been said to be wanting in Polynesia and Au- 
stralia. In the coral islands of Polynesia their absence is clearly owing to 
the want of lakes or rivers, and of Australia it may be said that the rivers 
have not been sufficiently explored. They exist in the larger islands of the 
Javan ciiain, and it is likely that the same species will hereafter be detected 
in the northern parts of Australia. And the Cyprinoid family is not alto- 
gether unknown in Australia. A curious marine Cyprinoid, the RhyncJiana 
greyi (Ichth. of Voy. of Erebus and Terror), is not rare in the seas of New 
Zealand and South Australia. It has been a prevalent opinion that the Cy- 
prinidcB are exclusively freshwater fish, but the Catastomi of North America 
frequent the estuaries of the rivers which fall into the Arctic sea, living indif- 
ferently in the salt and fresh water, and thriving wherever they find proper 
food. The anadromous Percoids differ very slightly in form from others that 
are purely inhabitants of fresh waters ; and many examples of the same kind 
might be adduced from among the marine fish *. The common anadromous 
salmon (^Salmo salar) does not descend beyond the 41st degree of latitude on 
the eastern coast of America, and it is probably restrained within similar bounds 
on the eastern coast of Asia, for we find no representations of it among the 

* In the genera Amhassis and Apogon, there arc species truly marine, with others closely 
resembling them, that inhabit fresh waters and even thermal springs of high temperature. 
Most of the Corcfjoni pass their whole lives in inland waters, but many individuals, carried 
down to the sea by river floods, live and thrive in the brackish or salt waters of the estuaries : 
and the brackish lagoons of Port Essington on the north coast of Australia furnish full-grown 
examples of Carangi, Mesopriones, and other fish considered to be purely marine. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 193 

Chinese drawings. It is said by ichthyological writers to be an inhabitant 
of all the northern part of the Old World, from the entrance of the Bay of 
Biscay northwards, by the North Cape, along the Arctic shores of Asia and 
down the coasts of Kamtschatka to the sea of Ochotsk, including the Baltic, 
White sea, Gulf of Kara and other inlets *. Other kinds of salmon abound 
in the estuaries of Kamtschatka, and on the opposite coast of America down 
to the Oregon, but none appear to descend to China. 

In the following list Mr. Reeves's drawings are quoted by their original 
numbers in his portfolio, and also as they are now placed in the volumes 
bequeathed by General Hardwicke to the nation. A few of Mr. Reeves's 
drawings, which are not in General Hardwicke's collection, are also quoted. 
When 1 have seen Chinese examples of any of the species enumerated in the 
list, I have seldom omitted to mention the museum in which they are de- 
posited ; and when nothing is said of specimens, it is to be understood that 
the species is named from the inspection of Mr. Reeves's draM'ings, or when 
there is no figure on the authority of the authors quoted. The Chinese 
names are in some cases written from sound and not from sense f. The sounds 
in English characters and the translations were furnished to me by Mr. Reeves 
and Mr. Birch, of the British Museum. 

Mr. Reeves informs me that few of the fishes represented in the drawings 
are brought to the tables of foreigners. Soles are almost constantly presented 
at breakfast, and the Scicena lucida generally forms a part of that meal. 
The Leucosoma, or White Bait of the residents, and a Serranus, are regular 
dinner dishes ; and the Polynemus called Salmon-fish and the Stromateus or 
Pomfret, when in season. Sturgeon is occasionally seen. The Chinese eat 
all kinds, from a shrimp to a shark ; but Carp, Bream, Siluri, Ophicephali 
and Gobies, are the principal fish seen in the markets of Canton. 

In drawing up the list 1 have received much aid from John Edward Gray, 
Esq., Keeper of the Zoological Department of the British Museum, who 
had commenced a work on the subject ; and great facility in consulting the 
books and specimens of that institution. With the same want of reserve the 
Museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Institution was opened to me ; and 
I have already mentioned the liberality of the late proprietor of the Chinese 
collection at Hyde Park. 

Sub-classis Cartilagikei. 

Ordo Squall 

Fam. ScYLLiiDJE. 

ScTLLiuM MACULATUM, Gray, Hardw. Illustr. Ind. Zool. t. 98. f. 1. Miiller 

und Henle, Plagiostomen, seite5.taf.; /co?j. Reeves, 264; Hardw. Cartil. 38. 

Chinese name, Laou hoo sha, " Tiger shark " (Birch) ; Laou hoo sha, 

" Tiger shark" (Reeves). 

The British Museum possesses a Cliinese specimen presented by General Hardwicke. Mr. 
Reeves's figure measures 2 feet 4 inches, and is the portrait of an individual which was 
3 feet long. 

Hab. China sea. Indian ocean. Canton. 

* Professor Nilsson mentions that salmon inhabit the freshwater lakes of Sweden named 
Wenem and Siljan during the winter and spring, and then ascend the rivers to spawn, re- 
turning to the lakes again to recruit, as salmon of other rivers do to the sea. The same 
habit has been ascribed to the salmon of Lake Ontario. 

+ That is, when the proper character is a complex one, the writer will substitute one of 
the same sound but of a more simple foi-m, hence the apparent want of meauing of some of 
the English translations. See note, p. 200. 

1845. o 



194 REPORT — 1845. 

ScYLLiUM BURGER!, M. und H., seite 8. taf. 2. 

Hah. Sea of Japan. 

Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Bennett (Sci/Uium), Life of Raffles, p. 693 ; 
M. und H. p. 17. Scyllium ornatum, Gray, Hardw. 111. t. 98. f. 2. var. 2. 
M. und H. ; Icon. Reeves, 252 ; Hardw. Cartil. 45. var. 3. M. und H. Chi- 
nese name, Pan chuh sha, " Striped bamboo shark " (Birch, Reeves); Icon. 
Reeves, a. 2 ; Hardw. Cartil. 44 ; Chinese name, Ta sha, var. 4 M. und H. 

The British Museum possesses an example of the second variety which was brought from 
China by John Reeves, Esq., and there are others in the collection of the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society, also obtained at Canton by the Rev. George Vachell. Figure 252 in Mr. 
Reeves's portfolio measures 2 feet 4 inches, and jS 2 nearly 14 inches. 

Hah. Seas of Japan and China, the Indian ocean and the coasts of the Brazils ! (M. 
und H.) 

Crossorrhinus barbatus, Lin. (Squalus); M. und H. 21. taf. 5. Watt's 

shark, Phillips's Voy. to Bot; Bay, p. 168. pi. 43. Le squale barbu, Brouss. 

Lacep. i. p. 247. Squalus barbattis et lobatus, Bl. Schu. pp. 128, 137. 

Scyllium lobatum, Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 387. 

Hah. Seas of Japan and Australia. An Australian specimen exists in the museum at 
Haslar. 

Fam. CarcharidjE. 

Carcharias [Scoliodon] acutus, Rijpp. Chondr. p. 5. taf. 18. f . 4 ; M. 
und H. 29. Scoliodon russellii, Gray. Icon. Reeves, a. 5 ; Hardw. Cart. 
50 & 47. Chinese name, Sha tsze, " Sharkling" (Birch); Sha yu, " Shark- 
fish " (Reeves) ; Sha u (Bridgem. Chrest. 184). 

The British Museum possesses a specimen of this shark from Canton, presented by John 
Reeves, Esq. 

Hah. China seas. Canton. Javan sea. Indian ocean and Red sea. 

Carcharias [Prionodon] dussumieri, Valenc; M. et H. 47; Icon. 
Reeves, a. 1 ; Hardw. Cartil. 51. Chinese name, Tse tow sha, " Regular 
head shark " (Birch) ; Chae tow sha, " Even-headed shark " (Reeves) 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 186). 
Hah. China sea. Canton. Indian ocean. 

Carcharias (Prionodon) melanopterus, Quoy et Gaim., Freyc. Voy. 
pi. 43. f. 12 ; Bennett, Life of Raffl. p. 693 ; Rvipp. Chondr. p. 3 ; M. und 
H. 43. Sq. requin, Lacep. i. p. 169. pi. 8. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, a. 3 ; Hardw. 
Cart. 49. Chinese name, Woo yih sha {^\xc\\) \ Woo yih sha, "Black- 
finned shark" (Reeves) ; U sih sha (Bridgem. Chrest. 187). 
Hah. China sea. Waigiou. Javan sea. Timor. Australian seas. Red sea. 

Sphyrna ZYGJKNA, Roudelct, p. 389; Ray; Lin. Bloch, 117 {Squalus). 
Kama sorra, Russ. 12. Zygcena malleus, Valenc. Mem. du Mus. ix. p. 223. 
pi. 11. f. 1; Yarrell, ii. p. 406. Z. leicisii, GrifF, An. Kingd. pi. 50. 
Sphyrna zygcena, M. und H. 52 ; Icon. Reeves, a. 4 ; Hardw. Cart. 59. 
Chinese name, Kung tsze sha (Birch) ; Kung tsze means children's toys 
(Reeves) ; Kung tsz mo sha (Bridgem. Chrest. 189). 

Hah. China seas. Canton. Indian ocean. Brazilian coasts. Mediterranean. Coasts of 
France and English channel. 

Fam. Galeid^, 

Galeus japonicus, M. und H. 58. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 195 

Fam. ScylliodontidjE. 
Triakis scyllium, M. und H. 63. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Fam. MusTELiDiE. 
MusTELUs VULGARIS, M. und H. Smooth hound, Yarr. ii. p. 333. 

Hah. Japanese and China seas. Australian coasts. Cape of Good Hope. Atlantic. Medi- 
terranean. English channel. 

Fam. Lamnidje. 
Lamna cornubica, Lin. (Squalus), Gmel. 1497 ; Goodenough, Lin. Tr. iii. 
p. 80. pi. 15. Porbeagle, Borlase, Cornw. p. 265. pi. 26. f.4 ; Yarr. p. 384, 
and Beaumaris shark, p. 387. Sg. monensis, Penn. iii. pi. 7; Shaw, Zool. v. 
p. 350. Lamna coriivbica, Cuv. Regn. An. ii. p. 389 ; M. und H. 67. 

Hab. Coasts of Norway. The Sound. English channel. Mediterranean. Atlantic. Sea of 
Japan. 

Fam. Cestraccontidje. 

Cestracion zebra. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 5 ; Icon. Reeves, 174 ; Hardw. 
Cart. 52. Chinese name, Maou urh sha, " Cat-shark " (Birch) ; Mau e 
sha, " Kitten-shark " (Reeves) ; Mau i sJta (Bridgem. Chrest. 185). 

Specimens of this fish from China exist in the British Museum and in the museum at Has- 
lar. They are all banded transversely, and very differently from the Australian specimens of 
C. phillipi. We have compared drawings of recent examples of this fish with Mr. Reeves's of 
zebra, and find them to be very dissimilar in their markings, but the species are very much 
alike in form. Miiller and Henle most probably consider them to be identical, as they men- 
tion C. phillipi as an inhabitant of the Japanese seas. Small examples oi zebra may be found 
in the Chinese insect-boxes. 

Hab. Sea of China. 

Fam. NoTiDANiD^. 

Heptanchus indicus, Cuv. Regn. An. p. 39; Agass. iii. tab. E. f. 1. (iVb- 
tidanus), M. und H. p. 82. tab. 
Hab. Seas of China, Australia, and the Indian ocean. 

Ordo Raije. 
Fam. Rhinobatid^ (Squatinoraiee, M. und H.). 
Rhina ancylostomus, B1. Schn. p. 352. t. 72; Gray, Hardw. III. Ind. 
Zool. pi. 102. f. 2, The jaws. Ico7i. Reeves, /J. 74; Hardw. Cart. 69, 
70, 71 ; Owen, Odont. pi. 23, The teeth. Chinese name, Pe pa sha, 
"Guitar shark" (Birch); Pe pa yu, "Pe pa shark." "Thejoe pa is a 
musical instrument like the guitar " (Reeves). Pe pa u (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 164). 

Mr. Reeves deposited a Chinese specimen of this fish in the British Museum. 
Hab. Seas of China (Reeves). Indian ocean (Bl.). 

Rhinobatus schlegelii, M. und H. p. 123. tafel. 

The British Museum possesses one of Biirger's specimens, which difipers a little from the 
figure in Miiller and Henle's work, in having larger eyes, and somewhat differently shaped 
spout-holes. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Rhinobatus hynnicephalus, Richardson, /cow. Reeves, o. 7 ; Hardw 
Cart. 63. Chinese name, Le tow sha (Birch) ; Lae tow sha, " Plough- 
headed sha" (Reeves'); Lai ton sha (Bridgem. Chrest 186). 

I have seen no specimen of this fish, but after a careful comparison with the description 
and figures of the species of the several sub-genera composing this genus, as constituted in 
the • Plagiostomen' of Miiller and Henle, it was not found to correspond with any of them. 

o 2 



196 nEPORT — 1845. 

The disc is wider than that of U. schlegelii, the length being in proportion to the breadth 
as 7 : 6 : it is more undulated on the fore edge, there being a conspicuous widely-rounded 
lobe opposite the eyes, and the snout is acuminated, but yet blunt at the point. A single 
acute tooth on the hinder edge of the spout-holes. The width of the disc somewhat exceeds 
one-third of the whole length of the fish. Colour shining yellowish-brown, with specks of a 
darker tint of the same, arranged for the most part so as to form small sub-circular areas. 
Length of the figure 19^ inches. 

Hab. China seas. Canton. 

Platyrhina sinensis, M. und H. p. 125. Raie chinoise, Lacep. i. p. 34 
et 157. pi. 2. f. 2; Icon. Reeves, 182; Hardw. Cart. 74'. Chinese name, 
Hwang teen poo*, "Yellow spotted ray" (Birch). 
A Chinese specimen exists in the British Museum. 
Hub. Seas of China and Japan. Canton. 

Fam. ToRPEDiNiD^. 
Narcine timlei, B\. Schn. (Torpedo), p. 359; Henle, Narc. p. 34. taf. 2. 
f. 4; M. undH. p. 130. 
Hab. Indian ocean and sea of Japan. 

Narcine lingula, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 227 ; Hardw. Cart. 72. 
Chinese name, Muh cho poo, "Wooden ladle handle ray" (Reeves); Muh 
cheohpo (Bridgem. Chrest. 240) ; Themilly yar, Hindostanee. 

Mr. Reeves's drawing shows only the upper surface of the fish, but I possess another figure 
executed by the late Dr. Wight in India, which gives a view also of the under disc, and shows 
that this Torpedo belongs to the sub-genus Narcine. The upper lip is entire with a slight 
point at the central bridle, and the dental plates turn out over the upper and under jaw. In 
the outline of the disc it resembles the Nalla temere of Russell (pi. 2), but in this fish the 
ground colour is white and the spots more round and regular. 

The width of the disc is to its length as six to seven, and as it is widest posterior to its 
middle, it has a very broadly ovate form, without any angles, the snout being rounded. The 
breadth of the disc is equal to the length of the tail from the anus to the tip of the caudal fin. 
The ventrals have a slightly convex edge with the fore and hinder corners only moderately 
rounded. The claspers project beyond its edge. First dorsal rather larger than the second. 
The distance between the eyes and edge of the snout is equal to a fourth of the width of the 
disc, and the spout-holes, which are larger than the orbits and have smooth edges, are con- 
tiguous to them. Colour of the upper surface reddish-brown, with larger and smaller dark 
liver-brown spots, the largest being placed on the middle line of the back and tail. Some of 
the spots which lie round the electrical apparatus run into curved bars, and there are two lon- 
gitudinal dark bars on the ventrals. The under surface is white, with reddish and purple tints 
round the edges of the various parts. Length of the figure 13 inches. Breadth of the disc 
5'2 inches. 

Hab. China seas. Canton (Reeves). Indian ocean. Madras (Wight). 

Muh cho poo, Reeves, 6 ; Hardw. Cart. 73. 

This ficure has the same Chinese name with the preceding one, and much the same colours 
and spotst but it presents such difference in form, that, looking to the general accuracy of Mr. 
Reeves's admirable collection of drawings, prevents me from considering it as a representation 
of the same fish ; yet the discrepancies are not sufficient in the absence of specimens to induce 
me to name it as specifically distinct. The general proportions of length and breadth do not 
differ greatly from those of lingula, but the disc is more widely rounded anteriorly, and more 
gibbous just behind the eyes, making an approach, though a slight one, to the sub-rhomboidal 
form of A^. indica. The posterior corners of the disc overlap the ventrals rather more, and 
the latter are considerably larger with a more rounded outline. They extend backwards to 
the middle of the first dorsal. The second dorsal is drawn a trifle larger than the first. The 
eyes also are proportionally nearer to each other and to the fore-edge of the disc than in lin- 
gula. There are some slight differences in the spots, but scarcely so much as to require de- 
scription. The posterior lobes of the disc are deeply tinged with arterial blood-red, but the 
colours in other respects are the same. The fish represented was a female, as no claspers are 
shown. Length of the figure 16 inches, width S-3 inches. 

Hab. China sea. Canton. 



* The term poo comprises a Chinese genus, wliich may be generally translated as " ray." 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 197 

Fam, Raiid^. 
Raia kenojei, "Burger," M. und H. p. 149. tafel; Icon. Reeves, 198; 

Hardw. Cart. 77. Chinese name, Pang shapoo (Birch), " Butterfly Poo 

ray" (Reeves). 

Mijller and Henle describe the colours of the dried fish as uniform. In Mr. Reeves's draw- 
ing the ground colour is clove-brown, shaded obscurely with liver-brown, and with a reddish- 
brown tint before the eye. There are also many paler v.'ood-brown spots, which are sprinkled 
with dark dots. Exterior to the eyes on each side, six of the smaller pale spots are arranged 
so as to form a ring round a central one : similarly arranged spots occur near the margin of the 
widest part of the disc on each side, and also more posteriorly, while nearer the mesial line on 
each side there is an uninterrupted pale ring with a central spot, and a like ring exists on the 
posterior lobe of the disc. The edges of the under surface, which are partially shown in the 
drawing, are purplish-red. The spines correspond better with the letter-press description than 
with the figure given in the 'Plagiostomen' of MUlIer and Henle. Length of figure 14 inches, 
width 8^. 

Hah. Seas of China and Japan. Canton. 

Fam. TRYGONiDa:. 
Trygon uarnack, Riippell, Atl. p. 51 ; Chondr. taf. 19. f. 2 (Pastinachus). 

M. und H. p. 158. Tr. omescherit, Forsk. 9; Riipp. Atl. p. 51. Tri/g. 

russeUii, Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. 100 ; Icon. 89. Hardw. ined. (a drawing of 

TV. russellii) ; Icon. Reeves, a. 37 ; Hardw. Cart. 91 {Fcemina). Chinese 

name, Hwa kin, " Variegated ray " (Reeves) ; Icon. Reeves, 279 ? Hardw. 

Cart. 90 (iKfas)? 

A specimen in spirits and a dried skin from the Indian seas were bequeathed by General 
Hardwicke to the British Museum. 

Hab. Sea of China. Indian ocean. Red sea and Cape of Good Hope. 

Trygon akajei, "Biirger," M. und H. p. 165. tafel, 
Hab. South-west coast of Japan. 

Trygon zugei, " Biirger," M. und H. p. 165. tafel. 

Hab. Sea of Japan and China. Macao (Belanger). Indian ocean. 

Trygon bennettii, M. und H. p. 160. tafel; Icon. Reeves, a.'^S; Hardw. 
87 & 88, which is a duplicate. Chinese name, Hwang poo, " Yellow 
ray " (Reeves, Birch). 

A Chinese specimen exists in the British Museum. 
Hab. China sea. Caribbean sea! (M. und H.) 

Trygon carnea. Icon. Reeves, 226 ; Hardw. Cart. 86. Chinese name, Pzh 
yiihpoo, " White jade-ray" (Birch) ; "White-fleshed ray" (Reeves). 

This ray has much resemblance in form to the Tr. walga, as figured by Miiller and Henle, 
and still more to the Tenlcee shindraki of Russell (pi. 5), or to Tr, bennetiii, M. und H. ; but it 
has a considerably longer tail than either, and slight indications of both an upper and an under 
short hem- like seam on the tail. The form of the disc is obovate, with a sharp point to the snout, 
but no incurvature of the fore-edge, nor any decided convexity. Its breadth at the hinder 
edge of the spout-holes is equal to its length, excluding the ventrals, and the tail measures 
fully twice as much. The eyes are distant from the point of the snout one-quarter of the 
length of the disc, and less than that from each other. Two small spines (or perhaps pores) 
are situated side by side between the posterior edges of the spout-holes on the middle line. 
Colour, pale flesh-red, almost white in parts ; the tail darker towards the point. It is pos- 
sible that this inay be merely a variety of Tr. bennettii. Mr. Reeves thinks that it is the 
voung of some species. Length or bi'eadth of disc, 2^ inches. 

Hab. China sea. Macao. 

Pteroplatea micrura, B1. Schn. (Trt/gon), p. 300 ; M, und H. p. 169. 
Tenkee kunsul, Russ. 6. Raia pcecilura, Sha,w, 291. Trygon pceciluray 



198 REPORT— 1845. 

Bennett, Life of Raffles, p. 694 ; Icon. Reeves, 209 ; Hardw. Cart. 80 
(Fcem.) ; and Reeves, a. 48 ; Hardw. Cart. 78, 81 dupl. {Mas). Chinese 
name, Peih yu, " Shoulder-fish " (Reeves) ; this var. has three spots on 
each pectoral fin. Icon. Reeves, 235 ; Hardw. Cart. 82 ; Chinese name, 
Fepeihpoo, " Flying shoulder ray ;" this is a monstrosity with pectorals 
divided, so that it appears to have four fins. 
Hab. China and Javan seas. The Indian ocean and Red sea. 

Fam. Myliobatidje. 

Myliobates nieuhofii, B1. Schn. p. 364 {Raia). M. und H. p. 177. Moo- 
karra-tenkee, Russ. 7. Fasciated ray, Shaw, Zool. 286. Myliobates aquila, 
Bonap. F. It. Raia macrocephala. Icon. Parkins, in Bib. Banks. 48 ; Icon. 
Reeves, a. 38 ; Hardw. Cart. 97. Chinese name, CJiang ying, " Spread kite " 
(Birch) ; " Broad eagle " (Reeves) ; Cheung ung (Bridgem. Chrest. 157). 
Hab. Chinese and Australian seas (Reeves, Solander). Indian ocean. Mediterranean 

(M. und H.). 

Myliobates maculatus. Gray, Hardw. 111. Ind. Zool. pi. 101 ; M. und H. 
p. 178 ; Icon. Reeves, 212; Hardw. Cart. 99 & 100 (duplicate). Chinese 
name, Hwa teen chang ying, "Long ray" (Birch); Fa teem chang ying, 
" Flowered-spotted long ray " (Reeves) ; Ta tim cJieung ang (Bridgem. 
Chrest. p. 158). 
Hab. China sea. Indian ocean. 

Myliobates vultur, M. und H. p. 179. 

The British Museum contains an example of this species from China. 
Hah. Chinese seas. 

? Myliobates oculeus, Icon. Reeves, 281 ; Hardw. Cart. 98 ; Ein My- 

liobatis (oder Aetobatis) der vielleicht nur eine Varietal des M. maculctttis 

ist. M. und H. p. 129 (in notd). 

In this drawing the disc of the fish is thickly covered with eyed spots, which are inclosed 
in hlackish-green reticulations. Each spot has a pale silvery central disc, surrounded by a 
blackish ring, which is shaded off, and is itself enchased in a broader pale wood-brown border. 
The disc is rounded on each side in front, and falcate behind, witVi a small acute point form- 
ing its interior tip. The figure is about 22 inches long, of which Hi inches is tail. The width 
of the disc from tip to tip is 8f inches. 1 have met with no specimen of this fish. 

Hab. Sea of China. Canton. 

? Aetobates flagellum, B1. Schn. 361. tab. 73 ? ; M. und H. 180; Icon. 
Reeves, 273 ; Hardw. 101. Chinese name, Hihjow chang ying, "Black- 
fleshed spread kite " (Birch) ; Hah yoh chang ying, " Black-bodied long 
Eagle" (Reeves). 

Hab. China seas. " Indian ocean. Red sea." 

Obs. Icon. Reeves, 236 ; Hardw. 102. Chinese name, Hung tsuy ying, 
" Red-lipped kite " (Birch) ; Hung tsuy ying, " Thick-nosed ray" (Reeves). 
This is, perhaps, a violet-coloured variety of Aetobates ? flagellum. 
Hab. Macao, in July. 

Ordo Sturiones. 
Fam. Sturionidje. 
AciPENSER CHiNENSis, Gray, Hardw. 111. pi. 98. f. 5. 

Hab. China. Spec. Br. Mus. 

It is probable that some species of Chimcera or Callorrhynchus exists in the seas of China 
and Japan. We have seen a small figure of the latter, which was sketched at Bow Island; 
but we have not met with a Petromyzoii in any of the collections of Chinese fish or drawings. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHIXA AND JAPAN. 199 

Sub-classis Ostinopterygii, MacLeay. 
Ordo Plectognathi. 
Fara. Tetrodontid^. 

DiODON PUNCTATUS, Cuv. Reg. An. ii. p. 367. D. attinga, Bl. 125. D- 
hystrix, Bl. 126. 

Sir Edward Belcher brought several small specimens from the Chinese seas. 
Hab. Sea of China. Malay archipelago. Indian ocean and Red sea. 

Tetrodon BiMAcuLATUs, Bennett (woj^a sp.), Zool. of Beechey's Voy. p.50; 

Richardson, Ichth. of Sulph. Voy. p. 119. pi. 57. fig- 7-9. Tet. fasciatus, 

M'Clelland, Cal. Journ. p. 412. pi. 21. f. 2 (non Bl. Schn.). 

Specimens were brought from China by Sir Edward Belcher, and others exist in the Chi- 
nese collection at Hyde Park, 

Hab. Sea of China. 

Tetrodon ocELLATUs, Osbeck (Z)ioc?ow), Eng. trans, i. p. 365 ; Bl. 145; 
Icon. Reeves, 271 ; Hardw. Cart. 15. Chinese name, Yu po (Reeve.s); 
Yu paou, "Jade bubble" (Birch); Kdi po y (Osbeck); Rich. Ichth. of 
Sulph. Voy. p. 120. pi. 58. f. 1, 2. 

Specimens of this fish, in spirits, exist in the British Museum and Chinese collection at 
Hyde Park, and its dry skins are very common in the insect-boxes sold at Canton. 

Hah. China. Canton. Chusan. Japan. It is said in Bl. Schn. to inhabit fresh waters 
near the sea. 

Tetrodon ocellatus, var. guttulatus, Richardson, Ichth. of Sulph. Voy. 
p. 121. pi. 58. f. 3 ; Icon. Reeves, 96 o; Hardw. Cart. 13. Chinese name, 
Ke paou, "Fowl bubble." 

a specimen was deposited by Mr. Reeves in the British Museum. The colour in the 
drawing is honey-yellow on the back, with the large spots above the pectorals, and at the 
root of the dorsal dark umber-brown, the small ones silvery. 

Hab. China. 

Tetrodon albo-plumbeus, Richardson, Ichth. of Sulph. Voy. p. 121. 
pi. 58. f. 6, 7. Japanese fishes, Br. Mus. No. 1 7. 

A specimen exists in the British Museum, which may be readily confounded with the var. 
guttulatus o( ocellatus. It is distinguished by the course of the porous lines on the snout, and 
the distribution of tlie spines on the body. The figure in the Japanese fishes, which I have 
supposed to represent the adult of this species, has much resemblance to the T. honckenii of 
Bloch. 143. 

Hab. China and Japan. 

Tetrodon spadiceus, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. 123.pl.58. 

f.4&5. 

The British Museum possesses a specimen presented by Mr. Reeves, and there are others 
in the Chinese Collection at Hyde Park. 

Hab, China. Canton. 

Tetrodon laterna, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. 124. pi. 61. 
f. 2; Icon. Reeves, 99; Hardw. Cart. 14. Chinese name, Tang lung 
paou, "Chinese lantern-bubble" (Birch); Tsung /ww^ jsaow, " Bladder 
lantern " (Reeves) ; Tsang lung pau (Bridgem. Chrest. 239). 
A pencil sketch made by Ellis in 1780, on Cook's last voyage, atPulo Condore, China, most 

probably refers to this species. He states the rays to be D. 11 ; A. 11 ; C. 9; P. 17. 
Hab. China. 

Tetrodon hispidus, Lin., Amcen. Acad. Chinens. Lagoerstr. Dec. 23, 1754 
(non Lacep.). 
Hab, China. 



200 REPOBT — 1845. 

Orthagoriscus spinosus, Cuv. Reg. An. ii, p. 370 ; Richardson, Ichth. of 
Sulph. Voy. p. 125. pi. 62. f. 10-12. Orth. hispidus, Bl. Schn. p. 511. 
Diodon mola, Pall. Spic. Zool. viii. p. 39. t. 4. f. 7 ; Koelr. Nov. Com. Petr. 
X. pl.8. f.3. 

A specimen exists in the British Museum, which was brought from the Chinese seas. 
Hab. Sea of China. 

Orthagoriscus oblongus, Bl. Schn. p. 511. t.97. Yarn Br. Fishes, ii. 
p. 534.pl. Tetrodon truncatus, Penn. Br. Zool. iii. p. 170. pi. 22. Donov. 
pi. 41. Tetrodon lime, Lacep. i. ph 22. f. 2; Icon. No. 29. Japanese 
fishes, Br. Mus. 

