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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"



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REPORT 



TWENTIETH MEETING 

OF THE _^ ! 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT EDINBURGH IN JULY AND AUGUST 1850. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 



1851. 



PRINTED BY R[CHARD TAYLOR, 
RED LION COUKT, FLEET STREET. 




CONTENTS. 



Page 

Obj'ects and Rules of the Association v 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement viii 

Table of Council from commencement x 

Treasurer's Account xii 

Officers and Council xiv 

Officers of Sectional Committees xv 

Corresponding Members xvi 

Report of Council to the General Committee xvi 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxi 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxiv 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xxx 

Address of the President xxxi 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

First Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phaenomena. By Robert 
Mallet, C.E., M.R.l.A 1 

On Observations of Luminous Meteors ; continued from the Reports 
of the British Association for 1849. By the Rev. Baden Powell, 
M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in 
the University of Oxford ^^ 

On the Structure and History of the British Annelida. By Thomas 
Williams, M.D., Swansea 133 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Results of Meteorological Observations taken at St. Michael's from the 
1st of January 1840 to the 31st of December, IS^Q. By Thomas 
Carew Hunt 133 

On the present State of our Knowledge of the Chemical Action of the 
Solar Radiations. By Robert Hunt 137 

Tenth Report of a Committee, consisting of H. E. Strickland, Prof. 
Daubeny, Prof. HenslOw and Prof. Lindley, appointed to con- 
tinue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality of Seeds 160 

Report on the Aboriginal Tribes of India. By Major-General John 
Briggs, F.R.S., Vice-President of the Ethnological Society of 
London 169 

Report concerning the Observatory of the British Association at Kew, 
from September 12, 1849 to July 31, 1850. By Francis Ronalds, 
Esq., F.R.S., Honorary Superintendent 176 

Report on the Investigation of British Marine Zoology by means of the 
Dredge. Part I. The Infra-littoral Distribution of Marine Inver- 
tebrata on the Southern, Western and Northern Coasts of Great 
Britain. By Edward Forbes, F.R.S., Professor of Botany in King's 
College, London, and Palaeontologist of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom 193 

Notes on the Distribution and Range in depth of Mollusca and other 
Marine Animals observed on the coasts of Spain, Portugal, Barbary, 
Malta, and Southern Italy in 1849. By Robert MacAndrew, Esq., 
F.L.S ' 264 

On the Present State of our Knowledge of the Freshwater Polyzoa. 
By Professor Allman, M.D., F.R.C.S.I., M.R.I.A 305 

Registration of the Periodical Phaenomena of Plants and Animals 338 

Suggestions to Astronomers for the Observation of the Total Eclipse of 
the Sun on July 28, 1851 359 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 

OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the.privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. Tliey are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously tiie Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 



VI RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Tlie Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis, — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscripiion, or, since 1845 a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. /4t reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, ant/ o/ 7y/ijc/i more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Mr. R. Taylor, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in tlie Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have commimicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. VU 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
• are specially nominated in writing for the meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Commiitees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

Tlie Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
aj)pointed by the Meeting. 



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MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 

General of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom. 

Dillwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. 

Durham, Edward Maltby, D.D., Lord Bishop 
of, F.R.S. 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 

Acland, Professor H. W., B.M., F.R.S. 

Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Adare, Edwin, Viscount, M.P., F.R.S. 

Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airy, G. B.,D.C.L., F.R.S. ,AstronomerRoyal. 

Alison, Professor W. P., M.D., F.R.S. E. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 

Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 

Babbage, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 

Babington, C. C, Esq., F.L.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. 

Balfour, Professor John H., M.D. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 

Boyle, Right Hon. David, Lord Justice-Ge- 
neral, F.R.S.E. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Brewster.Sir David, K.H.,D.C.L.,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S., President of 
the Linnean Society. 

Brunei, Sir M. L, F.R.S. 

Buckland, Very Rev. William, D.D., Dean of 
Westminster, F.R.S. 

Burlington, William, Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., 
Chancellor of the University of London. 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. 

Carlisle, George William Frederick, Earl of, 
F.G.S. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph. 

Cathcart, Lieut.-General, Earl of, K.C.B., 
F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., late Professor of 
Divinity, Edinburgh. 

Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Profes.sor S. H., M.A., Sec. R.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

Clark, Rev. Professor, M.D., F.R.S. (Cam- 
bridge). 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. 

Clerke, Major Shadwell, K.H., R.E., F.R.S. 

CUft, William, Esq., F.R.S. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. 

Conybeare, Very Rev. W.D., Dean of LlandafF, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wallace, Esq. 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. 

Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Darwin, (Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 

Daubeny, Professor Charles G. B., M.D., 
F.K.S. 

De la Beche, Sir Henry T., F.R.S., Director- 



Egerton, Sir Philip de M. Grey, Bart., F.R.S. 

Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

EUesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. 

Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. 

Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Fitzwilliara, Charles William, Earl, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. 
Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. 
Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 
Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Gassiot, J. P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Graham, Professor Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
Gray, John E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. 
Gray, William, jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. 
Grove, W. R., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hamilton, W. J., Esq., Sec.G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir William R., Astronomer Royal 

of Ireland, M.R.I.A. 
Harcourt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 
Hstrrowby, The Earl of. 
Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. William, late 

Dean of Manchester, LL.D., F.L.S. 
Herschel, Sir John F. W., Bart.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 
Hill, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkin'ion, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hopkin.s William, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Button, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq , F.G.S. 
Ibbetson, Capt. L. L. Boscawen, K.R.E., 

F.G.S. 
Inglis, Sir Robert H.,Bart.,D.C.L.,M.P.,F.R.S. 
Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Johnston, Right Hon. William, Lord Provost 

of Edinburgh. 



MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 



XI 



Johnston, Professor J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 

Keleher, William, Esq. 

Kelland, Rev. Professor P., M.A. 

Lansdowne, Henry, Marquis of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Lardner, Rev. Dr. 

Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 

Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 

cipal of the University of Edinburgh. 
Lee, Robert, M.D., F.R.S. 
Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, Speaker 

of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Liddell, Andrew, Esq. 
Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Listowel, The Earl of. 
Lloyd, Rev. Bartholomew, D.D., late Provost 

of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Lloyd, Rev. Professor, D.D., Provost of 

Trinity College, Dublin, F.R.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Luby, Rev. Thomas. 
Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A , F.R.S. 
MacCullagh, Professor, D.C.L., M.R.I. A. 
Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal. 
MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 
MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 
Malcolm, Vice Admiral Sir Charles, K.C.B. 
Manchester, James Prince Lee, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Meynell, Thomas, Jun., Esq., F.L.S. 
Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 
Moillet, J. L., Esq. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 
Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 
Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 
Moody, T. F., Esq. 
Morley, The Earl of. 
Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 
M-junt-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 
Murchison, Sir Roderick I., G.C.S., F.R.S. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Nicol, D., M.D. 
Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 
Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.G., M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. 
Norwich, Edward Stanley, D.D., F.R.S., late 

Lord Bishop of. 
Ormerod, G. W., Esq., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D, 
Orpen, J. H., LL.D. 
Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S. 
Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Osier, Follett, Esq. 
Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 
Peacock, Very Rev. George, D.D., Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Peel, Rt. Hon. Sir Robert, Bart., M.P., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Pendarves, E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Phillips, Professor John, F.R.S. 
Porter, G. R., Esq. 
Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ramsay, Professor W., M.A. 
Reid, Lieut.-Col. William, F.R.S. 



Rennie, George, Esq., V.P.R.S. 

Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S. 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ritchie, Rev. Prafessor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 

Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., M.R.I.A. 

Robison, Sir John, late Sec.R.S.Edin. 

Roche, James, Esq. 

Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 

Roseberv, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Ross, Capt. Sir James C, R.N., F.R.S. 

Rosse, William, Earl of, M.R.I.A., President 

of the Royal Society. 
Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, James, Esq. 
Russell, J. Scott, Esq. 
Sabine, Lieut.-Colonel Edward, R.A., Treas. 

R.S. 
Saunders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Sandon, Lord. 

Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Professor Adam, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 
Spence, Wrlliam, Esq., F.R.S. 
Staunton, Sir George T., Bart., M.P., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
St. David's. Connop Thirlwall, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Strang, John, Esq. 
Strickland, H. E., Esq., F.G.S. 
Sykes, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., late Vice-Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. J. J. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Tindal, Captain, R.N. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S, 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Walker, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Rev. Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Warlurton, Henry, Esq., M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N. 
West, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Wharncliffe, John Stuart, Lord, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 
Whewell, Rev. William, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Charles J. B.,M.D.,F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Wills, William. 

Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Woollcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Yarbovough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 13th of September 

receipts'. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

To balance brought on from last account 360 7 

Life Compositions at Birmingham and since 130 

Annual Subscriptions at Birmingham and since 206 1 

Associates' at Birmingham 447 

Ladies' Tickets at Birmingham 237 

Book Compositions 25 

Dividends on Stock (.£3500 three per cent. Consols) 101 18 10 

From Sale of Publications : — 

Of volume 1 8 1 

2 15 3 

3 1 17 

4 8 1 

5 1 9 7 

6 3 12 7 

7 1 7 

8 1 13 3 

9 2 16 

10 19 7 

11 ., 1 14 10 

12 Ill 2 

13 1 17 

14 7 10 8 

15 5 12 9 

16 12 1 3 

17 47 II 

18 4 16 6 

British Association's Catalogue of Stars 84 17 5 

Lalande's Catalogue of Stars 7 13 11 

Lacaille's Catalogue of Stars 8 1 

Dove's Isothermal Lines 22 19 

Lithograph Signatures 6 

— 214 6 

£1721 12 10 



JAMES HEYWOOD, 

J. W. GILBAllT, [Auditors. 

C. MALCOLM. 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



184!9 (at Birmingham) to 31st of July 1850 (at Edinburgh). 

PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

For Sundry Printing, Advertising, Expenses of Meeting at Bir- 
mingham, and Sundry Disbursements made by the Treasurer 
and Local Treasurers 308 12 4 

Printing, &c. the 17th vol 290 11 10 

Engraving for 18th vol 22 1 11 

Salaries, Assistant General Secretary and Accountant 350 

Maintaining the Establishment at Kew Observatory : — 

Balance of Grant of 1848 44 13 2 ^ 

Part of Grant of 1849 211 4 10 

255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves . 50 

Periodical Phsenomena of Animals and Vegetables : — 

Balance of Grant of 1848 5 

Grantofl849 10 

15 

Meteorological Instruments for the Azore Islands 25 

Balance in the Banker's hands 383 14 

Ditto in General Treasurer's and Local Treasurers' hands,.. 20 14 9 



404 




£1721 12 lO 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1850-51. 



Trustees (permanent). — Sir Roderick Impey Murcliison, G.C.S*.S., F.R.S. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. The Very Rev, George Peacock, D.D., Dean 
of Ely, F.R.S. 

President.— Sn David Brewster, K.H..D.C.L.,LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.R.S.E, 

rice-Presidents. — Tlie Rt. Hon. The Lord Provost of Edinburgh. The 
Earl of Cathcart, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. The Earl of Rosebery, K.T., D.C.L. 
F.R.S. Right Hon. David Boyle, Lord Justice-General, F.R.S.E. 
General Sir Thomas M. Brisbane, Bart., K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., 
Pres. R.S.E. The Very Rev. John Lee, D.D., V.P.R.S.E., Principal of the 
University of Edinburgh. W. P. Alison, M.D., V.P.R.S.E,, Prof, of the 
Practice of Physic in theUniversity of Edinburgh. James D. Forbes, F.R.S., 
Sec.R.S.E., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, 

President Elect.— George Biddell Airy, Esq., M,A,, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
Astronomer Royal. 

Vice-Presidents Elect. — Right Hon. Lord Rendlesham, M.P. The Bishop 
of Norwich. Rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Geology in 
the University of Cambridge. Rev. John Stevens Henslow, M.A., F.L.S., 
Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. Sir John P. Boileau, 
Bart., F.R.S. Sir William F. F. Middleton, Bart. J. C. Cobbold, Esq., 
M.P. T. B. Western, Esq. 

General Secretaries. — Lieut. -Col. Sabine, R.A., V.P. & Treas. R.S., 
Woolwich. J. Forbes Royle, M.D., F.R.S., Prof, of Botany in King's Col- 
lege, London. 

Assistant General Secretary. — John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., York. 

General Treasurer. — John Taylor, Esq., F,R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, 
Upper Thames Street, London. 

Local Treasurer. — John Biddle Alexander, Esq, 

Local Secretaries. — Charles May, Esq. Dillwyn Sims, Esq. George A. 
Biddell, Esq. George Ransome, Esq. 

Council. — The Duke of Argyll. Sir H. T, De la Beche. Dr. Daubeny. 
Sir P. De Grey Egerton, Bart. Prof. E. Forbes. Dr. Faraday. Prof. 
Graham. W. R. Grove, Esq, John P. Gassiot, Esq. Rev. W. V. Har- 
court. William Hopkins, Esq. Robert Hutton, Esq. Sir W. Jardine, 
Bart. Sir C. Lemon, Bart. Sir Charles Lyell. Rev. Dr. Lloyd. Sir C. 
Malcolm. Professor Owen. G. R. Porter, Esq. Sir John Richardson. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson. Lord Rosse. Col. Sykes. Prof. Wheatstone. Rev. Dr. 
Whewell. Lord Wrottesley. 

Local Treasurers. — W. Gray, Esq., York, C, C, Babington, Esq., Cam- 
bridge. William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. J, H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin, 
Professor Ramsay, Glasgow, William Sanders, Esq., Bristol. G, W. Orme- 
rod, Esq., Manchester. James Russell, Esq., Birmingham, J. Sadleir Moody, 
Esq., Southampton. John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., Swansea, J. B, Alexander, 
Esq., Ipswich. 

Auditors James Hey wood, Esq. J. W, Gilbart, Eyq, Sir C. Malcolm. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XV 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
EDINBURGH MEETING. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.-?rokssov James D. Forbes, F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 

Vice.Presidents.-The Rigl.t Rev. Bishop Terrot. Professor W. Thomson, 
F.R.S.E. Lord VVroitesIey, F.R.S. „ P «, , y^ J 

Secretaries.-Prokssor Stevelly, LL.D. Professor G. G. Stokes. W.J. 
Macquorn Rankine, Esq. Professor Smyth, Sec. R.b.b. 

SECTION B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE, INCLUDING ITS APPLICATION TO 
AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President.— Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. &c. ii F R q F Pro- 

Fice-Presidents.-Dr. Gregory, Sec. R.S.E. Dr. Trail^ F-J-S-E-' ^ ° 
fessor of Medical Jurisprudence, Edinburgh Dr. Fyfe, \^^f-\l'f'p\'^^ 
of Chemistry, King's College. Aberdeen. Dr. Daubeny. h .R.S., Reg. Frot. 

^tc,^eratl-R. Hunt, Esq. Dr. George Wilson. F.R.S.E. Dr. Thomas 
Anderson, F.R.S.E. 

SECTION C— GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

President.-S\r Roderick I. Murchison, g-C.St.S F.R.S. 

Vice.Presidents.-Vro?es.or Jameson, F.R.S L. & E. Sn Phil.p de ^rey 
Egerton, Bart.. M.P., F.R.S. Charles Maclaren, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Professor Sedgwick, F.R.S. ^ . Keith 

^-^cretoHe^.-Professor Nicol, F.G.S. Hugh Miller, Esq. A. Keith 

Johnston, Esq. 

SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. ,,_,., , ^^ ^ 
ncePresidents.-Sir John G. Dalyell. Bart. Sir John Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. R.K.Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E. G. Bentham Esq., F.L.S. 

l;.;e*anes._E.Lankester. M.D.. F.R.S. Professor J. H.Bennett. M.D.. 

F.R.S.E. Douglas Maclagan, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTION. 

Pre5irfe«<.-Vice.Admiral Sir Charles Malcolm, K.C^. 
Vice-Presidents.-Pro{essoT J. Y. Simpson, M.D. Dr. R. 0. Latham. 
F.R.S. Rev. Dr. Edward Hincks. Major Rawhnson, f.K.&. 
Secretary. — Daniel Wilson, Esq. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTION. 

President.— Prokssor Bennett, M.D., F-^S.E. Thomson 

Vice.Presidents.-Vrokssov Owen, F.R.S. Professor Allen Thomson. 
M.D.. F.R.S. L. & E. Professor Carpenter, M.D., f.K.S. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 

President.-The Very Rev. John Lee. D.D., V.P.R.S.E., Principal of the 
University of Edinburgh. 



REPORT — 1850. 



Vice-Presidents. — Rev. Dr. Gordon. Dr. Henry Marshall, F.R.S.E. Pro- 
fessor William P. Alison, M.D., F.R.S.E. G. R. Porter, Esq., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Hancock, LL,D., M.R.I. A. James Stark, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. Joseph Fletcher, Esq. 

SECTION O. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Rev. Dr. Robinson, M.R.I. A. 

Vice-Presidents. — George Buchanan, Esq. Professor Gordon. Thomas 
Grainger, Esq. John Scott Russell, Esq., F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Dr. Lees and David Stevenson, Esq. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts. 

M. Arago, Paris. 

Dr. A. D. Bache, Philadelphia. 

Professor H. von Boguslawski, Bres- 
lau. 

Monsieur Boutigny (d'Evreux), Paris. 

Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 

Chevalier Bunsen. 

Charles Buonaparte, Prince of Canino. 

M. De la Rive, Geneva. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 

Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 

Professor Encke, Berlin. 

Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 

Professor Esmark, Christiania. 

Professor G. Forchhammer, Copen- 
hagen. 

M. Frisian!, Milan. 

Professor Henry, Washington, United 
States. 

Baron Alexander von Humboldt, 
Berlin. 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 

Professor Jacobi, Konigsberg. 

Professor Kreil, Prague. 



M.'Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Langberg, Christiania. 

M. Leverrier, Paris. 

Baron de Selys-Longchamps, Liege. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Baron von Liebig, Giessen. 

Professor Link, Berlin. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von Middendorff, St. Pe- 
tersburg. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. ffirsted, Copenhagen. • 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 

Professor H. D.Rogers, Philadelphia. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Virginia. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Professor Schumacher, Altona. 

Baron Senftenberg, Bohemia. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve of St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

Dr. Van der Hoven, Leyden. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 
Goiha. 

Professor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



Report of the Proceedings of the Council in 1849-50, as presented 
TO THE General Committee at Edinburgh, Wednesday, July 31, 
1850. 
With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 

Committee assembled in Birmingham, theCouncil have to report as follows : — 
1. In respect to the proposed Recommendation to Her Majesty's Go- 
vernment, to establish a Reflecting Telescope of large optical power at a 
suitable station for the systematic observation of the Nebulae of the South- 
ern Hemisphere, the Council having communicated with the President and 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XVll 

Council of the Royal Society, had the satisfaction of being informed of the 
entire agreement of that body in the importance attached by the British 
Association to the active use of a large Reflector in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, and of their readiness to concur in a recommendation to that effect 
to Her Majesty's Government. The Council have further to report, that 
the following Memorial has been drawn up by the Rev. Dr. Robinson, 
President of the British Association, with the concurrence of the Earl of 
Rosse, President of the Royal Society, and has been presented to Lord 
John Russell. 

Copy of the Memorial to Lord John Russell. 

" My Lord, — At the last Meeting of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, that Assembly came to a resolution which has been 
adopted by the Royal Society, and which therefore I am directed, conjointly 
with the President of that illustrious body, to lay before your Lordship. 

" The purpose is, that the Government be requested to establish, in some 
fitting part of Her Majesty's dominions, a powerful reflecting telescope (not 
less than 3 feet aperture), and to appoint an Observer charged with the duty 
of employing it in a review of the Nebulae of the Southern Hemisphere. 

" In evidence of the high importance of such an investigation, it is suffi- 
cient to refer to the way in which its proposal was welcomed by the British 
Association. That assembly, comprising upwards of 1500 persons, among 
whom were found almost every British name of scientific renown, and of 
whom all are more or less devoted to the pursuit of phj-sical knowledge, may 
not unfairly be considered an exponent of the national mind on such an occa- 
sion ; and I have never seen it admit any similar resolution with a more en- 
thusiastic approval. 

" For the department of Nebular Astronomy is that which at present has 
the most powerful hold on public attention, and stands most in need of public 
assistance. Others are worked out by the pen and in the closet, or by instru- 
ments of easy attainment, and in establishments already fully organized : the 
only results which they can now yield are uninteresting except to a few, and 
are valued by the mass only from an instinctive perception of the glory which 
they confer on human intellect. But it is far otherwise with this ; the myste- 
rious forms on which it is employed are at present objectsof universal curiosity, 
from their position (outworks as it were of the universe), their evident analogy 
to the system of which we are a part, and which we may hope to study in 
them, and the Dynamic questions which the marvellous arrangements of 
many of them suggest. I may add, that in its origin it is almost exclusively 
ours ; the fame which will reward its completion should be ours also. The 
history may be very briefly given. About sixty-eight Nebulae had been ill 
seen and worse described, when the elder Herschel was led to explore them 
by the encouragement and aid of his sovereign George UL To those pre- 
viously known, he not only added 2500 more, but by classing them, by clear 
and methodical description, and directing attention to the relations which 
connect them with other portions of the universe, he gave this branch of 
astronomy its powerful vitality. His no less distinguished son, following his 
example with even greater success, has not merely extended the list of northern 
nebulae to an amount which would have ennobled any other name, but has 
given the whole work complete precision by an accurate determination of the 
position of all contained in his own and his father's lists, thus placing them 
fully within the reach of subsequent observers. Not content with this, he 
transported to the other hemisphere those instruments which had rendered 

1850. c 



Xviii REPORT — 1850. 

Buch good service in our own, and has thus enriched astronomy with 1600 
more equally well observed, but beyond the reach of European astronomers. 

" Yet powerful as those instruments were, a much nearer approach to the 
extreme limit of useful optical power has been made by Lord Rosse : it was • 
therefore to be expected that his telescope would add considerably to our 
knowledge of the Nebulae, and this has been fully realized. It was in fact a 
communication of some results obtained by him which directed the attention 
of the British Association to this subject, and excited a desire of having the 
same work performed for the southern sky which he is accomplishing in our 
own. That work implies a minute re-examination of at least all the brighter 
Nebulae of Sir John Herschel's catalogues ; embodied in drawings, based on 
micrometer measures, and so correct that each of them may be referred to 
without doubt by future astronomers as an authentic record of the original's 
appearance at a given epoch. Of such drawings we at present possess very 
few : most of the sketches given by the Herschels are stated by them to be 
made merely by eye ; and even those that were more accurately taken by 
them are found to require amendment when compared with the appearances 
in more powerful telescopes. 

" A task of this kind can only be wrought out by severe and long-con- 
tinued labour ; and the instrumental means required are such as very few in- 
dividuals can obtain by their private resources. Even in Europe there are 
but three telescopes known to exist which are capable of making any great 
additions to the discoveries of the Herschels ; and those three are in the 
British Islands. This field of research is therefore still exclusively our own ; 
and I trust your Lordship will share my feeling, that the nation's honour will 
be sullied if we let it be preoccupied in its most interesting portion by the 
energy and liberality of any other people. 

" In submitting to your Lordship this request of the British Association, I 
feel it my duty to give with it some approximative estimate of the sum which 
might be required for its accomplishment. 

" First, as to the instrument : it has been proved by the experience of Lord 
Rosse, Mr. Lassels and others, that one of sufficient power can be constructed 
with certainty and at no overwhelming cost. I have made inquiries of an 
artist (with whose abilities in this line I am practically acquainted), and have 
come to the conclusion that a telescope similar to the smaller of Lord Rosse's 
3 feet aperture and 27 feet focal length might be constructed for £2000. 
This would include an equatorial mounting ; clock-work to make the telescope 
travel with a star ; apparatus for supporting the observer ; and a machine for 
polishing the speculum, when that operation may be required. If a second 
speculum were supplied (which seems almost essential in case of accident), it 
■would add about £500 more. Of course some latitude must be allowed in 
this, but it need not be wide ; the work could not be completed in less than 
a year, possibly would employ two. As telescopes so gigantic are erected in 
the open air, no outlay would be necessary for any building except the 
Observer's dwelling. 

" Secondly, the Observer need not possess very high mathematical attain* 
ments ; acute sight, and skill as a draughtsman, being his most important re- 
quisites ; and his staff need not consist of more than two or three labourers, 
one of whom should be a practical mechanic. 

" I am quite aware that there are some persons who will consider the sum 
that I have named above, and the moderate annual expenditure which would 
be required for a few years, a very unprofitable waste of public money, I 
feel also assured that your Lordship is not of their number; no man can be 
who has ever drunk of the fountain of knowledge, or added to the domain of 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. XIX 

intellect. I feel confident that the public itself is not with them, and that it 
would resent as an insult the imputation of valuing at a mere market price the 
only true elements of personal dignity or national glory. If the spirit of the 
age be such that the most despotic sovereigns of Europe feel that they cannot 
avoid the necessity of encouraging physical science, much more does it belong 
to the rulers of the freest and most enlightened nation of the world ; and it 
is due to your Lordship and your colleagues to say that we have always found 
you to carry out in the fullest extent the requirements of science. 
"In hopes that in this instance also our appeal may not be in vain, 

" I have the honour to be 

" Your Lordship's obedient Servant, 
" T. R. Robinson, 
" President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science." 
" The Right Hon. The Lord John Russell." 

2. In consequence of the Resolution passed by the General Committee 
relative to the correction of the levels of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 
the President communicated with the Rev. Dr. Lloyd, President of the 
Royal Irish Academy. The President and Council of the Royal Irish 
Academy have addressed the Master- General of the Ordnance, recom- 
mending that the correction should be made, and have received a favour- 
able reply. 

y. In respect to the proposed application to the Master- General of the 
Ordnance to have the British Arc of the Meridian published in its full 
extent, the Council have had the satisfaction of learning that the President 
and Council of the Royal Society entirely agreed with the British Asso- 
ciation in their estimate of the importance of the proposed publication, and 
that with the concurrence of the Marquis of Anglesey, Master-General of 
the Ordnance, an application has been made by the President of the Royal 
Society to Lord John Russell, to place the necessary funds at the disposal 
of the Ordnance Department, and that the application has been favourably 
received by Lord John Russell on the part of Her Majesty's Government. 

4. The Sub-Committee who were appointed to organise a Committee of 
Members of the Association, who are also Members of the Legislature, for 
the purpose of watching over the interests of Science, request permission 
to submit their plan of proceeding to the Committee of Recommendations, 
in order that it may come before the General Committee. 

5. In pursuance of the authority granted by the General Committee to 
the Council to make arrangements for the proper distribution of the un- 
sold Copies of the Volumes of Reports of the British Association, the 
Council appointed a Select Committee to consider and report on the sub- 
ject. A first report of the Committee has been received and will be taken 
into early consideration. 

6. For the more effectual discharge of the trust reposed in them of 
general superintendence of the Observatory at Kew, the Council named a 
Committee, consisting of Members of their own body, who at their request 
undertook the duty of frequent visitation, and of special superintendence 
over the experiments and observations to be made there. The Council 
have great satisfaction in stating that the gentlemen who undertook the 
duties of this Committee have discharged them with remarkable assiduity, 
and that they have been assisted at their Meetings by the attendance of 
other Members of the Council who participate in the desire of rendering 
Kew an effective and important establishment. The Council have received 



XX REPORT — 1850. 

from the Committee the subjoined Report on the present state and pro- 
spects of the Observatory. 

Report of the Keio Committee. — " The grant made by the General Com- 
mittee for maintaining the establishment at Kew Observatory during the 
present year being in a considerable degree founded on the results actually 
secured, and others likely to be obtained by the electrical observations which 
have been instituted there, the Committee for superintending the Observatory 
have kept the prosecution and extension of these experiments steadily in view. 

" Ever since 1843 a series of measures of the intensity of atmospheric elec- 
tricity has been accumulated at Kew. By direction of the General Com- 
mittee in 184-8, Mr. Birt was engaged on the discussion of these, and his 
Report is published in the Transactions of the Association for IS^Q. By 
this investigation the seeming irregularity of these phaenomena has been in 
some degree elucidated, and results having a general and systematic value 
obtained. For example, during the twenty-four hours the electrical tension 
of the atmosphere acquires two maxima, viz, about 10 a.m. and 10 p.m., and 
suffers two minima, viz, about 4 a.m. and 4 p.m., these being also nearly the 
hours of harometrical maxima and minima. Moreover, in the course of the 
twelve months, there is distinctly a periodicity of electrical tension ; the maxi- 
mum for the year being in the depth of winter, and the minimum in the 
height of summer. Mr. Birt has shown the relation of the curve which re- 
presents the annual movement of the electrical tension to that which describes 
the humidity of the air. 

" To the experiments from which these and other interesting relations have 
arisen, the Committee has been enabled to add a new series of observations 
on electrical frecpumcij, by which not the intensity of the atmospheric charge, 
but the rate at which the instrument receives it will become known. These 
observations were begun under Mr. Ronalds's direction in March 1850, and 
were continued for three weeks ; but unfortunately the state of Mr. Birt's 
health has not only stopped the observations, but deprived the Observatory 
of the further services of that gentleman. 

" The Committee will be able to supply the deficiency thus occasioned, 
and conduct these and other researches in a satisfactory manner, if the General 
Committee shall think fit to empower them, by the appointment of Mr. Welsh, 
late Assistant in the Observatory oflSir Thomas Brisbane, a gentleman of 
whose qualifications for the duties of Observer at Kew, the Committee have 
ample testimony. 

"In originally accepting the charge of this Observatory (1842), the Asso- 
ciation was influenced by the facilities which it would afibrd for the prosecu- 
tion of experimental inquiries in the physical sciences, for which its locality 
is peculiarly suitable, and at the close of the first year the Council had esta- 
blished the following registers in addition to the electrical observations al- 
ready noticed : — 

" An ordinary meteorological record with standard instruments ; and had 
made arrangements with Professor Wheatstone for the completion of a self- 
registering meteorological instrument on a new construction. 

" The advantage to be derived from self-recording instruments by meteo- 
rology and magnetism has been often expressed by votes of the Association 
from an early period of its career. The establishment of Kew Observatory 
brought these ideas into practical operation. That Observatory has given to 
science self-recording instruments for electrical, magnetical, and meteorolo- 
gical phaenomena, already of great value, and certainly capable of great further 
improvement. Mr. Ronalds, whose valuable services have been given gra- 
tuitously to the Observatory from nearly its foundation, is still intent on im- 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXI 

proving these instruments ; and lately, by employing the new invention of gela- 
tine paper, he has not only been able to copy exactly the line which is traced 
on the plate by light, but further to print other copies for distribution. Mr. 
Ronalds's Report of the Proceedings at Kew during the past year, which is 
prepared for reading in the Physical Section, will make known other facts 
illustrative of the state of the Observatory. Kreil's Barometrograph, which 
was received in 1845, has been put in working order. Electrical, magnetical, 
and meteorological phsenomena are those for which the apparatus now collected 
at Kew is specially adapted, and it is in a condition to admit of their being 
regularl}"^ and constantly registered — in a great degree by self-recording in- 
struments. But to provide for the constant and regular registration of all 
these phsenomena would be quite incompatible with the limited funds at the 
disposal of the Association, and inconsistent with the general intention of the 
establishment — which is an Experimental Observatory, devoted to open out 
new physical inquiries, and to make trial of new modes of inquiry, but only 
in a few selected cases to preserve continuous records of passing phsenomena. 
"It is on this view of the character of the Observatory that the Committee 
found their opinion, that it may be maintained in a state of efficiency, and 
kept always ready to take its proper share in the Advancement of Science, by 
means of a moderate annual grant from the Association. They have further 
the satisfaction to report, that the progress of the Observatory in its peculiar 
field of research is likely to be materially aided by funds provided from 
another source, the Royal Society having allotted £100 for the purchase of 
new instruments to be tried at Kew, out of the sum placed at their disposal 
by Her Majesty's Government." 

7. The Council have been informed by Sir John Burgoyne, Inspector- 
General of Fortifications, that the publication of the Mountjoy Meteorolo- 
gical Observations will be at once proceeded with in compliance with the 
directions of the Marquis of Anglesey, Master-General of the Ordnance. 

8. The Council have added the following names to the list of the Cor- 
responding Members of the British Association, viz. 

Professor Gustav Magnus of Berlin. 
Professor W. B. Rogers of Virginia. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Edinburgh Meeting in August 1850. 

Involving Application to Government or Public Institutions. 

That a Committee, consisting of the President, the Duke of Argyll, Sir 

R. I. Murchison, Professor Forbes, and the Marquis of Breadalbane, be 

appointed for the purpose of urging on Her Majesty's Government the 

completion of the Geographical Survey of Scotland, as recommended by the 

I British Association, at their former meeting in Edinburgh in 1834. 
That application be made to the Admiralty for the Publication of the 
Reports of their Committee on Metals. 
That a Committee be appointed by the Council, for the purpose of waiting 
upon Her Majesty's Government to request that some means be taken to en- 
sure to the Science of Natural History an effective representation in the 
Trusteeship of the British Museum. 
That the Council of the Association be requested to communicate with 
the Council of the Royal Society, and also with the Government, if neces- 



xxii Heport — 1850. 

sary, respecting the possibility of relieving the Association from the expense 
of maintaining the establishment at Kew. 

That Her Majesty's Government be requested to institute a Statistical 
Survey relative to the Extent and Prevalence of Infantile Idiocy as a mea- 
sure greatly conducive to the public welfare. 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Establishment at Kew Observatory be continued (at the disposal 
of the Council for that purpose), with £300. 

That Professor J. D. Forbes be requested to institute a Series of Experi- 
ments, for the purpose of testing the results of the Mathematical Theory of 
Heat ; that Professor Kelland be requested to co-operate with him ; and that 
£50 be placed at the disposal of Prof. Forbes for the purpose. 

That the Committee for superintending the Publication of the Tabular 
Forms in reference to Periodical Phsenomenaof Animals and Plants, be con- 
tinued, with £5 at their disposal. 

That Professor E. Forbes and Mr. Bell be requested to continue their as- 
sistance to Dr. Thomas Williams in his researches on the Annelida, with £10 
at their disposal. 

That the Committee on the Vitality of Seeds be requested to continue 
their attention to that subject, with £1 1 at their disposal. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Hunt, Dr. G. Wilson, and Dr. 
Gladstone, be requested to investigate the influence of the solar radiations 
or chemical combinations, electrical phEenomena, and the vital powers of 
plants groM'ing under different atmospheric conditions, with £50 at their 
disposal. 

That Dr. Smith be requested to continue his investigation on the Air and 
Water of Towns, with £10 at his disposal. 

That, as the printed Queries formerly circulated for the purpose of ob- 
taining Ethnological data are now out of print, a new and revised Edition of 
them be issued by Sir Charles Malcolm and Dr. Hodgkin, with £12 at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

Rules. 

That the subject of Geography be separated from Geology, and combined 
with Ethnology, to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the Geo- 
graphical and Ethnological Section. 

That in future no Section shall omit to meet on account of Excursions, 
unless it be specially so determined in each case by the Sectional Committee. 

That for the future the names of officers and members of Committees not 
attending the Meetings of the Association be not published. 

Notice was given of an intention to propose at the next Meeting, that the 
sum now paid for lAfe Composition and Book Subscription (viz. aClO) be 
divided into two sums of £5 and £5, the former sum being a necessary 
payment by all who compound for Annual Subscription ; the latter an op- 
tional payment as a special Book Subscription. 

Reports requested. 

Professor Stokes. — On the General Theory of Vibratory Motions in Elastic 
Media. 

Professor Willis. — On Acoustics. 

Mr. G. Buchanan. — On the Strength of Materials . 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXUl 

Mr. Thomas Stevenson. — On the various modes of constructing Sea Walls, 
and the actual state of knowledge as to their power of resisting the forces to 
which they are exposed. 

Mr. J. Whitworth. — On his Experiments for the purpose of constructing 
Accurate Standards of Measure. 

Dr. Hugh Cleghorn, Professor Royle, Messrs. R. Baird Smith, and R. 
Strachey, H.E.I.C.S. — On the probable effects, in an oeconomical and physic- 
cal point of view, of the Destruction of Tropical Forests. 

Researches, ^c. 

That the Committee on the influence of Carbonic Acid on the growth of 
Ferns be requested to continue their investigations. 

That Dr. Percy and Professor Miller be requested to continue their re- 
searches on Crystalline Slags. 

That the Committee on Shooting Stars and Auroral Phsenomena be reap- 
pointed. 

That the Committee on the Instrumental Measurement of Earthquake 
Waves be reappointed. 

That the Committee of superintendence of the Kew Observatory be con- 
tinued. 

Miscellaneous. 

That the Committee of Members of Legislature, who are also Members 
of the British Association, who were requested to watch over the interests of 
Science, and to inspect the various measures which might from time to time 
be introduced into Parliament, likely to affect such interests, be reappointed, 
and that the further steps to be taken in this matter be referred to the 
Council. 

That the Presidents of the several Sections be requested, with such assist- 
ance from the Members as they may find desirable, to revise the recommen- 
dations which have from time to time been adopted in reference to the 
branches of Science which are taken into consideration by those Sections 
respectively, and to communicate thereon with the Assistant General Secre- 
tary previous to the next Meeting. 

That a Committee, consisting of Sir John Herschel, The Astronomer 
Royal, Prof. Forbes and Prof. Powell, with power to add to their number, 
be empowered to communicate with the Astronomers of Pulkowa on the 
observations to be made at the next approaching total Eclipse of the Sun, 
July 28, 1851, and to draw up suggestions for the guidance of observers 
generally. 

That the Memorial of M. Kupffer be printed for circulation among the 
officers. 

It appearing that two recommendations for Reports, viz. On the Anatomy 
and Physiology of the Nervous System, and on the History and Advances 
of Vegetable Physiology, which had been adopted by the Committee of Sec- 
tion D, had not been presented to the Committee of Recommendations, it 
was directed that these be communicated to the Council at its next Meeting : 
the following are the terms of these Resolutions : — 

" That Professors Sharpey, Goodsir and Allen Thompson, and Dr. Laycock, 
with power to add to their number, be requested to prepare for the next 
Meeting of the Association a Report on the History of, and Advances in our 
knowledge of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System, from the 
date of the last Report on this subject. 

"That Dr. Lindley, Arthur Henfrey, F.L.S., and Dr. Lankester, with 



Xxiv REPORT — 1850. 

power to add to their number, be requested to prepare for the next Meeting 
of the Association a Report on the Advances in our knowledge of Vegetable 
Phy<ioIogy» from the date of the last Report on this subject." 

That two Botanical Works, presented by Professor Parlatore, be deposited 
in the Library of the University of Edinburgh. 

That the Tables of the distribution (in depth) of Marine Animals, by 
Mr. M'Andrew, be printed in extenso in the Volume of Reports of this 
Meeting of the Association. 

That Major General Briggs's paper On the Aboriginal Tribes of India be 
printed entire in the next Volume of Transactions. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General, Committee at the Edinburgh Meeting in August 1850, with 
the Name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Committee, 
is entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory, £ s. d. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying Expenses 300 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 
Forbes, Prof. J. D. — Experiments for the purpose of testing the 

results of the Mathematical Theory of Heat 50 

Chemical Science. 

Hunt, Mr. R.— Influence of the Solar Radiations or Chemical 
Combinations, Electrical Phasnomena, and the Vital Powers 
of Plants growing under different atmospheric conditions. . 50 

Smith, Dr. — Investigations on the Air and Water of Towns.. . 10 

Natural History. 

Strickland, H. E.— Vitality of Seeds 11 

Lankesteu, Dr. — Periodical Phaenomena of Animals and Vege- 
tables 5 

Forbes, Prof. E. — Report on British Annelida 10 

Ethnology, 
Malcolm, Sir Charles. — Printed Queries for obtaining Eth- 
nological Data 12 

Grants £448 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXV 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



JO 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

BritishFossil Ichthyolog y 105 

£167 



1836. 
Tide Discussions .... 163 
BritishFossillchthyology 105 
Thermometric Observa- 
tions, &c 50 

Experiments on long- 
continued Heat .... 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants .. 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves. 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 89 5 
VitrificationExperiments 150 
Heart Experiments .... 8 4 6 
Barometric Observations 30 
Barometers 11 18 6 



£918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes . . 100 

MeteorologicalObserva- 
tions and Anemometer 
(construction) 100 

Cast Iron (strength of) . 60 

Animal and Vegetable 
Substances (preserva- 
tion of) 19 1 10 

Carried forward £308 1 10 



75 








3 


6 


6 


50 








5 


3 






£ s. d. 
Brought forward 308 110 

Railway Constants .... 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants . . . 

Mud in Rivers . . .. . 

Education Committee 

Heart Experiments. . 

Land and Sea Level 

Subterranean Tempera- 
ture 8 6 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Commit- 
tee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 

£956 12 2 



267 8 7 



1839. 
Fossil Ichthyology ... 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 63 
Mechanism of Waves . . 144 

Bristol Tides S5 

Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 
VitrificationExperiments 
Cast Iron Experiments . 
Railway Constants .... 
Land and Sea Level . . 
Steam- Vessels' Engines. 100 
Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue G 
Animal Secretions .... 10 
Steam-engines in Corn- 
wall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron. 40 
Heat on Organic Bodies 3 
Gases on Solar Spec- 
trum 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations, Inver- 
ness and Kingussie . . 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



110 



10 

2 

18 6 



21 

9 

100 

28 
274 



11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 




49 



18 6 



16 6 

10 





1 





22 



7 8 
2 9 




£1595 11 



XXVI 

£ 
184.0. 
Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Tempera- 
ture < 13 

Heart Experiments. ... IS 
Lungs Experiments . . 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level . . 6 
Stars (Histoire Celeste) 24:2 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) .... 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 
MeteorologicalObserva- 

tions 52 

Foreign Scientific Me- 
moirs 112 

Working Population . . 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels .... 184 
Chemical and Electrical 

Phaenomena 40 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 80 
Magnetical Observations 185 
£1546 



REPORT 


s. 


d. 








13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 


















17 6 







7 








13 !) 



