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REPORT 



EIGHTEENTH MEETING 



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BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT SWANSEA IN AUGUST 1S48. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 
1849. 



PRINTED BY RfCHARD AND JOHN E. TAYLOR, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 





CONTENTS. 



Pa^e 

Objects and Rules of the Association v 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement viii 

Table of Council from commencement x 

Treasurer's Account xii 

Officers and Council xiv 

Officers of Sectional Committees xv 

Corresponding Members xvi 

Report of Council to the General Committee xvi 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxii 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxiv 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xxix 

Address of the President xxxi 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES JN SCIENCE. 

A Catalogue of Observations of Luminous Meteors. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S. &c., Savilian Professor of Geometry, 
Oxford 1 

On Water-pressure Engines. By Joseph Glynn, F.R.S.,M. Inst. C.E.&c. 11 

On the Air and Water of Towns, By Robert Angus Smith, Ph.D., 
Manchester 16 

Eighth Report of a Committee, consisting of H. E. Strickland, F.G.S. 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow and Prof. Lindley, appointed to 
continue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality of Seeds ... 31 

Fifth Report on Atmospheric Waves. ByW. R. Birt 35 

On Colouring Matters. By Edward Schunck, Ph.D 57 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Oil the advantageous use made of the gaseous escape from the Blast 
Furnaces at the Ystalyfera Iron Works. By James Palmer Budd 7.5 

Report of progress in the investigation of the Action of Carbonic Acid 
on the Growth of Plants allied to those of the Coal Formations. By 
Robert Hunt S4' 

Supplement to the Temperature Tables printed in the Report of the 
Britisii Association for 1847. By Professor H. W. Dove, Cor. Memb. 
of the British Association; containing 84' additional Stations 84- 

Remarks by Professor Dove on his recently constructed Maps of the 
Monthly Isothermal Lines of the Globe, and on some of the principal 
Conclusions in regard to Climatology deducible from them ; with an 
introductory Notice by Lieut.-Col. Edward Sabine, Gen. Sec 85 

On the Progress of the investigation on the Influence of Carbonic Acid 
on the Growth of Ferns. By Dr. Daubeny 97 

Notice of further progress in Anemometrical Researches. By John 
Phillips, F.R.S 97 

To the Assistant-General Secretary 98 

Second Report on the Gaussian Constants. By Adolphe Erman 98 

Report relative to the expediency of recommending the continuance of 
the Toronto Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory until De- 
cember 1850, adopted by a Committee of the British Association at 
Swansea, August 1848, consisting of the following Members: — Lord 
Wrottesley, Chairman, the Dean of Ely, Rev. Dr. Lloyd, Pre- 
sident of the Royal Irish Academy, and Lieut.-Col. Sabine 99 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



THE ASSOCIATION. 

OBJECT S. 
The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry,^to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 



VI RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to lSi5 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
njission 'I'en Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 18S9, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845 a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. /4t reduced or Members' Prices. — Old Life Members who have paid 

Five Pounds as a composition for Annual Payments, but no 
further sum as a Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion in any subsequent year. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



BULBS OF THE ASSOCIATION. vii 

S. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Comniitree, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 



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MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of tlie British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 

Acland, H. W., B.M. 

Adamson, J., F.L.S. 

Adare, Viscount, M.P., F.R.S. 

Airy, G.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 

Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 

Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ashburton, Lord, D.C.L. 

Babbage, Charles, F.R.S. 

Babington, C. C, F.L.S. 

Baily, Francis, F.R.S. 

Barker, George, F.R.S. 

Bengough, George. 

Bentham, George, F.L.S. 

Bigge, Charles. 

Blakistou, Pevton, M.D., F.R.S. 

Brewster, Sir David, K.IL, LT,.D., F.R.S. 

Breadalbane, The Marquis of, F.R.S. 

Brisbane, Lieut.-General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brunei, Sir M. I., F.R.S. 

Buckland, Very Rev. William, D.D., Dean of 
Westminster, F R.S. 

Burlington, The Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., Chan- 
cellor of the University of London. 

Bute, The Marquis of, K.T. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph. 

Cathcart, Tlie Earl, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., Professor of Di- 
vinitv, Edinburgh. 

Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., Sec. R.S. 

Clare, Peter, F.R.A.S. 

Clark, Rev. Professor, M.D., F.R.S. (Cam- 
bridge). 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T. 

Gierke, Major Shadwell, K.IL, R.E., F.R.S. 

Clift, William, F.R.S. 

Colquhoun, J. C, M.P. 

Convbeare,Vei-vRev. W. D, Dean of Llandaff, 
'M.A., F.R'.S. 

Corrie, John, F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wallace. 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. 

Dartmouth, The Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daubenv, Professor Charles G. B., M.D., 
F.R.S. 

De la Beche, Sir Henr)' T., F.R.S., Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom. 

Dillwyn, Lewis W., F.R.S. 

Drinkwater, J. E. 

Durham, The Bishop of, F.R.S. 

Egerton, Sir Philip de M. Grey, Bart., F.R.S. 

Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, The Earl of, F.G.S. 

Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. 

Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Fitzwilliam, Tiie Earl, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Fleming, W., M.D. 

Forbes, Charles. 

Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. 

Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S. 

Fox, Robert Were, F.R.S. 

Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Graham, Rev. John, D.D., Master of Christ's 

College, Cambridge. 
Graham, Professor Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
Gray, John E., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan. 
Gray, William, jun., F.G.S. 
Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., F.R.S. 
Grove, W. R., Esq., F.R.S. 
HaUam, Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hamilton, W. J., U.P., Sec.G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir William R., Astronomer Royal 

of Ireland, M.R.I.A. 
Harcourt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hardwcke, The Earl of, 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 
Hatfeild, William, F.G.S. 
Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. William, Dean 

of Manchester, LL.D., F.L.S. 
Herschel, Sir John F.W., Bart.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, M.P., F.R.S. 
Hodgkiu, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Prof. Eaton, F.R.S. 
Hodgson, Joseph, F.R.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Hope, Rev. F.W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hopkins, William, M.A., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Hovenden, V. F., M.A. 
Button, Robert, F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, F.G.S. 
Ibbetson, Capt., F.G.S. 
Inglis,SirRobertH.,Bart.,D.C.L.,M.P.,F.R.S. 
Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B. 

Johnston, Professor J.F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Keleher, William. 
Lardner, Rev. Dr. 
Lee, R.,M.D., F.R.S. 

Lansdowne, The Marquis of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Latham, R.G., M.D., F.R.S. 
Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, Speaker 

of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Liddell, Andrew. 
Lindley, Professor, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Listowel, The Earl of. 
Lloyd, Rev. Bartholomew, D.D., Provost of 

Trinity College, Dublin. 
Lloyd, Rev. Professor, D.D., F.R S, 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 



XI 



Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 

Luby, Rev. Thomas. 

LyeU, Sir Charles, M.A., F.R.S. 

MacCullagh, Professor, D.C.L., M.R.I.A. 

Macfarlaue, The Very Rev. Principal. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, F.L.S. 

MacNeiU, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 

Meynell, Thomas, Jun., F.L.S. 

MUler, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 

Moillet, J. L. 

Moggridge, Matthew. 

Moody, T. H. C. 

Moody, T. F. 

Morley, The Earl of. 

Morpeth, Viscount, F.G.S. 

Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 

Mount Edgecumbe, The Earl of. 

Murchison, Sir Roderick L, G.C.S., F.R.S. 

NeiU, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 

Northumberland, The Duke of, K.G., M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Nortliampton, The Marquis of, V.P.R.S. 
Norwich, The Bishop of. President of the 

Linnaean Society, F.R.S. 
Ormerod, G. \V., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. 
Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S. 
Oxford, The Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Osier, Follett. 

Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 
Peacock, Very Rev. George, D.D., Dean of 

Ely, V.P.R.S. 
Pendarves, E., F.R.S. 
PhilUps, Professor John, F.R.S. 
Porter, G. R., Esq. 
Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prichard, J. C., M.D., F.R.S. 
Ramsay, Professor W., M.A. 
Rennie', George, V.P.&Treas.R.S. 
Rennie, Su- John, F.R.S. 
Richardson, Sir John, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ritchie, Rev. Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 
Robmson, Rev. T. R., D.D., M.R.LA.. 
Robison, Sir John, Sec.R.S.Edin. 
Roche, James. 

Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ross, Capt. Sk James C, R.N., F.R.S. 



Rosse, The Earl of, President of the Royal 

Societv. 
Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, James. 
Sabine, Lieut.-Colonel Edward, R.A., For. 

Sec.R.S. 
Sanders, William, F.G.S. 
Sandon, Lord. 

Scoresbv, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, F.R.S.E. 
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 
Staunton, Sir George T., Bart., M.P., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Strang, John. 
Strickland, H. E., F.G.S. 
Sykes, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., F.R.S. 
Symons, B.P.,D.D., late Vice-Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. J. J. 
Tavlor, John, F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, jun., F.G.S. 
Thompson, WiUiam, F.L.S. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. 
Turner, Samuel, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Walker, James, F.R.S. 
Walker, J. N., F.G.S. 
Walker, Rev. Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Warburton, Henry, M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N. 
West, WUUam, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor, F.R.S. 
AVhewell, Rev. William, D.D., Master of 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Charles J. B., M.D., F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Winchester, Tiie Marquis of. 
Woollcombe, Henrv, F.S.A. 
Wortley, The Hon.' John Stuart, B.A., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Yarrell, WiUiam, F.L.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yates, James, M.A., F.R.S. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 23rd of June 

RECEIPTS. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

To Balance brought on from last Account 169 15 2 

To Life Compositions at Oxford and since 200 

To Annual Subscriptions Ditto 207 

To Associates' Subscriptions at Oxford 495 

To Ladies' Tickets Ditto 203 

To Book Compositions 2 

To Dividends on Stock (£4500 three per cent. Consols) 18 mos. 196 12 
To received from Sale of Publications : — 

Copies of the 1st volume 2 10 6 

2nd volume 3 5 8 

3rd volume 2 15 

4th volume 1 13 4 

5th volume 1 16 10 

6th volume 2 9 

7th volume 3 5 

8th volume 4 11 

9th volume 5 12 

10th volume 4 13 8 

11th volume 3 5 3 

12th volume 2 18 6 

13th volume 10 7 4 

14th volume 8 18 

15th volume 62 2 

16th volume 10 2 10 

Lithograph Signatures 12 

British Association's Catalogue of Stars 63 16 11 

Lalande's Catalogue of Stars 34 4 

Lacaille's Ditto 5 13 

232 15 6 

To Balance due to the General Treasurer 10 13 10 

Ditto Local Treasurers 3 9 5 

14 3 3 

Less, Balance in Banker's hands 4 15 5 

Leaving Balance against the Account of 9 7 10 

£1715 10 6 



G. R. PORTER 
JAMES HEYWOOD 



,} 



Auditors. 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



184.7 (at Oxford) to 9th of August 1848 (at Swansea). 



PAYMENTS. 

£ s. 
For Sundry Printing, Advertising, Expenses of Oxford Meeting, 
and Sundry Disbursements by Treasurer and Local Trea- 
surers 

Paid Balance of Printing, 15th Report (14th vol.) 

Printing, &c. 16th Report (15th vol.) 

Engraving, &c. for 17th Report (16th vol.) 

Salaries to Assistant General Secretary and Accountant , 

Paid by order of Committees on Account of Grants for Scientific 
purposes, viz. — 

Researches on Atmospheric Waves 3 10 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

Researches on Colouring Matters 5 

Acid on the Growth of Plants 15 

Maintaining the Establishment at Kew Observatory : — 

Balance of Grant of 1846 42 11 

Part of Grant of 1847 129 4 





448 


1 


1 




81 


1 


7 




508 


6 


2 




28 










375 








9 













































103 5 9 



171 15 11 




£1715 10 6 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1848-49. 



Trustees (permanent).— Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, G.C.S'.S., F.R.S. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. The Very Reverend George Peacock, D.D., 
Dean of Ely, F.R.S. 

President. — The Marquis of Northampton, V.P.R.S, 

Vice-Presidents. — Viscount Adare. The Lord Bishop of St. David's. 
Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. The Very Rev. The Dean of LlandafT. 
Lewis W. Dillwyn, Esq., F.R.S. W. R. Grove, Esq., F.R.S. J. H. Vivian, 
Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

President Elect.— Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., M.R.I.A., F.R.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents Elect. — The Earl of Harrowby. The Lord Wrottesley, 
F.R.S. Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, Bart., D.C.L., M.P., F.R.S. Charles 
Darwin, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. Professor Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. Sir 
David Brewster, K.H., LL.D., F.R.S. Rev. Professor Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

General Secretary. — Lieut. -Col. Sabine, For. Sec. R.S., Woolwich. 

Assistant General Secretary. — John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., York. 

General Treasurer. — John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, 
London. 

Secretaries for the Birmingham Meeting in 1849. — Charles Tindale, Esq. 
William Wills, Esq. Bell Fletcher, Esq., M.D. James T. Chance, Esq. 

Treasurer for the Meeting at Birmingham. — James Russell, Esq. 

Council. — Professor Ansted. Major Shadwell Clerke (deceased). Prof. 
E. Forbes. Prof. T. Graham. G. B. Greenough, Esq. W. J. Hamilton, 
Esq. James Heywood, Esq. Prof. E. Hodgkinson. Leonard Horner, 
Esq. Robert Hutton, Esq. Capt. Ibbetson. Sir R. H. Inglis, Bart. Dr. 
R. G. Latham. Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. Sir Charles Lyell. Sir C. 
Malcolm. Prof. Owen. G. R. Porter, Esq. Dr. Roget. J. Scott Russell, 
Esq. William Spence, Esq. H. E. Strickland, Esq. Lieut. -Col. Sykes. 
Rev. Professor Walker. The Dean of Westminster. Prof. Wheatstone. 
Rev. Dr. Whewell. 

Local Treasurers. — W. Gray, Esq., York. Rev. E. Hill, Oxford. 
C. C. Babington, Esq., Cambridge. William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. 

J. H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. William Sanders, Esq., Bristol. , 

Liverpool. , Newcastle-on-Tyne. James Russell, Esq., Birming- 
ham. Professor Ramsay, Glasgow. ■ , Plymouth. G. W. Ormerod, 

Esq., Manchester. William Clear, Esq., Cork. J. Sadleir Moody, Esq., 
Southampton. John Gwyn Jeffreys, Swansea. 

Auditors — Major Shadwell Clerke (deceased). James Heywood, Esq. 
G. R. Porter, Esq. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAIi COMMITTEES. XV 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES AT THE 
SWANSEA MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— -LorA Wrottesley, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Dean of Ely, F.R.S. Rev. Dr. Whewell, F.R.S. 
Lord Adare, F.R.S. Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Dr. Stevelly. G. G. Stokes. 

SECTION B. CHEMICAL SCIENCE, INCLUDING ITS APPLICATION TO 

AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President, — Richard Phillips, Esq., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.—"^. R. Grove, Esq., F.R.S. Dr. Faraday, F.R.S. Dr. 
Percy, F.R.S. John Dillwyn Llewelyn, Esq., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Thomas Williams, Esq., M.D. Thomas H. Henry, Esq., 
F.R.S. Robert Hunt, Esq. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

President Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., F.R.S., Pres. G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — G. B. Greenoiigh, Esq., F.R.S. The Dean of Llandaff, 
F.R.S. The Dean of Westminster, F.R.S. Sir Philip Egerton, Bart., 
F.R-S. 

Secretaries. — Starling Benson, Esq. Professor Oldham, F.R.S. Pro- 
fessor Ramsay, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — L. W. Dillwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — L. L. Dillwyn, Esq., F.G.S. W. Spence, Esq., F.R.S. 
G, Benthara, Esq., F.L.S. N. Wallich, M.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. R. Wilbraham Falconer, M.D. 
A. Henfrey, Esq., F.L.S. 

SUBSECTION OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Vice-Presidents.— B.. G. Latham, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. Rev. J. M. Tra- 
herne, F.R.S. Dr. C. Meyer. Dr. Hodgkin. 
Secretary. — Geo. Grant Francis, Esq., F.S.A. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 

President.— J . H. Vivian, Esq., M.P., F.R.S, 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Thomas Tooke, 
Esq., F.R.S. Lieut.-Col. W. H. Sykes, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Joseph Fletcher, Esq. Capt. Robert Shortrede. 

SECTION G. MECHANICS. 

President.— The Rev, Professor Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Joseph Glynn, Esq., F.R.S. John Scott Russell, Esq., 
F.R.S.E. John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — R. Arthur Le Mesurier, Esq., M.A. William Price Struve, 
Esq. 



REPORT — 1848. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Neufchatel. 
M. Arago, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Baclie, Pliiladelpliia. 
Professor H. von Boguslawski, Bres- 

lau. 
Monsieur Boiuigny (d'Evreux), Paris. 
Professor Braschinann, Moscow. 
Chevalier Biinsen. 

Charles Buonaparte, Prince of Canino. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-EcUvards of Paris. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor Esmark, Christiania. 
ProfessorForchhammer,Copenhagen. 
M. Frisiani, Milan. 
Professor Henry, Princeton, United 

States. 
Baron Alexander von Humboldt, 

Berlin. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Professor Jacobi, Konigsberg. 
Professor Kreil, Prague. 



M. Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Langberg, Christiania. 

M. Leverrier, Paris. 

Baron de Selys-Longcliamps, Liege. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Baron von Liebig, Giessen. 

Professor Link, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von MiddendorfF, St. Pe- 
tersburg. 

Piofessor Nillson of Sweden. 

Dr. (Ersted, Copenhagen. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

M. Qiietelet, Brussels. 

Herr Pliicker, Bonn. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Philadelphia. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Professor Schumacher, Altona. 

Baron Senftenberg, Bohemia. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve of St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

Dr. Van der Hdven, Leyden. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 
Gotha. 

Professor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



Report of the Proceedings of the Council in 1847-48, presented to the 
General Committee at Swansea, Wednesday, August 0, 1848. 

Report of the Council to the General Committee. 
1. With reference to the subjects on which tlie Council was requested by 
the General Committee, assembled at Oxford, to make applications to Her 
Majesty's Government and to the Court of Directors of the East India Com- 
pany, the Council has to report, that similar resolutions to those of the General 
Committee having been passed by the Council of the Royal Society, appli- 
cations in accordance with ti'.em were made by the Presidents of that Society 
and of the British Association, acting conjointly, and were favourably received. 
On the subject of the first resolution, the Council understand from Lord 
Auckland's reply, that the Board of Admiralty will appropriate a suitable 
vessel for the purpose of an investigation into the Phaanomena of the Tides, 
as soon as the most advisable plan for her employment shall have been deter- 
mined upon, and proper instructions suggested. With respect to the second 
resolution, the Court of Directors of the East India Company have issued 
orders for carrying into regular and continued operation the tide observations 
on the coasts of Western India and Scinde ; — and with respect to the third 
resohition, the Court of Directors liave placed the standard bar and scale of 
the Indian arc of tlie meridian at the disposal of M. Struve, and have per- 
mitted him to take it with him to Russia, in order that it may be there com- 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. XVll 

pared with the similar instruments which have been employed in the measure- 
ments of the Russian arc of the meridian, 

2. The Council have been informed, that a deputation from the Philoso- 
phical Society of Birmingham has been appointed to present, at this Meeting, 
an invitation from that Society and from other public bodies at Birmingham, 
to the British Association, to hold the Meeting of 1849 in that town. 

3. The Council have received from Mr. Phillips, Assistant General Se- 
cretary, a communication entitled "Reasons for thinking that the Annual 
Meetings of the British Association ought not to be restricted to places which 
present formal invitations and guarantees of expenses." Considering the 
importance of the subject, and the respect due to the opinions of so experi- 
enced and zealous a friend of the Association, the Council have deemed it 
desirable that Mr. Phillips's communication should be brought to the notice 
of the General Committee on the occasion of presenting this Report : but 
having been apprised that an invitation is. to be brought forward at Swansea 
to hold the Meeting of 1849 at Birmingham, and regarding this invitation 
as likely to be very favourably received, it has not appeared to the Council 
desirable to take any other present steps in reference to the subject of Mr. 
Phillips's communication, than that of bringing the communication itself to 
the notice of the General Committee. (See page xxi). 

4. The Council have added the following names to the list of Correspond- 
ing Members of the British Association : — 

M. Struve of St. Petersburg. 
M. Leverrier of Paris. 
Charles Buonaparte, Prince of Canino. 
The Chevalier Bunsen. 
Professor Nillson of Sweden. 
Professor Esmark of Christiania. 
Dr. Van der Hoven of Leyden. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards of Paris. 

5. The Council have deemed it desirable to take into serious consideration 
the expediency of maintaining for a longer period the establishment at Kew ; 
for this purpose they reappointed the Committee whose former report on the 
same subject was submitted to the General Committee at Southampton in 
1846, and they now submit to the General Committee a second report from 
the same Committee. The Council have also to express their concurrence 
in the opinions contained in that report, with respect to the services which 
have been rendered to science by that institution, even on the limited scale 
on which alone it has been in the power of the British Association to maintain 
it ; and to the probability that ere long the interests of science and the re- 
quirements of the public service will call for a Government establishment, 
having for its purpose some of the important objects originally contemplated 
by the observatory at Kew. The Council also concur in the opinion ex- 
pressed by the Committee, of the. expediency of deferring for the present a 
memorial to Her Majesty's Government on the subject. 

Report of the Kew Observatory Committee. 

The Committee appointed to consider the subject of the Kew Observatory 
having obtained from Mr. Ronalds a report on the actual state of the building, 
the instruments and other property of the Association therein deposited, as 
well as respecting the observations and experiments made there up to the 
present time, are enabled to state to the Council as respects the former, that 

1848. c 



xviii REPORT — 1848. 

they are in a satisfactory condition, the building having undergone recently 
(on the representation by Mr. Ronalds to the Commissioners of Woods and 
Forests, in September 1847, of their necessity) such external repairs as suffice 
for its preservation, and that the instruments, such as are actually in use, are 
in good order and accomplishing the purposes of observation for which they 
have been constructed. An inventory of them has been furnished to the 
Committee by Mr. Ronalds, who is at present engaged in making out a com- 
plete catalogue of all the property of the Association on the premises. 

In reporting on the scientific objects accomplished since their last report 
in 1846, they consider that they cannot do better than to extract such por- 
tions of Mr. Ronalds's reports above mentioned as bear upon this head. 

" The journal of ordinary observations has proceeded as usual ; fourteen 
observations per diem have been pretty constantly set down of electric ob- 
servations. 

" In the course of August 1846, many of the magnetic photographs were 
submitted to a rigid comparison with the corrected readings of the Greenwich 
magnet, and the result was officially declared to be ' highly satisfactory.' 

" In the same month Dr. Banks brought an experimental specimen of his 
registering anemometer to Kew, and tried it at the north-eastern angle of the 
electric observatory. 

" In September the third volume of Observations and Experiments was 
completed and carried to the Southampton Meeting of the British Association. 

" In December 184G, having by experience (since the beginning of August 
1845) found that my preliminary expeiiments, made upon a thermometer, a 
barometer, and an electrometer, each placed in the same camera or micro- 
scope alternateli/f fidly warranted the cost of constructing apparatus of a 
durable and convenient character for eacli instrument, I began to make (at 
Chiswick) the photo-registering barometer, now at Kew, and spent several 
months in its completion. It is furnished with a compensating apparatus 
(on the principle of the gridiron-pendulum), whereby the necessity of a cor- 
rection for temperature is certainly to a great extent, if not completely, 
avoided ; it has one of Newman's standard tubes, and the image of the sur- 
face of the mercury itself is employed totally unencumbered by any ball, plug, 
float, or machinery of any kind ; the mercury is therefore as free to act in 
this as in any standard barometer. And it can be at any time used without 
the compensating apparatus, if that should be deemed objectionable. The 
same time-piece moves this and the magnetic apparatus. 

"In May 1847, the magnetic apparatus was improved by the substitution 
of new lenses by Ross in lieu of Voightlander's. This enlarged the scale of 
declination. 

" In January 1847, a complete electrical apparatus, exactly similar to mine 
in the dome at Kew for ordinary observations, was begun by Mr. Newman, 
by order of the East India Company, for the Bombay Observatory, and after- 
wards sent. Drawings were lent, instructions given, and electrometers made 
to correspond exactly with the Kew instruments. 

*' In November 1846, drawings relative to Mr. Scott Russell's experiments 
on the forms of vessels arrived at Kew, and I afterwards tried hard to get 
possession of the models themselves (in pursuance of a resolution of the As- 
sociation), but without success. 

" In May 1847, Mr. Hunt's actinometer arrived at Kew. 

"In June 1847, the fourth volume of observations was completed and car- 
ried to the Oxford Meeting. 

" At this meeting some conversation, &c. occurred about establishing an 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XIX 

electro-meteorological and tnagnetical observatory at Alten, in Finmark, and 
proposing to furnish some electrical apparatus from Kew and of my own, but 
nothing has been achieved in this way. 

"In September 1847, repairs of the building becoming more urgent, I 
addressed a third application to the Woods and Forests through Mr. Phillips, 
and a new estimate for complete external and internal repairs was made, 
amounting to £271. The Commissioners, Mr. Milne, Mr. Burton, and Mr. 
Phillips, then visited the Observatory, examined it, and the apparatus, &c., 
and very soon afterwards all such repairs were executed as were fully suffi- 
cient to render it at least wind- and water-tight, which rendered a great 
service to the magnet. 

" In November 1847, the magnetical apparatus was improved by the ad- 
dition of a second condensing lens, placed beyond and very near to the index, 
and by an adjustment for the height of the lamp. 

" At about the same time the barometric apparatus was improved by like 
means. 

" In December 1847, the apparatus for registering photographically the 
electricity of the atmosphere now established at the south window of the 
south upper apartment (in pursuance of the experiments made in July and 
August 1 845 et seq.) was in course of construction, and was completed in 
February 1848. 

" I took much pains in the course of several months prior and subsequent 
to this time to arrange a system whereby photographic papers might be put 
into the microscopes (or camera) daily, and sent to Mr. Henneman's establish- 
ment, in Regent-street, to be there fixed and calotyped, and the positive 
impressions thence distributed to any meteorologists whom the British Asso- 
ciation might think proper to appoint to receive them. These endeavours 
have been zealously promoted by Mr. Malone, and will become, I trust, 
useful. 

" We now arrive at a circumstance which I (of course) cannot but esteem 
of importance. In Mr. Glaisher's remarks on the weather during the quarter 
ending December 31, 1847, for the Registrar-General's Report (at p. 2), he 
says, in reference to the Greenwich electrical apparatus, — ' It is a fact well- 
worthy of notice, that from the beginning of this quarter till the 20th of 
December, the electricity of the atmosphere was almost always in a neutral 
state, so that no signs of electricity whatever were shown for several days 
together, by any of the electrical instruments,' &c. At this notice I sent to 
Greenwich an abstract from our journal of the maxima and minima of the 
two-hourly charges of the conductor during the same period, by which it 
was seen that the electricity of the atmosphere at Kew was iiever in a neutral 
state then, and I found that so low a charge was never observed during that 
time as has been observed in other periods. These circumstances were can- 
didly stated in the next report. It was thought that this discrepancy be- 
tween the two conductors, &c. might arise, wholly or in part, from the great 
length of the conducting wire, which extends from the top of the mast at 
Greenwich to the magnetic observatory, where the electrometers are placed. 
Both theory and experiment fully confirm my belief that this was the chief 
cause of the difference, and is the cause of a want of constancy in signs at 
Greenwich. (A few experiments upon my own conductor with a long wire 
have lately confirmed the fact still more.)" 

On this report the Committee have to remark with satisfaction, as on 
scientific objects usefully and availably carried out, — 1st. On the photogra- 

c 2 



XX REPORT — 1848. 

phic self-registering processes which Mr. Ronalds has applied to the several 
objects of magnetic and meteorological observation — processes which (with- 
out reference to, or comparison witli, what may have been doing simulta- 
neously elsewhere or by others) appear to the Committee of much value and 
importance to the future progress of meteorological and magnetic inquiry ; 
and, 2ndly, on the valuable series of electrical observations which have 
now been made during five years, and during the last three and a half at 
2-hourly intervals day and night uninterruptedly, with observations also at 
sunrise and sunset. As these observations afford what it is presumed are not 
to be found at all, or at all events not for so long and consecutive a series, 
distinct numerical values of the electrical tension comparable at least inter se, 
tlie Committee have considered that they ought to undergo regular and 
complete reduction and discussion, with a view to eliciting from them the 
laws of the phaenomena ; and on this subject they have conferred with Mr. 
Birt, who has submitted to them a plan of reduction which they regard as 
satisfactory, and which he is willing to execute on a grant of £50 being made 
to him for that purpose ; a sum which they consider not excessive, and which 
they strongly recommend the Council to propose to the general body at the 
ensuing meeting. 

On the subject of the comparability of these results with those obtained, 
or to be hereafter obtained at Greenwich or elsewhere, it certainly would be 
desirable that some distinct series of comparative trials should be made ; and 
the Committee would have considered the execution of such a series an im- 
portant practical object to be accomplished during the next year of the con- 
tinuance of the observatory, but for considerations which it is now their duty 
to state. 

Tlie question as to the expediency of continuing the present expenditure 
of the establishment has occupied the anxious attention of the Committee, 
conceiving that the Council, by making mention of it in their resolution of 
April 14, is desirous of having their opinion on this head. In endeavouring 
to form a sound one, they have taken into consideration the state of the 
funds of the Association, and also the circumstances of the establishment 
itself, which they are of opinion cannot for the future, or even for a single 
additional year, be carried on in a manner satisfactory to the Association oti 
so low a scale of expenditure as that which, by a fortunate conjunction of 
personal circumstances eminently favourable, has hitherto been found prac- 
ticable ; and thai in fact, to carry out fully some of the most important 
objects which have all along been contemplated in its occupation by the 
Association, a very considerable increase of outlay would, in their opinion, 
be annually necessary. Such increase however, in the actual state of the 
funds of the Body, they are by no means prepared to recommend — since 
they perceive that even the present expenditure (could they guarantee that 
it shall not be exceeded) must prove a drain upon those funds for which the 
amount of scientific advantage to be expected from it on a scale of action so 
limited, will not be held an adequate return. Entertaining this view of the 
matter, and conceiving it equally inexpedient either to attempt to raise by 
private subscription an annual amount adequate to the object, or to apply 
to Government for aid (although they consider it by no means impossible 
that ere long the exigences of the public service may require an establish- 
ment, having for its object some of the most-important of those contemplated 
in this), they see no course open but to recommend its discontinuance from 
the earliest period at which it shall be found practicable, leaving it to the 



k 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. XXI 

Committee to ascertain (should the Council adopt this view) the most fitting 
mode of procedure for resigning it into the hands of Government, who have 
so liberally allowed the Association its temporary occupation. 

* Signed on the part of the Committee, 

J. F. W. Herschei. 

Reasons for thinking that the Annual Meetings of the British Association 
ought not to be restricted to places which present formal invitations and 
guarantees of expenses. 

1. '• By the rules of the Association, the General Committee has the duty 
of appointing the place, time and officers of the annual Meetings. 

2. " By custom, this power has been limited to places which present invita- 
tions, to times suitable for those places, and to officers more or less indicated 
by local circumstances. 

8. " The practice of obeying local invitations has been productive of good 
and evil : good by the spontaneous awakening of many important places to 
scientific activity ; evil by the introduction of elements of display, temporary 
expedients, and unnecessary expense. These have somewhat impaired the 
efficiency of the Meetings, by withdrawing attention and consuming time 
which could ill be spared from the essential business of one scientific week. 

4. " It is the opinion of the writer, that the balance of good and evil in 
this practice will become less and less favourable to the Association as time 
goes on ; that by its operation the Meetings of the Association are likely to 
be made more dependent on commercial and other extrinsic considerations 
than on advantages of locality ; that places in the highest degree desirable 
to be visited may not present invitations and guarantees ; that invitations 
which it may be difficult to refuse may be pressed from places quite unsuit- 
able for the Meeting ; and that, finally, the Association may be reduced, 
not seldom, to the necessity of suspending its Meetings, or of seeing them 
poorly attended by unwilling members, unfruitful of knowledge and unpro- 
ductive of money. 

5. " He thinks the proper way to prevent these misfortunes is to declare 
that in making arrangements for the future Meetings, the General Com- 
mittee will be guided by general considerations, and will regard as only one 
of the elements for its decision, the circumstance of special invitations from 
particular localities. 

6. " And he thinks that this declaration should not be delayed beyond the 
Swansea Meeting, where we may speak from the vantage-ground of a very 
unanimous invitation from a place of singular attractions. 

" He farther remarks that this plan will throw no discredit on invitations, 
which, as part of the elements for fixing on the places of Meeting, will still be 
acceptable and influential. Places presenting them, will still have the ad- 
vantage, and often the preference, which such proof of scientific activity may 
deserve. The invitations will perhaps be as numerous after, as they have 
been before the change. 

" There is no change necessary in respect of the previous arrangements, 
which must still include inspection of the localities, consultation with resi- 
dents, &c. before the General Committee can be called on to decide. 

" He will now say a few words on the financial part of this question. 

" The system upon which the Association has been worked of late years, 
produces an expenditure of nearly £750 for the local expenses of rooms, 
printing, clerks and messengers, &c. at each Meeting. Of this £500 has 
been raised by local contributions, and the remainder paid by the British 



XXU REPORT — 1848. 

Association. This expenditure is not nil necessary. It arises in part from 
the system of accepting invitations and requiring guarantees. He estimates 
that £500 will be fully sufficient, if placed under his own management, to 
conduct a full meeting of the Association at a place previously selected. He 
even thinks £<l-00 might be enough, if the sections be reduced to five (by 
uniting A and G), and care be taken in the appointment of clerks, messengers 
and printers. 

" To provide for this expense, the Association must find the means of de- 
voting £150 a year (at least) in addition to its present annual payments. 
But will this be all spent in vain ? all lost ? He thinks not. There is in the pre- 
sent system of raising local funds, a circumstance not to be overlooked which 
is productive of much loss to the Association. By raising so many hundred 
pounds at each place in the way of contribution to local expenses, there is 
really abstracted much from the contribution to the general purposes of the 
Association. Only a certain sum can be raised in the place, and the larger 
the contribution required for local objects, the fewer are the members, and 
the smaller the receipts of the Association. Gentlemen who might have 
paid £l 0, pay £2 ; those who might have paid £2, are content with paying 
£1 ; and in some cases the very demand of a local contribution has driven a 
member from the ranks of the Association. 

" Again, by selecting for our place of meeting a central accessible point in 
an interesting district, where science has food and life, we may expect to 
secure a large local attendance of new members, and yet not lose our friends 
from a distance. But it has happened that a meeting by invitation has been 
so ill attended from public occurrences and peculiarities, as to cause a 
loss of many times £150 to the Association Treasury. 

"Finally, as by this plan we do not preclude ourselves from the advantage 
of accepting invitations from the universities and large towns, but on the 
contrary can afford to wait for the years which may be most convenient to those 
places, there seems no objection of much strength to forbid the trial of it. 

" In this case he would call attention to Derby, as centrally situated, very 
accessible, in a very interesting country which has not been visited, and by 
no means deficient in scientific activity. Derby affords abundant accommo- 
dation." 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 

Swansea Meeting in August 1849. 

Involving Application to Government. 

That the President and General Secretary be authorised to apply to Her 

Majesty's Government for the continuation of the Meteorological and Mag- 

netical Observatory at Toronto, up to the 31st of December 1850. 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That Mr. Birt be requested to undertake the Reduction and Discussion 
of the Electrical Observations made at Kevv, with the sum of £50 at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That the sum of £100 be placed at the disposal of the Council, for the 
expenses of Kew Observatory. 

That Sir H. T. De la Beche,Sir William Hooker, Dr. Daubeny, Mr. Hen- 
frey, and Mr. Hunt, be requested to investigate the action of Carbonic Acid 
on the growth of Plants allied to those of the Coal-formation, with the balance 
of the original grant (£5) at their disposal. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXIU 

That Mr. Spence and Mr. T. V, Wollaston be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of assisting Mr. Newport in drawing up a Report on Scorpionidae and 
Tracheary Arachnidse, with the sum of £10 at their disposal. 

That Professor E. Forbes and Professor T. Bell he a Committee for as- 
sisting Dr. T. Williams in drawing up a Report on the state of our knowledge 
of British Annelidge, with £10 at their disposal. 

That H. E. Strickland, Esq., Dr. Daubeny, Dr. Lindley, and Professor 
Henslow, be requested to form a Committee for conducting Experiments on 
the Vitality of Seeds, with £10 at their disposal. 

That Professor E. Forbes, and the other members already named on the 
Committee for Dredging, with the addition of Colonel Portlock and Dr. 
Williams, be requested to continue their investigations, with £10 at their 
disposal. 

That Dr. Lankester, Mr. R. Taylor, Mr. W. Thompson, Mr. Jenyns, 
Professor Henslow, Mr. A. Henfrey, Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bart., and Mr. 
Peach, be requested to continue their superintendence of the drawing up 
of Tables for the Registration of Periodical Phaenomena, with £5 at their 
disposal. 

That certain Bills, amounting to £13 10s., on account of Anemometrical 
Observations, formerly carried on at Edinburgh, be paid; and that the 
Anemometer be transferred to the Assistant-General Secretary, at York. 

Not involving Grants of Money, or A implications to Government. 

That Dr. Schunck be requested to continue his Investigations on Colouring 
Matters. 

That Dr. Andrews be requested to prepare a Report on the Heat developed 
in Chemical Action. 

That Mr. R. Hunt be requested to prepare a Report on the present state 
of our Knowledge of the Chemical Influence of the Solar Radiations. 

That Professor E. Forbes, Dr. Playfair, Dr. Carpenter, and M. A. Han- 
cock, be a Committee to report on the Perforating Apparatus of Mollusca. 

That Mr. Mallet be requested to continue his preparation for a Report on 
the Facts of Earthquakes. 

That Mr. G. G. Stokes be requested to prepare a Report on Physical 
Optics, in continuation of Dr. Lloyd's Report on that subject. 

That the communication of Dr. Percy on the Extraction of Silver by the 
wet way, be printed entire in the next Volume of Transactions. 

That the Communication by Mr. Joseph Glynn, on Hydraulic Pressure 
Engines, be printed entire in the next Volume of Transactions. 

That a Communication by Mr. J. P. Budd, on the advantageous Use made 
of the Gaseous Escape from the Blast Furnaces of Ystalyfera,be printed entire 
in the Transactions. 

That the Assistant General Secretary be authorised, on consultation with 
Professor Powell, to insert in the next Volume of Transactions, such portions 
of Professor Powell's Communication on Luminous Meteors, as may be ne- 
cessary to complete the recorded observations of that Phaenomenon. 

That the Committee appointed in 1838, for determining the resistance of 
Railway Trains, be re-appointed, for the purposes of repeating those ex- 
periments at the high velocities, and in the altered circumstances of Railways 
at the present time, — the following Gentlemen to form the Committee, viz. : 
— Mr. Hardman Earle, Mr. George Rennie, Mr. Edward Woods, Mr. T. 
Froude, Mr. J. Glynn, Mr. Wyndham Harding, and Mr. J. S. Russell. 

That the Assistant General Secretary be requested to form a complete List 



Xxiv REPORT — 1848. 

of all the Recommendations that have been made by the Association, accom- 
panied by a Report of the manner and extent to which these recommenda- 
tions have been carried into effect ; to be printed and placed in the hands of 
the Committees of Sections. 

In consequence of the Report vfhich the General Committee has received 
from the Council on the subject of the Kew Observatory, the General Com- 
mittee concur with the Council in regretting that the means at the disposal of 
the British Association are insufficient to carry out on the extended scale 
which would be required for that purpose, the important objects which were 
contemplated by the Institution at Kew ; they also concur in the expediency 
of discontinuing the endeavour to accomplish their objects with means which 
are confessedly inadequate. 

The General Committee has granted the sum recommended to be em- 
ployed in the reduction and discussion of the important and unique series of 
Electrical Observations which have been made at Kew under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Ronalds, and they further remit to the care and conduct of the 
Council the steps which are necessary to be taken for the discontinuance 
of the Kew Observatory. 



The General Secretary having suggested the expediency of inserting in the 
Rules of the British Association a paragraph to the effect that those Gentle- 
men who have held the office of President of the Association, should be ex- 
officio members of the Council, — 

The General Committee request that the Council will take this suggestion 
into their consideration, and report their opinion thereon to the General Com- 
mittee at its first Meeting in Birmingham. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Sivansea Meeting in August 1848, with 

the Name of the Member, who alone or as the First of a Com- 
mittee, is entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory. £ s. d. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying Expenses 100 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Bills incurred for Anemometrical Observations at Edinburgh. . 13 10 

BiRT, W. R. — Discussion of Electrical Observations 50 

Geology. 
De la Beche, Sir H. T. — Influence of Carbonic Acid on 

Vegetation 5 

Natural History. 

Strickland, H. E Vitality of Seeds 10 

Lankester, Dr. — Periodical Phaenomena of Animals and Vege- 
tables •. 5 

Spence, W. — Report on Scorpionidae and Arachnidse 10 

Forbes, Pref. E. — Dredging Committee 10 

Forbes, Prof. E. — Report on British Annelidae 10 

Total of Grants £213 10 



OENEEAL STATEMENT. 



XXV 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on /Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ 
20 







1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants . . 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves. 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 89 
VitrificationExperiments 150 
Heart Experiments .... 8 
Barometric Observations SO 
Barometers 11 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes . . 100 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions and Anemometer 

(construction) 100 

Cast Iron (strength of) . 60 
Animal and Vegetable 
Substances (preserva- 
tion of) 19 



1835. 

Tide Discussions .... 62 

BritishFossil Ichthyology 105 

£167 



1836. 
Tide Discussions .... 163 
BritishFossil Ichthyology 105 
Thermometric Observa- 
tions, &c 50 

Experiments on long- 
continued Heat .... 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£434 14 



£918 14 6 



1 10 



Brought forward 308 
Railway Constants .... 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

. 75 



Growth of Plants . 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee . . 50 
Heart Experiments .... 5 
Land and Sea Level . . 267 
Subterranean Tempera- 
ture 8 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Commit- 
tee 31 

Thermometers 16 



s. 
1 

12 


6 




d. 
10 
10 


6 


7 




5 




£956 12 2 



Carried forward £308 110 



1839. 
Fossil Ichthyology .... 110 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 63 
Mechanism of Waves . , 144 

Bristol Tides SH 

Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 21 
VitrificationExperiments 9 
Cast Iron Experiments . 100 
Railway Constants .... 28 
Land and Sea Level . . 274 
Steam-Vessels' Engines. 100 
Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 
Animal Secretions .... 
Steam-engines in Corn 

^ wall 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron. 40 
Heat on Organic Bodies 3 
Gases on Solar Spec- 
trum 22 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations, Inver- 
ness and Kingussie . . 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 

£1595 







10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 






10 



50 

1 







.0 



7 8 
2 9 


11 



XXVI 



REPORT — 1848. 



£ s. d. 
1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Tempera- 
ture < 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments. .. . IS 19 

Lungs Experiments .. 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level . . 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 
MeteoroIogicalObserva- 

tions 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Me- 
moirs 112 1 6 

Working Population ..100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels .... 184 7 
Chemical and Electrical 

Phaenomena 40 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 80 
Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 
£1546 16 4 



1841. 
Observations on Waves. 30 
Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks .. 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents. . 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers. . 6 18 

Stars (Histoire Celeste). 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 

Stars (Catalogue of) . . 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Inverness . . 20 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions (reduction of).. 25 

Carried forward £539 10 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 539 10 8 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs .... 62 
Railway Sections .... 88 1 6 
Forms of Vessels .... 193 12 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 
Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 
Fishes of the Old Red 

Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leilh 50 

Anemometer at Edin- 
burgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instru- 
ments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae .. 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 Q 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education. . 20 
Marine Steam-vessels' 

Engines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 
Stars (British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of) ..110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites .... 50 
Fossil Reptiles (publica- 
tion of Report) ... . 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experi- 
ments at Plymouth. . 68 
Constant Indicator and 
Dynamometriclnstru- 

ments , 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of 

Seeds 8 1 11 

Carried forward £1442 8 8 



GENERAL. STATEMENT. 



XXVH 



£. S. d. 

Brought forward 1442 8 8 
Questions on Human 

Race 7 9 

£1449 17 8 

1843. 

Revisionof the Nomen- 
clature of Stars .... 2 

Reduction of Stars, Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith 

of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations at Kin- 
gussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 

Whewell's Meteorolo- 
gical Anemometer at 
Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Osier's Anemo- 
meter at Plymouth . . 20 

Reduction of Meteorolo- 
gical Observations . . 30 

Meteorological Instru- 
ments and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemo- 
meter at Inverness .. 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation . 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder 

for Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew 
Observatory, Wages, 
Repairs, Furniture and 
Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive 

Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails 

of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles .... 40 

Coloured Drawings of 

Railway Sections ... , 147 18 3 

Registration of Earth- 
quake Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological 

Nomenclature 10 

Carried forward £977 6 7 





£. 


s. 


d. 


Brought forward 


977 


6 


7 


Uncovering Lower Red 
Sandstone near Man- 








chester 


4 


4 


Q 


Vegetative Power of 




Seeds 


5 


3 


8 


Marine Testacea (Habits 




of) 


10 








Marine Zoology 

Marine Zoology 

Preparation of Report 
on British Fossil Mam- 


10 
2 



14 



11 


malia 


100 
20 









Physiological operations 
of Medicinal Agents 





Vital Statistics 


36 


5 


8 


Additional Experiments 








on theForms of Vessels 


70 








Additional Experiments 








on theForms of Vessels 


100 








Reduction of Observa- 








tions on the Forms of 








Vessels 


100 








Morin's Instrument and 




Constant Indicator . . 


69 


14 


10 


Experiments on the 
Strength of Materials 


60 








£1565 


10 


_2 



1844. 

Meteorological O bserva- 
tions at Kingussie and 
Inverness 12 

CompletingObservations 

at Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation. . 25 8 4 

Publication of the Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides 
on the East Coast of 
Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars.. 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment in Kew Ob- 
servatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Ob- 
servatory 56 7 3 

Carried forward £384 2 4 



XXVIU 



REPORT— 1848. 



5. 

2 


d, 

4 














17 


6 








11 


10 



Brought forward 384 
Influence of light on 
Plants 10 

Subterraneous Tempera- 
ture in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of 
Railway Sections .... 15 

Investigation of Fossil 
Fishes of the Lower 
Tertiary Strata .... 100 

Registering tlie Shocks 
of Earthquakes, 1842 23 

Researches into the 
Structure of Fossil 
Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of 
the ^gean and Red 
Seas 1842 100 

Geographical distribu- 
tions of Marine Zo- 
ology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of De- 
von and Cornwall .. 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds. . 1842 8 7 3 

Researches on Exotic 

Anoplura 15 

Experiments on the 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments 

on the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the in- 
ternal Constitution of 
Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and 
Morin's Instrument, 
1842 10 3 6 



£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue 
ofStars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observa- 

tions at Inverness .. 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation 16 16 8 



Carried forward ^£399 10 1 





f 


s. 


d. 


Brought forward 399 


10 


I 


Meteorological Instru- 








ments at Edinburgh 


18 


11 


9 


Reduction of Anemome- 








trical Observations at 








Plymouth 


25 








Electrical Experiments 








at Kew Observatory 


43 


17 


8 


Maintaining the Esta- 








blishment in Kew Ob- 








servatory 


149 


15 





For Kreil's Barometro- 








graph 


25 








Gases from Iron Fur- 








naces « 


50 








Experiments on the Ac- 




tinograph 


15 








Microscopic Structure of 








Shells 


20 
10 









Exotic Anoplura . .1843 





Vitality of Seeds.. 1843 


2 





7 


Vitality of Seeds. . 1844 


7 








Marine Zoology of Corn- 








wall 


10 








Physiological Action of 








Medicines 


20 








Statistics of Sickness and 








Mortality in York . . 


20 








Registration of Earth- 








quake Shocks ..1843 


15 


14 


8 


£831 


9 


9 


1846. 








British Association Ca- 








talogue of Stars, 1844 


211 


15 





Fossil Fishes of the Lon- 








don Clay 


100 








Computation of theGaus- 








sian Constants for 1 839 


50 








Maintaining the Esta- 








blishment at Kew Ob- 








servatory 


146 


16 


7 


Experiments on the 








Strength of Materials 


60 








Researches in Asphyxia 


6 


16 


2 


Examination of Fossil 








Shells 


10 

2 




15 





Vitality of Seeds.. 1844 


10 


Vitality of Seeds.. 1845 


7 


12 


3 


Marine Zoology of Corn- 








wall 


10 









Carried forward £6b5 15 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Brought forward 


605 


15 


10 


Marine Zoology of Bri- 








tain 


10 








Exotic Anoplura. .1844 


25 








Expenses attendingAne- 








mometers 


11 


7 


6 


Anemometers' Repairs . 





S 


G 


Researches on Atmo- 








spheric Waves .... 


3 


3 


3 


Captive Balloons ..1844 


8 


ly 


8 


Varieties of the Human 








Race 1844 


7 


6 


3 


Statistics of Sickness and 








Mortality at York . . 


12 









£685 16 



1847. 
Computation of theGaus- 

sian Constants for 18 3 9 50 

Carried forward £50 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 
Physiological Action of 

Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall 10 

Researches on Atmo- 
spheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

£100 16 10 

] 848. 
Researches on Atmo- 
spheric Waves .... 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues 

of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters . 5 

On Growth of Plants . . 15 

£103 5 9 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to eacli following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the As- 
sociation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report 
that the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 2 Duke Street, Adelphi, London, for 
such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings (in the General Meeting-Room, Park Street). 

On Wednesday, August 9th, at 8 p.m., the late President, Sir Robert 
Harry Inglis, Bart , F.R.S., M.P. for the University of Oxford, resigned 
his Office to the Most Noble the Marquis of Northampton, President of the 
Royal Society, who took the Chair at the General Meeting, and delivered 
an Address, for which see p. xxxi. 



XXX REPORT — 1848. 

On Thursday, August 10th, at 8 p.m., John Percy, Esq., M.D., F.R.S., 
delivered a Discourse on the Metallurgical Operations of Swansea and its 
neighbourhood. 

On Monday, August 14th, at 8 p.m., William Carpenter, Esq., M.D., 
F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

On Wednesday, August 16th, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
of the Association was held, when the Proceedings of the General Com- 
mittee, and the grants of money for scientific purposes were explained to 
the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Birmingham in September 1849*. 
* The Meeting is appointed to commence on Wednesday, the 12th of September, 1849. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

The Most Noble the Marquis of NORTHAMPTON, 
Pres.R.S., F.S.A., HoN.M.R.I.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 



Gentlemen, — In addressing you on the present occasion, I cannot but feel 
the disadvantageous situation in which I am placed as compared to my friend 
Sir Robert Inglis, who has just yielded to me the honourable situation of 
your President. 

I am not, as he was last year, addressing you in an ancient and venerable 
seat of academic discipline, where the very aspect of the surrounding buildings 
proclaimed the long residence of learned leisure and elegant taste ; — where, 
during the lapse of very many centuries, science and learning have made their 
abode, and where religion has consecrated their union. There, in that Oxford 
which has sent forth so many labourers for the cultivation of knowledge, — 
where the divine, the statesman and the philosopher have taken their early 
lessons in those arts which were to make their names household words among 
their countrymen — there, where the Royal Society had its cradle, the British 
Association might well anticipate a generous welcome, and more than that, 
an audience fit though not few, and not only favour but assistance in its 
pursuits ; — assistance from a Daubeny, a Powell, a Buckland and others who 
were among its earliest supporters and members. In going, indeed, to Ox- 
ford the Association did not go to fresh fields and pastures new. Its visit 
tiras no experiment, for it had already gone to the friendly banks of the Isis, 
and found there a kind and warm reception when it was itself but young ; 
when it had not already received the marked patronage of the British public, 
and when favour and kindness were the more valuable. 

The British Association has now arrived at a part of our Sovereign's domi- 
nions where it cannot enjoy similar advantages. Remote from the metropolis. 



XXxii REPORT — 1848. 

remote from the chief seats of English learning, remote also from those great 
highways of communication by which modern ingenuity has almost accom- 
plished the extravagant wish of annihilating space and time, Swansea can- 
not with reason expect a meeting numerous as those of York, and Cambridge, 
and Oxford, and still less like those that have congregated at Liverpool and 
Glasgow. Deprived, however, of the advantages to which I have alluded, 
Swansea still possesses some attractions, and can advance some special 
reasons why, sooner or later, it would be the duty of the British Association 
to select it for its place of meeting. Among these, I should select as one of 
the most important a consideration which is in some sense an objection ; 
namely, the fact that its inhabitants are in a corner, as it were, of Great 
Britain — that they are separated from the highways of steam. It is one of 
the objects of the British Association to visit all parts of Great Britain ; — to 
carry the torch of science everywhere, not only to enlighten but to receive 
fresh light from every portion of the island. Had Swansea been as ac- 
cessible from Bristol as Bath is, a visit to Bristol might have sufficed for 
Swansea also, just as a visit to Southampton may be considered a visit to 
Portsmouth also. 

Unless, however, the Association had come to Swansea itself. South 
Wales would have remained unvisited, and a large geographical portion of 
the island would have been left unknown to the Association in its corporate 
capacity. 

Again, Wales comprehends an important and separate portion of the island; 
a people to whom at one time the whole of it belonged — a people speaking 
a diiFerent and more ancient language, civilized when the Saxon and Norman 
ancestors of the proud London, and Oxford, and Cambridge of modem times 
were heathens and barbarians — a people who had seen among them a Julius 
Caesar and a Constantine. These considerations will be of great interest at 
least to the Ethnological Section of the Association. 

To the mineralogist and geologist, again, the mineral riches of Wales, to 
which England is so much indebted for its manufacturing prosperity and 
political importance, will be no small attraction. Moreover, the chemist and 
mechanician will be anxious to witness the ingenious processes by which iron 
and copper are here, on a gigantic scale, separated from their ores. These 
reasons are amply sufficient to account for, and indeed to demand, a visit 
from the Association, — without mentioning the warm invitation that we have 
received, the kind hospitality that we have been promised. To those mem- 
bers of the Association who were at Southampton and Oxford it would be 
quite superfluous to allude to the eloquent terms in which the advocate of 
Swansea, Prof. Grove, like a potent magician, or like a representative of the 



I 



ADDRESS. XXXlll 

Bard and Druid of ancient Britain, summoned us to the shores of the- Bristol 
Channel. 

When I acknowledge, however, that there are abundant reasons why the 
Association should sooner or later visit Swansea, I have not therefore said 
that that visit ought to have taken place this year. On the contrary, there 
is one reason why it would have been better had it been postponed to a later 
period. In that case it would probably have had a more efficient President 
than myself. Wholly unconnected as I am with this place, I cannot think 
that I should have been called on to preside had I not still continued to hold 
the high and honourable office in the Royal Society which I am about in a 
few months to resign. 

Indeed ray present position in the Royal Societ'v is the only reason that 
could justify me in accepting the invitation, — and I must candidly say that I 
think it sufficient. I can conceive nothing more important to both societies, 
in some of their chief functions, than a close union of feeling, and when occa- 
sion calls for it a union of action also. Thus their influence is enabled to 
bear with greater weight on the Government of their own country, — and in 
one instance at least, it has done so, through their own, on the Governments 
of other countries also. 

It has been the habit of my predecessors in this chair, on occasions similar 
to the present one, to advocate the claims of the British Association on the 
goodwill of their countrymen, and to state the services that it has performed 
to the cause of knowledge. They have pointed not only to the papers read 
and discussions held in our different Sections, but also to the Reports drawn 
up with the greatest care by men of the highest abilities and eminence during 
our vacation. They have indicated the important scientific investigations 
and experiments carried on at our request and at our expense, and which 
would not have so soon, if at all, been carried on had the British Asso- 
ciation not existed. They have summoned as witnesses in favour of the 
Association the band of illustrious foreigners who have joined our ranks, and, 
making themselves Englishmen for the time, have given us the honour of 
their presence, the assistance of their science and the pleasure of their friend- 
ship. Finally, my predecessors have been able proudly to advert to the ser- 
vices performed by our Government at the request of the Association, backed 
on several occasions by the Royal Society. They have had it in their power, 
for instance, to advert to the reduction of catalogues of stars, to the cession 
of the Royal Observatory at Kew, to the expedition of Sir James Ross, and to 
the great combination for inquiries on terrestrial magnetism. This has been 
the sort of argument, overwhelming as it seems to me, that my predecessors 
were at first called to adopt. I cannot think that more than this slight allu- 

1848. d 



XXxiv REPORT— 1848. 

sion is required from me. The British Association has now existed eighteen 
years ; — it has visited the chief universities and the most important commer- 
cial towns of the empire, with the exception of London, which is excluded by 
our provincial character ; — it has everywhere received the most kind, the most 
generous encouragement : — it may therefore well consider itself as established 
in public favour, and requiring neither justification nor defence. 

My friend Sir Robert Inglis, in his admirable address at Oxford, gave you 
an elaborate account of the discoveries of the year in most of the branches of 
knowledge, — including much indeed that could hardly, in strictness, belong 
to such narrow limits. I shall not endeavour to follow his example. Indeed, 
I do not think that it is at all necessary that such a course should be an an- 
nual one, however advisable from time to time. I think it would be a fatigue 
to you were I to pursue it. Besides this, I know my own physical strength 
would not be equal to so long an address, and that were I to attempt it I 
should incapacitate myself for the performance of my duties for the rest of 
the week. There are, however, some points to which I think it right to 
allude. 

First, then, I will refer to the great system of inquiring into terrestrial 
magnetism now carrying on by our own and other Governments, at the 
united request of the British Association and the Royal Society. I am re- 
joiced to be able to say, that in spite of the politically disturbed state of the 
continent of Europe, those inquiries have not been suspended, — and I hope 
they will be continued to the period which was proposed for them by the 
Magnetic Congress at Cambridge, It was then proposed that they should be 
brought to a close at the end of next December. I trust; however, that the 
valuable inventions by which at Greenwich and at Kew magnetical disturb- 
ances are noted by self- registering instruments will secure still more ample 
information than we shall have already attained at the termination of the 
present year. 

The next subject to which I must advert, is the Observatory at Kew,— . 
and I do so with a mixture of pleasure and of pain. I have said pleasure 
and pain. I advert to it with pleasure on account of the important scientific 
observations that have been there made, — the detail of which will, probably, 
be laid before you. I advert to it with pain, as the expenses of keeping it 
up have been so great that it will not be within the power of the Association 
to continue to do so much longer. 

Among the contents of our last volume I think it right to refer to what 
may be considered in a great degree a novel feature, — the ethnological por- 
tions that occupy a very considerable space. The names of their authors 
will be a sufficient guarantee of their value. Among these we find one who 



ADDRESS. 



represented the Government as well as the deep learning of his country — a 
gentleman who, having commenced his literary career by aiding a Niebuhr, 
and having since brought before the world a laborious work on the mighty 
sovereigns of ancient Egypt, has now come among us with a valuable essay 
on the general philosophy of language. I will not occupy your time by 
further allusion to these ethnological communications, — but I think it pro- 
per, in addressing you from the chair, to add a word of caution. It is one 
of the most important and essential rules of the British Association that party 
politics and polemics be entirely excluded from our proceedings. It is, how- 
ever, vain to deny, unless their authors are put on their guard, that there is 
danger that these forbidden topics may steal into ethnological papers. There 
is also another danger, namely, that they may become too historical or too 
literary. Against similar risks my predecessors have felt themselves called 
on to warn the Statistical Section, and I hope I may be excused for follow- 
ing their example, when there is a similar danger. 

It must be very gratifying to geologists to see a mathematician so eminent 
as Mr. Hopkins apply a mind accustomed to the severest studies to the most 
important and difficult subjects of geology, — as we have seen in his report 
and his papers on the theories of earthquakes. The question itself is one of 
the greatest difficulty, — one that has exercised the talents and divided the 
opinions of the ablest philosophers, — one that requires for its solution the 
aid of many sciences. It is therefore one particularly fitted to be presented 
to a meeting like this where men of every science are present. In itself, 
this may be considered as giving a direct and sufficient answer to those who 
ask what is the use of the British Association. 

At our meeting at Southampton, Sir John Herschel, in words of singular 
poetic beauty, first intimated, as I believe, to an English audience, the re- 
markable astronomical discovery which so soon after was announced to the 
■whole world, and which added an unknown planet to our system. I had the 
honour, as President of the Royal Society, to give to M. Leverrier the medal 
awarded to him by our Council, — my predecessor in the chair had the satis- 
faction of receiving at Oxford both Leverrier .and Adams — the two gentlemen 
who had simultaneously, though without concert, pursued the same original 
and laborious investigation in search of the great celestial globe that dis- 
turbed the course of Uranus. Of the two discoverers of Neptune, I fear that 
I cannot hope to see here the illustrious countryman of Laplace ; Mr. Adams 
perhaps may honour Swansea with a visit. Certain I am that you. Gentle- 
men, would delight to welcome the two philosophers whose names will now 
shine together like a twin star so long as astronomy shall be considered the 
sublimest of sciences. 

d2 



XXXvi REPORT — 1848. 

In our last volume is a communication of a highly interesting and instruct- 
ive nature on the microscopic structure of shells, by Dr. Carpenter, for the 
illustration of which by numerous excellent plates the Association has gone 
to a considerable expense. I believe this to be a most judicious expenditure. 
The subject is one of the highest interest, not only in itself, and as affording 
the means of identifying fragments of shells in rocks where they are rare, 
but also in connexion with the analogous inquiries of Prof. Owen into the 
structure of teeth. The microscope seems every day to rise into increased 
importance as a scientific instrument, affording the physiologist the same 
means of penetrating into the depths of organization that the telescope gives 
the astronomer to pierce into the depths of space. I am sure you will be 
glad to know that a public body, the Trustees of the British Museum, have 
paid Dr. Carpenter the compliment of appointing him to a lectureship founded 
in the most liberal manner by the late Dr. Swiney. I believe. Gentlemen, 
you will yourselves have the pleasure of hearing him give an oral exposition 
of his investigations. 

I am sure. Gentlemen, that the members of the British Association must 
have derived the liveliest satisfaction from what I may call one of the princi- 
pal events in science that has occurred since our last meeting ; — I mean the 
publication by Sir John Herschel of the results of his arduous labours at the 
Cape of Good Hope. We cannot indeed associate our body in any way with 
that great scientific enterprise. It was undertaken at no suggestion from us 
or from any other scientific society. Its author was influenced alone by his 
own love of science and by the desire to complete the labour of his illustrious 
father ; and I believe that in truth the son had more to do with it than the 
philosopher, — and science will be proud that it was so. Though, however, 
we cannot derive any glory to the British Association from Sir John Her- 
schel's brilliant success in the Southern Hemisphere, we may still be proud of 
him as one of our earliest members, — as one to whom we bade adieu on the 
banks of the Cam at our third meeting, then welcomed again at our fifteenth 
as our President, Welcome, indeed, his presence must be on whatever 
occasion he may come amongst us ! 

Although the British Association did not take any active part in the re- 
commendation of the Expedition sent out by the Government under Sir John 
Franklin, and have therefore not the same immediate interest in its success 
that they had in Sir James Ross's Expedition into the South Polar region, 
yet I am sure that we must all feel the most anxious desire for the safety of 
our gallant countrymen. I wish it was in my power to give you any satis- 
factory information on this point. Alas ! I cannot do so. I can do no more 
than express the hope that the same gracious Providence which shielded Sir 



ADDRESS. XXXVU 

James Ross amid the Antarctic icebergs may stretch out its arm and bring 
back again our brave navigators. 

Europe, Gentlemen, has now seen a general peace established with only- 
partial interruption for the long and unaccustomed period of thirty-three years. 
Happily, science has made its way while the sun of prosperity has shone, — 
for the prosperity of science depends much more on peace and order than on 
favour and patronage. Favour and patronage have, however, not been 
wanting. It is fortunate that the followers of science have so done, for times 
have arrived when it would be idle to expect similar progress. It may be 
flattering and honourable to literature and science to see a great nation 
choose her rulers among her poets and astronomers, but to poetry and astro- 
nomy it is undoubtedly an evil. Who can regret the compelled retirement 
from public life that enabled Milton to write his great, his divine poems } 
Who can rejoice that a very different ambition should have taken Newton 
from the studies that gave the world his 'Principia'? Who can tell how 
much his Mastership of the Mint may have retarded the advancement of 
science .'' There cannot be a doubt that many a master mind will now be led 
away from pursuits the most congenial to it by the absorbing and prompting 
demands of poUtical necessity. Still less can it be doubted that the indus- 
trious ants of science who laboriously bring to her granaries their numerous 
though small additions, — who, in truth, accumulate facts destined for ma- 
terials for the greater minds that reason and systematise, — these industrious 
labourers, I say, will be employed in very different ways. The something 
new which will be sought by them will be political and not scientific : the 
balloting box will be more attractive than the crucible, — the sword of the 
partisan than the hammer of the geologist. These considerations induce me 
to fear that we have no right to expect our Meeting will this year be ho- 
noured by the presence of many of our friends from abroad, even if the 
distance of this locality did not interpose material difficulties in their way. 

It is not, however, for the sake of accounting for the absence of illustrious 
foreigners that I have made these remarks. It is rather for the purpose of 
observing, that happily philosophers of this country have no such excuse for 
idleness or remissness in carrying on their usual scientific labours. On the 
contrary, they have the stronger reason for doing so. They ought to re- 
member that while England is exempt from the unhappy disturbances of 
other countries, the sacred flame of science is especially confided to them by 
the same gracious Providence that protects their happiness, their freedom, 
their sovereign, their laws, their independence. 

Like our soldiers and our sailors, like the ministers of the laws of the land 
and the expounders of the laws of morality and religion, the inquirers into 



xxxviii REPORT — 1848. 

those other laws -which regulate His creation, — the searchers out of the 
means by which the knowledge of His laws may benefit his creatures,— have 
duties to perform which it is criminal in them to neglect : doubly criminal, 
if to them it be given in an especial degiee to perform those duties by a 
special exemption from the evils which oppress their fellows elsewhere. 

In England, these duties devolve, in particular branches of knowledge, on 
particular societies ; but in science in general, and in all its ramifications, 
they rest in a more especial manner on the Royal Society and on that which 
now I have the honour of addressing. To the former I have nothing to say 
in this place. To the latter it is my present duty to address myself. To you, 
then. Gentlemen, I say heartily, that it would not become you to rest on your 
oars, or to look at the goodly volumes that contain your Reports and record 
your proceedings, and to say, " We have done enough." You have not done 
enough. You are bound by the engagement you have taken in becoming mem- 
bers of this noble body — you are bound to Sir David Brewster, its originator 
—to Mr. Harcourt, its legislator — to Lord Fitzwilliam, who took the honour- 
able but perilous post of its first President, and to those officers who have so 
zealously served it, to do your best for its continued prosperity. Now, Gen- 
tlemen, in considering how this object is to be attained, we must look not only 
to what it has achieved and to its present popularity, but also to the other side 
of the question, if there be another side. I am sorry to say there is another side. 

You are all, or most of you. aware, that for many years our pecuniary 
funds were increasing, and that we made large grants of money for scientific 
purposes. You must also be aware from whence those funds arose ; namely, 
from the annual and life subscriptions of our members. Our annual sub- 
scriptions are now of a very limited amount ; being almost entirely confined 
to those members who join us in different localities, many of whom only pay 
in a subscription for one year. It is true that we have funded a portion of 
our life-subscriptions ; but a considerable part of them has been applied to 
scientific grants, — more perhaps than we were strictly justified in so applying. 
The consequence has been, that for several years our expenditure has ex- 
ceeded our income. It would be vain to dissemble, and idle to deny, the 
inevitable consequence of such a continued excess. There is only one me- 
thod, without deviating from our accustomed mode of action, by which we 
can remedy this serious evil. It is one, fortunately, that is consistent with 
our prosperity in other respects. We must return to some of those great 
seats of population and industry where we have a fair prospect of a large 
temporary accession to our members, and through them of a large addition 
to our funds. I am happy to say that we have reason to anticipate an invi- 
tation from at least one such place for the ensuing year. 



I 



ADDRESS. XXXIX 

However this may be, Gentlemen, I cannot but believe that, were it ne- 
cessary or considered advisable, an appeal to the generosity of those friends 
of the Association who have followed its progress from year to year would 
not be made in vain. 

I cannot conclude this address without expressing the gratitude of the 
Association for the great liberality that has been exhibited by the Corporation 
and inhabitants of Swansea for our reception. It has, on this occasion, been 
shown in many ways of a most unusual nature for the convenience of the 
scientific guests that are here expected. I know that all this must have 
been done at a very heavy expense, clearly proving that the inhabitants of 
South Wales duly appreciate the importance of scientific pursuits. One of 
our Vice-Presidents, Mr. Dillwyn, whose eminence in the pursuit of natural 
history has been a great inducement for our visit to Swansea, has greeted 
our arrival with an important volume on the Fauna and Flora of the neigh- 
bourhood, of which he has kindly placed a considerable number of copies to 
be used for the advantage of gentlemen most interested in botany and phy- 
siology. The edifice in which I address you is consecrated to religion ; 
thereby intimating the belief that science, when followed in a right spirit, is 
a pursuit not unworthy of those who are believers in the World's Book as 
well as inquirers after the material works of the Almighty ; — intimating also 
the hope that the British Association will ever seek after knowledge in a 
Christian spirit of kindness and humility, for the benefit of man and the glory 
of God, 



I 



REPORTS 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



A Catalogue of Observations of Luminous Meteors. By the Hev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S. S^c, Savilian Professor of Geo- 
metry, Oxford. 

(A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports to the Association.) 
In the Volume of Reports of the British Association for 1847 I have given a 
very imperfect list of observed luminous meteors, as far as I could collect 
them, for the several years subsequent to the termination of M. Quetelet's very 
complete catalogue (Nouv. Mem. Acad. Bruxelles, tom. xi.). With a view to 
enlarging and carrying on this design from year to year, I have been desirous 
to form at least the nucleus of a collection of all observations of this kind 
under the auspices of the British Association ; and my wishes have been re- 
sponded to by numerous correspondents, from whose valuable communications, 
as well as the data furnished by several journals, I have been enabled to 
draw up the annexed catalogue ; which includes a few observations of earlier 
years, but is more full for the later ; reaching down to the present time. It 
is now offered to the British Association as presenting a condensed view of 
existing observations collected in one record : the- original documents, as 
communicated to the author, are collected in the Appendix, and references 
are made to the sources of information in other cases. To any such cata- 
logue doubtless many additions may remain to be made ; and it is hoped that 
such contributions will be forwarded to the author at Oxford, who will embody 
them in a continuation of the catalogue at a future time. 

Table of Luminous Meteors. 



Date. 


Description. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


1833. 
Sept. 17 

1838. 
Mar. 17 

1841. 

Mar. 22 

Aug. 10 

1842. 
Aug. 9 


Four meteors, with an aurora.. 


York 


Prof. Phillips ... 
Idem 


Lowe'sAtmospheric 
Phenomena, 174. 
Ibid. 233. 

Ibid. 

MS. 

Ibid. 156. 

Lowe'sAtmospheric 
Phenomena, 367. 


Kensington ... 

Durham 

Plymouth 

Gosport 

Malvern 

Cambridge .... 


Several; small 


Prof. Chevallier 
Prof. Phillips ... 

H. Maverly, Esq. 

Prof. Phillips* . 
Mr. J. Glaisher.. 


Several ; some brilliant 


Numerous. 80 in 3 hours, with 

an aurora. 
24 in an hour (one observer)... 


Aug. 9.... 


Oct. 4 







1848. 



* Bulletin de I'Acad. Roy. Appendix, No. 70. 



REPORT 1848. 



Date. 



1843. 
Aug. 9 ... 
13 ... 
Oct. 16 ... 
Nov. 10-12 



Nov. 18 ... 

1844. 
Jan. 20 .. 
Aug. 8, 9 



Oct. 
Nov. 



13 . 

184.'). 

Jan. 31 . 

Feb. 5 . 

April 24 . 

24 ., 

June 18 . 

Ju]y 16 ., 

29 ., 

Aug. 10 ., 

10 ., 

10 ., 

10 .. 



Sept. 7 



Oct. 28-30.. 

31 

Nov. 2-7 

4, 6, 14. 
Dec. 9 



Feb, 



3 . 
1846. 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 
21 . 



Description. 



Many meteors 

Many meteors 

Many; one large 

A small white mass, dispersed 

with an explosion in day 

time ; clear sky. 
A brilliant meteor 



Many 

Many 

Very numerous and bright. 

Many 

One; brilliant 

Many; very brilliant 



Four ; large. 



Several; large 

Several 

One; large and brilliant 

The same. Form not defined 

no explosion. 
Luminous appearances at sea, 

and in Syria. 

One; large 

Very near Earth 

100 in one hour 



Place. 



Cork 

Nottingham . 

Ibid 

Austria 



Nottingham... 



Ibid 

Dry burn 

Durham 

Nottingham., 

Ibid 

Birmingham , 

Nottingham . . 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 



Great numbers in Cassiopeia; 

Cygnus, &c. 

One; large 

Cloudy; but light of meteor 

seen. 
0" 22"° ; one ; large and bright; 

changed colour; coruscations; 

another, smaller. 

{A valuable and detailed! 
table of observed places l 
by stars, &c. J 

Some of the most remarkable 
are — 

Several ; one large 

Many ; nine in six hours .... 

One or two each night 

Large ones 

10'' 15'" ; remarkable ; bright ; 

and six smaller. 
One meteor, with an aurora ; 
licrht of meteorinereasedwhen 
crossing the aurora. 
One; large 



9 P.M.; large and brilliant , 
One ; large 



Ditto. Motion horizontal 

9'' 6° P.M. Two large globular 
meteors near together. 



ceigmm .... 
Nottingham. 
Paris? 



Dijon 



London 
Oxford.. 



London, Re- 
gent's-park. 



}■ Bombay 



Nottingham. 



Mentz 



Caraman 



Nottingham.., 



Ibid 

CoUioure . 



Observer. 



Prof. PhUlips .., 

Mr. Lowe 

Id 

Mr. G. T. Vigne 



Mr. Lowe 



Id 

Mr. Wharton 
Id 

Mr. Lowe ... 
Id 



Reference. 



MS. 

Appendix, No, 6. 
Ibid. No. 7. 
Ibid. No. 1. 



Ibid. No. 8. 



Ibid. No. 9. 

Ibid. No. 2. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. No. 10. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Onion 'Atmos. Phen. 351 

Appendix, No. 11 
Mr. Lowe [Appendix, No. 12. 

Id jibid. No. 13. 

Id Ibid. No. 14. 

Id Ibid. No. 19. 

Sir J. Herschel,. Atmos; Phen. 230. 

A Correspondent Appendix, No. 3. 
[Brussels, 352, 
Bulletin, R. Acad. 
Appendix, No. 20. 
L'lustitut, 288. 



Mr. Lowe 

M. Coulvier Gra- 

vier. 
M. Perrey 



Many Observers 
Prof. PoweU ... 



Mr. Hind. 



Prof. Orlebar, 

M.A. 



Mr. Lowe. 



A Correspondent 
M. de Roquette, 
Mr. Lowe 



Id 

M. Berge and 
others. 



Ibid. 211. 

Journals. 

Proc. of Ashmolean 

Society, No. 22. 

Atmos. Phen. 231. 



Observations at the 
Meteor. andMagn 
Observatory, Bom- 
bay, 4to, 1845 
p. 170. 



Atmos. Phen. 127 ; 
Appendix, No. 15. 

Appendix, No. 15. 

Comptes Rendus, 
1846, i. 739. 

Appendix, Nos. 32,! 
33. 

Ibid. I 

Comptes Rendus, 
1846, i. 739. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 3 



Description. 



6''45'"p.M.; one; large. Discuss 
ed by M. Pettit, and inferred 
to be a satellite to the Earth 

Meteor feU and set fire to a 
building. 

Several 

One; bright; ascending from 
horizon to zenith. 

A few 

Light and explosion ; others re- 
ported a large meteor. 

9i> 30™ P.M. ; one ; large. M. 
Pettit calculates path, and 
concludes it to be a satellite 

to e. 

Others 

Many 

(Cloudy at Oxford). 

Number of meteors in ^ hour, 

observed at several times on 

each night, varying from 1 

to 6 in -J^ hour. 
Ten from 9" 15™ to 10'' 15" .. 

One ; very brilliant 

One; brMiant 

Ditto 

A few 

One, with an aurora ; light in 

creased in crossing aurora. 
One ; brilliant 



Place. 



10 P.M. Large ; moving N. from 
zenith ; train curved, and ser- 
pentine afterwards. 

Same observed 



Same. Illumination over sky 

zigzag train ; no explosion. 

Similar appearance 



Ditto 

One; large; QI'IS'^p.m 



The same. 



One; large; 8'' 45" p.m. Ditto 

8 P.M. 

Several ; motion horizontal . . . 

6'' 15"' P.M. Two ; brilliant ; in 
one the train collapsed. 

One brilliant meteor, with co- 
ruscations, &c. 



7'' 30™ P.M. ; large 

"' 5™ P.M. ; a luminous globe. 

Several 

One; brilliant 




Cazeres 
Nottingham . 



Dijon 



Ibid 

St. Apre 

Nottingham.. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Nottingham.. 



Observer. 



M. Pettit, &c. , 



Id. 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe 
Id 



Id 

Mr. M'Connell. 



MM. Bianchi, 
Voisins, &c. 



Mr. Lowe.. 
M. Perrey 



Id 

M. Moreau 
Mr. Lowe . 

Id 

Id 

Id 



Paris Dr. Forster 



London 



Nottingham, 

Wiltshire, 

Warwickshire, 

Cambridge .. 

Farnborough, 
Kent. 

RosehiU, Ox- 
ford. 

Paris 



St. Germains & 
other places 

Ferte sous 
Jouerre. 

Nottingham... 

Dijon 



Many ; one large 



London, 

Wales. 

Dijon 

Ibid 

Nottingham... 
Avranches, 

Dijon. 
Nottingham... 



Correspondent to 
Mr. Lowe. 

Many Observers, 



Rev. J. Ventris... 
Sir J. Lubbock... 
Rev. J. Slatter... 
M. Cadart ... 



M. Chasies, 
M. Grutey. 
M. Rigault 

Mr. Lowe . 
M. Perrey . 



Many Observers 



M. Melline .. 
M. GeofiFroy.. 

Mr. Lowe 

M. Jelinski, 

M. Perrey. 
Mr. Lowe ... 



Comptes Rendus, 
1846, i. 739 ; ii. 
704. 

Ibid. 739. 

Appendix, No. 31. 
Ibid. No. 21. 

Ibid. No. 36. 
Ibid. No. 5. 



Comptes Rendus, 
1847, ii. 259. 



Appendix, Nos. 16, 

17. 
Comptes Rendus, 

1847, ii. 478. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 549. 
Appendix, No. 38. 
Ibid. No. 39. 
Ibid. Nos. 40, 41. 
Ibid. No. 18. 

Comptes Rendus, 

1846, ii. 550. 
Atmos. Phen. 233 
Appendix, No. 22. 

Journals. 



Ibid. 

Phil. Mag. XXX. 4. 

Ibid. xxxi. 368, and 
Appendix, No. 4. 
Comptes Rendus, 

1846, ii. 718. 
Ibid. 814. 834. 

Ibid. 

Appendix, No. 42. 
Comptes Rendus, 

1846, ii. 985. 
Journals. 

[1846, ii. 986 
Comptes Rendus, 
Ibid. 

Appendix, No. 43. 
Comptes Rendus, 

Ibid. 
Appendix, No. 44. 

b2 



REPORT — 1848. 



Date. 



Description. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



1847. 
Jan. 11, 15... 
Feb. 11 ... 



Many 

One ; brilliant . 



Nottingham. 
Versailles .... 



Mr. Lowe 



Mar. 17 
May 31 
June 21 



Au?;. 7 



Several ; two remarkable ,. 

Several; large 

Ditto. Some with au aurora 

(light increased in crossing 

aurora'). 
One; brilliant 



Nottingham. 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Mr. Lowe. 

Id 

Id 



Paris 



M. Desdouits ... 



10 



17 



19 



Several; large 

Numerous ; thirtv or forty in 
half an hour; S.W. 

Fifteen from 9^ 55™ to 10" 25", 
and at intervals till ll*" 30" 
about as many ; often two and 
three together ; S.W. 

One; brilhant 



Nottingham. 
Dry burn .... 



Oxford 



Q*" 18™ P.M. several. Discussions 
and calculations by LeVerrier 
and others. 

Oct. 11 Two meteors 

18 10''30™p.M.; one; brilUant 



Nov. 1 

12, 13.. 
12, 13.. 

12, 13.. 

17 

19 



19 . 

Dec. 12 . 

1848. 
Jan. 4 . 
Feb. 7 . 

20 ., 

Mar. 9 ., 



April 1 ... 
6 ... 
23 

28,29,30 
30 ... 



May 2,3,5,7 
11 



23 
Julv 12 
29 



Numerous ; some large 

Several 

Numerous 



Several; large 

One; large 

4'' 30"" A.M. One ; very remark 
able ; large ; slow motion 
twice stationary in descend, 
ing from zenith to horizon 
therefore course probably ser 
pentine. 

One; large; 7" 51"" p.m 



Many 



Several 

One'; brilliant 

Several, with an aurora (light 
increased in crossing aurora) 

A. luminous appearance ; passed 
off and disappeared without 
exploding. 

Several; some brilliant 

One seen in daylight, 7'' 5" p.m 

Numerous from 10'' to 12''p.m 

Several 

One; brilliant; train separated 
into two parts. 

Several 

A train of light descending ver- 
tically. 

One ; small 

One ; large ; slow ; with a train. 

10 P.M ; bright with train and 
sparks. 



Lu.xembourg. 



Dieppe. 



Bruges 
Paris . . 



Nottingham. 
Dryburn .... 
Benares 



Nottingham. 
Nottingham. 
Near Oxford. 



Paris 



Nottingham... 

Nottingham... 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Near Oxford... 



Nottingham... 

Oxford 

On the Clyde.. 
Nottingham... 
London, Re- 
gent's-park. 
Nottingham... 
Wootton, near 

Oxford. 
Nottingham... 
Nottingham... 
Bradfield, 

Berks. 



Mr. Lowe 

Mr. Wharton .. 



Prof. Powell 



M. Desdouits 



M. Nell de Bre- 
aute. 



Dr. Forster 
M. Laisne , 



Mr. Lowe .. 
Mr. Wharton 
Correspondent to 

M. Arago. 
Mr. Lowe .... 

Id 

Mr. Symonds. 



M. Laugier 
Mr. Lowe... 



Mr. Symonds 



Mr. Lowe 

Mr. Symonds .. 

Id 

Mr. Lowe 

Mr. F. Barnard. 



Mr. Lowe 

Mr. P. Duncan., 



Mr. Lowe 

Id 

Rev. C. Marriott. 



App., Nos. 23, 24. 
Comptes Rendus, 

1847,1.307. 
Appendix, No. 25. 
Ibid. No. 26. 
Ibid. No. 27. 



Comptes Rendus, 

1847, i. 765. 
Appendix, No. 28. 
Appendix, No. 58. 

Proceedings of Ash- 
molean Society, 
1847, No. 8. 

Comptes Rendus, 

1847, ii. 508. 
Ibid. 316 and 461. 



Appendix, No. 59. 
Comptes Rendus, 

ib. 629. 
Appendix, No. 29. 
Appendix, No. 60, 
Comptes Rendus, 

1848, i. 7. ' 
Appendix, No. 30. 
Ibid. No. 31. 
Ibid. No. 62. 



Comptes Rendus, 

1847, ii. 733. 
Appendix, No. 45. 

Ibid. No. 46. 
Ibid. No. 47. 
Ibid. No. 48. 

Ibid. No. 63. 



Ibid. No. 49. 
Ibid. No. 64. 
Ibid. No. 65. 
Ibid.Nos.50,51,52 
Ibid. No. 66. 

Ibid. 53-56. 
Ibid. No. 67. 

Ibid. No. 57. 
Ibid. No. 68. 
Ibid. No. 69. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 5 

APPENDIX. 

Details referred to in tlie Catalogue, from the original Records of Observations 
of luminous Meteors, communicated to Professor Powell by the Authors. 

No. 1. Extract from a letter from G. T. Vigne, Esq. to Prof Powell. 

" About the 10th or 12th of November IS^S, I was descending the Da- 
nube .... near what is said to be the bridge of Severus about 5 p.m. 

I heard a loud report like that of a musket ; the day was clear with- 
out a cloud ; I saw a perfectly white cloud or mist, evidently the result of the 
explosion, slowly dispersing in no particular shape, in three or four minutes. 
I should say it was about a mile or a mile and a half above the earth, and 
distant about four. No part of it seemed to descend ; it dispersed as it were 
from a stationary nucleus. When I first saw it, the white cloud might be 
about as large as the end of your finger held up at about twelve or eighteen 
inches from the eye." 

2. See Durham Advertiser, August 16th, IS^*. No moon ; clear atmo- 
sphere. Many meteors on the 8th ; more on the 9th ; very numerous and 
brilliant on the 10th. Nearly all in parallel directions from N.E. to S.W. 
Many in trains, apparently at great elevations. 11th, 12th, 13th cloudy; 
Hth clear, but no meteors. 

3. Extract from the Malta Mail, see 'Times,' August 18th, 1845. 

June 18th, at 9''30'"p.m., brig Victoria, in lat. 36° 40' ; long. 13° 44' E. ; in 
a sudden calm after wind. " An overpowering heat and stench of sulphur. 
At this moment three luminous bodies issued from the sea, about half a mile 
from the vessel, and remained visible ten minutes." 

At Ainab on Mount Lebanon, on the same day, half an hour after sunset, 
was seen " a meteor composed of two luminous bodies, each apparently five 
times as large as the moon, with streamers or appendages from each joining 
the two ; in the Avest ; remained visible for an hour, taking an easterly course, 
and grjidually disappeared." 

Both accounts sent by a correspondent to Prof. Powell, but it does not 
appear whether the latter is from the same source as the former ; or on what 
original authority either rests. 

4. Extract from a letter to Prof. Powell from the Rev. J. Slatter, of Rose- 
hill, near Oxford. 

" I saw it [the meteor of Sept. 25th, 1846] at the height of about 50° ; it 
seemed to move along a meridian line, and rather to decline in height as it 
moved northerly, but not more than might be the effect of perspective if it 
moved parallel to the earth; it passed over the zenith of London. Taking the 
longitude of the place of observation as 4" 55^ W., the value of P=6'1 55 
mile, the distance due west of the meridian of London=about 45*65 miles, 
and the height of the meteor from the earth is 54*4 miles. 

" It appeared less than half the diameter of the sun ; which would give a 
diameter of 500 or 600 yards. At a rough guess its velocity might be 25 
miles in a second." 

5. Mr. David C. M'Connell, in a letter to Prof. Powell, mentions that on 
the 3rd of June 1846, at 8 p.m., at Moreton Bay, on the Brisbane River, South 
Australia, about 27° S.lat. and 152° 30' E. long., being within doors, he saw 
a light and heard an explosion like that of a cannon at a distance in a still 
clear night. Many natives stated that they had seen a bright body like the 
moon passing from east to west. It is also added that it passed at an altitude 
of about 75° to the south, and the explosion was heard when the meteor was 
about 30° from the western horizon. 



6 REPORT — 1848. 

It was also ascertained that 10 miles west from the place nothing was heard ; 
10 miles S.W. the meteor was seen and the explosion heard ; as it was also 
to 25 miles S.E. 

Extract of a letter from E. J. Lowe, Esq. to the author : — 
"My dear Sir, — There is one circumstance in connexion with falling stars 
that I could never understand, which is this : when a falling star crosses an 
auroral beam or arch it instantly brightens ; this I have not only noticed on 
one day, but on four or five different ones when this phaenomenon has taken 
place during a display of aurora ; indeed on every display since the period 
when I first noticed them brighten, the same has again occurred. This is a 
fact worthy of further notice. It appears to me that the falling stars and 
aurora borealis must be at the same elevation above our earth, and if so, we 
shall then be better enabled to calculate the height of aurora. I am inclined 
to imagine that an aurora has never yet been accurately measured, for to do 
so we must suppose the arch a single one, and it is probable that we each 
observe under diff'erent circumstances. — Edward Joseph Lowe." 

To this was appended the following : — 

Meteors copied from ' Treatise on Atmospheric Phoenomena ' seen by the 

Author. 

6. 184;3. August 13th. From S"" to 9^ many falling stars, especially near 
Cassiopeia, Cygnus, and Ursa Major. 

7. 1843. October 16th. From 6*^ to B** many caudate meteors crossed 
the sky ; one of more than ordinary dimensions passed from the constella- 
tion Pegasus through Cygnus, Lyra and Corona Borealis, and faded away 
in Bootes near Arcturus, leaving a brilliant stream of light behind it for a 
few seconds. 

8. 1843. November 18th, 11 •'20'". Observed a beautiful caudate meteor ; 
first noticed it near Sirius ; it passed through $ Orionis, Bellatrix, Aldebaran, 
Hyades, Pleiades, /3 and y Arietis, between a and /3 Andromedse, and faded 
away near /3 Pegasi. Its disc appeared as nearly as possible about three times 
the size of the apparent disc of the planet Jupiter. 

9. 1844. January 26, 11"^ 45"". Many falling stars, especially near Orion, 
Gemini and Canis Minor. 

10. 1844. October 18th. Many falling stars, chiefly near Cetus, Aries and 
Ursa Minor. 

11. 1844. November 11th, 7^ A falling star; fell from /3 Andromedse 
to a Ceti. 

12. 1844. November 13th, 9^^. Saw four large meteors. The first fell 
from /3 Cassiopeia to »; Tauri ; second, from rj to /3 Tauri ; third, from Ca- 
pella to y Tauri ; and the fourth from Pegasus to »; Tauri. 

13. 1845. January 31st, 12'' 14"". A large caudate meteor of a red 
colour traversed the interval between Cor Leonis and Procyon, leaving a 
brilliant light behind it for about a second after its disappearance. At 
22h 37m a meteor passed from Cor Caroli to Arcturus. At 12" 44"" a beau- 
tiful blue meteor fell from the Pole-star to a little north of Cassiopeia. 12** 
54™ another red meteor passed about 6° east of ?j Ursa Majoris. 

14. 1845. February 5th, 5**. Several falling stars. 

15. 1845. December 3rd, 8'' 23'". A small meteor fell from the constel- 
lation Cygnus, through a very brilliant auroral arch (see Atm. Phen.p. 127), 
at a, Pegasi, which left a trail of light behind it for the space of a second ; 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 7 

the light wlien it crossed the auroral arch became instantly more brilliant, 
and remained visible longer in the arch than in any other portion of its track ; 
it vanished about 5° beyond the auroral arch. Many other falling stars were 
visible during the evening, but no other crossed the arch. 

On this day a large meteor of a globular form burst over the town of 
Mentz at a height of only 150 feet from the earth. It gave out a brilliant 
light, followed by an immense quantity of black smoke. (From the Athe- 
naeum or Lit. Gazette.) 

16. 1846. July 25th. All night many falling stars. 

17. 184-6. July 30th. At night many falling stars, especially in the Great 
Bear. 9^ S". One of the most brilliant of them fell through the two stars to 
the north of the Pointers, i.e. A and v Draconis. 

18. 1846. September 10th, 9^ 45™. A falling star passed through an 
auroral arch at a Andromedae ; it instantly brightened as it crossed the phse- 
nomenon. The case of suddenly brightening occurred twice more, viz. at 
9** 54", when a falling star crossed the arch at a Pegasi ; and at 9^ 56"^ 40% 
when another meteor passed through the phsenomenon, also at a Pegasi. 
Several falling stars were also noticed in Ursa Major. I conceived that the 
falling stars moved with greater rapidity this evening than I had noticed them 
do before. The falling stars were of a pale blue colour, of small size, and 
had luminous tails. 

19. 1 845. April 24th, 9^ 32"". Noticed a small falling star in Ursa Major. 
At 9'' 35™, the night, which was very dark, suddenly became light as day, 
and the objects, near and distant, were visible as plainly as in broad daylight; 
immediately a magnificent meteor of a blue colour was seen traversing the 
interval from the zenith to 30° S. by E. of it (the zenith). Its apparent size 
was very nearly equal to that of the moon's disc, and perfectly round in form, 
but its brilliancy far surpassed that luminary ; its intensity of light could not 
possibly have been less than three times that of our satellite. No train of 
light was left behind it, and the meteor, after moving 30° in the direction of 
S. by E., which it accomplished in less than three seconds, exploded near 
<p Leonis Majoris, and moved in small fragments of light for the space of 1°, 
and then became suddenly extinguished. It appeared of no considerable 
height in the air. The meteor passed through the stars 21, 30, 40 and 41 
Leonis Minoris ; 95, 96, X) 59, tt, and 75 Leonis Majoris. (This meteor was 
seen in Greenwich Park by Sir John Herschel, who calculated its height to 
have been 90 miles ; see Atmos. Phsen. p. 230.) 

20. 1845. July 29, 8^ 16™. A meteor resembling a large spark from a 
candle was seen in a N., slightly W. direction ; it was extremely bright, but 
not larger in appearance than the Pole-star. This meteor appeared to be 
very little elevated above our earth. I have never before noticed one which 
appeared so low down in the atmosphere. I should say a hundred yards was 
the greatest height it could be ; it had not the appearance that meteors gene- 
rally have, but resembled a spark drawn from an electrical machine. 

21. 1846. May 29th, ll** 5™. A brilliant caudate meteor of a red colour 
fell from the star ^ Ophiuchi, through 23, cr and a Ophiuchi, through 
Herculis, and faded away near a Lyrae. The course was one in which these 
meteors are not often observed to travel, being from the direction of the 
horizon into the zenith. 

22. 1846. September 25th. A very grand meteor at about ten o'clock; 
when first noticed at Nottingham it was about 20° E. of the zenith, and fell 
in a S.E. direction. I regret I did not see this fine meteor. 



y REPORT — 1848. 

Meleors tiot hitherto recorded, except afeio ofthein, in dieteorological Reports. 
23. 1847, January 11th. Many falling stars. 
24'. January 15tb, 12''. Several falling stars. 

25. March'nth, 8** 30™. Several falling stars ; at this hour two fell ; the 
first from Rigel, the second from a Orionis through s Orionis. 

26. May 31st. From 10^ several large caudate meteors. 

27. June 21st, ll'' 30". Tolerable-sized meteor fell from 7° south of 
a Caniura Venaticorum to -/ Cephei. 11*" 50™. Another from 5 Ursse Ma- 
joris through y Ursse Majoris. 1 1** 51". Small one through Coma Berenices. 

1 1*^ 57". One through Dubhe, and another through y Ursse Majoris, and 
another through the i?ole-star ; all three within 30". On this occasion several 
of these stars fell through an auroral arch visible at tlie time, and when doing 
so they invariably brightened, and appeared to linger in the arch ; probably 
the fact of being instantly more brilliant would make them appear to the eye 
lingering. 

28. August 9th. Several large caudate meteors. 9^. One from a Lyrae to 
Adrisded. 

29. November Isc. All evening many small stars, and about S^ several 
caudate ones in and near Lyra. 7*^ 59™. Blue meteor from a Lyrae to y 
Cygni. 7'' 59™ 30^ From J Lyrae to Atair. 8'' 11™. From /3 Cygni through 
Delphinus. 

30. November 13th. Several large falling stars. 10^ One through Draco 
and Hercules. 

31. November I7th, 9*^ 3™. Caudate meteor from Lyra to Aquila. 

32. 1846, February 11th, lO'' 30". A large straw-coloured meteor fell 
from the zenith through Capella and the Pleiades. 

33. February 12th, 10^ 3™. A star shot across the sky at an altitude of 
30° for upwards of 30° parallel with the horizon, leaving a trail of light of 
nearly 10° behind it as it progressed ; it commenced in the Great Bear and 
went easterly ; several others of small size were noticed. 

34. March 22nd. Few small falling stars. 

35. May 29th, 10''. A falling star fell from Serpentarius, and disappeared 
near e Lyrae. 

36. May 30th. Few falling stars. 

37. July 29th. Many falling stars. 

38. August 25th, 9^^ 17™. A large meteor of a straw-colour fell in N.W. 
When first seen it was passing through Cor Caroli, and it faded away in Leo 
Major, near the star 9. It was about four times the size of the disc of Ju- 
piter, and was very brilliant, and left a trail of light behind it. It faded 
away very suddenly. 

39. August 26th, 10''. A meteor fell from r] Ursae Majoris, and disap- 
peared 5° below Cor Caroli ; the stream of light left behind lingered some 
time before disappearing. 

40. September 5th. A few falling stars. 

41. September 20th. Some falling stars. 

42. October 16th. Several falling stars shot parallel with the horizon. 

43. November 18th, 7''. Several falling stars. 

44. December 21st. Many falling stars; some of them of a tolerable 
size : they were mostly in Orion, Canis Major, Canis Minor, and Taurus. 
One at 9^ larger than the rest, passed through the Pleiades and e Orionis. 

45. 1847, December 12th. Many falling stars noticed in the constellations 
Orion, Taurus, Gemini and Auriga. At 7'' 50™, one three times the appa- 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 9 

rent size of Jupiter, with a blue tail, fell slowly from the star /3 Tauri 
through Bellatrix. 

46. 184;8, January 4th, 6^. p.m. Several small falling stars. 

47. February 7th, ll'^. A brilliant meteor of a red colour, and about 
twice the apparent size of Jupiter, fell from about 2° below that planet. 

48. February 20th, 11'' 40°'. Several falling stars were noticed in Ursa 
Minor. At 11'' 47"° one fell from about 5° above Alderamin, and when it 
crossed a ray of aurora (which passed through this star at the time) it in- 
stantly brightened. The phaenomenon of suddenly becoming bright when 
crossing auroral beams I have noticed in several former displays, and espe- 
cially when crossing the magnificent auroral arch of 1845, December 3rd. 
This is a fact worthy of particular notice. 

49. April 1st, 11'' IB"". A brilliant blue meteor fell from Jupiter between 
Castor and Pollux. 11'' 19'° 30^ A smaller one fell from Jupiter through 
Cor Caroli ; several others were noticed. 

50. April 28th, 10'' 15°'. Small falling star fell from the two stars e and 
i; Aquilte to Atair, and moved rather slowly; at 11'' SO'" another small star 
wpnt on the same track. 

51. April 29th, 9'' 45°'. Meteor from Draco through Rastaban. 9'' 55". 
Small meteor through the Polar star, 10'' 10°'. Small falling star through 
Draco from a Draconis. 

52. April SOth, 11'' 10°'. Falling star fell through Rastaban. 

53. May 2nd, 11'' 49™. A small falling star fell from v Cygni. 

54. May 3rd, 11'' 30". Several falling stars noticed, of small size, prin- 
cipally in Caroli. At 11'' one larger than the rest fell from Cor Caroli. 

55. May 5th, 11'' 23". Small falling star fell from y Lyrae through 
j3 Cygni to a Delphini. 

56. May 7th, 10''. Falling star from y Lyrae to e Aquilae. 10'' 40". 
Falling star from /3 Cephei through /3 Cassiopeiae. 

57. May 23rd, 12'' 3". Small star fell from a Cygni to 80 (tt 1) Cygni ; 
this moved rapidly and soon disappeared ; no trail of light. 



58. See Durham Advertiser, August ISth, 1847. 

Time of observation, 11 to 1 1| p.m. Number 30 to 40 ; generally ranging 
E.N.E. or N.E. to W.S.W. or S.W., having luminous streaks. 

59. From the Bruges Journal, October 11th, 1847, communicated by 
Dr. Forster. 

" Cette nuit, a 7 minutes avant 2 heures, M. Forster 6tant encore a ses 
observations astronomiques, a vu un meteore jaunatre qui prit naissance a 
2° 30' S.S.O. de laplanete Mars et se dirigeant vers le O.N.O.jusqu'a I'hori- 
zon, et laissant apres lui une longue trainee de lumiere ; 1' 40" apres il vit 
un autre meteore tout pres de 1' horizon se dirigeant vers la meme direction, 
mais ayant pris naissance au mid), il etait d'une clarte bleuatre." 

60. 61. See Durham Advertiser, November 19th, 1847. 

November 12th and 13th, nights partly cloudy, yet at intervals clear. 
Several meteors between 6 and 7 p.m. on the 12th, but very few afterwards 
or on the 13th ; mostly from E. to W. One bright like a star of first mag- 
nitude at 6'' 5" across Pisces. Motion slow with a train from E. to W. 

62. The following is the substance of Mr. Symonds' verbal statements to 
Professor Powell. 

1847. November 19th. 4f^ a.m. he saw a remarkable meteor of large ap- 
parent diameter, passing slowly down from about the zenith, where it was 
first observed, towards the S.W. . 



10 REPORT— 1848. 

At about 45° elevation it became stationary, and remained so for seven 
minutes, Mr. S. observing the time bj^ his watch, for which there was suffi- 
cient light. It then continued its descent till about 20° elevation, when it 
became stationary again for a like time. It then descended till lost to view 
by the intervening trees, Szc, 

63. ISiS. March 9th, l'' ^o"" a.m. Cloudy. Mr. Symonds, at Wytham 
Park, near Oxford, saw a slight luminosity in the atmosphere apparently be- 
tween the observer and the clouds. It moved horizontally from E. to W., 
and as it advanced enlarged and assumed the appearance of a curved band, 
with its convexity towards the west, towards which it moved parallel to itself 
till it acquired a luminous head at the lower part, and then disappeared : 
the whole lasted 22 seconds. 

64. 1848. April 6th, 7*^ 5"" p.m. The same gentleman saw near Oxford a 
bright meteor shoot across the zenith from N. to S., though it was then day- 
light. 

65. 1848. April 23rd, from 10*^ to 12'' p.m. The same observer, passing 
down the Clyde in a steamer, saw an unusual number of meteors. 

66. From a letter to Professor Powell from F. Barnard, Esq., dated 
8 Cross-street, Islington, May ist, 1848. 

At 7"^ 30°* P.M., April 30, the writer, in company with a friend in Regent's 
Park, saw a meteor descend from the zenith about half-way to the horizon, 
when his friend saw it separate into two parts and disappear; to himself it 
seemed to disappear simply. It lasted two or three seconds ; direction nearly 
S.W. It was still daylight. There had been a remarkable yellow fog in the 
morning. Its size appeared, " about that of a Roman-candle ball," 

67. P. B.Duncan, Esq., late Fellow of New College, Oxford, in a note to 
Professor Powell, observes that the peculiarity of the appearance which he 
witnessed. May 10th, at half-past ten, near Wootton (Woodstock), was a lumi- 
nous stream descending vertically. He had seen many inclined or horizontal. 

68. Extract from a letter from E. J. Lowe, Esq. to Professor Powell. 

" I hasten to inform you of the large meteor seen here last night (July 12th, 
^h j-m p,M,) which crossed beneath the moon. The meteor was very nearly, 
if not quite, a fourth the size of the moon, and when first seen was 5° to the 
south of that luminary ; and at an altitude above the horizon, when first seen, 
of about 5° less than that of the moon. It moved in an angle with the S.W. 
horizon of about 45° towards the west horizon. This meteor was remarkable 
on account of the slowness with which it travelled; it must have occupied 
from 3" to 4" in moving about 20°. Its colour was an intense blue, and the 
meteor left a trail of light which gave only from the blue mass pale-red 
sparks of large size ; some larger than first magnitude stars. The meteor 
was of a peculiar shape, being that of a cone ; unfortunately a tree prevented 
my viewing its disappearance; the tree was only 10° in diameter, therefore 
must have vanished within 10°. It required three minutes to get a full view 
of the spot where it must have vanished, and then all traces of the phaeno- 
menon had disappeared. The meteor appeared to cross near or over the 
only star visible below the moon and to the west of it ; this star 1 took to be 
a Libra, from its position and size. 

" At 11'^ 47™ a meteor of the size of a second magnitude star moved from 
Corona Borealis to Benetnasch ; it was of a blue colour, and moved exceed- 
ingly rapid. Others were noticed during the night ; I did not see them." 

69. Extract from a letter to Prof. Powell from the Rev. C. Marriott, Fellow 
of Oriel College, dated Bradfield, Berks, July 29th, 1848. 

" Within half a mile of this place, about ten to-night, I saw a shooting-star 
as bright as Venus, and drawing a bright train as if of sparks or globules, I 



ON WATER-PRESSURE ENGINES. H 

could not say which, they vanished so rapidly. It appeared a few degrees 
below the Pole-star, or a little to the eastward, and descending towards the 
western horizon, hit the lowest of the Pointers, and disappeared a few degrees 
beyond it." 

70. In this communication (to M. Quetelet) the author remarks that the 
" Zenithal line parallel to which the greatest number of meteors were directed, 
was from N.N.E. to S.S.W. nearly as observed in the previous year, [at Ply- 
mouth]. Others passed to the northward, and on combining the M'hole it 
resulted as a general view, that the movements appeared to originate about a 
point N.E. of the zenith, near Cassiopeia, and that the meteors passing south- 
ward were more numerous than those proceeding to the north." — Bull, de 
I'Ac. Roy. deBruxelles, 1842, p. 324-326. 



On Water-pressure Engines. 
By Joseph Glynn, F.R.S., M. Inst. C.E. ^c. 

(A communication ordered to be printed entire among the Reports to the Association.) 
At the last meetrng of the British Association in Oxford, I read a report on 
the Turbine as a means of obtaining mechanical power, with a rotary motion 
from falls of water in circumstances where a water-wheel could not be em- 
ployed. The report I propose to submit to the present meeting relates to 
another mode of employing the power of waterfalls in a manner essentially 
different, but not less useful and important, which appears to have been too 
much neglected in this country, considering the advantages to be derived 
from it in hilly districts for the drainage of mines. The paper on the Tur- 
bine is printed in the last volume of the Transactions ; the present paper, 
which may be regarded as another branch of the same subject, describes the 
application of high falls of water to produce a reciprocating motion by means 
of the pressure-engine, as has before been done with respect to the produc- 
tion of a rotary motion by means of the Turbine. 

The first invention of the water-pressure engine, like many other mecha- 
nical contrivances, appears to belong to Germany, and most probably had its 
origin in Hungary, where so many ingenious machines actuated by water 
have long been used. In the pressure-engine the power is obtained from a 
descending column of water acting by its weight or hydrostatic pressure 
upon the piston of a cylinder, to give motion to pumps for raising water to 
a different level, or to produce a reciprocating motion for other purposes. 

In mountainous districts, so often containing great mineral wealth, water- 
falls may be found of a much greater height than can be practically brought 
to bear upon water-wheels ; and the stream is often too small in quantity to 
produce the desired effect on a water-wheel within the ordinary limits of 
diameter. In such situations the pressure-engine is well-adapted to derive 
great mechanical power from a fall of water for working pumps and ma- 
chinery for draining mines. 

The Germans appear to have made successive improvements upon their 
original engines, and to have extended, from time to time, their usefulness 
and application, of which two important examples may be given. 

The one is at Illsang in Bavaria, at the salt-works, which are situated in 
the southern part of the kingdom. These works are supplied from a mine of 
rock-salt in the valley of Bergtesgaden and from the salt springs at Reichen- 
hall, where the salt was formerly purified by solution and evaporation ; but 
as this operation could not be carried on with advantage on account of the 
scarcity of fuel, the saturated brine is now conveyed by a line of pipes seven 
inches ia diameter, through which it is forced from stage to stage for a 



12 REPORT — 1848. 

distance of about sixty miles by a series of nine pressure-engines, acted upon 
by falls of water from the hills, and each of them working a pump. 

A description of these engines will be found in the Proceedings of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and an excellent drawing, by Mr. W. L. 
Baker, of one of the best engines of the series, constructed by M. de Reichen- 
bach, will be found in the collection of that institution. This engine has a 
cylinder of twenty-six inches in diameter, with a stroke of four feet, making 
in regular work five strokes per minute ; it is made entirely of brass and is 
an excellent machine, both in design and workmanship. Very few working 
parts are visible, and it acts almost without noise ; the sliding valves, or 
rather sliding pistons, which regulate the engine's action, being also moved 
by water-pressure. 

The other example, at Freyberg in Saxony, is an engine constructed by 
MM. Brendel in the year 1824, for draining the Alte Mdrdgrube mine. It 
has two single acting cylinders attached to opposite ends of a working beam 
by means of arched heads and chains ; the cylinders are open at top, and 
have strong piston-rods of timber. The pressure of the water acts alter- 
nately under the piston of either cylinder and forces it upwards, whilst the 
piston of the cylinder at the other end of the beam is depressed by the 
weight of the pump-rods. A bell crank attached to each piston-rod gives 
motion to the pump-rods, each working twenty-two pumps, placed one above 
the other, lying at an angle of forty-five degrees, and dividing the lift of each 
set of pumps into twenty-two heights or stages of about thirty feet. The 
engine is placed 360 feet underground. The cylinders are of cast-iron, 
eighteen inches in diameter, with a stroke of nine leet; and the useful effect 
was computed by M. von Gerstner to be seventy per cent, of the power ex- 
pended. A section of one of the cylinders, showing the mode of working the 
valves, has been sent me by a friend at Wiesbaden, and an excellent drawing 
of this engine by Mr. Baker will be found at the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

The first water-pressure engine used in England was erected by Mr. Wil- 
liam Westgarth, at a lead mine belonging to Sir Walter Blacket, in the 
county of Northumberland, in the year 1765. 

The cylinder of this engine was equal in length to the whole height of the 
fall of water ; it was open at the top, and the water ran into the open top of 
the cylinder by a trough ; the piston worked in a bored chamber, at the 
lower end, of ten inches in diameter, and was attached by a chain to the 
arched head of an engine beam placed above, the opposite end of the beam 
suspending a wooden rod, which passed down the pit to work the pump. 

The column of water always pressed upon the top of the piston, but by 
admitting water below the piston the pressure was neutralized, and the 
piston was raised by the weight of the descending pump-rods. On closing 
the communication with the underside of the piston and discharging the 
water from the cylinder bottom, the pressure of the column again acted 
upon the piston and sent it down. By a simple and self-acting piece of me- 
chanism, similar to the working gear of the steam-engines of that time, the 
orifices were alternately opened and shut, and the reciprocating motion of 
the engine continued. 

A detailed account, with drawings of this engine, was submitted to the 
Society of Arts in the year 1769, and printed in the fifth volume of the 
Society's Transactions in 1787. The description and drawings, from which 
a model was then made, were given by Mr. Smeaton : the Society voted fifty 
guineas to Mr. W'estgarth, and presented a silver medal, with their thanks, to 
Mr. Smeaton for his excellent account of so valuable an invention. 

I have carefully examined these interesting memorials of the early encou- 



ON WATER-PRESSURE ENGINES. 13 

ragement given to inventive genius by the Society of Arts, which continues 
with renewed energy its career of public utility under the presidency of 
Prince Albert. I am satisfied, not only from the evidence which the ma- 
chine itself offers, differing as it does entirely from any of the German en- 
gines, but from the written testimony of Mr. Smeaton, that Mr. Westgarth's 
pressure-engine was his own invention ; and that he borrowed no part of it, 
either in plan or in detail, from anything then or previously existing on the 
continent. His idea appears to have been taken from the single-acting, 
open-topped atmospheric engine of the period ; substituting the pressure of 
a column of water for the pressure of the atmosphere. 

The liberality and goodness of heart which distinguished Mr. Smeaton, no 
less than his high talent and skill as a civil engineer, appear conspicuously 
in the correspondence alluded to, from which 1 have thought it requisite to 
give the following extracts : — 

"Austhorpe, April 29, 1769. 

" I had the pleasure of seeing the first complete engine of this kind at 
work in the summer of 1765, for draining or unwatering a lead mine belong- 
ing to Sir Walter Blacket, at Coldcleugh in the county of Northumberland ; 
since which time that machine has been shown to all those who had the 
curiosity to see it. Mr. Westgarth has now erected four others in the dif- 
ferent mines of that neighbourhood, one of which I have seen, and all 
attended with equal success." 

In a subsequent letter Mr. Smeaton says, — 

" Mr. Westgarth was induced to think of applying for a patent for the 
exclusive privilege of using this invention, but previous thereto he was pleased 
to advise with me concerning it, being at that time frequently in these parts 
of the country as an agent of Greenwich Hospital. 

" Much as I admired the ingenuity of Mr. Westgarth's invention, I dis- 
suaded him from the thoughts of a patent, as it would take a length of time 
to be sufficiently known, and the number of cases in which it could be pro- 
perly applied were not sufficient to afford such a number of premiums as 
might defray the expense of a patent, with a prospect of advantage to him- 
self and family. 

" I therefore recommended it to him, as the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce were, by handsome premiums 
and bounties, encouragers of all useful inventions and improvements, to com- 
municate his invention to them, that it might be made public, in confidence 
that he would obtain a bounty for the same of such value as to the Society 
should seem meet ; and in consequence hereof I gave him a representation of 
the utility of his invention, with which in the year 1769 he applied to the 
said Society, and obtained a bounty upon condition he delivered to the 
Society a working model and a draught, showing the construction of the 
engine ; but as the death of Mr. Westgarth, which happened not long after, 
prevented the usefulness of the machine from being so successfully spread, 
as it doubtless otherwise would have been, and as some of the most essential 
parts of the machine cannot be seen in the model without its being taken to 
pieces, and the drawing not being accompanied with any literal explanation, 
nor the details of it sufficiently made out, at the request of the Society I 
have now supplied these defects, that it may be published in such a manner 
that the utility of it may be seen, and the means of making and applying it 
be explained." 

It appears that on seeing Mr. Westgarth's engine, Mr. Smeaton suggested 
to him that if the engine instead of the great lever or balance-beam were 
made to work with a wheel, and instead of the long spear going down the 



14 REPORT — 1848. 

descending pump trees, the pistons were made to communicate with the 
main chain through a collar of leathers or stuffed collar, that then the whole 
of the machinery would stand together just above the level or sough, and 
there Avould take up less room, as the work might in general be comprehended 
within the limits of the shaft ; and the descending pipe might also be of a less 
bore and be fixed in a corner of the shaft, and therefore be upon the whole 
much more convenient for underground works ; and in this mode the latest 
engines of Mr. Westgarth were actually constructed with success. So that 
little was wanting, except the perfection of modern workmanship, to render 
the engine complete, although it was not made direct-acting, as the engines 
recently made generally are. 

Mr. Smeaton constructed a water-pressure engine in 1770 at Temple 
Newsam, Yorkshire, to work a pump for supplying Lord Irwin's residence. 
It was of course of small size, and the pressure being communicated to the 
cylinder by an inclined pipe bringing the water from some distance, he modi- 
fied and improved the plan of Mr. Westgarth, closing the cylinder top and 
using the piston-rod with a stuffed collar, still however retaining in its original 
form, or nearly so, the ingenious slide valve devised by Mr. Westgarth. 

This Mas a cylindrical hoop or ring, sliding for a short distance up and 
down upon a pipe, which it encircled, the pipe having two sets of openings 
separated by a horizontal bridge or partition. The valve was inclosed in a 
box attached to the branch pipe of the cylinder, and sustained the pressure 
of the column equally in all directions ; and it was rendered water-tight by 
strips of leather. 

When the upper openings in the pipe were exposed above the valve, the 
water entered the cylinder below the piston, but when the lower set of aper- 
tures was opened by raising the cylindrical valve, the water escaped from the 
cylinder, the position of the valve at the same time shutting off the further 
entrance of the water and its pressure upon the piston. The openings were 
in the first instance square holes, but afterwards they were made in the form 
of a lozenge or rhombus, with the acute angle upwards, so that the water 
might enter or be shut off more gradually. 