It is possible that several species may be confounded under the appellation of "oblong sun- 
fish," a point which must be determined by a comparison of specimens from various quarters 
of the ocean. Mr. Yarrell's figure is not so high as Bloch's, which, according to Cuvier, was 
drawn from a fiih taken at the Cape of Good Hope. Lacepede's figure corresponds with this 
in form, but it is variously striped, and is made a distinct species in the ' Regne Animal * under 
the name of O. varius. Mr. Yarrell however observes, that tlie British examples acquired 
beautiful waved stripes after death. The Japanese figure has the form of Bloch's. 

Hab. The whole Atlantic. Cape of Good Hope. Chinese seas. Japan. 

OsTRACioN coRNUTUS, Lin., Bl. 133 ; Bl. Schn. p. 500 ; Icon. Reeves (jiullo 
numero non Hardiv.'). 
Hab. Chinese seas. Canton. " India. Barbadoes " (Bl. Schn.). 

OsTRACioN ACULEATUS, " Houttuyn, in Haarl. 20 Deel. ii. 346 ;" Bl. Schn. 

p. 500. 

Not having seen a drawing or specimen of this, I do not knovr how far it differs from the 
preceding species. 

Hab. " In man Japonico" (Bl. Schn.). 

OsTRACiON HEXAGONUS, " Thunbcrg, N. S. A. xi. 101. f. 3 ;" Stock. Trans. 
1790. p. 107; Bl. Schn. 502. 

Hub. " Mare Japonicum " (Bl. Schn.). 

OSTRACION STELLIFER, Bl. Schn. 499. tab. 97. f. 1- Japanese Fishes, fig. 36. 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. Specimen in the British Museum. 

Fam. Balistid/e. 
Balistes stellaris, Lacepede (Le Baliste etoiVe), i. p. 350. pi. 15. f. 1 ; 
Bl. Schn. 476. Somdrum yellakak, Russ. 23 ? . Balistes occultator, Ua.r(\., 
Icon. ined. B. ocxdatus, Gray, Hardw. lUust. pi. 90. f. 1. 

Specimens were brought from the Chinese seas by Sir Edward Belcher. Russell's figure 
shows fewer and proportionally larger spots, and less star-like than those exhibited by the 
specimens. 

Hab. Sea of China (Belcher) and the Indian ocean (Hardw.). 

Sir Edward Belcher's collection also contains Balistes aureotus (Richardson, Ichth. of Sulph. 
Voy. p. 126. pi. 59. f. 1, 2), and B. castaneus (id. pi. 59. f. 5, 0), which may possibly be from 
the Chinese sea; but the locality of their capture was not noted. 

Balistes vetula, Lin. Chinensia Lagoer. Amoen. Acad. 1754; Bl. 150; 
Less. Voy. de la Coq. pi. 9. f. 2. 

Hab. Sea of China. Indian ocean. Atlantic. Island of Ascension (Osbeck). 
Balistes hihpe, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. p. 127- pi. 60. f.2; 
Icon. Reeves, a. 35 ; Hardw. Cart. 22. Hih pe yang, " Black-skinned 
yaug or ocean-fish " (Reeves, Birch) *. 

Hah. China seas. Canton. 

* Of this Chinese name, with that of Monacanthus chinensis, the artist writing down from 
sound has used two characters with different meanings for the same idea. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 201 

Balistes frenatus, Commerson apud Lacep. (Baliste bride), i. p. 335 et 
381. pi. 15. f.3; Icon. Reeves, 229; Hardw. Cart. 23; Rich. Ichth. of 
Sulph. &c., p. 129. pi. 62. f. 1. 
Hab. China seas. Canton. 

Balistes vachellii, Richardson, Ichth. of Sulph. Voy. p. 129. 

A specimen exists in the collection of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, presented by 
the Rev. George Vachell. 

Hab, Sea of China. Canton. 

Balistes albo-caudatus, Commerson apud Lacep. i. p. 336 et 382. pi. 18. 
f. 2 (Baliste arme). Riippell, Neue Wirlb. pi. 16. f . 1 ; Ico7i. Reeves, 
265 ; Hardw. Cart. 21 & 23. Bal. mbarmatus, Gray, Hardw. 111. Ind. 
Zool. pi. 90. f. 3 ? 

Hab. Sea of China (Reeves). Indian ocean (Hardw.). Red sea (Riipp.). 

Balistes conspicillum, B1. Schn. ^Vi. Le Baliste Americain, Lac6p. 
i. p. 377. pi. 16. f. 2 ; Quoy et Gaim., Uranie, pi. . f . 1 ; Less, et Gam. 
Voy. de la Coquille, pi. 9 ; Icon. Reeves, 285 ; Hardw. Cart. 20. 
Hab. Sea of China. Malay archipelago. Indian ocean. Mauritius and sea of Madagascar. 

Balistes ringens, B1. 152. f. 2. Le Baliste silonne, Lacep. i. p. 370. pi. 18. 
f. 1. B. nigra (nMtyews, Lin.), Osbeck, Voy. Eng. tr. ii, p. 93. B.niqer, 
BI. Schn. 4-71. 

Sir Edvpard Belcher brought a specimen from China. 

Hab. Sea of China. Sumatra. Indian ocean. Isle of Ascension (Osbeck). 

MoNACANTHus CHiNENSis, Osbcck (Balisies), Voy. i. p. 177, Eng. tr. ; 
Bl. 152. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, 89 ; Hardw. Cart. 31 (etab India, 28 ?). Chi- 
nese name, Hih pe yang, " Black-skinned goat " (Birch) ; " Black-skinned 
sheep " (Reeves) ; Hah pe yeang (Bridgem. 50). 

Specimens exist in the British Museum and Chinese collection at Hyde Park. 

Hab. Seaof China (Reeves). Indian ocean (Hardw.). Australia (Ichth. of Er. and Terr.). 

MoNACANTHUs BiFiLAMENTOsus, LessoH, Voy. do la Coq. p. 109. pi. 8 ; 
Icon. Reeves, 266 ; Hardw. Cart. 32. 

A specimen presented by Mr. Reeves, obtained at Canton, is preserved in the British 
Museum. 
Hab, Seas of China and the Moluccas. 

MoNACANTHUS jAPONicus, "Tilesius(5a/esife5), Mem.de Moscou,ii. pi. 13;" 
Cuv. Regn. An. ii. p. 373 ; Icon. Reeves, 275 ; Hardw. Cart. 33. Tabaduck, 
Draw, by Dep. Ass.Comm.Gen.Neill, of King George's Sound fish, No. 51, 
Br. Mus. 

Not having access to the Memoirs of the Natural History Society of Moscow at present 
the identity of Tilesius's fish with specimens brought by Sir Edward Belcher from the sea 
of China, and with others from South-west Australia, and also with the drawings above 
quoted, is to be considered simply as a conjecture. 

Hab. Seas of China. Japan and Australia. 

MoNACANTHUs LiNEOLATus, Richardson. Bad. A. 34; C. 12; P. 13. 

A specimen of this fish was sent from Hong Kong to Haslar Museum by Surgeon R. A. 
Bankier, of the Royal Navy. It has lost the dorsal fin by friction, but is otherwise in good 
condition. Its height at the tip of the pelvic spine is equal to half its total length, and its 
greatest thickness is rather less than one-tliird of the height. The profile is an irregular 
oval, beyond which the short trunk of the tail projects not more than a tenth of the whole 
length. The face ascends in a straight line to the dorsal spine, whose height is equal to one 
quarter of the height of the body. The space between this spine and the second dorsal, cor- 
responding in length to the spine, is horizontal and somewhat depressed. The pelvic bone is 
not capable of being stretched much out of the oval, and the membrane behind it is thin, not 
capable of lateral distension, and without rays, but having the small scales narrower and far- 
ther apart than on the body, and thus admitting of a slight folding-up. The edge of the 



202 REPORT— 1845. 

membrane is convexly curved. The skin is covered with small scales which are each com- 
posed of a dozen or more minute spines that appear to stand out on every side, but the 
skin feels rough only when the finger is drawn towards the head. These scales do not appear 
to differ in size on any part of the head or body when viewed by the naked eye, but on the 
laterafparts of the tail the numerous spines of each scale are seen through a lens to be replaced 
by one, two, or three fine recurved bristles. All the fin-rays are rough, with minute points, 
and the dorsal is armed on each side by a row of pretty strong recurved spinous teeth, its front 
being rough like the other rays. Tlie small trigger-ray in its axilla can be detected only by 
dissection. The point of the pelvic bone is a knob set with spines somewhat coarser than 
those of the scales. The pectoral fin is small and the gill-opening does not descend below 
the base of its first ray. There is no peculiarity in the scales which border this opening. The 
colour, after maceration in spirits, is purplish-gray, with about twelve interrupted horizontal 
dark lines on the body, running from the head to the caudal fin. There are also some spots 
on the face. No lateral line can be detected. There are two dark vertical bands on the 
caudal. This species is readily distinguished from M. bifilamentosus and clujiensis by the 
want of the strong curved caudal spines, and from M.japonicus by the profile, the form of the 
scales and dewlap, and by the horizontal dark streaks. It differs from the monoceros of Os- 
beck (Voy. i. p. 173) in the anal rays being only thirty-four instead of fifty-one. Indeed I be- 
lieve that the species alluded to by Osbeck, and also his scriptus (p. 174), are referrible to the 
Aleutercs mentioned below. Length of the specimen 5 inches. Height of body 2^ inches. 
Hab. Coasts of Hong Kong. 

Aleuteres LJEvis, Bl. 414. (Balistes), Richardson, Ichth. of Sulph. Voy. 
p. 131. pi. 61. f. 3. Balistes monoceros, Solander ; Icon. Parkins. No. 64, 
Bib. Banks. Balistes scriptus, Osbeck, i. p. 174, Engl. tr. ? 
Hah. China seas ? Canary islands. Caribbean sea. 

Aleuteres berardi. Lesson, Voy. de la Coq. Ichth. p. 107. pi. 7 ; Richard- 
son, Voy. of Sulph. p. 132. pi. 61. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, 173 ; Hardw. Cart. 
34. Chinese name, Sha mong, "Sand dog" (Reeves); Slia mang 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 49). 

Specimens were brought from China by Sir Edward Belcher. 
Hab. Seas of China and New Guinea. 

Triacanthus biaculeatus, Bl. 148. f. 2. (Balistes), Cuv. Regn. An. ii. 
p. 374 ; Icon. Reeves, A. 24 ; Hardw. Cart. 36. Chinese name, Pe yang 
(Birch) ; Po pe yang, " Naked skin" (Reeves) ; Moh pe yeang (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 48). 

Specimens of this exist in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park, the British Museum, and 
the museum at Haslar. Examples from different localities vary in the comparative height of 
the body and a little in the distribution of the black marks. An Indian example has a broad 
black stripe on the preorbitar. 

Hab. Seas of China, the Malay archipelago, Australia, and the Indian ocean. 
Ordo LOPHOBRANCHII. 

Fam. SyngnathidjE. 
Syngnathus hardwickii, Gray, Hardw. 111. pi. 89. f. 3. 

Dried specimens, tied up in bundles, are brought in numbers from China, and many exam- 
ples exist in the British and Haslar Museums. 

Hab. Seas of China and India. 

Syngnathus biaculeatus, Bl. 121. f. 1, 2; Bl. Schn. p. 515. 1. 1. 

Hab. Seas of China and the Philippines ; and the Indian ocean. Spec. Br. Mus. 

Other species inhabit the Chinese seas, but we have not yet had time to determine what 
they are. 

Fam. PEGASIDiE. 

Pegasus laternarius, Cuv. Regn. An. ii. p. 364. in notis. 

Common in the Chinese insect-boxes. Many examples in the British Museum and at 
Haslar Hospital. 
Hab. Sea of China and Japan. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 203 

Pegasus latirostris, Richardson. 

Specimens exist in the British Museum, and are occasionally to be met with in the Chinese 
insect-boxes. They have the general form of P. draco, but the beak is nearly as broad as it 
is long. As in the others, the beak is grooved in the centre above and below, and the edges 
of the upper groove are elevated so as to form a furrowed crest with an irregular outline. The 
flat lateral plates of the snout are transversely ridged, and toothed on the edges by the points 
of the ridges. In laternarius the edges of the inferior groove of the beak are elevated, and 
the mesial line above is partially so, making seven ridges. The whole is shorter and much 
narrower than that either of draco or latirostris, yet specimens of the latter with the lateral 
edges of the beak mutilated may be mistaken for it. 

Hab. Sea of China. 

SoLENosTOMUS PARADOXUS, Pallas, Spic. viii. p. 32. t. 4. f. 6 (Fisiularia). 
Seba, 3. 34. f. 2; Bl. Schn. p. 114. t. 30. f. 2. 

Hab. Amboyna. Probably China ? Some Chinese drawings appear to be extravagant 
representations of this fish. 

Ordo Ctenobranchii. 

Fam. LoPHiiD^. 

LoPHius SETiGERUS, Wahl, in skrivter af naturh. iv. p. 215. tab. 3. f. 5, 6. 
L. viviparus, Bl. Schn. p. 142. t.- 32. L. setigerus, C. et V. xii. p. 383 ; 
Icon. Reeves, 161 ; Hardw. 299. Chinese name, Shin ma yu, "Quiver- 
ing flax-fish" (Birch) ; Chin ma yu (Reeves) ; Chan ma u (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 51). Rod. D.3-8 ; A. 9 ; C. 9 ; P. 17 ; V. 1(5. 

Small specimens of this fish, pinned down and dried, abound in the boxes of insects sold 
at the Chinese ports to foreigners. The museum at Haslar contains several of a larger size, 
taken in the China seas by Sir Edward Belcher, but they have been unfortunately consider- 
ably injured by friction during their voyage to England. Mr. Reeves's drawing of the 
recent fish leaves however little to be desired. In form it agrees with Bloch's figure, but 
the latter exaggerates the spines of the head. The humeral or coracoid spine is alike in both 
representations. The general colour is hair-brown, finely marbled by a lighter tint on the 
upper surface of the body and pectoral fins. A blackish mark speckled with white occupies 
the pectoral axilla. The caudal is less sharply banded than in Bloch's figure ; a pinkish hue 
spreads over the anal, which, like the dorsal, is unspotted. 

Hab. The Japanese and China seas. Canton. 

Cheironectes raninus, Tilesius, M6m, de Moscou, xi. pi. 16. Ch. mar- 
moratus, Cuv., Less, et Garnot, Voy. du Duperrey, pi. 16. f . 2 ; C. et V. 
xii. p. 402. 

M. Valenciennes considers the New Guinea Cheironectes, procured by the naturalists oi La 
Coquille, to be the same with that previously discovered on the coasts of Japan and named by 
Tilesius. 

Hab. Coasts of Japan and New Guinea. 

Halieutea s tell at a, Wahl. {Lophius), Mem. d'Hist. Nat, de Copenh. 

iv. p. 214. t. 3. an. 1797; Tilesius, Voy. de Krusenst. pi. 61. f. 3 et 4. 

Lophius muricatus, Shaw, Zool. pi. 162 ; Icon. Reeves. 

Dried specimens of this fish exist in almost every ichthyological museum. Under surface 
coloured, in Mr. Reeves's figure, of a bright lake-red. Upper surface aurora-red, clouded with 
reddish-brown, with many specks of lake and groups of small black spots, the whole having a 
freckled appearance. Fins bright lake-red with black edges. 

Hab, China and Japan. 

Tribus Cyclopodi (Miiller). 

Fam. EcHENEIDIDiE. 

Echeneis naucrates, Lin. Bl. 171 ; Russell, 49. Australian remora, GrifF. 

Cuv. 10, plate opposite to p. 504. Echeneis vittata, Riipp. Neue Wirlb. 

seite 82 ; Icon. Reeves, 91h ; Hardw. Malac. 286, 287. 

On comparing specimens from the Caribbean and African seas, Polynesia, Western Australia, 
and Bass's straits, no diiference of any importance was detected, except in the number of fin- 



204 REPORT — 1845. 

rays and valves of the sucking apparatus, which I have found however to vary as widely 
among individuals from the same locality, so that the ray-formula might be given as D. 2|33 to 
38 ; A. 2|32 to 38 ; Discal valves 23 to 26. A young Chinese specimen which was presented 
to the British Museum by Mr. Reeves, has the following numbers: Br. 9; D. 2l38; C. 17; 
P. 21 ; V. ]|5; Discal valves 24. It agrees with a specimen of the same size in the same mu- 
seum which was captured at Tenasserim. Dr. Riippell observes, that the many individuals 
which he had an opportunity of observing in the Red sea presented constant differences in the 
numbers of the fin-rays and in colour from the Atlantic fish. In regard to the latter, I have 
stated above the variations of the rays tliat exist in the few specimens furnished by the museum 
at Haslar ; and in respect to colour, I may add that the patterns they present appear to be 
infinite. I have seen on the western coast of Africa some hundreds attached to the bottom of 
a ship, and darting off in a dense body to partake of the washings of the cook's coppers or any 
other greasy matter that was thrown overboard. All had, it is true, a very disagreeable- 
looking livid ground colour and a dark band on the cheek more or less extensively prolonged 
on the flanks, but the rest of the dark marks seemed to be alike in no two individuals. Spe- 
cimens 6 or 8 inches long have a trapezoidal caudal fin, but when they attain 18 inches or 
more the end of the fin is lunate, and the curve seemingly increases in older individuals, as it 
is pretty considerable in a specimen 2^ feet long. 

Hab. Seas of China, the Malay archipelago, Australia, Polynesia and India. The lied sea 
and the Atlantic on both sides. 

Fam. Cyclopterid^. 
GoBiEsox TUDES, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. p. 103. pi 46. f. 1-3. 

Hab. China seas 1 Spec, in Sir E. Belcher's collection. 

Fam. GoBiiDiE. 
Forster, in his ' Faunula Sinensis,' which comprehends the discoveries of 
preceding ichthyologists, enumerates only four members of this family, under 
the names of Gobius niger (Osbeck), G. eleotris, G. anguillaris, and G.peC' 
tinirostris (L.). These will be noticed under their respective heads. 

Gobius fasciato-punctatus, Richardson, Ichth. of the Voy. of the Sul- 
phur, p. 145. pi. 62. f. 13, 14; Descript. of Anim. p. 148. fig. 98. Icon. 
Reeves, 146 ; Hardw. Acanth. 278. Mus. Brit. Chinese name. Sun hong 
(Reeves). Rad. D. 6|-ll9 ; A. l|8 ; C. 19 ; P. 17 ; V. \\5~\\5, united. 

This species belongs to a group of Gobies which have the depressed head and general 
aspect oi Philypnus dormitator, and is very nearly allied to Gobius russelii (C. etV. 12. p. 75). 
It strongly resembles G. koHus, pi. 14. f. 1. of Jacquemont, Voy. dans I'Inde, which may be 
the same, Ihough there are some differences. A specimen was presented to the British Mu- 
seum by John Reeves, Esq., and there are examples of it in the Chinese collection at Hyde 
Park and in the museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

Hah. Canton. Runs with great swiftness over the paddy-grounds at Whampoa. 

Gobius chinensis, Osbeck, p. 260, Trad. AUem. G. eleotris, Lin. ed. xii. 

in Chin. Sinn-haoo (Hist, de Poiss. xii. p. 138); Ico7i. Reeves, f. 89. 

« Rad. B. 5 ; D. 6|-1 1 ; A. 8 ; C. 12 ; P. 18 ; V. 8, united." The Chinese 

name is written Sinn-has in the English translation, ii. p. 32. 

In Mr. Reeves's drawing the back is mottled blackish-green, with clusters of grass-green 
and golden specks on the sides. The belly is grayish and silvery, the pectorals clay-coloured, 
the ventrals blackish- gray, and the vertical fins hair-brown, with two darker bars on the 
second dorsal. 

Hab. Macao. 

Gobius platvcephalus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 1. 94. Rad. D. 6l-9 ; 
A. 1|9 ; P. IB ; C. 25. (Spec. Cam. Ph. Inst.) 

A single specimen of a Goby, not in very good condition, exists in the museum of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Institution, having been brought from China by the Rev. George 
Vachell. It belongs to the group of kokius, but I have not been able to identify it with any 
of those described in the ' Histoire des Poissons.' It has a depressed head with the eyes almost 
touching, an advancing lower jaw and a rounded caudal. Teeth setaceous, not crowded, 
and disposed much like those of a Serranus. The outer row on the lower jaw is composed of 
somewhat taller recurved ones. Four of the very short upper and under caudal rays appear 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 205 

to be not jointed. Scales large, ciliate, with flabellate streaks on the disc. Cheeks and per- 
haps the gill-cover naked. General colour dark or blackish, mottled with pale irregular spots, 
lower jaw spotted with liver-brown and white. Dorsal mottled by rows of black specks on 
the rays. Mr. Reeves's drawing shows irregular blackish-green specks thickly spread over 
the olive-green ground colour of body and head, with an admixture of reddish-orange on the 
lower part of the sides and belly, the whole having a dark hue. Vertical fins olive-green and 
hair-brown obscurely mottled. Pectorals gall-stone yellow, with a blackish mark on the scaly 
base. The figure shows seven rays in the first dorsal. 
Hab. Macao. 

GoBius RiPiLEPis, Richardson. Rad. D.6|-lil0; A-ljlO; C. 17| ; P.21; 
V. 1|5-1|5, united. 

This species is of the group headed in the ' Histoire des Poissons ' (xii.p.85)byG. venenatus. 
The height of the head is equal to half its length, which is contained four times and a quarter 
in the whole length of the fish, or thrice and a half when the caudal is excluded. Belly pro- 
minent behind the ventrals, and the height there equals the length of the head. Lower jaw 
rather longest. Small eyes more than a diameter apart. Teeth in broad villiform plates, with 
those in the outer row a little taller, especially on the sides of the upper jaw and front of the 
lower one. A small canine on the middle of each limb of the lower jaw. Scales ciliated, with 
strong streaks diverging from the free apex of their exposed rhomboidal discs. Head scaly, 
forward to the eyes. A porous curved line beneath the eye, a longitudinal one crossing the 
middle of the cheek, and another on the upper edg« of the interoperculuni. First dorsal 
about twice as high as the second one. Caudal fenestrated by clear points, but its colours 
have perished. Six rows of roundish or arrow-headed clear specks correspond with the rows 
of scales on the sides, and there is a series of pale curved muscular marks along the lateral 
line. The Rev. G. Vachell's specimen, deposited in the museum of the Cambridge Philoso- 
phical Society, measures 3^ inches. 

Hab. Macao. 

GoBius MARGARiTURUs, Richardson. Bad. D. 61-1|12; A. 1|10; C. 17f ; 

P. 17; V. 1|5-1|5, united. 

Another species of the same group, deposited in the same institution by the Rev. G. Vachell, 
is distinguished by a series of silvery specks running down the middle of the tail. These 
specks, six in number, are irregular in form, and the first is placed over the vent, a narrow 
silvery stripe coincident with the spinal column preceding it. There are also a few silvery 
specks on the nape, one on the temples, another on the gill-cover, and two lines of pores on the 
cheek. The scales are pretty large, ciliated and faintly streaked. The body has a linear 
form, its height being about the eighth of the whole length of the fish. Head bluntly rounded 
in profile at the snout, with the jaws equal. Teeth minute, but the outer row taller, the vil- 
liform inner ones being very low and much crowded. A recurved canine in the middle of 
the limb of the lower jaw. Eyes a full diameter apart. Caudal pointed. 

Hab. Macao. 

GoBius FiLiFER, C. et V. xii. p. 106 ; Icon. Reeves, 276 ; Hardw. 

Had. D. el-ljlO ; A. 1|8 ; C. 21 ; P. 17 ; V. l\5-l\5, united. 

The Indian fish described under this name in the 'Histoire des Poissons' is made the type of 
a group of Gobies which have short bodies and minute scales buried in the skin. Specimens 
in good order have been deposited in the British Museum and with the Cambridge Philoso- 
phical Society by John Reeves, Esq. and the Rev. George Vachell, vfhich show that the fish 
when alive is very handsomely and gaily ornamented. 

Hab. The Indian ocean, China seas, and Malay archipelago. Macao. 

GoBius OMMATURUs, Richardson, Ichth, of the Voy. of the Sulphur, p. 146. 
pi. 55. f. 1. 3; Icon. Reeves, 147 ; Hardw. Chinese name, Chang yaow 
(Birch) ; Chang yaou neen, " Long-waisted " (Reeves) ; Cheung in nain 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 74). Rad. D. 9|-20 ; A. IjH ; C. 37 ; P. 22 ; V. l\5-\\5, 
united. 

A specimen in the British Museum, from John Reeves, Esq. 
Hab. Macao. 

GoBius STiGMOTHONUS, Richardson, Ichth. of Sulph. p. 147. 
Rad, D. 91-1113 vel 14; A. 1|11 ; C. 35 ; P. 18 ; V. 1|5-1|5, united. 



206 REPORT — 1 845. 

Much like the last, and like it distinguished from the other Gobies by a greater number 
of rays than usual in the first dorsal. In this species that fin has a black mark. The Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Institution has two specimens, collected by the Rev. George Vachell. 

Hdb. Macao. 
GoBius LAGERSTROEMiANUS. Gob. ekotris, Lin. Aiucen. Acad. Dec. 1754. 

"Mad. B. 5; D. llj-lO; A. 9 ; C. 9 ! P. 20; V. 10." (Lin.) 

In the paper above quoted, which is entitled " Chinensia Lngerstroemiana," Linnaeus cha- 
racterises a Goby in the following terms : — " Lingun lavis. Denies parvi acuminati. Oculi 
a tergo capitis. Radiis pinna dorsi prima acuminatis moUihus simplicibus. Pimice ventrahs 
feri infiindibuliformes. Cauda Integra, rotundata. Piscis lotus una cum pinnis nebulosus." 
It seems to be allied to the preceding two species by the large number of rays in the first 
dorsal. 

Hab. China. 

GoBius TANNOAo, Osbcck, Voy. to China, Engl. tr. i.p.201. "Bad. B. 4 ? 
D. 11|-10; A. 13; C. 18 ; V. 12. funnel-shaped." (Osb.) 

Osbeck, in the account of his voyage to Cliina, performed in 1751, but not published till 
1757, and after his specimens had been examined by Linnaeus, mentions a Goby, which is 
called Tannoao by the Chinese, and which he considers to be the same with the G. niger of 
Linnjeus. This mistake is pointed out in the ' Histoire des Poissons ' by M. Valenciennes (xiv. 
p. 16), but in ([uoting the rays of the first dorsal from Osbeck, there is a misprint of 1| for 1 \\. 
At page 188 of the volume of the work just quoted, this fish is suspected to be a variety of 
the Periophlhabnus kcelreuteri ; and it is possible that both this and the preceding species may 
actually belong to that genus. In the German translation of Osbeck's ' Voyage,' this species 
appears to have been named Jpocryptes cantonensis (C. et V. /. c). 

Hab. Canton. 

GoBioiDES MELANURUS, Broussonnet (^Gobius), MSS. ; Descript. of Anim. 
p. 147. fig. 158. " Bad. D. 18 ; A. 9 ; C. 13 ; P. 14 ; V. 7." (Id. /. c.) 

The figure here quoted has a general resemblance to Gobioides broussonneti of Lacepdde 
(C. et V. pi. 348), but the single dorsal and the anal occupy less space. The name of Gobius 
melanurus was written by Broussonnet himself over the figure, and he mentions the species by 
the same appellation in his first decade. The pectorals appear to be funnel-shaped, but their 
rays have most probably been incorrectly counted. The unknown author of the work gives 
us merely the following notice of the characters in addition to the numbers of the rays quoted 
above : — " Nearly cylindrical. Head roundish. One dorsal. Tail pointed with a black spot 
on the base of the fin" above the middle. " Eight inches long." 

Hab. "In Canton river. Eaten by the Chinese." 

Apocryptes serperaster, Richardson. Ico7i. Reeves, fi. 55 ; Hardw. 239. 

Chinese name, Pih-shaT/, "White snake" (Birch); Pakhop, " White frog" 

(Reeves); PaA^^op (Bridgem. Chrest. 73). iiaflf. D.6|-27; A. 27; C.23; 

P. 23; V. I|5-ll5, united. 

This fish is very commonly carried about the streets for sale. Two specimens, now in the 
museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Institution, were brought from China by the Rev. 
George Vachell. They have less resemblance to Osbeck's figure o{ Apocryptes pectinirostris 
than what is shown by a Boleophthalmus, obtained in the same seas by Mr. Vachell and 
noticed below. A. serperaster has a long pointed caudal, and scales sufficiently visible to the 
naked eye, but not ciliated, or only sparingly and deciduously so. A skinny preorbitar lip. 
Three canines on each intermaxillary, and one interior one on each side of the symphysis 
below. Twenty-one side teeth on each limb of the upper jaw, and sixteen horizontal ones 
with incurved tips on each limb of the lower jaw. Five rays of first dorsal nearly of equal 
length, the sixth very short, and omitted in Reeves's figure. The last ray of the second 
dorsal and anal divided to the base. Colour dirty wood-brown with darker patches at intervals. 
Paler and silvery on the sides and belly. The figure shows none of the spots or blue lines on 
the dorssds which exist in Osbeck's pectinirostris. Length of the specimens 6 inches, of the 
caudal nearly 1^ inch. Length from snout to anus 2-2 inches. 

Hab. Macao. 
Trypauciien vagina, C. et V. xii. p. 153; Icon. Reeves, /3. 57; Hardw. 

Acanth. 283. Chinese name, Hung lae, "Red lae" (Reeves, Birch, 

Bridgem. Chrest. 230). 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 20? 