16 4 



1841. 
Observations on Waves. 30 
Meteorologyand Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 8 8 

Actinoraeters 10 

Earthquake Shocks .. 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents. . 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers. . 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste). 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) . . 40 

Water on Iron 50 

MeteorologicalObserva- 

tions at Inverness . . 20 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions (reduction of).. 25 

Carried forward £5S9 10 8 



-1850. 

£ «. rf. 

Brought forward 539 10 8 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs .... 62 

Railway Sections .... 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 
Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 
Fishes of the Old Red 

Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edin- 
burgh 69 110 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 
Dynamometric Instru- 
ments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannise .. 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education. . 20 
Marine Steam-vessels' 

Engines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 
Stars (British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of) ..110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites .... 60 
Fossil Reptiles (publica- 
tion of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experi- 
ments at Plymouth.. 68 
Constant Indicator and 
Dynamometric Instru- 
ments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

LightonGrowthof Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of 

Seeds 8 1 11 

Carried forward £1442 8 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xxvii 



£ s. 
Brought forward 14'42 8 
Questions on Human 
Race 7 



9 



£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars .... 2 

Reduction of Stars, Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith 

of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations at Kin- 
gussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 

Whe well's Meteorolo- 
gical Anemometer at 
Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Osier's Anemo- 
meter at Plymouth . . 20 

Reduction of Meteorolo- 
gical Observations . . 30 

Meteorological Instru- 
ments and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemo- 
meter at Inverness .. 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation . 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder 

for Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew 
Observatory, Wages, 
Repairs, Furniture and 
Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive 

Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails 

of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles .... 40 

Coloured Drawings of 

Railway Sections. .. . 147 18 3 

Registration of Earth- 
quake Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological 

Nomenclature 10 



Carried forward £977 6 7 





£ 


5. 


d. 


Brought forward 977 


6 


7 


Uncovering Lower Red 
Sandstone near Man- 








chester 


4 


4 


6 


Vegetative Power of 










5 
10 


3 



8 


Marine Testacea (Habits 
of) 





Marine Zoology 


10 








Marine Zoology 


2 


14 


11 


Preparation of Report 
on British Fossil Mam- 








malia 


100 
20 









Physiological operations 
of Medicinal Agents 





Vital Statistics 


36 


5 


8 


Additional Experiments 
on theForms of Vessels 


70 








Additional Experiments 








on theForms of Vessels 


100 








Reduction of Observa- 








tions on the Forms of 








Vessels 


100 








Morin's Instrument and 








Constant Indicator . . 


69 


14 


10 


Experiments on the 
Strength of Materials 


60 








£1565 


10 


_2 



1844. 

Meteorological O bser va- 
tions at Kingussie and 
Inverness 12 

CompletirjgObservations 

at Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation. . 25 8 4 

Publication of the Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides 
on the East Coast of 
Scotland _ 100 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars.. 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment in Kew Ob- 
servatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Ob- 
servatory 56 7 3 

Carried forward £384 2 4 



XXVIU 



REPORT 1850. 



s. 
2 


d. 

4 














17 


6 








11 


10 



Brought forward 384 
Influence of Light on 

Plants 10 

SubterraneousTempera- 
ture in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of 
Railway Sections. .. . 15 

Investigation of Fossil 
Fishes of the Lower 
Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks 
of Earthquakes, 1842 23 

Researches into the 
Structure of Fossil 
Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of 
the Mgean and Red 
Seas 1842 100 

Geographical distribu- 
tions of Marine Zo- 
ology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of De- 
von and Cornwall . . 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds. . 1842 8 

Researches on Exotic 
Anoplura 15 

Experiments on the 
Strength of Materials 100 

CompletingExperiments 
on the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the in- 
ternal Constitution of 
Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and 
Morin's Instrument, 
1842 10 







3 

7 3 











3 6 



£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue 
of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Inverness .. 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation IG 16 8 

Carried forward £399 10 1 



25 



50 



£ s. d 
Brought forward 899 10 I 
Meteorological Instru- 
ments at Edinburgh 18 11 9 
Reduction of Anemome- 
trical Observations at 

Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments 

at Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment in Kew Ob- 
servatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometro- 
graph 

Gases from Iron Fur- 
naces 

Experiments on the Ac- 
tinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura.. 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds.. 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds.. 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall 10 

Physiological Action of 

Medicines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York ..2000 

Registration of Earth- 
quake Shocks . .184 3 15 14 8 
£831 9 9 







1846. 

British Association Ca- 
talogue of Stars, 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the Lon- 
don Clay 100 

Computation of theGaus- 

sian Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory 146 16 7 

Experiments on the 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil 

Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds.. 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds.. 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall 10 

Carried forward £605 15 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXlX 



Brought forward 
Marine Zoology of Bri- 
tain 

Exotic Anoplura. .1844' 

Expenses attending Ane- 
mometers 

Anemometers' Repairs . 

Researches on Atmo- 
spheric Waves .... 

Captive Balloons . . 1 844 

Varieties of the Human 
Race 1844 

Statisticsof Sickness and 
Mortality at York . . 



£ 


s. 


d. 


605 


15 


10 


10 








25 








11 


7 


6 


2 


3 


6 


3 


3 


3 


8 


19 


8 



7 6 3 



12 



£685 16 



1847. 

Computation of theGaus- 

sian Constants fori 839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of 

Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall , .. 10 

Researches on Atmo- 
spheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at Kewr Ob- 
servatory 171 15 11 

Carried forward £171 15 11 



£ s. d. 
Brought forward 171 15 11 
Researches on Atmo- 
spheric Waves .... 310 9 
Vitality of Seeds .... 9 15 
Completion of Catalogues 

of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters . 5 

On Growth of Plants . . 15 

£^75 1 8 

1849. 

Electrical Observations 

at Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 



On Growth of Plants. . 5 

Registration of Periodi- 
cal Phaenomena .... 10 

Bill on account of Ane- 
mometrical Observa- 
tions 13 9 



£159 19 6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake 

Waves 50 

Periodical Phaenomena 15 

Meteorological Instru- 

strument, Azores . . 25 
£345 18 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the As- 
sociation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report 
that the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 



XXX REPORT — 1850. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings {in the Music Hall). 

On Wednesday, July 31st, at 8 p.m., the late President, The Rev. T. R. 
Robinson, D.D., M.R.I. A., resigned his Office to Sir David Brewster, K.H., 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.R.S.E., who took the Chair at the General 
Meeting, and delivered an Address, for which see p. xxxi. 

On Thursday, August 1st, Professor Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E., delivered a 
Discourse on the Passage of the Blood through the minute Vessels of Ani- 
mals, in connection with Nutrition. 

On Monday, August 5th, Dr. Mantell, F.R.S. &c., delivered a Discourse 
on the Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

On Wednesday, August 7th, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting of 
the Association was held, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, 
and the grants of money for scientific purposes were explained to the 
Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Ipswich in 1851*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 2nd of July. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

SIR DAVID BREWSTER, K.H. D.C.L. 

F.R.S.L. & V.P.R.S. Edinb. 

ASSOCIATE OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. 



Gentlemen, — The kind and flattering expressions with which Dr. Robinson 
has been pleased to introduce me to this Chair, and to characterise my sci- 
enti6c labours, however coloured they are by the warmth of friendship, cannot 
but be gratifying even at an age when praise ceases to administer to vanity 
or to stimulate to ambition. The appreciation of intellectual labour by 
those who have laboured intellectually, if not its highest, is at least one of 
its high rewards. When 1 consider the mental power of my distinguished 
friend, the value of his original researches, the vast extent of his acquire- 
ments, and the eloquence which has so often instructed and delighted us at 
our annual reunions, I feel how unfit I am to occupy his place, and how 
little I am qualified to discharge many of those duties which are incident to 
the Chair of this Association. It is some satisfaction, however, that you are 
all aware of the extent of my incapacity, and that you have been pleased 
to accept of that which I can both promise and perform — to occupy any post 
of labour, either at the impelling or the working arm of this gigantic lever 
of science. 

On the return of the British Association to the metropolis of Scotland, I 
am naturally reminded of the small band of pilgrims who, in 1831, carried 
the seeds of this Institution into the more genial soil of our sister land — of 
the zeal and talent with which it was fostered and organized by the Philo- 
sophical Society of York— of the hospitality which it enjoyed from the 
Primate of England— of the invaluable aid which it received from the uni- 
versities and scientific societies of the south — and of the ardent support 
with which it was honoured by some of the most accomplished of our 
nobility. From its cradle at York, the infant Association was ushered into 
the gorgeous halls of Oxford and Cambridge — the seats of ancient wisdom 
and the foci of modern science. University honours were liberally extended 
to its more active members ; and, thus decorated, our Institution was eagerly 



XXxii REPORT — 1850. 

welcomed into the lich marts of our commerce, and into the active localities 
of our manufacturing industry. Europe and America speedily recognized 
the importance of our rising Association, and deputies from every civilized 
nation hastened to our annual congress, assisted at our sectional meetings, 
and have even contributed to our Transactions valuable reports on different 
branches of science. 

It may be interesting to those who are here for the first time to learn the 
names of some of those distinguished individuals by whose exertions and 
talents this Association has attained its present magnitude and position ; and 
1 feel as if it were peculiarly my duty to do honour to their zeal and their 
labours. Sir John Robison, Professor Johnston, and Professor J. D. Forbes, 
were the earliest friends and promoters of the British Association. They 
went to York to assist in its establishment, and they found there the very 
men who were qualified to foster and organise it. The Rev. Mr. Vernon 
Harcourt, whose name cannot be mentioned here without the expression of 
our admiration and gratitude, had provided laws for its government, and, 
along with Mr. Phillips, the oldest and most valuable of our office-bearers, 
had made all those arrangements by which its success was ensured- Headed 
by Sir Roderick Murcliison, one of the very earliest and most active ad- 
vocates of the Association, there assembled at York about 200 of the friends 
of science. Dalton, Pritchard, Greenough, Scoresby, William Smith, Sir 
Thomas Brisbane, Dr. Daubeny, Dr. B. Lloyd Provost of Trinity College 
Dublin, Professor Potter, Lord Fitzwilliam, and Lord Morpeth, took an 
active part in its proceedings ; and so great was the interest which they ex- 
cited, that Dr. Daubeny ventured to invite the Association to hold its second 
meeting at Oxford. Here it received the valuable co-operation of Dr. 
Buckland, Professor Powell, and the other distinguished men who adorn 
that seat of literature and science. Cambridge sent us her constellation of 
philosophers — bright with stars of the first magnitude — Whewell, Peacock, 
Sedgwick, Airy, Herschel, Babbage, Lubbock, Challis, Kelland, and Hopkins; 
while the metropolitan institutions were represented by Colonel Sabine, 
one of our General Secretaries, Mr. Taylor, our Treasurer, Sir Charles 
Lyell, Colonel Sykes, Mr. Brown, Mr. Faraday, Professors Owen and 
Wheatstone, Dr. Mantell, Lord Northampton, Lord Wrottesley, Sir Philip 
Egerton, and Sir Charles Lemon. From Leiand we received the distin- 
guished aid of Lord Rosse, Lord Enniskillen, Lord Adare*, Dr. Robinson, 
Dr. Lloyd, Sir William Hamilton, and Professor Maccullagh ; and men of 
immortal names were attracted from the continents of Europe and America 
— Arago, Bessel, Struve, Liebig, Jacobi, Le Verrier, Encke, Erman, Kupffer, 
Ehrenberg, Matteucci, Rogers, Bache, and Agassiz. The young members 
of the Association, to whom we owe much, and from whom we expect more, 
will excuse me for not making an individual reference to their labours. Their 
day of honour will come when our brief pilgrimage has closed. To them 
we bequeath a matured institution, and we trust that they will leave it to a 
succeeding race with all the life which it now breathes, and with all the 
glory which now surrounds it. 

It has been the custom of some of my predecessors in this Chair, to give a 
brief account of the progress of the sciences during the preceding year ; 
but, however interesting might be such a narrative, it would be beyond the 
power of any individual to do justice to so extensive a theme, even if your 
time would permit, and your patience endure it.^ I shall miike no apology, 

* Now the Earl of Dunraven. 



ADDRESS. XXXUl 

however, for calling your attention to a few of those topics, within my own 
narrow sphere of study, which, from their prominence and general interest, 
may be entitled to your attention. 

I begin with Astronomy, a study which has made great progress under the 
patronage of this Association ; a subje'jt, too, possessing a charm above all 
other subjects, and more connected than any with the deepest interests — 
past, present, and to come — of every rational being. It is upon a planet 
that we live and breathe. lis surface is the arena of our contentions, our 
pleasures, and our sorrows. Ii is to obtain a portion of its alluvial crust 
that man wastes the flower of his days, and prostrates the energies of his 
mind, and risks the happiness of his soul ; and it is over, or beneath, its 
verdant turf that his ashes are to be scattered, or his bones to be laid. It 
is from the interior, too — from the inner life of the earth, that man derives 
the materials of civilization — his coal, his iron, and his gold. And deeper 
still, as geologists have proved — and none with more power than the geolo- 
gists around me — we hnd in the bosom of the earth, written on blocks of 
marble, the history of primaeval times, of worlds of life created, and worlds 
of life destroyed. We find there, in hieroglyphics as intelligible as those 
which Major Rawlinson has deciphered on the slabs of Nineveh, the remains 
of forests which waved in luxuriance over its plains — the very bones of huge 
reptiles that took shelter under their foliage, and of gigantic quadrupeds 
that trod uncontrolled its plains — the lawgivers and the executioners of that 
mysterious community with which it pleased the Almighty to people his 

infant world. But though man is but a recent occupant of the earth an 

upstart in the vast chronology of animal life — his interest in the paradise 
so carefully prepared for him is not the less exciting and profound. For 
him it was made : he was to be the lord of the new creation, and to him 
it especially belongs to investigate the wonders it displays, and to learn the 
lesson which it reads. 

But, while our interests are thus closely connected with the surface and 
the interior of the earth, interests of a higher kind are associated with it as 
a body of the system to which we belong. The object of geology is to 
unfold the history and explain the structure of a planet ; and that history 
and that structure may, within certain limits, be the history and the structure 
of all the other planets of the system — perhaps of all the other planets of 
the universe. The laws of matter must be the same wherever matter is 
found. The heat which warms our globe radiates upon the most distant of 
the planets ; and the light which twinkles in the remotest star, is, in its phy- 
sical, and doubtless in its chemical properties, the same that cheers and 
enlivens our own system ; and if men of ordinary capacity possessed that 
knowledge which is within their reach, and had that faith in science which 
its truths inspire, they would see in every planet around them, and in every 
star above them, the home of immortal natures — of beings that suffer and 
of beings that rejoice — of souls that are saved, and of souls that are lost. 

Geology is therefore the first chapter of astronomy. It describes that 
portion of the solar system which is nearest and dearest to us — the cosmo- 
politan observatory, so to speak, from which the astronomer is to survey the 
sidereal universe, where revolving worlds, and systems of worlds, summon 
him to investigate and adore. There, too, he obtains the great base line of 
the earth's radius to measure the distances and magnitudes of the starry 
host, and thus to penetrate by the force of reason into those infinitely di- 
stant regions where the imagination dare not venture to follow him. But 
astronomy, though thus sprung from the earth, seeks and finds, like Astraea, 

1850. d 



XXxiv REPORT — 1850. 

a more congenial sphere above. Wliatever cheers and enlivens our terrestrial 
paradise is derived from the orbs around us. Without the light and the heat of 
our sun. and without the uniform movements of our system, we should have 
neither climates nor seasons. Darkness would blind, and famine destroy 
everything that lives. Without influences from above, our ships would drift 
upon the ocean, the sport of wind and wave, and would have less certainty 
of reaching their destination than balloons floating in the air, and subject to 
the caprice of the elements. 

But, while a knowledge of astronomy is essential to the very existence of 
social life, it is instinct with moral influences of the highest order. In the 
study of our own globe, we learn that it has been rent and upheaved by 
tremendous forces — here sinking into ocean depths, and there rising into gi- 
gantic elevations. Even now, geologists are measuring the rise and fall of its 
elastic crust ; and men who have no faith in science often learn her great 
truths to their cost, when they see the liquid fire rushing upon them from the 
volcano, or stand above the yawning crevice in which the earthquake threatens 
to overwhelm them. Who can say that there is a limit to agencies like these ? 
Who could dare to assert that they may not concentrate their yet divided 
energies, and rend in pieces the planet which imprisons them ? Within the 
bounds of our own system, and in the vicinity of our own earth, between 
the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, there is a wide space, which, according to the 
law of planetary distances, ought to contain a planet. Kepler predicted that 
a planet would be found there ; and, strange to say, the astronomers of our 
own times discovered at the beginning of the present century four small 
planets — Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta — occupying the very place in our 
system where the anticipated planet ought to have been found. Ceres, the 
first of these, was discovered by Piazzi, at Palermo, in 1801 ; Pallas, the 
second of them, by Dr. Olbers of Bremen, in 1802; Juno, the third, by 
Mr. Harding, in 1804; and Vesta, the fourth, by Dr. Olbers, in 1807, 
After the discovery of the third, Dr. Olbers suggested the idea that they 
were the fragments of a planet that had been burst in pieces ; and, con- 
sidering that they must all have diverged from one point in the original orbit, 
and ought to return to the opposite point, he examined those parts of the 
heavens, and thus discovered the planet Vesta. 

But though this principle had been long in the possession of astronomers, 
nearly forty years elapsed before any other planetary fragment was dis- 
covered. At last, in 1845, Mr. Hencke, of Driessen, in Prussia, discovered 
the fragment called Astra;a, and in 1847 another called Hebe. In the same 
year our countryman, Mr. Hind, discovered other two. Iris and Flora. In 
1848, Mr. Graham, an Irish astronomer, discovered a ninth fragment called 
Metis. In 1849, Mr. Gasparis of Naples discovered another which he calls 
Hygeia ; and, within the last two months, the same astronomer has discovered 
the eleventh fragment, to which he has given the name of Parthenope*. If 
these eleven small planets are really, as they doubtless are, the remains of a 
larger one, the size of the original planet must have been considerable. 

Iris, 1847, August 13, Hind. 

Flora, 1847, Oct. 18, Hind. 

Metis, 1848, April 25, Graham. 

Hygeia, 1849, April 12, Gasparis. 

Parthenope, 1850, May 11, Gasparis. 

Victoria, 1850, Sept. 13, Hind. 

It is remarkable that eight of these twelve planets were discovered by astronomers, each of 
whom discovered two, Mr. Hind has now discovered three. 



Ceres, 


1801, 


Jan. 1, 


Piazzi. 


Pallas, 


1802, 


March 28, 


Olbers. 


Juno, 


1804, 


Sept. 1, 


Harding 


Vesta, 


1807, 


March 29, 


Olbers. 


Astraea, 


1845, 


Dec. 8, 


Hencke. 


Hebe, 


1847, 


July 1, 


Hencke. 



ADDRESS. 



What its size was would seem to be a problem beyond the grasp of reason. 
But human i^enius has been permitted to triumph over greater ditficulties. 
The planet Neptune was discovered by Adams and Le Verrier, before a ray 
of its light had entered the human eye; and, by a law of the solar system 
recently announced to the world, we can determine the original magnitude 
of the broken planet long after it has been shivered into fragments ; and we 
might have determined it even after a single fragment had proved its exist- 
ence. This law we owe to Mr. Daniel Kirkwood of Pottsville, a humble 
American, who, like the illustrious Kepler, struggled to find something new 
among the arithmetical relations of the planetary elements. Between every 
two adjacent planets there is a point where their attractions are equal. If 
we call the distance of this point from the sun the radius of a planet's sphere 
of attraction, then Mr. Kirkwood's law is, that in every planet the square 
of the leniTth of its year, reckoned in days, varies as the cube of the radius 
of its sphere of attraction. This law has been verified by more than one 
American astronomer ; and there can be no doubt, as one of them expresses 
it, that it is at least a physical fact in the mechanism of our system. This 
law requires, like that of Bode, the existence of a planet between Mars and 
Jupiter; and it follows from the law tliat the broken planet must have been 
a little larger than Mars, or about 5000 miles in diameter, and that the length 
of its day must iiave been about 57-^ hours. The American astronomers 
regard this law as amounting lo a demonstration of the nebular hypothesis 
of Laplace ; but we venture to say that this opinion will not be adopted by 
the astronomers of England. 

Among the more recent discoveries within the bounds of our own system, 
I cannot omit to mention those of our distinguislied countryman, Mr. Lassell 
of Liverpool. By means of a fine twenty feet reflector, constructed by 
himself, he detected the only satellite of Neptune which has yet been dis- 
covered, and more recently an eighth satellite circulating round Saturn — a 
discovery which was made on the very same day, by Mr. Bond, Director of 
the Observatory of Cambridge in the United Stales. Mr. Lassell has still 
more recently, and under a singularly favourable state of the atmosphere, 
examined the very minute, but extremely black shadow of the ring of Saturn, 
upon the body of the planet. He observed the line of shadow to be notched, 
as it were, and almost broken up into a line of dots, thus indicating mountains 
upon the plane of the ring — mountains, doubtless, raised by the same in- 
ternal forces, and answering the same ends, as those of our own globe. 

In passing from our solar system to the frontier of the sidereal universe 
around us, we traverse a gulf of inconceivable extent. If we represent the 
radius of the solar system, or of Neptune's orbit (which is 2900 millions of 
miles), by a line two miles long, the interval between our system, or the orbit 
of Neptune, and the nearest fixed star, will be greater tlian the whole cir- 
cumference of our globe — or equal to a length of 27,600 miles. The pa- 
rallax of the nearest fixed star being supposed to be one second, its distance 
from the sun will be nearly 412,370 times the radius of the earth's orbit, or 
13,740 times that of Neptune, whicii is 30 times as far from the sun as the 
earth. And yet to that distant zone has the genius of man traced the 
Creator's arm, — working the wonders of his power, and diffusing the gifts of 
his love — the heat and the light of suns — the necessary elements of physical 
and intellectual life. 

It is by means of the gigantic telescope of Lord Kosse that we have be- 
come acquainted with the form and character of those great assemblages of 
stars which compose the sidereal universe. Drawings and descriptions of 

d2 



XXXvi REPORT 1850. 

the more remarkable of these nebulae, as resolved by this noble instrument, 
were communicated by Dr. Robinson to the last Meeting of the Association, 
and it is with peculiar satisfaction that 1 am able to state that many import- 
ant discoveries have been made by Lord Rosse and his assistant, Mr. 
Stoney, during the last year. In many of the nebulae, the peculiarities of 
structure are very remarkable, and, as Lord Rosse observes, " seem even to 
indicate the presence of dynamical laws almost within our grasp." The 
spiral arrangement so strongly developed in some of the nebulae, is trace- 
able more or less distinctly in many; but, "more frequently," to use Lord 
Rosse's own words, " there is a nearer approach to a kind of irregular, in- 
terrupted, annular disposition of the luminous material, than to the regularity 
observed in others;" but his Lordship is of opinion that these nebulae are 
systems of a very similar nature, seen more or less perfectly, and variously 
placed with reference to the line of sight. In re-examining the more re- 
markable of these objects. Lord Rosse intends to view them with the full 
light of his six-feet speculum, undiminished by the second reflexion of the 
small mirror. By thus adopting what is called the/roK< view, he will doubt- 
less, as he himself expects, discover many new features in these interesting 
objects. 

It is to the influence of Lord Rosse's example that we are indebted for 
the fine reflecting telescope ot Mr. Lassell, of which I have already spoken; 
and it is to it, also, that we owe another telescope, which, though yet un- 
known to science, I am bound in this place especially to notice. I allude to 
the reflector recently constructed by Mr. James Nasmyth, a native of Edin- 
burgh, already distinguished by his mechanical inventions and his observations 
on the moon's surface, and one of a family well known to us all, and occu- 
pying a high place among the artists of Scotland. This instrument has its 
great speculum twenty feet in focal length, and twenty inches in diameter ; 
but it differs from all other telescopes in the remarkable facility with which 
it can be used. Its tube moves vertically upon hollow trunnions, through 
which the astronomer, seated in a little observatory, with only a horizontal 
motion, can view at his ease every part of the heavens. Hitherto, the astro- 
nomer has been obliged to seat himself at the upper end of his Newtonian 
telescope ; and if no other observer will acknowledge the awkwardness and 
insecurity of his position, I can myself vouch for its danger, having fallen 
from the very top of Mr Ramage's twenty-feet telescope, when it was directed 
to a point not very far from the zenith. 

Though but slightly connected with astronomy, I cannot omit calling your 
attention to the great improvements — 1 may call them discoveries — which 
have been recently made in Photography. I need not inform this meeting 
that the art of taking photographic negative pictures upon paper was the 
invention of Mr. Fox Talbot, a distinguished member of this Association. 
The superiority of the Talbotype to the Daguerreotype is well known. 
In the latter, the pictures are reverted and incapable of being multiplied, 
while in the Taibotype there is no reversion, and a single negative will 
supply a thousand copies, so that books may now be illustrated with pictures 
drawn by the sun. The difficulty of procuring good paper for the negative 
is so great, that a, better material has been eagerly sought for; and M. 
Niepce, an accomplished officer in the French service, has successfully sub- 
stituted for paper a film of albumen, or the white of an egg, spread upon 
glass. This new process has been brought to such perfection in this city by 
Messrs. Ross and Thomson, that Talbotypes taken by them, and lately 
exhibited by myself to the National Institute of France, and to M. Niepce, 



were universally regarded as the finest that had yet been executed. Another 
process, in which gelatine is substituted for albumen, has been invented and 
successfully practised by M. Poitevin, a E'rench officer of engineers; and by 
an ingenious method which has been minutely described in the weekly pro- 
ceedings of the Institute of France, M. Edmund Becquerel has succeeded 
in transferring to a Daguerreotype plate the prismatic spectrum, with all 
its brilliant colours, and also, though in an inferior degree, the colours of the 
landscape. These colours, however, are very fugacious ; and, though no 
method of fixing them has yet been discovered, we cannot doubt that the 
diflSculty will be surmounted, and that we shall yet see all the colours of the 
natural world transferred by their own rays to surfaces both of silver and 
paper. 

But the most important fact in photography which I have now to mention 
is the singular acceleration of the process discovered by M. Niepce, which 
enables him to take the picture of a landscape illuminated by diffused light, 
in a single second, or at most in two seconds. This acceleration is produced 
by adding from iO to 45 grains of honey to the white of each egg according 
to its size. By this process, he obtained a picture of the sun on albumen so 
instantaneously, as to confirm the remarkable discovery, previously made by 
M. Arago, by means of a silver plate, that the rays which proceed from the 
central parts of the sun's disc have a higher photogenic action than those 
which issue from its margin. This interesting discovery of M. Arago is 
one of a series on photometry which that distinguished philosopher is now 
occupied in publishing. Threatened with a calamity which the civilized 
world will deplore — the loss of that sight which has detected so many brilliant 
phsenomena, and penetrated so deeply the mysteries of the material world 
— he is now completing, with the aid of other eyes than his own, those 
splendid researches which will immortalise his own name and add to the 
scientific glory of his country. 

From these brief notices of the progress of science, I must now call your 
attention to two important objects with which the British Association has 
been occupied since its last meeting. It has been long known, both from 
theory and in practice, tiiat the imperfect transparency of the earth's atmo- 
sphere, and the inequal refraction which arises from differences of temperature, 
combine to set a limit to the use of high magnifying powers in our telescopes. 
Hitherto, however, the application of such high powers was checked by the 
imperfections of the instruments themselves ; and it is only since the con- 
struction of Lord Rosse's telescope that astronomers have found that, in 
our damp and variable climate, it is but during a few days of the year that 
telescopes of such magnitude can give sufficiently distinct vision with the 
high magnifying powers which they are capable of bearing. Even in a 
cloudless sky, when the stars are sparkling in the firmament, the astronomer 
is baffled by influences which are invisible ; and while new planets and new 
satellites are being discovered by instruments comparatively small, the gi<. 
gantic Polyphemus lies slumbering in his cave, blinded by thermal currents, 
more irresistible than the firebrand of Ulysses. 

As the astronomer, however, cannot command a tempest to clear his at- 
mosphere, nor a thunder-storrn to purify it, his only alternative is to remove 
his telescope to some southern climate, where no clouds disturb the serenity 
of the firmament, and no changes of temperature distract the emanations of 
the stars. A fact has been recently mentioned, which entitles us to antici- 
pate great results from such a measure. The Marquis of Ormonde is said 
to have seen from Mount Etna, with his naked eye, the satellites of Jupiter. 



xxxviii REi'ORT — 1850. 

If this be true, wliat discoveries may we not expect, even in Europe, from 
a fine telescope working above the grosser strata of our atmosphere ? This 
noble experiment of carrying a large reflector to a southern climate has been 
but once made in tiie history of science. Sir John Herscliel transported 
his telescopes and his family to the south of Africa, and during a voluntary 
exile of four years' duration, he enriched astronomy with many splendid 
discoveries. Such a sacrifice, however, is not likely to be made again ; and 
we must therefore look to the aid of Government for the realization of a 
])roject which every civilized people will applaud, and which, by adding to 
the conquests of science, will add to the glory of our country. At the 
Birmingham meeting of the Association, its attention was called to this sub- 
ject ; and, being convinced that great advantages would a.crue to science 
from the active use of a large reflecting telescope in the southern hemisphere, 
it was resolved to petition Government for a grant of nsoney for that pur- 
pose. The Royal Society readily agreed to second this application ; and, as 
no request from the British Association has ever been refused, whatever 
Government was in power, we have every reason to expect a favourable 
answer to an able memorial from the pen of Dr. Robinson, which has just 
been submitted to the minister. 

A recent and noble act of liberality to science on the part of the Govern- 
ment justifies this expectation. It is, I believe, not yet generally known that 
Lord John Russell has granted £1000 a-year to the Royal .Society for pro- 
moting scientific objects. The Council of that distinguished body has been 
very solicitous to make this grant effective in promoting scientific objects ; 
and I am persuaded that the measures they have adopted are well-fitted to 
justify the liberality of the Government. One of the most important of 
these has been to place £100 at the disposal of the Committee of the Kew 
Observatory. This establishment, which has for several years been sup- 
ported by the British Association, was given to us by the Government as a 
depository for our books and instruments, and as a locality well-iitted for 
carrying on electrical, majinetical, and meteorological observations. During 
the last six years, the Observatory has been under the honorary superin- 
tendence of Mr. Ronalds, who is well known to the scientific world by his 
ingenious photographic methods of constructing self-registering magnetical 
and meteorological apparatus. On the joint application of the Marquis of 
Northampton and Sir John Herschel, as members of the Association, her 
Majesty's Government have granted to Mr. Ronalds a pecuniary recompense 
of £250 for these inventions ; and I am glad to be able to state, that Mr. 
Brooke has also received from them a suitable reward for inventions of a 
similar kind. 

Under the fostering care of the British Association, the most valuable 
electrical observations have been made at Kew, and Mr. Ronalds has con- 
tinued, from year to year, to make those improvements upon his apparatus 
which experience never fails to suggest ; but I regret to say, that in conse- 
quence of our diminished resources, the Association, at its meeting in 1848, 
came to the resolutionofdiscontinuingthe observations at Kew — appropriating, 
at the same time, an adequate sum for completing those which were in pro- 
gress, and for reducing and discussing the five years' electrical observations 
which had been published in our annual reports. I trust, however, that 
means will yet be found to maintain the Observatory in full activity, and to 
carry out the original objects contemplated by the Committee. Having had 
an opportunity of visiting this establishment a few weeks ago, after having 
inspected two of the best conducted observatories on the Continent, where 



i 



the same class of observations is made, I have no hesitation in speaking in 
the highest terms of the value of Mr. Ronalds' labours, and in recom- 
mending the institution which he so liberally superintends to the continued 
protection of the Association, and to the continued liberality of the Royal 
Society, 

From the facts which I have already mentioned, and from many others to 
which I might have referred, the members of the Association will observe 
with no common pleasure, that the Government of this country has, during 
the last twenty years, been extending its patronage of science and the 
arts. That this change was effected by the interference of the British Asso- 
ciation, and by the writings and personal exertions of its members, could, 
were it necessary, be easily proved. But though men of all shades of 
political feeling have applauded the growing wisdom and liberality of the 
state, and though various individuals are entitled to share in the applause, 
yet there is one statesman, alas ! too early and too painfully torn from 
the affections of his country, whom the science of England must ever regard 
as its warmest friend and its greatest benefactor. To him we owe new 
institutions for -advancing science, and new colleges for extending edu- 
cation ; and had Providence permitted him to follow out, in the serene 
evening of life, and in the maturity of his powerful intellect, the views 
which he had cherished amid the distractions of political strife, he would 
have rivalled the Colbert of another age, and would have completed that 
systematic organization of science, and literature, and art, which has been 
the pride and the glory of another land. These are not the words of idle 
eulogy, or the expressions of a groundless expectation. Sir Robert Peel 
had entertained the idea of attaching to the Royal Society a number of ac- 
tive members, who should devote themselves wholly to scientific pursuits ; 
and I had the satisfaction of communicating to him, through a mutual friend, 
the remarkable fact, that I had found among the MSS. of Sir Isaac Newton 
a written scheme of improving the Royal Society, precisely similar to that 
which he contemplated. Had this idea been realized, it would have been 
but the first instalment of a debt long due to science and the nation ; and it 
would have fallen to the lot of some more fortunate statesman to achieve 
a glorious name by its complete dischaige. 

It has always been one of the leading objects of the British Association, 
and it is now the only one of them which has not been wholly accompHshed, 
"to obtain a more general attention to the objects of science, and a removal 
of any disadvantages of a public kind which impedes its progress." Al- 
though this object is not very definitely expressed, yet Mr. Harcourt, in 
moving its adoption, included under it the revision of the law of patents, and 
the direct national encouragement of science, two subjects to which I shall 
briefly direct your attention. 

In 1831, when the Association commenced its labours, the patent laws 
were a blot on the legislation of Great Britain ; and though some of their 
more obnoxious provisions have since that time been modified or removed, 
they are a blot still, less deep in its dye, but equally a stain upon the cha- 
racter of the nation. The protection which is given by statute to every 
other property in literature and the fine arts, is not accorded to property in 
scientific inventions and discoveries. A man of genius completes an inven- 
tion, and, after incurring great expense, and spending years of anxiety and 
labour, he is ready to give the benefit of it to the public. Perhaps it is an 
invention to save life — the life boat ; to shorten space and lengthen time — 
the railway ; to guide the commerce of the world through the trackless ocean 



Xl REPORT — 1850. 

— the manner's compass; to extend the industry, increase the power, and fill 
the coffers of the state — the steam-engine ; to civilise our species, to raise 
it from the depths of ignorance and crime to knowledge and to virtue — the 
printing-press. But, whatever it may be, a grateful country has granted 
to the inventor the sole benefit of its use for fourteen years. That which 
the statute freely gives, however, law and custom as freely take away, or 
render void. Fees, varying from £200 to £500, are demanded from the 
inventor ; and the gift, thus so highly estimated by the giver, bears the great 
seal of England. The inventor must now describe his invention with legal 
precision. If he errs in the slightest point — if his description is not sufficiently 
intelligible — if the smallest portion of his invention has been used before — or 
if he has incautiously allowed his secret to be made known to two, or even 
to one individual — his patent will be invaded by remorseless pirates, who 
are ever on the watch for insecure inventions, and he will be driven into a 
court of law, where an adverse decision will be the ruin of his family and 
his fortunes. Impoverished by oflacial exactions, or ruined by legal costs, 
the hapless inventor, if he escapes the asylum or the workhouse, is obliged 
to seek, in some foreign land, the just reward of his industry and genius. 
Should a patent escape unscathed from the fiery ordeal through which it has 
to pass, it often happens that the patentee has not been remunerated during 
the fourteen years of his term. In this case, the state is willing to extend 
his right for five or seven years more; but he can obtain this extension only 
by the expensive and uncertain process of an act of Parliament — a boon 
which is seldom asked, and which, through rival influence, has often been 
withheld. 

Such was the patent law twenty years ago ; but since that time it has re- 
ceived some important ameliorations; and though the British Association 
did not interfere as a body, yet some of its members applied energetically 
on the subject to some of the more influential individuals in Lord Grey's 
Government, and the result of this was, two acts of Parliament, passed in 
1835 and 1839, entitled "Acts for Amending the Lavj touching Letters 
Patent for Inventions." Without referring to another important act for re- 
gistering designs, which had the effect of withdrawing from the grasp of 
the patent laws a great number of useful inventions, dependmg principally 
on form, I shall notice only the valuable provisions of the two acts above 
mentioned — acts which we owe solely to the wisdom of Lord Brougham. 
By the first of these acts, the patentee is permitted to disclaim any part 
either of the title of his invention or of the specification of it, or to make 
anv alteration on the title or specification. The same act gives the Privy 
Council the power of confirming any patent, or of granting a new one, when 
a patent had been taken out for an invention which the patentee believed to 
be new, but which was found to have been known before, though not pub- 
licly and generally used. By the same act, too, the power of extending 
letters patent was taken from Parliament and given to the Privy Council, 
who have, on different occasions, exercised it with judgement and discrimi- 
nation. By the second act, of 1839, this last privilege was made more 
attainable by the patentee. These are doubtless valuable improvements 
which inventors will gratefully remember ; but till the enormous fees, which 
are still exacted, are either partly or wholly abolished, and a real privilege 
given under the great seal, the genius of this country will never be able to 
compete with that of foreign lands, where patents are cheaply obtained and 
better protected. In proof of the justness of these views, it is gratifying 
to notice, that, within these few days, it has been announced in Parliament 



ADDRKSS. 



xU 



that the new Attorney-General has accepted his office on the express con- 
dition that the large fees which he derives from patents shall be subject to 
revision. 

The other object contcnnplated by the British Association —the organi- 
zation of science as a national institution — is one of a higher order, and not 
limited to individual or even to EngHsh interests. It concerns the civilised 
world : — not confined to time, it concerns eternity. While the tongue of 
the Almighty, as Kepler expresses it, is speakincr to us in his Word, his 
finger is writing to us in his works ; and to acquire a knowledge of these 
works is an essential portion of the great duty of man. Truth secular 
cannot be separated from truth divine ; and if a priesthood has in all ages 
been ordained to teach and exemplify the one, and to maintain, in ages of 
darkness and corruption, the vestal fire upon the sacred altar, shall not an 
intellectual priesthood be organized to develope the glorious truths which 
time and space embosom — to cast the glance of reason into the dark interior 
of our globe, teeming with what was once life — to make the dull eye of man 
sensitive to the planet which twinkles I'rom afar, as well as to the luminary 
which shines from above — and to incorporate with our inner life those won- 
ders of the external world which appeal with e(]ual power to the affections 
and to the reason of immortal natures? If the God of Love is most appro- 
priately worshiped in the Christian Temple, the God of Nature may be 
equally honoured in the Temple of science. Even from its lofty minarets the 
philosopher may summon the fiiitlifu! to prayer ; and the priest and the sage 
may exchange altars without the compromise of faith or of knowledge. 

Influenced, no doubt, by views like these, Mr. Harcourt has cited, in 
support of this object of the Association, the opinion of a philosojiher, 
whose memory is dear to Scotland, and whose judgement on any great ques- 
tion will be everywhere received with respect and attention: — I refer to 
Professor Piayfair, the distinguished successor, in our Metropolitan Univer- 
sity, of the Gregorys, the Maclaurins, and the Stewarts of former days, 
who, in his able dissertation " On the Progress of the Mathematical and 
Physical Sciences," thus speaks of the National Institute of France : — 

" This institution has been of considerable advantage to science. To de- 
tach a number of ingenious men from everything but scientific pursuits — 
to deliver them alike from the embarrassments of poverty or the temptations 
of wealth — to give them a place and station in society the most respectable 
and independent — is to remove every imjiediment, and to add every stimulus to 
exertion. To this institution, accordingly, operating upon a people of great 
genius and indefatigable activity of mind, we are to ascribe that superiority 
in the mathematical sciences which, in the last seventy years, has been so 
conspicuous*." 

This just eulogy on the National Institute of France, in reference to 
abstract mathematics, may be safely extended to every branch of theoretical 
and practical science ; and I have no hesitation in saying, after having' re- 
cently seen the Academy of Sciences at its weekly labours, that it is the 
noblest and most effective institution that ever was organized for the pro- 
motion of science. Owing to the prevalence of scientific knowledge among 
all classes of the French population, and to their admirable system of ele- 
mentary instruction, the advancement of science, the dilTusion of knowledge, 
and the extension of education, are objects dear to every class of the people. 
The soldier as well as the citizen — the Socialist, the Republican, the Royalist 

• Encyclopaedia Britannica, Diss, 3d, sec. 5, p. 500. 
1850. e 



Xlii REPORT — 1850. 

—all look up to the National Institute as a mighty obelisk erected to science, 
to be respected, and loved, and defended by all. We have seen it standing, 
unshaken and active, amid all the revolutions and convulsions which have 
so long agitated that noble hut distracted country — a common centre of 
afiection, to which antagonist opinions, and rival interests, and dissevered 
hearts, have peacefully converged. It thus becomes an institution of order, 
calculated to send back to its contending friends a message of union and 
peace, and to replace in stable equilibrium the tottering institutions of the 
state. 

It was, doubtless, with views like these that the great Colbert established 
the Academy of Sciences in Paris, and that the powerful and sagacious 
monarchs on the Continent of Europe have imitated his example. They 
have established in their respective capitals similar institutions — they have 
sustained them with liberal endowments — they have conferred rank and 
honours on their more eminent members ; and there are now in this assem- 
bly distinguished foreigners who have well earned the rewards and distinc- 
tions they have received. It is, therefore, Gentlemen, no extravagant opinion, 
that institutions which have thus thriven in other countries should thrive in 
ours— that insulated societies, which elsewhere flourish in combination, 
should, when cc;nfined, flourish among us — and that men, ordained by the 
state to the undivided functions of science, should do more and better work 
than those who snatch an hour or two from their daily toil, or from their 
nightly rest. 