After Mr. Smeaton's time the water-pressure engine seems to have re- 
mained in abeyance, and I am not aware that any more of them were made 
until Mr. Trevitheck revived their use. The great improvements made in 
the steam-engine by Mr. Watt caused water-engines of all kinds to be neg- 
lected ; and even water-wheels were in many cases replaced by steam-engines 
as their substitutes. Water power went out of fashion, and was generally 
considered to be too precarious and expensive, as compared with steam, to de- 
serve much attention from engineers. 

Lately, however, more enlarged views have been taken respecting water 
power, and the subject has been more studied and better understood. Instead 
of depending on the uncertain flow of streams and rivers, sometimes flooded 
and sometimes dried up, water has been stored in vast reservoirs, collecting 
the surplws rain from higher ground and ensuring a constant supply at all 
seasons, thus rendering water power both certain and cheap. The Bann 
reservoirs in Ireland and tiie Shaws water-works in Scotland may be taken as 
examples of this kind well-worthy of imitation. 

Mr. Trevitheck constructed several water-pressure engines, one of which 
was erected in Derbj'shire in the year 1803, and is still, I believe, at work at 
the Alport mines, near Bakewell, to which it was removed from its original 
situation, not far distant. 

Through the kindness of Mr. John S. Enys of Penryn, I have been fa- 
voured with extracts of letters from Mr. Trevitheck to Mr. Davies Gilbert, 



ON WATER-PRESSURE ENGINES. 15 

referring to the " great pressure-engine in Derbyshire." In one of these, 
dated January 10th, ISO*, he says, " It has been at work about three months 
and never missed one stroke, except when they let a tub swim down the 
descending column." 

This it appears damaged the cylinder cover, which was speedily repaired 
and the engine again set in motion ; for in a subsequent letter he complains 
of non-payment for his foreman's attendance and travelling expenses and for 
the wages of the men he sent, adding, " If they found fault with the engine 
there would be some reason for not paying, but they say it is the best in the 
world." 

The cylinder of Mr. Trevitheck's engine is, I believe, thirty inches in 
diameter. 

In 1841, our respected Treasurer, Mr. John Taylor, advised the application 
of another and more powerful engine at the Alport mines, which was made 
under my direction at the Butterley Works. This was the most powerful 
engine that had been made: the cylinder is 50 inches in diameter and the 
stroke 10 feet. It is worked by a column of water 132 feet high, acting 
below the piston and lifting by direct action a weighted plunger pole 42 
inches in diameter, which raises the water from the mine to a height of 132 
feet, so that the proportion of power to effect is as the area of the piston to 
that of the plunger, namely, 1963 to 1385, or full 70 per cent, (see the three 
figures, Plate I.). 

I received a letter a short time ago from Mr. Darlington, who has the care 
of the machinery at the mines, and who fixed this engine, in which he says 
the engine has never cost them £12 a-year since it was erected. 

The usual speed is about five strokes per minute, but it will work at the 
rate of seven strokes without any concussion in the descending column ; the 
duty actually done being then equal to 168 horses' power, of 33,000 lbs. 
raised a foot high in a minute. Thus, the area of the plunger, 3 feet 6 inches 
in diameter, is 9*621 square feet XlO feet, the length of stroke, X 7 strokes 
per minute =673*4'7 cubic feet of water raised 132 feet high in a minute; 
and 673*47 cubic feet of water x62'5lb3., the weight per foot, X 132 feet in 
height =5,556,127, which, divided by 33,000, gives 168^, say 168 horses' 
power. The pressure upon the piston from a column of water 132 feet 
high, reckoning 27 inches of water equal to a pound, is about 58 pounds on 
the square inch, or rather more than 50 tons pressure on the area of the piston. 
Thus, the area of the piston, 50 inches in diameter, is 1963 square inches 
X58lbs. = 113,854, and this divided by 2240, the number of pounds in a 
ton, gives 50*8, say 50 tons.. 

This engine was erected early in 1842, and has been at work without 
intermission for more than six years. On one occasion, when I made inquiry 
about it, I was told that it had been constantly going for the last seventeen 
weeks, and nobody had seen it during the time. 

An excellent model of this engine will be found in the museum of Econo- 
mic Geology, made by Mr. Jordan, since so well known by his invention for 
carving wood by machinery. 

It will be observed that after the large valves are closed, the pressure is 
continued upon the piston to complete the stroke. This was at first done by 
means of cocks at the sides, but as the friction of these caused some little 
trouble, Mi-. Darlington substituted some small pistons to shut off the water 
at the termination of the stroke, and at the same time made the openings a 
little larger. 

Mr. Taylor has since, I believe, had another engine of the same size made 
for a lead mine in Wales, and the result has been equally satisfactory. 



16 REPORT 1848. 

I beg leave to submit this subject to the Association as one worthy of notice, 
observing that in this case, as in all others where water acts by its gravity or 
pressure, those machines do the best duty where the water enters the machine 
without shock or impulse and quits it without velocity. We then obtain all 
the available power that the water will yield, with the least loss of effect, 
and this result is best accomplished by making the pipes and passages of 
sufficient and ample size to prevent acceleration of the hydrostatic column. 

Description of the Figures. 
The three figures given in Plate I, show an elevation, plan and section of 
the water-pressure engine at the Alport Mines. The arrows show the 
entrance and escape of the water which works the engine. The influx and 
efflux are regulated by two sluices, which are raised by screws, and determine 
the speed of the engine and of the up and down strokes of the piston. 



On the Air and Water of Towns. 

By Robert Angus Smith, Ph.D., Manchester. 

Having been requested to examine into the variations in composition of the 

air and water of towns, I send the observations which I have made upon the 

subject. 

It has been long believed that the air and the water have a most import- 
ant influence on our health, and superstitions have therefore constantly been 
attaching themselves to receptacles of the one and emanations of the other. 
The town has always been found to differ from the country ; this general 
feeling is a more decisive experiment than any that can be made in a labo- 
ratory. Although men of high standing have been found to deny that any 
difference exists between the air of the worst towns or the most crowded 
rooms and that of the open country, it seems to be only a proof, that men 
accustomed to experimental inquiry are apt to forget the value and force to 
be attached to those apparently less rigorous observations whicii the senses 
are constantly and unconsciously making, and to believe only that which can 
be demonstrated by the grosser processes of a laboratory. Most men would 
be satisfied of the impurity of an atmosphere through which a blue sky could 
never be seen of a blue colour, or where a bright cloud appears of a dingy 
brovvTi ; but there are men who take this air into glass receivers, and because 
they detect no new substances or strange compounds, they deny that there is 
any peculiarity. I have known persons from the highlands of Scotland who 
felt in going into Glasgow as we do when going into a glass-house or forge, 
and who could not be persuaded to stay, unless they remained long enough 
to find some advantages before unknown to them. The inquiries made by 
the Sanitary Commissioners have completely established the fact that crowded 
towns are dangerous places; and although it is still an open question whe- 
ther a well-regulated town or country life be the more healthy, it is suffi- 
ciently established that our towns have subjected themselves to many dangers, 
which we in self-defence are feeling compelled to try to avert, by acting ac- 
cording to natural laws as far as their acquaintance has been made. 

Most persons must have felt that a rapid entrance into a large town, 
especially a manufacturing town, was also an entrance into another climate. 
An inhabitant of the sea-coast or of the hills perceives it rapidly, and the 
effect on them is often decidedly bad ; to those accustomed to it a fen- 
hours are found to be enough to cause them to forget the atmosphere whicli 
in their holiday excursions had caused them such delight. We are apt in 



I 




ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 17 

these cases to assign other reasons for the feeh'ngs experienced, and to 
attribute much to the change of scene and occupation ; and 1 have read it 
not long ago asserted, that the air in the streets of London and of the tops 
of distant hills probably differed only in the temperature. 

Priestley found that after shutting up a mouse in air a considerable time 
it seemed to become weak and to be slowly dying, but if he put a fresh 
mouse into the same air at this period it instantly died. We can bear the 
gradual deterioration with ease, but we often find ourselves surprised at the 
state of the air in which we find our friends sitting, perfectly unconscious of 
any want of attention to their sanitary state. 

The air has often been called a general receptacle for all impurity ; 
Nature has made it a universal purifier by giving it so large an amount of 
free oxygen. It is oxygen which purifies, and bodies which are impure 
have a tendency to volatilize, after which they become pure. 

No doubt the air of a town contains a portion of all exhalations which 
arise in a town. Tliese are such as come from living bodies in the first 
instance ; exhalations which can never be got rid of, but which it is probable 
are not at all dangerous, unless accumulated. There are also exhalations 
from the refuse matter of animals, and from combustion of fuel. These are 
the chief points. Various manufactures give out various effluvia, and no 
man that has walked through a large town with attention can have failed to 
perceive that no street is entirely free from effluvia, and that every one 
seems to have a peculiarity of its own. 

The smell is a delicate guide to this, and although custom causes us to 
forget that odour to which we are much exposed, a frequent change gives 
us still more acuteness, and both houses and streets may fairly be com- 
plained of when the inhabitants are little aware of it. 

That animals constantly give out a quantity of solid organic matter from 
the lungs may readily be proved by breathing through a tube into a bottle, 
when the liquid or condensed breath will be collected at the bottom of the 
bottle ; or by breathing through a tube into water, when a solution of tlie 
same substance will be found in the water. This would scarcely require 
proof if we considered that breath so frequently has an organic smell ; per- 
haps rather it always has an organic smell, and when it is bad the smell is 
often offensive, containing decomposing organic matter. 

If this condensed breath be put on a piece of platinum, or on a piece of 
white porcelain and burnt, the charcoal which remains and the smell of 
organic matter will be conclusive. If it be allowed to stand for a few days 
(about a week is enough), it will then show itself more decidedly by be- 
coming the abode of small animals. These are rather to be styled animal- 
cules, and very small ones certainly, unless a considerable quantity of liquid 
be obtained : they may be seen with a good microscope. Animalcules are 
now generally believed to come from the atmosphere and to deposit them- 
selves on convenient feeding-places ; that is, they only appear where there 
is food or materials for their growth, and they prove of course the existence 
of that continuation of elements necessary for organic life. At the same 
time their presence is a proof of decomposing matter, as their production is 
one of the various ways in which organized structure may be broken up. 
Such a liquid must of course be an injurious substance, giving out constantly 
vapours of an unwholesome kind. 

I mentioned some time ago that 1 had got a quantity of organic matter 
from the windows of a crowded room, and I have since frequently repeated 
1848. c 



18 REPORT — 1848. 

the experiment. This matter condenses on the glass and walls in cold 
weather, and may be taken up by means of a pipette. If allowed to stand 
some time, it forms a thick, apparently glutinous mass ; but when this is 
examined by a microscope, it is seen to be a closely-matted confervoid 
growth, or in other words, the organic matter is converted into Confervae, as 
it probably would have been converted into any kind of vegetation that 
happened to take root. Between the stalks of these confervae are lo be 
seen a number of greenish globules constantly moving about, various species 
of Volvox, accompanied also by monads many times smaller. When this 
happens, the scene is certainly lively and the sight beautiful ; but before 
this occurs the odour of perspiration may be distinctly perceived, especially 
if the vessel containing the liquid be placed in boiling water. 

My analyses of this body are not yet ready, further than that it contains 
the usual organic elements. 

If air be passed through water a certain amount of this material is ob- 
tained, but 1 have found it difficult to pass a sufficient quantity through. 
If it is made to pass rapidly, absorption does not take place, and evaporation 
of the water is the consequence ; if it passes slowly, it requires many weeks 
to pass a hundred cubic ieet through a small quantity of water. I continued 
the experiment for three months, but although I obtained sulphuric acid, 
chlorine, and a substance resembling impure albumen, I did not get enough 
to make a complete examination ; and indeed this could not be expected, as 
I found that in that time less than a thousand gallons of air had passed 
through. 

When this exhalation from animals is condensed on a cold body, it in 
course of time dries up, and leaves a somewhat glutinous organic plaster ; 
we often see a substance of this nature on the furniture of dirty houses, and 
in this case there is always a disagreeable smell perceptible. I have no 
doubt that this is a great cause of the necessity for constant cleaning, which 
experience has found and made to be a very general practice in England and 
elsewhere. In other words, it is a reason why that which is not cleaned becomes 
dirty, a question which I have often felt great difficulty in answering. 

Water is necessary to the spontaneous decomposition of animal matter, 
and it is probable that in a warm climate this coating of walls and furniture 
would not be so dangerous as with us, where everything is exposed to 
tnoisture a considerable part of the year. In a warmer cUmate it will pro- 
bably be diffused more into the atmosphere, and not be so much retained as 
it is by the moisture which dissolves it or to which it attaches itself. 

It will probably be found that this substance is not poisonous if taken 
into the stomach, but it is known to be poisonous breathed into the lungs, 
as we know crowded rooms are. The quantity is small that we do breathe, 
but at the same time we must remember that it is diffused in air, and has 
therefore a surface as extended as the volume of the air in all probability ; 
and we know that a cubic inch of sulphuretted hydrogen will scent at least 
some hundred cubic feet of air. 

As this substance of which we speak is organic and contains carbon hy- 
drogen and nitrogen, with other elements, it is capable of oxidation ; and it no 
doubt is continually undergoing oxidation in the air, probably forming car- 
bonic acid, water and ammonia. It is also not unlikely that this is a greater 
source of the ammonia of the atmosphere than the mere foetid decomposition 
of animal matter, which does not occur to a large extent in nature, provision 
being made for its removal by animals, and by vegetation especially. 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OP TOWNS. 19 

Organic matter in contact with water constantly gives off an odour of some 
kind, and especially if heated, so that it would appear as if steam or vapour 
were capable of taking up much more than that which we call volatile 
matter. 

If organic matter be allowed to decompose in the air it gives out carbonic 
acid, ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, and probably other gases. Priestley 
has shown that if it decomposes in water it gives out an inflammable gas. 
If however it be exposed to the action of soil, other circumstances being 
favourable, it is converted partly into nitric acid. 

None of these cases occur purely in our towns, but all of them occur to 
some extent. Carbonic acid and ammonia occur in all reservoirs of refuse, 
and sulphuretted hydrogen occurs also in abundance. It was once very 
perceptible in London, as Sir Kenelra Digby complains much of the 
state of the streets, when silver could not be kept clean in his day. This 
may be observed now in many towns, and is in fact not uncommon. This 
is a disagreeable smelling gas, and wherever it is abundant will be easily 
detected by the nose. It may be detected readily in many courts and alleys, 
also at the mouths of sewers, and in some parts of the Irwell and Medlock 
at Manchester, where they are filled with organic matter and alkaline and 
earthy salts. Ammonia generally accompanies it so as to diminish its bad 
eflFects. 

Ammonia itself is probably of no injury unless in excessive quantities, and 
may be considered as one of the most wholesome forms in which nitrogen 
and hydrogen, as gases, pass into the air. A decomposition such as this occurs 
ordinarily in towns, as there is a certain exposure to air always. 

In cases where there is no exposure, or at least when the substance is in 
water, inflammable gases are produced, as Priestley has shown and Liebig 
has to some extent explained. It would seem as if, when decomposition 
commenced, oxidation of one portion necessarily took place, leaving the 
other portions without oxygen, unless in cases where an abundance 
could be obtained. Dalton found the gas from the floating island at Der- 
wentwater to contain carburetted hydrogen and nitrogen. The carbon and 
the hydrogen are deprived of oxygen entirely, whilst more oxidized 
bodies, as carbonic acid and humus, are left, the latter body to be in time 
entirely oxidized, as Liebig has shown. Whether the nitrogen comes off 
alone or as ammonia, the same division of a substance into oxidized and 
deoxidized occurs as we see in the fermentation of sugar, where carbonic 
acid a body oxidized, and alcohol a body to a great extent deoxidized, occur. 
We have only to suppose compounds of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, 
coming from decomposing matter, to show us the great danger. It is not to 
be trusted that these bodies always appear in the mode of combination men- 
tioned here ; their modes of combining are various, and these elements 
form the most active poisons known to us. 

A certain amount of moisture is almost essential to the escape of odour from 
many bodies ; it probably arises from two causes. The vapour of wa^er is 
a vehicle for organic matter, and water favours decomposition in bodies, so 
that as they decompose the vapour is given out. From whatever cause, it will 
be found that moisture rapidly facilitates the escape of odour. Mineralogists 
avail themselves of this when they breathe on a mineral and then ascertain 
the smell. The moisture of an evening, or even artificial moisture, causes 
the flowers to give their scents, and the moist state of the atmosphere belore 
or after a shower causes also a great fragrance in a flower-garden. But 
whilst this is caused the same laws are operating for injurious effects, 

c2 



20 KEPORT — 1848. 

wherever there is a reservoir of putrid matter, for then the exhalations 
are also abundant, and bubbles may be seen to rise from filthy water. It 
is not improbable that the state of the atmospheric pressure may cause this, 
as Mr. E. W. Binney has shown that the gases in coal-pits are caused to 
escape rapidly during a lowering of the barometer. Bodies that are 
moist will therefore give out more organic vapours; if there be abun- 
dance of water, as in a lake, the vapours would to a great extent be dis- 
solved, even if the same kind of decomposition were to proceed as in merely 
moist or marshy ground. We might expect then that soil, if moist, will 
give out, not pure vapour of water, but water with organic matter in it. 
Wet soil is a little acid generally, and if very acid is bad land, sour as it is 
called ; but if made alkaline either by the direct adding of ammonia, or by 
decomposition producing ammonia, it becomes fertile. If any alkali be 
added which gives out ammonia by decomposing the humate of ammonia in 
the ground, the same state of fertility is attained. This end is generally 
attained by adding lime. This state of almost neutrality of the soil is also 
regulated by nature, and a fertile alkalinity obtained by the rapid decompo- 
sition of organic matter through moisture and heat. In this alkaline and 
warm state more vapours will of course be given off, and the ammonia will 
assist in the removing of organic matter into the air. How far this occurs 
on sowed land has not yet been seen by me satisfactorily ; but on peat land 
the ammonia formed is abundant in hot weather, so much so as to be per- 
ceptible directly by the senses, and to take with it in solution a large quan- 
tity of humus and salts of humus, containing food for plants, as I showed in 
a paper to the Philosophical Society of Manchester. 

I mention this to show how organic matter may be lifted into the air, 
and why hot weather promotes it ; also I wish to show how various this 
matter must be in its properties, as all vegetable solutions give out a certain 
amount of matter from tliem. 

To ascertain if organic matter were really to be got from such vapours 
from land, I collected some dew by condensing it on a glass cylinder, and 
allowing it to drop into a glass below. The fewness of the evenings fa- 
vourable for the purpose this year has of course retarded me. I saw plainly 
however that the substance thus obtained from the dew was very different 
from that obtained by condensation in a warm room ; whereas that from a 
crowded room was thick, oily, and smelling of perspiration, capable of de- 
composition and productive of animalcules and confervae ; the dew was 
beautifully clear and limpid. When boiled down the odour was not dis- 
agreeable, and I may say not remarkable ; but when the small portion of 
solid matter which remained dissolved in it was exposed to heat, the smell 
was that of vegetable matter with very little trace of any nitrogenized 
substance. It was also rather agreeable than otherwise. The dew was 
collected in a flower-garden, and I have no doubt in favourable weather of 
being able, in dissimilar situations, of getting it of different characters. It is 
not improbable that the matter in the dew may be a measure of the amount 
in the atmosphere ; if so, the decided difference between that of the country 
and that of crowded rooms is to be remarked, and may probably form a 
good guide towards a knowledge of comparative purity of atmosphere. 

In walking along the fields on an evening when there is much dew, it 
may be observed how much effect a dry soil has ; indeed I might almost 
say the climate of a field will be found to vary almost every yard. Every 
cause of cold, the formation of a drain, the lowness of any spot, its being 
higher or more level or more sheltered, is indicated by this delicate ther- 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 21 

morneter, the rise of vapour and the perception of cold. If we ascend 
higher the same is seen on a larger scale — on miles instead of yards. A 
house may be in a clear atmosphere and the lawn before it in an impene- 
trable fog. One foot in height makes a difference, and one foot also of level 
distance, if the ground should differ in quality. The damper places give us 
a feeling of freshness, and cause also a slight irritation of the nose. Every 
wall causes a certain amount of dampness ; and even in a windy day, a 
leafless hedge will protect one side from evaporation. In these respects 
therefore we may say truly, that every field or house in the country, as well 
as I believe every house in the town, has its own peculiar climate. 

The effect of wetness on the atmosphere of a town is very great ; if we 
observe the smoke on a dry day we find that it rises, and if there be a little 
wind it is carried out in distinct black lines, leaving the air below compara- 
tively pure. If the day be dull and wet, the smoke instead of being carried 
away is poured out directly into the streets, and a spectator at a short 
distance sees a basin of black fluid, if the town be in a valley, or a heap 
gradually diminishing towards the circumference as it falls into the adjacent 
country. It may be replied that the diffusion of gases would prevent this, 
but again it may simply be said that it does not prevent it. Besides, the 
smoke is not to be considered as a gas, the black portion is carbon and tar. 
If the carbon is wet, it becomes, like all other spongy bodies when filled 
with water, heavy, and of course falls down. The carbonic acid will no 
doubt be diffused more, but it also is strongly attracted by water, and must not 
be viewed as a pure gas, such as oxygen or nitrogen. Probably this is the 
reason of the very disagreeable state of our towns in damp gloomy weather ; 
it is such weather as does not allow the town to be ventilated. The same 
does not occur on a thoroughly wet day, when the matter is carried fairly 
down into the streets, and a certain freshness is perceived. 

Rain amidst smoke is just such a liquid as we might expect ; it is a 
mixture of soot in a finely-divided, apparently dissolved state. It is how- 
ever not dissolved, and by boiling down may be got free. It is not easy 
to tell exactly the composition of the rain ; for although I have examined 
it and obtained many products in it, so much may be said to come from 
other sources when water is collected near houses or near the ground, that 
I have often suspected some source of error. However, I think if we take 
that rain which is collected on a very wet day, after many hours of continued 
pouring without wind, we may consider that we have got the purest speci- 
men. This was collected frequently, and having obtained it so often I am 
now satisfied that the dust really comes down with the purest rain, and that 
it is simply coal ashes. No doubt this accounts for the quantity of sul- 
phates and of chlorides in the rain, and for the soot, which are the chief 
ingredients. This rain is also often alkaline, arising probably from the 
ammonia of the burnt coal, which is no doubt a valuable agent for neutral- 
izing the sulphuric acid so often formed. It must however be frequently 
acid with sulphuric acid, although I have not found it so, as I have traced 
sulphurous acid in the atmosphere frequently, walking through some miles 
of streets to come to its source. The source however is not easily obtained, 
because I believe it does not fall till at some distance. 

The rain-water at Manchester is about 2^ degrees of hardness, harder in 
fact than the water from the neighbouring hills, which the town intends to use. 
This can only arise from the ingredients obtained in the town atmosphere. 

But the most curious point is the fact that organic matter is never absent, 
although the rain be continued for whole days. This matter is capable of 



22 REPORT — 1848. 

promoting animalcular life to some extent, and small specimens may be 
seen moving solitary in it. If allowed to stand in a bottle, this may be 
more clearly detected. On this matter I must say more at a future 
time. 

My chief wish is to show that the general notions entertained by persons 
as to the air of towns are not without the support of what is called scientific 
observation, although at the same time the effects on life are greater than 
chemists by any observations could have made out. 

Vogel and others have found organic matter in the atmosphere; and 
Dr. Southwood Smith, in looking for matter which might produce fever, 
found an organic substance, I believe, in some of the streets of London. I 
give only in detail what I have myself observed. 

If this matter should from any cause be exposed to a decomposition more 
rapid than usual, we have before us a state of things worse because more 
general than a bad sewer, and can account for many diseases. I am there- 
fore disposed to think of it as Lord Bacon thought of the cause of jail 
fever : — "Out of question such smells consist of man's flesh or sweat putre- 
fied. There may be great danger of such compositions in great meetings 
of people within houses ; for poisoning of air is no less dangerous than 
poisoning of water. And these empoisonments of air are more dangerous 
in meetings of people, because the much breath of people doth further the 
reception of the infection." — Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum, 

The state of the air is closely connected with that of the water ; what the 
air contains the water may absorb, what the water has dissolved or absorbed 
it may give out to the air. Whatever the rain meets with in its course from 
the surface to the wells of a town is, if soluble, dissolved in the water. The 
enormous quantity of impure matter filtering from all parts of a large town 
into its many natural and artificial outlets, does at first view present us with 
a terrible picture of our underground sources of water. But when we 
examine the soil of a town, we do not find the state of matters to present 
that exaggerated character which we might suppose. 

I have often been struck with the extent to which water may purify itself. 
At Bala, on the hills, the water is brown ; in the lake it is still coloured, 
but in its course it becomes beautifully clear. A still stronger instance 
may be observed on the hills beyond Bolton, the water in which is of a deep 
brown: when it falls into the reservoirs just below it ceases to be very 
dark, although still too brown for agreeable use ; but when it has run a few 
miles it ceases to be remarkable, and is often perfectly pure. I was struck also 
with the fact that filters do not become dirty in proportion to the amount 
of impurity which they seem to remove. The sand at the Chelsea water- 
works contains only 1-43 per cent, of organic and volatile matter after being 
used for weeks, and cannot be considered as impure in a high degree. 

In 182? Liebig found nitrates in twelve wells in Giessen, but none in 
wells two or three hundred yards from the town (Annales de Chimie, 
vol. XXXV.). Berzelius made similar observations at Stockholm. In 1846 and 
1847 I examined about thirty wells in Manchester, and found none free 
from nitrates ; many contained a surprising quantity, and were very nau- 
seous (Mem. of the Chem. Soc). 

Wells in the country generally contain organic matter, and in the town 
the organic matter is oxidized into nitric acid, as if it required a certain 
intensity to promote the action. It is very probable that this acid is an 
effect of restricted oxidation, occurring as it does with such excess of 
organic matter, and, although near the surface, still under hard pavements 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 23 

and soil where there is also little flow of water. It might however be viewed 
as an oxidation, with excess of oxygen also where the large extent of surface 
presented by the porous materials gives an increased facility for oxidation, 
or rather presents compressed oxygen, so as to be more effective. 

It will be of interest to know what becomes of the carbon and hydrogen 
in these cases, if they are removed together. These nitrates do not occur 
to any extent in purifying large bodies of water, nor do they occur in 
filtering through rocks or sand as in nature, but they occur in more close 
situations, under streets and houses and in undrained ground, according as 
it is saturated with animal matter. It is found in sewer water, in the Thames 
water, and in all dirty streams into which sewers empty themselves : perhaps 
the reason of its not being found in larger quantities in streams from drained 
land is simply the want of animal matter, or it may not be formed more 
rapidly than the plants can use. It is found however in wells which are 
situated in well-manured gardens, and in all wells at the backs of houses, 
without any exception, yet met with by me. 

The wells of private houses, and we may say wells generally, are placed 
in that spot which of all others is the worst, the cesspools and the wells 
always too near, generally close to each other. I was first led to examine 
this from a complaint made in Manchester, where a case of this kind fur- 
nished water of an oily appearance, containing about 90 grains of matter in 
a gallon, and being excessively disagreeable. The same well was examined 
in summer, and the matter had risen up to nearly an ounce in a gallon. The 
well was of course not St for use in this state. 

In the same neighbourhood was a churchyard, and around it I examined 
five wells, one of them especially, sufficiently far removed from cesspools to 
make me believe that the churchyard was the only cause of the impurity. 
The wells of London all cdntain nitric acid to a certain extent, but they vary 
exceedingly in the amount. The following have only a small quantity : — Ex- 
change, Rood Lane, Eastcheap, St. Paul's Churchyard, Tower Hill, Covent 
Garden, Lincoln's-Inn Court, St. Clement's, Strand, Aldgate Pump, and Bow 
Church. It seemed to me from the situation of the old well at Clerkenwell, 
that it was very well fitted for obtaining nitrates, and on examination it was 
found to be exceedingly well-filled with earthy salts, containing 148 grains 
of solid matter to the gallon, of which several were nitrate of lime. The 
water of this neighbourhood would contain about 20 grains to the gallon in 
a natural state, if we may judge from the water generally found in the valley 
of the Thames. 

Another well in North Street, Tottenham Court Road, was examined, as 
from the state of the drainage I expected it to contain a considerable quan- 
tity of earthy salts. Here also I was not deceived, having got 130 grains of 
sulphates, chlorides and nitrates in a gallon ; the water itself a fluid which I 
could not swallow. 

There is then a constant formation of nitric acid under towns. It is a 
little surprising that organic matter, properly so called, should not be found 
in those wells ; the nearest to a source of organic matter do actually con- 
tain the least, because in these cases it is more readily converted into 
nitric acid, which may very properly be called here oxidized organic matter. 
At the same time also it must be remembered, that the nitrates decompose 
any organic matter present if heat be applied, so that no blackening of the 
residue can be perceived. Those wells of London first mentioned do not 
contain much of these salts, but suflBcient to deprive them of organic matter, 



24 REPORT — 1848. 

as no vegetation is to be perceived in them, even by a microscope, after a long 
period. If however a mere trace of nitric acid be found, as in the well of 
Tower Hill, a green matter deposits on standing. This perfect freedom from 
animal or vegetable growth is a groimd for suspicion also of nitrates being 
present, as there generally is a little green matter found in the purest waters, 
unless they pass througli great depths of sand or gravel, as in the new red 
sandstone, wliere the water, if taken from a deep well, is entirely free from 
everything but inorganic salts. 

The fact of some of the wells being freer than others from these salts is a 
proof of a dependence on the state of the soil, and I doubt not that the drain- 
age has the greatest effect on the change made. Some of the mud taken from 
under a street in Manchester, where a sewer had been allowing some moisture 
to ooze out, was found to contain nitrates also in considerable quantities, but 
the sand and gravel below was nearly dry and perfectly free from nitrates. 
Although it is very probable that nitric acid is formed most readily in the 
sand, yet it is also more rapidly carried away, and after much rain we cannot 
expect to find such a soluble salt remaining. 

As to the source of this acid, I made some experiments last year for the 
Metropolitan Sanitary Commission, which I may here relate. My object was 
to get an idea of the nature of filtration. A jar, open at both ends, such as 
is used with an air-pump, was filled with sand, and some putrid yeast, which 
contained no nitric acid, was mixed with pure water and poured on the sand, 
allowing it to filter through. The product of nitric acid was abundant, so 
much so, as when boiled down to give it out at once, on the addition of pro- 
tosulphate of iron and sulphuric acid, making the red fumes of the peroxide 
of nitrogen apparent without the aid of any very refined test. 

Charcoal was tried for the same end ; it did not answer, although allowed 
to act for two months ; it was put into a large Hessian crucible, and the 
liquid allowed to trickle through the crucible and charcoal together. 

Ox-flesh was in this manner oxidized into nitric acid, after allowing it to 
putrefy. This result could be obtained by means of an ordinary household 
filter, if the time allowed were long enough and other conditions favourable. 
The same was done on a smaller scale, by allowing nitrogenous organic 
matter to stand over spongy platinum. 

No doubt this is a very important provision of nature for the prevention 
of the evil consequences of putrefaction ; it is the complete destruction of all 
dangerous gases and the perfect purification of the most impure substances ; 
whether it be advisable to drink water having much of this oxidized matter in 
it is another question. We see however in this the two great agents of sanitary 
improvement at work for us, the air and the water acting through the soil; 
whatever goes tlirough such an ordeal is made pure. The drainage of a 
country is therefore that which removes the evil effects of decomposition, as 
well as the excess of moisture. 

The action of air and water on surface is then a powerful one, and pro- 
bably is capable of doing many marvellous things with the substances given 
to it to treat. The effect produced on sulphuretted hydrogen is no less de- 
cided. A bottle of strong sulphuretted hydrogen was poured upon the sand- 
filter, and sulphuric acid was the result, with sulphates formed of bases 
which it had washed out of the sand. Sulphuret of ammonium fihered 
through sand contains sulphuretted hydrogen no longer, and will not blacken 
lead, so powerful is this kind of oxidation. 

Water from a pump in a yard not far from me, gave out a disagreeable 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OP TOWNS. 25 

smell of sulphuretted hydrogen, which filled the neighbouring houses. This 
I found the persons accustomed to filter and to drink : the sulphur was con- 
verted into sulphuric acid, and the water was actually made quite pure. 

These are no doubt some of the advantages of a filter ; if so, we are then 
to consider that a filter acts according to its cubic dimensions and not by its 
surface only. If the porous rocks have thus the power of oxidizing sulphur 
and nitrogen, we may then ask, have they not also the power of oxidizing 
carbon? Hydrogen is no doubt oxidized, the ammonia being broken up so 
as to form oxides, as nitric acid and water. 

We see that natural filtration, with abundance of room and free move- 
ments, dissipates the organic matter, and nitric acid too, if ever formed. 
The time allowed for filtration being so short, that is, the time from the 
falling of the rain to the appearance of the pure water from the spring, we 
cannot suppose that vegetation accomplishes the purification, whilst there is 
no deposit of impurity apparent to account for the change. It seems to me 
that the action of the compressed air on the surface of bodies is sufficient to 
answer this question, and that this matter is removed by a process of oxi- 
dation. It was Saussure who showed that humus can unite oxygen and 
hydrogen ; Liebig has shown that humus is constantly capable of combining 
with oxygen, and calls it a constant source of carbonic acid. When then we 
see water not very free from organic matter enter a rock and come out free 
from organic matter and sparkling with carbonic acid, leaving no visible 
organic impurities behind it, we may safely conclude that the oxidation of 
the carbon has effected it ; this then is a higher degree of purification than 
the oxidation of the nitrogen, which is probably allowed to go free. 

Processes such as these are going on constantly wherever water is filter- 
ing. On land generally such things must be constantly occurring. The 
ditch-water of our fields is a very different water from the river-water into 
which it runs, or even of the drains a few feet only below it. Some water 
taken from a ditch in the neighbourhood of Manchester became in a few 
days a complete mass of life, and the many specimens of animalcules in such 
water make it a good subject of study. Water from a drain three yards deep 
does not however contain this immense quantity of organic or organizable 
matter, depositing only some green matter, partly animal, partly vegetable. 

When water flows from hills or elevated land in a river-course, it under- 
goes changes according to the nature of the bed, and also according to the 
number of towns on its banks. As an instance of this, I will follow the 
river Thames from its sources to London Bridge without giving the details 
of analysis here, but the character of the changes as known to me. 

Water from the Seven Springs or from Thames Head or Andover Ford, 
proceeding as it does from the rock, is in the perfectly oxidized state of 
which we have been speaking ; it contains a great deal of carbonic acid and 
of lime in solution. When allowed to stand, it preserves its great purity (or 
clearness of appearance rather) any length of time, not appearing to change. 
Such water as this requires no managing; it would be a good thing if it 
could at once be introduced into houses ; it is in fact spring-water from the 
rock, and such water is known to be always good, unless the rock contain de- 
leterious substances. Rocks of course are found which give out a water much 
freer from lime than the water of the Thames sources ; such, for example, as 
those between Lancashire and Yorkshire. At a place called Swineshaw on 
one of these hills a stream gushed out from the hard and insoluble rough 
rock of this place, having the purity of average distilled water, with a spark- 
ling appearance and agreeableness to the palate which distilled water never 



26 REPORT— 1848. 

has. It is under one degree of hardness of Clark's test. No doubt there 
are other streams as good, and the whole of that and similar districts gives 
the most beautiful water. The same may be said of a great deal of the 
water of North Wales, and in such places as have very insoluble rocks. I 
said as pure as the average distilled water ; it may not be known to all per- 
sons, that a number of distillations are necessary in order to obtain pure 
water. For this purpose, a water from a great depth, or a spring-water 
from a rock is best to use, as there is less volatile and prganic matter in it ; 
the first distillation of the usual waters about Manchester giving a very im- 
perfect product. 

Purity of water and fertility of soil are not to be expected together, if we 
may judge from the facts above. Freedom from both inorganic and organic 
matters is got only in water from very insoluble rocks, vv'hich are not the 
fittest for vegetation ; or it is got where there is much sand or gravel con- 
taining little soluble matter, and of course little food for plants. If however 
these strata be together, as soon as the water comes from the insoluble to the 
soluble it will change. 

The Thames water is at first pure, as far as freedom from organic matter 
occurs, and takes its course through a rather level country. 'I'he stream is 
soon filled with plants ; and at Kemble the water has already taken up some 
organic matter, enough to form a slight green deposit on standing. The 
water here is still beautifully clear, and is good water; it is 15*5 degrees 
of hardness. 

When we come down to Pangbourne, the water cannot be said to have 
become much worse ; it is still so pure as to require a considerable time to 
form a deposit, and that only small, containing a few plants and some small 
animalcules from j-gVo ^^ 30^00 °'^ ^" J"ch. Here there is a slight but still 
decided trace of organic matter from animals. There has been an increase 
in the hardness also. 

Grains of Soap, 

Seven Springs 12'75 of hardness 262 

AndoverFord 13'88 „ 283 

Thames Head at Kemble .. 15*5 „ 312 

Church at Cirencester .... 15*7 „ 315 

Reading 16-5 „ 340 

Pangbourne was only 15*4 in November 1 847 ; the others are of February 
1848, when the water was harder down to London. There is seen here an 
increase in hardness, and there is also an increase in soluble salts not con- 
tributing to the hardness. At Seven Springs the hardness is equal to the 
whole amount of insoluble salts and a fraction more, which may arise from 
an excess of carbonic acid. 

Grains. 
At Seven Springs inorganic matter in a gallon 12"25 

At Pangbourne 22-33 

At Reading 23*n4 

At Windsor animalcules begin to show themselves more prominently in 
the water, and these rather large Hydatina. There are also at Reading and 
Oxford some of the smaller green Naviculae, and several other smaller green 
Bacillaria. Oxford water had more of these than Reading, and also a large 
amount of matter in solution ; it is probable that the soil through which the 
Isis flows is rather different from the other part of the Thames. The river 
was rather high at the time. 

From Richmond downwards the case is much altered, and the water, although 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 27 

clear, gives after a time a brown flocculent deposit, entirely distinct from the 
mud deposit, which has been carefully removed beforehand. This flocculent 
deposit contains many animals, large and gelatinous-looking; also below Chel- 
sea, and chiefly below Hungerford-market, little eels," Vibrio Jluviatilis," about 
^th of an inch long. The sideof the vessel in which the water stands is covered 
with another precipitate quite distinct, not flocculent but hard, of a light brown, 
and chiefly towards that side of the vessel which is exposed to a moderate 
light. This precipitate is often mistaken for oxide of iron, which it strongly 
resembles, and to which it may probably owe its colour ; but it may be known 
to differ from a simple oxide by the addition of muriatic acid, which gives 
it a beautiful green colour. When seen through the microscope, the colour 
will be found owing to the little dots of green which mark the polygas- 
tric character of these animalcules. These little creatures (chiefly I believe 
the " Navicula futva") are covered with a crust of silica, and by boiling in 
muriatic acid the silica may be separated from the other portions which are 
soluble. In this way phosphoric acid, lime and magnesia may be separated 
with ease ; and this will, I think, be found one of the best modes of collecting 
the phosphoric acid from water of this kind. The quantity of silica is very 
great, as the number of these little loricated animalcules prove. Life of this 
kind may at once be considered as a proof of the presence of all those ele- 
ments essential to animal life generally, as these animalcules do not appear 
unless in the wreck of other animals or vegetables, whose requirements as to 
food are well known to be confined to certain elements. The abundance of 
silica is not from the upper part of the Thames, but no doubt from the sewers, 
proceeding from the decomposition of wheat, oats, &c., and may be viewed 
as a necessary consequence of the consumption of bread or any grasses 
used by cattle. 

There is then a great deal of matter in a state capable of being converted 
into living forms ; this matter is not in suspension merely, but in solution 
also. A large quantity of organic matter is precipitated in contact with clay 
and mud in the Thames, but a great deal is also in clear solution. This 
matter must be organized of course to some extent, and probably contains 
albumen ; it seems to me that it is albumen which I have found in it, cer- 
tainly a body much resembling it. The same may be obtained where many 
large animalcules appear ; probably the quantity will be found the same 
whether the animalcules be formed or not. The clear solution becomes a 
mass of growth very soon, if the matter contained in it be organisable. Or- 
ganic matter may exist in a state in which, even under favourable circum- 
stances, animalcules are not formed, as I have found to be the case with 
some kept for some months in water. A similar thing may take place with 
the Thames water at London ; if kept in close jars of earthenware no change 
is produced in the organic matter ; as soon as removed into glass bottles, a 
rapid change occurs, and a lively scene is produced of animals and vegeta- 
bles. Kept in the dark, the water dissolves much organic matter and be- 
comes yellow ; the water over the living matter is clear, or, in other words, 
the dead matter is to some extent soluble in water ; living matter is of course 
not capable of having its parts broken up by mere water, and is insoluble. 
This growing of plants and animals is therefore a good mode of cleansing 
water, when space and time are abundant, as in the larger operations of 
nature, but unfitted for waterworks, where neither are very ample. The 
mode of cleansing used by water-companies is one employed by nature also, 
as all the water which falls on the soil is filtered by passing through ; that is 
to say, it first becomes exceedingly impure, being filled with matter from 



28 REPORT — 1848. 

the surface, and gives a part of this out again in passing through the soil. 
Water becomes hard very rapidly on the surface of some land, and it is 
strange how it adheres to its standard of hardness, remaining for a great part 
of the year the very same. A rapid shower, producing a sudden overflow of 
a ditch in a field, was found to be composed of water of twelve degrees of 
hardness and sixteen grains of solid matter to a gallon ; this same specimen 
also swarming with life. 

I supposed, and others have done so also, that a shower would produce a 
stream of water softer than what slowly trickled through the ground ; but on 
examining the water at Longendale in rainy weather it had actually risen two 
degrees. The Thames was also considerably softer in November 1847, after 
some dry weather, than in February 1848 after long rain. At Chelsea, in 
November it was 13"44 degrees of hardness, taking 275 grains of soap test; 
in February 14"94, taking 302 grains. It would appear that rainy weather 
softened the ground, and so made the matter more soluble, or the winter 
frosts broke up the ground and attained the same end. This latter reason 
is agreeable to the general opinion concerning the use of a frost, and the fact 
may also be taken as a corroboration of the opinion. The hard water will 
of course be better able to feed land with its soluble manures ; or, if we 
choose to express it otherwise, the plants will more readily feed, finding the 
food more soluble. 

However true it be that all soil filters water, it is no less true that any ad- 
mixture of clay is detrimental. The clear streams are found in rocky coun- 
tries, and, as was before mentioned and well-known generally, on barren land. 

We have seen that the water of the Thames at London is capable of de- 
composing with the disagreeable products alluded to, and when put in casks 
for sea use we hear of a fermentation, with the formation of nauseous va- 
pours, and of an inflammable gas. We have already seen that Priestley found 
inflammable gas from organic matter decomposing in water, and, in fact, it 
is a thing universally observed. Priestley said, however, what is not so much 
observed, that the air from the decomposition of a cabbage in the dark 
was inflammable, whereas that in the sun produced very little inflammable 
air, and was not so offensive in smell. The fermentation of water may in 
fact be looked upon as a simple proof of great organic impurity. Organic 
matter will decompose either by going into inorganic gases, as in the dark, 
or into organized bodies of another description, if there be light to favour 
growth. These considerations bring us to the mode of storing water, and 
of supplying water to houses. If there be a large supply of water in a 
reservoir, it will, if impure, clear itself by vegetation, according to what we 
have seen by experiment, and as is seen in nature. In this case a reservoir 
must not be underground but in the light ; strong light and great warmth 
seem too much to assist chemical solution, the reservoirs should therefore 
not be so shallow as to allow this. However, there are probably few cases 
where water is to be so long stored ; as to the usual cases, it may be said, 
that unless long storage is allowed, it is better that there should be as little 
as possible, unless the water is to be filtered before delivery. The reason 
of this is, that the course of purification of impure water is the worst state 
of all ; even filtered water will not bear standing, because it also tends to 
purify itself still more by giving out in some form or other all its organic 
contents ; and it is remarkable how the apparently purest water will deposit 
impure matter. 

The same thing may be said of water stored on a smaller scale, as for private 
houses, there is no way of keeping it clear. If kept dark and cool the 



i 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 29 

change is retarded, and tliis is the best way for small quantities. It would 
be the best way for large quantities also if it were perfectly pure, as then no 
change whatever could occur. 

But even when water is to be kept a day only there is an objection to 
cisterns in most cases. If there be a little impurity deposited, the daily 
increase soon makes it a great impurity ; and although the fact of the im- 
purity remaining in the cistern be a sufficient proof that it has not been 
drunk or otherwise used, yet such a reservoir of impurity is constantly apt 
to be giving off some offensive matter. If the impurities be of the kind 
common in Thames water, and in the water of many of the companies, or in 
the Manchester water, or that of some other towns, they are of a kind 
capable of producing animals very disgusting, and large enough to be seen 
sometimes by the naked eye. If even nothing but a green matter is per- 
ceptible, this is unpleasing in itself, besides never being alone, but inhabited 
by numerous little creatures visible with a microscope, although not so dis- 
gusting as those to be met with in the flocculent precipitate of the Thames 
water. Underground cisterns in London, when supplied with very pure 
water, contain in them some of the most disagreeable of these living forms ; 
and although apparently a good method of keeping water cool, it is a plan 
to which the impossibility of cleaning is a great objection. Even stone cis- 
terns, however clean stone in itself may be, are often filthy receptacles of 
water, for which not the stone but the water is to blame. If wood be used 
pure water can never be obtained ; and the enormous amount of crenic acid 
formed, with the peculiar smell of rotten wood, which happens even in new 
barrels, form great objections. The reddish flocculent matter is also not 
without inhabitants, for which it affords a good shelter. 

If I come to the conclusion that water should either be kept in large 
quantities or kept constantly running, it may be said this was known to 
every one ; true, but when this happens, it is the business of science to ex- 
plain why it is so ; and if this be not done, there are constantly found some 
who deny the general impression until a proof be obtained. 

Dr. Clark, who has done so much towards giving the country in general 
an interest in the purification of water, advises also the alkalinity of the 
water to be taken at the same time as the hardness. I have found it more 
convenient to take the fixed contents in a gallon of water. By comparing 
this with the hardness, we find the excess of impurities not affecting the 
hardness. To do this and take the alkalinity also, would probably be the 
best mode of treatment. In the springs at the source of the Thames the 
fixed matter and the hardness are equal, or nearly so, whilst in the Thames at 
London, the fixed matter rises as high as twenty-six grains per gallon, whilst 
the hardness is fifteen degrees. This gradual increase of salts not affecting 
the hardness is a good indication of the rate of impurity in the progress of 
the river, and is a great cause of making it a less agreeable draught. 

From experiments which I have made on the cause of vapidness in water, 
I am led to believe that the salts of alkalies are some of the most common 
agents. Dr. Clark has shown the great influence of temperature on the 
taste of water, but it seemed to me not enough to explain the frequency of 
the occurrence of tasteless water. 

Water with carbonic acid in it did not taste vapid when raised slowly to 
100° Fahr., the acidity being sufficient to prevent it, as I believe. 

Lambeth water boiled and cooled could not be made to taste as well as 
water which had not the same amount of salts in it. 

Pangbourne water, although excellent, when boiled down so as to saturate 



30 REPORT — 1848. 

the salts which are not precipitated by boiling, tasted even when cooled ex- 
cessively vapid. 

Soda-water with alkaline salts, when boiled, is excessively disagreeable. 

Twenty grains of common salt cause a gallon of water to taste vapid, and two 
grains and a half of saltpetre or nitrate of potash have a still stronger effect. 

The nitrate of lime in the water of towns mixed with the common salt 
gives an extremely nauseous taste to water, and causes it also to taste some- 
what soft, although possessing such a large amount of matter as I have 
mentioned. Acids control this taste ; carbonic acid, we have seen, prevents 
vapidness. A few drops of any acid render water pleasanter in a warm day. 
Acidity is strongly allied to coolness of the taste, as general experience 
shows. Acid drops and oranges in hot rooms are used for this reason, and 
vinegar also by travellers in hot climates. A few drops of any acid, vitriol, 
for example, are used by the workmen in chemical works to improve the 
water in warm weather. 

Alkalies cause water to appear soft. Beer which is called hard is acid, 
and becomes soft by adding soda ; this is common. 

The salts of lime seem to be the only salts which do not easily render 
water disagreeable. 

I may conclude this paper with a short summary of what I have said about 
water and air. 

Summary. — 1. That the pollution of air in crowded rooms is really owing 
to organic matter, not merely carbonic acid. 

2. That this may be collected from the lungs or breath, and from crowded 
rooms indiflerently. 

3. That it is capable of decomposition, and becomes attached to bodies 
in an apartment, where it probably decomposes, especially when moisture 
assists it. 

4. That this matter has a strong animal smell, first of perspiration, and 
when burnt, of compounds of protein, and that its power of supporting the 
life of animalcules, proves it to contain the usual elements of organized life. 

5. Organic matter of dew contains less nitrogen. 

6. The slightly alkaline state into which soil is put at certain periods of 
the year, give it a facility for emitting vapours ; whilst all vapours of water 
from organic matter contain organic matter, 

7. Water purifies itself from organic matter in various ways : by forming 
nitrates, as in sewers, and in the neighbourhood of cesspools and church- 
yards, under streets, in manured grounds, and other repositories of organic 
animal matter. 

8. This may be done in a laboratory on a small scale, where animal mat- 
ter, by means of a sand-filter, may be converted into nitric acid. 

9. In the larger operations of nature the carbon also is oxidized. 

10. Sulphuretted hydrogen is also oxidized on a small scale by a filter, 
being converted into sulphuric acid. 

11. A filter therefore, as an oxidizing agent, acts in proportion to its 
cubic contents. 

1 2. Water falling on the surface of the ground gets rapidly saturated with 
organic matter ; but in passing through the soil gets filtered and the matter 
oxidized, making the porous soil and the air the great agents of purification 
in a country ; whilst drainage will act by removing organic impurity as well 
as mere water. 

13. All wells near houses and all wells in towns contain nitrates, which 
may be easily traced to sewers or accumulations and outlets of refuse. 



ON THE GROWTH AND VITALITY OP SEEDS. 



31 



14. The alkaline salts of towns increase the vapidness of water. They 
abound in river-water which receives the refuse of towns, and cannot be 
filtered out. The difference between the hardness of water and the amount 
of water per gallon gives a measure of impurity, as it indicates other than 
the lime salts, whilst the lime salts affect least the taste of the water. 

15. A slight acidity removes vapidness, and produces a perception of cool- 
ness in the mouth. 

16. Water can never stand long with advantage, unless on a very large 
scale, and should be used when collected or as soon as filtered. 



Eighth Report of a Committee, consisting o/" H. E. Strickland, Esq., 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow, and Prof. Lindley, appointed 
to continue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality of Seeds. 

A PORTION of all the kinds of seeds collected in 1845 has been sown this 
year, together with those of a few additional genera collected in 1847. 
The results will be seen by reference to the following Table : — 



Name and Date when gathered. 



No. 
sown. 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



Ox- 
ford. 



„.^ , Chis- 

Hitcham, ^(.jj 



Time of vegetating 
in days at 



Ox- „.^ , Chis- 

ford. Hitcham. ^..^ 



1845. 

1. Ailanthus glandulosa 

2. Alnus glutinosa 

3. Alonsoa incisa 

4. Beta vulgaris 

5. Browallia data 

6. Chrj'santhemura coronarium 

7. Cytisus albus 

8. Eccremocarpus scaber .. 

9. Fagus sylvatica 

10. Fumaria spicata 

11. Gaillardia aristata 

12. Gleditschia triacanthos . . 

13. Iris, sp 

14. Knautia orientalis 

15. Lopezia racemosa 

16. Lymnanthes Douglasii .. 

17. Petunia odorata 

18. Schizopetalon Walkeri .. 

19. Secale Cereale 

20. Spartium Scoparium 

21. Tagetes lucida 

22. Verbena Aubletia 

23. Viscaria oculata 

24. Xeranthemum annuum .. 

25. ZeaMays 

26. Zinnia grandiflora 

1847. 

27. CardiospermumHalicacabum 

28. Cerastium perfoliatum .. 

29. ChEenostoma polyantha . . 



50 

150 

100 

75 

50 

150 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

20 

25 

50 

150 

50 

150 

50 

200 

200 

150 

100 

150 

100 

100 

100 

25 

100 
100 



74 



132 



14 



33 



29 
6 



38 



1 

69 



12 



10 



10 



10 



13 
42 



13 
11 

35 



28 
9 



14 

7 



13 



13 



32 



REPORT — 1848. 



Miss Molesworth, of Cobham, Surrey, has contributed about fifty small 
packets of seeds gathered in the years 1842, 1844, 1845 and 1846, which have 
been sown at Oxford ; the results of which are registered in the annexed 
Table. 



Name and Date when gathered. 


1 
1 


■§ 

> 

i 


Name and Date when gathered. 


S 

6 


1 
1 

i 

15 
21 

16 
41 
53 

50 
10 
62 
3 
15 

26 

1 

1 

3 

31 

73 


1842. 
1. Delphinium, sp 


200 

100 
200 
100 

50 

80 

60 

200 

200 
200 
100 
150 
100 
100 
25 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
6 
150 
25 
25 


1 
15 
91 

3 

23 

36 
20 

95 
31 
6 
11 
32 

53 
11 

3 

35 

6 

18 
9 


1845. 


100 

25 

200 

20 
100 
200 
200 

80 
100 
100 

30 
200 
100 

30 

200 

8 

30 
100 
100 

60 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


1844. 
2. Isatis tinctoria 


1846. 


3. Tagetes patula 


29. Zinnia elegans 


4. Vicialutea 




5. Delphinium intermedium .... 

6. Calandrinia grandiflora 

7. Allium senescens 


31. Linum perenne 


32. Silene pendula 


33. Calendula officinalis 


8. Kitaibelia vitifolia 


34. Onopordon Acanthium ...... 

35. Chenopodium Botrys... . 


1845. 
9. Arabis hirsuta 


36. Lavatera trimestris 


10. Tagetes patula 


37. Arnopogon Dalechampii 

38. Nemophila atomaria 


11. Plantago cynops 


12. Scandix brachycarpa 


39. Amsinckia angustifolia 

40. Tropaeolum peregrinum 

41. Coreopsis Drummondi 

42. Momordica Elaterium 

43. Althjea cannabina 


13. Silene Armaria alba . . 


14. Linaria bipartita 


15. Centrophyllum tauricum 

16. Tragopogon porrifolium 

ir. Androsace macrocarpa 

18. Lasthenia glabrata 


44. Calendula maritima 


45. Scrophularia vernalis 


19. Iberis umbellata 




20. (Eaothera, sp 


47. Eucharidium concinnum 

48. (Enothera tenella 


21. Linaria Spartea 


22. Borkhausia foetida 


49. Sisyrinchiura burmudianum . 


23. Lathyrus sativus 


24. Argemone grandiflora 

25. Vicia grandiflora 


51. Silene quadridentata 




26. Antirrhinum calycinum 





A few beans gathered in 1792. from Professor Lindley, were also sown, 
but none of them vegetated. 

The depot at Oxford now contains seeds of no less than 209 genera, which 
constitute 56 natural families. 

It has now become difficult for persons to procure annually in one locality 
the seeds of genera which represent additional natural families. We conse- 
quently beg again to solicit the assistance of persons interested in the subject ; 
and m order that such persons may readily see whether any kinds that may 
be obtamable by them would be available for the continuation of these ex- 
penments, we subjoin a list of the natural families and genera of which we 
already possess seeds. 

1. Amarantace.«. 6, Fagus. 

1. Amarantus. 7. Quercus. 

2. AmARYLLIDACE^. 4. ARTOCARPACE.ffi. 

2. Alstroemeria. 8. Morus. 

3. AmENTACE^. 5. AsPHODELACEiE. 

3. Alnus. 9. Allium. 

4. Betula. 10. Asparagus. 

5. Carpinus. H. Asphodelus. 






ON THE GROWTH AND VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



33 



6. Balsaaiacea:. 

12. Impatiens. 

7. BignoniacejE. 

13. Catalpa. 

14. Eccremocarpus. 

8. BORAGINACE^. 

15. Cerinthe. 

16. Cynoglossum. 

17. Echium. 

9. Campanulace^. 

18. Campanula. 

10. Capparibace^. 

19. Cleome. 

11. CaryophyllacejE. 

20. Buffonia. 

21. Dianthus. 

22. Gypsophila. 

23. Saponaria. 

24. Silene. 

25. Viscaria. 

12. CELASTRACEiE. 

26. Ilex. 

13. Chenopodiace^. 

27. Beta. 

28. Chenopodium. 

14. COBiEACEiE. 

29. Cobaea. 

15. COMPOSITJE. 

30. Ageratum. 

31. Ammobium. 

32. Arctium. 

33. Arnopogon. 

34. Aster. 
S5. Bidens. 

36. Barkhausia. 

37. Buphthalmum. 

38. Calendula. 

39. Callichroa. 

40. Callistemma. 

41. Carthamus. 

42. Catananche. 

43. Centaurea. 

44. Chrysanthemum. 

45. Cichorium. 

46. Cladanthus. 

47. Cnicus. 

48. Coreopsis. 

49. Galinsoga. 

50. Gaillardia. 

51. Helenium. 

52. Helianthus. 

53. Kaulfussia. 

54. Knautia. 

55. Lactuca. 

56. Lasthenia. 
18. 



57. .Madia. 

58. Oxyura. 

59. llhagadiolus. 

60. Rudbeckia. 

61. Sanvitaiia. 

62. Scorzonera. 

63. Sphenogyne. 

64. Stenactis. 

65. Tagetes. 

66. Tragopogoi). 

67. Xeranthemum. 

68. Zinnia. 

16. ConiferjE. 

69. Juniperus. 

17. ConvolvulacejE. 

70. Convolvulus. 

18. Crucifer^. 

71. Biscutella. 

72. Brassica. 

73. Bunias, 

74. Crambe. 

75. Erysimum. 

76. Heliophila. 

77. Hesperis. 

78. Iberis. 

79. Koniga. 

80. Lepidium. 

81. Lunaria. 

82. Malcolmia. 

83. Mathiola. 

84. Schizopetalon. 

85. Vesicaria. 

19. CUCURBITACE^. 

86. Bryonia. 

87. Cucurbita. 

88. Momordica. 

20. DrpsACEiE. 

89. Dipsacus. 

21. EUPHORBIACETE. 

90. Euphorbia. 

91. Ricinus. 

22. P'iCOIDEiE. 

92. Mesembryanthemum. 

93. Tetragonia. 

23. Gramine^. 

94. Avena. 

95. Hordeum. 

96. Phalaris. 

97. Secale. 

98. Triticum. 

99. Zea. 

24. HYDROPHYLLACEiE. 

100. Eutoca. 

101. Phacelia. 



34 



REPORT — 1848. 



25. HYPERICACEiE. 

102. Hypericum. 

26. iRIDACEi^E. 

103. Gladiolus. 
104^. Iris. 

105. Tigridia. 

27. Labiace^. 

106. Betonica. 

107. Elsholtzia. 

108. Leonurus. 

109. Nepeta. 

28. LeguminosjE. 

1 10. Acacia. 

111. Cercis. 

112. Cytisus. 

113. Dolichos. 

114. Faba. 

115. Gleditschia. 

116. Lathyrus. 

117. Lupinus. 

118. Medicago. 

119. Melilotus. 

120. Orobus. 

121. Phaseolus. 

122. Pisum. 

123. Psoralea. 

124. Scorpiurus. 

125. Spartium. 

126. Tetragonolobus. 

127. Trifolium. 

128. Trigonella. 

129. Ulex. 

130. Vicia. 

29. LiNACEiE. 

131. Linum. 

30. LiTHRACEiE. 

132. Cuphea. 

31. LoASACEiE. 

133. Barton ia. 

134. Loasa. 

82. Lymnanthace;e. 

135. Lymnanthes. 

33. MagnoliacejE. 

136. Magnolia. 

137. Liriodendron. 

34. MALVACEiE. 

138. Gossypium. 

139. Malope. 

140. Malva. 

35. NYCTAGINACEiE. 

141. Mirabilis. 

36. Onagrace^. 

142. Eucharidium. 

143. Godetia. 

144. Lopezia. 



37. PalmacejE. 

145. Phoenix. 

38. Papaverace^. 

146. Argemone. 

147. Eschscholtzia. 

148. Glaucium. 

149. Papaver. 

39. Phytolace/e. 

150. Phytolacca. 

40. Plantagine^e. 

151. Plantago. 

41. PoLEMONIACEiE. 

152. CoUomia. 

153. Gilia. 

154. Leptosiphon. 

155. Polemonium. 

42. POLYGONACE^. 

156. Polygonum. 

157. Rumex. 

43. Portulace^. 

158. Calandrinia. 

159. Talinum. 

44. PuiMULACEiE. 

160. Anagallis. 

45. RANUNCULACEiE. 

161. Aconituni. 

162. Adonis. 

163. Anemone. 

164. Helleborus. 

165. Nigella. 

166. Paeonia. 

167. Ranunculus. 

168. Thalictrura. 

46. ROSACEJE. 

169. Cotoneaster. 

170. Crataegus. 

171. Potentilla. 

47. Scrophulariace^. 

172. Antirrhinum. 

173. Browallia. 

174. Collinsia. 

175. Digitalis. 

176. Linaria. 

177. Schizanthus. 

178. Veronica. 

48. Sesame^e. 

179. Martynia. 

49. SOLANACE^. 

180. Alonsoa. 

181. Capsicum. 

182. Datura. 

183. Hyoscyamus. 

184. Nicandra. 

185. Nolana. 

186. Petunia 



r 



ON ATMOSPHKRIC WAVES. 35 

187. Solanum. 199. Ligusticum. 

188. Verbascum. 200. CEnanthe. 

50. TEREBiNTHACEiE. 201. Pastinaca. 

189. Ailantus. 202. Petroselinum. 

51. TROPiEOLACEjE. 203. Sium. 

190. Tropaeolum. 204. Smyrnium. 

52. UmbellacejE. 53. UrticacejE. 

191. ^thusa. 205. Cannabis. 

192. Angelica. 54. VALERiANACEiE. 

193. Bupleurum. 206. Valeriana. 

194. Caruna. 35. Verbenace^e. 

195. Conium. 207. Hebenstreitia. 

196. Daucus. 208. Verbena. 

197. Foeniculurn. 56. ViolacejE. 

198. Heracleum. 209. Viola. 

Contributions of additional seeds addressed toW.H. Baxter, Botanic Garden, 
Oxford, will be attended to, and put up in the usual form for experiment.] 
Oxford, August 2nd, 1848. 



Fifth Report on Atmospheric Waves. By W. R. Birt. 

In completing the series of Reports on Atmospheric Waves, a subject which 
has occupied my attention under the auspices of the Association during the 
last five years, it will be desirable so to arrange the present report that those 
points may be prominently exhibited in which any progress has been made 
towards the illustration of the desiderata mentioned in my report" of 1846, 
pages 162 to 164. These desiderata have reference to the general subject 
under two aspects, — that relative to the individual waves, contemplating them 
either as atmospheric waves, properly so called, or as a certain arrangement 
of aerial currents giving rise to, and intimately connected witli, certain baro- 
metric phaenomena, the details of which will be found in the same report, 
page 132 to 162; and that relative to the effects either of these waves or 
currents as exhibited in certain barometric phaenomena, known more parti- 
cularly as the " symmetrical curve of November," or of other barometric 
curves possessing certain features which may be distinctly recognized at dif- 
ferent stations and traced over extensive tracts of the earth's surface. The 
object of the present report will consequently be not so much to carry on the 
investigation (the course pursued in former years) as to concentrate our pre- 
sent knowledge of the subject, and to indicate still more distinctly the blank 
that yet remains to be filled in order to complete our inquiries into these in- 
teresting atmospheric movements. 

These objects will probably be best attained by bringing together, in the 
first place, all the information we possess relative to the individual waves, 
those already determined and placed on record in our former reports, and 
those which may have been brought to light since, either from an extended 
discussion of the observations in our possession at the last meeting of the As- 
sociation, or from others received during the period that has elapsed since 
that meeting to the present time ; secondly, by determining, so far as the 
observations in our possession will enable us to do, the barometric type for 
November, especially the period of the symmetrical curve, as illustrative of 



36 REPORT — 1848. 

that portion of the desiderata having reference to tlie seasonal barometric 
types ; and thirdly, by noticing any results that may have been obtained during 
the past year of a character nofcontemplated or but slightly indicated in our 
former reports, and which have more particularly originated in the observa- 
tions of the last return of the November curve. 

Table I. exhibits the waves already recognized with references to the re- 
ports in which their elements, &c. are given in detail. 

The waves designated Nos. 1 and 2 in tliis table passed over Western 
Europe during the early part of November 1842. In reporting progress 
at the last Meeting of tlie Association, I stated that an examination of the 
observations made during the first eight days of November over an area 
extending from Ireland to St. Petersburgh and Geneva, appeared upon the 
hypotheses either of waves or of parallel currents, fully capable of explain- 
ing all the barometric movements during those eight days (Report, 1847, 
p. 370). In the remarks which immediately follow, this explanation will 
form a prominent feature, as the variations of pressure during the period just 
referred to will be traced, especially over Western Europe, and will receive 
considerable elucidation from observations made at Alten in Finmark, with 
which I have been kindly furnished by Dr. Lee. 

In the former reports which I have had the honour to present to the As- 
sociation, I have very briefly glanced at two important points connected with 
these waves, the great extent of suriace which they cover, and the opposite 
barometric pliaenomena produced by the transits of slopes of an opposite cha- 
racter. In my report for 1846, j). 163, when enunciating the desiderata that 
then presented themselves, allusion was made to the direction of the crest ; and 
there appeared to he some dilficulty in finding a ))oint on the earth's surface in 
reference to which we could positively pronounce that a crest — v.hich clearly 
existed in a certain direction, in another locality not very far removed from 
it — had so completely thinned oft', and become so distinctly terminated in a 
longitudinal direction as to exert no influence on the barometer. Such phae- 
nomena are not exhibited in the British Islands, and it is likely they are but 
seldom met with in Central Europe. We must, as remarked on a former 
occasion, extend our area of examination ere we can obtain phsenomena that 
will enable us distinctly to say that a wave existing in one locality does not 
exist, or in any way make itself felt in another. 

The area of examination having reference to the discussion of the baro- 
metric and anemonal phaenomena during Nov. 1842, which forms the second 
part of my report, 1846, pp. 132 to 162, is principally confined to the British 
Islands ; there are two stations forming the eastern limits of this area, which, 
with regard to Great Britain and Ireland, may be considered as outliers ; they 
however enable us to carry forward our investigation by tracing onwards 
towards the north-east and east those barometric movements the nature of 
which the proximity of the British stations has greatly contributed clearly to 
define, so that they can be readily recognized at stations considerably re- 
moved from each other : these stations are Christiania and Paris. By com- 
bining with this discussion observations at St. Petersburgh and Geneva our 
area is still more enlarged, and we are enabled to form a much more accurate 
notion of the real extent of the waves and of the phaenomena resulting from 
them. By still further enlarging our area of examination, our knowledge 
must necessarily become more defined and our conceptions more distinct ; 
we shall be prepared to seize on relations which at first may not be apparent, 
owing particularly to the decided want of similarity between the phaenomena 



hor previous to the Meeting of the 



)n or diminution of pressure. 



>36erior slope or diminution of pressure following |Citj' : 
crest. ^iles 

per 



Christiania to Paris 
Paris to Orkneys .. 



Munich to Bardsey 
Geneva to Brussels 



Christiania to Cork 



•58 
•9G 

•87 



31 



•57! 



[ To face paf/c £G. 




Report, 1845, p. 118. 



Pieport, 1845, p. 118. 
Report, 1845, p. 118. 
Report, 1845, p. 119. 

Report, 1845, p. 118. 
Report, 1845, p. 119. 

Report, 1845, p. 118. 
Report, 1846, p. 118. 
Report, 1846, pp. 161, 107. 

Report, 1846, pp. 161, 107. 

Report, 1845, pp. 126,127. 
Report, 1844, p. 270 (2). 

„ 1845, pp. 126, 127. 
Report, 1845, p. 127. 
Report, 1846, pp. 161, 168. 



lined by the author pre 



JiheMcetin^foririe As- 



D"i8. 


=-Slsr^' 


LongituJinal direction ot the crcjt 


Mean Bn- 


T™,.» directum or 


liae» of auetQcnlalion or dimiaution of pressiuv. 




pmll. 


:=;" 


-nirs's^-'- 












Mean Ba- 


P<Jilcrior ilape or Jiniinulion of pronute Wlowiog 


Mcao,. 


'' 


^ 


"■'— 


A f 1 


fofiXV^ 




.„c. 


MOc 


■=-'- 


treugb. 


Epoch. 


.irecoo. 


via.. 


it 


1 
2 

! 

n 

A' 
A' 

D- I 
Bi 

No. 5 

No. 4 

No. - 
No. 9 
No. 6 

1.' 

n. 

II'.' 


,«„.M„e,.,a,o„.. 


S.S.W. to tC.N.E. 

Nov. 1. Belfast to Paris 

Nov. 3. Cork to Orkneyi 

Nov. B. Scilly to BanliCy 


30 01G 












29-975 ! 


III i« r - 1 


A 




Report. 1840, p. lis. 

Ilcpori, 18t5.p. lis. 
Report, ISJj.p. 118. 
Report, 1845, p. 119. 

Report, 18i5, p. US. 
Report, 1845, p. 119. 

Report, 1845, p. 118. 
Report, 1845, p. 118. 
Report, 184G, pp. 161, 16,'. 

Report, 184G. pp. 161,167. 

Report, 1945, pp. 126. 127. 
Report, 1844, p. 270 (2). 

„ 1845,pp. 126. 127. 
Report, 1845, p. 127. 
Report, 1646, pp. 161,168. 

Report, 1845, pp. 124 to 123. 
Report. 1844, pp. 271 to 277. 

Report, 184C' pp. 16*2, 16S. 

Report, 1846, pp. 161. 16S. 

Report. 1846, p. 162. 
Report, 1846, p. 162. 
Report, 1816. p. 161. 

Report, 1846. p. 162. 
Report, 1846, p. 162. 
Report, 1847, pp. 358. 369. 
Report, 1B47, pp. 358, 364. 

Report, 1647, p. 358- 
Rcport, 1847. pp. 359, 363. 
Report, 1847, p. 364. 


30 301 















,. 19. Mniiich. 


















1 i 


1811. March 2010 23 .. 






^'■"'^ 


M 1- -M Crecnwieli 




: r: ::: 


30-667 






j 




,. -JJ. Prague. 


1 1 


1811. March 20 toA,,rll2 


30275 
30-290 
30-335 
















"■''" 


":';":>;":::;":':.::, 


152- 


1811. Anril 1 

1812. n„. 1 to 7 

1812. Nor. 1 10 n 


Nov. 5. 

Nov. 8. 
Nov. 7. 

Nov! lo' 

Nov. 9. 
Nov. 10. 

Nov. 13. 

Nov. 16. 

Nov. 17. 




"■is" 





Nov. 3." 

Nov. 9. 

Nov. 9. 
Nov. 9. 

Nov.'iiV 
Nov. 10. 




-90 






Nivt^S'"':"'^! 




1 

"zt 


Sth. Bishop to St. Catherine's Pnt 




Munich to Bardsey 


29-408t 






„ 9, Paris. 


CO 


1856 31 


















Diihlin to Dardsev 

London to Chrisliania 


""■li" 

•09 

•72 
•57 




Christiania'toCork""!." ...... 


•35 




., 


■-.:.:■■•• 


iioy'.lti.'Krh'[[\[\Z[''.'.Z 
„ 12. St. Petersburgh. 


36 
102 




18(2. Nov. 7 10 12 


Nov. 10. Belfast to Pari. 


20-560 


2600 
341 

























18i2. Nov. 12 to 10 


Nov. 11. Belfast to Londoo .. 


20-960 

30-520 

30-510 
29-960 
29590 

2»-9.-.0 


Paris to Cbristiania 

Orkneys to Paris 




Nov. 15. 
Nov. 18. 




•04 




-" 


Z 












„ 15. Orkneys. 


















„ l9. St. Petersburgh. 


































1812. Nov. 20 to 24 

1812. Nov. 21 to 22 

1812, Nov. 23 to 21 

18.10. Nov. 2 10 17 

1816. Nov. 4 


Nov. 22. Cork to Orkneys 

StornowaytoArbjoalh 


Nov. 22. 




•15 




Nov. 21. 

No'v.'il', 




1-12" 


















.. 


„ 2t. Pnris. 

Not. 21. Btlfau 












1, ..::;:"■ 










Nov. 1. 




-10 












Jers.y to Limcriek. 

















30-352 


N.IV. 6. 
Nov. 11. 


From the S.W. towards Arbroath 


















1 . i ■ 






-29 






































1 1 






T«B1E 


VII — Elements of ivavca as tletermined from llie 


discussion of olist-rvalions over the larger ar 


a incliideil by Cork ant] Lougan, Altcn and Geneva. 


No. 2, 

A- 1 

No. 4 




Nov. 5. Cork to Alten 

Nov. 1. Belfast to Geneva ... 


30-280 

30-300 
30520 


Nov. 5. 




1-580 
-889 




Lougnn to Allen 


-708 
■670 








288 


1577 8-5t 
2730 11-22 


1812. Nov. 1 to 11 


B If t to Geneva 


29790 
29 449 


Nov. 3. 


29-110 
29-780 


L. 


.... 


.. 0. Lougan. 


Geneva to St. Petersburgh 


St. Petersburgh to Geneva 






„ 5. St. Petersburgh. ) 
Nov. 17. Bclfi..!. 










Nov. 2, 








„ 19. Munieh. 1 
„ 18. Allen. 1 
., 20. loogan. j 






















i:.m,,'r°;r;^,M!M,^!' 


c Tallica it may he ai ,,,,11 to 
,„..||.il,a. il,c oscillation I. gic 


olicit 111 : ■: I.I |- 1. ., 'lice of the lines indicating the 

orrl.i.-i i .1. ..... i.ii.ince.areatr^iJ/onjIr.., on 

on til.. n 1 . 1 1- i iii|.i- This appears strongly to 


rnns»crse direction or lines of augmentation or diminution of pressure of tlic north-westerly systems of waves, disti iguisliing the Scandinavian from that if Cenin! 
early so, lo tangents aiiiicrloining to the general ciimlincnr directions of the eoasta orjiniction linesof land and water, bo that the directions uf the waves nf Northern 
ulitate the proximity of land and water, as the locality of genesis of atmospheric waves, and i» gready in accordance with the raulu obtained hy Sir John Henchcl 



J undertaking the pres 



i The velodtf of this wave appears t< 



II December 1837. Tlie longitudinal d 



r hour (Report, 1843, p. 77). 



s of Wales towards the ci 



iS situated on the a 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 



37 



presented at distant and especially at extreme stations, and to distingiiish 
between those effects, which, altliongh to a certain extent contemporaneous 
and similar, may be referred to different sources of production. 

By including in the discussion of the observations of 1S42 observations 
at Alten in Finmark and at Lougan in Russia, the former being situated 
north lat. 69° 50', east long. 23°, and the latter north lat. 48° 35', east long, 
39° 21', our area of examination is extended from Ireland to the eastern 
borders of Europe, and from Geneva to the northern extremity of the same 
continent; it will consequently embrace 47 degrees of longitude and 2S of 
latitude. 

The table of barometric observations, November 1S42, forming the 
groundwork of the discussion, will be found in the volume for 1S46, p. 141; 
the readings at St. Petersburgh during the same days at noon, are recorded 
at p. 167 of the same volume ; and the following table includes readings for 
the same period at Alten, Lougan and Geneva. 

Table II. 
Barometric readings at Alten, Lougan and Geneva, Nov. 1 to 20, 1842. 





Alten, 


Lougan, 


Geneva, 


Date. 


3 P.M. 


noon. 


noon. 


Nov. 1 


30-138 


29-312 


30-338 


2 


•601 


-300 


30-089 


3 


•589* 


•088 


29-884 


4 


•288 


•440 


-820 


5 


30-140 


-459 


•786 


6 


29-690 


-332 


•864 


7 


•416 


-769 


29-926 


8 


•596 


29-980 


30-011 


9 


•436 


30-106 


-080 


10 


•514 


30-001 


30-056 


11 


•453 


29-810 


29-842 


12 


•607 


-785 


29-842 


13 


•586 


-623 


30-097 


14 


•134 


•613 


-100 


15 


•092 


•599 


30-084 


16 


•303 


•676 


29-863 


17 


29-641 


•689 


29-891 


18 


30^110 


•610 


SO-334 


19 


30-066 


•609 


•529 


20 


29-825 


•885 


30-098 


21 


•658 


•638 


29-707 


22 


•674 


•445 


•731 


23 


•539 


•294 


•865 


24 


•570 


•785 


•549 


25 


•715 


•738 


•364 


26 


29-880 


29-791 


29-271 



It will be readily seen from an inspection of this table that the observa- 
» Max. on the 3rd at 9 a.m. 30-618. 



38 REPORT — 1848. 

tions from the two southern stations tolerably agree, although the readings 
at Geneva are higher tlian those at Lougan, especially during the first eight 
days; but tliere is a marked difference between them and those at Alten. 
The first point th;it strikes attention in comparing these readings with those 
in the tables, to whicii allusion has been made, is the earlier occurrence at 
Alten, namely on the 3rd, of the maximum which characterizes the first 
portion of the month, and which is very distinct at all the stations, except 
Paris, Geneva and Lougan. The observations at Christiania more nearly 
agree with those at Alten in this respect, the maximum occurring on the 
4th; and from this it would appear that the pressure proceeded from the 
north, and in a direction in which we do not usually observe the progression of 
the barometric maxima and minima. The principal epoch of the maximum 
for the majority of the stations is the 5th, and this maximum has been re- 
ferred to the wave designated " Crest No. 2" in the discussion of Mr. Brown's 
observations, and " A° " in my second report (Report, 1845, p. 126). The 
direction of this maximum has been well determined on the oth, namely from 
Cork past Belfast to the Orkneys (Report, 1846, p. 144). We find at Alten 
on the 5th a decided rise of nearly -2 inch on the deep precipitous fall from 
the 3rd to the 7th, and this would indicate the continuation of the crest 
from Cork to Alten. From these considerations it is evident that the maxi- 
mum of the 3rd at Alten must have been due to an entirely different wave 
from any we have already noticed. The curve that most approaches Alten 
in tlie rise at the commencement of the month is that of St. Petersburgh ; and 
it is worthy of remark, that the essential features of this rise, and the check 
it experienced before the transit of the maximum, are transmitted to St. Pe- 
tersburgh a day later than they were observed at Alten. In fact the three 
northern stations, Alten, St. Petersburgh and Christiania, participate in this 
rise, the subsequent fall being considerably modified at Christiania and St. 
Petersburgh by the transit of crest No. 1. 

The barometric rise at the commencement of the month in the north of 
Europe, to which allusion has just been made, strongly indicates the advan- 
cing slope of a wave which did not affect the barometer in Central Europe ; 
and this wave being peculiar to the northern part of Europe, and stretching 
over the Scandinavian peninsula, may probably, and with some propriety, be 
designated as a member of a system of Scandinavian waves. We shall there- 
fore characterize it in the future parts of this discussion by the symbol a, 
restricting this character to these northern waves. It does not ap])ear to have 
extended longitudinally much beyond Christiania to the south-west, for we 
do not find that decided rise of the barometer, even at the Orkneys, which 
characterizes northern Europe. We have consequently a distinct termina- 
tion of the crest in a longitudinal direction, the locality of which may be in- 
dicated by a line passing towards the south-east between the Orkneys and 
Christiania. 

We have already briefly referred (Report, 1847, p. 369) to the opposite 
barometric movements in certain localities, arising from the transit of oppo- 
site slopes, either of the same wave or of successive waves of the same sy- 
stem, and these phscnomena, which are very distinctly marked in the instance 
given, furnish us with an explanation of similar phaenomena in other loca- 
lities. The curves of Alten and Lougan (fig. 1) present similar phaeno- 
mena to those of Geneva and St. Petersburgh ; the movements are opposite, 
and in this respect more decided, for we have two periods of opposite move- 
ments at Alten and Lougan. We have consequently the half breadth of this 
Scandinavian wave given from Alten to Lougan, 1592 miles ; first, when the 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 



3» 



anterior slope extended from Alten to Lougan, the crest transiting Alten, 
while the anterior trough passed Lougan ; and second, when the posterior 

Fig. 1. 

November 1842. 
9 





r"^ 


\ 








/ 


V .. 




AUcn 




\ 

\ 


i r. 


^ r\"-- 


Lougan ., 


r\/ V ^ 


/ \ / >lUen 















29-00 



Opposite barometric curves at Alten and Lougan. 

Points of opposition, Nov. 3, maximum, Alten. 
„ „ Nov. 3, minimum, Lougan. 

„ ,, Nov. 9, maximum, Lougan. 

„ „ Nov. 9, minimum, Alten (?) 

slope covered the area, the crest having arrived at Lougan, at which time in 
all probability the posterior trough was vertically over Alten. The decided 
opposition of the curves also enables us to determine with considerable preci- 
sion all the elements of the wave. It appears highly probable that tlie two 
subordinate maxim.a of the 8th and 10th in the Alten curve resulted from 
waves in the trough of this Scandinavian wave, and that its true minimum 
occurred on the 9th ; this would give nearly equal intervals for the trans- 
mission of the anterior slope and crest from Alten to Lougan, the posterior 
slope on the 9th stretching from Lougan to Alten. Upon this supposition 
we have the following elements : — 

Of the great Scandinavian Wave a. 

Designation, a. 

Direction of crest W.S.W E.N.E. 

Extreme points, anterior slope, Lougan, Alten. 
Semi-amplitude from anterior slope, 1592 miles. 
. Extreme points, posterior slope, Alten, Lougan. 
Semi-amplitude from posterior slope, 1592 miles. 
Epoch of anterior trough, Lougan, Nov. 3. 

„ crest Alten, „ 3. 

„ „ Lougan, „ 9. 

„ posterior trough, Alten, ,, 9. 



40, REPORT — 1848. 

Time of transit of crest from Alten to Lougan, 1 ii hours. 
Amplitude of wave in time, 288 hours. 

„ „ „ miles, 3184 miles. 

Velocity of wave, 1 1 miles per hour. 

We have also the following determinations of the altitude of this wave : — 

d h 

The crest passed Alten Nov. U 21 

The posterior trough Nov. 8 21 ? 

Interval ^ ^ 

Altitude of crest at Alten SO'G 1 3 

„ posterior trough ^^'S^I ? 

„ wave at Alten l'~^<" 

Altitude of crest at Lougan 30"109 

„ anterior trough 29*038 

,, wave at Lougan 1 "07 1 

Nov. 2, 21, crest at Alten 30-618 

,, 2, 20, anterior trough, Lougan. . . . 29-038 
Altitude of wave from anterior trough. . 1-680 

Nov. 8, 22, crest at Lougan SO' 109 

„ 8, 21, posterior trough, Alten .... 29-341 ? 
Altitude of wave from posterior trough . -768 

St. Petersburgh, which is situated nearly midway between Alten and Lou- 
gan, and not far removed from the line cutting the wave transversely, affords 
us an excellent mean of testing the accuracy of the views advanced relative 
to the great Scandinavian wave. The following table exhibits the progression 
of the crest across Lapland and Russia, and the distribution of pressure on 
each side as it transits. 

Table IIL 

Barometric altitudes and differences arising from the transit of the Scandi- 
navian wave across Lapland and Russia in 1 842. 

November 3 to 9. 



Date. 


Alten. 


Diif. 


St. Petersburgh. 


Diff. 


Lougan. 


Nov. 3. 


30-589^ 


-317 


30^272 


M34 


29-138 


4. 


.OggM 


•100 


•188 


-748 


•440 


5. 


30-140 


•089 


•22 9^*' 


•820 


•409 


G. 


29-690 


•466 


30-156'*' 


•784 


•372 


7. 


-416 


•517 


29-933*^ 


•159 


29-774 


8. 


•596 


•399 


-995 


•030 


30-025*' 


9. 


•436 


•470 


•906 


•189 


-095" 



Alten to St. Petersburgh 740 miles 

St. Petersburgh to Lougan 860 „ 

The readings at Alten are at 3 p.m. 

„ „ St. Petersburgh, 3 p.m. 

,, „ Lougan, 4 p.m. 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 



41 



It may probably assist our conception of the transit of tin's wave if the po- 
sition of the crest for each day is particularized as under : — 

Nov. 3. Crest passing Alten. This crest evidently possessed considerable 
breadth, for we find only a diminution of 0-317 inch pressure from Alten to 
St. Petersburgh, 740 miles ; from St. Petersburgh to Lougan, 860 miles, the 
dip is very much greater, ri34 inch above three times. 

Nov. 4. Crest between Alten and St. Petersburgh. In consequence of the 
broad crest these stations are nearly on a level, the dip from St. Petersburgh 
to Lougan still very considerable, 0"748 inch. 

Novr5. St.Petersburgh, the highest point ; the crest not yet arrived ; dip 
from St.Petersburgh to Alten, 0-089 inch ; from St. Petersburgh to Lougan, 
0-820 inch. 

Nov. 6. The crest rapidly approaching St. Petersburgh, which it transits 
most probably this day ; the anterior slope still presents considerable steep- 
ness ; dip from St. Petersburgh to Lougan, 0-784 inch ; Alten is only 0-318 
inch above Lougan. 

Nov. 7. The crest has now clearly passed St. Petersburgh; this station is 
slightly raised above Lougan, but the dip to Alten has become considerable, 
0*517 inch. 

Nov. 8. The direction of the dip is reversed, being from Lougan to Alten 
increasing. 

These phsenomena are rendered very apparent to the eye in the diagram, 
fig. 2. 

The great Scandinavian wave presents very distinctly at Alten the well- 
known characteristic of the north-westerly system of waves, namely, that of 
a considerable and precipitous fall as the posterior slope passes ; this fall is 
only interrupted by the crest of wave No. 2 on the 5th. 

Fig. 2. 

1842, Nov. Nov. 1842. 

31 inch 



39 inch. 




St. Petersburgh. 



29 inch. 



Lougan. 



Distribution of pressure on the line from Alten to Lougan, from Nov. 3, the epoch of the 
transit of the Scandinavian wave at Alten ; to Nov. 9, the epoch of the transit of the crest 
at Lougan. Barometric altitudes half the natural scale. 

In addition to the determination of this large Scandinavian wave, with its 
elements and phases, the additional observations at Alten, Geneva and Lougan, 
assist us considerably in more distinctly defining and limiting the waves already 
brought to light by former discussions. The breadth of the anterior slope of 
crest No. 1 (Report, 1846, p. 142) is found to extend beyond Christiania, but 
not so far as Alten, and the rise from Christiania to Alten, of -36 inch on the 
1st of November, clearly indicates the posterior slope of a wave preceding 
crest No. 1. The anterior slope of crest No. 1 is also more distinctly 
manifested by the observations at St. Petersburgh and Geneva than by 
those at Belfast and Christiania, the depression of St. Petersburgh below 



42 REPORT — 1848. 

Geneva being '89 inch. We have consequently two sections of the ante- 
rior slope of crest No. 1, that from Geneva to St. Petersburgh cutting the 
wave more transversely than the other. These observations also enable us to 
determine with more precision the longitudinal direction and extent of this 
crest, for we now trace it from Belfast across the centre of England, through 
France to Geneva. It appears to have been depressed in France by the 
anterior trough of crest No. 2. 

While we thus have the anterior slope of wave No. 1 covering the northern 
parts of Central Europe, and being distinctly terminated on a line parallel 
to its crest, passing through or beyond St. Petersburgh and to the north of 
Christiania, so that from the crest to this hne the pressure diminishes, we 
have the posterior slope of the preceding wave passing off towards the 
north-east, as shown by the Alten observations, which exhibit a greater 
pressure than those at Christiania. We have also, crossing these waves, two 
anterior slopes, one in Scandinavia and Russia, extending from beyond Alten 
to the north-west to beyond St. Petersburgh to the south-east. It is this 
slope that produces a considerable rise in the barometer at Alten, and from 
this station to St. Petersburgh it measures '69 inch. This anterior slope 
is distinctly terminated longitudinally by a line passing between the Orkneys 
and Christiania. The other anterior slope alluded to is that of the wave 
designated crest No. 2 ; it appears to be terminated on this day by its an- 
terior trough in the neighbourhood of Paris. The crest is considerably to 
the north-west of Great Britain and Ireland. 

On the 2nd of November we find the posterior slope of the wave preceding 
crest No. 1, more distinctly developed at Alten with its proper wind S.E. ; 
we also find the N. W. and S.E. parallel currents fully established from Great 
Britain and Ireland to Alten, as under : — 

Posterior slope of wave-crest No. 0* S.E. at Alten. 
Anterior slope of wave-crest No. 1. N.N.W. at Christiania. 
Posterior slope of wave- crest No. 1. S.E. Great Britain and Ireland. 

The anterior slope of the Scandinavian wave from Alten to St. Peters- 
burgh is very distinctly developed on the 2nd, possessing, although not to so 
great an extent, the marked diminution of pressure towards its anterior 
trough which obtains between St. Petersburgh and Lougan on the Srd. 

Nov. 3. The crest of the Scandinavian wave now transits Alten and its 
anterior trough Lougan, so that we have the whole of European Russia and 
Scandinavia covered by its anterior slope. The wave-crest No. 1 appears to 
occupy a position nearly coincident witli the line terminating this wave longi- 
tudinally ; and the wave-crest No. 2, which receives its greatest development 
in Central Europe, approaches from the north-west, so that the three waves 
contribute to produce high barometric readings in the north-west of Europe, 
the area of greatest pressure, as indicated by readings above 30 inches, ex- 
tending from Alten and St. Petersburgh across the Scandinavian peninsula 
and Scotland to the north of Ireland. 

Nov. 4. The Scandinavian wave rolls onward towards the south-east, 
depressing the barometer at Alten and raising it at Lougan. The wave- 
crest No. 2 of Central Europe approaches from the north-west, raising the 
barometer in Great Britain and Ireland. The wave-crest No. 1, a south- 
westerly wave, still crosses the Scandinavian peninsula, keeping up the 

* This symbol is employed to designate the -wave preceding the south-westerly waves 
determined by the discussion of Mr. Brown's obser\'ations. See Report, 1846, pp. 140 to 160. 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 43 

barometer in that part of Europe ; its presence is very distinctly marked, 
Alten, Christiania and St. Petersburgh being nearly on a level : the order of 
altitudes is as follows : — 

Christiania 30'37 

Alten 30-29 

St. Petersburgh 30-22 

We have consequently the area of greatest pressure approaching the central 
parts of Europe from the north-west ; the Scandinavian wave, which raises 
the barometer in the north-east, being considerably in advance of that of 
Central Europe, crest No. 2, which contributes to the rise in the south-west. 

Nov. 5. On this day we have the turning-points of tlie opposite curves, 
Geneva and St. Petersburgh (see fig. 10, pi. 27, Report, 1847) ; they clearly in- 
dicate the half-span or semi-amplitude of the wave-crest No. 1, the crest being 
vertically over St. Petersburgh (max.) while the trough transits Geneva (min). 
The semi-amplitude is consequently 1365 miles, and the velocity of the 
crest, as determined from the epochs of its passing Geneva and St. Peters- 
burgh, 1 4-22 miles per hour. This wave appears to have been rather larger 
than its successor, wave-crest No. S or B°, the elements and phases of which 
are given on p. 124, Report, 1845. 

The rise at Alten on this day, on the steep posterior slope of the Scan- 
dinavian wave, enables us to extend the line of crest No. 2 from Cork, the 
extreme south-western station, to Alten, the extreme north-eastern ; and the 
reduced reading at Alten, 30-14, clearly indicates that the greatest swell 
occurred in Central Europe : the readings along the crest are as follows : — 

Cork, 30-32; Belfast, 30-55 ; Orkneys, 30-52 ; Alten, 30-14. 

From these numbers we learn that the greatest swell occurred in the north- 
east of Ireland, and that the wave thinned off very considerably towards 
Alten, being perceptible as a subordinate m.aximum only. Had not wave- 
crest No. 2 extended to Alten, the barometric differences between Alten 
and St. Petersburgh would have been much greater. The crests Nos. 1 and 
2 intersected to the north-west of Norway. See Report, 184G, p. 167. 

The area of greatest pressure has much the same direction as on the 4th, 
extending from the south-west of Ireland across Scotland and the Scandi- 
navian peninsula to St. Petersburgh. The greater swell of the wave-crest 
No. 2 in the neighbourhood of Ireland and Scotland contributes to the high 
barometric readings ia those localities ; the intersections of crests Nos. I and 
2 to the high readings in the southern parts of Norway ; and the intersection 
of the Scandinavian crest a with No. 1 to the altitude, as observed at St, 
Petersburgh. The distribution of the crests is as follows : — 

Scandinavian crest a. .To the west of and approaching St. Petersburgh. 

Crest No. 2 Extending from Ireland to Alten. 

Crest No. 1 Crossing each of these on a line to the north-east of 

that terminating the Scandinavian wave longitu- 
dinally. 

Scandinavia and Russia are now covered partly by tlie anterior and partly 
by the posterior slopes of the Scandinavian wave ; Northern Central Europe 
by the posterior slope of crest No. 1, and Western Europe by the anterior 
slope of crest No. 2. 

The lowest reading on this day, with the exception of Lougan, is Geneva, 
29-79, the posterior trough of crest No. 1. It is probable that the troughs 



44 REPORT — 1848. 

of I and 2 intersect in the neighbourhood of Geneva ; if so, we have for 
determining the semi-amplitude of crest No. ii, the following data: — 
Semi-amplitude. . . .The anterior trougli being at Geneva. 

The crest at Belfast 792 miles. 

Nov. G. While the anterior slope of crest No. 2 is most strikingly deve- 
loped over Western Europe, extending from Belfast to Geneva, the posterior 
slope of the Scandinavian wave, which now transits St. Petersburgh, is also 
developed from that station to Alten ; and between these slopes, and crossing 
them more or less at right angles, we have crest No. 1 still between 
Christiania and Alten, so that we have a considerable elevation of the baro- 
meter in Great Britain and Ireland, the extremity of the Scandinavian pe- 
ninsula, and at St. Petersburgh. On each side this ridge of pressure the 
barometer exhibits lower readings; at Geneva, 29'S6; at Alten, 29"G9; both 
at the level of the sea. 

The area of greatest pressure has much the same direction as on the 5th, 
with this exception, the north-eastern extremity makes a greater progress 
towards the south-east than the south-western. This is precisely a conse- 
quence of the waves being situated as the observations indicate. The area 
of greatest pressure does not result from a single wave-crest, but is due to 
■at least three contemporaneous crests in Northern and Central Europe, two 
•of these having the same direction, but one being in advance of the other, and 
'■the third crossing these nearly at right angles. As the advanced north-west 
wave passes off towards the south-east the pressure diminishes in the north- 
•east, thus giving rise to the unequal motion of the two extremities of the 
area of greatest pressure. 

Nov. 7. The barometric movements over western Central Europe are very 
small ; in Northern Europe they are greater. In the first area, Western 
'Central Europe, the crest No. 2 is transiting ; this crest thins off towards 
Northern Europe, and the Scandinavian wave considerably influences the 
barometer in this the northern area. Barometric falls in Northern Europe, 
iincluding the Orkneys : — 

The Orkneys '^1 

Alten -27 

St. Petersburgli '20 

Christiania '19 

While the barometric falls at St. Petersburgh and the Orkneys appear to 
•have resulted from two different causes, two distinct posterior slopes, the 
•fall at Alten appears to have been compounded of these two slopes, viz. 
that of the Scandinavian wave and that of crest No. 2. The area is thus 
divided into two sub-areas, Alten, Christiania and the Orkneys falling from 
crest No. 2, and St. Petersburgh from crest No. 1 and the Scandinavian wave. 

During the operation of the causes just alluded to, by which the pressure 
ihas been diminished at Christiania and St. Petersburgh, these stations are 
brought more to a level with Geneva from the approach of crest No. 3. At 
Alten the barometer has been falling principally from the posterior slope of the 
Scandinavian wave ; a trough now transits Alten, but from the opposite 
curves at this station and Lougan it does not appear to be the posterior 
trough of the Scandinavian wave, which most probably transited on the 9th ; 
it is most likely to be a secondary trough, or rather minimum, produced by 
the approach of crest No. 1, which probably transited this station on the 8th. 

The following table exhibits the distribution of the crests and troughs on 
this day : — 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 

Table IV. 
Distribution of Crests and Troughs on November 7,1 SiP. : — 



45 



Phase. 


Locality. 


Crest No. 1 


Between Christiania and Alten, approacliing Alten. 


Trough between 1 
Nos. 1 and 3 J 


North-east of Belfast and Paris. 


Crest No. 3 .... 


South-west of Great Britain and Ireland. 


Crest No. 2 .... 


Passing south-east of tlie Orkneys across Scotland 




and England. 



The general direction of high pressure extends over Ireland,' England, 
the north of France, Holland, Northern Germany, the southern parts of 
Sweden and Norway, and the central parts of Western Russia. From this 
ridge or area of high pressure to Alten thtre is a considerable dip. 

Orkneys to Alten -73 

Christiania to Alten '60 

St. Petersburgh to Alten •54 

It is thus apparent that the area of greatest pressure has gradually ap- 
proached the south-east, and assumed in its progress a more curviHnear direc- 
tion than it possessed at tlie commencement of the month. The locality in 
which the pressure has been more constantly maintained is the northern part 
of the British Isles, the southern part of Scandinavia, and Western Russia. 

It would appear from tlie above values of the diminution of pressure to 
Alten, that the slope from the Orkneys to Alten was an anterior slope of the 
south-west system, but other considerations, especially the trough between 
1 and 3, clearly show that this is not the case ; the depression at Alten results 
from the posterior slope of the Scandinavian wave, and the altitude at the 
Orkneys evidently results from the wave-crest No. 2, which passed that 
station on the 5th. 

Nov. 8. At 9 P.M. of the 7th the barometer passed a minimum at Alten, 
value 29'3i, and at 3 p.m. of this day it had risen to 29*60, a maximum. 
It is very likely that this maximum is crest No. 1. This movement, and the 
fall from the posterior slope of crest No. 2, brings the northern stations to a 
greater equality of level. 

Table V. 

Area of greatest pressure, November 8, 1842, slightly above 30 inches : — 



South-west. 


Central. 


North-east. 


Cork 30-01 


Belfast 


30-04 


St. Petersburgh 29-96 


Plymouth .... 30*13 


London 


30-08 


Lougan 29-98 




Bristol 


30-07 






Paris 


29-90 






Geneva 


30-01 





Area of the barometric fall which commenced on this day (see Report, 
1846, p. 147):— 

Alten 29-60 

Christiania 29'67 

Orkneys 29-63 



46 REPORT — 1848. 

The area of greatest pressure (just above 30 inches) extends from Ire- 
land and England across France and Switzerland, and the central portions 
of Western Russia, having nearly an easterly and westerly direction. In 
the northern parts of Scotland (the Orkneys), Norway and Lapland, the 
pressure is about "4 inch lower. 

Nov. 9. Crest of Scandinavian wave .... Lougan SO'll 

Crest of wave No. 2 Geneva 30*08 

Crest of wave No. 2 St. Petersburgh 29-92 

The passing off of the area of greatest pressure towards the south-east is 
now most decided ; it extends from St. Petersburgh and Lougan towards 
Geneva. The higher reading at Lougan is clearly due to the crest of the 
Scandinavian wave, those at St. Petersburgh and Geneva to ihe crest of 
No. 2 ; Paris and the stations to the north-west of it, including Christiania 
and Alten, all exhibit lower readings, being under the contemporaneous and 
continuous posterior slopes of the Scandinavian wave and of crest No. 2. 

We have some reason to believe that the readings of the 5th, at Belfast 
and Geneva, assist us materially in determining the semi-amplitude of wave- 
crest No. 2. The crest now passes Geneva, and from this we may gather 
that the velocity was about S'25 miles per hour. In comparing these with 
the similar elements of wave A°, as deduced from observations at Scilly, 
Bardsey and Munich on this day, we find the present determination to be 
less than that recorded in the Report for 1845, p. 127. It would, however, 
appear that the amplitude 1856 miles is too great, the distance from Bardsey 
to Munich being 785 miles. This amplitude has been determined from the 
posterior slope. The observations at Geneva and Belfast enable us to deter- 
mine the anterior, those at Munich and Bardsey the posterior slope ; by 
combining them we have the amplitude determined from the two slopes. 
Anterior slope, Geneva to Belfast . . . 792 miles. 
Posterior slope, Bardsey to Munich. , 785 „ 

Amplitude of wave .... 1577 „ 
The near approximation of the values of the anterior and posterior slopes 
gives a proportionate confidence in this determination of the amplitude. 

By taking the time of transit, Belfast to Munich, we have nearly the same 
velocity given as from Belfast to Geneva, namely, 8"78 miles per hour. 
The velocity of this crest or wave appears to have been variable ; it clearly 
passed very slowly over Ireland, the barometer attaining a considerable 
elevation. On the morning of the 8th we find its direction from the south- 
west of England, past Norfolk, to the east of Christiania; aline of crest also ex- 
tends from Scilly past South Bishop and Bardsey, connected probably in some 
way with A'. From this time the velocity appears to have increased rapidly ; 
for on the next day, the 9th, we find the crest south-east of Paris, and at 
3 P.M. it appears to transit Munich. Its increased velocity appears to have 
commenced upon its passing the coast of Wales. Taking the amplitude of 
the posterior slope from Bardsey to Munich = 785 miles, and the time of 
the passage of the crest over this space = 30 hours (see Report, 1845, 
p. 126), the increased velocity is about 26 miles per hour. 

The altitudes of the anterior and posterior slopes from the Belfast and 
Geneva observations appear to be as under : — 

Nov. 5. Crest at Belfast 30-55 

Anterior trough at Geneva 29-79 



Altitude of wave from anterior trough -76 



I 



ON ATMOSPHEHIC WAVES. 

Nov. 9. Crest at Geneva 30*08 

Posterior trough at Belfast 29"41 



4t 



Altitude of wave from posterior trough '67 

The Bardsey and Munich observations appear to give a higher value for 
the posterior slope. 

The preceding remarks have exclusive reference to the barometric move- 
ments over Central and Northern Europe during the first nine days of No- 
vember. Among the results obtained from combining the Alten observations 
with those before enumerated, we have the extension of the crest No. 2 
to the extreme north of Europe. In like manner it may be expected that 
the succeeding wave-crest No. 4 would also stretch across the European 
continent in the same direction, and that the Alten observations would con- 
firm the suggestion published at the end of my third report (Report 1846, 
p. 372), that this wave stretched to the very north of Europe. On con- 
sulting them we find the barometer passed a maximum at 9 p.m. of the 18th, 
value 30'114;. The epoch of this maximum, its value being considerably 
lower than those of the maxima observed in Central Europe about the 
same time, and the similarity that exists in this respect to the altitude 
of wave-crest No. 2 as it passed Alten, the greatest swell occurring in 
Central Europe, tends greatly to identify this maximum with wave-crest 
No. 4, and that the greatest swell of this wave also occurred in Central 
Europe. 

The following table exhibits the passage of crest No. 4 from Ireland to 
the eastern borders of Europe during the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th of 
November 1842 : — 

Table VI. 

Epochs of the transit of Wave-crest No. 4, November 1842. 



Stations. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Glasgow .. .. 


17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
19 
19 
19 
20 


Noon*. 

11 P.M. 
10 A.M. 

6 P.M. 

9 P.M. 

9 A.Mf. 

9iA.Mt. 
10 P.M. 

2 P.M. 


Dublin 


Greenwich 


Brussels 


Alten 


Geneva 


Munich 


St. Petersburgh 







Table VII., which is supplemental to Table I. facing page 36, embodies the 
results of the examination of the barometric movements over the larger area 
above specified, and includes the elements of the three prominent waves, 
o, A°, and No. 1. 

In collecting the results of the examination of these waves over the larger 
area embraced by the observations at Alten, St. Petersburgh and Lougan, 

* The early transit of the maximum at Glasgow appears to have been connected with the 
south-westerly wave-crest No. 7, which crossed No. 4 at Belfast ; this is supported by the 
observations at Sir Thomas Brisbane's Observatory, Makerstoun. 

t As the observations at Geneva are not taken between 9 p.m. and 9 a.m., it is highly 
probable the maximum occurred earlier, and that there was a longer interval between the 
times of transit at Geneva and Munich than half an hour. 



48 REPORT 1848. 

in connection with those eniunerated in former reports, our attention is 
arrested by the distinctness witli which the waves Nos. 1 and 2 are exhibited, 
and tlie striking individuahty appertaining to the wave a, determined in the 
first instance by only two sets of observations, tliose at Alten and Lougan, 
from the opposition of their barometric curves, and afterwards fully confirmed 
by the observations at St. Petersburgh. The facility with which we are 
enabled to trace, during the nine days of examination, the progression of the 
area of greatest pressure, which results from the presence of the crests of 
these waves, and the modification of form which this area of greatest pressure 
undergoes from the different vositions of waves a and No. 2, and also from 
the different direction as well as position of wave No. 1, such modification of 
form not being at all recognizable as the effect of any single movement, but 
clearly resulting from such movements as have by this discussion been 
brought to light, leads to the conviction that during the first nine days of 
November 1842, the waves having reference to that period, which are par- 
ticularized in Table VII., were the only atmospheric waves of considerable 
magnitude that during those days flowed over Europe. We are therefore 
enabled to specify, as prominent results of this inquiry, two large waves, 
one about double the breadth of the other, coming over from the north-west, 
the largest extending indefinitely — so far as we can learn from the observa- 
tions before us — towards the north-east, from a line passing between the 
Orkneys and Christiania towards the south-east, and covering first with its 
anterior, and afterwards with its posterior slope the whole of Northern 
Europe. The smallest wave is traced to a much greater extent longitudi- 
nally, Cork and Alten being the extreme stations indicating the presence of 
its crest : its posterior trough appears to have been contemporaneous and 
continuous with that of the largest wave ; so that while the crest of the 
largest wave traversed Eastern Europe, the crest of the smallest crossed 
Central Europe, the trough common to both passing over the British Islands 
at the same epoch. We are also able, in addition to these waves, to parti- 
cularize another, having a different direction, its crest extending N. W. to S.E. 
from Ireland to Switzerland ; so that in the course of its progress to the 
north-east it crosses them : the half breadtli of this south-westerly wave, as 
manifested by its anterior slope, extended from Geneva to or beyond St, 
Petersburgh. The posterior slope gave a somewhat similar result. 

While we are able to indicate the amplitude, altitude, direction, march, 
and velocity of the atmospheric waves above specified, our knowledge is 
greatly deficient relative to their longitudinal extent ; nor are we al)le to 
exhibit on a chart, at any given moment, the line of crest and the bounding 
troughs of any one of these waves so as to exhibit to the eye the extent of 
surface it covers in the totality of its existence. That these blanks can be 
filled with less difficulty than might at first sight be imagined, is evident 
from the ease with which it is possible to determine the elements of a wave 
from two sets of barometric observations, each at a different station, provided 
such observations present opposite movements. In the case of the south- 
vsesterly wave above specified, we have only to find a point as much to the 
south-west of Geneva as that city is south-west of St. Petersburgh, and we 
shall again have opposite movements to those at Geneva, provided the locality 
of genesis of the south-westerly waves is situated still further to the south- 
west, and that the movements do not receive considerable modification from 
the influence of the north-westerly waves. The distance between the two 
extreme points of opposite movements, as referred to the central point, will 
mark the amplitude of the wave, and these points will be situated in the 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 49 

boiindinpr troughs, as exhibited on the chart alluded to. How far the con- 
ditions above named exist, we are unable to determine in the present state 
of our knowledge. The elements of the waves already ascertained, indicate, 
however, the localities from which we may seek to obtain observations that 
will immediately illustrate these desiderata ; and should we not be able to 
obtain them for the year in question, viz. 184-2, observations in future years 
on the lines of country indicated by the discussion of the observations in 
1842, already obtained, may be very available for distinctly marking out 
the great tracts of country over which the waves extend, and furnishing 
data from which charts, such as have been alluded to, may be constructed. 
The three waves above specified, in consequence of t!ie minute inves- 
tigation which the observations have undergone, may be considered as 
exhibiting the nearest approach to accuracy in the determination of their 
elements ; there are, however, other waves succeeding them, which, although 
not so precisely determined as to their extent, velocity, &c., yet are so 
clearly placed before us as to warrant the conclusion that the same close 
discussion of the observations for succeeding days woidd furnisii similar 
results with regard to them. These waves are particularized in the table 
as No. 3 or B°, No. 5 and No. 4. 

PART II. 

Taking a single station in the extended area, to which allusion has been 
made in the first part of this report, and examining the barometric phseno- 
raena exhibited at that station, the result of such an examination has in- 
dicated, — first, that the barometric curve is compounded of the effects pro- 
duced by each individual wave as it passes the station in its onward progress ; 
and secondly, that so far as the symmetrical curve is concerned, the essential 
characters of this symmetrical curve are repeated year after year. The objects 
of the second branch of our inquiry are, therefore, essentially different from 
the first — they consist of the seasonal barometric types or curves, such 
curves being obtained from observations of the barometer at the station 
selected, without reference to observations at other stations. In my report 
1845, pp. 1^1 to 123, illustrated by plate 3, we have the characteristics 
of the symmetrical curve for 1842, 1843, and 1844. Further notices of the 
symmetrical curves for 1845 and 1846 occur in the reports for 1846 (pp. 130 
to 132) and 1847. The lastreport has more especial reference to the curve 
for 1846, and plate 25. (vol. 1847) illustrates the departure from symmetry 
as we proceed from Brussels to the north-west. The most prominent re- 
sults of this branch of our subject, up to the last meeting of the Association, 
has been the determination that each station possesses its own barometric 
type ; that at other stations, more or less, according to their distance or 
proximity, certain differences from this type obtain : these differences are 
strikingly exhibited in plate 25, Report, 1847. Such a result was certainly 
to be expected, as the points of intersection of each wave of each system must 
necessarily be different at different stations, so that the barometric curves 
at the various stations must necessarily differ from each other. The con- 
stancy of the symmetrical characters of the curves appertaining to the 
middle of November renders it important to deduce the mean symmetrical 
curve for the fifteen days constituting the period of the " great wave," for 
as many stations as observations can be obtained from. 'Without doubt, the 
mean curve at Brussels would be highly valuable ; it has, however, been out 
of our power to determine it during the last year ; but the Greenwich 
observations have afforded the opportunity of determining the mean curve 
1848. E . 



50 



REPORT — 1848. 



for that station, from the observations 1841 to 1845 inchisive, already pub- 
lished. In deducing this mean curve, the epochs given in tiie following table 
have been regarded as marking the transit of the apex of the symmetrical 
curve in each year. 

Table VIII. 

Epochs of transit of the crest of the " Great Symmetrical Wave of Novem- 
ber," from 1841 to 1845 inclusive, at the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich. 



Year. 


Epoch of transit. 


Altitude of crest. 




d h 




1841. 


Nov. 25, 


29-693 


1 842. 


Nov. 17, 22 


30-470 


1843. 


Nov. 13, 10 


30-170 


1844. 


Oct. 26, 22 


30-lo7 


1845. 


Nov. 14, 


29-948 



These epochs have consequently been considered as the axes of the curves ; 
they have been brought in the projections on tlie same vertical line, and on 
this line the altitudes given in the third column have been projected ; the 
altitudes- at intervals of two hours preceding and succeeding these axes 
during a period of thirty days have also been projected, so that fifteen days 
on each side complete not only the symmetrical curves, but also those pre- 
ceding and succeeding them by seven days. During a period embracing 192 
hours preceding and succeeding the apices, means have been taken, when 
practicable, of the two-liourly readings, from which the mean curve has been 
projected ; these means are recorded in the following Table, and the mean 
curve projected below the symmetrical curves for each year. On Plate 3 
will be found the five curves of the symmetrical wave for the years above- 
mentioned, also the mean symmetrical curve deduced from them. 

■ Table IX. 

Mean ordinates of the " Great Symmetrical Wave of November," as deduced 
from Observations at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, during the years 
1841 to 1845 inclusive, corrected for temperature, and reduced to the 
level of the sea. 



Hours 




Hours 




Hours 




Hours 




before 
transit. 


Altitudes. 


after 
transit. 


Altitudes. 


before 
transit. 


Altitudes. 


after 
transit. 


Altitudes. 


— 




+ 




— 




+ 




Apex. 


30-271 


Apex. 


30^271 


20 


30-112 


20 


30-173 


2 




2 




22 


•092 


22 


•172 


4 




4 




24 


30-079 


24 


•151 


6 









26 




26 


•135 


8 




8 


30-256 


1 28 




28 


•114 


10 


30-215 


10 


30-252 


i 30 


29-992 


30 


•097 


12 


•205 


12 




1 32 




32 


•085 


14 


•189 


14 




! 34 


29-959 


34 


•070 


16 


•160 


16 


30-209 


36 


29*944 


36 


30^038 


18 


30^132 


18 


30-184 


38 




38 





ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 



51 







Table IX. 


(continued). 






Hours 




Hours 




Hours 




Hours 




before 
transit. 


Altitudes. 


after 
transit. 


Altitudes. 


before 
transit. 


Altitudes. 


after 
transit. 


Altitudes. 






+ 




118 




+ 




40 




40 






118 


29-392 


4,2 




42 




120 


29-637 


120 


-379 


44 




44 




122 




122 


29-369 


46 


29-848 


46 




124 




124 




48 


•848 


48 


29-900 


126 




126 




50 


•820 


50 




128 




128 




52 


•790 


52 




130 




130 




54 


•765 


54 




132 


29-581 


132 


29-393 


56 


•754 


56 




134 


•567 


134 


-375 


58 


•723 


58 




136 


•553 


136 


-361 


60 


•694 


60 




138 


•526 


138 


29-337 


62 


•658 


62 




140 


•518 


140 




64 


•608 


64 




142 


•518 


142 




66 


•563 


G6 




144 


•529 


144 




68 


•558 


68 




146 


•529 


146 




70 


•575 


70 


29-809 


148 


•530 


148 


29-279 


72 


•582 


72 




150 


•535 


150 


-276 


74 


•569 


74 




152 


29-539 


152 


•304 


76 


•557 


76 




154 




154 


•324 


78 


•548 


78 


29-823 


156 




156 


•356 


80 


•563 


80 




158 




158 


29^386 


82 


29-587 


82 




160 


29-506 


160 




84 




84 




162 




162 




86 




86 


29-740 


164 




164 




88 




88 


.688 


166 




166 




90 




90 


-622 


168 


29-572 


168 


29^462 


92 


29-660 


92 


-564 


170 




170 




94 




94 


•554 


172 




172 




96 


29-697 


96 


•520 


174 




174 




98 




98 


•497 


176 




176 


29^392 


100 




100 


•473 


178 


29-604 


178 




102 




102 


•463 


180 


-634 


180 




104 




104 


•478 


182 


•662 


182 




106 




106 


•490 


184 


•697 


184 


29^362 


108 




108 


•485 


186 


•733 


186 


•367 


110 




110 


•459 


188 


29-770 


188 


•361 


112 




112 


•435 


190 




190 


•S61 


114 




114 


•419 


192 




192 


29^374 


116 


29-623 


116 


29-409 











Essential features of the barometric type for November, known as the Great 
Symmetrical Wave of November, as exhibited in a mean curve deduced from 
Jive years' observations at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. 
It has been assumed that the great symmetrical wave of November con- 
sists of/ue subordinate waves giving rise to the five maxima which charac- 

E 2 



52 REPORT — 1848. 

terizo it, tlic cenivnl maximum forming the apex of the symmetrical curve, 
the renmiiuler being subordinate thereto (Report, 184G, p. 125). Upon a 
close inspection of the curves of the "great wave" as laid down from the 
Greenwich observations, six subordinate maxima can be traced, three on 
eacii side tlic central apex, which in all the years is by far the most pro- 
minent. The mean curve leads to the conclusion that Greenwich is not the 
point of greatest symmetry, its closing portion being depressed more than 
0-2 inch below the commencement. The most striking feature is the decided 
rise of the mercurial column during a period of 68 hours preceding the 
transit of the crest. The value of this rise is 0*7 inch, or about O'OIO inch 
per hour. The fall is not so precipitous ; the barometer appears to be kept 
up in this locality by tlie first subordinate maximum succeeding the crest ; 
so that at the epoch of 68 hours after transit, the value of the reading is 
more than 0-2 inch higher than at 68 hours before transit. At 80 hours 
after transit a precipitous fall commences which continues during the next 
24 hours, the mercury sinking 0*36 inch, or about O'Olo per hour ; the fall 
afterwards continues, with two slight interruptions, answering to the sub- 
ordinate maxima until the close of the wave 148 hours after transit, the 
entire depression being nearly 1 inch. 