Rad. B. 4. ; D. 6 4.1 ; A. 40 ; C. 17. (Spec. Mus. Haslar.) 
D. 6 42 ; A 42 ; C. 17. (Spec. Mus. Brit.) 
D. 6 46;A. 46; C. 17. (Spec. Mus. Carab.) 
B. 4 ; D. 6 49 ; A. l|45 ; C. 17. (Hist, des Pois.) 
The fin-rays of this fish when shrivelled in spirits are counted with difficulty, but after 
much pains in examining a considerable number of specimens, I find the above variations with- 
out any other marked difference in form to indicate a plurality of species. Chinese exam- 
ples have been brought to this country by John Reeves, Esq., Commander Dawkins, R.N., Sir 
Edward Belcher, Sir Everard Home, and the Rev. George Vachell. 

Hah. The Indian ocean and China seas. (Hong Kong, Macao, Chusan, and Woosung at 
the mouth of the Yang tse kiang). 

Amblyopus rugosus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 7 ; Hardw. Acanth. 
282. Chinese name, Shay king, " Warp snake" (Reeves, who states that 
king signifies the vv'arp of a web); She kang (Bridgem. Chrest. 231). 
Rad. D. 6|39 ; A. 40 ; C. 17 ; P. 17 ; V. l|5-l|5, united. 

Two Chinese species of this genus have been named by ichthyologists. One, the Ttenioide 
hermannien of Lacepfide, was originally described from a Chinese painting, and is most pro- 
bably the Shay king of Mr. Reeves's portfolio, but as the specific name has been appropriated 
in the ' Histoire des Poissons ' to an Indian fish, which is certainly distinct if Hamilton Bu- 
chanan's figure 9, pi. 5, be correct, confusion will be best avoided by giving it another name. 
Three specimens, brought from Macao by the Rev. George Vachell, exist in the museum of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, which are remarkable for the sharply-elevated, crenated, 
cuticular ridges on the face and lower jaw. Four of these ridges radiate from the eye as a 
centre, and five diverge from a spot on the cheek. These are connected by longitudinal ridges, 
and there are several less prominent and more distinctly porous ones on the gill-pieces. The 
lower jaw is crossed transversely by short ridges as prominent as those on the face. Neither 
from the figures nor descriptions of other species do we learn that they have facial ridges ap- 
proaching to these in distinctness. The upper jaw shows about fourteen more or less acute com- 
pressed teeth in its circumference. The lower jaw is armed by about six teeth longer than the 
upper ones, and in both jaws there are several rows of much smaller, crowded, acute teeth, 
well-separated from the outer ones. The head is contained 7§ times in the total length, the 
vent is rather behind the anterior third, and the caudal fin forms a ninth of the whole length. 
The dorsal fin is somewhat highest about the middle of the tail, where it rather exceeds half 
the height, and the anal, in which no spine could be detected, is half as high as the dorsal. 
The fins are fleshy, so that the rays are not to be counted without difficulty. Mr. Vachell's 
specimens and Mi'. Reeves's figure have a contraction at the junction of the vertical fins, as if fi 
string had been tied tightly round them, and it is probable that they are so usually carried by 
the fishermen. Ventrals spoon-shaped, with short stout spines. Scales'very minute, deeply 
imbedded and distant from each other. Length, total 6'25 inches; of which the distance between 
mouth and anus is 2'38 inches, and the length of caudal 0'72 inch. Another specimen mea- 
sures 8J inches, and a third 3^ inches. 

Hab. Macao. 

Amblyopus ANGuiLLARis, L'm. ? (Gobius). i?a(?. D. 6 139; A. 37 vel 38; 
C. 17*. 

Two specimens in the Cambridge Philosophical Society's museum, brought from Macao by 
the Rev. George Vachell, agree tolerably with the short characters given by Linnaeus of his 
anguillaris, received from the same quarter. As compared with other Amblyopi, indeed the 
pectoral fins could not be said to be " valde pan'ce," but they may be so described in refer- 
ence to the Gobies, with which Linnaeus grouped this fish. The difFerf nee in the enumeration 
of the rays of the dorsal and anal will be lessened, if instead of twelve rays gi^en to the caudal in 
the 'Systema Naturae,' we reckon seventeen. This specie? is whitish or colourless in spirits, with 
translucent integuments, permiiting the contents ofthe belly to shine through, and the fine mem- 
branes are more delicate, so that the rays can be more readily seen. The minute black eyes 
are easily seen on the white head. The caudal is larger and m.ore lanceolate than in rugosus, 
and the pectorals longer and more acute. The porous lines on the face are scarcely elevated, 

* There are either several species of Amblyopu» in the Chinese waters, or the numbers of the 
rays differ in the same species. In the ' Descriptions of Animals,' which we already quoted, 
f. 15 represents an Amblyopus, which Broussonnet has considered as the anguillaris of 
Linnaeus. The author enumerates the rays as D. 47 ; A. 42 ; P. 8 ; V. 6 ; and says that the 
fish dwells in the muddy banks of the river at Canton, and is eaten by the natives. 



208 REPORT— 1845. 

and the dentition differs from that o( rugosus. There are four, five, or six slender cylindrical 
teeth on each limb of eacli jaw, rather acute, with brown tips, and not all of one length. The 
interior ones are in a single row, small and pearly, a few near the angle of the upper jaw 
being sligbtly larger. Length 4-SO inches, of which the caudal is 1-12 inch, the head 0-60 inch, 
and tlie length from mouth to vent 1'48 inch. 

Hab. Macao. 
Periophtiialmus modestus, Cantor, Annals of Nat, Hist. vol. ix. p. 29. 
"Bad. B. 2? D. ]5|-1|12 ; A. 1|11 ; C. 13 ; P. 11 ; V. 1\5-1\5, united." 

"P. brnnneus, ciiiereo-maniwratus ; abdomine albo-candescenti, alls pallide flavis ; dorsali 
anteriori fasciis nigris diiabits ornatd ; radiis alarum nigro-pwictatis." 

" Hab. Chusan, along the coasts of banks and canals." (Cantor, I, c.) 
BoLEOPHTHALMUs BODDAERTi, Pallas (Gobius), Spic. Zool. viii. p. 1 1. 1. 2. 

f. 4, 5 ; Bl. Schn. 66 ; C. et V.xiv. p. 199. Gobius striatus, Bl. Schn. 71. 

t. 16. Icon. Reeves, /3. 38 ; Hardw. Acanth. 295. Chinese name, Hwa 

ya(Birch); i^ayw (Reeves); "Flower-fish;" Taw (Bridgeni. Chrest. 77); 

Icon. Reeves, Hardw. 291, 292, 293, & 294. Descript. of Anim. p. 150. 

fig. 100. Bad. D. 5|-24 vel 26 ; A. 25 vel 26, &c. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

Specimens, procured at Macao by John Reeves, Esq. and the Rev. George Vachell, are 
deposited in the British Museum and with the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Mr. Reeves's 
figure omits the vertical bands which are conspicuous in his specimen, and are perhaps 
rendered more apparent by maceration in spirits ; on the other hand, the brilliant pale- 
green specks on the body of the drawing are nearly effaced in the specimens. Distorted 
figures of this fish, with swollen gill-covers and a round open mouth, are drawn in its proper 
colours on the Cliinese earthenware. Mr. Reeves's figures 291, 292, 293 and 294, show the 
fish as used for this purpose. 

Hab. Indian ocean, Malacca, Moluccas and China seas. Macao. At certain seasons it is 
hawked through the streets of Canton. 

BoLEOPHTHALMUs PECTiNiROSTRis, Lin. (Gobius), Chinensia Lagerstroem. 
Araioen. Acad. Dec. 1754. Osbeck, Voy. 1757. Engl, transl. p. 200. Apo- 
cryptes chitiensis, Osbeck, Amoen. Acad. iv. pi. 3. f. 3. Ap. pectinirostris, 
C. et V. xii. p. 150. Chinese name, Fay-ye (Osbeck, Eng. tr.) ; Fai-ja, 
^French tr.). Bad. D. 5|-25 ; A. 26 ; C. 21 ; P. 19 ; V. l|5-l|5, united. 
(Cambr. spec.) 

A specimen brought from Canton by the Rev. G. Vachell and deposited in the Cambridge 
Philosophical Institution, corresponds with the few particulars mentioned in the passages 
regarding this species quoted above, except that the colours have suffered from long mace- 
ration in spirits, and can no longer be well made out. As the pectorals are mounted on an 
arm-like basis, though it is short and not bent, I have referred this fish rather to Boleo- 
phthalmu.i than to Apocryptes. The dentition does not seem to distinguish the two genera as 
established in the 'Histoire des Poissons,' at least I can perceive no essential distinction between 
the teeth oiAp. dentatus (C. V. xiv. p. 148) and of a Boleophthalmus. The rays of the first 
dorsal of pectinirostris are all filamentous, the central one being tallest and the others gra- 
duated. The membrane dark purple. Pectorals lanceolate. Ventrals small, infundibuliform. 
Fins generally tipped with wood-brown, and a diffused brownish spot on the second dorsal. 
Body brownish-gray, spotting effaced. Belly white. Scales very minute, the integument 
swelling over them like papilla;. Three canine teeth on each side of the symphysis of the 
upper jaw aie followed by eighteen very minute lateral ones. Twenty-seven horizontal teeth 
with brownish truncated tips, which are not incurved, arm each limb of the lower jaw, and there 
is a stronger interior tooth on each side of the symphysis. A small obtuse lobe projects from 
the preorbitar lip behind the canines on each side. The eyes touch each other, and their 
upper lids are granulated. Length, total 2'80 inches; length of head 0*62, length of caudal 
0-50 inch. 

Hab. Canton. 

Boleophthalmus aucupatorius, Richardson, Ichth. of Voj'. of Sulph. 
p. 148. pi. 62. f. 1-4; Descript. of Anim. p. 149. fig. 99; Ico7t. Reeves, /3. 53 ; 
Hardw. Acanth. 295. Chinese name, Kan ke pang, " Pursuing fowl-staff" 
(Reeves) ; Kong kaipang (Bridgem. Chrest, 72). Bad. D. 5|-26 ; A. l|25 
vel 27; C. 17; P. 21 ; V. l|5-l|5, united. (Spec. Coll. of Surg.) 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 209 

Examples of this species exist in the British Museum and in the collection of the Cambridfje 
Philosophical Society, procured at Macao by John Reeves, Esq. and the Rev. George Vachell. 
The College of Surgeons also possesses specimens obtained at Woosung in the estuary of 
Yang tse kiang by Sir Everard Home. The species has much resemblance to the Gobius viridis 
of Buchanan Hamilton, pi. 32. f. 12 {Boleophthalmus viridis of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' 
xii. p. 213), in form and also in the spotting, but the colours differ, and the Indian fish has a 
higher profile. It is probably the species noticed from a Chinese painting in the ' Histoire 
des Poissons' (xii. p. 215) as bearing a resemblance to B. histiophorus. 

Hah. China seas. Macao. Muddy places, Whampoa. Woosung. 

Boleophthalmus chinensis, C. et V. xii. p. 215. 

Described solely from a Chinese painting as having a high pointed first dorsal, and a gray 
body sprinkled with brown specks, and more scattered clusters of white and green points ; 
also four deep gray bands on the bases of the pectorals. 

Hah. Canton. 

Boleophthalmus sinicus, C et V. xii. p. 215. 

Also described from a drawing. It is grayish-brown, dotted finely with the same, and 
marked by scattered green spots and points. The pectorals are tinged with orange. 
• Hah. Canton. 

Boleophthalmus campylostomus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 52; 
Hardw. Acanth. 290. Chinese name, Peih koio koiv, "Bent-mouth dog" 
(Birch) ; " Broken-mouthed dog" (Reeves) ; Mah hau kau (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 71). 

Of this fish we have seen no specimen, and it may eventually prove to be one of the pre- 
ceding two species, but the colours and markings do not correspond with the little that is said 
of them. It is a less slender fish than the B. aucupatorius, and has a comparatively low first 
dorsal, with a shorter though acute caudal fin. It has a yellowish-brown colour above the 
middle line, with crowded darker specks of the same and a flesh-red tint below, also mottled 
on the flanks with darker purplish dots. The belly before the vent and the cheeks are un- 
spotted. The base of the pectoral is dark, the ventrals and anal are ochraceous, and the other 
fins are pale gray or dilute broccoli-brown. A single black spot tips the second' dorsal pos- 
teriorly. 

Hab. Canton. 

Eleotris flammans, Cantor, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 29. "Bad. B. 6; 
D.6|-l|10; A. 1|9; C. 15 ; P. 18; V. Ij5." (Cantor.) 

" E. superne violaceo-brunneus ; aid dorsali anteriori fasciis tribus undulatis violaceis, 
fiammeo-marginatd ; posteriori fasciis undulatis quatuor nigris, radiis alarum aurantiacis, 
apicibus no7inullis flammeis , aliis nigris ; aid caudali violaceo-canescenti, fasciis tribus cceruleis, 
radiorum flavorum apicibus flavis ; aid anali auraniiacd, fasciis quinque nigris undulatis, 
radiorum brunneorum apicibus nigris ; alis ventralibiis pectoralibusque pallidi violaceis, radi- 
orum flavorum apicibus nigris." 

" Hah. Chusan, canals and estuaries." (Cantor, I. c.) 

Eleotris cantherius, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, ll^; Hardw. Acanth. 
279. Chinese name, Neen yu (Reeves) ; JVeew u (Bridgem. Chrest. 76). 
Bad. D. 61-9 ; A. 8 ; C. 14; P. 12; V. 1|5 (exfigura). 

The ground colour of this fish is deep yellowish-brown with blackish-brown reticulations, 
corresponding in size to the scales, and defined above by a dark line running from the eye 
along the upper quarter of the height to the caudal. The areas of the meshes are paler. A 
short blackish bar runs backwards from the lower part of the eye to the preoperculum, and 
there are some crowded blackish-brown dots on the gill-plate. The dorsals, anals and ven- 
trals have a pale neutral tint colour (bluish or pearl-gray). The first dorsal is crossed by 
three branching and undulating lines, and the second dorsal by eight pairs of blue waving 
lines. The anal and ventrals are marked along each ray by a crowded series of small blue 
a\-row-heads or chevrons. The caudal is also marked with chevrons, but they are orange- 
brown and umber, and the ground tint of the fin corresponds with that of the body. The 
pectoral is wood-brown or buif, with blackish dots on the rays. 

Hab. Macao. 

1845. P 



210 REPORT— 1845. 

Philypnus sinensis, Lacepede (Ze boslryche chinois), iii. p. 141. pi. 2. 

Gobius sinensis, C. et V. xii. p. 94. Philypnus ocellicauda, Ricliardson, 

Zool. Sulph. pp. 59 & 149. pi. 5Q. f. 15, 16 ; Icon. Reeves, (i. 8 ; Hardw. 

Acanth. Cliincse name, Neaou yu, " Bird-fish" (Birch) ; Oo yu, " Black 

fish" (Reeves) ; Ow yu (Bridgeni. Chrest. 7). 

In the ' Zoology of the Voyage of the Sulphur ' 1 have described and figured a Chinese spe- 
cimen of tills fish, which was presented to the British Museum by John Reeves, Esq., but I 
was not then aware that it had been previously named by Lacepede, who had merely seen a 
Chinese drawing of it. His designation is here restored in right of its priority. 

Hab. Canton. 

Tribus Percina. 

Fam. Callionymid^. 
Callionymus reevesii, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. p. 60. pi. 36 ; 

Icon. Reeves, 180 ; Hardw. Acanth. 

Rad. D.4)-9; A. 8 ; C. 11 ; P. 19; V. l|5. (Male.) 
D.4|-9; A. 9; C.IO; P. 19; V. 1|5. (Females.) 

Since I described a male of this species in the work above quoted, I have examined two 
examples brought from Macao by the Rev. George Vachell, which I consider to be females, 
and to justify my quotation of Mr. Reeves's fi^jure as appertaining to this species. The latter 
drawing is a good representation of these specimens, except that it shows but a small portion 
of the black mark between the third and fourth rays of the comparatively low first dorsal, the 
fin-membrane of the individual placed before the Chinese artist having evidently been torn. 
Neither of the specimerjs has an anal tubercle : both of them have three recurved teeth on the 
upper side of thelongpreopercular spine, and one of them has moreover a strong basal tooth 
beneath pointing forwards, while the other has merely a slight indication of an under-tooth 
near the middle of the spine. 

Hah. Hong Kong. Macao, 

Callionymus japonicus, Houttuyn, Stockholm Trans. 1790. p. 107; Bl. 
Schn. p. 40. " Rad. D. 4|-10 ; A. 9 ; C. 10 ; P. 19 ; V. 5," loc. cit. 

" C. capitis spiud simplici postlci interius serratd, margine orhitarum elevato acuta, phind dor- 
sali primd brevissimd, orello Ttis^ro notatd, pinnis nigra maculatis, caudali valde elangatd." 
(Schn.) I strongly suspect that Houttuyn's fish is identical with that which I have considered 
to be the female of C. reevesii, though the caudal fin is longer than in Mr. Vachell's specimens, 
and shorter than that of the male figured in the ' Ichthyology of the Voyage of the Sulphur.' 

Hab. Japan. 

Callionymus punctatus, LangsdorfF, Mus. Berol. C. Japonicus, C. et V. 
xii. p. 299. 

M. Valenciennes considers a Japanese Calliomjmus, deposited by M. Langsdorff in the 
museum of the University of Berlin, to be specifically the same with the C. japonicus of 
Houttuyn noticed above, l)ut as he states that M. Langsdorff's fish has a curved preoperciilar 
spine, with three spreading upper spinous teeth turned forwards {en patte d'oie), this can 
scarcely be reconciled with the description of the spine of japonicus. C. punctatus has asmall 
tooth on the hinder part of the orbit which does not exist in C. reevesii. 

Hah. Japan. 

Callionymus hindsii, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. 64. pi. 37. 
f. 3, 4. 

A Macao specimen of this fish was presented to the Cambridge Philosophical Institution by 
the Rev. George Vachell. It does not possess the post- orbital tooth oC punctatus. 
Hab. Pacific ocean (Sir E. Belcher). China seas. Canton (Vachell), 

HOPLICIITHYS LANGSDORFII, C. et V. iv. p. 265. t. 81. 

Schlegel states, in the ' Fauna Japonica,' that the anatomy of this fish shows its real aflSnities 
to be with C(dlionymus. In the text of the ' Histoiredes Poissons,' the initial //. of the generic 
name has been inadvertently omitted, but tlie word is correctly printed " Hoplichlhys" in the 
table of contents at the beginning of the volume. 

Hab. Japan. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 211 

Fara. Uranoscopid^. 
Uranoscopus scaber, Lin., C. et V. iii. p. 287- Rad. B.6; D.3|-Ill2; 
A. 13; C. lOf; P. 17; V. l|5. 

Sir Edward Belcher brought an Uranoscope from China, wliich on a careful conipavison 
with a Mediterranean specimen oi scaler, presented no difference of form. Its colours were 
effaced. 

Hub. China seas. 

Uranoscopus asper, Temm. et Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Sieb. p. 26. pi. 9. f. 1 ; 
Icon. Reeves, 162 & 166 ; Hardw. Acanth. 87, 88. Chinese name, 
Koh yu, " Horned fish " (Reeves) ; Koh u (Bridgem, Chrest. 39). Rad. 
B.6; D 5|-12vel 13; A. 13 vel 14; C. llf ; P. 18; V.ljS. (Spec. Burger.) 

This species is distinguished from the preceding, which it closely resembles, by having a 
tooth fewer on the under edge of the preoperculum and by other slight differences in form. 
I have had an opportunity of comparing Sir Edward Belcher's Chinese specimen of scaber 
above mentioned with one of Biirger's Japanese examples of asper belonging to the British 
Museum. The text of the ' Fauna Japonica' quotes the rays of asper as D. 5|-11 ; A. 15, &c. ; 
but a specimen in the museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, procured at Macao by the 
Rev. George Vachell, and Burger's one authenticated by Schlegel, present the formula which 
we have given above. The last two rays of the dorsal and anal are approximated and may 
be reckoned as branches or separate rays, making the numbers 12 or 13 and 13 or 14, ac- 
cording to the way in which they are viewed. 

Hab, South coasts of Japan and the coasts of China down to Canton. 

Uranoscopus bicinctus, Temra. et Schlegel, in Fauna Jap. Siebold, p. 26. 

Hab. Japan. 

Uranoscopus inermis, C. et V. iii, p. 310. t. 65 ; Temm. et Schl. in Fauna 
Japon. p. 27. 

Hab, Indian ocean and sea of Japan. 

Uranoscopus elongatus, Temra. et Schl. in Fauna Jap. Sieb. p. 27. t. 9. 
f.2. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 
Percis PUI.CHELLA, Tcmm. et Schl. in Fauna Jap. 24. t. 10. f. 2. " Rad. 
B.6; D. 5|-22; A. 1|17 ; C. 16 ; P. 15 ; V. l|5." (Fauna Japon.) 

A specimen collected by the Rev. George Vachell exists in the museum of the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Institution, which ought, I think, to be referred to this species, though 
its fin-rays are as follows: — Had. B. 6 ; D. 5|-20; A. 16; C. 13f, &c. The caudal fin has 
the second long ray from the top lengthened as in pulchella; there are four rows of white 
spots on the anal ; and the streaks on the head are nearly as exhibited in the ' Fauna Japonica,' 
particularly a black crescentic mark behind each eye. The dots on the dorsal are mostly 
effaced. 

I have some suspicion of the Japanese fish being merely a variety of the Percis nehulosa 
(C. et V. iii. p. 2C0), and that the Dentex fasciatus (Solauder, Pisces Australise), or Percis 
emeryana (Richardson, Icones Piscium, t. 1. f. 1), is another variety; in which case the fish 
inhabits the ocean from Japan down to Australia. 

Hab. Japan and China. 

Percis sexfasciata, Temm. et Schl. Fauna Jap. p. 25. 

Hab. Japan. 

It appears to me that the peculiar forms of the rays of the anal, as well as of some of the 
other fins, and many other particulars of structure, ally this group more closely to the Tri- 
gliclce than to the Percidee. The Trachinus vipera has the suborbitar united by a bony bridge 
to the upper limb of the preoperculum, and other members of the group show more or less of 
that projection of the suborbitar chain which characterizes the following family. 

Fam. CoTTiDiE. 
Synanceia erosa, LangsdorfF, C. et V. iv. p. 459. t. 96 ; Temm. et Schl. 
Fauna Jap. Sieb. p. 45. t. 16. f. 1. 
Hab. Japan. 

p2 



213 REPORT — 1845. 

Aploactis aspera, Temm. et Schl. in Fauna Jap. Sieb. p. 51. t.22. f.3et4; 

Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. 72. 

This fish appears to have been first noticed by Tilesius on the Japanese coast. See Pallas, 
' Zoogr. Rossica,' p. 129, note to Cottus villosus. 

Hab. Seas of Japan. 

Aploactis breviceps, Richardson (Synanceia), Ichth. of Voy. of Sulphur, 
p. 71. 

Mr. Reeves presented one specimen to the British Museum, and the Rev. George Vachell 
three to the Cambridge Philosophical Society. / 

Hab. Sea of Macao. 

Pelor japonicum, C. et V. iv. p. 437. t. 93 ; Temm. et Schl. F. Japon. Sieb. 
p. 44. t. 18. f. 2 ; Icon. Reeves, 140 ; Hardw. Acanth. 119. Chinese name, 
Meaoio yu (Birch); Maou yu (Reeves), "Catfish;" ilfa2« ?f (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 181). Japanese name, "Oniogose" (Fauna Jap.). Bad. D. 17|6; 
A. 2|10; C. 11|; P. 10 et 2; V. 1|5. (Spec. Biirger). 

Two specimens of this fish exist in the British Museum ; one of them brought from Can- 
ton by John Reeves, Esq., and the other sent by Biirger from Japan to Berlin, whence it was 
transferred to England. Mr. Reeves's fish differs from the Japan one in liaving eight soft rays 
in the dorsal with much smaller white spots on the body and fins. Although the ' Fauna Ja- 
ponica' contains the following passage, "I'anal a douze rayons et point d'epineux," we have 
found two pungent anal rays in Burger's specimen which was named at the Berlin Museum. 

Hab. Seas of Japan and China. 

Pelor aurantiacum, Temm. et Schl. Fauna Jap. p. 44. t. 18. f. I. Ja- 
panese name, Kiwogose. 
Hab. Seas of Japan. 

Pelor cuvieri, Gray, Hardw. Illustr. ; Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. 
p. 72. pi. 39; Icon. Reeves, 164; Hardw. Acanth. 124 & 125. Chinese 
name, Hwang-yu, " Yellow panther-fish " (Birch) ; Wo?ig paou yu, " Yel- 
low-spotted fish" (Reeves) ; Wong pau u (Bridgem. Chrest. 179). 

The British Museum is indebted to John Reeves, Esq. for a specimen of this fish. The 
low ridge connecting the posterior edges of the orbits is straight, while in Pelor japonicum it 
bends forwards. 

Hab. Canton. 

Pelor sinensb, C. et V. ix. p. 468. 

Hab. Canton. 

Pelor tigrinum, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 42; Hardw. Acanth. 118. 
Chinese name, Lmou hu yu, " Old tiger-fish " (Birch) ; Laott hoo yu, 
" Tiger-fish " (Reeves) ; Lo tu yu (Bridgem. Chrest. 177). 

The Cambridge Philosophical Institution possesses a specimen which was procured by the 
Rev. George Vachell at Canton, and is correctly represented by Mr. Reeves's figure, ex- 
cept in the dorsal fin. In this the first three dorsal spines are a little separated from the 
Others, and the coarse membrane of the rest of the fin is notched to half the depth of each spine 
and forms a thick lobulet to every tip. The soft dorsal is crossed obliquely by a dark brown 
bar, and there are three approximating brown bars on its base, which also cross the posterior 
spinous rays obliquely. The caudal has a brown membrane, and its rays are ringed by about 
six white marks alternating with brown ones. The body is brown with whitish spots more 
mottled than in the figure, and the intermediate spaces are paler. The form of the head is 
well rendered, and fringed barbels depend from almost every salient point. Two small ones 
hang from the chin, and a large one with a basal branchlet from the middle of each limb of 
the lower jaw. A thin smooth transverse ridge unites the orbits behind; there is a com- 
pressed knob behind each eye, and three knobs flank the nape on each side and include three 
rays of the dorsal. The lateral preocular depressions are deep. A. short, stout, and not 
very pungent preopercular spine can be felt through the skin. 

Hab. Canton. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 213 

Apistes alatus, C. et V. iv. p. 392 ; Temm et Schl. F Jap p. 49. Trigla 
worra-mmou, Russell, 159; Icon. Reeves, 169; Hardw. Acanth. 136. 
I 1 iive seen no Chinese examples of this fish, but Mr. Reeves's figure, notwithstanding the 
omission of the suborbitar and preopercular spines, agrees so well wuh Russell's, that I have 
no hesUU on in"eferring them both to the same species. The Chinese drawing shows a 
silvery h ad a Jale orange-brown body, black pectorals, a large black patch on the spmous 
dorsal with g,^?mottlin|s on the rest of the fin ; five dark bars on the soft dorsal, as many 
on the caudrand two incomplete ones on the anal. Ventrals pmk.sh, spotless. 
Hah. Seas of China and Japan, and the Indian ocean. 

Apistes trachinoides, C. et V. xii. p. 401. t. 92. Rod. D. 3|-12l4. ; A. 314 ; 

C. 12; P. 9 et4; V. ll4. 

A Chinese specimen, collected by the Rev. George Vachell, exists in the museum of 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and the collection of Sir Edwa.-d Belcher contains an- 
o her e^ampfe, which is most probably also from the China seas. They agree with the de- 
scdntion an^d fic^ure in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' except that there are four unbranched rays 
in the pectoral and that the dark dorsal bands are prolonged across the body. 

Hab. Javan and Chinese seas. 
Apistes rubripinnis, Temm. et Schl. F. Jap. p. 49. pi. 22. f. 2. 

Hah. Coasts of Japan. 

Apistes longispinis, C. et V. iv. p. 408. Apiste d longue epim Quoy et 

Gaimard, Voy. de I'Astrol. pi. 11. f. 4. Had. D. 14|8 ; A. 3|5; C. 7|; 

P. 11 ; V. Il4. (Spec. Mus. Brit.) 

The British Museum possesses Chinese specimens presented by John Reeves, Esq., and 
Indian ones received from General Hardwicke. 

Hah. Indian ocean, the Moluccas and sea of China. 
MiNOus wooRA, C. et V. xii. p. 421. TrigU woora minoOy Russell, 159, A. 

Rad. D. lOjll ; A. 119; C. 11 ; P. 11 ; V. 115. (China spec.) 

Dried examples abound in the Chinese boxes of insects, and there is one in the museum 
of the Cambridge Philosophical Institution preserved in spirits, which was brought from Can- 
ton by the Rev. George Vachell. I have not established their specific identity with the 
Indian fish from the want of specimens from the latter country. 

Hah. The Mauritius, the Indian and China seas. 

Fam. TRiGLiD.a:. 

Pterois volitans, Gmel. {Scorpcena), C. et V. iv. p. 352. pi. 88. Scorp(Bna 

volkans, Benn. Ceylon, pi. 1. Scorpene maU, Lacep. in. p. 278, et u. 

p 290 • Icon. Reeves, /3. 1 ; Hardw. Acanth. 120 ; Reeves, 261 ; Hardw. 

Acanth. 121. Chinese name, Keio yu, or Moio yu and King yu (Birch, 

R,G6VGS )• 

Mr Reeves's figure (3 1 was not done from the recent fish like his other drawings, but 
copied from a painting by Mr. Millet, in which the supra-orbitar cirrhi had been omitted. 
The cirrhi under the eye were added when the fish figured in drawing 261 was procured. 