In a great nation like ours, where the higher interests and objects of the 
state are necessarily organized, it is a singular anomaly that the intellectual 
interests of the country should, in a great measure, be left to voluntary sup- 
port and individual zeal — an anomaly, that could have arisen only from 
the ignorance or supineness of ever-changing administrations, and from the 
intelligence and liberality of a commercial people— an anomaly, too, that 
could have been continued only by the excellence of the institutions they 
had founded. In the history of no civilized people can we find private 
establishments so generously tbstered, so energetically conducted, and so suc- 
cessful in their objects, as the Royal Societies of London, Edinburgh, and 
Dublin, and the Astronomical, Geological, Zoological, and Linnaean Societies 
of the metropolis. They are institutions that do honour to the nation, and 
they will ever be gratefully remembered in the history of science. But they 
are nevertheless defective in their constitution, limited in their operation, and 
incapable, from their very nature, of developing, and directing, and rewarding 
the indigenous talent of the country. They are simply subscription socie- 
ties, which pay for the publication of their own Transactions, and adjudicate 
medals entrusted to them by the beneficence of others. They are not bound 
to the exercise of any other function, and they are under no obligation to 
do the scientific work of the state, or to promote any of those national ob- 
jects which are entrusted to the organized institutions of other lands. 
Their President and Council are necessarily resident in London ; and the 
talent and genius of the provinces are excluded from their administration. 
From tliis remark we must except the distinguished philosophers of Cam- 
bridge and Oxford, who, from their proximity to the capital, have been the 
brightest ornaments of our metropolitan institutions, and without whose aid 
they never could have attained their present pre-eminence. 

It is, therefore, in the more remote parts of the empire that the influence 
of a national institution would be more immediately felt, and nowhere more 
powerfully than in this its northern portion. Our English friends are, we 



ADDRESS. xliii 

believe, little aware of the obstructions which oppose the progress of science 
in Scotland. In our five universities, there is not a single fellowship to stimu- 
late the genius and rouse the ambition of the student. The church, the law, 
and the medical profession liold out no rewards to the cultivators of mathe- 
matical and physical science ; and were a youthful Newton or Laplace to 
issue from any of our universities, his best friends would advise him to 
renounce the divine giit, and to seek in professional toil the well-earned 
competency which can alone secure him a just position in the social scale, 
and an enviable felicity in the domestic circle. Did this truth require any 
evidence in its support, we find it in the notorious fact, that our colleges 
cannot furnish professors to fill their own important offices ; and the time is 
not distant when all our chairs in mathematics, natural philosophy, and even 
natural history, will be occupied by professors educated in the Enghsh uni- 
versities. But were a Royal Academy or Institute, like that of France, 
established on the basis of our existing institutions, and a class of resident 
members enabled to devote themselves wholly to science, the youth of 
Scotland would instantly start for the prize, and would speedily achieve 
their full share in the liberality of the state. Our universities would then 
breathe a more vital air. Our science would put forth new energies, and 
our literature might rise to the high level at which it stands in our sister 
land. 

But it is to the nation that the greatest advantages would accrue. With 
gigantic manufacturing establishments, depending for their perfection and 
success on mechanics and chemistry — with a royal and commercial marine 
almost covering the ocean — with steam-ships on every sea — with a system 
of agriculture leaning upon science as its mainstay — with a net-work of 
railways, demanding for their improvement, and for the safety of the tra- 
veller, and for the remuneration of their public-spirited projectors, the highest 
efforts of mechanical skill — the time has now arrived for summonin.of to the 
service of the state all the theoretical and practical wisdom of the country 
— for rousing what is dormant, combining what is insulated, and uniting in 
one great institution the living talent which is in active but undirected and 
unbefriended exercise around us. 

In thus pleading for the most important of the objects of the British As- 
sociation, I feel that I am not pleading for a cause that is hopeless. The 
change has not only commenced, but has made considerable progress. Our 
scientific institutions have already, to a certain extent, become national ones. 
Apartments belonging to the nation have been liberally granted to them. 
Royal medals have been founded, and large sums from the public purse de- 
voted to the objects which they contemplate. The Museum of (Economic 
Geology, indeed, is itself a complete section of a Royal Institute, oivinCT a 
scientific position to six eminent philosophers, all of whom are distinouished 
members of the British Association: — and in every branch of science and 
literature, the liberality of the Crown has been extended to numerous indi- 
viduals, whose names would have been enrolled among the members of a 
National Institution. The cause, therefore, is so far advanced ; and every 
act of liberality to eminent men, and every grant of money for scientific 
and literary pinposes, is a distinct step towards its triumph. Our private 
institutions have in reality assumed the transition phase, and it requires only 
an electric spark from some sagacious and patriotic statesman to combine in 
one noble phalanx the scattered elements of our intellectual greatness, and 
guide to lofty achievements and glorious triumphs, the talent and genius of 
the nation. 



xliv REPOET— 1850. 

But when such an institution has heen completed, the duties of the state 
to science are not exhausted. It has appreciated knowledge but in its 
abstract and utilitarian phase. For the peace and happine.ss of society, it 
would be of little avail were the great truths of the material world confined 
to the educated and the wise. The organization of science, thus limited, 
would cease to be a blessing. Knowledge, secular and divine, the double 
current of the intellectual life-blood of man, must not merely descend 
through the great arteries of the social frame : it must be taken up by the 
minutest capillaries before it can nourisli and purify society. Knowledge 
is at once the manna and the medicine of our moral being. When crime is 
the bane, knowledge is the antidote. Society may escape from the pesti- 
lence, and survive the famine ; but the demon of ignorance, with his grim 
adjutants of vice and riot, will pursue her into her most peaceful haunts, 
destroying her institutions, and converting into a wilderness the paradise of 
social and domestic liie. The state has, therefore, a solemn duly to per- 
form. As it punishes crime, it is bomid to devise means for its prevention. 
As it subjects us to laws, it must teaci) us to read them ; and while it thus 
teaches, it must teach also the ennobling truths which display the power 
and the wisdom of the great Lawgiver — thus diffusing knowledge while it 
is extending education, and thus making liien contented, and happy, and 
humble, while it makes them quiet and obedient subjects. 

It is a great problem yet to be solved, to determine what will be the state 
of society when man's physical powers are highly exalted, and his physical 
condition highly ameliorated, without any corresponding change in his 
moral liabits and position. There is much reason to fear that every great 
advance in material civilization requires some moral and compensatory an- 
tagonism ; but however this may be, the very indeterminate character of the 
problem is a warning to the rulers of nations to prepare for the contingency 
by a system of national instruction, wliicii shall either reconcile or disregard 
those hostile influences under which the people are now perishing for lack 
of knowledge. 



REPORTS 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Mrst Report on the Facts of Em'thquake Phenomena. 
By Robert Mallet, C.E., M.R.I.A. 

.Those striking phsenomena of nature which are of comparatively rare and 
uncertain occurrence, have ever been the longest held bound in the darkness 
of superstition, the last to receive the light of truthful investigation. 

In following down the long'^age of man's discovery of nature, we shall see 
that it is only in its latest lines that storms and tempests, hail and lightning, 
comets, meteors, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, have been emancipated 
from the superstition (not confined alone to the vulgar) which viewed them 
not as occasional manifestations of the laws of one Creator, always acting 
and always fit and worthy of our highest efforts to discover and elucidate, 
but as the peculiar weapons given into the hands, and subject alone to the 
depraved and capricious wills of the powers of evil, by whose malignant aid 
the witch or the sorcerer should ride the tempest or blast the crop, the 
nations be stirred up to war, the fall of the great ones of the earth be por- 
tended, or monarchs perplexed with fear of change. 

Thus, says Butler, in his 'Analogy of Religion,' cap. iv., "We know, in- 
deed, several of the general laws of matter, and a great part of the behaviour 
of living agents is reducible to general laws, but we know nothing, in a man- 
ner, by what laws storms and tempests, earthquakes, famine and pestilence 
become the instruments of destruction to mankind. - - - These laws are so 
wholly unknown to us, that we call the events which come to pass by them 
accidental - - though all reasonable men - - conclude that the things which 
have this appearance are the result of general laws, and may be reduced to 
them." 

Long since the comet has ceased to be a portent, and its recurrent period 
may be predicted. The lightning flash has been identified with and con- 
trolled into the electric carrier of our mandates, and we have begun to com- 
prehend the chain of causation concerned in tempests, tornadoes and hail- 
storms. Last of all, the earthquake is but just emerging from the gloom of 
vulgar superstition and learned neglect into the light of physical truth, and 
is about to take its place as one of the phaenomena of acknowledged cosmical 
laws, whose conditions shall be capable of complete interpretation, although 
perhaps from the number of these (as is the case throughout geology) we may 
be for ever incompetent to predict the occurrence of the phaenomenon. 

Such having been the past state of human knowledge as to earthquakes, 
an extensive research into the narratives and histories of these events soon 
convinces one, that in the absence on the part of past authors of any true 

1850. B 



2 REPORT — 1850. 

guiding hypothesis, of any distinct idea of what an earthquake really is, of 
any notion of what facts might have been of scientific importance to observe, 
and what were merely highly striking or alarming, but only secondary ac- 
cidental circumstances due to changes of surface, or the complication (never 
attempted to be disentangled) of all these with the facts of closely adjacent 
volcanic eruption, — in the want of all these, as well as of any calmness or 
unexaggerative observation during such alarming visitations, few facts of the 
character and precision requisite to render them of value to science can be col- 
lected with certainty. The true observation of earthquake phaenomena is 
yet to be commenced and the required facts are to be collected, the most im- 
portant of them by methods not dreamed of until very recently. 

In collating the multitudinous and vague accounts of earthquakes, there- 
fore, I have been compelled to reject vast numbers of statements, either for 
want of the necessary conditions to scientific value, or of suflicient authen- 
ticity (as when given, not as an eye-witness, but upon common hearsay by 
the narrator), or of the facts given having any real bearing upon the scien- 
tific question. 

The staple of earthquake stories, in fact, consists of gossip made up of the 
most unusual, violent or odd accidents that befel men, animals or structures, 
rather than of the phaenomenon itself. Very few of these narratives state 
even the precise direction or duration of the shock, and the chief value of a 
complete discussed catalogue of earthquakes, from such accounts as we have, 
would be to present some indications as to the nature of their diffusion over the 
earth's surface, and of their distribution in time ; such catalogues have been 
prepared for limited districts by M. Perrey, by Von Hoff", and by some few 
others, and a much more extensive one will form a future part of this Report. 

In the succeeding Report, I have not thought it necessary to refer to author- 
ities except in cases of rarely noticed and important facts ; in other instances 
the references might be innumerable. 

As it is impossible to observe facts to any good purpose, so is it equally 
impracticable to select them from the records of others for any useful scien- 
tific end vvitliout some guiding hypothesis ; in this respect I have been guided 
by that theory of earthquake dynamics, which I have enunciated*, and which 
defines an earthquake to be " the transit of a wave of elastic compression in 
any direction from vertically upwards to horizontally in any azimuth, through 
the surface and crust of the earth from any centre of impulse, or from more 
than one, and which may be attended vi ith tidal and sound waves dependent 
upon the impulse, and upon circumstances of position as to sea and land." 

It is unnecessary, I would hope, for me to add, that I have not selected the 
following facts to suit any theory, but have impartially taken note of all that 
I could find that appeared of importance to science, whether at first sight 
making for or against my own views. Let me add, that in this course of ex- 
tensive research through earthquake narrations, I have not met with a 
single fact recorded that was not resoluble upon my theory, or equally irre- 
soluble upon any, and of doubtful credence. 

Before proceeding it may be desirable to take a very brief survey of the 
several other theories (if such they may be called) which have been at dif- 
ferent times promulgated, in a word, of the literature generally of earth- 
quakes, omitting those views now palpably absurd, such as the ancient Mon- 
golian and Hindoo notion, that the earth rests upon a huge frog, which, when 
he scratches his head, produces an earthquake, &c. 

As the best and most rapid mode of doing this, I shall give in the order of 

time, and as nearly as possible in each author's own words, the peculiar 

* Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xxi. part 1. 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 3 

views and statements made by the successive writers upon our subject, 
making few remarks bj' the way. I have deemed it worth while to transcribe 
Aristotle and Pliny's statements of the facts of earthquakes as observed in 
and before their days, more fully than perhaps some may think their views 
deserve; this however I have done, because it is not unimportant to compare 
now, the observations as to fact of those confessedly accurate observers, in 
very ancient periods, with our own latest ones, upon phoenomena presumedly, 
and as proved to be by the comparison, the same. 

I omit the earliest Greek notices of earthquakes, and take the matter up 
with Aristotle, through whose works, and even those portions usually sup- 
posed spurious, as the book " De Plantis," many passages occur touching 
upon our subject. His main views, however, are contained in the following 
extracts : — 

" Tiepl Be aeia-fiov koX Ktvriaeui<i jrj'i fiera ravra XeKTeov r) yap alria 
rod Trddov; i^o/Mevr) tovtov tov yevov; icrTLV. "Eari Se rd ye Trapei- 
\7)f/,fieva fJ'e')(pt tov vvv ')(p6vov rpia koI irapd Tpicov. Ava^ay6pa<; re 
yap 6 KXa^o/xevio^ koI irporepo'i ^ Ava^i/J.evr)<; 6 MtA.?;<ri09 dire^rjvavTO, 
KoX TOVToav varepo^ Ar]fi6Kpi,T0<i 6 ^A^Sr}pLTr]<;. ^ Ava^ay6pa<i fiev ovv 
(f>r)al TOV aldepa Tre^VKOTa ^epeaOau dvco, e/jUTTLTTTOVTa B eh to, /caTco 
TTJ'i 7^9 Kal TO, KoTka Kivelv avTrjV to, [juev yap dvco avvaXrjXicjidat Sid 
TOv<; ofji^povi, iirel ipvaei ye irdaav 6fMoi(o<; elvai a-ojx^rjv, co? ovto? tov 
fiev dv(o TOV Be /caT&) Trj<; oX.??? a(f>aipa^, koI dvco p^ev tovtov ovto? tov 
fiopiov icf)' ov Tvy')(dvop,ev oi/covvTe'i, KdTCo Be OaTcpov. ITpo? p,ev ovv 
TavT7]v Trjv ahiav ovdev taco<; Bet \eyeiv ws \iav aTrXw? elprjp^evrjv to 
T6 yap dvco Ka\ KaTco vop^i^euv ovtco<; e^eiv wcrre /xrj ttjOO? ttjv yrjv irdvrrj 
<f>epe(Tdai tu ^dpo^ e^ovra tSw acop^aTcov, dvco Be ra Kov^a Kat, to Trvp, 
€vr}0e<i, Kal ravd' 6pcavTa<i tov opi^ovTa ttjv olKOvp^evrjv, octtjv rip,ei<; 
icrp,ev, erepov del yi,yv6fievov p,eOiaTap,evcov, &)? ovar]<; KvpTr]<; Kal acf)ai- 
poetBotx;' Kal to Xeyetv fiev &>? Bid to p,eyedo<; eirl tov depo<i p,evec, 
a€i€a$ai Be cpdaKeiv TVVTop,ev'r}V KaTcodev dvco Bl oX,?^?. IIpo? Be rov- 
roif ovdev diroBiBcocn tcov avfi^acvovTcov irepl tov? creiapovi' ome ydp 
')(5spab ovre wpai ai Tvyovcrai, fieTe')(^ovai tovtov tov irddovi. A7)p,6- 
KpiTO<} Be (f)r)at ifkripr) rrjv yrjv vBaTO<; ovaav, Kal ttoXv Be-^o/xevrjv erepov 
ofi/3piov vBcop, viro TOVTOV Ktvelcrdai,' TrAe/ovo? re ydp yevofievov Bid to 
fiT] Bvvacrdat Be^ea-Qai Ta? Koi\La<; d7ro^ta^6/j,evov iroielv tov aeicrpboVi 
Kal ^paivofjbevrjv Kal eXKovcrav el<} tou? Kevov<; tottou? e'/c tcov TrXrjpe- 
trrepcov to pbera^dWov epjiriiTTOv Kivelv. 'Ava^t/ji,ev7]<; Be c^rjat, /Spe^^o- 
fjbivtjv Tr)v yqv Kal ^rjpatvofjievTjv prjyvvcrOaL, Kal inro tovtcov tcov d-rrop- 
prjyvvfxevcov koXcovcov ip^TniTTOVTCov crelecrOaL' Bio Kal yiyvecjQat toj)? 
aeicTp,ov<i ev re TOt? av'yjjiol<; Kal rrrdXiv eV Tat? vtrepop.^piai'i' ev re ydp 
Tot? au^/iot9, wcnrep eiprjrai, ^7)paivop,iv'r)V prjyvvcrdai, Kal vtto twv 
vBdrcov virepvypaivofjievTjv BiaTTiTTTeiv. "EBei Be tovtov avfju^alvovro^ 
VTrovocnovcrav TroXXaT^ou c^alvecxOai ttjv yrjv. "En Be Bid tIv aiTiav 
irepl Toirovi Tivd<i ttoXXAki^; yiverai tovto to ttcWo^ ovBefiia Biacpe- 
povTa<i virep^oXfi Toiavry Trapd tou? dX}\.ov<; ; KaiToi i'^prjv, "OX&j? Be 
rot? ouTO)? vTToXa/x/Bdvovcriv dvayKalov tJttov del tou? aeia/j,ov<; cpdvac 
yiyvecrdai, Kal TiXo<; iravaacrOai irore aeiofj.evrjv to ydp aaTTOfievov 
TOiauTijv 'e')(et cpvaiv. "Q,aT el tovt dBvvaTOV, BrjXov oti dBuvarov Kal 
TavTrjv elvai rfjv alriav. 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1850. 

*' 'AXX' iireiBr) (ftavepav on, dvayKu^ov Kol airb vypov koI utto ^rjpov 
yiryv€(T6ai avaOvfMiaaiv, wairep etTro/Ltev iv roi? Trporepov, avdyKij rov- 
Tcov v'irap')(0VT(t)v yijveadat toli? a-ei<Tfiov<;. "T7rdp')(^6t jdp rj 777 kuO 
avTr]v fxev ^r)pd, Bui 8e tov<; 6/j,/3pov<; e')(ovaa iv avrf} voriSa TroWrjv, 
b>aO VTTO T€ Tov TjXiov KOL Tov €v avTrj TTfpo? dep/xaivofx,ev'rj<; TToXu fiev 
e^(o TToXi) 8' ivToii jivea-dac to Trvevfia' Kal rovro ore fxev cruveve? e^o) 
pel irdv, ore S' eXaw Trdv, eviore 8e Kal fiepi^erai,. Et Si] tout dBuva- 
rov aXXu><; e^etv, to /xeTci tovto aKeTrreov av etrj ottolov KcvrjTiKcoTaTov 
dv elrj Twv aoofjudrcov dvdyKr] yap to eVt TrKelcrTov re 7r€^VKb<i levai koI 
acpoSpoTaTov /xaXicna toiovtov elvai, ^(fioBporarov /xev ovv e^ dvdyKr)<! 
TO Ta^tcTTa (pepo/jbevov Tvirret, yap /xaXia-ra Bid to Ta^09" eVl TrXelarov 
Be Tre^vKe Buevat to Bid TravTo? levai p-dXiaTa Bvvdp,€vov, toiovtov Bk 
TO XeTTToiaTOv. "£laT elirep -rj tov 7rve6/jiaTO<; ^ucrt9 ToiavTT], fidXiaTa 
TMV aco/xaTwv to irvevfJia kivtjtikov' Kal yap to irvp OTav fieTa irvev- 
/AaTO? fj, yuyv6Tai <pX6^ Kal (pepeTai Tapj^ew?. Ovk dv ovv vBcop ovB^ 
yrj a'lTiov eir), dXXd 'Kvevfia tt)? Kivrjaewi, OTav eaco tu^t; pvev to e^o) 
dva6vfj,id)/M€vov. Aio yiryvovTai vrjve/jiia 01 TrXeiaToi Kal fjieyicrToi twv 
aeiafjLwV cruve;^^? yap ova-a r) dvadv/j,iaai<i dKoXovOei a)? eVt to ttoXv 
Trj op/iir] T»7? dp')(ri<i, w(TTe r) ecxo d/xa tj e^co op/xa Trdcra. To S" e'vioi/y 
yivecrdai Kal 'rrvev/xaTO<; ovto? ovBev dXoyov opwfjiev yap ivloTe dfia 
nrXeiovi 7rveovTa<; dvefxov;, mv OTav et? t^v yrjv opfirjar) ddTepov, ecrrai 
7rvevfxaT0<; ovto? o (Tei(rfji6<;. 'EXaTTOu? B' ovtoi to /xeyeOoi; yiyvovTai 
Bid TO Birjprjadai ttjv dp')(r]v Kal Tr]v aiTiav avTotv. Kat vuacto? 8' oi 
TrXeiov; Kal fiei^ov; yiyvovTai twv aeitTfjiSiv, oi Be tj}? r]fjiepa<i irepl /xe- 
(77) fi^p Lav' vrjve/iKOTaTov yap eaTiv o)? eVt to ttoXv t?}? r)fiepa<i V fie- 
atjfi^pia (o yap ■tjXio'i OTav /xdXicTTa KpaT-^, KaTaKXelei ttjv dvadv/xiaaiv 
et? Trjv yrjV KpaTel Be fxdXicrTa Trepl TrjV /xecrrj/x^piav) Kal ai vu/CTe? Bh 
TMV rj/xepcov vrjve/xcoTepai Bid tt]v dirovaiav ttjv tov rjXiov mctt et(Tco 
7t7veTat TrdXiv r) pvai<?, (ocxirep dfxTTCOTi<i, et? TovvavTiov t^? e^wdev 
TrXTjfi/xvpiBo'y, Kai Trpo? opdpov /jidXiaTa' TrjviKavTa yap Kal Ta Trvey- 
fiaTa Tricj^vKev dpj(ea6ai irvelv. 'Eav ovv etam TV')(rj fxeTa/SdXXovaa r) 
dp')(r] avTwv oyaTrep EuptTTO?, Bid to 7r\?'}^o? Icr-^vpoTepov iroiel tov 
aeKTjxov. "Eti Be irepl tottou? TotouTOU? ol lO'j^ypoTaToi yivovTai tmv 
creicTfXMV, oirov 17 ddXaaaa pocoBrj<; rj rj ')((opa (T0fX(f)r} Kal v7ravTpo<;. Aib 
Kal rrepl 'EWj/o^ttovtov Kal irepl 'A^aiav Kal ^iKeXiav, Kal Tr/? Eu- 
l3oia<i Trepl tovtov; tou? tottou?' Bokci yap BiavXcovi^eiv vtro Trjv yrjv 17 
ddXaTTa. Ato Kal Ta depfxd Ta irepl AiBe-^ov dirb ToiavTr)<; atrta? 
yeyovev. Hepl Be tow? eipT]p,€vov<i tottou? ol a-eia-fxol yivovTai fidXiaTa 
Bid TTJV (TTevoTTjTa' TO ydp irvevfia yevofievov acpoBpbv Bid to irXrjdoii 
Trj<; daXdTTr}<i ttoAX?}? '7rpoa(f)epo/xevri<; diroydeiTai irdXiv et? Trjv yrjV, to 
ye Tre^f/co? diroirvelv diro Ti]<; 77}?. At' Te %wpat ocrai <70fi<f)ov<i e-^^ovat 
Tou? KaTft) TOTTOi;?, TToXv Be')(p fjievai irvev/xa creiovTai /xaXXov. Kal 
€apo<; Be Kal /xeTOTrcopov /xdXiaTa Kal ev e7rofM^piai<; Kal av')(jJiol<; yivov- 
Tai Bid TTjv avTrjv aiTiav at ydp wpai avTai irvev/xaTcoBea-TaTai' to ydp 
6epo<; Kal 6 'yeifioiv, to /xev Bid tov irdyov, to Be Bid Tr)v dXeav iroiel 
TTjv dKivrjcTiav' to /xev ydp dyav •>^v')(p6v, to 8' dyav ^rjpov ecrTiv. Kai 
ev /i.ev Tot? av')^jxoi<i Trveu/xaTw^?/? 6 dr^p' tovto ydp avTo eaTiv 6 
av')(jjio<;, OTav irXeicov r) dva6vp,iaai<; t) ^rjpd yiyvrjTai Trj<; vypd<;' ev Be 
Tat? V7r€po/ji/3piai<i TrXetw Te Trotet t^v e'vTo? dvaOv/xiaaiv, Kal tw iv- 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 5 

aTToXafi^dvea-Oat iv (XTevcoTepoi<i roTrot? koI aTro/Sid^eadat et? eXdrTO) 
Toirov T^v ToiavTtjv diroKpicnv, Tr\r)povfj,evoov tcov KotXicov vSaro^, orav 
dp^r)Tai, Kparelv Bid to ttoXv ei? oXcyov 7n\r]07]vai tottov, lcr')(ypu)<i Kivel 
pi(ov 6 dve/xo^ Kal irpoairiTTTOiv. Ael yap voelv on axT'jrep iv tw> aco/xaTi 
•fjfiwv Kal Tp6fJ,(ov Kal a^vyfimv aiTLOv qotiv r) rov TrvevfiaTO^ evairo- 
Xafjb^avoixevT) Svva/u^is, ovtco Kal iv rfj yfj to irvevfia irapaTrXijaia TTOtetv, 
Kal Tov fiev TCOV aetcrficov olov Tpo/uuov eivai rov 8 olov a(f)vyfj,6v, Kal Ka- 
ddirep avfi^aivec TToXAa/ct? fierd rrjv ovprjauv Zid rov aco/j,aro<; {ylverat 
yap axTTrep rpo/xo'i Tt? dvrifMeOiarafievov rov '7Tvev/u,aro<i e^codev earn 
ddpoov), roLavra yiveaOai, Kal rrepl rr]v yrjv. "Oar]v S' ep^et to rrvevfia 
Bvvafiiv, ov fiovov e« rutv ev ra> dipt hel dewpelv yLyvoyuivwv [ivravda 
fjuev yap Bid to fieyeOo'i v7roXd/3oi Ti? dv roiavra Bvvacrdai rroieiv) dXkd 
Kal iv T0t9 crcofiacn Tot? rwv ^a)cov' oi re. yap rkravoi Kal oi aTraa/xol 
TTveu/^aTO? fiiv elai Kivrjcrei^, roaavrriv S' e^ovaiv la')(pv ware 7roXKov<i 
afia ireipcofjuevovi drrol^id^eadai /mtj Bvvaadai Kparelv t^9 Kivi]aeai^ rwv 
appwarovvrcov. To auTO Bel voelv yivofievov Kal iv ry yfj, d)<i eiKdaat 
TT/ao? fxiKpov fjiel^ov. 'Z'rjp-ela Be rovrcov Kal 7rpo<i rr}v rj/xerepav atadr^cTiv 
iTo\ka')(ov yeyovev ijBr] yap aei(r/j,6<; iv tottoi? rial yivofievo^ ov irpo- 
Tepov e\7]^e, rrplv iKpj'j^a'i ei<; rov iiirep 797? roirov ^avepai<; warrep iK- 
ye^la<i i^ijXdev 6 Kivijaa'i dve/xo<;, olov Kal rrepl 'Hpa/cXetav iyevero rrjv 
ev Tw Tiovra vewarl, Kal irporepov rrepl rrjv 'lepdv vrjaov' avrrj S" iarl 
fiia TCOV AioXov Ka\ovfj,evcov vqawv. 'Ev ravrr) ydp i^ava>Bei ti t^? 
7^?, Kal dv^ei oXov Xo(jicoB7j<i 07/C09 p,erd yfrocpov Te'Xo? Be payevro^ 
i^rj\6e TTvevfia troKv, Kal rov <^e-^aXov Kav rr]v re(l>pav dvfJKe, Kal rrjv 
T€ Anrapaicov 7r6X.1v ovaav ov Troppco rrdaav Karerecjipcoae, Kal et? eVi'a? 
TCOV eV IraXia TroXewv rfkOev Kal vvv en orrov ro dvacjiuarj/xa rovro 
iyevero, BrjXov iariv. Kat ydp Br) rod yiyvofievov Trvpo<; iv rfj yy rav- 
r'Tjv oirjreov elvai ryv airlav, orav KOTrrofxevov iKTrpyaOfj rrpwrov et? 
fiiKpd Kepfianadevro^ rov depo<i. TeKp,y]piov B' iarl rov pelv vivo ryv 
yrjv rd irvevfiara Kal ro yiyvo/xevov rrepl ravraf Ta? v^aovi' orav ydp 
avefio<; fMeXXy Trvevaeladai v6ro<i, irpotrrjfJiaLvei irporepov y-^ovai ydp oi 
TOTTOi i^ &v yiverai rd dva(f}vai']p,ara, Bid ro ryv ddXarrav piev rrpoco- 
deladai i^By iroppwOev, viro Be ravrrj<; ro iK t^9 7^9 dvacfivaoy/jievov 
dircadeladai irdXiv eiaco, yirep iirepyerai y ddXarra ravrr). Tloiel Be 
■y^o^ov avev aeiafMov Bid re rrjv evpv')(wpiav rcov tottcov [vTrep'X^elrai ydp 
elf ro aT^ave9 e^co) Kal Bi 6Xoy6rr]ra rov d7rco6ov/j,evov depo'i. "Etj to 
yir^veadai rov ijXiov d'^XvcoXr] Kal dfjiavporepov dvev v€<pov'i, Kal irpo 
TCOV 6p6picov aeiafKOV iviore vyvepbiav re Kal Kpvo<; ia)(yp6v, ay/jielov tj}? 
eipr]p,evrj<i alrias ianv. Tov Te ydp ifXiov d')(Xvd>B7} Kal dfiavpbv dvay- 
Kalov elvai, inrovoarelv dp-)(pp,evov rov Trvevfiaro'i et9 t^v yrjv, rov Bia- 
XvovTos rov depa Kal BiaKpivovrof,Kal 7rpo<; ryv eo),Kal rrepl rov<i opdpovi, 
vyvefiiav re Kal '\|ru^09. T^v jjiev ydp vyvefiiav dvayKalov 0)9 eVt to ttoXu 
avfji^aiveiv, KaOdirep eipyrai Kal irporepov, olov p,erappoia<i e'iaco yivo- 
/iev^9 ToO 7rveu^aT09' Kal fidXXov irpo tcov fMei^ovcov aeiafxwv fxi] Biaairco- 
fievov ydp ro fj,ev e^(o, ro 8' ivro'i, dXX' ddpoov <pep6fj,evov dvayKalov 
ia')(yeiv p,dXXov. To Be (^V')(pf avfj,/3aivei Bid ro rrjv dvadvfMiaaiv eiaco 
irepirpiireadai, ^vaei depp-yv ovaav KaO' avryjv. Ov BoKovai S' oldve/jioi 
eivai depfiol Bid ro Kivelv rov depa irXyprj ^frv^pd<; ovra Kai iroXXi]^ 
dr/MiBoff (oairep ro irvevfia to Bid rov arofjiarof (^vacofievov. Kat ydp 



6 REPORT — 1850. 

TovTO iyyvdev /j.ev eVrt Oepfjuov, wcrirep Kol orav ad^cofieV aWa Bi 
oXiyoTi^ra ovk 6/j,oio}<; eTrlSrjXov. YloppwOev hk '^v')(^pov, Sta rrjv avrrjv 
atriav rot? avifio(,<i. ^FjTnXeiTrovarj'i ovv ei9 rr/v 7?)v t»}? T0iavT7]<i hv- 
vd/j,e(a<;, avviovaa 8id vypoTijTa rj aT/xtScoS?;? diToppor) rroiei to -^^vj^o^, 
iv 019 crv/x/3aLV6L T07roi<? ylveadai rovro to Tra^o?' to S' a^iTO amov «at 
Tou elcoOoTO^ ivlore yuyveaOat a-r]/j,€iov irpo rcov aeKT/jL&v rj yap fieO^ 
rjfiepav, ■>) fjiiKpbv fierd 8vafjbd<;, al6pia<; ova7]<;, ve^eXiov Xctttov ^alveTai 
BiaTelvov, Kol p^aKpbv, olov ypa/ji/juri<; /iijAro? evdvrrjTi BtrjKpt^ay/Mevov, tov 
Trvey/ittTO? ci7ro/j,apaivofMevou Bid rvv fjuerdaracriv. To 8' ojjloiov (tv/m- 
^aivet Koi iv rfj OaXdrTrj Trepl tou? alyiaXoix;' orav p,ev yap KVfxaivovaa 
eK/SdWr), a(f}6Bpa Tra^etat kuI aKoXial ylvovrai al pr)yfjiive<;' orav Be 
yaXijvr) f), Bid to /j.ucpdv iroieiaOai rijv eKKpiaiv Xcmal elat Kal evdeiai, 
"Oirep ovv rj OdXarra iroiei irepl rrjv yi)v, tovto to Trvevfia irepl rrjv iv 
Tw depi a^Xuv, wcr^' orav yevrjTai vTjve/aia, TrdfiTrav evdelav icai XeTTTrjv 
KaTaXehreadai, wairep p7]y/j,iva ovaav depo<; rr)v ve^iXrjv. Atd TavTa 
Be Kal Trepl Ta? e«;A.ei'\j!ret? ivioTe tj'}? creX-)]V'r]<; avfji^alvei ylyveadai aeia- 
jxov' OTav yap 7]Br) ttXtjo-iov f) rj dvTi(j)pa^i^, Kal /lli^ttco fiev r/ TrdfJbTrav 
diroXeXoiiro'i to 0&)9, Kal to diro tov ifKiov depfiov iK tov depo<;, tjBtj S' 
aTTOfiapaivofjievov, V7]vep,ia yiverai, avrifiediaTafxevov tov irvev/xaTO^ ei? 
t^v yr/v, TToiel tov (xeiapiov irpo rwv iKXeiy^recov. TivovTUi yap Kal 
dve/xoi irpo twv iKXei-\fr6cov iroXXdKi'i, dKp6vv')(pi fjuev Trpb tmv fieaovvK- 
TLiov iKXeiyjrecov, fieaovvKTioi Be Trpb twv ewcov. ^vfi^aivei Be tovto, 
Bid TO d/xavpovaOai to Oepfxbv rb avro t?)? o-eX,7;v^9, otuv TrXrjaiov t^Bt] 
yiyvrjrai rj cfjopd iv w yevopbevwv earai rj eKXeiyfri';. ^ Aviefi,evov ovv w 
/caT6i^€T0 6 drjp Kal r/pep^ei, TrdXiv KiveiTai Kal yiyverai Trvev/jia t^? 
eKXel^jreo}'; TrpcoiaiTepov. "Orav S' tVp^upo? yevrjTai a-eiafib<;, ovk evOv'i, 
ovS" elaaTra^ TraveTai aeiaa^, dXXd to irpcoTov fiev f^e'^pt Trepl TCTTa- 
pdKOVTa TTpoeiai TroXXdKi<; rj/j,epa^, varepov Be Kal icj) ev, Kal eTrt Bvo 
err} iTriar)fxaLvei Kard Tov<i avTOv<; tottou?. Amov Be tov //.ev /u,eyedov<; 
TO TrXrj$0'i TOV Trvev/xaT0<;, Kal twv tottcov rd <7^7;/LiaTa Bi wv dv pvfj' 
fi ydp dv avTirvTrrjar), Kal f^r) paBico^ BieXOr], p^dXicTTa Te aeiet, Kal 
iyKaTaXeiTreadai dvayKaiov iv Tal<; eva^copiai<;, olov vBcop ov Bvvdfievov 
Bie^eX6elv. Aib KadaTrep iv o-co/xari o'l a^vy/xol ovk i^aicpviri TravovTai, 
ovBe Ta')(ea><;, aXX' e'/c TrpocTaywyri<i d/j,a KUTafMapaivofMevov tov Trd6ov<;, 
Kal r) dp'^r) dcjy "^9 rj dvadvfji,iaa-i<i iyeveTo, Kal 77 opfir) tov Trvevfj,aT0<y 
BrjXov oTi OVK ev6v'; aTraaav dvdXcoae ti]v vXrjv, i^ ■^^ iTroirjae tov 
dvefjbov, ov KaXovfjiev aeiap^bv. "Ea)9 dv ovv dvaXtoOfj rd vTzbXoiTra 
TovTwv, drdyKT) aeieiv' '^pe/xaiTepov Be Kal fjie-)(^pi tovtov, ecof dv eXaTTOv 
rj TO dvadvjjbico/jievov, rj ware Bvvaadai Kivetv e7rt8r?A.ct)9. JJoiei Be Kal 
Toix; yjrocfiov'; tov<; vtto Tifv yrjv yivop,evov<i to Trvevfjia, Kal tov? Trpb twv 
aeiapiMV. Ka.t dvev Be aeicr/jiMV, r^Brj ttov ye^ovaciv vtto yrjv Mcnrep 
ydp Kal paTTi^o/tievo? 6 arjp TravToBaTTOv^ d^irjae ■\lro^ov<;, ovTca Kal 
TVTTTcov avT6<i' ovdev ydp Bia^epei' to ydp tvtttov afxa Kai avTo tvtt- 
TeTai Trdv. ITpoepT^eTat 8' 6 ■\{r6(l>o<; t')J<; Ktvijcye(o<; Bid to XeTTTO/nepea- 
repov elvat, Kal fidXXov Bid TravTO'i levat tov Trv€Vfu,aTO<; tov "^ocpov. 
"Orav S" 'iXarrov 97 rj ware Kivrjaai rrjv yrjv Bia XeTTTOTrjTa, Bid fiev to 
paBico<; BirjOelaOai ov Bvvarai Kivelv Bid Be to TrpoaTriTrreiv dTepeol^ 
oyKois Kal KoiXoi<; Kal TravTo8aTroi<; (T')(fjfjbaai, TravTo8aTrd<; d<f>iricr€ 
^ft)va9" wctt' ivioTe BoKelv, oVep Xeyovaiv oi TepaToXoyovvTe<i, fiVKaadao 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 7 

TTjv yrjv. "HSt) Se koX vSara aveppdyr] yir/vofievcov aeoarficov' aX)C ov 
oia TOVTO aiTtov to vSoyp t/)? Kivrjaem'i, aXV av y e'^ iimroKr]'; t] 
Karmdev ^cd^rjrai to Trvevfia, iicelvo to klvovv iarlv, wairep rS>v 
KVfiaTtov 01 ave/j,oi, a\X' ou rd Kv/juara twv dvi/xcov icniv atria' eVet 
Kal rrfv yrjv outw? dv ti<; alrtwro tov irdOov;' dvarpeveTat yap a-eco/iievT), 
Kavdirep vScop (77 yap eKvyai^; avdrpe'^L^) rt^ eaTiv)' aW alna ravra 
fiev dfiipw ft)? vXt] (Trda-)^ei yap, aXV ov iroiel)' to Se Trvev/iia to? dp'X^i]' 
OTTOV 8' dfia KVfjba aeiafim yeyovev, acrcov, orav ivavria yiyvrjTai, rd 
TTvevfiara. Touto 8e yiyverai, orav to cretoi/ rT]v yrjv 7rvev/j,a (f)epo- 
fjtevqv VTT dWov Trvevfiaro'i rfjv 6d\acra-r)v, aTTwaai, fiev oXcd? fit) 
Svv7}rar irpowOovv 8e Kal a-varreWov eh ravrov avvadpoCa-rj TToXKrjv' 
Tore ydp dvayKalov r^rrrjOevro'i rovrov rov 7rv€vp^aro<; ddpoav d)dov/j,evr]V 
viro rov ivavriov 7rvev/iaro<; i/cprjyvvaOai Kal rroielv rov KaraKXvcrfiov. 
'Kyivero Be rovro Kal rrepl A.')(aLav e^co fiev ydp rjv p-oto?, e'/ce? Se 
/Sopiaf. Ni^ve/Ata? Be yevofievTj^, Kal pvevro^ etaw rov dve/xov, iyevero 
to, re Kvfjua Kal 6 aeia-fib'i dfia' Kal /j,dWov Bid ro rrjv 6d\arrav firj 
SiBovai Biairvoijv rw vrro rr)v yrjv Q}p/j,T]/j,iva) rrvevixari, aXX, avrij>pdrreiv. 
^Airo^ia^ofjieva ydp dWrfXa, to fiev rrvevfjia rov creiafiov eiroirjcrev, rj 
Be viroaracnii rov KVfiaro<i rov KaraxXvar/xov. KaTa fj,€po<i Be yiyvovrai 
01 aeia-fjiol t^? yrj<;, Kal TroWaKi^ eirl fiiKpov roirov oi S' dvefioi ov 
Kard fiepo<;. K.ard fiepo<i fiev, orav at dvaOvfiida-ei^ ai Kara rov 
roTTov avrbv Kal rov yeirvicovra avveXdcocriv eh ev' (ocnrep Kai rovt 
avjQioix; e<f>afj,ev ylyvecrOai, Kal rd<i u7re/30/x/3pta? rd<; Kard /Mepo<}. Kal 
ol fiev (xeicTfiol yiyvovrai Bid rovrov rov rpoirov ol K avefioi, ov. Ta 
fiev ydp ev r^ yfj rrjv dp')(r]v e')(ei, wcrr e^' ev aTrao-a? opfidv 6 S' rjXio'i 
ovy ofioiaf Bvvarar rd<; Be fierecopov; fidWov, ware pelv, orav ap^^rjv 
Xa^Qxriv diro rfj^ rov rfkiov <f)opd^ rfBrj Kara rd<; Bia^opa<; rwv tottcuv, 
i(f) ev. "Orav fiev ovv y rroXv to rrvevfia, Kivei rr)v yrjv, wairep dv 6 
Tp6fio<}, cttI ifKdro'i fiev, yiyverai S" oktyaKif Kal Kara riva<; tottou?, 
olov 6 (r<l)vyfid<i, dvco Kal Karadev' Bib Kal eXarrovdKi<; creiet rovrov rov 
rpoTTOV ov ydp paBiov ovrco iroXKrjv crvveXdeiv apx^jV eirl firJK0<i yap 
iroWarrXaaia rfj<; drrb rov ^ddovf, r) BiaKpicri^. "Ottov 8' dv yevrjrao 
TOiovTO<; aeia-fioii, eTrnroXdl^ei rrXrjdo^ XiOcov, Mcnrep ratv ev roh XiKvoi^ 
dva^parofievmv. Towtov ydp rov rpoirov yevofievov aeicrfiov ra rrept, 
^iirvXov dverparrrf Kal ro ^Xeypaiov KaXovfievov ireBiov, Kai ra irepi, 
rrfV AiyvcrrtKTfv '^copav. 'Ev Be rah vr](TOi<i rah rrovriai'i yjrrov 
yvyverai aei<rfi6<;, rwv rrpocryeiwv. To ydp irXrjOo'i t^? daXdrrr]^ 
Kara^^^v^ei rd<i dvadvfiidaei<i, Kal KotXvei ra> /3dpei, Kai airo^ia^erai. 
"En Be pet, Kal ov aeierai Kparovfievr) vrrb twv rrvevfiaTcov. Kal Bid 
TO TToXuv eireyeiv roirov, ovk eh ravrrjv, dXX^ e« ravrr}<i at, dva6vfiiaaei<i 
y'vyvovrai, Kai ravrai<; dKoXovdovaiv ai e« rrj<i yrj<;. At S" iyyv<; tj)? 
■ffireipov vqaoi fiopiov elai rrj<; yireipov. To ydp fiera^ii Bia fiiKporrjra 
ovBefiiav e^ei Bvvafiiv Ta? Be irovrUtf ovk ecrri Kivrjaai dvev rrj<; 
6aXarrr]<i oXt]^, v(}> ^? rrepiexofievai rvyxdvovaiv. Tiepi fiev ovv 
aeiafiSiV, Kal rh V <}>va-i<; avrwv, Kal Bid riv airiav yiyvovrai, Kai rrepi 
rS)V dXXoiv r(bv arvfi^aivovrmv rrepl avroV<;, eiprjrai crxeBov irepi twv 
fieyioTOiv." — 'AptaTOTe\ou<?, Trepl MerecopoXoyiKwv, B, KetfyaXaia rj 
Kal & . 