It is worthy of remark, that in tlje determination of the symmetrical 
curve from the Greenwich observations, extending in each year over double 
the period embraced by the curve itself, and including five instead of 
three years, the period of the wave should so closely agree with the period 
assigned to it in 1845 when the ordinates of the mean normal curve 
were deduced from the recurring curves of 1842, 1843, and 1844 (Report, 
1845, p. 122), the observations in 1842 having been made at Leicester 
Square, and those in the last two years at Cambridge Heath. The two 
periods are identical, viz. 296 hours. It is necessary to mention here 
that so close an accordance in the values of the ordinates is not to be ex- 
pected. The Greenwich observations have been corrected for temperature, 
and the mean ordinates are reduced to the level of the sea. The quantities 
employed in the deduction of the ordinates recorded on p. 122, Report, 
1845, were obtained from observations as read off from the scale without 
any correction whatever. 

The barometric rise, to which allusion has been made, was very distinct 
on the occasion of the return of the great symmetrical curve in 1846. I 
have recorded in my last report (Report, 1847, pp. 359 to 363) the phseno- 
mena of this rise as exhibited in Great Britain and Ireland, especially during 
the first 50 hours, and it is not difficult to recognise them as repetitions of 
the phsenomena from which the mean rise has been deduced. 

As regards the departure from symmetry manifested by the mean curve 
at Greenwich, the first portion of the curve, viz., from 148 hours to 68 
hours before transit, being thrown higher than the latter portion, that from 
92 hours to 148 hours after transit, and t|ie bulging character of the fall 
occasioning the readings at similar epochs to be higher after transit than 
before, during a period of 90 hours preceding and succeeding the transit of 
the crest, it appears pretty evident that this station is removed a definite 
distance from the point of greatest symmetry. If we take the commence- 
ment and termination of the wave at equal altitudes as indicating the greatest 
symmetry, the departure from symmetry at any station will be measured 
by the difference between the altitudes of the beginning and end; thus the 
mean departure from symmetry at Greenwich, from the five years' observa- 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 53 

tions, using tliese elements, may be expressed as '251 inch. Other features 
of the mean curve may be employed for this ])urpose ; but wliatever value 
may be adopted as a measure of tlie departure from symmetry, the points of 
the curves from which such value has been deduced should be particu'arly 
specified. 

PART III. 

The possibility of measuring at any one station the departure from sym- 
metry which that particular curve known as the " symmetrical curve " 
manifests, brings us to the third part of this report, — "The notice of any 
results that may have been obtained during the past year of a character 
not contemplated, or but slightly indicated in our former reports, and which 
have particularly originated in the observations of the last return of the 
November curve." The " symmetrical curve " on its last return was very 
distinct ; it however presented some minor features which occasioned it to 
differ slightly from the ttjjye, as expressed in the Report of 1846, p. 125, 
The central apex was depressed at London below two of the subordinate 
maxima on either side. Had these subordinate maxima exhibited the same 
altitudes, and the interior minima preceding and succeeding the central apex 
also exhibited similar altitudes, the symmetry on the last return would have 
been complete at London, although the central apex was lower than those 
preceding and succeeding it; as it was, the first maximum, that of the 10th, 
was depressed '051 inch below that of the 18th, the second. We have ac- 
cordingly indicated, both from the mean curve as deduced from the Green- 
wich observations and the features of the "symmetrical curve" as it passed 
London during the last autumn, a mode of expressing numerically the 
deviation from symmetry at any station ; and it is clear that this deviation 
may be expressed for single years, as deduced from the individual curves, 
or the mean deviation may be taken from several years' observations, as we 
have done for Greenwich. The last method would be the most desirable in 
determining the value of the deviation at other stations. We are not, how- 
ever, in possession of series of observations executed at such short intervals, 
extending over so long a period, and noting such minute changes of pressure 
as the Greenwich observations, in other parts of Great Britain, and also in 
Ireland ; nor can we find observations even at longer intervals at stations 
sufficiently near each other to enable us to determine either the law of 
the departure from symmetry as we recede from the point of greatest sym- 
metry, or the directions in which such deviations increase more rapidly than 
in others, by this method ; but we may attempt some approximation to the 
determination of such a law, or the indication of such directions, by taking 
certain points of the symmetrical curves lor individual years, as indicated 
by the observations of last autumn regarding the differences between such 
points as measures of the deviations from symmetry, and constructing charts 
of equal deviation. The observations forming the subject of my last report, 
embracing as they do the whole of Great Britain and Ireland, are admirably 
suited for such an attempt. I have accordingly selected the maxima of the 
5th and 12th (see plate 25, Report, 1847) as the points from which the 
deviation from symmetry may be deduced, and laid down on a map of the 
British Islands the differences between these maxima, and from them have 
constructed the lines of equal deviation from '050 inch to "550 inch, being 
nearly the range of these differences. 



54 



REPORT — 1848. 
Table X. 



Values of the deviation from symmetry of the great symmetrical curves of 
November, as deduced from the depression of the maximum of the 5th 
of November below that of the 12th in the year 1846 in Great Britain 
and Ireland. 



Station. 


Deviation from 
symmetry. 


Station. 


Deviation from 
symmetry. 


Stornoway 

Limerick 

Galway 

Lara's 


•580 
•550 
•480 
•460 
•440 
•420 
•407 
•400 
•360 
•343 


Hobbs' Point .... 
Nottingham .... 

Brecon 

Gloucester 

Helstone 

Cirencester 

Weston 

London 

Ramsgate 

Jersey 


•313 
•285 
•270 
•260 
•258 
•244 
•210 
•171 
•100 
•013 


St. Vigean's 

Orkneys 

Makerstoun 

Applegarth 

Bowness 

Newcastle 



In the chart accompanying this report (PI. 4), the line representing the 
deviation from symmetry by •SOO inch, or in other words, that line of country 
on which the maximum of the 5th did not attain the elevation of that of the 
12th by this quantity, is probably the best determined ; it appears to have 
passed a little to the north-west of Cornwall, to the south-east of Pembroke- 
shire, north-west of Brecon, west of Nottingham, and south-east of Newcastle. 
The ^250 inch line is also well determined by the observations at Helstone, 
Weston, Gloucester, Cirencester, and Nottingham. The observations at 
Helstone, Brecon, Gloucester, and Nottingham mark out very distinctly the 
direction of the line ^260 inch ; this line passes very near and to the west 
of Helstone, ^258 ; it then proceeds along the coasts of Cornwall and 
Devonshire, crosses the Bristol Channel, enters Wales, and continues its 
progress across Glamorganshire towards Brecon, which it leaves to the 
north-west, •270 inch being the value at this station. It is at this point 
that it appears to undergo a decided inflexion, its course being changed 
rather abruptly as it proceeds to Gloucester, which city it passes through. 
Nottingham is removed ^025 from it to the west ; and the bend in the cen- 
tral parts of England is very considerable to bring it again to its original 
direction, as it leaves the land at the south-east angle of Yorkshire and 
enters on the German Ocean, These lines of equal deviation from sym- 
metry present a very remarkable characteristic, namely, a decided inflexion 
over the land forming the central parts of England. This inflexion is borne 
out by the London and Ramsgate observations, presenting higher values of 
these differences than they would have done had the lines extended across 
England without inflexion. The general direction of the lines in the cen- 
tral and south-east parts of England is S. W. to N.E. The observations from 
Scotland and Ireland indicate that the general direction in those localities 
approached nearer to that of the meridian ; the lines are, however, inflected 
as they pass over the land. The chart exhibits two systems of inflexion, 
viz. that of Ireland and England, the general direction of the lines under- 
going a change as the line of greatest symmetry is approached, the inflexion 
being governed apparently by the masses of land ; and the other in Scot- 
land, the observations at the Orkneys, St. Vigean's, and Largs affording 



ON ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. 55 

conclusive evidence relative to it. It would consequently appear, in accord- 
ance with previous researches (Report, 1846, p. 147), that contiguous 
masses of land and water exert a decided and measurable influence on the 
variations of atmospheric pressure. In the case before us, the symmetry of 
the barometric curve is departed from in a greater degree at inland stations, 
a greater difference between the points selected being exhibited at such 
stations than at the sea-coast on either side. 

On turning to the last Report, pp. 357 and 358, we find the maximum 
of the 5th referred to a wave-crest that passed rather rapidly over the area 
from the south-west. The altitude of this crest was greatest in the south- 
east, simply because it was contemporaneous with a north-westerly slope ; 
a line from Jersey to Limerick on the chart will somewhat approximate to 
a transverse section of this slope. On page 364 of the same report, we find 
the maximum of the 12th referred to a wave-crest that came from the 
north-west ; and at p. 367, the departure from symmetry is referred to the 
greater development of this north-westerly wave. Stornoway, in the Western 
Isles, exhibited the greatest development of this wave, the greatest baro- 
metric range during tlie passage of the " symmetrical curve," and the 
greatest difference between the points selected as indicating the departure 
from symmetry ; and these phenomena clearly resulted from the greater 
altitude which the north-westerly wave attained in the north of Scotland; 
this would appear to indicate that the deviation from symmetry resulted 
from the greater altitude of the north-westerly wave in certain localities, and 
that the barometer had a tendency to rise higher over the land as the wave 
transited. It is, however, difficult to determine this from the observations, 
partly on account of the slow-moving wave [I] (Report, 1847, p. 358), 
whose crest extended from Arbroath to Stornoway, and also from the south- 
westerly system of waves ; ibr it is evicant that the same result, viz. an 
approach to an equality of altitude of the maxima of the 5th and 12th, would 
be produced as well by the higher readings of tlie 5th as the lower readings 
of the 12th. Upon the whole it appears highly probable that the result is a 
compound one, the approach to symmetry, as we proceed from the north- 
west to the south-east, being occasioned by the higher readings of the south- 
westerly crest of the 5th in the south-east, and the lower readings of the 
north-westerly crest of the 12th in the same locality; the inflexions of the lines 
being produced by the tendency of the barometer to rise higher as the anterior 
slopes and crests, especially of the north-west wave, passed over the land. 

Regarding the chart before us as indicating the localities and directions of 
certain barometric phsenomena characterizing the "great symmetrical curve 
of November," we at once see that it exhibits to us but a small portion of 
the area over which these particular phaenoraena can be traced. The lines 
of deviation Irom symmetry, as determined from observation, extend from 
•100 inch at Ramsgate to '550 inch at Limerick, '580 inch being the highest 
determination at Stornoway. It would appear from the Galway observa- 
tions that the deviation did not much exceed "580 inch, '480 inch being the 
value at this station. Query, Shall we find the curves undergoing such a 
modification of form to the north-west of Ireland and Scotland as to bring 
these maxima more on a level, having other features, as the broad maximum 
of the 8th, which is very apparent in the Galway curve, so developed as to 
produce a difierent order of curves, the limit of deviation from symmetry 
of the Greenwich type being somewhat in the direction of the "550 inch 
line ? The area of the British Isles embraces the north-western side of the 
deviation from symmetry, as determined by the inferiority of the maximum 



56 REPORT — 1848. 

of the 5th to that of the 12th. How far the lines of deviation extend to 
the south-west and north-east we are at present ignorant : it would how- 
ever be interesting to learn whether they continue to any great extent to 
exhibit a more or less longitudinal direction, being simply inflected by the 
masses of land over which they pass, or whether they form a system of 
curves, the interior ones being closed. Of the direction and form of the 
lines of equal deviation to the south-east of the symmetrical line we are 
likewise ignorant. Taking the Jersey curve, although not the most symme- 
trical, yet, with regard to the points selected, exhibiting the least deviation, 
we find a development of a different and somewhat opposite character to that 
which we observe in the Scottish and Irish curves. In these curves the 
maximum of the 12th is by far the most prominent, that of the 5th appearing 
as very subordinate. At Jersey that of the 5th is the most prominent, the 
maximum of the 12th dwindling into a subordinate elevation on the pos- 
terior slope of the curve. Query. Does the maximum of the 5th rise into 
considerable importance south-east of the line of greatest symmetry, while 
that of the 12th merges into the general curve so as to give rise to a series 
of lines of equal deviation of an opposite character to those vvhich we have 
traced; and do these lines of opposite deviation preserve a general parallelism 
within certain limits to them ? If so, the lines of equal and opposite 
deviation on each side the line of greatest symmetry, whether extending 
indefinitely or forming closed curves, will mark out an .irea to which that 
particular barometric curve known as the " symmetrical curve of Novem- 
ber " is peculiar, and the line of greatest deviation on each side will to a 
certain extent limit such area, curves of a different character, and exhi- 
biting novel features, appearing beyond the lines of greatest deviation. 

It may probably be inquired if the general direction of the lines of equal 
deviation are similar year after year? The amount of our present know- 
ledge on this head indicates that such is not the case : taking similar points 
in the curve on each return as indicating the departure from symmetry, the 
direction of the lines varies, and this variation appears to be in accordance 
with a certain law. We have on former occasions noticed that in 1842 the 
direction of the line of greatest symmetry was from Dublin to Munich, the 
deviations occurring on the north-east and south-west of this line (Report, 
IS'l'G, p. J6.3). In 1845 it appeared to be in the direction of the southern 
shores of England (Report, 1846, pp. 130, 164), and it consequently formed, 
with the line of greatest symmetry in 1842, a considerable angle. In 1846 
this angle was considerably increased ; and from some observations received 
last autumn, it appeared to be still further increased, so as to equal if not 
exceed a right angle, the station affording the most symmetrical curve being 
Norwich. The instability of the line of greatest symmetry, to which allu- 
sion has been made in my Report of 1846, p. 126, is thus clearly established 
and the character of the motion indicated. The line of greatest symmetry 
appears to revolve around a fixed point or node, which is situated in the 
neighbourhood of Brussels*. It is probable tlie node itself is situated a 
little to the north-west of Brussels, the common intersection of the lines 
already traced occurring to the north-west of that city. W R R 

Postscript. I omitted to mention in my last Report, in connexion with 
the observations made at the stations recorded in Table I. (Report, 1847, 
p. 351), that the observations at Sir Thomas Brisbane's observatory, Makers- 
toun, near Kelso, were made under the sole direction of J. A. Brown, Esq. 

* Sir John Herschel lias directed attention to the nodal character of Brussels in his 
Report on Meteorological Reductions (Report, 1843, p. 100), especially in relation to the 
revolution of the wind in one uniform direction. 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 57 



On Colouring Matters. By Edward Schunck. 

In the report which I had the honour of presenting last year to the British 
Association on Colouring Matters, I gave the results of my investigation of 
the colouring matters of madder. This investigation I have continued and 
brought to a conclusion. The subject has however proved so extensive, the 
number of questions arising in regard to this valuable and extensively-used 
tinctorial substancebeing very great, that 1 have been unable to examme any 
other colouring matters very minutely. 

I stated in my last report, that when finely-ground madder roots are treated 
with hot water, a brown liquid is obtained having a sweetish bitter taste, in 
which acids produce a dark brown precipitate. Tliis precipitate I stated to 
consist of six substances, viz. two colouring matters, two fats, pectic acid and 
a bitter substance. To these I now add a seventh : it is a dark brown sub- 
stance which remains behind when the other substances have been removed 
by means of boiling water and alcohol ; it is soluble in caustic alkalies with 
a dark brown colour, and seems to be the substance lo which the colour of 
the dark brown precipitate is due : I consider it to be oxidized extractive 
matter. Concerning the method of separating the other six substances con- 
tained in the dark brown precipitate, I have nothing to add to what I said in 
my last report, as I have not been able to discover a shorter or better plan 
of separating them than that which is there described. In regard to their 
nature, properties and composition, which I have examined more minutely, 
I shall in this report give a number of additional details ; before doing so 
liowever I shall make a fev/ observations on the subject in general. I may 
state, in the first place, that I have arrived at the conclusion that there is 
only one colouring matter contained in madder, viz. alizarin ; the other sub- 
stance, which I took for a colouring matter in the first instance, and which I 
called rubiacin, I now consider to be no colouring matter at all, for reasons 
whicli I shall presently state. I have also reason to believe that tlie two sub- 
stances which in my first report I called fats, are not fats, but resins ; they 
are coloured resins similar to many others known to chemists. Of these two 
resins I shall call the more easily fusible one, which dissolves in a boiling 
solution of perchloride or pernitrate of iron, the alpha-resin ; the other less 
easily fusible one, which forms an insoluble compound when treated with 
perchloride or pernitrate of iron, the heta-resin. The method of preparing 
them is the same as that which I described in my former report. After the 
dark brown precipitate produced in a decoction of madder by acids has been 
successively treated with boiling water and boiling alcohol, there remains 
behind a dark brown substance ; on treating this substance with caustic 
potash, it dissolves in great part with a dark brown colour ; on filtering there 
remains on the filter a mixture of peroxide of iron and sulphate of lime ; on 
adding a strong acid to the filtered liquid a substance in dark brown flocks is 
precipitated, which is thrown on a filter, washed and dried. This substance, 
when heated on platinum foil, burns without much flame, and leaves a con- 
siderable ash. It is easily decomposed by boiling dilute nitric acid, which 
converts it with an evolution of nitrous acid into a yellow flocculent sub- 
stance. As it is insoluble in all menstrua except the alkalies, it may be 
asked, how it can be extracted from madder by means of boiling water, in 
which it is of itself insoluble, and whether it is not possible that it may be 
formed during the process of boiling by the action of the air on some sub- 
stance contained in the extract. I think the latter supposition very probable, 



58 REPOET — 1848. 

and 1 shall presently describe a substance of almost identical properties 
formed by the action of the air on xanthin, the extractive matter of madder. 
There can however be no doubt that the brown colour of the precipitate, 
which is produced by acids in a decoction of madder, is due to this substance, 
for the other bodies contained in it are not brown, but yellow or orange- 
coloured in a precipitate state. This dark brown precipitate therefore con- 
sists of the following substances : — alizarin, rubiacin, alpha-resin, beta- 
resin, rubian, pectic acid, and oxidized extractive matter. 

I have examined the liquid filtered from the dark brown precipitate pro- 
duced by acids more minutely since making my last report. If oxalic acid 
be used as the precipitant, the excess of acid may afterwards be removed by 
chalk, without leaving any lime-salt in solution. The liquid, which had a 
light yellow colour, was evaporated on the sand-bath. During evaporation 
it gradually became brown, and left at last a thick dark brown syrup, which 
never became dry, however long it might be exposed to the heat of the sand- 
bath. On re-dissolving tliis syrup in water, a considerable quantity of a dark 
brown powder remained behind. On again evaporating the filtered solution 
on the sand-bath, an additional quantity of this powder was deposited, just as 
in the case of extractive matter. There can be no doubt that this powder is 
formed by the action of the air, assisted by heat, on some soluble substance con- 
tained in the liquid. On burning a small quantity of the brown syrup in a 
crucible it swelled up enormously, and gave off a quantity of empyreumatic 
products, which burned with a flame, leaving at last a considerable quantity of 
white ash ; this ash was partly soluble, partly insoluble in water. The soluble 
part had a strong alkaline reaction ; it consisted of a trace of lime and mag- 
nesia, and a great deal of potash, combined with carbonic, sulphuric and 
muriatic acids. The insoluble part consisted of carbonate of lime, carbonate 
of magnesia, a trace of alumina, phosphate of lime and phosphate of mag- 
nesia. The solution of the brown syrup in water had an acid reaction. It 
gave no precipitate or peculiar colour with a persalt of iron, and therefore 
contained no tannic acid. The addition of alcohol produced no precipitate 
or coagulate, and therefore there was no gum present. On adding muriatic 
or sulphuric acid to it, and then boiling, it became dark-coloured and de- 
posited a green powder. Sugar of lead produced in the solution a dirty 
brown flocculent precipitate, and basic acetate of lead a still more copious 
precipitate. A considerable quantity of the brown syrup was dissolved in 
water, and basic acetate of lead was added until no more precipitate was 
produced. The precipitate was separated by filtration, and washed with 
water. The percolating liquid had a yellow colour. The excess of lead was 
removed from it by sulphuretted hydrogen, and the filtered liquid was eva- 
porated over sulphuric acid, since, if evaporated by the assistance of heat, 
the substance contained in it was changed by tlie air, became brown, and 
deposited a brown powder. After remaining over sulphuric acid for several 
weeks, there was left a yellow or brownish-yellow syrup like honey, which 
did not become dry. This substance, though not pure (as it contained salts 
of lime, magnesia and potash), I conceive to be identical with Kuhlmann's 
xanthin and Runge's madder-yellow. 

If madder contains sugar, it is evident that, provided the method of ope- 
rating described above be followed, it must be contained in the same liquid 
as this xanthin. I have however not been able to prove its presence by 
direct experiment ; but I have succeeded in ascertaining indirectly that 
madder does in reality contain sugar of seme kind by means of the following 
experiment. Half a hundred- weiglit of madder was treated with boiling 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 59 

water for several hours. The liquor, after being reduced by boiling to a 
convenient compass, was mixed with some yeast, and allowed to ferment. 
By distillation an alcoliolic liquid was obtained, which, after a second distil- 
lation, gave 2l|ozs. of alcohol of sp. gr. 0-935, which is equivalent to 9 ozs. 
of absolute alcohol. It is therefore evident that madder contains sugar of 
some kind or other. 

The precipitate produced by basic acetate of lead in the solution of the 
brown syrup was decomposed with sulphuretted hydrogen. The filtered 
liquid was evajiorated, and left after evaporation a dark brown syrup, having 
a strongly acid taste and reaction. The brown colour was no doubt due to 
xanthin in its oxidizud state. After being repeatedly dissolved, and the solu- 
tion being each time evaporated, a dark brown powder was deposited, 
just as in the case of the original solution : nevertheless the acid taste 
always remained. It might be supposed that this taste was due to some 
vegetable acid ; and indeed if any such acid, or the compound of any one 
with the alkalies or earths, had been extracted irom the madder by boiling 
water, it woidd most probably have been precipitated by the basic acetate of 
lead, and it would be in the liquid obtained by the decomposition of the lead 
precipitate tliat vve should have to look for any such acid. Now the syrup 
obtained after decomposing the lead precipitate and evaporating the liquid, 
though intensely acid, contained no oxalic, tartaric, malic or citric acid ; 
neither did it show the least sign of crystallization ; but the watery solution 
gave a crystalline precipitate with ammonia and sulphate of magnesia ; and 
after destroying the brown organic matter contained in it by adding nitric 
acid and boiling, and then evaporating to drive away the excess of nitric 
acid, it gave a yellow precipitate with nitrate of silver and ammonia. I 
therefore infer that the acid to which the sour taste of the brown syrup was 
owing, was phosphoric acid*. The sulphuret of lead, produced by the de- 
composition of the lead precipitate, was treated with boiling caustic potash. 
A dark brown solution resulted, which after filtration gave with muriatic 
acid a dark brown precipitate. This precipitate, after filtration, washing and 
drying, cohered into masses, which were brittle and black, but became brown 
when powdered. It was totally insoluble in boiling water and alcohol. It 
was decomposed by dilute boiling nitric acid, and changed into a yellow floc- 
culent substance. It was soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, forming a 
brown liquid, and was re- precipitated by water. I consider this substance, 
that formed in a solution of xanthin during evaporation by heat, and the dark 
brown substance contained in the precipitate produced by acids in a decoc- 
tion of madder as the same, and that they are all produced from xanthin by 
the action of the oxygen of the air. 

It still remains for me to say a few words on the substances left behind in 
the root, after madder has been exhausted with boiling water. It has for 
some time been well known that if madder, which has already been used for 
the purpose of dyeing, be treated with a strong acid such as sulphuric or 
muriatic, and the acid be then carefully removed by washing with cold water, 
it is capable of being again used for dyeing in the same way as fresh madder. 
It is in this manner that the article known in commerce as garanceux is 

* On one occasion, after having added nitric acid to the acid syrup and boiled, I obtained 
on evaporation crystals of an organic acid, very similar to alizaric acid, but not identical 
with it. It was sparingly soluble in cold water, but very soluble in hot. It was volatile. 
The watery solution gave with acetate of lead a crystalline precipitate soluble in boiling 
water, with perchloride of iron a cream-coloured precipitate, with acetate of copper a green 
ciystalline precipitate, and with nitrate of silver and ammonia a white flocculent precipitate. 
Alizarate of lead is quite insoluble in boiling water, and not in the least crystalline. 



60 REPORT — 1848. 

manufactured. This is a convincing proof that it is impossible to extract tlie 
whole of the colouring matter by means of boiling water, and tlmt part of it 
must remain beJiind in some state in which it is insoluble in water. A quan- 
tity of madder was treated with boiling water until the liquor gave abso- 
lutely no more precipitate on the addition of muriatic acid. A very long 
boiling was necessary for this purpose. The colour of the madder was 
changed by this process from yellowish-brown, as it appears in the fresh 
state, to a dull red. It was then treated with boiling caustic potash ley. A 
liquor of a brownish colour was obtained, in which muriatic acid produced a 
gelatinous precipitate of a brown colour. This was separated by filtration, 
and, after being washed with cold water in order to remove all the muriatic 
acid, was treated with a large quantity of boiling water, in which it proved 
to be almost entirely soluble. The solution was light brown. It gave gela- 
tinous precipitates with acids, with lime and baryta water, alcohol and most 
salts. On evaporation it left a substance in light brown, transparent, brittle 
scales, which turned out to be pectic acid, much purer indeed than that ob- 
tained in the first instance from the aqueous decoction. No colouring matter, 
or any other substance besides pectic acid, seemed to be extracted by the 
caustic alkali. 

Another quantity of madder which had been completely exhausted by 
boiling water, was treated with boiling muriatic acid, and the liquid, after the 
boiling had been kept up for some time, was strained through a cloth and 
supersaturated with ammonia, which produced a pinkish-white precipitate. 
This precipitate was thrown on a filter and carefully washed. The liquid 
contained an abundance of lime and magnesia. A part of the pinkish-white 
precipitate vvas dried and heated to redness in a crucible. During ignition 
a gas came off which was witliout odour, and burnt with a blue flame, being 
probably carbonic oxide. After complete ignition it dissolved in muriatic 
acid with an effervescence of carbonic acid, but without leaving much car- 
bonaceous residue. On adding ammonia to the solution a white precipitate 
was again produced. The filtered liquid contained a large quantity of lime 
and a trace of magnesia. The precipitate consisted of alumina, peroxide of 
iron, phosphate of lime, and a trace of phosphate of magnesia. As it became 
probable from the preceding reactions that the pinkish-white precipitate con- 
tained oxalate of lime, the rest of it was treated with boiling dilute sulphuric 
acid. The liquid after filtration was evaporated. It gave crystals which 
were dissolved in alcohol to separate the sulphate of lim.e. The alcohol on 
evaporation gave colourless crystals of pure oxalic acid. Hence I infer that 
the following substances were extracted from the madder by means of mu- 
riatic acid : — lime, magnesia, oxalate of lime, phosphate of lime, alumina and 
peroxide of iron. The madder which had been subjected to the action of 
muriatic acid was now well-washed with water, and then treated with boiling 
caustic potash ley. A dark red solution was obtained, which, after being 
strained through a cloth, produced, on being supersaturated with an acid, a 
dark reddish-brown precipitate. This precipitate was thrown on a filter, 
and well-washed with cold water, to remove the excess of acid. 1 found 
this precipitate to dye mordanted cloth quite full, and of the same colours as 
madder itself. There could therefore be no doubt about its containing 
alizarin. Moreover, on treating the precipitate with boiling alcohol, a 
brownish-yellow liquid was obtained, which left on evaporation a brownish- 
red residue. A small portion of this residue being heated between two 
watch-glasses, an abundance of orange-coloured crystals of sublimed alizarin 
appeared on the upper glass. By treating the precipitate with boiling water, 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 61 

and filtering boiling hot, the h'quid deposited on cooling orange-coloured 
flocks, which were impure alizarin, for they dyed mordanted cloth, and after 
being dried and heated in a tube, they gave a crystalline sublimate. The 
liquid gave on evaporation pectic acid. That part of the precipitate which 
was left undissolved by boiling water, was treated with a boiling solution of 
nitrate of iron. The fikered liquid gave, on the addition of muriatic acid, a 
slight yellow precipitate, which was probably rubiacic acid from the rubiacin 
of the precipitate. The greater part was insoluble in nitrate of iron. By 
treating the insoluble residue with boiling muriatic acid, filtering, washing 
with water, and treating with boiling alcohol, an abundance of beta-resin was 
procured. 

I infer from these experiments that the substances extracted from madder 
by caustic potash, after exhaustion with boiling water and treating with acid, 
previously existed in the root in combination with lime and magnesia ; that 
these substances are not different from those extracted by boiling water, viz. 
alizarin, rubiacin, resins and pectic acid ; that the compounds of these bodies 
with lime and magnesia are insoluble in water, and, with the exception of 
pectate of lime, insoluble in caustic alkalies ; and that therefore, in order to 
extract them by means of water or an alkali, it is first necessary to remove 
the lime and magnesia with which they are combined by means of an acid. 

I shall now proceed to give some further details concerning the properties 
and composition of the substances extracted from madder. 

Alizarin. — Concerning the properties of alizarin I have nothing to add to 
what I stated in my last report, except that when crystallized from alcohol it 
contains several atoms of water of crystallization, which it loses when heated 
to 212° F. The crystals after being heated to this point have not lost their 
shape, but have become opake and of a much redder colour, resembling 
that of native chromate of lead. On placing them in a tube immersed in a 
sulphuric-acid bath, and heating the bath, no further change takes place until 
about 420° F., when a sublimate of orange-coloured crystals begins to appear 
on the cold part of the tube. 

On subjecting alizarin to elementary analysis I obtained the following 
results : — 

I. 0*3205 grm. of crystallized alizarin dried in the air gave, on being burnt 
with chromate of lead, 0*6695 carbonic acid and 0*1210 water. 

IT. 0*3985 grm. of the same gave 0*8320 carbonic acid and 0'1850 water. 

III. 0*3140 grm. gave 0*6565 carbonic acid and 0*1670 water. 

These numbers correspond in 100 parts to — 

I. II. III. 

Carbon 56*97 56*94 57*02 

Hydrogen 4*19 5*13 5*87 

Oxygen 38*84 37*93 37*11 

100*00 100*00 100*00 

The great discrepancy in the amounts of hydrogen in the preceding ana- 
lyses arises from the circumstance tliat alizarin loses its water of crystalli- 
zation with such extreme facility. No. I. was mixed with warm chromate of 
lead in a warm mortar ; No. II. was mixed with warm chromate of lead in a 
cold mortar ; and No. III. with cold chromate of lead in a cold mortar. In 
the case of No. I. therefore we see that the heat of the chromate of lead and 
the mortar combined was sufficient to drive away more water than what cor- 
responds to 1^ per cent, of hydrogen, though this heat was not greater than 
what might be borne by the hand. In order to determine the amount of 



62 REPORT — 1848. 

water of crystallization, crystallized alizarin was heated in a water-bath until 
it lost no more in weight. 

I. 0-4015 grm. treated in this way lost 0'0735 water. 
II. 0-357-5 grm. lost 0'0655 water. 

Alizarin which had been deprived of its water of crystallization by heat, 
gave, on being burnt with chromate of lead, the following results : — 
I. 0"2990 grm. gave 0'7575 carbonic acid and 0*1045 water. 

II. 0*3005 grm. of a different preparation gave 0*7620 carbonic acid and 
0*1095 water. 

III. 0*2765 grm. of the same preparation as the preceding gave 0*7010 
carbonic acid and 0*1025 water. 

In 100 parts it contains therefore — 

I. II. III. 

Carbon 69*09 69*15 69*14 

Hydrogen 3*88 4*04 4*11 

Oxygen 27*03 26*81 26*75 

100*00 100*00 100*00 

On analysing alizarin prepared by sublimation from pure crystals, I ob- 
tained the following numbers : — 

I. 0*3970 grm. gave 1 0115 carbonic acid and 0*1340 water. 

II. 0*4110 grm. gave 1*0510 carbonic acid and 0*1375 water. 

In 100 parts— 

I. II. 

Carbon 69*48 69*73 

Hydrogen 3*75 3*71 

Oxygen 26*77 26*56 

100*00 100*00 

It will be seen from this that sublimed alizarin does not differ materially in 
composition from alizarin which has been freed from its water of crystalli- 
zation. 

Of the compounds of alizarin with bases I prepared the lime, baryta and 
lead compounds. The two former were prepared by dissolving alizarin in 
ammonia, and precipitating with chloride of calcium and chloride of barium, 
the latter by dissolving alizarin in alcohol and precipitating with an alcoholic 
solution of sugar of lead. The latter forms a purple precipitate, which, after 
standing for some hours, becomes of a dull red. 

The lead compound gave on analysis the following numbers : — 

I. 0*4800 grm. gave 0*2095 oxide of lead and 0*0245 metallic lead, equi- 
valent to 0*2359 oxide of lead. 

0*5125 grm. burnt with chromate of lead gave 0*7050 carbonic acid and 
0*6780 water. 

II. 05865 grm. of a different preparation gave 0*3970 sulphate of lead, 
equivalent to 0*2920 oxide of lead. 

0*6915 grm. gave 0*9370 carbonic acid and O'lOOo water. Hence was 
deduced the following composition : — 

Calculated ^"T *^' 

Numbers. 'Z Z^ 

14 eqs. Carbon 84 37*57 37*51 36*95 

4 „ Hydrogen .. 4 1*78 1*67 1*61 

3 „ Oxygen 24 10*75 11*70 11*65 

1 „ Oxide of lead 111*7 49*90 49*12 49*79 

223*7 100*00 100*00 100*00 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 63 

The lime compound gave the following results : — 

I. 0'4685 grm. gave 0-206.5 sulphate of lime, equivalent to 0'0857 lime. 
II. 0'4750 grm. gave 0'2125 sulphate of lime, equivalent to 0'0882 lime. 
Assuming that the formula for this compound is C14 H4 O3 + CaO + HO, 
its composition would be as follows : — 

Calculated ^°^ ° ^- 

Numbers. C TT" 

1 eq. Alizarin 112 74-91 

1 „ Water 9 6-03 

1 „ Lime 28-5 19-06 18-30 18-58 

149-5 100-00 

The baryta compound gave the following : — 

0-2450 grm. gave 0-1420 sulphate of baryta, equivalent to 0-0932 baryta. 
Assuming that the formula of this compound is similar to that of the last, 
viz. C,4 H4 O3 + BaO + HO, its composition would be as follows : — 

Calculated. Found. 

1 eq. Alizarin 112 56-65 

1 „ Water 9 4-57 

1 „ Baryta 76-68 38-78 38-03 

197-68 100-00 

Neither of these compounds loses the equivalent of water which it contains 
on being heated in a water-bath for several hours. 

The composition of crystallized alizarin must therefore be as follows : — 

Calculated. 

14 eqs. Carbon 84 56-75 

8 „ Hydrogen 8 5*40 

7 „ Oxygen 56 37-85 

148 100-00 

or, Calculated Found*. 

Numbers. j Vp 

1 eq. dry Alizarin 121 8176 

3 eqs. Water 27 18-24 18-33 18-32 

148 100-00 

It follows that alizarin dried at 212° must consist of — 

Calculated. 

U eqs. Carbon 84 69-42 

5 „ Hydrogen 5 4-13 

4 „ Oxygen ^2 26-45 

121 100-00 

If this be the true composition of alizarin, it follows that there exists a 
very singular relation between it and the composition of benzoic acid. The 
formula of benzoic acid is C,4 Hg O4, and alizarin only differs from it there- 
fore by containing one equivalent less of hydrogen. If we compare alizarin 
with isatin, we shall find that the latter only differs from the former by con- 
taining in addition the elements of one equivalent of cyanogen. The formula 
of isatin is C,g H5 NO4 = C,4 H5 Oj + C2 N. Anthranilic acid differs in 
composition from alizarin in containing in addition the elements of amidogen, 
for the formula of anthranilic acid is C,4 H^ NO4 = C14 H5 O4 + NHo. 

* See p. 62. 



64 REPORT — 1848. 

AUzar'ic And. — In my former report I stated that alizarin, when treated 
with concentrated solutions of persalts of iron, is converted into a new acid, 
which I called alizaric acid. I stated at tiie same time that I tliought it pro- 
bable that alizaric acid might also be formed by acting on alizarin with nitric 
acid. This supposition has since been confirmed. On treating pure cry- 
stallized alizarin with boiling nitric acid, it is decomposed with an evolution of 
nitrous acid, and the liquid on evaporation gives crystals of alizaric acid. It 
is however not necessary to prepare pure alizarin in order to obtain alizaric 
acid. 1 have found the following to be the easiest method : — Nitric acid of 
about sp. gr. 1"20 having been put into a retort, garancin is introduced into 
the acid, and the liquid is heated imtil the red fumes have ceased to be 
evolved, and tlie colour of the garancin has changed from dark brown to 
yellow. The reddish-yellow acid liquid which is obtained, is filtered or 
strained to separate it I'rom the woody fibre, &c. of the garancin, and eva- 
porated to crystallization. A yellow crystalline mass is obtained, which is a 
mixture of oxalic acid and impure alizaric acid. After being washed with 
cold water to remove the excess of nitric acid, the mass is dissolved in 
boiling water, and chalk is added until all effervescence and acid reaction have 
ceased. The liquid is filtered, and the oxalate of lime remaining on the 
filter is washed with boiling water, until no more lime can be detected in the 
percolating liquid. The liquid is a solution of alizarate of lime. Muriatic 
acid is added to it, and it is evaporated to crystallization. A yellow mass is 
acrain obtained, whicli may ben-ashed with cold water to remove the chloride 
of calcium, then redissolved in boiling water. It forms a yellow solution, 
which may be almost decolorized by animal charcoal. On again evapo- 
rating, the alizaric acid is obtained in large crystals. Should these crystals 
still retain a yellow tinge, which is generally the case, they must be re- 
dissolved in boiling water. By passing chlorine gas through the boiling 
solution, until every trace of colour has disappeared, perfectly colourless 
crystals of the acid are obtained on cooling. Prepared in this way, it ap- 
pears in large flat rhombic plates: it has the properties which I described in 
my last report. 

The salts of alizaric acid are mostly soluble. Alizarate of potash is formed 
by neutralizing a watery solution of alizaric acid with carbonate of potash : 
it is obtained on evaporation as a deliquescent mass. Alizarate of lime is 
prepared by neutralizing alizaric acid with carbonate of lime, and evaporating 
to crystallization. It crystallizes in prisms, possessing great lustre. Alizarate 
of baryta, prepared in the same way by means of carbonate of baryta, cry- 
stallizes in silky needles. Alizarate of silver, prepared by double decompo- 
sition, is soluble in boiling water, from -which it crystallizes on the solution 
cooling. Alizarate of lead is an insoluble white powder, obtained by jireci- 
pitation of the acid with sugar of lead. With ammonia alizaric acid does not 
seem to form a neutral salt. On supersaturating a solution of the acid with 
ammonia and evaporating, the solution acquires during evaporation an acid 
reaction, and at length a salt crystallizes out in flat plates, which is no doubt 
a superalizarate of ammonia. All the salts of alizaric acid, when strongly 
heated, are decomposed with an evolution of a fragrant smell similar to that 
of benzin, and give, as a product of the decomposition, a thick brown oil, to 
wiiich without doubt the smell is owing ; -wliile tiie carbonates of the bases, 
or the bases themselves, remain behind mixed with much charcoal. 

The elementary analysis of alizaric acid gave the following results : — 

I. 0".5250 grm. obtained by means of perchloride of iron and burnt with 
oxide of copper, gave 1*1015 carbonic acid and 0"1810 water. 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 65 

II. 0'4670 grm. obtained by means of nitric acid and burnt with cliromiite 
of lead, gave 0'986j carbonic acid and 0M685 water. 

III. 0-4475 grm. of the same preparation as the preceding gave 0'9360 
carbonic acid and 0*1625 water. 

IV. 0*4395 grm., purified by means of chlorine and burnt with chromate 
of lead, gave 0*9335 carbonic acid and 0*1510 water. 

These numbers give in 100 parts — 

I. II. III. IV. 

Carbon 57*20 57-61 57*10 57*92 

Hydrogen 3*83 4-00 4*03 3*81 

Oxygen 38-97 38-39 38*87 38*37 

lOUOO 100-00 100-UU 100-00 

Alizarate of lead was analysed with tlie following results :— 

I. 0*8110 grm. gave 0*2665 oxide of lead and 0-2160 metallic lead, equi- 
valent to 0*4991 oxide of lead. 

0*6660 grm. gave 0*5810 carbonic acid and 0*0915 water. 

II. 0-62.'i0 grm. gave 0*2040 oxide of lead and 0*1655 metallic lead, equi- 
valent to 0-3822 oxide of lead. 

0-6515 grm. gave 0*5560 carbonic acid and 0-0860 water. Hence was 
deduced the following composition : — 

Calculated . 

Numbers. C 7p 

14 eqs. Carbon 84 23*37 23*79 23*27 

4 „ Hydrogen.. 4 1*11 1*52 1*46 

6 „ Oxygen.... 48 13*37 13*15 13*93 

2 „ Oxide of lead 223*4 62-15 61*54 61*34 

359*4 100-00 100*00 100*00 

The baryta salt lost nothing in weight on being heated for several hours 

in a water-bath. 

I. 0-6725 grm. of baryta salt dried at 212° gave 0'5245 sulphate of baryta, 
equivalent to 0*3442 baryta. 

II. 0*7330 grm. gave 0*5700 sulphate of baryta, equivalent to 0*3740 
baryta. 

Its composition is therefore probably as follows : — 

Found. 

Calculated. j * » 

I. II. 

1 eq. anhydrous Acid . 136 46*26 

1 „ Water 9 2*36 

2 eqs. Baryta 153*3 51*38 51*18 51*03 

298*3 100*00 
It is probable that the silver salt also contains two equivalents of base to 
one of acid. 

It follows from the analysis of the lead salt, that the hydrated acid has the 

following composition : — 

Calculated. 

14 eqs. Carbon 84 57*93 

5 „ Hydrogen 5 3*44 

7 „ Oxygen _56 38*63 

145 100*00 

By the action of nitric acid on alizarin the latter takes up three equivalents 
1848. I' 



66 REPORT — 1848. 

cf oxygen without losing any hydrogen, for C,4 H5 O4 4- 30 = C14 H5 O7. It 
appears also that alizaric acid contains one equivalent of hydrogen less, and 
three equivalents of oxygen more, than benzoic acid. 

Pipo-aitznric Acid. — When alizaric acid is iieated it is totally volatilized, 
and forms a sublimate in the shape of long white needles, to which I have 
given the name of pyro-alizaric acid. By the action of heat alizaric acid 
loses water, or the elements of water. Pyro-alizaric acid is soluble in boiling 
water. The solution, however, produces exactly the same reactions as alizaric 
acid itself, and on evapor;ition large rhombic crystals are obtained, which 
have quite the appearance of the latter acid. It is probable therefore that, 
by solution in water, pyro-alizaric. acid takes up again the elements of water, 
and is reconverted into alizaric acid. The following results were obtained on 
analysing this acid: — 

I. 0-4405 grm. dried at 21 2° and burnt with chromate of lead, gave r0345 
carbonic acid and 0-1185 water. 

II. 0-4255 grm. gave 09985 carbonic acid and 0-1215 water. 

From tiicse numbers it may be inferred that the composition is as follows : — 



28 eqs. Carbon 168 

7 „ Hydrogen 7 

11 „ Oxygen 88 



Calculated 






Numbers. 


I. 


11. 


63-87 


64-04 


63-99 


2-66 


2-98 


3-17 


33-47 


32-98 


32-84 



263 100-00 100-00 lOO-oO 



Hence it follows that by the action of heat two equivalents of alizaric acid 
lose three equivalents of water, and give one equivalent of pyro-alizaric 
acid, since 2(C,4 U, O-) - 3HO = C^^ H^ O,,. 

llub'iac'in. — In my last report I described the method of preparation, and 
the properties of rubiacin and rubincic acid, and I h;ive nothing further to 
add to what I there stated. I may mention however that I have arrived at 
the conclusion that rubiacin cannot be considered as a true colouring matter, 
as it is impossible to dye with it. I shall also show that, contrary to the 
opinion which I was led to entertain in the first instance, rubiacin does not 
contribute to produce any effect in the process of madder-dyeing. 

On subjecting rubiacate of potash and rubiacic acid to analysis, I ob- 
tained the follcw^ing results : — 

I. 04490 grm. rubiacate of potash gave 0-1090 sulphate of potash, equi- 
valent to 0-0589 potash. 

0-4350 grm. gave 0-7950 carbonic acid and 0-0900 water. 

II. 0-3245 grm. gave 0'079O sulphate of potash, equivalent to 0-0427 
potash. 

0-2890 grm. gave 0-5315 carbonic acid and 0-0665 water. 
From these numbers it may be inferred that the salt is composed as 
follows : — 





Carbon . . . 
Hydrogen. 
Oxygen . 
Potash . . . 


186 
7 
120 
47-27 


Calculated 
Numbers. 

51-63 
1-94 

33-31 
13-12 






31 eqs 
7 „ 

15 „ 
1 » 


I. 

51-50 

2-29 

33-09 

13-12 


II. 

51-82 

2-55 

32-47 

13-16 



360-27 100-00 100-00 lOO'OO 



' 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 6?^ 

I. 0'3785 grm. rubiacic acid, dried at 212° and burnt with oxide of copper, 
gave 0"7940 carbonic acid and 00S45 water. 

II. 0-3605 grm. of another preparation gave 0'7610 carbonic acid and 
0'0795 water. 

III. 0"4670 grm. of the same preparation as the preceding gave 0'9775 
carbonic acid and 0'1050 water. 

Hence was deduced the following composition : — 

Calculated . 







Numbers. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


31 eqs. Carbon . . 


186 


57-76 


57-21 


57-57 


57-08 


8 „ Hydrogen 


8 


2-48 


2-48 


2-45 


2-49 


16 „ Oxygen . . 


128 


39-76 


40-31 


39-98 


40-43 



322 100-00 100-00 lOO'OO 100-00 

0-3150 grm. rubiacin, dried at 212° and burnt with oxide of copper, gave 
0-7740 carbonic acid and 0-0935 water. 
This gives the following composition : — 

31 eqs. Carbon 186 

9 „ Hydrogen .... 9 
10 „ Oxygen , 80 



Calculated. 


Found. 


67-63 


67-01 


3-27 


3-28 


29-10 


29-71 



275 100-00 100-00 

The formula of rubiacin being C31 Hg Ou, and that of rubiacic acid C31 HgOie, 
it follows that when rubiacin is converted into rubiacic acid, it loses one 
equivalent of hydrogen and takes up six equivalents of oxygen, and that 
when rubiacic acid is reconverted into rubiacin, it loses six equivalents of 
oxygen and takes up again one of hyi'rogen. This oxidation and reduction 
is accomplished with the same certainty and precision as any similar process 
with inorganic bodies. 

Alpha-resin This resin is a constituent of the dark brown precipitate 

produced by acids in a decoction of madder. It dissolves together with 
rubiacin, when this precipitate is treated with a boiling solution of perchlo- 
ride or pernitrate of iron, and is precipitated together with rubiacin and 
rubiacic acid when muriatic acid is added to the solution. It is separated 
from the rubiacin and rubiacic acid by means of alcohol, in which it is easily 
soluble, while the two former are but little soluble. It has a dark brown or 
reddish-brown colour. When cold it is brittle, and may be easily pulverized. 
It begins to become soft at 150°F., and melts to dark brown drops between 
200° and 212°. When heated on platinum-foil it melts, swells up, and burns 
with flame, leaving much charcoal, which however burns away without leaving 
any residue. When heated in a glass tube it swells up, gives an oily sublimate, 
and evolves a strong smell, leaving at last a bulky carbonaceous residue. It 
is slightly soluble in boiling water, to which it communicates a yellow tinge. 
On the solution cooling yellow flocks are deposited, which are increased in 
quantity by adding an acid. It dissolves in alcohol with an orange colour ; 
water makes the solution milky, and on the addition of an acid the resin is 
completely precipitated in orange-coloured flocks. The alcoholic solution 
does not redden litmus paper. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid 
with a dark orange colour, and is re-precipitated by water in yellow flocks. 
It is decomposed by boiling concentrated nitric acid ; on evaporating the acid 
a resinous mass is left. It dissolves in caustic and carbonated alkalies with 
a purplish red colour. The solution in ammonia does not lose its ammonia 
on boiling, but on evaporation the resin is left in combination with a little 

f3 



68 REPORT — 1848. 

ammonia. The ammoniacal solution gives purple precipitates with the chlo- 
rides of barium and calcium, and a dirty red precipitate with alum. It dis- 
solves in perchloride and pernitrate of iron with a dark reddish-brown colour, 
and is re-precipitated by acids in flocks. Tlie alcoholic solution gives red 
precipitates with alcoholic solutions of sugar of lead and acetate of copper. 
If chlorine be passed through a solution of the resin in caustic potash, it is 
decolorized ; acids however now produce no precipitate, so that the resin 
seems to have been entirely decomposed by the chlorine. If mordanted 
cloth be introduced into boiling water, in which a quantity of the resin is 
suspended, the alumina mordant acquires an orange colour, and the iron 
mordant a broivn colour. Nevertheless these colours are so slight, that it is 
not likely that this resin contributes in any way to produce the desired effect 
in the process of madder-dyeing. I shall presently show that, on the contrary, 
it is ratiier injurious than otherwise in this process, since those parts of the 
cloth which should remain white acquire from it a disagreeable yellow tinge, 
which cannot afterwards be removed by merely washing with water, so that 
even if it did contribute to produce any greater intensity of colour on the 
mordanted parts, the advantage would be more than counterbalanced by the 
injurious eflfect on the unmordanted parts. 

Beta-resin. — This resin also Ibrnis a constituent of the dark brown preci- 
pitate produced by acids in a decoction of madder. If this precipitate be 
treated with a boiling solution of jierchloride or pernitrate of iron, the beta- 
resin forms a compound with peroxide of iron, which remains undissolved. 
By decomposing this compound with muriatic acid, and dissolving the resin 
in boiling alcohol, it is deposited on the alcohol cooling as a light brown 
powder. It hardly melts at the temperature of boiling water, but merely 
becomes soft and coheres into lumi)s. When heated on platinum foil, it melts 
and burns, leaving a slight red ash. When heated in a glass tube, it gives 
yellow fumes and evolves a disagreeable smell, leaving a carbonaceous residue. 
It is slightly soluble in boiling water, to which it communicates a yellow 
tinge; on the solution cooling nothing separates, but on adding acid some 
yellow flocks are deposited, while the liquid becomes colourless. The alco- 
holic solution is dark yellow ; it reddens litmus-paper. Water renders it 
milky, and acids precipitate the resin completely in yellow flocks. The resin 
dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with a dark brown colour, and is re- 
precipitated by water in light brown flocks. Concentrated nitric acid dissolves 
it on boiling and decomposes it ; on evaporation there is left a yellow, bitter 
astringent substance. It dissolves in caustic and carbonated alkalies with a 
dirty red colour, inclining to purple in the case of caustic alkali. It is re-pre- 
cipitated by acids in brown flocks. If chlorine be passed through a solution 
of the resin in caustic potash, it is decolorized ; but the substance itself 
seems to be thereby decomposed, as acids afterwards produce only a slight 
precipitate. The ammoniacal solution gives with the chlorides of barium 
and calcium dirty yellow precipitates. The alcoholic solution gives with an 
alcoholic solution of sugar of lead a red precipitate, and with an alcoholic 
solution of acetate of copper a brown precipitate. The ammoniacal solution 
loses its ammonia on evaporation, and the resin is left as a transparent brown 
skin. This resin has the same effect on mordanted cloth as the preceding; 
the alumina mordant acquires an orange, and the iron mordant a brown 
colour, while the unmordanted parts become yellow and unsightly. These 
effects are not however so decided as in the case of the alpha-resin, which is 
probably owing to its being less soluble in water than the latter. 

Rub'uin. — I have "iven this name to the substance to which the bitter taste 



ON COLOURING MA'ITERS. 69 

of madder seems to be due. I have described its metliod of preparation and 
properties in my last report. I may state, in addition to what 1 there said, 
that rubian seems to be a nitrogenous body, since, on treating it with boiling 
caustic alkali, ammonia is evolved. This fact and the bitter taste seem to 
indicate that the medical properties of madder, if indeed it possesses any, 
reside in this substance. 

If a solution of rubian in water be evaporated in contact with the air and 
with the assistance of heat, it deposits a dark brown substance, which sinks 
to the bottom in resinotis drops, so that on treating the residue after evapo- 
ration with water, it is not completely re-dissolved ; and if the filtered liquid 
be again evaporated as before, a fresh quantity of the dark brown substance 
is formed, just as in the case of extractive matter. This dark brown sub- 
stance melts into drops in boiling water, but when cold it is brittle. It dis- 
solves in alkalies with a dark red colour, and is re-precipitated by acids in 
yellow flocks ; indeed it bears in all respects a great resemblance to the 
body which I have called alpha-resin. Nevertheless it seems to consist of 
more than one substance ; for if it be heated in a glass tube over a lamp, an 
abundant sublimate, consisting of shining yellow crystals, is obtained in the 
upper part of the tube : these crystals very much resemble rubiacin. If it 
be treated with a boiUng solution of perchloride or pernitrate of iron, the 
liquid becomes reddish brown, and gives after filtration a yellow precipitate 
with muriatic acid, which is a proof of its containing either alpha-resin or 
rubiacin, or both. Hence it becomes very probable that rubiacin, the alpha- 
resin, and perhaps also the beta-resin, are formed from rubian by the action 
. of the oxygen of the air. It becomes still more probable when we consider 
the following facts : — If an infusion of madder with cold water be allowed to 
stand in contact with the air, it will be found that after some hours the liquid 
is filled with a number of long hair-like crystals, which are, as I have shown 
on a previous occasion*, rubiacin, generally mixed with a substance having 
all the properties of beta-resin. I have had one specimen of madder which 
gave such quantities of rubiacin on allowing the infusion to stand, that it 
collected on the surface of the liquor as a bright yellow scum, and by cry- 
stalUzing it from alcohol it was obtained almost in a state of purity. Now as 
rubiacin is insoluble in cold water, it must in this case either have been 
formed from some substance contained in the infusion by the action of the 
air, or else it was at first held in solution by some other substance, such as 
an alkali or alkaline earth from which it gradually became separated, as by 
the formation of some acid in the liquid. 1 incline to the former supposition, 
and think it probable that it is the rubian which by its oxidation gives rise to 
the rubiacin. 

Xanthin — This substance, the method of preparing which from a decoc- 
tion of madder after the separation of the colouring matters, &c. by acid, I 
have described above, is of course not a pure substance, since after ignition 
it leaves a considerable quantity of fixed residue : it is also probable that it 
contains a small quantity of sugar, as I stated before. Nevertheless it pro- 
duces reactions of a peculiar kind, which cannot be attributed to sugar, gum, 
or any similar substance, and can only be due to a peculiar body which exists 
only in madder. It has the following properties : — When prepared as above 
described, it is a thick, viscid, yellow or brownish-yellow syrup, resembling 
honey in colour and consistency, which cannot be rendered dry even by ex- 
posing it to a heat at which it begins to be decomposed. When exposed to 
the air, it becomes more liquid on account of its attracting moisture. When 

* See the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1846. 



70 REPORT — 1848. 

heated to ignition, it swells up enormously, giving off at the same time a very 
perceptible smell of aceton and burns, leaving at last a considerable quantity 
of ash, which consists of the carbonates of lime, magnesia and potash. It is 
without doubt the acetates of those bases which, being mixed with the sub- 
stance, produce the smell of aceton during ignition. 'I'he acetic acid was of 
course derived from the basic acetate of lead used in the preparation of 
xanthin, and the acid with which they were originally combined must have 
gone to the oxide of lead. Now, as 1 stated above, the oxide of lead was 
found to be combined with phosphoric acid ; hence it is probable that the 
greater part, if not all, of the fixed bases left after the ignition of the xanthin 
existed in the plant as phosphates. Xanthin has a disagreeable taste, between 
bitter and sweet. The watery solution is yellow. It is soluble in alcohol, 
and is left after evaporation in the same state as before. It is insoluble in 
aether. On adding muriatic or sulphuric acid to the watery solution and boil- 
ing for some time, a peculiar smell is evolved, the solution becomes gradu- 
ally dark green, and a dark green powder is deposited. This is the most 
characteristic property of xanthin. Nitric acid does not produce the same 
dark green powder, or any deposit on boiling ; nevertheless the powder 
which has once been formed by means of muriatic or sulphuric acid, is not 
dissolved by boiling nitric acid, but only turned yellow. Acetic acid pro- 
duces no effect. Oxalic acid gives a white precipitate of oxalate of lime. 
Bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid produce no effect on a solution of 
xantl)in, even on boiling. On adding caustic potash to the solution it turns 
brown, and on boiling a slight smell of ammonia is evolved. Lime and 
baryta water, acetate and basic acetate of lead, the acetates of alumina, iron 
and copper, nitrate of silver, corrosive sublimate, and a solution of glue, pro- 
duce no precipitate or effect whatever in a solution of xanthin. In fact it 
does not seem to be precipitated by any reagent whatever without undergoing 
decomposition. 

If a clear light yellow watery solution of xanthin be evaporated with the 
assistance of heat and in contact with the air, as on the sand-bath, to a 
syrup, and this syrup be again mixed with water and the solution again eva- 
porated, the process being several times repeated, the solution gradually be- 
comes dark brown, and at length a dark brown ])owder is deposited. The 
brown solution now gives with acetate, or basic acetate of lead, a thick brown 
precipitate. The filtered liquid is yellow, and if the excess of lead be re- 
moved by sulphuretted hydrogen, the solution again gives, on evaporation 
over sulphuric acid, a colourless or light yellow syrup, which however, if re- 
dissolved and evaporated with the assistance of heat as before, again becomes 
dark brown, and deposits a dark brown powder. There can therefore be no 
doubt that this brown powder is a product of the oxidation of xanthin, that 
xanthin is a species of extractive matter, and that the brown powder stands 
in the relation to it of an apolhema. This brown powder has the following 
properties : — When dry it is a dark brown mass, easily reduced to powder. It 
is quite insoluble in boiling water and boiling alcohol. It burns without 
flame, leaving much ash. It is soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid with a 
dark brown colour, and is re-precipitated by water. Boiling dilute nitric 
acid decomposes it with an evolution of nitrous acid, and changes it into a 
yellowish-red flocculent substance. Concentrated nitric acid on boiling de- 
composes and dissolves it entirely. It dissolves in caustic and carbonated 
alkalies with a dark brown colour, and is re-precipitated by acids in light 
brown flocks. The ammoniacal solution gives brown precipitates with the 
chlorides of barium and calcium. The dark green powder which is produced 



I 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 7l 

by the action of sulphuric and muriatic acid on xanthin, has the following 
properties : — When dry it has a dark olive colour. It burns with a flame 
and a smell like burning wood, leaving a large quantity of charcoal, which 
however burns away without any fixed residue. It is decomposed by boiling 
dilute nitric acid, and changed into a yellow flocculent substance. It is in- 
soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, and also in boiling alcohol. When 
treated with caustic potash, a part dissolves with a dark brown colour, and 
is re-precipitated by acids as a dark brown powder, while the other part re- 
mains undissolved as a black powder. 

Mordanted cloth acquires no colour in a boiling solution of xanthin, if the 
latter is in its yellow unoxidized state ; but if the solution has become brown 
by contact with the air, then both the alumina and the iron mordant acquire 
in the boiling solution a brown colour, while the unmordanted parts, which 
should remain white, become of a brown tint. Hence it follows that xanthin 
is injurious in madder-dyeing, and must contribute, together with the two 
resins, in impairing the purity of the colours, and sullying the whiteness of 
those parts wliich should attract no colour. To get rid of the xanthin is one 
object of changing madder into garancin. 

It remains for me to say a few words in regard to the part which the dif- 
ferent substances described above play in the process of madder-dyeing. I 
regret to say that in my last report there are contained some views on this 
head, which I have found, on more exact investigation, to be erroneous. 
The two principal points to be determined are, which is the substance that 
produces the chief effect in dyeing with madder, and why is a certain pro- 
portion of lime, either in the plant or in the dye-bath, necessary for the pro- 
duction of fine and durable colours. In my last report I stated it as my 
opinion, that both alizarin and rubiacin take part in the process, that rubiacin 
alone produces no effect, but that when it is in combination with an alkali or 
an alkaline earth, it forms double compounds with the alizarin compounds 
of alumina and peroxide of iron, and thus increases the intensity of colour in 
the latter. I have since found that this opinion cannot be sustained, since 
rubiacin, whether free or combined, produces no beneficial eflf'ect in the pro- 
cess of dyeing, and is therefore no true colouring matter, as the following 
experiments will show. 

Since the brown precipitate produced by acids in a watery extract of 
madder contains all the free colouring matter of the root, and acts in dyeing 
in the same way as madder itself, it was evident that by trying the constitu- 
ents of this precipitate in conjunction with one another, both in a free state 
and in combination with lime, a correct view of the part performed by each 
■would be arrived at. Having therefore taken a piece of calico on which 
three mordants had been printed, one for red, one for purple, and one for 
black, in alternate stripes, each stripe being one quarter of an inch broad, and 
having intervals between them of the same width, it was divided into pieces 
of six inches by three, and one of these pieces was taken for each of the fol- 
lowing experiments. As the tinctorial power of alizarin is very great, so 
great that one quarter of a grain was enough to over-dye one of these pieces, 
I took one or two grains of crystallized alizarin, dissolved it in a measured 
quantity of water, to which a little caustic alkali had been added, and was 
then able to divide the solution into portions corresponding to quarters, 
eighths, and sixteenths of a grain, so that by precipitating one of these por- 
tions with muriatic acid, filtering and carefully washing, I obtained small 
quantities in a state very well adapted for dyeing. By treating one of these 



72 REPORT 1848. 

quantities while on the filter with lime-water, and washing out the excess of 
lime, I obtained small quantities of the lime compound of alizarin for the 
same purpose. The same process was used for obtaining small quantities of 
rubiacin, alpha-resin, beta-resin, pectic acid and rubian, and their lime com- 
pounds. Each experiment was performed with the same quantity of water, 
at as nearly as possible the same temperature, and occupied the same length 
of time, viz. half an hour. The substances used, and their quantities, were 
as follows : — 

1. ^ grain of alizarin. 

2. Jg- gr. alizarin. 

3. -^ gr. alizarin and ^-^r gr. alizarin in combination with lime. 

4. ^^2 §•"• alizarin and g^ S^- alizarin in combination with lime. 

5. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. rubiacin. 

6. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. rubiacin in combination with lime. 

7. 52 g""' alizarin and ^^ g'"- rubiacin in combination with lime. 

8. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. pectic acid. 

9. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. pectic acid in combination with lime. 

10. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. alpha-resin. 

11. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. alpha-resin in combination with lime. 

12. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. beta-resin. 

13. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. beta-resin in combination with lime. 

14. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. rubian. 

15. ^ gr. alizarin and ^ gr. rubian in combination with lime. 

Now the following results were obtained : — No. 1 was everything that 
could be desired in regard to all the colours. No. 2 was of course only half 
as dark. No. 3 was lighter than No. 1, and the white parts had a pink hue. 
No. 4 was a little darker than No. 3, but not as dark as No. 1. No. 5 was 
much inferior to No. 1 ; the red had an orange hue, the purple a reddish cast, 
and the black was brown, while the white was yellowish. No. G was equal 
to No. 1, but not darker, and in no respect superior. No. 7 was about equal 
to No. 4. No. 8 had almost no colour at all ; the red, the purple and the 
black were mere tinges of colour, such as might probably have been pro- 
duced by the tenth part of the quantity of alizarin employed, if no pectic 
acid had been present. No. 9 was again equal to No. 1. No. 10 was lighter 
than No. 1, the purple especially being pale and reddish, while the white parts 
were yellowish. No. II was equal to No. 1, but not superior. No. 12 was 
exactly the same as No. 10, the purple having a disagreeable reddish cast, 
while the white parts were yellowish. No. 13 was again equal to No. 1. 
No. 14 and 15 did not differ from one another, and were equal to No. 1. 
Hence we may draw the following conclusions : — Alizarin produces the 
greatest effect in dyeing when used alone. The addition of lime, even in 
very small quantities, does not increase its tinctorial power, but on the con- 
trary neutralizes the effect of that portion with which it combines. Rubiacin, 
the alpha-resin and the beta-resin, in a free state, when used in conjunction 
with alizarin, are injurious in about the same degree : they weaken the red, 
the black, and especially the purple, while they render the white part yel- 
lowish. In combination with lime these substances do not increase the tinc- 
torial power of alizarin, they merely allow it to act without hindrance. Pectic 
acid almost destroys the effect of alizarin. Pectate of lime is perfectly in- 
different. Rubian in a free state, and in combination with lime, has neither 
a beneficial nor an injurious effect. Of all the substances therefore contained 
in madder, none is of use in dyeing but alizarin, while all the others are in- 
jurious when in a free state. That which is the most hurtful is pectic acid. 



I 



ON COLOURING MATTERS. 7^ 

When alizarin and pcctic acid are present together in the dye-bath, the 
pcctic acid having most affinity for bases, combines with the alumina and 
peroxide of iron, and the alizarin crystallizes out wiien the bath cools, as I 
noticed in performing the experiment No. 8. The same is without doubt the 
case when using rubiacin or the resins. The alumina and peroxide of iron 
combine with tliese substances to the exclusion of the alizarin ; and tliese 
compounds are either colourless, or have a poor and unsightly colour. The 
use of lime is therefore easily explained ; it serves, not to increase the tinc- 
torial power of the colouring matter, but to combine with and render harm- 
less the substances which are injurious in a free state. Now if we treat 
madder with muriatic or sulphuric acid, we remove all the lime and magnesia 
from it ; the pectic acid, the rubiacin and the resins become free ; and if we 
wash with water, the muriatic or sulphuric acid is certainly removed ; but 
those substances being but little soluble in cold water, remain and destroy the 
effect of the alizarin in dyeing. But if previous to dyeing we add lime, the 
pectic acid, the rubiacin and the resins being more electronegative than 
alizarin, combine with the strongest base, which is the lime ; and the alizarin, 
which is less electro-negative, combines with the weakest bases, viz. the 
alumina and peroxide of iron. If we add an excess of lime, then of course 
the alizarin also combines with the lime, and the alumina and peroxide of 
iron having no free body to combine with, remain colourless. The process 
is thus brought into harmony with our previous knowledge of the relative 
affinity of acids and bases. It is probable that lime is not absolutely neces- 
sary for the success of the operation, and that it might be replaced by potash, 
soda, magnesia or baryta ; but as lime is the cheapest substance that can be 
used for the purpose, it would be of no practical importance to find a substi- 
tute for it. 

I have in the preceding remarks leftxanthin out of consideration. During 
the process of madder-dyeing this substance no doubt becomes oxidized, 
and deposits the brown substance mentioned above, on all parts of the cloth. 
This substance, together with the pectic acid, the rubiacin and the resins, are 
removed afterwards by passing the cloth through a boiling solution of soap. 
The alkali of the soap dissolves these substances, which have more affinity 
for alkalies than alizarin, while the fat acid remains on the cloth in combina- 
tion with the alizarin, the alumina and the peroxide of iron. 

In order to prove analytically that alizarin is the substance which produces 
madder colours, I took several yards of cloth which had been dyed purple 
with madder, but not soaped, and treated it with muriatic acid, which re- 
moved the oxide of iron, and left an orange-coloured substance on the cloth. 
After washing the cloth in cold water luitil all the acid had been removed, it 
was treated with caustic alkali. The brownish-red solution thus obtained 
was supersaturated with an acid, and the reddish-brown precipitate formed 
was thrown on a filter and well-washed with cold water : it was then treated 
with boiling alcohol. The alcoholic liquid, which was dark yellow, was spon- 
taneously evaporated, and gave crystals of alizarin mixed with a powder re- 
sembling beta-resin, and a few yellow micaceous plates, which were probably 
rubiacin. There remained a brown residue insoluble in alcohol, part of 
which dissolved in boiling water, and proved to be pectic acid. On treating 
some cloth which had been dyed with madder, and then soaped, with muriatic 
acid as before, and then with caustic alkali, I obtained a purple solution, in 
wliich acids produced a yellow precipitate. This precipitate was treated with 
boiling alcohol like the other ; it gave a yellow liquid, which on evaporation 



74 REPORT — 1848. 

afforded crystals of alizarin, together with white masses of fat acid. Hardly 
any residue remained undissolved by the alcohol. 

The preceding observations have a great bearing on the manufacture and 
treatment of garancin. Garancin is the technical name for a ])reparation of 
madder, which is obtained by treating madder with hot sulphuric acid until 
it has acquired a dark brown colour, tlien adding water, straining and wash- 
ing until all the acid is removed. The advantages which garancin has over 
madder are, that it dyes finer colours, that the part destined to remain white 
does not acquire any brown or yellow tinge, and that its tinctorial power is 
greater than that of the madder from which it has been prepared. These 
effects have been attributed to various causes. It has been asserted that the 
sulphuric acid destroys the gum, the mucilage, the sugar, &c., and leaves the 
colouring matter unaffected ; hence the greater beauty of garancin colours. 
To account for the greater proportional effect of garancin, it has been said 
that a part of the colouring matter is enclosed in cells of the wood, so that it 
cannot be dissolved by water, and that the sulphuric acid destroys the wood 
and liberates the colouring matter. To these views it may be objected, that 
concentrated sulphuric acid, though it does not affect alizarin, does not de- 
stroy any of the injurious substances in the root except the xanthin, while 
the rubiacin, the resins, and the pectic acid, escape its action : and as far 
as the wood is concerned, I can affirm that the operation succeeds equally 
well if acid be taken of such dilution as not to destroy woody fibre. I think 
that the superiority of garancin can only be attributed to two causes. In the 
first place, since, as I have shown above, there is a quantity of colouring 
matter in the root combined with lime and magnesia, by which it is rendered 
insoluble and incapable of dyeing, one effect of the acid is to remove this 
lime and magnesia, and to set the alizarin at liberty, which is then capable 
of application. In the second place, the xanthin, which has an injurious 
effect in madder-dyeing, is removed by washing with cold water, since it is 
not precipitated by acids, while the whole of the alizarin remains. If hot 
acid is employed, then the xanthin, or a part of it, is converted into that dark 
green substance which 1 have mentioned above as the product of the action 
of muriatic and sulphuric acid on xanthin ; hence the dark colour of garancin, 
which is not owing to the charring of the woody fibre, as sometimes asserted. 
It must be remembered however that the rubiacin, the resins and the pectic 
acid, as well as the alizarin, remain uncombined after treatment with acid. 
Hence it becomes necessary to add some base with which these substances 
may combine, so as not to interfere with the action of the alizarin. I believe 
it is the practice of garancin manufacturers to employ soda for this purpose. 
1 think it would be better to use a small quantity of lime-water. 

I may slate in conclusion that the experiments described in this and the 
last report were made with Avignon madder. The constituents and pro- 
perties of Dutch madder, which is of rather a different nature, remain to be 
examined. 

I have been lately engaged in examining the colouring matter of fustic, 
which 1 have prepared in a state of purity, but the investigation is not suffi- 
ciently advanced to justify me in making known the results, on the present 
occasion. 



ON THE ADVANTAGEOUS USE OP A GASEOUS ESCA'PE. 75 

On the advantageous use made of the gaseous escape from the Blast 
Furnaces at the Ystalyfera Iron Works. By James Palmer 

BUDD. 

[A Communication ordered to be printed entire among the Reports.] 

I AM glad of the opportunity of laying before the distinguished scientific and 
practical men who are gathered together at this meeting of the British As- 
sociation, what 1 believe to be one of the most important practical improve- 
ments that has yet been introduced into the iron trade, and the application of 
which will, if my views are correct, probably lead to a radical change in the 
smelting of iron ores, and the manufacture of iron in this country. 

As a practical man, I shall first treat of practical results, and I think my- 
self fortunate that I have to bring this subject forward in a locality where I 
am inevitably brought in contact with many who are intimately acquainted 
with the details of the iron trade. I have had the pleasure to exhibit to many 
members of the British Association, the improvements 1 shall describe in ope- 
ration on a large scale at Ystalyfera, and I shall feel pleasure in aflbrding any 
others, who take an interest in the subject, full opportunity for investigation. 
If I venture to suggest, beyond my positive results, the practicability, or I 
think I might say the certainty of an enormous oeconomy, by the further de- 
velopment of the system I have partially introduced at Ystalyfera, I do so 
only because the facts and results arrived at irresistibly point onward to greater 
improvement and oeconomy. 

The iron trade of Great Britain is so enormous in extent, that any oeconomy 
in its processes which admits of general application, becomes of national im- 
portance. Even if the saving on the current expense be small as a tonnage, 
the multiple of the annual quantity of iron produced is so great as to make the 
total gigantic. Thus, taking the annual produce of iron in Great Britain in 
round numbers to be 1,500,000 tons, or about .500,000 tons made in En- 
gland, 500,000 tons in Wales and Monmouthshire, 500,000 tons in Scot- 
land, a saving of even \s. per ton on the cost of production amounts to the 
large sum of £75,000 a-year. 

There is no detail of the iron trade that has appeared to me to be more a 
standing reproach to its management, than the non-utilization in this country 
of the enormous escape of combustible and incombustible gases, heated to a 
very high temperature, that is constantly taking place from the tops of blast 
furnaces. Some of these enormous crucibles yield 150 tons, in Scotland even 
200 tons of iron a week, and these devour internally from 300 to 400 tons of 
coal weekly, and respire 4000 and 5000 cubic feet of air as blast a minute. 
These great craters vomit forth murky volumes of smoke and flame, which 
pass wastefuliy and uselessly away to contaminate the atmosphere. So great 
and obvious a source of heat has not failed however to attract the attention 
of ingenious men, but more especially so, since it was found advantageous to 
heat the blast of air before injecting it into the furnace. The use of hot-blast 
at the tuyeres, could not fail to suggest the application of some part of the 
waste heat about the furnace to the purpose of giving the desired temperature, 
which is the moderate one of 600 degrees of Fahrenheit only. 

Unfortunately these attempts took two wrong directions ; one series of 
attempts consisted in either ranging iron pipes around the tunnel head, in 
which the blast was to be heated by the flames as they escaped, or in coiling 
pipes round the interior of the furnace, so as to be heated by contact with the 
ignited materials themselves ; or blast pipes were built into the masonry, so 
as to receive heat by transmission without being however in contact with the 



76 REPORT— 1848. 

burning material ; but in all cases the contrivance formed part of the furnHce 
itself. All these several obsolete plans are shown in the drawings of an ela- 
borate work on Hot-Blast, published officially at Freiberg in 1840, which 
contains drawings of all the different apparatus that have been known in 
England, Wales, Scotland, Belgium, Germany, and Sweden. The fatal objec- 
tion to these plans for heating the blast was, that in case of derangement of 
the apparatus, the operations of the furnace had to be suspended during re- 
pair ; and even according to several of the schemes, it would have been neces- 
sary to blow out the furnace itself, and take it down in order to repair a leaky 
joint. These attempts were speedily relinquished, and I am not aware that 
any plan of the kind is in operation in the iron trade abroad, certainly not in 
this country. Another series of attempts took an opposite direction. The 
top of the furnace was either partially or wholly closed, except during char- 
ging; the gases were thus collected and carried to a reservoir or gasometer; 
they were passed through water to be cooled and purified ; air-pumps were 
employed to force them towards the point, where they were afterwards to be 
burnt in a gas furnace. Several patents have been taken out for this appli- 
cation, the first as early as 1838, but, although tried in various works, I do 
not know that any plan of the sort is in use in this country. It was found 
that the combustible gases collected from the furnace were so diluted with 
nitrogen (itself incombustible and incapable of supporting combustion), that 
it required two conditions to burn them in so mixed a state : — 1st. That a blast 
of air should be employed. 2nd. That such blast should be heated. When 
once ignited, the heat produced by these gases, consisting of carbonic oxide 
and hydrogen partly in combination with carbon, is intense, so much so, that 
the tops and sides of the gas-furnace were speedily melted down. Still, if this 
plan of consuming the gases to produce heat, instead of being directed to 
stoves and boilers, had been employed as abroad, to carry on the processes of 
converting pig-iron into malleable iron, which require a very high tempera- 
ture and a steady fire, with a limited admission of air, I think practice would 
have perfected the details and conquered the obstacles ; but in this country of 
cheap fuel, the gases being ignited merely to heat the blast or to raise steam, 
requirinof only a temperature of melting lead and boiling water, and for pur- 
poses where a high temperature cannot be employed without danger, it was 
found a fatal objection that a blast machine had to be provided, and a hot- 
blast apparatus kept at work to impart the necessary temperature for the gas 
furnace ; thus of course reducing, and in fact destroying, all the saving to be 
effected, besides complicating the operations of the furnace by additional 
machinery and apparatus. 

This want of simplicity has led to the abandonment of the gas-furnace in 
this country as a means of consuming the vapours escaping from the tops of 
blast-furnaces. At this point I found the subject, when four years ago my 
attention was attracted to it. Truly necessity quickens invention, and but 
for an obvious difficulty under which I laboured, I fear I also should have 
allowed the huge volumes of flame and vapour to pass off as heretofore un- 
heeded. But I laboured under two serious disadvantages at Ystalyfera in 
employing the hot-blast. First, as the furnaces working on anthracite coal 
cannot be made to drive like coke-furnaces, although they burden heavily, the 
make is only 50 or 60 tons of iron per furnace weekly, and falling on this 
small weekly quantity, I had the cost of the hot-blast apparatus, consisting of 
three stoves or heating furnaces, consuming about 3b tons of coal together a 
week, and requiring the attendance of two men, one by day .ind one by night ; 
next, as the small or slack of anthracite coal burns very imperfectly in a re- 
verberatory furnace from its not caking at all, so that the draught of a chimney 



,^^^' 




Plate II. — Brit. Assoc. Report, 1848, p. 77. 





ON THE ADVANTAGEOUS USE OF A GASEOUS ESCAPE. 77 

is not sufficient to ensure a passage of air through the grate, I was obliged to 
use for the stoves coal of a rubbly size, and consequently of increased cost. 
In this way I found the charge on the ton of iron, of heating the blast, very 
onerous, as compared with other districts where larger quantities of iron per 
furnace are made, and where the small of bituminous coal is used for the heating 
ovens. Fortunately, in my attempts to use the escape from the tunnel head 
to heat my blast of air, I neither made my apparatus part of the furnace, nor 
did I attempt to burn the gases. I built my stove alongside the furnace, of 
which however it forms no part, and by means of a stack about 25 feet higher 
than the top of the furnace, I was enabled to draw into it as much of the 
heated air and flame as I required. The result of this plan has been a most 
perfect success, from its thorough simplicity. I interfere in no way with the 
operations of the furnace ; everything is as before; my apparatus is merely three 
or four horizontal flues of about 12 inches diameter, constructed about 3 feet 
below the top of the furnace and leading into an adjoining chamber or stove, 
provided with a stack which makes the draught. Into this stove I am enabled 
to draw as much of the gaseous escape as I require, and by means of a damper 
on the stack (what is equally important), as little as I choose. The quantity 
required to produce hot-blast for a furnace is very little, not being more, as 
far as I can judge, than one-sixth of the quantity passing off the tunnel head. 
I attempt no combustion of the gases, for as they rise from the furnace and 
enter the stove with a temperature of about 1800 degrees, and leave it at a 
temperature of about 800 degrees, whilst all the heat I require for the blast 
is about 600 degrees, the mere passage of them, as heated vapours through 
the stove, gives me all the temperature I want ; whilst having no combustion 
going on, the pipes remain uninjured, the bricks unmelted, and the apparatus 
always effective. My reason for thinking there is little combustion of the 
gases at 3 feet below the surface of the materials is, that when the vapours 
pass through the stove and reach the top of the stack, where they come in 
contact with the atmosphere, there bursts out a bluish flame, visible at night, 
which is speedily extinguished from a reduction of temperature below the 
point at which the mixed gases burn. When, on the contrary, I allow the 
materials in the furnace to fall below the mouths of the flues, a combustion of 
the gases takes place previous to entering the stove, and the vaporous appear- 
ance disappears. Looking at the perfect simplicity of the arrangement, I think 
I may warrantably boast that this plan is equal in simplicity and in cheapness 

j to the supply of hot water from the boiler at the back of the kitchen grate. 

j Plate II., with the references, will explain the details of the arrangements 
at Ystalyfera. 

a. Cross section through furnace and heating stove, showing — 
' b b. Flues from furnace to stoves. 

c. Hot air chamber, containing — 
' d d. Upright hot air tubes. 

, e e. Stacks which create the draught and draw the gases through the flues i h into the hot 
I air chamber. 

I //. Dampers on stacks, to regulate the supply of heat from the furnaces into the hot air 
( chambers. 

! g g. Cross pipes, on which the upright hot air tubes are fixed. 
h h. Side pipes, conveying the blast to the cross pipes. 

i i. Upcast pipes, conveying cold air to the stove. 
jj. Downcast pipes, conveying heated air to the tuyeres. 
I k k. Front doors, by opening which the draught is reversed, and the hot air chamber cooled 
! down. 

I 1 1. Roofs over heating chambers. 
' m. Horizontal section of heating chambers and flues. 

M. Vertical section through heating chamber and stack. 



78 REPORT— 1848. 

The plan thus described has several great advantages, some of which I did 
not at all foresee : — 1st, it requires no coal or labour; 2nd, the blast is better 
heated and more regular ; 3rd, the apparatus is more durable. 

The pipes not being exposed to great and sudden changes of temperature, 
from being sometimes overfired, and at other times neglected, do not wear 
out rapidly : so well proved is this, that the first stove I erected and set to 
work on the 8th of November 1844, now three years and nine months ago, 
is in good repair; and I even think that a sort of cementation process takes 
place, so that the iron in the pipes becomes gradually so tough as to be nearly 
indestructible, whilst, according to the former plan of stoves, I never had a set 
to last twelve months, and although their construction and treatment may have 
been much improved, it is well known the repairs are still frequent and costly. 

I will now notice some points which have always been felt as probable ob- 
jections to this application by practical men. 

First, as to the probability ot the flues becoming choked. The flues, if built 
of fire-brick, and placed not lower than 3 feet from the furnace top, have no 
great tendency to clink, whilst any loose stuff collecting in the mouths can be 
readily removed by a rabble. 

Secondly, as to the stove becoming full of dust. The quantity of dust that 
collects in a stove is not great, and until it accumulates very much is of no 
inconvenience, from there being such a surplus supply of heat at command. 
On the contrary, we think the deposit of dust in the stove rather a protection 
to the pipes, and we have gone on with a stove eighteen months without 
cleaning, which continued to give good hot-blast. 

Thirdly, as to the supposed cooling of the blast during stoppage of the 
furnace. If a furnace stops from any cause, we lower the damper, and the 
stove is so closed in and full of heat, with so little of its surface exposed to 
cooling, that we have the blast hot within a few minutes of starting again j 
besides, we can always keep the damper up until the stove is in full heat, for 
ordinarily the damper is nearly close down on the top of the stack. 

Fourthly, as to the difficulty of obtaining hot-blast in blowing in a furnace. 
As to starting a new furnace and a new stove, we put on a cold-blast load for 
the first day's melting, after which the stove gets dry and gives us hot-blast 
without further trouble. If the stove be of green masonry, I put a small 
drying fire into the stove at the door, and continue it until the draught acts 
readily through the flues. It happened to me in the first stove I erected that 
the damper was let down until the stove should have dried ; the gas from the 
furnace collected until it attained the condensation and temperature requisite 
for explosion, which took place, blowing out the front of the stove. By the 
precaution of leaving the damper up, this cannot happen. 

Fifthly, as to the means of cooling the stove, so as to have access to it. 
The mode in which this is effected is one of the most perfect parts of the 
whole arrangement : each stove has a door in front. If we want to cool 
down a stove so as to enter it, we let down the damper, which stops the 
draught from the furnace, and we open the front door, which admits a draught 
of cold air through the stove and flues into the furnace ; we either wholly 
close the damper and open the door, or only partially so, if we think it best to 
reduce the temperature gradually, and we have never done any damage to a 
stove in cooling, which is far from being the case when the fire-bars are taken 
out from an ordinary stove-grate to cool it down ; for it is a common saying that 
the cooling down of a stove tostop a leak, generally produces a dozen fresh ones. 

There is however one point to be attended to, from neglect of which I had 
nearly made shipwreck of the plan. 

Fortunately, I erected the first stove so low down the side of the furnace, 
that the point where the flues entered was much above the cross pipes ; and 



ON THE ADVANTAGEOUS USE OP A GASEOUS ESCAPE. 79 

this arrangement worked well ; but I thought it would be an improvement in 
building the next oven to raise the whole higher, which I did, so that the cross 
pipes were on a level with the mouths of the fiues. The consequence of this 
alteration was, that as the cemented joints are never free from pin-hole leaks, 
the small jets of air that escape ignited the gases, working like so many 
small blowpipes, and caused an immense local temperature, so much so, as 
speedily to destroy the stove j I had however my first plan to fall back upon, 
which enabled me to correct this error, or it would probably have been fatal to 
the application ; accordingly we lowered the apparatus, and had no more in- 
convenience. The remedy is easily explained ; for by lowering the stove so 
as to have the cross and side pipes below the mouths of the flues, as the gases 
from their levity do not descend lower than the entrance into the stack, the 
joints are not placed in a combustiblq medium, but, on the contrary, the space 
below is probably filled with carbonic acid, the heavier gas, which being inca- 
pable of supporting combustion, any small leak of air there may be is of no 
importance whatever. 

I have six furnaces at Ystalyfera, built in a row, and joined together by 
arches j on these arches five stoves are placed, which heat the blast for the 
six furnaces; each stove is consequently between two furnaces, and has flues 
conveying the heat from both. I have also a hot-blast main pipe, so that all 
the heated air is in a pipe common for all the furnaces. This is an excellent 
arrangement for any one erecting new works, but is not at all necessary to 
my plan, as I have No. 2 furnace working alone, with a stove on one side 
only, which heats the blast perfectly ; indeed the means of heating the blast 
are so excessive of what is required, that any length or drop in the flues 
leading to the stove may be compensated for by an increased height of stack. 
The gaseous escape could I am now convinced be carried a great distance, 
and be equally eflective as a heating medium, if preserved from access of air, 
and provided the temperature is kept up; if the flue is carried under ground, 
both these ends will be attained. I calculate that the cost of erecting a stove 
attached to a furnace on my plan, as compared with two or three stoves in 
the ordinary way, at the base of a furnace, is about one- third less in favour of 
my arrangement, as I have a much less weight of metal in the pipes, and a 
great deal less masonry to erect ; the repairs are nothing. It will thus be 
seen that I take credit for having conquered a great practical difficulty, and 
for having made a useful and oeconomical application of part of the gaseous 
escape from the furnaces at Ystalyfera. 

To me the saving is important, which I calculate as follows, compared with 
the use of the ordinary heating ovens. 

Thirty-three tons of anthracite coal saved a week of 

rubble size at 4a' ,. £6 12 

Two men, and wheeling coal and ashes 2 

£8 r2 
per week, or £447 4 per annum. 

Saving in repair of stove, say~] 

one-fifth of £500, the cost S 100 

of new stoves J 

£547 
which on ten furnaces, the full extent of the works, would amount to 
£5470 a-year, or on five furnaces our present scale of work, to £2735 a-year. 
In the bituminous coal districts, where slack coal can be used for heating the 
stoves, the coal consumed would only be worth 2s. 6d. or 35. per ton; but then 
such coal is very wasteful, and probably a greater quantity would be required 
than with anthracite, so as to make the expense of fuel equal. 



80 REPORT — 1848. 

The caution and reluctance to entertain or adopt alterations in any pro- 
cess of manufacture, is a safe and prudent feeling in those who manage ma- 
nufacturing concerns, and I by no means complain of it, when applied to my- 
self j but as time passes by, and the iron trade observes that my stoves do 
not wear out, that there are no stoppages for repair, that I use no coal or 
labour, and thus have the blast well-heated without any current cost, I expect 
that a greater degree of interest will be felt in my improvement. If of the 
1 ,500,000 tons of iron made yearly in Great Britain, we assume that 1,000,000 
tons are made by hot-blast in 200 furnaces, making 5000 tons a-year each, 
the saving of £500 a-year per furnace would be £100,000 a-year. Tiiis im- 
portant amount will I hope soon be added to the profits of the iron trade, or 
at least be a reduction from its losses. 

Having thus given an account of the use made of the gaseous escape from 
the blast furnaces at Ystalyfera, to heat the air by which they are blown, I 
■will proceed to detail the further use made of the same plentiful and valuable, 
though hitherto neglected vapours, to raise the steam for the engine. 

I stated that I do not consider that it requires one-sixth of the escape of a 
furnace to heat the blast in the stove ; this sixth part does the work of from 
•30 tu 35 tons of rubbly anthracite coal a week, burnt in the ordinary way in 
ireverberatory furnaces. I was deterred until recently from applying any part 
•of the other five-sixths going uselessly to waste, to the purpose of raising 
«team in the boilers, by the distance of the boilers from the furnaces. I 
ifeared that the heated vapours would be too much cooled down in the passage 
to the boilers, and that the draught would consequently be faint. However, 
'On tlie approach of the meeting of the British Association, I resolved to make 
the attempt, to show the practical men who might attend it, that the long- 
lieglected gaseous escape of a furnace would not only heat the blast, but with- 
out combustion raise the steam also in the boilers. For this purpose I pre- 
pared No. 9 furnace for blast, and as No. 8 furnace adjoining is out of blast, 
the whole result attained is the independent effect from No. 9 alone. To 
•carry out my purpose, besides applying part of the escape from No. 9 to its hot- 
Wast stove adjoining, I constructed two flues, 24 inches in diameter, leading 
into a main flue 32 inches in diameter, which is conducted into the tube of the 
■nearest boiler, the distance from the furnace to the boiler being 46 feet. The 
tube of the boiler is divided by a brick partition into two compartments, and 
the heated vapours pass four times through and under the boiler, a total 
length of 120 feet. The boiler stack is 80 feet high and 6 feet in diameter, 
and creates an overpowering draught, which takes off the gases from the 
furnace, and fills the boiler with these heated vapours. Although from the 
length of the flue required, 46 feet, to conduct the vapour from No. 9 furnace 
to the boiler, during which it is exposed to the cooling of the atmosphere in 
its whole length, being carried on girders as a bridge, I consider that a con- 
siderable part, say above one-half of the heating effect, is lost as compared 
•with that produced in the stoves, where the flues are under cover in masonry, 
and the whole is kept close, yet the success of the attempt has been beyond 
my expectations. The boiler raised double the steam it did when heated by 
•coal, so that I am already in the enjoyment of a saving of 35 tons of coal a 
week on the boilers' use. I am preparing to carry the gaseous escape from 
two other furnaces to two other boilers, and in doing this I shall protect the 
flue from exposure to the air, which will I expect give me sufficient steam for 
the engine, and I have little doubt of saving the consumption of boiler coal 
altogether, except we use one boiler with a fire, in order to make a start in 
case of stoppage. I might perhaps have deferred the attempt, which 1 have 
long contemplated, to use the vapours from the furnace to raise steam, but for 
the visit of the British Association, and this rousing one to action is among 



ON THK ADVANTAGEOUS USE OP A GASEOUS ESCAPE. 81 

the many benefits such visits confer on a neighbourhood. Tiie saving alieatlv 
effected by the application to one boiler is equal to £350 a-year, and the total 
saving of doing away with the use of coal in the boilers, and consequently 
with attendance, fire-bans, bricks, would at full work exceed £2000 a-year. 
The savingis I have mentioned are so serious in amount, that they cannot safely 
be neglected by the iron trade. 

But although I save the use of 35 tons of coal a week in the stoves, and 
35 tons a week in one of the boilers by taking off a portion of the heated 
air from No. 9 furnace, and although the gas sent to the boiler wastes 
half its heat in the passage, there still remains one-half of the quantity usually 
escaping, passing off the tunnel head. If I closed the tunnel head of No. 9, 
so as to collect all the gases, it would therefore appear that I should obtain a 
heating power equal to the use of 1 40 tons of coal a week in air furnaces, and 
that merely by the passage of such gases through the boilers and stoves in 
contact whh iron vessels, containing the water and air required to be heated. 
But as I only consume about 100 tons of coal a week in the No. 9 furnace, 
this is 40 tons more effect than the whole coal used, vviiich melts besides 
from 150 to 160 tons of iron ores and limestone flux, and produces 50 or 
60 tons of pig-iron a week, and all this while I have not consumed the gases, 
but merely received by contact with good conductors some part of the high 
temperature acquired in the furnace. What other inference can I draw but 
one, that a very large proportion of the fuel used in reverberatory furnaces 
is unprofitably wasted ? for it would appear to be more profitable to employ 
a blast-furnace, if as a gas generator only, even if you smelted nothing in it, 
and carried off its heated vapours by flues to your boilers and stoves, than to 
employ a separate lire to each boiler and each stove. These considerations 
irresistibly suggest to me a great revolution in metallurgical practice ; a new 
arrangement in fact of furnaces and works, by which considerably, above one 
million a-year might be saved in the iron trade alone. 

The following is the analysis of the gas escaping from the Ystalyfera an- 
thracite furnaces made by Dr. Schafhaeutl. 

First, of the gas taken off 16 feet below the surface of coal and mine in the 
furnace, he gave the following result : — 

Carbonic acid 00'136 

Carbonic oxide , 18974 

Hydrogen 27"844 

Light carburetted hydrogen 3-212 

Sulphurous acid with traces of arseni- 

uretted and phosphuretted hydrogen trace 
Nitrogen 49-844 

100-000 
A very considerable change takes place when the gas has access to the at- 
mosphere. 

At I foot only below the surface of the coal and mine in the furnace, the 
following is his analysis : — 

Carbonic acid 9546 

Carbonic oxide 12*012 

Hydrogen 21-278 

Light carburetted hydrogen 2-548 

Sulphurous acid with traces of arseni- 

uretted and phosphuretted hydrogen 0-111 
Nitrogen 54-505 

Foo-ooo 

1848. o 



S2 REPOBT — 1848. 

From close observation, I think at about 3 feet below the surface of the 
materials, which is the point where I draw off my supply from the furnace, 
very little combustion has taken place, and that the gases remain pretty much 
as they were in the bowels of the furnace. We observe, that as the gases 
rising from the furnace come in contact with the atmosphere, the whole burst 
out into a spontaneous flame, and it is my object to take them off at a point, 
where from the cover of the materials they are protected from this combus- 
tion, and this from practice 1 find to be about 3 feet down. The large 
quantity of hydrogen in the analysis is puzzling, as anthracite coal only con- 
tains 2 or 3 per cent., and certainly the flame from au anthracite furnace, 
seen at night, is very different in colour from that escaping from furnaces 
using bituminous coal, the flame being of a bluish-white colour, and not at all 
yellow. The absence of carbonic acid in the first analysis, and its presence 
in the second, proves that thfe solid carbon of the fuel, after having been con- 
verted at the tuyeres into carbonic acid gas, by combustion with the oxygen 
of the blast, passing upwards into the middle region of the furnace, where 
carbon is in excess, absorbs an additional dose of it, and is thereby converted 
into carbonic oxide, a combustible gas ; and tlie whole gaseous escape of the 
furnace, before the access of the atmosphere, appears to consist of about 50 
per cent of highly inflammable gases and 50 per cent, of nitrogen, incombus- 
tible, but heated to a very high temperature. What use shall then be made 
of this great escape of combustible gas, after using it, as I do, as a mere heating 
medium ? The passage through the boilers and stoves, where this heating 
effect is given, and where all access of atmospheric air is carefully prevented, 
would in no way interfere, under proper arrangements, with its subsequent 
use as a highly combustible gas in a suitable furnace. 

In reverberatorv furnaces everything depends upon a good draught being 
maintained, so that, although the chimneys may be full of combustible gases, 
as we plainly see they are at night when passing the copper works, yet 
nothing can be done to arrest them, they must pass oft' freely, so that a full 
supply of air may be drawn through the fire-grate ; this difficulty will always 
be a great obstacle to the curing of coal smoke, or to the condensation of me- 
tallic vapours passing off therewith over the bridge. But this does not at all 
apply to the blast-furnace ; nothing there depends on draught, but every- 
thing on the power of the steam-engine to force a column of air through 
40 feet of dense materials. The combustible gases passing over a rever- 
beratory furnace speedily combine in the stack with a fresh dose of oxygen, 
and become useless, whilst on the contrary, the carbonic acid resulting from 
combustion at the tuyeres in a blast-furnace, meeting with an excess of carbon, 
becomes again a combustible gas, as carbonic oxide. 

It therefore appears that the whole of the present arrangements of an iron 
works ought to be reversed, that the steam-engines and boilers for the blast, 
and for the forge and mill, should be on a platform above the back wall, the 
stoves being alongside the furnaces ; the steam should be raised in the boilers, 
and the air heated in the stoves, by the mere passage of the gases from the 
gas generator (the furnace) towards the gas furnaces, in which the refinery, 
boiling, puddling and balling processes necessary to convert pig into malle- 
able iron, should be performed. If the whole of the solid carbon put into the 
furnace be present at the tunnel head as carbonic oxide, requiring another 
dose of oxygen for saturation, and giving thereby a further production of 
heat, its entire combustion would without doubt, in gas furnaces, be amply 
sufficient for the mill and forge purposes. There is, besides, the hydrogen of 
the fuel, which from its volatile nature never reaches the tuyeres, and per- 
forms no useful part in a blast-furnace, but which would then be fully em- 



ON THE ADVANTAGEOUS USE OF A GASEOUS ESCAPE. 83 

ployed, and from its igniting at a lower temperature, greatly assist in the 
operations of the gas furnace ; and therefore I believe the fuel put into the 
blast-furnace would, with such arrangements, not only by the combustion 
of its solid part, at and near the tuyeres, smelt the pig-iron from the ore, but 
by the mere passage of these vapours, heat the blast, raise the steam, and 
finally, by the entire combustion of the gases, supply fuel for the forge and mill, 
and thus complete the whole conversion from the ores to malleable iron, by 
the consumption of about 2 tons of fuel, instead of using 6 tons or there- 
abouts as at present. It cannot be doubted that the air-furnace is a most 
imperfect instrument in metallurgy: a large proportion of the fuel is unprofit- 
ably converted therein into combustible gases, which pass unburnt out of the 
chimney. It requires indeed a very large drawback from the effect of the fuel 
used in air-furnaces, to account for how I have attained such superior results, 
by merely passing one-half of the gaseous escape unconsumed through a boiler 
on one side of my No. 9 furnace, and through a heating stove on the other. 
The difficulty that would remain in carrying out fully the utilization of the 
whole power of the fuel put into the furnace, would be the management of 
the gas-furnace. 1 regret I have not had opportunities of personally witness- 
ing the use of gas-furnaces, consuming the escape from blast-furnaces, for the 
purposes of the processes of the forge and mill, such being only practised 
abroad, where the dearness of fuel has induced persistence and perseverance 
in the application ; I have however witnessed a gas-furnace in successful opera- 
tion at Ynyscedwyn, under the direction of the patentee, Mr. Detmokl. In 
this case, the gas was not however derived from the blast-furnace, but was 
generated in a sort of double furnace, in which the combustible gases are ge- 
nerated by a blast of air injected into the ash-pit, whence it passes through I he 
coal in the grate, whilst the combustible gases thus produced are consumed by 
forcing amidst them in their passage over the fire-bridge, heated and com- 
pressed atmospheric air supplied in numerous small streams. 

Mr. Detmold had successfully introduced this description of furnace for 
forge and mill purposes into the anthracite districts of the United States, 
where from a deficiency of flame this fuel could not be used for boiling and 
puddling in the usual reverberatory furnaces, and he came over to this country 
to introduce his improvements here. The gas-furnace tried at Ynyscedwyn was 
for the purpose of refining pig-iron, or converting it into what is technically 
called metal, it being a desideratum to refine with anthracite coal, which from 
its great density we are unable to do. The heat produced was very great, 
yet by means of water-breasts, and other contrivances, the furnace stood 
pretty well. The iron was speedily converted into metal, which proved on 
trial to be of good quality ; and the loss of yield was much less than in the 
refinery process at present used ; but the metal had a dull appearance instead 
of the silvery appearance, by which its good quality is generally judged j and 
as a greater part of the anthracite melal is exported to distant markets abroad, 
this difficulty caused the process not to be pursued. It appears to me probable, 
from the difficulty there will be to use anthracite coal in puddling, boiling 
and balling, on account of the absence therein of the constituents that make 
the protecting flame necessary in these processes in reverberatory furnaces, 
that the gas-furnace will be introduced into use in this country in the 
anthracite districts, when the manufacturers of iron with this fuel feel the 
necessity of extending beyond the make of pig-iron. I may therefore, at 
some subsequent meeting of the British Association, have to detail the results 
of this application at Ystalyfera. At present, 1 shall carefully proceed to 
apply the heating power of the gaseous escape fully to the boilers, as I have 
done to the stoves, and shall also endeavour to calcine the mines in the same 

g2 



Si REPORT 184S. 

way, so as to reduce the expenditure of fuel to that which takes place in the 
blast-furnace. Proceeding cautiously and in a commercial spirit, 1 do not 
despair of so combining profit with experiment, as in practice to show the ex- 
ample of the final oeconomy I have pointed out, namely, that for less than 
2 tons of coal put into the furnace, 1 shall complete the manufacture from the 
ores to malleable iron, thus oeconomizing two-thirds of the coal used in the 
iron manufacture in this country. 

If the result I have pointed to is ever arrived at, as 1 believe it may be, that 
the whole process from the ore to the malleable iron be completed and 
achieved by the coal put into the furnace, for the purpose only, according to 
present practice, of reducing the iron from its ores, the saving of fuel in the 
manufacture of iron in Great Britain will not be less than 5,000,000 tons a 
year, worth considerably more than £1,000,000 sterling. Thus the blast- 
furnace would come to be considered, not merely as a smelting-furnace for the 
reduction of ores and metals, but as a gas generator, the source whence was 
to be drawn all the heat necessary for all the subsequent processes. I will not 
indulge myself further in speculating on the great revolution so vast an oeco- 
nomy would produce, but will content myself with the hope that my observa- 
tions will be received vvith indulgence, as I wish to divest them of all preten- 
sions. My practice makes the first part of my subject sure ; and in speculating 
on the further use of the gases passing off from our blast-furnaces as a substitute 
for coal in the subsequent processes of converting pig into malleable iron, I 
have followed the lead and indication which the facts I have arrived at obvi- 
ously offer. I hope my notice of the subject will attract the attention of those 
in the iron trade more competent than I am to pursue it to a satisfactory result ; 
and I am content to place my views on record as those of one who is convinced 
that the prosperity of the iron trade depends on the oeconomy of its processes, 
and that in fact its profits must be made out of its savings. 



Report ofpro(/ress in the investigation of the Action of Carbonic Acid 
on the Groivth of Plants allied to those of the Coal Formations. By 
Robert Hunt. 

This investigation was assigned to the charge of a committee, and two sets 
of experiments have been established, one by Dr. Daubeny at Oxford, and 
the other by Mr. Hunt in London, upon ferns which have been supplied from 
the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The arrangements are such, that two 
sets of these plants, belonging to the same class, are made to grow under the 
same circumstances, except that one set is supplied with measured quantities 
of carbonic acid. Numerous preliminary experiments had to be made, and 
several sets of plants have been destroyed in the progress of these. No 
general result can be announced beyond the fact, that the plants, by being 
gradually inured to the agency of the carbonic acid, can be made to bear a 
greater quantity than when a large per-centage is given to them at once. 
The experiments must be continued over a long period before we can arrive 
at any decided result. 



Supplement to the Temperature Tables printed in the Report of the 
British Association for 184'J. By Professor H. W. Dove, Cor. 
Memb. of the British Association ; containing 84 additional Stations. 



[Dove.' ale Year. 



I'lnter. , Spring. 



Fort Ent«23-5o j g-2o 
Iluluk .. 33-56 35-08 
Kotzebuej . . j 
Neu Her(i4'3o' 36-15 
Fort SiiuJii-o4 26-10 



(To face p. Si.^ [1] 



49-78 



18-83 

37-32 



39-28 26 50 
59-16 1 26-24 



38-94 

26-83 
25-12 



DiSF. 
H. & C. 
months. 



23-00 



DifF. 
S. &W. 



31-28 24-48 
76-96 70-20 



No. of 
Years. 



Hour of 
ohservation. 



I| 8, I, 9 .... 
4- dail. e,vtr. . . 



8,2 



Anahuac . . 
Boston. .28-29 
F. Crawfoig-go 
Flatbush 33-34 

Frederictii8-i7 
Germant(^i'go 
New Har^7-67 I 
Huntingtfe8-67 j 

Hunt's V^8-67 
Ogdensbu8-84 
Richmon(^7-2o 1 
Schenect%3-5g ; 



68-15 
46-09 
45-28 
50-66 

36-67 
50-63 
58-75 
45'33 
60-67 
41-76 

5573 
44-82 



81-85 
69-04 
70-79 
69-47 

61-25 

73-07 
76-90 
7o"33 
80-33 
68-83 

7 5 '40 
68-11 



50-46 
46-67 


48-47 
45-66 


52-71 


51-55 


46-67 
53-67 

54-88 
55-01 


40-69 
69-76 

59-05 
49-83 


65-33 


63-75 


44-51 
56-27 
48-50 


43-49 
56-15 
46-26 



45-42 
54-36 
45-01 

56-25 
45-00 
44-74 

51-00 
39-00 

59-33 
43-90 



40-75 
50-89 
36-13 

43-08 
41-17 
39-23 

41-66 
31-66 

49*99 
38-20 
44-52 



sunr. 2, 3, 10 
7. 2. 9 



. . c. 



7.2, 9 
N.Y... 



N.S. 



Caracas 59-71 
La GuajTy6-64 
" 32-41 



Tovar 



Monte Vjy.,^ 
Port Egmj.y, 



71-68 

78-43 
64-62 



73-08 
79-93 
65-62 



72-71 
80-48 
65-09 



71-76 
78-87 
64-44 



4-09 
4-61 

4-50 



3-37 
3-84 
3-21 



dail. e.xtr \h. 

6, II, 4, 9 . .\h. 
dail. extr !A. 



68- 


57-33 


64-77 


66-83 


24- 


20- 


1 


48-95 


39-86 


46-81 


47-09 


16-74 


12-87 


1 


53-70 


44-43 






17-7 




* 



Anatomicg.g- 
St. Bathag.QQ 
St. Helier^.cg 
Kinfaun's_.5j 
NorthumL.Qg 
Plymouth .gg 
Swafhani_.,g 
Thornshavi^j.Q, 



45-87 
38-37 
48-31 
45-28 
44-64 
49-68 
48-81 
41-57 



58-67 

155-13 
62-17 

I 57-22 
57-37 
60-87 
65-38 
54-62 



48-83 
45-37 
54-55 
47-45 
47-64 
52-91 
52-21 
46-38 



48-01 

43-94 
51-90 
46-89 
46-68 
52-08 

41-45 
45-40 



24- 

24-40 

21-20 

22-46 

22-90 

17-85 

34-45 

18-97 



18-23 

19-59 

19-61 

20-29 

15-99 

21* 

15-59 



22 



7 10, 10 

1 10, 10 

3A 9, 2, 5,8, II, 12 

dail. extr 

7 I9, 2, II 

5 ihourly 

1 dail. extr 



Nancy . ■ 
Nismes. . 
St. Galle 
RoUe . 



5-20 
1-95 
i-13 
5- 



48-96 62-80 


50-27 


65-74 


30-20 


27-60 


6 c 


60-88 76-40 


6o'8o 


60-26 


39-37 


33-45 


3 1 


48-43 64-53 


48-88 


48-49 


38-34 


32-40 


16 s 


46-85 65-60 


50-42 


49-47 ! 36-54 


30-60 


I 



dail. extr. ... 
morn. even.. 
9. 9 



Pekin ....^ 
Trevandrii.ft^ 
St. Denis 
Gondar. 



Mocha . 



" 1-78 



a. A V 

b. Pict 

c. Mor 



55-51 
81-95 
78-10 



89-07 



75-17 
78-33 
72-70 

52-93 



54-22 
78-20 
76-84 



89-51 



53-28 
7927 
76-91 



51-59 
5-03 
8-94 



21-05 



46-94 

— 0-27 
7-32 



5-9 hourly 
'hourly . . . . 



sunr. 2 't. 

Sh 12^ «■ 

5^. 12^ «• 

5*. 12^ «• 

9 \x. 



20, p. 50. r. Annuaire de Russie. s. MS. 

t. Thomas, Statistique de Bourbon. 
, _ I M. Riippel, Reisen nach Abyssinien, and Voyage en Abys. 

''• ^'"'}ie, p. 93. X. Hericourt, Voy. de Cheri. 



s. — Mean Temperature of each Month, each Season, and tlie whole Year. 



(,To/„cej,.si.) cn 





Lot. N. 


^.w. 


E,„. 




„6. 


M„. 


Apnl, M.r. 


'- 


JulT. 


Aug, 


S.pl. 


o... 


»„. 


-- 


WinW.lsprtaB. Sum. 


Aul. 


Year. 


SiiiiS 


s.&w. 


fi:' .„5S5u, 


Port Bntcrprise . 


64 18 

It- 


1.4° 


250 


-■'■46 


32-47 


-i;-6 
31-82 

21-65 


i-6 3°-6 
34-16 39-25 

24-80 [ 32-00 


44-98 
S3-50 


49-55 
52;33 


54-82 
43; 


33°-8 
54-07 
34-04 


i-'n 


"3??7 


-i9°-6 
33-94 

- 9-22 


33-56 35-08 49-78 

14-30 16-15 39-28 
-11-04 1610 59-16 


1650 


38-94 

16-83 
15-12 


76-96 


14-48 




Fort Sifiiii§on - . . 


* 
1* 


dail.e«r.....D. 


48-00 j 23-10 j 7-52 


8,1 D. 


2. United States and Canada. 


AnahQBC 


•9 » 
45 57 


90 s; 

66 45 

86 57 
7S !! 


575 

340 
»»5 


.6-s6 
17-09 

30- 
34-I. 


2V-7S 
3524 

1" 
53- 

E 


60-35 
41-05 

52-56 
24- 
50- 
32;94 


69-13 
4585 
4392 

52-17 

''■8, 


74-98 
56-63 

58-77 

11; 
67-64 

69- 

5789 


80-J8 
65-96 

65-80 

■*,-2 

76-16 
65- 

|l = 
66-47 


84-61 
7-98 

65;5 
77-6 


80-60 
69-19 

69-75 
73- 
7 5; 50 


78-80 
64-5° 

65-65 
69- 

76- 
59-22 

59-68 


SIS 

55-71 
54- 

44-5! 
Ill 


38-98 

58- 
1974 


30-52 
37-68 

38-1 
16-S6 


i8'29 
19-90 

17-6° 

18-67 

48-67 
18-84 


46-09 
45-18 
50-66 

36-67 
50-63 


81-Bs 
69-04 

69-47 


46-67 
65-33 


48>7 
4s;66 

ii 

49-83 
6375 


45-41 

54;i6 
56-25 

45-00 

39-00 
59-33 


40-75 
50-89 
36-13 

43-08 
41-17 

"■66 
31-66 


10* 

5 




Z:;±'°-'o. 


F.Crawford 

Flttthush 

Germanlon-D 

New Harmony 

KuDtington 

Hunt's Ville 

Ogdeusburgh 

Scheoectady ■ ■ ■ ■ 






60-67 80-33 
41-76 68-83 
5573 7i;4o 








46-26 ij;-;8 


n.s::;;::;::d, 






3. Mexico and the W est Indies. 


Caracas 




67 5 
67 7 
67 !<• 


5300- 


65-72 
76-59 
6,-5. 


tp> 


70-25 


78-45 
64-90 


73-04 
64-90 


71-30 
79-7S 
65-35 


65-75 


80-70 
65-75 


66-02 


80-69 
64-63 


64-63 


63-05 


E 


78-43 
64-62 


73-08 
mi 


80-48 
65-09 


71-76 
78-87 
6,-44 


4-5! 
4-5° 


3-21 


\ 


daiI.extr.....A. 
6, 71.4.9 ■■''■ 
dail. c\tr. .... A. 




4. South America. | 


Montevideo .... 
PortEgmont .... 


-51 20 


56 13 




«o- 

54-10 

57-3 


77- 


74- 

51-60 

SS-o 


4S-6, 
'5-7 


58- 
46-63 

So-o 


56- 
43;4S 


37-47 38;62 


45-73 
48-0 


66- 
535 


"■■' 


49-87 


'."= 


48-95 


\?d 


:a; 


66-83 
47-09 


'j;4 
■7-7 


- '1-87 


; 


\i 1 












6. Great Britain and arijacent Islands. 


Anatomical Garden 

St.Baihan» 

SLHeliers 

Kinfaun's Castle .. 
Northumberland . . 

Plymouth 

SwafliamBalbek.. 


56=4 

S! 5" 
56 ", 
so 2= 


3 19 
■(i,6 


420 


36-6 
|8, 

Hi 


39-5 40-6 

37-1 3>-6 
41-67 42-93 
38-17 40-70 
38-95! 39-94 
44-83 1 45-60 
43-97 43-79 
36-90 37-52 


45-5 Isi-s 

37-2 45;3 

44-09 149-89 
48-53 1 54-92 
47-50 55-15 
41-81 |4!-37 


57-2 
ill 
|lo 
64-99 
53-44 


&7 
58;45 

65-6^ 
55-87 


58-2 
65-so 


53-43 
54;44 


ill 


38-1 
48-30 

Hit 

48;. 5 
41-69 


"•6 

36-73 

4s;i4 

42-63 


38-67 
36-90 
41-5! 

37-08 

39;3S 


45;87 


58-67 

57-22 

60-87 
65-38 
54-61 


48-83 

45-37 
54;55 

46-38 


48-01 
43-94 

% 
46-68 
52-08 

45-40 


24-40 
11-46 

34-45 
18-97 


li 
■5 


»3 
59 

59 


7 !io, 10 D 

1 !io, 10 D. 

_!i :9.1.5.8.11.12m- 

5 Ihoufly D. 

1 dail. cxti n. 


^. France and Switzerland. 


1 




48 41 


'-Tl 


800 


33-26 

29-03 
32-00 


44-38 
33;69 


S3;83 
Is-i'i 


49-21 
59-45 
48-97 


56-21 62-80 
69-35 7183 


6,46 
68-54 


78-58 
66-38 


6^-8^ 


is 


50-68 
39-58 


34-86 1 3S-10 
45-05 41-95 
33-67 1 31-13 
35-60 1 35- 


48-96 
48-43 


76-40 

6453 


48-88 


4849 


w. 




i 


~'::i 




St.Oalle 

RoUc 










17. India and China. Africa. 1 




-Ti 

IS 36 


- 55 30 .. 