Hah. Seychelles, Mauritius, Indian ocean and Archipelago, Javan sea and coasts of China : 
also Japan according to LacepMe. It is said to ascend into brackish or fresh water, and to 
be reared in ponds at Batavia. 

Pterois lunulata, Temm. et Schl. Fauna Jap. p. 45. pi. 19 ; Icon. Reeves, 
165 ; Hardw. Acanth. 123. Chinese name, Lung sen yu, " Dragon's 
beavd-lish" (Birch, Reeves); Lung su u (Bridgem. Chrest. 178). " Japa- 
nese name, Jamonakami" (Fauna Jap.). 

A specimen now in the museum at Haslar was obtained on the Canton coast by Sir Edward 
Belcher. 

Hah. Coasts of Japan and China. 



214 REPORT — 1845. 

Chirus hexagrammus, Steller (also Hexagrammus asper, MSS.). Labrax 
hexagrammus, Tilesius, Mem. de I'Ac. de Petersb. ii. pi. 23. f. 3 ; Pallas, 
Zoogr. Ross. p. 284 ; Temm. et Schl. F. Jap. p. 53. pi. 23. " Japanese 
name, Abramee " (Fauna Jap.). 

I have seen no representation of a Chinis in Chinese drawings, but the genus is not un- 
common on both shores of the Northern Pacific. A species closely resembling this one, if 
not actually the same, inhabits the harbour of Sitka. {Ch. denarius, Richardson, Ichth. of 
Voy. of Sulph. p. 78. pi. 44. f. 2.) 

Hab. Coasts of Japan and Kamtschatka. 

Chirus agrammus, Temm. et Schl, {Labrax), F. Jap. p. 56. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Sebastes inermis, C. et V. iv. p. 346 ; Temm. et Schl. F. Jap. p. 47. pi. 21. 
f. 3 and 4. 
Hah. Japan. 

Sebastes vachellii, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 69? ; Hardw. Acanth. 114? 
Chinese name, Shih koio kung, "Stony dog" (Reeves); "Rock-dog gen- 
tleman" (Birch); Shih how hong (Bridgem. 137). 

In the museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Institution there is a small Sebastes which 
was brought from China by the Rev. George Vachell, that I have not been able to identify 
with any described species, neither am I confident that Mr. Reeves's figure ought to be re- 
ferred to it ; but it agrees better with it than with any other that I have seen. 

Eyes approximated with elevated orbital plates and a ridge dividing the furrow between 
them. Three acute, falcate teeth on the edge of each orbit, three larger ones behind the 
orbit, and a small one on the temples. Nasal spines small and acute. Under edge of the pre- 
orbitar straight, ending in a spinous tooth pointing backwards. A thin unarmed ridge is con- 
tinued from this tooth across the cheek to the root of the preopercular spine, where it is met 
by another ridge coming from the under edge of the orbit. These converging lines or ridges 
enclose a smooth disc, the rest of the cheek being scaly. Operculum armed by two small, 
flat spinous points and three angular corners. Opercular spines flat, weak and small, with no 
visible ridges extending from their roots. Gill-cover scaly. Maxillaries and jaws without 
scales. Angular ridges and points of the supra-scapulars and supra- axillary plate of the co- 
racoid bone neither strong nor conspicuous. Scales of the body small, oblique and ciliated. 
Colours of specimen faded. From the uncertainty of the drawing belonging to this species I 
do not describe its tints in connection with it. 
Hab. Canton. 

Sebastes pachycephalus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 47. pi. 20. f. 3 ; Icon. 
Reeves, 218 ; Hardw. Acanth. 115. Chinese name, Shih gaou yu, " Proud 
stone-fish" (Reeves). Rod. D. 13|12; A. 3|6; P. 7 et 12, &c. 

A tpecimen exists in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park. The colours are not described 
in the ' Fauna Japonica;' but the following are the leading tints exhibited in Mr. Reeves's 
figure: — The body generally is brownish-red, paler and more lively on the under parts, and 
very dark towards the dorsal line. It is dotted throughout by darker points, apparently one 
to each scale, and there are several large, pale or bluish round spots on the sides. The head 
above and on the cheeks is like the body, and beneath it is unspotted. A crimson or reddish- 
orange is the general tint of the vertical fins, which, except the anal, have also two or three 
rows of dark round spots. The pectorals are orpiment and reddish-orange, with rows of 
black dots on the upper or branching rays. The ventials are reddish-orange without spots. 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. 

Sebastes longiceps, Richardson. Rad. D. 13|)0; A. 2|6; P. 17; V. 1|5. 

In the boxes of insects which are brought from China I have found examples of two spe- 
cies of Sebastes which appear to be undescribed. One of them has some resemblance to S. 
pachycephalus, but dilFers from it, and the rest of its congeners, in the greater comparative 
length of its head, which is contained twice and a half in the total length of the fish, caudal 
included. The nasal spines are very small, and there are three small teeth on the slightly 
raised upper edge of the obit, four or five minute serratures in its middle part, and three larger 
jagged teeth at its posterior corner. The two low, rounded intra-orbital ridges arc separated 
from each other by a narrow mesial furrow, and the whole space betweei? the eyes does not 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SKA3 OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 215 

exceed two-thirds of the diameter of the orbit. The ridge which flanlis the top of the cranium 
is a regular saw with five teeth ; but the temporal ridges, though equally prominent, are more 
irregularly toothed. A low, thin, irregularly incised edge crests the infra-orbitar ridge, and 
three minute teeth arm the posterior edge of the preorbitar. The preopercular spine is very- 
short, and is not bigger than the compressed tooth which overlies it. Only two teeth or an- 
gular corners exist on the edge of the bone below the spine. The operculum shows the usual 
two low ribs ending in short spinous points, but there are no serratures on the suboperculum, 
interoperculum or lower jaw. Small scales cover the top of the head to the nostrils, the cheek 
and gill-covers ; but none can be detected on the maxillaries, which are most probably scaleless 
in the recent fish. The scales are minutely toothed on the edge. 
Hab. China. 

Sebastes serrulatus, Richardson. Rod. B. 7; D. 13|11; A. 3|5; C. 14f. 

'Shis Sehastes, also discovered in an insert-box, is not armed on the head by rows of spines 
like others of the genus, but presents in place of them very low, thin and serrated crests. A 
low double crest skirts the upper edge of the orbit, and is followed on each side of the cranium 
by a rather higher single one. Two ridges, nearly as high as the edges of the orbit, run for- 
ward between the eyes to the nostrils, their tips being the only substitutes for the usual nasal 
spines. The small preorbitar has an irregular but obscurely stellate cancellated disc, with two 
small descending spinous teeth on its under edge. The second suborbitar, which crosses the 
cheek, shows two thin, finely serrated crests that include a rugose disc. The edge of the pre- 
operculum is serrated throughout, but it is only by aid of a lens that a minute spine can be de- 
tected at its angle, and clusters of spinous points on the usual sites of the four angular corners. 
The temples are roughly bony, and each limb of the lower jaw is traversed by three serrated 
crests higher than the cranial ones. A triangular operculum ends in a minute spinous point*, 
the suboperculum being prolonged beyond it to a fine tip. A few crenatures exist on the sub- 
operculum where its edge meets the interoperculum. 

Top of the head nearly on a line with the back, the orbits being close to the profile, but not 
elevated. The interorbitar space exceeds half the diameter of the orbit in breadth, and is 
scaly between the ridges. Scales cover the whole side of the head except the ridges, and also 
the disc of the maxillary, and like those which cover the body, they are coarsely ciliated. 
Minute villiform teeth arm the jaws and the very small acute chevron of the vomer; but the 
palate bones appear to be toothless. This points to a generic difference from Sebastes. Many 
of the rays have been mutilated and the specimen is otherwise much injured, so that we can- 
not complete the description. The dorsal spines are slender, moderately tall, and grooved oa 
the sides. The first two are contiguous to each other, and the penultimate one is much shorter 
than the last one. The pectorals reach to the beginning of the anal fin; and the third anal 
spine is one-fourth longer than the second one. The head forms nearly a third of the entire 
length, which in our specimen is 4 inches. 

Hab. Sea of China. 

Sebastes marmoratus, C. et V. iv. p. 345 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. 46. pi. 21. 
f. 1 and 2. 

The British Museum possesses one of Biirger's specimens, which 1 have hot been able to 
identify with any of Mr. Reeves's drawings. 
Hab. Japan. 

Sebastes albo-fasciAtus, Lacepede (^HolocentrUs), iv. p. 372 ; C. et V. 
iv, p. 344. 

The authors of the ' Fauna Japonica' consider this to be merely a variety oi marmoratus. 
Hab. Seas uf China and Japan. 

Sebastes sinensis, M'Clelland, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 397. 

pi. 21. f. 3. 

Mr. M'Clelland thinks that this may belong to the preceding species. His figure differs in 
profile from that of «S. marmoratus in the ' Fauna Japonica.' 

Hab. Chusan. 

Scorpjena cirrhosA, Thunberg {Perca), M6m. de Stockb. 14. pi. 7. f. 2. 

* Most of the Sebastes and Scorpcencs have their bony operculum strengthened by two di- 
verging ribs, whose points are spinous. In this species a vestige of a single rib only can be 
detected. 



216 REPORT — 1845. 

An. 1793 ; C et V. iv. p. 318 ; Temrn. et Schl. F. J. p. 42. pi. 17. f. 2, 3. 

" Japanese name, Oiarakabu." 

The British Museum possesses one of Biirgei's Japanese specimens. 

Hab, Indian ocean and sea of Japan. 
ScoRPiENA NEGLECTA, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 43. pi. 17. f. 4. Rod. 

D. 121 9; A. 315; C. 11 ; P. 9 et 11 ; V. Ij5. (Fauna Jap.) 

D. 12|l0; 315; 13|;P. Set 8;V. l(5. (Dried spec.) 

To this species I am inclined to refer five or six small specimens which I picked out of the 
China insect-boxes, chiefly because they have a black spot between the seventh and ninth dor- 
sal rays. The spines, intra-orbitar ridges, &c., correspond with the descriptions and figure in 
the ' Fauna Japonica ;' but the length of the lower preorbitar, which almost equals that of an 
Apistcs, is not noticed in that work. The specimens are much damaged, though the barbel be- 
tween the posterior superciliary spines is still visible. The cheek is not scaly, and in this 
the species differs from the Scorpcena miUlaris (Ichth. Ereb. and Terr.) of Van Diemen's Land, 
which in most other respects it closely resembles. Edge of the palate-bones and chevron of the 
vomer set with teeth. Scales finely ciliated. 

Hab. Coasts of China and Japan. 

ScoRPiENA LEONiNA, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 66; Hardw. Acanth. 116. 

Chinese name, Shih sze tsze, " Stone-lion," such as are placed before 

houses (Birch); "Stone-lion's whelp" (Reeves); Shih tz tsz (Bridgem. 

Chrest. 116). 

This species much resembles a. Platycephalus, in the flatness of its head and the manner in 
which the rows of its strong spines are tiled upon each other. A pretty tall- feathered barbel 
rises from the posterior third of the orbit, and there are many others on the lower jaw and 
under corner of the maxillary and preoperculum, also numerous small ones on the flanks. The 
ground tint of the sides, which is reddish- brown, is clouded by largish masses of dark umber, 
the belly being paler and the summit of the back dark. The vertical fins are irregularly and 
obliquely barred with umber, and the pectorals are marked also by three cross bars formed by 
umbrine spots on the rays. Iris and tip of the caudal reddish. These particulars are noted 
solely from Mr. Reeves's figure. A specimen of the fish exists in the Chinese collection at Hyde 
Park, but I have not as yet examined it. 

Hab. Canton. 
Centridermichthys uncinatus, Temm. et Schl. {Cottus), F.J. p. 38 ; 

Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. p. 74. pi. 54. f. 6-10 (C. ansatus). 

Had. B. 6 ; D. 8i-19 ; A. 17; C. 9^^ ; P. 17 ; V. l|4. 

It is very probably a fish of this genus, which was observed by Steller at Cape Cronok and 
the mouth of the Itschia, and named by him Cottus villosus (Pall. Zoogr. Ross. p. 129). He 
states that it has three barbels on the lower jaw, and compares it to a Platycephalus, which 
Centridermichthys in fact considerably resembles. Tilesius, on the other hand, seems to have 
mistaken for Cottus villosus the Aploactes aspera noticed above, which is by no means like a 
Platycephalus. 

Several specimens oi Centridermichthys uncinatus, procured at Woosung in the estuary of the 
Yang tsee kiang kew by Sir Everard Home, were presented by him to the College of Surgeons. 
Another species inhabits the American coasts on the opposite side of the Pacific, viz. C. asper 
(Richardson, Fauna Boreal. Amer. pi. 95. f. 1). 

Hab. China seas. 
Hemilepidotus tilesii, C. et V. iv. p. 276. t. 85. CotUis hemilepidotus, 

Tilesius, Mem. de Petersb. iii. p. 262. pi. 11. Cotlus trachurus, Pallas, 

Zoogr. Ross. p. 138. 

Hab. Japan, Sagalien, sea of Ochotsk, Kurile islands and north-western shores of America. 

Platycephalus insidiator, Bloch, Schn. p. 59. P. spatula, id. p. 59. 
Batrachus indicus, id. p. 43. Callionymus indicus, Lin. Cottc made- 
casse, Lacep. iii. p. 248. pi. 1 1. f. 1, 2. PI. iiisidiator, C. et V. iv. p. 227 ; 
Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 39. pi. 15. f. 1 ; Icon. Bl. pi. 424 ; Russell (Irnva), 

pi. 46. 

The Rev. George Vachell brought a specimen from Canton, which is now in tne museum of 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

Hab, Bed sea, Indian ocean, Moluccas, and seas of China and Japan. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. i2l7 

Platycephalus guttatus, C. et V. iv. p. 224 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 39. 

pi. 15. f. 2 ; Icon. Reeves, 65 ; Hardw. Acanth. 110. Chinese name, Ma 

lea (Birch); " Pebble armour" (Reeves); Sha hap (Bridgem.Chrest. 40). 

Japanese name, Notschi (I-angsdorff) ; Onigolschi (Fauna Japonica). 

A Canton specimen of this fish txists in the museum of the Cambridge Philosophical So- 
ciety, to which it was presented by the Rev. George Vachell. 

Hab. Coasts of China and Japan. 

Platycephalus cultellatus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 28; Hardw. 
Acanth. 109. Rod. D. 11-71-13 ; A. 13, &c. (Figure.) 

Mr. Reeves's drawing here quoted resembles no figure "^ ^ ^'«*2'^«^'' J" t.'d.f ''msloil^ 
acquainted, nor does it correspond to any of the numerous species described ui the Hi toire 
des Poissons.' It is remarkable for the length of its flat head, which forms nearly a thn-d of 
the total length. Its small eyes are placed far forward and almost two diameters apart. 1 heir 
orbits and "he buccal ridges are unarmed. The cranial ridges (two on each side) are armed 
bv a ser"es of recumbent spines without any of the parallel or diverging lines which exist on 
the same JartsinV insidLr. The preopercular spines are equa , or the upper one rather 
exceedTthe o her. There are no spines on the lateral line. The colour of he fish, as is usua 
L the genus is brownish, with numerous darker specks on the head, shoulders pec oral and 
ventral fins The body i without spots, but the back is crossed down to the latera line by 
four deep brown bars, one under the first dorsal, two under the second, and the fourth behind 
the latter fin The caudal is marked by five bars, the outer pair on each side being oblique ; 
but Iw at no markings on the dorsals^and anal. In the -mber of bars on he back th. 
figure agrees with the P^procodU^s^ ^^^f S^s'po s^ns'^nd < Faut' Ja^o^^^^^^^^ 

well-executed drawing is decidedly distinct. 
Hah. Canton. 

Platycephalus japonicus, Tilesius, Krusenst. Atlas, pi. 56. f.l ; C. etV. 
iv. p. 256 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 40. pi. 16. f. 3. 
Sir Edward Belcher brought a specimen of this fish from the China seas. 
Hab. Seas of Japan and China. 

Platycephalus asper, C. et V. iv. p. 257. pi. 82; Temm. et Schl. F. J. 
p. 40. pi. 16. f. 4, 5. 

The same officer brought two examples of this fish from the same quarter. 
Hab. Seas of Japan and China. 

Platycephalus spinosus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 40. pi. 16. f. 1, 2 ; Icon. 
Reeves (non Hardw.). 

I obtained a Chinese specimen of this fish from the insect-boxes above mentioned. 
Hab. Seas of Japan and China. 

Platycephalus endrachtensis, Quoy et Gairaard, Voy. de Freyc. p. 353 ; 

r pt V. iv. p. 240. 
one obtained on the north-west coasi oi ^.u ;..„„rb:tar teeth are less prominent in the 

Platycephali. 

Tlah Seas of China and Australia. , , „ j m i 

T ,hP ' Histoire des Poissons' the SUuris imberbis of Houttuyn (Mem. de la Socde Harlem, 
. -f^sV^r L C^t^r^odo^ of Lacepede, is shown to be a Platycephalus, and it is almost 

;;rt^i!:iy oS'o7tt^s?edeTabove enumeLed, but the description does not enable us to de- 
termine which of them. , o li t? t m 

Bembras japonicus, C. et V. iv. p. 283. pi. 83 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 41. 

pi. 16. f. 8. 

Hab. Japan, 

Bembras curtus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 48. pi. 16. f. 6, 7. 

Hab. Japan. 



218 REPORT — 1845. 

AspiDOPHORUS suPERCiLiosus, C. ct V. iv. p. 215. Cottus el Phalangistes 
japonicus, Pall. Spic. p. 31. pi. 5. Agoniis japonicus, Bl. Schn. 105. 
Hab. Sea of Japan, noitliward to the Kourile Islands. 

AspiDOPHORUs RosTRATUs, Tilesius (Ago7ius), Mem. del' Acad, de Petersb. 

iv. pi. 14 ; C. et V. iv. p. 212. Phalangistes fusif or mis, Tilesius in Pallas' 

Zoogr. Ross. iii. p. 116. 

i/ai. Sea of Japan. GulfofAniva. Sagalien. Kourile islands. 
AspiDOPHORUs L^viGATUS, Tilesius (Agonus), Mem. de Petersb. iv. p. 436; 

C. et V. iv. p. 214. Syngnathus segaliensis, Tilesius, Mem. de la Soc. 

Imp. de Moscou, ii. p. 216. pi. 14. 

Hah. Jesso. 

Three other Aspidophori inhabit the coasts of Kamtschatka, Sagalien, or the Kourile 
Islands. 

Cottus intermedius, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 38. 

Hab. Jesso. 

The sea of Ochotsk nourishes five other Cotti, viz. C. minutus,jaok, slelkri, mertensii and 
marmoratus, all noticed in the ' Histoire des Poissons.' 

Peristedion orientale, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 37. pi. 14. f.5, 6. 

Hab, Japan. 

Dactylopterus orientalis, C. et V. iv. p. 134. pi. 76 ; Temm. et Schl. 
F.J. p. 37. 

Hab. Seas of Japan and China. Specimens are frequently to be found in the Chinese 
insect-boxes. 

Trigla burgeri, Temm. et Schl. F.J. p. 35. pi. 14. f. 1, 2; Icon. Reeves, 
/3. 3; Hardw. Acanth. 106. Chinese name, Hung keo, "Red horn" 
(Reeves, Birch) ; Hung koh (Bridgem. Chrest. 79). 
It forms a part of almost every collection of Chinese fish that we have seen. 
Hab. Coasts of China and Japan. Hong Kong. 
Trigla papilion/^cea, Solander, Pisces Australiae, ined. p. 23; Icon. 
Parkinsonii in Bib. Banks, ii. t. 104. Trigla kwnu, Less, et Garnot, Voy. 
de la Coquille, pi. 19 ; C. et V. iv. p. 50 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 37 ; Icon. 
Reeves, 159 ; Hardw. 107. Chinese name, Lan yih yu, " Green wing or 
fin" (Birch); Lam e yu, " Blue-finned fish" (Reeves); Lam yih u 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 78). 

We have compared the Chinese and Australian specimens. 

Hab. Seas of Japan, China, Nevy Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, and the Cape of Good Hope. 

Trigla hemisticta, Temm. et Schl. F.J. p. 36. pi. 14. f. 3, 4. Trigla 
alata, Houttuyn, Mem. de la Soc. de Harlem, xx. p. 336 ?• 

The Haslar Museum possesses an example of this species, which was brought froin China by 
Captain Dawkins, R.N. 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. 

Trigla spinosa, M'Clelland, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 396. pi. 22. 
f. 2. 

Mr. M'Clelland's figure has a more sloping profile than that of Tr. papilionacea, and the 
fin-rays differ in number, otherwise there is nothing in his description to distinguish it from 
that species. It is not, as he is inclined to think, tlie Tr. alata of Houttuyn, since it wants 
the rostral spines. 

Hab. Chusan. 

Fam. PoLYNEMin^. 

PoLYNEMUS tetradactylus, Shaw, Zool. ; C. V. iii. p. 375. Trigla asiatica, 

Lin. P. quadrinarius, Solander, Pisces Austr. ; Icon. Parkinsonii in Bib. 

Banks, serv. 101. Maga jellee, Russell, 183. P. teria, Buchanan Hamilt. 

pp. 224, 381. Icon. Reeves, /3. 29 ; Hardw. 91 ; Acanth. 93 & 94. Chinese 



ON THE ICHTHYOIiOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 219 

name, Ma yew (Reeves), " Salmon-fish " of the foreign residents (Reeves) ; 
Ma yau (Bridgem. Chrest. 105). 

Hah. Indian ocean and rivers. Javan archipelago. Coasts of Australia and China. 

Figure 242 of Mr. Reeves's collection (Hardw. 89) may represent the young of the preceding. 
It differs in having a more prominent belly and a shorter anal fin, though with as numerous 
rays as the anal of the preceding. It also wants the fine black lines which run through the 
centres of each row of scales above the lateral line, which are represented in the preceding 
figure. The four free pectoral rays have the same relative length. 

PoLYNEMUs PLEBEius, Broussonnet, Ichth. ; C. et V iii. p. 380 ; Temm. et 
Schl. F. J. p. 29. pi. 1 1. f. 1. P. lineatus, Lacep. v. pi. 13. f. 2. P. sele, 
Buch. Hamiit. Ganges, p. 226 & 381. Trigla asiatica, Forst. Descr. 
Anim. p. 236 ; Icon. Georgii Forst. in Bib. Banks, serv. 241. f. 1. 
Hah. Mauritius, Indian ocean, sea of Japan and Polynesia. 

PoLYNEMUs XANTHONEMUS, C. et V. vii. p. 517 ; Icon. Reeves, a. 15; Hardw. 

Acanth. 90. Chinese name, Ma keaou lang (Reeves) ; Ma kau long 

(Bridgem. Chrest. 114). 

The figure has a zigzag blackish line above the base of the pectoral, which is not noticed 
in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' but in other respects it agrees with the description in that work. 

Hah. Indian ocean and China sea. Canton. 

Fam. MuLLiD^. 

Upeneus chrysopleuron, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 29. pi. 12. f. 1 ; Icon. 

Reeves, 268; Hardw. Acanth. 98. Chinese name, ZTM^^f fe weaow (Birch.) ; 

Hong te new, " Red-coated mullet " (Reeves). 

This species is established in the ' Fauna Japonica ' solely from a drawing of M. Biirger's, no 
specimen having reached the authors. Mr. Reeves's drawing is more elaborately coloured, 
and differs from that in the ' Fauna Japonica,' more in minute details than in general effect. 
The edges of the scales have an olive tint, and their discs are occupied by flexuose, red veins. 
The end of the snout, a circle round the eye, and the upper edge of the preorbitar are of a 
brighter vermilion, as is also the gill-cover. A bluish streak marks the base of the pectoral. 

Hah. China and Japan. 

Upeneus subvittatus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 30. Rad. D 7|-1|9 ; A. 1|6; 
V. l|5, (Camb. spec.) 

I am inclined to refer to this species a fish presented to the Cambridge Philosophical Society 
by the Rev. George Vachell. Narrow villiform bands of fine short teeth arm the jaws, acute 
chevron of the vomer and the palate-bones. The limbs of the preoperculum meet in a right 
angle, the extreme corner being slightly rounded and crenated. The barbels reach to the edge 
of the gill-opening. Reticulated and strongly ciliated scales cover the body, and the thirty-two 
which compose the lateral line are each traversed by a tube having three short branchlets on 
its upper side and one belo\^. The line passes the anal before its curve is complete. Most 
of the colours have perished, but two faint bars remain on the dorsal, one of the bars having 
a black spot in it. Length of fish, 4 inch. Height, 0'9 inch. Length of head, 0'95 inch. 

Hah. Seas of Japan and China. 

Upeneus biaculeatus, Gray (J. E.), Cat. of the Brit. Mus. ; Icon. Reeves, 
a. 22 ; Hardw. Acanth. 101. Chinese name, Fei te tseo (Birch) ; Fe te tso, 
" Flying crying tso " (Reeves) ; Fi tai tseuh (Bridgem. Chrest. 228). 
Rad. D.8|-9 ; A. 7 ; P. 14 ; V. 1|5. 

An example of this species, brought from Canton by John Reeves, Esq., exists in the British 
Museum. It belongs to the tribe " without palatine teeth, and with the jaw-teeth widely set 
in a single row;" but it has no black spot on the tail. The very short anterior spine of the 
first dorsal is not represented in the figure. All the rays of the second dorsal and anal are 
jointed. Opercular spines conspicuous, the upper one being short and blunt, the lower one 
longer and acute. A dense bushy cluster is formed by the tubes on each scale of the lateral 
line. The barbels reach to the inferior part of the gill-opening, and the jaw-teeth are short- 
conical. Olive-green is the chief tint on the back and upper parts of the sides, deepest on 
the edges of the scales, whose discs, as they approach the flanks, acquire more and more of a 
pale reddish hue. These are so arranged as to form two indistinct longitudinal reddish stripes. 



220 REPORT — 1845. 

The belly is tile-red, while the fins have a colour approaching more to carmine, but the mem- 
branes of the ventrals and anal are mostly orpiment-orange. A dull reddish-brown tinges 
the front of the head, and a more lively carmine the lips and cornevs of the mouth. Along 
the middle of the olive-coloured preorbitar there is a dark streak, and another marks out its 
lower edge. A peach-blossom red spot is placed on the top of the tail immediately behind the 
second dorsal. 
Hab. Canton. 

Upeneus russelii, C. et V. iii. p. 465. RalUee goolivincUt, Russell, pi. 157. 

Mullus indicus, Shaw, Zool. iv. p. 614 ; Icon. Reeves, a. 36 ; Hardw. 

Acanth. 102. Chinese name, Tsing fei te (Birch) ; Ching fe te (Reeves). 

Bad. D. 9|-9; A. l|7; C. 14f; P. 16; V. IjS. (Brit. Mus. spec.) 

An injured specimen of this fish, procured at Canton by the Rev. George Vachell, exists in 
the museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and there are two from the same place 
in the British Museum, presented by John Reeves, Esq., which differ from the drawing merely 
in the black spot on the top of the tail being a little further back. The species belongs to 
the same group with biacukatus, which it resembles in figure, and the Chinese appellation i^ 
the same with a distinctive epithet added. 

The first spine of the dorsal is very short and incumbent on the base of the second, while 
the last spine is very small, recumbent and not easily detected, so that only seven may be 
reckoned, unless on minute inspection. Joints exist at top of the first ray of the second 
dorsal, and the point of the anal spine is flexible. The operculum has two small spinous points, 
and its anterior border is striated. The scales are granular and reticulate on their outer 
margin, minutely pitted on the disc, and furrowed and granulated towards the base. Each 
scale of the lateral line is marked by a little torch, that is, a cluster of many simple or merely 
forked short branchlets supported on a thickish tubular stem. 

The colours are pretty well described by Russell. In Mr. Reeves's figure a short blue line 
runs from the orbit to the nostril, another borders the preorbitar beneath, and three descend 
from the temples to the cheek and gill- cover. The large anterior lateral spot is of a bright 
gamboge, and the posterior one is purplish-black. Five orange-coloured streaks cross the 
anal obliquely. 

Hah. Indian and China seas. 
Upeneus bensasi, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 30. pi. 11. f. 2. " Japanese name, 

Bensasi." 

Hab. Seas of Japan. 

Upeneus TRAGULA, Richardson. Jco». Reeves, a. 21 ; Hardw. Acanth. 105. 
Chinese name, Yang tswan, " Ocean borer" (Birch); «' Sea arrow" (Reeves); 
Yeung tsiin, (Bridgem. Chrest. 229). Bad. D. 7. vel 8|-1|8 ; A. 1|6, &c. 

This species is allied to suh-vittatus, dubius and others of the saine group which have 
banded caudals. Mr. Reeves presented a Canton specimen to the British Museum, and I 
have received two from Surgeon R. A. Bankier, R. N., procured at Hong Kong. The short 
tubes on the scales of the lateral line are for the most part divided, and one of the branches is 
generally notched at the end, while the other emits very short transverse branchlets. The 
whole cluster on each scale looks to the naked eye to be merely a club-shaped tube. Narrow 
bands of minute, slender but bluntish teeth, arm the jaws and edges of the palate-bones, and 
there are still smaller ones on the chevron of the vomer. The barbels reach to the preoper- 
culum. A more slender fish than vitiatus and less so than tceniopterus. Blackish-green ; 
upper half of the body traversed by a pale streak, commencing at the eye and coincident at 
first with the lateral line, but running above it in its course through the tail. Round purplish 
dots are distributed equally over the whole body, but are most conspicuous on the lower sil- 
very parts. On the cheeks, the specks are dark umber, smaller and not round. The dorsals 
are darkish, especially towards their tips, with obscure bars in the specimens, and on the second 
the darker colour forms a large blotch. Six dark brown bars cross the caudal. The anal 
and ventrals are roseate with round dots, which are deep reddish-brown on the ventrals. 