" TloWawt? Be Kal o-u77ev€9 irvevfia evKparov ev yfj irape^madev eh 



€ REPORT — 1850. 

fixr)(lov<i arjpa'yya'; avTfj<;, e^eBpov yevofievov ck twv olKeiav tottcov, 
•TToWd fJ'epr) avveKpdSavev. TloWa/ci? 8e iroXv yevofxevov e^coOev 
iyKareiX'^dr) toI<; TavTr)<; KocXcofiaai, koI aTroKkeocrOev i^oBov fMera 0ia<i 
avri)v avveriva^e, ^tjtovv e^oSov eavrw, Kal aTreipydaaTO rrddo'i tovto, 

Kokelv elw6ap,€v (Teia/juov twv Be (xetafj,(av, ol /xev et? ifkayia aeiovTa 
Kar o^eca^ ycovia^, iiriKkivrai KaXovvraf oi Be avco pnnovvTe<i, koX 
KaTW Kar 6p6d<i y(ovia<i, /SpdaTat' ol Be avv7]^i]aet^ 7roiovvTe<i el<; ra 
KoiXa, '^aa/JbariaC ol Be ^acr/Aara dvoiryovTe<i, koI yfjv dvappr)yvvvT€<;, 
prjKrai KoXovvrai. Tovtcov Be, ol p,ev,Kal irvevfia 7rpoaava/3dWovaiv' 

01 Be, 7rerpa<i' ol Be, Trrfkov ol Be, 7rr]yd<; (^alvovcL Ta9 irpOTepov ovk 
ov(Ta<i' Ttve? Be, dvaTpeTrovre'i Kara fjbiav Trpocoaiv, ou? Kokovcrcv wara?' 
ol Be dva7rdX\ovTe<;, Kal rat? eh eKdrepov eyKklaeat koX dvaTrdXaeai 
BiopOovvreii del to aeiop-evov, 7raXfx,aTtat Xeyovrat, rpo/xM Tra^o? ofioiov 
atrepya^ofievQi." — ^ ApcaToreXov;, irepl K.6ap,ov, Ke^aXaiov S' *. 

Such are Aristotle's facts and opinions. The main difficulty of mastering 
his views, consists in the interpretation we put upon the word nvevpa. It is 
very difficult to discover whether by it he means, simply the wind, or some 
" universal life of the world," the expansive efforts of elastic gases, or merely 
some unknown force beneath, that which Humboldt calls " the reaction of 
the interior of a planet upon its exterior." I incline to adopt the latter view. 

The doctrines of the eloquent Seneca are next in ancient importance; they 
have been well said by Humboldt to contain the germ of almost everything 
that has been advanced in modern times as to volcanic action in its large sense. 

" Ideoque antequam terra moveatur, solet mugitus audiri, ventis in abdito 
tumultuantibus : nee enim aliter posset, ut ait noster Virgilius, 

'Sub pedibus mugire solum, et juga celsa moveri,' 

nisi hoc esset ventorum opus. Vices deinde hujus pugnae sunt; desinit ca- 
lidi congregatio, ac rursus eruptio. Tunc frigida compescuntur et succe- 
dunt, mox futura potentlora. Dum ergo alterna vis cursat, et ultro citroque 
spiritus commeat, terra concutitur." — Senec. Natur. Qiicest., lib. vi. 13. 

" Quidam ita existimant. Terra multis locis perforata est, nee tantum 
primes illos aditus habet, quos velut spiramenta ab initio sui recepit, sed 
multos illic casus imposuit. Allcubi diduxit, quidquid superne terreni erat, 
aqua: alia torrentes exedere, ilia aestibus magnis dirupta patuere. Per haec 
intervalla intrat spiritus : quem si inclusit mare, et altius adegit, nee fluctus 
retro abire permisit, tunc ille exitu simul redituque praecluso, volutatur. Et 
quia in rectum non potest tendere, quod illi naturale est, in sublime se in- 
tendit, et terram prementem diverberat. 

" Etiam nunc dicendum est, quod plerisque auctoribus placet, et in quod 
fortasse fiet discessio. Non esse terram sine spiritu, palam est. Non tantum 
illo dico, quo se tenet, ac partes sui jungit, qui inest etiam saxis mortuisque 
corporibus; sed illo dico vitali, et vegeto, et alente omnia. Hunc nisi ha- 
beret, quoraodo tot arbustis spiritum infunderet, non aliunde viventibus, et 
tot satis? Quemadmodum tam diversas radices, aliter atque aliter in se 
mersas foveret, quasdam summa receptas parte, quasdam altius tractas, nisi 
niultuni haberet animse, tam uiulta, tam varia generantis, et haustu atque 
alimento suo educantis ? Levibus adhuc argumentis ago. Totum hoc coelum, 
quod igneus aether, mundi summa pars, claudil, omnes hse stellai, quarum 
inveniri non potest numerus, omnis hie ccelestium ccetus, et, ut alia preeter- 

* See note at end. 



ON THE FACTS OF BARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 9 

earn, hie tarn prope a nobis agens cursum sol, omni terrarum arabitu non 
semel major, alimentum ex terrene trahunt, et inter se partiuntur; nee uUo 
alio seilicet, quam halitu terrarum sustinentur. Hoe illis alimentum, hie 
pactus est. Non posset autem tam niulta, tantaque, et seipsa majora, 
terra niitrire, nisi plena esset animse, quam per diem et noctem ab om- 
nibus partibus suis fundit. Fieri enim non potest, ut non multum illi 
Bupersit, ex qua tantura petitur ae sumitur ; et ad tempus quidem, quod 
exeat, naseitur. Nee enim esset perennis illi copia sutfecturi in tot coe- 
lestia spiritus, nisi invioem ista excurrerent, et in aliud alia solverentur. 
Sed tamen necesse est abundet ae plena sit, et ex condito proferat. Non 
est ergo dubium, quin multum spiritus interlateat, et caBca sub terra spatia 
aer latus obtineat. Quod si verum est, necesse est id saepe moveatur, quod 
re raobilissima plenum est. Numquid enim dubium esse potest cuiquam, 
quin nihil sit tam inquietum quam aer, tam versabile et agitatione gaudens?" 
— Natur. QucEst, lib. vi. 15, 16. 

" Maxima ergo causa est, propter quam terra moveatur, spiritus natura 
citus, et locum e loco mutans. Hie quamdiu non impellitur, et in vacanti 
spatio latet, jacet innoxius, nee circumjectis molestus est. Ubi ilium extrin- 
secus superveniens causa solicitat, compellitque et in arctum agit, scilicet ad- 
hue cedit tantum, et vagatur. Ubi exemta discedendi facultas est, et undique 
obsistitur, tunc, 

' magno cum murmure montis 

Circum claustra fremunt,' 

quae diu pulsata convellit ae jactat; eo acrior, quo cum valentiore mora luc- 
tatus est." — Natur. Qucest., lib. vi. 18. 

After Seneca we may at once transcribe the views of Pliny : — 

" Haustu aquae e puteo praesensisse ae praedixisse ibi terras niotum 

Et haec quidem arbitrio cujusque existimanda relinquantur ; ventos in causa 
esse non dubium reor. 

" Neque enim unquam intremiscunt terras nisi sopito mari, cceloque adeo 
tranquillo ut volatus avium non pendeant, subtracto omni spiritu qui vehit : 
pec unquam nisi post ventos, condito scilicet in venas et cava ejus occulta 
flatu. Neque aliud est in terra tremor quam in nube tonitruum; nee hiatus 
aliud quam cum fulmen erumpit : incluso spiritu luctante et ad libertatem 
exire nitente. 

" Varie itaque quatitur, et mira eduntur opera alibi prostratis mcenibus, alibi 
hiatu profundo haustis, alibi egestis molibus, alibi emissis amnibus: nonnun- 
quam etiam ignibus, calidisve fontibus, alibi averso fluminum cursu. Pro- 
cedit vero, comitaturque terribilis sonus, alias murmur, similius mugitibus, 
aut clamori humano, armorumve pulsantium fragori: pro qualitate ma- 
terias excipieiitis formaque vel eavernarum vel cuniculi per quem meat, exi- 
lius, grassante in angusto eodem rauco in recurvis, resultante in duris, fer- 
yente in humidis, fluctuante in stagnantibus, item fremente contra solida. 
Itaque et sine motu ssepe editur souus. Nee simplici modo quatitur, sed 
tremit vibratque. Hiatus vero alias remanet, ostendens quae sorbuit, alias 
oceultat ore compresso, rursusque ita inducto solo, ut nulla vestigia extent, 
urbibus plerumque devoratis, agrorumque tractu hausto. Maritima autem 
maxime quatiuntur. Nee montuosa tali malo carent. Exploratum est niihi 

Alpes, Apenninuraque saepius tremuisse Ideo Gallias et i^gyptus 

minime quatiuntur, quoniam hie aestatis causa obstat, illie hyemis 

. " Navigantes quoque sentiunt non dubia conjectura, sine flatu intumes- 
cente fluctu subito aut quatiente icti. Intremunt vero et in navibus posita 
aeque quam in asdificiis crepituque prasnuntiant : quin et volucres non 
impavidas sedentes. Est et in coelo signum prasceditque motu futuro, 



10 REPORT — 1850. 

aut interdiu, aut paulo post occasura sereno ceu tenuis linea nubis in Ion- 
gum porrectae spatium. Est et in puteis turbidior aqua nee sine odoris 
taedio. 

" Sicut in iisdem est remedium quale et crebri specus praebent : conceptum 
enini spiritum exhalant, quod in certis notatur oppidis quae minus quatiuntur, 
crebris ad eluviem cuniculis cavata. Multoqne sunt tutiora in iisdem illis 
quEe pendent : sicut Neapoli in Italia intelligitur, parte ejus quae solida est 
ad tales casus obnoxia. 

" Intissimi sunt aedificiorum fornices, anguli quoque parietum, postesque, 
alterno pulsu renitente. Et latere terreno facti parietes niinore noxa qua- 
tiuntur. Magna differentia est et in ipso genere motus ; pluribus siquidem 
modis quatitur. Intissimum est cum vibrat crispante aedificiorum crepitu : 
et cum intnmescit assurgens, alternoque motu residet: innoxium et cum 
concurrentia tecta contrario ictu arietant : quoniam alter motus alteri reni- 
titnr. Undantis inclinatio et fluctus more quaedara volutatio infesta est : aut 
cum in unam partem totus se motus impellit. 

"Desinunt autem tremores, cum ventus eniersit : sin vero duravere non 
ante quadraginta dies sistuntur: plerumque et tardius, utpote cum quidam 
annuo et biennii spatio duraverint. 

" Factum est et hoc semel, quod equidem in Etruscse disciplinai volumini- 

bus inveni, ingens terrarum portentum Namque montes duo inter se 

concurrerunt, crepitu maximo assultantcs, recedentesque inter eos flamma 

fumoque in coelum exeunte interdiu Eo concursu villas omnes elisae: 

animalia permulta quae intra fuerant exanimata sunt Non minus 

mirum ostentuni et nostra cognovit aetas, anno Neronis principis supremo 

pratis oleisque intercedente via publica in contrarias sedes trans- 

gressis in agro Marrucino 

"Fiunt simul cum terrae motu et inundationes maris, eodem videlicet 
spiritu infusi ac terrae residentis sinu recepti 

" Eadem nascentium causa terrarum est, cum idem ille spiritus, attoUendo 
potens solo non valuit erumpere. Nascuntur enim nee fluminum tantum in- 
vectu, sicut Echinades insulae ab Acheloo amne congestae, majorque pars 
JEgypti a Nilo, in quam a Pharo insula noctis et diei cursum fuisse Homero 
credimus ; sed et recessu maris, sicut eidem de Circeiis. 

"Quod et accidisse in Arabraciae portu decem raillium passuum inter- 
vallo et Atheniensium quinque millium ad Piraeeum menioratur, et Ephesi 
ubi quondam aedem Dianae alluebat. Herodoto quidem si credimus, mare 
fuit supra Memphini usque ad j^thiopum montes: itemque a planis Arabiae. 
Mare et circa Ilium, et tota Teuthrania quoque campos intulerit Maeander. 
Nascuntur et alio modo terrae ac repente in aliquo mari emergunt velut 
paria secura faciente natura, quaeque hauserit hiatus alio loco reddente."— 
Plin. Nat. Hist., lib. xi. 81, 89. 

And thus we may pass from classic times to the middle age of earthquake 
history. 

Multitudes of tracts, pamphlets and books, of the fifteenth, sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, exist on our subject, most of them recording some par- 
ticular earthquake, and straightway founding a theory thereupon; but others 
there are giving good resumes of all past knowledge of the subject, and a 
few of remarkable interest from the singularity or originality of their views. 
A mere list of these books would fill many pages ; and as in a second part 
of this Report I hope to present as perfect a bibliography as possible of earth- 
quakes, so I shall only notice here such of these works as having come under 
my notice, appear to be of more than ordinary interest, still proceeding in 
order of time. 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 11 

Liberti Fromondi, Coll. Louvainiensi Proff., was the author of a work on 
meteorology, ' Meteorologicorum Libri sex' (4to, Antwerp, 1527). The last 
chapter of his fourth book is dedicated to a good resume of all the ancient 
knowledge of earthquakes, divided under the heads of — 

1. Quae causa efficiens terrae motus. 

2. Species terrse motus. 

3. Quae loca obnoxia terrje motibus. 

4. De magnitudine et duratione terrae motus. 

5. Quae anni terapora maxime sentiunt terrae motus. 

6. Quae signa antecedentia terrse motus. 

7. EfFectus terras motus. 

8. Timor numinis causa finalis terrae motus. 

9. Comparatio cuniculorum nostrorum militarium cum terrae motu. 
As to the first cause, after noticing the old Greek notions of Neptune, 

^Yivvoaiyaiov kcu Seio-ix^oca, and several others of a mythological character, 
he agrees with Aristotle : — 

" Sententla Aristotelis et verissima est, spiritum subterraneum causam esse 
terrae motus effectricem. Probatur, quia quoties terra pulsu pertunditur 
aut dehiscit, evolant halitus aliqui, saepe pestilentes, ignis etiam aliquando et 
cineres : ergo ille fuit qui terrain rupit et earn sufFodiendo concussit. Idem 
patebit post ex omnibus terrae motus affectibus." — p. 197. 

This passage is remarkable, as showing the sense in which "spiritus terrae," 
■TTvevixa, as used by Aristotle, is interpreted by Fromondi, i.e. as our volcanic 
force of elevation in Humboldt's extended sense, " the reaction of the interior 
upon the exterior of our planet." 

As to the species of earthquakes (art. 2), Fromondi thus classifies : — 

" Auctor libri de mundo et ex eo D. Damascenus, septem species acci- 
dentarias terrae motus fecit, i. e. 

1. Epiclintae sen inclinatores. 

2. Brastae seu efFervescentes. 

3. Chasmatiae. 

4. Rhectae (viam effringunt). 

5. Ostae (uno impulsu). 

6. Palmatiae (vibrant). 

7. Mycetiae (cum mugitu). 

" Aristoteles tamen duabus speciebus, pulsu et tremore, contentus fuit, sed 
tertiam inclinationem optime Seneca adjecit. 

" Pulsus est motus quo terra, instar arteriae animalis, diastole et systole 
vicissini erigitur et subsidit, vel generalius est qui terram succutit, unde a 
Seneca vocatur succussio. Tremor enim concutit et vibrat : inclinatio vero 
in unam solam partem totum onus suspendit septem autem alige spe- 
cies a diversitate eff'ectuum sumptae sunt et ad tres istas possunt revocari." . 

p. 201. 

Of the Rhectae, Fromondi says : — 

" Ceterum pulsus Rhectes et effractor, omnium sine dubio est pernicio- 
cissimus, deinde langa et undans inclinatio quae parietes et fastigia aedificio- 
rum extra fundamenti perpendiculum suspendit. Brevis autem et crispans 
tremor partem inclinatam statim contrario motu in sedem restituit, praevenit- 
que lapsum, unde Plinius, lib. ii. cap. 82, 'Latere etiam facti parietes minore 
noxa quatiuntur,' inquit." — p. 202. 

As to the places subject to earthquakes : — Egypt, he says, was very free 
from them, and so was Belgium, especially its southern and Dutch por- 



12 REPORT— 1850. 

tioris ; but he quotes from 'Gemma Cosmocritica,' lib. ii. cap. 1, an account 
of two earthquakes in Flanders in the years 1554 and 1569. — p. 204. 

On the magnitude and duration of earthquakes he gives several facts: — 
About the year 369, under Valentinian, and in 1116, nearly the whole world 
was shaken, and in 1601 Asia, Hungary, Germany, Italy, Gaul: " uno fere 
momento feruntur tremuisse." — p. 205. 

Of the duration he judiciously says, " incerta etiam est et inconstans." 
The earthquake of 1601 was forty days, that in Italy of 1538 fifteen days ac- 
cording to Fallopius, and again in 1570, one lasted for two whole years, accord- 
ing to Fabricius of Padua. Averroes says Spain shook for three whole years 
in his time. Aristotle says forty days was a usual time: " Scepe solennes 
fuisse." It is remarkable that this early author well distinguishes between 
the total duration of the earthquake and the time of and intermittence be- 
tween the several shocks — a distinction so much neglected by modern nar« 
rators. Fromondi enumerates several presages of earthquakes, and then 
classifies their effects into nine species in cap. 7 ; but his division is bad, 
mixing up primary, secondary, and doublj"^ secondary effects without di- 
stinction. 

Passing chapter 8th as not bearing on physical questions, the chapter 
9th is perhaps the most remarkable in Fromondi's book. In this he seeks 
to show the strong analogy that subsists between the effects of mines charged 
with gunpowder, and even of bombshells, when exploded, with those of 
earthquakes; and he gives a curious diagram to illustrate his views (p. 219, 
Antwerp Edit.), which however he does much more forcibly by referring to 
the effects observed at the blowing up of the bridge over the Scheldt at 
Antwerp by the Duke of Parma, by means of a lighter full of powder floated 
in under it and so exploded, and the blow of which was felt over great part 
of Holland ; and again by those observed in 1546, on occasion of the blow- 
ing up by a stroke of lightning of a tower at Malines, containing much gun- 
powder, when part of the town walls were shaken down by the blow, and the 
Avater so emptied out of the neighbouring river that the fish were found at a 
distance on dry land. 

' Del. Terraemoto dialogo del. Signor Lucio Maggio, Gentilhuomo Bo- 
lognese.' 4to, Bolog. 1571. A curious book with much observation, and a 
digest of all the ancient and then current opinions. Lib. i. gives a discussion 
of all the conceivable causes of earthquakes. 

In lib. iii. he enunciates eleven signs or presages of earthquakes, viz. 
1. Stillness of the air. 2. Gloom and obscurity of the sun, haze, &c. 
3. Eclipse of the sun. 4. Unusual conduct of animals. 5. Muddiness of 
wells. 6 and 7. Motions and swellings, or odours of the sea without any wind. 
8. Various sounds in the earth and air. 9. The appearance of columns of 
smoke or of exhalations in the air. 10. Comets. 11. Certain appearances 
of the sun on the night preceding the earthquake. These were partly 
the learned, partly the popular notions of his time in Italy, and continue 
nearly unaltered as matters of popular belief in that country to the present 
day. 

One of the most remarkable tracts or works on earthquakes M'hich I have 
discovered is that " Francisci Travagini, super observationibus a se partis, 
tempore ultimorum terrsemotuum, ac potissimum Ragusiani : Physica disqui- 
sitio, seu giri terrte diurni indicium." 4to, Lug. Bat. 1679 ; and also a Vene- 
tian edition of 1683 : a copy exists in the British Museum. It seems to be 
about the earliest attempt to found a physical theory of earthquake motion, 
and presents a singular instance of that coasting along very close to a truth 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 13 

which is yet never attained, of which the history of all observational science 
is full. 

The author begins by stating that a horrible earthquake had occurred on 
the 6th of April, 1667, which had almost thrown down the whole of Ragusa, 
and then proceeds in a very clear way to relate the observations which he 
had made during its occurrence, while at Venice, the earthquake having 
shaken the whole of Romagna, &c. He then describes the motions of the 
earth, " moveri multiplicatis vibrationibus, ab occidente ad orientem et 
reciproce ;" then the wave motions of the water in the Venetian canals, no- 
ticing the relations of the directions in length of these channels to that of 
the shock, the waves running along the canals, whose lengths were from west 
to east, and from bank to bank, or across all others. He then describes the 
directions in which belfries and other buildings were shaken ; then the mo- 
tions of pendulous bodies, as church lamps, and describes his own sensations 
as like those of a man in a boat in motion which had struck some obstacle. 

From all his observations he concludes, " Ecce igitur, mi lector, ex obser- 
vatione communi in eodem terrsemotu, quasi tres gradationes seu facies; 
prima qua motus illi est mixtus ex succussatione atque ex laterali ilia vibra- 
tione, ita tamen ut lateralis ista vibratio minor sit succussatione, quod accedit 
60 loco ubi maxime dessevit causa movens. 

" Altera qua motus iste etiamnum mixtus minore praefert succussationem, 
quam vibrationem, quod contingit in locis remotioribus abs causa movente, 
ubi plus minusve desidit ilia succussatio pro ratione, majoris aut niinoris suae 
remotionis causa movente. 

" Tertia denique, ubi sola lateralis ilia vibratio percipitur, quod contingit 
in locis remotissimis ab ilia causa movente, quae tamen sint intra sphaeram 
activitatis illius, cujusmodi erat Venetia nostra respectu motus Ragusaei." 

Having found that all the lateral vibrations were from west to east and the 
contrary, he proceeds further to inquire into the physical conditions that 
will satisfy the above complex motions, and without troubling himself much 
to inquire as to the nature of the first mover, but merely glancing at the 
opinions commonly held up to his time, he at once assumes any force what- 
ever to break through the crust of the earth. 

" Ex natura inquam cum semper tempore terraemotu aliquid videatur ali- 
cubi foras prorumpere certe quicquid illud sit ut sic foras prorumpat debet 
revera terram supra stantem succutere, sed nihil omnino quod prorumpendo 
debeat sic lateraliter eandem vibrare : enimvero ita si foret sequeretur totum 
terrae globum eodem motu tunc sic vibrari et ex aequo vibi'ari super axem 
suum, quod experientia ipsa arguit falsitatis manifestissimae." 

In illustration of this he gives the following figure : " Terra sit A, loco ubi 
sunt vel sulphura vel nitrum, vel aquas bullientes, 
&c., sit B. Sentiatur motus corporis exiturientis 
a D per B usque ad E. Si motus iste esset 
etiam vibrationis lateralis a B ad D, necessario 
deberet etiam terra vibrari a D in F, et ab F in 
E ob solidam continuitatem totius globi, secun- 
dum omnes suae partes." 

This last expression is a very remarkable one ; 
it is the first glimpse, as it were, that I can find in 
any author, of a true conception of pulse forces 
moving in solids, a notion that none of the ancient 
authors on earthquakes seem ever to have approached ; all of them insisting 
upon the cavernous and perforated interior of the globe being the condition 
essential to the transmission of earthquakes. 




14 



REPORT — 1850. 



He then proceeds to a diagram explanatory of the Ragusan earthquake : 
" Verum ut magis sibi constet haec nostra opinio, ac solidius firmetur, ipsi 
diligentius hie consideremus singulares omnes illos affectus qui supradictis 
materiis dum terram movent atque exitum suum moliuntur possunt adscribi 
quocumque modo debeant prorumpere : statuo igitur hanc figuram. ABCF 

sit hypogaeum seu locus 
subterraneus in quo 
materia ejusmodi reclu- 
ditur. Ragusium sit in 
D, Venetiae in E, Nea- 
polis in I — Pars terrae 
concussae sit in E, D, 
O, I hoc supposito — vi- 
detur certe quod spiri- 
tus ille exituriens de- 
beat quaquaversura 
sphaerice agere ac dif- 
fundi nempe ab A ad 
C, ad B et ad F, ita 
tanien ut hand dubie 
longe violentius feratur 
in altum secundum li- 
neam perpendicularem ad B quam per lineas obliquas AC et AF, cum de 
spirituum ejusmodi natura sit potissimum ut perpendiculariter in altum de- 
ferantur : atque adeo sua succussione deferent terram BD versus G, ut con- 
tigit Ragusii, ubi et exhalationes et flammae et odores ac similia visa sunt 
expirare." 

Travagini then proceeds further to develope the conditions according to 
Avhich the pulses (succussationes) will travel to the outward points of his 
diagram. He finds the vast mass of matter moved in the directions AH, 
AO, by the smaller force in these directions, a difficulty in his way ; and by 
another diagram (which I copy as an illustration of the peculiar mode of 
treatment of the author) he proposes to show the effect of distance upon the 
pulses and their mode of propagation : — 





A 




^ 




" Certura enim quod iterates dicti mallei ictus omnia vibrabuntur versus 
illam partem ad quam ictus illi adiguntur, et quod tamen ipsa tabula nulla- 
tenus usquam discessit a loco suo aut divelletur ab aliis tabulis contiguis." 
He then proceeds to show by another pair of diagrams, how that upward and 
downward pulses of the earth's crust may produce a lateral swing in bodies 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PH^ENGMENA. 15 

fixed upon it. Thus he says, let A represent the earth, whose surface, 
c 



DBI, is thrown up by some force so as to assume the form between D and 
I of DCI ; further, let there be two rods, DC, DB, jointed at D, which shall 
represent one-half of the elevated portion of the earth's crust, viz. DC, DB 
in the former figure. Now, he says, if motion towards and away from the 
rod A be given to the rod DC, round the point D, then will the pendulums 
fixed to the rod DC swing laterally. 

The question of partial elevations by earthquakes, and their presumed 
effects upon the length of the day at the place, are then discussed. The au- 
thor then proceeds to show how that, by the repetition of insensible pulses, 
motion may at last become sensible at a given point ; from this, and from 
the (unhappy) assumption that all earthquakes vibrate from west to east and 
the contrary, which he admits to be an essential condition upon which his 
final conclusion depends, he proceeds to make out an imaginary theory to 
account for all earthquakes as being related to a sudden or partial cessation of 
the earth's rotation, according to the Copernican view, taking care, however, 
to put in a precautionary clause, " Salva quam ecclesiasticis statutis debeo 
reverentia." On this conclusion we need make no remark, but in the au- 
thor's own words, from his Epistle Dedicatory, " Nempe quod cum isti tunc 
crederent motum ilium esse in suo capite, qui tamen fere erat in terra ipsa ; 
ego e contrario gyrum ilium quem mihi videor in terra conspicere, totum in 
capite meo perpetior." 

Although thus finally led off from all that is true in his subject and to 
an absurd conclusion, the work of Travagini is a truly remarkable one, from 
the peculiar inductive and experimental manner in which he treats a subject 
previously never regarded but as matter of the vaguest guessing, and from 
his appearing to be the first who obtained some imperfect glimpse of earth- 
quake motions being due to pulses, or wave forces, in solids. 

Hooke's discourses of earthquakes were delivered before the Royal 
Society about 1690, and were published in his posthumous works, by 
R. Waller, Sec. R.S., in 1705, fol. Though called a discourse of earth- 
quakes, these lectures are, in fact, a sort of system of physical geology, in 
which the forces, forms, conditions and effects of elevation of land are largely 
considered, but in which the ingenious author loses sight perfectly of what 
an earthquake is, and systematically confounds all sources, sorts and degrees 
of elevatory forces and their effects, with the transient action and secondary 
effects of earthquakes as rightly defined. These lectures are a repertory of 
much valuable information and thought to the geologist, but add little 
indeed to the subject of their title. Hooke divides the effects of earthquakes 
into four sorts ; viz 

The first sort or genus. 
1st species.— The raising a considerable part of a country which before 



16 REPORT 1850. 

lay level with the sea, many feet, nay sometimes many fathoms above 

its former height. 
2nd species. — The raising of a considerable part of the bottom of the 

sea, and making it lie above the surface of the water, by which means 

divers islands have been generated and produced. 
3rd species. — Raising considerable mountains out of a plain or level 

country. 
4th species. — The raising of the parts of the earth by the throwing on 

of a great access of new earth, and for burying the former surface 

under a covering of new earth many fathoms thick. 

The second sort or genus, 

1st species. — A sinking of some part of the earth's surface lying a good 
way inland, and converting it into a lake of almost unmeasurable 
depth. 

2nd species. — The sinking of a considerable part of the plain land near 
to the sea below its former level, so that the adjoining sea comes in 
and overflows it. 

3rd species. — A sinking of the parts of the bottom of the sea much 
lower, and creating therein vast vorages and abysses. 

4th species. — A making bare or uncovering divers parts of the earth 
which were before a good way below the surface, and this either by 
suddenly throwing away these upper parts by some subterraneous 
motion, or else by washing them away by some kind of eruption of 
waters from unusual places vomited out by some earthquake. 

The third sort or genus. 

Species 1. — Are the subversions, conversions, and transpositions of the 
parts of the earth. 

The fourth sort or genus. 

Species 1. — Are liquefaction, baking, calcining, petrifaction, transfor- 
mation, sublimation, distillation, &c. 

So much will serve for a sample of Hooke, who in fact uses earthquake in 
a sense commensurate with all geological action on the earth's surface; and 
it is perhaps rather in this sense, than in its strict one, that he comes to the 
true conclusion that " there is no country almost in the world but has been 
some time or other shaken by earthquakes." — p. 311. 

He even gives an undue importance to his own sense of the word. Thus 
he supposes that elevations by earthquakes may have changed the centre of 
gravity of the earth and the length of the year. 

One sentence will suffice to give a notion of Woodward's views : — 

" This subterranean heat or fire being in any part of the earth stopt by 
some accidental glut or obstruction in the passages through which it used to 
ascend, and being preternaturally assembled in great quantity into one place, 
causes a great rarefaction and intumescence of the water of the abyss, putting 
it into very great commotions ; and making the like effort upon the earth 
expanded upon the face of the abyss, occasions that agitation and concussion 
which we call an earthquake." — Woodward, Nat. Hist., 1695. 

' The Earth twice shaken wonderfully, or an analogical Discourse of Earth- 
quakes,' by J. D. R. 4to, Lond. 1693-94, said to be by Rouffional, a French 
Protestant minister, a curious and learned tract, with ten corollaries discussed. 
He previously inquires, — Cap. 1. How many sorts of earthquakes there are. 
Cap. 2. What was the nearest natural cause of this earthquake. Cap. 3. 



ON THE PACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 17 

An earthquake hath not properly an end, yet its chief ends are sickness, 
inundation and sterility. Cap. 4. An examination of how earthquakes differ 
and agree in form and second causes, and in regard to aspects oi' the planets. 
The ten corollaries are — 

1. Whether it be true, as Pliny affirms, that France and Egypt are sel- 
dom shaken, by reason of the heat and cold, &c. 

2. Why rivers decrease by earthquakes. 

3. Why those places lying on or encompassed by sea and rivers are ob- 
noxious to earthquakes. 

4. What credit may be given to Plato of the island Atlantis drowned by 
an earthquake. 

5. Whether exterior wind entering the earth from above be able to move it. 

6. Whether subterraneous exhalations are generated by the sun's beams. 

7. Whether some more solemn times of earthquakes are to be appointed 
for any certain reason. In this he discusses Aristotle's opinion of the 
Equinoxes, and quotes ' Agricola de Metal.' p. 29, against him. 

8. Why birds are frightened by an earthquake. 

9. Whether vaults in houses are safest from earthquakes. 

10. If the late earthquake be so ended that the same countries through 
which it went are secure from its iteration. He decides in the negative, 
giving a long list of authorities for earthquakes occurring repeatedly in 
the same places, with short intervals and continuing for long periods. 

In the year 1693, John Flamsteed published a letter, in which, after de- 
tailini; with a sort of method, some of the facts observed, he proposes a 
physical theory of earthquakes. His views, however, are abundantly vague 
and obscure ; he supposes some setherial explosive matter to exist in the 
atmosphere, by the occasional firing of which, the shock is given to buildings, 
ships, &c. Nothing but the name of the illustrious author would make this 
pamphlet deserve notice. 

There is a curious book by Hdttinger (Hottingeri Dissertationes de Terras 
Motu), partly scientific, partly theological. The title of one dissertation 
(the fourth) will give an idea of the book : — 

" Unde Terras motus immittantur, sintne fortuna pure naturales an Ger;- 
Xaroi." 

Amontons (Mem. Acad, des Sciences, 1703) endeavoured to prove that 
atmospheric air might be expanded by heat to a suflScient degree of pressure, 
when confined under the earth, to produce volcanic effects, and those of 
earthquakes. Stukeley's arguments, against this and all other views, that 
assume the direct expansion of elastic fluids as the immediate cause of earth- 
quakes, derived from a consideration of the vast areas shaken at once by the 
latter, are worthy of perusal, though not free from error, and intended to 
sustain his own views of their electrical origin only. 

That electricity Ln some unknown undescribed and incomprehensible way 
was the direct cause of earthquakes, was specially pleaded for by Stukeley, 
Percival, Beccaria, Priestley and several others, whose imaginations, filled 
with the power and grandeur of the electrical phaenomena, which their expe- 
riments perpetually brought before them, and adapting in a loose and con- 
fused way some of the electrical phaenomena that are constantly observed to 
accompany the secondary effects of great earthquakes, referred the whole to 
the agency of their favourite force, and were satisfied. 

Their precise works and words need not be quoted. 

The Rev. John Mitchell, Fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge, published 
a paper on earthquakes, in the 51st volume of the Philosophical Transactions, 
in 1760, which, up to a very recent date, was by far the most important and 

1850. c 



18 REPORT— 1850. 

remarkable work upon the subject, though very much overlooked. His 
principal views are best given in his own words. 

He commences by refuting the notion, that there is any necessary con- 
nection between the air, or the weatiier, or state of moon and tide and earth- 
quakes. 

And assuming then that they have an origin under ground, he enunciates 
the following propositions, sustaining eacli with its appropriate facts: — 

1st. The same places are subject to returns of earthquakes, not only at 
small intervals for some time after any considerable one has hap- 
pened, but also at greater intervals for some ages. 
2nd. Those places that are in the neighbourhood of burning mountains 
are always subject to frequent earthquakes, and the eruptions of those 
mountains, when violent, are generally attended with them. 
3rd. The motion of the earth in earthquakes is partly tremulous and 
partly propagated by waves, which succeed one another, sometimes at 
larger and sometimes at smaller distances ; and this latter motion ia 
generally propagated much further than the former. 
4th. It is observed in places wliich are subject to frequent earthquakes, 
that they generally come to one and the same place, from the same 
point of the compass. I may add also, that the velocity with which 
they proceed (as far as one can collect it from the accounts) is the 
same, but the velocity of earthquakes of different countries is very 
different. 
5th. A great earthquake (such as the Lisbon one) has been succeeded 
by several local ones since, the extent of which has been much less. 
From a discussion then of the known facts of volcanoes, he concludes, 
" That in all probability the fires of volcanoes produce earthquakes. That, 
however, the vibrations, &c. felt close to volcanic foci, either at their first 
formation or after, are not of the precise nature of earthquakes, or at least, 
differ in degree from them: and that — 

" The greater earthquakes seem rather to be occasioned by other fires that 
lie deeper in the same tract of country, and the eruptions of volcanoes which 
happen at the same time with earthquakes, may with more probability be 
ascribed to those earthquakes, than the earthquakes to the eruptions, when- 
ever, at least, the earthquakes are of any considerable extent." 

He then proceeds to give, considering the time he wrote, a wonderfully 
large and accurate view of the general conformation of the superficial crust 
of the earth, its arrangement into strata and beds, their relative position and 
co-ordination at distant places as to horizon, the nature of faults, dykes, &c., 
and from all he concludes that " from the want of correspondence in the 
fissures of the upper and lower strata, as well as on account of those strata 
which are little or not at all shattered, it will come to pass that the earth 
cannot easily be separated in a direction perpendicular to the horizon if we 
take any considerable portion of it together ; but in the horizontal direction, 
as there is little or no adhesion between one stratum and another, it may be 
separated without difficulty." 

After this he endeavours to show that the explosive power of volcanoes ii 
due to pent-up vapour or steam, produced by the contact of water with 
masses of incandescent matter in the earth ; that the alternate repose and 
activity of their action may be accounted for on this hypothesis, and that the 
expansive force is adequate to the phaenomena, &c. ; and having established 
this mechanism, he proceeds to announce the precise mode of formation and 
of propagation of the wave, in which he conceives earthquake motion to 
consist : he says, " As a small quantity of vapour almost instantly generated 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 19 

at some considerable depth below the surface of the earth will produce a 
vibratory motion, so a very large quantity (whether it be generated almost 
instantly or in any small portion of time) will produce a wave-like motion: 
the manner in which this wave-like motion will be propagated, may in some 
measure be represented by the following experiment: — 

" Suppose a large cloth or carpet (spread upon a floor) to be raised at one 
edge, and then suddenly brought down again to the floor, the air under it, 
being by this means propelled, will pass along till it escapes at the opposite 
side, raising the cloth in a wave all the way as it goes. In like manner a 
large quantity of vapour may be conceived to raise the earth in a wave as it 
passes along between the strata, which it may easily separate in a horizon- 
tal direction, there being, as I have said before, little or no cohesion between 
one stratum and another ; the part of the earth which is first raised being 
bent from its natural form will endeavour to restore itself by its elasticity, 
and the parts next to it beginning to have their weight supported by the 
vapour, which will insinuate itself under them, will be raised in their turn, 
till it either finds some vent, or is again condensed by the cold into water, 
and by that means prevented from proceeding any further." 

Several successive waves, he. then proposes to show, might be thus gene- 
rated, and their height will be greater the nearer they are to the point of 
their origin. 

In the third part of the paper he endeavours more minutely to describe 
the mechanism of the focus, as to how the water gains access ; why the roof 
should fall in, &c., and applies some of the facts or fancies to the recorded 
secondary conditions of earthquakes, and to the fluctuations of the sea, 
which result from them. And in the seventh section, he shows, that by in- 
vestigating the point of departure of various great sea-waves, when observed at 
distant points of arrival, after any great earthquake, whose origin is (as he 
supposes that of all great earthquakes to be) under the sea, we may find 
the point vertically over the focus of original disturbance. This he does as 
respects the great Lisbon earthquake, and shows a most remarkable percep- 
tion of the nature of the motion of waves of translation, far more than the state 
of exact knowledge of the subject at the time would have made us suppose 
possible. Lastly, he inquires whether it be then possible to determine any- 
thing as to the depth of the focus of disturbance below the surface, but 
thinks it can be only guessed at ; but that, if we could carefully observe and 
reckon the thickness of upturned strata at some great volcanoes, we should 
arrive at; it. 

Such is Mitchell's paper, which I have analysed at some length, from itS 
importance. It contains much that is useful, mixed with the leading fallacy 
as to the nature of the earthquake wave of shock. 

Two other works on the facts Of earthquakes require to be mentioned, 
viz. — ' The History and Philosophy of Earthquakes,' and ' Memoires Histo- 
riques et Physiques sur les Tremblemens de Terre,' par Mons. Bertrand, a 
la Haye, 1757. 

In the former, the facts of ten great earthquakes are recorded, and in 
the latter, those of Switzerland, and all such others as the author could col- 
lect. 

Bouguer, in his ' Voyage en Peru,' whither he accompanied the French 
academicians to measure an arc of the meridian, conceives volcanoes and 
earthquakes as one and the same, and " due to gaseous inflammations and 
explosions. The weakest shocks are those from the earth already shaken ; 
the strongest, those caused immediately by the inflammation, which are ana- 
logous to the roarings of the volcanoes, and which are repeated more or less 

c2 



20 REPORT 1850. 

frequently, according to the facility with which the materials take fire, and 
also as their volume has relation with the extent of the spaces in which they 
are enclosed." His views are nearly identical with those of Don Ulloa, but 
are more clearly expressed by the latter, who says — 

" The bursting of a new volcano causes a violent earthquake ; this tremu- 
lous motion, which we properly call an earthquake, does not so usually 
happen in case of a second eruption, when an aperture has been before 
made, or at least the motion is comparatively small." " Volcanoes owe their 
origin to sulphurous, nitrous, and other combustible substances in the bowels 
of the earth ; these, mixed and turned into a paste, with subterraneous waters, 
ferment and take fire (this was Lemeri's view) ; by dilating the contiguous 
wind or air its volume is so increased, as to produce the same effect as gun- 
powder fired in a narrow space." " The subterraneous noise proceeds from 
the ignition of the airs on exploding." 