- 37 31 6964 

- 38 20 57,3 

- 35 56 ■■ 

- 50 54 •■ 


78-06 

79-72 
65-77 

77!6 


67-98 
79-48 


41-81 
70-32 


57-56 
81-70 
78-10 
70-84 

85-41 


67-17 
Si-48 
76-08 

98-9. 


19-14 


76-30 
90-73 


gi 


67-64 
78-47 
75-16 

92-75 


78-47 77-67 
76-81 78-55 
64-72 64-67 

89-87 85-91 


18-96 
78-10 

63'" 

81-00 


78-60 
65-9' 
79-78 


78-10 
89-^7 


51-93 


76-84 
89'SI 


53-28 


5"-S9 


-*o-'4 >\ 

■■■■ 1 


5-9 hourly . . r. 

i.j'i.'.'.'.'..u. 

i,"i ". 

1.124 «. 


Trevandnim .... 

St. Deni* 

Gondar 

Mocha''..; 


u. A Visit to Tex 
t. IMcture of Nc 

c. Montg- p. 23G 

d. Darby, Unit. 


> Vutk. 
t. p.39i 




i. SkB 
. D.r 


ii ci'L 
J, Unit. 


SI. p. .10 
S laldDd 


^ 


1. Fr 

i. lb 

m.B. 


p. Bril 


Voyage 
'erEe? 


1333. 

1B47, 
18". P 


11. ■ 




n. Que 


clel, Phc 
. dc Nan 

elel', 01 


nom. Per 
aal lie De 


od. 20, 

C. 
Sique, p 


93 


I 


Annuaire de Uiissic. 
Thomiia, Stalislifiiie dc Bourbon 
Uiiiipel. Rcisen unch Abyssinien 
H^ricourl, Voy. dc Cheri. 


,.nd 


MS. 
'oyage en Abyi. 



[2] 



Benedictbeu r 
Breslau . 
Coblenz . 
Cronberg . 
[Edenkoben 

Eisleben . . 
Elberfeld ...[ 
Erlbach 
Freiberg . . i 
Glatz . . 



e whole Year. 



(To face p. 84!.) 



[Dove.] 



Gottersdorf . 
Koethen . . . 
Kreuzburg . 
Krumau . . .j 
Kupferberg .» 

Landshut . . .t 
Landshut . . .j. 
Leobschutz .^ 
Liegnitz . . . g 
Meiningen . i 

Mittenwald . f^. 

Neisse ^ 

Oppeln 5 

Pless ... 
Ratibor . . . |6 



Spring 



47-27 

4573 
51-86 
50-64 

5374 

48-44 
49-41 
51-15 
48-20 
44-18 

44-22 
46-99 

44"3i 
45-40 
42-04 

44-30 
48-07 
43-81 

45'43 
46-58 

43"44 
44-41 
46-go 
49-09 
46-52 



62-99 
63-61 
66-62 
67-58 
66-07 

62*22 
63-08 
63-92 
65-98 
61-66 

61-67 
63-97 
62-74 
6305 
58-51 

59-22 
61-73 
61-94 
64-10 
63-46 

.';9*93 
62-44 
67-78 
64-93 



Aut. Year. 



43'47 
48-42 

5174 
49-76 
51-72 

5175 
50-90 
48-49 
48-57 
46-42 

42-65 
49-28 

45-07 
47-07 
44'53 

44-61 
46-74 
45-84 
48-02 
48-90 

45*65 
47-59 
47-5° 
46-64 
50-99 



45-98 
46-74 

51-47 
50-93 
52-12 

43-13 
50-00 
48-63 

48-37 
46-85 

44-71 
48-09 
47-04 
46-25 
44-37 

45-08 
46-92 
46-90 
48-61 
47-89 

44-92 
47-85 
49-45 
47-82 



Diff. 
H.&C. 

months 



38-18 

37-42 

35-64 
42-82 

34-69 

37-44 
30-37 
35-26 
39-13 
31-32 

35-51 
36-56 

32-53 
36-86 
31-81 

35-12 
36-10 
33-01 
32-83 
35-80 

33-21 
32-58 
40-59 
46-60 



Diff. 
S.&W 



32-82 
34-42 
30-96 
3183 
29-14 

32-10 
26-47 
31-97 
35-15 
26-52 

31-38 

31-83 
26-69 

33-"56 
25-58 

27-05 
30-09 
25-92 
27-22 
30-85 

29-29 
25-49 
32-15 
34-31 



No. of 
Years. 



Hour of 
observation. 



6 

1, red. M 
1, red. M, 



1, red. M, 
9 



1, red. M. 



7. 2. 9 

6, 9, 12, 3, 9 



red. . . 



8, 2, 8 . 
red. . - . 

9. 12. 3 
7. 2, 9 . 

7. 2. 9 • 



6, 2, 10 
2-3 ••• 

7. 2, 9 . 

7, I, 10 



6, 2, 9 

6, 2, 10 

6, 10, 1,6, io,red. 



6, 2, 10 
6, 12, 9 



7. 12, 9 



Crespano . 
Marostica . e. 
St.JeandeMai5 
Barcelona . Jg 

Malta £ 

Ionian Islands 
Alexandria . ^3 
-4 



52-24 
56-36 
50-05 
60-37 



69-31 
84-79 



68-44 

72-40 

65-74 

77-00 



76-89 



92-02 



54-13 
58-50 
49-63 
64-51 

69-04 



79-06 



52-83 
56-59 
49-47 
63-03 



80-10 



34-56 
37-04 
37-27 
30-06 

20-90 



32-63 



31-94 
33-28 
32-29 
26-82 



27-48 



2-3 



Goteborg . . . .c 
HofFmannsgav5 



Lund 



Oestersund . .b 
Praestoe ... .[3 
Sondmor . . . .b 
Torneo ,1 



43-67 
44-61 
41-79 

3404 
43-70 
39-16 
27-83 



62-17 
62-72 
62-08 

56-12 
61-19 
56-03 
57-89 



47-74 
51-74 
47-04 

37-88 
48-99 
43-75 
32-10 



46-27 
47-31 
45-15 

35-81 

46-33 
41-51 
31-06 



33-22 30-67 
40-75 ; 32-57 
3476 i 32-39 



48-60 
32-59 
33-78 
57-99 



40-92 
29-76 

28-93 
51-48 



9. 2 

Morn. 12 . 



red. 



Carlo 

Desert of Kir 
Nischney Tug 

Pyscbminsk . 
Soliskamsk . 
Uicimo Utkins 



33-04 
35-57 

34-14 
41-60 

35-35 



59-65 
65-91 

61-66 
56-96 
65-24 



38-21 
32-95 

31-23 
23-01 
29-21 



36-41 

34-78 

33-94 
31-79 
31-92 



51-50 
80-57 
69-12 

65-14 
65-38 
80-83 



44-89 
6i-2i 

52*99 
51-39 
67-36 



6, 12,6. 

8.3.8 . 

7.2.9 . 

2-3 ... 



a- Li al. p. 96. 
b- It 243. 
d. Li 



k. Ibid. p. 113. 



«. Tidskr. for Natur. 3, 4. 

o. Schouw, Veirligets Tilstand. 

p. V. Buch, Can. Ins. 



10. Germany. — Mean Temperature of each Monlh, each Season, and the whole Year. 



iTofacep.U.) 



Bencdicibeurn.- 



'Eislcbcn .-. 
lEIberfeld... 
EHbach ■■. 
Freiberg ... 

Gottersdorf . 
Kocthen 

Kreuzburg ■. 



Mittenwald . . 

Keiiie 

Oppeln 



30-38 
31-73 



48-63 
48-57 
46-85 



I 



, Spain. Coast of the Me: 



Malta . 
Ionian 1 

'Alexandria ■ 



Ionian Ulands. . 



s!;« 


6,76 


7S74 


70-05 


si-\t 





H. DENMAnK, Nob 



;-=,« 



43'48 S49I 6096 



37-49 46"47 Sn8 



31-50 



56-59 
49"47 
63-03 



34'76 I 
48-60 I 



si^lincy Tugibk 

'vichniinsk 

^'Jliakamslc 

j'lcimo Utkinsk ,. 



36-34 
33-6a 



ichlcsischcQ Gcselscli. 1845. 
. 1842, 3, p. 05. A. MS. 



ON THE MONTHLY ISOTHERMAL LINES OF THE GLOBE. 85 

Remarks by Professor Dove on his recently constructed Maps of the 
Monthly Isothermal Lines of the Globe, and on some of the principal 
Conclusions in regard to Climatology deducible from them : with an 
introductory Notice by Lieut.-Col. Edward Sabine, Gen. Sec. 
[The report of the British Association for 1847 contained a communication 
from Professor Dove of the mean temperature in Fahrenheit's scale of every 
month of the year at above 800 stations on the globe, to which he has since 
added in the volume for 1848 a supplemental list of 84 stations. From the 
materials thus collected and combined Professor Dove has constructed maps 
of the isothermal lines over the whole surface of the globe for every month of 
the year, which maps have been partly engraved and partly lithographed at 
the expense of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin. The Association 
has received from Professor Dove the very liberal offer of a supply of any 
number of copies of these maps that may be desired, at no other cost than 
that of the paper and of taking off the impressions. This offer having been 
received since the meeting of the Association at Swansea, the Council, who 
in the intervals between the meetings act on behalf of the General Committee, 
have directed that 500 copies of the plates, — which it is understood will be 
three in number, one containing the isothermals for January and July con- 
trasted, as being the months of greatest dissimilarity, and the other two 
containing the isothermals of each of the twelve months separately repre- 
sented, — should be asked for, for the purpose of being offered to the mem- 
bers of the Association at a price which should merely cover their cost. It 
is expected that these copies will be received in England and be ready for 
distribution by the time of the Birmingham Meeting. 

In part fulfilment of Professor Dove's promise to lay before the British 
Association a notice of some of the more interesting conclusions in regard to 
climatology, to which he has been led by this extensive generalisation, he 
has communicated the following paper (written in German and translated by 
Mrs. Sabine), which the Council have directed to be inserted in the annual 
volume, as a supplemental report to the one printed in the volume for 1 847 ; 
and they have also directed that a sufficient number of additional impressions 
should be struck off to furnish copies to accompany the maps. 

Edward Sabine, 

General Secretary.'] 
Professor Dove's Supplemental Report. 
The preliminary works on which these maps are based, are printed in the 
Transactions of the Berlin Academy. They treat of tlie elimination of the 
non-periodic and periodic variations of the temperature. 

The temperature of any particular month varies very much in different 
years ; its true value can therefore only be concluded from observations 
during a long series of years, and we possess such for so few places, that if 
we were to limit ourselves exclusively to them, the points through which the 
isothermals are drawn would be too few in number. It was therefore 
necessary to find some means of correcting observations which extend over 
only a few years, so that they might be in some degree equivalent to con- 
clusions drawn from a longer period. This would be impossible if the va- 
riations in different years were local in a very restricted sense, and an inquiry 
into this point was therefore tlie first thing required. The thermic march of 
the weather during an interval of 115 years, from 1729 to 1843 inclusive, was 
sought to be determined in four memoirs on the non-periodic variations of tem- 
perature on the earth's surface ; this was done by forming tables of contempo- 
raneous series of observations for a considerable number of years, and dedu- 



86 REPORT — 1848. 

cing the variations of the months in single years from the means of the same 
months drawn from many years. It thence appeared that important varia- 
tions are never merely local, but that the same character of weather prevails 
over large portions of the globe ; that the anomaly reaches its maximum in 
one spot, in receding from which it lessens more and more, until, passing 
through places where the thermic conditions are in their normal state, an 
opposite extreme is reached, which so compensates the first, that the general 
sum of warmth distributed over the earth at any particular time of year is 
the same in different years, although the values which make up the sum may 
be very different. Knowing the prevailing character of the \veather in par- 
ticular places in the different years, we are enabled to deduce from the devia- 
tions at a few normal stations, where the observations extend over a long series 
of years, the quantitative corrections to be applied to the results of observa- 
tions continued for only a few years. The fourth memoir contains the cor- 
rections calculated for nineteen such normal stations : — Madras, Palermo, 
Milan, Geneva, Vienna, Regensburg, Stuttgard, Carlsruhe, Berlin, Copen- 
hagen, Torneo, London, Kinfauns Castle, Zwanenburg, Paris, Salem, Al- 
bany, Gothaab and Reykiavig. These four memoirs also contain the com- 
plete data derived from observations at 700 stations ; or the monthly means 
during the respective years of observation. 

The second necessary correction is that required for eliminating the 
diurnal variation, and reducing the observations made at particular hours to 
the mean of the whole twenty-four hours, as it is only at a few stations that 
observations were made hourly. These latter stations, twenty-nine in number, 
supply the values required to reduce the observations at any particular hour 
to the mean of the twenty-four hours, and are given in the memoir entitled 
" On the Diurnal Variations of the Temperature of the Atmosphere." They 
are : — Rio Janeiro, Trevandrum, Madras, Bombay, Frankfort Arsenal, To- 
ronto, Rome, Padua, Kremsmiinster, Prague, Muhlhausen, Halle, Gottin- 
gen, Salzuflen, Brussels, Plymouth, Greenwich, Leith, Apenrade, Christiania, 
Drontheim, Helsingfors, Petersburgh, Catharinenburg, Barnaul, Nertschinsk, 
Matoschkin Schar, the Karian Gate, and Boothia Felix. 

It still remained to deduce from single years the monthly means for periods 
of many years. The temperature tables in the volume of the Transactions of 
the Berlin Academy for 1 SIT, contain the means for the months, for the seasons, 
and for the year, as they follow directly from the observations without cor- 
rection for diurnal variation. These tables have also been calculated in Fahr- 
enheit's scale, and are published in the Report of the Seventeenth Meeting 
of the British Association, held at Oxford, 1847. Since the publication of 
this work several stations have been added, and for other stations the means 
have been determined from longer series of observations. 

Lastly, it remained to fill up the wide intervals between the stations by 
the help of points in the intervening seas. This last work consumed a great 
quantity of time, as generally speaking the single observations are not even 
put together in daily means ; and besides the mean place of the ship must 
be determined for each occasion from the continually varying latitude and 
longitudes. It is only in Beechey's ' Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific 
and Behring's Straits,' (which is a true model in point of redaction,) that this 
has been done. Besides the above work, I have made use of the following, 
viz. "The United States- Exploring Expedition" (in which however, as the 
distinct Meteorological Appendix has not yet been published, I could only 
employ the notices found in the text) ; Captain James Ross's ' Voyage of 
Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic regions ;' and Du- 
mont D'Urville's • Voyage au Pole Sud et dans I'Oceanie sur TAstrolabe 



ON THE MONTHLY ISOTHERMAL LINES OP THE GLOBE. 87 

et la Zelee'. These three works, with Clerk's 'Daily abstract of meteorologi- 
cal observations made on board the Pagoda,' and King and FitzRoy's ' Nar- 
rative of the surveying voyages of the Adventure and Beagle,' describing 
their examination of the southern shores of South America, have rendered 
it possible to deduce the isothermals of the Southern Hemisphere much 
more extensively than could have been done a short time ago, and thus to 
obtain an approximate determination of the temperature of the southern half 
of the globe. I have also made use of the following journals : — Vaillant's 
'Voyage autour du Monde sur la Bonite ;' Du Petit Thouars' 'Voyage 
autour du Monde sur la Venus ;' Duperrey's ' Voyage autour du Monde sur 
la Coquille;' Freycinet's 'Voyage autour du Monde sur I'Uranie et la 
Physicienne' (which affords particularly abundant data for the tropical re- 
gions) ; Liitke's ' Voyage autour du Monde sur le Seniavine ; ' Meyen's 
' Reise um die Erde ;' Rafaele de Cosa's 'Corsi di osservazioni meteoro- 
logiche fatte nella Zona torrida a bordo del Vesuvio ;' Hasskarl's ' Me- 
teorologische Waarnemigen op drie Reizen van en naar de Oostindien ;' a 
journal of Dieffenbach during a voyage from England to New Zealand, and 
one of Schaeyer's on a voyage from England to Australia ; Reynolds's ' Voy- 
age of the Potomac durhig the circumnavigation of the Globe, ' and Erman's 
' Observations on Board the Krotkoi' in his Russischen Archiv. Lastly, I 
have used of older voyages, those of Peron and Baudin, La Perouse, Dentre- 
casteaux, Lisianski, Krusenstern, Chamisso, and the journals of Lawson, 
Peters and Newbold. 

Although, by reason of the smaller variation of the temperature on the 
surface of the Ocean, observations even of very short period give approxi- 
mate results, yet the mass of materials which one fancies at first sight one 
has at command contracts exceedingly in its dimensions on a nearer inspec- 
tion ; for as on land, stations of observation are unnecessarily crowded in 
some places and altogether wanting in others, so also at sea, there are nuich- 
frequented routes, and on the other hand extensive tracts which are hardly 
ever traversed. The influence of season encounters the inquirer the more 
frequently in sea observations, because the prevailing winds of different parts 
of the year determine the most favourable season of navigation for particular 
routes. Against this inconvenience, we may place the advantage which sea 
observations possess of getting rid of the often very uncertain correction for 
the influence of elevation. 

From the above materials I have constructed maps both on an equatorial 
and polar projection of the isothermal curves of January and July ; the lines 
in the January map being for every 4° of Reaumur (every 9° of Fahrenheit), 
and those in the July map for every 2° of Reaumur (every 4i° of Fahren- 
heit). It is in these months that the inquiry can be best pursued into the 
higher latitudes, as in one of them, the southern pole, and in the other, the 
northern pole, are most nearly approached by navigators. These two months 
also represent the extreme difference of the distribution of temperature within 
the annual period, the other months forming intermediate steps between the 
two extremes. In addition to the isothermal lines, others are drawn which 
may be termed lines of normal temperature : however different the tempera- 
ture may be at different parts of the same parallel of latitude, yet every 
parallel of latitude has a determinate mean temperature, which may be found 
by a graphical interpolation, and which is tlie proper mean or normal tem- 
perature of the parallel at that particular season. Places wliere the tempe- 
rature agrees with this value have a normal temperature ; those wiiere it is 
lower are relatively cold, and those where it is higher relatively warm. If we 



88 REPORT — 1848. 

reckon all places where the winter is too warm and the summer too cool, as 
belonging to a sea climate ; — and all places where the winter is loo cold and 
the summer too hot, as belonging to a continental climate; — the thermic nor- 
mals will give the boundary lines between these two species of climate. An 
inspection of the maps of the several months will show whether a place 
belongs always to one or other of the above classes, or whether it changes 
its character in this respect in tiie course of the year. 

The greatest winter cold is known to fall in North Asia and North America : 
on examining tlie map for January, we see that these two coldest localities form 
a connected cold region ; for the thermic normals by which they are bounded 
pass, on the Pacific side, along the west coast of America and the east coast 
of Asia, and unite in Behring's Straits; and on the Atlantic side, when they 
can be traced no further towards the north, they point exactly to the pole. 
Now it is in the nature of things that a thermic normal must pass through 
the pole, for as that point includes in itself all degrees of longitude, it must 
necessarily correspond to the definition of a point of normal temperature. 

The whole of Europe is included in January in the warm space, for the 
thermic normal coincides almost exactly with the boundary between Europe 
and Asia ; Greenland is also included, but of North America only the narrow 
strip of coast on the Pacific, beyond the Rocky Mountains. In the tropical 
region the sea is everywhere warmer in winter, therefore the interior of 
Africa forms an insulated cool space in opposition to the warm West Indies 
and the coasts and islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Java and the 
Sunda Islands have at that season, as compared with the West Indies and 
Polynesia, a continental climate. We see therefore that these names are un- 
suitable when comparing places under different latitudes ; for it would sound 
strange to say that Moscow has a sea climate, and that Singapore and Batavia 
have a continental climate. 

In conformity with the shape of the cold spaces, all the January isothermals 
have their longer axes in a line from America to Asia, passing from the 
middle of North America beyond the pole to Mandschury. 

The terrible January cold of Yakutsk is not corresponded to by any 
equally cold point in North America. If therefore we assume for this month 
two poles or maxima of cold, we must assign to them different intensities. 
But this is not necessary ; the course of the curves appears rather to indicate 
a connected narrow tract from Yakutsk to New Siberia. 

But it may be said, how is it possible that if the isothermals for the whole 
year curve round two separate poles of cold, these poles should not also ap- 
pear in the several portions of the year? It may be observed in reply, first, 
that the examination cannot be pursued into the higher latitudes for all the 
months of the year with equal exactness ; but that besides, that may be true 
on the annual mean which yet has no reality at any single portion of the year. 
The following example will illustrate this. 

A mass of land within the tropics, when the sun is vertical, so increases 
the heat, that under these circumstances continental stations show tempera- 
tures such as are never met with at sea. Now although these continental 
masses are cooler than the sea in the winter, yet this cooling is less than 
the disproportionate heating before spoken of, and the mean of the whole 
year is therefore above the normal. Thus the greater breadth of Africa 
north of the equator, and the expanse of India, cause the line of maxi- 
mum mean annual temperature not to coincide with the equator but to run 
north of that line. We will now suppose the imaginary case of two belts of 
tropical land at equal distances on each side of the equator, which latter shall 



ON THE MONTHLY ISOTHERMAL. LINES OF THE GLOBE. 89 

be occupied entirely by sea : we should in such case have two lines of niaxi- 
iTium temperature on the mean of the whole year ; but not in the separate 
portions of the year ; for the summer heat of the northern zone of land would 
be simultaneous with the winter of the southern zone, while the temperature 
of the equatorial sea would always be intermediate between the two. 

Hence we see liow little one is justified in deriving from the distribution 
of the mean annual temperature conclusions respecting its distribution in 
the separate portions of the year : it might even be asserted, on the contrary, 
that the annual isothermal lines become first elucidated by the consideration 
of the monthly isothermals ; and that for this reason all attempts to refer 
their form directly to the configuration of the continents have proved 
unsuccessful. 

If we divide the globe at the meridian of Ferro, and compute the tempera- 
ture of the parallels east and west of that meridian at every ten degrees of 
latitude, we find (with the exception of the latitudes of 70°) the eastern half, 
which has the largest mass of land, colder than the western half, the difference 
diminishing constantly as the equator is approached. 

Within the tropics the diminution of temperature in going northward takes 
place with great regularity. On the eastern side it is represented exactly 
between 0° and 30° by the equation 

t^=2l cos 2a;, 
t being in degrees of Reaumur, and x being the latitude; and on the 
western side it is represented very approximately between 0° and 40° by 

t =21.4 cos (2a:— 7). 
No formula has been found applicable to all latitudes ; in latitude 30°-40° the 
deviation is always considerable. The reason is easily seen ; on the Ameri- 
can side the Gulf-stream flowing from America to the Azores, and in Asia 
the lofty mountains and table-lands rising from the lowlands of the Ganges, 
cause a sudden break in the progression of temperature. As a general for- 
mula for the equator and the higher latitudes, 

t^= 24.5 + 4i5. 5 cos^x 
does best ; for the lower latitudes, 

/^= 24 -1-45 cos^a; 
is still nearer. According to this the temperature of the pole is 24^° of 
Reaumur below the freezing-point. 

For the eastern half of the southern hemisphere the formula suits 
^, =5 -I- 26-2 cos2 (x — 5). 

For the polar regions there remains an uncertainty, which however is of 
less consequence, when the question respects the determination of the mean 
temperature of an entire hemisphere. We obtain an approximate determina- 
tion by calculating the mean temperatures of the zones and 10, 10 and 20, 
and so forth, applying the observational values directly as far as observations 
suffice, and employing tor the highest latitudes the value given by interpola- 
tion. Admitting these determinations to be only a first approximation, they 
still appear less uncertain than the wholly arbitrary method hitherto em- 
ployed, of proceeding along a given meridian and deducing therefrom the 
mean temperature of the pole ; the values may be improved subsequently 
by combining the temperatures of the eastern and western hemispheres into 
a whole by means of Bessel's formula, and the form of the function being left 
indeterminate, by the addition of members the observational values will be re- 
produced as nearly as possible. 



00 REPORT — 1848. 

As provisional values, I find — Reaumur. Fahrenheit. 

January. Northern Hemisphere 7'5 48"8 

Southern 12-2 59.5 

The Globe 9-9 54-15 

July. Northern Hemisphere 17"3 71*0 

Southern 9-6 53'6 

The Globe 13-5 62-3 

The temperature of the whole globe increases therefore fully 3i degrees of 
Reaumur, or 8 degrees of Fahrenheit, from January to July. If we take the 
mean between these montlis, we have as the mean temperature of the globe, 
11°'7 Reaumur, or 58°'2 Fahrenheit; as the mean temperature of the north- 
ern hemisphere 1^°*4 Reaumur, or 60° Fahrenheit ; and of the southern 
hemisphere 10°*9 Reaumur, or 56°'4 Falnenheit. As when we move south- 
wards we see the northern constellations sink and the southern rise above the 
horizon, so the sun on entering new signs in his annual course, overlooks 
constantly new portions of the earth's surface. This surface being a highly 
varied one, the sun's influence on it is also constantly varying, for the 
impinging solar heat is employed in raising the temperature of substances 
which do not change their condition of ajrrrrejjation ; but when entf.'iged in cau- 
sing the mcliing of ice or the evaporation of water, it becomes latent. When 
therefore the sun returning from its northern declination enters the soutiiern 
signs, the increasing proportion of liquid surface upon wiiich it shines causes 
a corresponding part of its heat to become latent ; and hence arises the great 
periodical variation in the temperature of the whole globe, which has been 
noticed above. 

These relations appear to contain within themselves an important mo- 
tive force in the machinery of the whole atmosphere, for they are condi- 
tions on which a periodical transition of aqueous vapour into a liquid state 
depends. The circulation of moisture, which acts so importantly on all 
vegetable and animal life, thus appears no longer dependent on merely local 
effects of cooling, or the intermixture of currents of air of unequal tempe- 
rature; the non-symmetrical distribution of land and sea in the two hemi- 
spheres necessarily causes the aqueous vapour, which is developed in a pre- 
ponderating degree over the southern hemisphere from the autumnal to the 
vernal equinox, to return to the earth in the form of rain or snow during 
the other half of the year. Thus the wonderful march of the most power- 
ful steam-engine with which we are acquainted, the atmosphere, appears per- 
manently regulated by laws of periodical action. 

Men often complain that all physical circumstances are irregularly distri- 
buted over the earth's surface ; but this very irregularity is, as we have just 
seen, a preserving principle of the whole terrestrial life. 

It is probable tliat the northern hemisphere acts as the condenser, and 
the southern hemisphere as the water reservoir of this steam-engine ; and thus 
that a greater quantity of rain falling in the northern hemisphere is one cause 
of its higher temperature, since the heat which became latent in the southern 
hemisphere is set free in the northern in heavy falls of rain. 

But if all these phaenomena are essentially connected with the proportion 



ON THE MONTHLY ISOTHERMAL. LINES OF THE GLOBE. 91 

and distribution of land and sea, they must have been different when these 
proportions and distribution were different. Generally speaking, the rising 
up of new masses of land must have condensed a certain quantity of the 
existing aqueous vapour, from the proportion of latent heat having been 
changed ; but the place where the solid mass was elevated must be of the 
greatest importance in this respect. Thus considerable atmospheric convul- 
sions would have been among the secondary consequences of sudden geolo- 
gical revolutions, until the movements of the atmosphere had become accom- 
modated to the new circumstances of the surface on which it rests. Speaking 
generally, the temperature of the entire surface of the globe must have aug- 
mented with every augmentation of the solid portion of its area. 

If we now return to the consideration of the annual periodical variation of 
temperature over tiie whole surface of the globe, it may appear surprising to 
find that it is greater than that of the southern hemisphere taken separately ; 
the variation of the whole globe being 3^° Reaumur, or 8° Fahrenlieit ; and 
that of the southern hemisphere only S'^'G Reaumur, or 5°-9 Fahrenheit; 
whilst the variation of the northern hemisphere is 9°-8 Reaumur, or 22°"2 
Fahrenheit. It is only the two latter values however which can be properly 
compared with each other ; for the difference between the periodical variation 
of the northern and the southern hemispheres expresses the difference of effect 
produced by the variation of the sun's meridian altitude in his annual course, 
according as land or sea predominate in the surface which receives his rays: 
the annual variation of the temperature of either hemisphere taken separately, 
being due to the variation in solar action, the receiving surface remaining 
the same. The annual variation of temperature of the whole earth, on the 
contrary, arises from the periodical variation in the surface brought under the 
sun's rays, with no inequality in the conditions under which those rays are 
dispensed. 

We will now consider more closely the manner in which the position and 
form of the isothermals alter from January to July. 

The concavities of the January isothermals fall, — in America in the middle 
of the continent,— in the Old World, although still in the interior, yet much 
nearer to the eastern than to the western coast : the convex summits are in 
the intervening oceans. The isothermal curves rise steeply from Labrador 
to Spitzbergen, and descend almost perpendicularly to the European coast; 
from Norway to Nova Zembla, their eastern sides even form overhanging 
summits. The influence of the Gulf-stream is unmistakeable. The line of 
0° Reaumur, or 32° Fahrenheit, passes from Philadelphia across the banks 
of Newfoundland, and through the southernmost part of Iceland up to the 
Polar circle, wliich it reaches in the meridian of Brussels. It thence descends 
quite perpendicularly, or in the direction of the meridian, to Holland, from 
whence it proceeds in a south-easterly direction to the Balkan : from the 
middle of the Black Sea it runs in a west and east course across Asia to the 
Corea, whence it rises to the Aleutian Islands and descends again in America 
to the latitude of Palermo. Thus we find that if we proceed in January from 
the Shetland Islands down the east coast of Great Britain to the channel, we 
do not alter the temperature, whilst with every step to the westward it 
becomes v,'armer, and that in no inconsiderable degree ; since both the west 
coast of Ireland and the extreme point of Cornwall are beyond the Ime of 
4° Reaumur, or 41° Fahrenheit. In Scandinavia the circumstances are still 
more extraordinary : from the intervention of the British Islands, the south- 
ern parts of Norway are less open to the warm sea current than the northern 
parts, and hence in the month of January the temperature actually becomes 



92 REPORT— 1848. 

warmer in proceeding from south to north, and at the north cape the south- 
east winds are the coldest. Both the Scandinavian Alps and the Rocky 
Mountains in America form dividing walls in respect to climate. 

In approaching the tropics the curves flatten ; the isothermal of 1 6° Reau- 
mur, or 68° Fahrenlieit, nearly coincides throughout its course with the 
tropic of Cancer, its concavities in Africa and Trans-Gangetic India, and 
its intervening convexity in Hindostan, being quite inconsiderable. 

The dividing isothermal between the northern and southern thermal hemi- 
spheres, 21° Reaumur, or 79°'2 Fahrenheit, is only a simple line in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Gallapagos, but branches out beyond on either side so as to 
enclose a connected space of highest temperature, narrow in the Atlantic, 
but spreading out in width in South Amrica, the Indian Ocean, and Equa- 
torial Polynesia beyond Australia. Out of this space it is only exceptionally 
(as for example on the north coast of Australia) that we find temperatures of 
22° Reaumur or 81^° Fahrenheit, but not forming any continuous line. The 
fact of the space of highest temperature advancing farthest into the south- 
ern hemisphere in the Indian Ocean, and of this being also the locality of 
highest absolute temperature, are the reasons of the north-east trade be- 
coming at this season a north-west monsoon. 

In the month of January the greatest difference of mean temperature com- 
prised between 70° north and 70° south latitude, is 54° Reaumur, or 121°'5 
Fahrenheit. The thermic equator falls everywhere, excepting in Columbia 
and in Guinea, in the southern hemisphere ; but between this line and the 
latitude of 70° south, there are only twenty-two isothermals, while between 
it and 70° north there are fifty-four such lines. 

The isothermals of the southern hemisphere have the peculiarity of being 
much more inflected in the torrid than in the temperate zone. Where the 
alternation of land and sea from east to west ceases, the causes of inflection 
are absent. Besides the different effect of radiation on a solid or a liquid 
base, the configuration of continents is also influential in other ways. On 
it depend the courses of marine currents, whose influence becomes clearly 
apparent in the prosecution of such an examination as the present. In draw- 
ing the isothermal lines across the Ocean, they depend exclusively on the 
observations of atmospheric temperature, the numerous observations of the 
temperature of the sea never being taken into account. This distinction is 
imperative where the atmospheric isothermals are the objects of representa- 
tion, and where we aim_ expressly at obtaining as accurate a distinction 
between cause and effect as possible. 

The cooling influence of the polar current on the coast of Chili was dis- 
covered by M. de Humboldt ; its amount is not the same throughout the 
year, but it is unmistakeably sensible at all seasons. This causes the 
convex summits of the isothermals (which in the southern hemisphere mark 
the coldest localities) to be always on the western coast of America, and 
the concavities on the eastern coast. The reason of this persistency is to be 
found in the cold current in question not being a superficial one, but having, 
as it appears from soundings taken in the voyage of circumnavigation of the 
Venus, a depth of 5480 feet. " C'est une section considerable des mers 
polaires marchant majestueusement du Sud au Nord." 

The great curvature of the isothermals in the Southern Atlantic, is shown 
by a comparison of the temperatures of Rio Janeiro, St. Helena, Ascension, 
Christiansburg, Cape Town, and the Isle of Bourbon. The character of the 
vegetation at St. Helena must for this reason differ materially from that of 
the New Hebrides. Even if we assume a greater decrease of temperature 



V 



ox THE MONTHLY ISOTHERMAL LINES OF THE GLOBE. 93 

Kith increasing elevation tlian is shown by the observations at St. Helena, 
A'e shall still find the temperature there much lower than that of the Archi- 
Delagoof the Low Islands. The reason of this great inflection of the isother- 
nal lines having been hitherto overlooked, is probably that navigators usually 
:eep nearer either the American or the African coast, and that thus the 
outhern tropic is rarely crossed in the Atlantic in mid-ocean. 

To the south of the Cape of Good Hope, the isothermals flatten and are 
nuch crowded : this crowding is still more striking in March, when the 
sothermals of the torrid zone have their concavities, and those of the tempe- 
ate and frigid zones their convexities, in the meridian of the Cape. 

It has only been possible to determine directly the position of the line of 
»° Reaumur, or 32° Fahrenheit, in the southern hemisphere, for tlie four 
lonths of December, January, February, and March. It is comparatively 
)ut little inflected ; these determinations however can only be regarded as 
pproximate, if we consider that the drift-ice of the Antarctic regions, 
leing everywhere exposed to the uninterrupted action of an open ocean, 
.Ithough it may consist of more compact masses, yet "can never form into 
luch extensive fields as the ice of th.e northern seas, and from its state of 
lisruption is far more variable in its place in different years. The boldness 
vith which Captain Ross broke through the zone of moveable ice which he 
net with in the place where Dumont D'Urville had found an open sea, was 
ecompensed by finding beyond it a sea free from ice, which permitted him 
o advance to farhigher latitudes ; from a comparison of the different voyages, 
ve arrive however at a conviction, that before reaching the barrier of fixed ice 
he temperature dependent on the position of the moveable ice may vary very 
considerably in jlifferent years. If we were enabled to sketch the isother- 
Tials of a year, we might perhaps find an increase of temperature beyond the 
noveable belt of drift-ice. By the combination of the results of different 
tingle years, there may appear a local curvature which in the mean of many 
/ears would soften off into simpler forms. We may explain in this manner 
;he apparently contradictory statements of different circumnavigators on the 
'.emperature of the southern hemisphere. From not being acquainted with 

(the part to be attributed to non-periodic variations, the observed atmo- 
spheric relations on each occasion have been regarded as the normal ones. 
It was overlooked that a traveller visiting Berlin in January 1 823, would have 
ibund there the mean January temperature of Godthaab (in Greenland), of 
Bear Island, and of Moscow; and in January 1834, a temperature higher 
han the mean January temperature of the plains of Lombardy. 

In February the isothermals in Northern Asia begin to move northwards, 
while in North America they are still moving southwards. In Baffin's and 
Hudson's Bay they become still steeper than before, while in Siberia they 
begin to flatten. Near the thermal limits between the northern and southern 
hemispheres, the temperature of 22° Reaumur, or 81^° Fahrenheit, is found in 
two separate spaces, one in the interior of South America, the other in Cen- 
tral Africa, where it extends to Australia, the larger part being in the southern 
hemisphere, but in Guinea extending to 10° north of the equator. In the 
southern hemisphere the distribution has altered but little ; in Australia the 
east and west sides continue to be cooler than the middle until after the 
beginning of March. 

In March the spaces in America and Africa, enclosed by the isothermal of 
22°, or 8 14° Fahrenheit, have united ; the inflection in the middle of the At- 
lantic still recalls their separation in February. The flattening of the Asiatic 
curves has become still more decided, and shows itself unmistakeably in the 



94 REPORT — 1848. 

European curves, with the exception of the Scandinavian curves, which main- 
tain their deviating form. It is only in the Kirghis steppe th:it the depression 
of temperature still continues to be remarkable, and docs not disappear until 
April. The American curves become flatter in the interior of the continent, 
but as they preserve their steepness on the eastern coast, their concavity 
moves gradually towards Newfoundland. The Atlantic ocean shows the pe- 
culiarity that the curves on this side of the tropic of Cancer have their con- 
vex summits in the same meridian (that of the Cape de Verd Islands) in 
which the inter-tropical curves have their concave summits. This is explained 
by the Gulf-stream turning to the south at the bank of Flores. On the 
western coasts of North and South America the form of the curves remains 
the same, the convex summits are everywhere close to the coast. In the 
Ethiopian Sea the curves are flatter, and are very close together near the Cape 
of Good Hope and on the south coast of Australia, because the line of 
0° Reaumur, or 32° Fahrenheit, has its convex summit in these meridians 
in .57° lat., and the increase of temperature from thence, which is at first, 
slow, becomes extremely rapid from 45° S. lat. 

In April two spaces of unusually high temperature, bounded by isothermals 
of 24° Reaumur, or 8G° Fahrenheit, are developed in the middle of Northern 
Africa and in the interior of Western India. Everywhere in Asia and 
middle Europe, the isothermals are almost parallel with the parallels of 
latitude. It is only the curves of 4°, 0° and — 4° Reaumur, 41°, 32° and 23° 
Fahrenheit, which preserve their extraordinary bend. The line of — 4° Reau- 
mur, or 23° Fahrenheit, passes from the southern part of Hudson's Bay 
along the west coast of Greenland up to Spitzbergen, and sinks from thence 
down to the entrance of the White Sea. The line of 0° Reautnur, or 32° 
Fahrenheit, runs from Cape Breton to the south point of Greenland, through 
Iceland, almost up to Bear Island ; thence to the North Cape, and sinks on 
the crest of the Scandinavian Alps down to the latitude of Drontheim, from 
whence it bends eastward. The ice drifting down from the coast of Green- 
land and Baffin's Bay is the cause of this phaenomenon. 

In May this effect of the drift-ice is still more decided ; from Nova Scotia 
to Newfoundland the isothermals are crowded most closely together : hence 
arises in the spring of Newfoundland the remarkable phsenomenon of the silver 
dew, when warm south winds cover the trees with a thick crust of ice, convert- 
ing, as Bonnycastle tells us, every tree into a candelabra of the purest cry- 
stal ; hence too the thick fogs which at this season obscure the entrance to 
Baffin's Bay. Meanwhile the hot space in Africa, bounded by an isother- 
mal of 24° Reaumur, or 8G° Fahrenheit, has extended and united itself with 
the hot space in Western India. On the northern side of this space tlie 
temperature decreases rapidly up to the shores of the Mediterranean : the 
S.E. trade in the form of a S.W. monsoon, advances towards the hot space. 
The curves in Northern Asia, which in the interior continue parallel to the 
circles of latitude, on approaching the east coast of the old continent, rise 
rapidly, and then sink down again with equal rapidity in Kamschatka, towards 
the Aleutian and Kurile Islands. 

In June the relations are analogous ; the hot African space reacts in 
Europe up tO' Christiania ; for the European isothermals still rise near the 
west coasts, and do not begin their easterly course until the meridian of Berlin. 
The Fox Channel, the Karian Gate, and Behring's Straits, as outlets of the 
Icy Sea, show their influence in producing concave inflections in the generally 
regular course of the isothermal lines at this season. In America, the lowest 
parts of the lines are close to the east coast ; the warm space, enclosed by a 



ON THE MONTHLY ISOTHERMAL LINES OF THE GLOBE. 95 

line of 22° Reaumur, or 81i° Fahrenheit, which had been formed in the Carib- 
bean Sea in May, now embraces the whole of that sea and the entire Gulf of 
Mexico. In the southern hemisphere the curves have become extremely 
flat ; and even the difference between the east and west sides of South America 
is less sensible. The cooling effect produced by the melted drift-ice has 
undergone a considerable diminution. 

In July the extreme temperatures manifest themselves ; within the elon- 
gated space enclosed by the isothermal of 24° Reaumur, a space enclosed 
by an isothermal of i6° Reaumur, or 90i° Fahrenheit, has been formed, 
including Nubia and Southern Arabia. These are the countries of which 
Hagi Ismael says the earth is fire and the wind flame. But in Western 
India also the temperatures have become since May extraordinarily high. 
The Afghans say, " Great God, why needest thou have made Hell when 
there is Ghizni ?" It is no wonder therefore that the S.E. trade in the 
form of a S.W. monsoon follows up the retreating N.E. trade to the foot of 
the Himalaya. In Europe and Asia the isotheimals have overpassed the 
circular form (J., e. coincidence with the parallels of latitude), and begin to be 
convex in the interior of the continent. The thermic normal, enclosing a 
space warmer than the normal condition, includes all Asia, Europe, and Africa 
down to the equator ; only Scotland and Ireland belong to the proper sea 
climate, as do also Labrador, Canada, New North and South Wales, and the 
margin of coast from California up to the mouth of the Mackenzie River. 
In the warm space of tlie Mexican Gulf, we find no traces of temperature 
so high as those of Africa and Hindostan ; Maracaybo only reaches 24° 
Reaumur, or 86° Fahrenheit. The thermal limit bttween the northern and 
southern hemispheres is a little advanced towards the north in this part of 
the globe, but on the eastern side it touches the northern tropic in several 
places. 

The longitudinal axis of the isothermals runs westward from the Aleutian 
Islands towards Baffin's Bay, but the issues of the Icy Sea, tlie Karian Gate, 
and Barrow's and Behring's Straits, draw out the circular form of the 
isothermal surrounding the pole into a more nearly triangular shape. As 
in North America the isothermals have moved laterally, their concavities 
liaving advanced from the interior to the east coast, while in Europe and Asia 
the concave form has been changed into a convex one, their July course in 
the greater part of North America, in Europe, and in Asia is perpendicular 
to the direction which they follow in January. In the southern hemisphere, 
the isothermals, from 12° to 1° Reaumur, or from 59° to 34°*2 Fahrenheit, 
are thickly crowded and extremely flat. 

In Augicst, in the old continent the east side of Nova Zembla alone resists 
the still continuing tendency of the curves to become more convex, and 
hence they assume two characteristic convexities, one at Spitzbergen, and the 
other beyond the mouth of the Lena. But on tlie coast of Greenland, as the 
cold in the high north already begins to increase, the drifting of ice to the 
southward is lessened, and the east coasts of North America are thus per- 
mitted to retain more of the heat they receive, and the isothermal curves 
become flatter. 

In Sejytember this is the case in a still greater degree ; and as the cold from 
New Siberia now begins to invade the continent of Asia, the convex summits 
are similarly flattened. This therefore is the season when the distribution of 
temperature over the globe is most regular, even America forming no ex- 
ception. Now begins the Indian summer, " the time which the Great Spirit 
of the Red-skin sends to him that he may follow the chase." The same 



96 REPORT— 1848. 

causes render September, as lias been shown in tbe memoirs on the " Non- 
periodic Variations," the montli which shows the fewest anomalies in single 
years ; for when the temperature is equally distributed in the east and west 
direction, easterly and westerly winds or currents of air cease to exert any 
disturbing thermal effect. Hence we prefer September as a travelling month, 
and our after-summer, though less beautiful than that of America, is not witli- 
out charms. Nature falls gently asleep in autumn, and awakens with feverish 
starts in spring ; if the last-named season were not set off by winter as a foil, 
autumn would surely stand the higher in our estimation. 

AVithin the tropics the temperature begins already to sink, showing clearly 
that as the sun passes from tiie northern to the southern signs, a larger por- 
tion of the heat dispensed by his rays becomes latent. The West India Islands 
are now withdrawn from the space enclosed by an isothermal of 22° Reau- 
mur, or Sl^° Fahrenheit, which has now contracted to a narrow strip of coast 
from Vera Cruz to Cayenne ; the space included by the same i'sothermal in 
Africa has retreated from the west coast to tiie interior ; and the space en- 
closed by an isothermal of 2t° Reaumur, or 86° Fahrenheit, now only in- 
cludes Kordofan, Nubia, and Arabia, and no longer embraces Hindostan. 

In October itbegins to disappear. Thecold nowcomes in decidedly from the 
north ; at the mouth of the Yana the isothermal of — 22° Reaumur, or — 1 7|-° 
Fahrenheit, already touches the continent of Asia, and the temperature of 
Melville Island has sunk to — 16° Reaumur, or — t°'8 Fahrenheit. The cold 
comes in the old continent from the north-east, and in the new continent 
from the north-west. But it is not until November that the isothermals be- 
come in both continents decidedly concave. At the same time the curves in 
the southern hemisphere become increasingly inflected as the increasing alti- 
tude of the sun, causing the ice to melt, renders the difterenje between land 
and sea more marked. 

The isothermals of the torrid zone north of the equator, on the contrary, 
run almost completely in the direction of the parallels of latitude. In Europe 
meanwhile those extraordinary involutions have already begun which in 
December are still more decidedly formed, and which cause the isothermal of 
4° Reaumur, or 41° Fahrenheit, to run from the Feroe Islands to Rochelle, 
passing along the west coast of Great Britain, In a similar manner the 
south point of Nova Zembla and the Kirghis Steppe have now the same 
temperature. In the curves of December we recognise already almost the 
extreme forms of January. 

Such important variations in the distribution of temperature cannot but 
react in the strongest manner on the movements of the atmosphere, and 
consequently also on the distribution of the atmospheric pressure. Graphi- 
cal representations of a fresh and more detailed examination of the annual 
variations of the pressures of the gaseous and aqueous atmospheres which 
are now lying before me, show that the interchange between masses of air 
does not only take place between the northern and southern hemispheres, but 
that a lateraljlowing ojf also takes place at certain times. Thus in the spring 
of the year the air accumulates over the part of America where the cold 
still continues ; while in Asia the increasing warmth already causes it to ex- 
pand so that its amount and pressure are diminished. Hence the countries 
which have a cold sjyring (as the Arctic regions of North America), have the 
maximum pressure in the spring, as the author showed fifteen years ago 
(Pogg. Ann. xxiv. p. 205) ; hence the west coasts of America have the 
maximum of pressure in summer ; and the interior of Asia, on the contrary, 
has its minimum of pressure in summer, as the longitudinal axis of the isother- 



ON THE PROGRESS IN ANEMOMETRICAL RESEARCHES. 97 

mal lines falls in summer in the ocean, and in winter on the continents. In 
the same manner the occurrence of two isolated closed spaces in Hindostan 
converts the trade into a monsoon, while in summer northerly breezes (the 
Etesian winds), which have their point of attraction in Africa, blow over the 
Mediterranean. Hence the sub-tropical zone is wanting in Asia, while the 
smallness of the alteration in the position of the isothermal lines, 12° to 20° 
Reaumur, or 59° to 77° Fahrenheit, in the Atlantic, fixes it to a definite place. 
Hence also the distribution of temperature in the thermic wind-rose is of an 
opposite kind according as the place is situated on the eastern or the western 
side of a continent. 

In conclusion, the results here communicated will, I trust, appear to justify 
the expression of a wish, that when meteorological observations are pub- 
lished, theirvaluemay not be lessened, as has so often been the case heretofore, 
by publishing only the means of the seasons and of the year ; but that the 
monthly means will be also published. 



On the Progress of the Investigation on the Influence of Carbonic Acid 

on the Growth of Ferns. By Dr. Daubeny. 
Dr. Daubeny reported that the ferns were now growing in a large excess 
of carbonic acid, the amount of which had been ascertained daily during the 
last month. He however suggested some modifications in the form of the 
apparatus, the object being to secure the gas from leakage more perfectly 
than had hitherto been done. 



Notice of further Progress in Anemometrical Researches. 
By John Phillips, F.R.S. 
Referring to the report on this subject, presented to the Southampton 
Meeting of the Association and printed in the Transactions, the author reca- 
pitulated the steps of the investigation by which he had been conducted to 
propose the evaporation of water as a measure of the velocity of air-move- 
ment. In the former researches, the conclusion which may be drawn a 
priori from Dr. Apjohn's formula for the relation of the temperature of the 
dew-point to that of an evaporating surface, was verified ; and the rate of 
cooling oi a. wet bulb in the open air was found tohe, OBteris paribus, simply 
proportional to t — t' (t being the temperature of the air, t' that of an evapo- 
rating surface). The air-movement was found to affect the rate of cooling, 
nearly in proportion to the square root of the velocity ; and thus by simply 
observing the rate of cooling of a wet bulb exposed to a current of air, and 
also the value oi t — t', the velocity of the air current becomes easily calcu- 
lable. But this instrument is only an Atietnoscope, of extreme delicacy and 
various applicability indeed, but incapable of being converted to a self-re- 
gistering Anemometer. 

It appeared to the author probable that the rate of evaporation followed 
nearly or exactly the same law as the rate of cooling, the same reasoning in 
fact applying to each case. This was tested by experiment in a great variety 
of ways, with instruments of extremely various forms, and with velocities of 
air-movement from 400 yards to 27,000 yards in the hour. The velocities 
of the wind were measured by a very lightly-poised machine anemometer of 
Dr. Robinson's construction, but without any wheel-work, the revolutions 
being counted by the observer. 

In the course of these experiments some apparently anomalous circum- 
stances in the rate of evaporation occurred to the author, but these he hopes 
to be able to interpret by further careful research, and finally to present in 
the compass of a few cubic inches an anemometer specially suited to measure 
and record the low velocities of wind, and furnish a useful complement to 
the larger machines alreadv esteemed to be so important in meteorology. 

1848. ' H 



98 KEPORT 1S4S. 

To the Assistant-General Secretary. 

Dublin, 27th of July, 184». 
ITear Sir, — For the last four months I have been so much out of health by 
previous over-exertion of mind and body, that some repose became indispen- 
sable, and I regret to say that I shall be unable, from this cause, to complete 
the Report on the Facts of Earthquakes, entrusted to me by the British As- 
sociation, so as to present it, as 1 had hoped and intended, at the ensuing 
Meeting. Much progress has been made with the most laborious parts of it, 
and should health permit, I expect to have the honour of presenting it next 
year, in case the Association deem me worthy of continuing the recommen- 
dation for the Report. 

It is also my duty, as the first named on a Committee for the Construction 
of a Self-Registering Seismometer, to state the progress that has been made : — 

Working drawings of the instrument and of its several parts have been 
prepared and carefully considered, but as the acting members of the Com- 
mittee were unwilling to incur any outlay for actual construction, until per- 
fectly clear in every respect as to the principles and details of the instrument, 
and as some questions arose of considerable mathematical nicety in deter- 
mining, they have not as yet put into hand any part of the work. Professor 
Lloyd, one of the Committee, has kindly promised the reporter to solve those 
questions, when we expect that the instrument will be forthwith completed, 
and a plan determined for its being set to work. We have therefore to ask 
the Association to continue to the same Committee and in the same form the 
grant of 50/. made last year for the above purposes. Robert Mallet. 



Concluding Report on the Gaussian Constants. By Adolphe Erman. 

The annexed addition to this year's Report on the Correction of Gaussian 
constants consists in tables containing primary equations for the 24 unknown, 
viz. the corrections of the constants, resulting from magnetic elements ob- 
served in the Atlantic Ocean, and in some points of the North Sea and of the 
Baltic, and a final table (marked (14), and to be substituted for Table (6) 
of the first report printed in the volume for 1846), presenting again the 24 
final equations for the 24 corrections in the last and most complete form that 
may be given to these expressions by the whole set of observations that has 
till now come to our disposal. Indeed these equations are the full abstract 
of what can be added to the Gaussian theory of terrestrial magnetism, by 
610 magnetic elements between April 1828 and November 1830 ; and as each 
of the primary equations relating to points between Taheiti and Portsmouth 
reposes upon a due combination of from three to five single observations, 
the number of contributing observations amounts to upwards of 900. A 
simple resolution of these equations will now assign to the corrections A^^'°, 

A^'"' (that must be applied to 5i'^'"= — 108-855, g*-^— — \o2-5m 

viz. to the numbers previously adopted by M. Gauss), the most probable 
values that can be obtained by the before-said stock of data for 1829, and 
the weight of the same corrections. 

A. Ekman. 



Their form is = n + c< Report, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Erman. 



oef. 



2ra 



Log. coef. 



9« 

ire 
9re 



<yn 



■9 
■3 
igre 

7» 
,6» 

i8re 



(tn 



.6 



9re 
igre 
izre 

in 

qn 
«jn 

;9M 

.ore 
'in 

^I 

;o 

'9 



Log. coef. 



8'502i9 

8'496i3 

8'4ioi7re 

8-41945 

8-97874 

9-10575*1 

9-79355W 
9'8428ire 
9-79686^ 
9'6ao85W 
9-6i33ire 
9"49553« 
8-95697^ 
9-30094 

9'S7655 
9-64386 
9-63001 
9-45895 

9-44830 

9-38005 

9-37930 

9'37497 

7-870i8re 

9-oi59ire 

9-94553*1 
0-06862W 
0-05518™ 
^'■]6-jZ-]n 
<)'6%-]6in 
9-59i86« 

9-3536671 

8'5i325 
9-22295 
8-10955 

9'i95i7 
9-68779W 

9'97499» 
0-0698 5?} 
o-io8o4re 
o-i76o6re 
0-19504W 
o-26982n 

0-3690471 

0-3884571 

0-4012771 

9-80860 

987871 

0-15992 

0-17546 
0-1499 1 
0-16466 
0-09977 
0-29192 
0-27513 

0*20344 
0-18266 
0-18414 
8-2008771 9-91521 
9-2441178 9-90618 
9-56521 19-77122 



9-01911 
9-01926 
9-04980 
9-04550 
9-02264 
9-02906 

9-01796 
8-94650 
8-80233 
8-41097 
8-48426 
8*58022 

8-41186 

7-72682 

7-684447^ 

7-06336 

7-71018 

8-41531 

8-42957 
8-50648 
8-50706 
8-51181 
8-8oi6o 
8-84374 

8-99857 
9-08345 
9-24114 
9-37286 
9-39108 
9-40338 

9-42751 

9-46231 

9-49369 

9'54327 

9'30395 

9"SSo6s« 

9-6797971 

9-7049171 

9-7356371 

9-7401 171 
9-8317371 
9-8419271 

9-84962™ 
9-8510471 
9-8523174 



— 00 
00 



— CO 

— 00 



Log. coef 



coef. 



9^68352 ^93 
9-6S368 370 
9-70701 303 
9-71522 Sri9 
9-71992 *]ii 
9-67358 156 

9-67789 307 
9-63505 547 
9-67208 337» 
9-60491 bi87j 
9-62909 203™ 
9-68017 !i.62re 

9-69450 20771 
9-68448 175W 
9-65743 83378 
9*57218 29cre 
9-54481 10571 

9-40952 21278 

9-40664 P53?8 

9-38993 ^9678 

9-38950 39471 

9-38928 3I5W 

9-26538 33878 
9-18761 53678 

6-6o766rep78re 

8-754077ip78n 

9-i44327ik20 

9-3285871087 

9-3457678^95 

9*3650978512 

9*39i72rep45 

9*42994refc23 

9-4467078P87 

9-8928178^54 

9-9087678740 

9-703457879 iw 

9-592577830571 

9-548097863671 

9-5o56278fi57re 

9-47402rej27re 

9-1919178^8878 

9-05i87re^i278 

8-82024rei78>8 

8-7404078^6978 

8-589107815878 

9-5487878^56 

9-48165/8^37 

9-3i695re|5o9 

9-2350471522 
9-2141878137 
9-1687178512 
9*i7i74re532 
8-8034078716 
8-67963»562 

8-4862I78J; 

8-4150 

8-2638 

8-7195778^5978 

9-119237)7 

9-54039716 



Log. coef. 



378375 

18 



9-83309 
9-83314 

9'83396 
9-78932 
9*71423 
9-90772 

0-02973 
0-04736 
0*04208 
0-02703 
0-01536 
9-97858 

9-90413 

9*74045 

9'47387 

9*0876878 

9-3184478 

9-7138578 

9-71872™ 
9*7448 5« 
9-74540W 
9-7460178 
9-86543™ 
9-9108878 

0-08426™ 
0-11751™ 
0-12027™ 
0-07148™ 
0-05957™ 
0-04870™ 

0*02596™ 
9-98178™ 

9'944i4» 
9-94822 
0-C0200 
0-19413 

0-22621 
0-22771 
0-24072 
0*22905 
0*31240 
0*31693 

0*31156 

0-30998 

0-31392 

8-20378™ 

9-20678™ 

9-40988 

9-64324 
9-73104 

9-74897 
9-82748 
9-73162 
9-79581 

9-89415 

991346 

9-91984 

9-96o37re 

9-97176™ 

9-9923671 



Log. coef. 



•82413 
-82416 

■83273 
•81355 
■77454 



-85856 
-78123 

■64543 
8-30850 
8-35899 
8-40443 

8-21130 

7-50934 

7-4577478 

6-83402 

7-48483 

8-21969 

8-23395 
8-31069 
8*31142 

8-31571 
8-61227 
8-67409 

8-96927 
9-07994 
9-21785 
9-31016 
9-31975 
9-32984 

9-34436 
9-36504 
9-37527 
0-22484 
0-21142 
0-13730 

0-10961 
0-10179 
0-09041 
0-08854 
0-02333 
0-00678 

9.98749 
9-98223 
9-97362 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 



Log. coef. 



9^73558 
9-76454 
9-86194 



9*94529 
9'94533 
9'94947 
9-94310 

9^93195 
9-95697 

9-98916 
9-99845 

9^99797 
9-98545 
9-98589 
9-98726 

9-97530 

9^94533 
9-90648 
9-82047 
9-79909 
9-71234 

9-71034 

9-67892 

9-69872 

9-67832 

9-62754 

9*59785 

9-40725 

9-27240 

8-82821 

8'74i26re 

8-84917™ 

8-95278™ 

9*07303™ 
9*21924™ 
9-27419™ 
9-8892678 
9-94321™ 
9-9702774 

9-96091™ 
90471 ire 
9-95149™ 
9-92781™ 
9-99680™ 
9-98790™ 

9-9629 178 
9-95703™ 
9-95785™ 
9-8462778 
9-8171378 
9-88479™ 

9-90430™ 
9*9142278 
9*91561™ 
9-9264678 
9-90932™ 
9-91669™ 

9*9299178 

9*9327078 

9*93331™ 

9*77647 

9-78803 

9-64357 



Log. coef 



9-66950™ 
9-66940™ 
9-6537377 
9-67731)8 
9-71199)8 
9*61555™ 

9-31913™ 

8-76984W 

8-93310 

9-40433 

9-38127 

9'37544 

9-51356 

9-67379 

9-77200 

9-8750S 

9-89038 

9-93282 

9-93352 

9^93742 
9-93750 
9-93764 
9-95650 
9-96235 

9-98334 
9-98896 
9-99298 
9-99005 
9-98919 
9-98801 

9-9859J 

9-98163 

9-97913 

9-88288n 

9-88270™ 

0-04776™ 

0-08922M 
0-10452)8 
0-1131578 
0-12515™ 
0*13951™ 
0-15294™ 

0-17249™ 

0-17687™ 

o-i8ooc™ 

9-85265 

9-87764 

9-80730 

9^77598 
9-75685 

9^75394 
9-72914 
9-76661 
9-75165 

9-72033 
9-71286 
9-71185 
9-77009 
9-72762 
9-72106 

(7) 



PItlMAIlY EQUATIONS FOR THE CORUECTIONS OF THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS. Their form is = n + cnef.A^^o (A^'") + coef. ^ 



lleport, Di-it. Assoc. 1848. Erman 



and obscncd elenie 



Isk, upper pnrt of the town . . . . l 

r.mu'. .".'.'-'.'.--'.'-".'-'.... -.i. 
ml I. 

Ojasch - i. 

Kasulka >■ 

On the ice of Lake Baikal 8. 

Mans.irsk !. 

Ualknzk 3. 

Iwanowsk i. 

Nelensk 3- 

Anlzcba. '!'.'.'.''.'. ..'.'..'-.'. i. 

KeUfi.ln -. i. 

Seaof Oclio/k i. 

Item i. 

ircm \'.v.\v^^'.'.\'^'.'.'.' '.'.'. ....i 

Klulshewsk i. 

c i. 

a. 

i. 

i. 

J. 

J. 

1. 

i. 

i. 

Vrcliangelsk z. 

Pacific - . ■ ' 2. 

San Francisco ?■ 

Item ......'..'.'....'. :. 

Item '.'.'.'.'...'..'. .-. 

New Archangclak - . y- 

Pacific y- 

San Pranciico y- 

Pacific y- 

Item y. 

New ArcUangelsk ^- 



?78i 
0-87670 

057566., 
■1S473 
■4,5864 
■S+87S 
■13462^ 
■4366S 



32366 

87853 
89001 
B8369 
80771 
77967 

09408 
8 '20067 
-■36^02 

■22245 
■S560I 



9904.S 

903989 



■68216., 



■679030 
■6774in 
■S763aii 
■53683.. 
•483410 
-467410 
9'43967n 



Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log, coef. Log. 



'64484 

9^645 10 
9-67510 
58284 
9-17839 
8151960 
9'2i57on 
9-495150 
9-486730 
■49 s 5 J" 

959635" 
9' 70564/1 
975964" 

9-776890 



'88347™ 
9-4S696rj 
9-491000 
9-519180 

5.962.. 

636920 
665450 



•196570 
■iSSsCn 
■78573 
■77655 
■67147 
9-59967 



9-0873 1 

7-55'38 
8-37455 



8-85680 
86329 
'85549 



'■97954 
3938" 19-76414 



8-903040 

9653450 
9-97S9"n 

'469411 



37930 

9" 3749 7 



■8+374 
■99857 



9'9655o 
'95577 
9'79S 



9'336; 
6463711 

9-970930 
9-9S087n 
9-S8750B 



9-87S72.i 
9-87807" 



983903 

■81804 

'S9886 

■58979 
, ■43H6« 
9560130 
9-919250 
9-879i7'> 
9-808960 

■87348.. 
:83'8o» 

-505880 
•9 60 96 n 
-87304 
-73817 
■74434 
-7584* 

9-63650 ' 



og. eocf. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef- Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. eocf. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log, coef. Log, coef Log. coef. Log. 
V-"- -V-'. -iA'-'. Jf'-s. iA"-». iy'->. AA'.3. V'"- V-'- ^'''■^- V-'- -lA^'-- -Jy''". J?'.'. A/ 



48139 

9-848351, 



66069 
851459 
8-17663 



9-63657.1 

.735891 
9-8i372« 
9-684i2n 
9-73781" 



9-96313 
9-95750 
9-94283 



■49547 
9'8oot8R 



'95»'S" 9'746om 
'88838n 9-8654311 



Log. coef. 


■8H.1 
•8.4,6 


Sj 


■!s!s6 
■78I.3 
'4»3 
,0850 
35899 

21130 


fi; 



,5, .00 


■,ZZ 


9S6.!, 








0046.1 












,•,8466 


















■8„„n 


9'3S448n 


■81969™ 




■8.s46n 










-" 


?\llll 


-« 


■7i.88n 






-» 


■70499.1 








■6j,6.» 


-« 


■61.44.. 


— to 


■61637.1 


-" 


■6i)9on 




■46351 




•38786 


9-999.4 


8-S78;., 



>-o8873N 

1-037900 
1-034790 



9-81157' 
'83688^ 







9981780 


9-36504 


9944I4" 




9-94811 


0-12484 


0-19413 


0-13730 


0-12621 


0-10961 


0-1I77I 


010179 


0-12905 


0-0885+ 






0-31693 




0-3,156 




0-30998 


r98"3 






1-203781. 




1-io678b 




9-40988 


-00 


9-64314 


-M 






9-74897 


-00 


9-82748 








9-79581 


-» 




— « 














9-97.76« 


9-76454 


9-992360 


9-86194 



OS. coof 


Ug.coef, 


Jj'.i. 
















943 'o 


9-67731.1 






■95697 


9-6i55S» 


,8„6 




99845 


8769S4.. 


99797 


8-933,0 


9«i4i 




98389 


9-381.7 


98716 




97S30 








,0648 






9-87508 




9-89038 


71134 


9-93.S1 


71034 


9-9335= 






678,. 








i9;8i 










/98896 




1 99.98 




',!,i„i 




9,8801 


07303.1 




"i'v> 




sltila 


9-88i88n 




9-8817011 


9701711 


0-0477611 


9609111 


0089..,, 


0471m 


©■, 045111 


9.78^ 


0-, 15,5,1 




0-1395111 


9879cn 


0-15.94" 














8461711 








88479.1 


9-80730 


9(H3on 


9-77598 


91411H 


9-75685 






9164611 






,-7666, 


9i669„ 


9-75165 


9317011 


W"Ai 






78803 




64357 


9^7iic6 



coef. 



Log. coef. 



Log. coef. 



form is = w + coef. Ap-^ort, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Erman. 



g. coef. 




Log. coef, 



Log. coef. 



Log. coef. 
AA'.i. 



0277 

834s 

0300 

690Z 

9127 

4-344 

zSi2n 

532on 

7702n 



9933« 
io4Sn 

1993 

7758 
1744 
4173 
7706 
1766 

1913 
8632 

4959 
1912 
6251 
5391 
70s 
1960 
3130 

94» 
\c^(>n 
1.26ore 



9-69175 
9"66633 
9*62672 
9-61994 
9-30036 
9-17528 

9-85435W 
9-845 14» 
9-82383« 
9-8o334w 
9-76346n 
9-67754» 



7044B 
1330W 

'975« 
7i3on 
.442^ 
)348w 

)28ow 

(.210 
I603 

»399 



208 

191 
509 
f687 
;578 
.522 
.015 

1844 
038 
,967 
I1732 

315 
096 

.719 

298 

624 

4i4n 

9i5« 

204n 



8-33500W 
9-io385n 
9-3465IW 
9*4459 ire 
9-5502 6w 
9-65393/1 

8-97497 

8-90259 

8-75329 

9-57008W 

9-44666n 

9-33153/} 

9-05107/1 

8-68520/1 

7-43329 

7-24944 

8-57136 

8-88355 

8-89321 
8-82452 
8-98963 
9-14625 
9-31740 
9-49032 

9-61000 
9-68015 
9-72737 
9-77006 
9-78722 
9-80972 

9-84974 
9-85418 
9-85075 
9-84176 
9-80939 
9-78769 

9-74382 
9-60724 
9-46793 

9"44573 
9-25460 
9-06625 



9'S6572re 9- 

9-55823/1 

9-56974/! 

9-54700/4 

9-62402/1 

9-6ii58re 

8-17436 

8-95147 

9-1, 

9-30158 

9-41185 

9-52245 

7-83629 
8-59205 
8-82457 
8-91793 
9-01387 
9-10743 

9-56666/1 
9-55668/1 
9-53295/1 
9-51212/1 
9-47377/1 
9-38985re 

9-58055™ 

9-57272/! 

9-57008/1 

9-58589 

9-61074 

9-63018 

9-66613 
9*68147 
9-69892 
9-71727 
9727S7 
973705 
9-74938 
9-76902 
9-78004 
9-78430 

977999 
9-76329 

9-73211 
9-69318 
9-65055 
9-59769 
9-55701 
9-48343 

9-10627 

8-51622/1 

8-96540/* 

9-22594/1 

9-47024/! 

9-52640/1 

9-63366re 
9-75952/1 
9-78245™ 
9-75027re 
9-69023/8 
9-61967/1 



c/j 9-88389 
5^6313/! 19-88926 
5750/1 9-89651 
14283/1 9-89764 
2946/1 9-92916 
1137/1 9-93522 

9-94266 
9-89475 
9-84249 
9-80490 
974378 
9-63311 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 



97844394W 
9-7611117/1 
9-73*7007/1 
970/3916M 
9-66(58747/1 
9-56^8789/1 

9-79(|8o32re 

9-79^7195/1 

9-79^6477/1 

9753-3384 

978^3547 

9-80^4044 

9-8045387 
9-8015974 
9-795.6646 

9-7817217 

977J7454 
9-7647594 

9-75(17666 
9-734.7509 
9-7i]|.7io6 
9-69.^6654 
9-67<|.6i25 
9"63!l-5o87 
9-5843696 
9-52^2603 
9'473-i448 
9-36^8212 

9'32;?7783 
9-24*6441 

8-8613736 
8-27*1223 
8-78^2612 
9-04*0884 
9-34*9697 
9-4549406 

9*53f6232 
9-66^0857 

976417941 
9-8047132 



9*89139598 
9-93?i366 



9-95371 
9-96369 
9-97198 
9-97668 
9-98264 
9-98974 

9'94i55 
9-94314 
9-94566 
9-51028 
y-37791 
9-25831 

8-97344 

8-60658 

7'35433« 

7'i7i44« 

8-49226/1 

8-80508/1 

8-81480/1 
8-74576/1 
8-91174/! 
9 06946/4 
9-24376/! 
9 -424 lore 

9"55479« 
9-63628/! 
9-69506/1 
9-75327re 
9-77889/1 
9-81597/1 

9-90289/1 
9-96283re 
9-98335/1 
o-oo7icre 
0-04737™ 
o-o6365re 

0-08694/1 
0-12714/1 
0-14865™ 
0-15115™ 
0-16673™ 
0-17556™ 



9"58457 
9'55758 
9"54333 
9-51665 
9-48891 
9-45740 

9-96916™ 
9-98740™ 
0-C0042W 
0-00844™ 
0-02032/1 
0-03435™ 

9-93212/1 
9-9290C/1 
9-92716™ 
9-92582™ 
9-92337™ 
9-92036/i 

9-35605 
9-31640 
9-26887 
9-23460 
9-17940 
9-07566 

9-40678 
9-39406 

9"3837S 
0-04483/1 
0-04078™ 
0-04632™ 



0-01 

0-08030/1 

0-09686™ 

0-11521/1 

0-12603™ 

0-13721™ 

0-14965/1 
016866™ 
0-18162™ 
0-18978™ 
0-19493™ 
0-20129™ 

0-20633™ 
0*20697/1 
0-20770™ 
0-21843/1 
o-2i58ire 
0-21448™ 

0-20155/1 
0-18703™ 
0-16537™ 
0-15917/! 
o-i24i2re 
0-09455™ 

0-09435™ 
0-06234/1 
0-01054™ 
9-96999™ 
9-85931™ 
9-76097™ 



9*71288 
9-71499 
970499 
971397 
9-63162 
9-62244 

o- 1 8686™ 

0-19373™ 
0-20017™ 
0-20353™ 
0-20704/1 
0-21113™ 

971442 
9-72268 
9-72741 

973073 
9-73665 

974358 

9'57355 
9-52272 
9-46862 
9-42969 
9-36612 
9-25244 

9-61637 
9-61390 
9-60590 
0-21291™ 

0-2l86c/! 

0-21803/t 

0-20906™ 
0-203 34M 
0-19351™ 
0-I8087W 
0-17243™ 
0-16263™ 

0-15092™ 

0-13035™ 

0-11335™ 

0-I006S™ 
0-09020™ 
0-07356™ 

0-05455™ 

0-04298™ 
0-03070/1 
9-98760™ 

9-98593™ 
9-97384™ 

9'95972re 
9-9491 iw 
9-98465/1 

9"97359« 
9-99676re 

0-02342/4 

9-99/89™ 
9-97019/1 
9-99279™ 
0-02524™ 
o"o6o58« 
0-0766CW 

C8) 



PRIMAHY EQUATIONS FOU THE COHRECTIONS OF THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS. Their form is = n + coef. i-?'<'.(A^-") + coef. Ay"'' .(A^,*.') + . 



[Report, Brit. Assoc. 18+8. Erman. 



Loe n ^°^' '^°''^' ^°^' "^^^^ ^°^' *^°*^' ^°8' '^o'f- Log- coef. Log. cocf. Log. cocf.lLoR. eoef. Log. coef. Log. eocf. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. cocf.' Log. cocf. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. eocf. Log. coef. Log. cocf. Log. cocf. Log. cocf, 
<*■ ■ Aj^'O. A</*-\ M*-K a<f'K ^h*--. il^'^. Ah*\ Ag**. i\/i*-'. ijJ.o. ij^i.', I i/.'-i. ij^-i. iA'.i. ip'.'i, Ah". Ag'-". Ag^-'. cK'^K Ag'-h <lft''». Ag^-", Ag^-*. Ak^\ 



J 11 49 

7 37 ^f> 



j-37 38 58 

■1-44 4S 

■ -45 4 

■ -" '3 - 
-48 30 36 



r;4o37n 
'"49343" 
'■49377n 



,6-,,-,, 


.-:.<,3 

r;4S" 




!-6i479 




8-93738" 


89029 








25041 






!-6ii7i 












S-si567n 


.♦li?.. 


8-86z74i( 


W79" 


9-73*81 














2,o!o„ 


960913 


407141) 






970S83 


437 S6" 


970990 








)-76658n 


39980 


9-79 '5<^ 


34081 


9-gi3S6n 








,■8431. « 




5-848921. 


61743 


9' 849 5 y 




9-850 i6ti 




)-84947n 


04086fi 


9-84.5'" 




983^7"" 


1450371 


9-7704671 





9'3'S)7 


7-4 




)MS!» 
















o.Oos 


9-799S7 
984633 


,•8 








■56049 


,•94884 










•S9686» 






■7S593" 


,•856,7 


o'o 



■S657in 9-69403n 
■55813" i9'7"564n 
■56974n]9-73i4cn 

■S470C" .97443a'* 
■61401-1 19-76673" 
■61158H |9-7766in 
8-17436 8-39106 



71757 
973705 
74938 



9-7S6S8N 


^■co45S.. 


rosoiC, 


o-i3l,l 




9757iin 




5-0501 in 












J-J7668 


9-84149 


9-6884CF. 










9-639i6n 




3-0501111 




974378 


9-S+2Sin 


971930" 


004314.. 




963311 


9-S7375n 


9-35605 


o-ioiji 


9-91046 


-OD 






















9-4196911 
















9-89039 




915144H 


9-07566 


0-15574 




-00 


9-50404H 






















Q-go679n 
























9-687470 




,7o,,„ 




(j-iog-j^ 


9-,S7gr,r. 


9-98974 





9-S6582,. 




0-41 34S« 




002378 


o-jjioin 


8-81717" 


0-046SS 


016919" 


773719 


0-03316 




9-08057 




|o-i6409n 


9-53012 
967768 


0-06454 






)-99620 




9-78978 




9-40405 


9-83467 


9-8I.S9 



9-84779 
9-91544 
98919 



Their form 'is = « + cc 



Report, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Erman. 



lOg. coef. 



Log. coef. 



i'864i5n 
•o8923» 

•33441 
•62270 

■56343 
•61773 

6924.6 
76350 
84802 
•84222 
1-75566 
•23311 

i*2374ira 
■58426re 
i"68923ra 
1-44688 

'43715 
1-44484 

1-50634 
1-53002 
1-55829 
1-58205 
1-59195 
1-59842 

1-60136 

'•59477 
'•57934 
56271 

'•54545 
1-51299 

46974 
-44000 
40675 
-26900 
-26454 
-22096 

i-17762 



26930 
1-23674 
-28238 
•31266 

•24853 
-17406 
-15460 

■13447 
-89397 

■42552 
-5435271 
-86461W 
77590W 
■5414471 
0030671 
50828 



02310 
17829 
-26734 
•33792 
42768 



8^4i673n 
9-37195W 
9-5oo627» 
9'468867i 
9-63781W 
9-4914271 

8-5742671 

9-26007 

9-63209 

9-74225 

9-80236 

9-85013 

9-85460 
9-85023 
9-84398 



Log. coef. 



ef. 



9-48225« 

8-7924071 

9-11941 

9-44919 

9-57506 

9-73181 

9-76760 
9-74043 
9-64660 
9-54772 
941597 
8-91834 

7-852067? 

8-92739?j 

9-1168471 

9-15768 

9-18961 

9-20162 

9-20472 
9-20254 
9-19351 
9-18087 
9-17196 
9-16063 

9-14882 
9-12882 
9-11007 
9-09389 
9-07488 
9'03737 
8-98535 

93755 
8-88525 
8-78297 
8-74662 
8-66533 

8-30020 

7-72761W 

8-2398471 

8-5031971 

8-8216971 

8-9418471 



Log. coef. 



9-0305571 
9-1907371 

9-3113171 

9-35461M 
9-457487? 

9-5120678 

9-5869071 
9-6730774 
9.69I38K 
9-6740971 
9-6951971 
9-632337} 



9-529407? 
9-432507? 
9-271107? 
9-126767? 
8-951537? Lt? 
8-386837? '?? 



9-82944 

9-05314 

9-339967? 

9-667907? 

9-720037? 

9-897857? 

0-037747? 
0-123627? 
0-21505?? 
0-266307? 
0-30670?? 
0-3611 

0-38154W 

0-396537? 

0-4048 37? 

9-86201 

9-88675 

9-87444 

9-79521 
9-74181 
9-64135 
9-47727 
9-32808 
9-06791 

7^74453 

9-246757? 

9-493487? 

9-606447? 

9-673387? 

9-753227? 

9-820177? 
9-847637? 
9-874307? 
9-969987? 
9-966107? 
9-978497? 

9-967047? 
9-947667? 
9-838927? 
9-841527? 

9-775207? 
9-422787? 

9-5644371 

9-591987? 

8-763647? 

9-25213 

9-76937 

9-915357? 

0-01440 
0-05620 
0-03044 
9-98562 
9-90370 
9'75453 
9-63845 

9^585Si 
9-53629 
9-45588 
9-31064 
8-70796 



Log. coef. 



0-191807? 
0-214667? 

0-222017? 
0-220047? 
0-231897? 
0-221437? 

0-19440?? 
0-166417? 
0-12182?? 
0-087627? 
0-053147? 
9-98563?? 

9-948527? 
9-913797? 
9-891097? 

— 00 



Log. coef 



— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 



— 00 

— 00 



— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 



— 00 
— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 

— 00 



— 00 

— 00 



9-574097? 

8-817587? 

9-12383 

9^45913 

9^55i95 

9-73784 

9-85168 
9-91054 
9-96879 
0-00546 
0-03826 
0-08621 

0-10855 

0-13330 

0-12917 

9-917657? 

9-92068?? 

9-918797? 

9-90851?? 
9-902407? 
9-89248?? 



Log. coef. 



9-871457? 
9-861827? 

9-85012?? 
9-82949?? 
9-81268?? 



9-790857? 
9-776407? 

9-760607? 
9-752377? 
9-743437? 
9-70474?? 
9-705457? 
9-6974^7? 

9-696517? 
9-699457? 
9-74084?? 

9'73745'« 
9-77660?? 
9-81102?? 

9'79227?? 
9-798587? 
9-840437? 
9-875367? 
9-927597? 
9-95439?? 

9-97977?? 
9-999287? 
9-99683?? 
9-98506?? 
9-973117? 
9-939397? 

9-914517? 



0-079267? 
0-058367? 
0-040057? 
o'032697? 
9-99198?? 
9-983927? 

0-00996?? 
0-03700?? 
0-07018?? 
0-084757? 
0-092357? 
0-09888?? 

0-096917? 
0-099147? 
0-099577? 

9^74957 
9-74286 
9-74708 

9-76834 
9-77936 
9-79583 
9-81418 
2505 
9-83640 

9-84885 
9-86780 
9-88095 
9-88950 
9-89558 
9-90413 

9-91238 
9-91636 
9-92043 
9^93557 
9"93533 
9-93805 

9^93834 
9^93737 
9-92156 
9-92303 
9-90396 
9-88215 

9"89473 
9-89073 
9-85818 
oil 
9-72632 
9-63876 

9-47460 
8-75850 
9-080627? 
9-411 507? 

9-533087? 
9-69331?? 

9-756237? 



9-903647? 19-777187? 
9-894327? J9-7Q2937? 



9-88553?? 
9-87485?? 
9-855737? 



9-S06247? 
9-820767? 
9-843067? 

(9) 



PRIMARY EQUATIONS FOR THE CORRECTIONS OF THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS. Their form's 0=h + coef.V'".{A^'')-|-coef.V'*(V') "!-••■■ 



[Repoi't, Brit Assoc. ISIS. Ermai 



Stations snd otiscrvcd e 



■■•«-- gSS: ■•»«■ 



Log. coef. Log. coct. Log. 



Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. cocf. Log. coef, Log. 



f. Log. coef. Log. cocf. Log. coef, log. coef. Log. coef, Log. coef, Log. coef. 






■576467. 
■4Sio9n 
■4765471 
■38934" 
■308780 



8-89837 
8-8597+ 

8-7Z079 



74S+S 
93914 
9-03610 



0-58105 
S9I9S 
59841 



9.691381. 
9-674090 
9-69si9n 
9-63a33» 



9-11556/. 
i3iiin 

>+7SSn 
. .67i3» 
9'»7834" 
9181990 
9-17961R 
16510™ 
1371311 



!-39i56.y o-i9099nU 



9-64411 
9'6o396n 



ij-57364 964477(t 
9-57818 9-68o64« I 



9-99 198B 
9"i>8j9ir 



' 9'9'oS4 
■> 9'96879 
, 0-00546 



974957 



9-87 145" 
j'86i8in 
985012W 
9-8194911 

9' 800400 
9' 7908 5" 
9-77640" 
9-76o6on 
9-75137.1 
974343" 

970545" 
9'6974jn 

9-69651^ 
9-699450 
9-740840 
97374S" 
9-77660.. 
9'8iioin 

9-79as7n 
979858" 
9840431. 
9-87536" 



76834 
. 779J6 
9-79583 
g-81418 
9-81505 
983640 
9-84885 

867S0 

■88950 
■89558 
9-9041 3 
9-91138 
■91636 
■92043 
9"935S7 



\ 



■93737 
■91156 
991303 
■90396 
■88115 



1 8-75850 

9-533080 I 

1 9-693310 

9-756130 I 



Their form is = m + coe^ort, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Erman. 



Log. coef. 



Log. coef. 

Ap3'0. 



Log. coef. 



0-45831 
0-47949 
0-49110 
9-63005 
9-52404 
9-40476 

9-04642 

8-83203 

7-286i4» 

6-9448o« 

8-ii879» 

8-i7a84« 

7-87989n 

8-29009 

8-70019 

8-96626 

9-20231 

9-452 1 1 

9-63584 
9-73385 
9-80775 
9-92928 
9-94662 
9-98278 

0-03121 
0-04664 
9-97230 
9-98137 
9-84345 
9-60530 

9-73760 

9-65160 

8-91562 

9-39850^ 

9-8559871 

9-92848n 

9-85955W 

9'i4790« 

9-41630 

9-69820 

9-67954 

9-69772 

9-69450 
9-69764 
9-69707 
9-63371 
9*49439 



9-7ii38ra 
9-74294» 
9-758i6« 

9-77285n 
9-777i7» 
9-77815/1 
9-778ISW 
9-77758W 
9-7757in 

9'77559» 
9-77628re 
9-774i5?i 
9-76986ra 
9-75947W 
9'73422w 

9-4947971 
9-65188W 
9-605 i8w 
9-537i8» 
9-49674M 
9-42044W 



7-28207 

8-34113 

8-52012 

9-28542n 

9- 1 5 36471 

9-0418971 



L()g. coef. 
AA2.2. 



|68i72»i 

g. bo 58478 
3.0981871 

9-ft7a77M 
9-i33937« 

q.223427J 
3.5506771 



8-4270971 

7"i9iS5 
6-82701 
8-35858 
8-68227 

8-70441 
8-65449 
8-83309 
8-99831 
9-17618 
9-35906 

9-48908 

9"S6538 
9-61892 
9-67989 
9-69854 
9-72684 



9-0429971 9-77559 
8-35391 9-79452 



Log. coef. 



7-134367 
6-16449 

8-48373 
8-80412 

8.81457 

8-7439° 
8,90604 

8-05963 
9-22957 
9^^0172 



8-8357071 
9-1400771 
9-2180171 



8-91890 
9-17797 
9-44134 
9-51931 

9-61399 

974385 
9"79933 
9-80524 

9-83897 
9"85597 

9-88271 
9-90896 
9-91385 
9-91275 
9-91704 
9-91356 

9-88643 
9-83831 
9-72873 
9-61654 

9-47024 
8-95034 

7-8718971 
8-9412271 
9-1281271 



9-78151 
9-78313 

975314 
9-72197 

9-71436 
9-64783 

9*55879 
9-51258 
9-35822 
9-22555 

8-95174 

7'938i5 

8-05265 

8-4571971 

7-720x871 

8-6954271 

9-210747J 
9-4105271 
9-5609971 
9-6251371 
9-6670271 
9-7032071 

9-7090974 
9-7033671 
9-6958371 



Log. coef. 
Ag^-K 



9^95361 
9(89092 

,174566 

,,•63263 

8'342677i 

_,-564427i 

875696W 



(,^9606071 
^h98o58»i 
„.'-984927j 
.•9786178 
,-9662571 
9'92757« 

-,-9006571 

1-8731671 

9*85444» 



9-99423 
9-99689 
9-99821 

9-99952 
9-99991 

O'OOOOO 

o-ooooo 

9"9999S 
9-99978 

9-99977 

9*99983 
9-99964 
9-99925 
9-99832 
9-99613 

9-99292 
9-98958 
9-98624 
9-98183 

9"97945 
9-97540 

9-96218 
9-94863 
9-94278 
9-93511 
9-91913 
9-91137 

9-89859 
9-87058 
9"85i33 
. " "35 
9-83196 
9-82118 

9-79846 
9-75805 
9-74218 
9-74660 
9-71784 
9-74350 

979442 
9-83233 
9-87483 
9-89819 
9-91647 
9-94212 

9-95229 
9-96004 
9-96436 



9-84359W 

9-8370771 

9-8341871 

8-95882 

8-81974 

8-7043C 



Log. coef 
Ah^-K 



9-8552371 

9-86i237» 

9-8637871 

9-12690 

8-99756 

8-87607 



8-44075 8-58092 
8-08491 8-20795 
6-8491371 16-9457871 
6-6845971 6-7502574 
8-0162874 8-0626871 
8-3404574 8-3638774 

8-3626274 8-3638974 
8-3125371 8-2742274 
8-4916674 18-4233974 



8-6579378 
8-8383174 
9-0272074 

9-1661474 
9-2516174 
9-3144674 
9-3878174 
9-4131974 
9-4529974 

9-5402074 
9-5991774 
9-6038874 
9-6291074 
9-6503074 
9-6447774 

9-6806474 
9-7168474 

9-7058074 9-6880574 
9-6702374 19-7254874 
9-5920274 9-7932974 
9-5132974 9-8289274 



8-5688374 
8-7335874 
8-8994774 

9-0143674 
9-0876274 
9-1374674 
9-1569874 
9-i833i« 
9-2123574 

9-2983774 
9-3612574 
9-4231674 
9-4435274 
9-5529474 
9-5736474 

9-5781874 
9-6246974 



9'36537« 

8-6721374 

9-00160 

9-33031 

9-46394 

9-61370- 

9-64960 
9-64256 
9-61372 
9-59283 
9-57287 
9-52766 

9-50272 

9"47399 
9-45384 



9-8705474 1 
9-9129174 
9-9178174 
9-9040774 
9-9039774 1 
9-8597874 j 

I 
9-8078874 j 
9-7690274 1 
9-7151174 
9-6721274 
9-6269674 
9-5403374 1 

9-4910874 
9-4498374 
9-4242474 



(10) 



PltlMARY EQUATIONS FOR THE CORRKCTIONS OF THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS. Their form i 



r. A(/'" . (Af/'") + coef. Ay'-' . (Ay''') +. . 



[Report, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Eit 



Stations and observed elements. Lalitude. nreMwicb' ^^' 



coef. Log. coef. Log. coef.lLog. coef. Log. cfief. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. cocf. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef, Log. coef. Log. cocf. Log. coef.jLog. coef. Log. coef. Log, coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. cocf. Log. coef.' 



Taciti, Point Veiiun 



Rio At Janeiro . 



315 46 7 

316 3s 3+ 
3'6 55 3 
HS 49 9 
136 14, S4 




-56 11 30 199 3+ I 



58597 

8-g+953 
20184 

39356 

9'486i4 



9-62437ti 
SSaaSM 
9-501 1 8« 



9-3x84.111 
9-06 1 i4n 

8 '4409 5 n 
"17645 
78301 
83831 
8-76539 
8-1118 1 

8'z0334n 



7004 5H 
643675 
9'57"9S'» 



8-33539 
8-73SS>" 
9-0344on 
9-1508 in 
8487^ 

8-86973n 

9-41085 
957446 
9-66889 
9-75681 



8-54971 
9-4.53501 
9-33146. 

-ii36« 

■giiosr 
■55013' 
'zSSzo 
■89267 

8-70769 

8-70568 



0-16438. 

■07116 
■96363 



34367 

16449 

8-48373 



. 77948' 
9-95161. 



6g654n 
.fiiajsn 

9-59>69n 



9-837070 9-86113" 
■" 180986378" 



-91613.. |9- 



9-61654 

9-47014 
"95034 



6oiz8 
8-9801Z 



9-98581-1 

■91775' 





9iS;34 


7-77304" 










)'6!i!7» 


9-04ii. 


9-7!9S8» 










9S!78i 










,!]4S6n 


55.617 


9'67+93n 



3787: 
5689S 

9-63738 



716841) 9-61469.1 

7058on 19-68805.1 
9-6701311 '9-7; 



964256 
9-61371 
9-59183 







ort, Brit. Assoc. 1848. 


Erman. 


LN CONSTANTS, RE' 




''1. 


A^.2. 


AA3.2. 


Ag^-o. 


A^M. 


AAi-i. 


•5420 


-)- i2'9o65 


- l8-OI2« 


+ 16-8757 


— 8-0055 


- 41-4373 


■0221 


— 2-4614 


+ 28-5o8i5 


+ 1-1566 


+ 28-2681 


— 0-5668 


•0336 


— 20-3968 


+ 6-846:3 


+ 88-8198 


— 0-6309 


+ 26-7432 


•9667 


+ 63-6386 


- 5-57611 


- 31-2613 


— 10-0767 


- 51-3403 


•4892 


- 5-1535 


+ 79-092"1 


+ 27-9431 


+ 58-1943 


+ 10-8139 


■2702 


— 31-8214 


— 0-92616 


+ 17-7184 


- 42-9833 


— 42-1670 


•9475 


+ 24-4829 


- 35-8776 


- 25-5339 


+ 2-1524 


— 29-4044 


'495° 


— 20-8428 


- 31-5475 


+ 16-7865 


+ 168-5621 


+ 188-8841 


•6498 


+ 2-7822 


- 68-479»8 


— 50-1869 


- 81-6733 


+109-9278 


•9162 


+ 47842 


— 33-8i6'o 


+ 105-4005 


— 8-0638 


- 22-5565 


•3120 


- 6-6373 


+ 53-732)3 


- 157185 


+ 58-9792 


- 7-9925 


•6868 


- 577638 


- 8-402I-5 


+ 146-9961 


— 7-6706 


+ 93-5519 


•7638 


+ 133-9206 


- 1-9178 


- 56-6382 


+ 6-9960 


— 78-2292 


•4023 


- 1-9172 


+ 197-494.3 


+ 47-3611 


+ 99-1969 


- 15-1265 


•3790 


- 16-2543 


- 55-550^ 


+ 22-0333 


— 118-7202 


— 203-4818 


•4467 


+ 66-0799 


+ 16-04316 


+ 28-0964 


+ 194-3564 


+ 46'23i7 


•0117 


— 5-1180 


+ 1-421^7 


+258-0640 


+ 27-5005 


+ 54-9033 


•4451 


- 21-9188 


+ 32-382^8 


- 33-5843 


+ 99-5847 


+ 19-1071 


•3837 


- 56"4i37 


- 31-882?^ 


+ 90-3028 


+ 18-3355 


+ 147-5975 


•9079 


+ io5'5i47 


- 21-55438 


— 36-8659 


- 73-4149 


— 12-3468 


•4345 


— 21-9718 


+ 120-764JI.C 


+ 8-6io8 


— 67-1409 


-143-3315 


•9961 


- 56-6382 


+ 47-36ip8 


+411-1027 


— 8-8220 


+ 114-9380 


•6706 


+ 6-9960 


+ 99-19669 


- 8-8220 


+239-7200 


+ 63-1440 


•5519 


— 78-2292 


- 15-126^5 


+ 114-9380 


+ 63-1440 


+299-2100 


n= - 

j 


f 37-3 for 


the elenl 






(11) 



FINAL EQUATIONS FOR THE CORKECTIONS OF THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS, RESULTING FROM US OBSERVED ELEMENTS. 



) 1^". I Aj<.'. 1 ih--'. 


a". 


iJ". 


ay*-". 


AA'->. 


a^.'. 1 A/,'-'. Ar": j ij>-i.. 


M'-'. 


AS»-«. 


aj". 1 Aj-.'. 


Aft*-'. 


Aj>--. 


Aj>.i. 


aj»i. 


A,". 


AJ". 1 Aji-». 


A«'-i. 


Aftii. 


- ,j5-o,= 

- J5.-8.- 


43-1936 
+ 0-0569 
+ 6-5197 


+ 0-0569 
+16-0740 
+ 5-9*5= 


+ 5-9«S= 
+41-511! 


+ 9--H63 
- .;8367 


— 17-1018 
+"■■'459 

- .-5990 


+ 0-1.05 
- 0-6610 
+ 6-8.06 


- 4-74.3 

- 7-..83 

- 9-56.1 


- 6-6810 - 4-33.4 

- 4-7698 - .1-..19 

- 1-4.01 - .5-3345 


+ 47-6537 + 6-3537 
- 4-16.6 + 33-0448 
+ 31-6443 1+ 5-9659 


+ 4-54=0 
+ 6-01.1 
+ S°-°336 


+ 12-9065 

Z 20-5968 


+ .8-5080 
+ 6-8467 


+ .3-0.7, 


- 9'7950 
+ 8-,,48 
+ 6-7114 


+ 31-7854 
- .-684. 
+ 76-9584 


+ 0-39.7 
+ 33;oo37 


+ 56-7256 


+ 16-705. 


- 4-9S68 
+ .5-4065 
+ .-894, 


+ 16-8757 
+ ,-,566 
+ 88-8,98 


- 0-630, 


+ .6-743= 


-iiji-i8 = 


+ 9-4463 


- 1-B36, 
+ 11-1459 


-13-ioBo 

; 6:KI6 


+ 58-61.9 

- .-6833 

- 5-938= 


- .-6833 
+86-5590 


- "ll' 


+ 37-=996 
- +3987 


- ..-1845 - 11-6844 
+ 34-7606 - 6-768. 

- 16-, 364 + 7,569 


- .-6537 - ..-0551 

- 4-4458 + .4-4,01 

- .,-58,6 - ,.-6873 


- 30-9667 

- 11-489. 


+ 63-6386 


- 5-5766 

+ 79-°9=7 

- 0-9267 


+ 3-6460 

- S9-39'i 
+ 9=-9"9' 


+ 39-3==8 
+ 17-6946 
- .5-'4== 


- .8-9717 
+ ..-960. 


- 5-048. 
+ 52-9228 

- 56-3578 


- 64-9665 

- 9-9.18 

- 45-0098 


+ 76-0608 


+ 2-690. 
+ 79-6,24 
- 55-15=6 


- 3,-.6,3 

+ =7-943' 
+ 17-7184 


- 10-0767 
+ 58-1943 
- 4=9833 


- 51-3403 
+ ,o-»,,9 

- 4.-, 670 


- 460-79 = 
+ 1246-41 = 
•f7Z40-j4= 


- 6-6810 

- 4-33H 


- 7-n8, 

- 4-7698 
-.1-1119 


- 9-5611 

-=S'334S 


+ 37-1996 
-.,-.845 
-ii-68+t 


- 4-3987 
+ 34-7606 

- 6-7681 


- 9-5.15 

- .6. 364 
+ 7-.5«9 


+ ..3-5"3 
- 46-457. 
+ .7-9.8. 


- 46-4571 + 17-9181 
+703-61.4 + 15-4086 
+ ,5-4086 +624-1136 


+ 15-9710 + 6-1787 
+ 6-1490 - 48-3546 
+ 45-956= + 7-05.7 


- 3-9475 

- 46-495° 

- .4-6498 


+ .4-48.9 

— .0-84.8 

+ 2-78.1 


- 35-8777 

- 3.-547S 


— 360-0466 
-.94-8.65 


+ 46-8859 
+ ,43-46.3 
- 305-3=94 


- ..-8998 
+ .05-05,0 
+ .4-6415 


+ 40-46=5 
+ .-,,68 
+ 37-5764 


+ 3-9994 

- .S-»3=7 
+ 1S->S54 


+30,-89.. 


-Jf,ltd 


- 50-,86, 


+ .-,5.4 
+,68-56., 
- 8,-6733 


+ .88-88" 
+ 10,-9.78 


- 70-87 = 


+ 4-5410 


+33-0448 
+ 6-011 1 


+ 31-6443 
+ S'9659 
+ 50-0336 


"il-o"' 
-30-9667 


- 4-+ts8 
+.4-4101 
-1.-489. 


- Ii-'7o5 


+ .5-97.0 
+ 6-.787- 


+ 6,490 + 45-956. 

- 48-3546 + 7-05.7 

- 46-4950 - .4-6498 


+ ..5-5676 
- .-4.87 
+ 34-9'6. 


- .-4.87 
+ 7='=36' 


+ 34;9.6. 


+ 4-784= 

- 6-6373 

- 57-7638 


- ,3-8.66 
+ 53-73=4 

- 8-40.3 


+ 3.-3790 


- .8-615. 

- .3-657. 

- =5-4467 


+ .6-6463 


+ 8-889. 
+ 75-7643 
+ 14-4451 


+ 26,086 
+ 141546 
+ 105,837 


+ 31-0754 
- 47-9079 


- .6-6770 
+ =9-4345 


+ 105-4005 
- 1S-71S5 
+ 146-996, 


- 8-0638 

+ S>-979= 
- 7-6706 


- .=-5565 


- 9«.-8! = 


+11-9065 

+i3-o;73 


- 1-4614 
+ 18-5080 
+ 7-5oSi 


-10-396S 

+ 6-8467 
+ .3-85.7 


+63-6386 
- 5-57*6 
+ 3-6460 


- S-'!3S 

+79-0917 
-593961 


- 3,-8..4 

- 0-9.67 
+ 9=-9.9" 


+ .4-48.9 

- 35-8777 

- ■5-.39S 


- .0-84.8 
-360-0466 


+ .-78.. 
- 68-4793 
-.94-8.65 


+ 4-784. 

- 33-8.66 

- .0-7531 


- 6-6,7, 


- 57-7638 

- 8-40.3 
+ 3.-3790 


+135-9106 


+ .97;4945 


- .6=543 

- 55-5503 
+533-30=6 


+ 66-0799 

+ .6-0437 
- 53-570. 


- 5-. .80 

- 69-4629 


- 2.-9.88 
+ 3.-38.9 

- 39-==36 


- 56-4,17 

- ,,-8825 


+.05-5.47 

- .1-5547 
-184-4784 


- .1-97181- 56-6,8. 
+ ..0-764;+ 47-,6.. 
+.,.-0845 + ..-o,!3 


+ 6-9960 
+ 99-1969 


- 78-..,. 


-)ooi-49. 
-1005-19 = 
■l-iS59-«« = 


+ !i-S«74 
+ 0-3917 


+ 8-3148 
- 1-6841 
+33-0037 


+76-9584 
- 0-7501 


- 5-0483 


+ 17-6946 
+.,-9601 
+ 51-9118 


- 4-1063 

- 56-3578 


+ 46-S859 
- ..-8998 
+ 40-45.5 


+ 343;46,3 
+ ,1,68 


-305-3.94 
+ .4-64.5 
+ 37-5764 


+ .6-6463 
+ 8-889. 


- .3-657= 

- .9-7493 
+ 75-7643 


+ 14-4451 


+ 66-0799 


+ 16-04,7 
+ I-4.I7 
+ 3=-38=9 


- 69-46.9 


+495-.567 
+ 56-5604 


+ 56-5604 
+.80-5,08 


- s-4168 
+ ,5.-.o.o 


- 34-7658 

t !n;;5 


- 104-9068 
- 6-915, 
+ 6-8854 


-.38-9996,+ .8-0964 
- 89-5797 ' + .58-0640 
+ ,0.-3798 - 33-5843 


+ 194-3564 

+ =7-5005 
+ 99-5847 


+ 46-2317 
+ 54-9033 
+ i9-'07' 


-Hii6-44 = 
+ 1874-01 = 
-.874-61 = 


-J9-6317 
- 4-9568 


- 0-6801 


+ 56-7.56 
-30-65,, 
+ 1-8943 


-64,665 
+76-0608 


+ 'rill', 
+79-6314 


- H-7873 

- 55-"5>6 


+ 39994 
+ 64-7.09 
+ .3-8956 


- .S-.3.7 

- .6. 396 
-406-8365 


+ 'I'SSi 
+ 301-89.. 
- 53.868 


+ 26-3086 
+ 3;-o7S4 
- .6-6770 


+ .4-.S46 

- 6-4497 
+ 68-4,,, 


+.05-3837 
- 47-9079 
+ .9-4345 


- S6;4.37 


- 31-88.5 

+ 1.0-7643 


- .84-4784 
+.,1-0845 


- 347658 

- .04-9068 
-.38-9996 


- 6-9153 

- 89-5797 


+ '6-8854 
+ .02,798 


+22,-04.3 
- 78-6.,. 
- 14-8694 


- 78-6111 

Villus 


- 14-8694 + 90-30=8 

- 8.6938 - 36-8659 
+4860040 + 8-6,08 


- 67-1409 


ty-iiii 


-3817-48 = 1 +16-8757 
+ 1969-71 = 1 - 8-0055 
+ SO,.-o, = j -4,-4,73 


+ 1-1566 ; +8S-8198 
+18-1681 - 0-6309 
-0-S668 1+16-7,3= 


-51-3403 


+.7-943. 
+ 58-.943 


+ .7-7.84 

: j=:9833 


- =9-4044 


+ 16-7865 
-1- .68-561. 
+ 188-884. 


- SO-.869 
+ .09-5.78 


+ 8-0638 
- '.-5565 


+ S!;979. 


+ 146-996, 
- 7-6706 

+ 93-S5.9 


_ 56-6,8. 
+ 6-9960 
- 78-..9. 


+ 47-361. 
+ 99.969 
- ,5-. .65 


-10,-4818 


+ 28-0964 
+ 194-3564 
+ 46-2317 


+158-0640 
+ .7-500S 
+ 54-9033 


- 33-5843 
+ 99-5847 
+ .9-1071 


+ 90,018 
+ 18-3355 

+147-5975 


- ,6-8659 

- 73-4149 

- 1.-3468 


-,4,-,3, 5 1 + ., 4-9380 


t'i',-i°<. 


+ ii+'938o 
+199-1100 



£(n7j)=621 724-8 ; or mean value of n = + 37-3 for the elenienta Nos. l-^tS. 



(11) 





GAUSSIAN CONST Report, Brit. 


Assoc. 1848. Erman. 






Log. coef. 


Log. coef. 


Log. coej coef. Log. coef.|Log. coef.|Log. coef.|Log. coef.j 




At 


Acf'-o. 


Ag^-K 


Ah^-K >2,3. 


A/*2'2. 


Api-o. 


ApU. 


AA'>'. 




9-85059 


J-9293171 


5-85892 247 c 


)-39o827* 9-915497* 0-14256 0-072177* 




Ite 


9-85145 


8-902857* 


8-76661 734 c 


3-373717* 9-919787* 0-16693 0-030697* 




Ite 


9-82930 


9-3439471 


9'i9394 937 0-392437* 9-853957* 0-18317 0-033177* 




Ite 


9-81483 


9-4347471 


9-281671525 0-399217*9-825207*0-18809 0-035027* 




It< 


9-77780 


9-5642071 


9-39195:514 0-405467*9-764607*0-20081 0-028567* 




It( 


974345 


9-630667* 


9-44786 1625 < 


3-409297* 


J-716267* 


3-20S00 0-025207* 




It( 


9-70212 


9-682457* 


9-49064 152 


D-412427* 


5-663127* 


3-21407 


3-0222671 




It( 


9'585S5 


9-759477* 


9-55297 I068 


3-417297* 


j-527437* 


3-22385 


3-017307* 




It( 


9-34108 


9-815517* 


9'S93iii693 


3-418777* 


9-268197* 


3-23254 


3-OI0147« 




It( 


9-20445 


9-826047* 


9-60181 {170 


3-419687* 


9-128497? 


3-23391 


3-009687* 




It( 


8-89609 


9-835367* 


9-60727 944 


0-419337* 


8-817707* 


3-23569 


3-007607* 




It( 


8-2543 in 


9-S38687* 


9-60723 517 


0-418157* 


9"i7547 


0-23675 


0-00530?* 




It( 


9-0195371 


9-833197* 


9-60582 1792 


0-419317* 


8-94157 


0-23530 


0-0079371 




It( 


9-38231W 


9-820057* 


9-560571108 


0-399267* 


9-31074 


0-24132 


9-981847* 




It( 


9-6io7on 


9-769607* 


9'47577;32i 


0-370257* 


9'55554 


0-24399 


9-950167* 




It« 


9-7094471 


9-692557* 


9'43455'9i5 


o'379887* 


9-67223 


0-23094 


9-972847* 




li 


9-76695W 


9-600987* 


9-38201 1942 


0-388577* 


9-74874 


0-21573 


9-996767* 




Iti 


9-8206871 


9-407557* 


9-24258 I219 


0-392197* 


9-83621 


0-19054 


0-02557?* 




It 


9-8494271 


9-003697* 


8-88292 1153 


0-382047* 


9-91027 


0-16333 


0-042637* 




It 


9-8542871 


8-41964 


8-3188271307 
9-C96177I124 


0-363467* 


9-96155 


0-14410 


0-043287* 




It 


9-8426671 


9-17111 


0-342147* 


0-00530 


0-12050 


0-045567* 




It 


9-8163478 


9-40809 


9-351597J288 


0-317377* 


0-04096 


0-09889 


0-042397* 




It 


9-7975471 


9-48607 


9-435787*833 


0-303667* 


0-05682 


0-08893 


o'03864n 




It 


9-7606074 


9-59604 


9-5114771753 


0-275387* 


0-07895 


0-09193 


0-007367* 




It 


9-7027571 


9-70183 


9-562557J.621 


0-232687* 


0-10252 


0-09793 


9-958657* 




It 


9-5766671 


9-81735 


9-597387*813 


0-155157* 


0-13293 


0-09951 


9-879547* 




It 


9-3038971 


9-91705 


9-571857(907 


0-0240C7* 


0-16354 


0-09635 


9-751157* 




It 


— 00 


8-29717 


8-36756 [5047* 


9-466697* 




9-811457* 


9-88 184?) 




It 


— 00 


8-20574 


8-3419818817* 


9-742447* 


— 00 


9-770857* 


9-907097* 




It 


— 00 


8-62152 


8-771521.5987* 


9-79292?* 


— 00 


9-761687* 


9-911787* 




It 


_oo 


8-70535 


8-85842 L8867* 


9-804907* 


— 00 


9-759737* 


9-91280?* 




It 


— 00 


8-80907 


8-98134 1-8557* 


9-858237* 


— 00 


9-746717* 


9-918967* 




It 


— 00 


8-86102 


9-04382 (.842?* 


9-885387* 


— 00 


9-739397* 


9-922197* 




It 


— 00 


8-90041 


9-09222 (.8167* 


9-907267* 


— 00 


9-733067* 


9-924877* 




It 


— 00 


8-95715 


9-16365 1.7447* 


9-940837* 


— 00 


9-722567* 


9-92906?; 




It 


— 00 


8-99292 


9-21532 L4557* 


9-972717* 


— 00 


9-710987* 


9-933387* 




II 


— 00 


9-00073 


9-22316 [4577* 


9-976597* 


-00 


9-709637* 


9-933867* 




It 


— 00 


9-00544 


9'23353 I-347W 


9-983587* 


— 00 


9-706777* 


9-934867* 




11 


— 00 


9-00518 


9-23663 (.2077* 


9-989097* 


— 00 


9-704287* 


9-935737* 




It 


— 00 


9-00417 


9-231541.3637* 


9-982247* 


—00 


9-70731?* 


9-934687* 




It 


— 00 


8-96079 


9-22027 15467* 


0-027287* 


— 00 


9-683097* 


9-942577* 




It 


— 00 


8-88083 


9-17466 


1128?* 


0-064247* 


— 00 


9-656257* 


9-950087* 




II 


— 00 


8-84473 


9-10283 


6137* 


0-015407* 


— 00 


9-684157* 


9-942257* 




It 


— 00 


8-79772 


9-01669 


10257* 


9-951107* 


— 00 


9-71350?* 


9-932477* 




It 


— 00 


8-66768 


8-83265 ^3267* 


9-833267* 


. — 00 


9-751707* 


9-916677* 




It 


— 00 


8-32019 


8-44089 L5217* 
7-868617^8407* 


9-694707! 


— oo 


9-780867* 


9-901567* 




Ii 


— 00 


7-767797* 


9-608017* 


-co 


9-79328?* 


9-894107* 




11 


— 00 


8-558387* 


8-633327^032?* 


9-469427* 


-00 


9-808807* 


9-8837471 




It 


— 00 


8-827577* 


8-884077»9327* 


9-334837* 


— CO 


9-819407* 


9-875907* 




It 


— 00 


8-919007* 


8-96929712857* 


9-277527* 


— 00 


9-822897* 


9-873187? 




It 


— 00 


9-006197* 


9-090767 


(6077* 


9-488227* 


— 00 


9-803117* 


9-887687? 




It 


— 00 


9-072737* 


9-212017 


J7S37* 


9-681367* 


— 00 


9-76886?* 


9-908147* 




It 


— 00 


9-129577* 


9'34954' 


:33i7* 


9-836297* 


— 00 


9-71276?* 


9-932737* 




It 


— 00 


9-134167* 


9-479367 


1887* 


9-956957* 


-00 


9-614497* 


99596971 




















(12) 





PRIMARY EQUATIONS FOR THE CORRECTIONS OF THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR 1829 (Conlinued). 



[lleport, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Ermaii. 



Solion. m J obi.n„l rfmenli L.liliide I-"!- E»«l. . .„ „ Log. coef. Log. coe(. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. corf. Log. coef. Log. corf. Log. cocf. Log. cocf. Log. cocf. Log cod. Log. corf.'Log. corf. Log. coef. Log. cocL Log. cocf. Log. coef Log. cocf. Log. corf. Log, cocf. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coeL Log. corf. 



3iii 




-15 A 45 




- i .9 11 




- 3 5' 14 

;:^5:? 

+ . )0 i8 




+ 5 SJ .0 
+ .0 .1 5 
+ 1! 35 45 
+ .6 i6 i! 
+ 10 5 15 




+»7 14 1 
4-;o 1+ 46 
+33 "9 4» 
+ 34 44 35 
+36 so 47 




+ 39 1' S3 
+4. ,6 8 
+4« 4' >8 




-•9 31 S3 




'W ,1 1\ 




- S 19 11 




- 3 SI 14 

- I 51 59 

+ 2 30 ,i 




+ 10 ai s 

+ '3 35 45 
+ .5 :6 sj 
+20 3 .5 




+27 '+ 6 
+ 30 14 46 




+ 13 '9 4* 

+ 34 44 35 




+36 so +7 

+41 46 i 





■2330on 
19003(1 
■50037" 
46135" 

■o6oj2»i 
73799" 

0'44O9in 
0-72163 
0-78888 
o'8o6i8 
0-05690 
-66iSi 



S-90392n 

494471 

_ ■571131 
9-605380 



i-i39iin 
■6066511 

■4059s 

•77810 
■85740 

8'8soo3 
1=536 

37967 

. 77980 
8'67894n 

■41953 
■74148 



>86565n 
■49114 
9-13404 



i-95o65n 
,-958i7n 

,-8634on 



8-19752 
"61390 



8-047270 
"•43ii9n 

•S2373n 



9-09197H 
9-339051! 



75947" 
,8155" 



9-0O359II 
8-41964 
9-I7111 
9-40809 



8-99192 

■OOC73 



9'S7734 
9"93937 
9"95S*S 



0-39O81F. 
o-3717in 
39143" 



9-31651 
9-3ii2in 
9-8763511 



8-884i7n 
9-23S17B 

■45579" 



9'osi93 
9-427 la 
9'67459 
9-77823 
9'83953 



9'778S7 
■96107 

■00469 



9-96041 
■958.3 



•379881 
■38gs7n 
■39119™ 



-46669n 
9-74544" 
9-7919111 



9^48 Sizn 

836i9n 
956951 



981 145" 
9-76 i68n 



9-8 81 84 1. 
9'907C9f 
9^9ii78» 



9-8 194W1 
9-822891 
9-803111 



9' 8 7590' 
9-S73'8» 
9-887681 



IONS OF THE 



[Report, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Ennan. 




'57« 
v6Sn 



no're 



114-8 

I 

It 
hi 



9'S9692« 
9'85984ra 
9'8532i« 
9'86323« 
9"8522ow 
9-83483»i 

9'8o67on 
970946« 
9-48358re 
9*34867w 
84'9"o4452W 
198-40661 



Itei ) 
Itei ) 
Itei ) 
Itei ) 
Iter ) 
Mo: } 



8*922 
8-870 
9'307 
9'39? 
9-520 

9-583 



oef. Log. coef. 



78« 

72>l 

Sm 

2 5?« 
23?J 



9-08II5 
9"36ii9 

9'34S84 
9-32907 
9'32i8o 
9-30061 



Log. coef. 

A/i2.2. 



Log. coef. 



It< 97V16705 
Ite'^S '56120 
Ite"3*''8i404 
Ite '57 89042 
Ite '74'9i232 
Ite 1-92 88558 

Ite i'02Si092 
Ite>-o6 75693 
Itei>-o854078 
Itei)-o9ji7o8 
Itei )'09ii.6i9o 
Itei )-05i6645 



9-632M-i» 9'26935 

9-705Jig« 9'i6723 
9757P« 8-93987 
9-76769" 8-80405 
9-775 83» 8-50025 
9-778.23'^ 7-86353JI 



9773 
9-752 
9-694 
9-625 
9'543 
9"365' 



gin 
z6n 
zgn 
23W 
z6n 



■97;4°47 
•7814828 
-07:6800 
•65!858i 

■85:5152 
■89-8695 



Atl*-7i:3839n 
Ite*-88 8355ra 
Moi )-9o:9628« 
Atli )*oii8798« 
Iter )-77J7364w 
Moi t-89!'0467re 

Noi)-72(;67i4 
Iter |-73(i558i 
Sot; (-68<<i5ii 
Bal (-46^8419 
Gill 1*41^3053 
Sm '47(62066 



8-977 45» 
8-40057W 
9-i6293» 
9-40736« 
9-48750^ 
9-583.49« 



9-668 

9759 

9-8 

9-848. 

9-864 

9-879 



ijn 

75« 

50 

74 

73 

23 



8-62278^ 
9-03699?! 
9'3i875» 
9'3866c« 
9-39881^ 
9-36844*1 

9-30394?? 
9-26853re 
g'iy^6gn 
9-07476?i 
9-03331?! 
9-26614?! 



9-86950?! 
9-85756?! 
9-79890?! 
9-77303?! 
9-71212?! 
9-66365?! 

9-61025?! 