Hab. Canton. 

Upeneus dubius, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 30. pi. 11. f. 3. 

Hab. Seas of Japan. 

There remains two of Mr. Reeves's figures, which we are unable to place in their proper 
groups from ignorance of their dentition. One of them, named Yung chuey, " Foreign mullet" 
(Jco7J. Reeves, a. 44 ; Hardw. 103), has the external form of Up. bensasi, which enters the first 
division of the genus, but it wants the bands and spots on the fins of that species. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 221 

The other (Icon. Reeves, 250; Hardw. 104) resembles Up. bilineatus of Quoy and Gai- 
mard, in having twro longitudinal streaks, but differs in its more oblique profile and greater 
number of fin-rays. Both these and the rest of the species figured by Mr. Reeves, were pro- 
cured at Canton. 

Fam. Percidje. 
Apogon novem-fasciatus, C. et V. ii. p. 154; Temm. et Schl. F.J. p. 2. 

pi. 2. f. 2 ; Icoti. Reeves, /3. 9 ; Hardw. Acanth. 8. Chinese name, Hung 

so ho, " Red-flowering water lily" (Reeves) ; Hung soo ho " Red-combed 

water-lily" (Birch). 

Hab. Seas of Japan, China, the Moluccas, Java and Floris. 

Apogon semilineatus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 4. pi. 2. f. 2. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Apogon lineatus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 3. 
Hab, Sea of Japan. 

Apogon nigripinnis, C. et V. ii. p. 152; Temm. et Schl. F.J. p. 3. 

Hab. Indian ocean. Seas of Java and Japan. 

Apogon carinatus, C. et V. ii. p. 157 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. S. 

Hab. Japan. 

Apogon trimaculatus, C. et V. ii. p. 156 ? Less, et Garnot, Voy. du Du- 
perrey, p. 237 ? Icon. Reeves, 70 ; Hardw. Acanth. 9. Chinese name, 
YcSig sun ho (Reev(is) ; Yeng tsiin (Bridgem. Chrest. 229). Rad. 
D. 7|-1|9 ; A. 218 ; C. 16f ; V. l|5. (Chinese spec.) 

Mr. Reeves has deposited the specimen from which his figure was drawn in the British 
Museum. It has the form of ^p. trimaculaUis, but scarcely any traces are discernible of the 
three black dorsal spots, and the figure wants these spots entirely, liaving a bronzed umber 
colour on the back, with pale sides. The pectoral is orange, and the other fins brownish- 
purple, all without spots. The Chinese fish has a great similarity to Ap. rex-mullorum, but 
its body is a little higher. The spine of the second dorsal is strong. The preoperculnm is 
serrated nearly all round, and the villiform bands of teeth on the jaws are shorter and finer 
than those oi Ap. rex-mullorum. 
Hab. Seas of Java? and China. 

Ambassis vachellii, Richardson. Rod. D. 7|-1|9; A. 3|9; P. 13 ; V. Il5. 

A Canton specimen of this fish, collected by the Rev. George Vachell, belongs to the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Institution, whicli differs from the three noticed in the ' Histoire des 
Poissons,' that have no more than nine soft rays in the second dorsal, in having four teeth re- 
clining backwards on the hinder part of the orbit. Scaly nape, convexly coped with an acute 
mesial line ; the scales coming to a point between the posterior parts of the orbits. Gill-cover 
entire and scaly, a single row of large ones on the inter-operculuni, which is also entire. Two 
acute edges of the lower limb of preoperculnm beautifully serrated, and the posterior edge of 
the upper limb rather openly and slenderly toothed. The corner is rounded, and the fore- 
edge of the upper limb is vertical and smooth. Whole edge of the preorbitar spinously toothed. 
Eye large ; lower jaw ascending. 

A recumbent, concealed pre-dorsal spine. The spines of the dorsal are curiously beaded, 
as if jointed ; and the ventral spine also is torulose. The lateral line, composed of about thirty 
scales, is arched anteriorly in a brown band, which descends from the first dorsal, and is there 
diffracted and resumed two scales' breadth lower, whence it is continued in a silvery stripe to 
the tail. Length offish, 2-50 inches. Height of body, 1-68 inch. 

Hab. Canton. 

DiPLOPRioN BiFAsciATUM, C. et V. ii. p. 137. pi. 21 ; Temm. et Schl. F.J. 

p. 2 ; Icon. Reeves, a. 27 ; Hardw. Acanth. 5. Chinese name, Hwang te 

yu, " Hwang te's iish," named after one of the judges of Hades (Reeves) ; 

"Yellow emperor's fish" (Birch). Rad. D. 8|-15 ad 19; A. 2|12 ; 

C. 151; P. 16; V. 1|5. 

Specimens exist in every collection of Chinese fish, and small ones are common in the 
insect-boxes sold at Canton. Recent colour bright lemon-yellow, with spinous dorsal, ven- 



222 REPORT — 1845. 

trals and lateral mark black ; also a very narrow edging of the same to the bright yellow ver- 
tical fins. The body is crossed vertically by upwards of twenty narrow bars, bent en chevron, 
and difTering slightly from the ground tint. 
Hab. Japanese, Chinese and Javan seas. 

NiPHON spiNosus, C. et V. ii. p. 131. pi. 19; Temm. et Schl. p. 1. pi. 1. f. 1. 

The Britisli Museum possesses a specimen sent from Japan by Burger. 
Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Lates nobilis, C. et V. ii. p. 96. pi. 13. Pandomnenoo, Russell, 131. 
Coins r^acti, Buchan. Hamilt. Ganges, pp. 86, 369. pi. 16. f. 28; Icon. 
Reeves, a. 10; Hardw. Acanth. 7. Chinese name, Tsao yu (Birch); 
Tso yii (Reeves) ; Tso u (Bridgem. Chrest. 166). 

Mr. Reeves's specimen from Canton, deposited in the British Museum, and other examples 
in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park, agree exactly with Indian ones ; but Mr. Reeves's 
figure is not so happy as the rest of his admirable drawings, being inexact in the numbers of 
the soft rays and in the anal spines. 

Hab. Indian ocean and sea of China. Ganges. Canton. It is not mentioned in the 
' Fauna Japonica.' 

Lates calcarifer, C. et V. ii. p. 100; Bl. 244? Ico7i. Reeves, a. 11 ; 

Hardw. Acanth. 64. Chinese name, Hihtsaou (Birch) ; Hih tso, "Black 
tso" (Reeves) ; Hak ts'o (Bridgem. 128). Bad. D. 8|11 ; A. 3|8. 

The figure in Mr. Reeves's portfolio above quoted, has the same defects with that of Lates 
nobilis, but a mounted specimen, brouglU by that gentleman from Canton and deposited in the 
British Museum, has the number of rays given above, and four teeth on the humeral bone. 
Its length is 10-2,5 inches, of which the head measures 2-50 inches. Bloch's figure is not ac- 
curate in the details. The lateral line in this species is more boldly arched above the pectoral 
than in L. nobilis. 

Hah. Coasts of China. 

The Ta loo, "Variegated " (Reeves, 88), Ta to (Bridgem. Chrest. 172), much re- 
sembles these Lates in form, but it has too many spines for any described species either of that 
genus or of Labrax. The Chinese generic epithet belongs to Labrax. 

Labrax japonicus, C. et V. ii. p. 85. Perca-labrax japonicus, Temm. et 
Schl. F. J. p. 2. pi. 2. f. 1. Holocentrum maculatum, M'Clelland, Calcutta 
Journ. Nat. Hist. p. 400. pi. 21 . f. 1 . Lates piinctidatiis, Cantor, /rfe spec. ; 
Icon. Reeves, 135 ; Hardw. Acanth. 43. Chinese name, Pan tsaou " Striped 
tsaou" (Birch) ; Pan Zoo (Reeves) ; Pans Id (Bridgem. Chrest. 217). 
We have had an opportunity of comparing one of Biirger's Japanese specimens, now in the 
British Museum, with others from various parts of the Chinese coasts. Mr. Reeves's figure is 
that of tlie young fish. One Chinese specimen, said to have been transmitted to London by 
Mr. M'Clelland,''is labelled Lates punctaius, but I do not know whether it has been published 
by that name or not. Specimens exist in the British Museum, India-House and Haslar mu- 
seums, and in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park. 

Hab. Seas of Japan and China. Hong Kong, Canton, Peiho, Chusan, &c. 

Fam. BERYCiD.aE (Low Fishes of Madeira). 

MoNOCENTRis JAPONICUS, Houttuyn ( Gasterosteus), Mem. de Harlem, xx. 
p. 329 ; C. et V. iv. p. 461 ; Bl. Schn. pi. 24 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 50. 
pi. 22. f. 1. Sciana japonica, Thunberg, :Mem. de I'Acad. des Sciences 
de Swede, xi. p. 102. pi. 3. Lepisacanthe, Lacep. iii. p. 321. 
Hah. Sea of Japan. 

Myripristes japonicus, C. et V. iii. p. 173. pi. 58 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. 
p. 22. 
Hab. Sea of Japan. 



ON THK ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 223 

Myripristes PRALiNus, C. et V. iii. p. 170 etvii. p. 486. Rad. D.lOllS; 
A. 4|11; C. 19|; V. l|7. 

A Canton specimen was presented to the British Museum by John Reeves, Esq. 
Hah. Coasts of China. Canton. 

HoLOCENTRUM spiNosissiMUM, Temiti. et Schl. F. J. p. 22 ; Icon. Reeves, 
84; Hardw. Acanth. 84. Holocentre a bande blanche, Lacep. iv. p. 372, 
373 ? Chinese name, Tseuen Keun Keu, " Tseang Keun's armour ;" 
"TseangKeun is a military officer" (Reeves); Tseung kwan kdp (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 93). Rad. B. 8 ; D. 11|13 ; A. 4|7, &c. 

Mr. Reeves's Canton specimen is deposited in the British Museum. Lacepfide, on the 
authority of Japanese drawings, named one species of this genus Holocentre & bande blanche, 
and another Holocetitre blanc-rouge. On the supposition that the only two Holocentra which 
I have met with in collections of Chinese fish are the same two which frequent the seas of 
Japan, I have considered his bande blanche as identical with the spinosissimam of the ' Fauna 
Japonica,' because of its white stripes. Our enumeration of the fin- rays differs from that 
recorded in the work in question j but it is difficult in this genus, without dissection, to distin- 
guish between entire rays and branches, especially of the anal fin, and two observers will 
scarcely reckon alike. Caudal and anal yellow, the front of latter and sides of former red. 
Edge of dorsal yellow. 

Hah. Coasts of Japan and China. 

HoLOCENTRUM ALBo-RUBRUM, Lacep. iv. p. 372; Icon. Reeves, a. 19; 
Hardw. Acanth. 83. Chinese name, Kin lin kea, " Scaly metallic armour" 
(Reeves); Kam lun kdp (Bridgem. Chrest. 94). Rad. B. 8 ; D. ll|14; 
A. 4|9; P. 1|12, &c. 

For the reason given above I have referred this Chinese fish to the species named by Lace- 
pede. Specimens from Canton exist in the British Museum, presented by John Reeves, Esq., 
and in the museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, by the Rev. George Vachell. 
There are also examples of it in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park. Cuvier was inclined 
to think that the Japanese painting referred to by Lacepede, was a representation of H. ori- 
entate, but a careful examination of the specimens causes me to doubt the correctness of this 
opinion and to have recourse to Lacepede's prior appellation. 

The infraorbitar chain is finely fringed and unequally toothed throughout, the anterior 
point of the preorbitar being armed by one strong curved tooth followed by five or six small 
conical ones, differing in appearance from the rest, which are more setaceous. Interoperculum 
armed by six or seven teeth, the posterior three being largest. Ribs or longitudinal streaks 
of operculum ending in four or five slender points ; the two spines strong and slightly diver- 
gent. Vertical edge of preoperculum strongly toothed above the thick, smooth spine ; under 
edge also toothed ; the disc smooth. Under jaw and maxillaries streaked in two directions. 
Temporal plate streaked and toothed. Posterior frontal rusticated ; from seven to ten striaa on 
each side of the hind head ; supra-scapular and scapula finely toothed and furrowed. An acute 
tooth of the nasal bone overlies the edge of the intermaxillary ; and there are streaks and a 
small tooth on the supra-axillary plate of the'coracoid bone ; thirty-seven scales on lateral 
line. There is none of the yellow colour on the fins which the preceding species shows. 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. 

Fam. SlLLAGINID^. 

Sill AGO japonica, Temm. et Schl. F. J. 23. pi. 10. f. 1 ; Ico7i. Reeves, 
/3. 40 ; Hardw. Acanth. 3. Chinese name, Sha tswan, " Sand spear" 
(Reeves); Ska tsiin (Bridgem. Chrest. 202). Rad. B. 5 ; D. 11|-1|22; 
A. 3|21, &o. 

John Reeves, Esq. and the Rev. George Vachell brought specimens from Canton, which 
are deposited in the British Museum and with the Cambridge Philosophical Institution. The 
numbers of rays, as given above, correspond with the figure but not the text of the ' Fauna Ja- 
ponica.' They were reckoned in one of Mr. Vachell's specimens. The second spine of the 
first dorsal is rather taller than the first, and the curve of the lateral line is exaggerated in 
Mr. Reeves's drawing. 

Fam. Sci.ffiNiD.E. 
Sci^NA japonica, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 58. pi. 54. f. 1. 
Hab. Sea of Japan. 



224 REPORT — 1845. 

Sci/ENA LUCIDA, Richardson, Ichth. Voy. of Sulphur, p. 87. pi. 44.. f. 3, 4 ; 

Icon. Reeves, /3. 6 ; Hardw. Acanth. 130. Chinese name, Hwang pe tow 

TBirch) ; Wa7ig pe tow, " Yellow-skin head" (Reeves) ; Wang pi tau, 

(Bridgem. Chrest. 98). 

The Scieena lucida forms part of all the collections of Chinese fish that we have examined, 
and is one of the most common fish on the breakfast tables of the foreign residents at Macao. 
Wang pe is the fruit of the Cookia punctata. 

Hah. Seas of China. Chiisan. Ningpo. Canton. 

Sci^NA CROCEA, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 139; Hardw. Acanth. 131. 

Chinese name, Hwang hwa (Reeves) ; " Yellow paint" (Birch); (Bridgem. 

Chrest. 169 ?) Rad. D. 9l-l|33 ; A. 1|8 ; C. 17f ; P. 16 ; V. 1|5. 

This fish is intermediate in form, as well as in the numbers of its fin-rays, between Sc. lucida 
and Sc. pama (Buch.), and differs considerably in character from the two Atlantic species and 
from Sc. japonica, having more the aspect of a Johnius. 

The following particulars are noted from a Canton specimen presented to the British Mu- 
seum by John Reeves, Esq. : — Outer teeth of the upper jaw widely set, short, subulate, acute ; 
a canine tooth a little stouter than the others on each side of the symphysis ; and a villiform 
hand within. On the lower jaw, the subulate teeth are a little taller and slightly curved, with 
numerous small ones amongst them, but no distinct interior villiform bands. The maxillary 
is strengthened anteriorly by a smooth rib which projects at the tip. Four pores at the end of 
the lower javv; and five teeth pointing upwards on the upper limb of the preoperculum. Two 
thin, flat, triangular, acute and flexible tips to the operculum, with a cartilaginous prolonga- 
tion of the suboperculum extending much beyond them. Anal spine having about one-third 
of the length of the soft rays. Scales soft and nacry, the curve of the lateral line terminating 
at the tip of the pectoral, but less boldly arched than in the figure. Pectorals, under-parts 
of the body, sides of the head, and ventral spine salfron-yellow, the anal showing a reddish- 
orange hue. The fish attains a considerable size. 

Hab. Sea of China. Canton. 

Otolithus aureus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 234 ; Hardw. Acaiith. 129. 
Chinese name, Kin leen hwo, " Gold scale hwo" (Birch) ; Kinn lin han, 
"Golden-scaled han" (Reeves). Rad. D. 10|-l|25; A. 2|9 ; P. 17; 
V. 115. 

John Reeves, Esq. presented two Canton specimens of this fish to the British Museum. 
They have five pores at the tip of the lower jaw ; a row of subulate teeth on the upper jaw, a 
card-like or villiform band within, and a canine tooth near the symphysis. On the lower jaw 
there are no villiform bands within the subulate teeth, but two or three rows of minute ones 
exterior to them. Maxillary striated, truncated. Preorbitar and snout scaly. Preoperculum 
streaked on its border and slightly crenato-dentate. Bony operculum ending in two narrow, 
acute, triangular flat points, separated from each other by a deep oblique fissure. First anal 
spine almost concealed ; second slender, half the length of the soft rays. Colour generally 
dark with much brown, unspotted on body. Two rows of spots between the rays on second 
dorsal ; pectorals and lower fins orange. 

Hah. Canton. 

Otolithus reevesii, Richardson. Rad. D. 10|-l|31 ; A. 2l7 ; C. 17 ; P. 
19; V. 1|5. 

This species has the general form of the preceding, but differs from it in having a more 
blunt, rounded, and prominent snout, a shorter rounded caudal, approaching less to a rhomb, 
and the preoperculum spinously toothed on the upper limb and rounded corner, where the 
teeth are large. On its under limb the teeth have the usual crenato-dentate character ob- 
served in this genus. The dorsal is more deeply divided than in aureus, and the two equal 
tips of the bony operculum are shorter and stronger. The second anal spine, though shorter 
than the soft rays, is stout and finely striated ; dentition and pores on chin as in aureus. On 
the upper half of the body there are oblique lines which pass some way below the lateral 
line. The number of anal rays forbid us to refer this fish to the bispinosus of the ' Histoire des 
Poissons,' and it does not agree with the others described in that work. The British Museum 
possesses a Chinese specimen obtained from Mr. Reeves, but he does not appear to have had 
a drawing made of it. 

Hab. Canton. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 225 

Otolithus argenteus, Kuhl et Van Hasselt, apud C. et V. v. p. 62? 
Icon. Reeves, 200; Hardvv. Acanth. 133. Rad. D. 10|-ll28; A. 2|7 ; 
P. 17 ; V. 1|5. (Chin. Spec. Cam. Ph. Inst.). 

In the absence of specimens or figures of the Batavian O. argenteus, the Chinese fish can be 
referred to the same species only with doubt. An example of the Chinese fish was presented 
to the Cambridge Pliilosophical Institution by the Rev. George Vachell. 

.\n outer row of short, equal subulate teeth, moderately widely set, arm both jaws, and 
within the upper ones there is a narrow microscopical villiform band, but none such are per- 
ceptible on the lower jaw. A long, curved, and not stoiit canine stands on each side of the 
symphysis of each jaw, the upper ones being widely apart, so as to receive the inferior pair be- 
tween them. The lower jaw is slightly longer than the snout. Curve of the lateral line 
completed opposite to the anus and middle of the second dorsal. The bony operculum is 
traversed by two fine ribs whose ends project slightly, the notch between them being inconspi- 
cuous. The second anal spine is slender, vieak, and only half the length of the soft rays ; 
the first one is a mere point. Length of specimen, 6'55 inches j length of head, 1'55 inch ; 
length from snout to anus, 3*55 inches; from snout to caudal, 5*50 inches; height of body, 
1-25 inch. 

Hab. Canton. Straits of Malacca ? (Major Farquhal*). Javan sea? (K. et V. H.) 

Otolithus tridentifer, Richardson. 7co«. Reeves, (i.5^; Hardw. Acanth. 
]32. Chinese name, San ya {^\yc\\) ; /Saw «^a (Reeves), "Three-teeth;" 
Sam ngd (Bridgem. Chrest. 14.2). Rad. D. 10l-l|27; A. 2|6 ; P. 15; 
V. 1|5. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 

Two strong curved canines above and one below near the symphysis, with an equal row of 
lateral subulate teeth on both jaws, more closely set in the lower one. By aid of a lens, a 
narrow band of villiform teeth can be detected within the others above ; and beneath there are 
a few intermixed with the principal ones. Some striae are visible on the end of the maxillary ; 
and there are depressions on the lower jaw, but no pores could be detected. The preoper- 
culum is armed feebly by small acute teeth, and the bony operculum shows two narrow points 
separated from each other by a fissure. The fish is pale and silvery, with a light bluish gray 
tint along the back. The lower half of the caudal, front of the anal, ventrals, and the pectorals 
are gall-stone yellow. The rest of the fins are pale and spotless, the upper half of the caudal 
alone being deeper and approaching to blackish-gray. 

Hah. China seas. Canton. 

CoRViNA GRYPOTA, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 12 ; Hardw. Acanth. 
Chinesename,l?t/;otoM; (Reeves, Birch); Wdk tdu (Bridgem. Chrest. 127). 
Rad. D. 101-1129 ; A. 2l7 vel 8 ; C. 18|- ; P. 18 ; V. Il5. (Spec. Hasl. Mus.) 

Most of the collections of Chinese fish that we have examined contain examples of a Corvina, 
which with the general aspect of C. coitor of Buchanan Hamilton (pi. 27. f. 24), has a 
straighter profile and a shorter and blunter snout that curves downwards from the nostrils, 
much like that of Umbrina vulgaris ; it seenfs to be allied to Scitsna lucida. Upper jaw armed 
by a concave densely villiform plate of teeth with a stronger subulate outer i-ow, brownish at the 
tips, which are even ; on the lower jaw the villiform plate is boldly convex. Minute pores exist 
on the snout, and there are five large pores at the end of the lower jaw. The scaly preorbitar 
receives beneath its edge, the entire maxillary and all the intermaxillary except the dental 
margin. A deep recess exists on the outside of the maxillary pedicles, and a little triangular 
point of the preorbitar lip hangs over it. The limbs of the lower jaw are scaly, and thin bony 
ridges of the suborbitar chain cross the scaly cheek. The preoperculum is bounded towards 
the cheek by a smooth bony edge ; its posterior edge is free and is widely set with slender 
subulate teeth, the most distinct ones being the tips of ribs which cross the disc of the bone. 
Interoperculum entii-e, mostly concealed beneath the preoperculum ; suboperculum also entire, 
rather narrow. Two low even diverging ribs cross the operculum and end in points which are 
scarcely pungent, and the edge of bone between them is nearly even. Lateral line formed by 
a series of simple tubes, boldly arched anteriorly, and becoming straight in the tail by a gra- 
dual sweep ending opposite the beginning of the anal. Scales tender, nacry, and very deci- 
duous. Second anal spine not strong, a little shorter than the soft rays. Caudal subrhomboidal. 
Ventrals with a short filamentous tip. Colour mostly silvery, with some yellow tints on fore 
part of anal, ventrals, and pectorals. Length about 7 inches. 

Hah. Canton. 

CoRViNA siNA, C. et V. V. p. 122 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 58. pi. 24. f. 2; 
/co». Reeves, 94 ; Hardw. Acanth. 130. Chinese name, Hwang Hioa, 
1845. Q 



226 REPORT — 1845. 

" Yello'W Pichere"? (Reeves) ; Hwang hwo " Yellow hwo fish" (Birch) ; 

Wang wdk (Bridgem. Chrest. 99). 

The figure of the hwang-hwa is the nearest in Mr. Reeves's portfolio to the plate of the 
' Fauna Japonica' quoted above, but it does not agree exactly with it, the profile of the forehead 
differing a little, and the anal spine being rather stronger. We have seen no specimen that 
could be referred to this species. 

Mab. Japan, China, and the Indian ocean. 
CoRViNA CATALEA, C. et V. V. p. 128. Lutjan diacanthe, Lacepede, iv. pp. 

195 et 244. Katchelee, Russell, 116 ; Icon. Reeves, 207 ; Hardw. Acanth. 

128. Chinese name, Manvu (Reeves) ; Man il (Bridgem. Chrest. 174). 

Bad. D. 10|-1|21 ; A. 2|7 ;P. 19 vel 20 ; V. 1|5. (Chin. Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

A Chinese specimen of this fish, S^ inches long, has been deposited in the British Museum 
by John Reeves, Esq. The spots are as in Russell's plate, with a few more of them descend- 
ing below the lateral line, but there aie also two rows of spots on the first dorsal, which are 
only obscurely indicated in Mr. Reeves's figure. 

Hub. Indian ocean. China sea. Canton. 
CoRviNA NALLA-KATCHELEE, Russell, 115; IcoH. Recves, 225; Hardw. 

Acanth. 134. Chinese name, Ma-7nan (Birch) ; iJfa^iw (Reeves). Rad. 

D. 10|-2S;A. 217; P. 16; V. 1|5. (Chin. Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

The British Museum possesses a mounted specimen of this fish and one in spirits, both 
brought from Canton by Mr. Reeves. Russell says that the Coromandel fishermen take this 
to be the male of C. catalea. The differences in the numbers of the rays of the fins seem to 
render it expedient to keep them distinct ; the snout of this is more obtuse ; like the pre- 
ceding, it has five pores on the lower jaw ; the second anal spine is only half the length of the 
soft rays. 

Hab. Indian and Cliina seas. Canton. 

CoRviNA ? ALBiFLORA, RichardsoH. Icon. Reeves, (i. 48 ; Hardw. Acanth. 

Chinese name, Pih htoa (Birch) ; Pihfa (Reeves), " White flower ;" Pdk 

sfd (Bridgem. Chrest. 129). 

This is apparently a Corvina with stronger teeth than the other species in Mr. Reeves's port- 
folio, but we have seen no specimen that can be referred to it, nor can we identify it with any 
one described in the ' Histoire des Poissons ' by the short accounts of the species therein men- 
tioned. The base of the second dorsal is marked by a row of black dots, one on each ray. 
The o-eneral colour is silvery with pale bluish-gray on the discs of the scales, the gray tint 
deepening along the dorsal line. Pectorals, fronts of the ventrals and anal and lobes of the 
caudal, more or less deeply tinged with orange or yellow. First dorsal darker than the other 
fins, but there are no spots except the row on the base of the second dorsal. 

Hab. Canton. 
Umbrina russelii, C. et V. v. p. 178; Qualar -katchelee, Russell, 118; 

Icon. Reeves, /3. 37 ; Hardw. Acanth, Chinese name, Sang seu hwa 

(Birch); "Live pencil-beard" (Reeves); Shang ssii wdk (Bridgem. 

Chrest. 175). Rad. D. 11127; A.2|7; C. 15f ; V. 1|5. (Spec. Camb. 

Ph. Inst.) 

The Cambridge Philosophical Institution is indebted to the Rev. George Vachell for a Can- 
ton specimen of this fish. It has a mesial barbel on the chin, with a deep pore on each 
side of it, and fifty scales on the lateral line. The whole fish is brightly nacry with a pale 
reddish-brown tint along the dorsal line ; pale yellow second dorsal, pectorals, and ventrals ; 
and front of anal yellow or orange. 

Hab. Indian and China seas. Canton. 

Fam. H.s;mulonid.j;. 

DiAGRAMMA ciNCTUM, Tcmm. et Schl. F. J. p. 61. pi. 26. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, 

82 ; Hardw. Acanth. Chinese name, Hwajuen shin, '■' Flowery soft lips" 

(Birch) ; Fajiien shen (Reeves) ; Fa im shan (Bridgem. Chrest. 95). 

The Chinese collection at Hyde Park and the British Museum contain several specimens of 

this fish, which we have compared with a specimen of Biirger's from Japan, also belonging to 

the latter institution. The bands of colour, and indeed the whole form of the fish, are singu- 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 22? 

larly like those of Diacope «e6« (Russell, 99 ; C. et V. ii. p. 41 1), but there are no spots on the 
latter. The markings still more closely resemble thoae of Hapalogenys maculatiis (Reeves, a. 
49). Mr. Reeves's drawing represents both the Chinese and Japanese specimens more faith- 
fully than the figure published in the ' Fauna Japonica,' but the profile of neither is quite steep 
enough. 

Hub. Coasts of China'and Japan. 

DiAGRAMMA GATERiNA, Forskal {Sciceiid), C. et V. v. p. 301. pi. 125. 
Holocentre gaterin, Lacep. iv. p. 347 ; Riippell, Atl. 32. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, 
o. 50; Hardw. Acanth. 50. Chinese name, Hung teen tseu (Birch); 
Hung teen tso (Reeves), "Red-spotted tso fish." Rad. D. 14|15; A. 
3|7, &c. (Spec. Chin. Collect.) 

Notvfithstanding the difference in the numbers of the dorsal rays, I have ventured to refer 
this Chinese fish to the Scieena gaterina of Forskal. Riippell's figure differs from the one in 
the ' Histoire des Poissons ' considerably in the steepness of the profile. Mr. Reeves's dravping 
is in this respect most like the latter, but in the form and distribution of its spots it has more 
resemblance to Riippell's figure. The Chinese collection at Hyde Park contains a specimen 
of this fish. 

Hah. Red sea and coasts of China. 

DiAGRAMMA PiCTUM, Thunberg {Perca), Nov. Mem. de Stockh. xiii. p. 14-1 . 
pi. 5 ; C. et V. V. p. 31 5 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 62 ; Hardw. Acanth. 138. 

A specimen sent to the museum at Haslar from Hong Kong, by Surgeon R. A. Bankier, 
R.N., differs from the description of the species in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' in its first dorsal 
being black with a white edge, which is the extension of the mesial frontal band. 