Dolomieu's theories, as to the Calabrian earthquake of 1783, are not very 
different. " Interior waters, increased by those from the surface, may have 
run into the focus of ^Etna : they would in consequence be converted into 
very expansive vapour, and stril^e against every obstacle to their dilatation." 
He has previously shown that Calabria itself is not a volcanic country ; he 
therefore proceeds : — 

" Provided these should have met with channels conducting them to the 
cavities below Calabria, they would have been capable of occasioning all 
those convulsions of which 1 have given a description." 

Sir W. Hamilton concludes from all his examinations of the Calabrian 
earthquakes, that " some great chemical operation of the nature of the vol- 
canic sort was the cause." (Phil. Trans, vol. Ixxiii.) 

Thus the older writers fix their regards wholly upon the presumed focus 
or origin of the explosion, as Dolomieu calls it, but none, except Mitchell, 
attempt to show any distinct train of causes by which the forces here origi- 
nating, in a centre of volcanic activity, are transferred and become opera- 
tive at vast distances and in lands not subject to volcanic action. Nor, it 
must be confessed, have modern authors, even Humboldt, been much more 
successful in this, or in shaping to themselves a distinct idea of what the 
nature of the earthquake shock itself is. The words — " a trembling," " a 
vibration," " a concussion," " a movement," " an undulation," are to be found 
scattered through the narratives of earthquakes, but even amongst scientific 
authors these records refer merely to the effect upon their senses, of the 
motions of the earth's surface, and not to any definite or precise idea, either 
of the origin or the mode of propagation of the shock. 

Humboldt in his latest work, the ' Cosmos,' as well as in his ' Personal 
Narrative,' does not express himself with clearness upon earthquake move- 
ments. He seems disposed at one place to adopt the theory of Mitchell im- 
plicitly ; yet at another, one fancies he has some notion of the earth-shock 
being a wave of elastic compression, and therefore propagated in a totally 
different manner from that of the subteraneous lava tidal wave, moving the 
solid crust above it, in which Mitchell's theory consists : his clearest expres- 
sion of view is perhaps in the following sentence : — " The filling up of fissures 
■with crystalline matter interferes by degrees with the free escape of vapours, 
which confined become operative through their tension in three ways 
— concussively, explosively, or suddenly up and down, and as first observed 
in a large portion of Sweden, lifiingly or continuously, and only in a long 
period of time perceptibly altering the level of the sea and land." Here he 
confounds as thoroughly as the ancient authors, the direct effects in perma- 
nent elevation of land by volcanic or other action from beneath, with the 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 21 

transient effects of the earthquake which may result from such actions. 
He does not attempt to assign the law of motion of any one of the several 
orders or sorts of earthquake waves. The shocks, he says, are either hori- 
zontal and vertical, or rotatory and vorticose in direction ; the two former, 
he says, are always observed together — the latter is rare ; several secondary 
effects of earthquake action, such as twisting of buildings or their parts, 
landslips, &c. he gives an erroneous account of. 

But this is rather anticipating as to date : before concluding, however, the 
remarks that I am called upon to make upon the views of Humboldt, I would 
wish to add that they are made with the fullest appreciation of that almost 
universal and yet searching genius, that derives its resources from, and il- 
lustrates nearly every portion of creation. 

Bakewell, who wrote his 'Introduction to Geology' as early as 1813, gives 
in his lOth chapter an account of earthquakes, which, for his day, is lumi- 
nous and good. He briefly and correctly describes the principal phaenomena; 
traces a distinct connection between volcanic and earthquake effects ; 
proposes the sudden evolution of steam by contact of water with igneous 
matter at great depths as the immediate cause of both ; conceives the horrid 
noises as due to the rending of rocks or strata, and seems to have had some 
obscure notion that the internal heat of our planet might be independent of 
any form of combustion. 

In 1835, a copious and exceedingly strange work, the ' Theorie des Vol- 
cans,' par le Compte A. de Bylandt Palstercamp, appeared at Paris, 3 vols. 
Svo, with fol. atlas. 

We have here nothing to do with the author's singular attempt to build up 
a theory of volcanic action, indeed almost a cosmogony, from considerations 
derived from the relations and reactions on our planet, of light, heat, elec- 
tricity and magnetism. With all its wildness and incoherence it carries per- 
haps a dim fore-shadowing of truth. 

In his first volume, p. 373 to 392, he devotes a section to the consideration 
of earthquakes, as derivative effects of volcanoes. This, like indeed every 
other part of the book, bears the peculiarity of containing some truths, or 
quasi truths, much in advance of the author's day, mixed with a great deal of 
absolute error. 

He clearly recognises earthquakes as merely one class of effects due to 
volcanic action ; but although he uses the word vibration, &c., and has even 
arrived at some of the phaenomena resulting from wave motion clearly enough, 
it is obvious that he has formed no clear idea of pulses transmitted through 
elastic media in virtue of the elasticity of the solids themselves ; his vibrations, 
and their origin, are nearly analogous to those of Mitchell. Shocks or 
blows transmitted through and from cavities under the earth, suddenly filled 
or emptied of aeriform fluids, which actually lift up and again drop down the 
walls of these cavities in rising and falling, originate and constitute Bylandt's 
shock. So far, therefore, he is not beyond his predecessors. But further: — ■ 

" Etablissons d'abord comme principe que les effets des tremblemens de 
terre sont toujours contradictoires aux causes qui les produisent, et diriges 
dans le sens inverse, et que les raemes causes produisent des effets contra- 
dictoires dans les lieux opposes." " Les causes des tremblemens de terre 
resident toujours dans I'interieure de la terre et a une certaine profondeur. 
Or en elevant une perpendiculaire du fond de cette profondeur et en trans- 
mettant le mouvement du point le plus bas au plus eleve, I'effet sera celui 
d'un pendule, c'est-a-dire contradictoire entre les deux extremites. 

" Lorsqu'on a senti a la surface une vibration ou oscillation dans la direc- 



22 REPORT 1850. 

tion du nord au sud, il fallait replier la cause vers sa veritable direction qui 
etait du sud au nord." 

He divides earthquake movements into three classes — " en verticmix ou 
directs, en horizontaux ou indirects, et en circulaires ou accidentels, comme ni 
tenant a aucune cause, ni a aucun systeme regulier." 

After explaining that by the first he means direct upward and downward 
motion over the volcanic centx-e, "et proviennent du goufleraent de la matiere," 
he proceeds to the horizontal motions : — 

" Ce mouvement ondulatoire ressemble aux vagues de la mer, et ne dure, 
comme tous les tremblemens de terre, que peu d'instans; du moment ou 
I'elevation s'est fait, elle s'abaisse de suite, et ne reste jamais permanente. 
Un tremblement de terre quelque violent qu'il soit ne peut elever le terrain 
que par ondulation de 4 a 5 pieds au plus." 

He here, and in the succeeding passage, clearly recognizes the difference so 
usually overlooked, betvveen the transient elevation, and as immediate de- 
pression of surface due to the passage of the earthquake shock, and the per- 
manent elevation produced directly by volcanic action from beneath. 

He seems to have had small knowledge of the facts of great sea-waves ; 
and seems (p. 378) to consider them sufficiently explained by " the contra- 
dictory effects " in producing a surge, of severe shocks taking place under 
the sea bottom. 

Although horizontal shocks are indirect and only " la consequence d'une 
cause directe ou de son contrecoup," he considers they produce more 
formidable effects than the direct or vertical ones ; but he does not get at 
the true cause : he says, " cela depend des corps conducteurs et de la forma- 
tion du sol, car il existe dans I'interieur de la terre d'immenses cavernes sur 
lesquelles la croute superficielle n'est pour ainsi dire quesuspendue ;" and a 
violent direct shock, he thinks may throw these fragile crusts down at a 
distance, and bury cities, &c. 

And as to the third class, or " secousses accidentelles," he is of opinion 
that they are due only to the occasional and capricious falling in of such 
cavities, and are in fact not properly a part of earthquake phaenomena at all 
— an easy way of disposing of the question. 

One of the most remarkable of the author's conclusions is, that, — " La 
distance a laquelle les tremblemens de terre etendent leur chocs, depend 
en premier lieu de la profondeur du foyer dans lequel la commotion s'est 
developpee, en second lieu de la liaison des conducteurs du mouvement dans 
I'interieur de la terre." 

It is to be borne in mind that his "conducteurs" are not solid vibratory 
bodies, but always hollow tubes or ducts in the interior of the cavernous 
earth. 

in page 385, in a passage too long for transcript, Bylandt well insists upon 
the impossibility of earthquakes being properly considered as causes or 
means of geologic elevation, but simply effects and symptoms of the action 
elsewhere of the great elevatory forces acting slowly from beneath. 

He proceeds: — " Maisapres avoir compare les tremblemens de terre entre 
eux, definissons les mathematiquement, et eprouvons que les effets des tremble- 
mens de terre, sont entre eux en raison inverse du carre de dista?ice de chaque 
point de la surface au centre du foyer." Those who desire to know the 
author's demonstration of this, and that the effects of earthquake shocks are in 
the opposite direction to the shocks themselves (owing to the inertia of 
the bodies overthrown), must refer to the work itself, and to the very curious 
atlas of plates and diagrams accompanying it. One of Bylandt's diagrams, 



ON THE FACTS OF EABTHaUAKE PHENOMENA. 



23 



however, is so strange a mingling of the false and the true, that it is worth 
transcription. 




Volcanic focus. 



The title given to this diagram, in which, it is to be observed, the lines 
divergent from the centre do not merely represent lines of force, but channels 
of subterraneous volcanic communication, is, " Les effets des tremblemens 
de terre sont entr'eux en raison inverse du quarre des distances de chaque 
point de la surface au centre du foyer et leur produits seront contradictoires, 
dans les lieux opposes," that is, the towers at both sides will fall inwards. — 
(Bylandt, planche 7.) 

Dr. Young, in his lectures upon Natural Philosophy, casually notices the 
probability that earthquake motions are vibratory, and are analogous to those 
of sound, &c. This view, however, was first put, I believe, in a definite form 
by Gay-Lussac, at the termination of an exceedingly able paper on the 
chemical theories of volcanoes, in the ' Annales de Chimie:' he says — 

" Un tremblement de terre comme I'a tres bien dit le Dr. Young est ana- 
logue a un tremblement d' air, c'est une tres fort onde sonore, excite dans la 
masse solide de la terre par une commotion quelconque, qui s'y propage avec 
la meme vitesse que le son s'y propagerait. Ce qui surprend dans ce grand 
et terrible phenomene de la nature c'est I'etendue immense a laquelle il se 
fait sentir les ravages qu'il produit et la puissance de la cause qu'il faut lui 
iupposer. 

" Mais on n'a pas assez fait attention au branlement facile de toutes les 
particules d'une masse solide. Le choc produit par la tete d'une epingle, 
a I'un des bouts d'une longue poutre, fait vibrer toutes ses fibres, et se transmet 
distinctemeut a I'autre bout a une oreille attentive. Le mouvement d'une 
voiture sur le pave ebranle les plus vastes edifices et se communique a 
travers des masses considerables, comme dans les carrieres profondes au 
(Jessous de Paris. Qu' y aurait il done d'etonnant qu'une commotion tres 
forte dans les entrailles de la terre la fit trembler dans un rayon de plusieurs 
centaines de lieues ? D'apres la loi de transmission du mouvement dans les 
corps elastiques lacouche extreme ne trouvant pas a transmettre son mouve- 
ment a d'autres couches, tend a se detacher de la masse ebranlee; de la 
meme maniere que dans une file de billes, dont la premiere est frappee dans 
le sens des contacts, la derniere seule se detache et prend du mouvement. 
C'est ainsi que je consols les effets des tremblemens a la surface de la terre, 
et comment j'expliquerais leur grand diversite en prenant d'ailleurs en con- 
sideration, avec M. De Humboldt, la nature du sol et les solutions de conti- 
nuite que peuvent s'y trouver. 

" En un mot, les tremblemens de terre ne sont que la propagation d'une 
commotion a travers la masse de la terre, tellement, independante des cavites 
aouterraines, qu'elle s'etendrait d'autant plus loin que la terre serait plus 
homogene." — Annul, de Chim. vol. xxii. p. 4-28, 429. 

In Von Hoff's ' Geschichte der Veranderungen der Erdoberflache,' 5 Theil, 
Gotha, 1822 to 1841, much information as to earthquakes is to be found; 



24 iiEPORT — 1850. 

the author Iiowever limits himself almost whoUj' to the descriptive character 
which a history of the earth's superficial changes alone requires, and says 
little of theory, and as 1 shall have large occasion to refer to him hereafter in 
reference to earthquake catalogues, the present notice of his work may here 
suffice. 

Hoffman and Kries may also be noticed as German authors on earthquakes. 

In 184'.'5, the Professors H. D. and W. B. Rogers of America commu- 
nicated a paper to the British Association of rather an elaborate character 
upon the phaenomena and theory of earthquakes. They adopt Mitchell's 
view, and suppose the earth-wave an actual fold of the solid crust, produced 
by a lava-wave of translation on the surface of the molten matter beneath. 

They infer from two great earthquakes that this moves at from 27 to 30 
miles per minute, either in nearly straight or in curved lines, according to 
the form and position of the focus or points of volcanic action. 

The sea-waves of earthquakes they suppose to be broad undulations of 
the Avater moving in the same direction with the pulsation of the crust 
and corresponding in breadth with that of the undulations of the earth's 
crust ; yet these, say they, moved at the rate of 3| miles per minute, in the 
case of the New England earthquake of 1756, and of 5 miles per minute in 
that of Lisbon ; a striking inconsistency with the velocity previously assigned 
to the earth -wave. 

The tremor or vibratory jar accompanying the great shock or earth-wave, 
they suppose arises from the crushing of the strata through which the shock 
passes. 

In 184-4 appeared Mr. Scott Russell's full report upon sea and other waves, 
the laws developed in which as to the motions of waves of translation had an 
important effect upon the immediately subsequent advance towards a com- 
plete and true theory of earthquake phaenomena. 

In February 1846, the author's paper upon the dynamics of earthquakes 
was read to the Royal Irish Academy, and published in vol. xxi. part 1 of 
the Transactions of that Academy, in which the first attempt was made to 
establish upon strict physical bases a theory that should embrace and account 
for all the recorded plicEnomena of earthquakes, both on land and sea. How 
far he has succeeded in this, futurity must decide. 

In June 1847, Mr. Hopkins produced his report on the theories of ele- 
vation and earthquakes (Trans. Brit. Assoc). The principal features of 
this paper are, a digest of his previously published mathematical papers 
on the formation of fissures, &c. by elevations and depressions; a popular 
resume of the acknowledged laws of formation and propagation of elastic and 
fluid waves, and the partially placing in a mathematical dress the author's 
theory of earthquake motions as developed in the paper last alluded to ; to 
this is to be added a demonstration of a method for finding analytically the 
depth of the centre of disturbance, from observations made with a seismometer, 
such as that described by the author. (Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xxi.) 

I have thus brought the literature of earthquakes down to the present 
time ; in doing so I would not be misunderstood as attempting a complete ac- 
count thereof, but such merely as is sufficient to mark the progress of human 
knowledge of our subject ; I have therefore omitted to notice the able resumes 
of such literature given by Sir C. Lyell (Prin. Geol. chap. 28 to 33), and by 
several otiier authors. Neither have I at all adverted to the works of authors 
writing specially of volcanoes, as, although connected with our subject, not 
properly belonging to it. 

I now proceed to the more immediate subject of this Report. 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHJBNOMENA. 25 

In commencing a Report upon the facts of earthquakes, it would be de- 
sirable, if possible, first to discuss and state the distribution of their occur- 
rence both in time and in space upon the earth : for either of these, however, 
complete data are not yet in existence ; no catalogue of eai-thquakes has ever 
yet been compiled which endeavours to embrace in number and condi- 
tion those recorded even since the invention o( printing. The completest 
catalogue that could be compiled would not give much more than the places 
convulsed and the dates of the occurrence approximately; yet such would 
not be without important use, and I have accordingly made considerable 
progress in the laborious task of having such a catalogue prepared, and 
trust to be enabled to give the results of its completion and discussion in a 
second part of the present Report at a future meeting. Meanwhile I may 
state (provisionally) that 

1st. Earthquakes occur over all parts of the earth's surface, both 
on land and under the ocean. 

Egypt was one of the countries long believed to be free from earthquakes, 
from which no doubt, like many other parts of the world, it enjoyed during 
a long historical period a considerable immunity. But that even Egypt has 
been absolutely exempt from earthquakes, seems disproved by the scattering 
of the gigantic ruins of the Memnonium, bearing all the marks of having 
been thus overthrown, and by the distinct testimony of Strabo, that one 
of the two colossal figures of the plain of Thebes was commonly said in his 
time to have been overthrown by an earthquake : — 

" eyravdu Be Svo'iv KoXocrerwv ovrwv fiovoXidwv aX\{]X-<t)v ir\r)aiov, 6 fiey 
iTiiJ^erai, tov S' erepov to. avio fiepr) to. awo ttjs KadeSpas irexTWKe aeiaiiov 
yeyridei'Tos, i'ls (paai." — Strab. Her. Geogr. lib. xvii. 

The question of earthquakes occurring in Egypt is set at rest however by 
Bishop Pocock the traveller, who tells us in his 'Description of Egypt,'p. 195, 

" It has hardly been known that they had any earthquakes in Egypt, but 
in January 1740 they had three great shocks, which threw down mosques 
and several houses." 

2nd. They occur in all time, at all seasons, and at all hours of 
day and night. 

So that were we able to survey this planet's history in all time, we should 
find no portion of its crust which had not at some period or other been 
convulsed by earthquakes ; and could we have intelligence constantly from 
over its entire surface, we should find that no day passed free from one or 
many of these phaenomena. 

Seneca, in a passage as remarkable for its truth as for the dignity of its 
expression, affirms his belief in the universal dominion of change, and of 
earthquakes over all the earth : — 

" Omnia ejusdem sortis sunt, etsi nondum mota tamen mobilia; erramus 
enim si uUam terrarum partem exceptam immunemque ab hoc periculo 
credimus : omnes sub eadem jacent lege, nihil ita ut immobile esset natura 
concepit: alia temporibus aliis cadunt; et quemadmodum in urbibus magnis 
nunc haec domus, nunc ilia suspenditur, ita in hoc orbe terrarum, nunc haec 
pars facit vitium, nunc ilia. Tyrus aliquando infamis ruinis fuit. Asia duo- 
decim urbes simul perdidit. Anno priore Achaiam et Macedoniam quse- 
cunque est ista vis mali quae incurrit nunc Campaniam laesit. Circuit fatum, 
et siquid diu prasteriit repetit. Quaedam rarius solicitat, ssepius qusedam : 
nihil immune esse et innoxium sinit. Non homines tantum, qui brevis et 
caduca res nascitur ; urbes orseque terrarum et litora et ipsum mare in ser- 



26 REPORT — 1850. 

vitutem fati venit. Quo ergo nobis permansura promittimus bona fortunae, 
et felicitatem (cujus ex omnibus rebus humanis velocissima est levitas) habi- 
turam in aliquo pondus et moram credinius? Perpetua sibi omnia promit- 
tentibus in menteni non venit, id ipsuni supra quod stanius stabile non esse. 
Neque enim Campaniae istud aut Achaioe, sed oranis soli vitium est, male 
cohoerere, et ex causis plurimis resolvi, et summa manere, partibus ruere." — 
Qucest. Nat. lib. vi. 

3rd. There seems at present no sufficient ground for affirming 
that one portion of the earth's duration has been more subject 
to their occurrence than another ; 

4th. Or that one portion of the earth's crust has always been 
more subject to earthquakes than another. 

4th bis. But some portions of the earth's crust appear to have 
sustained a sort of periodicity in their visitation by earthquakes 
— long periods of repose being followed by shorter, but still 
long periods of agitation. 

Thus Antioeh affords perhaps the most remarkable instance, having for a 
long period been shaken nearly every year during the Roman empire, then 
having a period of repose of nearly 300 years, and then again becoming very 
subject to these convulsions. 

5th. But those portions of the earth's surface which lie in or 
around the great present lines or centres of volcanic action do 
appear at present to be most subject to earthquakes. 

6th. And earthquakes are most prevalent and most violent in 
some relation to the activity and intensity of the volcanic ac- 
tion, at these lines or centres, at given times. 

There appears to be beyond question the closest sympathy within all vol- 
canic areas \i.e. areas where active volcanoes are found and surrounded with 
formations due to their former and present action), between the activity of 
the volcanic vents and the shocks of earthquakes. 

Thus, in 1816, slight earthquakes at Scaccia in Sicily preluded the eleva- 
tion of the new island Julia. 

When Monte Nuovo was thrown up in 1538, on the day and night before 
above twenty shocks were felt. 

When Monte Rossi was formed by iEtna in 1669, and when the enormous 
fissure of twelve miles in length at once opened up the bowels of the volcano, 
an earthquake shook down Nicolosi and damaged Catania. The eruptions 
of 1811 and 1819 were also attended with earthquakes. 

In Iceland earthquake^long preluded the great eruption of Skaptar Jokul, 
and reached their maximum violence on the day of the eruption, 11 th of June, 
1783. 

At Lancerote in the Canaries, violent earthquakes preceded and followed 
the eruptions, near the shore, of 1824. Santorin in the Greek Archipelago, 
was separated from Therasia by an ejuption in the year before Christ 236, 
which, according to Pliny, was attended with earthquakes ; and several more 
recent submarine eruptions, near it, have been also accompanied with earth- 
quakes. 

In a w ord, every great eruption, in whatever part of tlie world it has been ob- 
served, and whether from a volcanic vent on land, or formed beneath the sea, 
is accompanied by earthquake shocks of greater or less violence and duration. 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 2'j 

But conversely, not only are eruptions thus accompanied by earthquakes, 
but earthquakes, though not always, are on almost all great occasions accom- 
panied by eruptions or perturbations of established volcanic action. For ex- 
ample, during the great Calabrian earthquake Stromboli was noticed to be 
less active than it had been for years before, and at Messina, " the com- 
mandant of the citadel saw the sea at a quarter of a mile from the fortress 
rise up and boil in a most extraordinary manner, accompanied with a horrid 
noise, while all the rest of the water in the Faro was tranquil " (Sir W. 
Hamilton) ; and afterwards there was shoal water at the spot where before 
it had been deep. 

In the great Chilian earthquake of 1820, at the moment the shock was 
felt at Valdivia, in lat. 39° 50' S., two volcanoes near it burst at once into 
eruption for a few seconds, and then again became quiescent. (M. Place, 
Quart. Journ. vol. xvii.) 

At Concepcion, volcanoes broke out from beneath the sea at the time the 
great sea-wave rolled in (or probably before it?). 

Hot springs have frequently sympathized with earthquakes at great di- 
stances, as those at Tcepliz, which ran dry, and then again flowed discoloured 
with iron rust during the great Lisbon shocks. No one is ignorant of the 
melting of the chain cable of the Volage man-of-war at anchor during an 
earthquake off the coast of South America ; and instances might be multi- 
plied almost without limit of similar events during the period of earthquakes 
which have not been begun with visible eruptions from neighbouring vents. 

Thus the close connection of volcanic action and of earthquake movements 
must be viewed as abundantly established. 

There appear to be over the earth's surface at least twenty eruptions per 
annum, and probably quite as many considerable earthquakes. Several in- 
stances are on record of earthquakes having at once ceased on the opening 
up of volcanic vents near or more distant. Thus Strabo (lib. i. p, 85) re- 
lates, that the shocks of the island of Euboea ceased as soon as a crevasse 
formed in the Lelantine plain, which discharged " a river of fiery mud," i. e. 
of lava. That such vents are efficient at enormous distances from the shaken 
country is well evidenced ; it is only, in other words, that earthquake shocks 
are transmitted from their centres to vast distances. 

There are not data to enable us now to affirm what portions of the earth's 
surface are now or have been at given epochs least affected by earthquakes, 
nor does it follow that those most remote from volcanic active centres will 
be those least subject to earthquakes ; on the contrary, there is reason to 
suppose that the intervening formations, in the nature and depth of their 
rocks or loose materials, have much influence upon this. It is certain that 

7th. Many portions of the earth's surface, which are not now 
active volcanic centres, nor very closely adjacent thereto, nor 
yet the centres of extinct volcanic action, are subject to fre- 
quent earthquakes. 

Thus earthquake shocks have been felt even in the loosest alluvial depo- 
sits of Holland, around Middleburg and Flushing, in the great Prussian 
plain, and at Cutch, in the low-lying Delta of the Indus. 

8th. Regions which are the centres now of extinct volcanic ac- 
tion do not appear more subject to earthquakes than other 
regions whose formations are altogether non-volcanic. 

9th. Although regions of active volcanic action are those also of 
most frequent earthquake movements, yet the most violent 



28 REPORT— 1850. 

earthquakes do not appear to be those whose theatre of action 
is closest to the volcanic vents themselves : on the contrary, 
the most violent recorded earthquakes appear to have con- 
vulsed regions lying some degrees away from the nearest 
volcano in action. 
10th. And in general tlie most violent recorded earthquakes 
have occurred within a certain undetermined radius round 
active volcanic centres, not far inland or in the heart of con- 
tinents, but upon the sea-coasts, or near them. 

Some doubt however hangs over this last, as some very ancient earthquakes 
of tremendous intensity appear to have occurred in central and northern Asia. 
Whether the proximity of the sea also is directly concerned or not is unde- 
termined : it seems probable that all the great lines or centres of active vol- 
canic action are near the sea-coast, and that their propinquity determines that 
of the earthquake. 

10th bis. It seems to be the opinion of Humboldt, that the area 
of shaken country also sometimes enlarges in consequence of 
a previous violent earthquake. 

Thus, " It is only since the destruction of Cumana in 1Y97> that every 
shock of the southern coast is felt in the mica-slate of the peninsula of Ma- 
niguarez." — (Cosmos.) The centre of disturbance also shifts its position 
during long-continued earthquakes. Thus, in the Calabrian earthquake it 
moved twice northward eight or nine leagues, and in the New Madrid earth- 
quakes of 1811 to 1813, the progress northward in the basins of the Mis- 
sissippi, the Ohio and the Arkansas was remarked. 

This opinion, however, is hard to give unquestioned credence to, if we 
bear in mind that earthquake shocks are not communicated through tubes or 
vents, torn in any Avay or already existing under ground, but are best pro- 
pagated and go furthest where the ground through which they pass is most 
solid, dense and homogeneous. 

11th. Earthquake shocks have been felt on the ocean at vast 
distances from any land, and in some cases the shock has been 
nearly vertical and occurring in places where the depth of 
water was profound, and where no phaenomenon on the sur- 
face of the ocean indicated any volcanic action then active 
beneath. 

On this we may remark, however, that the most formidable volcanic ac- 
tivity, greater probably than we have any experience of on the dry land, may 
possibly exist constantly or occasionally in the bed of the deep ocean, and 
yet no trace of it beyond a transient earthquake shock be known to those 
floating over the surface. At a depth of tive miles of sea water we can well 
imagine that lava poured out would be rapidly cooled, that steam formed 
would be condensed long before it reached the surface, that rocks projected 
upwards into so dense a resisting medium would fall back long before they 
reached even the sun's light, and that pumice or other light and porous pro- 
ducts of volcanoes on land or in shallow water may have no existence under 
such prodigious pressure. 

Great confusion prevails amongst earthquake narrators as to the use of the 
word sJwck. We find constant mention made of the " shook lasting several 



I 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 29 

minutes ;" " the shock continued nearly an hour," and other such vague ex- 
pressions. The abuse of language here consists in almost every author using 
the words, duration of the shock, as synonymous with the whole period of 
motion, comprehended from any one commencement to the next great pause 
during the occurrence of the whole earthquake. To be able at all clearly to 
comprehend these narratives, it is necessary to bear in mind that the word, 
shock, is properly limited to the single motion due to a single impulse ; that 
this motion occupies an extremely short time in passing a given station, and 
that when " the shock lasting some minutes," &c. is spoken of, it means that 
for some minutes there was a succession of these motions with short or 
variable intervals between them ; i. e. a great number of shocks in quick suc- 
cession. Hence we find that 

12th. The earth- wave or shock is a motion of great velocity and 

occurring during a very short moment of time at any given 

spot. 

It varies indefinitely however in force and in extent of motion ; sometimes 
it amounts to a concussion like the blowing up of a mine at a great depth 
under one's feet; at other times it is a mere vibration scarcely to be felt, like 
that produced by a carriage running over a distant pavement ; yet these are 
but degrees of the same thing. So again the rapidity with which the shocks 
succeed each other varies. Sometimes a single powerful shock is felt alone, 
or but two or three are felt in pretty rapid succession, and then a period of 
complete or of comparative tranquillity occurs, during which the shocks are 
so reduced in power as to require attention to perceive them ; and in this 
case they often recur with such rapidity as to convey to the observer the 
idea of a vibration or continuous jar, and this often along with the roll of the 
greater wave-like shock. 

It has been ascertained that sixteen vibrations per second, or 960 in a 
minute, is about the limit at which the ear distinguishes between a continuous 
sound or tone, and a regularly recurring noise or jar. I am not aware that 
any information exists as to the relative sensibility to recurrent vibrations of 
the ear, and of the nerves of feeling generally ; but assuming them to be about 
the same, it follows, that when the number of shocks per second is about six- 
teen, nothing will be felt but a continuous vibration or jar by an earthquake 
observer, whilst below this number the separate vibrations or shocks can 
be distinguished. This view, I conceive, clears up one very puzzling cir- 
cumstance hitherto looked upon as deducible from most earthquake narra- 
tives, namely, that there are two distinct sorts of shocks, the explosive and the 
vibratory, or three, as Humboldt makes out, by adding the vorticose to the 
number. It appears just to conclude from all narratives rightly interpreted, 
that there is but one order of earth-wave or shock, namely, the normal 
wave, and possibly small transversal vibrations transmitted along with it, and 
these capable of reflexion, dispersion, change of velocity, &c. ; but that 
the rate of succession and the individual intensity of each shock vary in- 
definitely. 

13th. The total duration of motion at a given spot varies indefi- 
nitely, or between limits which have not been ascertained. 

It appears to be established that in the greatest earthquakes, the most 
violent shocks are very few in number, sometimes only one, usually not more 
than three or four, and that to these the great mischief is due, so that in a 
few seconds a vast country is laid waste and its cities and towns overturned, 
as in the great Calabrian earthquake of 1 783 ; that these great shocks recur 



30 REPORT — 1850. 

at intervals wholly irregular, but that in the intervals between (and preceding 
and following) these, there is occasionally a more or less continuous recur- 
rence of smaller shocks ; these also have tlieir irregular periods of greater and 
of less repose ; so that on the whole the earthquake is often, as to time, like an 
occasional cannonade during a continuous but irregular rattle of musketry. 

The small rapid shocks are usually in close precession and succession to 
the great ones, and coexist with them. Tims, Don Palaccio Faxar, in his de- 
scription of the earthquake at Caraccas, of March 26, 1812, says, "The 
weather being fine, a hollow roar like that of a cannon was heard and was 
followed by the shock, which lasted about 17 seconds; this was succeeded 
by a shock lasting 20 seconds ; and after 14 seconds' interval by a third of 
15 seconds* duration. Total durationU minute and 15 seconds with a motion 
from W. to E." (Quart. Journ. vol. ii. p. 4-02.) 

The total duration of motion (i. e. of violent rising and transverse undula- 
tion) of the great earthquake of Caraccas (March 26, 1812), was estimated 
by some at 50 seconds, by others at 1 minute 12 seconds. — Humboldt, Per. 
Nar. vol. iv. p. 17. 

Again, as to the New Zealand earthquake of 19th October ISiS, " At five 
in the morning a sharp shock. The extreme force of the shock lasted rather 
less than a minute; there was considerable motion for 3^ minutes, and the vi- 
bration lasted for 8 minutes from the commencement of the shock." — West. 
Rev. July 1849. 

The Syrian earthquake of 1759 also lasted altogether about 8 minuted 
(Dr. Russell, Phil. Trans. 1760), but a continuance of very small shocks at 
intervals, or of very small and rapidly recurring shocks, has been often ob- 
served for long periods of time. Thus, in the Andes, the earth has quaked 
incessantly for days together; and on the eastern slopes of the Alps of 
Mont Cenis, about Fenestrella and Pignerol in 1808, in North America, at 
New Madrid and Little Prairie, north of Cincinnati after 181 1, and at Aleppo 
in 1822, shocks were felt hour by hour for several months ; so also at Comrie 
in Scotland, at longer intervals, they have long been felt ; and at Zante, in the 
Greek Archipelago, slight shocks, at all hours, are almost continual, as long as 
the present inhabitants recollect. 

Humboldt is of opinion that this prolonged continuance of slight shocks 
only occurs in districts remote from anj' active volcano. This however does 
not appear to be borne out by the observations made in New Zealand. In 
the earthquake there of October 1848, the shocks continued nearly five weeks 
before they became insensible, the district being one immediately adjacent to 
active volcanoes. There were during the larger portion of the time at least 
one thousand shocks per day. (West. Rev. July 1849.) 

The recurrence of slight shocks at nearly regular intervals, and having an 
apparent connection with the recurrent projections from closely adjacent vol- 
canoes, has been observed ; thus, Humboldt remarked shocks on Vesuvius and 
on Pichincha, which were regularly periodic, and from 20 to 30 seconds be- 
fore each projection of ashes and vapour. 

14th. The absolute area convulsed at one earthquake epoch, 
varies vrithin indeterminate limits, and is related apparently 
in its extent to the maximum force of the shocks. 

Instances are recorded of very violent single shocks having been felt which 
were limited to very small areas, and here usually the direction of the shock 
has been nearly vertically upwards. This has been most remarkable in ob- 
servations made at sea; and slight shocks, however numerous, do not appear 
to actuate large areas, but in the greater earthquakes the total space shaken 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 31 

ia enormous; thus, in the great Lisbon earthquake of November 1755, an 
area of the earth's crust more than four times the surface of all Europe was 
shaken. 

It was felt in the Alps, on the shores of Sweden, in the West Indies, on the 
lakes of Canada, in Ireland, in Thuringia and in Northern Germany ; at 
Toepliz (where the hot springs ran drj'), and at the Lesser Antilles, the usual 
tide of two feet or so was one of twenty feet. 

Thus, taking the area shaken at 3300 miles long and 2700 miles wide, which 
is equal to 7,500,000 square miles, and supposing the motion only extended 
to an average depth of twenty miles, there must have been 150 millions cubic 
miles of solid matter put in motion, a mass which conveys to the imagination 
some notion of the enormous power of the originating impulses. Yet let it 
be remembered that the whole of this mass was never in motion at once, but 
merely a comparatively small crest or wall of its particles put in motion, 
which transferred their moving force again to those beyond. 

The earthquake in Syria in 1759, extended, says Sir C. Lyell, over a space 
df ten thousand square leagues, and for three months continuously this vast 
area was shaken. 

Hamilton thinks the main force of the great Calabrian earthquake was 
comprised within a circle of 44 miles diameter, or 1520 miles area, but that 
its shocks were felt throughout a circle of 144 miles diameter or over an area 
of country of 16,286 square miles. 

M. Place (Quart. Journ. vol, xvii.) says of the earthquake of 1820, the 
principal force was exerted in a circle of about 50 miles diameter, the centre 
a little N.E. of Valparaiso ; persons N. of that felt the shocks from the S.W., 
those to the S. of it from the N.E. The earthquake was felt from Copiabo 
in the north to Valdivia in the south, distant 900 miles, and convulsed not 
leas than 100,000 square miles. 

Sometimes however the area shaken even by a very violent shock is ex- 
tremely limited ; thus the city of Coquimbo was destroyed in great part by a 
shock in 1820, which produced no alarm and did no mischief in any other 
part of the country, according to M. Place (Quart. Journ. vol. xvii.). The 
shock here probably in every case is a vertical one, from directly beneath, 
and at a small depth as regards centre of impulse. 

15 th. The shock or earth-wave is a true undulation of the solid 
crust of the earth. 

" The sand in the streets of Port Royal rose like waves of a troubled sea," 
says the recounter of the great Jamaica earthquake of 1692. 

The amount of undulations, and the rapidity with which these succeed each 
other, differ, but the great mass of earthquake observers concur in descri- 
bing a distinct undulation of the surface of the ground. In the greatest 
shocks this undulation has been often visible to the eye, as in the great 
Jamaica earthquake, where the passage of the wave was said to be rendered 
visible by the opening and immediate closing in again of fissures (this how- 
ever need.s confirmation). It is indirectly rendered evident by the tops of 
trees bending over first to one side and then to the opposite, and by various 
other motions described as communicated to solids and liquids. 

Whenever the undulation of the surface has been described as most distinct, 
the direction of the shock has been also described by being nearly horizontal ; 
where, on the other hand, the shock has been felt as coming up from beneath, 
the undulation of the surface has escaped observation or not existed. 

In the smaller shocks, whatever their direction may have been, the undu- 
lation of the surface has not been observed, that is to say, was not directly 
observable ; but it has been inferred from observations made as to the oscilla- 



32 REPORT — 1850. 

tions communicated to fluids, pendulums, &c. ; and there is no reason from 
any recorded facts for supposing that the small jarring and rapidly recurrent 
shocks are less undulations than the greater ones, though the former may 
mutually interfere and be incapable of recognition as undulations directly by 
the unaided senses. 

16th. The undulation which constitutes the earth-wave or shock 
has a real motion of translation. 

The shock travels over the shaken country visiting it in succession (where 
the direction is nearly horizontal, which is by far the most usual case) ; this is 
generally obvious, and the cases of simultaneous shock over large areas are 
rare. 

" The motion evidently moves along a line " (i. e. horizontally and parallel 
to itself), " and at the same time moves upwards so as to produce an undu- 
lating motion. Any one who has been in the habit of swimming in the sea 
during a considerable swell, must have felt something of this; the wave 
comes on and moves the swimmer's body forwards, but not so much as it 
moves it upwards when under the full influence of the wave." Such is the 
graphic account of the describer of the New Zealand earthquake of 1848. 
—(West. Rev. July 1849.) 

Thus also at Messina, in the great Calabrian earthquake, the shock was 
seen to commence at one end of the Faro, and in rapid succession to overturn 
the houses and buildings of the city, advancing along to the other end, " like 
a succession of mines rapidly sprung beneath." 

So in the earthquake of Lisbon, the distances travelled by the shock were 
so immense that the ordinary measures of time became sufficient to point out 
roughly the intervals of its successive arrival at distant places ; and from such 
observations Mitchell has constructed a table, by which, with wonderful ac- 
curacy for his time, he has calculated both the time of transit of the shock and 
of the great sea-wave which subsequently broke upon so many different shores. 

But such calculations cannot be precise, because we do not know the exact 
direction of motion of the shock, which is probably never perfectly horizontal 
at any given spot. 

17th. The direction of translation of the earth- wave or shock 
varies from vertically upwards, to horizontally, or nearly hori- 
zontally in any azimuth. 

This is evident from all earthquake narrations; but in carefully discussing 
these I conceive the following propositions will be found borne out : — 

a. In shocks felt after having traversed a long distance, i. e. at long 
distances from the point of impulse, the shock is usually, if not always 
nearly horizontal. 

b. In great earthquakes within a considerable radius, and in all within a 
certain range of the centre of impulse, the direction of the shocks is 
sensibly inclined more or less upwards. 

c. In some of the greatest and most destructive recorded shocks, the di- 
rection of the movement has been nearly vertically upwards, as in the 
great shocks of Calabria and at Riobamba in South America. 

d. The direction of successive shocks often varies during the continuance 
of the same earthquake. Thus during the Calabrian earthquake, the point 
from which most of the shocks seemed to come moved northwards, by 
a distance of eight or ten leagues, at each of two epochs, 5th and 7th 
of February and 28th of March. 

e. It sometimes happens that two shocks, moving in diffierent directions, 
arrive at the one spot in close succession, or almost together. In this 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 33 

case, it has been stated that one shock is observed moving nearly horizon- 
tally, and the other nearly vertically, or very much inclined to the horizon. 
f. There is no good evidence of two shocks arriving together, or nearly so, 
at one point, both horizontally, and from different points of the horizon. 
Such an occurrence has been often inferred from phsenomena admitting 
of another solution (as we shall see when speaking of vorticose move- 
ments); but there is no a priori reason why, from two distant centres 
of impulse, horizontal shocks should not be felt at once; and this seems 
to have been remarked by Humboldt in Asia. 

18th. The motion of translation of the earth-wave or shock is 
rectilinear and not curvilinear. 

All observers concur in stating, that the general direction of motion of the 
shock, whether horizontal, inclined or vertical, is rectilinear. Such is the 
testimony of the unaided senses. It is also the conclusion to be drawn from 
the motions observed as given by the shock when more or less horizontal, 
to fluids in bowls or tubs, to pendulums, to candelabra in churches, to 
furniture, &c. ; and from the motions directly given to men, who have felt 
themselves "jerked upwards," as in New Zealand (West. Review, July 1849) ; 
or to articles thrown on to others, as a barrel standing close to a mass of jars, 
and caused to leap up upon them, as at New Zealand ; or to a ship's mast, un- 
shipped by a shock from beneath at sea. 