9-47384» 
9-21171?! 
9-07203?! 
8-760x4?! 
8-11651 



9-95969 
9-95881 
9-97036 
9-97426 
9-98082 
9-9S478 

9-98817 
9-99376 
9-99813 
9-99902 
9-99977 
9-99999 



Log. coef. 



9-48285?! 9-96932 
9-66819?! 9-94521 
9-81946?! 9-87439 
9-93668?! 9-69244 



8-88417 9-99959 

9'235i7 

9'45579 

9-58733 

9-67796 

977844 



9-85445 
9-89892 
9'93459 

9'95925 , , 
9-96864 991472 
9'97399 9"90322 



9-99772 
9-99288 
9-98766 
9-98223 
9-97284 

9-96074 
9-94897 

9'93573 
9-92196 



9-49630 
9-52584 
9-46470 
9-43697 
9-38255 
9-33742 

9-28696 
9-15546 
8-90054 
8-75952 

8'45i53 
7-80917?! 



Log. coef 
AA'.'. 



9-42591?! 

9-38960?! 

9-31470?! 

9-28390?! 

9-2102 

9-15462?! 

9-095 15?! 



8-67814?! 
8-53709?! 
8-22344?! 

7'57872 



8-57522?! 8-34785 
8-95228?! 8-69280 



9-20459?! 
9-31345?!. 
9-38018?! 
9-45185?? 

9-51080?! 
9-55462?! 
9-58801?! 
9-61583?! 
9-62897?! 
9-66560?! 



9-97785?! 
9-99090?! 



9-164 22« 
8-892 



7-204 



9749 
9785 
9795 
9785 
9773' 
9774 



0-08906 

0-07941 

9-82192?! 

9-55802?! 

8-69371?! 

9-99034 
0-01093 
9-95770 
9-84029 

975959 
9-63083 



9"43753 
8-58260 

9-82420?! 
9-54874?! 
8-67111?! 
o-o66i6?! 
009834?! 
0-10201?! 

9-73560 

977115 
9-90369 

9*95323 
3200 
9-99065 



9-88876 
9-86575 
9-83563 
9-82619 
9-81463 
9-80131 

0-17155 
0-18054 
0-18992 

— 00 



8-65706 
8-81690 
9-11860 
9-01787 
9-04844 
9-05423 



8-91076 

9'05535 
9'i6i2i 
9-28688 

9-39010 
9-45380 
9'5i307 
9'55933 
9-57868 
9-58103 



9-70963?! 9-57035 
9-76463?! :9-54466 



9-82230?! 
9-85579?! 
9-87522?! 
9-88886?! 

0-11249 

0-11137 

0-10226 

9-40839?! 

9-14562?! 

8-29041?! 

0-00083 

0-02231 

-01649 

9'99559 
9-96965 
9-96656 



9-47700 
9-27891 
9-02513 
8-17930 

9-53561?! 
9-26128?! 
8-39274?! 
9-98527?! 
9-99571?! 
9-99992?! 

9-66577 
9-66455 
9-73312 
9-78211 
9-82614 
9-83404 



PRIMARY EQUATIONS FOR THE CORRECTIONS OF THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR 1829 (Co 



[Report, Riil. Assoc. 1818. Eiiiia 



s Olid observed elements. 



1 -*:.„ i„ ^°'''S- East, , „„ „ Log. coet Log. coef. Log. coef- Log. coef-.Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. coef. Log. cocf. Log. coef.'Log. ooef. Log. eocf. Log. couf. Log. <-oef. Log. cocf. Log. cocf. Log. coef.JLog. coef. Log. cocf. Log. coef.tLog. cocf. Log. cocf.lLoR. coof. Lor. cocf- 
l^atituuc. (jregn^ci, uog. n. ^^.o ^^,, ^^,,i, ^^~ ^i,i_ j^,3_ ^^,.a_ ^gi,,_ ^^i.* ^^,o_ j^.j, iA».'. V'- '!*'■-• V'- ] ^A". V"- ^s"- -i**'- •!?-"■■ M". Jj'-". Jjr'.'. lh'\ 



MotlierlMi,:. 

North Scji 

Souiul near Coiieiiliagcn 

Baltic 

Giiir of Pinlaod 

Snmll Hnxhour of CronBtc 



31J 50 35 

3H SJ J8 



3ZI SI 50 
321 3S 
319 55 



9-31636 
9'=^'3SS 



615851 
'49594" 
31985.1 



38444" 

^75+7' 

816061 

8684in 

98054)1 
gg970H 
■99745.1 
■99978" 

'99S6on 
■97605.* 
920150 
8661m 
799760 



9-645S< 
5-610510 

735380 



■74474" ,994343n 
■S'4i9»l9'9905ii 
'4081:11 ,9'9Sj84i 



9-5968 
94807 
9-137840 



53104 
66033 



9-83638. 
9-81143., 

975319' 



8-585. » 

66175 
3'375 



9-36586 
3531S 
9"3S793 



9-81418 



_ 65ii8b 
9-65398^ 



■91585 
9-91991 
9*93391 



9'55757» 
9-49693 r. 
417360 
367500 



'99813 
9-99901 
9-99977 



■94897 
993459 993S73 
9959SS 99*'9'S 



■481850 99693: 
'668190 9-9451: 
■819460 9f7439 



I 



-00 


9-1456!!. 


_oo 


fiiotm 


■65706 


oooolj 








00.6,5 


■01787 








J054.3 


9'9S'S6 



iport, Brit. Assoc. 1848. Erman. 
SULTING FROM 61& TO 1830. ^ 



Ah^-K 



Ag3 



Ah^ 



Ag^- 



Ag^.\ 



Ah^-K 



10" 1 200 

4-8254 

48'3232 

33-0834 

4-9707 
9-0877 

0-3462 
79-3637 
38-6233 

37-1296 

10-8705 

125-6877 

56-5210 

1-7727 
25-3961 

54-"4ii5 
47-0076 
10-3064 

107-2394 
40-7005 
16-4074 

150-6053 

1-5021 

85-4451 



+ 8-0118 

S"8373 

- 20-0082 

+ 66-9339 

- 6-1487 

- 12-6693 

- 6-1519 

- 10-2473 
+ 11-8660 

- 3*3584 

- 0-4610 

- 56-5210 

+ 169-7015 

- 13-0016 

- 9'783i 

4- 74" 1 594 

- 9"9759 
+ 6-0358 

- 53'423i 

+ 107-3407 

- 17-5259 

- 34"4533 
+ 14-5636 

- 83-6846 



- 15' 
+ 43' 
+ 3' 



1048 
8090 
7562 



6-7196 

+ 82-5285 

+ 3515872 

+ 6-I4571 

— 36-11764 

- 52^^5733 

- 2i-:5557 
+ 54'!57oo 

— 1-14070 



- 13' 

+273' 

- 6o' 



5259 
2024 
4931 



+ I9l3°57 

— 6-19859 

— i9-j6o24 

— 12-0238 

— I7't55a7 
+ 127-8179 

+ 26'4879 
+ 103^8351 

— 5+9890 



+ 14-9021 
+ i'5337 
+ 92-6496 

28-2315 

+ iT57°7 
+ 21-6373 

— 76-2811 
+ 37876 

41-8180 

+ 86-6163 

+ o'4633 
+ 150-6053 

— 34*4533 
+ 26-5715 
+ 25-0846 

+ 10-6602 
+ 249-6279 

— 7-8700 

+ 50-4110 

— 30*9668 
+ 10-4879 

+496-6484 

— 2-8865 
+ 103-3059 



11-4234 
+ 29-5294 

— 0-9272 

— 57792 
+ 66-6874 

— 30-3242 

+ 5*5452 
+ 84*5546 

— 246-4165 

— 14-8216 
+ 48-0652 
+ 1-5021 

+ 14*5636 
+ 103-6081 
-107-3886 

+ 36-1565 

— 4*3294 
+ 110-8758 

+ 17*6774 
+ 18-2472 

— 180-8351 



+ 346-7320 
+ 35-2622 



— 42-2356 

— 1-2964 
+ 31*9533 

— 44*4576 
+ 9*9717 

— 41-2272 

— 16-2815 
+ 331-0581 
+ 128-1702 

— 31*0540 
+ 0-6839 
+ 85-4451 

— 83-68 

— 5-9906 

-113-1507 

+ 132-7150 
+ 87-6357 
+ 18-3827 

+ 152-1985 
+ 14-3237 

— 44-98 

+ 103*3059 
+ 35-2622 
+ 375*3757 



94-1 546-0. 

rman's Note in Rep. Brit. Ai 



(14) 



[Report, Brit. Assoc. 1818. En 
FINAL EQUATIONS FOR THE CORRECTIONS OF THE 24 GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS, RESULTING FROM 610 MAGNETIC ELEMENTS ODSERVED IN THE YEARS 1828 TO 1830. 





ij". 


V-'. 


-•■■ 


V-'- 


iA".». 


a/-'. 


!!«<■■. 


V-'- 


M.... 


V-'- 


V-'- 


M>\ 


V-'- 


M". 


V-- 


4«'->. 


V-"- 


is--'. 


M.... 


v- 


M". ij..". 


aji... 


lUi-'. 


- elr.s- 


+ S4-3JSJ 
+ 0-2S.9 


+ o-»5»9 
+ 34-9167 
+ 4-S406 


+ 7 
+ 4 
+47 


3710 

1^5 


+ 4-1917 
- 2-2767 
-23-2279 


— 11-7069 
+ 21-9510 

- 0-8719 


+ 5-8437 
+ 61S11 


+ 1-8232 

— 20-4717 


- ■9;5S62 
+ 6-1005 


: 


17-4553 
22-3895 
26-0215 


+ 47-4200 
+ 1-3014 

+ 19-2450 


+33-0997 

+ 4-931I 


+ 10-1200 
+ 4-8254 
+ 483232 


+ 8-0118 

- 5-8373 


- 15-0235 
+ 43-2241 


+ 22-1.67 
+ 16-6367 


- 28-4275 
+ ,l\l\l 


+ 25-2173 


- 8-1861 
+ 23-9173 
+ .-4030 


- 31-8097 
+ .-0748 


+ 


11-7988 
17-6311 


+ 3-7362 


+ 14-9011 
+ 1-5337 
+ 91-6496 


+ ij-tijj 


- 1-2964 


+ ''s;;'- 


+ 4-1917 
-11-7069 


- 2-2767 
+21-9510 
+ S-»437 


+ 6 


2279 
,111 


+67-5788 


- S-4S«6 
+ 106-3771 


- .;783i 
+ 182-9105 


+ 39;7iii 
- S-5b22 


- 6-3640 


+ 


18-3749 


- 3-4S40 

I lt-26" 


+ 7-3895 
- 10-3497 


- 33;o«34 

- 9-0877 


+ 66-9339 

- 6-1487 

- 12-6693 


- 6-6530 
+ 82-9 14S 

+ 35-2497 


+ 6-2834 
- 63-2669 


+ 49-2086 
+ 4-0373 


- 19-9280 
+ 10-3122 


+ 2-9386 
+ 66-6465 
- 64-4010 


— 34-6407 


+ 
+ 


80-4974 
8-5564 
8-6918 


+ 7-7196 

+ 66-5.15 

- 6I-J871 


iSl 


+ 66-68?4 
- 30-3141 


- 44.4576 
+ 9-9717 


+7951-76= 


-■9-SS6« 


+ 1-8232 
-22-3895 


+ 1 


1005 


+39-7251 

- 6-3640 

- 3-3573 


+ 4-7147 
+ 18-9315 
- 32-9670 


- 8-9811 
+ 18-3749 


+ 199-9683 
+ 21-9742 


|-|ii 


+ 
+ 
+ 1 


060-7115 


+ 46-8308 


+48-0830 


+ 0-3461 

- 79-3637 

- 38-6233 


+ I1-8660 


+ 6-1970 

- 36-0188 

- 52->429 


-115-7189 

-437-8812 


+ 45-4839 

+ 598-2705 
+ 10-80.3 


- 13-0367 
+ 181-7060 


+ 7-5844 
+ 140454 
+ 29-64.2 


+ 4.-8175 


+ 
+ 


74-3765 

14-0369 
88-2634 


-161-1764 
+ 1015,33 


- 7628.. 
+ 3-7876 

- 4;-8i8o 


+ 5-5452 
+ 84-5 546 
-246-4165 


- 16-28.5 
+33.-058. 
+ .28-1702 


-115.S5- 
- 483'3S = 


+47-4200 

+ 10-1S0O 


+ .-J0.4 
+ 33-0997 
+ 4-8254 


+ '9 

+ 4 
+48 


2450 

93" 


- 3-4840 

- 4-4713 
-33-0834 


- 4-6210 
+ 7;3895 


- 12-2631 

- 9-0877 


+ 4S;7|73 
+ 0-3462 


- i;3S77 

- 79-3637 


+ 
+ 


46-B308 
,8-0830 
38-6133 


+147-1036 
+ 37-1296 


- 1-0834 
+948025 
+ 10-S705 


+ 37-1196 
+ 10-8705 
+ 125-6877 


- 3-3584 

- 0-4610 

- 56-5210 


- 11-5801 
+ 54-6746 


- 26-6472 
+ .0-3483 
+ 15-396. 


- 28-5630 
+ 5-4.70 

- 54-4.. 5 


+131-60,7 
+ 47-0076 


- s-2947 
+ 77-0113 
+ 10-3064 


+ 46-2653 
+ 9-7145 
+ .07-2394 


+ 


18-7462 
11-7952 
40-7005 


+ 98-5700 
+ 16-4070 


+ 86-6163 
+ 0-4633 
+ .50-6053 


- 14-8216 
+ 48-0652 

+ 1-S02. 


- 3. '0540 
+ 0-6S39 
+ 85-445. 


-5514-94- 


+ !-oii8 
+21-1167 


- S-8373 
+43-2241 
+ 3-0110 


+ - 
+ 16 


0082 


+66-9339 
- 6-6530 
+ 6-2834 


- 6-.4J7 
+ !";9>48 


- 12-6693 
+ 35-2497 
+ 88-7598 


+ 6-1970 


- 36-0188 

- ■25.7189 


+ 


11-8660 
52-2429 

437-8822 


- 3-3584 

: •a:;2 


— 0-4610 
+ 54-6746 
+ 10-3483 


- 5652,o 
+ 25-3961 


+ '69;70.5 
- 's-TSsi 


+ 173-7914 


- 9-783. 

- 60-5974 
+771-8434 


+ 74-1594 


- 9;97S9 


+ ^6-0358 

- 29-9841 


- 12-47.5 

- 39-779. 


+ 


55-3.79 


+ 127-2024 

+333-493. 


- 34-4533 
+ 26-57.5 
+ 25-0S46 


+ 14-5636 

+ 103-6081 

-107-3886 


- 83-6846 

- 5-9906 


+ 4°9''>4= 


-18-4275 


+ 1-948S 
+23-9173 


+ 10 

+8. 
+ 1 


■038 
.458 


+49-2086 
-19-9280 
+ 2-9386 


+ 4-0373 
+ 10-31.2 
+ 666465 


- "^f-^ 


+ 45-4839 
- 130367 
+ 7-5844 


+ 598-1705 
+ 181-7060 
+ 14-0454 


+ 
+ 
+ 


10-8013 
68-0324 
19-6411 


- 2S-5630 
+ 132-6097 


+ 5-4'7o 
+77-0223 


+ 10-3064 


+ 74-1594 


+ 19-7635 
- 19-2157 


- 19-9842 


+860-2590 
V"rZl 


+ .39-492. 
+ 336;3444 


+ 3-0666 
+ 1.0-8808 


— 16-9860 
+ 87-6020 
+ 2.-9138 


+ 


49-4938 
27-3690 
13-1383 


- 4!-9"59 
+ 101-6024 


+ 10-6601 
+249-6279 
- 7-8700 


+ 36-.S65 
- 4-3294 
+ 110-8758 


+ .32-7.50 
+ 87-6357 
+ 18-3827 


+4667-11 = 
+ 1900-16 = 


-31-8097 


+ 1-0748 
-11-7988 
+10-8090 


+49 

+ 3 


7562 


-65-0305 
+ 7-"96 


+ 8-5564 
+ 66-5285 


- 34-6407 


+ 3S-S034 

+ 74;376s 


+ 14-0369 

- 162-1764 


+ 
+ 
+ 


iiiii 


+ 46-1653 

+ 18-7462 


+ 9-7145 
+98-S7~ 


+107-2394 
- 40-7005 


+107-3407 
- 175259 


- 12+715 

+ 127-2024 


+ 333-493' 


- .6-9860 
-249-4938 

- "■3057 


+ 87-6010 

- 27-3690 

- 41-9859 


+ 21-9138 
+ .3. 383 

+ 101-6024 


+.SS-.079 


- 83-5651 
+465-8773 

- 4.-5527 


- 7-0138 
+ 7.2-8.79 


- 30-9668 
+ .0-4879 


+ .7-6774 
+ i8;=47" 


+ 152-1985 

- 44-9890 


+'"7-74- 
+6«S9-5«- 


+ 14-90Z1 


+ ''5337 
+29-5294 
- 1-2964 


+92 

+ 3' 


6496 


-28-2515 

- 5-7792 
-44-4576 


+ 9'97i7 


+ 2.-6373 
- 30-3141 


- 76-281J 
+ S-54S2 

- 16-2815 


+ 3-7876 
+ 84-5546 

+ 33--05S' 


+ 


41-siso 
246-4165 


+ 86-6163 

- 14-8116 

- 31-0540 


+ 0-4633 
+48-0652 
+ 0-6839 


+ 150-6053 
+ 15011 


- 8^-6846 


+ 26-57,5 
+ 103-6081 
- 5-9906 


+ 15-0846 
-107-3886 


+ 10-6602 
+ 36.565 
+ 1327150 


+ 249-6279 
+ 87-6357 


- 7-8700 
+ 110-8758 
+ .8-3817 


+ 50-4110 
+ 17-6774 

+152-1985 


+ 
+ 


30-9668 
.4-3237 


+ 10-4879 
- 44-9890 


+496-6484- 2-8865 
- 2-8S65 +346-7320 


+ 35-2622 
+ 375-3757 



*'.D, This table is corrected a 



=9*1 5*6-0. 

Erman's Note in Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1847, page 377. 



REPORT RELATIVE TO THE TORONTO OBSERVATORY. 99 

Report relative to the expediency of recommending the continuance of 
the Toronto Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory until De- 
cember 1850, adopted by a Committee of the British Association at 
Swansea, August 1848, consisting of the following Members : — Lord 
Wrottesley, Chairman, the Dean of Ely, Rev. Dr. Lloyd, 
President of the Royal Irish Academy, fmc? Lieut.-Col. Sabine. 

At the Cambridge meeting of the British Association, it was recommended 
that the Toronto Observatory should be continued on its then footing until 
the 31st of December 1848, unless in the mean time arrangements could be 
made for its permanent establishment. 

The Observatory is built on ground lent by the Council of King's College 
at Toronto without charge, under the condition that when Government 
should discontinue the conduct of the Observatory, the building should be 
given over to the College, who would thereby have the option of continuing 
the observations should it appear desirable to do so. 

The building of the University, in which some progress had been made, 
has been suspended until a bill shall have passed the Canadian Parliament 
by which the Board of Management will be determined ; when there is 
reason to hope that the Observatory may be placed under the charge of the 
Professors of the College, and become a permanent establishment ; to which 
desirable result Government may possibly contribute by making a transfer of 
the instruments as well as of the buildings- 

The question to be now considered is therefore the expediency of recom- 
mending the continuance of the Observatory by Government for a year or 
two longer, until the affairs of the College shall be in a condition to enable 
the question of its permanent establishment to be brought before the authori- 
ties by whom the College shall hereafter be conducted. 

The present state of the Observatory with regard to objects accomplished 
and objects for the accomplishment of which provision is made, is as 
follows : — 

Six years of hourly-observation were completed on the 30th June in the 
present year. This has been considered a sufficient duration for this la- 
borious routine, and as furnishing a sufficient basis for the deduction of 
mean numerical values and mean diurnal variations of the magnetic and me- 
teorological elements for every five days throughout the year. From the 
1st of July 1848, therefore, night observation has ceased except at times of 
great magnetical and meteorological disturbance ; and a reduction of one of 
the assistants has consequently been made. Observations are now made at 
convenient hours of the day, which compared with the mean values at the 
same hours in the corresponding periods of. the six years, furnish, for the 
meteorological elements, the non-periodic variations which have become so im- 
portant a feature in the extensive generalisations to which the science of 
meteorology has advanced ; whilst for the magnetic elements they furnish a 
continuation of the differential results from which, assisted by monthly ab- 
solute determinations, the secular and annual variations, which necessarily 
require a longer series of observation than the diurnal, are in progress 
of elucidation. By the aid of equations furnished by the six years' hourly 
series, the.^e objects can now be carried out by a system of observation which 
is comparatively extremely light ; so much so as to be already within the 
compass of the College or other local direction. It does not however pro- 
vide for the observation of disturbances, which require tlie continuous, or 
almost continuous observation of several instruments siinultaneouslv. 



100 REPORT 1848. 

For these, consequently, there is needed eitlier a larger staff of assistants, 
than it would be reasonable to expect in a permanent establishment, or a 
provision of efficient and proved self-recording instruments. Accordingly 
for some months past, and particularly since the termination of the hourly 
series, the attention of the Director has been turned to the introduction and 
practical trial of photographic instruments of this nature. From prudential 
reasons, one instrument only of each kind, one magnetical and one meteoro- 
logical, has been thus fitted ; but the success with these is such as appears 
fully to justify the application of similar apparatus to the other instruments. 

The chemical difficulties which might have been apprehended as obstacles 
to the employment of such instruments in a distant colony, appear to be 
surmounted, but experience is almost daily suggesting modifications and im- 
provements, for which both apparatus and advice are required from home. 
In this respect therefore the Observatory cannot be said to be yet in the 
state in which it might be advantageously transferred to other hands ; some 
short time longer is required for completing the equipment and comparing 
the performance of the self-recording instruments during disturbances with 
actual observations, for which latter a sufficient number of assistants is still 
retained. 

There is no other observatory in America at which magnetic disturbances 
are recorded ; and it is greatly to be desired that this record in a part of the 
globe so important in magnetic respects should not be wanting for the ge- 
neral comparison. 

A few months' longer continuance in the present hands is also desirable 
for the purpose of bringing to a satisfactory conclusion the comparisons 
which have been instituted between the instruments by which the great body 
of observations have been made, and others which have been subsequently 
devised for attaining the same objects by other processes. There is reason 
to believe that the result of these comparisons will be in many cases highly 
satisfactory, in confirming the dependence which may be placed on the To- 
ronto instruments and their results. The knowledge acquired by such com- 
parisons is also likely to be very beneficial in guiding the selection of in- 
struments hereafter for similar purposes in other colonies. 

The cost of the Toronto Observatory with its present establishment (such 
as is projjosed to be continued for a year or two longer) is £370 a-year, in- 
cluding a contingent of £100 for repairs and incidentals of all kinds. In this 
sum there is not included the regimental pay of the officer and non-commis- 
sioned officers, because they remain on tlie strength of the Artillery and are 
on the spot ready to serve in their military capacity should the public ser- 
vice require it. The observations which would be made during this addi- 
tional period would not require to be printed as before in detail; and would 
form in substance a comparatively small appendix, which would have a place 
in the concluding volume of the Toronto observations. 



NOTICES 

AND 

ABSTRACTS OF COMMUNICATIONS 

TO THE 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

AT THE 

SWANSEA MEETING, AUGUST 1848. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The Editors of the following Notices consider themselves responsible 
only for the fidelity with which the views of the Authors are abstracted. 



CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS OF MISCELLANEOUS 
COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 

MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Page 

Rev. H. Lloyd on the Mean Results of Observations 1 

Herr Plucker's Account of Experiments belonging to a new Magnetic 

Action 2 

Rev. Prof. Powell on an Explanation of the "Beads" and "Threads" in 

Annular Eclipses 2 

■ • on a new Case of Interference of Light 3 

's Collected Observations of the Annular Eclipse of October 

9, 1847 3 

Dr. SiLjESTROM on those Variations of the Force and the Direction of the Ter- 
restrial Magnetism which seem to depend on the Aurora Borealis 4 

Mr. G. G. StOKES on a Difficulty in the Theory of Light 5 

on the Refraction of Light beyond the Critical Angle 5 

- on the Perfect Blackness of the Centre of Newton's Rings 7 

• on the Resistance of the Air to Pendulums 7 

Prof. W. Thomson on the Equilibrium of Magnetic or Diamagnetic Bodies of 

any Form, under the Influence of the Terrestrial Magnetic Force 8 

on the Theory of Electro-magnetic Induction 9 

Professor Wheatstone on a means of determining the apparent Solar Time by 
the Diurnal Changes of the Plane of Polarization at the North Pole of the 

Sky 10 

Mr. John Ball on rendering the Electric Telegraph subservient to Meteoro- 
logical Research 12 

Rev. J. Challis's Description of a New Instrument for observing the Ap- 
parent Positions of Meteors (in a letter to the Assistant General Secretary) 13 
Mr. Mansfield Harrison on a Self- Registering Thermometer (in a letter to 

Prof. Phillips) 14 

Mr. J. W. Childers's Comparative Temperature Table, showing the daily 
average height of the Thermometer ; at Jersey, in 49° 11" N. ; at Torquay, 

50° 30'" N. ; Hastings, 50° 52'" N. ; and Loudon, 51° 30"" N 16 

Extracts from a Letter to Professor Wheatstone, from J. D. Hooker, M.D. 17 

Sir W. Snow Harris on a General Law of Electrical Discharge 19 

Mr. J. P. Joule on the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat and on the Constitu- 
tion of Elastic Fluids 21 

Mr. John Jenkins's Notices of Aurorae observed at Swansea 22 

*- — Tables of Meteorological Phsenomena observed at Swansea 23 

Dr. John Lee on Meteorological Observations continued at Alten in Finmark 32 
Mr. J. F. Cole's Observations upon the Meteorological Observations for 1846 

and 1847 from Alten in Lapland (in a letter lo Dr. Lee) 32 

Mr. Matthew Moggridge on two cases of uncommon Atmospheric Refraction 33 
Lieut. Maury's Observations accompanying Wind and Current Charts of the 

North Atlantic 34 

Mr. Thos. Rankin's Meteorological Observations at Huggate for 1847.. 36 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. George Roberts on a remarkable Tide in the British Channel, Friday, 

July 7, 1848, as it appeared at Lyme Regis, Dorset 37 

Rev. T. R. Robinson's Note on ' Shooting Stars' seen August 10, at Armagh 37 
Mr. J. Scott Russell on certain Effects produced on Sound by the rapid 

motion of the observer 37 

Capt. Stanley on the Lengths and Velocities of Waves (extract from a Letter 

to the Rev. Dr. Whewell) « 38 

Lieut.-Colonel Sykes on the Fall of Rain on the Table-land of Uttree Mullay, 

Travancore, during the year 1846, from observations made by General CuUen, 

Resident in Travancore 39 

on Atmospheric Disturbances, and on a remarkable Storm 

at Bombay on the 6th of April 1848 41 

Sir David Brewster on the Compensation of Impressions moving over the 

Retina, as seen in Railway Travelling 47 

on the Vision of Distance as given by Colour 48 

on the Visual Impressions upon the Foramen Centrale of 

the Retina 48 

Examination of Bishop Berkeley's " New Theory of 



Vision" 49 

CHEMISTRY. 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Action of the Red, Orange and Yellow Rays upon 
Iodized and Bromo-iodized Silver Plates after they have been affected by day- 
light, and other Phenomena of Photography 50 

Rev. Thomas Exley on the Laws of Chemical Combinations and the Volumes 

of Gaseous Bodies ; 50 

i on the Motion of the Electric Fluid along Conductors... 52 

Mr. John Goodman on the Identity of the Existences or Forces of Light, Heat, 

Electricity, Magnetism and Gravitation 53 

Mr. W. R. Grove on the peculiar Cooling Effects of Hydrogen and its Com- 

pounds in cases of Voltaic Ignition 54 

Mr. James Higgin on the Colouring Matters of Madder 54 

Mr. Robert Hunt on the Influence of Light in preventing Chemical Action... 54 
Prof. W. A. Miller's Analysis of Wrought Iron produced by Cementation 

from Cast Iron 55 

Dr. Moffatt on the existence of Ozone in the Atmosphere 56 

Mr. James Nasmyth on a peculiar property of Coke 56 

— on the Chemical Character of Steel 57 

Dr. John Percy on some of the Alloys of Tungsten 57 

Mr. R. Phillips on some Properties of Alumina 58 

Mr. W. B. Randall on Common Salt as a Poison to Plants ; 58 

Prof. R. E. Rogers and Prof. W. B. Rogers on a New Process for analysing 

Graphite, Natural and Artificial 59 

on the Oxidation of the Diamond 

in the Liquid Way 60 

on the Absorptiori of Carbonic 

Acid by Sulphuric Acid 61 

Mr. J. Tennant's Notices of Pseudomorphous Crystals from Volcanic Districts 
of India 61 

Mr. W. S. Ward on a Galvanometer 62 

on the Electromotive Force, Dynamic Effect and Resistance of 

various Voltaic Combinations 62 

Mr. Francis Whishaw on the Chemical Composition of Gutta Percha 62 



CONTENTS. V 

GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Page 
Mr. Spence Bate on Fossil Remains recently discovered in Bacon Hole, 

Gower; also other Remains from beneath the Bed of the River Tawey.... 62 

Dr. Beke on the Sources of the Nile in the Mountains of the Moon 63 

Mr. Charles' Bun BURY on the occurrence in the Tarentaise of certain species 
of Fossil Plants of the Carboniferous Period, associated in the same bed with 

Belemnites 64 

Mr. Starling Benson on a Boulder of Cannel Coal found in a vein of com- 
mon bituminous Coal 64 

• on the relative Position of the various Qualities of Coal 

in the South- Wales Coal-Measures 65 

Mr. Joseph Bonomi's Notice of a Map of Ancient Egypt of the Time of An- 
toninus Pius 66 

Professor Buckman on the Discovery of some Remains of the Fossil Sepia in 

the Lias of Gloucestershire 66 

on the Plants of the "Insect Limestone" of the Lower 

Lias 66 

on some Experimental Borings in search of Coal 67 

Dr. Carpenter on Marginopora and allied Structures 67 

Mr. William Cunnington on a Peculiarity in the Structure of one of the 

Fossil Sponges of the Chalk, Choanites Kiinigi, Mantell 67 

Dr. Daubeny's Reply to an Objection of Mr. Hopkins to the ' Chemical Theory 

of Volcanos,' contained in the last volume of the Transactions 67 

Professor E. Forbes's Notice of Discoveries among the British Cystidea, made 

since the last Meeting 68 

Mr. Evan Hopkins on the Polarity of Cleavage Planes, their conducting 

Power, and their Influence on Metalliferous Deposits 69 

Capt. L. L. BoscAWEN Ibbetson on the Position of the Chloritic Marl or 

Phosphate of Lime Bed in the Isle of Wight 69 

Mr. A. Milward's Account of an extensive Mud-slide in the Island of Malta 70 

attempt to illustrate the Origin of "Dirt-bands" on 

Glaciers 71 

Mr. W. Morgan on some Bones found in the Bed of the Tawey 71 

Mr. F. MosES on the Subsidences which have taken place in the Mineral Basin 
of South Wales, between the Llynvi Valley on the East, and Penllergare on 

the West 71 

Professor Oldham on the Geology of the County of Wicklow 71 

Mr. G. W. Ormerod on the Drainage of a Portion of Chat Moss 72 

Mr. Augustus Petermann on the Hydrography of the British Isles 73 

Professor Ramsay on pome points connected with the Physical Geology of the 

Silurian district between Builth and Pen-y-bont, Radnorshire 73 

Professor H. D. Rogers on the Geology of Pennsylvania 74 

Mr. William Price Struve's Observations on the Great Anticlinal Line of 

the Mineral Basin of South Wales 75 

Mr. Ferdinand Werne's Remarks on the Sources of the White Nile (com- 
municated by Sir Robert H. Schomburgk) 78 

Rev. D. Williams's Supplemental Notice on the Geology of Lundy Island ... 79 
Sir H. T. De la Beche on the Geology of portions of South Wales, Glouces- 
tershire, and Somersetshiie 79 



vi CONTENTS. 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

Page 
Mr. J. G. Jeffreys on the recent Species of Odostomia, a Genus of Qaste- 

ropodous Mollusks inhabiting the Seas of Great Britain and Ireland 79 

Professor Owen on the Os huraero-capsulare of the Ornithorhynchus 79 

, on the Communications between the Tympanum and Palate 

in the Crocodiles 79 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock's Note on Sounds emitted by MoUusca 80 

Mr. LovELL Reeve on a new Species of Argonaut, A. Otvenii, with some Ob- 
servations on the A. gondola, Dillwyn 80 

Lieut. S PRATT on the Influence of Temperature upon the Distribution of the 

Fauna in the ^gean Sea 81 

Mr. T. L. Taylor's Notice of an Observation at Bathcaloa, Ceylon, on the 

Sounds emitted by Mollusca 82 

Dr. A. Waller on Cases of impaired Vision in which Objects appear much 

smaller than natural 82 

on the Luminous Spectra excited by Pressure on the Retina 

and their application to the Diagnosis of the Affections of the Retina and 

its appendages 82 

'a Microscopic Observations on the Movement of the Human 

Blood in the Capillaries, and on the Structure of the Nerves in the Glands 

at the Inferior Surface of the Tongue 83 

Dr. Thomas Williams on the Structure and Functions of the Branchial 

Organs of the Annelida and Crustacea 83 

1 on the Physical Conditions regulating the vertical 

Distribution of Animals in the Atmosphere and the Sea 83 

Mr. C. C. Babington's Additions to the British Flora, and an Exhibition of 

Drawings prepared for publication in the Supplement to English Botany... 84 
Mr. John Blackwall on Periodical Birds observed in the Years 1847 and 1848 

near Llanwrst '. 84 

Mr. Joshua Clarke on the parasitic Character of Rhinanthus Crista- Galti ... 84 

Mr. A. Henfrey's Note on the Development of Pollen 84 

Mr. E. Lankester on some Vegetable Monstrosities illustrating the Laws of 

Morphology 85 

Mr. Matthew Moggridgb on a Peculiarity in the Protococcus nivalis 86 

Mr. John Phillips on the Colour Stripes of a Rose {Rosa sempervirens) , single 86 
Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites on an apparently undescribed state of the Palmellese, 

with afew Observations on Gemmation in the Lower Tribes of Plants 8? 

Mr. W. H. Crook on a supposed connexion between an insufficient Use of Salt 

in Food and the Progress of Asiatic Cholera 88 

Dr. Richard Fowler's Attempt to give a Physiological Explanation how 
Persons both Blind, Deaf and Dumb from Infancy interpret the Commu- 
nications of others by their Touch only 88 

Dr. Macdonald on the erroneous division of the Cervical and Dorsal Vertebrae, 
and the connection of the First Rib with the Seventh Vertebra, and the 

normal position of the Head of the Rib in Mammals 89 

Professor Owen on the Homologies and Notation of the Dental System in 

Mammalia 91 

■ on the Value of the Origins of Nerves as a Homological Cha- 
racter 93 



CONTENTS. 



ETHNOLOGY. 

Page 
Dr. Beke on the Geographical Distribution of the Languages of Abessinia and 

the Neighbouring Countries 94 

Professor Elton on the Ante- Columbian Discovery of America 94 

Mr. John Hogg on a quantity of Human Bones discovered in a Field near 

Billingham, in the County of Durham .' 95 

Professor Retzius' Measurements of a Skull considered to be Burgundian 96 

Notes on a Kirgis Skull 96 

Sir Robert H. Schomburgk's Remarks to accompany a Comparative Voca- 
bulary of eighteen Languages and Dialects of Indian Tribes inhabiting 

Guiana 96 

on a Uniform System to reduce Unwritten Lan- 
guages to Alphabetical Writing in Roman Characters 99 

Mr. John Phillips's Ethnographical Note on the Vicinity of Charnwood Forest 99 

Dr. L. TuTSCHBK on the Tumali Language 100 

on the Fazoglo Language 100 

Archdeacon Williams on the Gael, Breton and Cymry 101 



STATISTICS. 

Mr. Edward Balfour's Observations on the means of maintaining the Health 

of Troops in India 101 

Mr. Kenrick's Contributions to the Statistics of Darlaston 101 

Mr. Joseph Fletcher on the Progress and Character of Popular Education 
in England and Wales, as indicated by the Criminal Returns, 1837-1847 •■• 102 

Sir J. P. Boileau's Statistics on Mendicancy 105 

Mr. W. Harding on Facts bearing on the Progress of the Railway System of 

Great Britain 105 

Rev. B. Powell's Contributions to Academical Statistics 105 

Mr. Cadogan Williams on the desirableness of extending to the Working 
Classes the opportunity of purchasing deferred annuities, as a provision 

for old age 105 

Mr. Joseph Fletcher on the Moral and Educational Statistics of England and 

Wales 105 

Mr. John Crawford on the Vital Statistics of a District in Java ; with prelimi- 
nary remarks upon the Dutch possessions in the East, by Colonel Sykes 112 
Mr. Joseph Hume on the Annual Increase of Property, and of Exports and 

Imports in Canada. Communicated by J. Fletcher 112 

Mr. Augustus Petermann on the Distribution of the Population of Great 

Britain and Ireland 113 

Mr. Joseph Fletcher on the Statistics of Brittany and the Bretons 114 

Colonel Sykes on the Statistics of Civil Justice in Bengal in which the Go- 
vernment is a party 116 

Mr. J. C. Dennis on Improvements in the Reflecting Circle, more particularly 
in reference to an instrument for the purpose of measuring angular distances 

of the Sun and Moon ^7 

Mr. Joseph Glynn on the application of Steam Power to the Drainage of 
Marshes and Fen Lands 117 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor E. Hodgkinson on Investigations undertaken for the purpose of fur- 
nishing data for the Construction of Mr. Stephenson's Tubular Bridges at 

Conway and Menai Straits II9 

Mr. Richard Roberts on a new Element of Mechanism II9 

Mr. H. E. Strickland on Anastatic Printing and its various combinations ... 120 
Mr. William Price Struv^ on the Ventilation of Collieries, with a descrip- 
tion of a new Mine- Ventilator 120 

on a new Low-pressure Atmospheric Railway 120 

Mr. William S. Ward on a new mechanical arrangement for communicating 

Signals and Working Breaks on Railways 121 

Mr. Francis Whishaw on the application of Gutta Percha to the Arts and 

Manufactures 122 

on the Patent Multitubular Pipes and Panergous 

Joints 123 

• on the Subaqueous Rope for Telegraphic and other 

purposes 123 

on the " Uniformity of Time" and other Telegraphs . 123 

' on the Improved Velocentimeter 124 

■ on the Telekouphonon, or Speaking Telegraph 125 

ADDENDA. 

Mr. Albany Hancock on the Boring of MoUusca into Rocks 125 

Prof. E. Forbes and Robert MacAndrew on some Marine Animals from the 
Bristol Channel 125 

Mr. W. C. Williamson on Polystomella crispa and the Classification of Fora- 

minifera 125 

Rev. J. Bradley on the Boring of Sabellse 125 

Mr. William Thompson on Additions to the Fauna of Ireland 125 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

On the Mean Results of Observations. By the Rev. H.Lloyd, D.D., M.E.LA. 

It is well known that the mean value of any magnetical or meteorological element, 
for any day, may be had appxo\ima.te\y,hy taking the arithmetical mean of any num- 
ber of observed values obtained at equal m^eri'a^s throughout the twenty-four hours ; 
the degree of approximation, of course, increasing with the number. It is important 
to ascertain the law which governs this approximation. 

Any periodical function, u, of the variable v, being represented by the formula 

u=a(, + ffli sin (v + «i) + «2 sm (2 w + Xn) + &c., 

in which a^ is the true mean, or 



«(,=-— / udv. 



if Ml, M,, Mg, &c., ie„, denote the values of the function w, corresponding to those of 
the variable 

2 w 4 :r , 2 (w — 1) TT 

n n « 

it may be shown that their arithmetical mean is equal to 

aQ-\-an sin (« r + «„) + a2„ sin (2 nv + os2n) + &c., 
whatever be the value of v. Hence, as the original series is always convergent, we 
have, when the number n is suflSciently great, 

Co = — («i + Ms + % + &c. + M„), 

nearly ; the limit of error being a,„ nearly. Hence, when the period in question is a 
day, we learn that the daily mean value of the observed element will be given by the 
meanof <M.-o equidistant observations, nearly, when Caand the higher coefficients are 
negligible ; by the mean of three, when a^ and the higher coefficients are negligible ; 
and so on. 

The coefficient az is small in the case of the temperature ; the curve which repre- 
sents the course of the diurnal changes of temperature being, nearly, the curve of 
sines. In this case, then, the mean of the temperatures at any two homonymous 
hours is, nearly, the mean temperature of the day. This fact has been long known 
to meteorologists. 

The Coefficient a-i is small in all the periodical functions with which we are con- 
cerned in magnetism and meteorology : and therefore the daily mean values of these 
functions will be given, very nearly, by the mean of any three equidistant observed 
values. The truth of this was shown by the author in the case of the magnetic 
decUnation, the atmospheric pressure, and temperature, as observed at the Magne- 
tical Observatory of Dublin. 

In choosing the particular hours for a continuous system of observations, we 
should select those which correspond nearly to the maxima and minima of the observed 
elements, so as to obtain also the daily range. This condition is fulfilled, in the 

1848. B 



2 REPORT — 1848. 

case of the magnetic declination, very nearly, by the hours 6 a.m., 2 p.m., 10 p.m. ; 
■which give, moreover, the maximum and minimum of temperature, and of the ten- 
sion of vapour, nearly, and the maximum pressure of the gaseous atmosphere; and 
if we add the intermediate hours 10 a.m., 6 p.m., we shall have, nearly, the prin- 
cipal maxima and minima of the other two magnetical elements. The author ac- 
cordingly proposes, as the best hours of observation in a limited system, 
6 A.M., 10, 2 P.M., 6, 10. 

The case is different where the course of the diurnal curve has been already obtained 
from a more extended system of observations. In this case the mean of the day 
may be inferred from observations taken at any hours whatever ; and the hours of 
observation should therefore be chosen, chiefly, if not exclusively, with reference to 
the diurnal range of the observed elements. 

The author proceeded, in the next place, to consider the course to be pursued in 
the reduction of a more extended system of observations (such as that prescribed by 
the Royal Society in 1839, and adopted by all the magnetical observatories), when 
some of the observations are deficient. He showed that, in this case, in deducing 
the daily means from the remaining observations, we must attend, not only to the 
elimination of the regular diurnal variation, but also to that of the irregular changes 
of longer periods, which are sometimes (as in the case of the atmospheric pressure) 
more influential in the result. With this view he determined the values of the 
viean daily fluctuation for each of the elements already referred to; and compared 
the mean values of the horary changes thence arising with that resulting from the 
regular diurnal variation. 

The author showed, finally, in what manner the monthly means of the results ob- 
tained at any hour are to be corrected in the case of deficient observations, so as to 
render them comparable with those in which none are wanting ; and he deduced the 
probable values of these corrections for each element, with the view of ascertaining 
in what cases the correction may be disregarded, and in what it is indispensable. 



Account of Experiments belonging to a new Magnetic Action. 
By Herr Plucker. 

A crystal with one optical axis being brought between the two poles of a magnet, 
there will be a repulsive force going out from each of the poles and acting upon the 
optical axis. According to this action, the crystal, if suspended, will take such a 
position that its optical axis is placed within the equatorial plane. When the crystal 
has two optical axes there will be the same action on both, according to which the 
line bisecting the acute angle, formed by the axis, will turn into the equatorial 
plane. When the crystal is suspended in such a way that it may freely move round 
any line whatever of the plane containing both axes, this plane will take the equa- 
torial position. Thus in a crystal which is neither transparent nor shows any trace 
of its crystalline structure, we may, by means of a magnet, find the optical axes : 
at the same time we get a new proof of the connexion between light and magnetism. 
When light is passing through a crystal, there are in general two directions where 
it is affected in a quite distinct way : these same directions are acted upon by a 
magnet. 

On an Explanation of the '^'^ Beads" and " Tlireads" in Annular Eclipses. 
By the Rev. Prof. Powell, F.R.S. 

The principles on which this explanation is suggested are the following : — 

1. The fact estabished by Mr. Airy, that the intensity of the sun's light increases 
rapidly from the extreme edge of the disc to some short distance inwards. [See 
Ast. Soc. Notices, vol. v. p. 216.] 

2. The admitted law that irradiation increases wiih the intensity of the light. 
On these grounds, when the irregularities of the moon's edge have their summits 

beyond the limb of the sun, but their depressions within it, so that they leave patches 
of light, these will be enlarged by irradiation, and will be much more enlarged as the 
depression is deeper within the sun's limb, where the light is so much more intense ; 
they will thus appear elongated in a direction perpendicular to the limb, if actually 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 3 

broad at the top and shallow. When the summits come within the limb, then, by 
the same causes, they will be melted down, or at least be reduced to their natural 
proportions. But the encroachment of the solar light on the dark disc will be 
greater towards the sides, where it is at a greater depth from the edge of the sun, 
and there will be thus a general protuberance towards the point of contact. 

As to the cause of the diminution of the sun's light at the edge we are in entire 
ignorance. Again, dark glasses by diminishing the light may destroy the effect of 
irradiation, and the power and aperture of the telescope are known greatly to in- 
fluence its amount. Hence it is quite conceivable that under different conditions 
the phaenomena may be greatly modified, or may not appear at all. 




On a new Case of Interference of Light. By the Rev. Prof. Powell, F.R.S. 

The principal experiment evincing this new kind of interference consists in placing 
a plate of glass or other transparent substance in a prismatic vessel containing a 
fluid (as e.g. oil of sassafras or anise with plate or crown-glass), so as to intercept 
the upper or thicker half of the prism, when the spectrum is seen covered with dark 
bands parallel to the edge of the prism, the number and breadth of which vary 
greatly with the refractive powers of the plate and medium, and with 
the thickness of the plate. For many combinations the plate must ^'S- ^• 

be inserted in the way just described, or towards one end of the 
spectrum, thus exhibiting an effect analogous to what was termed 
" polarity " in the experiments by partial interception of Sir D. 
Brewster: as in fig. 1. But for many combinations no bands are 
produced by this arrangement. In these cases however, on placing 
the plate to intercept the thinner part of the prism, as in fig. 2, 
bands will be produced. 

This remarkable relation, as well as the number and character of 
the bands, can be all expressed by a formula derived from the simple 
interference theory ; but for some more minute changes observed, 
recourse must be had to the diffraction theory, as in Mr. Airy's in- ^'S- 2. 

vestigations (Phil. Trans. 1840, 1841). These investigations have 
been pursued by Mr. Stokes, of Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

When plates of doubly refracting crystal are employed, two sets 
of bands are seen superimposed, even in those of the most feeble 
doubly refracting power, as quartz, &c. This may perhaps be ser- 
viceable to the mineralogist for detecting this property when very 
weak. 

In general the number of bands observed in different cases agrees sufficiently well 
with calculation, and the method may be applied inversely for finding the refractive 
indices of one substance, the other being known. There is also a close analogy 
between these bands and those described by the Baron von Wrede, though pro- 
duced in a totally different manner. [See Taylor's Scient. Mem. vol. i. pt. 3. 
p. 487.] 




Observations of the Annular Eclipse of October 9, 1 847. 
Collected by the Rev. Prof. Powell, F.R.S. 

The British Association having at the last meeting printed and circulated " Sug- 
gestions for the Observation of the Annular Eclipse," a copy of which is also in- 
serted in the last volume of its Reports (Sectional proceedings, p. 16), it has ap- 
peared desirable that at the present meeting a short statement should be laid before 
the members of the observations made, as far as intelligence has been received. 

Unfortunately the morning was cloudy over nearly the whole of that part of Eng- 
land in which the eclipse was annular, so that numerous observers who might have 
been expected to respond to the invitation of the Association, had no results to 
communicate. On some parts of the east coast of Kent the eclipse was partially 
seen, but not (as far as has been ascertained) in the annular phase. 

It being uncertain whether Greenwich would or would not fall within the limit 
of annularity, the Astronomer Royal, with the aid of several scientific friends, 

B 2 



4 REPORT — 1848. 

equipped four stations to the north and three to the south of Greenwich, but the 
cloudy state of the weather rendered the preparations useless. 

In communication with the Astronomer Royal of Great Britain, the astronomers 
of Italy made similar preparations at Padua, near the southern limit, but the wea- 
ther was equally unpropitious. [See Astron. Soc. Annual Report, 1848 ; Notices, 
vol. viii. p. 79.] 

In other parts of the world, however, several observations were made. The chief 
results, bearing on the physical inquiries referred to, are as follows : — 

1. At Orleans (under the direction of the Bureau des Longitudes), MM. Mauvais 
and Goujon observed, as the cusps approached the ends extended more rapidly, but 
unequably and with a wriggling motion. Then one or two luminous points (beads) 
detached but melted into one again. Just before the completion of the annulus 
many such appeared, along the limb between the cusps, more or less extended but 
all very tkin -. they finally united. The ring did not exceed a few seconds in breadth. 
The dark intervals did not draw out into threads, but decreased both in length and 
thickness. (This is difficult to understand.) Upon the whole, they observe, the 
appearances were merely those of irregularities in the moon's edge, and not such as 
to require any supposition of irradiation or diffraction to account for them. [Ast. 
Soc. Notices, viii. 13.] 

2. M. Schaub at Cilly in Styria observed the eclipse with a telescope having a 
power of 40 and a red glass, and saw the annulus formed icithout any irregularity . 
He then applied a power of 60 and a compound glass of complementary colours, 
giving a white image, and noticed the lunar mountains projected on the sun's disc ; 
the limb undulated, but continued circular up to the second contact, which was 
a contact with the tops of the mountains first, leaving bright intervals, but without 
distortion. [Ibid. p. 13.] 

3. Capt. Jacob, at Bombay, with a 3^ feet Dollond, power 40, saw just before 
the formation of the annulus a faint light outside the cusp. At the south cusp a 
break as if from a projection on the moon's limb, which increased to about 1' in 
breadth, attaching the limbs ; then elongated and suddenly broke, the ends being 
jagged. At the termination of the annulus a portion of 30° on the limb was sud- 
denly occupied by beads, too many to count, but which lasted only two seconds. 
No light was seen about the moon off the sun. [Ibid. p. 27-] 

4. Major Lysaght, at Hingolee, with 3§ Dollond, power 25, and glass giving a 
greenish-yellow image, saw near contact the limb undulating, the edge " hillocky," 
which appearance subsided, till just at contact a dark band from one "hillock" 
connected the limbs, followed by another : the mode of its disappearance was not 
noticed. As the ring increased in breadth the limb of the moon became " pinnacled," 
and a blaze of light appeared on it. (This part of the description is very obscure.) 
Then the limb became smooth again, except one hillock, which elongated and 
formed a connecting band, as at first, and then broke in two. (This circumstance 
seems extraordinary, but is not further explained.) [Ibid. p. 130.] 

5. Dr. Forster, at Bruges (in a letter to Prof. Powell), states that he observed a 
very remarkable luminous arc or ridge of light, differently coloured from the rest of 
the sun, extending along and immediately on the limb of the moon between the 
cusps. It lasted nearly five minutes. He considers it as unlike any appearance 
described before, and remarks that it appeared as if ])roduced by a lunar atmosphere 
refracting the light of the sun ; but the rapid transit of flying clouds prevented any 
very accurate observations. It was seen with a telescope of low power. Perhaps 
this was the same with the blaze of light described by Major Lysaght. 



On those Variations of the Force and the Direction of the Terrestrial Mag- 
netism lohich seem to depend on the Aurora Borealis. By Dr. Siljestrom. 

The author stated, from observations made in Finmarken, at about 70° north 
latitude, that in the course of an aurora borealis there are two magnetical periods 
to be discerned, in both of which the disturbances are going on in a quite opposite 
way, so as to increase and decrease successively the different magnetical elements. 
He stated also that the simultaneous variations of these elements, with few excep- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 5 

tional cases, are following that simple law, that while the intensity and the western 
declination increase, the inclination decreases. In respect to the variations of the 
luminous phsenomenon itself, he had only been able to ascertain that during the first 
of the above periods the aurora borealis was in general exclusively seen in the north- 
ern part of the heaven, while during the second period it extended itself more to the 
south, so that the magnetical variations before mentioned seem to be accompanied by 
a translation of the light from north to south. 



On a Difficulty in the Theory of Light. By G. G. Stokes, M.A. 

The distinction between' common light and elliptically polarized light is fully 
accounted for, on the undulatory theory, by the very natural supposition that in 
common light the mode of vibration changes a great many times in the course of 
one second ; so that even in a very small fraction of a second there is, on the ave- 
rage, as much light polarized in one way as there is light polarized in the opposite 
way. So unlikely does it seem that this should not be the case, when we consider 
the enormous number of vibrations which take place in one second, that, as the 
author contended, it would be a most serious difficulty in the way of the undulatory 
theory if common light exhibited the rings in crystals, or any of the peculiar 
phaenomena exhibited by elliptically polarized light. It had however been thought 
necessary, in order to account for the phsenomena, to suppose that the mode of 
vibration passed abruptly from one thing to the other. This abruptness of transition 
was the "difficulty" alluded to in the title; and the author contended that there 
was no occasion to suppose any such abruptness to exist. In fact, the apparent ne- 
cessity for the supposition of an abrupt transition appears to have arisen from find- 
ing that common light could not be represented by supposing the particles to move 
in ellipses the major axes of which slowly revolve. But such a mode of vibration re- 
sults from the superposition of two series of vibrations, of nearly equal length of wave 
but of unequal intensity, belonging respectively to right-handed and to left-handed 
circularly polarized light. Hence such a mode of vibration is not a fair representa- 
tion of common light, the very notion of which imphes that it contains as much of 
any one kind of polarized light as of the opposite. 



On the Refraction of Light beyond the Critical Angle. 
By G. G. Stokes, M.A. 

The principal object of the author in this communication was to give an expres- 
sion, obtained from the undulatory theory of light, for the intensity of the central 
spot of Newton's rings, when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle. It 
has been shown by those who have treated the subject of reflexion and refraction 
dynamically, that when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle, the expres- 
sion for the disturbance in the second medium contains an exponential, involving 
the co-ordinate perpendicular to the surface, so that the disturbance is insensible at 
a distance from the surface of a small multiple of X the length of a wave. The ex- 
pressions for this superficial disturbance have not, however, so far as the author is 
aj\'are, been hitherto applied to the explanation of anj' phsenomenon, although the 
existence of the central spot in Newton's rings beyond the critical angle has been 
unhesitatingly attributed to this cause by Dr. Lloyd, in his Report on Physical Optics. 
The author has not entered into any particular dynamical theory, but has preferred 
deducing his results from Fresnel's expressions for the intensity of reflected and 
refracted polarized light, which, except perhaps in the case of very highly refracting 
substances, are at least a very near approximation to the truth. The method 
employed does not even render it necessary to enter into the question, whether the 
vibrations of plane polarized light are in or perpendicular to the plane of polarization. 
When the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle, Fresnel's expressions become 
imaginary ; and by reasoning similar to that employed by Mr. O'Brien in interpreting 
those expressions in the case of reflected light, the author has arrived at the follow- 
ing simple rule, which embraces all cases. 

Let X be measured along the reflecting surface, y perpendicular to that sur- 



6 REPORT — 1848. 

face, and directed into the first medium, both being measured parallel to the plane 
of incidence ; and let the expression for the vibration be put under the form 

«sin— ^ (sin i .x -^ cos i .y -\- v i), fisin^ — (s\ni. x — cosi.y + vt), or 



sin — ^ f^ — [sin i' .x -\- cos »'. y] +vt). 



according as the incident, reflected or refracted vibration is considered. Whenever 

the coefficient of vibration becomes imaginar}^ put it under the form qi ^~', retain 
the modulus j for the coefficient, and subtract & from the phase. Whenever the coeffi- 
cient of y under the circular function becomes imaginary, and equal to + A; V i^ 

remove y from the circular function and multiply by the exponential s ^. 

This rule having been established, the calculation of the intensity presents no 
difficulty. If I be the intensity of the reflected light, that of the incident light being 
unity, it is found that 

l^ (1-9)' 

In this expression it is supposed that the two media between which the spot is 
formed are of the same kind, and that the incident light is polarized, either in the 
plane of incidence, or in a plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence : q is the 

_irE^^2sin2i_l 

same in the two cases, being equal to e ^ , where T is the thickness 

of the plate of air at the point considered ; but 6 is different, being equal to ^i in the 
former case, and ^2 'n the latter, where 

^tan^i = — tan^2=secjA / /n^am^i—l. 
fc V 

When the vibrations take place in the plane of incidence, it would be necessary to 
consider separately the resolved parts of the vibration parallel to x and parallel to y ; 
but the same expression would have been obtained for I if this consideration had 
been neglected. It is unnecessary to write down the expression for the intensity of 
the transmitted light, since the sum of the two intensities is equal to unity. For 
this reason it will be sufficient to discuss the intensity of the reflected light. 

From the expression for I the author has deduced the following consequences : 

1 . At the point of contact T = ; and on receding from that point T varies as »•", 
r being the radius vector measured from the point of contact. Hence at the point 
of contact there is absolute darkness ; en receding from that point the intensity in- 
creases, at first very slowly, varying ultimately as »•'', so that for some distance round 
the centre the darkness is as to sense perfect ; then the intensity increases more 
rapidly, and then it very rapidly approaches its limiting value 1. This agrees with 
observation. 

2. For different colours, the same fraction of the incident light is reflected at 
points for which r varies as a/ ?i. Hence the spot is larger for red light than for violet ; 
but the separation of colours is small. This agrees with observation. 

3. When the angle of incidence lies between the critical angle and the angle 

sin~^ ( Y, the spot is larger for light polarized in a plane perpendicular to 

\1 + fi'/ 

the plane of incidence than for light polarized in the plane of incidence ; while be- 
tween the latter angle and 90° the reverse is the case. This difference of size agrees 
with observation, but it is impossible to say at what angle the change takes place. 

4. Suppose the internally incident light polarized at an azimuth of 45°, or there- 
abouts ; and let the transmitted light be analysed so as to darken the centre of ttie 
spot ; then a faint ring of light ought to be seen separating the dark centre from the 
generally dark field of view. This ring ought to be slightly bluish inside and reddish 
or brownish outside. The author has not tried this experiment. 



TRANSACTIONS OF TUB SECTIONS. J 

On the Perfect Blackness of the Centre of Newton's Rings. 
Bxj G. G.' Stokes, M.A. 

The absence of all reflected light at the ceatre of Newton's rings, when formed 
between tvvo lenses of the same substance, was explained long ago by Frcsncl, by 
the aid of a law discovered experimentally by M. Arago, that light is reflected in 
the same proportion at the first and second surfaces of a transparent plate bounded 
by parallel surfaces. It occurred to the author that this law might be obtained very 
simply from theory, by means of what may be called the jsn'ncipZe of reversion. By 
this is meant the general dynamical principle, that if in any material system, in 
which the forces depend only on the positions of the particles, the velocity of each 
particle be suddenly reversed, the previous motion will be repeated in the reverse 
direction. It follows from this principle, that in the case of a series of waves of 
light incident on the surface of an ordinary medium, and producing a series of re- 
flected, and a series of refracted waves, if the vibrations in the reflected and refracted 
series be reversed, the incident series will be produced, only in a reverse direction. 
But the reflected and refracted series, when reversed, would each produce a series 
of reflected, and a series of refracted waves ; and it follows from the principle of 
superposition, that, of these four series, the two which are situated within the medium 
must neutralize each other, and the two which are situated outside of the medium 
must together produce the incident series reversed. Two equations are thus ob- 
tained, whereby the perfect blackness of the centre of Newton's rings is explained. 
These equations are those which are written in Airy's Tract &= — e, cf=:l — e^. 
The detail of this method will soon appear in the Cambridge and Dublin Mathe- 
matical Journal. 

On the Resistance of the Air to Pendulums. Ry G. G. Stokes, M.A. 

There are a few cases in which the resistance of a fluid to a pendulum oscillating 
in it have been calculated on the common theory of hydrodynamics, in which the 
pressure is supposed equal in all directions. The results in the cases of a sphere and 
of a long cylindrical rod are very simple, and may be expressed by saying that the 
mass of the pendulum must be conceived to be increased in the former case by 
the half, and in the latter by the whole of the fluid displaced ; this additional mass 
increasing the inertia of the pendulum without increasing its weight. These results 
agree very nearly with Dubuat's experiments on spheres oscillating in air, Dubuat 
having employed spheres of large diameter, and with Baily's experiments on cylin- 
drical tubes of H inch diameter. With smaller spheres and thinner rods, however, 
the results no longer agree with experiment, as appears from the experiments of 
Bessel and Baily, the discrepancy being so much the greater as the diameter of the 
sphere or rod is the smaller. The author stated that he had solved the problem 
in the cases of a sphere and of a cylindrical rod, using instead of the common 
equations of hydrodynamics the equations which he had given in the 8th volume 
of the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions, and which had been previously ob- 
tained, by difi^erent methods, by Navier, by Poisson, and by M. de Saint- Venant. 
The result in the case of the sphere is very simple, although the function which 
expresses the state of motion of each particle of the fluid is rather complicated. It 
appears that the effect on the time of oscillation will be obtained by conceiving a 

mass equal to ( 1- — s ) ?» to be added to the mass of the sphere, m being the 

mass of fluid displaced, ands =""a / -^, o being the radius of the sphere, t the 

" V '^f 
time of oscillation, ^ the densit)% and (x. the constant so denoted in the author's 
paper referred to above. This constant must be determined by experiment for each 
fluid in particular, and even for the same fluid at difl^erent temperatures, since it 
probably decreases as the temperature increases. Besides the effect on the time of 
oscillation, the arc of oscillation slowly decreases, the expression for the decrement 

9 
of the arc mvolvmg the quantity — s (1 + s) m. 

The result in the case of the cylinder is much more complicated, and requires the 
numerical calculation of functions belonging to this particular problem. The author 



8 REPORT — 1848. 

has expressed the effect on the time and arc of oscillation by means of ascending 
series, which are always convergent. The result involves the remarkable trans- 
cendent T' (—J ,T' (n) being the derivative of T (n). The author has also ob- 
tained a descending series, which is much more convenient for numerical calcula- 
tion when the diameter of the cylinder is large. It appears from theory that the 
factor which Baiiy has denoted by n increases indefinitely as the radius of the 
cylinder decreases : the mass of air which must be conceived to be dragged by the 
cylinder decreases, but very slowly, varying ultimately as the square of the reci- 
procal of the logarithm of a quantity which varies as the time of oscillation divided 
by the square of the radius of the cylinder. 

The diameters of the cylindrical rods employed by Baily were '410, "185 and 
•072 inch ; and the corresponding values of n, which according to the common 
theory of hydrodynamics ought to be equal to 2, were 2"932, 4"083, and 7*530. 
Each of these results furnishes an equation for the determination of ft, or rather of 

i / — , which is what enters into the calculation ; and the three results concurred 

in giving to the latter quantity a value lying between "ll and '12, an inch and a 
second being the units of space and time. The value "ll satisfied very nearly the 
experiments on spheres suspended by fine wires ; the effect of the wire, which on 
this theory is not quite insensible, being taken into account, and a small correction, 
estimated at half the correction calculated for a spherical envelope of the same 
radius, being made for the finite size of the hollow cylinder within which the spheres 
were swung. 

On the Equilibrium of Magnetic or Diamagnetic Bodies of cmy Form, under 
the Lifluence of the Terrestrial Magnetic Force. By Prof. W. Thomson. 

If a body composed of a magnetic substance, such as soft iron, or of a diamag- 
netic substance, be supported by its centre of gravity, the efi'ects of the terrestrial 
magnetic force in producing magnetism bj'' induction, and in acting on the magnetism 
so developed, are in general such as to impress a certain directive tendency on the 
mass. The investigation of these circumstances leads to results according to which 
the conditions of equilibrium of a body of any irregular form may be expressed in a 
very elegant and simple manner. 

In the present communication I shall merely give a brief general explanation of 
the conclusions at which I have arrived, without attempting to state fully the pro- 
cess of reasoning on which they are founded, as this could not be rendered intelli- 
gible without entering upon mathematical details, which must be reserved for a 
paper of greater length. 

In the first place, if the body considered be an ellipsoid of homogeneous matter, 
supported by its centre of gravity, it is clear that it will be in equilibrium with any 
one of its three principal axes in the direction of the lines of force ; and if it be put 
into any other position, the action of the earth upon it will be a couple, of which 
the moment may be expressed very simply in terms of the quantities denoting the 
position of the axes with reference to the direction of the terrestrial force, and cer- 
tain constant magnetic elements depending on the substance and dimensions of the 
body. ' 

In considering the corresponding problem for a body of any irregular form, we 
readily obtain for the components of the directive couple, round three rectangular 
axes chosen arbitrarily in the body, expressions involving nine constant magnetic 
elements. I have succeeded in proving that six of these elements must be equal, 
two and two ; so that the entire number of independent constants is reduced to six. 
I have thus arrived at the interesting theorem, that there are, in any irregular body, 
three principal magnetic axes at right angles to one another, such that if the body be 
supported by its centre of gravity, it will be in equilibrium with any one of these 
axes in the direction of the terrestrial magnetic force. If the body be held in any 
other position, there will be a directive couple of which the moment is expressible 
in precisely the same form as in the case of an ellipsoid, in terms of the magnetic 
elements of the body, and of the quantities denoting its position. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 9 

From this it follows, that, as far as regards the directive action of terrestrial mag- 
netism, the ellipsoid with three unequal axes may be taken as the general type for a 
body of any form whatever. 

Besides other special cases of interest, to which it is unnecessary for me at present 
to call attention, on account of the close analogy which is presented by the well- 
known theory of principal axes in dynamics, there is one to which I shall allude, on 
account of its importance with reference to the general principles on which the di- 
rective agency depends. If the body considered be a cube, the three principal mag- 
netic elements will be equal, and therefore the corresponding ellipsoid must have 
its three axes equal ; that is, it must be a sphere. Hence a cube supported by its 
centre of gravity cannot experience any directive tendency, and will therefore be 
astatic. 

Now a mass of any form may be divided into an infinite number of small cubes, 
and the resultant of the actual directive couples on all of these cubes will determine 
the directive tendency of the whole mass. Hence if each small cube were acted 
upon only by the terrestrial magnetic force, there would be no directive agency on 
the body ; and it is to the modification of the circumstances introduced by the 
mutual action of the different parts of the body that we must ascribe the directive 
tendency which is actually experienced, in general by irregular, but especially by 
elongated masses. This modification is distinctly alluded to by Mr. Faradaj' in his 
memoir on the General Magnetic Condition of Matter (Experimental Researches, 
§ 2264), and the directive tendency which he has observed in needles of diamag- 
netic substances is shown to depend on essentially different physical circumstances 
(§§ 2269, 2418) connected with the variation of the total intensity of the resultant 
magnetic force in the neighbourhood of the poles of a magnet, and quite independent 
of the actual directions of the lines of force. A mathematical investigation of the 
circumstances on which these phsenomena depend will be found in the Cambridge 
and Dublin Mathematical Journal (May 1847'). 

From the principles alluded to above, we may draw the following general conclu- 
sions with reference to the action experienced by a body subjected to magnetic in- 
fluence when the intensity of the magnetizing force is constant in its neighbourhood. 

1. The directive tendency on a diamagnetic substance of any form must be ex- 
tremely small, probably quite insensible in any actual experiment that can be made ; 
depending as it does upon the mutual action of the parts of the body which are 
primarily influenced to but a very feeble extent in the case of every known diamag- 
netic. 

2. An elongated body, whether of a magnetic or of a diamagnetic substance, will 
tend to place itself in the direction of the lines of force ; so that, for instance, either 
a bar of soft iron, or a diamagnetic bar, supported by its centre of gravity, would, 
if perfectly free, assume the position of the dipping-needle. 



On the Theory of Electro-magnetic Induction. By Prof. W. Thomson. 

The theory of electro-magnetic induction, founded on the elementary experiments 
of Faraday and Lenz, has been subjected to mathematical analysis by Neumann, 
who has recently laid some very valuable i-esearches on this subject before the Ber- 
lin Academy of Sciences. The case of a closed linear conductor (a bent metallic 
wire with its ends joined) under the influence of a magnet in a state of relative 
motion is considered in Neumann's first memoir *, and a very beautiful theorem is 
demonstrated, completely expressing the circumstances which determine the inten- 
sity of the induced current. It has appeared to me that a very simple a priori de- 
monstration of this theorem may be founded on the axiom that the amount of work 
expended in producing the relative motion on which the electro-magnetic induction 
depends must be equivalent to the mechanical effect lost by the current induced in 
the wire. 

In the first place, it may be proved that the amount of the mechanical effect con- 
tinually lost or spent in some physical agency (according to Joule the generation 
of heat) during the existence of a galvanic current in a given closed wire is, for a 

* A translation of this memoir into French is published in the last April number of Liou- 
ville's Journal des Mathematiques. 



10 REPORT — 1848. 

given time, proportional to the square of the intensity of the current. For, what- 
ever be the actual source of the galvanism, an equivalent current might be produced 
by the motion of a magnetic body in the neighbourhood of the closed wire. If now, 
other circumstances remaining the same, the intensity of the magnetism in the in- 
fluencing body be altered in any ratio, the intensity of the induced current must be 
proportionately changed ; hence the amount of work spent in the motion, as it de- 
pends on the mutual influence of the magnet and the induced current, is altered in 
the duplicate ratio of that in which the current is altered ; and therefore the amount 
of mechanical eftect lost in the wire, being equivalent to the work spent in the mo- 
tion, must be proportional to the square of the intensity of the current. Hence if i 
denote the intensity of a current existing in a closed conductor, the amount of work 
lost by its existence for an interval of time dt, so small that the intensity of the cur- 
rent remains sensibly constant during it, will be k .f . dt; where yfc is a certain con- 
stant depending on the resistance of the complete wire. 

Let us now suppose this current to be actually produced by induction in the wire, 
under the influence of a magnetic body in a state of relative motion. The entire 
mutual force between the magnetic and the galvanic wire may, according to Am- 
pere's theory, be expressed by means of the differential coefficients of a certain 
"force function." This function, which may be denoted by U, will be a quantity 
depending solely on the form and position of the wire at any instant, and on the 
magnetism of the influencing body. During the very small time dt, let U change 
from U to U + rfU, by the relative motion which takes place during that interval. 
Then i d\J will be the amount of work spent in sustaining the motion ; but the 
mechanical effect lost in the wire during the same interval is equal to k f dt ; and 
therefore we must have 

i d\J=^Jci'dt. 

Hence, dividing both members by k i dt, we deduce 

•— i. £H 

*~ k ' dt' 

which expresses the theorem of Neumann, the subject of the present communica- 
tion. We may enunciate the result in general language thus : — 

When a current is induced in a closed wire by a magnet in relative motion, the 
intensity of the current produced is proportional to the actual rate of variation of 
the "force function" by the differential coefficients of which the mutual action 
between the magnet and the wire would be represented if the intensity of the cur- 
rent in the wire were unity. 

On a means of determining the apparent Solar Time hy the Diurnal Changes 
of the Plane of Polarization at the North Pole of the Shy. By Professor 
Wheatstone, F.R.S. 

" A short time after the important discovery by Malus of the polarization of light 
by reflexion, it was ascertained by Arago that the light reflected from different parts 
of the sky was polarized. The observation was made in clear weather with the aid 
of a thin film of mica and a prism of Iceland spar ; he saw that the two images 
projected on the sky were in general of dissimilar colours, which appeared to vary 
in intensity with the hour of the day and with the position, in relation to the sun, 
of the part of the sky from which the rays fell upon the film. The first attempt to 
assign a law to the phsenomena of atmospheric polarization was made by Professor 
Queteletof Brussels in 1825 in the following terms : — ' If the observer consider him- 
self as placed in the centre of a sphere of which the sun occupies one of the poles 
the polarization is at its maximum at the different points of the equator of this sphere, 
and goes on diminishing in the ratio of the squares of the sines unto the poles where 
it is at zero.' This law would be true did the reflected light proceeding from the 
part of the sky regarded arise solely from the direct light of the sun sent to that part ; 
but other secondary reflexions occur which complicate the result and give rise to 
the neutral points since discovered by Arago, Babinet and Brewster. But for the 
purpose of explaining the principle of the instrument now submitted to the examina- 
tion of the Section, we need not take into consideration the intensity of the polar- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 11 

ization of the part of the sky to which it is directed; the plane of polarization for 
the time being is the only thing we need concern ourselves about, and a very simple 
expression, stated first I believe by M. Babinet, defines the position of this plane 
for any given point of the sky ; it is this : ' For a given point of the atmosjjhere 
the plane of polarization of the portion of polarized light which it sends to the eye 
coincides with the plane which passes through this point, the eye of the observer 
and the sun.' The truth of this law may be easily demonstrated without any 
refined apparatus in the following manner : — Let the observer be provided with a 
Nicol's prism and a plate of Iceland spar cut perpendicularly to the axis, and stand 
with his back towards the sun ; keeping the diagonal of the prism always in the 
same vertical plane, let him direct it successively to every point of the sky within 
that plane ; the intensity of the polarization indicated by the brightness of the 
coloured image will vary very considerably at these different points, but the plane 
of polarization indicated by the upright position of the black or white cross, as the 
case may be, will remain unchanged. I leave out of consideration for the present 
the inversion of the plane of polarization observed occasionally near the horizon 
below the neutral point. 

" If we direct our analysing apparatus to the zenith during the whole day, the 
change in the plane of polarization of that point of the sky will correspond with the 
azimuths of the sun. Let us now turn our attention to the north pole of the sky : 
as the sun in its apparent daily course moves equably in a circle round this pole, it 
is obvious that the planes of polarization at the point in question change exactly as 
the position of the hour-circles do. The position of the plane of polarization of the 
north pole of the sky will at any period of the day therefore indicate the apparent 
or true solar time. The point of intersection of the hour-circles, or the north pole 
of the sky, corresponds on only two days of the year with the maximum intensity 
of polarization ; these days are the equinoxes ; on all other days the points of max- 
imum polarization of the respective hour-circles describe a circle round the point of 
intersection ; but the angular distance thereof, which is greatest at the solstices, 
never exceeding 23° 28', the polarization has always sufficient intensity to exhibit 
brilliant colours in films of selenite, &c. 

" These points being premised, I proceed to describe the new instrument, which I 
have called the Polar Clock or Dial. It is thus constructed. At the extremity of a 
vertical pillar is fixed, within a brass ring, a glass disc, so inclined that its plane is 
perpendicular to the polar axis of the earth. On the lower half of this disc is a 
graduated semicircle divided into twelve parts (each of which is again subdivided 
into five or ten parts), and against the divisions the hours of the day are marked, 
commencing and terminating with vi. Within the fixed brass ring containing the 
glass dial-plate, the broad end of a conical tube is so fitted that it freely moves round 
its own axis ; this broad end is closed by another glass disc, in the centre of which 
is a small star or other figure, formed of thin films of selenite, exhibiting when 
examined with polarized light strongly contrasting colours ; and a hand is painted 
in such a position as to be a prolongation of one of the principal sections of the 
crystalline films. At the smaller end of the conical tube a Nicol's prism is fixed so 
that either of its diagonals shall be 45° from the principal section of the selenite 
films. The instrument being so fixed that the axis of the conical tube shall coincide 
with the polar axis of the earth, and the eye of the observer being placed to the 
Nicol's prism, it will be remarked that the selenite star will in general be richly 
coloured, but as the tube is turned on its axis the colours will vary in intensity, and 
in two positions will entirely disappear. Iii one of these positions a small circular 
disc in the centre of the star will be a certain colour (red for instance), while in the 
other position it will exhibit the complementary colour. This effect is obtained by 
placing the principal section of the small central disc 22^° from that of the other 
films of selenite which form the star. The rule to ascertain the time by this instru- 
ment is as follows : the tube must be turned round by the hand of the observer 
until the coloured star entirely disappears while the disc in the centre remains red ; 
the hand will then point accurately to the hour. The accuracy with which the solar 
time may be indicated by this means will depend on the exactness with which the 
plane of polarization can be determined ; one degree of change in the plane corre- 
sponds with four minutes of solar time. 



12 REPORT — 1848, 

" The instrument may be furnished with a graduated quadrant for the purpose of 
adapting it to any latitude ; but if it be intended to be fixed in any locality, it may 
be permanently adjusted to the proper polar elevation and the expense of the gradu- 
ated quadrant be saved: a spirit-level will be useful to adjust it accurately. The 
instrument might be set to its proper azimuth by the sun's shadow at noon, or by 
means of a declination needle ; but an observation with the instrument itself may be 
more readily employed for this purpose. Ascertain the true solar time by means of 
a good watch and a time equation table, set the hand of the polar clock to corre- 
spond thereto, and turn the vertical pillar on its axis until the colours of the selenite 
star entirely disappear. The instrument then will be properly adjusted. 

" The advantages a polar clock possesses over a sun-dial are, — 1st. The polar clock 
being constantly directed to the same point of the sky, there is no locality in which 
it cannot be employed, whereas, in order that the indications of a sun-dial should 
be observed during the whole day, no obstacle must exist at any time betvi'een the 
dial and the places of the sun, and it therefore cannot be applied in any confined 
situation. The polar clock is consequently applicable in places where a sun-dial 
would be of no avail ; on the north side of a mountain or of a lofty building for 
instance. 2ndly. It will continue to indicate the time after sunset and before sun- 
rise ; in fact, so long as any portion of the rays of the sun are reflected from the 
atmosphere. 3rdly. It will also indicate the time, but with less accuracy, when the 
sky is overcast, if the clouds do not exceed a certain density. 

" The plane of polarization of the north pole of the sky moves in the opposite di- 
rection to that of the hand of a watch ; it is more convenient therefore to have the 
hours graduated on the lower semicircle, for the figures will then be read in their 
direct order, whereas they would be read backwards on an upper semicircle. In the 
southern hemisphere the upper semicircle should be employed, for the plane of 
polarization of the south pole of the sky changes in the same direction as the hand 
of a watch. If both the upper and lower semicircles be graduated, the same instru- 
ment will serve equally for both hemispheres." 

Several other forms of the polar clock w^ere then described ; the following is a 
description of one among them, which, though much less accurate in its indications 
than the preceding, beautifully illustrates the principle. 

On a plate of glass twenty-five films of selenite of equal thickness are arranged 
at equal distances radially in a semicircle ; they are placed so that the line bisecting 
the principal sections of the films shall correspond with the radii respectively, and 
figures corresponding to the hours are painted above each film in regular order. This 
plate of glass is fixed in a frame so that its plane is inclined to the horizon 38° 32', the 
complement of the polar elevation ; the light passing perpendicularly through this 
plate falls at the polarizing angle 56° 45' on a reflector of black glass, which is inclined 
18° 13' to the horizon. This apparatus being properly adjusted, that is so that the 
glass dial-plate shall be perpendicular to the polar axis of the earth, the following 
will be the effects when presented towards an unclouded sky. At all times of the 
day the radii will appear of various shades of two complementary colours, which we 
will assume to be red and green, and the hour is indicated by the figure placed 
opposite the radius which contains the most red; the half-hour is indicated by the 
equality of two adjacent tints. 

071 rendering the Electric Telegraph subservient to Meteorological Research. 
By John Ball, M.R.LA. 

What is popularly termed the weather is a general expression for the physical 
condition of the atmosphere with reference to heat, pressure, moisture, and the ve- 
locity and direction of its motion. Two classes of causes determine these conditions 
at any given point of the earth's surface. The first class maj' for short periods of 
time be considered as constants, depending on the position of the point of observa- 
tion on the globe and the physical conformation of the adjoining district. The 
second class, upon which the proverbial uncertainty of the weather depends, arise 
from the influence exerted by each portion of the atmosphere upon those surround- 
ing it, by virtue of which a disturbance of equilibrium at any one point is rapidly 
propagated in all directions. In common language this is expressed by saying that 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 13 

the direction of the wind is at once the cause and the indication of changes of the 
weather. However far we may be from a general solution of the problem of atmo- 
spheric disturbances, meteorologists have made considerable progress in tracing the 
connection between successive states of the weather, owing to the mutual influence 
of contiguous portions of the atmosphere. These cases have been studied a posteriori, 
comparing the known results with observations extending over considerable areas. 
Now that we have the means of receiving information in an indefinitely short space 
of time by the Electric Telegraph, these problems, under favourable circumstances, 
may be studied a i^riori. In London we may receive instantaneous intelligence of 
the condition of the atmosphere, as to the five above-mentioned elements, from 
nearly all the extremities of Great Britain. With a delay of about four hours we 
can have similar intelligence from the western part of Ireland, and with a still 
shorter delay our communications may extend to the centre of France, the banks of 
the Rhine, and even to the frontiers of Hungary and Poland. 

I do not pretend to say that with such elements for calculation we should at once 
be enabled to predict changes in the weather with absolute certainty. It would re- 
quire some time to eliminate the action of accidental and local causes at particular 
stations ; but there is no reason to doubt that in a short time the determinations 
thus arrived at would possess a high degree of probability. The ordinary rate at 
which atmoispheric disturbances are propagated does not seem to exceed twenty miles 
per hour ; so that with a circle of stations extending about 500 miles in each direc- 
tion, we should in almost all cases be enabled to calculate on the state of the wea- 
ther for twenty-four hours in advance. 

Description of a Neio Instrument for observing the Apparent Positions of 
Meteors. By the Rev. J. Challis, M.A., F.R.S., Plumian Professor of 
Astronomy at the University of Cambridge (in a Letter to the Assistant 
General Secretary'). 

Having had occasion to make use of observations of auroral arches and coronse, 
and other meteoric phsenomena, I have seen the desirableness of noting the posi- 
tions by instrumental means, rather than trusting to vague estimation and reference 
to stars. Accordingly I have had a brass instrument constructed for me by Mr. 
Simms, Fleet Street, London, which may possibly answer this purpose in some 
degree. I propose to call it a Mefeoroscope. It is in principle an altitude and 
azimuth instrument, in the form of a theodolite, having a horizontal circle graduated 
from 0° to 360°, and a vertical arc graduated from 0° to 120°, each about 4 inches 
in radius. The vertical arc is readily moveable about a vertical axis passing through 
the centre of the horizontal circle, and instead of having a telescope, which would 
be inapplicable to, the class of observations proposed to be taken, it carries a bar 
18 inches long, having' a small rectangular plate at each end. One of these plates 
is perforated by a circular hole one-sixth of an inch in diameter, through which the 
object is viewed, and the other has its edges vertical and horizontal, the observation 
of altitude being made by bringing the horizontal edge, and the observation of azi- 
muth by bringing the vertical edge, to bisect the object. Both observations are 
made at the same time by placing the angular point in apparent coincidence with the 
object. The eyelet-hole should not be less than the pupil of the eye when 'dilated, 
that there may be as little loss of light as possible. No parallax of serious amount 
will arise from the size of the hole, as it is always easy to judge when the centre of 
the pupil and that of the hole are nearly coincident. The bar is moveable about a 
horizontal axis passing through the centre, and perpendicular to the plane of 
the vertical arc, and is carried by a radius so that the direction of its length is a 
tangent to the arc. The direction of the radius is somewhat oblique to that of the 
bar, in order that the line of collimation may pass the zenith about 20° when the 
radius is brought to a horizontal position. For the same reason the centre of mo- 
tion of the bar is elevated about an inch and a half above the plane of the azimuth 
circle. For the purpose of viewing conveniently an object near the zenith, the 
plate at the eye- end of the bar has a small silvered glass reflector inclined at an 
angle of 45° to the plane of the plate, and adjustibleby a screw. The object is seen 
by reflexion in a direction perpendicular to the line of collimation, through another 



14 REPORT — 1848. 

eyelet-hole made in a small plate attached for this purpose. The reflector is pro- 
perly adjusted when a star is seen in coincidence with the left-hand angular point 
of the plate at the opposite end of the bar, at the same time that it is seen by direct 
vision through the other eyelet-hole in coincidence with the right-hand angular 
point. There are two clamps, one for clamping the bar to the vertical arc, and the 
other for clamping the vertical arc to the azimuthal circle. The latter may be held 
by the right-hand to give the azimuthal movement, and at the same time to be 
in readiness to clamp, while the bar is held by the left-hand for aiming. When 
the bar is not clamped to the vertical arc, it is prevented slipping partly by a spring 
and partly by a counterpoise. There are verniers to read off azimuths and altitudes 
to single minutes, and the vertical arc carries a small spirit-level for the horizontal 
adjustment. The instrument has a tripod support, with three screws for adjusting 
horizontally, and when in use is placed on a wooden stand, to the upper surface of 
which are fastened three brass Ys. The feet of the screws are placed in these Ys, 
and thus the instrument is put expeditiously in a given position. When not in use, 
it is kept under cover near the stand. 

On very dark nights the edges of the plate at the object-end of the bar were seen 
with difficulty. To remedy this inconvenience the face of the plate turned towards 
the eye was painted white, after which the light from a lamp at a considerable 
distance made it sufficiently visible. In general the luminosity of the sky makes 
the plate appear dark on a light ground. 

It is proposed to employ the meteoroscope in measuring the positions of arches 
and coronse of the Aurora Borealis, the dimensions and position at different times 
of the year of the Zodiacal Light, and the points of first appearance and disappear- 
ance of meteors and shooting stars. Several of these observations, to be of any 
value, require to be made simultaneously at different localities, and with the same 
degree of precision. It seems to me surprising that meteorologists have not hitherto 
provided themselves with instruments like that I have been describing ; manj' obser- 
vations of meteors having been comparatively useless on account of want of accu- 
racy. 1 consider that with care the altitude of a star may be measured by this 
instrument with a probable error of two minutes, and that it is abundantly accurate 
for the purposes to which it is proposed to apply it. In any case in which it is 
employed it is advisable to take the altitude and azimuth of a known star at a noted 
time near the place of the meteor, in order to eliminate index errors and errors of 
adjustment. 

Cambridge Observatory, August 9, 1848. 



On a Self-Registering Thermometer. 
By Mansfield Harrison (in a letter to Professor Phillips). 

The principle on which the instrument is constructed is the difference in the ex- 
pansion and contraction of two metals, from the effects of heat and cold, and 
it acts by the direct pull of the contracting metal, when it is kept in a perfectly 
straight line. It is made sufficiently powerful to overcome anj' resistance which 
the fulcra of the levers or the tracing-pencil may cause. I have selected cast iron 
and hard rolled copper as the best suited for the purpose. I find from tables pub- 
lished by Smeaton and others, that copper expands -s^^-jth of its length, while cast 
iron only expands -g-^oth, with a variation of 180° of Fahrenheit's thermometer, 
which leaves a difference of about the TaViyth of its length ; and as the range of the 
thermometer in the shade in this climate is about 90°, or half of 180°, I have the 
a-sVcjth part of the length of the copper bar employed as a moving power. I fixed 
upon a bar 10 feet long as being a convenient length ; the two metals will then vary 
nearly the one-and-twentieth part of an inch between the hottest day in summer 
and the coldest day in winter. This variation I multiply by means of a compound 
lever, so as to get a sufficient scale to divide. The end of the last lever carries a 
pencil which traces upon a revolving cylinder the variations that take place. In 
order to divide the scale accurately, I procured a standard thermometer by Trough- 
ton and Simms ; I placed it in the same situation, and made several observations in 
the day, for some weeks, in the spring of the year, when the range of the thermo- 
meter is the greatest. After I had got the scale propeily divided, I engraved it on 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 



15 



a plate of copper, in order to get a number of copies printed. The only attendance 
the instrument now requires, is to put a fresh paper upon the cylinder, by means of 
stretching-screws fixed on one side of it, once a week, when I wind the time-piece up. 




Tabulated results for the year 1847, taken from tracings hy the instrument described. 

General mean of whole year 47'89 

January 36-61 

April ' 44-13 

July 61-80 

... ... October 49-35 

Highest single observation, 1st of August 80-00 

Lowest single observation, 13th of February ... 22-00 
A, copper bar, one inch in diameter and ten feet long. B, cast iron trough, to 



16 REPORT — 1848. 

which the copper bar is made fast at the bottom. C, brass cap soldered fast to the 
copper bar, with knife-edges on the under side, which rest on the tubular end of 
the first lever D ; its fulcrum rests on the upper end of the cast iron trough B. 

E, flanges to bolt the trough to the outer side of a wall, near the angle of a room. 

F, part of the cast iron trough which passes through the wall into the room, carrying 
the fulcrum of the second lever I, and to which the revolving cylinder G is fixed. 
H, a weight to keep the first lever D steady on its bearings, and to counterpoise the 
second lever I. K, tracing-pencil. L, a screw working in the edge of the wheel M, 
and coupled to the minute-hand of the time-piece, making one revolution in an hour ; 
the wheel M is fixed to the axis of the cylinder, and has 102 threads cut in its edge, 
and would make one revolution in eight days. N, a binding-screw to adjust the 
pencil to the proper hour- line, when a fresh paper is put on once a week. O, brass 
rings, made fast to the cast iron trough, to keep the copper bar steady, but through 
which it can move ; the dotted line shows the side of the iron trough. 



Comparative Temperature Table, showing the daily average height of the 
Thermometer; at Jersey, in 49° 11™ N. ; at Torquay, 50° 30™ N. ; 
Hastings, 50° 52™ N.; and Lo7idoti, 51" 30™ N. By J. W. Childers. 
Daily Mean Temperature. 



1848. 


Jersey. 


Torquay. 


Hastings, 


London. 


July 1. .. 


... 55-2 ... 


... 55-5 .. 




... 52-5 


9 


... 58-0 ... 


... 58-0 .. 




... 59-0 


„ 3. .. 


... 63-0 ... 


... 59-5 .. 




... 59-5 


„ 4. .. 


... COv ... 


... 62-5 ., 




... 60-5 


» 5. .. 


... 67-0 ... 


... 620 .. 


g 


... 66-0 


,. 6. .. 


... 710 ... 


... 63-0 .. 


3 


... 73-5 


,. 7. .. 


... 62-0 ... 


... 61-0 .. 


p^ 


... 62-5 


„ 8. .. 


... 60-0 ... 


... 60-0 .. 


o 


... 60-5 


» 9- .. 


... 61-3 .. 


... 60-5 .. 


... ^ ... 


... 600 


„ 10. .. 


... 60-7 .. 


... 63-5 .. 




... 59-5 


„ 11. .. 


... 61-0 .. 


... 650 .. 




... 600 


„ 12. .. 


... 62-0 .. 


... 68-5 .. 




... 64-5 


„ 13. .. 


... 63-7 .. 


... 67-5 .. 


... 71-0 ... 


... 67-0 


„ 14. .. 


... 64-2 .. 


... 62-0 .. 


... 72-5 ... 


... 73-5 


„ 15. .. 


... 63-0 .. 


... 62-0 .. 


... 59-0 ... 


... 56-0 


„ 16. .. 


... 600 .. 


... 65-5 .. 


... 630 ... 


... 63-5 


„ 17. .. 


... 62-7 .. 


... 63-0 .. 


... 71-5 ... 


... 61-5 


„ 18. .. 


.... 65-0 ... 


... 61-5 .. 


... 64-5 ... 


... 65-5 


„ 19. .. 


.... 647 .. 


... 59-5 .. 


... 67-0 ... 


... 66-5 


„ 20. .. 


.... 61-0 .. 


... 60-0 ,. 


... 62-0 .. 


... 58-0 


„ 21. .. 


.... 65-5 .. 


... 640 .. 


... 640 .. 


... 610 


„ 22. .. 


.... 650 .. 


... 60-5 .. 


... 67-5 .. 


... 69-0 


„ 23. .. 


.... 69-5 .. 


... 62-0 .. 


... 64-0 .. 


... 64-5 


„ 24. .. 


.... 60-3 .. 


... 62-5 .. 


... 670 ... 


... 62-0 


„ 25. .. 


.... 62-3 .. 


... 59-5 .. 


... 60'0 ... 


... 60-5 


„ 26. .. 


.... 64-3 .. 


... 59-5 .. 


... 63-0 .. 


... 59-0 


„ 27. .. 


.... 64-0 .. 


... 62-5 .. 


... 61-0 .. 


... 61-5 


„ 28. .. 


.... 63'2 .. 


... 64-5 .. 


... 62-5 .. 


... 63-0 


„ 29. .. 


.... 61-0 .. 


... 62-5 .. 


.... 64-5 .. 


... 64-0 


„ 30. .. 


.... 64-3 .. 


... 62-5 .. 


.... 66-0 .. 


... 65-5 


„ 31. .. 


.... 62'0 .. 


... 69-5 .. 


.... 64-5 .. 


... 61-5 




.... 62-5 .. 


... 61-3 .. 


... 64-0 ... 


... 62-7 


Highest ..... 


.... 78-0 .. 


... 750 .. 


.... 84-0 ... 


... 88-0 


Lowest 


.... 490 .. 


... 51-0 .. 


.... 47-0 .. 


... 37-0 








Mean 


... 63-5 ... 


... 63-0 .. 


... 65-5 ... 


... 61-5 


Range 


.... 29-0 .. 


... 23-0 .. 


... 37-0 .. 


... 490 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. l7 

By the foregoing table it appears that Jersey and Torquay have the most mode- 
rate temperature, the extremes being only 29° and 24°, whereas at Hastings and 
London they are 37° and 49° — not rising above 78° and 75° at the former, and as 
high as 84° and 86° at the latter, whereas at the latter two, the thermometer fell 
to 47° and 37° : at the former only to 49° and 51°. 

The highest temperature was reached at Jersey on the 6th, at Torquay on the 
15tb, at Hastings on the 17th, and in London on the 6th. The lowest, at Jersey, 
Torquay and London on the 1st, and at Hastings on the 15th. The barometrical 
pressure was very uneven in Jersey : the mercurial elevation varied from 30"475 to 
29'386, its greatest elevation being on the 13th; its greatest depression on the 24th. 
At Torquay, the greatest elevation was on the 12th, 30-404 ; the greatest depres- 
sion on the 20th, 29343. At Hastings, the elevation was 30-404 on the 13th, the 
depression, 29-365 on the 20th. In London, the greatest elevation was on the 
12th, 30-448 ; the greatest depression, 29*299, on the 20th. The mean pressures 
were — Jersey, 29-630 ; Torquay, 29*943 ; Hastings, 29-806, and London, 29-860 : 
showing that the unsettled state of the weather was caused by effects not indicated 
by the barometer. , 

Extracts from a Letter to Professor WHEATSTONEyy-o»J J.D. Hooker, M.D. 

Dearee, West Bank of Soane River, 
Main road to Benares, Feb. 15, 1848. 

" During our three days' stay at Cairo I made a few observations on the effects of 
the sun's rays on the soil, of the depth to which the heat penetrated, as also of the 
power of nocturnal radiation and thickness of soil through which the heat is ra- 
diated. In all these observations I find the great diflBculty to be in selecting a 
position where the instrument shall itself be screened from radiation. Limestone, 
sand and sandstone rock, in the desert, have all different temperatures, and, except 
a brisk wind be stirring, give very different results. At the great Pyramid I selected 
two stations, each I thought unexceptionable ; one at the N. face of the N.E. angle, 
the other at the W. face of the N.W. angle, and was mortified to find as much as 
5i° difference in the temperature, and several in the dew-point, &c. At each 
angle I shifted the instruments from one to the other face, with the same results. 
At the summit there was considerably more vapour in the atmosphere than at the 
base. The temperature of the two chambers agreed (78°). On the Desert, mid- 
way between Cairo and Suez, I found a little before sunrise, after a very cold night, 
the dewy surface to be cooled down to 44° (if in shade 47°), and the increase of 
temperature to be 1° an inch down to 10 inches ; similar soil on the previous and 
succeeding day was heated (at 3 p.m.) to about 80°, and the power of the sun's rays 
penetrated to more than that distance. 

" At Suez we embarked on board the Hon. Company's steam-frigate ' Moozuffer ' 
for Calcutta, and I observed three times a day the temperatures, dew-point, &c., but 
not the barometer, for my 'Newman's Portable' pumped so much as to render it 
impossible to observe within two-tenths of an inch ; this was owing to the great 
power of the engines. Some of the phsenomena are very curious. In the first 
place, the waters of this Gulf are salter than those of any other sea having a free 
communication with the greater oceans, and contains three-tenths more salt in an 
equal bulk than the Indian Ocean does. This high specific gravity decreases on 
the passage down to Mocha, where the increase is diminished to two-tenths, and 
suddenly to the usual standard of sea-water. My attention was first drawn to this 
by the chief engineer, with whom I conducted such experiments as the motion of 
the vessel allowed. During Ross's voyage I frequently examined the water (with 
Capt. R.), and whether from the various oceans we passed through, or different 
depths (down to 800 fathoms) in those oceans, always obtained a very constant 
quantity of salts. I also inquired about the waters of the Persian Gulf, and am 
assured' that they do not differ from that of the Indian Ocean. From the Straits of 
Bab-el Mandeb to Cape Comorin I perceived no difference. There are further three 
classes of winds in the Red Sea, very remarkable in their distribution. During all 
June, July, August and September a north wind prevails throughout the sea, pro- 
duced I suppose bv the heated continents of Arabia, and especially Africa ; and the 

1848. ■ c 



18 



REPORT — 1848. 



same wind continues all the year round from Suez to the Straits of Jubal, and with 
particular violence down the Gulf of Akabar. During the remainder of the year 
the winds in the middle part of the sea, from Jebbel-Teir, 15-30 to 19° or 20°'N., 
are light and variable. In the south part, again, from Jebbel-Teir to the Straits, 
the S.E wind is constant from October till May, increasing in violence as you ap- 
proach the Straits. This we experienced ourselves, for we carried N. and N.E. 
winds from Suez to lat. 20, variables from lat. 20 to Jebbel-Teir, and southerly from 
Jebbel-Teir to the Straits. I do not know how far the accompanyiug phienomena 
may account for the great saltness and well-known depression (below the level of 
the Mediterranean and of the Straits amounting, if I remember aright, to 35 odd 
feet) of the upper part of the sea ; my observations give the following results : — 





Mear air 
temp. 


Sea. 


Wet-bulb 
therm. 


Dew-point. 


Vapour in 
cubic feet. 


Calculated 
evaporation 


Suez to lat. 20° 


761 
81-6 
80-3 


78-0 
80-4 
760 


68-3 
745 
70-2 


641 
71-4 
650 


6-841 
8-478 
4-311 


1-56 
1-38 
2-61 


Lat. 20°, Jebbel Teir 

JebbelTeir to Straits 



" The perennial north wind of the upper portion may of itself reduce the level ; it 
is, further, a drier wind, and effects more evaporation from the surface than do the 
winds of the middle portion, at which it arrives loaded with vapour and increased 
in elasticity. Whatever evaporation takes place at the south portion again, during 
the dry south wind, may be compensated by an indraught from the Indian Ocean. 
The central portion again, during the same season, receives the loaded currents from 
either quarter, which its high temperature enables it to retain, its elasticity' being 
also very high. 

" Few other phcenomena of any importance occurred to me during the voyage, 
except a curious variety I suppose of the crepuscular arch, which I witnessed on two 
nights after leaving Madras roads. The first I saw on January 9th at 6j, while 
still in sight of land ; it lasted hardly a minute after I first caught it, and appeared 
like a broad lunar rainbow over the sun's position, and about 70° alt. On the 
following evening I looked out for it; we were some 150 miles on our course to 
Calcutta. At three-quarters of an hour after sunset a pale milk-white arch, with 
the faintest tinge of purple, appeared at 60° alt. It was about 8° broad, the north 
end rested on a very faint cirrhus, alt. 30° ; the southern descended lower, but did 
not reach the horizon ; its limits were not clearly defined ; it rose rapidly, and dis- 
appeared in about three or five minutes on reaching the zenith. The days had in 
both cases been very fine and clear, the sky at the time deep blue gray, with a 
peach-blossom tinge (for twilight) resting on a yellow horizon. This peach colour 
is a very common tropical sunset, and for delicacy of tint unequalled. At Aden, 
■where contrasted with the stern pitchy dark crags of that peninsula and deep blue 
of the ocean, it produced the finest sunset effect I ever witnessed." 

After describing some particulars of his instruments and methods of meteorolo- 
gical research, the author adds, — " I have twice had bores made of 3 and 4 feet at 
places 14' apart, and in both cases had a constant temperature of 72° for fifteen hours 
of afternoon and night ; but this alluvium is often too liard to lore with common tools ; 
it always takes six hours and six men to work the jumper. I guard the bulb with 
pith and sink it in a brass tube. The dryness of the upper plains we traversed is 
■wonderful during these N.W. winds. I have been very careful with the wet-bulb 
observations. Solar radiation is all but impracticable ; I persevere in the black bulb 
and wedge of glass photometer, made as you recommended by Darker. 

" Last night I saw the best-developed aurora I ever witnessed, taking brightness, 
extent of surface covered, and length and continuity of beams into account : never in 
Scotland, where I have se'en many, or the South Pole, w-here also they were frequent, 
have I seen one so altogether good as this. The moon spoiled it sadly, though its 
beams were brilliantly defined within 8° of her orb on each side. I send you the 
observations I took of it with a good quadrant and compass, from my first seeing 
it till it had nearly disappeared at midnight. I have also sent an account to be 
published in Calcutta, and hope it has attracted observation elsewhere. There is 
no change in the weather since, but much cirrhus since noon to-day, which is un- 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 19 

usual, though possibly owing to the hills we are now close to, and which are new 
features in our landscape. 

" Monday, Feb. 14. Barroon, East bank of Soane River, 9 p.m. Barom. 29'924 ; 
Atmos. temp. 58 ; Temp, air 62 ; Wet-bulb 51-5 ; Grass 53. Blue sky and clear 
horizon ; moon and stars clear ; milky way invisible ; zodiacal light invisible ; moon 
by photometer 3'07 inches (sun at 3 p.m. being 4'17 inches). 

" Observed the auroral arch well defined, 12° broad ; alt. of upper limb (best de- 
fined) 20°. Extremes bearing W. 20 S. and N. 50 E. Light, pale but bright, rest- 
ing on an arch no darker than sky at zenith. Beams crowded, from 20 to 30 
linear and lancet-shaped, crossing the zenith and converging in opposite horizon 
towards S. 15 E. All beams bright, clear and well-defined, moving slowly, forked 
at the apices or split from apex to zenith, almost obscuring stars of first magnitude. 
Longest beams point to S. 10 E. descending to 25° alt. Middle beam broad, crosses 
zenith, points S. 50 E. and descends to 40°. N.W. beams almost parallel to 
horizon, point S. 70 E. and descend to 20°. 

" 10 P.M. General appearance more diffused, upper limb of arch less defined. No 
beams cross the zenith. Two detached ones 15° above horizon at S. 15 E. ; after a 
few minutes one beam reappeared on zenith. 

" 10'^ 15™. Appearance to W. of N. as before. One beam on zenith, two cross the 
meridian, one to S. 30 E. at 15° above horizon, which disappears towards the arch 
in S.E. Arch- more difl'used and descending to horizon, forming a pale mass, alt. 25°. 
Beams broader, shifting 'and splitting more frequently. Soon a dark horizontal 
band 4° broad crosses the arch, extending from N. 55 W. to N. 10 W. ; upper 
limb 12° alt. ; it appears as a break in the auroral arch. Whole horizon all round 
covered with a pale diffused light, strongest towards arch and in opposite quarter. 
Beams still clear, the lateral broadest and best defined. Dark band becomes broader, 
breaking up the arch. 

" 10" 30"'. Beams from arch still clear, linear 2° to 6° broad, about 12 in number ; . 
none reach the zenith ; a few lateral ones cross the moon's meridian, the upper 
approaching within 8° of her orb, and still well-defined. N.E. beams most crowded ; 
N.W. best defined and broadest. Dark band broader, severing the arch. Whole 
phsenomena fading : longest and brightest and most numerous beams stretching 
along N.E. horizon. 

" lOi" 50™. Still fading. Beams and arch all disappear to W. of N. 18 narrow 
beams between N. and N. 20 E. from remains of arch. Cold southerly breeze 
sprung up. 

" 10'' 55"". Breaking up as before. 

"11 P.M. Difl'used light over all horizon (possibly reflexion of moon's light on 
ground mist, which however is not discernible) . Scattered beams like cirrhus here 
and there; linear along N. and N.E. horizon. 

" Midnight. Two faint beams to N.E., and two strongly-defined lance-shaped 
parallel ones to S.W." 

On a General Law of Electrical Discharge. 
By Sir W. Snow Harris, F.R.S. 

An interesting discussion having arisen, at the last Meeting of the Association at 
Oxford, relative to the laws and nature of the attractive force between two conduct- 
ing spheres electrically charged, the author was led to undertake certain experimental 
investigations with a view of verifying the application of a series by Professor W. 
Thomson, of Glasgow, (relative to this interesting physical question) who, by a pe- 
culiarly striking and very elegant method, had associated such forces with the 
principle of optical reflexions, conceiving that in the common case of electrical at- 
traction between two conducting spheres, certain electrical reflexions or images of 
force, as it were, may be conceived to be continually reflected between the bodies in 
infinitum, and that, by a particular series which he had deduced for such forms of 
action, the problem might he completely brought under the dominion of analysis. 

The object of the present paper was to determine principally the relative degree of 
force between two conducting spheres at the instant of discharge, and to compare 
that with the quantity of electricity requisite to produce the discharge at given di- 
stances taken between the nearest points of the spheres, 

c2 



20 



REPORT 1848. 



In the following table will be found the results of the first series of experiments, 
in which is given — the distance in inches between the nearest points of the spheres 
(n) ; the measures or quantity of electricity requisite to produce an attractive force 
of 1 grain (6) ; the measures or quantity of electricity requisite to produce discharge 
at the given distance (c) ; the force of attraction at the instant of discharge (d). 

Table I. 



Distance in 
inches. 


Quantity 

for force of 

1 grain. 


Quantity 

for 
discharge. 


Attraction 

in grains 

at instant 

of discharge. 


01 
0-2 
0-3 
0-4 
0-5 
0-8 
10 
1-5 
2-0 


6 

,?- 

13 

15 + 

20 

23 

30+ 

38 + 


26 
52 

78 
104 
130 
208 
260 
390 
520 


18 to 19 

38 

50 

64 

75 
108 
127 
169 
187 


a 


b 


e 


d 



The electrical apparatus employed in these experiments was the same as that for- 
merly described, and consisted of a common balance so circumstanced as to measure 
the relative attractive forces ; a unit-measure for measuring the quantity of electri- 
city ; a large electrical jar, and a Lane's discharging electrometer placed in connec- 
tion with the former, by which the relative quantity requisite to produce discharge 
at a given distance could be estimated. 

In the above table, the last column d is deduced from columns b and c by the now 
well-established law of electrical action, viz. that the force is as the square of the 
quantity of electricity ; the four last numbers in column c are deduced from the ge- 
neral law of the discharging electrometer, as observable in the preceding experiments 
of that column, and are taken as the number of measures which would be requisite 
to produce discharge at the given distances in column a, supposing the electrical jar 
capable of containing the given quantity. 

Now, on reviewing these results, there does not appear to be any general law or 
relation between the numbers representing the force, as measured by the balance 
and given in column d, and the comparative quantities of electricity required to pro- 
duce discharge, as given in column c ; so far the experiments do not appear to fur- 
nish any very satisfactory result. 

On examining the question, however, more attentively, it will be seen that the 
calculated force in column d is not really the force at the instant of discharge, taken 
between the nearest points of the spheres, that is to say, the points upon which the 
whole force is finally concentrated, and between which the discharge takes place, as 
evidenced in the balls of the discharging electrometer ; hence column d does not ac- 
tually represent the force in these points at this instant ; it, in fact, only represents 
the general attractive force upon the whole of the opposed hemispheres, or rather in 
two points q q' taken within the opposed surfaces, in which we may suppose the 
whole force to be collected, and to be the same as if operating from every point or 
the hemispheres. 

The author proceeds to show how these points q q' may be determined, and ac- 

(d^ + 2 a r)^ a 

cording to the formula z = , in which % = distance of points q q' 

under the surface a = distance of the nearest points of the sphere, and »• = radius. 
Supposing both spheres equal and radius = 1, then, according to the author's ge- 
neral results, brought under the consideration of the Section at the last Meeting, we 
have the total force between the spheres in the inverse ratio of the squares of the | 
distances between the points q q', or calling F the total attractive force we have || 

r>_ 1 . ' 



F = . 



fl (« + 2 r) 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



21 



The points q q' therefore are calculable as to position and distance, and they are 
found to recede further and further from the surface as the distance between the 
nearest points of the spheres increases ; it is only at an infinite distance that they 
can coincide -with the centres of the spheres. 

Taking the force of the attraction to vary in the inverse duplicate ratio of the 
squares of the distances, it is not diificult to determine the force in the points of dis- 
charge from column d of the last table, supposing that column to represent the force 
in the points q q' at the instant of discharge. 

With this view, the author was led to the results given in Table II., in which is 
given, as before, — distance between the nearest points (a) ; measures equal to a force 
of 1 grain (b) ; measures to produce discharge (c) ; attractive, force in points q q' at 
the instant of discharge {d). To which is now added, distance of points q q' within 
the hemisphere (e) ; distance of points q q' from each other (/) ; calculated force at 
the nearest points given in column a and taken at the instant of discharge {g) ; this 
last column being deduced from columns (o) and (/) . 

Table II. 



Distance 

of the 

near points. 


Measures 

for a force of 

1 grain. 


Measures 
for discharge. 


Force in the 
points q q'. 


Distance of 
points q q' 

within 
the spheres. 


Total 
distance of 
points q q'. 


Calculated 

force 

in nearest 

points. 


01 
0-2 
0-3 
0-4 
0-5 
0-8 
10 
1-5 
20 


6 

8 to 9 
11 
13 
15- 
20 
23 

30 to 31 
37 to 38 


26 

52 
78 
104 
130 
208 
260 
390 
520 


18 to 19 

33 to 37 

50 

64 

76 
108 
127 
162 
190 


0179 

0-231 

0-265 

0-290 

0-3 

0-348 

0-365 

0-395 

0-419 


0-458 

0-663 

0-830 

0-980 

Mil 

1-497 

1-73 

2-29 

2-83 


383 
385 
382 
384 
380 
379 
381 
378 
380 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


/ </ 



What the author wishes to call attention to in this table is, that the force in the 
nearest points at the instant of discharge, as represented in the last column ff, is at 
all distances a constant quantity, the numbers in column g not differing more than 
may be conceived to arise from the differences incidental to such experiments, a 
result quite in accordance with certain deductions arrived at by the author in former 
researches and printed in the Royal Society's Transactions for the year 1834,- 
p. 227, and since confirmed by Faraday in the course of his admirable Electrical 
Researches, p. 449, § 1410. 

The author concluded this communication by observing that he does not value 
these results, however interesting the experiments from which they have been de- 
rived, further than in proportion to their importance in tending to elucidate an in- 
teresting department of science, and afford us some further insight into the nature 
and mode of operation of a most wonderful agency. 

With respect to the first object of these experiments, namely the verification of 
certain series employed by Professor Thomson, he leaves that, in the absence of 
Professor Thomson, to a future Meeting of the Association ; he would merely ob- 
serve, that the deductions from these new experimental inquiries correspond very 
fairly with the general formula he has given for such forces in electricity. 



On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat and on the Constitution of Elastic 

Fluids. By J. P. Joule. 
At the last meeting of the Association the author exhibited an apparatus which 
by the agitation of fluids produced heat in exact proportion to the mechanical power 
expended. Experiments were made with this apparatus on the heat evolved by the 
friction of three totally dissimilar fluids — water, mercur)' and oil ; and in all three 
cases the remarkable result appeared, that the mechanical power represented by the 
force necessary to raise 782 lbs. one foot high produced the quantity of heat equal 
to raise the temperature of a pound of water one degree. 



22 REPORT — ] 848. 

Since the above experiments were communicated to the Association a slight alte- 
ration in the form of the apparatus, calculated to give greater exactness to the results, 
occurred to Mr. Joule, and he has therefore commenced a new and extensive series 
of experiments in order to determine the equivalent of heat with all the accuracy 
which its importance to physical science demands. The result arrived at after a series 
of forty experiments was an alteration of the equivalent before stated to 771, which is 
beUeved to be within ^^J^dth of the truth, and therefore may for the present be assumed 
as a tolerably good basis for calculation. 

The author conceives the following points to be established : — 1st. His experi- 
ments on the friction of fluids, confirming the views and experiments of Davy 
and Rumford on the friction of solids, afford another decisive proof that heat 
is simply a mechanical effect, not a substance. 2nd. His experiments, showing that 
the thermal effects of the condensation and rarefaction of air are the equivalents of 
the mechanical force expended or gained, prove that the heat of elastic fluids con- 
sists simply in the vis viva of their particles ; and 3rd. The zero of temperature, 
determined by the expansion of gases, is at 491° below the freezing-point of water. 

We may, the author thinks, employ the above propositions as a basis on which to 
calculate the specific heat of the gases. For whether we conceive the particles to 
be revolving round one another, according to the hypothesis of Davy, or flying about 
in every direction according to Herapath's view, the pressure of the gas will be 
proportional to the vis viva of its particles. Thus it may be shown that the par- 
ticles of hydrogen gas at the barometrical pressure of 30 inches and temperature 
60°, must move with a velocity of 6225'54 feet per second in order to produce the 
observed pressure of 14*714 lbs. on the square inch. Now a lb. moving at that 
velocity is equivalent to 781°*45 of heat in a lb. of water, which will therefore re- 
present the absolute heat of a lb. of hydrogen at 60°. But 60° is, as already stated, 

781°*45 
519° of temperature from zero, whence — — - — =: 1'5157 will be the heat required 

to raise the temperature of a lb. of hydrogen 1°, compared with that necessary to 
give the like increase of temperature to a lb. of water, in other words, 1"5157 will 
be the specific heat of the gas. 

Further, since oxygen is 16 times as heavy as hydrogen, its particles must move 
at one-fourth the velocity in order to produce the same pressure. The specific heat 
of oxygen (as of all other gases) will be inversely as its density, or = 0"09473. 

Experiments of De la Roche and Berard 
Theory. referred to capacity at constant volume. 

Hydrogen .... 1-5157 2-3520 



Aqueous vapou 
Nitrogen 
Oxygen . . 
Carbonic acid 



0-1684 0-6050 

0-1074 0-1953 

0-0947 0-1686 

0-0685 0-1579 



Notices of AurorcB observed at Swansea. By John Jenkins, F.R.A.S. 

Dec. 3, 1S45, after a general luminosity in the north, a flat elliptical arch, from 
near the vertex of which two pyramidal coruscations shot up to the zenith, grow- 
ing fainter upwards, while a third rose between the crown and the northern extre- 
mity of the arch. At half-past 8 the arch was higher, its upper edge nearly inter- 
secting the Pleiades and passing through Gemini and Taurus. Its breadth = \^ 
diam. of the moon, light yellowish. 

Sept. 29, 1847. — At a quarter past 7 this fine aurora had the appearance of a 
white striated band extending from E. to W. and crossing the zenith. Jupiter was 
about 1 diam. of the moon from the upper margin of the brush near the eastern 
horizon. 

Oct 24, 1847.— The characteristic radiating canopy of light of this great aurora 
was observed at Swansea ; light red and filmy, vanishing round the moon in a circle, 
whose radius was 6 lunar diameters. Apparent motion of the light upwards ; light 
brightest in the N.W., where silvery as well as red pencils were constantly emitted. 
To the N.E. of the moon near the zenith, a partial halo or corona was formed. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 8ECTI0NS. 23 

Tables of Meteorological Ph(Enome7ia observed at Swansea. 
By John Jenkins, F.R.A.S. 