Hah. Seas of Japan, China and Malay archipelago, and the Indian ocean. 

DiAGRAMMA pcEciLOPTERUM, C. et V. V. p. 314; Scba, iii. pi. 27. f. 17; 

Temm. et Schl. v. p. 314 ; Icon. Reeves, 190 ; Hardw. Acanth. 65. Had. 

D. 10|21 ; A. 3|6, &c. (Chin. Spec.) 

Specimens exist in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park, and we have found dried ones in 
the Chinese insect-boxes. 

Hah. Seas of Japan, China, Malay archipelago, and India. 

DiAGRAMMA puNCTATUM, Ehrenberg, C. et V. v. p. 302 ; Temm. et Schl. 
F. J. p. 60 ; Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de I'Astrol. pi. 12. f. 2 ; Riippell, Atl. 
pi. 32. f. 2 ; Icon. Reeves, 78 ; Hardw. Acanth. 30. Chinese name, Yaou 
we, " Want tail" (Birch) ; Yaou ne (Reeves) ; Yap mi (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 214). 

The colouring of Mr. Reeves's drawing corresponds closely with the description in the ' Fauna 
Japonica,' and approaches nearer to the plate in the ' Voyage of the Astrolabe ' than to that in 
Riippell's ' Atlas.' The Chinese collection at Hyde Park contains a specimen. It has three 
pairs of pores on the lower jaw. 

Hah. Red sea, Malay archipelago, and seas of China and Japan. 

Pristipoma. kaakan, C. et V. v. p. 244; Riippell, Neue Wirlb. p. 123. 
pi. SO. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, 201 ; Hardw. Acanth. 52. Chinese name. Tow 
loo (Birch, Reeves) : Tau Id (Bridgem. Chrest. 134). (Chin. Spec.) 

A specimen from China has been deposited in the British Museum by John Reeves, Esq. 
Hah. Red sea, Indian ocean, Malay archipelago, and China sea. 

Pristipoma nageb, Riippell, Neue Wirlb. p. 124. taf. 30. f. 2 ; Icon. 

Reeves, 244 ; Hardw. Acanth. 62. Chinese name. Sing loo (Reeves) ; 

" Starry loo fish" (Birch). Rad. D. 12|12 ad 15; A.3|7 ; &c. (Chin. Spec.) 

John Reeves, Esq. has deposited a specimen of this fish in the British Museum. The 
Rev. George Vachell presented another to the Cambridge Philosophical Institution, and there 
are several in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park. 

Hah. Red and China seas. 

Pristipoma fihloo, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, a. 29 ; Hardw. Acanth, 

q2 



228 REPORT — 1845. 

135. Chinese name, Pih loo, "White loo fish" (Reeves, Birch); Paklo 

(Bridgem. Chrest. 135). Rad. D. 11|14; A. 3|8 ; C. 17f ; P. 16; V. 1|5. 

Mr. Reeves's China specimen is in the British Museum. It greatly resembles nngeh, but 
has a more convex profile, and differs in its markings. It has a row of seven roundish dark 
spots or short transverse bars along the back above the lateral line, in which respect it differs 
from P. giioraca, whose form is not dissimilar. No pores were detected on the lower jaw. 
The teeth on the jaws are villiform, the dental surface being narrower on the upper jaw, and 
bounded by an outer row of short subulate teeth. The roof of the mouth is toothless. Space 
round the nostrils and jaws nacry ; all the opercular pieces and the cheek scaly. Disc of pre- 
operculum broad, its outline parabolic and its posterior edge toothed, the teeth being more 
remote at the corner. The figure, which is otherwise a good representation of the specimen, 
does not bring the curve of the preoperculum far enough back. A band of small scales crosses 
the nape from one scapula to the other ; the second anal is longer and stronger than the 
third one. This species is similar in its markings to Mesoprion johnii, Bl. 3 IS, but the spe- 
cimen has no vomerine nor palatine teeth. (C. et V.) 

Hab. Canton. 

pRisTiPo.MA jAPONicuM, C ct V. V. p. 288 ; Teram. et Schl. F. J. p. 60. 
pi. 26. f. 2 ; Icon. Reeves, 202 ; Hardw. Acanth. 71. Chinese name, Hae 
tseih (Birch); Hae tseik (Reeves), "Sea-tsaou;" Hoi tsik (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 223). Japanese name, Jousaki (LangsdorfF). Rad, D. 15|16; 
A. 3|7 ; P. 17, &c. (Chin. Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

The figure in the ' Fauna Japonica' represents a fish with a considerably lower body than 
the Chinese, which we have referred to that species on account of its agreement in all other 
respects with the characters of the species. The British Museum received a Chinese specimen 
from John Reeves, Esq. Second and third anal spines equal and striated. The scales are small. 

Hah. Coasts of China and Japan. 

pRisTiPOMA? CHLORONOTUM, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 231; Hardw. 
Acanth. 77. Chinese name, Tsi7ig pei cha, "Green-backed tseu fish" 
(Birch) ; Ching heae tso (Reeves). Rad. D. 12|22 vel 23 ; A. 3|12 ; &c. 
(from the drawing.) 

Of this fish we have seen no specimen. It has the thickish lips and preoperculum of a 
Pristipoma and the even dorsal oi Pr.japonicum. The scales are larger than in that species, 
and the second anal spine is conspicuously longer and stronger than the third one. A greenish- 
gray tint, approaching where most intense to olive-green, pervades the upper parts of the 
body and the vertical fins, being deepest on the discs of the scales, Avhich have silvery mar- 
gins. The sides are paler and are glossed by auricula-purple, and the lips, cheeks, and pectoral 
and ventral fins are lavender-purple without spots anywhere. 

Hah. Seas of China. Canton. 

Pristipoma ? gallinaceum, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 22 ; Hardw. 
Acanth. 44. Chinese name, Ke yu, " Fowl-fish" (Reeves, Birch). Rad. 
D. 14118 ; A. 2 ?|7, &c. (from the figure.) 

Of this also I have seen no specimen : judging from the figure, it seems to approach 
Pr.japonicum, but its scales are larger and its dorsal more notched. Its lower fins are orange 
and its caudal lobes tipped with carmine, the body generally silvery and the fins unspotted. 
It is possible that this may be the Hcemulon mentioned by Dr. Cantor as frequenting the 
estuary of the Peiho. It has carmine blotches on the lips like HcEinulon. 

Hah. China seas. Canton. 

Pristipoma ? grammopcecilum, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, a. 9 ; Hardw. 
Acanth. 56. Chinese name, Zuen chin let, " Soft-mouthed la fish" 
(Birch); Queii simi la, "Flexible-finned lap" (Reeves); Un shan lap 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 96). Rad. D. 14|20; A. 3|9 vel 10, &c. (from the 
figure.) 

This fish has a different physiognomy from any of the preceding ones, and we cannot assign 
it to a genus with confidence, from not having seen a specimen. It has the even dorsal of 
Pr. japotiicum, but much larger scales, which are silvery. The cheeks and side of the head 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 229 

are streaked by nine or ten reddish stripes, and tlie whole bacli and sides are dotted with red 
spots about the size of partridge shot. The fins are darlc and without spots; the parts about 
the mouth are carmine, as in HcBmulon. 

Hab. Canton, 

Fam. Serranid^. 

Mesoprion unimaculatus, C. et V. ii. p. 441 ; Quoy et Gaim. Zool. de 
Freyc. p. 304. pi. 5. f. 3. Doondiawah, Russell, 97 ; /com. Reeves, a. 25 ; 
Hardw. Acanth. 21. Hioang tsaou, " Yellow tsaou fish." Chinese name, 
Hwang tso, "Yellow tso" (Reeves) ; Wang tso (Bridgem. Chrest. 133). 
Rod. D. 10|13 vel 14, A. 3|7, &c. (China spec. Brit. Mus.) 
The specimen collected at Canton by John Reeves, Esq. is deposited in the British Museum. 
Hab. Indian ocean, Malay archipelago, and China seas. 

Mesoprion hoteen, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, n. 28 ; Hardw. Acanth. 66. 
Ho teen. Chinese name. Ho teenyo, "Burn-spotted" (Reeves) ; Fo tim tso 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 220). Rad. D. 10|13 ; A. 3|8, &c. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

Several examples of a Chinese fish strongly resembling the preceding exist in the Chinese 
collection at Hyde Park and in the British Museum, but differing from it in having a preoper- 
cular notch and subopercular knob, both sHghter than is usual in Diacope. Neither the spe- 
cimens nor drawing agree sufficiently with Russell's figure 110 {Mesoprion quinquelineatus, 
C. et v.), nor 98 {Diacope notata, C. et V.), nor with Bloch's M.johnii (318), to be referred 
to either of them. 

The canine teeth in the upper jaw are acute and well-apart. In the lower jaw there is a 
short one in the middle of the limb on each side. The vomerine and palatine teeth are covered 
by the horizontal velum. The preorbitar and lower jaw are studded with minute pores. A 
small pit exists on the chin. The scales of the cheek form an oval oblique band extending 
from the temples to near the corner of the mouth, bounded above by smooth integument, 
which spreads over the preorbitar and below by the disc of the preoperculum. Preoperculum 
having a broad disc coarsely toothed at the corner, some of the inferior teeth pointing forward ; 
under limb serrated ; operculum with two obtuse lobes. The darker discs of the scales form 
rows of faint spots. Second and third anal spines about equal in length, the second one a little 
the stoutest, and neither of them equal to the soft rays in length. 

Hab. China seas. Canton. 

Mesoprion annularis, C. et V. ii. p. 484. et iii. p. 497. Diacope annu- 
laris, Riippell, Atl. p. 74. taf. 24. f. 2 ; Quoy et Gaim. Astrol. pi. 5. f. 4. 
Rad. D. 11|14; A. 3i8 ; C. 16±; P. 15 ; V. 1|5. (Spec. Camb. Ph. Inst.) 

The Rev. George Vachell presented a Canton specimen to the Cambridge Philosophical 
Institution. 

Hab. Indian ocean. Javan and China seas. 

Diacope calvetii, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de I'Uranie, pi. 57. f. 1 ; C. et V. 
ii. p. 429 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 14. 
Hab. Japan. Timor. 

Diacope sparus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 14. 

Hab. Japan. 

Diacope borensis, C. et V. ii. p. 436. Diacope tiea, Lesson, Voy. de Du- 
perrey, p. 231.pl. 23; /com. Reeves, 196 ; Hardw. Acanth. 68. Chinese 
name, Heung yu, "Cock," or "Male fish (Birch);" Hung u (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 167). Rod. D. 11|14; A. 3|9, &c. (Reev. spec. Brit. Mus.) 
Hab. Polynesia. China sea. Canton (Reeves). Society isles (Lesson). 

Diacope octolineata, C. et V. ii. p. 118 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 12. 
pi. 6. f. 2. Holocentrus quinquelinearis, Bl. 239. H. bengalensis, Bl. 
246. f. 2. Perca vittata, Solander, Icon. Parkins. Bibl. Banks. Perca 
polyzonias, Forst. Animal, cura Lichtenst. p. 225 ; Icon. Georg. Forster, 



230 REPORT — 1845. 

Biblioth. Banks ; Icon. Reeves, 93 ; Hardw. Acanth. 29 & 33. Chinese 

name, Hioa mei tsaou (Birch) ; Hwa mei tso, " Painted eye-brow" (Reeves) ; 

Wa mil tso (Bridgem. Chrest. 68). 

A common Chinese fish, and in all the collections. Most of the Chinese specimens have 
the fifth line below the pectoral, which is often wanting in examples from other quarters ; and 
one specimen in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park has the lateral black mark so frequent 
in the Diacopes, 

Hub. Red sea, Mauritius, Polynesia, Australia, Malay archipelago, Chinese and Japanese 
seas. 

Plectropoma leopardus, Lacepede (Holocentrus), iv. p. 332 et 337. 
Pkctropoma leopardinum, C. et V. ii. p. 392. t. 36; Temm. et Schl. 
Faun. Japon. Sieb. p. 12. 
Hab. Seas of Japan and Australia. 

Plectropoma susuki, C. et V. ii. p. •iO* ; Temm. et Schl. F.J. p. 11. pi. 4. 
f. 1 (upper figure) ; Icon. Reeves, a. 34 ; Hardw. Acanth. 25. Chinese 
name, Tsing shihpan (Birch); Ching shehpan, "Blue garoupa" (Reeves) ; 
Shikpan u (Bridgem. Chrest. 59). 

Mr. Reeves states this to be the commonest of the Serrani or Garoupas on the Chinese coast. 
Hab. Coasts of China and Japan. 

(Merous.) 

Serranus altivelis, C. et V. ii. p. 324. t. 25 ; Icon. Reeves, 267 ; Hardw. 
Acanth. 67. Chinese name, To yu, "Carrier fish" (Birch); Ming yu 
(Reeves). Bad. D. 10|18 vel 19 ; A. 3)9 vel 10 ; P. 15. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

The British Museum possesses a specimen obtained in one of Cook's voyag-es, and one 
brought from China by John Reeves, Esq. Sir Edward Belcher also obtained one in his 
voyage in the Sulphur. 

Hab. Javan and Chinese seas. 

Serranus gilberti, Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist. March 1842. vol. ix. p. 
19; /co?2. Reeves, 257 ; Hardw. Acanth. 26. Chinese nzme, Hwci paou 
yu, " Spotted leopard fish ; " Fa hou yu, " Spotted garoupa" (Reeves). 
Mad. D. 11|17 ; A. 3|9 ; C. 15f ; P. 17 ; V. 1|5. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

This is one of the Serrani which bear a close resemblance to merra, and are perhaps merely 
varieties of that species. It is a common fish in the southern seas, yet I have not been able 
to identify it with any of the numerous species or varieties described in the ' Histoire des 
Poissons.' In the British Museum there are examples from China and North Australia which 
do not differ from each other. 

Hab. Torres straits. China seas. 

Serranus megachir, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 113; Hardw. Acanth. 

28. Chinese name, Tae mei pan, " Tortoise-shell garoupa" (Reeves). 

Bad. D. 11|15; A. 3|8 ; C. 12f ; P. 15; V. 1|5. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

This is another merou, almost identical in the markings of its body and fins with gilberti, 
but distinguished from it and from merra by the greater size of its pectoral fin, which is edged 
with black and reaches beyond the anus. The only species described in the ' Fauna Japonica' 
which resembles this, is the S. epistictus, and that has the spots on the fore part of the body 
ranged in three rows, which coalesce into one row posteriorly. The " tortoise-shell merou" 
grows to the length of a foot. There are examples of it in the Chinese collection at Hyde 
Park and in the British Museum, the latter presented by Mr. Reeves. 

Hab. Coasts of China. 

Serranus epistictus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 8. 

None of Mr. Reeves's drawings correspond with the description of tliis species, nor have we 
seen any Chinese specimens of it. 
Hab, Japanese sea. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 231 

Serranus aka-ara, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 9. pi. 3. f. 1. 

Rad. D, 11|15; A. 3|8. (Burger's Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

D. Il|l6; A. 3|8; C. 17; P. 15 ; V. IjS. (F. Jap.) 
The British Museum possesses one of Biirger's specimens of this fish, which was labelled 
kazzo ara. 

Hah. Sea of Japan. 

Serranus shihpan*, Icon. Reeves, 71 : Hardw.Acanth.39. Chinese name, 
Shihpan (Reeves); Shikpanu (Bridgem. Chrest. 59). Rad. D. lljlS; 
A. 3|8 ; C. 17| ; P. 16 vel 17 ; V. \\5. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

I have been strongly inclined to consider this fish as identical with the preceding one, but 
nothing is said in the ' Fauna Japonica' of the dark bars which cross the body, and which are 
very evident both in the dried specimens and in those preserved in spirits. The species ap- 
pears to be common in the China seas and to attain the size of 16 or 18 inches. We have 
seen examples of it in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park, the British Museum, and the 
Cambridge Philosophical Institution. 

Teeth rather small, each intermaxillary armed by a curved canine. In the lower jaw the 
canines are longer, and the outer row is composed of subulate teeth set widely. The chevron 
of the vomer is acute and small, and the dental bands of the palate bones are narrow and 
feebly toothed. The limbs of the preoperculum meet at rather less than a right angle, the upper 
one slightly convex and acutely toothed, the lower one almost straight, with microscopical cre- 
natures. In some specimens, the coarse teeth at the angle of the bone are divided by a notch 
into two groups, in others there are two strong divergent teeth at the angle ; the bone is densely 
scaly up to the teeth. In Mr. Reeves's figure the preoperculum is shown of too parabolic a 
form. The operculum ends in three acute teeth, the middle one being the largest; the tip of 
the gill-cover is slender and acute ; small scales cover the lower jaw, and the scales on the body 
are strongly ciliated ; the lateral line is conspicuous and formed of a series of tubes, one on 
each scale inclined upwards, and the fins are scaly to near their tips. Five or six dark bars 
cross the sides, two of them running up on the spinous dorsal, and two on the soft fin, which 
is also traversed in the middle by a cross-bar. The bars are irregular in form, and the caudal 
fin is crossed by two or three less distinct ones. The body and head are marked by round red 
spots, much as aka-ara is represented to be in the ' Fauna Japonica,' and there are some 
larger faint red marks on the spinous dorsal. The anal and pectoral are both crossed by dusky 
bars or clouds, and the ventrals are edged with the same. All the under-parts of the head and 
body are auvora-red. The Chinese name has been attached to this species as a provisional 
designation until the suspicion above-mentioned of its identity with the aka-ara be proved or 
disproved. 

Hab. China seas. Canton (Reeves, Vachell, &c.). 

Serranus variegatus, Icon. Reeves, 87 ; Hardw. Acanth. 22. Chinese 

name, Ta shih pan, "Variegated garoupa" (Reeves). Rad. D. 11|10; 

2|7, &c. (Reeves's drawing.) 

Were it not for the small number of rays in the soft dorsal indicated in the figure here 
quoted, I should have no hesitation in saying that it is the representation merely of a young 
individual of the shih pan. The cross bands, however, are fewer, broader and fainter. The 
buff-coloured ground tint and the deep orange-red spots are the same in both. In the varie- 
gatus these spots form two rows on both the spinous and soft parts of the dorsal, and also on 
the upper half of the tail ; and there are two black spots with pale borders on the latter fin. 
All the vertical fins are obscurely clouded or banded, and the pectorals are buff-coloured with 
orange borders and black bases. We have seen no specimen that corresponds to this figure, 
which measures 5^ inches. 

Hab. China seas. Canton. 

Serranus awo-ara, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 9. pi. 3. f. 2. Rad. 

D. 11|16; A. 3|8. (Spec, of Burger's, Brit. Mus.) 

One of Biirger's specimens, now in the British Museum, has been carefully compared with 
Mr. Reeves's drawings, and not identified with any of them. The yellow borders of the fins 
distinguish this fish when recent. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Serranus ura, C. et V. ii. p. 332. S. ara, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 9. 

Having seen neither specimens nor figures of this fish, we are unable to say, from the short 
* The words sliih pan means " stone-coloured stripe." 



232 REPORT — 1845. 

descriptions of it in the works we have quoted, what are the characters that distinguish i 
from the other Chinese species. 
Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Serranus areolatus, Forskal (Perca), C. et V. ii. p. 350. Perca taurina, 
Geoff. Saint-Hilaire, Egypt, pi. 20. f. 1 ; Is. Geoff, p. 201. Serranus area- 
latusjaponicus, Teram. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 8. 

The Japanese fish is stated to differ from the species in the Red sea only in having the 
pectorals of an uniformly yellow hue and the caudal slightly rounded. We have seen no 
specimen of it. 

Hah, Red sea. Sea of Japan. 

Serranus reevesii, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 211 ; Hardw. Acanth. 32. 
Chinese name, Fa pan, "Variegated garoupa" (Reeves); Fa pan u 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 62). Fad. D. \\\U ; A. 3|8, &c. {exfigura.) 

The spots of this figure are singularly like those of S. hexagonatus (Forster, C. et V. ii. 
p. 330), but the angles of the meshes want the bright white spots ; there is a more decided 
notch in the preopeiculum, and the third anal spine is longer than the second. The ground 
colour is pale aurora-red, the spots orange-brown, and the head and body are clouded by 
about twelve large brown patches on each sidR. The spots are equally crowded on all the fins, 
but are rather rounder than on the body. They are slightly deeper than the ground tint on 
the pectorals, which is like that of the body, but clearer. The other fins have a brownish 
hue, and the spots on the dorsal and ventrals are umber-brown, and on the caudal and anal au- 
ricula-purple ; the ground tint of the latter fins being also dark. The upper tip of the caudal 
is lighter: that fin is truncated or slightly rounded. The lower jaw projects considerably be- 
yond the upper one. Length of the figure 10 inches. 

Hah. Sea of China. Canton. 

Serranus stigmapomus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 72 ; Hardw. Acanth. 
24. Chinese name, Hik shih pan, " Black garoupa" (Reeves) ; Hak shik 
pau (Bridgem. Chrest. 59). Rad. B. 7 ; D. 9|17 ; A. 3l8 ; C. 19, &c. 

The individual from which Mr. Reeves's drawing was made was presented by that gentle- 
man to the British Museum. It agrees singularly well with the description of Serranus kawa 
mehari in the ' Fauna Japonica,' in all that relates to colours and markings ; but that species 
differs in the number of rays, and is said to belong to the true Serrani with naked jaws, while 
this is a Merou. 

The teeth are small and fine, but with a canine on each side of the symphysis of the upper 
jaw. No scales on the upper jaw or maxillary, but the snout is scaly even before the nostrils, 
and scales exist on the preorbitar and suborbitars,and cover the preoperculum toitsextreme edge. 
The lower jaw is furnished with small, deeply imbedded scales. Preoperculum curved in the arc 
of a circle, and minutely toothed in a pectinated manner on its upper limb, a little coarser at the 
angle. Gill-cover very obtuse, or cut nearly vertically with a slightly projecting tip opposite 
the central spine, which is thin and flat. Lateral line considerably arched. Fins rounded 
and covered with small scales. The anal has three stout spines, shorter than the soft rays. 

The colour is pale chestnut, with eight well-defined and regular, darker vertical bands, 
which encroach a little on the dorsal. The head and fins are mostly of the colour of the bands ; 
the tips of the dorsal and edges of the pectoral and anal dark. The soft dorsal has a pale edge, 
and the upper edge of the caudal is pale, the under one dark. A round black spot occupies 
the membrane filling the sinus between the two upper opercular spines. 

Hab. China seas. Canton (Reeves). North-west coast of Australia ? (Lieut. Emery.) 

Serranus nebulosus, C. et V. ii. p. 313. Rad. D. 11|16; A. 3|7 vel 8 

(second spine longest). (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

There are two specimens of this fish in the British Museum, which were brought from Can- 
ton by John Reeves, Esq., and one whose origin is unknown. 

Hab, China seas. 

Serranus trimaculatus, C. et V. ii. p. 331 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. 

p. 8. Epinephelusjaponicus,Kv\xs&v\f,i.\oj.^\.6^.i'.2. Rad. D. 11|I7; 

A. 3|7; C. 15f ; P. 17; V. l|5. (Several spec.) 

In the ' Histoire des Poissons' the numbers of the rays being quoted from Krusenstern's 
figure are erroneous. There seems however to be some variation in their number. In one of 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 233 

Burger's Japanese specimens in the British Museum we reckoned D. lljlS, the last divided 
so deeply that it might be taken for two, and A. 3|8. In the ' Fauna Japonica' the numbers 
are stated to be D. 1 1|16 ; A, 3l8, &c., and we have given above the numbers we found in Chi- 
nese specimens brought from Canton by John Reeves, Esq. and the Rev. George Vachell. 
Hab. Seas of China and Japan. Canton. 

Serranus p(ecilinotus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 6. 

Hab. Japanese seas. 

Serranus octocinctus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 7. 

Hab. Japanese seas. 

Serranus latifasciatus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 7. 

Hab. Japanese seas. 
Serranus myriaster, C. et V. ii. p. 365 ; Riippell, Atl. pi. 27. f. 1. Merou 
milk etoiles, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de I'Astrol. pi. 3. f. 1 ; Voy. de la Coquille, 
pi. 37. Rad. D. 9116 ; A. 3l8 ; C. 15f ; P. 17 ; V. \\5. (Chin. Spec.) 

A specimen of this fish was brought from the Chinese seas by Sir Edward Belcher, which is 
much better represented by Riippell's figure than by those given in the other works we have 
quoted. The figure in the ' Voy. of the Coquille' wants the blue edging of the fins, and has 
more resemblance even in the colouring to the Serranus rogaa of Riippell than to myriaster. 
We have seen examples from Australia which differ in no respect from the Chinese ones. 

Hab. Sandwich islands. Polynesia. New Guinea. Australia. China and the Red sea. 

Serranus cyanopodus, Icon. Reeves, 249 ; Hardw. Acanth. 69. Chinese 
name, Tsing te (Birch) ; Ching te, " Blue foot " (Reeves). Bad. D. 1 1 120 ; 
A. 317, &c. (exfigurd.) 

This drawing has a general resemblance to S. myriaster, but with a more arched nape, a 
higher spinous dorsal, a projecting point at the corner of the preoperculum, much smaller and 
differently disposed dots. The general colour is flax-flower-blue, deepening to indigo on the 
back, and having purplish tints on the face and breast. The spots are small, bluish-black, and 
extend to all the fins, except the pectoral and anal. They become gradually less on the lower 
parts of the sides and disappear on the breast and belly. The pectorals are yellowish-gray, 
with blue bases ; but the rest of the fins are blue like the body, the extremity of the caudal 
being also tinged with blue and the anal with purple. The fins do not show the marginal 
streak so evident in myriaster. The caudal is truncated. 

Hab. China seas. Canton. 

Serranus formosus, Shaw (Sdcena), Zool. Misc. pi. 1007 ; C. et V. ii. 
p. 311. Rahtee bontoo, Russell, pi. 129; Icon. Reeves, a. 4-6; Hardw. 
Acanth. 31. Chinese name, Hih kwei tsze, " Black-spirit thorn" (Birch) ; 
Hih kwei tze, " Black spirit" (Reeves). Rad. D. 9ll7 ; A. 3l8, &c. 

Minute scales cover the entire surface of the maxillary, except the folds of the lips ; and the 
fins are densely scaly. The general tint of the body, dorsal and base of the anal is reddish- 
orange, the gill-cover being tinged with siskin-green. The body is traversed by numerous 
china-blue lines, which are oblique on the back, but horizontal on the sides. They run out 
upon the dorsal and anal, changing to sap-green. Six of the blue lines cross the face, radiating 
from round the orbit, and there are some blue spots before the eye and on the lips. The rays 
of the ventrals are partly blue, partly green ; the outer half of the anal is green, and it has a 
border of blue and black. The pectorals and anal are dark prussian-blue, their rays being 
paler. Russell's plate omits the lines on the spinous dorsal, gives a wrong direction to those 
on the anal, and represents all the lines as too broad. Mr. Reeves's drawing is an excellent 
representation of a specimen in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park. 

Hab. Indian ocean. Sea of China. Canton. 

Serranus marginalis, Bloch, 328 (Epinephelus) ; C. et V. ii. p. 301. 
Holocentre rosmare, Lacep. iv. pi. 7. f. 2. S. tsirimenara, Temm. et Schl. 
F. J. p. 8 ; Icon. Reeves, 24.6 ; Hardw. Acanth. 27- Rad. D. Illl5 vel 16 ; 
A. 3l8, &c. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 
The tsirimenara of the ' Fauna Japonica' is distinguished by the authors from marginalis 



234 REPORT — 1845. 

by its possessing a row of five or six irregular, whitish and indistinct spots on the flanks. Mr. 
Reeves's fig\ire shows vertical bands in pairs, faint, and merely a little paler than the rest of 
the red colour, but no spots. There are Chinese specimens in spirits in the British Museum 
and Chinese collection at Hyde Park, which offer no tangible difference when compared with 
a dried specimen of Biirger's, also in the British Museum. Neither could we detect any dis- 
crepancy betwixt the Chinese specimens and one obtained at Copang, in the island of Timor, 
by Mr. Gilbert. 

Judging solely from the description of S. oceanicus in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' in the 
absence of authentic specimens or good figures, it appears to be the same with marginalis ; but 
the Perca fasciata of Forskal, referred by Cuvier to oceanicus, is probably a different species. 
Its dorsal and anal fins are edged with yellow, and it is evidently the same with the Perca 
rulescens of Solander, of which a drawing by Parkinson (No. 61) exists in the Banksian 
Library. 

Hab. Javan, Chinese and Japanese seas. 

We have seen no specimen corresponding with Mr. Reeves's drawing 255 (Hardw. Acanth. 
23), which looks like a less carefully executed representation of a young S. marginalis. Its 
anal spines are however proportionally larger, and its cheek and gill-cover are glossed with 
green. The Chinese name is Hing pau yu, "Red garoupa." 

Serranus moara, Temm. et Sclil. F. J. Sieb. p. 10. f. 2. lower figure 
(whiph is erroneously numbered). 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Serranus dermopterus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 10. 
Hah. Sea of Japan. 

(^Serrans propres, — Perches de mer.) 

Serranus vitta, Quoy. et Gaim. Voy. de Freyc. pi. 58. f . 3 ; C. et V. ii. 
p. 239; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. (Diacojje), p. 13. pi. 6. f- 1 ; Icon. 
Reeves, /3. 27; Hardw. Acanth. 51. Chinese name, Ho tsaou (Birch); 
Ho tso, " Fire tso " (Reeves); Fo tso (Bridgem. Chrest. 132). 