But from a misinterpretation of some such phsenomena, authors of the 
highest ability have affirmed, that there are other shocks which are not recti- 
linear in their motion of translation, but consist in a vorticose or twisting motion 
of the ground, a rapid rotation in fact of any given point round some distant 
centre. The Italians distinguish popularly three sorts of shocks, the orizontale, 
the oscillatorio and the vorticoso. The twisting of the Calabrian obelisks has 
been given as the most convincing proof of this; and Humboldt (Cosmos) says, 
" Circular or rotatory concussions are the rarest, but they are the most dan- 
gerous of all. The twisting round of the steeple of the church at Inverness, 
Scotland, on the 13th of August, in the year 1816, as related in Tilloch's 
Magazine, vol. xlviii. p. 150, though a little known or noticed instance, is a far 
more remarkable one than that of the oft-recited obelisks. Twisting round of 
walls without throwing them down, plantations of trees which had previously 
stood in parallel rows deflected, the directions of the ridges of fields covered 
with grain altered, were observed at Riobamba, Feb. 4, 1797, and in Calabria, 
Feb. 5 and March 28, 1783." He adds, " With the latter phsenomenon of rota- 
tion, or the transposition of fields and cultivated plots of ground, of which one 
has occasionally taken the place of another, there is connected a translatory 
motion, or mutual penetration of several strata. When taking the plan of the 
ruined city of Riobamba, I was shown a place where the whole furniture of one 
dwelling-house had been found under the ruins of another. The loose earth 
of the surface had run in streams like a fluid, of which it must be conceived 
that it was first directed downwards, then horizontally, and finally upwards." 
I maintain that there is no evidence whatever, from any observed facts, 
for assuming any vorticose motion of the shock, or any other than a recti- 
linear one. The case of tlie Calabrian obelisks and of the church of La 
Merceda at Valparaiso, I believe it is admitted that I have disposed of in my 
paper on the Dynamics of Earthquakes, read to the Royal Irish Academy in 
Feb. 1846, and shown that rectilinear motion is sufficient to account for all 
such cases of twisting. In the cases above adduced by Humboldt, he has 
fallen into the greater error of mistaking the secondary eflTects of landslips, 
and THEIR twistings of the land, for those of vorticose motion, as I shall more 
particularly explain when treating of the secondary effects of earthquakes. 
1850. D 



34 



REPORT — 1850. 



Lastlj', the observer of the New Zealand earthquake of ] 848 records, that 
certain vessels of milk had a movement of rotation given to the fluid they 
contained, so as to accumulate the cream in the centre. (Westminster Re- 
view, July 1849, p. 402.) He appears only to infer rotation from the accu- 
mulation of the cream in the centre. This accumulation might take place 
from oscillation in one plane only in a shallow milk vessel; but admitting 
at once the rotation, there is no ground for concluding vorticose motion in 
the shock from this. Indeed this observer himself goes much nearer it when 
he says, " Some of the shocks had a cross motion," &c. It is not easy to say 
what this exactly means ; but one can readily see, that if oscillation be given to 
a fluid in a circular vessel, first in one plane, and then, while this continues, in 
another plane forming an angle with the previous one, by a subsequent shock 
whose direction was different, rotation will be at once communicated to the 
fluid ; and this I believe to have been the solution of this case. 

M. Place records, and the same has been done by others, that in some of 
the South American earthquakes a conical cavity was found worked out in 
the ground, around the base of the trunks of palms and large trees. This 
would appear at first sight like a vorticose twisting round and round of the 
stem, so as to work out this hollow ; and such a twisting actually took place 
no doubt; but any inverted pendulum with an elastic stem, such as a tree is, 
the centre of gravity of whose head does not coincide with 
the vertical plane passing through the centre of elastic eflbrt 
of the stem, will thus rotate from a single impulse given in 
one right line; and it is the tendency to do this that con- 
stitutes the vice of all inverted pendulums as seismometers. 
While, however, I consider it proved that there is no 
evidence whatever for any other mode of propagation or 
translation of the earth-wave or shock than that of a right 
line in any given direction towards the earth's surface, 
or parallel to it, I am prepared to admit that upon 
this very principle it is possible for a most violent 
wrenching or twisting motion to be given to any spot 
of tolerably large size upon the surface of the earth. 
If, for exau\ple, from a centre of impulse at a great 
depth below the centre of a surface comprehended by 
a circle of, say a mile in radius, and in a direction to meet the extremity of 
any given radius, a shock be transmitted, and that by rapid and continuous 
change in the nature and direction of the impulse, a quick succession of 
such shocks be transferred round the whole circumference of this circle, so 
as to describe by their path a cone in the solid earth, whose apex is the centre of 
impulse, and whose base is the circle on the surface before defined, then as 
each portion of this circle is lifted in rapid succession, it is manifest that all 
upon and within it, and by connection of parts all for a distance, gradually 
disappearing around it, will be shaken by a violent wrenching motion, which 
will make every body upon the surface describe an irregular conical figure 
in space also. 

But while it is thus worth while to show that such a complex movement 
may result from simple rectilinear wave motion, I have been able to find no 
record that gives the least presumption of any such phaenomena having ac- 
tually occurred, when the facts are rightly interpreted in accordance with 
admitted mechanical laws. 

Let it be noticed however here, that there are, a priori, strict grounds of 
exact science for believing, that in all great shocks of earthquake, besides the 
transmission of the great wave in the normal direction from the point of 
original impulse, there will necessarily be transmitted one, if not two sets of 




ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 35 

transversal waves, of much less dimensions, and whose time of arrival at a 
given distant point from the origin, will be somewhat later than that of the 
normal wave; and where the normal is transmitted in a direction horizontal, 
or nearly so, these transversal secondary waves will be felt as a short tremor, 
or shaking up and down, and crosswise to the line of translation of the normal 
wave, and almost at the same time with it. (See Poisson, Mem. Acad. Scien., 
1816, 1817, 1823.) 

This combination of motion is clearly described by Aristotle ; and when 
experienced by alarmed persons, unused to precise observation, may well 
give rise to the extraordinary and perplexing accounts of the nature of the 
movements which abound in earthquake narratives. 

19th. The earth-wave or shock has in all cases a true wave form 
upon the surface of the earth, and when its direction of trans- 
lation is quam proxime horizontally along the earth's surface, 
the crest of the wave advances along a given line and parallel 
to itself. 

For this more perfect evidence is desirable. In the case where the shock 
comes up vertically, or nearly so, from beneath, we have evidence that the 
demolition of buildings, &c. has been greatest where the shock has been felt 
most vertical, as under the town of Oppido in the great Calabrian earth- 
quake, and that all around this the destruction became less and less as the 
direction of the shock was more inclined, yet not diminishing with a very 
strict regularity. 

Now as in such a case the mere change of direction of shock from vertical 
to inclined would have the directly opposite tendency, if taken alone, as the 
inclined shocks all around would, if eqnal in extent of movement, throw 
down buildings, &c. more effectually than a vertical one (as is evident), the 
change in destructive power must have been due to another cause, namely 
to the actual amount of motion having been greater at the centre under 
Oppido than in circles receding around it. Hence we conclude that the 
greatest amount of motion was at the centre, where the shock was vertical 
at Oppido, and that here the crest of the wave was raised the highest ; that, 
in fact, at the moment of the shock the whole surface was momentarily raised 
into a very flattened dome-shaped wave (the height of the dome being of 
course extremely small as compared with its diameter), and again dropped 
down to its former configuration of surface as the wave passed outwards at 
all sides. 

Whatever differences may be due in such cases to differences in terrene 
formation, this must never be overlooked, namely, that supposing a shock 
transmitted through a perfectly homogeneous mass from a deep centre of 
effort, and the pulses passing outwards in all directions in spherical shells, 
there will be a circle, upon the earth's surface, somewhere at a determinate 
horizontal distance from the central point vertically over the centre of effort, 
in which the upsetting or overturning power of a shock of given intensity 
will be greater than at any point within or without this circle ; within, be- 



--■-6'-" 

u2 



36 RKPOBT — 1850. 

cause here the direction of shock is more vertical, and therefore less calcu- 
lated to overturn buildings, &c. ; and without, because the power of the 
shock, though there more horizontal, has become weakened by distance of 
transmission. Thus let a be the centre of effort, b, b' the extreme limits of 
shock, o,c the vertical passing through the centre of effort, then some points, 
e, e', on the earth's surface, b, e, c, b, will lie in a circle, where the shock will be 
more potent in overthrowing buildings than in any other within or without. 

But when the surface of observation lies much further away from the 
centre of impulse, so that the shock advances along the surface, apparently 
horizontally, then there is more distinct evidence that its advancing crest is 
linear. Thus in the Calabrian earthquake, observers remarked many build- 
ings, or even whole villages, overthrown at the same moment along a distant 
line of country ; and this demolition appeared to progress in a similar way 
over the country. Similar facts are recorded by Prof. Rogers of American 
earthquakes. (Trans. Brit. Ass. for 184'3-4'4.) 

There is every a priori reason to suppose, that the crest of such a wave, 
being the intersection at the surface of the spherical shell of elastic com- 
pression produced by the original impulse of whatever sort beneath, moves 
upon the earth's surface outwards, from the point immediately above its deep 
centre of impulse, in lines parallel to themselves, and which are large circles, 
or several intersecting large circles, or possibly occasionally ellipses, and with 
the dimensions of the wave itself continually decreasing, but with unaltered 
velocity of transit, save in so far as this is effected by changes in the character 
of the formations through which it passes. This has not yet been proved by 
any direct observation, and it remains still to be found what is the curve or 
form assumed by the crest of the nearly horizontal travelling earth-wave or 
shock. But to this we shall more particularly allude when referring to the 
desiderata of our knowledge of earthquakes. To those lines along which 
the shock is simultaneously felt in passing outwards from the origin, I have 
proposed to give the name oi coseismal lines. 

20th. The earth-wave or shock has determined dimensions in 
height and breadth, or in altitude and in amplitude, and these 
are dependent upon the force of the original impulse, the 
nature of the materials through which it passes, and the 
distance it has travelled. 

Here also much evidence remains to be collected. Thus much, however, 
we know, that in some ratio the shock is greater, in other words, the wave is 
larger, as the originating impulse is more powerful. The absolute dimensions 
of the wave have never yet been correctly ascertained, nor is this possible 
without the aid of well-constructed instruments. All that we know is, that 
these dimensions vary from waves whose altitude and amplitude are but a 
small fraction of an inch, to those whose motions were such and so great, as 
to throw down the heaviest buildings; to detach vast landslips and whole 
mountain-sides of rock, or even, as affirmed of the great stroke at Riobamba, 
to throw the bodies of human beings many feet into the air. [This latter 
case, however, though recorded on the authority of Humboldt, not from his 
own observation, however, but from testimony given to him, seems much to 
need confirmation.] 

From all these, however, and generally from the narratives of the effects 
of all great earthquakes, there is good ground for believing that the altitude 
and amplitude of the great wave of shock may amount to many feet in either 
dimension. I have in a former publication (Admiralty Manual, ' Earth- 



ON THE PACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 3? 

quake Phaenoraena '), stated that " the wave or shock, travelling at the rate 
of perhaps thirty miles per minute, often takes ten or twenty seconds to pass 
a given point; and hence that its amplitude must occasionally be many miles." 
The fact of one shock taking ten or twenty seconds to pass a given point, 
however, is only derived from the narratives of great earthquakes, and from 
the extremely loose use by authors of the word shock, as confounded with 
whole period of motion, possibly consisting of many rapidly successive shocks 
(as already adverted to) : this conclusion as to dimension of the wave requires 
to be taken with caution. 

21st. The velocity of transit of the earth- wave or shock has never 
been correctly ascertained for any one locality or occasion. 

A loose approximation was made by Mitchell to the speed of transit of the 
shock in the Lisbon earthquake, from which he deduces a mean v,elocity of 
about twenty miles a minute, or 1760 feet per second. 

Humboldt states the velocity ('Cosmos') to be from five to seven geogra- 
phical (German) miles per minute, which is about twenty or twenty-eight 
statute English miles per minute, and by others various vague and insufficiently 
supported statements of its velocity have been made ; but the truth is, the real 
velocity has never yet in any one instance been even approximately ascer- 
tained. No mean velocity, such as those given by Mitchell and Humboldt, 
CAN be true, for if it be granted that the shock is a wave due to the elasticity 
of the materials through which it travels, then the velocity must vary as these 
alter, and be dependent on their density and moduli of elasticity. 

This we do know, however, that its velocity is extreme in passing through 
some formations, and very great in all. " The ground," says M. Place, speak° 
ing of the great Chili earthquake, " rose and fell with inconceivable rapidity 
like a mine sprung beneath one's feet." Such are his words ; and Dolo- 
mieu quotes almost the same as the experience of those who had felt the 
Calabrian shock at Messina. Thus the shock from below upwards upon a 
British ship at sea, eleven leagues from Manilla, as recorded by De Guignes 
in 1796, in his account of the Philippine Islands, was so sharp and sudden 
as to unship and splinter the mainmast ; and the Winchelsea, a British ship 
from Bengal to England, was similarly struck on the 10th of February 1823, 
in lat. 52° N. and long. 85° 33' E. ; and Dr. Percival states, that in the earth- 
quake felt in Lancashire in September 1777, " a passage-boat upon the 
Bridgewater Canal was stopped in its course as if it had struck upon a cable 
or other obstacle" (Ann. Reg. vol. xx. p. 79) ; and ships have been repeat- 
edly strained so as to leak by such a shock at sea. The velocity of the 
shock in sea-water is probably about 4700 feet per second. Stones have 
been observed j(??'o;ecifec? out of walls to a considerable distance by the shock, 
tearing themselves from the mortar-bed ; and, what is more direct proof of 
great velocity, bodies of great stiffness and small inertia have been bent or 
twisted, as for instance, an iron cross and a rod bearing the arms of Hun- 
gary, which were both bent by an earthquake at Pesth in the last century, 
but my authority for which I have been unable to recover. A somewhat 
similar case is recorded by Professor Ferrara (Silliman's Journal for 1826). 
" On the 5th of March 1823," he says, " the vane on the top of the palace- 
gate at Catania, upon which he bent his eyes, was bowed in a direction from 
N.E. to S.W., and remained so bent 20° from the plumb-line until it fell." 
" A tall slender palm-tree he saw do the same." 

Few better proofs can be found of the amazing force and velocity of the 
lateral shock than the overthrow of the Rhodian Colossus — a bronze figure, 
steadied by being filled with stone as to its lower limbs, and cramped with 
lead into the solid masonry of the mole. " Ante omnes autem in admira- 



38 



RE POUT — 1850. 



tione fuit Soils Colossus Rliodi septuaginta cubitorum altitudinis fuit. 

Hoc simulacrum post quinquagesimum sextum annum terrse motu prostra- 

tum, sed jacens quoque miraculo est spectantur intus magnae molis 

saxa, quorum pondere stabiliverat constituens." — Plin. Nat. HistA.xwiv. 18. 
It was thus overthrown, accoriting to Eusebius, in the second year of the 
139th Olympiad, or 221 years before the Christian eera. 

In coherent formations, or rocky strata, there seems a priori ground to 
suppose that the velocity of the earth-wave is not less than 10,000 feet per 
second, but it may be much less in loose and incoherent material. 

I trust in a future Report to be able to give the results of some actual 
admeasurements of the velocity of earth-waves in various formations, co- 
herent and incoherent, the experiments for which are now in pi'ogress. 

22nd. The direction and velocity of translation of the earth- 
wave or shock change occasionally in passing from the boun- 
daries of one formation to those of another. 

This part of the subject demands much additional careful observation. 

It has been long remarked, that buildings have been variously affected in 
the same earthquake in different localities, which varied in the nature of 
their subjacent formations, or in their levels or elevations. 

The change in destructive effect from the same shock has generally been 
most evident along the lines of boundary separating different formations. 
And along such junctions, shocks have been described as succeeding each 
other in opposite directions, but with a difference in force, with scarcely any 
interval in time betwixt them, and the second shock being the weaker one. 
Thus in the New Zealand earthquake of 1848 most of the shocks came from 
the North or N.N.E., but very few of the shocks appear to have come 
from the opposite direction, i. e. S.E. and S.S.E. " May these," says the nar- 
rator, " be a sort of subsidence from the southward after some upheaving from 
the northward ? " He appears, however, to infer the directions from the move- 
ments of furniture only. The Lisbon shock was felt all over Spain, except 
in Catalonia, Aragon and Valentia ; it is difficult to see why these should 
be excepted ; but the difficulty may arise (assuming the fact) only from our 
ignorance of the nature of the intervening formations. (Encyc. Londinensis, 
in verb.) 

Dolomieu, in his dissertation on the Great Calabrian Earthquake, says, the 
shocks sustained by the houses and villages situated upon the hills on the 
solid rock, were less felt and did less damage than those which occurred in 
the plain. 

It is to be recollected that the general formation of Calabria, from the axis 
of mountains towards the sea, as described by Dolomieu, may be roughly 
represented by the following section : — 




ti. Grnnite. 

«', Slates. 

b. Decomposed granite. 



c. Sand, or scarcely coherent sandstone. 

d. Clay of great depth. 

e. Alluvium ; black rich earth. 



ON THE FACTS OF EABTHQUAKK PHiENOMENA. 39 

There is no volcanic rock of any sort, he affirms, in any part of Calabria 
visited by the earthquake of 1783- 

The great jjlain consists of a vast collection, as it were, of small table- 
lands, separated by deep ravines, having steep escarpments cut into the clay 
and sand or sandstone by the action of the rivers and torrents. These ravines 
are often 500 to 600 feet in depth below the table-land, which is highly cul- 
tivated above them, and the sides of these ravines are of the dense clay or 
scarcely coherent sandstone. All these slope up and abut against the sides 
of the Apennines, which form the axial line of the country. 

This somewhat tedious account is necessary to make the remarks here- 
after to be made as to the secondary effects of earthquakes intelligible. 

The centre of effort in this earthquake was under the great plain, and pro- 
bably about under where once stood the village of Oppido, but at an unknown, 
depth. 

The observations made amount to no more than this ; that the shocks did 
less mischief to structures on the granite or slate rocks of the hills than they 
did to those on the plain of clay, &-c. ; that the destructive effects of the 
shocks were very great along the line of junction of these, at the bases of the 
hills (from which some of the philosophers of that time concluded that the 
earthquake came from the mountains), and that along this line, shocks in 
close succession were felt, not only horizontally and vertically, but also in 
opposite directions. 

Now we may a priori account for these facts, on the principle that the 
velocity of the shock or earth-wave depending on the density and modulus of 
elasticity of the formation through which it passes, and its velocity being 
greatest in those whose elasticity is highest, while its range of motion is most 
limited in the same ; therefore the shock here was of less velocity in the plain 
than in the rocky hills; but had in the former a longer range of oscillation, 
and hence did most mischief in the plain. Along the line or plane of junc- 
tion of two formations of different elasticities, &c., the earth-wave will change 
its course and also its velocity (like light in passing from one medium to 
another); and here the wave will be divided, part of it will be refracted, and 
part will be reflected (or total reflexion may take place if the angle of inci- 
dence be suitable at the plane of junction); and the latter portion of the 
wave will in such case double back upon itself, and give rise to a shock in 
the opposite direction to the first one. Hence along such a line of junction 
the destructive effects will be very great. Although the direction of transit 
of part of the shock is changed by thus passing from one formation to an- 
other, and its force also modified, yet it often happens that such changes do 
not arrest much of its main progress or effects. 

Even large ranges of mountains abutting on plains of soft material are 
shaken through and through, and the shock is transferred beyond them. Thus 
the shock at Lahore in India of 1832, passed through the chain of Hindu- 
Cutch to the Upper Oxus, and even to Bokhara; and in South America they 
pass through " the littoral chains of Venezuela and the Sierra Parime." 
(Humboldt, ' Cosmos.') 

Such differences in effects of shock due to situation have been repeatedly 
observed. Humboldt says that at Quito, which stands at the foot of the 
active volcano of Rura Pichincha, 8950 feet above the sea, and contains large 
and lofty buildings, with spires and domes, he has been often surprised at 
the severity of the shocks which he has felt, and which nevertheless but 
rarely rent the walls ; whilst in the plains of Peru much weaker oscillations 
injured even lowly houses built of cane ; and many other instances might be 
quoted. To myself the explanation of the facts which theory gives appears, 



40 



REPORT 1850. 



I confess, here sufficient ; but the observations made so far, of the facts them- 
selves are too loose and inapposite to say that as yet theory has here been 
tested by the fact. This truth must never be left out of view, that there are 
two elements in the problem of destructibility to buildings, columns, &c. 
in the case of every shock, viz. 1st, its absolute range of motion and velocity; 
and, 2nd, the direction of its motion, which may be such as to be incapable 
to overthrow a given building, however great its range and velocity ; gene- 
rally it will probably be hereafter found that, ccBteris paribus, shocks in a 
direction nearly but not quite horizontal, with large range and moderate 
velocity, do the most mischief to all ordinary buildings of masonry. 

Another circumstance must be borne in mind also in considering the facts 
recorded of the Calabrian earthquake, which modified materially the dif- 
ference in effect upon the plain and in the hills. 




Let the above be a rude section of the country shaken, of which we have 
already given the general geology. Let p be assumed as the place of the 
centre of impulse at any depth under the great plain, below the bed of soft 
material, and either between it and the first hard rock, or within the masses 
subjacent ; in this case it is evident the arrows a, b will be the directions of 
emergence of the shock in the plain, but the arrows c and d will be those of 
emergence of the same shock in the hills, and buildings situated at m and * 
along their slopes will be principally exposed to the waves c„ and d„, given 
off at right angles to the normal wave c and d, and therefore less shaken ; 
while buildings at the remote side of the mountains,/, will receive the full 
violence of the shock. Dolomieu attributes much of the difference of de- 
structive effect on the hills and on the plains to the " motion of the concus- 
sions in the latter being more irregular, being modified by communication 
through the medium of a soil yielding more or less to the force which 
convulsed it, and consequently transmitting it unequally. In the mountains, 
on the contrary, notwithstanding that the agitation of the surface was pretty 
considerable, they were less destructive. The rocks on which the towns were 
built communicated to them a more regular motion, being better conductors ; 
the soil after each oscillation resumed its position, and the edifices preserved 
their fixity." " So," he continues, " a glass full of water will bear a great 
vibration without a drop being spilt, while it is emptied by the least irregular 
shake." It is very difficult to see what he precisely meant by this, but it is 
evident that a solid foundation of rock will favour the preservation of build- 
ings, rather than a yielding one of clay, under shocks otherwise the same. 

The great earthquake of the Caraccas (March 1812) is stated by Hum- 
boldt to have been everywhere more violent in the Cordilleras of gneiss and 
mica-slate, or immediately at their foot, than in the plains, and this difference 
was peculiarly striking in the plains of Varinas and of Casanara. In the 
valley of Aragua the commotions were very weak, and at Coro, situated 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 41 

upon the coast between towns at either side which suffered much, no shock 
at all was felt. These differences, says Humboldt, in the direction and pro- 
pagation of the shock are probably owing to the peculiar arrangement of 
the stony strata. (Per. Nar, vol.iv. p. 19.) 

Again, it is manifest that in estimating the demolishing effects of any 
shock upon buildings, very much depends upon the direction in which the 
shock acts upon the building with reference to its particular form and struc- 
ture, and as this was not sufficiently known or attended to by former ob- 
servers, fresh information remains to be collected by competent persons as 
to this part of our subject. 

This concludes the first branch of our subject, viz. all that relates directly 
to the earth-wave or shock ; and we now proceed to the sound-waves, which 
are more or less connected with it. 

23rd. Earthquakes occur which are accompanied by various 
sounds, having a subterraneous origin, and which may either 
precede, or accompany, or succeed, the occurrence of shocks, 
or precede, accompany, and succeed, the shocks of some of 
them; and again, earthquakes occur, even of the greatest 
violence, unaccompanied by any sound whatever. 

The intensity of the sound is by no means in proportion to the violence of 
the earthquake. One of the most tremendous earthquakes on record, that of 
Riobamba, occurred, according to Humboldt, unaccompanied with any 
noise whatever. 

The kind of sound has been very variously described, so variously as to 
induce the belief that there are different sounds on different occasions. 
Humboldt says (' Cosmos '), " It is either rolling, or rustling, or clanking, like 
chains being moved, or like near thunder, or clear and ringing as if obsidian 
or some other vitrified masses were struck in subterraneous cavities." One 
cannot but imagine that in the latter similitude the ear has borrowed its 
impression from the preconceived view of the author's mind. 

Professor Krashenikoff, of St. Petersburg, in his description of Kamschatka, 
as translated by Dumaresque (1760), says, " Earthquakes happen here several 
times in the year. The most violent that was observed, was in the beginning 
of February 1759, which, during a westerly wind, lasted exactly six minutes ; 
and before it a noise was heard and a strong wind under ground, with a hissing 
which went from north to south." By some the sound has been directly 
compared to that of quenching a mass of red-hot iron in water. There was 
a shock of earthquake at Coningsby in Lincolnshire, in England, on the 6th 
of February 1817, and also at Holderness near it, when it was heard " like 
waggons running away upon a road ; and so forcible was the illusion, that 
waggoners on the roads actually drew up their teams to let the supposed 
runaway waggon pass them safely. While this was heard at Coningsby, they 
heard also at intervals of about a second of time, sharp and loud noises like 
the discharges of gunshots ; and all gradually died away to a grumbling noise, 
which shifted from the east to the south." (Quart. Journal, vol.xviii.) 

Hollow bellowings is a common expression with narrators. The describer 
of the New Zealand earthquake of 1848 (West. Rev., p. 397, for July 1849) 
says, " The earth is in a continual state of tremulousness, and the dull sound 
of the earthquake is continually heard. This sound has been much ex- 
aggerated ; it is something like the sound of a railway train rumbling through 
a tunnel, I mean as heard by a person outside and near the mouth. I have 
also heard nearly a similar sound made by a very large steam ship chimney, 



42 REPORT 1850. 

except that the earthquake sound is less sonorous. It has been compared 
with distant thunder and with distant guns, but it is more rumbling in its 
nature ; in short, it admits of no exact comparison. I have noted that when 
the shocks occur during a heavy gale, this dull rumbling sound is not per- 
ceptible : it is overcome by the nearer noise of the wind." 

The allusion to the steam ship chimney here relates to a peculiar and 
most powerful sound, a true m.usical tone, which is produced occasionally 
when there are powerful blazing fires under the boilers, with a strong draft, 
and the furnace-doors are partially shut, in which case the funnel acts as a 
great organ pipe, to which the furnace-doors play the parts of reeds, and 
the draft of the fire that of bellows. The note here is about the lowest that 
the organ is capable of sustaining. 

I have myself met a gentleman who had for a long time resided in the 
convulsed districts of South America, and whose occupation as a mining 
engineer gave him large opportunities of observation, and who compared the 
noise most usual to that of steam blowing off into cold water : a low irre- 
gular rumble, accompanied with still more irregular, sharp detonations, such 
as we may hear frequently in travelling by railway, when steam is blown 
from the engine boiler into the tender to heat the cold water therein ; the note 
however being in the case of earthquakes far graver than in this instance. 

In the Caraccas earthquake (April 1812), the explosions of the volcano 
of the island of St. Vincent were heard at the Rio Apura, like the discharge 
of the heaviest artillery ; the distance in a straight line being 210 nautical 
leagues, of 20 to a degree, a distance as great as from Mount Vesuvius to 
Paris. (Humboldt's Per. Nar., vol. iv. p. 27.) 

Yet the " Bramidos," however awful and loud, may be derived from a very 
slight original stroke or grinding together of rock surfaces, the volume of 
sound being multiplied by the vast surface of the earth from which at nearly 
the same instant it is transmitted to the air and thence to the hearer. Thus, 
for example, the large blocks of stone on the Breakwater of Plymouth, or 
on the piers of Kingstown Harbour, Ireland, are some of them so circum- 
stanced, as to oscillate slightly like logan-stones, and to strike together under 
water by the motion of the waves, with, however, a force and range of mo- 
tion so slight, that, when left dry at low water, and moved thus by band, the 
blow is quite inaudible at a few feet distance ; nevertheless, when so moved 
by the swell under water, the noise and crash sound quite formidable, and 
would at first lead the hearer to suppose the whole structure was washing 
away from beneath him, when thus heard on a calm clear day with a swelling 
sea. 

There is a deep mountain tarn in Ireland, Lough Bray, one boundary of 
which is a steep mural precipice under water; when a stone of a ievi pounds 
weight is dropped gently from a boat at this side of the lake, the crash of 
its descent under water, as it falls over the face of the precipitous rocks which 
emerge from the dark waters, conveys a most awful impression. So also the 
ticking of a watch, inaudible even to the holder when held in the hand, 
becomes distinctly heard across a large room when laid on a table. The 
signals in use by a blow given to the side of a diving-bell, and clearly trans- 
mitted through some fathoms of water, are also in point. 

The intensity of the sound heard at a given station will depend in some 
degree upon the same circumstance that will determine its time of occurrence 
with relation to the shock, and it will also much depend upon the sonoricity 
of the media (formations) through which it passes to be heard. Thus, what- 
ever may be the original impulse producing the noise, whether fracturing of 



ox THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PH.EXOMENA. 43 

strata, falling in of rocks, grinding of masses over each other, or the reper- 
cussion produced by steam, evolved by the heat of molten matter under the 
earth or sea, and again suddenly condensed by being driven into contact 
with cold water; in any of these cases if the centre of impulse producing the 
noise, be distant from that producing the shock, or if the two waves, e. e. tliat 
of sound and of shock, arrive to the ear through different media, they will 
arrive at different moments. So if the impulse be extended along a line of 
impact passing away from the listener, he will hear a prolonged sound from 
a single blow, producing perhaps but a single shock. The general rule, 
however, a priori, is that the sound-wave and the earth-wave of shock travel 
at the same speed through the same formations, and if they arise from one 
common impulse will generally reach the ear and observer at the same mo- 
ment ; and accordingly this is by far the most usual case recorded ; but 
innumerable perturbations and complications of this may and do take place, 
many of which I have remarked upon in my paper on the Dynamics of 
Earthquakes (Trans. R. I. Acad.), and for brevity here I pass them over as 
easily predicted by those versed in acoustics. 

In most earthquakes perhaps, certainly in very many, a sound is heard 
before the great shock, and usually a vibratory jar felt also. The earth- 
quake of Tiffliz, in Georgia, of 29th of January 1818, was so. (Quart. Journ. 
vol. vii.) 

Count Mercate, in his account of the earthquake of 20th of December 
1820, at Zante, says the sound was heard before the shock was felt. (Quart. 
Journ. vol. xviii.) 

Hamilton says of the Calabrian earthquake, " All agreed that every shock 
seemed to come with a rumbling noise from the westward, beginnincr with 
the horizontal' and ending with the vorticose motion." (Phil. Trans, vol. 
Ixxii.) This does not apply to the great shock of the 5th of February, " which 
was from below upwards." 

In the Chili earthquake of 1822-23, the explosive sound and great shocks 
seem to have arrived simultaneously. (Mrs. Graham, Geol. Trans, vols. i. ii. 
ser. 2. p. 413.) 

Dolomieu says, the Calabrian shocks " were preceded by a loud subterra- 
neous noise like thunder, which was renewed every shock," speaking not 
however of the great upward shocks. " This great shock," he says (5 Feb.), 
" occurred without the prelude of any slighter shocks, without any notice 
whatever, as suddenly as the blowing up of a mine." " Some however 
pretend that a muffled interior noise was heard almost at the same 
moment." 

The great Lisbon earthquake " began with a noise like the rumbling of 
carriages, which grew gradually louder until it equalled the loudest artillery, 
and then the first great shock occurred." (Phil. Trans, vol. xlvi. xllx. Iviii.) 

In some very great earthquakes it should be remarked that a very loud 
. noise has been heard a very considerable lapse of time after the shock. 
Thus at Quito and Ibarra the great noise (el gran ruido) was heard eighteen 
or twenty minutes after the shock. At Lima and Callao, in the great 
earthquake of October ITiS, the subterraneous peal of thunder was heard 
at Truxillo fifteen minutes after the shock. These great noises could scarcely 
have been due to the same impulse that produced the original shock, but 
more probably to a subsequent one, whose shock was delivered in a different 
direction to the first, and hence not felt at the places where the sound was 
heard, which may have reached them indirectly and through the air. 

The time of transit of the sound-wave will manifestly differ, whether it 
reach the ear through the sea or through the solid land ; in the former case 



44 REPORT 1850. 

its rate ■will be about 4700 feet per second, and in air about 1140, and at 
the following rates for the rocks or formations, given below : — 

Lias limestone SG^O i'eet per second. 

Coal -measure sandstone ....5248 „ 

Oolite 5723 „ 

Primary limestone 6696 „ 

Carboniferous limestone .... 7075 „ 

Hard slates 12757 „ 

For granite and igneous rocks we have as yet no data, but the rate will be 
greater than in any of the preceding. 

Another remarkable fact observed as to sound is, that in some great earth- 
quakes sounds have continued to be produced at comparatively regular 
intervals for long periods after the shock, but unaccompanied with any sen- 
sible motion of the ground. Boussingault informs us, that, after the earth- 
quake of New Granada in 1827, noises like the discharge of cannon were 
heard in the whole of the valley of Cauca for a long period, at nearly regular 
intervals of thirty seconds, and several other instances of the same sort are 
recorded ; these, like the slight noises in Perthshire at present, I should be 
disposed to attribute to the periodic fracturing in cooling of newly-formed 
igneous rock below or near the country where they are heard. 

As there are shocks of earthquakes without any sound, so there are sub- 
terraneous sounds heard often without any shocks. Thus in Caraccas, on 
the plains of Calabozo, and on the banks of the Apure, a branch of the 
Orinoco, over a region of 9200 square miles, Humboldt informs us there was 
heard on the 30th of April ] 8 12 an extraordinary thundering noise without any 
shock, while the volcano of St. Vincent, in the Lesser Antilles, at a distance 
of 632 miles to N.E., was pouring out lava ; this, he adds, was as if an erup- 
tion of Vesuvius was heard in the south of France. In the great eruption of 
Cotopaxi in 1744, subterraneous noises like those of cannon were heard in 
Honda on the Magdelana River. The crater of Cotopaxi is 18,000 feet 
above Honda, and separated from it by the colossal mountain chain of Quito, 
Pasto and Popayan, full of valleys and rents, and in distance 436 miles apart. 
The sound, he says, was certainly not propagated through the air, but through 
the earth, and at a great depth. During the violent earthquake of New 
Granada of Feb. 1835, subterraneous thunder was simultaneously heard at 
Popayan, Bagota, Santa Marta, and Caraccas (where it continued for seven 
hours without any movement of the ground) ; also in Hayti, Jamaica, and on 
the lake of Nicaragua. 

The subterraneous noises of Mexico, which continued without any trace 
of earthquake at Guanaxuato, for more than a month from midnight of Janu- 
ary 9, 1784-, and are known there as the bramidos y truenos subterraneos, 
described as if thunder-clouds lay beneath the feet of the inhabitants, from 
which issued slow rolling sounds and short quick claps of thunder, — belong to 
this order also ; and there can be little doubt but that Pliny formed his notion 
of earthquake theory from such sounds, when he says, "Nequealiud est in terra 
tremor, quam in nube tonitrum, nee hiatus aliud quam cum fulmen erumpit, 
incluso spiritu luctante et ad libertatem exire nitente." — Plin. lib. ii. 79. 

After recording many of these singular phaenomeua, Humboldt (' Cosmos') 
sums up oddly enough in these words : — " Thus do chasms in the interior of 
the earth open and close, and the sonorous waves either reach us or are in- 
terrupted in their progress," — apparently forgetting for the moment that the 
sounds must be conveyed more siirely and more rapidly through the solid 
crust of the earth than through any fissure. These sounds, without shock, 
must be attributed to impulses given in such directions, and with such a re- 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 45 

gulated force as is sufficient to affect the air, from some quarter near the 
hearer, most probably by the vibration of great tabular or mural surfaces of 
rock, but insufficient to shake the ground under his feet; or sometimes to the 
impulse of shock, being principally directed by circumstances of formation 
in one direction, while only enough of the original impulse is enabled to 
pass in others towards the hearer to affect his sense of sound, without his 
feeling a shock. Where the resonant surfaces are so vast as in these cases, 
extending over a whole surface of rocky country, a very slight vibration 
will produce an overwhelming sound, of which some familiar illustrations 
have been already given. 

In every case it should be borne in mind, that from a distant horizontal 
centre of impulse, or rather from a point vertically above it, two sets of sound- 
waves must arrive to the hearer from each shock capable of being heard at 
all, viz. one coming through the earth rapidly and directly, and the other 
emerging first vertically upward through the earth to the surface immediately 
above the centre of impulse, and transferred thence laterally through the air 
at the usual rate ; hence any single blow delivered in the depth of the earth's 
crust will be heard, if heard at all, at a distance, not as a single, but as a pro- 
longed rumbling sound, or as two distinct sounds. 

We now pass on to the consideration of the effects of earthquakes upon the 
ocean or sea when their centre of impulse is beneath it. 

24th. Where the centre of impulse of an earthquake is under the 
sea, and within a certain distance (usually a comparatively small 
one) of the land, the sea at about the moment that the shock is 
felt by an observer on the shore is seen to swell and to retire 
from the beach slightly, and at a certain interval of time after 
the shock (dependent upon the distance of the centre of im- 
pulse), a great sea-wave of translation rolls in upon the shore. 
The originating impulse of earthquakes being either 1st under the sea, or 
2nd on dry land, gives rise to some difference in the nature and succession 
of the phfenomena constituting the who\e phase of one complete shock. Thus 
considered, d priori, if the origin be inland, we may, if stationed on the beach, 
have the following succession of waves for one complete phase of shock : — 

1. The earth- wave of shock, accompanied and perhaps preceded and fol- 
lowed by sound-waves through the earth. 

2. The sound-waves through the air. 

3. The forced sea-zvave, as I have denominated the small wave produced 
on the beach at the moment that the earth-wave of shock either plunges 
beneath the sea, or vice versa, emerges from it when the origin is under 
the ocean. 

If the origin be under the ocean, then the succession for one complete 
phase of shock will be — 

1. The earth-waves of shock and sound together, or nearly so. 

2. The forced sea-wave lost upon the beach. 

3. The sound-wave through the sea. 

4. Sound waves (possibly) through the air. 

5. The great sea-wave of translation, which rolling in upon shore with 
immense velocity and violence, completes the catastrophe. 

Some of these may be wanting in given instances, or the order of the 
sound-waves may be sligiitly different from causes already adverted to, but 
the above-named order of theoretic succession represents nearly that which 
has been recorded of most great earthquakes. 

In the records of many of these, the peculiar wave phaenomenon occurring 



46 REPORT — 1850. 

on the beach, to which I have given the name of the forced sea-ivave (Dy- 
namics of Earthquakes, Trans. Roj'. Ir. Acad.), is mentioned. 

Thus Darwin ('Journal of a Naturalist') says, "In almost every severe 
earthquake the neighbouring waters of the sea are said to have been greatly 
agitated; the disturbance seems generally, as in the case of Concepcion, to 
have been of two kinds: first, at the instant of the shock the water swells 
high up on the beach with a gentle motion, and then as quickly retires ; 
secondly, some time afterwards the whole body of the sea retires from the 
coast and then returns in waves of overwhelming force." " During most 
great earthquakes, and especially in those on the west coast of America, it is 
certain that the first movement of the waters has been a retirement." 

Some authors have attempted to account for this by assuming that the 
water retains its level, while the land is suddenly elevated or thrown up 
out of it and again dropped down to its former level ; but Darwin well 
says, " surely the waters close to land, even of a steep coast, would here 
partake of the motion of the land." Darwin views this secession of the 
water as due to the first action of the great sea-wave formed or forming far 
out at sea. I have, on the other hand, endeavoured to show that it is due 
to the traversing along under the sea of the crest of the earth-wave of shock, 
which moves so fast as to force up a low broad unbroken ridge of water 
vertically over it, which is imperceptible while the earth-wave is moving 
under deep water, but becomes visible as it approaches the shallow shore ; 
and the effect of the sudden coming in to land, of this earth-wave, carrying 
the forced sea-wave as it were on its back, is, that at the moment they part 
company upon the beach, the beach itself is for the instant elevated to the 
height of the earth-wave and as instantly dropped again, so that slipping from 
under the sea, the earth-wave gives to the sea for the moment the appearance 
of having retired and again advanced to its former level. (See Dynamics of 
Earthquakes, p. 18, 20.) In this Report upon the facts of Earthquakes, it 
would be out of place to do more than refer to my memoir above alluded to 
for more detailed speculations of the subject. 

Combinations analogous to those which f suppose produce the forced sea- 
wave, will also account for those strange movements of distant lakes, islands, 
rivers, &c. recorded as occurring in connexion with distant great earthquakes. 

Thus may be produced the oscillations often observed in inland lakes far 
removed from the convulsed centre, as in the highland lakes of Scotland, on 
occasion of the great Lisbon earthquake, and of the South Carolina earth- 
quake of 1811, when the course of the Mississippi was temporarily arrested 
below New Madrid; or as in the Calabrian earthquake, where the course of 
the river Metramo was thus momentarily stopped, and then began again 
to run ; in the latter cases the crest of the earth-wave, bearing aforcedivave of 
water over it, having run up stream like a moving subaqueous or partial 
dam across the river. 

But a far more striking phsenomenon is the great sea-avave which 
so often rolls in upon land at the conclusion of great earthquakes. 

This has never been observed to take place in any earthquake whose 
centre of impulse was inland, however violent. Thus in the Calabrian earth- 
quake there was no great sea-wave, for the great wave that swept the mole 
of Messina and drowned the Prince of Scilla and many thousands of his 
people, was produced by the sudden fall into deep water of an enormous 
mass of rocky mountain close at hand, detached by a shock. On the other 
hand, wherever the origin has been at sea, and especially in the great South 
American and in the Lisbon earthquakes, an immense rolling wave has come 
in shore some time after the shock has been felt, and this has travelled in 



ON THE PACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 47 

from the offing : the height of these waves has never been accurately mea- 
sured ; that of the Lisbon earthquake, at Cadiz, was said to have been 60 feet, 
and about 18 feet at Funchal in Madeira. 

These waves have been repeatedly observed, and from a remote antiquity, 
as by Thucydides ; and in South America some of the shores, or even lands 
comparatively remote from the shore, still present traces of their violent pas- 
sage in times very remote, with the same circumstances as at the present day. 

They are described as rolling in one long unbroken ridge of water with 
a steep impending front, and not breaking until after they had rolled some 
distance inland, overwhelming and sweeping away everything in their rapid 
and impetuous course. Darwin says, " It is remarkable that while Talcahuano 
and Callao near Lima, both situated at the head of large shallow bays, have 
suffered severely during every earthquake from great waves, Valparaiso, 
seated close to the edge of profoundly deep water, has never been over- 
whelmed, though so often shaken by the severest shocks." 