In presenting to the British Association the accompanj'ing records of the Meteo- 
rological Phasnomena observed at Swansea, I can only hope they are of value as 
adding to the number of continuous and regular observations by a series taken at a 
position far separated from any other spot where similar observations are registered ; 
this being the only series, as far as I am aware, obtained in Wales. 

Any attempt to examine the occurrence of instrumental registries which gave ano- 
malous indications, would be occupying time with an inquiry that can be better pro- 
secuted in the study, and then when assisted by a long series of corresponding ob- 
servations. There are, however, some local conditions which it will be desirable to 
notice, that the great difference between these tables and others taken at stations 
dissimilarly situated may be explained. The first relates to temperature. 

A comparison of the temperature of the inland towns of England with the tem- 
perature of Swansea would surprise the casual inquirer ; for instance, the tempera- 
ture of May 1844 was unusually low. On Friday the l7th, the thermometer at the 
Dock-master's office, St. Katherine's, London, stood at 51°, while at Swansea, in the 
open air, the mean temperature on that day was 60°. Again, on the 24th of June, at 
7 A.M., the thermometer at London stood in the shade at 70° Fahr. ; at Swansea, on 
the same morning at 9 a.m., 66° ; deducting the increase of temperature for two hours, 
2°*5 per hour, the temperature at Swansea was 61°, being 9° less than at London. 

These considerable variations are to be accounted for by the position of Swansea, 
being on the margin of an extensive bay communicating with the Bristol Channel. 
The temperature of its water, being in the first example above the temperature of the 
air, imparted so much heat to the atmosphere as to modify the cold to the amount 
mentioned ; while, in the second instance, the water in the bay being below the 
temperature of the air lowered the thermometric indication. 

2ndiy. The direction of the wind is given for the total number of days in each 
month, from daily observations taken at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., when the other re- 
gistries of the instruments are made. This direction must not be regarded as the 
direction of the great aerial wave, but of the current modified by the headlands, 
which extend to the peninsula of Gower on the west and Kilvay Hill with its con- 
tiguous high lands on the east ; a correction consequently becomes necessary when 
comparing the direction of the wind at Swansea with other places not similarly cir- 
cumstanced. Careful registers kept at the Nash and Mumbles light-houses and 
Wormshead, would enable tables of equation to be constructed for such correction. 

3rd!y. The time and height of high water. 

Swansea Bay being situated at the mouth of the Bristol Channel, and having its 
shores lashed by the waves of the Atlantic, often exhibits in its undulations the im- 
pression of distant gales propagated over the surface of that broad mass of water 
long before the atmospheric disturbance itself has reached the coast. 

The height of the tidal wave in Swansea Bay is consequently dependent on the 
direction and force of the wind passing over the Atlantic, being increased when 
westerly and reduced when easterly. Another influence which belongs to this sub- 
ject, although of minor import, is the pressure of the atmosphere at the time of high 
water. La Place seems to think that this flux and reflux at Paris is attributable to 
the tidal waves which form a variable base tci*the atmosphere. 

The Swansea tide tables contain the heights of water in the river for every day during 
the year ; but these tables being computed without reference to the disturbing causes 
alluded to, their accuracy is destroyed as often as the wind blovvs stronglyfrom either of 
the points mentioned. Thus the depth of water on the bar is not always the greatest on 
the day mentioned in the Tide Table. This discrepancy occurred during the high tide 
of 1846, when the highest tide did not occur on the day stated in the Tide Table, but, 
on the contrary, the second tide on the following day was the highest. Again, on one 
occasion, in the Tide Table the depth of water on Swansea bar is stated to be 23 feet, 
whereas it amounted to 30 feet ; an increase in the tidal wave equal to two-thirda 
the average depth of water on the bar at high water during the lowest neap tides. 

It is much to be desired that the amount of disturbance occasioned by the various 
winds should be ascertained and arranged as the equation table is for the sun-dial, 
so that persons who may be interested in the inquiry may be enabled to ascertain 
the accurate height of tide at high water. 



24 



REPORT — 1848. 

Tables of Meteorological Phcenomena 



Mean height. 



30'25 a.m. 
30-24 p.m. 

3003 a.m. 
30-05 p.m. 

30-17 a.m. 
3008 p.m. 

29-92 a.m, 
29-92 p.m. 

30-05 a.m. 
30-05 p.m. 

29-71 a.m. 
29-51 p.m. 

3006 a.m. 
30-06 p.m. 

29-81 a.m, 
29-76 p.m. 

29-68 a.m. 
29-66 p.m. 

29-98 a.m. 
29-65 p.m. 

29-91 a.m. 
29-93 p.m. 

29-90 a.m. 
29-89 p.m. 

29-97 a.m. 
29-88 p.m. 

30-14 a.m. 
3016 p.m. 

30-11 a.m. 
30-12 p.m. 

30-34 a.m. 
30-34 p.m. 

29-89 a.m. 
29-93 p.m. 

29-96 a.m. 
29-97 p.m. 

30-50 a.m. 
30-48 p.m. 



Highest. 



i. 3. 
30-57 p.m. 



30-45 a.m.' 



31. 
31-30 p.m. 

^ 3. 4. 14. 
30-26 a.m. & p.m. 



30-55 p.m. 

17. 
30-42 p.m. 

19. 
30-46 a.m. & p.m. 



19. 
30-47 a.m. 



12, 
3008 a.m. & p.m. 

^9. 
30-60 p.m. 

15. 
30-23 a.m. & p.m. 

30-30 p.m. 



21, 
30-32 a.m. 

16, 17, 
30-46 p.m. & a.m. 

30-43 a.m. & p.m. 

23. 24. 
30-70 p.m. & a.m. 

19. 
30-52 p.m. 

29. 
30-58 p ro. 

24, 
30-68 a.m. 



26, 
29-60 p.m. 

29-63 a.m. &p.m, 

10, 
29-79 p.m. 



24, 
29-44 a.m. 



23. 
28-98 a.m. 



24, 
28-85 a.m. & p.m. 

27. 
29-38 a.m. 



12, 
313 p.m. 

27. 
28-91 p.m. 

21, 22, 
29-43 p.m. &a.m, 

4. 
29-41 a.m. 

16, 
29-59 a.m. 



29-14 a.m. 

5. 23, 
29-77 p.m.&a.m, 

22, 
29-67 p.m. 



15. 
29-92 a.m. 



27> 
1-28 p.m. 



23. 
29-44 a.m. 



31. 
29-86 p.m. 



Hygrometer. 



9 A.M. 



Dry. Wet. 



65-9 
640 
66-9 
61-1 
51-5 
46-6 
47-7 
43-7 
39-3 
45-8 
51-8 
57-7 
61-8 
64-4 
66-3 
64-7 
52-2 
45-6 
48-0 



59-5 
59-7 
64-3 
58-0 
48-8 
455 
46-9 
42-3 
37-5 
44-0 
50-9 
56-5 
59-5 
61-6 
63-5 
60-8 
50-2 
45-1 
47-4 



6-4 

4-3 

2-6 

31 

2-7 

1-1 

0-8 

1-4 

1-8 

1-8 

0-9 

1-2 

2-3 

2-8 

2-10 

3-9 

2-0 

0-5 

0-6 



3 p.m. 



Dry. Wet 



700 
66-2 
69-9 
62-9 
53-3 
47-3 
48-2 
44-9 
41-0 
48-9 
53-9 
58-8 
63-6 
66-7 
69-1 
68-0 
53 6 
47-1 
49-0 



61-9 
61-3 
66-2 
58-6 
50-3 
46-2 
47-5 
44-0 
39-3 
46-8 
53-1 
57-8 
60-9 
63-4 
651 
64-0 
51-8 
46-2 
48-4 



Mean 
temp, 
of dav. 



Mean 

temp. 

of night.! 



70 
66 
71 
63 
53 
46 
47 
44 
40 
48 
54 
58 
68 
71 
72 
72 
57 
50 
51 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



25 



observed at Swansea, 



Thermometer. 


Date. 


Direction of Wind in days. 


Weather 
in days. 


Remarks. 


Maximum on 


Minimum 
on 


No. of 
observ. 


!5 




H 




« 




i 


i 





1 


1 


10, 12, 

82 


21, 
58 


58 


1842. 
June 


No observa 
on the wi 


tio 
tid 


IS 

in 


aken 
fune. 


22 


7 


1 


Rain in 
inches, tenths. 
1 4 


lines. 
2 


i6, 
74 


7. 
57 


62 


July 


7 


2 


2 


7 


3 


23 


10 


8 


20 


8 


3 


2 





3 


17. 
86 


25. 
56 


62 


August ... 


3 


11 


1 


4 


6 


23 


1 


9 


20 


7 


4 


1 


3 


8 


I. 4. 
69 


20, 21, 
51 


60 


September 


2 


19 





6 





13 


3 


17 


21 


5 


4 


4 





8 


9. 
63 


26, 
38 


62 


October... 


1 


24 


3 


4 





4 


2 


24 


21 


8 


2 


3 








10, 11, 12, 13, 19, 

51 


6,17, 
39 


60 


November 





11 


3 


16 


4 


12 


5 


7 


10 


11 


9 


9 


6 





13. 
54 


24, 27, 
37 


62 


December 











15 


5 


11 


19 


10 


12 


7 


12 


3 


5 


7 


26, 28, 
51 


12, 
32 


62 


1843. 
January... 


3 


2 


1 


9 





8 


12 


27 


11 


12 


8 


3 


2 





J, 21, 
49 


15, 
26 


56 


Februaiy .. 


2 


29 


6 


12 





1 


1 


5 


21 


4 


3 


1 


4 


7 


19. 
62 


3. 
31 


61 


March 


1 


5 


7 


29 


4 


14 


2 





19 


6 


6 


1 


5 


9 


19. 
64 


10, 12, 
41 


60 


April 


3 


8 


4 


4 


5 


17 


9 


8 


13 


12 


5 


3 


6 


1 


2, 
68 


4, 19, 20, 
52 


62 


May 





6 


2 


22 


1 


17 


6 


9 


15 


9 


7 


3 


8 


2 


*^8^' 


7. 2. 9, 
44 


60 


June 


1 


11 


3 


7 





22 


7 


12 


17 


9 


4 


2 


7 


7 


II, 16, 
80 


21, . 
46 


60 


July 


10 


1 








1 


17 


21 


7 


18 


9 


4 


2 


2 


5 


8l' 


22, 
43 


62 


August ... 


5 


4 


1 


7 


1 


24 


11 


6 


21 


5 


5 


2 


8 


7 


8!' 


28, 
37 


60 


September 


6 


9 


2 


13 


4 


15 


5 


34 


27 


2 


1 





6 


2 


a. 4. 
71 


26, 
30 


60 


October ... 





6 


1 


6 





12 


3 


8 


14 


11 


6 


4 


9 


1 


4. 5. 6, 
57 


30 


60 


November 


8 


6 


4 


9 


5 


10 


10 


8 


12 


12 


6 


5 


7 


2 


1 16, 17, 18, 
! 54 


2, 13. 
37 


62 


December 


9 


5 


5 


8 


5 


9 


8 


11 


20 


3 


8 


1 


1 


3 


1 





































26 




REPORT — 1848 


, 






















Table ' 


Barometer. 


Hygrometer. 




Mean height. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


9 A.M. 


Diff. 


3 P.M. 


Diff. 


Mean 
temp, 
of day. 


Mean 
temp. 
af night. 

37 




Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


30-18 a.m. 
30-18 p.m. 


II, 

30-56 a.m,& p.m. 


6, 
29-33 a.m. 


421 


41-7 


0-4 


44-3 


43-5 


0-8 


48 


29-78 a.m. 
29-79 p.m. 


21, 

30-38 p.m. 


25. 
29-33 p.m. 


40-3 


38-8 


1-5 


41-9 


41-1 


0-8 


45 


33 




29-97 a.m. 
29-98 p.m. 


29, 
30-67 a.m, & p.m. 


16, 
39-48 a.ra. 


45-0 


43-1 


1-9 


47-2 


45-1 


2-1 


52 


36 




30-31 a.m. 
30-30 p.m. 


9. 
30-68 a.m. & p.m. 


4. 
29-81 p.m. 


54-2 


60-9 


3-3 


57-2 


532 


40 


62 


41 




30-32 a.m. 
30-30 p.m. 


2, 
30-61 p.m. 


7. 
30-03 p.m. 


60-8 


54-3 


6-5 


63-5 


570 


6-5 


70 


41 




3014 a.m. 
30-13 p.m. 


16, 
30-43 a.m. 


18, 
29-54 p.m. 


63-1 


58-5 


4-6 


66-3 


61-0 


5-3 


71 


52 




29-84 a.m. 
30- 13 p.m. 


26, Zc, 

30-45 p.m., a.m. & p.m. 


30, 
29-73 p.m. 


66-4 


61-2 


5-2 


69-5 


63-2 


6-3 


69 


64 




3001 a.m. 
30-02 p.m. 


19.31. 
30-44 a.m. & p.m. 


3. 
29-32 a.m. 


61-6 


58-3 


3-3 


64-7 


60-8 


3-9 


64 


59 




30-22 a.m. 
30-20 p.m. 


I, 
30-52 p.m. 


17. 
29-94 a.m.& p.m. 


61-8 


59-3 


3-5 


65-0 


61-5 


3-5 


64 


60 




29-84 a.m. 
29-83 p.m. 


27, 
30-39 a.m. 


IS. 
29-07 p.m. 


521 


51-3 


0-8 


54-3 


63-2 


1-1 


54 


51 




29-91 a.m. 
29-91 p.m. 


21, 
30-47 Jum. & p,m. 


8, 
29-08 p.m. 


47-0 


46-2 


0-8 


48-4 


47-3 


1-1 


49 


42 




30-04 a.m. 
30-01 p.m. 


4. 
30-36 a.m. 


16, 
29-32 p.in. 


35-9 


33-9 


2-0 


37-5 


36-0 


1-5 


38 


32 




29-86 a.m. 
29-86 p.m. 


7. 
30-28 a.m. 


28, 
29-11 p.m. 


41-1 


40-1 


1-0 


431 


42-0 


11 


44 


36 




30-01 a.m. 
30-01 p.m. 


i»» 
30-44 p.m. 


23, 
29-49 a.m. 


36-8 


35-4 


1-4 


39-7 


38-2 


1-5 


40 


32 




30-08 a.m. 
30-09 p.m. 


21, 
30-50 p.m. 


3.16. 
29-78 a.m.& p.m. 


39-8 


37-5 


2-3 


43-5 


41-3 


2-2 


44 


32 




29-94 a.m. 
29-92 p.m. 


16, 
30-45 a.m. 


9. 
29-21 p.m. 


52-9 


49-3 


3-6 


56-7 


52-6 


4-1 


57 


44 




30-02 a.m. 
30-02 p.m. 


15. 
30-43 p.m. 


10, 
29-61 a.m. 


56-7 


52-5 


4-2 


58-9 


54-8 


4-1 


60 


46 




30-07 a.m, 
30-05 p.m. 


9, 10, 
30-47 p.m. & a,m. 


5.6, 
29-58 p.m. &a.m. 


64-6 


60-6 


4-0 


67-6 


62-8 


4-8 


69 


53 




30-04 a.m. 
30-03 p.m. 


5. 
30-28 a.m. & p.m. 


31. 
20-62 a.m.&p.m. 


64-2 


61-C 


3-2 


66-6 


62-9 


3-7 


66 


64 





* On Sunday night the 23rd of June and Monday morning, a thunder^ 





TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS 








27 


(conlinued). 








Thermometer. 


D.itc. 


Direction of Wind in days. 


Weatlier 
in days. 


Remarks. 


Maximum on 


Minimum 
on 


No. of 
Observ. 


4 


i 
10 


4 


m 

ai 

5 





2 


3 


34 


fr 




I 


$ 


6, 
53 

I, 15, 16, 


16, 
27 

23. 


62 


1844. 
January... 


Rain in 
inches, tenths, lines. 

3 1 2 

A heavy gale of wind, 
barometer not affected. 


49 


26 


68 


February .. 


4 


12 


1 


6 


1 


12 


3 


19 


20 


6 


3 


3 4 4 


27,29,30,31, 
58 


2^8 


62 


March 


3 


14 


3 


6 


1 


8 


8 


19 


23 


2 


6 


.3 2 8 


26, 
72 


6, 
34 


60 


April 


3 


1 





9 


3 


29 


10 


4 


28 





2 


1 1 1 5 


14. 
70 


19, 
37 


62 


May 


7 


22 


4 


8 


2 


5 


4 


9 


29 


1 


1 


g 

|o 8 


30, 
81 


I, 
46 


60 


June* 


1 


4 





6 


1 


30 


9 


9 


27 


3 





a 
a 
s 1 3 7 


1,^3. 
81 


6, 17,20, 
48 


62 


July 


6 


2 





5 


2 


17 


8 


22 


27 


4 





1 1 7 9 


31. 
73 


16, 17, 
47 


56 


August ... 


3 


1 





8 


2 


13 


7 


28 


20 


11 





a 

|4 8 7 


1,2.4. 
76 


30, 
42 


60 


September 


1 


21 


4 


6 


2 


12 


2 


12 


25 


2 


3 


1 1 


4. 
65 


23,24,26, 
38 


62 


October... 


1 


8 





15 


1 


12 


5 


20 


15 


15 


1 


^5 3 4 


16, 17, 18, zo, 
55 


25. 
32 


60 


November 


1 


13 


4 


19 


1 


8 


8 


4 


22 


4 


4 


3 8 5 


29. 
48 


10, 
24 


62 


December. 





9 


29 


24 














24 


4 


1 


4 6 


5. 
49 

24. 
49 


28 

7. 
27 


62 

56 


1845. 
January... 

February .. 


4 
3 


5 
6 


1 



19 
27 




1 


15 

4 


2 

1 


9 
13 


18 
21 


6 

4 


5 

2 


3 2 8 

Jan. 12th, fog; 
2gth, snow. 

3 4 2 

Feb. 10th, snow. 


27. 
55 


14, 
17 


62 


March 


2 


29 


1 


4 





15 


4 


6 


25 


3 


3 


2 3 11 


6l' 


12, 

34 


60 


April ...... 


2 


14 





17 


1 


18 


3 


4 


20 


5 


5 


2 5 

April 22nd, thunder. 


30, 
70 


7. 
39 


62 


May 


9 


21 


2 


3 


1 


12 


1 


13 


21 


8 


2 


1 1 9 


sJ' 


4. 
46 


60 


June 





4 





3 


1 


25 





12 


17 


11 


2 


3 1 9 


V' 


16,29,30, 
47 


62 


July _ 


1 


8 





7 


3 


25 


5 


13 


21 


8 


2 


July 2, min. and max. 

temp, alike. 

3 4 6 



storm ; on Tuesday the 25th a large halo round the sun. 



28 



REPORT — 1848. 



Table 



Barometer. 


Hygrometer. 




Mean height. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


9 A.M. 


Diff. 


3 P.M. 


Diff. 


Mean 
temp, 
of day. 


Mean 

temp. 

of night. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


3000 a.m. 
30-01 p.m. 


29. 3°> 
30-45 a.m., p.m. & a.m. 


9. 
29-55 a.m. 


62-5 


59-9 


2-6 


64-9 


61-5 


3-4 


64 


53 


30-03 a.m. 
30-02 p.m. 


I, 
30-41 a.m. 


19. 
2902 p.m. 


59-7 


57-7 


2-0 


62-1 


59-9 


22 


62 


50 


3009 a.m. 
30-08 p.m. 


^3, 
30-59 a.m. & p.m. 


8, 
29-29 p.m. 


54-7 


53-2 


1-5 


56-8 


55-2 


1-6 


57 


47 


29-78 a.m. 
29-76 p.m. 


30-35 a.m. & p.m. 


19. 
29-18 p.m. 


49-4 


47-6 


1-8 


50-9 


490 


1-9 


50 


43 


29-92 a.m. 
29-91 p.m. 


12, 
30-43 p.m. 


20, 
29-05 a.m. 


44-7 


43-4 


1-3 


46-2 


44-6 


1-6 


45 


38 


29-83 a.m. 
29-82 p.m. 


9> 
30-60 a.m. & p.m. 


19. 
29-16 p.m. 


47-1 


460 


1-1 


48-3 


47-2 


1-1 


48 


41 


3005 a.m. 
3005 p.m. 


10, 
30-43 p.m. 


24, 
29-48 p.m. 


46-6 


44-8 


1-8 


49-2 


47-2 


20 


49 


41 i 


29-88 a.m. 
29-87 p.m. 


12, 
30-63 a.m. 


23. 
29-26 a.m. 


48-5 


45-6 


2-9 


520 


48-6 


3-4 


52 


39 


29-83 a.m. 
29-82 p.m. 


3°. 
30-42 a.m.& p.m. 


2. 
29-19 p.m. 


52-0 


48-8 


3-2 


54-6 


51-2 


3-4 


56 


42 


3005 a.m. 
30-04 p.m. 


29. 30. 
30-46 p.m. & a.m. 


i8, 
29-06 a.m. 


60-4 


55-6 


4-8 


63-7 


58-2 


5-5 


66 


50 


30- 18 a.m. 
30-17 p.m. 


30-48 a.m. 


29-72 a.m. 


73-0 


660 


7-0 


76-8 


68-8 


80 


73 


59 


29-99 a.m. 
29-99 p.m. 


28, 
30-34 a.m. 


29-35 p.m. 


67-1 


62-6 


5-5 


70-2 


64-9 


53 


68 


56 


29-66 a.m. 
29-64 p.m. 


25. 
3-41 a.m. & p.m. 


29-57 p.m. 


68-0 


67-0 


1-0 


70-3 


65-5 


4-8 


71 


57 


30-84 a.m. 
.30-83 p.m. 


30-53 a.m. 


29-49 p.m. 


65-6 


60-5 


5-1 


68-9 


63-5 


5-4 


70 


54 


29-76 a.m. 
29-73 p.m. 


27, 
30-35 a.m. & p.m. 


IS. 
2900 a.m. 


54-1 


51-8 


2-3 


56-5 


540 


2-5 


57 


46 


28-94 a.m. 
28-93 p.m. 


10, 
30-49 a.m. 


20, 
29-23 a.m. 


48-7 


47-2 


1-5 


50-7 


490 


1-7 


49 


40 


29-95 a.m. 
29-95 p.m. 


30. 31. 
30-55 p.m. & a.m. 


28-89 a.ra'. 


37-3 


36-1 


1-2 


39-1 


37-8 


1-3 


40 


32 


29-52 a.m. 
29-50 p.m. 


30-36 a.m. 


24. 
29-17 a.m. 


39-5 


38-3 


1-2 


41-3 


40-4 


09 


43 


36 


3000 a.m. 
29-99 p.m. 


21, 
30-38 a.m. 


8, 
29-54 p.m. 


39-9 


38-0 


1-9 


430 


40-9 


2-1 


44 


34 



* 8th of February heavy gale of snow from 9 ta 1, during which time 8 inches fell, measured on a level. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



29 



Thermometer. 




Jirection of Wind in days. 


Weather 
in days. 


Remarks. 


Maximiuu on 


Minimum 
on 


No. of 
Observ. 


Date. 


4 


4 


(4 



m 






19 


5 


30 



17 


1 
11 


^ 


3°, 
74 


16, 17,22 

47 


62 


1845. 
August ... 


3 


Rain in 
iifcbes. tenths. 
6 4 


lines. 
6 


I, 12, 

69 


24, 
37 


60 


September 


1 


4 


4 


16 


2 


17 


1 


12 


17 


6 


7 


3 


8 


3 


; 62 


26, 
37 


62 


October... 





3 





18 





17 





24 


22 


8 


1 


2 








1 

; 56 


23. 
31 


60 


November 





5 


1 


22 





10 


6 


16 


15 


9 


6 


4 


3 


2 


i6, 
52 


22, 
30 


62 


December 


1 


8 











14 


5 


34 


11 


9 


10 


4 


4 


6 


29, 30. 31. 
53 


2, 
34 


62 


1846. 
January... 











15 


1 


19 


8 


17 


15 


6 


9 


Dec 
6 


. 13, mist. 
1 2 


25, 28, 
56 


11, 

28 


56 


February . 


6 


7 





9 


3 


7 





24 


19 


8 


1 


1 


9 


2 


15. 
58 


19. 
29 


62 


March ... 


2 


5 


1 


6 


2 


23 


6 


17 


12 


15 


2 


2 


4 


3 


J6. 
61 


7. 
35 


60 


April 


5 


1€ 


1 


10 


2 


13 


4 


14 


17 


10 


3 


2 


5 


1 


IJ' 


15, 
43 


62 


May 


5 


4 





11 


3 


26 


7 


5 


23 


8 





1 


8 





SB' 


24, 
53 


60 


June 





2 


1 


8 


4 


41 


1 


3 


20 


9 


1 


1 


6 


8 


31. 
84 


5?' 


62 


July 


2 


2 


1 


9 


1 


23 


11 


13 


16 


11 


4 


3 


8 


4 


6, 
80 


14. 
51 


62 


August ... 


2 


11 


1 


5 


2 


26 


4 


11 


15 


8 


8 


3 


3 


2 


12, 

(. 77 


29, 
46 


60 


September 


3 


4 


1 


15 


1 


19 


5 


12 


24 


5 


1 


2 





5 


6, 
64 


27, 
37 


62 


October... 


1 


10 


2 


6 





27 


4 


12 


11 


13 


7 


5 


1 





^6 


30, 
28 


58 


November 





10 


5 


24 


1 


14 


2 


3 


17 


8 


4 


3 


3 


5 


19, 20, 
49 


16. 
23 


62 


December 


6 


28 





2 





4 


3 


12 


23 


3 


1 


2 


9 


9 


23, 27, 
49 

IS, 16, 17, 
52 


12, 18, 19 

28 

27, 
20 


62 
56 


1847. 
January... 

February . 


1 
1 



15 


6 
3 


37 
9 


2 
2 


10 

8 


1 
3 


4 
14 


16 
17 


5 
6 


6 
2 


2 

Jan. 2, 

2 

Feb 


6 2 

snow and fog. 

4 8* 

3, snow. 


ih, snow all day at i 


ntervals. 


Mails t 


rora Llanell 


yc 


ea 


set 


Ot 


rai 


^ 


ba 


gs 


bei 


ng 


ca 


rried or 


horseback. 



30 



REPORT — 1848. 



Table 



Barometer. 


Hygrometer. 




Mean height. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


9 A.M, 


Diff. 


3 A.M. 


Diff. 


]\Iean 
temp. 

of day. 


Jlean 

temp. 

of niglit. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


30-OG a.m. 
3004 p.m. 


30-57 a.m. ' 


20, 
29-50 p.m. 


46-3 


43-8 


2-5 


50-0 


46-7 


3-3 


51 


38 


29-89 a.ra. 
30-15 p.m. 


20, 

30-99 p.m. 


8, 
29-45 p.m. 


509 


47-6 


3-3 


54-0 


50-0 


4-0 


59 


41 


29-95 a.m. 
29-95 p.m. 


31. 
30-58 a.m. 


8, 
29-52 a.m. 


60-0 


55-8 


0-2 


64-3 


58-7 


5-6 


68 


50 


30-09 a.m. 
30-4G p.m. 


iS, 
30-95 p.m. 


IS. 
29-55 a.m. 


62-8 


57-9 


4-9 


67-8 


60-4 


74 


75 


52 


30-20 a.m. 
30-20 p.m. 


1, 
30-43 p.m. 


7. 
29-92 a.m. 


68-2 


63-5 


4-7 


726 


67- 


5-6 


71 


57 


30-17 a.m. 
30-16 p.m. 


14. 
30-42 a.m. 


29-74 p.m. 


64-0 


598 


42 


69-9 


65-7 


4-2 


72 


54 


30-08 a.m. 
30-09 p.m. 


2f!, 

30-34 a.m. ' 


16, 
29-67 a.m. 


58-2 


55-5 


2-7 


64-2 


61-4 


2-8 


66 


52 


29-94 a.m. 
3005 p.m. 


24, 
3082 p.m. 


22, 
29-14 a.m. 


53-6 


52-5 


1-1 


57-8 


556 


2-2 


59 


49 


3004 a m. 
30-23 p.m. 


30-95 p.m. ' 


28, 
29-19 p.m. 


48-2 


46-2 


20 


52-3 


50-4 


1-9 


54 


44 


29-83 a.m. 
29-83 p.m. 


I, 
30-35 p.m. 


7. 
29-07 a.m. 


42-0 


40-7 


1-3 


450 


43-5 


1-5 


46 


38 


29-80 a.m. 
29-94 p.m. 


12, 
30-48 a.m. 


31. 
29- 12 a.m. 


361 


353 


0-8 


39-5 


38-3 


1-2 


41 


32 


29-07 a.m. 
29-63 p.m. 


18, 
30-46 a.m. 


13. 
28-00 p.m. 


43-1 


.421 


1-0 


466 


45-4 


1-2 


48 


38 


29-69 a.ra. 
29-61 p.m. 


8, 
30-28 a.m. 


28-92 a.m. 


43-9 


41-8 


2-1 


49-7 


47-2 


2-5 


51 


38 


29-86 a.m. 
29-87 p.m. 


30. 
30-20 a.m. 


i3, 
29-28 p.m. 


49 6 


45-5 


4-1 


55-2 


51-0 


4-2 


57 


42 


30-194 a.m. 
30-308 p.m. 


22, 
30 42 a.m. 


17. 
29-51 p.m. 


61-2 


54-6 


6-6 


68.7 


61-5 


7-2 


70 


52 ' 


29-906 a.m. 
29-905 p.m. 


30-32 a.m. 


39-44 a.m. 


62-2 


57-7 


4-5 


655 


610 


4-5 


67 


52 


30-090 a.m. 
30-149 p.m. 


3°. 
30-84 p.m. 


20, 
3084 a.m. 


63-5 


59-9 


3-6 


68-7 


64-1 


4-6 


70 


55 






















i 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



31 



contimied). 



Thermometer- 


Date. 


Direction of Wind in days. 


Weather 
in days. 


Remarks, 


Maximum on 


Minimum 
on 


No. of 
observ. 


■i 




» 




(B 


i 


i- 


i 

i 





1 

si 
en 


P 


j8, 
58 


I, 4. 
32 


62 


1817. 
March .,... 


3 


18 





22 


1 


11 


3 


11 


21 


5 


5 


Rain in 
Indies, tenths. 

3 6 

Rain. 


lines. 

7 


a, 13, 14, 20,21, 29, 
60 


2, 
30 


58 


April 


4 


8 





3 


1 


17 


11 


16 


15 


10 


5 


1 


5 
Rain. 


1 


27, 28, 31, 
74 


4. 
38 


56 


May 


1 


1 


2 


20 


4 


27 


4 


2 


16 


12 


3 


3 


1 


5 


I, 

81 


II. 
42 


54 


June 


6 


7 





2 





24 


9 


12 


31 


7 


2 


2 


7 


3 


12, 

81 


23. 
51 


50 


July 


7 


8 


1 


9 





26 


6 


6 


22 


8 


1 


2 


5 


8 


26, 
79 


4,24. 
46 


54 


August ... 


6 


15 











15 


2 


24 


19 


9 


3 


3 


8 


8 


I, 
70 


6, 
41 


54 


September 


4 


I 





8 





13 


10 


34 


11 


15 


4 


3 


3 


2 


12, 
68 


6, 
39 


58 


October... 


1 


2 


3 


23 


2 


16 


5 


10 


13 


10 


8 


7 


3 


1 


6, 
62 


19. 
31 


60 


November 


4 


5 


1 


14 





16 


6 


15 


13 


9 


3 


2 


7 


8 


y- 


22, 31, 
29 


60 


December. 


3 


10 


1 


16 





5 





3 


14 


7 


10 


6 


1 


8 


4. 
54 


28, 
20 


54 


1848. 
January... 


11 


24 


3 


10 


2 


5 





7 


21 


7 


3 


1 


2 


4 


28, 
53 


I, 

28 


58 


Februaiy .. 


3 


2 





2 


3 


29 


5 


18 


13 


7 


9 


6 


4 


3 


31, 
64 


17. 
31 


62 


March 


9 


8 





9 


1 


4 


6 


20 


17 


7 


7 


3 


9 


9 


k 


10, 
33 


60 


April 


13 


12 


1 


7 


a 


12 


2 


8 


16 


8 


6 


3 


6 





J4. 
79 


I, 
44 


63 


May ...... 


4 


6 





8 


4 


30 


3 


6 


26 


3 


2 


2 


2 


6 


19. 
76 


I, 
42 


58 


June 


1 


1 





8 


« 


30 


8 


12 


8 


15 


7 


3 


4 


6 


14. 17. 
. 80 


I, 
45 


63 


July 


6 


3 





5 





26 


15 


7 


15 


9 


6 


3 


5 


3 







































82 REPORT — 1848. 

On Meteorological Observations continued at Alten in Finmark. 
B^JoHn Lee, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Lee presented to the British Association the observations made by Mr. J. H. 
Grewe at Alten in 1846 and 1847. 

The annexed tables contain the principal results of those observations reduced to 
the English scale, the observations being made with French instruments. 

These Meteorological Observations are a continuation of others presented by Dr. 
Lee to the Society at York, Cambridge and Southampton for the years 1843, 1844 
and 1845, and which were made by Mr. Grewe and Mr. J. F. Cole. 

The observations for 1846-47 have been made by Mr. Grewe alone, Mr. Cole 
having returned to England. They contain the twelve tables for the months, with 
the daily observations, as formerly, for 1846, and the same for 1847 ; also two 
tables with the summary of the contents and the results for each year. 

The former observations for 1843, 1844 and 1845, contained in addition the half- 
hourly observations made on the 21st of each month, which have been discontinued, 
as Mr. Grewe had no assistance as formerly, and his avocations at the proper hours 
prevented him, as also did occasional illness. There was no want of zeal or inat- 
tention to the subject. 

Mr. Grewe and Mr. Cole were both assistants in the employ of the British Copper 
Mining Association established at Alten, and only able to devote their leisure time 
to these subjects as an amusement and an object of gratification. They laboured 
under great disadvantages, not only from climate, but from the want of encourage- 
ment and the means of communicating with persons of science. They carried on 
their observations in a climate in which in the winter they could hardly touch their 
instruments, and where they are deprived of the light of the sun in the winter for 
several months. Notwithstanding these disadvantages, they fixed a thermometer on 
the highest mountain (Storvandsfjeld) to the west of the Alten Copper Works before 
the winter commenced, and examined it again in the spring. Dr. Lee recommended 
a similar experiment to be tried at Swansea. Also they observed the auroras during 
the winter, and in a former year presented a paper concerning them. 

These Alten Observations have not been already without some use and interest. 
Col. Sabine has referred to them in one of his papers on the Meteorology of Bom- 
bay, and Mr. Birt, in his papers on the atmospheric wave, sets great value on the 
Alten Observations. So likewise do Mr. Ronalds of Kew and the Rev. Mr. Fisher 
of Greenwich. 

With respect to the Christiania Observations, Dr. Lee remarked, that since his 
arrival at Swansea he had received the Christiania Observations for 1847 from J. R. 
Crowe, Esq., Her Britannic Majesty's Consul-General at Christiania in Norway. 

They are a continuation of others made last year, and which Dr. Lee had the 
honour of presenting to the Association, in Mr. Crowe's name, at Oxford*. Mr. 
Crowe formerly was the British Consul at Alten, where he resided for several years, 
and it is in a great measure owing to his judgement and zeal that the meteorological 
observations were commenced at Alten, and continued, since his promotion and re- 
moval to Christiania, by Mr. Grewe and Mr. Cole. 

Mr. Thomas, the Manager of the Alten Copper Mining Works, and a pastor, a 
Professor Loestadius, an eminent botanist, are, I believe, the principal patrons of 
science at Alten. 

Christiania, N. lat. 59° 54' l", long. 10° 45' O" east. 
Alten, N. lat. 69° 58' 3" +, long. 23° + east. 

Observations upon the Meteorological Observations for 1846 and IS'i? from 
Alten in Lapland, in a Letter from Mr. J. F. Cole to Dr. Lee. 

London, July 22, 1848. 
Sir, — According to your desire I have examined the Alten Meteorological Obser- 
vations for 1846 and 1847, which you have recently received from my former col- 
league, Mr. Grewe, and I have derived much pleasure from their inspection. 

* See the Report of the Association for 1847, Transactions of the Sections, p. 33. 



Table <ars 1846 and 1847, being a conti 



»bove ground; reduced to Fahrenheit's scale). 



H7. 



Day and 
time of 
1846. 



Februa^'^ 



March, 



10 



April 



3-6 



May 4-5 

June ,4-2 

July 47 

August""^ 

Septeu' 

Octobi 

Noven 



Means 



Minimum 3 p.m. 



24th, 
morn. 

5th, 
morn. 

4th, 
morn. 

3rd, 

night. 

2nd, 
night. 

4th, 
night. 

11th, 
morn. 

10th, 
morn. 

29th, 
morn. 

15th, 
mom. 

28th, 
morn. 



Day and 
time of 
1847. 



1 A 23rd, 
Decen<i4 ^^^^^ 



7-3 



31st, 

morning. 

12th, 
morning. 

14th, 
night. 

3rd, 

night. 

14th, 

night. 

8th, 
night. 

4th, 
morning. 

14th, 31st, 
morning. 

15th, 
morning. 

24th, 
morning. 

16th, 
morning. 

22nd, 
morning. 



1846. 



7-6 

-14-8 

0-4 

+ 8-6 

6-8 

320 

19-4 

230 

27-5 

10-4 

- 2-2 

-11-2 



1847. 



-1-3 

-31 

-31 

+2-3 

140 

320 

37-4 

410 

32-9 

12-2 

10-4 

5-9 



7-6 151 



almost calm, and 10=hurricane ; and 
uded, and 8 = all clear. 
Highest 1846. The year 1847 was warmer th 
Lowest ■ The atmosphere was drier, the wind 

Total ral'l from the Alten results in French milli 
Snheit. Hours of observation 9 a.m., 3 



Table oi' the principal Results of the iVIeteorological Observations made by .1. H. Gb 

by I 



I the Alten Copper Works, Finmark, in Norway, during the years 1846 and 1847, being s 
. J. H. Grewe and J. F. Cole. — N. lat. 69° 58' 3", E. long. 23°. 



[Brit. Asaoc. Report, Sectione, p. 32.] 
I of those made at Alteo in 1843, 1844 and 184^, 



...... 


Baro^Ccr (cor.ec.cd ior m correction, and reduced to the led of the .c). 






-»„...„«„ On . ha shad., S f«, ab.va groand ; „da„d „ F.hranh.i.-s sadc,. 


wu.a. 


Cad.. 


Oearsk,. 




Monthly mdos. 


HighMt. 


L«w«t. 


Ranga. 


in English inches. 


Monthly means. 


M.a.™3P.„. 


„,n..n„ 


,.M. 


Range. 


MonthJr mean 


,22°z 


S?'K'5o°ad°'i, 


.and... 


,..., ,.,. 


Da; and 
IsiV 


^t"? 


.... 


,«,. 


^a"? 


°m."f 


,«. 


.a„, 


iq.|6. 


,a.r- 


1846. 


,... 


,.«. 


..... 


Da^-d 
IB46. 


Da7 and 


.„.. 




toe"? 


"Sa"? 


.8.6. 


M7. 


...,. 


... 


.«.. 


:.. 


,... 


,8.7. 


..... 


..... 


January ... 


29-69767| 29?i;i:)8 


3rd, 
3 P.M. 


Sth, 
9 a.m. 


30-34994 


3031490 


1st, [ 4th, 


28-95191 


29-0944.1 


1-39803 


1-22047 


047244 


3-95669 


15-930 


30-086 


19th, 
night. 


1st, 17th, 
aftet-n. 


42-8 


47-3 


24tli, 


31st, 
morning. 


- 7-6 


-1-3 


50-4 


48-6 


1-817 


3-033 


0-366 1 0-516 


2860 


1-786 


Januar?. 


February.., 


2950165 29'6U87 


8th, 
9 p.ii. 


23rd, 
3 p.m. 


29-90663 


30-31923 


10th, 1 Sth, 

3 P.M. 1 9 A.M. 


28-88262 


29-16136 


1-02401 


1-15787 


2-50000 


1-43700 


12-596 


14-821 


28tb, 


25th, 
9 p.m. 


30-2 


38-3 


5lb, 


12th, 
morning. 


-14-8 


-31 


45-0 


41-4 


1-428 


1-857 


0-476 0-369 


2-613 


3262 


Febmary. 


March 


29-652Se| 29-77558 


24lh, 
9 a.m. 


25lh, 
9 P.M. 


30-17317 


30-34246 


14th, 1 13th, 


29-03144 


29-10900 


1-14173 


123346 


0-48031 


1-71653 


26-907 


21-198 


31st, 


19th, 
3 p.m. 


40-6 


41-0 


4th, 


14th, 
night. 


- 0-4 


-3-1 


41-0 


44-1 


1-806 


1-566 


0-419 


0-478 


3-376 


2-667 


March. 


April 


29-89709 29-79823 


23rd, ' 14lh, 


30-42514 


30-24325 


28th, 1 3rd, 
9 P.M. :9 a.m. 


29-13380 


29-22120 


1-29134 


1-02205 


1-29921 


0-22441 


33-426 


25-777 


24th, 


17th, 


46-4 


536 


3rd, 
night. 


3rd, 

night. 


+ 8-6 


+2-3 


37-8 


51-3 


2-000 


1-332 


0733 


0500 


2-628 


3322 


AprU. 


May 


29-87967:30 02671 


21st, i 6th, 

9 P.M. 19 A.M. 


30-24561 


30-64364 


27th, ' 22nd, 

9 A.M. 3 P.M. 


29-33065 


29-54837 


0-91496 


0-99527 


1-67322 


0-32283 


38-071 


36-612 


20lh, 


7th, 


55-4 


54-5 


2nd, 
night. 


14th, 
night. 


6-8 


14-0 


48-6 


40-5 


1-720 


1-605 


0-838 


0-462 


2-419 


3-000 


May. 


June 


29-86409 29-84256 


23rd, 1st. 

9 P.M. : 9 A.M. 


30-24010 


30-30309 


14lb, 1 25th, 
»p.M. 3 p.m. 


29-35742 


29-51569 


088268 


0-78740 


1-06299 


0-21260 


50-482 


54-590 


27th, 


24th, 


75-2 


84-2 


4th, 
niRbt. 


Sth, 
night. 


32-0 


32-0 


43-2 


62-2 


2-366 


1-400 


1-133 


0-800 


2-665 


2-955 


JuDe. 


July 


29-70590 29-95282 


301h, 6lh, 


30-15742 


30-58498 


7th, 9th, 

9 P.M. 9 P.M. 


29-21254 


29-56963 


0-94488 


1-01535 


1-48031 


0-18110 


59128 


57-687 


26th, 


27tb, 


83-3 


84-7 


lltb. 


4th, 
morning. 


19-4 


37-4 


63-9 


47-3 


1-742 


2-097 


1-032 


1-000 


2-107 


3-430 


July. 


August .. 


29-91058^ 29-71522 


30lh, 26th 


30-18498 


30-22277 


7th, 2lBt, 

9 a.m. ! 9 A.M. 


29-52750 


29-16923 


0-65748 


105354 


1-34252 


2-437O0 


57-786 


68-453 


15tb, 


4th, 


78-8 


83-3 


10th, 


I4tb, 31st, 
morning. 


23-0 


41-0 


56-8 


42-3 


1-182 


2-134 


0-978 


0-903 


3-216 


2134 


August. 


September 


29-69318 29-67720 


8th, 28th, 


30-16309 


30-53144 


14th, 

9 P.M. 


7th, 
9 a.m. 


28-97435 


29-15349 


1-17874 


1-37795 


3-20865 


1-87008 


46-164 


49-210 


9lb, 


4tli, 
3 p.m. 


68-0 


64-4 


29th, 


15th, 
morning. 


27-6 


33-9 


40>6 


31-6 


1113 


1-423 


0-672 


0-811 


1-568 


1-933 


September. 


October .. 


29-78022! 29-61248 


28th, : 3pd, 

9 A.M. '9 P.M. 


30-29915 


.30-46096 


12th, 
9 a.m. 


2l8t, 
3 p.m. 


29-00388 


2S-75585 


1-29627 


1-70511 


110236 


2-61968 


39-316 


34-844 


9th, 
aflern. 


17th, 


64-5 


47-3 


15th, 


24th, 
morning. 


10-4 


12-2 


44-1 


35-1 


1-877 


2107 


0-344 


0-591 


3-000 


2-452 


October. 


November 


29-79950 29-47415 


3rd, 1 10th, 


30-41720 


29-91963 


21it, 

a P.M. 


30th, 
9 a.m. 


29-13419 


28-91569 


1-28307 


1-00394 


3-03149 


1-31890 


28-492 


30-916 


6th, 


Sth, 


50-0 


47-3 


28th, 


16lh, 
morning. 


- 8-2 


10-4 


62-2 


36-9 


1-339 


3-244 


0-447 


0-570 


1-894 


3-344 




December 


29-687371 29-87844 


9tli, ' 31st, 
9 a.m. 9 p.m. 


30-240ie 


30-63380 


30th, 

3 P.M. 


6lh, 


29-00782 


28-40152 


1-23228 


2-23228 


0-53150 


0-61023 


9-570 


23-632 


30th, 

3 P.M. 


Sth, 
aftem. 


37-4 


41-4 


23rd, 


22nd, 
morning. 


-11-2 


6-9 


48-0 


35-5 


0-899 


2-03I 


0-133 


0-322 


3633 


4-290 


December. 


Means 


29-75755 2976316 


... i ... 


30-2327! 


30-36835 






29-12901 


29-13462 


1-10371 


1-23373 


Total Total 
18-18500 16-80705 


35-001 


36-609 






66-2 


57-3 






7-6 


16-1 


47-e|42-2 


1-611 


1-974 


0-624 


0-610 


2503 


2-796 


Means. 






l=almost calm, and 10= 
onderi, and8=8llclear. 
n 1846. The year 1847 
r. The atmosphere was 




Bnromttet. IMS. JU/. 
Highestpointoftbeyear ... 30-42514 30-63380 
Lowest point of the year ... 28-88262 28-40J52 


Highest point of the year ... +83-3 Fahr. +84-7 Fahr. 
Lowest point of the year ... —14-8 ... — 3-1 ... 


sky is snpposed to be divided into eight parts, and = all c 
Mean height of the barometer was greater in 1847 tlian 
in 1846, and the reverse was the ease with the thennomet 
1846. 


was warmer than 1846. The oscillation of the barometer was greater in 1847 than 
drier, the wind was rather more powerful, and the sky was clearer in 1847 than in 



J 



2-23228 I Total range of tlie year ,, 



e n-ith the thermometer, ibe 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 33 

I find that several blanks occur in the course of the observations ; also that the 
half-hourly observations on the 21st of the month are entirely discontinued. All 
this is not to be wondered at, since Mr. Grewe is nowr without any scientific assist- 
ant ; and allowing for all the accidents of health and occupation, I consider that 
this gentleman deserves great praise for his diligence and perseverance in carrying on 
the observations as he has done. The Alten Meteorological Observations for 1843, 
1844 and 1845 do not contain a single blank, as Mr. Grewe and I made it a point 
to endeavour to obtain three years' observations complete, so as to sei-ve as a basis 
in comparing any observations that had been made at Alten before that time, or 
that might be made hereafter, and also to serve in comparing observations with any 
other part of the world. As those observations have been presented by you to the 
British Association, I have no doubt that they will prove highly interesting in assist- 
ing persons in their endeavours to find out meteorological laws or in following out 
any theories that meteorologists may advance. 

The observations for 1846 and 1847, now forwarded by Mr. Grewe, and which 
you intend to present to the British Association, will prove interesting in conse- 
quence of what has already been done. 

These observations show, that the mean of the barometer for 1846 was 755'8432 
millim. or 2975755 Engl, inch., and for 1847, 755*9854 millim. or 29-76315 Engl, 
inch. 

The mean of the thermometer for 1846 was -|- 1*667 Centig. or -f-35°0006 Fahr., 
and for 1847, +2*594 Centig. or +36°*6692 Fahr. 

The mean fall of rain per day was, for 1846, 1*266 millim. or 0*04984 Engl, 
inch,, and for 1847, 1*186 millim. or 0*04669 Engl. inch. 

Themeanforceof the wind was, for 1846, =1*611, and for 1847, =1*974 (accord- 
ing to the scale of forces adopted at Alten, viz. 1 = almost calm and 10 = hurri- 
cane ; these means will fall between almost calm and gentle breeze) . 

The mean proportion of clear sky for 1846 was 2*502 parts, and for 1847, 2*796 
parts (the sky is supposed to be divided into eight parts). 

The highest range of the barometer for 1846 was 772*80 millim. or 30*42514 
Engl, inch., and the lowest range was 733*62 millim. or 28*88262 Engl, inch., 
being a total range for 1846 of 39'18 millim. or 1*54252 Engl. inch. 

The highest range of the barometer for 1847 was 778*10 millim. or 30*63380 
Engl, inch., and the lowest range was 721*40 millim. or 28*40152 Engl, inch., being 
a total range for 1847 of 56*70 millim. or 2*23228 Engl. inch. 

The highest range of the thermometer for 1846 was -f-28°*5 Centig. or -f- 83°-3 
Fahr., and the lowest range was — 26°*0 Centig. or — 14°*8 Fahr., being a total range 
for 1846 of 54°*5 Centig. or 98°*1 Fahr. 

The highest range of the thermometer for 1847 was -)-29°*3 Centig. or +84°*74 
Fahr., and the lowest range was — 19°*5 Centig. or —3°* 10 Fahr., being a total 
range for 1847 of 48°*8 Centig. or 87°*84 Fahr. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that 1847 was much warmer than 1846, and 
that the mean height of the barometer was greater in 1847 than in 1846. 

The total oscillation of the barometer was much greater in 1847 than in 1846, 
but the reverse was the case with the thermometer. 

The atmosphere was drier, the wind was rather more powerful, and the sky was 
clearer in 1847 than in 1846. 

I feel grateful that my humble labours, or rather amusements, and those of my 
excellent friend Mr. Grewe, have been deemed by you worthy of being introduced to 
the notice of the British Association of Science, and I beg to subscribe myself. 

Sir, 
Your obedient and humble Servant, 
To John Lee, Esq., LL.D., 8fc. (Signed) John Francis Cole. 
Hartwell, 

On two cases of uncommon Atmospheric Refraction. 
By Matthew Moggridge. 
About midday on the 27th of January last we saw a schooner which appeared 
erect and resting on the top of the high sand-hill east of the mouth of the Neath 
1848. D 



34 REPORT — 1848. 

River, the whole of her hull being visible. As we passed on the image retained its 
position for some time, but vanished when we came to a turn of the road. 

On arriving at a point where I could look down the river, I saw within about 150 
yards of the sand-hill above referred to a schooner lying dry, which was evidently 
the vessel we had previously observed. She was much out of the proper channel, 
but had gone ashore by accident and remained there many weeks. The top of her 
masts was below the level of the sand-hill, so that her picture was thrown up more 
than the height of her masts. 

The weather was cold, with a strong north-easterly wind and a bright sun ; the 
schooner lying under the sand-hill, protected from the wind and in the full sunshine, 
which was powerful for the season. Two very different conditions therefore ob- 
tained in the atmosphere at that place ; the air immediately surrounding the vessel 
being warmed by the sun, not under the influence of the wind, and probably chai'ged 
with vapour evaporating from the wet sand ; while the air above the level of the 
sand-hill was rapidly changed by the keen, frosty wind, and must have been of a 
very different temperature and density. 

The other phenomenon to which I would direct attention occurred about nine- 
teen years ago, and was witnessed by many most respectable parties, among others 
by the then vicar of Swansea, the late Dr. Hewson. The whole promontory 
of the Mumbles was seen reflected in the sky, so that at the same time the true 
image and the counterfeit were visible. There was a width of sky seen between the 
two of a breadth about equal to the height of the Mumble rocks, and the refracted 
image was a correct copy of that below, except that the perpendicular objects — as 
the lighthouse — were somewhat too tall, and became still more so before the disap- 
pearance of the illusive image, which was observed during about ten minutes. 

Observations accompanying Wind and Current Charts of the North Atlantic. 

By Lieut. Maury, U.S. Navy. 
[A. Letter addressed to Prof. H. D. Rogers, by whom it was communicated to the Association.] 

Ts^ational Observatory, Washington, July 10, 1848. 

These charts are offered not for what they are, but for what they may be. They 
are a mere first attempt, a rough beginning, incomplete and faulty, by reason of the 
very defective materials used in their construction. They are compiled from abs- 
tracts of old sea logs kept without order, system or arrangement. Some are with- 
out record as to cun-ent, temperature or variation; and others are faulty in many 
respects. But it was found necessary to make a beginning in order to attract the 
attention of navigators to the subject, and so procure labourers for the field; and 
this these charts have succeeded in doing, in this country at least. 

Every navigator who will apply, is furnished gratis with a set of them and .with a 
blank form, for recording results of the requisite observations. And though but a few 
weeks have elapsed since the publication of these charts, such has been the eager- 
ness of navigators to procure each his copy, and such their readiness to contribute 
the requisite data for a more complete set, that fleets of ships are now engaged in 
all parts of the world (as they go to and from across the sea), in making and record- 
ing all — by a prescribed form — the necessary observations. 

I have secured the co-operation both of the military and commercial marine of 
the United States, and before the end of the year, probably, not less than a thousand 
vessels will be collecting materials for the completion of these charts. Could the 
vessels of Great Britain be engaged in like manner, the value of the results would be 
greatly enhanced, because then we should probably have vessels enough engaged to 
afford synchronous observations for the space of a year, or longer, should it be 
desired, of the winds, currents, temperature of the ocean, &c. in all parts of the world. 

The plan is, to construct similar charts of the three great oceans, to lay down the 
tracks of all the vessels engaged, in colours according to the season. Thus the 
tracks in winter will be all black; those in spring, green; in the summer, red; in 
the autumn, blue. Each track has marked on it, in such a manner as to show at 
once the daily experience of the navigator who made it, the winds, currents, tem- 
perature of the water, variation of the compass, &c. j thus placing at a glance before 



fl 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 35 

each one, the combined experience of all who have sailed before him over the same 
part of the ocean. 

To illustrate the importance of this undertaking, I may be excused for alluding to 
some of the practical results already obtained. 

In consequence of the better knowledge afforded by this chart with regard to the 
winds in the North Atlantic Ocean, the average passage from the ports of the United 
States to the Equator (and consequently to all ports the way to which leads across 
the Equator) has been shortened several days. I have the tracks of four vessels 
which have been to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, by the new route proposed on this 
chart. They have invariably made shorter passages than vessels sailing at the same 
time by the old route. The average passage by the old route to the line, is forty-one 
days ; the mean of the four which have tried the new route is thirty-one days, the 
shortest being twenty-four days, the quickest of the season, and the longest thirty- 
nine days. 

The information already collected has enabled me to strike out numerous vigias 
and fabulous dangers which deface our best general charts of the ocean, and which 
greatly increase the sources of anxiety which at all times surround the navigator. 
The positions of these vigias are laid down on the chart as doubtful, and when the 
ship is in the vicinity of any of them, it is a sleepless time with her master. I have 
the tracks of several hundred vessels which pass over and within 5° of some of these 
vigias, so that, if they were in existence, they certainly would have been seen by one 
or more. But they are not mentioned in the log, and it may therefore be fairly con- 
cluded that they do not exist. At the proper time I shall publish a list of vigias 
which these charts show ought to be erased. 

The grouping together such a mass of facts in the manner proposed, will lead to 
many collateral, highly interesting and valuable results. Take as an example what is 
shown on the charts before you. If you will examine sheet No. 3, you will see that 
the trade-winds between tlie parallels of 5° and 10° N. from the coast of Africa 
nearly to the middle of the Atlantic, lose their trade character and become the 
baffling, variable airs known to sailors as the doldrums, whereas between the same 
parallels (sheet No. 2) on the American side, they blow with great regularity from 
the northward and eastward. In the former case, the sun shining upon the plains and 
deserts of Africa rarefies the air to windward, and this calls upon the winds of the 
sea to return and restore the equilibrium. In the latter case, the sun shining upon 
the plains of South America heats the air to leeward, and causes the trade-winds to 
hasten on and restore the equilibrium. In the one case the rarefaction takes place 
to windward, in the other to leeward, and the effect produced is clearly indicated by 
the chart, and is precisely such as might be expected. 

Again, examine the winds in the Gulf of Mexico, sheet No. 1. The prevailing 
winds here are from the southward and eastward, while between the same parallels 
(sheet No. 2) and upon the broad ocean, the prevailing winds are the N.E. trades. 
As soon as the effect is seen the cause becomes obvious. Is it not to be found in 
the action of the sun upon Texas and the States of Northern Mexico ? There is an 
immense body of land in this direction, and the heat of the sun upon it causes the 
winds to set towards it from the Gulf of Mexico. What effect a day of rain or of 
clouds over this body of land has upon the winds off the Pacific coast of Tehuan- 
tepec and Central America, is one of the interesting results to be anticipated from 
the work before us. 

But perhaps the most interesting- result yet obtained — and the undertaking is but 
just commenced — is the discovery within the limits of the N.E. trades in the At- 
lantic, of a region in which the prevailing winds are from the southward and west- 
ward. 

This region is limited in extent, and is somewhat in the shape of a wedge, with its 
base towards the coast of Africa between the Equator and 10° N, It extends from 
long. 10=" W. to about 25° W., being bounded by the Equator for one side, and by a 
line drawn from lat. 10° N. long. 10° W. to lat. 5° N. long. 25° W. on the other. 
How the case may be to the south of the Equator, I am not prepared to say. But 
to the north of it, I have discussed 2292 independent observations made within the 
above-described region by different vessels on their voyages across it. Included 
among these observations, calms were encountered on 246 occasions, leaving 2046 

V2 



36 REPORT^ — 1848. 

observations upon tlie winds. Of these, the winds were found from the northward 

and eastward (tiie regular trade quarter) 442 times. 

From the S. and E 408 „ 

„ „ S. andW J)51 „ 

„ „ N.andW 245 „ 

Tlie law which governs the trade-winds is here reversed : they blow from the oppo- 
site quarter. And the natural tendency of winds cannot be so suddenly and com- 
pletely reversed without creating violent atmospherical disturbances. Accordingly, 
the facts show this region to be one of violent squalls, sudden gusts of wind, of 
thunder-storms, heavy rains, lightning, baffling airs and calms. It is known to 
sailors as the region for the equatorial ' doldrums.' 

To the westward of this region and between the same parallels, the winds again 
assume their normal direction, and prevail from the eastward. 

It is not a little singular that vessels bound from any of the ports in the United 
States to Brazil, should cross the Atlantic nearly twice, and if they be bound round 
the Cape of Good Hope they cross it three times. The usual route of vessels bound 
from the United States to any port beyond the Equator is to steer almost an east 
course, many of them making the Canaries, and most of them Cape de Verde islands, 
as the chart will show. Tliey then shape their course through this " doldrum " 
region and steer to the southward and westward for their port. Now the log-books 
in my possession show that southward-bound vessels in traversing this region may 
expect to encounter either head winds or calms about 1400 times out of 2292. 
The navigator would therefore have about two chances to one against a fair wind in 
this portion of the route. 

To the west of this region and more directly in the straight line from the United 
States, the chart shows a blank space through which a straggling vessel passes only 
now and then. The chart indicates, and facts subsequently obtained show, that here 
the prevailing vvinds are more favourable than they are by the usual route, for a 
short passage to the Equator. The materials so far collected— and they are ex- 
tensive — show that if a Rio bound vessel were to keep to the westward of 25°, the 
wager instead of being two to one against fair winds, would be three to one in favour 
of them. Between the meridians of 25° and 35° W. I have 800 observations ex- 
tending from the Equator to 5° N. Of these, — 

257 give the wind from N. and E. 
366 „ „ S. and E. 

102 „ „ S. andW. 

30 „ „ N.andW. 

and 45 calms. 

Hence it appears that in this region there are three calms and four S.W. winds 
to the east of long. 25°, to one calm and one S.W. wind to the west of that meri- 
dian. The wager against head winds and calms by this route, and in this part of it, 
would be one head wind for three fair one?, instead of two head winds for one fair 
one by the usual route. Moreover the distance by the new route is nearly 1000 
miles less than by the old. 

It may be asked, why has not a route which is so obviously better and more direct 
been tried before? The answer is ready j sailors more than any other class of men 
are prone to follow in the wake of their predecessors. They know and feel that the 
experience of any one of them as to winds and weather at sea is at the best very 
limited. It is confined to the spot where he may be; they are therefore prone to 
follow their guide-books. Cook went that way in 1776. Hydrographers put his 
track on their chart as a guide, the next to come after him took the same track, and 
each has continued to follow the other. 



Meteorological Observations at Huggate for 1847. By Thos. Rankin. 

Greatest degree of cold, therm. 16°, March 11 th; 7° colder than last year. Hot- 
test day 78°, July 14th; 5° less than last year. Greatest range of therm, for any 
given day 33°, July 3rd ; least range 1°, Jan. 8th. Greatest range for any given 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 3/ 

month 43°, March ; least range 20°, December. Range for the whole year 4° greater 
than 1846. 

Maximum of barometer 30"33, March 4th ; -20 less than 1846. Minimum 27'80, 
December 6th ; -52 less than 1846. Greatest range for any month 2-05, December ; 
•65 greater than 1846. Least range -12, February; -33 less than 1846. Range 
for the year "59 greater than 1846. 

Rain fallen 30'232 inches ; 4-838 inches less than 1846. Least rain in any month 
1-000 inch, February; most, 5-375 inches. May. 

Winds: east 2 days, west 45, north 2, south 1, north-east 15, north-west 27, 
south-east 8, south-west 39- 

Weather: clear 127 days, rain 48, frost 23, snow 18, mist 18, thunder 3. 

The author adds remarks on aurorae, characteristic clouds, and other phsenomena. 

Remarkable Tide in the British Channel, Friday, July 7, 1848, as it 
appeared at Lyme Regis, Dorset. By George Roberts. 
Weather warm and calm. Dead neap tides. Fine for twenty-four hours before 
the phsenomenon. About two hours and a half before the phsenomenon, at 14 a.m., it 
blew hard for ten minutes. The wind before and after this gust was gentle, and had 
gone round to all points of the compass. At dead low water, or perhaps just after 
the water had begun to flow at 4 a.m., the tide began to run into the Cobb, so that 
a boat rowed with two oars could not make head against it, but was carried along 
with it. My informant estimates the height of the water to have been a.bout six or 
seven feet, and that it took eight minutes to flow in, or at most ten minutes, and 
the ^ame time to flow out. Then when out it began to flow in again, and so con- 
tinued till eight o'clock, a space of four hours, when the sea was quite calm, and so 
continued all the day. The same was experienced at Dartmouth and Portland. Some 
of the sailors said it was a bore ; others that it was caused by thunder- weather ; 
some said there had been an earthquake in the ocean : some sailors say the tide ran 
ten knots an hour *. 

Note on ' Shooting Stars ' seen August \0, ai Armagh. 
By the Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Though last night was mostly cloudy here we saw a good many 'shooting stars.' 
From 12'' to 12'' 45"° thirty were seen through a thick covering of the stratus family ; 
their light was bluish-white, and most had long red trains. Towards morning it 
cleared, and from 1'' 41" to 2'' 41'" three of us counted 117 ; but as two used deep 
spectacles in which the margin of the field of view must be indistinct, it is probable 
that many of the smaller were missed. Many of them were large and brilliant, and 
with few exceptions their motion was directed to a point which I estimate to be 
near r) Ophiuchi. It is remarkable that nearly five-sixths of the whole were north 
of the prime vertical. Several seemed to explode in their course, and so decidedly 
that we actually listened for explosions. None were however heard, though the night 
was perfectly still. 

In the earlier part of the evening aurora was seen in the N.E., and it must have 
been rather intense, or it could not have been visible in the moonlight. 



On certain Effects produced on Soimd by the rapid motion of the observer. 
By J. Scott Russell, F.R.S. Ed. 

Until the production of the very high velocities now given to railway trains, no 

* In Mr. Roberts's Collection of Historical Matter respecting Lyme Regis, are three en- 
tries made by old clerk Read as follows : — 

" May 31, 1759 : the sea flowed three times in one hour. 

" Aug. 18, 1797 : the sea flowed three times in one hour, attended with lightning. 

" Jan. 26, 1799 : the sea as above about 4 o'clock a.m." 

Upon a summer's day about 1813 something similar took place. Mr. Roberts asks whe- 
ther the Seiches of the Swiss lakes are referrible to the same cause as these movements of 
the water of our British Channel. 



38 REPORT— 1848. 

opportunities have existed of observing any phsenomena in which the velocity of the 
observer has been sufficient to affect the character of sounds. The author having 
had occasion to make observations on railway trains moving at high velocities, has 
been led to notice some very curious effects in sounds heard at 50 and 60 miles an 
hour. These effects are not heard by an observer who is stationary. He found 
that the sound of the whistle of an engine stationary on the line was heard by a 
passenger in a rapid train to sound a different note — in a different key from that in 
which it was heard by the person standing beside it. The same was true of all 
sounds. The passenger in rapid motion heard them in a different key, which might 
be either louder or lower in pitch than the true or stationary sound. The explana- 
tion of this was given as follows. The pitch of a musical sound is determined by 
the number of vibrations which reach the ear in a second of time — 32 vibrations per 
second of an organ-pipe give the note C, and a greater or less number give a more 
acute sound or one more grave. These vibrations move with a velocity of 1024 feet 
per second nearly. If an observer in a railway train move at the rate of 50 miles 
an hour towards a sounding body, he will meet a greater number of undulations in 
a second of time than if at rest, in the proportion which his movement bears to the 
velocity of sound ; but if he move away from the sounding body he will meet a 
smaller number in that proportion. In the former case he will hear the sound a 
semitone higher, and in the second a semitone lower than the observer at rest. In 
the case of two trains meeting at this velocity, the one containing the sounding body 
and the other the observer, the effect is doubled in amount. Before the trains meet 
the sound is heard two semitones too high, and after they pass two semitones too 
low — being a difference of a major third. There were next explained the various 
effects which the noises of a train produced on the ears of passengers at high velo- 
cities. The reflected sounds of a train, from surfaces like those of bridges across 
the line, were at ordinary velocities sent back to the ear changed by less than a 
tone, so as to cause a harsh discord, which was an element of the unpleasant 
effect on the ear, of passing a bridge. In a tunnel also the sounds reflected from 
any irregularities in the front of the train or behind it were discords to the sounds 
of the train heard directly. He showed however that at speeds of 112 miles an 
hour these sounds might be those of a harmony with each other and become agree- 
able, for the sounds reflected in opposite directions would have the interval of a 
major third. 

On the Lengths and Velocities of Waves. By Capt. Stanley, R.N, 
• (^Extract from a Letter to the Rev. Dr. Whewell.) 

The method I adopted for the determination of the length and speed of the sea, 
was to veer a spar astern by the marked lead-line, when the ship was going dead 
before the wind and sea, until the spar was on the crest of one wave while the ship's 
stern was on the crest of the preceding one. After a few trials, I found that when 
the sea was at all regular I could obtain this distance within two or three fathoms 
when the length of wave was fifty. 

In order to ascertain the speed of the sea, the time was noted when the crest of 
the advancing wave passed the spar astern, and also the time when it reached the 
ship ; and by taking a number of observations, I have every reason to believe we have 
obtained a result not very far from the truth. The officer noting the time in all 
these observations having only to register the indications of the watch when the 
observer called stop, had no bias to induce him to make the differences more regular. 

For measuring the height of the waves, I adopted a plan recommended to me by 
Mrs. Somerville, which I have tried for ten years with great success. When the 
ship is in the trough of the sea, the person observing ascends the rigging until he 
can just see the crest of the coming wave on with the horizon, and the height of his 
eye above the ship's water-line will give a very fair measure of the difference of level 
between the crest and hollow of a sea. Of course in all these observations the mean 
of a great many have been taken, for even when the sea is most regular apparently 
there is a change in the height of the individual waves. 

I regret that we have had so few opportunities of making these observations, but 
it is only under very favourable circumstances, when the ship is going directly 
before both wind and sea, that they can be made with any chance of success ; but 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



39 



I mean to lose no opportunity of obtaining more. The foUovring is a summary of 
the observations : — 



Date. 


Il 


1* 


It 

a," 

CO 


•li 

1* 


ii 


1 s g 

1*1 
aS 


l-s 

II 


Remarks. 


1847. ■ 






knots. 


fflpt. 


fath. 


seconds. 


knots. 




April 21. 




5 


7-2 


22 


55 


100 


27 


/Ship before the wind, with a 
\ heavy following sea. 


... 23. 


8 


5 


(50 


20 


43 


8-0 


24-5 


Ditto. 


... 24. 


6 


4 


60 


20 


50 


10-0 


240 


Ditto. 


... 25. 


9 


4 


50 


... 


35to40 


7-8 


221 


Sea irregular. 


... 26. 




4 


6-0 




33 


7-4 


221 


Heavy following sea. 


May 2. 


6 


(4-5) 


70 


22 


57 


10-4 


26-2 


/ Sea irregular. Observation not 
\ very good in consequence. 


... 3. 


7 


5 


7-8 


17 


35 


8-9 


22 


r Wind and sea a little on Port 
\ Quarter. 



Note. — The numbers denoting the strength of the wind are those used by Admiral Beaufort. 



On the Fall of Rain on the Table-land of Uttree Mullay, Travancore, during 
the year 1846, from observations made by General Cullen, Resident in 
Travancore. By Lieut.-Colonel Sykes, V.P.R.S. 

At the Meeting of the British Association at Southampton I communicated to the 
Physical Section some meteorological records of General Cullen made at certain sta- 
tions in the south of India. The results exhibited singular discrepancies in the fall 
of rain at the several localities, particularly at Cape Comorin, although the differ- 
ences of temperatures were unimportant at stations not differing greatly in their 
level above the sea or in their latitude. The most remarkable feature was the small 
quantity of rain at Cape Comorin and Vaurioor at the extremity of the peninsula, 
amounting only from 18 to 25| inches in the years 1841, 1842 and 1843, while 
from 100 to 131 inches fell at places on the Malabar coast, and about 290 inches 
fell on the table-land of Uttree MuUay, not far in the interior. I suggested to Ge- 
neral Cullen an examination of local physical circumstances, with a view to ac- 
count for the variations. In a letter in reply, dated the Gth of January last, from 
Trevandrum, General Cullen said that the General Tables were ready for 1844, 
1845 and 1846, but that public business had left him without leisure to comment 
on them, or to complete the barometrical sections which he contemplated ; and all 
that he could then do was to transmit to me a continuation of the rain and tempe- 
rature observations for 1846 on the table-land of Uttree Mullay at 4600 feet above 
the level of the sea, adding in an abstract, in parallel columns, the comparative fall 
of rain at Trevandrum and Quilon. For a future communication therefore is re- 
served General CuUen's views of the question submitted to him, and the present 
notice is limited to his daily observations of the fall of rain and the temperature at 
Uttree Mullay. The fall of rain was recorded twice daily, at 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., 
and the temperature thrice daily, 6 a.m., 2 p.m. and 6 p.m. In 1844^5 the fall of 
rain had been 290 inches : in 1846 it was only 235'8 inches. It has been formerly 
stated that Uttree Mullay is under the influence of both monsoons. Rain fell in 
every month in the year, although the months of February and March may almost 
be considered exceptions ; for in the former month rain fell only twice to the amount 
of 0'45 of an inch, and in the latter month on five occasions, but to the amount only 
of 0*72 of an inch. The greatest monthly fall of rain was in the month of June, 
51 inches, in the S.W. monsoon, and the next greatest fall in October, in the N.E. 
monsoon, 38'25 inch. In the months of May, June, July and August the S.W. mon- 
soon may be considered to have prevailed, and 143 inches of rain fell. A comparative 



40 



REPORT — 1848. 



cessation occurs in September, when the monthly minimum of 22 inches in August 
of the S.W. monsoon is reduced to 7'3 inches. The N,E. monsoon commences in 
October with 38-2 inches, gradually diminishing in amount until January, the last 
month of the N.E. monsoon, when the fall in 1846 was reduced to 4-6 inches, the 
whole fall in the four months of the N.E. monsoon being about 75 inches. Fe- 
bruary, March and April are the precursors of the S.W. monsoon, and September 
intermediate between the termination of the S.W. monsoon and the commencement 
of the N.E. monsoon. The average annual fall of rain upon this elevated table-land 
during the day and during the night does not appear to differ materially, although it 
is somewhat in excess at night, being 123'1 inches to 112-7 inches during the day. 
The excess at night however does not hold good through all the months. In May 
there were 17*1 inches by night and 19'7 inches by day; in August 8-8 inches by 
night and 13-3 inches by day ; and in September l-Q inch by night and 5-6 inches 
by day. Neither is there any uniformity in the fall of rain in the same months of 
the two monsoons in successive years, but the maximum monthly fall will be found 
in one of the four months of the respective monsoons, although it may occur in 
May in one year and in August in the following, or in October of one year and in 
December of the next in the N.E. monsoon. While 235-8 inches fell in 1846 at 
Uttree Mullay, 69-9 inches only fell at Trevandrum, and 74'7 inches at Quilon ; in 
May 11-4 inches fell at Trevandrum, but 22-7 inches at Quilon on the coast; in 
October the case was reversed, 17'5 inches fell at Trevandrum and only 9-4 inches 
at Quilon. In 1844-45 an instance was given of a fall of 9 inches of rain in one 
daj', on the 10th of October, at Uttree Mullay; and on the 26th of November of 
7-35 inches. Nothing similar to the first fall occurred in 1846, the greatest being 
7-6 inches on the 25th of May ; and there are three instances of a daily fall of nearly 
7 inches on the 24th of April, 12th of July, and the 13th of October. The monthly 
mean temperature at Uttree Mullay, at 6 a.m., varied only from 57°-5 in January to 
65°-75 in August and September ;'at 2 p.m. from 66°-25 in June to 73°-75 in April ; 
and at 6 p.m. from 62°-25 to 67° in the months of April and July. The annual 
mean at the respective hours was 63°, 69° and 65°- 16, and the mean of the whole 
observations 65°-66. The extreme annual range of the thermometer was from 55-5 
on the 31st of January and 15th of December to 78° on the 6th, 21st and 22nd of 
April, so that the extremes differed from the mean by only 10°- 16 minus and 12°-34 
plus. With such limited general results it would be superfluous to particularize 
monthly variations of temperature. 

Abstract. 



Months in 1846. 


Uttree Mullay. 


Kain. 


Thermometer. 


Day. 


Night. 


Total. 


6 A.M. 


2 P.M. 


6 P.M. 




inches. 

3-050 

0-400 

0-550 

4-050 

17-100 

28-700 

17-400 

8850 

1-925 

23-750 

10-325 

7100 


inches. 

1-600 
0050 
0-175 
5-550 
19-700 
23-300 
14-675 
13-375 
5-600 
14-200 
11-350 
3-200 


inches. 

4-650 

0-450 

0-725 

9-600 

36-500 

51-050 

33-325 

22 125 

7-325 

38-250 

21-675 

10-200 


57i 

60 

62f 

64i 

64f 

Qi\ 

63 

65| 

65f 

64i 

634 

60 


66| 

68f 

7U 
73| 
72 

m\ 

68 

m\ 

70k 
68 

66f 


64 

64| 

67 

66J 

64f 

67 

66i 

66i 

64^ 

65 

63| 












July 




September 


November 

December 


Grand total... 


123-200 


112-775 


235-875 


63 


69 


65i 




Mean 65| 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



41 



Eain in 1846. 



1846. 


On Uttree 
Mullay. 


Trevandrum. 


Quilon. 

inches. 
0000 

2-900 

1-600 

22-700 

17-650 

10-550 

3-800 

1-300 

9-400 

4-755 

0-100 




inches. 

4-650 

0-450 

0-725 

9-600 

36-500 

51-050 

33-325 

22-125 

7-325 

38-250 

21-675 

10-200 


inches. 

0-100 

1075 

4-025 

11-425 

17-750 

6-925 

3-675 

0-750 

17-500 

4-400 

2-300 












July 














Total 


235-875 


69-925 


74-755 





On Atmospheric Disturbances, and on a remarkable Storm at Bombay on 
the 6th of April 1848. By Lieut-Colonel Sykes, V.P.R.S. 

Numerous are the expressions of surprise in England at the extraordinary cha- 
racter of the meteorological phsenomena since last year. Mr. Glaisher of the 
Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in remarks on the weather during the quarter 
ending the 31st March last, says, "The weather during the past quarter has been 
remarkable in many respects. The daily temperature has been above the average ; 
yet there has been exceedingly cold weather between the 20th and 26th January ; 
and the temperature of the preceding quarter was in excess to the amount of 3°-4. 
The mean temperature of evaporation and of the dew-point above the average ; the 
mean weight of water in a cubic foot of air of the same value as for the preceding 
six years. The quantity required to complete saturation 0-47 of a grain ; the ave- 
rage for the preceding six years being 0-36 of a grain. The barometer was 0-132 
below the average of seven years and the readings remarkable ; and the great fluc- 
tuations in the readings appear to have been general, and differing from any period 
since 1800." A sympeisometer in my house in Albion Street, Hyde Park, in De- 
cember last, fell 1 inch in twenty-four hours without a storm ; and I have frequent 
records of rain without the sympeisometer being moved. A correspondent of the 
Times, in a letter dated Bermondsey, 7th Dec. 1847, speaks of the sudden and extra- 
ordinary changes in the atmosphere, and adds that his barometer, which stood at 
29-92 at 11 P.M. Sunday, 5th Dec, had on Monday the 6th, at 8 a.m., sunk to 
28*92, a difference of 1-2 inch in nine hours ; and at 12 o'clock Monday night of 
the 6th, it stood at 28-54 ; a difference of 1-38 inch in twenty-five hours, the air in 
that interval having been relieved of pressure at the rate of 326 lbs. on every square 
foot of superficial area. Magnetic instruments also have shown unusual disturb- 
ances. The fall of rain has been nearly double that of the preceding six years, and 
2^ inches above the average since 1815. Tlie range of a protected thermometer was 
from 7l°'5 to 15°-7 or 55°-7 ; but a thermometer on the grass at Durham fell below 
zero ; and on the 12th of July preceding it stood at 87 in the shade in London. 

In the north of Scotland in January, correspondents wrote, " We have had the 
extremes of weather." Strange as it may appear, two gentlemen, Mr. Stericker and 
Mr. Whilburn, were frozen to death in September in Invernesshire. Short intense 
frosts and rapid thaws characterized the winter in England. At Madrid, in January, 
the cold was intense, yet in Lancashire there were some fresh sprigs of hawthorn 
3 inches in length, and leaves of the honeysuckle open ; and the primroses and fox- 
gloves were as much advanced as if it had been the month of March ; and the wild 
fowl, which usually pass in November, did not pass until the middle of December. 

On the 12th of December, near Penzance, four whirlwinds occurred, unroofing 
houses and overturning furze and turf-ricks, and carrying with them great quan- 



42 REPORT — 1848. 

titles of snow, tiles, slates, &c. They were like inverted cones of vapour, — revolved 
swiftly on their axes, and coursed along at the rate of 20 miles an hour. Rotatory 
whirlwinds in the midst of winter, which are only seen in tropical climates in the 
most intensely hot weather, seem remarkable phenomena. Amongst the other phy- 
sical phenomena in accord with the tumults amongst men, was that of the eruption 
of Vesuvius, which during my stay in Naples the last days of March and beginning 
of April in the present year, was pouring out four fiery streams of lava amidst ex- 
plosions. 

But meteorological anomalies were not confined to Europe ; and if we look to 
the records of India for the last year, we shall find that observers have had equal 
cause for surprise and comment. 

"Tuesday, February 16. — From the Bombay papers it appears that they have 
actually had ice at Poona." — From Bengal Hurkaru. 

This was almost a miracle, for such a circumstance had never been recorded 
before. 

" The cold weather, which bo suddenly and unexpectedly returned upon us, has 
now taken what we may consider its final departure for the season." — Calcutta 
Hurkaru, Feb. 18, 1847. 

" There had been a very severe storm in the northern hills — al; Simla snow lay 
three feet deep and all the high grounds about the Dehra Dhoon were covered." — 
Bombay Times, May 2, 1847. 

From the Deccan the accounts, on the 22nd of February, 1847, state, — " We have 
had rain all over the Deccan from the south-east, strange at this season ; the rain 
was also heavy and continuous, quite monsoon weather." 

On the 15th of November, 1847, the editor of the Bombay Times, Dr. Buist, a 
distinguished meteorologist, has the following remarks in his paper respecting the 
great anomaly of a large fall of rain in November, a month of the dry season : — 

" November has opened as if another monsoon were just commencing. On Sa- 
turday and Sunday the thermometer rose on the Esplanade as high as 90° ; in the 
coolest and most airy buildings in Colaba it stood at 87° ; the wind dry and blowing 
strong till past noon from the north-east. On Sunday evening there was some 
thunder and a few drops of rain, and on Monday a stiff breeze blew about sunset 
from nearly east, and the sky looked most threatening. All yesterday it was close, 
hot and muggj', a slight shower having fallen in the morning — thermometer 85°, 
the barometer slightly down." — Bombay Times, Nov. 3. 

" We mentioned in our last that we had had some thunder with a threatening of 
November showers : they have come in greater abundance than was expected. 
About midnight on Tuesday a very heavy fall of rain commenced and continued for 
a couple of hours, and all over the morning it looked thick and lowering. Little 
rain fell next night, but there were showers over the morning, and bet\vixt one and 
three on Thursday it rained heavily, and continued cloudy all the afternoon and 
evening. About ten o'clock a thick close rain commenced, with a bleak north-east 
wind : both have continued ever since. Yesterday was more like the middle of the 
monsoon than a day in clear and dry November. The thermometer, which on Sunday 
stood at from 85° to 90°, has all at once plumped down to betwixt 70° and 75°— 
a change great and sudden enough to be very iinpleasant to the feelings. More than 
3 inches of rain fell. The barometer has all this while stood high, and made no sign I 
The rains appear to have been general all along and below the Ghauts : the Maha- 
buleshwar range seems to have suffered severely. We have just heard of much 
mischief having been occasioned to the unstacked rice all over the island, and the 
damage must be general wherever grain crops are still in the field : all the low 
grounds are flooded, and the dry channels running torrents. 

Fall of rain in the Fort during November. in. 

Up to 6 P.M. 1st Nov 0-00 

„ 2nd „ 000 

„ 3rd „ 0-65 

» „ 4th „ 0-06 

„ 5th „ ^ 

—Ibid. Nov. 6. 3-58 " 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE) SECTIONS. 43 

" The weather has taken this week almost as sudden a change as if did last, but 
on the present occasion fortunately it is in the right direction. The rain, which 
continued to pour in torrents till early on Saturday morning (upwards of two inches 
of rain fell during Friday night — making a total fall of nearly six inches during 
November), faired up on that day. We have now in fact fairly got into the cold 
season with all its nipping freshness : a coat is at no time unpleasant — blankets 
overnight indispensable. The thermometer ranges from 72° to 79°. So thoroughly 
drenched have been the paddy-fields that we have still two or three inches of water 
all over the surface of the flatter portions of the ground."' — Ibid. Nov. 10. 

" The weather has now set in steady and cool, the thermometer ranging from 
70° to 79° — water in exposed situations falling as low as 65° overnight. The sea 
and land winds are fresh and strong." — Ibid. Nov. 13. 

" From out stations we gather the following items : — 

" SuRAT. — A letter from Surat informs us of an unexpected flood which had oc- 
curred on the Taptee, which had commenced at nopn on the 7th, the river continu- 
ing to rise for about twenty hours, when it had attained near the town a depth of 
fifteen feet above its previous level. The cut connecting the river from Burcutcha 
with the sea relieved the flood and saved the city from desolation similar to the visi- 
tations of this sort which formerly afflicted it in cases of freshes in the river. Seve- 
ral pattimars had been driven from their anchorages ; some cattle had been drowned, 
and three carts on their way from Broach were said to have been carried away. A 
heavy fall of rain in the Malwa district was supposed to have been the cause of the 
flood. The -rains which prevailed here betwixt the 3rd and 5th must in fact have 
been very general ; the commencement of them at the former date on the Coro- 
mandel coast is mentioned by our Madras contemporaries : at Foona upwards of 
three inches of rain fell ; and a heavy fall occurred at Belgaum ; while all along the 
Ghauts the storm seems to have prevailed. It is curious that at Poona more than 
twelve inches of rain have this year fallen in April and November — both falls in the 
fair season." — Times, November 13. 

These notices of atmospheric disturbances, which I could very considerably in- 
crease, I have thought to be suitable precursors of a notice of a remarkable storm 
in Bombay on the 6th of April last, in which the barometer rose instead of falling ; 
the facts being supplied by the Magnetic Observatory, and the comments by that 
very zealous and able promoter of scientific research. Dr. Buist, LI^.D,, the Editor 
of the Bombay Times. 

The Stokm of the 6th of April 1848. 
State of the Weather. 

April 6th, 9a.m. Nimbi, cirrocumuli and cirri throughout, except in the S, W., which 

is clear. 

10 a.m. Overcast by nimbi and cirrocumuU. 

11 A.M. Overcast by nimbi and cirrocumuli ; a few breaks in the N. 

12 a.m. Nimbi scattered throughout. 

I P.M. Nimbi in the horizon from N.E. to S.W. (by E.) ; masses of fleecy 

clouds scattered throughout the zenith. 

2 p.m. Nimbi scattered ; clear in the S.W. 

3 P.M. Nimbi all round the horizon, and cirri in the S.W. ; zenith clear. 

4 P.M. Nimbus and cumuli all round the horizon, very dense in the S.E. ; 

zenith clear. 
5 p.m. Nimbus; cumulostratus extending from N.E. to S.E. ; cirri scat- 
tered throughout the whole of the sky. 
6 P.M. Electrified cumuli extended from N. to S.E., and nimbi scattered 

throughout; masses of scud coming from the S. and W. 
7 P.M. Nimbus and scud coming from the S.W. and forming into dense 

masse§ in the N.N.E. and S.E. ; lightning at intervals of 5 min. 
8 P.M. Densely overcast ; thunder in continued peals, N. and E. of zenith ; 

vivid lightning, flash after flash, from N. to S.W. (by M.) ; rain 

in large drops since 7'' 30"", 
9 P.M. Densely overcast; thunder and lightning increased, and in all 



44 



REPORT — 1848. 



quarters. Drizzling rain, in large drops, has continued to fall 

since last observation. 
April 6th, 10 P.M. Densely overcast; squalls of wind and rain; lightning flashing 

and thunder pealing in all quarters ; at 9*" 20"" violent gusts of 

wind, which lasted 20 minutes. 
11p.m. Densely overcast ; drizzling rain — thunder and lightning still con- 
tinuing. 
April 7th, midnight. Overcast ; rain falling in small drops ; thunder and lightning 

decreasing. 
1 A.M. Overcast; no rain; lightning in the S. and S.W. at two seconds 

interval ; the thunder has ceased. 

2 a.m. Do. do. do. do. 

3 a.m. Nimbi; stars faintly seen ; lightning in theS. at intervals of 15 min. 

4 a.m. Nimbi; zenith clear; lightning in the N.W. horizon. 

5 a.m. Overcast; lightning in the N.E. ; thunder in the N. 

6 A.M. Nimbi. 

7 A.M. Nimbi ; fleecy clouds moving from the N.E. 

8 A.M. Nimbi; cirrocumuli in the zenith. 

9 a.m. Cirrostratus and cirrocumuli ; many breaks in the zenith. 

Abstract of Meteorological Observations from the Observatory Report, from 9 a.m. 
April 6, to 9 a.m. April 7, 1848. 

Bombay, Magnetic Observatory, 8th April, 1848. 





Standard 
barometer 


i 

1^ 


II 


3 to 


■|-s 


Wind. 


Rain 


Extent 
of 


Days and hours. 


















corrected. 


e 


^1 


fiS 


K 


Direc- 
tion. 


Force in 
lbs. 


inches. 


sky. 


6th April, 9 a.m. 


29-847 


8d'-5 


77-0 


0-772 


0-85 


S.S.E. 


0-05 




s 


10 a.m. 


29-857 


85-4 


77-0 


0-818 


0-90 


s.s.w. 


0-05 




whole 


11 a.m. 


29861 


87-6 


78-0 


0-833 


0-89 


W.N.W. 


0-05 




i 


12 a.m. 


29-827 


87-4 


78-0 


0-836 


0-89 


W.S.W. 


0-16 




1 


I P.M. 


29-782 


89-2 


790 


0-858 


0-89 


W.S.W. 


0-21 




1 


2 p.m. 


29-745 


890 


79-0 


0-860 


0-89 


w.s.-w. 


0-10 




f 


3 P.M. 


29-701 


88-0 


79-0 


0-871 


0-90 


W.S.W. 


0-36 




whole 


4 p.m. 


29-707 


86-0 


79-1 


0-897 


0-92 


W.S.W. 


0-42 






5 p.m. 


29-727 


85-0 


79-0 


0-904 


0-92 


W.S.W. 


0-36 




a 


6 p.m. 


29-764 


83-5 


79-0 


0-921 


0-95 


S.W. 


0-46 




a 


7 p.m. 


29-799 


82-7 


770 


0-847 


0-93 


s. 


1-00 




f 


8 P.M. 


29-798 


79-5 


77-5 


0-902 


0-98 


s. 


1-25 


001 


whole 


9 P.M. 


29-830 


77-5 


75-0 


0-826 


0-97 


N.E. 


1-20 


0-01 


whole 


10 P.M. 


29-920 


69-3 


700 


0-734 


1-00 


E.N.E. 


2-10 


0-34 


whole 


11 P.M. 


29-857 


71-2 


70-0 


0-713 


0-98 


N.N.E. 


1-78 


0-08 


whole 


7th April, midnight 


29-789 


72-0 


700 


704 


0-97 


E.N.E. 


1-52 


0-03 


whole 


1 A.M. 


29-784 


73-4 


72-0 


0-760 


0-98 


S.E. 


0-10 




whole 


2 a.m. 


29-761 


75-0 


72-5 


0-759 


0-97 


S.S.E. 


1-04 




whole 


3 a.m. 


29-766 


75-8 


72-0 


0-733 


0-95 


S.E. 


0-94 




i 


4 a.m. 


29-777 


75-5 


72-5 


0-755 


096 


S.S.E. 


0-62 






5 a.m. 


29-779 


75-7 


73-0 


0-771 


0-96 


S. 


0-62 




whole 


6 a.m. 


29-799 


77-0 


73-0 


0-757 


0-95 


s. 


0-52 




whole 


7 A.M. 


29-827 


78-5 


74-4 


0-793 


0-95 


s. 


0-52 




whole 


8 A.M. 


29-872 


80-4 


75-2 


0-803 


0-93 


s. 


0-36 




i 


9 a.m. 


29-876 


81-3 


74-0 


0-747 


0-90 


S.S.E. 


0-05 




i 








Total 


fall of r 








0-47 











Note. — Remarks on the Thunder and Liyhtning Storm of the 6th of April 1848. 

At 6 o'clock in the evening the appearance of the sky in the N. and E. was very 
remarkable : — Cumuli, cumulostrati, and scud, were cumulating in the N. and 
across the E. to S.E., rising to an elevation of nearly 60° from the horizon. Upon 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 45 

these were masses of nimbi that came floating from the S.W., from which quarter 
the wind was blowing with a force of 046 lbs. ; deep mutterings of thunder were 
heard : and lightning was seen to flash vividly, upwards, from the summit of the 
clouds along their whole breadth, or from N. to S.E. 

At e*- 45"".— The wind changed from S.W. to S., and the clouds in the N.E. 
and E. became more threatening in their appearance ; and at this period the light- 
ning, which was of a brilliant purple colour and very vivid, flashed continually ; 
each flash was followed by loud peals of thunder. The character of the lightning 
in this second appearance was more terrific than before, as every flash was vertical, 
and several times these vertical streams were visible simultaneously, and as many as 
five were distinctly counted, at irregular distances from each other, varying from 2° 
to 12°. 

At 7'' 30". — Rain began to fall in large drops ; the thunder and lightning in- 
creasing till 9^ 00", when the wind moved round to N.E. (by E.), and the whole 
of the sky presented^ one dark mass of nimbi ; the thunder and lightning still conti- 
nuing. 

At 9'' 15". — A gale of wind came on from the N.E. with a force of nearly 6 lbs. ; 
and at 9^ 20" it reached its maximum force, which was nearly 9 lbs. ; the whole 
time which it lasted was about 20 minutes. During this gale the barometer rose 
(instead of falling) to 29'920, or about O'l of an inch above its true level ; when the 
gale was over, it rapidly descended to nearly its former readings, as will be seen from 
the accompanying observations of the meteorological instruments ; at lO*" 40" the 
wind became due north. 

The thunder and lightning continued, but at greater intervals ; and the rain faUing 
till midnight, at which time the rain ceased. But the thunder and lightning may be 
said to have continued all night. 

From the peculiar rise of the barometer during the worst part of the gale, it is 
supposed that a heavy storm was felt somewhere on the mainland to the E.N.E. ; 
and the gale which we felt was only the momentum that the air received when 
rushing towards that place ; it is also possible that the storm was raging there very 
heavily at sunset. During the worst part of the gale the temperature suddenly de- 
creased 10°. 

It may be here remarked, that during the continuance of the gale, which was felt 
along the coast, and very slightly in Bombay, in April last year, our magnetic in- 
struments remained perfectly steady ; but as soon as the gale passed away, they be- 
came disturbed, and continued so for 54 hours. This year precisely the same re- 
markable phsenomena have taken place, as during the whole time of the meteoro- 
logical disturbance of the last few days they remained steady, but at 8 o'clock this 
morning they became disturbed (or the magnetic storm commenced), and continue 
so up to the present time. 

The rising of the barometer with the storm and the falling after it ; the magnetic 
instruments remaining quiescent during the storm, and being disturbed after it ; and 
the sudden fall of temperature of 10°, are all sufiiciently remarkable facts. Upon 
the above return Dr. Buist observes, — " The disclosures made are singular ; the 
wind on the morning of the 6th blew from S.S.E., an unusual quarter ; from this it 
swept round by S. and S.W. to N.N.W., and then moved back again to W.S.W., 
where it remained till evening. It then set first to S.W., and then veered round to 
S. From this it travelled round in an easterly direction to N.E,, E.N.E., N.N.E., 
and so swept back by E. to S., — having in the course of twenty-four hours twice 
swept round three-quarters of a circle and so swept back again, leaving the segment 
betwixt W.N.W. and N.E. untouched. At ten o'clock (p.m.), when the storm was at 
its wildest, the barometer actually rose instead of falling, and that by no less than about 
OO'OS above the level due to ten o'clock, interpolating from the readings of nine and 
eleven. The diurnal curve, indeed, is remarkable. On the 6th the mercury reached 
its maximum elevation at eleven a.m. instead of a quarter before ten — the average 
hour for maximum, and its afternoon minimum at three instead of a quarter past 
four; so that instead of six hours and a half, the usual time, there was less than 
four hours of an interval between the epochs of maxima and minima. These things 
are of very great importance as subjects of attention, considering the smallness and 
extreme inequality of our range. It attained its maximum at the proper hour, ten 



46 REPORT — 1848. 

P.M. — this, as already stated, being marked by a sudden jump of no less. than eight 
hundredth parts of an inch above what was due. The epoch of morning minimum, 
again, was two o'clock, or two hours earlier than usual, the interval having been 
this much shortened. The return does not afford the morning maximum of the 7th, 
but the mercury continued steady till nearly nine o'clock, and would probably reach 
its turning-point at ten, giving an interval of no less than eight hours of time. The 
range betwixt the evening minimum and maximum on the 6th was '219, or, if we 
subtract '080 for the jump, "139, — a high range for the season. At ten o'clock the 
air was saturated with moisture, the wet-bulb standing '7 higher than the dry, the 
latter having in two hours' time tumbled down from 79° to 69°, and in the course of 
the ten hours having had a range of no less than 20'^ — a very unusual circumstance 
in Bombay. From the rise of the barometer, it was inferred at the observatory that 
a storm was raging on the mainland somewhere to the E.N.E. of us. Just after the 
gale had ceased, the magnetic instruments began to be disturbed, and this is tlie third 
time the same thing has happened at the observatory on the back of a storm within little 
more than two years — on the 4th of December 1845, and in April 1847 and 1848. 
On the first-named of these days there was a magnificent display of Aurora in the 
northern sky, and a great magnetic disturbance all over the world ; on the last two 
occasions just named we have seen no account of any irregularities anywhere but at 
Bombay. Now that it has occurred so frequently as to call attention and forbid the 
idea of the coincidence being accidental, it will be interesting to learn from other ob- 
servatories what has occurred, and to watch with extreme care whether these things 
always occur coincidently, or whether there are local laws at work here to stir the 
magnets after a storm at certain seasons only. The first notice of the subject we 
remember is that published by Mr. Orlebar in the Bombay Courier of December 
1845 ; for the three preceding years the magnetometers were in general remarkable 
for their steadiness during tempests. On the evening of the 6th we had streams of 
electric fluid rushing like a handful of beads in rapid torrents to the ground ; this 
beautiful and sublime appearance, only witnessed when the thunder-clouds are near 
us, has been frequently before described. 

" Since writing the above we have been favoured with the following notice of the 
state of the weather at Nassick on the 6th and 7th. From this it will be seen that 
the conjecture of a storm having occurred to the north-eastward of us about sunset 
proves correct. It is unfortunate that Dr. Stuart should not have been possessed of 
a barometer or any other means of measuring pressure, or we should in this case 
have been able to trace the analogies or anomalies existing at the two localities. 
Nearly all the phfenomena observable at Bombay betwixt nine and twelve were ob- 
served at Nassick betv^ixt five and eight, or with a regular interval of four hours. 
The following will show with what exactness these things may be made out : — 
Nassick. Bombay. 

" 6^ P.M. — Strong breeze from SE. " 9 p.m. — Gale of wind came on from 

This soon became a perfect hurricane, N.E. Lasted about twenty minutes. At 
and so continued a little more than half ten wind bore due north. Thunder, 
an hour, when it suddenly abated. It lightning and rain continued till two a.m. 
was accompanied by heavy rain and some Wind had veered round from S.E. to 
hail ; vivid flashes of lightning speedily S.S.E. 
followed, with crashing peels of thun- 
der, till three o'clock a.m., when the 
breeze again freshened from S.E. 

"The storm at Nassick was in reality in the sky seen at sunset from Bombay, 
though it did not reach us till four hours afterwards. The duration of this irregular 
state of things leads to the inference that atmospheric disturbances must have 
stretched far into the interior. The Nassick storm moved towards Bombay at the 
rate of twenty-four miles an hour." 

Dr. Buist concludes by observing, " at present the irregularities of the weather at 
this usually regular and tranquil season of the year are so remarkable as to deserve 
every attention from the meteorologist." He then adds the letter giving an account 
of the storm at Nassick on the first eight days in April. 

Subsequently to this storm, the Bombay papers of the IQth of June speak of an 
earthquake which extended over 10° of latitude and as many of longitude, having 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



47 



been felt all along the line from Bombay to Simla ; 35 inches of lain had also fallen 
in the first nineteen days of June, a quantity nearly equal to one-half of the average 
fall for the whole four and a half months of the monsoon. 

Meteorologists need a philosophic and comprehensive explanation of the causes of 
such atmospheric disturbances, which not only have an important bearing upon 
vegetable development, but unquestionably have a most disastrous effect upon the 
public health. At one period during the last quarter in London the excess of deaths 
exceeded by 200 daily or 1400 per week the usual average, and this mortality, 
chiefly from influenza, exceeding that from the Asiatic cholera, was attributable to 
atmospheric causes. 

I have thought it right to append the following rain-table as a valuable record. 
Register of the Pluviometer at Bombay from 1817 to 1847. 





June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


Total fall in 
June, July, 














Years. 


Total fall 


Total fall 


Total fall 


Total fall 


Total fall 


Aug., Sept. 




in the 


in the 


in the 


in the 


in the 


and October 




month. 


month. 


month. 


month. 


month. 


in each year. 




inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


1817 


45-72 


23-67 


9-34 


24-87 




103-60 


1818 


22-54 


17-69 


28-45 


10-39 


2-6o 


81-14 


1819 


15-95 


31-60 


20-24 


10-11 




77-96 


1820 


18-82 


28-37 


19-49 


10-66 




77-34 


1821 


15-18 


20-60 


28-52 


18-29 




82-59 


1822 


29-64 


26-59 


33-83 


22-16 




112-22 


1823 


21-76 


15-96 


19-70 


4-28 




61-70 


1824 


3-89 


8-07 


17-86 


1-78 


2-'27 


33-97 


1825 


24-45 


25-17 


12-94 


9-68 




72-24 


1826 


17-75 


26-97 


8-40 


23-50 


1-87 


78-49 


1827 


4915 


10-29 


10-51 


1016 


0-92 


81-03 


1828 


23-53 


52-75 


17-22 


22-08 


6-40 


121-98 


1829 


27-86 


19-78 


12-40 


4-95 


0-66 


65-65 


1830 


20-96 


32-46 


10-66 


7-78 




71-86 


1831 


2216 


27-31 


27-64 


22-34 


2-08 


101-83 


1832 


13-63 


48-05 


4-65 


7-11 


0-65 


74-09 


1833 


12-50 


21-80 


13-35 


23-54 


0-20 


71-39 


1834 


14-16 


21-83 


18-05 


12 55 


3-88 


70-47 


18.35 


9-99 


4-27 


35-76 


12-17 


0-42 


62-61 


1836 


21-36 


24-05 


37-41 


4-69 




87-99 


1837 


12-61 


24 39 


22-43 


5-15 




64-58 


1838 


29-70 


8-70 


7-34 


504 




50-78 


1839 


18-28 


32-19 


18-45 


4-70 




68-62 


1840 


25-04 


24-24 


4-20 


7-55 


2-12 


63-15 


1841 


25-27 


21-21 


2053 


1-27 


3-21 


71-49 


1842 


16-84 


26-45 


37-10 


10-41 


4-36 


95-16 


1843 


9-33 


22-49 


18-20 


900 


0-25 


59-27 


1844 


14-17 


35 52 


6-55 


9-16 




65-40 


1845 


19-70 


20-44 


6-56 


8-03 




54-73 


1846 


31-71 


40-56 


5-60 


8-45 


1-16 


87-48 


1847 


35-47 


16-80 


8-92 


5-80 


0-32 


67-31 




Aver 


age annua 


fall in th 


e last 31 } 


ears ...... 


75-42 



On the Compensation of Impressions moving over the Retina, as seen in 
Railivay Travelling. By Sir David Brewster, .ff..ff'.,Z).C'.Z., F.R.S., 
Sf V.P.R.S. Edin. 

At the Meeting of the Association at Cambridge I communicated to this Section 
the general fact of the existence of a neutral line, or a line of compensation, when 
the retina is submitted, in succession, to impressions moving with different veloci- 
ties and in the same direction. When we look, for example, at the lines into which 
the stones and gravel or other objects are drawn out by the velocity of the railway 



48 REPORT — 1848. 

carriage, and quickly transfer the eye to the same lines further back, the stones or 
gravel or other objects are, for an instant, distinctly seen, just as we see distinctly 
rapidly revolving objects in the dark when they are, for an instant, illuminated by 
an electric flash, or seen in daylight through rapidly revolving slits. I have observed 
the same phaenomenon less perfectly when travelling in a mail-coach, when its ve- 
locity was ten or twelve miles an hour. It may be also seen and studied by means 
of the revolving disc of the phenakistoscope. If we suddenly transfer the eye from 
the marginal parts of the disc, where the velocity is greatest, to the parts nearer the 
centre of rotation, where the velocity is less, we shall, for an instant, perceive di- 
stinctly the figures drawn upon that part of the disc. I have not been able to find 
a satisfactory explanation of this phsenomenon. It may be connected with the 
transverse motion which appears upon closing the eyes when under these moving im- 
pressions*, or from an opposite secondary motion accompanying the primary one, 
the velocity of the primary one being diminished during the transference of the eye 
to lines moving with the velocity to which the impression is then reduced. 

The principal object of this notice is to describe a new fact which presented 
itself to me lately. If we look directly through a slit at the lines of moving stones, 
and suddenly look away from the slit, so as to see the moving lines through the slit 
by oblique or indirect vision, the stones will be distinctly seen. 

This neutral line, or line of compensation, arises from a quite different cause from 
the former, and admits of a satisfactory explanation. When the eye is turned away 
from the slit, a part of the retina, not previously subjected to any impressions, must 
see the stones for an instant, but only for an instant, as their motion immediately 
obliterates the first distinct impression. The neutral line thus produced is not so 
easily observed as in the other experiment, where the stones are seen by the part of 
the retina on which vision is most distinct, the vision being in the one case oblique 
and in the other direct. 

On the Vision of Distance as given by Colour. 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.CL., F.R.S., ^ V.P.R.S. Edin. 

When the boundary lines on a map are marked with two lines of different colours, 
the one rises above or is depressed below the other, and the two lines appear to be 
placed at different distances from the eye. This remarkable effect is most clearly seen 
when we look with both eyes through a large reading-glass, spectacles being used along 
with it by those who require them. The more the two colours differ in refrangibility, 
the greater, and consequently the more distinctly seen, is the difference of distance 
at which the lines appear to be placed. The effect is finely seen in the coloured 
patterns of red and blue paper which Prof. Wheatstone has had executed on paper 
for exhibiting the mobility or shaking of one part of the pattern. The difference of 
distance of the coloured lines or spaces may be appreciated even with one eye. 

The explanation of this phsenomenon is very simple. In binocular vision the con- 
vergency of the optic axis to different points at different distances corresponding to 
the different points in the eye, to which the differently coloured rays are refracted, 
gives us the vision of a different distance for each coloured line, in the same manner 
as it is given in the stereoscope f. In monocular vision the distance is given by an 
analogous process to that by which the single eye sees distances. 



On the Visual Impressions upon the Foramen Centrale of the Retina, 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., ^ V.P.R.S. Edin. 

The foramen centrale of the retina is an opening in that membrane varying from the 
30th to the 50th of an inch in diameter. Although there is no nervous membrane over 
this opening, it is nevertheless the part of the eye which gives most distinct vision, 
and hence it has been supposed that the retina is not the sole agent in conveying 
visual impressions to the sensorium. Various attempts have been made to discover 
the existence of \he foramen centrale by optical means, or to discover any effect pro- 
duced by it on the incident light. In making some experiments on vision I was led 

* See Report of 1845, Trans, of Sect. p. 8. 
t See Edin. Transactions, vol. xv. p. 360. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 49 

to the solution of this difficulty, and at the last meeting of the Association at Oxford 
I mentioned the general fact, that when the eye had been for a short time closed 
and rested, and was then opened and directed to a moderately illuminated surface, a 
dark circular spot with a reddish brown penumbra, corresponding to the size of the 
foramen, was distinctly seen. The same effect was produced when the eye was not 
closed, but merely protected from light, which proved that the spot was not pro- 
duced by the act of closing the eye, or by any pressure of the eyeball on its socket. 
By various measurements of the diameter of this spot I found it to subtend an 
angle of about 4 degrees 35 minutes ; and by taking the radius of curvature of the 
retina atO-5 of an inch, I found the diameter of the spot to be the ^Vth of an inch, 
a result corresponding with sufficient accuracy with the measurement of the fora- 
men in the dead eye, as given by Soemmering, who makes it about the-5\jth of an inch. 
From this experiment it follows that when the eye is in its normal state, or in a state 
of rest, the choroid coat is less sensible to certain luminous impressions than the re- 
tina with the choroid coat behind it. 

I now put the eye into an abnormal state, by exposing it for some time to a con- 
siderable degree of light, and upon repeating the preceding experiment, I saw upon 
the white ground a luminous spot, proving that when the eye was fatigued, or its 
sensibiUty diminished, the choroid coat was less affected than the retina and choroid 
acting together. Between these two extreme conditions of the eye, namely, when 
the eye was neither in a state of rest or fatigue, no spot whatever appeared, the cho- 
roid coat alone and the retina and choroid coat acting together, being equally sen- 
sible to light. 

Anatomists have differed in opinion respecting the true form of the foramen cen- 
trale. Soemmering, the original discoverer of it, makes it circular. Some describe 
it as a. fold in the retina, while others represent it as a double opening in the form 
of a cross. I have seen it myself in this latter form in the eye of a healthy person 
a few hours after death; but there can be no doubt that the process of removing 
the eye from its socket, and the pressure upon so tender a membrane as the retina 
by its separation from the membrane containing the vitreous humour, must alter the 
form of a circular foramen, shutting up the aperture and producing the appearance 
of a fold, or causing a double fold when it has the appearance of a cross. The 
roundness of the spot of variable sensibility I consider as establishing the true form 
of the /oramere centrale, or of the limbus luteus which surrounds it. 



An Examination of Bishop Berkeley s " New Theory of Vision." 

By Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., S,- V.P.R.S. Edin. 

The object of this paper was to examine the theory of Dr. Berkeley — the founda- 
tion of the Ideal Philosophy — in its optical relations. The author demonstrated (in 
opposition to the fundamental assumption of Dr. Berkeley*), " that distance, both in 
monocular and binocular vision, is represented by lines on the retina." Hence every 
proposition of Dr. Berkeley's founded on that erroneous assumption falls to the 
ground. But even if the fundamental proposition on which he rests his theory had 
been true, it would have been true only in vision with one eye, and therefore could 
not be applicable to human beings, whose vision is performed by two eyes. 

In support of his opinion that we see outness and distance directly by the eyes, and 
distinctly within a certain range of limited extent, while we judge of difference of 
distances beyond that range by various acquired means, the author described a 
number of experiments in binocular vision, where the eyes placed the object at a 
fixed distance, which the nicest sense of touch, and the most accurate knowledge of 
the true place of the object, could not in the least degree influence ; and he supported 
his views by showing that the lower animals perceive distance at the instant of their 
birth, and that in every well-described case of the sudden restoration of sight in man 
by the extraction of the crystalline lens, or by the formation of an artificial pupil, 
outness and distance were invariably seen. 

• " It is I think agreed by all, that distance of itself, and immediately cannot be seen ; for 
distance being a line directed endwise to the eye, it projects only one point on the fund of the 
eye, which point remains invariably the same, whether the dista.'ace be longer or shorter." — 
An Essay, &c. § 1. 

1848. E 



50 REPORT — 1848. 



CHEMISTRY. 

On the Action of the Red, Orange and Yelloio Rays upon Iodized and Sromo- 
iodized Silver Plates after they have been affected by daylight, and other 
Phenomena of Photography. By A. Claudet. 

It was shown by M. E. Becquerel, that the light which permeates red and yelloW 
glasses had the propertj' of continuing on a Daguerreotype plate the action of th6 
light which causes the condensation of mercurial vapour on the surface. This pro- 
perty being in contradiction to that announced by Mr. Claudet when operating paf- 
ticularly with bromo-iodide of silver, he made some new experiments which com- 
pletely confirmed the first, but showing at the same time the correctness of the fact 
discovered by M. E. Becquerel, as far as the action relates to a certain coating of 
iodine. 

M. Gaudin, experimenting on the discovery of M. E. Becquerel, had found that 
red and yellow glasses not only continued the effect produced by light, but that 
an image might be developed under their influence without the action of mercurj'. 

Investigations on these various subjects have enabled Mr. Claudet to discover that 
light alone also produces an image without mercury, quite similar to that obtained 
by M. Gaudin with the second action of red or yellow glasses. This curious fact, 
■which had escaped Daguerre and all his followers, affords to Mr. Claudet a meand 
of offering an explanation of the phaenomena elucidated by M. E. Becquerel, and 
proposing a new theory of the formation of the Daguerreotype image. ' 

Mr. Claudet thinks that the image produced by light alone is due to the decora- 
position of the iodide of silver, by which silver is precipitated on the surface in A 
finely divided powder or crystals, producing an effect similar to that caused by th6 
condensation of mercurial vapour. 

The red or yellow rays having a photographic action of their own, very slow on the 
non-affected parts, but capable of operating more strongly on the parts already affected 
by white light, continue that precipitation of finely divided silver, and when the ac- 
tion of the red or yellow rays is added to the condensation of mercurial vapour, it 
doubles the effect by which the image appears visible. This would explain the ac- 
tion called continuation by M. E. Becquerel, as well as the phsenomenon of the image 
developed by the red or yellow glasses according to M. Gaudin's discovery; the 
only difference being that M. Gaudin continues the action of the red or yellow rays 
until they have fully and visibly determined the precipitation of the silver. 

Mr. Claudet concluded by stating, that he had been able to ascertain that the pure 
light of the sun can produce on the surface of bromo-iodide of silver the change of 
modification by which it acquires the aflSnity for mercurial vapour in the inci'edible 
short space of time of about toW^h part of a second. 



On the Laws of Chemical Combijiations and the Volumes of Gaseous Bodies, 
By the Rev. Thomas Exley, M.A. 

Were we acquainted with the laws of force at minute distances, as we are with 
gravitation, the grand difficulty respecting chemical combinations would be over- 
come; but while these laws remain unknown the subject will remain in its present 
state, involved in a labyrinth. It has been of late too much the fashion to discard 
hypotheses. Newton discovered the lavv of gravitation ; but how ? by first admit* 
ting it hypothetically, and then testing the hypothesis by calculation. Newton failed 
to assign the laws of force at very small distances ; he carried the law of gravitation 
to a limit near the centre of an atom, and concluded from phenomena which he 
obsen'ed, that there follow several spheres of force alternately attracting and re- 
pelling. So long as the laws of these forces remain unknown, no true theory can 
be estabhshed. It is therefore best to assign some hypothesis which fixes some pro- 
bable law of force, and then to calculate the effects ; the author assumes nothing 
more than that the force of gravitation is continued to the centre of atoms, and that 
it acts outwardly in a small central sphere, constituting a small sphere of repulsion : 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 51 

this is the peculiar feature in his new theory of physics ; and all the varieties of 
atoms arise from differences in their absolute forces and the extent of their spheres 
of repulsion. Deductions from this theory agree with experiment and observation. 

From this theory he has deduced the alternate spheres offeree observed by Newton 
with electrical attraction and repulsion, not as peculiar forces, but as circumstances 
dependent on the combinations of the classes of atoms mentioned below, and the 
following laws of chemical combination, viz. — Law I. That two atoms, simple or 
compound, combine one with one without the intervention of a third, and that the 
volume remains unaltered, or is contracted one half. Law IL Two atoms combine 
by the intervention of a third, and the volume remains the same as that of the two 
combined atoms, or is reduced exactly one half. These laws he has examined in 
about one hundred cases, in which he finds them confirmed by experiment without 
exception. 

In order to explain these laws, he takes what is presented by many phsenomena, 
that there are three classes of atoms. — Class L Such as have comparatively a small 
sphere of repulsion and a great absolute force ; such are the common elements of 
chemists; hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, &c. Class H. Such as have a large sphere 
of repulsion and a small absolute force ; these he is persuaded constitute the electric 
fluid. Class IlL Such as have a very large sphere of repulsion and a very small 
absolute force, which, when in motion, as it seems to him, constitute caloric, light 
and actinic rays, one or other, according to their velocity. 

Now if into a vessel containing atoms of the second and third classes under com- 
pression there be introduced a considerable number of those of the first class, each 
of these will become a supporting centre against the reaction of the other classes : 
it is evident that these centres will be uniformly disposed, and that their distances 
will be equal to the distances between the atoms of the interior surface of the vessel 
and the adjacent atoms of the gas, and the pressure between the atoms will increase 
with the number of these, considered as supporting centres ; hence under a given 
pressure the volume will depend on the number of supporting centres. Thus if the 
same number of atoms of nitrogen be substituted for the hydrogen, the volume will 
not be altered, although the nitrogen is fourteen times heavier than hydrogen ; it will 
be still the same if we have the same volume of chlorine, which is thirty-six times 
heavier than hydrogen. The same observations apply to iodine, bromine, &c. and 
to oxygen, taking its atomic weight at sixteen ; thus we find that the volume depends 
not on the absolute force and sphere of repulsion of the atoms, but on the number 
of supporting centres. 