Two young individuals of this species, which Surgeon Bankier has sent from Hong Kong, 
have the lateral stripe darker than in older individuals, and a black mark swelling round that 
part of it which is under the middle of the soft dorsal, as in some Diacopes and Mesoprions. 
There is scarcely any notch in the preoperculum either in the young or old, and the suboper- 
cular knob is very indistinct. The denta) plate of the vomer is rhomboidal, and the habit of 
the fish is not that o( Serranus, neither is it more like Diacope. 

/faJ. North coast of Australia. New Guinea. Javan, Chinese and Japanese seas. Hong 
Kong (Surgeon R. A. Bankier). 

Serranus kawamebari, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 5. " Had. D. 12|12 ; 
A. 2|10," &c. (Fauna Jap.) 

This is compared with hepatus in the ' Fauna Japonica,' and is described as possessing a 
round black spot between tlie two upper opercular spines. 

The British Museum possesses a Canton specimen presented to it by Mr. Reeves, which we 
are inclined to consider as the kawamebari, though it wants the black opercular spot. It has the 
scaleless jaws and narrow, naked preopercular disc of the true Serrani. The upper limb of the 
preoperculum is nearly vertical, slightly arched, finely toothed, with four or five stronger di- 
vergent teeth at the squarish angle, and a horizontal toothless under limb. Lateral line slightly 
arched. Fins delicate, rounded. Ground colour pale brown, marbled with irregular darker 
confluent spots. The sides are traversed by six bars inclining forwards as they descend, and 
rendered paler by the absence of the spots which fill the interspaces. On the head the same 
colours, but the pale bands are longitudinal. Three dark lines cross the cheek obliquely from 
the eye to the angle of the gill-cover. The dorsal is obscurely clouded with a dark point be- 
hind the tip of each spine: the soft dorsal and anal are darkish, the pectoral nearly colour- 
less. Length of specimen 6 inches. 

Hab. Seas of Japan and China. Canton (Reeves). 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. i235 
{Les Barbiers.) 

Serranus oculatus, C. et V. ii. p. 266. pi. 32 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. 
p. 5. 

Hab. Japanese and Caribbean seas. 

Caprodon, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 64. pi. 30. 

This fish is placed with doubt as to its true position among tlie ScitB7iid<E by the autliors of 
the ' Fauna Japonica,' but though it is stated to have only five gill-rays, I cannot help think- 
ing that its true afiSnities are with the Barbers, and its dentition is indeed exactly similar to 
that of the Tang or Taa, a South Australian Serranus. 

Hab, Japanese seas. 

Centropristes hirundinaceus, C. et V. vii. p. 450 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. 
Sieb. p. 14. pi. 5. f.l. 
Hab. Sea of Japan. 

AuLococEPHALUS, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 15. pi. 5. f. 2. 
The British Museum possesses two examples of this fish from the Mauritius. 
Hab. The coasts of the Mauritius and the Japanese sea. 

Glaucosoma bOrgeri, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 62. pi. 27 ; Richard- 
son, Ichth. of Voy. of Erebus and Terror, p. 27. 

The discovery in the Australian seas of a second species of this genus has rendered a spe- 
cific appellation necessary for the Japanese one, and we have named it in honour of Biirger, 
whose description and drawing are the authorities for the species. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Fam. Theraponin;e. 

Hapalogenys nitens, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. p. 84. pi. 43. 
f. 1 & 2; Icon. Reeves, 92; Hardw. Acanth. 164, 165. Chinese name, 
Yinpeld (Reeves); Yan pi lap (Bridgem. Chrest. 101). 

The specimen from which Mr, Reeves's drawing was made was deposited by that gentle- 
man in the British Museum. 

Hab. China sea. Canton. 

Hapalogenys analis, Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Sulph. p. 85. pi. 43. 
f. 3 ; /co«. Reeves, 91 ; Hardw. Acanth. 167. Pristipomemucrone, Eydoux 
et Souleyet. t. . f. 1. Chinese name, Shih tseu (Birch); Shi kea ha 
(Reeves); Shik kip lap (Bridgem. Chrest. 97). 

Mr. Reeves's specimen of this fish also is in the British Museum. 
Hab. Sea of China. Canton. 

Hapalogenys maculatus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, a. 49; Hardw. 
Acanth. 42. Chinese name. Kin sih (Reeves) ; Kinfung, " Gold-wind" 
(Birch). Bad. D. Illl5; A. 3|9; C. 17f ; P. 16; V. 1|5. 

In general form and in the distribution of its coloured bands and spots, this species bears 
a singular resemblance to Diagramma einctum, as has been already noticed {supra, p. 226). 
Body thickest a little below the arched lateral line, and thinning off above to the acute nape 
and dorsal line. The belly is obtuse, and the top of the cranium widens gradually until it 
becomes flat between the fore parts of the orbits. Chin and edge of the lower jaw covered by 
a soft papillose lip ; upper lip less coarsely papillose. Four small pores on the chin and two 
on each limb of the lower jaw, whose articulation is under the fore part of the orbit. Jaw- 
teeth villiforni, the outer row short-conical and acute. Roof of the mouth toothless, lined 
with plaited, villous membranes, the villi being densely crowded behind the crescentic velum. 

Maxillary truncated with a small point at the fore corner. Preoperculum strongly and 



236 RBVORT — 1845. 

rather widely toothed on both limbs, the teeth at the corner coarser. Gill-cover short and 
triangular, with a sub-acute, triangular bony tip, and an oblique, acute notch above it. No 
scales on the lower jaw, but the fore part of the maxillary and the preorbitar and suborbitar 
chain, with the rest of the side of the head up to the extreme edges of the gill-cover, are finely 
scaly. Supra-scapular spinously toothed. 

The scales are rough like those of a Priacanthus. The lateral line is arched to under the 
third dorsal spine, when it descends, and is a little undulated under the soft dorsal. No 
scales on the spinous dorsal ; but the bases of the soft dorsal, anal, pectoral and caudal are scaly. 
A stout recumbent spine precedes the soft dorsal. Second anal spine much stronger and 
larger than the third, which does not much exceed the first one. 

Scales generally bright and silvery: a bright silvery border edges the lower part of the 
operculum, and the cheek is also bright, but the rest of the head has a dark neutral tint or 
bluish-gray. The upper half of the body, the tail and the vertical fins are marked by round 
spots of the same. There is also a bluish-gray band on the hind head, another descending 
from the nape to behind the pectoral, and a third, descending from the anterior half of the 
spinous dorsal, curves when it reaches the lateral line backwards along the tail, much like the 
curved band oi Diacope sebee. The ground colour of the pectorals, spinous, dorsal and caudal 
is sienna- or ochre-yellow ; that of the soft dorsal and anal olive-green. Ventrals hair- brown, 
edged like the spinous dorsal with brownish-black. Length A^ inches. 

Hab. China seas. Canton. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

Hapalogenys nigripinnis, Temm. et Schl. {Pogonias) ; F.J. Sieb. p. 59. 
pi. 25. Bad. B. 6; D. 11|16 vel 17 ; A. 3|8 vel 9, &c. 

A specimen of Biirger's in the British Museum, which is doubtless an example of this spe- 
cies, though it was labelled when received from Berlin Pogonias melanopterus, diflfers from the 
figure in the ' Fauna Japonica,' in having a rather less concave profile and a somewhat differ- 
ently shaped profile. It has a recumbent spine before the dorsal, which is not noticed by its 
describers, and the scales which partially cover the dorsal are omitted in the figure they have 
given. The species differs from the other members of the genus named above, in the papillae 
of the under-lip being sufficiently elongated to produce a beard, and it therefore stands in the 
same relation to them that Pogonias does to Micropogon. 

Hab. Japanese sea. 

Anoplus banjos, Temm. et Schl. F. J. p. 17. pi. 8. Banjos, Voy. de Kru- 
senst. pi. 54. f. 1. Rad. D. 10|12; A. 317; C. I7f ; V. l|5. (Burger's 
Spec.) 

The conjectures of the authors of this genus, that the Coins polota of Buchanan and Hamil- 
ton is a second species, have been found to be correct by Edward Blyth, Esq., who has ascer- 
tained that the Indian fish wants the recumbent dorsal spine oi Hapalogenys. The Coins bino- 
tatus. Gray, Hardw. Illustr., is said by Mr. Blyth to be merely a variety of polota. A Japa- 
nese species of Anoplus collected by Biirger exists in the British Museum. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

ScoLOPSiDES RUPELii, C. ct V. V. p. 332. Sc. kurite, Ruppell, Atl. p. 3. 
taf. 2. fig. 3 ; Icon. Reeves, 47 ; Hardw. Acanth. 48. Chinese name. 
Hung hae tsih, "Red sea-rule" (Reeves, Birch). Rad. D. 10|9 ; A. 3|7 ; 
P. 17, &c. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 

The differences between this fish and Scolopsides kaie (C. et V. v. p. 329 ; Bl. 325. f. 2) 
appear to be extremely slight, or at least they are not very clearly exposed in the ' Histoire 
des Poissons.' Bloch says that his specimen came from the sea of Japan, and it is highly 
probable that he had the mpelii before him even if the Malabar Icate be a distinct species. 
The British Museum possesses a Chinese specimen of rupelii, presented by Mr. Reeves. 
Villiform teeth, long and slender. Two suborbitar teeth pointing backwards, one under the 
other and more slender ; none pointing forwards. A small angle of bone on the edge of the 
operculum, not spinous. 

Hab. Red sea and seas of China and Japan. 

Scolopsides inermis, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 63. pi. 28; Icon. 
Reeves, 262 ; Hardw. Acanth. 57- Rad. D. 10l9 ; A. 3]7 ; C. 17 ; P. 1 8 ; 
V.l|5. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 
The British Museum has Mr. Reeves's specimen of this fish. The drawing differs from the 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 237 

figure in the 'Fauna Japonica,' just as a recent specimen from one that has become flaccid in 
spirits and lost its plumpness and height. The vertical bands are also fainter in the drawing, 
and the fins have a deep safFron-yellow or Dutch-orange colour instead of the pale primrose 
tint shown in the ' Fauna Japonica.' Teeth villiform with an outer row of stouter ones. 
Lower jaw teeth shorter. A very minute bony point on the edge of the gill-cover. A flat, 
acute, suborbitar tooth, with a point beneath its base. Edge of the suborbitar under the pos- 
terior third of the orbit strongly serrated. We have seen a drawing of a Scolopsides, executed 
at the islands of Houtman's Abrolhos, on the west coast of Australia, by Lieut. Emery, of the 
Royal Navy, which strongly resembles this fish ; but the fins have only a yellow border and 
are otherwise colourless. 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. 

Scolopsides pomotis, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 15; Hardw. Acanth. 
Chinese names, Shik kei, " Stone robber" (Reeves); Shih tsei (Birch). 

Though this drawing does not exhibit the peculiar suborbitar tooth of the genus, I am in- 
duced, in the absence of specimens, from its near resemblance to the preceding two species, 
to refer it to Scolopsides ; and if this reference be correct, it possesses specific marks in the jet 
black tip of the gill-cover, and in a black speck on the base of the upper pectoral ray. It has 
the yellow fins and bright carmine spot on the gill-cover of the preceding species ; but its back 
is browner and its profile undulated. Length of the drawing 6 inches. 

Hah. Chinese sea. Canton. 

LoBOTEs iNcuRvus, RichardsoH. Icon. Reeves, 168 ; Hardw. Acanth. 76. 
Rod. D. 12|15 ; A. 3|11 ; P. 17, &c. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 

This fish has the blackish hue o{ Lobotes farkarii, but not the orange-coloured fins, and it 
has a more deeply incurved profile and higher fins than any species described in the ' Histoire 
des Poissons.' 

Head scaly to orbit and forward on the cheek to the angle of the mouth, also the disc of the 
preoperculum. Edge of this bone spinosely dentate all round. Gill-cover, with a rounded 
projecting bony point and no sinus above it, scaly to the edge. Supra axillary plates of co- 
racoid bone with fourteen teeth. Soft dorsal, anal caudal and base of pectoral scaly. Spines 
strongly striated. Outer row of teeth subulato-conical, inclined backwards, rather taller on 
the sides of the lower jaw. Within the upper jaw a narrow band of granular teeth. On the 
lower jaw the interior teeth are in a single row and very minute. In the drawing the sides 
and head are densely clouded with blackish purple mixed on the base of the fins, and towards 
the lower parts with siskin-green. The soft dorsal, anal and caudal are blacker, and the lat- 
ter is edged obscurely above and below with yellow or pale green. The pectoral is clay- 
coloured; the ventrals and spinous dorsal clouded with neutral tint. Length 12 inches. 

Hab. China seas. Canton. 

LoBOTES ciTRiNUS, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 191 ; Hardw. Acanth. 168. 

This species has the pale bar on the extremity of the caudal fin and some other colours 
ascribed to Lobotes erate in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' particularly to the specimens which 
M. Dussumier brought from the coast of Malabar (v. p. 323); but the height of the body is 
greater, being equal to half the length of the fish, caudal fin excluded, and I have therefore 
thought it expedient to give it a provisional specific name. The Chinese collection at Hyde 
Park contains specimens which I have very cursorily examined. The ground colour in Mr. 
Reeves's drawing is dull lemon-yellow, with obscure purplish clouding, a purplish black shading 
round the eye, on the tip of the gill-cover, the nape and bases of the vertical fins and pec- 
torals. The pectorals are pale and transparent, the rest of the fins are blackish, more or less 
clouded, and the soft dorsal and anal are bordered with buff-orange. 

Hah. China seas. Canton. 

PniACANTHUS BENMEBARi, TemtD. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 19. pi. 7. f. 1. 
Krusenst. 53. f. 2. Rad. D. 10|13 ; A. 3ll4 ; C. 16| ; P. 19 ; V. 1|5. 

The British Museum possesses two of BUrger's Japanese specimens. In them the end of 
the caudal is concave, not convex, as in the figure in the • Fauna Japonica ;' and the scales are 
not so rough as in most other species. 

Hab, Sea of Japan. 

Pri ACANTHUS TAYENUs, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, /3. 14 ; Hardw. Acanth. 



238 REPORT— 1845. 

36. Chinese name, Ta yen lap, "Lai-ge-eyed lap" (Reeves) ; Tai gans 

lap (Bridgem. Chrest. 129). Rad. D. 9 vel 10|12; A. 3|12 vel 13; C. 

16|; P. ly. 

There is some difBculty in discovering ready characters by wliicli the Priacanthi may be 
distinguished from one another. In tlie publislied descriptions much stress has been laid on 
tlie form and size of the angular projection of the preoperculum, but this varies greatly on 
different sides of the same individual, and in the ' Fauna Japonica' it is stated that there is a 
variation in this part as well as in the relative size of the fins, depending on the age of the 
individual. The fish at present under consideration may perhaps eventually prove to belong 
to the preceding species, should the elongation of the tips of the caudal and peak of the dorsal 
be discovered to be merely a sexual peculiarity or the more perfect state of the fish. One 
specimen exists in the museum of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, to which it was pre- 
sented by the Rev. George Vachell, and another in the British Museum, received from John 
Reeves, Esq., both obtained at Canton. 

Eye fully as large as in hoops, interfering a little with the profile, and not much above half 
a diameter from the end of the snout. Height of body equal to one-fourth of the total length j 
suborbitar chain presenting small knobs round the margin of the orbit, crenated on the lower 
edge ; preorbitar narrow and toothed. In both specimens the preopeTcular spine is long, 
tapering, and acute on one side and comparatively short on the other, and its serratures are not 
uniform ; the operculum has a very small spinous point, which is the tip of a short ridge ; the 
fourth soft ray of the dorsal is lengthened into a short filiform tip, the posterior corner of the 
fin being rounded ; the anal is much rounded and about half the height of the body ; caudal 
forked, with the tips acute and lengthened, particularly the upper one in Mr. Reeves's spe- 
cimen ; but in Mr. Vachell's, the upper tip only is a liitle larger than the rest of the fin, and is 
nearly straight on the edge ; pectoral considerably smaller than in benmebari, and rounded ; 
ventrals large ; the scales silvery and bright. In the figure a bright carmine colour runs along 
the base of the dorsal, and gradually fades away as it descends the sides, which are silvery; 
the same is the case on the head ; a faint roseate tint spreads over the dorsal, the edge being 
deeper ; the anal and ventrals are pale blue, the latter being rose-coloured towards the edges, 
and marked by about eight rovi-s of brown spots, with two larger round ones in the membrane 
which connects the last ray with the belly as far as the anus ; the pectorals and caudal are 
siskin-green and rose-coloured. One specimen 4^ inches, the other 9^ inches. 

The Priacanthus speculum of the Seychelle islands is stated in the ' Histoire des Poissons' 
(vii. p. 471) to be readily distinguished from other species by its forked caudal. We are 
prevented from considering it as identical with the Chinese fish, by the eye being a full dia- 
meter of the orbit from the edge of the snout, the extreme smallness of the preopercular 
point, and the absence of the round spots on the pectoral. In the latter character iayeiius 
agrees more nearly though not perfectly with benmebari. In the angular or pointed dorsal 
it resembles _;a^on!C(«. 

Hah. Chinese sea. Canton. 

Priacanthus dubius, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 19. 

Hah. Sea of Japan. 

Priacanthus japonicus, C. et V. iii. p. 106. pi. 50 ; Tenim. et Schl. F. J. 
Sieb. p. 20. 

Hab. Japanese sea. 

Priacanthus niphonius, C. et V. iii. p. 107 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. 
p. 21. Rad. D. 10|12 ; A. 3|]0 ; &c. (Btirger's spec.) 

One of Biirger's specimens is in the British Museum. Scales much rougher than those of 
benmebari. In the roughness and general character of the scales PriacantliHS approaches to 
the Myripristidee. 

Therapon theraps, C. et V. iii. p. 129. et vii. p. 475. pi. 53 ; Richardson, 
Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 126. Pterapotitrivittatus,Gv3iy,}ri.a.x(\\v.\\\. ; Icon. 
Reeves, a. 4-3 ; Hardw. Acanth. 49. Chinese name, Ketsee tsze (Birch) ; 
Kin sih (Reeves) ; Aborigines of Port Essington, At a goorn (Gilbert). 
Hah. Seychelles, Indian ocean, Torres Straits, Javan and Ciiinese seas. 

Therapon servus, Bloch (Holocentrus), 238 ; C. et V. iii. p. 125 ; Richard. 
Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 126. Grammistes servus, Bl. Schn. p. 185. Scicena 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 239 

jarbua, Shaw, Gen. Zool. iv. p. 541 ; Icon. Reeves, /3. 44 ; Hardw. Acanth. 

Chinese name, Ting kun yu, "Nail-fish" (Reeves); Ting kung u 

(Bridgem. Chrest. 130). 

Some of the Chinese specimens of this fish in the British Museum possess all the characters 
ascribed to .terviis, others seem to be intermediate between this species, theraps and oj:y- 
rhynchus ; so that it is ditficult to decide on the species to which they ought to be referred. 

Hab. Red sea, Indian ocean, north-west coast of Australia, Javan sea, Torres Straits, the 
Moluccas and Chinese sea. 

Therapon oxyrhynchus, Temm. et Schleg. F. J. Sieb. p. 16. pi. 6. f. 3 ; 
Icon. Reeves, 193 ; Hardw. Acanth. 70. Chinese name, Shih keo tsee, 
"Stony-horned tsee" (Birch); Shih koh tsih, "Strong-horned tdh" 
(Reeves, Bridgem. Chrest. 131). 

The brown lines in Mr. Reeves's figure resemble those of Th. ghebul, Ehrenberg. Several 
exanjples exist in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park, and there is one in the museum at 
Haslar, which was obtained near Canton by Captain Dawkins of the Royal Navy. 

Hah. Coasts of China and Japan. 

Therapon quadrilineatus, Bloch {Holocentrus), 239. f. 2. ; C. et V. iii. 
p. 134 ; Icon. Reeves, jS. 34 ; Hardw. Acanth. Chinese name, Chang kopo 
(Reeves) ; Cheung ho po (Bridgem. Chrest. 136). 
Hah. Chinese sea. 

Latilus argentatus, Cuv. et Val. v. p. 369. et ix. p. 495 ; Temm. et Schl. 

F. J. Sieb. p. 63. pi. 28. f. 2. Coryphene chinoise, Lacip. iii. p. ] 76 et 

209. CoryphcBna sima, Bl. Schn. p. 296; Icon. Reeves, 192; Hardw. 

Acanth. Chinese name. Fang tow hwo, " Square-headed hwo" (Birch); 

FuTig tow louh, " Square-head wuh" (Reeves) ; Fang towioah (Bridgem. 

Chrest. 215). 

Mr. Reeves's drawing has a pale purplish-red hue, but he has informed me that the recent 
tints of the fish had faded before it was submitted to the painter. It represents the form of a 
specimen of Biirger's in the British Museum better than the figure in the ' Fauna Japonica,' 
the caudal in the latter being more rounded. 

Hah, Indian ocean and seas of China and Japan. 

Fam. CiRRHiTiD^ (Gray). 
CiRRHiTES aureus, Temm. et Schl. p. 15. pi. 7. f. 2; Icon. Reeves, a. 16 ; 
Hardw. Acanth. 47. Chinese name, Htvang gaou, ^^YeWow gaou" 
(Reeves). 

Mr. Reeves's drawing shows a fatty protuberance on the nape, overhanging the orbit, and 
a blackish patch on the gill-cover, which do not appear in the plate of the ' Fauna Japonica.' 
An example of the fish exists in the British Museum which agrees with Mi. Reeves's painting. 

Hah. Chinese and Japanese seas. 

Cheilodactylus zonatus, C. et V. v. p. 36.5. pi. 129; Temm. et Schl. 

F. J. Sieb. p. 64. pi. 29. Labre du Japon, Krusenst. Voy. pi. 63. f. 1 ; Icon. 

Reeves, /3.43 ; Hardw. Acanth. Chinese name, Ke hung yu, " Cock fish" 

(Reeves, Birch) ; Kai hung u (Bridgem. Chrest. 124). 

The British Museum possesses two of Biirger's specimens of this fish, and there are Chinese 
ones in the collection at Hyde Park, the form of which is better represented by Mr. Reeves's 
drawing tlian by the figure in the ' Fauna Japonica.' 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. 

Fam. M^NiD^. 
Gerres equula, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb, p. 76. pi. 9. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, 
215 ; Hardw. Acanth. 148. Chinese name, Tsioan tsuy, " Boring mouth" 
(Reeves); "Boring lips" (Birch). Rad. D. 9|10; A. 3|7 ; C. 175.- P. 
16 ; V. 1|5. (Spec. Camb. Ph. Inst.) ^ ' 



240 REPORT — 1845. 

The Rev. George Vachell has deposited a Canton specimen in the museum of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society. 

Hub. Seas of China and Japan. 

Gerres punctatus, C. et V. vi. p. ^SO- Woodan, Russell, 68 ? Icon. 
Reeves, 260 ; Hardw. Acanth. 149. Chinese name, Hoe tsih (Birch, 
Reeves) ; " Sea tsih" (Reeves). 

Mr. Reeves's figure, probably from an oversight of the artist, shows four anal spines. 
Hah. Indian ocean and China seas. 

Gerres ? Icon. Reeves, /3. 39 ; Hardw. Acanth. 

This drawing evidently represents another species of Gerres, having less elongation of the 
anterior dorsal spines, and wanting the vertical faint purple bands ; but the drawing is less 
precise in its details than in most others of this admirable collection, and in the absence of 
specimens we cannot ascertain whether it be a described species or not. Its Chinese appel- 
lation is the same with that of the punctatus. 

Hub. China seas. 

DiTREMA, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 77. pi. 40. f. 2. "Rod. B. 6 ; D. 
10|22 ; A. 3127 ; P. 19; C. 16 ; V. 1|5." (Fauna Jap.) 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

CHyETOPTERUS, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 7. pi. 37. f. 2. " Rad. B. 4 ; 

D. lOllO ; A. 3i8 ; C. 18 ; P. 17 ; V. 1|5." (Fauna Jap.) 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Fam. Sparid^. 
Chrysophrys ARIES, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 67. pi. 31. 

A Chinese specimen exists in the collection at Hyde Park. Incisors between chisel-shaped 
and conical. 

Hah. Japanese and Chinese seas. 

Chrysophrys tumifrons, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 70. pi. 34. 

A specimen of Biirger's in the British Museum has the hind head less high, and the pre- 
orbitar one-third lower than the figure in the ' Fauna Japonica.' 
Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Chrysophrys major, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 71. pi. 35. 

Hah. Sea of Japan. 

Chrysophrys berda, Forskal (Sparus), p. 32 ; C. et V. vi.p. 113 ; Riippell, 
Neue Wirlb. p. 1 20. taf. 27. f. 4. Sparus hasta, Bl. Schn. p. 275 ; Icon. 
Reeves, 223 ; Hardw. Acanth. 75. Rad. D. 1 1 11 1 ; A. 3|8, &c. (Spec. Chin, 
coll.) 

Specimens of this fish exist in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park and in the British Mu- 
seum, the latter brought from Canton by John Reeves, Esq. In Mr. Reeves's drawing the 
large pectoral is ochraceous, the rest of the fish gray, with a yellowish gloss on the belly, and 
the base of each scale blackish- gray. The lips are thick, and the fish has a scisenoid aspect. 
It is compared by Mr. Reeves with Diagramma cinctum. 

Hab. Red sea, Indian ocean, and China. f, 

Chrysophrys longispinis, C. et V. p. 116; Temm. et Schl. F.J. Sieb. 
p. 68. pi. 32. 

One of Burger's specimens in the British Museum has the preoperculum streaked on the 
disc and pectinately toothed on its vertical edge, the teeth bluntish, and concealed by mem- 
brane in the recent fish. A narrow, flat, blunt, bony point terminates the operculum behind 
ttie tip of the gill-flap. First anal spine very short, third one slender, second stouter and 
longer. 
■ Hab. Sea of Japan. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 241 

Chrysophrys cardinalis, Lac6p. {Spams), iv.p. 141 ; C. et V. vi. p. 130 ; 
Temm, et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 69. pi. 33; Icon. Reeves, 199; Hardw. 
Acanth. 46. Chinese name, Kin sze la*, " Gold-skein la fish" (Birch); 
Kum sze lap (Reeves) ; Kum su lap (Bridgem. Chrest. 212). Rad. D. 
12|10 ; A. 3|9; C. 17 ; P. 14 ; V. \\5. (Spec. Brit. Mus.) 

Mr. Reeves has deposited a Canton specimen 7 inches long in the British Museum, and 
there are several in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park. A small, slightly pungent opercular 
point. Nuchal scales scarcely to be distinguished from the others. Three pits on each limb of 
the lower jaw. Preorbitar equal in height and bi'sadth. 

Hab. Chinese and Japanese seas. 

Chrysophrys ? Icon, Reeves, 95; Hardw. Acanth. 59. Chinese 

name, jKam fee na, "Gold-threaded robe" (Reeves); Kam sze /«ajo (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 100). Rad. D. 12|11 ; A. 3|8 ; P. 13, &c. (Reeves's figure.) 
This figure looks very much like a second representation oi cardinalis, the only differences 
I can perceive being its rather larger head, the third anal spine rather shorter than the second 
one, and the serratures of the supra-scapular more strongly marked ; it has moreover yellow 
not roseate pectorals, pale angular marks on the spinous dorsal, and wants the superciliary 
green streak represented in the drawing of cardinalis. 
Hab. China. Canton. 

Chrysophrys auripes, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 12S ; Hardw. Acanth. 
58. Chinese name Kin tze Id, " Gold thread la fish " (Birch, Reeves). 
Rad. D. 11|11 ; A. 3l8 ; C. IVi-; P. 15 ; V. 1|5. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 

A Canton specimen of this fish, presented to the British Museum by Mr. Reeves, has three 
longish, subulate, somewhat incurved teeth on each intermaxillary, and five rows of small upper 
molars; the interior rows being short, and the last three teeth of the third row bigger than the 
rest, but not exceeding swan-shot; there is the usual crowd of small teeth behind the incisors, 
and four rows of the lower molars. Preorbitar twice as long as it is high. Preopercular 
disc faintly striated. Operculum ending in a small flat truncated point, with the bone sloped 
away above and below, where the edge is more concave than above. A row of crenated and 
striated, but not very conspicuous nuchal scales. The dorsal spines swell out on alternate sides, 
and the second anal spine is longer and stronger than the third one, which equals the soft 
rays. The height of the body is contained two times and a half in the total length, and the 
profile rises with little convexity and no undulation from the upper lip to the dorsal. The fal- 
cate pectoral, which is rather too short in the figure, reaches to the anal. The colour is brightly 
silvery, with ash-gray shadings on the base of the scales. The dorsal and upper half of the 
caudal are also gray with darker shadings on their borders. The lower half of the caudal and 
the other fins are saffron-yellow. Length of figure 7J inches. 

Hab. Chinese seas. Canton. 

Chrysophrys xanthopoda, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 85 ; Hardw. 
Acanth. 61. Chinese name, Hwang yih (Birch) ; Hwang yih, " Yellow 
fin" (Reeves); Wong yi (Bridgem. Chrest. 221> Rad. D. ]1|11; 
A. 3|9; P. 15, &c. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 

Mr. Reeves has deposited a specimen of this fish also in the British Museum. In form 
it is very similar to the last, except that the profile bulges a little at the orbit. The 
colours also are nearly the same, the back showing merely a deeper tint of yellowish-gray with 
some green on the nape and parts of the head ; the yellow of the lower fins also is more 
vivid. The specimen has only two short conical canines on each intermaxillary and five rows 
of mokrs, the largest, which are those of the middle row, not exceeding partridge-shot. The 
canines are very short in the lower jaw, and there are only three rows of molars to be clearly 
made out. Preorbitar as in auripes, and with ■* thin papyraceous edge. Preoperculum 
striated on the disc, and minutely but regularly serrated along the upper limb. Flat point of 
the operculum rather more prominent than in auripes, and much like the corresponding 
point in a Scolopsides. Middle anal spine long and strong as in auripes, and the pectoral 
long. Length of the figure 8^ inches. 