A good account of the great earthquake of Talcahuano and of the great 
sea-waves thereof, will be found in the London Geogr. Journ. vol. vi. p. 319; 
the inundation of the sea, the author says, was similar to that recorded 
by Thucydides (iii. 89). 

The incoming of the great sea-wave, if in water of moderate depth and on a 
sloping beach, is immediately preceded by a slight recession of the water at 
the shore. 

The first great wave is often succeeded at intervals by others growing less 
and less ; in the Lisbon earthquake there were eighteen such waves on the 
shore at Tangier. 

I must again refer to ray ' Dynamics of Earthquakes,' (Trans. Roy. Irish 
Acad.) for discussion of the theory of these great sea- waves. I have endea- 
voured to show that they are produced by the actual disturbance of the sea- 
bottom, directly over the point of original impulse ; that a wave is here gene- 
rated like that produced by dropping a stone into a pond, and is transmitted 
in constantly enlarging circles, or at least in closed curved figures. This wave 
translates itself outward in all directions, with a speed dependent upon the 
depth of the water over which it is passing, and at last reaches the shore, or 
perhaps many distant shores, its line of motion being widely different at 
those points, perhaps, from that in which the shock was felt there. Its di- 
mensions depend upon the force of the original impulse and the extent of 
sea-bottom simultaneously exposed to it, and the depth of the water and its 
force, time of breaking, &c. upon the form of the shores, depth of water close 
inland, and so forth. The view I have taken accounts for all the facts that 
have been recorded, satisfactorily to the demands of the science of tidal and 
fluid wave motion ; but I am thus brief upon this part of the subject because 
there are extremely few facts as to the dimensions, direction of motion, 
time of arrival, or other circumstances of great sea-waves that have as yet 
been observed at all with accuracy. 

Navigators have often remarked and been placed in peril by, a peculiar sort 
of inshore waves called "rollers" coming upon them suddenly and most unex- 
pectedly : I just notice these here, as it remains as yet uncertain whether these 
are nodal waves produced by the junction of several smaller waves far out on 
the ocean surface after storms, or be in some way connected with our subject. 

It seems probable that in the great ocean such vast nodal waves or rollers 
are frequently produced and propagated to great distances from the regions 
of storm where they originate, and may simulate many of the phsenomena of 
earthquake great sea-waves. 

A good account of these will be found in Captain Owen's narrative of the 



48 REPORT — 1850. 

surveying voyages of the Leven and Barracouta, on tlie east coast of Africa, 
in 1821 and following years, vol. i. p. 288. One of the ships was nearly 
wrecked off Quilimani by one of these rollers, " which burst with fury on 
the decks, bearing everything before it, nearly swamping the ship, and 
throwing her on her beam ends." 

Capt. Owen says, " The roller moves as a precipitous hill of water from 
10 to 50 feet in height, overwhelming everything in its course. They are 
observed on all the sliores of the Atlantic south of 30° N. lat., sometimes 
rising in a perfect calm, probably I'rom past gales in distant parts ; but their 
true cause is not yet known." — Owen, Voyages, p. 288. 

We now pass to some remarks upon tiie secondary effects produced by the 
proper phenomena of earthquakes, viz. by those which we have already 
treated of. 

Again let it be observed, that most authors have very confused notions as to 
the essentially different nature of earthquakes and of permanent elevations or 
depressions of land. An earthquake, however great, is incapable of producing 
any permanent elevation or depression of land whatever ; its functions of ele- 
vation and depression are limited solely to the sudden rise and as immediate 
fall, of that limited portion of the surface through which the great wave is 
actually passing, momentarily. Hence, it is inexact, or rather untrue, to class 
earthquakes as amongst the causes of permanent elevation or depression of 
the land. But as earthquakes are unquestionably closely connected with vol- 
canic forces, and with those nearly identical forces upon which permanent 
elevations and depressions without eruption depend, so there are few earth- 
quakes of any magnitude that are not accompanied by permanent eleva- 
tions and depressions of the land. These and the earthquake have a common 
origin, and are to be regarded as each the symptom of the other; but while 
the elevation or depression of the land may cause the earthquake, or rather 
be the immediately forerunning event to the earthquake, the earthquake can 
never cause the permanent elevation or depression of the land. I dwell upon 
this because it is important to our future progress in earthquake knowledge, 
that we should form a clear conception of what it is, and how far its limits 
extend, and clearly distinguish these from both the permanent elevations and 
depressions, often of vast extent, that accompany their occurrence due to the 
great elevatory forces of the interior of our planet, and also from all those 
secondary, or doubly secondary pheenomena, which change the face of the 
country shaken, but which are only contingent and accidental effects of the 
earthquake, and which vary with the local conditions of the country in which 
they occur. The confusion resulting from having lost sight wholly of this 
distinction is well seen in the extracts I have given from Hooke's discourses 
of earthquakes in a preceding part of this Report. 

In reading over the narratives of earthquakes at large, we are constantly told 
of mountains being removed from one place to another, of valleys being oblite- 
rated, of the course of rivers being altered, springs and fountains spouting up, 
fissures and chasms of vast depth and extent being formed, with smoke and 
flames issuing from them, lakes formed where none were before, and so forth; 
all of which are said in a word to have been produced by the earthquake. 

For example: — "Terras quoque motus profundunt sorbentque aquas; 
sicut circa Pheneum Arcadia; quinquies accidisse constat. Sic et in Coryco 
monte amnis erupit posteaque cceptus est coli. Ilia mutatio mira ubi causa 
nulla evidens apparet ; sicut in Magnesia calidas factas frigidas : salis non 
mutatursapore. Et in Caria, ubi Neptuni templum est, amnis qui fueratante 
dulcis mutatus in salera est 

" Rhodiorum fons in Chersoneso none anno purgamenta egerit. Mutantur 



ON THE PACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 49 

et colores aquarum, sicut Babylone lacus sestate rubras habet diebus XI. 
Et Borysthenes sestatis temporibus caeruleus fertur, quanquam omnium 
aquarum tenuissimus: ideoque innatans Hypani. In quo et illud mirabile, 
Austris flantibus superiorem Hypanim fieri." — Plin. Nat. Hist., lib. xxxi. 30. 

Again : — " Saepe motu terrarum itinera finminum turbantur et ruina in- 
terscindit aquas, quae retentae novos exitus queerunt, et aliquo impetu faciunt 

aut ipsius quassatione terras aliunde alio transieruntur quod accidisse 

ait Theophrastus in Coryco monte, in quo post terrarum tremorem nova vis 
fontium emersit." — Senec. Nat. Qucest., 1. iii. 1 1 . 

It will be necessary to go somewhat into detail, not only to record some 
of these facts, but to show how they depend upon the accidental features of 
country as affected by earthquake motion. 

These phaenomena were presented in great variety and upon a peculiarly 
grand scale in the great Calabrian earthquake ; and we are chiefly indebted 
to Sir William Hamilton, in his account of them addressed to the Royal 
Society of London, for first pointing out the true relation that they bore to 
the earthquake itself. 

The general geological features of the Calabrian plain which have been 
already given, the great tabular surface of clay, sand, and soft decomposed 
rock, divided by deep ravines and river courses, must be now borne in mind by 
the reader. The following then are some of the principal secondary phaeno- 
mena that were there observed, and which are more or less common to all 
earthquakes on land. 

1st. Vast landslips take place. 

The shock transferred horizontally through the plain (either as the normal 
or wave at right angles to this), on reaching the steep escarpments of the 
valleys, shook down enormous masses of these ; the deep clay banks above split 
into fissures, extending to a great depth, and the weight of superincumbent 
stuff often forced out the base of the escarpment into the middle of the ravine 
or valley, so that the upper part of the bank fell nearly perpendicularly (in 
some cases 500 feet), and was deposited with all its trees and crops growing 
upon it at the bottom. In other cases, where the escarpments were less steep, 
landslips in the more ordinary form took place, and the upper lands slid down 
over a rough inclined plane of previous ruin, sometimes leaving nought but a 
chaos of upturned trees and crops, with mud and soil and sand at the bottom ; 
and at others, where the thickness of the mass detached was greater, or the sur- 
face over which it was launched was more uniform, landing the whole upper 
surface safely down some hundred feet, with even houses, standing firm on the 
surface and all the crops uninjured : people descended unhurt on such sin- 
gular and mighty vehicles ; but often the surface over which the slip was 
launched was not a plane, but curved or twisted, so as to change the direction 
of motion of the moving mass ; and here the mass was sometimes broken to 
pieces, but at others its surface was only twisted and distorted in rude copy 
of thai over which it had passed and on which it came to rest. Thus, straight 
rows of elm-trees and of olives became curved, furrows straight from the 
plough became twisted and contorted. 

Childrey, ' Britannia Baconica,' gives several instances taken from Cam- 
den's pages, of the effects of great landslips in altering the form and directions 
of furrows, hedge-rows, landmarks, &c., and one especially of twenty-six acres 
of land which so moved in Herefordshire in 1571. (Hooke, Dis. of Earth- 
quakes, p. 309.) Another great English landslip is recorded in Baker's ' Chro- 
nicle,' p, 419, near Kynaston, in Herefordshire. These are the phaenomena 
that Humboldt appears to have mistaken for evidences of vorticose shocks. 

1850. E 



50 REPORT 1850. 

Again, these landslips often took place from both sides of a straight valley 
at the same moment, or from two projecting headlands at opposite sides, one 
higher up the valley than the other (whep in the latter case the shock passed 
the valley, not directly across, but diagonally), and then the vast debris 
meeting in the bottom of the ravine, by the mutual reaction of one side 
against the other, forced up a huge mass in the middle, often to half the height 
nearly of the table-land at each side, i. e. to 250 feet above the bottom of the 
valley, and thus a so-called hill or mountain was formed in the valley. Thus, 
near Terra Nuova, when the whole town of MoUochi di Sotto v^s detached 
with many vineyards, and descended into the ravine on whose bank it before 
stood, "some water-mills that were on the river having been jammed between 
two such masses as these were lifted up by them in the middle of the valley, 
and are now seen on an elevated situation many feet above the level of the 
river." (Hamilton, Calabrian Earthquake, Phil. Trans., vol. Ixxii.) And in the 
plains also wonderful effects of the propagation of pressure to vast distances 
by superincumbent weight are recorded by Hamilton, Spallanzani and Dolo- 
mieu. Thus, says the latter, " In the deep valleys of the rivers Tricucio, Birbo 
and BoscJinio, sand and clay ran like lava, or as if carried away by water ; in 
other places considerable portions of mountains ran for several miles in their 
way to the valleys, without falling to pieces or even changing their shape." 
Hamilton says that the loose underlying sand formation, when wetted by the 
danmiing up of the rivers, &c., became a sort of fluid rollers, upon which the 
most enormous masses were moved ; in one place, two portions of land, each 
about a mile long by half as much wide, with all their cultivation, were thus 
moved bodily down a valley, a distance of more than a mile ; and a mountain 
mass of sand and clay was moved (or at least was affirmed to have been 
moved) nearly four miles. 

2ncl. New lakes and river-courses are formed, and old ones 
obliterated. 

In many places the valleys dammed across by these landslips arrested the 
course of the rivers passing through them, and formed lakes of great size and 
profound depth. In some places these dams were so stanch from their 
clayey material, that the lakes, brimful, overflowed the table-land at the sides 
of the valley, and traced out new river-courses on the plain, which again 
fell into the old course further down, the new course rapidly eroding the soft 
alluvial plain, and preparing to form in course of time a new ravine as deep 
as that that had been dammed so suddenly. These lakes became putrid from 
the masses of vegetable and animal matter brought into them, and had to 
be drained at once by public measures to avoid pestilence. But in many cases 
the dams, unable to resist the pressure of the rising waters above them, burst 
at length, and the debacle totally altered the form and features of the valley for 
miles below, overspreading everything with a rounded and fluent mass of 
mud and slime, imbedding vast numbers of trees and vegetables, animals and 
men, to become the organic remains of the post-tertiaries to our own remote 
posterity, should the present ceconomy of the earth last long enough. 

How ■well does Hamilton remark of all this ! — " What causes a confusion 
in all accounts of this (and he might have added of all earthquakes) is the 
not having sufficiently explained the nature and peculiarities of the soil and 
situation. They tell you that a town has been thrown a mile from where it 
stood, but without mentioning one word of a ravine on the edge of which it 
stood (a.> at Terra Nuova) ; that woods and corn-fields have been removed 
in the same manner, when, in truth, it is but upon a large scale what we see 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 51 

every day upon a smaller, where the sides of hollow ways, having been 
undermined by rain-waters, are detached into the bottom by their own 
weight ; " or he might have added, shaken down by anything causing vibra- 
tion, as the passage of a waggon or cart. 

3rd. New valleys are also hollowed out. 

Not only are they hollowed out gradually, as above, by the erosion of newly- 
formed river-courses, but they are made at once by the slipping of vast 
masses of soil. Thus, along the bases of the hills, says Dolomieu, referring 
to those above the great plain along the whole length of the chain, the soil, 
which adhered to the granite of the bases of the mountains, Caulone, Esope 
Sagra, and Aspramonte, slid over the solid nucleus, the inclination of which 
is steep, and descended, leaving almost uninterruptedly from St. George to 
beyond Christina, a distance along the base of the hills of nearly ten miles, a 
chasm between the solid granite nucleus and the sandy soil of the plain. Thus 
a valley was formed of great length in a moment, pai-allel to the mountain 
sides and below them ; but this cut off the drainage of the mountain slopes 
from the plain, and hence in after years the ridge of debris forming one side 
of the valley would become cut through and traversed by streams and torrents 
descending to the plain, dividing it into isolated masses of hills, and soon de- 
stroying all recognition of its singular mode of formation. 

A ravine was measured by Grimaldi, which was formed nearly a mile long, 
105 feet wide, and 30 feet deep, in the district of Plaisano ; another was 
produced at Cerzulle, three quarters of a mile long, 150 feet wide, and 100 
feet deep ; and one at La Fortuna about a quarter of a mile long, 30 feet 
wide, and 225 feet deep ; and various others are mentioned which it is need- 
less to detail here. 

Without enlarging the list, " what is said will be sufficient to demonstrate," 
says Dolomieu, "that the singular circumstances attendant on the earthquake 
were the natural effects of a violent shock acting on a sandy ground pre- 
viously opened and torn by torrents." " The general effect was, that of 
heaping together the soil, establishing slopes where there were before steep 
escarpments, disconnecting masses that had bases insufficient for their bulk, 
or only supported by lateral adherence, and of filling interior cavities." 

These landslips, had they occurred in land reposing upon hard rock, such 
as clayslate or granite, and more especially if the deep beds of clay already 
contained pebbles and boulders of hard stone, would in their progress have 
furrowed and grooved the subjacent rocks, and left thereon permanent traces 
of their movements, that would have presented to a geologist, thousands of 
years after, all the aspects of ice or glacier action, and where no other grounds 
to suspect earthquake origin existed, would probably have been set down to 
these causes. 

Let us remark here the vast difference in effects that these secondary phae- 
Qomena will give rise to in a low flat country of soft or incoherent material 
in its formations, and in one of hard, rigid and highly elastic rock, severed 
by valleys and rising into mountain crests. How different would be the 
effects in our own country of a great earthquake that should shake at once 
the London basin, and all the eastern side and south of England, and the 
.Isle of Wight with the mountains of North Wales, and the Grampians! 
What vast landslips should we record of the southern cliffs of the Isle of 
Wight, how utterly would its surface and geology be changed in a day; 
what changes on the face of the cultivated banks of the Severn, the Thames, 
the Medway, to say nothing of our brick-built cities I Yet how different from 
the effects in Snowdonia and the Grampians ! Here, or in any such regions 

e2 



52 REPORT — 1850. 

of hard and elastic rocks, vast crevasses may be rent into the mountain 
masses, huge blocks may be detached at the instant of the shock (as at 
Messina, and as seen from the deck of the Volage, when a mighty cliff de- 
tached itself, and plunging at once into deep water disappeared), and may 
fall into the valleys, and be shattered into fragments, vast, angular and with- 
out order, such as we see filling the commencement of the pass of the 
Spliichen above Chiavenna. But the mountain torrents still find their way 
through or over such debris, the dams formed are not water-tight, their ma- 
terials are too huge, and interlock too much, to be moved by debacle any 
great distances ; the whole iron frame of the country is too elastic and too 
strong to be very greatly altered, and the earthquake leaves but compara- 
tively slight traces of its destroying hand, save upon the frail habitations of 
man, and upon his best and largest works. 

4tli. Fissures of various sizes are formed in the earth's crust. 

These are directly formed in the solid rock. Sir Hans Sloane describes the 
rocks in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica as greatly shattered in 1687 by the 
earthquake. 

Mrs. Graham describes the granite rock of the beach at the promontory 
of Quintero in Chili, after the earthquake of 1822, as found rent by sharp 
recent clefts, very distinguishable from the older ones, but running in the 
same direction. Many of these could be traced to a distance of a mile and a 
half across the neighbouring promontory, where in some instances the earth 
parted, and left the base of the hill exposed. (Geol. Trans., vol. i. 2nd series, 
p. 4.15.) 

Hot springs frequently are found issuing from such clefts in igneous rock. 
Thus Humboldt tells us that the " Aguas calientes de las Trincheras burst 
out from a granite rock, split into regular fragments" (Cosmos) ; and many 
other similar instances may be found recorded. 

Most, if not all writers on this subject have tacitly assumed however that 
all fissures formed during earthquakes are due to the direct action of the 
shock ; and some accounts, such as tiiat of the great Jamaica earthquake of 
1692, affirmed " that the ground undulated like a rolling sea, and that fissures 
opened as the undulations passed, two or three hundred of which might be 
seen open at once ; that these opened and closed again rapidly, as the un- 
dulation rose and fell ; and that people were even caught and bitten in two 
by these Titanic mouths ; that some, thus swallowed up, were again cast out." 
Assuming this narrative veracious, I for some time believed the opening 
and closing of fissures by the direct passage of the earth-wave to be possible 
in incoherent formations. On further consideration of the subject, however, 
I am disposed to reject this solitary and truly wonderful Jamaica narrative, 
for the present at least; and judging from a connected view of all the other 
narratives of earthquakes, to state my strong impression, that fissures, at least 
those of any magnitude, any that are more than rents or cracks in rock or 
masonry or other coherent bodies, are never produced during earthquakes 
directly by the transit of the shock, but are solely the result of secondary 
actions, and due either — 

1. To landslips, more or less complete. 

2. To subsidences in the ground, due to subterranean action at great 
depths, of the true elevatory and depressory character, and producing 
lateral slips by resolution of motion. 

3. To elevations of the ground produced in the same way, and producing 
similar effects. 

4. To the action of water, either forced up from beneath, or removing 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHftUAKE PHiENOMENA. 53 

land or softening it by lateral action, as in newly-formed rivers and 
lakes, and thus producing slips. 

The following are some of my reasons for this conclusion. The limits of 
elasticity of none of the soft materials of which plains of clay, &c. consist, and 
indeed of none of the incoherent formations that we are acquainted with, are 
sufficiently great to permit of the formation of fissures of the width and size 
upon record. The fissures that have been carefully observed have always 
been found parallel to great escarpments or to lands that have slipped ; thus 
all the observers of the Calabrian earthquake concur in stating that the great 
fissures were parallel to the faces of the steep banks of the ravines or valleys, 
and more numerous the nearer they approached them ; and those curious 
radiating fissures at Jerocarne, which are alluded to and figured by Sir 
Charles Lyell, are probably no exception, but most likely arose from the 
ground having fallen away in all directions around, which it would do if cir- 
cumstanced as an insulated mass, surrounded wholly or on three sides by the 
usual deep gorges with precipitous sides, of the Calabrian plain. I cannot 
possibly attribute such " fissures, like cracks in a broken pane of glass," to 
either subsidence or elevation of such a mass of deep soil, which was never- 
theless imperceptible to the eye. Bishop Pocock, in the third book of his 
' Travels in Thrace and Greece,' states that " cracks were formed of six inches 
wide, by an earthquake which occurred at Zeitoun, but that it is situated on 
the south side or slope of a hill at the foot of a high mountain." So that 
here there was a supported and an unsupported side to the embankment upon 
which the town stood. The fissures formed by the first shock of Calabria 
were greatly widened by subsequent ones ; now this would not be the effect 
of direct action of the earth-wave, an elastic wave ; but it would be just that 
of slow separation, due to subsiding away, from any cause which left gravita- 
tion to act ; in fact, in a common slip upon a railway embankment may be 
seen in little, if the soil be favourable, all the phaenomena recorded of earth- 
quake fissures in incoherent material. The first great fissures are produced 
when the slip occurs ; others are formed in its mass after it has assumed a 
state of comparative repose. These, like the crevasses of a glacier, are all 
transverse to its general line of motion, just as they are in the earthquake 
transverse to the line of motion of the shock, or may be ; but every new vi- 
bration, every passing train widens the mouths of these fissures, until the 
whole mass of the slip has gained its position of final repose. 

Again, some of the widest of these chasms, recorded as fissures, are of 
comparatively very small depth in relation to their width. Thus one at 
San Fili, the government Calabrian Commissioner, Grimaldi, found was half a 
mile long, two and a half feet in breadth at the surface, and only twenty- 
five feet deep ; and the deepest fissure I can find any record of, does not ex- 
ceed five hundred feet, and this does not seem to have been measured, and 
is probably exaggerated. Now as the wave of elastic compression and ex- 
tension, or shock, traversed miles in depth of the earth's crust at these places, 
it is inconceivable that these fissures, if produced by its passage, should not 
correspond with it in depth, or at least much more nearly than these com- 
paratively shallow dimensions represent. 

Moreover, many of these fissures were crescent-shaped, as that near 
Soriano, and figured in the government account of the earthquake, and the 
curve wais extremely short and excentric ; it is difficult to conceive such a form 
of fissure produced h^ fracture, i.e. by a shock of any sort or degree of vio- 
lence ; while the excessively irregular figure of some others of the fissures, 
as that at Polistena (also figured), makes them quite as irresoluble on the 
fracture theory ; and indeed the gradual closing in of all these fissures by 
the slow subsidence of the soil, as noticed by the Government Commission 



54 REPORT 1850. 

of the Neapolitan Academy, and also by Sir W. Hamilton, is alone sufficient 
to show that the elasticity of the formation in which they occurred was far 
too small to permit their formation hy fracture. 

Of the extent of these subsidences at the time of the earthquake various 
instances have been recorded, such as the cylindrical lining of the well of the 
convent at Terra Nuova, being left projecting out of the soil like a tower, nine 
feet above the surface, and the lateral motion of the mass of soil in which it 
was dug, also evidenced by the whole well having got an inclined position 
from the vertical. That these subsidences produced often hollows of a cup 
form is not wonderful. 

In conclusion, I conceive the formation of all fissures, where effecting soft 
or incoherent formations, to be due to varieties of subsidence due to one 
form or another of landslips or land removal by water; that they may be 
and are produced in hard rock, and in buildings, &c., directly by the transit 
of the shock, I also conceive there is no doubt of, and this leads me next to 
a singular fact often recorded, viz. 

5th. At the moment the fissures open in the earth, fire and 
smoke (apparently) have been observed to issue. 

On this matter much new and exact observation would be most desirable. 
The narratives generally affirm that flame made its appearance momentarily 
at the mouth of the fissure, and that a volume of smoke, or some say dust, 
was vomited forth and hung for some time above the mouth. 

That some earthquakes have been observed from points situated so directly 
above and so close to the focus of volcanic action beneath, as to make all this 
quite possible in its most literal sense, cannot be doubted, when we call to 
mind the Volage's chain cable having been made incandescent, and even 
partly melted, as she swung by it at anchor on the coast of South America ; 
or Captain Tilland's narrative in the Philosophical Transactions for 1811, of 
the submarine volcano, which he actually saw rise, upon the surface of the 
sea, near the island of St. Michael's, when laying to, within a few cables' 
length of the spot. Within four hours after the first visible commotion, the 
summit of the crater was 20 feet high above water, and 400 or 500 diameter; 
and before he left, it had raised itself to 80 yards in height. Volumes of 
steam were discharged, the sea was violently agitated as though boiling, light- 
ning-flashes were emitted from the clouds above, and water-spouts formed in 
various places around showed the violent disturbance of electric equilibrium. 
A continuous noise like musketry mingled with discharges of cannon stunned 
the ear, and the shocks of earthquake felt were sufficient to shake down part 
of a cliff upon which some observers stood. Many such recoi'ds show how 
closely men may sometimes approach the " Atri janua Ditis," and live in the 
midst, as it were; of the smoke and fervent heat of the unknown regions 
within ; but when the occurrence of flame and smoke is recorded of fissures 
in non-volcanic lands, and in territories suffering from earthquakes whose 
origin is manifestly far away, as in the Lisbon one for example, some different 
solution must be sought for. 

The following suggests itself as at least worthy of future investigation. 

The experiments of Becquerel and other electricians have shown, that when 
fractui'e in a solid takes place, a powerful electrical disturbance is the con- 
sequence. This will be great in proportion as the surface and mass fractured 
are themselves large. When therefore a fracture of a mile long and of many 
feet in depth is formed, whether by subsidation and slipping, or in any other 
way in soft material, and yet far more when one of those greater fractures in 
hard rock takes place, such as have been described when a whole mountain 
mass has been rent in two at a blow, the disturbance of electric equilibrium 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 55 

may be expected to exceed that of a heavy thunder-storm, and may, quoad 
this particular part of earthquake phaenomena, realize the dreams of the older 
philosophers, who thought an earthquake was a thunder-storm under ground. 

In this then I believe is to be found the usual source of the flame or flash, 
seen suddenly to appear and vanish at the mouth of the rent, and the iden- 
tification of the supposed flame or flash with electricity in an analogous case, 
was made by Sir W.Hamilton, who alludes to its violent disturbance always 
in the cloud above the crater of a volcano in eruption, though he suggests 
no origin for such disturbance in the case of fissures opening, from which he 
had satisfied himself by subsequent examination, that there was no evidence 
of flame or volcanic exhalations of any sort having issued from their mouths. 
And as to the smoke which has even been described by some authors as dust, 
I fancy it has been none other in almost all cases, if not in all. 

Eye-witnesses of the falling of towns and cities by earthquakes describe 
the volume of dust that rises from the shattered buildings as instantly ob- 
scuring the scene of desolation from view ; thus Catania in 1692 disappeared 
in an instant in a cloud of dust ; and any one who has seen a large blast fired 
in a quarry of hard rock will remember the dust that rises through and over 
the falling and shattered masses. There can thus be no doubt that the rend- 
ing of a mountain mass of rock must be attended with similar volumes of 
dust, and that the same must attend the fracture of earthy materials, such 
as the clay of the plains of Calabria or that of Lisbon, which from the dry- 
ness and heat of both climates must be for many feet down in a friable con- 
dition. But there is another cause yet for the cloud of steam, or dust and 
steam, even when the walls of the fissure may be perfectly wet. By the 
sudden yawning of one of these vast chasms a void space is instantly opened, 
into which of course the surrounding atmosphere immediately rushes ; a 
partial vacuum is thus for the moment produced just above the mouth of the 
crevasse ; the great mass of air suddenly rarified or expanded has its capacity 
for heat increased, its sensible temperature is therefore as suddenly lowered, 
and a deposition of vapour, in form of a great cloud, takes place above the 
crevasse, which is greater or less in proportion as the dew-point is higher or 
lower at the time and place. 

Conversely, if the crevasse be wet and suddenly opened to a considerable 
depth, the temperature of its sides and of the water dripping from them being 
that due to the depth, and therefore above that of the air at the surface, 
will instantly fill it with steam or vapour; this will rise and mingle with the 
air above in the form of steam clouds at every breath of wind that enters 
the chasm and disturbs its repose, will be slowly driven out by the descent 
of the colder surrounding air of the surface, or may be wholly expelled if 
the crevasse close again, as it often does ; and these sources of change of 
state in the air and vaporization of water, «jr condensation thereof, are them- 
selves powerful causes of electrical disturbance. 

Whether therefore the formation through which a fissure or crevasse is 
cloven during an earthquake be hard or soft, dry or wet, on the mountain or 
in the plains, whetlier it be due directly to the earth-wave or shock, or se- 
condarily to subsidence or slipping, I conceive that there is abundant evidence 
of sufficient meteorological and electrical disturbance to account for the 
(clouds of steam or supposed smoke, flashes or sudden flame, and dust, so often 
mentioned as occurring far from volcanic active centres. 

Smoke in the true and ordinary sense of this word, it may be remarked 
in passing, has never been observed by any competent authority actually 
issuing from even any volcanic vent. The gaseous products are almost 
wholly vapour of water, holding some acids, as SO- and CI-I-H, in suspension. 



56 REPORT — 1850. 

and various solids in the form of fine dust or sand ; but bodies in that pecu- 
li.ir intermediate state between mechanical suspension as sand, and chemical 
diffusion as vapour, such as constitutes common carbonaceous smoke, and 
whose peculiar characteristic it is to deposit a portion of its mass as a soot 
or sublimate of some sort, and the remainder to float for days or weeks 
permanently in the air in an uncondensed and unprecipitable state, do not 
seem ever to issue from the interior of true volcanic vents ; so that there is 
a priori the strongest improbability of smoke having ever been really been 
to issue from an earthquake fissure. 

Compare the younger Pliny's account of the eruption in which his uncle 
perished, where his graphic account of the thick darkness that in a moment 
overwhelmed them in absolute obscurity and almost choked them, cannot 
be mistaken for smoke, though he calls it " a thick cloud." 

6th. Water often spouts from fissures, wells and springs, or 
bursts up in unexpected spots from the ground at the mo- 
ment of the shock ; and it also is rolled out of the mouth of 
great fissures or crevasses, often in a turbid and discoloured 
state, and sometimes for a considerable time after the earth- 
quake. 

These pbsenoraena, various and singular as they are, and apparently per- 
plexing, as we find them recorded in earthquake narratives, all arrange 
themselves into order and become of simple solution when once we have got 
the key to the whole, which is this : — They are all cases of reaction, in which 
the inertia of masses of water lodged in the earth is brought into play by the 
passage of the shock, through its solid parts, or they are secondary effects of 
those cases of slippage and subsidence, which, as we have already shown, are 
themselves secondary effects of the shock. 

This will be most rapidly made clear by a few instances. 

In the Jamaica earthquakes of 1687 and 1692, Sir Hans Sloane informs 
us, that " of all wells, from one fathom in depth to six or seven, the water 
flew out at the top with a vehement motion," i. e. at the moment of the shock, 
which was here a vertical one. The sudden motion of the transmitted wave 
(the earth-wave) is, to use Humboldt's words ('Cosmos'), "increased at the 
surface in conformity with the general laws of mechanics, according to which, 
when motion is communicated in elastic bodies, the outermost free-lying stra- 
tum tends to detach itself from the others ;" like the last of a train of billiard 
balls, whicii alone flies off, when the first is struck ; or to illustrate the fact 
(not this principle), if one hold a cylindrical tumbler (the well) nearly full of 
water, and suddenly raise it up a couple of feet vertically and there suddenly 
arrest it, the water will in great p^rt leap out of the glass. 

The water of springs and natural wells is contained in the earth chiefly in 
two forms ; it either lies in plates or bands of fluid in the crevices of rock 
formations, which are mostly either vertical or inclined to the horizon, and 
are usually of great length and depth and of constricted width, or the water 
lies in beds of sand and gravel, lying stretched out over large spaces, fol- 
lov'jiipf sometimes the contour of the surface, and at others cropping out here 
and tliere, where tiie springs themselves bubble out to the surface; or 
again they lie in the vacuities which have been washed out between the 
beds of stratified rocks ; or lastly, in the caverns and sinuous apertures that 
have been dissolved out of calcareous rocks, as about Trieste and in 
Ireland, &c. 

Now, in the first case, when the earth-wave passes nearly horizontally 



ON THE PACTS OF EARTHftUAKE PHENOMENA. 57 

through a formation of rock, bearing vertical or inclined plates of water, each 
of these will be powerfully compressed at the moment of the passage of the 
shock, for it is by the compression of the water only, that the shock itself can 
be transmitted onwards to the rock beyond the plate of water; and as fluids 
transmit in all directions equally, any pressure communicated to them in one, 
so the water in each such plate will press upwards at the moment of the 
shock, and will fly upwards, because in this direction resistance is least ; and 
as the pressure, though but for an instant, and even often acting through a 
very restricted range, yet acts on an enormous surface, namely, on perhaps 
the whole length and depth of the water plate, each amounting to miles, at 
the same instant, its total eff"ect, quoad the volume of water displaced, is very 
great, for it is as though a piston of very short stroke but of enormous surface 
suddenly expelled water through a comparatively very small aperture. But 
furthermore, the spouting fluid has acquired a certain velocity which it does 
not lose at once, and has further an elasticity of its own, as well as the solid 
walls that compress it ; hence it spouts higher, and a rather greater volume 
of water is expelled from the fissure than is due merely to the (diminution of 
its capacity by the passage of the shock and to the speed with which this is 
effected. Shocks in a vertical direction will affect such plates of water, if 
vertical or nearly so, precisely in the way already described for open cylin- 
drical wells. 

Proceeding now to the casein which the water lies in a water-bearing bed or 
in several, of sand or gravel, overlaid by rock or by clay, or any other im- 
pervious material : if the direction of shock be horizontal, as before, the 
water in such reservoirs will, by its inertia, oscillate first in the opposite di- 
rection to that of the shock, and then again in the same direction as the 
shock moves ; and if in either of these directions its bed crop out to the 
surface, or it can find vent to it any other way, it may suddenly emerge in 
vast volumes, and from the principle just alluded to, of quaquaverse pressure, 
such pourings out of water are not confined narrowly, to the line of direction 
of shock or its opposite, but may occur at any angle to it, laterally, or up- 
wards, or downwards. 

But let us now take the case in which a country underlaid by such a 
water-bearing bed or beds is exposed to a vertical shock or one nearly 
vertical. Here, on the principles already stated, every open well, or natural 
fissure or duct communicating with the water-bed through the impervious 
strata above, will spout out volumes of water ; and if there be considerable 
tracts over which there are no such artificial or natural vents, or whose 
combined areas are insufficient to ease off the sudden pressure of the water 
upwards, it may break through the retentive stratum above, whether of rock 
or of clay, &c., at the points of least resistance, and there spout out where 
water had never been known before, and may bear with it volumes of gravel, 
sand, and mud from the beds below. 

Now these were just the conditions of the great Calabrian plain, and of that 
of Lisbon and of Port Royal. In Calabria, as we have seen, a vast deposit 
of clay forms the surface of the plain, described by Dolomieu as consisting of 
" a stratum of vegetable earth, argillaceous, black or reddish, very strong, 
very tenacious, and from four to five feet in thickness," beneath which lie 
various formations resulting from the decomposition of granite, and under 
this " a white micaceous clay rather unctuous and ductile ;" and beneath all, 
the deep bed of sand and scarcely coherent sandstone, which he informs us 
is a water-bearing stratum in most places, and to which he says " the roots 
of the trees penetrate to a great depth in search of the humidity always 
contained in the lower part of the sand." 

Sir William Hamilton also describes the "swampy plain of Rosarno" as 



58 BEPORT — 1850. 

" consisting of clay," and the higher grounds reposing on the sides of the hills 
above it (i.e. the understratum), as "of a gritty sand." 

Now the great shocks of Calabria, three in number, were almost vertical, 
and spoutings of M'ater, botli out of wells and crevices, and out of spots 
where before there was neither aperture nor water, were numerous. And 
these conditions give me the means of explaining the very curious circum- 
stance of tlie satid-cones and circular hollows found in the plain of Rosarno, 
as described by the Calabrian Government Commissioners, and also figured 
and described by Sir C. Lyell (Principles of Geol. p. 465). They say, " in 
the plain of Rosarno were found numerous circular hollows, for the most 
part about the size of a coach-wheel, but some larger and some smaller ; these, 
like wells, were full of water within a foot or so of the surface ; on digging 
down, they were found to be funnel-shaped cavities in the clay, full of sand, 
and some which were dry presented nothing but an inverted cone of sand in 
the clay-bed, concave in the centre on the top, and rippled oft' at the edges. 
Eye-witnesses had seen these hollows suddenly formed by the spouting up 
of water mixed with sand during the earthquake, which was thrown to a 
considerable height. In the great Chilian earthquake of 1820, M. Place 
describes similar sand-cones as formed on the banks of the river Concon, 
fifteen miles from Valparaiso, each, he says, with a crater-like cone in the 
inside ; and he describes the plain there as clay with a substrate of sand." 
(Quart. Journ. vol. xvii.) And Mrs. Graham, in her description of the 
Chilian earthquake of 1822-23, says, " In all the small valleys the earth of 
the gardens was rent and quantities of water and sand forced up through 
the cracks to the surface. In the alluvial valley of Veiia a la Mar, the whole 
plain was covered with cones of earth about four feet high, occasioned by 
the water and sand which had been forced up through funnel-shaped hollows 
beneath them, the wliole surface being thus reduced to the consistence of a 
quicksand." (Geol. Trans. Vol. i. 2ud ser. p. 414.) Similar sand-cones, under 
similar conditions, are recorded in the ' Philosophical Magazine,' vol. ix. 
p. 72, as having been formed during an earthquake at the Cape of Good Hope 
on December 5, 1809. 

Thus this phasnomenon is seen not to be an isolated or peculiar one, but 
common to several earthquake-shaken countries resting on water-bearing 
sand beds. Sir W. Hamilton "thinks the phaenomenon easily explained;" 
thus, "the impulse having come from the bottom upwards, the surface of 
the plain suddenly rising, the rivers which are not deep would naturally dis- 
appear, and the plain returning with violence to its former level, the rivers 
must naturally have returned and overflowed, at the same time that the 
sudden depression of the boggy grounds would as naturally force out the 
water that lay hid under their surface." He says he observed that "where 
this sort of phEenomenon had been exhibited the ground was always low and 
rushy." His explanation is scarcely intelligible, and certainly not true. I 
am not aware that any other writer has attempted a rigid explanation of the 
spoutings of water and sand, &c. in earthquakes, but from what has preceded, 
I think I may lay claim to having, for the first time, done so; and we may 
now see that the Calabrian sand-cones were simply the ajutages through 
which in the lowest places, and where the swampy clay offered the least resist- 
ance; the bed of water, reposing in the great sand-formation beneath, broke 
forth at the moments of vertical shock, sweeping up more or less of the sand, 
along' with the water. 

The form of these cones, as figured in section by Sir Charles Lyell, is pre- 
cisely that which an issuing fluid would shape to itself. We may readily see 
now what prodigious secondary effects in dislocation and removal of masses^ 
such violent and sudden hydrostatic pressure brought to bear under a large 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 59 

surface of undulating country and of soft material may produce, and what 
Bhattering and breaking up into blocks, it may be capable of when acting 
thus from beneath upon countries consisting of stratified rock in a tolerably 
level and unbroken bed. 

Lastly, from crevices formed during an earthquake, water has been ob- 
served to pour out in vast volumes for a considerable time after their for- 
mation, at which moment they were dry, and within them the water slowly 
welled up at first. 

This case is not to be confounded with the obvious one of a crevasse having 
some underground communication with a higher source, then opened to it 
as a mouthpiece, for the first time, and the explanation of which is obvious ; 
but the following seems to be its solution : the crevasse, if formed in deep 
clay, as in Calabria, or Lisbon, or Jamaica, and rent down to a water-bearing 
stratum at its lowest parts, will have the base of its sheer sides soon sapped 
by the water at bottom and by that dripping from its walls, and there beginning 
to slip, its sides will gradually bulge inwards, first at the bottom, and this rising 
upwards slowly, the whole chasm will close in and gradually eject and press 
out over its lips, the whole of the water it had before contained, though this 
may have at first stood fathoms below the surface ; and as the whole capacity 
of some of the crevasses we have seen is immense, and the closing up gradual, 
a large stream may thus be kept running from many of them for a long 
period. 

This gradual closing in (and no doubt from this combination of circum- 
stances) was remarked in many of the great crevasses of the Calabrian plain ; 
the enormous force with which the sides closed together, was remarked 
with wonder by those who dug out the remains of buried habitations, and 
found beams and masonry, furniture, utensils, and bodies of men and animals 
pressed together and compacted into one undistinguishable mass ; but such 
a result will excite no wonder in those who have had an opportunity of 
carefully examining the phaenomena and effects of any great landslip, or even 
slip of heavy embankment, or of the effects of the " creep and crush" in 
our deep coal pits. 

To such a subsidence taking place suddenly, no doubt, was due the dreadful 
disappearance of the quay of Lisbon in 1755, which became suddenly perched 
as it were upon the very brink of a vast crevasse, formed under the waters of 
the Tagus, which rapidly softening the blue clay upon which Mr. Sharp 
(Geol. Proceed. 1838, p. 36) informs us the lower part of the city is founded, 
soon caused the banks of the rent to yield under its overwater load ; and to 
a similar cause must the sinking of the quay or mole at Messina be ascribed, 
which was built upon a submarine bank of clay and sand, sloping rapidly off 
into profoundly deep M'ater close by. The water poured out from these 
spouting apertures or from large crevasses, has often been described as im- 
pregnated with foreign matters ; these have chiefly been described as " hepa- 
tic, or sulphureous, or bituminous," and have mostly been recorded as coming 
from the overflow of crevasses some time after the earthquake; of course 
Water-bearing beds full of soluble mineral matter will eject more or less of 
these with their fluid contents ; but when such crevasses affect deep inco- 
herent formations containing sulphurets and organic matter together, rapid 
decompositions will give rise to all those horrible evolutions of foul water 
and poisonous gases that have been recorded so often, and especially in the 
Jamaica earthquake of 1692. 