The same holds good in compound atoms; thus, muriatic acid is H.'.Cl, nitric 
oxide O.'. N, carbonic oxide O.-. C, which are instances of the first law where the 
volume remains unaltered, and this doubtless takes place when the electric matter 
collects between the combining atoms ; thus light acting on a mixture of hydrogen 
and chlorine causes the electric fluid to collect between them ; hence the number of 
supporting centres remains the same, and the distance between the atoms of hydrogen 
and chlorine is unaltered ; which holds good in the other examples, and all similarly 
combined. Examples where the volume is contracted one half are, cyanogen N C, 
E. Davy's carburet of hydrogen H C, &c. ; here the electric fluid collects on the 
exterior sides. 

As illustrations of the second law take water vapour H(0)H, carbonic acid 
0(C)0, alcohol H^CCHaOCHj, ather vapour H4C3(HsO)C2H4, oenanthic Kther 
H4 CsCHas Ci4 Oa, H30)C2 H4, etlial H,6 CgCHa 0)Cg Hig, &c., in which and all such 
the volume is the same as that of the extremes, where the connecting atom makes no 
l)art of the volume, being protected and prevented from becoming a supporting cen- 
tre by the intervening electric fluid, which produces the combination ; thus, for in- 
I stance, in oenanthic aether, the forty- five atoms of oenanthic acid do not alter the 
I distance of the elherine H4 C3, H4 C2, and the same in all such cases, where the 
i volume is the same. As examples, where the volume is reduced exactly one-half, 
I we have olefiant gas HCH, nitrous acid ONO, benzin or Dr. Faraday's carburet of 
hydrogen HC, HC, HC, where the extremes connected by the intermediate atom 
are reduced to one centre of support, the electric fluid collecting on the exterior sides ; 
sulphur vapour is analogous to benzin, being S, S, S reduced to one centre of sup- 
port. In all cases where the specific gravity of the gas is found, these laws of com- 

e2 



52 REPORT— 1S48. 

bination and volume are found to hold universally. On these principles Mr. Exley 
calculates the specific gravity of gaseous bodies by multiplying the atomic weight, on 
the hydrogen scale, by 10, and dividing by 144, when the volume is contracted one 
half; and again, by 2, when the volume is unaltered; thus, for aether the atomic 
weight is 74, then 740-f- 12 X 12 X 2=2-5694. Gay-Lussac finds it 2-586 by ex- 
periment. Thus are these laws established. 

Since it is shown by the theory, and proved by experiment, that equal gaseous 
volumes of hydrogen H, nitrogen N, nitrous acid OoN, olefiant gas HjC, etherine 
HjCo, cetine HigCs, &c., contain an equal number of atoms, the centres or centres 
of gravity of the atoms, simple or compound, are equidistant, and that distance is 
not altered when every two are united by intervenient electric atoms, or by such 
atoms and any number of elementary atoms whatever, if they are screened by the elec- 
tric atoms, so as not to become centres of support. 

On the Motion of the Electric Fluid along Conductors. 
By the Rev. Thomas Exley, M.A. 

Professor Wheatstone made some valuable experiments, showing that in traversing 
a long conductor the electric spark occurs at the same time at each end of the circuit, 
and latest at some part near the middle ; this has been considered as a proof that 
there are two electric fluids ; but this conclusion is too hasty, for it may be shown 
that the phenomena ought to be such on the supposition of a single fluid. 

When an electrical charged plate is discharged, there are only three ways, worthy 
of notice, by which the equilibrium can be restored ; — 

1. The passage of the fluid through the circuit, commencing either at the posi- 
tive or negative end. 

2. Its passage in pulses beginning at one or the other end. 

3. Its passage in pulses taking their rise simultaneously at both ends and closing 
about the middle. 

In order to obtain correct views we must attend to the phenomena of charging 
an electric plate. 

If the knob of the prime conductor, electrified to a certain intensity, were pre- 
sented to the bare surface of a thin plate of glass, the particles of the glass would 
receive and retain a small quantity of the electric fluid without suffering it to pass on 
far, or they would give a small quantity without receiving a fresh supply from distant 
particles ; a higher intensity or a nearer approach of the prime conductor would give 
or take another spark, and the neighbouring particles of the glass would receive or 
give fluid to a small distance farther, where the progress would be arrested. 

But when the plate is furnished with the usual coating, the spark of electric fluid 
affects in like manner all the superficial particles of the glass to the limits of the 
coating. If now an uninsulated conductor be presented to the opposite side, a spark 
will pass between it and the coating, and at the same time another spark between 
the prime conductor and the coating, and a succession of simultaneous sparks on the 
opposite sides will occur so long as the same intensity of the conductor is maintained, 
until the plate is charged. 

These phsenomena assure us, that although the fluid penetrates only to a very 
small depth in the glass plate, yet the additionor abstraction of the fluid affects the 
particles of the plate, as far as the opposite side, producing in them a tendency to 
give fluid to, or to receive fluid from, the uninsulated conductor on the other side. 
Thus the particles of the glass have obtained a tendency to receive fluid on the sides 
towards the positive conductor and to give it from their opposite sides. Thus will 
all the particles of the glass which are situated directly between the opposite con- 
ductors be affected ; but at a distance from that line of particles, both sides of the f 
plate will be in the same condition as the prime conductor by which the charge is j 
made. When the charged plate is removed, the receiving sides of the particles will ' 
be towards the negative surface of the plate, and the delivering sides towards the] 
positive surface, llie discharging rod being now applied with its knobs at such a : 
distance as not to receive a spark, the same condition of the particles will remain in 
the plate, and will be propagated in the same direction on the particles of air conti- 
guous to the rod through the whole circuit ; the particles of air contiguous to th( 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 53 

rod will be in a condition to receive on the sides facing the positive coating, and 
of giving on the sides facing the negative coating ; that the rod is neutral in the 
middle arises from the opposite and equal tendencies of the extremes. Now let the 
knobs approach to make the discharge. This is not effected by a continuous pas- 
sage of the fluid from one end to the other, since, at any break in the circuit, a card, 
being interposed, is pierced so as to have a bur on both sides, showing that the pas- 
sage was made in pulses ; nor do these commence at either end and proceed to the 
other, for the one end cannot wait to receive or to give during the time of the pas- 
sage. The pulses must therefore commence simultaneously at both ends, and close 
about the middle, where, consequently, the spark would be last seen. Besides there 
is no reason whatever that the motion should begin at one end rather than the other ; 
and the same follows from this, that the one side of the discharging rod is positive, 
and the other equally negative, while it is neutral in the middle. 

Therefore, on the supposition of only one electric fluid, the spark ought to be seen 
precisely at the same time at the two extremities, and latest of all about the middle 
of the rod : also the explanation by one fluid presents fewer difficulties than by two 
fluids. The observations made were applied to the explanation of some other elec- 
trical phcenomena, as the residual charge, the charging of thin and thick glass, the 
star and brush, &c. _^____ 

On the Identity of the Existences or Forces of Light, Heat, Electricity, Mag- 
netism and Gravitation. By John Goodman. 

The author has already shown in a former communication that the substance 
potassium, which displays the highest chemical properties, possesses also the most 
exalted electrical powers. In order to show the further prominence of this metal 
in its calorific phfenomena, he devised several experiments, and has succeeded in 
showing that potassium contains also the greatest known amount of caloric of any 
solid material body. 

When this metal was subjected to percussion or screw compression in a steel 
cyUnder by means of an air-tight piston, also of steel, aflame of considerable dimen- 
sions was discovered to issue from a minute orifice — being given otF from the interstices 
of the metal as water from a sponge — and this frequently accompanied by a loud ex- 
plosion. By enlarging the orifice the flame and explosion would gradually diminish, 
until large portions only of red-hot metal would exude during percussion. 

The explosion was found by experiment to be caused by the combustion of the 
finely-divided particles of heated metal which escaped, depriving the atmosphere of 
its oxygen and producing an instantaneous collapse of the surrounding air, as is 
represented to be the case immediately after the transition of lightning. 

The author attributes the escape of caloric through so small an orifice, and by the 
sides of the piston, instead of by radiation to the adjoining excellently conducting 
cylinder, to the intense attraction of caloric for potassium. 

The pure flame seen in these experiments was projected in vacuo as in oxygen, 
but with considerably diminished splendour, showing that it exists independently of 
combustion. 

The author ascribes to caloric attraction for other kinds of matter, and supposing 
fhat all bodies are naturally either minus or plus as regards their amount of caloric, 
and attract each other simply as in electrical phsenomena, proposes to explain thus 
the force of gravitation and the attraction of cohesion. 

He points out the great precision with which the numbers given by philosophers 
to represent capacity correspond with the powers of electric affinity of the various 
metals, as exhibited in thermo- and mechanical electricity, and suggests that electrical 
affinity and " capacity" are not improbably analogical. 

" Potassium is thus found (says the author) to possess a vast amount of caloric 
and to exhibit calorific phenomena, of which no other solid substance in nature 
is known to be capable, and it is therefore not improbable that its extraordinary 
chemical and electrical powers are derived from the quantity of latent heat which it 
contains." 

Employing the argument used in his former communication that chemical and 
electrical phsenomena are one and the same thing, because the substance producing 



54 REPORT — 1848. 

the highest chemical, developes also the most exalted electrical, phaenomena, the 
author infers that chemical and electrical forces and caloric are one and the same 
thing, because the substance developing the highest chemical and electrical powers 
displays also the greatest capacity for, and contains the most intense quantity of 
heat. Thus chemical and electrical forces appear to be only modifications or mani- 
festations of calorific agency. 

The author shows that M. Melloni employs the same arguments for the proof 
of the analogy of light and heat. He adduces certain experiments of Professor 
Draper to show that a strip of platinum heated by the voltaic current corresponds 
with minute precision in the development of light and heat at all times ; but that 
author has overlooked the equally manifested analogy of these two forces with the 
force from which they are developed — the fountain whence they are derived — employed 
in these experiments. 

On the peculiar Cooling Effects of Hydrogen and its Compounds in cases of 
Voltaic Ignition. By W. R. Grove, F.R.S. 

This communication was illustrated by an experiment, in which it was shown that 
a platina wire, rendered incandescent by a voltaic current, was cooled far below the 
point of incandescence when immersed in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas. This' 
remarkable cooling property of hydrogen of course became the subject of experi- 
mental examination in comparison with other gaseous media. By a peculiar arrange- 
ment, tubes containing coils of platina wire were filled with hydrogen and other 
gases, and then being plunged into water in which delicate thermometers were 
placed, the wires were traversed by the same current from the battery, and it was 
found that the water was always more heated in a given time by the wire in the tubes 
of oxygen, nitrogen, or carbonic acid, than in those of carburetted hydrogen, defiant 
gas or pure hydrogen. It became necessary now to ascertain the cause of this pe- 
culiar phsenomenon of hydrogen. It was found not to be due to specific heat, to 
specific gravity, nor to any conducting power of the gases; and some difficulty was 
found upon examination to exist if it was attempted to refer it to the greater mobility 
of the particles of hydrogen gas as the lightest known, than of oxygen, nitrogen, 
carbonic acid, &c. It was found that this peculiar property also belonged, but to a 
less extent, to all the hj^drocarbonous gases. The author considered it might be 
due to a readiness of convection of heat from the ignited surface, hydrogen being, 
as compared with the other gases, in the same relation to the heated body as a black 
surface is when compared with a white one. 

On the Colouring Matters of Madder. By James Higgin. 

The author, after describing tbe three colouring matters of madder, xanthin, ru- 
biacin and alizarin, and the means he emploj's to separate them in a pure form, pro- 
ceeds to show that the opinion usually entertained — that it is the alizarin only which 
is the valuable part of madder — is incorrect ; and experiments are adduced to prove 
that in proper circumstances, such as obtain in ordinary madder-dyeing, the xanthin 
and rubiacin contribute very materially to the efl^ect. They are shown not to act 
directly, but through becoming changed into alizarin, which then combines with the 
mordants. This change is considered by the author to be induced by a peculiar azo- 
tized ferment, found in madder, whereby xanthin becomes rubiacin and this latter 
alizarin ; and the opinion is held out that all colouring matter in madder is derived 
primarily from xanthin. 

On the Influence of Light in preventing Chemical Action. 
By Robert Hunt. 

Having called attention to several experiments in which certain luminous rays had 
been found to protect photographic agents from chemical change, particularly in the 
researches of Sir John Herschel, the author proceeded to describe his own experi- 
mental investigation of this subject. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 55 

Taking a piece of highly sensitive photographic paper, which would blaclcen in a 
few seconds by the light of an Argand gas-burner, he threw upon it a condensed 
spectrum which had been previously analysed by a peculiar yellow medium, and then 
by means of a mirror reflected the strong light of the sun upon the paper. It was, 
therefore, under the influence of the reflected radiations without any change, and 
also of the spectrum from which the chemical agency had been as nearly as possible 
separated. The result was, that the paper was blackened over every part, except 
that portion upon which the strong line of spectral light fell, which was protected 
from change and preserved as a white band in the midst of the darkened paper. This 
experiment was thought by the author strongly confirmatory of the view which he 
had taken, that actinism, or the chemical principle, and light, so far from being 
identical, were opposed in action to each other. 



Analysis of Wrought Iron produced by Cementation from Cast Iron. 
By Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

The following are the results of an examination of the chemical composition of a 
specimen of brittle cast iron, which was by a subsequent process converted into 
malleable iron by cementation. 

The ore from which this iron was obtained is the Lancashire brown haematite 
from the neighbourhood of Ulverstone ; it is smelted with charcoal instead of with 
coke : the articles to be rendered malleable are first of all cast in the desired form. 
They are in this state formed of a nearly white, very hard, brittle iron, which exhi- 
bits a crystalline grain on fracture. To convert these extremely brittle articles into 
malleable iron fit for the forge, they are imbedded in powdered haematite and maintained 
at a red heat for some hours ; the carbon is thus gradually removed by inverting the 
usual operation of converting bar-iron into steel, and the result is the production of 
a tough iron, which may be hammered either hot or cold. 

A careful qualitative analysis showed that besides iron, carbon and silicon, traces 
of aluminum, sulphur and phosphorus w^ere present, while no arsenic, antimony or 
manganese were there ; titanium was not detected. 

The author stated in detail his process for the analysis, and added the following 
observations : — 

It is to be noticed that considerable change in the specific gravity occurred in the 
iron after cementation ; it was forged, and was then found to have increased in den- 
sity : the brittle iron had a specific gravity of 7'684 ; the malleable, 7'7l8. 

The results of analysis are briefly these ; the quantity both of carbon and silicon 
are materially diminished by the cementation, though still the proportion of both is 
greater than in good bar-iron. It also appears that the portion of carbon which is 
insoluble in acids is nearly the same both before and after the iron has been rendered 
malleable, the diminution being confined almost to that portion of carbon which 
was chemically combined with the metal, and which therefore would be in a state 
for propagation through the mass more readily by cementation. 

Cast Iron. 
Brittle. Malleable. 
Specific gravity 7*684 7"718 

Iron 

Carbon 2-80 0'88 

Silicon 0-951 0-409 

Aluminum trace trace 

Manganese none none 

Titanium 

Arsenic none none 

Sulphur 0'015 

Phosphorus trace trace 

Sand 0-502 

Carbon combined 2-217 0-434 

Ditto uncombined 0'583 0-446 



56 REPORT— 1848. 

Prof. Miller also had occasion to examine a specimen of iron known as cold-short 
from the Staffordshire district. In texture it appeared to be entirely destitute of 
the fibrous character, but to consist of a series of small larainse or plates. In 
addition to carbon and silicon, he found phosphorus, an appreciable quantity of cop- 
per and decided traces of potassium. The copper he has no doubt is derived from 
the coal employed in the smelting, from an examination of several species of coal 
lately made in the laboratory of King's College by Mr. Vaux. Copper is found in 
manv, none being met with in the Newcastle coal, but a quantity distinctly appre- 
ciable in the ashes of the Staffordshire coal. The potassium, it is just conceivable, 
might have been derived from the glass vessels in which the operation was con- 
ducted, but the author has little doubt it was furnished from the iron itself : upon 
this point however further experiments are needed to remove all ambiguity. 

Red-short iron is frequently supposed to owe its defective qualities to the pre- 
sence of sulphur. In a specimen, however, which he examined with great care. 
Prof. Miller could not find any notable proportion of sulphur, and indeed though 
minutely examined for tin, arsenic, antimony, titanium, manganese, chromium, alu- 
minum and calcium, he could not find, with the exception of a trace of the latter, 
any substance beyond the ordinary constituents of wrought iron, viz. iron with a 
small quantity of carbon and silicon. A trace of phosphorus was however distinctly 
ascertained (it did not exceed 0"0114 per cent.), and the sulphur was not more than 
0-016. 

He believes, however, that traces of potassium exist in this iron also. 

Staffordshire Iron. 
Hot-Sliort. Cold-Short. 
Specific gravity 7-426 7-921 

Iron 

Carbon 0-245 0-275 

Silicon 0-232 0-288 

Aluminum none none 

Manganese none none 

Titanium none none 

Arsenic none none 

Chromium none none 

Copper 0-041 

Sulphur 0-016 trace 

Phosphorus 0-011 0-337 

Calcium trace none 

Potassium traces trace 



On the existence of Ozone in the Atmosphere. By Dr. Moffatt. 



On a peculiar property of Coke. By James Nasmyth. 

The following fact, which was observed by the author some years ago, appears to 
furnish additional evidence as to the identity of the diamond with carbon. Mr. Nas- 
myth states that coke is possessed of one of the most remarkable properties of the 
diamond, in so far as it has the property of cutting glass. He uses the term cutting 
expressly in contra-distinction to the property of scratching, which is possessed by 
all bodies that are harder than glass. The cut produced by coke is a perfect clear 
diamond-like cut, so as to exhibit the most beautiful prismatic colours, owing to 
the perfection of the incision. 

Coke hitherto has been considered as a soft substance, doubtless from the ease 
with which a mass of it can be crushed and pulverized ; but it will be found that the 
minute plate-formed crystals, of which a mass of coke is formed, are intensely hard, 
and, as before said, are possessed of the remarkable property o{ cutting glass. 

This discovery of the extreme "diamond-like" hardness of the particles of coke 
will no doubt prove of value in many processes in the arts as well as interesting in 
a purely scientific sense. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 5/ 

On the Chemical Character of Steel. By James Nasmyth. 

Were we to assume as our standard of the importance of any investigation the 
relation which the subject of it bears to the progress of civilization, there is no one 
which would reach higher than that which refers to the subject of steel ; seeing that 
it is to our possession of the art of producing that inestimable material that we owe 
nearly the whole of the arts. Mr. Nasmyth is desirous of contributing a few ideas 
on the subject, with a view to our arriving at more distinct knowledge as to what 
(in a chemical sense) steel is, and so of laying the true basis for improvement in the 
process of its manufacture. 

It is well known that steel is formed by surrounding bars of wrought iron with 
charcoal placed in fire-brick troughs from which air is excluded, and keeping the iron 
bars and charcoal in contact and at a full red heat for several days ; at the end of 
which time the iron bars are found to be converted into steel. What is the nature 
of the change which the iron has undergone we have no certain knowledge ; the 
ordinary explanation is, that the iron has absorbed and combined with a portion of 
the charcoal or carbon, and has in corisequence been converted into a carburet of 
iron : but it has ever been a mystery, that on analysis so very minute and question- 
able a portion of carbon is exhibited. It appears that the grand error in the above 
view of the subject consists in our not duly understanding the nature of the change 
which carbon undergoes in its combination with iron in the formation of steel. 
Those who are familiar with the process of conversion of iron into steel, must have 
observed the remarkable change in the outward aspect of the bars of iron after their 
conversion, namely, that they are covered with blisters. These blisters indicate the 
evolution of a very elastic gas which is set free from the carbon in the act of its com- 
bination with the iron. Mr. Nasmyth is led to think that these blisters are the result 
of the decomposition of the carbon, whose metallic base enters into union with the 
iron and forms with it an alloy, while the other component element of the carbon is 
given forth, and so produces in its escape the blisters in question. On this assump- 
tion, that steel is an alloy of iron with the metallic base of carbon, it would be a most 
interesting subject of investigation to endeavour to ascertain what is the nature of 
the evolved gas which produces these blisters. In order to do this, the author pro- 
poses the following process : — Fill a wrought iron retort with a mixture of pure 
carbon and iron filings, subject it to a long-continued red heat, and receive the 
evolved gas over mercury. Having obtained the gas in question in this manner, then 
permit a piece of polished steel to come in contact with this gas, and in all probabi- 
lity we shall then have reproduced, on the surface of the steel, a coat of carbon re- 
sulting from the reunion of its two elements, namely, that of the metallic base of 
the carbon then existing in the steel w^th the (as yet) unknown gas, thus synthe- 
tically, as well as by analytic process, eliminating the true nature of steel and that of 
the elements or components of carbon. 



On some of the Alloys of Tungsten. By John Percy, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Percy detailed a series of experiments upon the economic use of tungsten in 
alloys. The tungsten employed was obtained in the form of steel-gray powder from 
tungstate of ammonia in the usual way. It was heated at a very high temperature 
with gold, silver, copper, nickel, and the alloy of metal, copper and zinc, called 
German silver, respectively, charcoal powder being added to prevent oxidation. 
Apparent alloys were thus obtained ; but on testing them by the ordinary manufac- 
turing processes of rolling, scratching and polishing, it became evident that the 
tungsten was simply diffused through the mass in minute grains. A mixture, for it 
cannot be called an alloy proper, of copper and tungsten was produced containing 
22 per cent, of tungsten ; the colour of the copper was not thereby very minutely 
altered, so that tungsten does not possess the whitening property of nickel. The 
results of these experiments were quite unsatisfactory in regard to the economic 
application of tungsten. The subject still deserves the attention of metallurgists. 



58 REPORT — 1848. 

On some Properties of Alumina. By R. Phillips, F.R.S. 

It has been observed by Wittstein, that the precipitate which is obtained from the 
persulphate or perchloride of iron, if kept for a great length of time in water, loses 
almost entirely the property of being soluble in acetic acid. Mr. Phillips had noticed 
a similar phajnomenon with alumina, arising without doubt from the action of the 
cohesive forces. Whereas the sesquioxide of iron requires one or probably two years 
for the production of the effect, alumina undergoes the change partially in a very 
short time ; the precipitated alumina does not, however, assume a crystalline ap- 
pearance — stated to be the case with the cohering sesquioxide of iron. If the pre- 
cipitated alumina is kept for two days moist and in the solution from which it was 
precipitated, even sulphuric acid does not immediately dissolve it. Experiments 
were brought forward in proof of this fact. It was also shown that the interposition 
of magnesia or of carbonic acid prevented the alumina from cohering. 



On Common Salt as a Poison to Plants. By W. B. Randall. 

In the month of September last, three or four small plants in pots were shown to the 
writer, nearly or quite dead ; and he was at the same time informed that their destruc- 
tion was a complete mystery to the party to whom they belonged, and that Dr. Lindley 
had expressed his opinion, from the examination of a portion of one sent to him, that 
they were poisoned. Having searched in vain for any strong poison in the soil, and 
in the plants themselves, he inquired more minutely into the circumstances of the 
case, and found that these wore only specimens of many hundreds of plants both in 
the open air and in green-houses (but all in pots) which exhibited, in a greater or 
less degree, the same characteristics. The roots were completely rotten, so as to be 
easily crumbled between the fingers ; the stems, even in young plants, assumed the 
appearance of old wood ; the leaves became brown, first at the point, then round the 
edge, and afterwards all over, while the whole plant drooped and died. At least 
2000 cuttings in various stages of progress, and 1000 strong healthy plants had been 
reduced to this condition, including different varieties of the fir, cedar, geranium, 
fuchsia, rose, jasmin and heath. The sight of this wholesale destruction, coupled 
with the fact that all the plants were daily watered from one particular source, sug- 
gested the conclusion that the cause of the evil might be found in the water thus used ; 
and this was accordingly examined. It yielded the following constituents, making 
in each impei-ial pint of 20 fluid ounces, nearly 9^ grains of solid matter, entirely 
saline, without any organic admixture : — 

Carbonate of lime 0'600 

Sulphate of lime 0-462 

Chloride of calcium 0'200 

Chloride of magnesium 1*252 

Chloride of sodium 6"906 



9-420 



The mould around the plants, and an infusion of the dead stems and leaves also 
afforded abundant evidence of the presence of much chloride of sodium. Further 
inquiry showed that the well from which the water was procured had an accidental 
communication, by means of a drain, with tli£ sea, and had thus become mixed with 
the salt water from that source, and had been used in this state for some weeks, pro- 
bably from two to three months. From about that time the plants had been observed 
to droop, but it was not until nearly the whole of a valuable stock had been destroyed 
that any extraordinary cause of the evil was suspected. To place it beyond doubt 
that the water was really the cause of the mischief, twelve healthy fuchsias were pro- 
cured from a distance and divided into two parts, half being watered morning and 
evening with the water in question, and the others with rain-water. In a week the 
six plants watered from the well had turned brown and ultimately died, while all 
the rest remained perfectly flourishing. Assuming from these facts that the com- 
mon salt in this water was the chief cause of the results described, it is proved that 
water containing about seven grains of salt in each pint is, in its continued use, an 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 59 

effectual poison to the weaker forms of vegetation, or that when a soil is continually 
watered with a weak solution of salt it gradually accumulates in it until the soil be- 
comes sufficiently contaminated to be unfit to support vegetable life. In either case 
an interesting subject of inquiry is suggested — What is the weakest solution of salt 
which can produce this poisonous effect ? or in other words, at what degree of dilu- 
tion does the danger cease ? For salt is an important natural constituent of much 
spring-water, quite independent of any infiltration from the sea, as in this instance. 
Thus, the water of the Artesian well, Trafalgar Square, London, con- 
tains in each gallon about 20*0 grains. 

That at Combe and Delafield's brewery 12"7 „ 

That at Woolverton Railway Station 6*0 „ 

One lately sunk at Southampton for supplying a private manufactory 40'0 „ 
May it not be asked whether the subject of the suitableness of waters in general 
for the various purposes to which they are applied, — be it in manufactures or for 
steam-engines, domestic purposes or drinking, — is not worthy of a greater share of 
scientific attention than it has hitherto commanded ? 



On a Neio Process for analysing Graphite, Natural and Artificial. By 

Professor R. E. Rogers, and Professor W. B. Rogers, University of 
Virginia. 

The present abstract will be limited to a brief statement of the principal steps of 
the new process, and such reference to the results as is necessary to give assurance 
of its accuracy. The details of the operation, with a description and drawing of the 
apparatus employed, will appear in the forthcoming number of tiie American Journal 
of Science. 

The extreme obstinacy with which graphite, natural as well as artificial, resists 
oxidation by liquid re-agents is shown by the fact that neither nitric nor sulphuric 
acid, used singly, even with the aid of heat, produces any sensible effect upon the 
flakes of this substance. Sciiafhaeutl succeeded in oxidating scales of artificial 
graphite by surrounding them with boiling sulphuric acid and then dropping concen- 
trated nitric acid upon the liquid, but the action was so slow as to require several suc- 
cessive digestions of the same specimen to dissipate the whole of the carbon. 

The new process is founded on the fact that a mixture of bichromate of potassa 
and sulphuric acid, when applied in great excess to very minutely-divided graphite, 
converts the carbon rapidly and completely into carbonic acid. The fact of such a 
reaction was noticed by us more than two years ago, but the details of the present 
process were not matured until the winter of 1847, since which time we have used it 
in a number of instances for determining the carbon of graphite, and always with 
consistent and satisfactory results. 

Our method of proceeding is briefly as follows : — 

1. Apparatus used.—The object of the experiment being to convert the carbon of 
the graphite into carbonic acid, and by absorption to collect the whole of the latter, 
with the view of deducing from it the weight of the carbon, the apparatus is con- 
structed of the following parts -.—First, a retort for receiving the powdered graphite, 
bichromate of potassa, and sulphuric acid; second, a large drying tube of chloride of 
calcium to arrest moisture ; third, a Liebig tube charged with standard solution of 
potassa followed by a small U-tube of fragments of potassa, both designed for the 
detention of the carbonic acid evolved ; fojirth, an additional U-tube to arrest the 
moisture which might otherwise pass backwards from the aspirator,- &n A, fifth, a 
large aspirating apparatus, to be used at the close of the experiment. The neck of 
the retort is bent upwards at right angles and enclosed in moistened cloth or by a 
glass refrigerator, to prevent the passage of sulphuric acid vapour into the chloride 
of calcium. 

2. Preparation of the Graphite. — To ensure a prompt and complete result, the 
graphite must first be brought to the most viinute division. This cannot be effected 
by triturating it alone, but is readily done by grinding it with pure quartz sand, or 
what is better, with small fragments of granular quartz, adding this substance in suc- 
cessive portions during the grinding, until it amounts to some thirty times the weight 



60 REPORT — 1848. 

of the graphite used. The success of the oxidating process is greatly dependent on 
this preparation. Ground in the ordinary way, we have found 6 grains of pure 
graphite to require upwards of twelve hours for complete oxidation, while the same 
amount finely ground with silica was completely dis^ipated in about thirty minutes. 

3. Mixture. — With a retort of about 13 cubic inches we find 6 grains of graphite 
a convenient quantity to operate with. When prepared as above, it is to be mixed 
with 500 grains of powdered bichromate of potassa, and the whole being transferred 
to the retort, we add 1 cubic inch of water, and then pour slowly upon the mass 
5 cubic inches of sulphuric acid of the common density, taking care to mingle the in- 
gredients by gentle agitation as we add the acid. A moderate lamp-heat soon excites 
brisk reaction, which is afterwards to be regulated by withdrawing or renewing the 
heat. At the close, the small tube attached to the tubulure of the retort is opened 
to permit aspiration, and a volume of air, equal to two or three times the capacity 
of the retort, is drawn through the apparatus. 

Results. — The consistency of the results obtained by this method will be seen from 
the following examples, selected as fair specimens of a number of experiments per- 
formed in the same way : — 

Native Graphite. — A crystalline variety found in Albemarle county, Virginia. It 
occurs in long flat narrow plates of a curved form, packed closely together like the 
fibres of asbestus. 

6 grains of this mineral yielded — 

In the first experiment Carbonic acid, 2079 

„ second „ Carbonic acid, 20-82 

The mean corresponds in 100 grains to Carbon 94-56. 

/Irtificial Graphite or Kish. — In large crystalline plates with adhering iron and 
slag. The former was removed by digestion in acid, but some of the vitreous matter 
remained. 

6 grains of this substance yielded — 

In the first experiment Carbonic acid, 16'58 

„ second ,, Carbonic acid, 16'63 

The mean corresponds in 100 grains to Carbon 754 grains. 

To test the accuracy of the results, weighed specimens of graphite were carefully 
burnt to ash in a current of oxygen gas. The weight of carbon found by subtraction 
closely corresponded with that determined by the liquid process applied to the same 
specimen. 

It is proper to add, that the native graphite used in these experiments was first 
freed from any adhering carbonates or organic matter, by digestion in dilute sulphuric 
acid and subsequent ignition. 

We have made numerous experiments to test the applicability of this process for 
determining the carbon of coals. In the driest varieties of anthracite, the results 
presented a good degree of uniformity in repeated trials with the same specimen ; 
but wherever the coal contains a volatile compound of carbon, this is in greater or 
less part evolved without oxidation in virtue of the high temperature of the reaction. 

In the case of perfectly dry coke however the process gives uniform and accurate 
results. 

Oxidation of the Diamond in the Liquid Way. 
By Professors R. E. Rogers and W. B. Rogers. 

The processes for oxidating the diamond hitherto described, consist in actually 
burning this gem, either in the air, in oxygen gas, or in some substance rich in oxy- 
gen, as nitrate of potassa. In all these experiments a very elevated temperature is 
required. We have therefore been much interested by discovering that the diamond 
may be converted into carbonic acid in the liquid way and ata moderate heat, by the 
reaction of a mixture of bichromate of potassa and sulphuric acid; in other words, by 
the oxidating power of chromic acid. This fact, although suggested in the progress 
of our experiments on graphite, was not unequivocally ascertained until lately. 

The method of proceeding is much the same as in the oxidation of graphite, but 
the progress of the oxidation is a great deal slower. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 61 

To succeed in this experiment, it is necessary first to reduce the small chips of 
diamond used in the process to a very tine powder. This is done by crushing them 
in a steel mortar, and then grinding the coarse powder that results with repeated 
portions of pure siliceous sand in a mortar of agate. By patient manipulation we 
have in this way succeeded in bringing the diamond to very nnnute division. 

A single grain weight of the gem will suffice for several experiments. In our re- 
peated trials we have never used more than half a grain, and we have obtained clear 
evidence of oxidation, by the evolved carbonic acid, with even one-tenth of a grain. 

In operating with half a grain, we employ a retort of about ] 5 inches capacity fitted 
up as in our apparatus for the oxidation of graphite. The Liebig tubes and U-tubes 
of that arrangement are replaced by tubes or small bottles charged with perfectly clear 
lime-water, and connected by bent tubes and perforated corks, so as to be air-tight at 
all the junctures. The drying tube of chloride of calcium is omitted, and in its place 
a slender tube connected with the beak of the retort carries the gas through a short 
test-tube containing a small quantity of water. This is adopted as a precaution in 
the event of sulphuric acid vapour escaping uncondensed. 

As the process is slow we find it necessary to use a large amount of the oxidating 
materials. In our experiments with half a grain the retort is charged with 4 cubic 
inches of sulphuric acid and 500 grains of bichromate of potassa. 

It is important to remark that these materials, of themselves, when heated to the 
temperature at which oxygen is evolved, never fail to yield a small amount of car- 
bonic acid. This result, due no doubt to the presence, in the bichromate, of a trace 
of carbonate or some carbonaceous matter, we have found it impossible entirely to 
prevent by re-crystallization or the addition of acid to the salt, or even by continued 
ignition. But we avoid all chance of error from this cause, by first heating the acid 
alone in the retort to about 350'', then adding the bichromate by degrees, and 
stirring the mixture so as to effect a complete separation of the chromic acid. A 
very brisk reaction takes place, much oxygen is disengaged, and with it any carbonic 
acid which these materials themselves are capable of evolving. 

By using successive tubes of lime-water to test the evolved gas, and occasionally 
applying a lamp to the retort, we readily ascertained when the oxygen ceases to be 
mingled with carbonic acid ; and as soon as we are assured of this we add the 
powdered diamond, and begin the main experiment. 

The evolution of carbonic acid is soon evinced by the growing milkiness of the 
lime-water, and this continues slowly to augment as long as there is free chromic acid 
in the retort. 

Operating in this way with half a grain of diamond-powder and the proportions of 
sulphuric acid and bichromate above stated, we have in a first process obtained 
about six-tenths of a grain of carbonate of line, about one-seventh of that due to the 
weight of diamond considered as pure carbon, showing that about one-seventh of the 
gem had been consumed in the process. By washing out the contents of the retort 
with distilled water, and carefully collecting the powder suflfered to subside in a 
covered glass jar, we have found that in a second similar process it yielded an amount 
of carbonic acid nearly as great as at first ; and in like manner, in a third trial, we 
have found it still capable of giving milkiness to the lime-water. 

In order to complete the oxidation at a single trial, it would be necessary to have 
the diamond still more finely comminuted, or to use a much larger amount of the 
oxidating agent than in the experiments here cited. The chief point of interest in 
the subject however is the fact which we believe has now for the first time been shown, 
that diamond is capable of being oxidated in the liquid ivay, and at a comparatively 
moderate temperature, ranging between 350 and 450 degrees. 



On the Absorption of Carbonic Acid by Sulphuric Acid. 
By Professors R. E. and W. B. Rogers. 

Notice of Pseudomorphous Crystals from Volcanic Districts of India. 
By J. Tennant, F.G.S. 



62 REPORT — 1848. 

On a Galvanometer. By W. S. Ward. 

This was a modified form of an instrument exhibited at Oxford, in which a coil of 
■wire conducting the electric current was suspended around the poles of a U-shaped 
permanent magnet. The coil had fixed upon it a small beam to which scales were 
attached : the improvement particularly described consisted in the length of the 
beam being so adjusted that the weights required to counterbalance the deflecting 
force gave the measure of the current in grains, corresponding to the number of 
grains of zinc per hour dissolved in each cell of the battery when a short coil was 
used, and corresponding to sixteen grains balanced by the electromotive force of one 
pair of Grove's elements when a long coil of fine wire was used. 



On the Electromotive Force, Dynamic Effect and Resistance of various 
Voltaic Combinations. By W. S. Ward. 

Tables were exhibited showing the results of measurements made with the gal- 
vanometer described in the paper previously read to the Section. 



On the Chemical Composition of Gtitta Percha. 
By Francis Whishaw, C.E. 



GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

On Fossil Femains recently discovered in Bacon Hole, Gower ; also other 
Remains from beneath the bed of the River Tawey. By Spence Bate. 

The cave in which the fossil remains were found, to which allusion is chiefly made 
in the following paper, is formed by a fissure or fault in the mountain limestone. It 
is situated on the sea-coast, about 20 feet above high-water mark, on the western 
coast of the headland of Gowev, and about nine miles from Swansea. It is upon the 
southern side of tlie anticlinal axis, which passes through Gower from a little to the 
north of the Worm's Head, tbiough Cefn Brynn, crosses Caswell Bay, and loses itself 
in the sea at the back of the Mumble Head. The strike of the limestone in which 
the cave is situated is nearly north and south, with the dip to the east. The cave 
narrows rapidly from the mouth, but is 30 feet wide about the centre of the main 
channel. It is 128 feet long, and possesses evidence of having once been a great 
deal more extensive, since the rocks below its mouth are strewn with blocks and 
large masses of breccia, together with broken fragments of stalagmite, which must 
have fallen both from its roof and floor. The floor of the cave, from the extreme 
end where it is divided into two chambers, caused by the fault separating itself into 
two fissures, gradually rises towards the entrance, and in such a manner as to indi- 
cate that the mouth itself was at a time when the cave extended to a greater length 
blocked up, and argues that this could have been the only entrance which the cave 
ever possessed, and that no communication through the roof, as is sometimes found, 
could have existed by which the angular fragments now fonuing the bone-bed of the 
cave could have existed. Since in the bed of stones no stalagmite is found, and in 
the stalagmite not a single stone has become entangled, we may infer the introduc- 
tion of the stones, together v.ith the bones found amongst them, to have been a simul- 
taneous injection, since which natural causes have qiTietly put a seal upon them. 
The elevation of the cave exceeds, scarcely 12 feet at the highest point of the main 
cavern, where, as in the two inner cliambers, it becomes mucli more lofty. This cave 
seems in itself to afibrd sufficient evidence that thickness of stalagmite is no proof of 
age, since the greatest thickness of carbonate of lime follows the line of the fissure 
throughout, being greatest where the two faults meet, in which place it attained a 
thickness of 2 feet and more, and required blasting for its removal ; it decreases in 
substance gradually on either side and towards the entrance, where it in some places 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 63 

scarcely exceeds an inch. This corresponds with the deposits of carbonate of lime in 
the roof, where the fault is choked up by the material, but which hang in no graceful 
stalagmites but unite in one large mass, except near the entrance, at which extremity 
a square original-shaped portion impends, which in the eye of the tradition of the neigh- 
bourhood has assumed tlie form of a flitch of bacon, hence the peculiar cognomen 
Bacon Hole, by which the cave is known. From the fault on either side the roof 
descends in a direct line until it meets the flooi-, forming a triangular entrance. 

The most important remains which yet have been found in this cave consist of 
teeth of the ox, deer, and other ruminants, together with a portion of the cranium of 
a deer and a few bones of a bat; all the last save one were found in such close prox- 
imity as to lead fairly to the inference that they belonged to the same bird ; and 
many other bones, the most of which seem to belong to the deer. Teeth of cai-nivo- 
rous animals were also found, among which were the left under canine of an old Ursits 
spelcBus ; also the canine and molar of a young bear of the same species ; also a molar, 
the milk tooth, probably of a young hysna. 

At the same time were exhibited many specimens of antlers of the Cervus elaphus, 
and one probably of the moose deer ; these are all attached to portions of the skull, 
affording evidence of having not been cast in the annual shedding season. These, 
together with a human skull, were discovered at the depth of six feet in the clay below 
the bed of the river Tawey. 

On the Sources of the Nile in the Mountains of the Moon. By Dr. Beke*. 

This paper was in continuation of one 'On the Nile and its Tributaries,' read be- 
fore the Royal Geographical Society of London during the Session of 1846-47, and 
printed in the 17th volume of that Society's Journal. 

The author's hypothesis is, that the principal sources of the Nile, according to 
Ptolemy, are in the coimtry of Mouo-Moezi, near the east coast of Africa, and that the 
name " Mountains of the Moon," arose from the translation of the word Moezi, 
which signifies moon in the language of the Sawahilis, or " dwellers on the coast," 
from whom the Greek merchants and seamen of Alexandria trading with India and 
Eastern Africa, obtained the particulars respecting the Upper Nile which are re- 
corded by Ptolemy. 

Dr. Beke exhibited two maps, showing the Nile and the east coast of Africa, the 
one according to Ptolemy, and the other according to his own hypothesis; and ap- 
plying the positive knowledge possessed at the present day to the correction of the 
fundamental error of Ptolemy's map, namely its general extension much too far 
southwards, he inferi-ed that the head of the Nile, which that geographer places on 
the western side of the country of the Anthropophagi, bordering on the Barbaricus 
Sinus, in the vicinity of the island of Menuthias, is most probably situate in about 2° S. 
lat. and 34° E. long., at the extreme eastern edge of the table-land of Eastern Africa, 
and at a distance of about 300 or 400 miles from the island of Zanzibar, which island 
he identified with Menuthias. 

The author next showed how, in his opinion, Ptolemy fell into the very natural 
error of making the Mountains of the Moon extend from east to west across the con- 
tinent of Africa, at right angles to the general direction of the course of the rivers 
flowing from them ; whereas the actual direction of the eastern edge of the table-land, 
which to the Sawahilis or natives of tlie coast has the appearance of an extensive 
range of lofty mountains, and which Dr. Beke identifies with the Mountains of the 
Moon, is from about S.W. to N.E. ; aud by measuring 600 miles in the latter direction 
— such being the distance that Ptolemy makes exist between the two heads of the 
Nile in those mountains — he hypothetically placed in about 7° N. lat. and 39° E. long., 
the source of that geographer's second arm of the river. This second arm Dr. Beke 
identifies with the Sobat, Telfi, or river of Habesh, which joins the Bahr el Abyad or 
White River in about 9° 20' N. lat., and which was considered by the officers of the 
Egyptian exploring expeditions, who ascended it 80 miles, to contribute to the Nile 
nearly a moiety of its waters. 

The author adverted particularly to the fact, that the confluence, at Kharttim fit 
15° 37' N. lat., of the White and Blue Rivers — commonly but erroneously called the 

■" Printed in extenso in the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, vol. xlv. pp. 221-251. 



64 REPORT — 1848. 

White and Blue Nilcs — is merely the junction of the Astapus with the Nilus ; and that, 
in reality, the confluence of Ptolemy's two ai'ms of the Nile, namely the White River 
and the Sobat or River of Habesh, is in 9° 20' N. lat., upwards of 6° beyond Khart- 
I'un ; and while establishing that these two principal arms of that river have their 
sources at the extreme eastern edge of the table-land of Eastern Africa, he showed, 
further, the existence of a third great arm of the Nile, namely the Bahr el Ghazal or 
Kei'lah, which joins the central stream from the west in about 9° 20' N. lat., and 
which there is reason to regard as the Nile of Herodotus and other writers anterior 
to Ptolemy. 

In conclusion. Dr. Beke called attention to the journey undertaken by Dr. Biallo- 
blotzky into Eastern Africa, for the purpose of exploring the southern hmits of the 
basin of the Nile ; and he solicited subscriptions in support of this undertaking. 

jiddition by the Author. — The Rev. Mr. Rebmann, of the Church Missionary So- 
ciety's East-Africa Mission, has lately sent home an account of a journey made by 
him into the interior. Within 200 miles due west from Mombas he came to the 
eastern edge of the table-land, which thus appears to be much nearer to the coast 
than I had been led to conclude. Directly before him Mr. Rebmann saw a lofty 
mountain, named Kilimandjaro, the summit of which is covered with perpetual snow. 

This mountain may be .^pproximatively placed in 4° S. lat. and 36° E. long., and 
its elevation cannot well bo less than about 20,000 feet. It is crossed by the road to 
the country of Mono-Moezi ; and there is now scarcely room to doubt that it forms a 
portion of Ptolemy's Mountains of the Moon (Moezi), the snoivs of which are de- 
scribed by that geographer as being received into the lakes of the Nile. It is by 
proceeding into the interior in this direction that Dr. Bialloblotzky may be expected 
to discover the sources of that river. — See Athencciim, No. 1119, of the 7th inst. — 
April 14, 1849. [Mr. Rebmann's Journal, with a Map, is since published in the 
Church Missionary Intelligencer for May 1849, vol. i. p. 12 et seq.'] 



On the occurrence in the Tarentaise of certain species of Fossil Plants of the 
Carboniferous Period, associated in the satne bed ivith Belenmites. By 
Mr. Charles Bunbury. 

The fossil plants were stated to be in a very bad state for examination, being washed 
up together in a taleose schist, and often curiously distorted by the molecular action 
which the rock has undergone. In the Turin collections, Mr. Bunbury had made 
out nine species of Ferns, two Calamites, and three Asterophyllites, which he consi- 
dered identical with Carboniferous species ; a conclusion formerly stated by M. 
Adolphe Brongniart. 

On a Boulder of Cannel Coal found in a vein of common bituminous Coal. 
By Starling Benson of Swansea. 

Whilst the shales and sandstones of the lower coal-measures of South Wales appear 
to have been for the most part deposited or formed in comparatively quiet water, the 
Pennant series of rocks above them, which are easily traceable throughout the coal- 
field iroiii the greater hardness of their sandstones, contain frequent conglomerates 
of rolled pebbles of coal and ironstone, drifted plants, and occasionally small boulders 
of granite, with other proofs of drift to a considerable extent having occurred during 
their formation. 

The boulder, which is 13 inches long, 7 wide, and 3 deep, was found in a seam of 
common bituminous coal at Penclawdd near Swansea, which is in geological position 
one of the lowest in the Pennant series. In the subjacent measures some seams of 
cannel coal are known to exist about 700 yards below the Penclawdd vein, and lying 
conformably with it. If the boulders and drift, which occur throughout the lower 
portion of the Pennant se.'ies, were derived from the subjacent coal-measures, it might 
have arisen from a partial destruction of the south-west portion of those measures during 
the formation of the Pennant rocks; and if the boulders of granite are, as supposed, 
equivalent to that of Pembrokeshire, they would also point to the same line of drift. 
The writer concluded by remarking, that if the suggestion is admitted that these 
boulders are derived from the lower measures of the same coal-field, the inference 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 65 

would follow that sufficient time elapsed between the deposit of two successive veins 
to allow the perfect crystallization and formation of the lower one. 

It also yielded information interesting with reference to the ascertaining of the 
manner of the formation of coal, as it would authorize an inference that the material 
of which in this instance the bituminous vein was formed, was originally too soft and 
yielding, notwithstanding its present hardness and density, to fracture the boulder 
during the period of pressure necessary for its formation ; and also, that any mixture of 
gases or other ingredients acting or escaping during the formation of the bituminous 
coal, do not appear to have in any way affected the cannel coal deposited within it. 



On the relative Position of the various Qualities of Coal in the South Wales 
Coal- Measures. By Starling Benson of Swansea. 
The varieties of coal found in the mineral basin of South Wales may be classified 
under three heads : — 

1. Bituminous; the small of which will coke. 

2. Free-burning ; which burns with rapidity, emits a considerable volume of flame, 
and is best adapted for steam purposes, but of which the small does not coke. 

3. Stone coal and culm, or anthracite. 

These three varieties are not suddenly altered as they approach each other ; on the 
contrary, there is often a gradual change from bituminous to free-burning within the 
limits of the same colliery, whilst the free-burning coals would also appear to become 
culms, burning without flame, probably from the diminution of volatile matter, before 
the quality of the true anthracitic coal and culm is attained. 

The annexed sketch of the coal-measures between Pontypool and Kidwelly will 
serve to illustrate the position of each variety of coal. 

With a few exceptions, arising from portions of seams of coal removed from their 
original relative positions by favdts or anticlinals, a central line of quality may be 
assumed to extend from Merthyr to Pembrey mountain near Llanelly; the bitumi- 
nous veins of coal on the south gradually becoming less so until they are free-burning 
in the centre, whilst these again change into culms, burning without flame, imtil the 
true anthracitic coals and culms are found on the north crop. 

Exclusive of the Pembrokeshire portion of the coal-measures, which is anthracitic, 
the area between Pontypool and Kidwelly, where both crops merge in the sea, may be 
estimated at fully 750 square miles, of which about y^ths consist of stone-coal and 
culms, T^ths of coking, smelting and free-burning coals. 

It is often remarked that each vein on the south crop gradually loses its bituminous 
quality as it dips to the north, but the more southern veins not so rapidly as those 
'above them : and it has been suggested, that a line or plane a dipping to the south 
might be so placed as to intersect each vein at a point where its relative proportion of 
bituminous quality has disappeared. 



South. 
North. \ Bituminous. 

Anthracite. 





Supposing anthracitic coal to be formed by the removal of certain volatile matter, 
chiefly oxygen, from bituminous coal by means of heat, may not a line, b, drawn at right 
angles to this intersecting plane, point to the direction whence such heat was derived 
from beneath the carboniferous measures? The surface-map, which shows that the 
seams of coal east of Merthyr are not anthracitic, but retain more of the bituminous 

1848. f 



66 



REPORT 1848. 



quality, would also imply that the source of heat lay rather to the north-west of the 
existing coal-field. 

The existence of this variety of coals in the South Wales hasin is an object of such 
interesting inquiry, that the writer ventured to offer these remarks in case they might 
in any way tend to assist in leading the minds of others to the discovery of a true 
solution of the cause. 



N 

t 




1. Anthracite. 2. Culms. 3. Free-burning, gradually becoming 4 and 5. Bituminous. 



Notice of a Map of Ancient Egypt of the Time of Antoninus Pius. 
By Joseph Bonomi. 

It is divided into Nomes or provinces from C. Ptolemy's Geography, and contains 
the roads from the Roman Itinerary. Against the towns in the land of Goshen are 
written the Hebrew names from the Book of Exodus, which mark the march of the 
Israelites, and a reference to Isaiah, chap. xl. 15, explains that the head of the Red 
Sea had been separated by the sands since that interesting event, and left in the form 
of a lake. The Lake of Mceris is also laid down as discovered Isy Linant in 1843. 



On the Discovery of some Remains of the Fossil Sepia in the Lias of Glou- 
cestershire. By Prof. BucKMAN, F.G.S. 

Remains of the Belemnite and other animals allied to the recent Cuttlefish, abound 
in the lias formation, but the chambered portion of the Belemnite is seldom present, 
and the ink-bag of the Sepia is still more rar6. One specimen discovered by Mr. 
Euckman in the lower lias is rather more than half the shell or "bone" of a Sepia, 
nine inches long and six inches wide ; in the centre of the specimen is preserved the 
ink-bag, which consists of about six drachms of a jet-black, hard and splintery sub- 
stance, easily ground down, and capable of being used as sepia or Indian-ink. An- 
other specimen is four inches long and two inches wide, and is marked by three raised 
lines, which meet in a point at the base ; the ink-bag is seen in the centre of this spe- 
cimen also. They were obtained from a bed of fissile marl about four inches thick, 
in the upper lias near Cheltenham, along with plants, insects. Ammonites, and four 
species offish, besides the uncinated arms of another fossil Cuttlefish. 



On the Plants of the "Insect Limcstotie" of the Loicer Lias. 
By Prof. BucKMAN, F.G.S. 

The band of limestone at the base of the lias is well known in Gloucestershire and 
the adjoining counties from its use in flooring barns and kitchens, and to the geologist 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. Bf 

fi-om having afforded abundance of insect remains, resembling those of ordinary 
occurrence in temperate climates. The plants associated with these insects at 
Strensham in Worcestershire are Ferns (Otopteris), Calamites, Confervse, Naidita 
lancL'olata, Brodie, Hippuris, and Equisetum Brodiei, Buckman. The ferns occur in 
fragments, and may have floated from some distance; the rest are small aquatic 
plants, which confirm the opinion that this limestone was deposited in an estuary, 
and in a temperate climate. 

On some Experimental Borings in search of Coal. 
By Prof. Buckman, F.G.S. 

The first experiment was made four miles from Droitwich in Worcestershire, on an 
estate purchased by a gentleman mainly from belief in a prevalent tradition that coal 
had been found there many years before. Having sent into StaiTordshire for some 
practical miners, a boring was made to the depth of 100 yards, and not being attended 
with success, Mr. Buckman was consulted, and by his advice the undertaking was 
abandoned. In this locality the lower lias approached closely to the experimental 
ground, so that, in order to reach the coal-measures, the whole thickness of the Keuper 
marls and new red sandstone must have been piissed through. 

A second attempt for coal was made near Malmsbury, Wilts, where former unsuc- 
cessful trials had been made, and where, as upon all Crown-lands, " mining rights " were 
reserved at sales ! The formation at this place is Oxford clay, which occasionally con- 
tains small beds of lignite; a shaft had been carried to a depth of nearly 100 yards 
without getting below the Oxford clay, when Mr. Buckman was consulted, and the 
attempt given up. 

On Marginopora and allied Structures. By Dr. Carpenter. 



On a Pecidiarity in the Structure of one of the Fossil Sponges of the Chalk, 
Choanites Konigi, Mantell. By William Cunnington. 

The author requests attention to some peculiarities in the structure of those fossil 
sponge-like bodies of the chalk-formation to which Dr. Mantell, in his ' Geology of 
Sussex,' gives the name of Choanites, 

He describes them as being of a subcylindrical form, with root-like processes, and 
having a cavity or sac which is deep and small in comparison with the bulk of the 
animal. The inner surface is studded with pores which are the terminal openings of 
tubes, disposed in a radiating manner, and ramifying through the mass. 

" The species named by Mantell C. Konigi is figured in the ' Geology of the South- 
East of England,' tab. 16, fig. 19 and 20. A partially decomposed specimen of one of 
these fossils, which I discovered some years ago, disclosed a long spiral canal winding 
round the siliceous cast of the central cavity. This I was at first disposed to think was 
the shell of a Serpula, but subsequent investigation, and the dissection of a large series, 
have convinced me that it forms part of the original fabric of the Choanite itself. It 
commences near the base of the central cavity, and quickly attaining its full diameter 
(about the eighth of an inch), it ascends with considerable regularity in a spiral 
direction, and terminates on the upper surface at a short distance from the centre. In 
large specimens there are as many as five or six volutions. Many of the tubes, which 
radiate from the central cavity, anastomose with the spiral canal, and an intimate 
connection is thus established between it and the other parts of the sponge. I have 
not found a similar structure in Polypotheeia, Hallirhoa, or any of the allied genera 
which are associated with the Choanites in the chalk and chalk-flint. With regard 
to the purposes which this remarkable canal served in the economy of the animal, 
I can only conjecture that it may have been connected with the reproductive system, 
probably constituting the ovarium." ^_^_^^ 

Reply to an Objection of Mr. Hopkins to the ' Chemical Theory of Volcanos,' 
contained in the last volume of the Transactions. By Dr. Daubeny. 

The difiiculty in question, which, as Mr. Hopkins states, was first suggested by 
M, Gay-Lussac, has never, in his opinion, been explained away. It consists in 

f2 



68 REPORT — 1848. 

the supposed admission of air and water to the lower regions of the volcanic mass 
through fissures conducting the sea- water to the fluid lava; for supposing such fis- 
sures to exist, it would seem that the fluid matter below ought to ascend into them 
and fill them, provided the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom of each fissure was 
greater than the weight of the descending column of water, which must often happen, 
especially in such volcanos as Stromboli, in whicli the permanent position of the sur- 
face of the fluid mass is known to be at a great height above the level of the ocean. 

In reply to this Dr. Daiibeny remarks, that M. Gay-Lussac does not deny that 
water gains access to the focus of volcanos, but, on tlie contrary, asserts that the ad- 
mission of water cannot be doubted, since no great eruption ever occurs that is not 
followed by the evolution of an enormous quantity of aqueous vapour, which, with that 
of the muriatic acid accompanying it, cannot be conceived to take place without an 
admission of sea-water to the interior of the volcano. The French philosopher, in- 
deed, urged the difficulty alluded to only as militating against the notion of the inte- 
rior of the earth being in an incandescent condition, and gives it as a reason for pre- 
ferring the very theory which Mr. Hopkins impugns. The difficulty started, therefore, 
although it may call for explanation from mechanicians, cannot obh'ge us to reject the 
fact itself, established, as it is, on undeniable evidmce; and all that chemists are 
concerned in is to speculate upon the consequences tnat might result from the admis- 
sion of water to the interior of the earth, as Dr. Daubeny has attempted to do in his 
lately-published Work. 

Nevertheless, it may be suggested, that the immense pressure exerted by a deep 
incumbent ocean, coupled with the resistance of a considerable thickness of solid rock 
intervening between its bottom and the focus of the volcanic operations, might oppose 
an obstacle to the ascent of lava sufficient to occasion lateral fissures, through which 
the melted matter would find an easier vent at some point on the contiguous land. 
It is true, that fissures of some sort must be supposed to have existed in the rock 
which the sea- water percolates, but these may readily be supposed to have been 
stopped up, at the commencement of each volcanic crisis, by injections of lava, which 
latter cooling in its progress upwards, would create an impediment to the further 
egress of melted matter by the same channels. 

It may be observed, that volcanos do not occur in the vicinity of shallow seas, such 
as the German Ocean, and that many parts of the Mediterranean, near which active 
vents are found, are of great depth. 

Nor is it necessary to suppose the elastic force equal to what would be required for 
elevating a column of lava to the summit of Etna or Teneriffe, but only such as 
might be adequate to produce the modern eruptions, which ahvays take place from the 
flanks of these mountains ; and this degree of elasticity, it is conceived, might be re- 
pressed by the weight of a deep sea, coupled with that of a considerable thickness of in- 
tervening rock, and thereby miglit determine the issue of the lava at some distant part. 

The recurrence of eruptions Dr. Daubeny has always referred to the cracks occa- 
sioned by cooling in the incumbent rock, whereby a fresh ingress of water to the vol- 
canic focus might be allowed. Be that however as it may, the fact of the presence of 
water stands unaffected by the truth or error of these attempts to account for the 
mode of its introduction. 

Notice of Discoveries among the British Cystidese, made since the last Meeting. 
By Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S. 

At Oxford Prof. Forbes had given an account of this group of fossils, considered 
by Baron von Buch as the lowest Radiate animals and representing the rudimentary 
forms of the superior orders, but believed by the author to be higher than the Cri- 
noids, and leading up from them to the Starfishes and Sea-urchins. Since last year, a 
specimen formerly discovered by Dr. Bigsby in North America, and figured in the 
Zoological Journal, but mislaid, had been re-found, and proved to be a remarkable 
member of this tribe, having a globular body like a sea-uvchin, with five depressions 
radiating from the oral aperture, in whicli arms were lodged; in the space between 
two of the arms was a circle of six ovarian plates. Another specimen very like this, 
but specifically distinct, had been discovered by the geological surveyors in the oldest 
Silurian rocks of Wales, showing that species provided with better arms than any 
other Cystideans appeai-ed as early as the armless species. Some other species had 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 69 

been discovered in a Silurian stratum in North America by Mr. Vanuxem, and de- 
scribed by the name of Agelocrinites. They were all provided with stems like the 
Sphaeronite and Pseudo-crinite. 

On the Polarity of Cleavage Planes., their conducting Power, and their 
Influence on Metalliferous Deposits. By Evan Hopkins, C.E., F.G.S. 

The writer states that, taken on a large scale, " all the primary crystalline rocks, and 
the sedimentary beds in contact, have been more or less cloven in a direction approach- 
ing the meridian, and in planes but slightly varying from the perpendicular." These 
cleavage planes he compares with the structure of the medullary rays of a tree, the 
contortions of the schist he compares with the bending of the grain in the neighbour- 
hood of knots, and the ascending sap is represented by " the polar current and the 
mineral solutions." An action, commencing in the moist crystalline granite, has 
formed, and still forms, this laminated and fibrous polar structure ; the granite is 
transformed into gneiss, the gneiss into micaceous schist, and the termination of 
the crystalline transition into clay-slate. These great cleavage planes are the cause 
of the varying structure of the primary rocks, and give rise to the mistaken idea of 
their being sedimentary rocks subsequently thrown verticallj'. He says they are 
developed on a gigantic scale in South America ; they cut the Isthmus of Panama 
transversely and extend into Mexico and the United States ; and that the same 
phsenomena have been observed in Scotland, and in fact in all Europe. He then 
compares the effects of the polar force with those produced in the magnetic battery, 
and states that he has seen masses of claj', in old mines and moist rocks, lodged in 
fissures acquire a cleavage identical with that of the bounding rock. He insists 
that cleavage planes must in every instance be developed in the same direction as 
the internal molecular polar current ; and that the polar elongation of the crystal- 
line rocks gives rise to tension, and consequently east and west fractures, thus pro- 
ducing mineral and other veins. The subterranean current in the semifluid mass 
always causes, according to the author's experiments, a westerly deflection of the 
magnetic needle. When sea-water is employed the variation amounts to about 
10°. Hence the direction of the conducting polar structure, or cleavage planes, will 
always he found to run N.E. of the undidating magnetic meridians. After showing 
the important practical bearing of this subject on all questions connected with rocks, 
veins, minerals, dislocations, &c., the author concludes by stating, that "polarity of 
matter is the key by which we obtain a clue of the cause of the great changes virhicli 
have taken place in the surface of the earth, and is the agent which is silently work- 
ing within the crystalline film on which we exist ; perpetually moving and modifying 
and rendering it suitable to our wants during all ages of transformation, and con- 
stantly providing inexhaustible stores of mineral wealth for successive generations." 



On the Position of the Chloritic Marl or Phosphate of Lime Bed in the Isle 
of Wight. By Capt. L. L. Boscawen Ibbetson, K.R.E., F.G.S. 

In this communication the author pointed out the position of the chloritic marl or 
phosphate of lime bed in the Isle of Wight, and called the attention of the proprietors 
and farmers in the island to the importance of knowing the true position of this va- 
luable manure. It is a gray mai-1 full of green grains of a silicate of iron and fine 
quartz sand ; it is very fossiliferous (the author appended a list of the fossils found 
in it in the Isle of Wight). The upper part of the bed forms in some places a con- 
glomerate of pebbles and small boulders, and the fossils ai-e broken as if rolled on a 
beach. The lower beds contain the fossils whole, and appear to have been formed 
in still water. Ammonites varians, Am. splendens, and Scaphites striatus, are the 
most characteristic fossils ; but it also contains abundantly nodules of a coprolitic form, 
which Mr. Thomas Hetherington Henry hns kindly examined, and finds they contain 
a large per-centage of phosphate of lime. 

Mr. Austen mentions it being found near Guildford, and Mr. Nesbit has found it 
near Fareham, containing in the nodules 28 per cent, of phosphate of lime, and in the 
whole mass 2 to 3 per cent. Mr. Morris and the author have also found the chloritic 
marl very abundant at Chaldon near Lulworth, and also in the railway cutting of the 



70 



REPORT — 1848. 



Wilts and Weymouth railway at Holywell. (The author mentioned the fossils oh- 
tained from these localities*.) The strata at Chute Farm consist of chloritic marl, 
but the fossils are more numerous and varied. 

The general position of the chloritic marl in the Isle of Wight is as follows: — 
From C'ompton Bay along the south slope (adjoining the chalk marl) of Shalcomb, 
Mottestone, Brixton and Lammerstone Downs; near the farms of Compton, Coomb, 
Rancomb, Northcourt, Shorwell, Chillerton ; between Chale Farm and Chillerton 
Down ; largely developed near Gatcomb ; between New-barn and Gausons on the 
Bridle road and hill between Gausons and Carisbrook; a great thickness on the road 
from Mount Joy to Whitconib, near the farms of West Standen, Sullons and Arre- 
ton ; the south slope of Arreton, Messley, Ashey, Brading, and Bembvidge Downs ; 
near the farms of Messley, Grove, Upper Martin and Yaverland ; running into the sea 
near the Culver Cliff. The chloritic marl is also found on Shanklin, St. Boniface, Kew, 
Week, Appuldercoomb, St. Catherine's, and Niton Downs ; at the top of the Undercliflj 
Ventnor Sliute near Steep-hill Castle ; in large blocks on the sea-shore, and also near 
tlie farms of Shanklin, Luccomb, Wroxhall, Winson, Span, Kew, Week, Dean, Little 
Stenbury, Slieep Wash, Niton and Chale, always immediately imder the chalk marl, 
and separating it from the upper greensand. This cliloritic marl or phosphate bed 
may be applied with great profit on the adjacent arid ferruginous sandy soil so common 
and unproductive in the centre of the south side of the island, viz. at Brixton, Chale, 
Kingston, Godshill, Newchurch, Bleak Down, Rookley, Queen's Bower, Sandy-way, &c. 
The drift or gravel beds of the island on the north side are com])osed of angular flints 
very little waterworn, and in some places perfectly shai'p, and they are interstratified 
with a fine brown sand and marly brick earth. The sand and clays in which they arc 
imbedded are the same ; it has every appearance of being similar to the flint gravel 
in the neighbourhood of London, &c. The nortli side of St. George's Down is thickly 
covered with this gravel, but at the south end, beyond the greensand and gault, there 
is a thick bed of very hard flint and chert conglomei'ate. Strongly cemented with 
iron, it is stratified in places with zones of the broken ferruginous bands of the upper 
beds of the lower green sandstone, on which strata it is reposing; and the sands and 
clays in which they are imbedded are debris derived from the lower greensand. The 
whole of the drifts in the centre of the south side are the same but do not form con- 
glomerates, but merely ferruginous flinty gravels stratified with ferruginous sands. 

It appears from the above that the drift beds on the north side are the detritus 
derived from the flints of the chalk and sands and clays of the tertiary series, and do 
not appear to have been accumulated on a sea-beach, in consequence of the angular 
form presenting little evidence of their having been subjected to much attrition. 

On the south side of the chalk range the drift has resulted from an admixture of 
chert and flints, probably from the upper greensand with the debris of the sands of 
the lower greensand, and appears to be local. The tops of the highest liills are not 
covered by this drift ; on them we find only the angular or unrolled flints without any 
intermixture of sand or clay. 

The author does not regard a vertical upward movement as the cause of the singular 
position of the chalk and tertiary beds, but conceives that slides occasioned by the de- 
composition of the fuller's-eavth and the abrasion of soft sandstone by currents of water 
may have produced these effects. 

Since writing the above paper, the author has found that Mr. Nesbit has analysed 
some of the strata, and found that a nodule in the lower chalk at St. Catherine's Down 
contained ID'OO percent, phosphoric acid and 3900 per cent, phosphate of lime, and 
that the upper greensand contains, on an average of twenty difterent specimens, 16 per 
cent.>phosphoric acid and 25 per cent, of phosphate of lime. 



Account of an extensive Mud-slide in the Island of Malta. 
By A. MiLWARD. 
The writer gives this account with the view of elucidating the motion of viscous 

* Note by Professor E. Forbes. — Hitherto no species of Neoera, so far as I am aware, lias 
been found in cretaceous strata. Capt. Ibbetson discovered a species of Nesra in tlie oolitic 
rocks, and several are known in the tertiary and recent formations. This cretaceous form 
supplies the deficient link in the series of Nesera in time. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 7l 

bodies and the analogous phiEnomena of glaciers. Previous to the autumn of 1846, a 
large quantity of mud, dredged from the harbour of Valetta, was deposited on level 
ground between the harbour and cliff, and covered about two acres of ground ; the 
autumnal rains, aided by the overflow of a tank on the cliff, caused the main body of 
tlie mud to flow from the side next the sea, where it was piled up highest, towards the 
cliff; the mud descended in streams whose inclinations were greatest at their origin, 
and their surface was marked by alternate curved bands of coarse and fine material, 
the rough bauds being slightly in relief; where the descent was steepest, the curved 
bands were broken and irregular ; as the surface of the mud dried, two sets of fissures 
were formed, one in the direction of the stream, the olher following the curved bands. 
In the spring of the present year a smaller slide took place, in which the surface of 
tlie mud was raised into curved bands or waves li to 2 feet high, the ridges being 
formed of the coarser materials. It appears that in the first instance the surface-mud 
was semi-fluid, and flowed over a comparatively dry and hardened surface, but after- 
wards the surface-mud dried by exposure, whilst that below remained moist. 



An attempt to illustrate the Origin of " Dirt-bands " on Glaciers. 
By A. MiLWARD. 

The surface of a glacier is composed of alternate bands of porous and compact ice, 
and the former becoming discoloured more readilj' than the latter, give rise to " dirt- 
bands," which follow the direction of the hyperbolic curves marked by the outcrop 
of the structvu-al planes, known as the "ribbon" structiu-e, which are elongated low 
down the glacier and compressed near its source; they are also most apparent low down, 
where the ice has been longest exposed to the weather. The writer suggests that the 
porous bands may be formed during the winter season, when the ice is less saturated 
with water and forms more slowly; and that the compact bands mark the quantity of 
ice added to the glacier each summer, when its motion is greatest. He also recom- 
mends the examination of the upper part of glaciers, with the view of ascertaining 
whether their surface is originally marked by waves such as those before described on 
the mud-slides. 

On some Bones found in the Bed of the Tawey. By W. Morgan. 



On the Subsidences ivhich have taken place in the Mineral Basin of South 
Wales, between the Llynvi Valley on the East, and Penllergare on the 
West. By F. Moses. 

Mr. J. G. Jeffreys exhibited specimens of the following rare and recent British 
shells, and species which he considered identical with them in the Crag formation. 

RECENT. FOSSIt. 

Buccinum ovum, Turt. ^ Dalei, Sow. 

Fusus scalariformis, Gould. Id., Sow. 

Saxicava arctica, var.?, Forbes SfHanley. Sphenia cylindrica, Sow. 

Natica helicoides, Johnst. Id., Soiv. 

sordida. Lam. N. cirriformis, Wood. 



The Marquis of Northampton read a letter from M. Boguslawski on the fall of a 
Meteorite, in two pieces, at Braunau in Bohemia, on the 11th of July 1847. Another 
meteorite of larger size, but exactly agreeing in appearance and chemical composition, 
had been dug up from a depth of fourteen feet at See Lcesgen. 



On the Geology of the County of Wicklow. By Prof. Oldham, M.Tt.I.A. 

This communication was illustrated by a new Geological Map of Wicklow and a 
number of sections in the mining districts, published in connection with the Geolo- 
gical Survey of Great Britain. Through the centre of the county passes the granite 
ridge, which extends from Dublin to Waterford, nearly N. and S. ; its highest point, 



72 REPORT — 1848. 

Lugnaquilla, 3000 feet above the sea. On both flanks of the granite rests a series 
of sedimentary deposits whose general strike is N.E., dip S.E., and therefore oblique 
to the granite, -which cuts them all in succession ; the oldest of these rocks are at the 
north end of the east flank of the granite, and consist of sandy and slaty beds altogether 
from 4000 to 5000 feet thick (" Barmouth Sandstones"). These are followed by 
argillaceous beds, and volcanic ash and breccia with contemporaneous greenstone ; 
a considerable number of fossils have been found in these beds, the equivalents of the 
lowest of all the Silurian remains in Wales. On the western flank of the granite only 
this upper series is found. Both series of sedimentary rocks have been upheaved, 
subjected to lateral pressure, contorted and fractured; besides which, they have all 
been altered along the line of contact with the granite to the extent of 5000 or 6000 
feet, and over a breadth of half a mile on the surface ; the influence of the formerly 
heated granite is shown in alteration of structure, and in the production of minerals 
not existing in the unaltered rock; in the conversion of sandstone into i]uartz-rock, 
and of the volcanic beds into a crystalline hornblendic rock. The dip of the slate, 
&c. is sometimes 70°, but usually much less ; the granite extends under them, and 
is shown again at a distance by denudation ; portions of the altered slate remain upon 
several summits of the granite hills, and show the original height of the surface of 
the granite, which in these points has been preserved from the rapid decomposition 
which has wasted it all around. The summit of Lugnaquilla is a mass of slate of this 
kind, traversed by numerous large veins of granite ; similar veins pierce all the rocks 
in contact with the granite, and many of these, having taken the direction of the 
bedding of the rock, appear as if interstratified. In Glen-malur these granite veins 
may be seen extending with parallel edges for hundreds of feet. Besides these and 
the contemporaneous greenstones, there are numerous dikes like the Cornish Elvans 
in the southern and metalliferous part of the county ; these never cut the older sedi- 
mentary rocks, but abound in the upper series. Glen-malur, in which several lodes 
of lead are worked, is formed by a great fault ; and there are several other nearly 
parallel glens, some occupied by lakes ; the Vale of Avoca is also caused by a fault 
which shifts all the lodes ; these dislocations extend into the granite itself In Wick- 
low there are no formations newer than the lower Silurian, except the drift; but a 
little westward the edges of the Silurian rock are covered by the conglomerates and 
sands of the Old Red system. The drift consists of clays and sand mixed with lime- 
stone boulders, which are scratched and furrowed ; in some parts of it organic remains 
occur in such a manner as to prove they lived on the spot; some of the species how- 
ever are Arctic, and occur 700 feet above the present level of the sea. In the north- 
ern part of the county the drift is gravelly and mixed with angular fragments of older 
rocks adjoining; Imge blocks of granite and quartz-rock are strewed over the county, 
the lower surface occasionally retaining distinct scratches and furrows. The surface 
of the county appears to have undergone extensive denudations since the deposit of the 
drift, and many of the ravines and caldron-shaped hollows are quite free from drift. 



On the Drainage of a Portion of Chat Moss. 
By G. W. Ormerod, M.A., F. G.S. 

The surface of the moss varies from 80 to 100 feet above the sea-level ; the bottom 
at the deepest part proved, is at least 100 feet below the sea-level. Part of this moss 
is now being laid dry by means of open drains, under the direction of M. Ormerod. 
After cutting the drains, the level of the peat falls rapidly; near the main leader it 
sunk pei-pendicularly 5 feet 6 inches in about nine months; and in one part 2 feet 
6 inches in a single week. 

Lieut.-Colonel Portlock communicated some observations on apparent changes in 
the level of the coast near Portsmouth, and contended that as these evidences of sub- 
sidence could be traced back to the most ancient times, so they had continued up to 
the present day, and expressed his conviction that a parallel might be found in exist- 
ing nature to all the phcenomena of ancient times. It appears that part of Fort Cum- 
berland near Portsmouth stands on a bank of gravel and sand, and that owing to some 
new groins made to protect it from the sea, a fresh direction was given to the tide, and 
a portion of the bank undermined and washed awaj', in the course of which a thick 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 73 

plank with a bolt was discovered, showing that tliis part of the bank had no great 
antiquity. An Artesian well has also been made to supply Block-house Fort, which 
for the first sixty feet exhibits nothing but clear shingle, and then a layer of sandy clay 
full of common oyster-shells, another example of the great changes iu the ancient 
coast and sea-bottom. 

Hydrography of the British Isles. By Augustus Petermann, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. A. Petermann exhibited a new Hydrographic Map of the British Isles, on 
which about 1550 rivers are distinguished by names, 480 lakes and ponds, and 40 
waterfalls- the canals with their altitude, as well as that of the I'ivers and lakes, and 
the great drains in the fen districts. It was stated that there are 20 rivers in En- 
gland, 10 in Scotland, and 10 in Ireland, each draining 500 square miles and up- 
wards. 

Of these, 18 drain an area = 500 to 1000 sq. miles. 
14 ... ... 1000 „ 2000 

8 ... ... 2000 „ 10,000 

These last eight are, — 

The Humber (including Trent andOuse), to Spurn Point... 9550 sq. miles. 

Severn, to Flatholm Light 8580 

Shannon, to Loop Head and Kerry Head 6946 

Thames (including Medway), to Nore Light 6160 

Barrow 3410 

Great Ouse 2960 

Bann 2345 

Tay, as far as Rhynd 2250 

The River Amazons drains a tract of 2,275,000 square miles. 



On some points connected with the Physical Geology of the Silurian district 
between Builth and Pen-y-bont, Radnorshire. By Prof. Ramsay, F.G.S. 

In this paper Professor Ramsay first laid down certain established geological pro- 
positions, on which much of the reasoning in the communication depended. 

When a stratum rests unconformably on the upturned edges of another series of 
strata, the lower rocks were denuded, either previous to or during the deposition of 
the higher stratum, and we know of no power at any considerable depth beneath the 
level of the sea fitted to effect such pheenomena, which therefore took place either above 
or at its surface. 

In the district described (near Builth in Breconshire), the Wenlock shale rests 
unconformably on the Llandeilo flags, which there consist of black slates associated 
with beds of trap and volcanic ashes. These rocks having been disturbed and raised 
above the level of the sea, formed the land round which the lowest beds of the un- 
conformable Wenlock shale were deposited, and gradually sinking beneath the level of 
the sea was covered up by higher Silurian strata, which accumulated above it to the 
vertical thickness of 5000 feet. A part at least of the old red sandstone was added 
to this, and during subsequent oscillations of level these higher rocks (beneath which 
the old land had been so long and deeply bTu-ied) were removed, and the Llandeilo 
flags of the district are now land for the second time. 

The sections exhibited also aflfbrded data, by which coxild be ascertained the angles 
of inclination of the Llandeilo flags at the time they lay under the Wenlock and other 
superincumbent beds, previous to the disturbance that raised these latter formations 
into an anticlinal curve, the lowest bed of which rested unconformably on the up- 
turned and denuded edges of the Llandeilo flags. 

They also indicated a method by which it may sometimes be possible to determine 
the vertical thickness of accumulations above certain other deposits, thus pointing to 
a means of forming a proximate idea of the degree of heat the latter may once have 
endured, supposing the same ratio of increase of temperature as we descend beneath 
the surface to have existed at that geological epoch that now obtains. 



74 REPORT — 1848. 

On the Geology of Pennsylvania. By Professor H. D. Rogers. 
Professor Rogers exhibited a general map of North America, the State Survey of 
Pennsylvania, and many other maps and sections coloured geologically. 

1. After pointing out the general accordance in the succession of the older rocks 
in America with those of Europe, he stated that the rocks composing the great 
Appalachian chain had been deposited near the eastern shore of the Palaeozoic Sea 
in North America, and detailed a variety of circumstances in evidence of the exist- 
ence of an ancient continent in the direction of the Atlantic. 

2. Amongst these hills there is a well-defined series of rocks, containing a suc- 
cession of fossils; but further west, where the same strata spread out to an enormous 
extent (in Kentucky and Tennessee), we seem to have arrived at the deep-sea part of 
these formations, in which ail distinctions melt away, and an uniform succession of 
sedimentary deposits have accumulated to a much greater thickness than near the 
coast. Wherever the tributaries of the Ohio, or the rivers of Virginia break through 
the hills, we find beds of grit diagonally stratified, with conglomerates and all other 
indications of a shallow sea ; but passing westward the same beds become finer and 
finer, the conglomerate passing into grits and these into fine-grained sandstones. The 
carboniferous limestone, which is but a few feet thick in the Appalachian, becomes 
500 feet thick in the Mississippi. 

3. After the elevation of the greater part of this region, the sea still covered the 
whole of Florida, the great plains of Arkansas, and extended far up the Missouri, and 
along the Atlantic plain as far as New Jersey; over this area was deposited first the 
cretaceous series and afterwards the tertiary. 

4. Between the tertiary plain and the Appalachian hills is a great tract of un- 
fossiliferous rocks ("Azoic" and " Metamorphic"), at least 10,000 feet in thickness, 
and along their western boundary, for 100 or 150 miles, the newer rocks all dip under 
them. This extraordinary circumstance was first explained by Professor Rogers, who 
has shown that it is the result of the folding of the rocks. The Appalachian chain 
consists, in fact, of a series of parallel anticlinal and synclinal folds, all leaning over 
to the west, so much as to invert the series of beds on the west of each synclinal ; 
these folds are steepest where they plunge beneath the azoic series, and open out 
gradually westward, until the strata become horizontal in the Ohio coal-field. 

Professor Rogers then gave a summary of his theory of the origin of these great 
parallel foldings in the Appalachian strata, which he attributes to a series of earth- 
quake movements, flowing forward in a particular direction in parallel lines; and he 
illustrated this view by a description of three remarkable earthquakes in the year 
1833. The first, that of St. Domingo, was experienced by the officers of a British 
vessel at sea, who stated that looking at the coast they had seen " the crests of the 
hills waving like the back of a serpent in gentle motion ;" these undulations had 
been traced along lines on which they were synchronous. 2. The earthquake in the 
Vale of the Mississippi, in which the lines of synchronous shock ranged N.N.E. and 
S.S.W. for 500 miles; at a parallel 300 miles east of the line the shock was ex- 
perienced eight minutes later; and all along the Atlantic shore twenty minutes 
later. The sensation was not that of a harsh grating of subjacent rocks, but a 
billowy heave. 3. A few months later another earthquake affected the whole vol- 
canic line of the Windward Isles and Bermuda simultaneously, and was attended by 
a sudden return to activity of some of the dormant craters ; in the course of twenty- 
two minutes it had flowed to the United States, and rocked the whole coast from 
Florida to New York. All these phasnomena were considered to prove the doctrine 
of a flexible crust resting on a fluid nucleus ; and, as in former times, the crust may 
have been more flexible and the volcanic forces more energetic, the whole surface 
may have been thrown into billowy undulations, and there have become permanently 
fixed by the successive injection of lava into the craters and fissures of the various 
folds, thus preventing their return to horizontality. 

5. The three great coal-fields of America are, that of theOhio, 740miles long, and 180 
wide, covering an area of 63,000 square miles, a surface greater than that of England 
and Wales; the Illinois coal-field, covering 50,000 square miles; and the Michigan, 
occupying 15,000 square miles. Besides these, there are numerous anthracitic 
basins in Pennsylvania and Virginia, the furthest being 100 miles S.E. of the margin 
of the Ohio coal-field. In passing across these coal-fields there is a gradual diminu- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 75 

tion in the quantity of bituminous matter from W. to E. In tlie Illinois it amounts 
to 40 or 45 per cent.; in Western Ohio, from 35 to 40; in Eastern Ohio, 25 to 30; 
in the table-land of the Alleghanies it is reduced to 18 or 20 per cent.; in a little 
coal-field 20 miles E. of the great field it is only 14 or 15 per cent.; in the western 
edge of the anthracite field 10 or 12 per cent.; and in the great body of the anthra- 
cite only 1 or 2 per cent, of gaseous matter exists, and this not in the form of bitumen. 
Further south, in Kentucky and Tennessee, the same change takes place, and the 
associated rocks become metamorphic eastwards ; all the coal, of every kind, rests 
on the same basis of rock, with the same fossils distributed through it, and the par- 
ticular coal-beds can be identified even when separated by an interval of fifty miles. 
The anthracite field is 5000 feet deep, and contains fifty seams of coal ; the bitumi- 
nous coal-field of Ohio is 2800 feet dee[). The working of these coal-fields is in- 
creasing rapidly; 3,000,000 tons of anthracite and 1,000,000 tons of bituminous coal 
are annually raised; and 700,000 tons of iron manufactured. A process for melt- 
ing iron-ore with anthracite was long wanted, and the government of Pennsylvania had 
offered a premium for such a discovery,- this was first achieved by Mr. Crane, in 
South Wales, by whom a patent was obtained in England ; and for the use of it in 
America one iron-master guaranteed him a premium on all the ore melted; but for 
want of an international patent-right, the process was soon imitated, and in some 
cases improved upon, by other parties in America. 

Drawings were exhibited of the anthracite coal-mines on the Lehigh-river, Penn- 
sylvania, which are worked like an open quarry on the slope of a mountain rising 
900 feet above the river; the coal is sixty feet thick, and surrounds the quarry in 
black glistening walls, capped by forty feet of yellow sandstone; it is conveyed by a 
self-acting railway for eight miles down a declivity of from 100 to 140 feet per mile ; 
the whole cost of obtaining it being 2d. a ton. This great bed of coal splits np into 
a number of divisions when quarried at some distance. 

6. Professor Rogers then alluded to the subject of the drift, which had received 
new interest in America from the visit of M. Agassiz. This deposit is spread over 
the whole of the States and extends westward to the Upper Missouri; when it rests 
upon the older strata its Jioor is worn and striated with furrows, which follow the 
pre-established contour of the surface, diverging when they meet any obstacle, and 
coalescing on the further side ; their general direction is N. and S. This drift is 
strewed indiscriminately over all the high ground as well as the valleys ; neither the 
White Mountains in New York, 6000 feet high, nor those between Lake Champlain 
and the St. Lawrence, 5000 or 6000 feet high, being centres from which the drift 
was dispersed. Besides this general drift, with its boulders, there are long trains of 
angular masses of rock running N. by W. and S. by E. on the borders of New York 
and Massachussetts, derived from great ragged chasms in the summits of the 
Alleghanies 1000 feet above the plain. These angular blocks rest upon the surface 
of the drift, which overspreads the country to the depth of twenty or thirty feet ; 
they vary in size from that of a hogshead to a small house, one of them being fifty 
feet long, and they do not much diminish in size from N. to S. One of these 
trains has been traced to a distance of fifty miles, another parallel line at a distance 
of half a mile is twenty miles long, and there are various others; they are about 
200 yards wide, and the blocks are not in contact, but lie a little apart. They are 
not strewed like moraines along the flanks of hills, but pass alike over mountain and 
valley, climbing summits higher than that from which they originated. 



Observations on the Great Anticlinal Line of the Blineral Basin of South 
Wales. By William Price Struve, C.E, 

The object of the few observations which 1 have to offer on this subject, is to 
describe the great central uprise of the coal-measures in Glamorganshire, between 
the Vale of Taffand the estuary of the Burry, in Carmarthen Bay. 

In doing so, I will at the same time me:ition some of the governing features of the 
South Wales coal-field, confining myself principally to that portion of it situated be- 
tween the TafT Valley and Carmarthen Bay. 

This district comprises Glamorganshire and portions of the counties of Carmarthen 
and Brecon, and occupies an area of about 560 square miles. It is intersected by six 



76 REPORT — 1848. 

principal valleys, down which the mineral produce is convej'ed by canal or railway to 
the several ports of Cardiff, Porthcawl, Port Talbot, Neath, Swansea, and Llanelly. 

In order that the remarks which I have to offer may be brief and intelligible, I have 
prepared, from my own notes and the information supplied by the Geological Survey 
of Great Britain, seven sectional representations of the coal-fieid in the district alluded 
to, and shall at once refer to them for a description of the stratification. 

The base of our coal-measures is carboniferous limestone, which, it will be observed, 
is basin-shaped, having a general rise from its centre towards the north and south, 
to which all the coal-measures conform : and they may be described as consisting of 
the following convenient divisions : — 

^^'- Band. Coal. 
Ft. In. In. Ft. 

First.— The Farewell Rock or Millstone Grit, containing \ ^^^ 
no coal, and averaging a thickness of f 

Secondly. — Argillaceous and arenaceous shales with "1 gg^ „q 
some beds of sandston es / 

Thirdhj. — Strata of a similar nature, containing several ~| 
seams of coal, some of which are very thick, and associated I g^Q 22 ... 43 
with mine, and are extensively worked at all the great iron- | 
works J 

Fourthly. — A similar stratification, but with some thick"] 
beds of quartz rocks, called the Cockshuts, particularly well | 

seen along the anticlinal line between Cwm Avon and S- 420 12 ... 3 

Waesteg, and regarded by the miner as sure guides to some 
of the accompanying rich coal beds J 

Fifthly. — Arenaceous and argillaceous shales, with oc- | r 18 T 

casional beds of sandstones, and containing black bands, [ .^^ J to I 11 

worked extensively at Cwm Avon and Maesteg, and lately f '" [ 3(3 J 

discovered at the Ystalyfera Iron- Works J 

Sixthly. — A great accumulation of sandstones called the~| 
Pennant Rock, intermixed occasionally with some argilla- \^qqq 7 

ceous shale, repi-esented in this neighbourhood by the Kil- | 
vey and Town Hills, measuring in thickness J 

Seventh and last division, containing shales and some"! „qqq g- 

thick masses of sandstone, and measuring about J 

Making a total average thickness of 8260 60 36 101 

In this statement I have only included the workable seams of coal and mine, my 
object being to convey a correct impression as to the available portion of the South Wales 
coal-field ; and in order that the geological arrangement of these divisions may be easily 
understood, I have distinguished them on the sections by various shades of colour. 
[The section was here explained.] 
An important governing feature of the coal-field is the Pennant Rock, its outcrop 
being nearly as well marked as that of the carboniferous limestone. It may be traced 
in neai'ly its whole thickness from Swansea to Carmarthen Bay on the west, and east- 
ward towards Briton-Ferry, Margam, Llantrissent, round by Pontypool, back to Mer- 
thyr, and across the tops of the valleys to Pembrey, where it again disappears under 
Carmarthen Bay. 

On inspecting the Section No. 1, from Hirwain to Llantrissent, it will be observed 
that the lower portion only of this deposit caps the hills about the Rhonddas, and that 
it then bends over towards Llantrissent, accumulating the whole of its thickness, and 
bringing in the Uyhewydd seams, which may be considered equivalent to Hughes's 
seam, near Swansea, or to the commencement of the highest division of that coal-field. 
The denudation from the Rhondda of this thick deposit of sandstone removes, as it 
were, an impermeable cover, which, in other portions of tlie district where it is found 
to prevail in its full thickness, must serve as a seal to shut out for ever from the uses 
of man the lower thick beds of coal and mine so extensively worked along the margin 
of the coal-field ; whereas, in this locality, they lie within an attainable depth for mi- 
ning, and as flat as can be desired by the miner. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 77 

The next Section, numbered 2, crosses Llangeinor Mountain ; here the Pennant 
Rock accumulates considerably. It is, however, broken through at Maesteg, which 
lies one mile to the west, by the central uprise of the coal-measures; the lower divi- 
sion of which is brought up to the surface, and woiked extensively for the supply 
of three large iron-works. As we proceed more to the westward and approach the 
eastern confines of the Swansea Bay, the Pennant Rock becomes more extensively 
broken through, so that the whole of the lower measures are brought to view, and 
workings of a most extensive kind have been opened upon them for the supply of a 
large iron-works, rolling-mills, tin-plate-mills and copper-works. 

On inspecting Section No. 3, it will be observed that the Pennant Rock stands on 
the north and south side of Cwm Avon, and that the lower measures must necessarily 
pass under Margani Mountain and crop out towards the sea. In conformity with 
this theory, pits are now being sunk in the neighbourhood of Port Talbot. 

The next Section to which I shall refer is No. 5, from Caswell Bay, in Gower, to 
the Great Mountain, in Carmarthenshire, constructed by Mr. Logan and myself, 
and published in the Geological Survey. It will now be observed that the uprise has 
completely removed the continuation of the southern portion of the coal-field which 
exists between Margam and Llantrissent, and the limestone only is to be seen torn 
up and contorted in the manner described in the section. Pi-oceeding still more west- 
ward through Gower, the limestone is found completely broken up, and the old red 
sandstone protrudes through from beneath, which is illustrated in Section No. 6, con- 
structed by Mr. Logan, and which shows a small portion of the lower shales reposing 
on the limestone at the western side of Oxwich Bay. 

Section No. 4, also constructed by Mr. Logan, from Port Tennant to Castle Cerig 
Cennen, is introduced for the purpose of illustrating, by an addition which I have 
made to the section, the probable partial removal of the coal-measures under 
Swansea Bay. 

It would appear, therefore, that the great central uprise of our coal-field, which has 
served so usefully to bring up the lower coal-shales in various portions of it, is merely 
a continuation of what has acted with so much more violence in Gower ; and that 
this movement may perhaps be traced back into Pembrokeshire, where, from the evi- 
dence afforded by Sir Henry de la Beche's valuable surveys, it appears that a great 
disturbance in the limestone and old red sandstone has also taken place. 

I shall now close these remarks by some general observations. The annexed sec- 
tions describe, with sufficient accuracy for general purposes, the governing features 
of the South Wales coal-field ; which, from the description I have given, has been 
shown to contain enormous mineral wealth. Section No. 1, for instance, exhibits 57 
feet thick of workable coal; 60 inches of workable argillaceous mine ; and from 18 
to 36 inches of black band, all within an attainable depth, averaging a distance by the 
TaflT Vale Railway of about 20 miles from the port of Cardiff. One square mile of 
such a coal-field ought to produce, according to ordinary calculations, 40,000,000 tons 
of coal, 8,000,000 tons of mine, and 3,000,000 tons of black band. 

The Swansea Section contains the coal-measures above the Pennant Rock, which 
may be estimated at 25,000,000 tons of coal per square mile ; and to this may be 
added the last estimate for the coal and mine below the Pennant, which is available 
for many square miles at the tops of the valleys, where they are found to crop out in 
proximity with the limestone, and on which all the great iron-works of South Wales 
are established. 

The extent of coal-field, therefore, which may be considered available chiefly to the 
ports of Swansea and Cardiff, may be estimated at about 400 square miles. The 
South Wales Raihvay will pass at the foot of all the valleys, so that on its completion 
the whole extent of this country will be in a condition, with the aid of short branches, 
to send its produce to either of these ports. 

As regards the qualities of the coals, they may be classed in the following order : — 
bituminous coal, free-burning coal, culm, anthracitic culm, anthracite : for all of 
which there is an extensive consu.oiption. The boimdaries of these various qualities 
I have endeavoured to sketch out on the annexed sections. 

The bituminous and free-burning coal appear to occupy the largest portion of the 
coal-field, and the anthracite and anthracitic culm the least. The anthracite com- 
mences slightly at Hirwain, and increases as it advances into Carmarthenshire ; and 
in Pembrokeshire the whole of the coal-field partakes of that quality. The other 



78 REPORT — 1S48. 

qualities take a similar direction, and gradually and imperceptibly pass into each other 
till they become bituminous coals on the south side of the coal-field. 



Eemarks on the Sources of the White Nile. By Ferdinand Werne, late 
attached to the Expedition sent by Mohammed Ali Pasha to explore the Nile 
(communicated by Sir Robert H. Schomburgk, K.R.E.)*. 

The author distinctly contradicted the discovery, recently announced to have been 
made by M. Antoine d'Abbadie, of the source of the Nile in 7° 49' N. lat. and 
34° 38' long. E. from Paris. In 1840-41, the Egyptian expedition to which M. 
Werne belonged, ascended the main stream of the Nile as far as the country of Bari, 
in the fourth degree of north latitude, and they were there told by the natives that 
the sources of the Nile lie still further 1o the south. 

From the formation and direction of the mountains whose valleys are watered by 
the Nile, an eye-witness would at once infer that the river comes from a distance of 
several degrees furtlier south ; and Lakono, the king of Bari, and his people invariably 
pointed to the south wherr describing the situation of the soui'ces of the river. The 
European officers of the expedition arrived in Bari with the preconceived opinion that 
the Nile came from the east, and they were, in consequence, the more precise and 
careful in their inquiries respecting its source ; but by no means could they induce the 
natives to deviate from their original statement that the river comes from the south. 

Lakono himself, who asserted that he had been to the country of Anydn (Anjan) 
in which the head streams of the Nile have their origin, said that the water in the 
four rivulets whose confluence forms the main stream, came only to his ankles; and 
as, above the extreme point reached by the expedition, the river comes direct from 
among the mountains in the south in the form of a turbulent stream, running between 
steep banks and over a rocky bed ; and as, further up, the declivity of its bed is ap- 
parently much greater ; M . Werne regarded it as physically impossible that M. d' Ab- 
badie's alleged source should be that of the Nile. In his opinion, M. d'Abbadie's river 
is a tributary eitlier of the Blue River or of the Sobat ; and he expressed his conviction 
that Ptolemy and the natives of Bari will be found to be correct in their statements 
respecting the position of the sources of the Nile, and that those sources are in the 
regions near the equator, where we shall also find the Mountains of the Moon. 

The Dean of Westminster read a letter from the Rev. Dr. Moberley, describing a 
large Plesiosaurus discovered in lias at the alum-works of Lord Mulgrave at Kettleness 
near Whitby : length of the head, 3 feet 2 inches; neck, 5 feet 10 inches; back, 
7 feet 1 inch; tail, G feet 10 inches; total, 22 feet 11 inches. Width of anterior 
paddles nearly 13 feet. 

The Dean of Westminster exhibited a Map of part of North Wales, and sketches of 
rocks in the vallej^s around Snowdon, and pointed out the various indications of the 
former existence of glaciers in these valleys. One of the best localities for observing 
the effect of the moving masses of ice which formerly occupied the seven valleys that 
descend from Snowdon, is at Pont Aberglaslyn near Bedd-gelert. Near Capel Cerig 
also there is a great extent of naked rock exhibiting the effects of glacial action. 
The most obvious exposures of the effects of ice are in the valley of Llanberris and in 
the valley of Nant-Francan. Moraines occur on the margin of Llyn Ogwyn and of 
Llyn Idwell, having been forced across these lakes when filled with ice. In all these 
valleys the surface of the rocks below the superficial soil is rounded, furrowed and 
striated in directions parallel to the sides of each valley. At Llyn-y-Gader near Bedd- 
gelert there were very remarkable naked, round-topped hillocks, worn and smoothed 
by friction of the ice. 

The Dean then gave an account of the principal phaenomeiia of glacial action in 
Switzerland, where they are believed to have formerly extended very much further 
than at present. 

* Since published, by M. Werne, in an appendix to his work, ' Expedition zur Entdeckung 
der Quellen des Weissen Nil,' 8vo. Berlin, 1S4S. An English translation of this work, by 
Mr. C. W. O'Reilly, has also been published in 2 vols. Svo ; London, 1849, 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 79 

Supplemental Notice on the Geology of Lundy Island. 
By the Rev. D.Williams, F.G.S. 

In a former notice the author described some remarkable dykes in the slate and 
granite of this island, and now exhibited a series of rock specimens showing every 
intermediate condition between true granite and trap by the gradual introduction of 
hornblende and lime. These specimens were obtained at the junction of the granite 
with the slate rock at the south-east and south of the island. The author called 
attention to the abundance of carbonate of lime in some of the primary rocks, from 
-which he believed it had in many instances been dispelled by heat. 



On the Geology of portions of South Wales, Gloucestershire and Somerset- 
shire. By Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

On the recent Species of Odostomia, a Genus of Gasteropodous MoUusks in- 
habiting the Seas of Great Britain and Ireland. By J. G. Jeffreys, 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The author, after a few preliminary remarks, gave an historical account of the 
genus, and proposed the coalition of all the species now composing the separate 
gengra of Odostomia, Chemnitzia and Eulimella, in one genus, treating the others 
as subgenera ; and he founded this view upon his observations of the animals, as 
well as on the shells, of each of those so-called genera. After describing the charac- 
ters and habits of these mollusks, he gave a synoptical view of the species, thirty- 
two in number ; of these, nine (viz. notata, alba, duhia, acuta, diaphana, dolioliformis, 
fenestrata, clathrata emd fo7-mosa) he described for the first time. Tlae author then 
proceeded to an elucidation of their synonymy, which was previously in a state of 
confusion, and the following is the result of his researches : — Out of the thirty-two 
species enumerated and described by him, nine were new and hitherto unpublished ; 
nine had been described and figured by Philippi as Sicilian shells ; one by Recluz as 
French ; ten by Loven as inhabiting the Scandinavian coasts ; seven by Searles Wood 
as crag fossils ; and one (for which the author proposed to restore the Linnean name 
of lacfea for elegantissima) as indigenous to the middle and south of Europe. 
(This paper is published entire in the Annals of Natural History for 1848.) 

On the Os humero-capsulare of the Ornithorhynchus. 
By Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

He referred to the discovery by Prof. Nitzsch of a small accessory bone articu- 
lated to the coracoidand humerus in certain birds, called 'os humero-capsulare,' and 
stated that he had discovered an ossicle attached to the head of the humerus and to 
the capsule of the shoulder-joint of the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus. It was equally 
distinct from the proximal epiphysis forming the head of the bone, and from that 
which caps the great tuberosity in the young animal, and it was present in fyxW- 
grovf nOrnithorlLynchi. It appeared to have escaped the notice of Meckel, and although 
but a small instance of resemblance to birds, was interesting as an additional illus- 
tration of the aflSnities of the paradoxical mammal. 



On the Communications between the Tympanum and Palate in the Crocodiles. 
By Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Owen referred to the discrepancy in the opinions of anatomists relative to 
the small perforation in the basisphenoid behind the posterior aperture of the nostrils 
in the crocodiles. It was called ' arterial foramen ' by Cuvier in his ' Ossemens 
Fossiles,' and was described in the 'Legons d'Anat. Coraparee, 1836,' as "leading 
to a canal which bifurcated as it ascended, one branch traversing the sphenoid, the 
other the occipital to terminate in the ear-chamber ;" but what passes through it. 



80 REPORT— 1848. 

or where the sphenoidal branch terminated, was not stated. Prof. Bronn had con- 
tended that this so-called 'arterial perforation' was the posterior aperture of the 
nostrils in certain fossil crocodiles, and had cited a letter from M. de Blainville ex- 
pressing that anatomist's conviction of the accuracy of this view. 

Prof. Owen stated that two short grooves converged, from without inwards and 
from above downwards, to terminate in the fossa behind the true posterior nares, in 
which fossa the median aperture in question was situated ; both that aperture and 
those grooves led upwards to canals which conveyed air from the mouth to the ear- 
chambers. The canal from the median aperture divides into an anterior (sphenoidal) 
and a posterior (occipital) branch, and each of these divisions bifurcates to the right 
and left to communicate with the tympanic cavities; the occipital bifurcations also 
communicate with the beginning of two other eustachian canals, extending from the 
tympanic cavities to the lower lateral apertures and grooves converging to the com- 
mon median perforation. All these canals open by a common median orifice upon the 
soft palate behind the true posterior nostril. The carotid canals commence by fora- 
mina situated one in each exoccipital bone external to the base of the condyle, and 
open also into the tympanic cavities, through which the arteries pass to enter bony 
canals leading from those cavities to the sella turcica. Examination of the soft parts 
in crocodiles and alligators that had died in the Zoological Gardens, and of the skulls 
of these and of the gavial, had confirmed the correctness of the description of the 
median foramen in question, as the " common terminal canal of the eustachian 
tubes," given in a former ' Report' by the author. (Reports of British Association, 
1841, p. 76.) 

With regard to the homologies of the above-described complex palato-tympanic 
air-passages in the Crocodilia, Prof. Owen stated that the lateral bony canals termi- 
nating in the common median fossa by distinct fissures, answer to the simple eusta- 
chian tubes of chelonians and lacertians, and the median canal with its dichotomy 
into four tubes, would seem to be a peculiar superaddition to the palato-tympanic 
air-passages in the crocodilian order. 

Note on Sounds emitted hy Mollusca. By Lieut.-Col. Portlock, F.R.S. 

I think it right to draw attention to the Helix aperfa, which is very remarkable 
for its property of emitting, when irritated, a strong and well-marked sound. When 
I first noticed the sound thus emitted on accidentally touching the animal, I was 
peculiarly struck by it and immediately referred to Rossraaesler, who I found de- 
scribes the quality of the animal in a very graphic manner, stating that the sounds 
were such as indicated irritation. The Helix aperta is very abundant at Corfu, ap- 
pearing thickly on the squill leaves in the spring, when about the beginning of March 
the annual increment of growth of the shell is perfectly soft. If the animal be irri- 
tated by a touch with a piece of straw or other light material, it emits a distinctly 
audible sound possessing a singular grumbling or querulous tone. This it frequently 
repeats if freshly touched, and continues so to do for apparently an unlimited space 
of time, as I kept one for a considerable time in my house, and heard this sound 
whenever I touched it. 

As Rossmaesler has so fully described this fact, I shall only add that I have, on 
more occasions than one, heard what I considered a similar, though very feeble 
sound from the Helix aspersa, and I need not say that the explanation seems very 
easy from the structure of the animal. 



On a new Species of Argotiaut, A. Owenii, with some Observations on the 
A. gondola, Dillwyn. By Loveli> Reeve, F.L.S. 

Among the Argonauts captured by Sir Edward Belcher during the voyage of the 
Samarang, are two species, one distinct from any hitherto described, the other iden- 
tical with a species, A. gondola, described upwards of thirty years since by the pre^ 
sident of the Section, Mr. Dillwyn, in his ' Descriptive Catalogue of Shells,' but 
which had been disposed of by subsequent writers as a variety or immature state of the 
A. Mans or tuberculosa. Specimens of each species were taken alive in the Atlantic 
by means of a gauze net at night. Drawings of the animal were exhibited made by 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 81 

Mr. Adams from the living animal at the time of its capture ; and the author had 
satisfactorily identified Mr. Dillwyn's species by means of these and other specimens 
in different stages of growth, collected by Mr. Cuming in the seas adjacent to the 
Philippine islands. The A. Owenii is distinguished from any species hitherto de- 
scribed by its laterally compressed form and prominent development of the wrinkles. 
The A. gondola is chiefly remarkable on account of the wide prolongation of the auri- 
cles on either side of the spire, whilst the keel of the shell is unusually wide, with 
the tubercles distant and more compressed. The lateral wrinkles are much less 
numerous than in A. tuberculosa, to which Mr. Dillwyn's species had been ascribed, 
and do not fade into solitary warts. 

On the Influence of Tempet-ature upon the Distribution of the Fauna in the 
^gean Sea. By Lieut. Spratt, R.N. 

After the publication, by the British Association, of the highly interesting report 
of the distribution of the fauna of the ^gean by Professor Forbes, I was led to ima- 
gine that temperature might have a great influence on that distribution : with this 
view I pursued the inquiry by making observations on the temperature of each 
region, as opportunities offered for doing so, whilst employed on the survey of the 
^gean seas during the summer seasons. 

These results seem to show distinctly that temperature is the principal influence 
which governs the distribution of the marine fauna. 

Tlie summer temperature of the air in the Mediterranean is about 86°, and the 
surface temperature reaches nearly that temperature generally at that season. 

The zones of depth, as arranged by Professor Forbes, are as follows. — The first 
region includes all between the surface and the depth of 2 fathoms ; but this he sub- 
divides into a superficial or tidal zone of about 2 feet, the inhabitants of which, he 
observes, are remarkable as being such as have a wide range in depth, eight out of the 
eleven species peculiar to ic being widely distributed in the Atlantic. The temperature 
of this zone ranges from 76° to 84° during eight months in the year. Its inhabit- 
ants are consequently subject to great vicissitudes of climate during the summer and 
winter. Nature having thus adapted them to these conditions, we consequently 
find that they are wanderers through great geographic space, corresponding to the 
vicissitudes of temperature to which they are subject. 

The second region reaches to the depth of 10 fathoms, in which, with the last sub- 
division of the first region, we have, says Professor Forbes, the characteristic fauna 
of the Mediterranean. Now the temperature in this region is seldom lower than 74° 
in the long summer season, and it is consequently the region upon which the Medi- 
terranean temperature has a more permanent influence ; for which reason we find 
in it the peculiar Mediterranean fauna. 

The third region descends to 20 fathoms, and has a decreased temperature to 68 ° ; in 
the fourth region it is 62° at the depth of 35 fathoms ; in the sixth region the tempera- 
ture is 56° at the depth of 75 fathoms ; and in the seventh and eighth regions, to the 
depth of 300 fathoms, the temperature decreases only to 55 or 551°, as far as I was 
able to ascertain. Thus between the littoral zone and the lowest region there is a differ- 
ence during summer of 26° and sometimes of 30° ; and between the second region 
(the Mediterranean) and the lowest, the temperature is about 20°, thus standing at 
the average temperature of a high northern latitude. After limiting the Mediterra- 
nean fauna to the second region. Professor Forbes remarks that the third is a trans- 
ition zone ; but in the fourth region the Celtic character of the fauna is remarkable, 
there being in that region nearly 50 per cent, of species identical of northern forms. 

In the sixth and lower regions he remarks, that although the identical Celtic spe- 
cies were fewer in the lower region, " he found the representations of northern species 
so great as to give a much more boreal or sub-boreal character than is present in 
those regions where identical forms are more abundant." 

Amongst the ^gean fauna are some which have a wide range in depth, there 
being nine species common to six regions, seventeen to five regions, and two com- 
mon to all, more than one-half of which are known to be wide geographic rangers. 
They, like the cosmopolite species of the littoral tidal zones, being thus adapted to 
climatal changes, become consequently ramblers over wide geographic space, as they 

1848. G 



82 REPORT — 1848. 

ramble into representations of climate in regions of depth. Thus we have the climate 
of a parallel represented in marine depths as in terrestrial elevation, and thus it ap- 
pears that density or depth is not so great an antagonist to the existence of animal 
life as is generally supposed. 

The greatest depth at which I have procured animal life is from 390 fathoms ; but 
I believe that it exists much lower, although the general character of the ^Egean is to 
limit to 300 fathoms ; but as in the deserts we have an oasis, so in the great depths 
of 300, 400, and perhaps 500 fathoms, we may have an oasis of animal life amidst the 
barren fields of yellow clay, dependent upon favourable and perhaps accidental condi- 
tions, such as the growth of nullipore, now found to be a vegetable instead of a coral, 
thus presenting prolific spots favourable for the existence and growth of animal life. 
These peculiar conditions of density and food develope necessarily a peculiar fauna, 
upon which climatal influence nevertheless stamps its characteristic forms through- 
out the species. 

Notice of an Observation at Bathcaloa, Ceylon, on the Sounds emitted by 
MoUusca. By T. L. Taylor. 

" There is a curious thing here which I don't know whether you ever heard of. 
Going at night on the lake in the neighbourhood of the fort, one is struck by a loud 
musical noise proceeding from the bottom of the water. It is caused by multitudes 
of some animal inhabiting shells, I believe ; at least the natives call them the ' Sing- 
ing Shells,' and I have been shown what they said were those which made the noise. 
Some people doubt, however, whether it is these shells that sing, or some others, or 
fish of some kind. Whatever it be, I can answer for having heard the sounds re- 
peatedly, so distinctly too that you cannot help hearing them even when the oars 
and paddles are splashing, and the boat going fast through the water. The sounds 
are like those of an accordion or ^olian harp, guitar or such-like vibrating notes, 
and pitched in different keys." 

Cases of impaired Vision m which Objects appear much smaller than nulural. 
5?/ A.Waller, iTf.Z). 

This paper contained some observations of impaired vision in which the principal 
symptom consisted of an altered appreciation of the sizes of external objects. They 
were presented for the purpose of elucidating the action of the nerves and of the mind 
in the judgement of the dimensions of objects. In one case the illusion existed in 
one eye only, which perceived objects much smaller than the other. In other ca-ses 
the illusion in both eyes was temporary, merely lasting for a few minutes at a time 
during the day, and then suddenly disappearing. 



On the Luminous Spectra excited by Pressure on the Retina and tJieir appli- 
cation to the Diaynosis of the Affections of the Retina and its appendages. 
By A. Waller, M,D. 

These observations relate to the luminous spectra which appear in the field of 
vision when the eyeball is compressed, or when the head has received a sharp blow, 
and in various other circumstances. After having described the discoveries of Sir 
Isaac Newton and others, the author goes on to relate his own observations, and 
finds that these spectra vary according to the part of the eyeball which is compressed. 
If compressed at the upper part, they appear to be most bright, and consist of seve- 
ral concentric rings alternately bright and dark. He shows that these spectra may 
be employed with great advantage as a means of discriminating the diseases of the 
retina and optic nerve from those which affect the crystalline lens, the iris, and the 
other parts in front of the retina. In amaurosis, glaucoma and other affections of 
the nervous parts, the spectra are found to become more faint in proportion as the 
nervous powers are injured, and are entirely absent when the visual powers are more 
deeply impaired. On the other hand, in those numerous affections of the eye where 
the rays of light can no longer form their images on the retina on account of the 
opacity of the parts which they have to traverse, the ocular spectra are found to be 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 83 

unimpaired in their brightness. The author has cited numerous cases in confirma- 
tion of this statement. _^____ 

Microscopic Observations on the Movement of the Human Blood in the Capil- 
laries, and on the Structure of the Nerves in the Glands at the Inferior 
Surface of the Tongue. By A. Waller, M.D. 

The author describes some microscopic observations on the minute glands at the 
inferior surface of the tongue. These minute glands, of about the size of a pin's head, 
are rernoved by him from the living tongue, and immediately subjected to observa- 
tion under the microscope, for which, by their transparent nature, they are particu- 
larly adapted. He states, that by this means he has been enabled to discover seve- 
ral points relating to the structure of glands which cannot be observed in these tis- 
sues after death. The movement of the blood through the capillaries is there seen 
for the first time, and is found to present all the same phsenomena as in the web of 
the frog or other transparent tissues. The nerves distributed to the various cells of 
which the gland consists are very numerous, and may be traced to the extremities 
of the separate cells, where they terminate, some in free extremities, others in vesi- 
cles, whose diameter is several times larger than that of the nerve-tube itself. Near 
their union with the glandular duct is a small ganglion which contains the usual 
elements, viz. vesicular globules and gelatinous and tubular fibres. 



On the Structure and Functions of the Branchial Organs of the Annelida 
and Crustacea ; illustrated hy Preparations and Diagrams. By Thomas 
Williams, M.D. 

The subject was treated under the following heads ; — 

Explanation of a series of diagrams illustrating the history of ciliated epithelium 
in invertebrate animals. 

New observations proving the presence of ciliated epithelium in the lungs of rep- 
tiles. Conclusions on the mechanism of breathing during hybernation. 

Passing allusion by diagrams to the branchial organs of inferior moUusca, conchi- 
fera, &c. 

Illustrations of new dissections of the breathing organs of the Annelida found on 
the coast of Swansea ; preparations and microscope. 

Preparations illustrating the ultimate structure of the gills in crustacea. 

Specimens showing the reproduction of Arenicolae, and their mode of respiring. 

On the Physical Conditions regidating the vertical Distribution of Animals in 
the Atmospliere and the Sea. By Thomas Williams, M.D. 

The subject was treated under the following heads : 

Pressure in the Atmosphere ; Rarefaction. — Experiment I. Illustrating the influence 
of density and rarefaction of the atmosphere on birds, affording striking proofs of the 
penetration and diffusion of air through all parts of the body in birds ; newts, frogs 
and mice included in the experiment for the purposes of contrast. 

Pressure in Water, and removal of. — Experiment II. Of removing atmospheric 
pressure from water containing fishes and Actinia, demonstrating the mechanical 
functions of the air-bladder, &c. — reflections on the distribution of fishes in the sea. 

Experiment III. Of increasing the pressure of the atmosphere over water containing 
fishes, &c. — curious results of sinking to the bottom, &c. 

Experiment IV. Of increasing pressure hydrostatically — effects on fishes. Ac- 
tinia, &c. &c. 

Distribution of Light through Water. — Experiment illustrating the depth to which 
light will travel through water — influence of, on distribution in depth of plants, zoo- 
I phytes, &c. 

I Air of Water. — Experiment proving its condensation at great depths, and its una- 
i Tailableness for respiration in the deep regions of the sea. 

Explains the uniform warmth of the water of the deep sea, as discovered by Sir 
J. Ross. 

G S 



84 REPORT — 1848. 

Conclusion. — Allusion to the observations of Forbes on the distribution of animals 
in zones of depth, &:c. - doubts raised by experiment with respect to the statements of 
Sir J. Ross, that the deepest regions of the sea are tenanted by animals and plants, &c. 



Additions to the British Flora, and an exhibition of Drawings pre- 
pared for publication in the Supplement to English Botany. By C. C. 
Babington, M.A., F.L.S. 