Both the preceding species have the colours of the Chitchillee of Russell, plate 91 

* This character, as written on the drawing here and in the following places, is pro- 
nounced cha (Morrison, Diet. i. part 2, No. 32), but Bridgem. Chrest. substitutes W. 
1845. B 



243 REPORT — 1845. 

(Chrysophrys chrysargyra, C. et V.) ; but in that figure the third anal spine is larger than the 
second, the soft rays of the fin are more numerous, and the profile is more arched. 
JIab. China seas. Canton. 

Pagrus unicolor, Quoy et Gaim. (^Chrysophrys), Voy.de I'Uranie, p. 299 ; 
C. et V. vi. p. 162; Icon. Reeves, 160; Hardw. Acanth. 41. Chinese 
name, Hung Id, " Red la" (Reeves) ; Hung lap (Bridgem. Clirest. 213). 
Rad. 12|10; A. 3i8 ; C. 15f ; V. l\5. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 

Specimens brought from Canton by John Reeves, Esq. and the Rev. George Vachell, exist in 
the British Museum and Cambridge Philosophical Institution. Surgeon R. A. Bankier, R. N., 
sent one to the Haslar Museum from Hong Kong. Third anal spine longer than second one. 
Hah. China seas (Canton). Western Australia (King George's Sound). 

Dentex setigerus, C. et V. vi. p. 253. Spare chinois, Lacep. iv. p. 46 ; 

Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 73. pi. 37. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, /3. 58 ; Hardw. 

Acanth. 60. Chinese name, Ki7i sze yu, " Gold silk fish" (Jap. Fish, ii. 

p. 20); Hing shan,"Ya.v\eg?LteA red silk" (Birch); Himg sum, "Red 

jacket" (Reeves); Hong skam (Bridgem. Chrest. 66). 

The British Museum possesses one of Biirger's specimens, and also one brought from Canton 
by John Reeves, Esq. 

Hab. Coasts of China and Japan. 

Dentex griseus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 72. pi. 36. 

A specimen of Biirger's exists in the British Museum. 
Hab. Japanese sea. 

Letiirinus h^matopterus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 72. pi. 36 
Richardson, Zool. of Sulph. p. 144. pi. 64. f. 1-3 ; Icon. Reeves, 232 
Hardw. Acanth. 63. Chinese name, Tseen tsuy la, " Dog-lipped la" 
(Birch) ; Tseen tsuy tso (Reeves). 
We have seen a specimen in the British Museum, brought from Canton by John Reeves, 

Esq., and one sent from Hong Kong by Surgeon R. A. Bankier, R.N. 
Hab, Seas of Japan and China. Canton. Hong Kong. 

Lethrinus ANATARius, Richardson, Zool. of Sulph. Voy. p. 145. Icon. 

Reeves, 245 ; Hardw. Acanth. 55. Chinese name, Go la, " Goose la 

fish" (Birch) ; Go tso, " Goose tso" (Reeves). 

Hab. Sea of China. Canton. 
Crenidens punctatus, Gray (Girella), 111. Ind. Zool. Hardw. pi. 98. 

f. 3, 4. Icon. Reeves, 79 ; Hardw. Acanth. 74. Chinese name, Kwa tze 

Id, "Melon la fish" (Birch); Kwa tze tso (Reeves). Rad. B. 5? D. 

14113 vel 15|14; A.3|lladl3; C. 15|; P. 20 ; V. 1|5. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 

Mr. Reeves deposited two specimens of this fish in the British Museum. Teeth curved, 
flat and expanding towards their ends, which are tricuspid, standing out in three rows on the 
margin of the jaw; and a little way behind them a brush-like band of much smaller teeth, 
which are also tricuspid, and like the others except in size. Preoperculum minutely serrated 
on the edge and radiately ridged on the disc. Lower part of gill-cover and suboperculum 
smooth and sealeless. Operculum ending in two thin, flat, widely separated corners. Scales 
strongly ptenoid, pale, with dark borders, and resembling melon-seed. The prevailing colour 
of Mr. Reeves's figure is umber-brown, deeper above the lateral line and on the dorsal fin. The 
other fins are blackish-gray, the pectoral having a yellow edge. The iris bright blue. Cau- 
dal even. 

Hab. China. Canton. 

Crenidexs leoninus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 263 ; Hardw. Acanth. 

73. Shih tze tso, "Stone lion tso" (Birch). Rad. D. 14ll6; A. 3|12 

vel 13, &c. (Reeves's fig.) 

The general colour of the head and upper parts of this fish is apple-green, the belly gra- 
dually becoming faint tile-red. The green colour spreads over the scaly bases of the fins, 
their membranes are purple with a greenish gloss. 

Hah. Canton. 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF THE SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 243 

Crenidens melanichthys, Temm. et Schl. F.J. Sieb. p. 75. pi. 39. Icon. 
Reeves, 247 ; Hardw. Acanth. 72. Chinese name, Liih yen ke, " Green- 
eyed fowl" (Birch, Reeves). Rad. D. 14|I4s A. 3|12; C. 17; P- 17; 
V. 1[5. (Fauna Jap. and Reeves's fig.) 

The authors of the ' Fauna Japonica' have named this species as the type of a peculiar 
genus, but have not assigned any strong reason for separating it from Crenidens. They who 
agree with them in thinking that the group ought to be subdivided, should observe that Mr. 
Gray's generic name Girella is prior to the Melanichthys of the ' Fauna Japonica.' In Mr. 
Reeves's drawing the general colour is black and blaokish-purple, with purer purple tints on 
the face. The caudal is glossed with purplish- brown, the soft dorsals, anal and pectorals, 
with deep blackish green, and the ventrals, spinous dorsal and spines of the anal, with auricula- 
purple. The eyes are green. These various shades of dark colours give a general blackish 
aspect to the fish. In the illumination of the figure in the ' Fauna Japonica ' the colour is 
black, the greenish and purple tints being omitted, as they are in a drawing made by Deputy- 
Assistant Commissary General Neill, oi Crenidens tephmops, a Western- Australian fish, which 
agrees nearly in outline with the Japanese fish. (Ichth. Ereb. and Terror, pi. 41. f. 1, 2.) The 
Australian names are Kotuelany and Memon. 

Another Western-Australian fish, similar in profile, has the body thinning off like a wedge 
towards the belly, and is known to the settlers by the name of " Zebra-fish," on account of 
nine black vertical bars on the sides. Its local names are Kgummul and Karraway, " The 
striped." 

A third Australian fish having the same local name oi Memon, and another also o{ Muddier, 
has more of a Scaroid aspect than the preceding, but yet appears to be of the same genus. 
A scale which accompanies Mr. Neill's drawing has the same form and ptenoid structure with 
those of the preceding two Australian fish. The caudal is truncated, with the side-points pro- 
jecting to the length of one-third of the fin, and the intermaxillaries and raaxillaries ? are set 
by a close row of large trenchant teeth. The colour is black, marbled with sky-blue and a 
brownish-red tint on the breast. The ventrals blackish-gray and blue ; the other fins black. 
The figure is twenty-one inches long. Mr. Neill's drawings of these and many other Austra- 
lian fish are contained in a volume which he presented to the British Museum. The ' Ichthy- 
ology of the Voyage of the Erebus and Terror' (p. 36, pi. 25. f. 2) contains a description and 
figure of Crenidens triglyphus, a Port Jackson fish which has the physiognomy of Crenidens 
forslcalii, while the group of Melanichthys approaches more to the Pomacentridce in general 
aspect. 

Hah. Seas of Japan and China. 

Fam. AcanthuridjE. 
Amphacanthus margaritiferus, C. et V. x. p. 145. " Chcetodon cana- 
liculatus. Park Lin. Tr. iii. p. 33. Amph. canaliculatus, Bl. Schn. p. 209 " 
(Hist, des Pois. x. p. 146). Amph. albo-punctatus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. 
Sieb. p. 128. Icon. Reeves, 259; Hardw. Acanth. Rad. D. 13llO; 
A. 7|9; C. 17fH P. 15 ; V. 2|3. (Spec. Camb. Ph. Inst.) 

A specimen of this fish from Canton was presented to the Cambridge Philosophica^l Spciety 
by the Rev. George Vachell. The profile of the snout is somewhat gibbous before the eye. 
The teeth are deeply notched, the cusps unequal and crenated. The preoperculum is marked 
at its angle by three or four diverging furrows, and a few small scales are sunk in the integu- 
ment of the cheek close to its bend. The lateral line is composed of a series of short simple 
tubes not very close. Eye rather large. The drawing is grass-green on the upper parts and 
on the dorsal and caudal fins, the colour fading to mountain-green and bluish-gray as it de- 
scends the sides. Many oval silvery spots are scattered over the sides. The spinous dorsal is 
narrowly edged with blackish-gray ; there are dots of that colour on the rays, and the anal and 
ventrals are spotted or barred with the same. The pectorals are pale green at the base, passing 
into a clay colour on the disc of the fins. The belly and sides of the head have much silvery 
lustre. Length 7 inches. The green changes to brown in spirits. 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. Indian ocean. 
Amphacanthus fuscescens, " Houttuyn, Mem. de Haerl. xx. p. 333 ;" 
C. et V. X. p. 156; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 127.pl. 68. f. 1 ; Icon. 
Reeves, 115; Hardw. Acanth. 229. Chinese name, Le mong (Reeves); 
Lai mang (Bridgem. Chrest, 37). Rad. D. ISjlO ; A. 7|9 ; V. 2l3, &c. 

A mounted and varnished specimen exists in the British Museum, which was brought from 
Canton by John Reeves, Esq. ; and there is another example in the Chinese collection at Hyde 

r2 



244 REPORT — 1845. 

Park. The post-frontal is ridged in a radiated way and slightly cancellated, and no scales 
could be discovered through the varnish on the cheeks or temples. The teeth are strongly 
tricuspid, the larger middle lobe rounded and crenated, the lateral ones acute. In the draw- 
ing an accessory or binate anal spine is shown, and the same thing is noticed by Park in his 
description of Amph. murgatitiferus. Tlie body is clouded with umber-brown and silvery 
blotches, occupying nearly equal space, but a dark tint prevailing on the back. On the flanks 
and tail there are besides many small silvery dots. The throat is umber-brown, and the 
sides of the head are umber-brown and olive-green, shading into each other. The caudal, 
soft dorsal, posterior half of the spinous part and soft anal are chestnut-brown. A cream- 
yellow stripe runs along the base of the anal. The ventrals, fore-part of the dorsal, and 
spinous portion of the anal are bluish-gray, and the pectorals straw-yellow with an umber- 
brown blotch on the base. Length 10 inches. 
Hab. Seas of China and Japan. Canton. 

Amphacanthus aurantiacus, Temm. et Schleg. F. J. Sieb. p. 128. pi. 68. 
f. 2. 

Hab. Sea of Japan ; rare. 

AcANTHUROS ORBICULARIS, Quoy et Gaim. ; C. et V. x. p. 237. 

The scales or cuticular ridges on the edge of the thorax, from the gill-openings to the ven- 
trals, are serrated by fine, acute teeth pointing backwards. A specimen exists in Haslar 
Museum. 

Hab. Chinese Sea (Sir Edward Belcher). Guam (Hist, des Pois.). 

Naseus fronticornis, " Commerson ;" C.et V. x. p. 259 ; Temm. et Schl. 

F. J. Sieb. p. 129. pi. 69. Harpurus monoceros, J. R. Forst. Descr. An. ed. 

Licht. p. 219 ; Icon. G. Forster, Bib. Banks, 194. Monocerus biaculeatus, 

Bl. Schn. p. 180. Naseus longicomis, Guer. ; Icon. Reg. An. pi. 35. f. 31. 

" Name at Waigiou, Een-raw ; at Otaheiti, E-ooma" Forster. 

Hah. Chinese and Japanese seas. Sandwich islands (Webber). Polynesia. Guam. 

In Sir Edward Belcher's collection there are several species o^ AcanihuridcE, among which is 
an 'j.A\i\t Naseus brevirustris, and also specimens o( Naseus liiuratus, some of which may have 
been collected in China ; but as this officer visited New Guinea, w hich has been recorded pre- 
viously as the native place of these fish, and he put fish from various localities into the same 
jars, we are unable to aflttrm that any of these specimens are Chinese. 

Prionurus scalprum, C. et V. x. p. 298 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. 
p. 129. pi. 70; Icon. Reeves, 183; Hardw. Acanth. Chinese name, 
Hih tseang keun, " Black general" (Birch) ; Hak tseang heun tsang, 
" Black tseang keun (a military officer)" Reeves. (Spec. Br. Mus.) 
General colour blackish-purple, paler towards the belly, the fins blacker, and a narrow 

reddish streak from the angle of the mouth to the preoperculum. 
Hab. Chinese and Japanese seas. 

Fam. Ch.s;todontidje. 
PiMELEPTERUS iNDicus, Kuhl et Van Hasselt, in C. et V. vii. p. 270 ; 
Temm.etSchl. F.J. Sieb. p. 86. « i?arf. D. Illl2 ; A. 3lll,"&c.(F. J.) 

Hab. Indian ocean. Sea of Japan. 

Pempheris moluca, C. et V. vii. p. 306 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 85. 
pi. 44. f. 3. 

Hab. The seas of Japan and the Moluccas. 

Hypsinotus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 84. pi. 42. f. 2. 

I possess a drawing of a fish caught in the Bight of Benin by Dr. Thompson of the Royal 
Kavy, which has the exact profile, the position of the ventrals and general appearance of M. 
Biirger's figure published in the 'Fauna Japonica,' except that the ventrals have the red 
colour of the rest of the fish. 

Hab. Sea of Japan, 

Drepane punctata, Lin. {Chcetodon), C. et V. vii. p. 132. Chcetodon 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THB SEAS OP CHINA AND JAPAN. 245 

punctatus, Solander ; Icon. 21. Parkinson, Bib. Banks. Latte, Russell, 79 ; 
IcQn. Reeves, 51 ; Hardw. 162. Chinese name, Ke lung tsang, " Coop 
tsang fish" (Birch) ; " Fowl-basket" (Reeves). 

Hab. Round the entire coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and in the Javan and China 
seas, and the Indian ocean. 

Drepane longimana, B1. Schn. (Chcetodon), p. 231 ; C. et V. vii. p. 133. 
7'er/a, Russell, 80-81 ; /cow. Reeves, 241 ^ Hardw. Acanth. 159. Chi- 
nese name, Zet^J foaw^r, "Willow sang" (Birch); "Willow dory" (Reeves). 
Bad. D. 9|21; A.3|19; C. 17|; P. 17; V. 1|5. (Spec. Camb. Ph. Inst.) 

The vertical bars which are described in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' from faded specimens, 
have a lively auricula-purple colour, and are eight in number. The Rev. George Vachell 
has deposited a Canton specimen in the Cambridge Philosophical Institution. 

Hab. Indian ocean, Javan and China seas. 

ScATOPHAGUS ARGUS, Lin. (ChcBtodon) ; C. et V. vii. p. 136. Pool 
chitsilloo, Russell, 18. Icon. Reeves, 212? Hardw. Acanth. 171 ? Bad. 
D. 11|17 ; A. 4|14, &c. (Spec. Camb. Ph. Inst.) 

Two specimens of this fish exist in the Cambridge Philosophical Institution, which were 
brought from Canton by the Rev. George Vachell, and there are several in the Chinese col- 
lection at Hyde Park, all of which vary from one another in the size of the spots, which in 
some are bigger than the orbit, in others less. Mr. Reeves's drawing shows much larger 
spots, and a more concave and sloping profile than Russell's figure. The colour is also more 
purpurascent, sombre and dingy than it is described to be in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' so 
that it may possibly represent a distinct species. 

Hab. India. China. Moluccas. 

ScATOPHAGUS ORNATUS, C. et V. vii. p. 143. Icon. Reeves, /3. 35 ; Hardw. 
Acanth. 169. Chinese name, Kin koo, " Metal drum" (Birch) ; Kin koo, 
"Golden drum" (Reeves). 

Length of figure 3^ inches. 
Hab. China. Amboyna. 

ScATOPHAGUS BOUGAiNviLLii, C. et V. vii. p. 142? Ico?t. Reeves, 83 ; 
Hardw. Acanth. 172. Chinese name, Lang peen yu, "Good flatfish" 
(Reeves, Birch). 

This drawing has exactly the profile of Russell's figure of argus, but the dorsal spines are 
rather lower, and the second anal spine considerably larger than the others. The colour is 
lemon-yellow with a bright golden lustre, becoming silvery towards the belly, much of the 
head and parts of the fins being shaded by deep liver-brown. There are also some fainter 
large brown marks on the upper half of the body. In form this figure agrees with the de- 
scription of Bougainvillii, of which the true colours and markings are not known, the speci- 
men described in the ' Histoire des Poissons' having been badly preserved. 

Hab. China. 

Ephippus orbis, Bloch (^Chcetodon'), 202, f. 2; C. et V. vii. p. 127 ; La- 
cepede, iv. p. 458 et 491 ; Icon. Reeves, 210; Hardw. Acanth. 157. 
Chinese name, Yin hung (Birch) ; Ying hung (Reeves) ; Ngan hung 
(Bridgem. Chrest. 30). 
Hab. Indian ocean and China sea. 

Platax ehrenbergii, C. et V. vii. p. 221. Platax vespertilio, Whitch. 
Bennett, Ceylon, pi. 5 ; Icon. Reeves, 103 ; Hardw. Acanth. 179. Chi- 
nese name, Fei yih, "Flying wings" (Birch); Fe yih, "Flying fins" 
(Reeves) ; Fi yik (Bridgem. Chrest. 26). 

Mr. Reeves's drawing has the yellow caudal fin with the dark brown bar on its base, and 
the precise dimensions of body and vertical fins which Bennett's figure possesses. It shows 
moreover the broad vertical bars, of which there is only a trace in the Ceylon plate, viz. an 
oculai band, a pectoral one, a broad one taking in the soft doreal and anal, and the brown bar 



246 REPORT — 1845. 

on the base of the caudal, which makes a fourth. The yellow tints arfe not so general as they 
are shown by Mr. Bennett, being more confined to the breast. 
Hab. Mauritius. Red sea. Indian ocean and China sea. 

Plat AX vespertilio, Blocli, 199 ; Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 83. pi. 4;3. 

Platax blochii, C. et V. vii. p. 222. 

The figure in the ' Fauna Japonica ' wants an undulation in the arched part of the lateral 
line and the yellow caudal, with its /-shaped edge, which are shown in Mr. Reeves's figure 
of the preceding. The authors of the ' Fauna /aponica' consider their fish to be the true 
vespertilio, though there are some peculiarities of colour. 

Hah. Mauritius. Indian ocean. New Guinea and China. 

Hjeniochus macrolepidotus, Bloch, 200. f. 1 (Chcetodon). C. et V. vii. 

p. 93 ; Temm. et Schl. p. 82. pi. 44. f. 1. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. Moluccas. Celebes. New Guinea. Indian ocean, Mauritius and 
Mozambique. 

HoLACANTHUS SEPTENTRioNALis, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 82. pi. 44 ; 
Icon. Reeves, 17b; Hardw. Acanth. 175. 

Mr. Reeves's drawing is illuminated with a rich orange-brown ground colour and pure 
china-blue stripes, which are broader than in the figure of the fish in the ' Fauna Japonica.' 
One stripe is bent into a ring on the operculum and another on the base of the pectoral. The 
soft dorsal and anal are blackish, the other fins reddish-orange. 

Hab. Sea of China and Japan. 

CH.ffiTODON AUREUS, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 81. pi. 42. f. 1 ; Icon. 
Reeves, a. 23 ; Hardw. Acanth. 151. Chinese name, Hopaou kin, "Purse 
gold" (Birch) ; " Golden purse" (Reeves); Hopau ham (Bridgem. Chrest. 
25). 

The Chmtodon collare of Bloch (pi. 216. f. 1), which he says he had from Japan, appears 
to be this species. The profile, bands and numbers of the rays agree tolerably well. 
Hab. Seas of China and Japan. | 

Ch^etodon setifer, Bloch, pi. 425. f. 1 ; C. et V. vii. p. 76. 

Sir Edward Belcher obtained specimens of this fish in the outer China sea. 

Hab. China sea, Moluccas, Polynesia, the Indian ocean, and Mozambique channel. 

Chjetodon modestus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 80. pi. 41. f. 2 ; Icon, 

Reeves, /3. 41 ; Hardw. Acanth. Chinese name, Ts'een tsuy Id (Birch) ; 

Tseen tsui lap, " Sharp-nose lap" (Reeves); Tsim tsuy lap (Bridgem. 

Chrest. 23). 

Mr. Reeves kept a specimen of this fish alive for some weeks in a glass globe filled with 
sea water. There is a Japanese example in the British Museum. 

Hab. Seas of China and Japan. 

CH.ffiTODON sTRiGATus, LangsdorflF. C. et V. vii. p. 25. pi. 170 ; Temm. et 
Schl. F. J. Sieb. p. 80. pi. 40. f. 1 ; Icon. Reeves, /3. 4 ; Hardw. Acanth. 
166. Chinese name, Chae yu, " Fuel-fish" (Birch) ; " Faggot-fish," from 
the resemblance of its stripes to a bundle of fire-wood (Reeves). 

Mr. Reeves deposited a Canton specimen in the British Museum. 
Hab. Seas of China and Japan. 

PsETTUS argenteus, Lin. (^Chcetodon^, Chin. Lagcerstr. in Amcen. Ac. 
1754. iv. p. 249. No. 26 ; Richardson, Ichth. of Voy. of Ereb. and Terror, 
pi. 35. f. 1-3. Icon. Reeves, 240 ; Hardw. Acanth. 226. Chinese name, 
Yin leen tsang, " Silver-scaled tsang" (Reeves, Birch). Rad. B. 6 ; D. 
8|29; A. 3|29; C. 17|- ; P. 17; V. l|5. 

Dr. J. O. M'Williams, the intrepid and scientific surgeon of the Niger expedition, presented 
two specimens of this fish to the Haslar Museum. He obtained them at Norfolk island. 

Hab. Polynesia. East coast of Australia and sea of China. Canton (Reeves). Norfolk 
island (M'Williams). Vanicolo (Quoy et Gaimard). 



ON THE ICHTHYOLOGY OP THE SEAS OF CHINA AND JAPAN. 24^ 

HoplkgnaThus FASciAtus, Temm. et Schl. (Scarodon), F. J. Sieb. p. 89. 
pi. 46. f. 1 and 2. Genus Hoplegnathus, Zool. Trans, vol. iii. p. 114? ; 
" Poisson perroquet noir, Krusenst. Voy. Atl. pi. 52. f. 2." " Bad. B. 7 ; 
D. 12|16 ; A. 3|13 ; C. 17 ; P. 18 ; V. l|5." (Fauna Jap.) 

I tead an account of the genus Hoplegnathus before the Zoological Society, on the 9th 6f 
March, 1841, which was noticed shortly afterwards in the Zoological Proceedings, and sub- 
sequently published at length, with a figure, in the Zoological Transactions. A fasciculus 
of the ' Fauna Japonica,' which was published towards the end of the year 1844, gives an 
account of the same genus under the name of Scarodon, and mentions the earliest represen- 
tation of a species in the Atlas of ' Krusehstern's Voyage.' The specimen described in the 
Zoological Transactions was supposd to be Australian, and differs from all the Chinese spe- 
cies in its more oblong form. 1 counted only five branchiostegous rays in the only example 
(a dried skin) which I had an opportunity of examining. The rays were as follows : — Br. 5? 
D. I2|12; A. 3|12; C. 15|; P. 18 j V. 1|5. The colour was gone. 

Hab. Sea of Japan. 

Hoplegnathus punctatus, Temm. et Schl. (^Scarodon), F.J. Sieb. p. 91 ; 
Ico7i. Reeves, a. 12 ; Hardw. Acanth. 308. Chinese name, Hih shih la, 
" Black stone la " (Birch) ; Hih shih tsoo (Reeves). 

Specimens of this fish exist in the Chinese collection at Hyde Park. I have also seen very 
cursorily, in the museum at Fort Pitt, a spotted Hoplegnathus from Norfolk Island, which 
seemed to be more oblong and of a lighter colour than this species. 

Hab. Seas of Japan and China. 

Hoplegnathus maculosus, Icon. Reeves, 270 ; Hardw. 173. (Spec. 
Chinese collection at Hyde Park.) 

Not having examined the specimens in the Chinese collection and compared them with one 
another, this is propounded only provisionally as a separate species. In Mr. Reeves's draw- 
ings the spots are of two sizes, many smaller ones being scattered among others of the same 
dimensions with those oi punctatus. More rays are shown in the soft dorsal and anal than in 
the figure of that species. The profile is less gibbous at the eyes, and the ventrals are smaller ; 
but on the whole the two drawings are very much alike and may be both representations of 
one species. 

Hab. Sea of China. Canton. 

Fam. FisTULARiD.fi. 

Aulostoma chinensis, Bloch, 338 (Fistularia), Fistularia sinensis, La- 
cepede, v. p. 357. 

Sir Edward Belcher has deposited a Chinese specimen of this fish in the museum at Haslar. 
Hab. China seas. Polynesia. 

Fistularia immaculata, Commergon. Cuv. Regn. An. ii. p. 167. Fistu- 
laria tabaccaria, White's Voy. to Botany Bay, p. 2962. f. 2. Icon. Reeves, 
185; Hardw. 315. Chinese name. Ma peen yu, "Horse-whip fish" 
(Reeves) ; Ma pin (Bridgem. Chrest. 52). 
Three Chinese specimens of this fish exist in the British Museum. 
Hab. China seas. Malay archipelago. Coasts of Australia. 

Amphisile scutata, Lin. (Centriscus). Bl. 123. f. 2. " Klein Mant. Ichth." 
Riippell Neue Wirlb. 142. 

Chinese specimens exist in the British Museum, Sir Edward Belcher's collection and in 
the Canton insect-boxes. 

Hab. Chinese sea, Malay archipelago, Indian ocean and Red sea. 

Tribus Periodopharyngei. 

Fam. MuGiLiD.s;. 

MuGiL jAPONicus, Temm. et Schl. F. J. Siebl p. 134. pi. 72. f. 1. M. ce- 



248 REPORT — 1845. 

phaloftis, Cantor, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. xi. p. 29. Had. D. 4|-ll8 ; 
A. 3|9 ; C. 14| ; F. 16; V. 1\5. (Cantor's Spec. Brit. Mus.) 
Hab. Seas of Japan and China. Estuaries and canals (Cantor). 

MuGiL (vel Cestr^us?) xanthurus, Richardson. Icon. Reeves, 127; 
Hardw. Acanth. 260. Chinese name, Hwang wei tze, "Yellow-tailed 
parer" (Birch); Hwang ne tsae, "Yellow-tailed" (Reeves); Wong ne 
tsai (Bridgem. Chrest. 117). 

This Mullet has a close resemblance in form to japonicus, but as it is a little more slender 
and its colours dififer, we have given it a distinct name. The snout is represented as pro- 
jecting beyond the lower jaw, which shuts close up beneath it. The back is coloured pale 
leek-green, the sides and belly being silvery and pearly, with a short dark streak in the 
middle of each scale, making six or seven rows, none being perceptible below the middle of 
the fish. There are some hyacinth-red tints on the face and edges of the gill-pieces, and a 
pale-blue shading in the middle of the operculum. The pectoral is honey-yellow, very dark 
at the base and pale at the end. The membrane of the first dorsal is very pale-red lilac ; the 
second dorsal is wood-brown ; the ventrals and anal buff-orange, the latter having an opake 
white bar at its base. The caudal is gamboge-yellow with a crimson border in the notch. 

Hab, Sea of China. Canton. 

MuGiL MELANCRANUS, Icon. Reeves, 73 ; Hardw. Acanth. 259. Chinese 
name, Woo iow (Birch) ; Ootow, "Black head" (Reeves); i7toM (Bridgem. 
Chrest. 119). 

In Sir Edward Belcher's collection, which was formed chiefly in the China seas, though 
specimens from other parts of the ocean were mixed with the fish there taken, I find a Mugil 
having a close resemblance to Mr. Reeves's drawing above quoted, except that the belly is 
rather more prominent. The upper lip is more fleshy and the orifice of the mouth consider- 
ably larger than in M. strongylocephalus, exceeding the size of the orbit in both directions. 
The under lip is horizontal with a slightly notched keel, and the teeth, which penetrate it, 
are sufl3ciently visible to the naked eye. The slender maxillary is visible nearly for its whole 
length when the mouth is closed, but it scarcely projects beyond the preorbitar, which has a 
straight front edge finely toothed, and ends in a point formed by a tooth larger than the rest. 
It is the tapering narrow form of this bone, and not a notch, which prevents it from concealing 
the maxillary. The length of the head and height of the body are equal, and rather exceed 
a fifth of the length of the fish. The pectorals are contained six times and three-quarters in 
the same length, and the lobes of the caudal four times and a third. The thickness at the gill- 
plates is equal to two-thirds of the height of the body, but under the first dorsal the thickness 
is less than half the height. There are thirty-seven scales in a row, besides some small ones 
on the caudal, and eleven rows under the first dorsal. Each scale has eight or ten fan-like 
furrows diverging from a