The author made a few remarks upon the causes of the recent great increase in 
the number of recorded British plants, which he supposed had resulted chiefly from 
the more careful and minute study of plants ensuing upon the attention of our younger 
botanists being turned to the works of foreign, more especially German and Swedish 
authors. He then noticed the necessity of attending to minute subdivision of species 
before any correct determination of what constitutes a species could be obtained, 
after which doubtless many of the so-called species would be combined into real spe- 
cies. At present no good distinction of species and varieties is known. 

Species and varieties noticed : — 
Lolium linicola. Orobanche Picridis. Filago spatiiulata. 

Apera interrupts. Maiva verticillata. F. apiculata. 

Anacharis Alsinastrum. Trifolium Molinerii. Crepis setosa, 

Simethis bicolor. T. strictum. and some others. 

Ranunculus tripartitus. IVlelilotus arvensis. 



Periodical Birds observed in the Years ISi? a7id 1848 near Llanrwst. 
By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 



On the jKirasitic Character of Rhinanthus crista-galli. 
By Joshua Clarke. 

Recent researches have discovered an interesting fact, that a whole group of plants 
closely allied to the Rhinanthus, is parasitic ; but the reason for thus noticing this 
habit in R. crista-gaJll, is its bearing on the practice of agriculture, viz. the in- 
jury and sometimes the destruction of the barley crops on clay lands. The extent 
of the evil due to this weed having been mentioned, the author stated the mode of 
effecting the injury as follows : — The fibres of the root of the Rhinanthus attach 
themselves to the fibres of the barley on which they grow. They then form small, 
round tubers, or what perhaps might be more properly called spongioles, on the 
sides of the fibres, which embrace the fibres so effectually, that they suck the juices 
of the plant so as to starve it, and sometimes ultimately destroy it. 



Note on the Development of Pollen. By A. Henfrey, F.L.S. 

The object of this note was to offer evidence from original investigation that the 
parent-cells of the pollen-cells are not formed through the agency of cytoblasts. 

The poUiniferous tissue of the anther in Tradescantia at first exhibits a continuous 
cellular structure ; in the cells composing this new cells are formed around the en- 
tire periphery of the protoplasm, completely filling the original cells, the walls of 
which then decay leaving the new cells (the parent-cells of the pollen) free. The 
protoplasm of the parent-cells divides into two and then into four portions, so that 
two septa, generally crossing at right angles, are found, dividing the original cavity 
into four cells (the special parent-cells), each generally having the form of a quarter 
of a sphere. The protoplasm of these again forms a layer around its whole periphery, 
whereby a new cell (the pollen-cell) originates in each cavity. The walls of the pa- 
rent and special parent-cells then decay leaving the pollen-cells fi-ee. The nuclei 
never make their appearance before the formation of the septa in the parent-cells. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 85 

On some Vegetable Monstrosities illustrating the Laios of Morphology. 
Bg E. Lank ESTER, M.D., F.R.S. 

The author stated that the only way of arriving at a proper knowledge of the im- 
port and relation of the organs of plants, was to study the history of the development 
of each organ from its primitive cells ; by this means those laws of morphology had 
been evolved which were so successfully applied to systematic botany at the present 
day. Although morphology must principally rest on observation, more especially 
with the aid of the microscope, as experiment could hardly be made in this depart- 
ment of inquiry, yet nature sometimes experimented as it were for us, and by 
arresting organs in their process of development, presented to us in a permanent 
form, the various transitionary stages of a normal development. Plants, or parts of 
plants presenting these forms, were called "monstrous," "monsters," or "mon- 
strosities," terms borrowed from the animal kingdom. These permanent forms of 
the lower stages of development were found in all parts of the plant, and were worthy 
of study as confirming or modifying the general laws of morphology. The follow- 
ing instances had recently occurred under the author's observation, and he thought 
them worthy of record. 

In the earliest periods of the history of the development of the leaf its position was 
alternate, one leaf above the other, subsequently the leaves in many families became 
opposite or verticillate. An instance was given of the original alternate type remain- 
ing in the Hippuris vulgaris, in which the leaves, instead of being in whorls, were 
arranged alternately in a spiral upon the stem. 

In the conversion of the leaf-bud into the flower-bud, bracts were the organs 
which indicated the earliest change in the leaf. Two instances were exhibited, one 
of Plantago major, found by the author, and the other Plantago media, presented 
to him by Dr.Lindley, in whose garden it grew as a permanent variety, in which the 
bracts normally situated at the base of the flower, and smaller than that organ, 
retained the character of fully-formed leaves. 

The sepals, petals and stamens exhibited still further departures from the ordinary 
character of the leaf. These however often retained the appearance of the leaf after 
the tendency to form the flower had commenced. As an instance of this specimens 
were exhibited of the Brassica Napa, in which, in the place of the sepals, petals and 
stamens, there were developed three rows of succulent leaf-like organs. This had 
arisen from the attack of a fungus. Reference was also made to specimens of Tri- 
folium repens, which had been gathered by the author in company with Professor 
E. Forbes, Mr. A. Henfrey and Robert Austen, Esq., at Chilworth Manor, in which 
the parts of the flower exhibited the characters of the leaves, and the short flower- 
stalks were elongated into the character of the stem. 

The highest tendency of the plant was the production of the flower, and where 
this tendency was greatest we must seek the typical form of the vegetable kingdom. 
This was found in the Composite. In this family the tendency to the production of 
flowers was so strong, that arrests of development were seldom recorded. A speci- 
men of Tragopogon pratetisis was exhibited in which the pappus was converted into 
foliate appendages ; the corolla was of a green colour, and the style had assumed 
also a foliaceous character. 

The most central organ of the flower, the pistil, was also in its external parts in 
the earlier stages of its growth identical with the leaf. In the Ti-ifolium repens and 
Tragopogon pratensis insX, mentioned, it retained this form. The origin of the placenta 
and ovules, within the carpellary leaves, must still be regarded as an undecided point. 
An instance of the capsule of the Papaver somniferum was exhibited, in which, in the 
interior of the capsule at its base, the growing point, there was present an abnormal 
growth, consisting of four leaf- like organs, opposite each other, separate above and 
united at the base, forming a kind of pedicel ; each of the leaves was partly united by 
the margins, forming a kind of cavity which was covered by a curve of the leaf at its 
apex ; one of the leaves was divided into two parts, each containing a cavity; on 
the edges of the leaves above was a changed condition of the tissue resembling the 
stigma, thus confirming the theory which regarded the stigma of Papaveraceae as 
the result of the union of the two edges of two carpellary leaves. The author re- 
garded this monstrosity as affording evidence against the theory of the development 
of the placenta and ovules independent of the carpellary leaf. 



86 REPORT — 1848. 

Another morphological question existed, and that was as to whether an inferior 
ovarj' should be regarded as the result of the growth of the carpellary leaf or of the 
portion of the stem on which it was seated. Some gooseberries Were exhibited in 
which bracts were growing from the surface of the berry, and which might be re- 
garded as indicative rather of the axial than the foliar character of the fruit. 

The proximate cause of these abnormal forms seems to be an over-nutrition of the 
part, which is produced either by culture or the attacks of parasitic fungi or insects. 
In these cases the formative energy of the plant seemed not able to resist the tendency 
to produce its tissues in the simplest form, that of the leaf. 



On a Peculiarity in the Protococcus nivalis. By Matthew Moggridge. 

On the 12th of August 1845,nearDelvin Head,Gower, at a place where water oozing 
out of the old red sandstone stagnates upon freshwater mud, I gathered Protococcus 
nivalis, but was prevented from observing it satisfactorily under the microscope. 

Since that period I have found it each year on the same spot ; and though the same 
conditions apparently obtain in numerous places in the immediate vicinity, the ha- 
bitat appears to be confined to one precise spot. 

In 1846 I found KheProtococcus nivalis in pools in the rocky bed of the river Pyrddyn 
(about 40 miles from the former station), a little above and below the Lady's Fall. 

From 1845 to the present time I have made each year many observations (chiefly 
with the \ inch) on this plant. The peculiarity to which I would draw attention is 
the occasional presence and office of a tube, in length sometimes two-thirds the dia- 
meter of the globule. Tliis I have myself repeatedly seen, and on one occasion showed 
it to my excellent friend Dr. Hooker. 

Agardt has figured the Protococcus GreviUii with a somevvhat similar appendage ; 
but he regards it as being a jiedicle or means of attachment ; and the difference be- 
tween this species and the nivalis has not been apparent to me, as in observations on 
the same specimens carried on, sometimes for eight weeks, both forms occurred ; and 
1 believe the species to be identical, as indeed would appear by Mr. Hassall's book. 

In the cases above referred to, the passage of the granules from the globule through 

the tube appeared very decided ; the granular mass in the interior being lessened — 

the tube containing several granules, and in the instance which I exhibited to Dr. 

Hooker, one granule being seen near the mouth of the tube, having to all appearance 

.just escaped and being free in the water. 

I may add, that on no occasion has any attachment of this tube at its extremity 
been perceptible to me ; and would suggest that this is one — I do not say the only — 
mode in which the granules escape from the parent cell. 



On the Colour Stripes of a Rose (Rosa sempervirens), single. 
By John Phillips, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

After some observations on the colour in the cells of plants, and the distribution of 
the tints according to structure, the author gave the following statement : — 

The large firm petals of this beautiful single rose, when fully expanded and grown 
in an open aspect, are white, with a delicate tint of yellow toward the base, and, in 
very bright hot weather, an almost indiscernible blush of red. But there are on the 
flower two bands of very full clear red, which commonly appear on one petal only, 
and then generally converge and unite at an obtuse angle at or near the middle of the 
free edge of the petal. These bands are visible on the outside of the flower only, for 
the red dye does not penetrate to the interior. This is the usual appearance, but it 
sometimes happens that, while two colour stripes appear on one petal, and are con- 
vergent upon it, they do not meet at a point. When this happens, some portions of 
red appear on one or more of the other petals of the flower, giving a slightly varie- 
gated aspect to the whole. There are cases also of one stripe being on one petal, 
and the other on parts of two others. 

Since it appears clearly from the above examples of variation in the place of the 
colour stripes, that they are independent of any structural peculiarity of the petals of 
the flower, it appeared to me that their form and distribution must be dependent on 
some other circumstance in the organization of the flower or the arrangement of its 
envelopes. Watching, therefore, the unfolding of the flower from its early bud, I 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 8? 

have found that the colour stripe is not visible in the petals while they are entirely 
covered by the calyx ; but that when the calyx, 'opening in a slit across the apex of 
the bud, presents to the light a portion of the petals folded on one another, this por- 
tion, and this only, acquires the deep red dye which makes the colour stripe. When, 
as is often the case, one petal is so folded as to cover or nearly cover all the others, 
and the opening of the calyx passes over it alone, this petal receives the whole dye; 
it alone is .striped, and the stripes converge to a point ; but when the outer petal does 
not so fully cover the others, and the opening crosses not the surface of that petal only, 
but also the edges and surfaces of one or more of the others, these edges and surfaces 
partake of the red stripe, which is really in its origin one continuous band on the bud. 

From these facts it may be concluded that the limited red dye of this rose is due 
to light acting during a very short period of time on whatever cells of the petals 
may happen to lie in the zone which is uncovered by the calyx and released from its 
pressure j that there is no peculiar susceptibility for colour in these cells which di- 
stinguishes them from the others, all being in fact susceptible of this colour, but only 
in a particular stage of growth, viz. that which precedes the full opening of the calyx 
into its five segments. 

In a few cases it has happened that one of these rose-buds opening in a very 
shady situation has received no red dye, but remained altogether white ; and by ex- 
perimentally covering a bud with a black hood, the development of red dye has been 
entirely prevented. A bud entirely covered with a glass case was very much re- 
tarded in flowering, and opened colourless. 

I have found, by examining many other roses, single and double, that the same 
principle, of the colour depending on partial exposure of the petal to light at a par- 
ticular epoch of growth, is capable of extensive application to white roses whose 
outer petals are in any degree dyed red ; but it seldom happens that in rose petals the 
susceptibility for a red dye is so remarkably limited as in the example chosen ; the 
dehiscence of the calyx determines indeed in many cases a band or bands of darker 
tint, but this generally spreads so far to the right and left beneath the leaves of the 
calyx, as not to catch the attention. 

I do not venture at present to offer this explanation of the tints of these roses as a 
general view applicable to other flowers, in which, frequently, there is a specific de- 
termination of colour to specific parts of the floral envelopes ; but I think it probable 
that many striped and spotted flowers may yield to observation and experiment proof 
that the distribution of their hues is in some degree governed by the manner in which 
their buds are released from pressure and exposed to light. 



On an apparently undescribed state of the Palmellece, toitha few Observations 
on Gemmation in the Lower Tribes of Plants. By G. H:K. Thwaites. 

The Palmellece are usually described as consisting of separate cells, imbedded in a 
gelatine, each cell being supposed to represent a single plant. Mr. C. E. Broome, 
however, has discovered that in an early stage of Pahnella botryoides of Greville, the 
plant consists of a number of branched filaments without septa, containing endo- 
chrome, and having their ultimate ramifications terminated by the ordinary cells of 
the Pahnella; around each of these cells a quantity of gelatine is developed; they 
subsequently become detached from the filaments, and develope the mucous pro- 
longations, which, as Mr. Hassall has observed, are probably characteristic of most, 
if not all the species of this tribe of plants. Mr. Broome's observations have been 
confirmed by the author in the species above-mentioned, as well as in Coccochloris 
rufescens, Brebisson ?, another species of the PulmeHece. Mr. Thwaites considered 
that the separation of the cells from the filaments, and the fact of each of the cells 
then assuming an independent vitality, should be viewed as a gemmation taking place, 
being rather a division of the individual plant than a reproduction of the species ; and 
therefore the subsequent fissiparous division of these separated cells would be a con- 
tinuation of the same process of gemmation. The author proceeded to show to what 
extent gemmation takes place in the lower tribes of plants, instancing the mosses, in 
which it would appear to commence even in the subdivision of the contents of the 
sporangium ; if the mass of sporules is to be considered, as seems probable, the repre- 
sentative of one embryo in the higher plant, the phytons produced from the con- 



88 REPORT — 1848. 

fervoid filaments originating from the sporules are another form of gemmation in the 
mosses ; and gemmation also takes place in the perfect state of the plant in Bryum 
androgynum and other species. In the Lichens and Hepaticce there is also exhibited a 
great tendency to produce gemmae. If the opinion now advanced with reference to 
gemmation be the correct one, it follows that in some species of mosses, such as 
Encah/pta streptocarpa, and of lichens, as Parmelia physodes, in which true repro- 
duction by means of spores seems scarcely ever to take place in some localities, an 
individual plant, by means of its gemmae or offsets, may attain the age of our largest 
trees, and occupy as large a space in the economy of nature. The tendency to pro- 
duce gemmae in the lower tribes of plants seems to warrant our considering that 
what has been described by authors as a second form of fructification in some of the 
Algae, should be rather referred to gemmation : for example, — the tetraspores of the 
FloridecB, the Opseospermata of Draparnaldia and Chcetophora, and what has been 
described by Thuret as the spore of Vaucheria. The author took occasion to observe 
that he did not consider the cilia with which the last-named organ is furnished, as 
affording any proof of a higher character of organization than if no such cilia existed, 
and he was inclined to believe that these appendages are merely a modification of 
cell-membrane, which latter is probably, judging from its mechanical properties, 
made up of a mass of such delicate filaments as those forming the cilia. 



On a supposed conneodon between an iiisiifficient Use of Salt in Food and the 
Progress of Asiatic Cholera. By W. H. Crook, LL.D. 

In this communication the author surveyed the geographical and social position of 
the district in which this kind of cholera originates, and inferred that in that district 
the use of salt, as an article of daily consumption, was (by artificial arrangements) 
limited to an amount far below that which the healthy and vigorous sustentation of 
the functions of life requires. He then examined the relation of fatality and preva- 
lence of cholera in different countries of Europe to the price and consumption of salt, 
and infers as not improbable that a deficient quantity of salt in the food of a nation 
may predispose many of its inhabitants to receive and generate the virus of cholera, 
or render them less able to resist its attacks. 



An attempt to give a Physiological Explanation how Persons both Blind, 
Deaf and Dumb from Infancy interpret the Commu7iications of others by 
their Touch only. By Richard Fowler, M.D., F.R.S. 

The facilit)' with which young blind and deaf persons acquire such efficiency in 
their fingers as to enable them to substitute touch for loss of both sight and hearing, 
admits of a physiological explanation from the following considerations : — 

That the knowledge of objects and their various relations is not from the specific 
nerve of each organ of sense, but from the muscular sense residing in the muscles 
by w^hich they are adjusted. Mere contact without pressure gives no knowledge 
of the forms or bulk of objects, and soon ceases to excite any sensation if the mus- 
cles which move the fingers are not in action. This fact, that all our distinguishing 
sensations are in the muscular sense of adjusting muscles, seems to afford a satisfac- 
tory proof that it is by this objects appear erect, though in the dead eye they are 
inverted when seen on the retina. When the head is unmoved and the eye alone 
raised to look up at the ceiling, we have a contractile feeling in the elevator muscles 
of the eye and forehead, and when we depress our eyes we have analogous feelings 
in the depressing muscles. Such muscular sensations, like those of the larynx, pass 
unheeded by those who can both hear and see, but the slightest sensations indica- 
tive of the meaning of others are objects of anxious attention to the blind and deaf, 
more particularly when new to them. This excitement by novelty of feeling is well 
marked by Sir H. Davy, who said he felt an extended sense of touch when he had 
for some time breathed the nitrous oxide gas, and this probably from the larger pro- 
portion of oxygen than in atmospheric air. For I think it will be found, that simul- 
taneously with retransmission of motor influence to the adjusting muscles of any 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 89 

part, there is also retransmission to its arteries to ensure a supply of blood (the 
source), from which both sensibilitj' and contractibility are sustained. 



Captain Ibbetson read a paper which he had translated from the French, on the 
Chemical and Physiological eflfects of feeding Fowls, and on the changes and chemical 
composition of Eggs during incubation, by Dr. Sacc. 

The first part of this paper gave an account of the results of feeding a bantam 
cock and hen on barley alone. At the end of a week it was found that the cock 
had gained 18 grammes (a granjme is 15J grains English) and the hen had lost 21 
grammes, but had laid in the mean time an egg weighing 22 grammes ; in addition 
to the barley a certain quantity of carbonate of lime had been consumed. The egg on 
being examined was found to contain — 

Albumen 19-49 

Oil 27-84 

Water 52-67 — 100-00 

In hens ordinarily fed the egg contained — 

Albumen 17 

Oil 29 

Water 54—100 

Thus showing that the barley-fed hen laid eggs with a larger quantity of solid 
organic matter than ordinarily fed hens. 

It was found that hens during incubation lose weight. A hen before incubation 
weighed 672-155 grammes, after it 483-202 grammes. During incubation eggs lose 
weight in the following proportion : — 

1st week 5 per cent. 2nd week 9 per cent. 3rd week 3 per cent. 

losing altogether 17 per cent, of their weight. The shell of the egg was found to 
weigh 18 per cent, of the egg, and to be composed principally of carbonate of lime. 
The shell of the egg is not formed unless the animal has access to carbonate of lime 
in some form or other. The carbonate of lime is deposited on the egg from with- 
out, and is carried to the egg in a state of solution in carbonic acid. Phosphate of 
lime and traces of iron were found in the albumen and the yolk of the egg, and also 
soda. The function of the albumen or white of the egg appears to be, first, to 
furnish the young bird with phosphate of lime for its bones and other earthy and 
alkaline salts ; and, secondly, to supply water, the material for the muscles, and to 
hold in solution the carbonic acid breathed by the young bird before it is hatched. 
A communication is constantly kept up between the atmosphere and the chick by 
the shell, which is the organ of the gaseous pulmonary and cutaneous excretions. 
The yolk of the egg is principally composed of oily matter, which appears to be 
taken into the system of the young chick, and is used in respiration for the purpose 
of maintaining animal heat. Thus it is found that in the contents of the new-laid 
egg there are the same principles surrounding the young chick as there is in the 
vegetable kingdom for the supply of the whole animal kingdom. We have, first, 
proteine for nutrition ; second, oil for combustion ; and, third, various salts for com- 
bining with the agents of nutrition. 

On the erroneous division of the Cervical and Dorsal Vertebra:, and the 
connection of the First Rib with the Seventh Vertebra, and the normal 
position of the Head of the Rib in Mammals. By Dr, Macdonald, 
F.R.S.E., L.S., G.S. &SC. 

Cuvier was most successful in the application of organic characters in systematic 
zoology and palseontologj^ and from his data almost all our modern zoologists have 
copied their elementary and systematic treatises. 

From a very extended examination of the skeletons of the vertebral classes, Cuvier 
early adopted and maintained, as an essential character of the whole class of mam- 
mals, that they were distinguished by having seven cervical vertebrae as in man. 
Unfortunately this was based on a hasty adoption of the anthropotomist, who had 



90 REPORT 1848. 

restricted his examination to the dried skeleton and the still drier descriptions of 
human osteology. Had a more scientific course been pursued by the investigation 
of the neurological distribution, we feel that this error would not have been so ex- 
tensively adopted, and in fact would not have been proposed by so excellent an ob- 
server as Cuvier. Even in the skeleton of man, as best articulated, nine of the 
twelve ribs have their heads articulated opposite the intervertebral space, being 
equally connected with each of the adjoining vertebrre. This we assume as the nor- 
mal position in the mammals, and even in many of the reptiles, and therefore the 
case of the first, eleventh and twelfth ribs in man are the exceptions. 

A vertebra having a rib attached, is considered dorsal in the osteology of mam- 
mals. The normal position of the head of the rib in the intervertebral space is 
beautifully displayed in the disposition of the ligaments, which in a stellate or 
divergent form unite by three tendons the head of the rib to the intervertebral car- 
tilage and adjoining vertebrae. 

In the turtle this arrangement is also very well marked. As twelve ribs require 
twelve spaces and thirteen bodies to form these spaces, we require thirteen instead 
of twelve dorsal vertebrae. This will reduce the number of the cervical to six. By 
a very large induction and examination of the skeletons of recent as well as extinct 
species of mammals, we are fully satisfied, that with few exceptions, it will be found 
that there are only six cervical vertebrae in the mammal class, and that this should 
be adopted as the normal type. 

The elephant was the first instance in which we observed the confirmation of what 
we had previously proposed as the true enumeration of the cervical vertebrae in man, 
from a consideration of the distribution of the spinal nerves forming the brachial 
plexus. We subsequently examined the very valuable Museums of the University 
and College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, and more recently enjoyed the opportunity of 
examining those of the British Museum, College of Surgeons, and Guy's Hospital ; 
and from these and others of a more limited extent, we found that there were only 
six cervical vertebrae unconnected with ribs, or rather that the first rib was articu- 
lated with the seventh vertebra in the following classes :— Quadrumana, from a very 
great number ; Carnivora, from all but the seals ; Rodentia, Pachydermata, Pe- 
cora, Cervi, Cetacea ; the only exceptions met with were the seals and one skeleton 
of a kangaroo in Guy's Hospital Museum. In man, the first rib is occasionally in 
the normal position opposite the intervertebral space ; and when we find that the 
eighth vertebra has an undue share of costal attachment compared with all the rest, 
we may easily suppose that this has arisen from the primary branchial arch in the 
reptiloid phase of the foetus, causing the lowering of the head of the rib, thus at the 
same time producing greater horizontality in closing in the summit of the thorax, 
and giving greater freedom for the passage of the subclavian artery and vein over the 
broad surface, instead of the sharp border or edge. There is another point of view 
in which this has a bearing ; the usually defined exception of the Bradyjms tridactylm 
affords grounds for the supposition that the cervical vertebrae are, like those of the 
cranium, arranged in pairs, for there we have not an additional vertebra, but an 
additional pair of vertebrae. In a former communication (read at the Cambridge 
meeting of the Association) we presented a sketch of the arrangement of the cranial 
vertebra.' in pairs as the only mode or principle of unravelling the maze in which they 
have been so long and even still are involved. 

The next subject for correction is that proposed by Prof. Owen, who considers the 
scapulo-clavicular arch and anterior extremities as the divergent lamina of the occi- 
pital bone. Without attempting a full analysis and critical examination of this theory, 
we ma)' shortly state the foUov^'ing objections : — I. In the mammals this is really 
composed of at least two laminae. 11. It is neurologically connected in this class 
with the lower cervical and upper thoracic or humeral region. 111. It is also in the 
same position in birds and in the chelonian reptiles ; it is attached anterior to the dor- ' 
sal vertebrae by the triquetron as a separate bone, and which is only typified by the 
triquetral or triangular surface of the spine of the scapula over which the trapezius 
plays, and to which the minor rhomboid is attached. IV. But the most striking 
objection lies in the case of fishes. The author presented to meetings of the Asso- 
ciation at Glasgow and Cambridge, proof that what had been misnamed and mis- . 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 91 

taken for the thoracic or anterior extremity, and called by ichthyologists, judging 
from external character only, the pectoral fin, was really the coxal segment and 
leg, and not the humeral arch. Tlie author presented a sketch copied from the Lec- 
tures on Comparative Anatomy by Prof. Owen, to show how the mistake had arisen. 
The object of the diagram was to show that in the human foot, the analogy to the 
human arm may be traced by merely elongating the calcls and scaphoid bones, so 
as to represent the ulna and radius, while the astragalus may typify the very com- 
pressed humerus ; in the fish the foot is turned with the sole or palmar aspect for- 
wards, consequently what is the internal malleolus in man and mammals becomes 
the external in the fish, and so very much developed, that it forms in the osseous fishes 
the larger part of the tibia, meeting almost with its fellow from the opposite arch 
under the mesobranchial or hyoid region, and called by Cuvier the scapulo-clavicu- 
laire, and by Owen the coracoid, having the fibula more internal and called epico- 
racoid by Owen. 

Should the Section agree to this view of the pectoral being the coxal instead of 
the scapular or respiratory extremity, they will perceive that it cannot be the diver- 
gent lamina of the occipital bone. It would require too long a notice, and also a 
demonstration of specimens, to render this subject fully evident ; but the author is 
anxious to contribute, by a prompt correction of what he deems error, data to 
secure the fundamental basis of this important branch of anatomical study. 



On the Homologies and Notation of the Dental System in Mammalia. 
By Professor Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

The Professor commenced by observing that one of the results of the deterniina- 
tion of the homologies of parts of the animal body was the power of denoting them 
by symbols, and gave, in illustration of the advantages of this substitute for verbal 
definitions, some descriptions of the order of development and change of dentition in 
different mammalia, and especially in the genus Macropus, Shaw. He had shown 
that the formula which had been supposed by Cuvier to distinguish the small kan- 
garoos {Halmaturus) from thz Macropus of Cuvier, was the same essentially in both 
genera, the differences depending only on the length of time during which certain 
teeth were retained. The true formula of the Macropodidce was — 
.3—3 0—0 
1— l' 0—0^1—1 

The canines are never functionally developed, though minute germs occur in the 
upper jaw of some of the smaller species, and in the embryo state of all kangaroos. 
The author had not described the changes of the teeth or given the deciduous for- 
mula of the kangaroos in his 'Odontography,' nor had any additional information 
been given in later works. Mr. Waterhouse, in his ' Natural History of Mammalia,' 
had confirmed the author's determination of the permanent formula of the dentition 
of the Macropodidce, and had abandoned the Cuvierian one. 

3 3 \ j^ 2 2 

The deciduous dentition of Macropus Major was *t^;^j c-— , m— — = 18. 

When the young kangaroo quits the pouch, the dii (milk-incisors) and dec (milk- 

\ — \ 2 — 2 
canines) are shed, and the dentition is t , m — -^ = 12. The incisors were i 1 

(first permanent incisors) ; the molars were d 3 and rf4 (the milk-molars homologous 
with those so numbered in the typical dentition of the horse, hog). The next stage 
in the kangaroo is the acquisition of i 2 in the upper jaw (second permanent incisor), 
and of m 1 (first permanent true molar) in both jaws, formulised by — 

.2—2 , 2—2 1 — 1 

I , d m ~ — - 

1 — 1 2—2 




3 3 2 2 ^ ^ 

At one vear old the dentition was i - — -, d m r — ; , m - — - = 24. The next stage 

1 — 1 2 — - i — ^ 

is the shedding of d3 and the appearance in place of m 3. Then d 4 is shed and 
succeeded by p 4, — the single premolar which displaces d 4 vertically. Finally, 



92 REPORT — 1848. 

m 4 — the last true molar — comes into place, and in Macropus gigas the premolar is 
simultaneously shed. 

Thus four individuals of the great kangaroo may be found to have the same nume- 

4 4 

rical molar series, viz. m , and yet not any of them have the same or homologous 

4 — 4 

teeth. The four grinders, for example, may be — 
d 3, d i, m 1, m 2; or 
d 4, m I, m 2, m 3 ; or 
p I, m 1, m 2,'m 3; or 
m I, m 2, m 3, m 4. 

Prof. Owen, not having traced out when he published his ' Odontography ' all this 
complex interchange and alternating sequence of the dentition of the kangaroo, had 
been compelled to postpone any definition of the deciduous formula until all the 
stages had been observed. The order described was not that followed in some of the 
smaller kangaroos. In Macropus Bonettii, e. g. the acquisition of m 3 is not accom- 

5 5 

panied by the shedding of rf 3 : a skull of that species 5 in. in length, had m - — -, being 

d3, di, m 1, m 2, and m 3 : both milk molars are shed and replaced by the single 
premolar p 4, but this tooth is not pushed out by the rising into place of the last 
molar, m 4 : hence the mature dentition shows five grinders on each side, or 

] \ 4 4 

p , m . Thus the total number of molar teeth developed in the kangaroos 

^ 1 — 1 4 — 4 

is 28, consisting of 2 deciduous molars, 1 premolar and 4 permanent molars on each 
side of both jaws. The deciduous molars were the homologues of those in the 
human subject, viz. d m 3 and 4 ; the premolar is the homologue of the second 
bicuspid, orp4 ; the three anterior molars answer to the three true or tuberculate 
molars in man, viz. m 1, 2 and 3 : the fourth molar in the kangaroo is a supernu- 
merary tooth. 

After describing other particulars in which the proposed notation for the indivi- 
dual teeth was exemplified. Prof. Owen proceeded to observe, that the substitution 
of signs for verbal descriptions was at once the power of the algebraist and the proof 
of the exactness of mathematical reasoning. To gain the like power for anatomical 
science should be the chief aim of its cultivators ; to this end the determination of 
the homologies of parts was the indispensable step which should be followed by de- • 
noting the part by a symbol representing it under all its modifications of form and 
in all the species of animals in which such part existed. 

As an example of the amount of information which might thereby be conveyed in 
a small compass, several illustrations were given, amongst which were the follow- 
ing : — The permanent dentition of the Anoplotherium was — 

.3—3 1 — 1 4—4 3—3 .. 

t , c , p , m - — - = 44. 

3 — 3 1 — 1^4—4 3—3 

This was stated to be an example of the typical series of teeth in the placental mam- 
malia with true premolars. The deciduous dentition of the Anoplotherium was — 

i-H^, c-^^, dm ~ = 32 : dml was succeeded hy p\, dm2 by »2, dm 3 by 
3—3 1 — 1 4—4 

p3, dm 4 hy pi : but m 1 was in place before dml was shed ; m 2 was coincident 
with p 1 and p 2 ; next came m 3 and p 3 ; and then, coincidently, p 4 and m 3. 

3 3 J J 3 3 3 3 

The permanent dentition of the horse was i^^> ''tzZi'^^IIa' "^SUs"'*^' 

3 3 \ I 4 4 

its deciduous dentition is i , c -, dm - — - = 32 : dm 1 is not succeeded by 

3 — a 1 — 1 4—4 "^ 

p 1 ; the other three dmm are succeeded by teeth which answer to p2, p3 and p 4 
of the Anoplotherium. 

In the dog, on the other hand, there are p- — - ; but only dm- — - : pi is not 
° 4—4 o—o 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 93 

preceded by a calcified dm], and the dmm (deciduous molars) in use answer to 
dm 2, dm 3 and dmi ia the horse and Anoplotherium. The permanent molars of 

2 2 

the dog are - — -, answering to m 1 and m 2 in the upper jaw, and to m i, ml and 

m 3, in the lower jaw of the horse. With regard to the human subject, of which 
the deciduous and permanent teeth were formulised in the author's ' Odontography,' 
the first dm answers to dmi'm the dog, horse, &c., and is succeeded in the eighth 
year by a ^9 m, answering to p 3, and rfw 4 is succeeded hyp 4, before the completion 
of the tenth year : m 1 usually makes its appearance in the sixth year ; m 2 between 
the twelfth and fourteenth years ; m 3 at or after the eighteenth year, whence it is 
called the ' wisdom-tooth.' 

Now the description of the foregoing anatomical facts by the ordinary language 
and verbal definitions of the teeth would occupy about five pages of type used in 
' Bell's Anatomy,' and one disadvantage attending such tax upon the efl^orts of the 
attention and memory was to enfeeble the judgement in forming its conclusions, and 
to impair the power of seizing and appreciating the results of the comparisons. 

Prof. Owen concluded by stating his conviction that nothing would influence 
more the rapid and successful progress of the knowledge of the structure of animal 
bodies than the determination of the nature of the parts by tracing their homologies, 
and the condensation of the propositions respecting them, by attaching to the parts 
so determined of symbols, or at least single substantive names, distinctly defined. 
The bones might be denoted by simple numerals, as was proposed in his work on 
the ' Archetype of the Skeleton.' And the effect of the few symbols for the teeth, 
which, when explained, were so easily remembered, had been shown to be to render 
unnecessary the endless repetition of the verbal definitions of the parts, to harmonize 
conflicting synonyms, to serve as an universal language, and to convey the writer's 
meaning in the fewest and clearest terms. The entomologist had already partially 
applied this principle with much success, and the signs <J and $ for male and female 
constantly occurred : the astronomer had early availed himself of it in the signs © 
and 2) for the sun and moon, and in the difi^erent symbols of the planets, &c. ; the 
chemist was greatly advantaged by his extensive system of symbolical notation ; and 
Mr. Babbage had ably advocated the use of this powerful instrument of discovery 
in geometrical science, in his paper ' On the Influence of Signs in Mathematical 
Reasoning.' _____ 

On the Value of the Origins of Nerves as a Homological Character. 
By Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

He stated that he was led to offer a few remarks on this subject from the circum- 
stance that the supply of nerves to the arms of man from the lower cervical pairs, 
and not from cranial nerves, had formed a difficulty to some in accepting his deter- 
mination of the general homology of the arms as ' diverging appendages of the costal 
arch of the occipital vertebra.' Since the determination of a general homology was 
dependent on that of the special homology of parts, it was requisite to inquire how 
far the preliminary and minor conclusions were affected by that condition of the 
nerves which had been supposed to invalidate the major proposition cited. 

The author assumed that it would be granted that the arms of man were homolo- 
gous with the fore-limbs of beasts, the wings of birds, and the pectorals of fishes. But 
in the wing of the fowl the nerves were derived from the thirteenth and fourteenth 
pairs counting backwards from the brain, whilst the homologous limb in man received 
nerves from the fifth to the eighth pairs. Taking a closer instance of special homology. 
Prof. Owen showed that the wings of the swan derived their nerves from very differ- 
ent pairs from those that supplied the wings of the swift ; and he presumed that a 
still greater difference in their relations to the neural axis must have characterized 
the nerves of the pectoral paddles in the Ichthyosaur and Plesiosaur respectively. 
The difference in the origins of the nerves of homologous parts was also manifested 
in the ventral fins of fishes, which present such great varieties of relative -position 
to the head as to afford the ichthyologist his characters of the orders Ahdominales, 
Tkoracici, Jugulares. 

Now, if these differences in the place of origin of nerves do not invalidate the con- 



94 REPORT — 1848. 

elusions of special liomolog)% the author contended that they were equally inconclu- 
sive against the determination of general homologies. He briefly stated the facts 
confirmatory of the ideas of Aristotle and Cuvier as to the special homology of the 
arms of man with the pectoral fins of fish, and summed up the arguments that had 
been given in his work on the 'Homologies of the Skeleton/ in favour of viewing the 
attachment of the scapular arch to the occiput in fishes, as the normal one, in rela- 
tion to the archetype, and as proving that arch to be the haemal one of the occipital 
vertebra, and the pectoral fins to be the radiated appendages of such hiemal arch. 



ETHNOLOGY. 



On the Geographical Distribution of the Languages of Abessinia and the 
Neighbouring Counti-ies. By Dr. Beke*. 

Dr. Beke exhibited a map allowing the geographical limits of the various lan- 
guages spoken in Abessinia and the adjoining countries, in conformity with the clas- 
sification suggested in the Report on the Languages of Africa, made last year to the 
British Association by Dr. R. G. Latham. The map comprised Classes 14 to 23 in- 
clusive of that Report. 

In his remarks in explanation of this map, the author agreed with Dr. R, G. La- 
tham on all material points, except only as regards the aboriginal languages of Abes- 
sinia, which Dr. Beke considers to consist of those not of the Ethiopic but of the Agau 
class. 

The author next proceeded to analyse a list of languages mentioned in the ' Athe- 
iiteum' of the 12th of April 1845 (No. 911), of which M. d'Abbadie reports that he 
has collected vocabularies; and he showed that, apparently, they may all be ranged 
in one or other of Dr. R. G. Latliam's classes, which may consequently be regarded 
as exhaustive of the languages spoken in Abessinia and the countries immediately 
adjacent. 

Dr, Beke also explained the probable origin of the fabulous stories which have 
been related respecting the Dokos, an alleged nation of pygmies dwelling in the 
south of Kaffa, but who appear to be a race of savage black people, of little less than 
the ordinary stature of mankind. 

On the Ante- Columbian Discovery of America. 
By Professor Elton, D.D. 

The Sagas of Erik the Red, and Thorfin Karlsefne, published by the Royal Society 
of Northern Antiquaries in 1837, contain the history of the first discovery of Ame- 
rica, A.D. 986-1013. The manuscripts published in the ' Antiquitates Americanse,' 
give an account also of voyages made by the Scandinavians during tlie twelfth, 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. They explored a great extent of the eastern 
coast of North America, fought and traded with the natives, and attempted to esta- 
blish colonies. The most northern region they called Hellialand, i. e. Slateland ; the 
country further south, Markland, i. e. Woodland ; and the tract still further to the 
south, Vinland, i. e. Vineland. The general features of the country accord with the 
description given. 

This discovery is confirmed by an inscription rock on the Taunton River, at 
Dighton, Massachussets, found there on the arrival of the first New England colonists, 
which contains the word Thoriinus, and 132. One of the Sagas states that Thorfinus, 
an Icelandic chief, witli 132 men, made a voyage to Finland in 1000, remained there 
three years, and was finally killed in a battle. 

In support of the claims of the Welsh to the discovery of America, we have the fol- 
lowing information. It is mentioned by three of their bards, Meredyth ap Rhys, 
(iutwyn Owen, and Cynfrig ap Gronw, all of whom wrote before the discovery by 
Columbus, that Madoc sailed from Wales in 1170, and after pursuing a westward 

* Printed in extenso in the Edinburgh New Philosophical Magazine, vol. xlviL No. 93, for 
July 1849. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 95 

course for some weeks, arrived on a continent where the inhabitants differed from 
Em'opeans. He returned to Wales, and subsequently equipped a fleet of ten vessels, 
and sailed for the same continent ; but of that expedition no tidings were ever re- 
ceived. All the information we have on this point at present must be deemed only 
probable conjecture. 

On a quantity of Human Bones discovered in a Field near Billingham, in 
the County of Durham. By John Hogg, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The author exhibited several human bones, selected from many which were dug 
up this spring in an arable field, situate about half a mile to the west of Billingham, 
in the coimty of Durham. These bones consisted of supra-occipital and parietal bones 
of the skull, a humerus, portions of the upper and lower jaws with the teeth, &c. : 
they were in excellent presei-vation, though some were more decayed than others. 
The teeth being worn down in a remarkable manner, led to the belief that they were 
those of a very early and primitive race, which had chiefly fed on hard substances, 
such as parched pulse, nuts, acorns*, and the like. They were dug up at a trifling 
depth with a common spade. 

For many years past a vast number of human bones have been ploughed up ; so 
much so that women whilst weeding in that field have collected them, and sold them 
at the neighbouring water-mill, where machinery is used for crushing bones for ma- 
nure. The field is called Nutton, or Newlon Heads, which has probably been so 
named from the skulls or heads of men having been at times discovered in it. There 
was nothing whatever to show that these remains had been interred in cofiins, or 
after any regular plan of sepulture ; nor is there the least likelihood of the spot ha- 
ving formerly been a burial-place belonging to any church or convent. 

In the year 1804, a skull and several human bones were turned up when draining 
in a grass-field near the same mill; and about the year 1830, in an adjoining grass- 
field, three skeletons of men were found while some workmen were excavating a part 
of the field for a line of railway ; they however rapidly crumbled to dust on exposure 
to the air. 

Mr. J. Hogg, in endeavouring to account for the appearance of these remains in 
the fields respectively pointed out, attributed their interment in those spots to one of 
the following causes, which several local histories have handed down to us : — 

First. Hutchinson, in his ' History of Durham,' vol. iii. p. 106, says, " Billingham is 
memorable for a great battle fought there by Ardulf, king of Northumberland ; " and 
the same is related by a later author^ more fully thus : " a civil war broke out in the 
kingdom of Northumberland, when the mal-contents assassinated Ethelred the king 
at Corbridge, a.d. 795. Wada was chief of the conspirators, and was attacked by 
Ardulf, who afcer a short interval had succeeded Ethelred (about a.d. 800), and a 
pitched battle was fought near Billingham, which is represented to have been attended 
with a very great slaughter." 

Second. In one of the in-uptions of the Danes, about a.d. 910, a king called 
Reingwald landed a great force (according to Symeon Dunelmensis, lib, 2. cap. 16) 
on the coast of Northumberland, and expelled or murdered several of the principal 
inhabitants; and one of his generals, called Scula, laid waste the country from Eden 
Dene to Billingham J. 

Third. In the tenth century, between a.d. 920-25, Edward the Elder reduced the 
Danes throughout Northumbria. 

The great quantity of human bones however that have been brought to light within 
the last few years in the befoi-e-mentioned arable field, renders the first of these 
causes the most probable. Yet some persons might perhaps be induced to assigu 
their appearance in all those places, either to some battle consequent upon a later 
incursion of the Danes or other hostile nation, or to a more recent fight between the 
natives of that district and some marauding party of freebooters, although of any such 
having actually occuri'ed nothing whatever is known. 

• Many suppose that the common acorn could not be eaten on account of its great bitter- 
ness ; but it is probable that there was some method adopted by the earlier inhabitants to 
extract it. For a mode stiU used by the Sardinian peasantry, see Tyndale's Island of Sar- 
dinia, vol. iii. p. 191. 

t Brewster, Hist. Stockton, edit. 2, p. 10. 

X See Brewster, Hist. Stock, p. 11, and Surtees, Hist, of Darham, vol. iii. p. 144. 



96 REPORT— 1848. 

The author then, in the absence of all further historical or traditional accounts, is 
inclined to refer the interments of the numerous human bones in the fields previously 
described to the period immediately after the great battle which was fought near 
Billingham between king Ardulf and the conspirator Wada. 

The subsoil of the arable field being very dry, and nearly a pure sand, would pre- 
serve those remains for a great many centuries. 

The supra-occipital and parietal bones of the skull did not present any physiological 
peculiarity of structure. 

Amongst the collection were an astragalus of a small ox, and a transverse process 
of a lumbar vertebra, most likely of a horse. 



Measurements of a Skull considered to be Burgundian. 
By Professor Retzius. 

Diameter. Metres. 

Fronto-occipital 0-188 

Frontal 0098 

Occipito-vertical o, O-HS 

Inter-mastoid 0-128 

I nter-zy gomatic ,, 0- 12.5 

Inter-orbital 0025 

General character Germanic. 

Notes on a Kirgis Skidl. By Professor Retzius. 
Although belonging to the Turkish tribes, the Kirgis skull departs from the type 
of the Turk, Cossack and Mongol skulls in being less round, and short, and more de- 
veloped in its occipito-frontal diameter. 

Remarks to accompany a Comparative Vocabulary of eighteen Languages 
and Dialects of Indian Tribes inhabiting Guiana. By Sir Robert H. 

SCHOMBURGK, Ph.D. 

These vocabularies were collected by the author during the expeditions which he 
undertook into the interior of Guiana, namely in the years ISS.'i to 1839, under the 
direction of the Geographical Society of London, and in the yeai-s 1840 to 1844 as 
Her Majesty's Commissioner for surveying the boundaries of British Guiana. The 
territory, which extends from the shores of the Atlantic between the river Corentyn 
(lat. 6° N., long. 57° VV.) to the east, and the Orinoco (lat. 8° 40' N., long. 60° 30' W.) 
to the west, as far southward as the Rio Negro (lat. 1° 30' S.), and from the banks of 
the Upper Corentyn (long. 56° 40' W.) westward to the Cassiquiare (long. 67° 40' W.), 
that remarkable natural canal which connects the Orinoco with the Rio Negro, has 
been more or less explored during the eight years which were dedicated to these 
expeditions. 

The number of vocabularies which he collected during his voyages amounts to 
eighteen, none of which, as he observes, bear a closer affinity to each other than the 
French and Italian. Without binding himself strictly to the following division, which he 
considered merely provisional, he divided these vocabularies into six sections, namely, — 

I. Caribi-Tamanakan. — 1. Caribisi. 2. Accawai. § Waika. 3. Macusi. § Zapara. 
4. Arecuna. § Soerikong. 5. Waiyamara. 6. Guinau. 7. Maiongkong. 8. 
Woyawai. 9. Mawakwa, or Maopityan. 10. Pianoghotto. § Zaramata. §§ Drio. 
11. Tiverighotto. 

II. Wapis'ian-Parauana. — 1. Wapisiana. 2. Atorai. § Taurai, or Danri. 
§§ Amaripa. 3. Parauana. 

III. Taruman. — Taruma. 

IV. Warauan. — Warau, or Guarauno. 

V. Arawakan. — Arawaak, or Aruaca. 

VI. Lingua Geral (dos Rios Negro e Branco). 

The subsequent remarks described the regions which are inhabited by the tribes 
above enumerated, accompanied by some incidental observations respecting their 
customs and manners, and were followed by a comparative vocabulary of a few words 
from each, which are added herewith, as the greater number are new to our know- 
ledge of philological ethnography. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 



97 



i3 


ii 


a 

a 


c 


(u-C 


•s 


C8 


V 


o 


s 


a 


a a 


^ c 


B 



„„ a; 03 — „ — .« — -- *« 
a> 0) >-> >vJ]< o ■= o o to o 



,S.^ 






§ Q>H 



sscsca-SBagiuBi 

CCil>a:c8C?aifaBc<u 
a)a)>^Q;ctfa3^>vO°0a;C 



"J s s 



S Q^ 



o 



B 

o 



CUP^.^ 



g p; 3 S) C3 

>H >i a< o >yJT>S M HH s 



OHft.3' 



C-' 3 3 



C C ^ -" M 



.1] ^ 



rf 



EhHHH 



3 c s 3 ^- 



3 3 3 3 3 



c_c_ ^ O H tC 






W t-H ffi ^ 



3 O 3 S 



O _ O C S 

3 5 s--o:s 

O eB o o 



>H,^za igujggiH 



3.--r; 
E 3 <« 

MHO 



CM 



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TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 99 



the 

to ^ . . ^ 

comparative vocabulary, which consists merely of eighteen words, have afforded him 
82 cases for comparison with 102 different languages and dialects of the New World. 
These comparisons, he says, are not forced by a mere resemblance of a single syllable, 
but are obvious; and hence the opinion shared by many ethnographers, that there is 
a general afhnity between the races who now inhabit the American continent, has 
received a new proof through these Guianian languages and dialects. 

However, the Guianians are in language more closely allied to the North American 
tribes of the present day than to the Peruvians and Mexicans. " Let us take," he 
continues, "for example the word ' dog,' which offers an affinity in five Guianian dia- 
lects to Esquimaux, Kliketat (on the north-west coast), Ottawa, Cherokee, Onondago, 
Seneca, &c., and tiot one instance of resemblance to a South American dialect beyond 
the province of Guiana, as far as 1 have had opportunity to compare these dialects." 

The author concludes with the following words : — 

" The Caribi-Tamanakan section of my Guianian languages is decidedly closer re- 
lated to the North-American tongues than the other sections, and this circumstance 
greatly confirms me in the opinion, that we have to look to Florida, Texas, and the 
eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains, for the origin of the Carihi-Taniaiiakan races. 
I consider the Tamanaks, including the Macusis, Arecunas, Pianoghottos, &c. the 
continental Caribs of South America, and those races which are now known as Cari- 
bisis and Accawais, the former inhabitants of the Lower Antilles." 



On a Uniform System to reduce Unwritten Languages to Alphabetical Wri- 
ting in Roman Characters. By Sir Robert H. Schomburgk, Ph.D. 

The author, after remarking that the great evil connected with the confused state 
of the orthography which has been hitherto adopted for expressing the sound of un- 
written languagv?s has been of great disadvantage to the student of philological eth- 
nography, the traveller, and the missionary, observes, that he used for his vocabula- 
ries of the Guianian languages and dialects the sound of the Italian vowels and of 
the English consonants, and rejected all diaci'itical marks. 

He brought under notice that the Church Missionar}' Society, in connexion with 
several other missionary institutions then engaged in vernacular translations of un- 
wi'itten languages, have recently adopted a common system of orthography, which 
recommends itself for simplicity, and coincides with the method which has already 
been employed by the translators of African languages, and has likewise been suffi- 
cient for expressing the sounds of many languages of the East as well as of Africa. 

The system of the Church Missionary Society closely agrees with the one which 
the author adopted in 1836 fur his vocabularies of the Guianian dialects, and is 
likewise applicable for those who write in the German language. It has already 
been employed by the great Missionary Institution at Basle, and likewise by others 
for translating the Scriptures into Susu, Yoruba, Haussa and Tamneh. It is there- 
fore to be hoped that the determination of these institutions to use common rules in 
reducing unwritten languages, will materially assist to advance that laudable aim of 
seeing a uniform orthography for unwritten languages introduced among scientific 
men, travellers and missionaries. " And if the institutions," says the author, " who 
have taken the lead are only determined to persevere, tlie circumstance that they 
constitute not only a powerful party, but the only one at present who have to make 
a practical application of such a system, will greatly contribute towards its general 
adoption. Such scientific bodies as the Ethnological Societies of London, Paris, and 
New York, might accelerate this desirable aim by giving their powerful assistance 
towards its adoption." 

Ethnographical Note on the Vicinity of Charnwood Forest. 
By John Phillips, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

While traversing on foot during several months in the early part of the year 1848 

h2 



100 REPORT — 1848. 

a large area of country in the vicinity of Leicester, Nottingham and Derby, the at- 
tention of tlie author was continually arrested by circumstances in the physical cha- 
racter of the population which were very unexpected. If in this district (the district 
of Danelagh) Danish settlers had re])laced or been mixed with a purely Saxon peo- 
ple, the now existing inhabitants should exhibit mainly though not exclusively the 
blue eye, light hair and ruddy complexion, and commanding stature of the Germanic 
or Scandinavian races, — as in fact really happens among the mountains of Yorkshire, 
Cumbria and Northumberland, where these races predominate. But instead of such 
prevalent signs of Saxon or Danish origin, the author perceived with surprise very 
frequent examples of black eyes and hair, uniform or rather dark complexion, and 
contours of countenance which might with more appearance of truth be referred to 
that branch of the Celtic stem which is represented by the ancient population of South 
Wales, Cornwall and Armorica. Nor was this cii'cumstance confined to particular classes 
which might be supposed to have immigrated, but was found to prevail even more posi- 
tively in the rural populations and most retired situations. It was equally noticed in 
children of various ages (e.xcept infants) and adults ; and by repeated estimates the 
author was confirmed in his impression that in fully half of the rural population in a 
large area round Charnwood Forest the phj'sical character of the Germanic or Scandi- 
navian people is wanting or complicated with another and very different type, and 
that only in a smaller part of the population is that character exclusively present. 

May Ave suppose, in explanation of these observations, that a larger proportion of 
the oppressed Britons was permitted to remain in their ancient midland sites than 
historians generally admit? Were the Coritanian Britons in this respect peculiarly 
favoured? Was it a circumstance more observable in the Mercian kingdom than else- 
where ? The author, adopting for the present the affirmative on these points, rather 
than the supposition of these black-eyed races being derived from a blue-eyed ancestry, 
invited the attention of ethnologists to the curious problem of the actual distribution 
of aboriginal and immigrated races which the British islands present, a problem very 
important in history, but of which the solution, whether by philological or physical 
demonstrations, is becoming every day less and less practicable, through the fusion of 
dialects and the complication of races. 



Oji the Ttimali Language. By Dr. L. Tutschek. 

The materials for the Tumali language were collected by Dr. Lorenz Tutschek from 
Dgalo Dgondan Are, one of the four young Africans with whose education he and 
his late brother had been entrusted by the Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. The lo- 
cality is one degree south of Obeyhda, in Kordofan. The Tumali area is divided by 
the mountain-stream Tente into two kingdoms of unequal size — the Tumali-Tokoken 
and the Tuniali-Debili. The first is the smaller, but, at the same time, the scat of 
government ; the Eliot of Tumali-Debili being subordinate to the Ofter (or Wofler) 
of Tumali-Tokoken, who is again subordinate to the king of Takeli, himself a tribu- 
tary to the viceroy of Egypt. 

The Tumali language is a dialect of the Deier language of Riippell, or vice versa. 
It also agrees, to the extent of three-fourths of the words common to the two voca- 
bularies, with the Takeli* of Riippell. 

The details of this language, as communicated in extensohy Dr. Tutschek, may be 
found in the Transactions of the Philological Society for June 23, 1848. Partially, 
also, they appear in the Report of the present state of African Ethnographical Phi- 
lology, in the last volume of the Transactions of the British Association. 



On the Fazoglo Language. By Dr. L. Tutschek. 

Collected from a boy born at Hobila, in the south of the Fazoglo country, purchased 
out of slavery at Alexandria by the Duke Maximilian, and entrusted in the year 
1844 to Dr. Tutshek for education. 

By referring to a note in the Report of the Transactions of the Sections for last 
year, it will be seen that the Fazoglo of Tutschek is nearly allied to, if not identical 

* See Report of last year, Transactions of the Sections, p. 124. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 101 

with, the Qamamyl of Caillaud. Out of sixty words, compared by Dr. Tutschek, 

the following coincide : — 

English. Fazoglo. Qamamyl. 

Heart ago ago 

Wing* midzeboe mezebe 

Needle indiri ndilii 

Tree n'ggole engoule 

Rainbow massal mossol 

Ostrich midzS amuru minsin merou 

Breath amula amoula 

Balance mudull moudulle 

Hair buss bouss 

Belly io io 

Much duni dungue 

Beak of bird... m\dz^ andn=bird's mouth missindu 

White hoti foudy 

Black mili mi\\ = blue 

Ass shilerr chiler 

Ring dolo toulou 

Goat mia mya 

Coal galgashys kelgui cho 

Way gagal kagal 

Horse mura mourha 

Further details are to be found in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 

April 1849. 

On the Gael, Breton and Cymry. By Archdeacon Williams. 



STATISTICS. 



Observations on the means of maintaining the Health of Troops in India. 
By Edward Balfour. 
After some preliminary remarks, the author stated that intemperance, which had 
been regarded as a great cause of mortality among the troops in India, would be 
found to add but a very small proportion to the deaths from climatorial diseases, 
which were known to continue in sjjite of the most regular and temperate habits. 
There seemed to be an unjust impression abroad tiiat a soldier was a very intemperate 
character; but supposing this to be true, it would be found that other clashes of our 
countrymen did not enjoy a greater immunity from disease. What was the propor- 
tion of deaths amongst the highly temperate civilians of India, who were the most 
intelligent, best clad, best paid, best lodged, and most independent servants of the 
Indian government? Although the mortality amongst the same class in England 
from 1801 to 1832 averaged only 9-1 per 1000 annually, according to the accounts 
of the Equitable Insurance Society, yet .\1r. H. T. Prinsep had stated that in the 
twenty years, from 1809 to 1828 inclusive, the Madras civilians lost 23 8 per 1000 of 
their strength, the Bengal civilians 2.")1 per 1000, and the Bombay civilians 31'7 per 
1000. Tables were read to show that the human race enjoy better health in their 
own than in any foreign country, whatever may be their rank, duties, or comforts. 



Contributions to the Statistics of Darlaston. By Mr. Kenrick. 



* Quere, bird's arm. 



102 REPORT — 1848. 



Progress and Character of Popular Edtication in England and Wales, as 
indicated bi/ the Criminal Beturns, 1837-47. B>/ Joseph Fletcher. 

The equability between the proportion utterly uninstructed in the commonest arts 
of scholarship, in and out of gaol, in the kingdom at large, is equally found in many 
of its provinces, but there is a double deviation from it which indicates a general 
cause of extensive operation. In the least educated districts, the proportion wholly 
uninstructed among the persons committed for trial is less than among the popula- 
tion at large ; while in the most educated districts, the proportion of the wholly un- 
educated among the persons committed for trial is proportionally above the average. 
As this appears, in the southern parts of England, chiefly by comparison between 
the metropolitan and the midland counties, it might admit of complete explana- 
tion by supposing that many of the most ignorant and dissolute of the rural popula- 
tion, finding their way to the metropolis, there entered the latter stages of an un- 
happy career. But this will not explain the relative excess of the totally ignorant 
appearing in the criminal calendar of Rutlandshire, the only one of the midland 
counties remarkably advanced in popular education, nor the coincidence of the like 
phsenomenon with the superior instruction of the East and West Riding of York- 
shire, of Cumberland, of Northumberland and of Durham. Migration of the poor, 
ignorant and depraved into these regions appears to be very improbable ; neither is there 
any conceivable emigration of such persons to account for the proportionate defect of 
the wholly uninstructed in Monmouthshire, South Wales, or Cornwall, or in the 
whole of the most ignorant and densely populated of the manufacturing counties of 
Cheshire, Lancashire, the West Riding, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire. In other 
words, the proportion of the wholly uneducated in gaol is less than the propor- 
tion of the population at large equally in the most purely agricultural districts of the 
south and east, and in the most purely mining and manufacturing districts of the 
north and west, which are respectively the most jiositively ignorant and criminal ; 
while in the most instructed counties, whether of the north or the south, and 
whether metropolitan, agricultural, mining, or manufacturing, the converse is seen. 

The only explanation of this fact which suggests itself to my mind is, that there 
is no less difference in the quality than in the amount of instruction given in the 
most and least instructed portions of the kingdom respectively ; and that is only a 
degree of careful uprearing of the young, far higher than that which can be tested 
by the lowest attainments in reading and writing, that is alone blessed to the good 
end of righteous living in a Christian hope. It is the abstraction of a greater num- 
ber of the instructed from the criminal calendars of the better educated districts 
which there throws the proportion of the totally ignorant into excess ; and the in- 
ferior character of the instruction given in the worse educated districts, which per- 
mits a greater number of the instructed to appear before the criminal tribunals, to 
the reduction of the relative proportion of the wholly ignorant conijjrised in the 
calendars. Thus regarded, these figures tend greatly to strengthen the impression 
which I have derived from other sources, that around the moderate amount of really 
efficient instruction, and really Christian training which prevails even in our best 
educated districts, there exists a wide margin of spurious schooling, without any 
good effect either upon the intellect or the heart; and that in the remotest of the 
agricultural, as of the mining and manufacturing districts, it is this doubtful twi- 
light that generally prevails, with no compensating superiority of vigorous education 
among the middle and upper classes. Hence it results that the difference in the 
amount of education, in any rational sense of the term, between one portion of the 
kingdom and another, is far greater than that indicated by the var%-ing proportion 
which the marriage registers show to be unable to write at all ; while as yet we have 
no test that, for the population at large, will check against the gaol returns of those 
who can read and write imperfectly, " and read and write well." If we had a test 
of the latter range of scholarship for each county, in the population at large, it is my 
conviction that it would furnish far stronger evidence in favour of good education. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 108 

than that which we are now permitted to derive merely from a comparison of the 
numbers wholly uneducated that appear in the marriage registers and in the criminal 
calendars. 

Let us, however, return to the comparative progress of " education," up to the 
mark of bare reading and writing among the population at large, and those brought 
up before the criminal tribunals of their country. Here, also, we see a great number 
of curious coincidences in the contemporaneous increase of marks in the marriage 
registers, and of the proportion of persons able neither to read nor write in the cri- 
minal calendars of the country or district. There are likewise some anomalies, but 
the general result is a decrease of the proportion wholly uneducated in the criminal 
calendars at double the rate that it is found to decline in the marriage registers, after 
reckoning for the difference of the intervals between the data yielding the figures 
now compared. The decline is scarcely' perceptible in the western Celtic districts, 
and next to them, it is least observable in the great northern and central mining and 
manufacturing counties, where it has declined only one-thirteenth in five j'ears, while 
in all the rest of the kingdom it has declined about one-tenth, except in the northern 
and midland agricultural counties {contiguous to the comparatively stationary mining 
and manufacturing counties), in which it has declined upwards of one-seventh. We 
thus find the decline of total ignorance to be slowest in the most criminal and the 
most ignorant districts, in which, nevertheless, its decline among those in gaol is 
greater than in society at large ; everywhere indicating the very doubtful quality of 
a great proportion of that which barely helps its recipients out of the category of 
the totally ignorant. 

The proportion of criminals " reading and writing ill " is seen now to be precisely 
double that of the criminals " unable to read and write," having increased no less 
than 5"7 per cent, in the fii'st period of five years, and 0"4 per cent, during a subse- 
quent period of three years, making a total of 6" 1 per cent, in the eight years. The class 
of " superior instruction" being very limited (in fact, in the centesimal proportions, 
always under a whole figure), and likewise unvarying, this increase must necessarily 
be derived from only one other of the four classes, besides those who can neither read 
nor write. From this we have seen that there is a subtraction of 3'1 per cent, in 
five years, and I'l percent, in three more, making a total of 4"2 per cent, out of the 
6*1 per cent, of augmentation observed in the column of" reading and writing ill." 
The other TQ per cent, is derived from the colump of "reading and writing well," 
in which the decline during the first five years was no less than 2"6 per cent., but a 
retrograde movement during the last three years has reduced this proportion to 1"9. 

It is, however, to this heading that I would call especial attention, for this alone 
affords evidence, both conclusive and satisfactory, of a moral progress. A gradual 
change in the standard designated " reading and writing well " could alone account 
for this decline of one-fifth in the proportion of those possessed of this amount of 
instruction ; but I would fain hope thai it is a correct indication of a real improve- 
ment in the moral tone of the middle classes generally, springing from the source of 
all truth and all goodness. Even if any portion of it arise from a practical elevation 
of the standard designated by the heads of each column, this fact will only render 
still stronger the conclusion already drawn from the increased proportion of those 
reading and writing ill, which would have been yet greater, but for the retention of 
some that might have been included in that column in the number of the totally un- 
instructed. 



104 



REPORT — 1848. 



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TRANSACTIONS OF THB SECTIONS. 105 

Statistics on Mendicancy. 
By Sir J. P. Boileau, Bart., F.R.S., V.P. Stat. Soc. 
The writer regretted that there were no means at present of attaining a general 
view of the statistics of mendicancy for the United Kingdom. It might be useful in 
the mean time to examine some tables drawn up from the books of the Mendicity 
Society of London, which show the progress which Irish mendicancy has made on that 
Society. The number of meals given to Irish in January 1828, was 379, whilst in 
January 1848 the number was 21,578; which being divided by 4, allowing each in- 
dividual four meals a month, would show that 5396 individuals were relieved, and 
indicate the enormous increase of about 5300, or 53 upon 1. From the Society's 
books it appears that 50 per cent., or half of the 5396, were grown-up persons, while 
in 1828, following the same rule, they amounted to 47^. While Irish mendicancy 
appears to have so much increased, Ens;lish mendicancy does not seem to have varied 
since 1828; it had in fact decreased in 1832-33 and in 1837-38. The increase in 
Irish mendicancy was probably to be attributed to severe winters, the late failures of 
the potato crop, the establishment of refuge-houses and soup kitchens in the metro- 
polis, and the alteration in the poor law of 1837. Before that period it was the 
practice to refuse admittance to Irish vagrants into the unions of the metropolis ; 
since then it was considered that Irish vagrants had as good a legal right to relief as 
any other persons. Another cause assigned as contributing to the influx of Irish into 
London was, that the low lodging-housekeepers found means of obtaining tickets 
from the Mendicity Society, and of offering them as orders for food to those who 
would lodge with them. These causes induced old mendicants to flock to London. 
This view of the case was supported by statistical proof exhibited in tables. These 
were considered the most probable causes of the increase in Irish mendicancy. The 
remedies suggested to meet the evils were to discontinue the establishments which 
held out food to mendicants without inquiry as to character or the want of labour, 
and to place tiie establishment of district relieving-houses under the superintendence 
of the police. 

Facts bearing on the Progress of the Railway System of Great Britain. 
By W. Harding, C.E. 



Contributions to Academical Statistics. 
By the Rev. B. Powell, F.R.S., Sav. Prof, of Geom., Oxford. 



On the desirableness of eodending to the Working Classes the opportunity of 
purcJiasing deferred annuities, as a provision for old age. By Cadogan 
Williams. . 

Moral and Educational Statistics of England and Wales, 
i??/ Joseph Fletcher. 

[The abstract of this paper, which was read in 1847, was received too late for the 
volume of that year.] 

As it is of the whole kingdom that I purpose to speak, it is of the public enume- 
rations that I must now chiefly make use ; and by the nature of the subject I am re- 
quired to use principally the last Census of the Population ; the Income Tax Returns ; 
the Reports of the Rea;istrar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages ; the Home- 
Office Tables of Criminal Offenders; the latest Reports of the Poor-Law Commis- 
sioners j and a Summary of Savings Banks, published by the barrister appointed to 
certify their rules. It is by the agency of such departments as produce these do- 
cuments that the State takes cognizance of all or of certain classes of it» subjects, at 
various period.<!, and under the occurrence of very dissimilar events ; and from the 
records of this momentary cognizance the following results are derived ; while many 
more of equal interest may he obtained by those who have the desire and the oppor- 
tunity to elaborate them. I contribute on the present occasion only the results of 
some first efforts, which, if they serve to indicate the direction in which another may 
profitably proceed, will not have been made in vain. 



106 



REPORT — 1848. 



of 

If 


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* 












31!I ^m JO uoHB[ndod 
siBca JO junouiE aiu«s oqi 

UO'S3I«A\ P"B PUBlSua \\B 


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tb rt 05 


o 

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ih 




00 




CO N OS OS ■* 

(fa «3 -Jf «>. o 

r-. rHlNCO 


CO 

CO 


10} aSejDAB pajBinDiBO om 


1 1 7 


1 


+ 1 


1 






1 




+ 1 ++ 1 


7- 


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u 


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•If-81 UIS3IEM. 






















c 
*> 

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pne puBiaua he ui uoij 
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U3 


rH 00 






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(N 

CO 




CO in 00 in «>. 

rt -J*" ■* CO N 

CM ^ _| PH CO 


(N 


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sJiUBa sSiiiAES ui siisod 


1 + + 


+ 


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+ 






+ 




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1 




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uodn saiBjw piiB puB|3u2 


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in 


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to 

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puB aAoqB 'trsi UI paAaq 
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+ + + 


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+ 




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pajajsiSaj jo Jaquinu 






















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aqjjo -juaa tod uoijjodojj 






















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+ 1 + 


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+ 


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CO 


m2 


puB aAoqB 'ttsi ui suEaiu 
juapuadapui jo suos 


+ + + 


4 


- +4 


- -t 






+ 




Mill 


7 


d. 


-iad )o 'luaa jad uoijjodojj 
























•saiBM puBpuEi8ua 
UI uoijBindod aim aqj 
0} aBBiaAB aqi Ajojaq puB 
aAoqE'Et8Iui XExauioauj 


ir^ qo C4 

CO CJ CO 


CO 


to O 

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■n 


GO 




lb 




1^ r>» in w OS 

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Al Tl< 4j< Tjl «^ 


OS 

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aqi oj passassB Xjjadoid 
lEaj jo'luaa jaduoiijodojj 


+ 1 7 


1 


1 7 


1 






1 




+ + + + 4 


- + 






fo -^ CO 


o 


«^ o 


1^ 






i^ 




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Mtgl u! uoijBindoj 


05 lO t>« 




00 CO 

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s 










in -f iN^oc 
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in in 


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CO 1-1 ■* CO 


Ol 






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« M 




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CQ 


« 


H — 


— ^ 





TRANSACTIONS OF THB SECTIONS. 



107 



+ 



I + 



+ 



+ + 



+ 



I 1 + 



+ 



00 N 

r^ in 

00 "H 

+ I 



+ 



© « 

CO o 
(N to 

+ + 



+ 



I I 



+ 



+ 



+ 



I I 



+ I 



(M rl O 

a> o <o 

1 ++ 


lO ^ CO 
O if5 6 



+ 



+ 



op o 

00 (» 



in CO 
+ + 



+ 



I I + 



+ 



+ 



+ 



I I 



05 l>. 

in <b 
I I 



++ I 



+ 



+ 



+ 



C5 CO 

in o 



+ + 



+ 



+ I 



+ 






+ 



■ + 



CO -* 

I I 



++ 



+ 



+ I 



I— I in <N CO 

M I o ^) o 

r-( I ,-H CO CO 



I I I 



+ 



+ 



CO r-l 



t^ ^ CJ 

CO in o 

«b i t£> 

in r-t CO 

+ + + 



+ 



^ s 






i J. 

r« 2 

O 

:£ « ? 

''■-Cot 

;§ S c 

S ^ 55 



o UiS-« 






-- TS. 



H ■g 5 



5 S 



108 



REPORT — 1848. 



Is 



saSBSxnstllJo uoiiBindod 
sieui JO junouie auiBS aq) 

UO 'S31BA\PUE pUB|3ua HB 

joj 33BJ3AB pa juinoiBO aqi 
MojaqpuB 3A0qB sjusiujiui 
-mo3jo')u3o jad uoi^jodoj j 



-* o <Ji 

.^ O T)< 

(M (M i-H 
+ + + 



+ 



to 


<c 


-* 




^ 


!>. 


«>. 


CTi 




00 


^ 


CO 






(M 


+ 


+ 






+ 



•It-81 UI sa[BAV 
pUB pUBlSua IIB UI uon 
-B|ndod 3:i!i aqj 0} 33b 
-BAB 3q} Moiaq puB 3A0qB 
'f-f.81 JsqraaAOK qiOZ 
BJIUBg sSuiAES ut sjisod 
-ap JO 'inaa aad uopiodoid 



O O <N 

C*^ ^ si 

C^ ■* TJ< 
I I I 



+ 



+ 



■* 


05 


o 


in 


■* 


1 


»» 


^ 


-* 


00 




<M 




+ 


CO 


C5 


!£> 


O 








+ 


o 


(N 


m 


O 


o 


in 








+ 1 
1 



"uoiiBindod a5i!i 3qi 
uodn'saiB^VV P"^ puEi8ua 
IIB JO 38BJ3AB 3qi Aio[aq 
puB aAoqs 'ffgl ut paA3t( 
-aj sjadnBd jo uoHiodoid 



+ + + 



+ 



+ 



+ 



•sqjiiq 
pajajsiSai jo jaqoinu 
31U ^m uodn 'sajBjW puB 
puB[SuaiiEjo aSBaaAB aqj 
Mojaq puB 3AoqB uaip[iqa 
3)Buii)!S3i[ijo ajaMqsiqM 
'oI-8I HI paJsjsiSaj sqjjiq 
aq] JO •')ua3 jad uoi}jodojj 



+ + + 



+ 



ES 



■saSBu 
-jEui JO jaqmnu ajjn aqj 
uodn s3iBjW puB puB|3 

"Ua II" JO 33BJ3AB 3q} MOI 

-aq puE 3AoqB 'i-fgl UI33B 
JO SJB3X IS japun sa3BiJi 
-jBinjo"}uaD J3d aoiijodbi,! 

•sa3BujEaijo jsqninu 
a5I!I 3qi iiodn 'sajBAV PU^ 
puBiSug i|E JO aaBjaAB 
aqj Mopq puE aAoqB 'ttSI 
UI s^jBia qjiM jajsiSaj 
aSBiiiEuisqjSuiuSis liaui 
aqj JO •}U33 jBduoijiodoij 



+ + + 



+ 



+ 



+ 



o ej op 

MOM 

in M in 

+++ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 






'Xjunoa qaBa ni 
'0^ — 6e81 illi'tt paJBdraoD 

SB 'l-fSI UI S5{JBIU qJIAV 

Jajsi33j 3'3bujbui aqj 
3u!u3is uaui aqj jo *jua3 
J3d Xau3!0ij3p JO ssaoxa 



I I 



uoijEindod asm aqj 
uodn'saiEyVY puB puBi3ua 
HE JO aSEjaAE 3qj Moiaq 
puBaAoqB'tfsi uisuBain 
juapuadapui jo suos 
-jad JO juaa J3d uoijjodoj j 



•S3iBjy_ puB puBi3ua 
UI uotjB|ndod aj[t\ 3qj 
oj 33BjaAB aqj Moiaq puB 
aA0qE'gt'8iui XBX31UO0UI 
aqj OJ passassB Xjjadojd 

IE3JJO '5030 J3d UOIJJodOJil 



,-1 in rt 

M ci cb 

■* IM r-l 
I I I 



+ 



+ 



I I + 



+ 



+ 



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•IfSI UI uoijBindoi 



J^ 









^ -I 

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g g — g g g 

^ 2 o -s ca 13 

1^ ^ -" s -H ,o 
•^ c ^ J2 ^ 

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s a 






ft': 

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« SS oi "m M -^ 



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cS « ■ 



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■^'^^ 



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3 t S 



O 3 t- S 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



109 









00 


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CO ■* c 


J a 


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S 00 


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00 


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1 


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f -i 


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1 




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c 




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05 10 51 


■> ?• 


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5 ti 


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3 O 


to 





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;a 


1 


1 + 


S Cf 


3 CM 00 1- 

l+H 


1 CO 

h + 


to 


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ip 


in 


05 tp O 


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> a 


3 


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CT 


CT 




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00 O r^ 


H a 


3 4h O) 4. 


H r- 




<o 





1 


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1 


+7" 


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7 


«> 


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00 


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5 t£ 


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do 
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1 
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o .£2 
&* 60 



H g 
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110 



REPORT — 1848. 



= s 
II 



s33b31I!I aqijo uoijBinilod 

31«IU JO JUnOUlB 31UBS sqi 

uo 'saiBA\ piiB puKlSua UB 
jqj aSBJOAE paji'inoiBO aq} 
MO[aqpuEa4oqBsjuoiuiua 
-aioojo')ii33jod uonjociojj 



CO rt (N <N O 
+ + I + + 



•Itsi ui s3;bv\. 
puE puciSua 11^ lit tlOIJ 
-Eindod 3J{\i 3qj oi sSej 
-34B 3q) Aioisq puB aAoqs 
•(■f-81 jaqiuSAOfi qiOo 
snuBg sSuiAEg ui s^isod 
-apjo '11133 .lad nonjodojj 



I I I I + 



•uoijBindod 3-![\\ aqj 

UOdn 'S3[BjV\.PllBpUBl8ua 
UB }0 3BBJ3AB 31H AIOISQ 
pUB 3A0qE 'U8I <n P313l[ 

-3J siadnEd jo iioij-iodo'd 



I I I I I 



•sqjJiq 
pajajsiSaj }o jaqiunu 
a3(!iaq} uodn 'ssjeav puB 
puB|3ua [(E JO aSBjaAB aqj 
MOisqpuEaAoqE uajpiiqa 
aiBiaijiaaiiijo aJSMqoiqAi 
'EWI ui pajaisi3aa sqjjiq 
aqijo 'juaa aad uonjodojj 



+ 



CO 00 CO ea M . 

o ao >H o i>. I 

++++ I 



|S 



•sa^Ei.i 
-jBiu JO jsquinu a^i\ am 
uodn 'sa|B^\\ puB pueiS 
-U3 llBjo 33Ba3ABaq4 Jboj 
-aqpuBaA0qB'n-8I uioSe 
JO saEai 15 Japun saSeu 
; -jBiujo'juaaaadiioiwodoaj 



•saSBUiEoijo jaqiunu 
3>1!I sql uodn 'ssiB^vV P"^ 
puBi8u3 i[E JO aSsJOAE 
aqi Aioiaq puB aAoqa 't f8t 
UI S5[aEiii qjiAv lajsiSaj 
aSBujEm3i{) SuuiSis U3tti 
3q4 JO "juaa asd uoiiJodojJ 



+ ++ + + 



+ + + + + 



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uodn 'saiE^vV P"^ puBiSua 
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oi sSBJaAB aqi Moiaq puB 
OAOqE'EfSlui xBxaoioaui 
aqj o) passassB Xijadoad 
IBaJ JO 'luaa jad uot)aodoj j 



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>>.2 I 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. Ill 

The metropolitan and the southern agricultural and maritime counties, which are 
two out of the three of highest instruction, are the only two in which improvident 
marriages, or those of men under twenty-one and illegitimacy, are both under the 
average. In every other, the deficiency of the one ill feature is just counterbalanced 
by the prevalence of the other, except in the case of the great central mining and 
manufacturing region, which has an unhappy excess of both. I have given the ille- 
gitimacy at two different periods, and from two distinct authorities, because they ma- 
terially disagree in one particular : namely, the extent to which this unhappy feature 
of society prevails among the Celtic populations of the west ; in which respect I 
incline to agree with the older authority, because of its greater claim to accuracy in 
regard to this one point. It is, I think, only the omission of a large number from this 
district which makes the south midland agricultural and manufacturing counties just 
above the average in the more recent statement, though it will not account for all the 
relative increase of illegitimacy in the south midland and eastern agricultural counties. 

In the pauperism columns, the balance is just against ignorance, but averages of 
this date show merely tl)e usual state of things in a time of manufacturing prosperity, 
when every one in the manufacturing regions that can and will work is employed ; 
and all wanting employment in the neighbouring agricultural districts are easily 
drafted off; while the more southern, distant, and purely agricultural regions are 
still oppressed by nearly their usual excess of people upon the rates, even in the case 
of those counties which have some little of manufactures intermingled with their 
agriculture ; for they are of such a nature as inevitably to encourage a faster increase 
of hands than of trade to employ them. 

With regard to providence, as tested by the accumulations in the savings banks, 
it will be seen that the excess is variously coincident with the superiority of instruction, 
except in the case of the northern agricultural and mining districts, where the amount 
falls just below the average, in proportion to the population, perhaps unusually de- 
pressed by the great colliers' strike, which was at its most desperate shifts at the 
period of the returns. Notwithstanding the high wages of the mass of the population 
in the midland mining and manufacturing regions in all good times, therefore, the 
rate of saving is as low as in the wretched districts of Bucks, Herts, and Bedfordshire. 
The lowest amount in savings banks is in Wales. The circuit of deposit for each 
bank will sometimes overstep a county boundary, but averages of the present mag- 
nitude will not be much diverted from accuracy by such a circumstance ; and indeed 
the county boundaries do not generally run near to the towns in which the banks are 
chiefly situated ; but when we come to consider the subdivisions of these several 
districts, and especially the counties individually, cases of disturbance from these 
causes will be obvious. 

The columns of committals for criminal offences agree very nearly with those of the 
early marriages ; and after deducting the dispersed populations of the Celtic and 
the Scandinavian regions, both remarkably deficient in crime, the Welsh districts 
especially; and the southern agricultural and midland and north-midland agricultural 
counties, which are also on the favourable side of the average, the excess of about 
12 per cent, on the remainder of the population, is pretty nearly distributed through- 
out the rest of the kingdom, except where this proportion is more than doubled in the 
wretched south midland agricultural and manufacturing counties ; the general result 
against which is very marked. 

These results as completely extinguish our belief in rural innocence, as those 
already recited undeceive us as to the comparative excess of rural ignorance. A 
relative excess of ignorance, greater concentration of numbers, a low proportion of 
the leisured classes, and employment in dispersed manufactures, appear therefore to 
be the concomitants of the excess of crime everywhere but in the metropolitan coun- 
ties, where its surprisingly small excess, though it may in some degree be owing to 
the preventive character of its superior police, offers a high testimony in favour of 
the general conduct of its more instructed population. 

If now we descend one step from these large results, and divide each of these great 
districts into two portions, according to the greater or less amount of, at least, rudi- 
mentary instruction which prevails amongst its inhabitants, we shall find the general 
conclusions at which we have arrived corroborated by the results of this analysis 
wherever we apply it. And that the instruction test is the wand to employ for 
effecting this new combination must be obvious, if it be regarded as the best avail- 



112 REPORT 1848. 

able indication, under the existing circumstances of society, of the relative degree 
of attention which the mass of the population has received from the more educated 
classes in each district, or of a superior energy of character and independence of 
circumstances hereditary in the inhabitants of a whole district. A faltering of the 
figures to declare in favoiii: of the counties of most instruction occurs scarcely any- 
where but among the northern and midland mining and manufacturing counties. 
Here the lowest proportion of crime is found in the counties which are most notorious 
for their largest amount of factory population, viz. Lancashire, the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire, while the most criminal are Cheshire, 
Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Gloucestershire, Warwickshire, and Leicestershire, on 
the whole more noted for dispersed and domestic manufactures. The first-mentioned 
counties, however, are low in every other feature brought to account ; and yet a 
greater diffusion of instruction is seen to be the concomitant of every promising figure. 



Vital Statistics of a District in Java. By John Crawford, F.G.S.; with 
preliminary remarks upon the Dutch possessions in the East, by Colonel 
Sykes, V.P.R.S. 

In connexion with Mr. Crawford's paper Colonel Sykes gives a general view of the 
progress of population in Java, — of the extraordinary development of the commer- 
cial and agricultural industry of the Dutch in the East ; and of the vast e.Ktent of the 
domains which they claim. The total area of the eastern archipelago, including Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas and the other islands, is 31,428 square 
geographical leagues, of which the Dutch claim 25,872, or five-sixths of'the whole, 
comprising a population of above twenty-five millions of souls, ruled by a few Euro- 
peans. The progress of the population in Java is remarkable. By successive cen- 
suses it appears that it has risen from 6,368,090 souls in 1824 to 9,542,045 in 1845 : 
commerce and agriculture progress in a greater ratio. In 1826, the coffee exported 
was 340,049 picals of 125 lbs. each, in 1843 it was 1,018,102. Sugar, 19,795 to 
929,769 picals for the same period. Indigo, from 76 picals to 1 ,890,429 lbs. ! Tin, from 
13,800 picals to 45,705 picals: other products are also remarkable in their increase. 
From a communication of the Colonial Minister to the second chamber of the States- 
General in 1844, the total receipts ofNetherland India were 81,784,671 florins. 

Mr. Crawford's paper contained the vital statistics of a district in Java for one year. 
In the city and neighbourhood of Yugyakarta, to which locality the observations were 
chiefly confined, the births were fewest and the mortality greatest in the town ; while 
the opposite state of things prevailed in the country, and especially in the more ele- 
vated part. The author inferred from the data which he had collected, that a native 
population under the tropics, in the enjoyment of peace, with a fair share of industry, 
a sufiiciency of fertile land and a favourable climate, may increase as an European 
one in a temperate climate with similar advantages. 



On the Annual Increase of Property, and of Exports and Imports in Canada, 
By Joseph Hume, M.P. {communicated by 3. Fletcher.) 

These statements demonstrate tlie great rapidity with which the most valuable and 
permanent species of wealth accumulates in Canada, and the extent to which the 
province is already able to consume and employ goods of various kinds sent from 
this country, and to pay for them by its exports to Great Britain and its dependen- 
cies. That power will henceforth increase annually, at a rate greatly exceeding that 
of former years, under the influence of a principle long recognised. 

The rateable property in Upper Canada amounted in 1825 to £997,025; in 1840 
to £5,691,477; in 1841 to £5,996.609; in 1842 to £6.375,140; in 1843 to 
£5,916,162 ; and in 1844 to £7,139,901, according to the assessment returns for the 
last three years. 

In the United Province of Upper and Lower Canada, the imports into Canada by 
sea, from 1838 to 1847 inclusive, increased. 

On comparing a few of the more important articles of import by sea for the years 
1846 and 1847, the following results are obtained :— Against 313,076 gallons of 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 



113 



wine imported in 1846, there are 229,595 gallons in 1847- In spirits of all kinds, 
exclusive of whiskey and East and West India rum, 159,547 gallons in 1846, against 
I85,;}67 gallons in 1847- In molasses 151,675 gallons, against 365,450 gallons. In 
refined sugar 895,046 lbs., against 880,305 lbs. In Muscovado and bastard sugars 
8,546,982 lbs., against 8,719,099 lbs. In coffee 105,282 lbs., against 261,144 lbs. In 
tea 603,038 lbs., against 816,866 lbs. In salt 345,396 bushels (equal to 11,513 
tons), against 87,880 bushels (equal to 2929 tons). And in goods paying ad valorem 
duties £2,241,154 sterling, against £1,783,682 sterling. 

On comparing the exports of 1846 with those of 1847, it will be seen that the ex- 
ports of the agricultural staples .of Canada exhibit a steady increase. For instance, 
the export of flour in 1846 was 555,602 barrels, against'65 1,030 barrels in 1847. 
The export of wheat was 534,747 bushels in 1846, against 628,001 bushels in 1847- 
That of oatmeal, 5930 barrels against 21,999 barrels. That of oats, 46,060 bushels 
against 165,805 bushels. And that of butter, 786,701 lbs. against 1,036,555 lbs. Of 
ashes, however, and timber, there was a falling off, but it was probably more than 
compensated by an increased export inland. 



On the Distribution of the Population of Great Britain and Ireland ; illus' 
trated by Maps and Diagrams. By Augustus Petermann, F.B.G.S. 

A map of the British Isles was exhibited, showing by shading the various degrees 
of density of population in every part of the United Kingdom ; certain districts con- 
taining less than 5, others upwards of 2000 inhabitants to 1 English square mile. The 
causes of this very unequal distribution of the people were alluded to, and tables ex- 
hibited giving tlie density of population in the different parts of the United Kingdom. 
It was remarked that of the 122 counties and islands, — 

3 showed an average density of 1000 souls and upwards to 1 Engl. sq. mile. 

5 „ „ „ from 1000 to 500 „ „ 

8 „ „ „ „ 500 to 400 

9 „ „ „ „ 400 to 300 
38 „ „ „ „ 300 to 200 

33 „ „ „ „ 200 to 100 „ „ 

26 „ „ „ below 100 

All towns containing 3000 inhabitants and upwards were indicated on the map 
according to an arrangement of the number of their inhabitants. 

Synoptical Table of the Number and Total Population of all Towns containing 
10,000 Inhabitants and upwards. 





Towns of 100,000 
inhabitants and 
upwards. 


Towns from 

50,000 to 100,000 

inhabitants. 


Towns from 

20,000 to 50,000 

inhabitants. 


Towns from 

10,000 to 20,000 

inhabitants. 


All towns of 

10,000inhabitants 

and upwards. 


No. Total Pop. 


No. 


Total Pop. 


No. Total Pop. 


No. 


Total Pop. 


No. 


Total Pop. 


England 

"Wales 


4 

2 
1 


2,407,423 

412,506 
232,726 


8 

2 
2 


493,330 

123,841 
156,028 


43 
1 

3 
2 
1 


1,307,564 

21,929 

110,994 

71,607 

21,040 


78 
3 
5 

12 

1 


1,052,704 

37,698 

67,414 

158,642 

15,220 


133 

4 

12 

17 

2 


5,261,021 

59,627 

714,755 

619,003 

36,260 


Scotland 

Ireland 

Islands in the 
British Seas 


Un. Kingdom. 7 


3,052,655 


12 


773,199 


50 jl,533,134 


99 


1,331,678 


168 


6,690,666 


1 Considerabl 
from that of t 
sible ; as the 
tion. The su 
correct. 
1848. 


e pai 
he w 
)opu 
mma 


ns have b 
iiole paris 
ation reti 
ry for En 


een t 
h. 

irns ( 
jlanc 


aken to s 
n Englai 

io not aff( 
therefor 


spara 
id he 
3rd tl 
e can 


te the po 

)wever th 

le means 

only be 


3ulat 
s ha 
of m 
consi 


on of the 
s not alw 
akhig anj 
dered as 


disti 
ays ' 
r sue 
ipprc 

I 


net place 
leen pos- 
1 separa- 
ximately 



114 



REPORT — 1848. 



Statistics of 23rittany and the Bretons. 
By Joseph Fletcher, Hon. Sec. Statistical Society of London. 

This paper was an abstract of the report of a tour in the five departments of 
Brittanj' during the years 1840 and 1841, under instructions from the Academy of 
the Moral and Political Sciences, made by MM. Beniston de Chateauneuf and Vil- 
lerme, members of that Academy, and contained in the fourth volume of the Me- 
iBoirs of the Academy of the Moral and Political Sciences. It described the surface 
of the great peninsula of Brittany, projecting into the ocean between the Bay of 
Biscay and the English Channel, to comprise 1715 square leagues (the French league 
of length being 2^ English miles), or 3,388,850 hectares of 2§ English acres. Its 
central parts are occupied in great measure by a double range of mountains of no 
great elevation. Breton cultivation, on the borders of the province, is intelligent, 
advanced and productive; in the interior, it is ignorant, prejudiced and unproduc- 
tive. In the two entire departments of Finistere and Morbihan, there are more 
heaths than cultivable land ; and it is of course in these wilder regions, with those 
of the department of the C6tes-du-Nord, that the old manners, habits and customs 
of the country are most tenaciously retained. The sources of the reputed poverty 
and backwardness of the province being the especial object of the inquiry, the espe- 
cial attention of the travellers was given to the poorest and most backward depart- 
ments. 

Table of the cultivation of Brittany, as compared with that of all France, abstracted 
from the Official Statistics of Agriculture. 



Occupation of the surface. 



Wheat ;.... 

Other grain 

Buckwheat 

Potatoes 

Hemp and flax 

Orchards, nurseries, and osier-beds .. 

Gardens and lands under various vege 
tables, — colewort, tiu'nips, beet-root 
tobacco, &c 

Vines 

Natural meadows 

Artificial meadows 

Woods and forests 

Fallows 

Pasturages, Heaths, &c , 



■:} 



Hectares. Proportion. 



269,888 

491,010 

272MI 

65,069 

34,917 

56,904 

38,742 

27,728 
301,861 

50,880 
100,154 
429,053 
976,034 






■^ 



Hectares. Proportion 



5,586,787 
8,313,478 
651,242 
92i,971 
274,389 
766,578 

896,747 

1,972,340 
4,198,198 
1,576,567 
8,804,551 
6,763,281 
9,191,076 



* 
A 
A 
^ 



A 



Total surface, including roads, &c 3,388,843 52,768,600 



The Breton sows for the first year buckwheat, which is his own principal food j 
the second, wheat ; the third, barley or oats, or often wheat again, of which he thua 
takes two crops in succession, and then he leaves it bare, except of self-sown weeds, 
for three, four, and five years, and often much longer : replying to eveiy argument ii 
favour of green crops, with all the firmness of conviction, that the land requireal 
fest as well as the arms that cultivate it. Under such a system, the peculiar Bretqn 
custom of tenant-right to compensation for improvements has not proved a panaceal 
for a distress frequently as great as that of Ireland. 

The cattle are very poor and inferior, — an ox weighing from 50 to 260 kilogrammes 
of 1\ English pounds ; a cow from 40 to 100 kil. ; sheep from 10 to 18 kil. Thcj 
quantity of cattle on the land has greatly declined since 1812. From 10,000 tc 
15,000 horses are sent annually out of the country for the service of the artilleryJ 
cavalry, and diligences. The commercial industry of Brittany is almost wholly \S 
agricultural produce (of which it exports all the best), in grain, hemp.flax, cattle and 
horses, and less important articles, such as honey, bees'-wax and butter. Salt froi 
the neighbourhood of Nantes, oysters from the Bay of Cancale, and pilchards froB 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 



115 



the bays of Douarnenez and Concarneau, are exported in considerable quantities. A 
certain number of ships are annually equipped to the shores and banks of Newfound- 
land; and there is a considerable manufacture of the flax and hemp grown within 
the province ; but an obstinate adherence to old instruments and methods, and a 
positive rejection of better, has gradually reduced both spinners and weavers to the 
most abject misery, in competition with the improved processes and growing com- 
binations of capital in the world around them. Exclusive of the weeding of the flax, 
the culture and manufacture of one hectare (2§ acres) of either flax or hemp, costs 
4483 days' labour, distributed as follows : — 



Agency. 



Francs 
per day. 



Agriculture 

Dressing 

Spinning 

Winding, warping, &c 

Quill-winding -.v 

Weaving 

Bleaching .^ 

Getting-up and despatching 

Rent of a hectare of land 

or hemp 



296 Men and horses at ... 

700 Men and women 

2666 Women 

164 Women 

143 Children 

287 Men 

90 Men ^ 

137 Men 

fit for the cultivation of flax \ 



Half the price of the seed (that which is gathered being "1 

worth the other half) / 

Profit of the cultivator or farmer 

Fuel and ashes for the bleaching 



0-75 
0-40 
0-22 
0-50 
0-29 
100 
075 
075 

100-00 

57-00 
169 



-00 f 
•00 J 



221-00 

280-00 

599-85 

82-00 

41-47 

287-00 

67-50 

102-75 



326-00 
35-00 



Total. 



2042-00 



Thus the mere cultivation costs 27 per cent, of the whole value ; dressing, 14 ; 
spinning, 29 ; weaving, 20 ; bleaching, 5 ; getting up and despatching, 5. Under flax 
there are 20,357 hectares ; under hemp, 14,560 — making a total of 34,917 ; and the 
average produce of each hectare of flax, after the removal of the rind, is from 2000 
to 2500 kil. of dry stalks. With the largest and coarsest hemp is made cordage ; 
with the finer, sailcloth ; and with the hemp and flax united, coarse linens. There 
is likewise a dwindling woollen manufacture at Vitre, &c. 

The population of Brittany in 1800, was 2,202,700 ; in 1831, 2,574,000; in 1836, 
2,620,300 ; in 1841, 2,666,200. The increase from 1830 to 1835 inclusive was 30 
per cent, in Loire- Inferieure, 25 in Finistere, 22 in lUe-et-Vilaine, 20 in C6tes-du- 
Nord, and only 12 in Morbihan ; the average in all Brittany being 19 per cent. 
In France generally it has been 22, while the increase in England and Wales is more 
than double even the latter rate. 

Notwithstanding this slow increase of population in Brittany, its actual amount, 
in even the most w-aste and uncultivated departments, is greater in proportion to the 
total surface than in France generall}% including its most fertile provinces ; the 
average in all France being 1256 inhabitants per square league, while in Morbihan 
it is 1270, Loire-Inferieure 1364, Ille-et-Vilaine 1618, Finistere 1623, C6tes-du- 
Nord 1781, and all Brittany 1528. Two-thirds of this population is dispersed over 
the surface of the country on small properties, small tenancies, and cottage holdings ; 
the proportion of town population being small as compared with France generally. 
Out of 540,000 houses in the whole department, 400,000 have only two or three 
openings, i. e. one or two besides the door. 

Movement of the population in Brittany and in all France, 1831 to 1836. 

Brittany. France. 

Mean population 2,597,230 33,055,060 



One birth to 30-68 

One death to 33-68 

One marriage to 130-00 

Births to each marriage... 419 

One illegitimate birth to... 30*12 



33-90 

38-60 

127-00 

3-57 

13-81 



l2 



116 REPORT— 1848. 

The maximum of births, deaths and marriages to the population falls in Finistere, 
and the maximum of children to each marriage in Moibihan (4'5l). The average 
age of the first marriages of the men is 28 years and 4 months, and of the women 25 
years and 1 1 months. In England and Wales, the average age of marriage in both 
sexes, even including second with first marriages in the same average, is decidedly 
less, being 27 years and 3 months for the men, and 25 years and 3 months for the 
women. 

The exceeding misery of the Breton peasant was noticed by Neckar in 1784, again 
by Arthur Young ten years later, and relatively to that of the population of the rest 
of France or of Great Britain, it is as conspicuous as ever. The interior of a Breton 
cabin in the most Breton departments, is described as a parallel to that of an Irish 
one ; buckwheat bread being the chief sustenance instead of potatoes. The peculi- 
arity of his language appears to be the greatest obstacle to the social advancement of 
the Breton, and the isolation in which it keeps him perpetuates his ignorance. The 
sacristans, beadles, and good sisters are still to a great extent, as they were formerly, 
the sole instructors of the people. Under the republic there were scarcely fifteen 
elementary schools in all the department, and little advancement was made until 
within this few years, under the competition of the government schools with those of 
the " Freres de la Doctrine" and the disciples of M. Lamennais, called the " Petits 
Freres." M. Guerry reckons only 1 in 96 of the inhabitants to be under instruction ; 
and in the five years 1836-40, 78 per cent, of those arraigned before the criminal 
tribunals could neither read nor write. 



The Statistics of Civil Justice in Bengal in which the Government is a party. 
By Colonel Sykes, V.P.R.S. 

The author shows that although the government of India is based upon its military 
authority, yet it provides that the meanest of its subjects in Bengal shall be able to 
sue the government, \n forma pauperis or otherwise, in its own Courts ; and though 
every judge or officer of every Civil Court is appointed by the government, and re- 
movable at pleasure, yet the decision both by the native judges, as well as by the 
European judges, in a multitude of cases are against the government, and bear testi- 
mony to the independence and impartiality of the judicial authorities. The author 
gives numerous cases, illustrative of this fact ; showing also that the government is 
frequently compelled to appeal against the decisions of its lower court to its highest 
appellate court, and often ineffectually. 

The outstanding balances due to government under decrees of Court in 1845-46, 
were— 

Privy Council decrees 233,404 Rs. 

Revenue decrees 151,904 „ 

Salt and opium decrees 471,727 „ 

Military department 7>196 .,, 

Post-office 184 „ 

864,415 „ 

Pauper suits 344,626 „ 

In 1846-47, the outstanding balances were — 

Revenue decrees 191,631 ,, 

Salt and opium decrees 511,331 „ 

Privy Council decrees 155,123 „ 

Pauper suits' decrees 304,564 ,, 

A considerable proportion of these sums would be irrecoverable. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTION^. 117 

MECHANICS. 

Mr. J. Ashman exhibited an artificial leg, of an improved construction. 



On Improvements in the Reflecting Circle, more particularly in reference to 
an instrument for the purpose of measuring angular distances of the Sun 
and Moon. By J. C. Dennis. 

So great is the accuracy required in instruments of this kind that it is necessary 
to distinguish to the 5940th part of an inch. The smallest error of construction 
therefrom produces a serious error in the observation ; and to render the construc- 
tion more perfect, the following suggestion is made : — Instead of attaching the circle 
(technically called an arc) to the parts which support it, let the whole be cast in one 
piece, and then planed, polished or divided, to suit the purposes of modern astro- 
nomy. 

■ On the application of Steam Power to the Drainage of Marshes and Fen 
Lands. JBy Joseph Glynn, F.R.S., M.Inst.CE. 

The steam-engine is used to raise the water above the level of these lands which 
lie too low to be drained by natural outfall, and also in situations where the fall is not 
sufficient to carry off the superfluous water in time to prevent damage to the crops. 

Mr. Glynn has applied steam power to the drainage of land in fifteen districts, all 
in England, chiefly in Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk. The quantity of 
land so drained amounts to more than 123,000 acres, the engines employed being se- 
venteen in number, and their aggregate power 870 horses ; the form of the engines 
varies from 20 to 80 horses. Mr. Glynn was also engaged in draining by steam power 
the Hammerbrook district, close by the city of Hamburg ; and in another level near to 
Rotterdam, an engine and machinery with the requisite buildings have been erected 
from his plans, by the Chevalier Conrad, and the works successfully carried into effect. 

In British Guiana the steam-engine has been made to answer the double purpose 
of drainage and irrigation. Some of the sugar-plantations of Demerara are drained 
of the superfluous water during the rainy season and watered during the dry season. 

In many of the swampy levels of Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire much had been 
done to carry off the water by natural means, and many large cuts had been made and 
embankments formed, especially in the Bedford Level, which alone contains about 
300,000 acres of fen-land ; the Great Level of the fens contains about 680,000, for- 
merly of little value, but now rich in corn and cattle. 

The Dutch engineers, who were at an early period engaged in these works of 
drainage, had erected a great number of windmills to raise and throw oiF the water 
when the sluices could not carry it away. By the aid of these machines the land was 
so far reclaimed as to be brought into summer pasture and a precarious state of cul- 
tivation producing occasionally crops of wheat. The waters from the uplands and 
higher levels were intercepted by catch-vvater drains, which carried away the high- 
land waters, as far as might be practicable, and prevented them from running down 
upon the fen, from which the excess of rain-water was lifted by the mills. But, as it 
often happened, when there was most rain there was least wind, so that the wind- 
engines were often useless when their help was most needed, and the crops were 
consequently lost. 

In this state was the fen-country when the steam-engine was introduced, and by its 
aidthe farmer may now venture to sow wheat with as much confidence, and even more, 
than upon higher ground ; for not only can he throw off the superfluous water at 
pleasure, but in dry weather a supply can be admitted from the rivers, so that farm- 
ing in such situations is rendei-ed less precarious than in situations originally more 
favoured by nature. 

It is however to be remarked, that the quantity of rain which falls on those levels 
on the eastern side of England being much below the general average of the kingdom, 
the power required to throw off the superfluous water is small when compared with 



1X8 REPORT — 1848. 

•the breadth of land to be drained, the proportion seldom being greater than 10 horses' 
power to 1000 acres, and in some cases considerably less. 

The general plan is to carry away the water coming off the higher grounds, and 
prevent it, as much as possible, from running down into the marsh by means of the 
catch-waterdrains before mentioned, leaving only the rain which falls upon the district 
to be dealt with by mechanical power. 

As the quantity of rain falling on the Great Level of the fens seldom exceeds 26 
inches in the year, and about two-thirds of this quantity is carried off by evaporation 
and absorption or the growth of plants, it is only in extreme cases that 2 inches in 
depth require to be thrown off by the engines in any one month, which amounts to 
1^ cubic feet of water upon every square yard of land, or 7260 feet to the acre. 

The standard and accepted measure of a horse's power is 33,000 lbs. raised one 
foot high in a minute, or 3300 lbs. raised 10 feet high in the same time ; and as a 
cubic foot of water weighs 62^ lbs. and a gallon of water 10 lbs., so one horse's power 
will raise and discharge, at a height of 10 feet, 330 gallons, or 52 1% cubic feet of 
water in a minute. Consequently this assumed excess of 7260 cubic feet of water 
fallen upon an acre of land will be raised and discharged at au elevation of 10 feet in 
about two hours and twenty minutes. If the quantity of land be 1000 acres of fen or 
marsh, with the upland waters all banked out, the excess of rain, according to the 
foregoing estimate, will amount to 726,000 cubic feet. A steam-engine of 10-horse 
power will throw off this water in 232 hours, or in less than 20 days, working 12 hours 
a day. This calculation has been found fully supported in practice. 

Although the rain due to any given month may fall in a few days, yet in such case 
much of it will be absorbed by the ground ; and the drains must be made of sufficient 
capacity to receive and contain the rain as it falls ; besides, in case of necessity, the 
engine may be made to work 20 hours a day instead of 12, until the danger be past. 

The main drains have generally been cut 71 feet deep and of width sufficient to 
give them the required capacity to contain the excess of rain, and to bring the water 
freely down to the engine. In some instances, where the districts are extensive and 
their length great, it has been found necessary to make them somewhat deeper. 

In all cases where it has been .requisite to use steam power, Mr. Glynn has.applied 
scoop-wheels to raise the water. These scoop-wheels somewhat resemble the under- 
shot wheel of a water-raill, but instead of being turned by the impulse of the water, 
they are used to lift it and are kept in motion by the steam-engine. 

The floats or ladle-boards of the wheels are made of wood and fitted to work in a 
trough or track of masonry ; they are generally made 5 feet in length, that is to say, 
they are immersed 5 feet deep in the water, and their width or horizontal dimension 
varies from 20 inches to 5 feet, according to the power of the engines employed and 
the head of water to be overcome. The wheel-track at the lower end communicates 
with the main drain, and at the higher end with the river ; the water in the river being 
kept out by a pair of pointing doors, like the lock-gates of a canal, which close when 
the engine ceases to work. The wheels themselves are made of cast-iron, formed in 
parts for convenience of transport. The float-boards are connected with the cast 
iron part of the wheel by means of oak starts, which are stepped into sockets cast in the 
circumference of the wheel to receive them. 

There are cast-iron toothed segments fitted to the wheel into which works a pinion 
fixed upon the crank-shaft of the steam-engine. When the head of water in the 
river or delivering drain does not vary much, it is sufficient to have one speed for the 
wheel ; but where the tide rises in the river, it is desirable to have two speeds or 
powers of wheel-work, the one to he used at low water, the other more powerful 
combination to act against the rising tide. But in most cases it is not requisite to 
raise the water more than 3 or 4 feet higher than the surface of the land intended to 
be drained, and even this is only necessary when the rivers are full between their 
banks, from a continuance of wet weather or from upland floods. 

In some instances the height of the water in the rivers being affected by the tide, 
the drainage by natural outfall can take place only during the ebb, and here, in case 
of long-continuing rains, the natural drainage requires the assistance of mechanical 
power. 

It has been stated that the main drains have generally been made 7i feet deep, or 
more in larger districts, so that the water may never rise higher than within 1 8 inches 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 119 

or 2 feet of the surface of the ground, and the ladles or float-boards dip 5 feet below 
the water, leaving a foot in depth below the dip of the wheel, that the water may 
run freely to it, and to allow for the casual obstruction of weeds in the main drain, 
which, if it be sufficiently capacious and well-formed, will bring down the water to 
the engine with a descent of 3 inches in a mile. 

Suppose then the wheel to dip 5 feet below the surface of the water in the 
main drain, and that the water in the river into which this water must be raised and 
discharged has its level 5 feet above that in the drain, the wheel in such case will be 
said to have 10 feet head and dip, and ought to be made 28 or 30 feet in diameter. 

Mr. Glynn has found it practicable to throw out the water against a head of 10 feet 
with a dip of 5 feet, that is to say, 15 feet of head and dip, with a wheel of 35 feet 
in diameter, but in another engine more recently erected, he has made the wheel 
40 feet in diameter. The engine that drives this wheel is of SO-horse power, and is 
situated on the Ten-mile Bank near Littlepool, in the Isle of Ely. The largest quan- 
tity of water delivered by one engine is from Deeping Fen, near Spalding ; this fen 
contains 25,000 acres, and is drained by two engines, one of 80 and one of 60-horse 
power. 

The 80-horse engine has a wheel of 2& feet in diameter, with float-boards or ladles 
measuring 5.^ by 5 feet, and moving with a mean velocity of 6 feet per second; so 
that the section of the stream is 2/5 feet, and the quantity discharged per second 165 
cubic feet ; equal to more than 4| tons of water in a second, or about 16,200 tons of 
water in an hour. 

It was in 1825 that these two engines were erected, and at that time the district 
was kept in a half-cultivated state by the help of 44 windmills, the land at times being 
wholly under water. It now grows excellent wheat, producing from four to six quar- 
ters to the acre. In many districts land has been purchased at from 10/. to 20/. an 
acre, by persons who foresaw the consequences of these improvements; they could 
now sell at from 50/, to 70Z. an acre. 

This increase in value has arisen, not only from the land being cleared from the 
injurious eifects of the water upon it, but from the improved system of cultivation 
the farmers have been enabled to adopt. 

The fen-lands in Cambridgeshire and great part of the neighbouring counties are 
formed of a rich black earth, consisting of decomposed vegetable matter, generally 
from 6 to 10 feet thick, although in some places much thicker, resting upon a bed 
of blue gault containing clay, lime, and sand. 

When steam-drainage was first introduced, it was the practice to pare the land and 
burn it, then to sow rape-seed, and to feedsheep upon the green crop, after which 
wheat was sown. The wheat grown upon this land had a long weak straw, easily 
bent and broken, carrying ears of corn of small aize, and having but a weak and un- 
certain hold by its root in the black soil. 

Latterly however, chemistry having thrown greater light upon the operations of 
agriculture, it has been the practice to sink pits at regular distances through the 
black earth and to bring up the blue gault, which is spread upon the surface us ma- 
nure. The straw by this means, taking up an additional quantity of silex, becomes 
firm, strong, and not so tall as formerly, carrying larger and heavier corn, and the 
iiiixture of clay gives a better hold to the root, rendering the crops less liable to be 
laid by the wind and rain, whilst the produce is most luxuriant and abundant. 



On Investigations undertaken for the purpose of furnishing data for the 
Construction of Mr. Stephenson's Tubular Bridges at Conway and Menai 
Straits. By Professor E. Hodgkinson. 



On a new Element of Mechanism. By Richard Robekts. 

By this contrivance, a model of which was exhibited by Mr. Roberts, differential 
movements, for which more complicated mechanism is frequently employed, may be 
effected in a very simple manner. 

The model consisted of a steel shaft, on which were fitted loosely two brass discs, 
each having a boss to keep it steads*. One of the discs had on its circumference 



I'.'O REPORT — 1848. 

eleven teeth, rounded at top and bottom, and was placed on the shaft : the other disc, 
which was plain, and rather the larger of the two, was on the excentric portion of 
the shaft, with its face to that of tbe toothed disc, and had four studs riveted into it 
at equal distances from each other, and at such a distance from its centre as to admit 
of their being brought successively, by the revolutions of the excentric, to the bot- 
toms of the hollows in the toothed disc. 

The following^ movements may be effected by this model :^ 

If the shaft be held stationary, and the discs be made to revolve upon it, the 
toothed disc will make twelve revolutions, whilst the other will make only eleven. 

If the toothed disc be held whilst the shaft be made to revolve twelve times, the 
plain disc will revolve in the same direction one revolution only ; and if the plain 
disc be held, the toothed disc will perform one revolution in the contrary direction 
for eleven revolutions of the shaft. 

It will be evident that almost any other relative number of revolutions may be 
produced by employing one disc with a suitable number of teeth, and another with 
the smallest number of pins (not fewer than three), which will not divide the number 
of teeth in the other disc. 

The idea of this novel element of mechanism was suggested to Mr. Roberts by a 
" dial movement " in an American clock. 



On Anastatic Printing and its various conibitiations. 
By H. E. Strickland, M.A. 



On the Ventilation of Collieries, with a description of a new Mine- Ventilator. 
By William Price Struve, C.E. 

The ventilation of collieries is effected by means of large furnaces placed at the 
bottom of the upcast pits, the rarefaction produced by which causes the air to ascend 
the upcast pit, while a similar quantity descends the downcast pit. The great ob- 
jection to this method is the variation produced by the neglect of furnace-men, and 
by the barometrical and thermometrical changes of the atmosphere, which, if 
accompanied by a sudden discharge of carburetted hydrogen gas from the goaf of 
a mine, is suflScient to produce extensive explosions. A large annual expenditure is 
also caused by the great destruction which arises from the gases and heat of the 
furnace to the flat chains, flat ropes, and cast-iron tubbing of an upcast-pit. It is 
proposed to remedy these evils by a new patented mine-ventilator of the following 
construction, which is calculated to take out of a mine an unlimited quantity of air. 
The whole upcast-pit is converted into an air-channel, connected with the ventilator 
by a culvert of the same size. The ventilator, which is worked by an engine of five 
horses' power, consists of two large air-chambers, resembling gasometers, moving up 
and down in water contained in a tank constructed of masonry ; the chambers ba- 
lance each other, and are surrounded with outside cases, so as to form double pumps ; 
the inlet and outlet valves, when open, present for the ingress and egress of air the 
same amount of area as the upcast-pit ; thus the only resistance to be overcome is that 
which arises from the slight friction of the parts of the apparatus and of the air in 
the passages of the mine. A ventilator on this principle is now (August 1848) being 
erected at the Eagles' Bush Colliery, calculated to pass through the mine forty thou- 
sand cubic feet of air per minute. The cost will be about £400. 



On a netv Low-pressure Atmospheric Railway. 
By William Price Struve, C.E. 

The grand obstacles in the way of the working of existing atmospheric railways, 
are the difficulty of communicating the motion of the piston within the tube to the 
train without it, and the great leakage along the valve and around the piston. In 
the proposed plan these evils are to be thus remedied : — The railway is carried through 
a covered viaduct hghted through glass, the walls being constructed of masonry, and 
the roof of timber, or some other convenient material. The piston is a shield fixed on 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 121 

wheels in front of the train, and is made to fit the interior surface of the passage as 
closely as is possible without actually touching it. The passage is exhausted by 
means of two large chambers, like gasometers, moved up and down in water by the 
action of a steam-engine. By the opening of valves in the shield, or of doors at the 
stations, the pressure may be diminished or entirely removed, and the train thus 
slackened or stopped without the necessity of stopping the engine. Each station 
being provided with a loop-line, in order that the continuity of the covered way may 
not be destreyed, the trains may be run into open sheds similar to those now in use 
for the purpose of receiving and taking out passengers. 

As the rarefaction necessary to move the train is very small, a pressure of 0'6 lb. 
per square foot on a piston of nine feet square, amounting to nearly three tons, or 
nearly four times that obtained on the Croydon railway, little importance is to be 
attached to the leakage. 

The advantages of the plan appear to be — increase of speed, safety and economy, 
absence of any resistance of the air in front of the train, and freedom from all risk of 
stoppage by snow-drift or frost. 

The cost of the covered way and apparatus will not in ordinary cases exceed 
£7000 per mile, which is not more than the usual cost of locomotive engines, and of 
the extra weight of rails necessary for their support, nor than the cost of the present 
atmospheric railways. 

A working model, twenty feet in length, with a covered way of six inches square, 
was exhibited to the Section. 



O71 a neiv mechanical arrangement for communicating Signals and Working 
Breaks on Railways. By Wm. S. Ward. 

Much attention has lately been paid to the contrivance of methods of communi- 
cation between the engine-drivers of railway trains and the guards in charge of the 
carriages of the train, and of affording a means of communication between the 
passengers and the guards or engine-drivers ; but no method has yet been suggested 
which has not met with objection. 

It appears to the author that a simple mechanical contrivance for effecting a com- 
munication between the last carriage of the train and the engine, so as to ring a bell 
or communicate with a steam-whistle, affords the best means of attracting the atten- 
tion of the driver and is the most likely to be generally useful. 

It has occurred to Mr. Ward that the most perfect method of making communi- 
cations on railway-trains is by the circular motion of rods extending under the car- 
riages, so as to form a sj'stem of shafting which he calls torsion-rods. This he 
proposes to effect by means of rods moving in slides, and having springs attached, so 
as to extend the rods in like manner as the buffers of the carriages, each system of 
rods having a portion in the centre capable of revolving on bearings attached to the 
framework of the carriage or carriage-wheels, and connected by universal joints with 
the sliding portion of the rods, which revolves in and is supported by ' bushes ' placed 
on springs, so as to give a little play both laterally and vertically. At each end of 
such system of rods is placed either a universal joint, capable of being attached to a 
similar joint, or a portion of a hollow cone, with a spike in the centre and teeth or 
claws on its outer edge, so that two carriages on which the rods are applied being 
coupled together, the cones on the adjacent system of rods are pushed together, and 
will be held in contact by the springs, and form a coupling-joint capable of commu- 
nicating circular motion from one system of rods to another, so that such systems of 
rods will, when the carriages to which they are attached are coupled, form a con- 
tinuous line of shafting. The torsion-rods will be extensible or compressible in 
length, and also yield laterally, according to the motion of the carriages, but will, 
when turned on their axes, communicate circular motion. 

It is proposed to apply torsion-rods for communicating signals between guards 
and engine