If, for example, such wet crevasses as we have been considering vVere to be 
Opened in the deep carboniferous formations of Westphalia or Lower Saxony, 
or even in some of our own coal-measures, with what rapidity the coal and 



60 REPORT 1850. 

pyrites of the latter, and the strange mixture of pyrites and vegetable matter, 
which Mitscherlich describes as used in Saxony for making copperas from, 
and which only needs to be dug out and moistened to heat and decompose 
spontaneously, would give rise to black and foetid water, saturated with 
sulphates, evolving torrents of sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid, and 
mingled with red mud of oxides of iron ! Again, should such crevasses 
affect a country such as that of the salt formation of Cheshire, and stretch 
also into some of the neighbouring coal-measures, what rapid and important 
chemical action would result from all the above, brought into contact with 
saturated solutions of common salt, with gypsum, with limestone and with 
clays dissolving into a paste at the first approach of moisture ! What enormous 
evolutions also of carburetted hydrogen from the coal-beds would the sudden 
relief of superincumbent pressure give vent to I 

Before proceeding to another branch of our subject, it will be proper here 
just to notice some few unusual and ill-ascertained phcrnomena, of which the 
facts are doubtful or incomplete, and for which no perfect explanation can 
be offered : — 

1st. Fixed objects are said in a few instances to have been inverted; thus 
by the " sbalzo " or leap into the air, fixed pavement is affirmed by the 
Neapolitan academicians to have been thrown upM'ards, and found after- 
wards in its own place, but with the stones inverted. 
2nd. In the midst of the universal ruin and prostration of a whole town or 
village, a single edifice, and often one not remarkable for strength or 
for humility, has stood quite uninjured. Thus at Radicina, in Calabria, 
a single small square house of one story remained standing, all the rest 
of the town being prostrated ; similar events have been noticed in South 
America, where — 
3rd. " Nodal points or lines " occur, namely, isolated portions of country 
which constantly escape the shocks which convulse the parts all round 
them ; these portions are so well known, Humboldt says, that the Peru- 
vians say " the rocks form a bridge," " rocas que hacen puente " in 
Spanish. 
4th. Shocks felt in deep mines, as in the Marienberg in the Saxon Erzge- 
birge, not felt at all at the surface, and e converse, shocks at the surface 
not felt at all underground, as at Fahlun and Presberg in Nov. J 823. 
It would be easy to speculate on the probable causes of such phaenomena, 
on the known grounds of reflexion, refraction and total reflexion of elastic 
waves at certain angles, but the facts themselves are too doubtful to make it 
at all useful. But we must leave this subject, fertile as it is in consequences, 
having, as I trust, developed the nature of secondary effects from the earth- 
wave itself, sufficiently for the purposes of this Report, and proceed to a few 
remarks upon the secondary consequences of the great sea-wave. 

7th. The great sea-wave, when it comes ashore, after the earth- 
quake, produces all the effects on land of. a great debacle. 

It does not appear needful to enlarge much upon this, as everything re- 
mains to be done in the way of accurate collection of facts, of which M'e 
have very few, principally due to Mr. Darwin, to W. Parish (seeGeol. Soc.) 
and to Virlet (Bull, de la Soc. Geol. de France, tom. iii. p. 103), who has re- 
corded some curious facts as to the effects of a great sea-wave that broke 
over Santorin and the island of Sikino, seven leagues off, after the earthquake 
of September 1650. 

Mr. Parish, in a memoir presented to the Geological Society of London in 
November 1835, has collected all the historical notices of great sea- waves 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE rH^NOMENA. 61 

which he was then able to discover accompanying earthquakes on the coasts 
of Chili and Peru ; in 1590 the sea rose over Chili for some leagues, leaving 
ships, dry far inland ; in 1605 such a great wave swept away the greater part 
of Areca. In 1687 Caliao was similarly overwhelmed, and ships were carried 
from the roadstead a league into the country ; the shock of this earthquake was 
felt by Wafer 150 leagues from the coast out at sea. He also saw at Santa, 
three miles from Caliao, three rotting ships in a valley, where they had been 
carried inland over a low intervening hill in 1687. In 1746, Caliao was 
again swept away, and vast heaps of gravel and sand left where it stood; 
large ships were thrown far inland by this wave. Lima has suffered in the 
same way with Cavallos, Guanape, Chan^ay and Guara, and the valleys of 
Barranea, Sape and Patevilca; when Penco was thus destroyed in 1751, a 
similar but less wave reached Juan Fernandez and overwhelmed houses 
along the shore. 

Mr. Alison (Pro, Geol. Trans. 1835) describes similar waves of the earth- 
quake of Chili of Feb. 1835 ; but it is unfortunate that no precise levellings or 
sections were made of the land swept over in any of these cases, or observa- 
tions of gravel boulders, &c. moved, which would have been highly important. 

This dearth of facts is the more to be regretted, because our theoretical 
knowledge is more perfect of liquid waves than of those of elasticity, as 
respects this our subject, and observations of the effects in denudation, trans- 
port, and effects on vegetable and animal life, producible by their agency, 
would have important bearing upon other extensive regions of geology ; 
and when facts and observations as to the precise effects produced by great 
sea- waves shall hereafter have been collected, it may provide geologists with 
a new instrument of investigation by which to trace upon many distant shores 
the evidences of ancient earthquakes, whose (rt"igin was below the ocean^. 
and of which no other record remains capable of being investigated. 

In examining the many meagre notices of earthquakes which I have 
had occasion to collate in reference to this Report, I have been struck in 
several instances with notices of sudden recessions, and as sudden subse- 
quent unusually high risings of the sea, in various places where there was no 
account of any accompanying earthquake, either there or anywhere else at 
the same time. 

Thus of the Thames at London in 1762, and in 1767, of the sea at Malaga 
and at Leghorn in 1774, and in several other tidal rivers and estuaries, small 
but unusual fluctuations have been recorded ; some of these occurred in great 
earthquake years, but there are no recorded shocks occurring anywhere at the 
times given for these fluctuations. 

I am disposed therefore not to attribute such to earthquake shocks at all, 
but to the sudden slippage under water of large masses of submarine banks 
of sand or mud. Where such banks accumulate in large masses, often, indeed 
generally, with one steep side next deep water, the progress of accumula- 
tion upon the top is equilibrated either by slow and gradual subsidation of the 
whole mass, or by sudden and partial slippages into deep water of portions 
of the mass ; such a circumstance occurring upon a very moderate scale 
would be sufficient in a narrow estuary to produce a wave of translation 
liable to be mistaken for the effect of an earthquake. 

In thus examining in a more detailed and systematic manner than has 
previously been done, the secondary effects of earthquakes, I have been 
able, I trust, to cause the geologist to bear constantly in mind the broad 
distinction between the great cosmical forces of permanent elevation 
and depression, one of the secondary efforts of whose paroxj'smal efforts 
is the production of earthquakes, and the secondary effects of earthquakes 



m REPORT 1850. 

themselves. The distinction is most important to the clear conception of 
both. While to the former is reserved the mighty task of perpetually yet so 
gradually (as on the whole not to interfere with the inhabitants of our globe) 
lifting fresh land from beneath the ocean bed and dropping others below its 
waves, so that the earth, which has already " waxed old as doth a garment," 
shall be renewed again and "changed like a vesture," and its fitness for the 
support of man and animals ever preserved, the geologist becomes convinced 
that as the volcano is itself but insignificant in all its results taken by them- 
selves, when compared with the totality of the mighty cosmical law of which 
it is at once the superficial index, and also the most striking evidence; so the 
earthquake, great and formidable as are its effects upon man and upon his 
works, is as nothing when compared with the enormous forces in whose throes 
it receives its birth. 

Yet as in our estimations of the united effects through time of the sum 
of all the forces acting upon the surface of our planet, we are compelled to take 
large account of those directly due to volcanic foci, active and extinct, so 
the secondary phoenomena that we have pointed out and endeavoured to 
systematize, produced by the transient yet violent passage, of the earthquake 
shock, cannot be neglected in their continual and reiterated effects upon our 
earth, but should form an element in all our attempts to estimate and explain 
the past revolutions of its surface. 

So far as our knowledge yet enables us to judge, the office of earthquakes, 
the general resultant geological effect of their secondary action, is not one of 
elevation but of depression, of degradation and of leveling, although always 
probably preceded and accompanied by the proper forces of elevation to whose 
action it is referable. 

Perhaps the most remarkable of the secondary effects of earthquakes to a 
remotely future supposable posterity, may be the prodigious mass of organic 
remains of men and animals mingled with many of the least perishable of 
man's works which will be found entombed in our existing, most recent, or 
at least most superficial formations, when these may have become depressed, 
heated, consolidated and altered in texture and re-elevated to become the 
pleistocenes of future races of mankind. To estimate the numbers of men 
only that have perished by eartiiquakes within the period of history is im- 
possible ; thousands have repeatedly been in a few moments entombed ; 
60,000 persons at Lisbon, 10,000 at Morocco, 40,000 in Calabria, 50,000 in 
Syria, and probably 120,000 in the same country in the time of Tiberius and 
Justin Elder, a.d. 19 and 526. 

In the reign of Justinian earthquakes shook the whole Roman world re- 
peatedly ; Constantinople shook for forty days ; an impulsive and vibratory 
motion was felt, enormous chasms opened, huge and heavy bodies were dis- 
charged into the air, and the sea advanced and retreated beyond its usual 
margins ; a part of Libanus was thrown into the sea and became a mole for 
Botrys in Phoenicia. At Antioch 250,000 persons perished. May 20, a.d. 
526, and at Berytus all the students of civil law there collected, July, a.d. 
551. (See Procopius, Agathias, and Theophanes, as quoted by Gibbon.) 
On the 21st of July 365, in the second year of Valentinian, a fearful 
earthquake shook almost the Avhole Roman w orld ; and the retreat and sub- 
sequent rolling in of the great sea-wave of the Mediterranean is described 
as tremendous, sweeping two miles inland and carrying ships over the tops 
of houses, so that at Alexandria 50,000 persons lost their lives. (See Liba- 
nius, Sozomen, Cedrenus and others, as quoted by Gibbon.) In the earth- 
quake of Messina, 1692, 74,000 persons are said to have perished, some 
accounts raising thenumber to 100,000 (Practical Reflections on Earthquakes, 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHaUAKE PHiENOMENA. 63 

by John Shower, 1750, 8vo). In the year 602 a second earthquake of the 
country about Antioch slew 60,000 persons, (Cluverius.) 

In the earthquake in the province of Quito of 1797, notwithstanding the 
thinness of the population, 40,000 natives are stated by Humboldt to have 
been buried in crevasses or under the ruins of buildings, or drowned in lakes 
or ponds temporarily formed. (Per. Nar. vol. ii. p. 237.) 

Such are the numbers to be met with in narratives ; and if we suppose but 
one great earthquake in three years over the whole earth, and that this in- 
volves the entombment of only 10,000 human beings, and that such has been 
the economy of our system for the last 4000 years, we shall have a number 
representing above 13,000,000 of men thus suddenly swallowed up, with 
countless bodies of animals of every lower class. Sir Charles Lyell then 
with good reason suggests that even in our own time we may yet find the 
remains of men and of their habitations and implements thus buried deep and 
embalmed as it were, by earthquakes that occurred in the days of Moses and 
the Ptolemies. 

But such entombments extend also largely to the vegetable world ; masses 
of vegetable matter, entangled beds of broken branches and leaves and single 
trees, with all their peculiar insect and other inhabitants, have with man thus 
found a common grave. And at the present moment, short as has been the 
lapse of time, were excavations carefully made in the deep clay and sand of 
the Calabrian plain, there can be no doubt but that evidence would be dis- 
covered throwing much light upon the nature of those obscure processes by 
which vegetable and animal forms are mineralized and preserved, and that 
we should already find many of the trunks of trees buried in the sand, 
converted into brown coal or lignite, and thus presenting us with an ex- 
planation of that puzzling fact we so often see in the sandstones of our own 
coal-measures, as for instance at Gascube Quarry near Glasgow, where in the 
midst of perfectly clear undiscoloured beds of sandstone of enormous thick- 
ness, we now and then find a trunk of a single tree buried and fossilized, but 
bearing no traceable relation, either to the direction of the beds in which it 
is found, or to any conceivable process of their deposition. How readily may 
such facts be brought to bear upon the heterogeneous gathering together of 
multitudes of forms, such as those of the- fish of Monte Bolca, at one spotl 
and again, reflectively, the occurrence of such remains thus thrown together, 
may become the indices to us, of the loci of ancient earthquakes, as erratic 
blocks are assumed to be of ancient ice. Nor must the effects of great sea- 
waves, in entombing beneath the sea in littoral deposits, the various natural 
and artificial productions of the land, be overlooked. " The great sea wave," 
says Caldcleugh, " in its reflux brings everything to sea along with it." (Phil. 
Trans. 1836, p. 21.) 

Large however as thus would seem to be the gross effects of earthquake 
action upon the organic world, they are probably insignificant in comparison 
with the aggregate entombment even of man alone, due to the every-day 
progress of accidental events ; and shipwrecks alone will probably disclose a 
vaster mortality, "when the sea shall give up her dead," than all that have 
perished by earthquake and its effects. 

It only remains now for me to make a few observations upon the assumed and 
presumable connections between astronomical and meteorological 
PHENOMENA AND earthquakes; and first as to the former. Numerical 
discussions of earthquake catalogues have been made by several persons, as 
the Abbe Scina of Palermo, Von HoflT, Merian, Hoff'man, Cotte and Perrey, 
for the purpose of discovering their frequency at any one particular period 
of the year, or during the lapse of some centuries ; but always upon insuf- 



64 REPORT — 1850. 

ficient bases, generally confined to some one district, so that none of their 
conclusions can be received as certain, or even very probable yet. 

The three last of these authors come to the conclusion, that in the tropics 
at least, the periods of the equinox are rich in earthquakes. 

" Ideoque post austros noxii praecipue terrae niotus. Noctu Auster, interdiu 

Aquilo vehementior Et autumno ac vere terrae crebrius 

moventur, sicut fiunt fulmina Item noctu saepius quam 

interdiu ; maxime auteni motus existunt matutini vespertinique : sed propinqua 
luce crebri, interdiu autem circa meridiem. Fiunt et Solis Lunaeque defectu, 
quoniam tempestates tunc sopiuntur. Praecipue vero cum sequitur imbrem 
aestus, inibresve aestuni." — Plin. Hist. Nat., 1. ii. 49, 84. These, like many 
of the opinions of the ancient learned upon similar questions, are but the ex 
cathedra repetition of popular and ill-founded notions. 

Perrey's large catalogue (Mem. Cour. des Scav. Etran. de Belgique, tom. 
xix.) applies to central Europe or to the basins of the Rhine, Rhone, Danube, 
and to France and Belgium, only, and extends from the9tli to the 19th cen- 
turies. 

As we purpose returning to this part of our subject upon an extended base, 
it is scarcely worth while here to extract his tables, merely stating that his 
general result shows a preponderance of earthquakes in the winter, i. e. in the 
months of January, February and March, for the whole, which seems again con- 
firmed by the discussion alone, of the results of the I7th, 18th and 19th centu- 
ries, during which the accounts are more to be relied on than at remoter dates. 

Perrey's Table, in which he seeks to deduce the resultant direction of 
all shocks in a given region, and the intensity oi the shock, on the assumption 
that this intensity is proportional to the number or reiteration of shocks at a 
given point from one direction, is probably of doubtful value, from the more 
than uncertain hypothesis on which it rests. 

Ow the Influence of the Season of the Year and Time of Day upon Earth- 
quakes. — Von Hoif remarks, " As we have already noticed, a dependence of 
the earthquake upon the time of year has occasionally been supposed to have 
been remarked. In the equinoctial regions earthquakes have been thought to 
occur more frequently during the rainy season than at any other time of 
year. Sometimes they have been supposed to be peculiar rather to the pe- 
riod of the equinoxes, sometimes to the winter months ; with many other 
similar opinions. Indeed examples are not wanting which appear to favour 
such views ; as for instance, the observation, that of all the earthquakes 
which occurred in Sicily from 1792 to 1831 (Hoffman in PoggendorfF's An- 
nalen, b. xxiv. s. 52), double as many took place in March as in any of the 
other months. Still however an almost more profound obscurity hangs over 
the question, whether earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are more peculiar 
to one time of the year or day than to another, than over the consideration 
of the other connections of these phaenomena with those of the atmosphere. 
This subject has also been treated of in an elaborate manner in another 
paper on the causes of earthquakes (Memoire couronnee, Utrecht, 1820-28, 
and enlarged, Leipzig, 1827-28) by Herr Kries, who has brought forward 
instances in no small number, which prove that earthquakes, even of the 
most violent kind, have occurred at every time of day and in every season 
of the year." 

" I myself (says Von HofF) have in another place (Poggendorff's Annalen, 
b. xxxiv. (110) s. 99 f.) made the experiment of collecting and arranging 
all the instances of earthquakes which occurred during ten years, in order 
to find whether any one time of the day or year presented a greater 
number of these phaenomena than the others. The result of these re- 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 65 

searches however seems to be, that with respect to this relation of earth- 
quakes also, no law can be laid down. We must con&ider it as an 
established fact, that both earthquakes and volcanic eruptions may occur at 
any time of the day or year, since experience has shown this with respect to 
almost every time. The only question which remains on the subject is, 
whether we can ascribe to any one or other season or time, a greater ten- 
dency to produce or favour the production of such phsenomena. A mere 
collection of facts, even though embracing a long period of time, would of 
itself hardly supply an answer to this question ; since, in order to draw to- 
lerably accurate conclusions from such a collection, many other circum- 
stances would have to be taken into consideration. We ought not to content 
ourselves with collecting and arranging a mere successive list of these phae- 
nomena, but on the contrary, we should compare with one another only the 
most considerable, and those which occurred in the same climate, with other 
precautions of a similar nature. That, however, the motions (Bewegungen) 
which are always going on, in the inner portions of the earth, are at certain 
times much more energetic and more continuous than at others, numerous 
examples testify. There have been periods of many years in which these 
motions remained continuously violent and widely spread, as from 1666 to 
1694, 1749 to 1768, &c. ; and others in which for several years they seldom 
manifested themselves. On the whole, however, if it be probable that the 
idea of any influence exercised by the atmosphere upon the volcanic process 
should be considered as overturned, the opinion of the influence of the time 
of day or year upon the occurrence of earthquakes, &c. will retain but little 
probability." (Von Hoff, Gesch. Verand. Erdober, Th. iv.) 

Seneca, ' Quaest. Nat.' vi. c. 1 ; a writer in the ' Annal. de Chim.' vol. xlii. 
p. 416 ; Cotte, in ' Journ. de Phys.' for 1807, p. 161 ; and Hofl'man, ' Hin- 
terlassene Werke,' Theil 11, have discussed the question as to whether earth- 
quakes are more frequent at one season than at another. Kant, in his ' Phys. 
Geogr.,' vol. ii. p. 199, thinks they occur chiefly in the spring and fall of the 
year. Smith, in his 'Memoirs of Sicily,' p. 6, states, that thirteen earthquakes 
occurred there betwixt the 10th of January and the 28th of the succeeding 
March. Shaw, in his 'Travels in Barbary,' p. 152, comes to the conclusion 
that they are most frequent there at the end of summer and in autumn. All 
these however are observations on far too narrow a basis. 

Hoffman, ' Hinterlassene Werke,' xi. 357, and Kries, ' Ursachen des Erd- 
beben,' p. 8, have given a large catalogue of earthquakes during the Christian 
epoch. Arago, in 'Annal. de Chim.' xlii. p. 409, has discussed the earth- 
quakes of forty years at Palermo. Pouqueville has given a list of sixty-three 
earthquakes at Joannina from 1807 to 1825. Cotte gives a list of 338 
earthquakes in the 'Journ. de Phys.' for 1807. Hoffman has compared 
these with the forty years' earthquakes of Palermo (Poggen. Annal. xxiv. 52, 
and xxxiv. 104), and Von Hoff" (whose great 'Chronik der Erdbeben' has 
never yet been fully discussed) has compared all these with those for the 
years 1821 to 1830, occurring in the northern hemisphere. And Meriau 
(' Uberdie in Basil Wahrgenommenen Erdbeben') has given a list of those oc- 
curring at Basil. All these the author of the able article Erdbeben (L. F. 
Kamtz) in the ' AUgemeine Encyklopadie der Wissenschaften und Kiinste,' 
von Ersch und Gruber, Theil 36, has arranged in the following table by 
mouths, adding the sum in another column : — 



1850. 



66 



REPORT — 1850. 



Month. 


Cotte. 


Hoffman. 


Merian. 


VonHoff. 


Total. 


January 

February .... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November .. . 
December .. . 


24 
25 
23 
26 
16 
28 
42 
34 
25 
38 
22 
35 


4 
5 
13 
4 
1 
6 
4 
6 
6 
2 
4 
2 


12 

14 

6 

5 

11 

3 

7 

8 

12 

11 

14 

15 


31 
36 
31 
29 
33 
33 
20 
31 
24 
41 
26 
34 


71 
80 
73 
64 
61 
70 
73 
79 
67 
92 
66 
86 



And discussing these by the common seasons, the result shows, in — 

Winter 237 

Spring 198 

Summer 222 

Autumn 225 

These approach so near to equality, that upon this limited induction there 
is no ground for supposing one season more plentiful in earthquakes than 
another. 

This branch of the subject however cannot be deemed complete until 
from the largest possible catalogue of earthquakes, extending over the whole 
historical period, a similar deduction with suitable precautions shall have 
been made. 

A singular work, now very scarce, was published in 1729, by a professor 
at Lima, entitled ' L'Horloge Astronomique des Tremblemens de Terre,' in 
which he undertakes, from a discussion of 108 earthquakes occurring in 
his own time, to predict that of their recurrence ; the period of tide and 
state of the moon are the immediately influencing causes, according to him, 
as well as the moon's place in the zodiac ; the critical time is confined to six 
hours and some minutes of the horary circle, within which the moon is on 
the meridian of the place ; and he says he has confirmed his results by 143 
observations in 1729, and 70 in the subsequent year, which proved correct. 

Mr. Edmonds, in the Cornwall Polytechnic Journal, has also endeavoured 
to connect the occurrence of earthquakes with the period of the moon ; he 
shows that several of the most disastrous have occurred the day after the first 
quarter. 

I mention these latter authors, not as attaching any importance to their 
conclusions, but as showing to those who will consult the originals, the 
wrong direction in which such researches have been made. 

As respects observed direct connexion with meteorological phaenomena, 
the following comprises most of the information to be had : — 
1 St. The Weather generally. 

Although in numberless accounts we read of peculiar appearances before 
the earthquake, as red lurid skies, red and blue suns, &c., and during the 
continuance of earthquakes, of strange appearances and threatening portents 
in the sky, yet, judging from all the narratives of the best observers, there 
seems to be no ground for supposing that there is an^ connexion between 



ON THE PACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 6? 

the state of weather or appearance of air and sky immediately before earth- 
quakes. 

In the south of Europe a general belief prevailed that calms, oppressive 
heats and a misty atmosphere, were the usual preludes of earthquake. Ha- 
milton says he found it a general observation in Calabria, " that before a 
sheck the clouds seemed to be fixed and motionless, and that immediately 
after a heavy shower of rain (during the earthquake), a shock quickly fol- 
lowed." And in the Philippine Islands, De Guignes informs us that " a calm, 
the sky gray and cloudy, the atmosphere heated and heavy, occasional gusts 
of wind, and at intervals gentle showers of rain, are the prognostics by which 
earthquakes are anticipated there." After recording a number- of vague 
opinions held by the South Americans, as to the weather prognostics of 
earthquakes, Humboldt says, " These are however very uncertain, and when 
the whole of the meteorological variations at the times when the globe has 
been most agitated are called to mind, it is found that violent shocks take 
place equally in dry and in wet weather, when the coolest winds blow, or 
during a dead and suffocating calm." (Humboldt, Per. Nar. vol. ii. p. 223.) 
Again, the veteran philosopher says that " even in Italy this belief is dying 
away;" and expresses his own conviction, strengthened by that of those who 
have lived long in the great shaken countries of South America, that earth- 
quakes are independent of the weather or appearance of the heavens imme- 
diately before the shock. He says he has felt earthquakes when the air was 
clear and a fresh east wind blowing, and also when there was rain and 
thunder-storms ; and this has been very recently confirmed by the continuous 
observations made at New Zealand during the earthquake of 1848, which 
began in a gale of wind. 

On the relation of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions generally to the 
condition and phaenomena of the atmosphere. Von Hoff remarks ; " The 
question, whether any relation or causal connexion exists between the various 
movements of the earth and those occurring in the atmosphere, has for a 
long time remained unanswered. The intimate connexion which subsists 
between the earth and its atmosphere, and which manifests itself in so many 
phaenomena, has always induced people to presuppose a similar connexion 
between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and the condition of the atmo- 
sphere. They believed that the influence of the latter might be engaged in the 
volcanic process, and that, on the other hand, earthquakes and volcanic erup- 
tions might produce some effect on the condition of the atmosphere. The 
proof of the first of these opinions, it has been thought, was to be found in 
great falls of the barometer, in remarkable calms, in dry mists, and unusual 
gray or red colouring of the sky, and especially in great heat. 

" Amongst the effects supposed to be produced by the earthquake on the 
atmosphere, were reckoned tempestuous winds, thunder-storms, meteors, cold- 
ness of the air, severe winters, heavy rain, miasmata, producing diseases and 
affecting vegetation. A very remarkable instance of the latter is quoted, 
namely, that in Peru ; after the earthquake of 1687, wheat and barley would 
not thrive at all, though formerly the country was remarkably favourable for 
them. 

" There can be no doubt that an answer to the question, whether a con- 
nexion exists between these phaenomena of fixed terrestrial bodies and the 
condition of the atmosphere, is of the greatest importance to a thorough 
knowledge of both. But from the multifarious conditions which have here 
to be taken into consideration, from their complication, and from the diffi- 
culty of distinguishing, amongst many recurring at the same time, between 
the indifferent and those which are really important, an extended series of 

y 2 



68 iiEPORT — 1850. 

successive observations, made with the utmost care and circumspection, will 
be required, in order even to approacli the object which is aimed at in re- 
searches of this sort." (Von Hoff, Gesch, Erdober, Th. iv.) 

2nd. Effects on Artimals. 

Hamilton saj-s that during shocks, horses and oxen extended their legs 
widely to avoid being thrown down (an evidence of the velocity of the 
shocii), and that hogs, oxen, horses and mules, as also geese, appeared to 
be painfully aware of the approach of the earthquake of Calabria ; and the 
neighing of a horse, the braying of an ass, or the cackling of a goose, even 
when he was making his survey, drove the people out of their temporary 
sheds in expectation of a shock. 

All birds appear sensible of its approach, but geese, swine, and dogs more 
remarkably than any other animals ; the geese quit the waters before the 
earthquake and will not return to it. Can it be that with their heads immersed 
they are able to hear the first distant mutterings, while these are yet inaudible 
to those who hear through the air, and not as in their case through a liquid ? 

Von Hoff notices " a presentiment (vorgefiihl) which it was thought 
had been remarked in particular species of animals shortly before an earth- 
quake. Even men have sometimes, a short time before such occurrences, 
felt a tendency to headache, giddiness (vertigo), and an inclination to 
vomit. 

" It has been remarked, that at such times domestic animals showed a 
decided uneasiness, dogs howled mournfully, horses neighed in an unusual 
manner, and poultry flew restlessly about. These latter phaenomena might 
easily be produced by mephitic vapours, which often ascend to the surface 
of the earth before the breaking forth of the earthquake." 

The Cirricelli, (possibly our Sand-eels,) a little deep-water fish, like our 
white bait, which usually lies buried in the sand, Hamilton says, " came up 
to the surface with many others, and were caught in multitudes ;" this might 
arise either from actual heat of the sea-bottom and water close to it, or from 
its being fouled by the commotion or by exhalations into it ; or they may 
have been startled by the vibrations, as trout are when one stamps violently 
on a river bank. 

There is unquestionable evidence of earthquake shocks (and not of great 
intensity) producing nausea and vomiting in men and women ; sometimes, 
as in a school at Philadelphia, numbers were so afl'ected, at the same instant 
awakened from sleep by the shock ; whether this arise from sudden dread 
produced by the unusual and fearful visitation, or be analogous to sea sick- 
ness, has not yet been determined. 

These few particulars constitute nearly all that has been observed of this 
point of our subject. 

Srd. The Barometer. 

There does not seem to be any ground for supposing that the period of 
occurrence of earthquakes is marked by any very remarkable rise or fall of 
the barometer just before, nor certainly by any remarkable fluctuations 
during the continuance ; on this the New Zealand observations are pecu- 
liarly important, as during the days from the 7th to the 15th of October, 
before the earthquake, the range of the barometer was fiom 28*97 to 29'25; 
and during the remainder of that month, whilst there were continual shocks, 
its limits were from 28*37 to 29*58 ; and during the immediate subsequent 
period of eighteen days in November, free from shocks, the barometer re- 
mained steadily at about 29\ inches ; the limits of variation being from 
29-53 to 2910 only. 

Humboldt (Relat. Hist.) has shown that the horary oscillations are not 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE I'H^NGMENA. 69 

affected during or after earthquakes in South America; and Erman has 
shown the same for Asia. 

At the moment of the t\yo first shocks of the earthquake of Cumana of 
1799, Humboldt says there was a strong electrical explosion at a great 
height, and a few minutes before a violent blast of wind, succeeded by rain. 

The barometer was a little lower than usual, but the progress of the horary 
oscillations was in no way interrupted; the shock took place just at the mo- 
ment the height was a minimum. (Per. Nar. vol. iii. p. 319.) 

Cotte thinks the barometer rises during earthquakes. Hoffman (Pog- 
gen. Annal. xxiv. 56) says it fell at Palermo. 

It has been asserted, that at Cape Francois a water barometer fell 2^ inches 
at the moment of the shock of 1770 ; this would correspond to about one- 
fifth of an inch of mercury. No general or well-authenticated facts of falls 
or rises of the barometer on such occasions could be traced however by 
Humboldt, and if there be any, he is disposed to attribute them to evolutions 
of gaseous matter from the shaken earth. (Per. Nar. vol. ii. p. 225.) 

It however must be borne in mind, that at the moment of shock, if it have 
any vertical element of motion whatever, some motion must be produced by 
mere inertia, in the mercurial column, and this fact does not seem hitherto 
to have met any attention from earthquake observers. 

Von Hoff says, " Since the condition of the barometer on the occurrence 
of an earthquake has been attentively observed, before, during, and after the 
shock, both at the place where the earthquake took place and at others more 
or less distant from it, these observations seem to convince us that no fixed 
rule with respect to the behaviour of the barometer during an earthquake has 
been up to the present time proved." There are examples of falls of the baro- 
meter before or during earthquakes, and there are also instances of the mer- 
curial column rising during similar occurrences, as well as others where 
perfect absence of motion prevailed during very violent shocks. The same 
observations have been made w.ith respect to volcanic eruptions. We are 
indebted to Herr Kries (De Nexu inter Terrse Motus, &c. et Statum Atmo- 
sphaerae,' Mem. cour. Leipsic, 1832) for an excellent memoir on these baro- 
metrical changes, supported by numerous examples. As the view given by 
him does not come down further than the year 1826, we add here some ex- 
amples of more modern date, and also some not in Kries's collection. 

Examples of Falls of the Barometer preceding Earthquakes. 

1720, 1st July. — A great fall of the barometer tivo days before the earth- 
quake in the Erzgebirge. 

1744, 3rd June. — Before the earthquake in North America, the mercury fell 
3 lines. 

1826, 23rd 3\xae.—At the moment of the shock at Trient, there was a fall of 
1 inch 3 lines. 

1828, 29th January. — Immediately after the shock in the Swabian Alps, the 
barometer fell 3 lines. 

1828, 8th February. — At the same place, on the day following the earth- 
quake, there was a fall of 3 lines. 

1828, 23rd February. — Before the earthquake in Belgium, there was a very 
great fall of the barometer through the whole of Germany and even 
further. It rose however during the shock. 

1828, 22nd March. — On the repeated shock, a much more widely-spread 
low position of the mercury. 

1830, 9th September. — On the occasion of the earthquake in the Swabian 



70 REPORT — 1850. 

Alps, the barometer fell 6 lines immediately after the shock, and in the 

evening of the same day rose again 4 lines. 
1834, 15th October During the earthquake in Hungary the barometer 

fell 1 inch, as also in Vienna. 
On the other hand, in the following examples the mercury had a high po- 
sition or ascended : — 

1683, 28th September. — During the earthquake at Oxford. 
1822, 19th February. — During that in Savoy. 

1825, 23rd December. — At Strasburg. 

1828, 2nd February. — At the time of the very violent earthquake in Ischia. 
1830, 23rd September. — In the Swabian Alps, the barometer reached its 

lowest position in this month, 6 lines below the average. From the 
22nd to the 23rd (the day of the earthquake, and consequently before 
the shock), it suddenly rose 4- lines, and on the following day fell slowly. 
1834, 2nd February. — In Silesia. 

In the following instances the barometer remained perfectly quiet :— 

1826, 26th March. — At Kremsraiinster. 

1829, 26th November. — During the widely-extended, earthquake in Transyl- 
vania and Russia. 

1829, 30th November At Innspruck. 

1834, 22nd March.— In Mexico. 

1835, 20th February. — During the extremely violent earthquake in Chili. 

1836, 9th May.— In Dalmatia. 

Here therefore we find twelve instances in which, on the occurrence of 
earthquakes, the barometer did not fall, against nine cases in which it did. 
The number of these examples is doubtless very small as contrasted with 
that of the earthquakes which occurred in the period of time from which 
they are selected ; but they are the only ones which we have found in that 
period, since in the accounts of the numerous remaining ones, nothing is 
noticed with respect to the position of the barometer before, during, or after 
the earthquake. Here also they are very much divided, and in this respect 
can prove nothing, or at least can only confirm the fact, that, as already 
mentioned, no more sufficient foundation as yet exists upon which to base a 
law with respect to the behaviour of the barometer during earthquakes. 
This is also proved by a very instructive comparative view of the position of 
the barometer in fifty-seven earthquakes which have been observed at Pa- 
lermo from 1792 to 1831, which we owe to Frederick Hoffman (Poggen- 
dorff's Annal. Physik und Chimie, bd. xxiv. (100), s. 49-64), whom we 
have already had occasion to make honourable mention of. 
4th. The TJiermometer. 

I can find few observations of this recorded. Those of the New Zealand 
earthquake show no remarkable fluctuations of temperature either before or 
during the earthquake. The range during the days from the 7th to the 
15th of October, before the earthquake, was from 42° to 52° morning, and 
48° to 62° night; and during the remainder of the same month of continual 
earthquake, its range was from 45° to 62° morning, and 48° to 66° at night ; 
while for the eighteen first days of November, the range in the morning was 
from 48° to 64°, and in the evening from 56° to 73°. (West. Rev. July 
1848.) 

During the earthquake which took place in Piedmont in the year 1808, 
the thermometer experienced a slight fall on the occurrence of each shock. 

Von Hoff remarks, " Observations have as yet failed to lead us to any 
rule, as to whether changes in the degree of warmth of the atmosphere 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PH^ENOMENA. Jl 

have any connexion, whether close or not, with earthquakes and eruptions of 
volcanoes. It has certainly been sometimes remarked that great heat has 
preceded an earthquake, but there have been fully as many examples where 
very violent earthquakes have occurred at all degrees of atmospheric tem- 
perature, and at all seasons of the year; so that heat preceding an earth- 
quake can by no means be considered as a regularly occurring phaenomenon ; 
which likewise in the Avork of Herr Kries, already quoted, is clearly proved. 
" It must also be admitted, on the other hand, that changes in atmospheric 
temperature may be a consequence of earthquakes, since there are undoubted 
instances where, after violent and widely-spread earthquakes, such changes 
in the condition of the atmosphere, and especially in its temperature, have 
manifested themselves, which may with probability be ascribed to the forces 
which produced the earthquake, at least until some other cause for them be 
observed. 

" On the whole, it is more probable that earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, 
and the whole of the fiery process carried on beneath the surface of the earth, 
may exercise some influence on the atmosphere, than that the foregoing 
phsenomena occurring in the atmosphere, react upon this process, which 
belongs to the earth and manifests itself in such an energetic manner. In 
all relations between this earth and its atmosphere, the former is to be con- 
sidered as the principal (principale), and the latter only as its appendage 
(accessorium). The atmosphere is the child of the earth and is supported 
by it. Its influences do not extend beyond the actual surface of the earth, 
but the internal operations (einwirkungen) of the latter appear solely to de- 
termine the condition of the atmosphere, with the exception of the influence 
which the sun and moon exercise upon it, which however with respect to 
terrestrial bodies, at least as far as relates to meteorological phaenomena, is 
only superficial. Of the great cosmical influences, as attraction and such 
like, M'e naturally do not speak here." 

On these observations of Von HoflT I would remark, that when we consider 
the powerful effects in heating or cooling of the air which the earth's surface is 
capable of, as manifested to our senses, in the oppressive feel and closeness, 
&c. of an overcast or clouded summer night, when free radiation is greatly 
impeded, or conversely, of the dew produced by the free radiation of the earth's 
heat outwards, we readily perceive what great meteorological changes, in fog, 
heat, vapour, rain, meteors, &c., may be producible by the local overheating 
by only a fraction of a degree of a vast supravolcanic district of the earth 
before, or during, or after an earthquake ; and thus violent perturbations of 
season and weather, followed by pestilences and failures of crops, cease to be 
wonderful, as doubly secondary efl^ects of earthquakes, especially within the 
tropics, where the natural limits of every sort are so wide and so suddenly 
passed into. 

" It follows," says Dolomieu, " that the atmosphere is not so immediately 
connected with the interior movements of the earth as has been so inces- 
santly maintained, and it is probable that the tempests (in the Calabrian 
earthquake) experienced in the Strait of Messina and in other parts of the 
coast, may have been due to other causes." Perhaps so, but certain it is 
that the earth acts far more energetically upon the atmosphere than the latter 
can ever react upon the earth as respects earthquakes. 

If several, or even but a few, surprising pheenomena once manifest them- 
selves at the same time (or still more if this occur several times), or follow 
close upon each other, the world is only too much disposed to look for a 
connexion, or even a relation of cause and effect between them, so as to make 
them forget the more commonly occurring events which accompany these 



72 REPORT — 1850. 

phaenoniena. Hence, perhaps, but a few instances in which earthquakes 
followed great heat, sufficed to produce amongst the Greeks and Romans 
the opinion that earthquakes occurred more rarely in the cold season of the 
year than in the warm. How little this opinion of the older naturalists is 
founded in reality, may be gathered from the fact that directly the contrary is 
asserted and believed by those of more modern date, namely, that a greater 
number of earthquakes happen in winter than in summer. In different coun- 
tries also different opinions have been entertained on this subject, which per- 
liaps always arose from some few, but great, and therefore striking phae- 
nomena. 

5 th. The Rain-gauge. 
Torrents of rain have often been noticed as falling during earthquakes, 
and they have also often begun in heavy rain, and sometimes have been 
concluded with rain, and this has in each case often been accompanied 
with thunder, lightning and wind ; but, on the other hand, so many earth- 
quakes have occurred with serene skies, before, during, and after the shocks, 
that we must conclude there is no necessary connexion established be- 
tween them. I can find no numerical observations as to rain, in relation 
to our subject, recorded. 

As secondary effects after earthquakes, disturbances in the usual fall of 
rain may be almost certainly anticipated in a degree greater as we approach 
the volcanic centre ; but this branch of seisrao-meteorology is as yet un- 
touched. 

6th. 77i€ Electrometer. 
Eandi observed a Volta-electrometer much agitated during the long-con- 
tinued earthquake movements of Pignorol in 1808 (Journ. de Phys., t. xlvii. 
p. 291.) ; but even were these experiments more copious and refined, it by no 
means follows that agitations of instruments, at all times in activity, and 
whose extraordinary activity at any moment may depend upon a passing 
cloud, have any necessary connection with earthquakes. 

" Thunder-storms," says Von Hoff, " have undoubtedly on some occasions 
burst forth at the same time with earthquakes. Examples of this are to be 
found in his Chronicle in the years 365, 1138, 1570, 1627, 1680, 1704, 
1711, 1715, 1720, 1752, 1821, 1824, 1828. But how many earthquakes 
took place during this lapse of time without the occurrence of storms, and 
what innumerable storms to the production of which no earthquake contri- 
buted!" (Gesch. Veran. Erdober, Th. iv.) 

On the theory of probabilities only, it would be strange were it not so, 
amidst the numbers of earthquakes of which some record exists. 

But here again we are without any facts (to be truly so called) as respects 
regions visited by earthquakes far beyond the range of the volcanic centres; 
within these, or in proportion as they are approached, of course this, like 
other atmospheric perturbations, may be expected. 
7th. The Magnetometer. 
Humboldt found, in the great earthquake of Cumana (4th Nov. 1799), 
the declination and magnetic intensity unaffected, but to his surprise the dip 
was diminished by 48 minutes. He had no ground to suppose an error. 

With this solitary exception, in all the otiier earthquakes he experienced 
on the high lands of Quito and Lima, all the magnetic elements remained 
unaffected. (Relat. Hist., t. i. pp. 515, 517.) 

These movements are of course totally different to those which have been 
observed by Arago, Biot, and repeatedly at Dublin by Dr. Lloyd, in their 
magnetic observatories, viz. oscillations suddenly affecting the magnetometers, 
and most probably due to the transmission of very small impulses from 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 73 

a distance through the earth, and having their origin in very distant earth- 
quakes. Such raust have been the cause of the simultaneous movements 
of the magnetometers of Arago at the Observatoire, and of Biot at the Col- 
lege de France some years since. Indeed it was found that at the moment 
a slight shock had been felt in Switzerland and southern France. Capocci, 
Director of the Observatory at Naples, relates that at the eruption of Vesu- 
vius of Jan. 1st, 1839, the declination-needle was moved. (Poggend. Annal., 
b. 1. p. 192; Coraptes Rendus, t. ix. p. 735.) It is questionable, however, 
in all such cases, whether the motion be due to magnetism or to pulses com- 
municated to the needle through the shaken ground ; and hence special in- 
struments would be desirable, formed to make the distinction. 

"In many instances," says Von HofF, "in which an opportunity of ob- 
serving the magnetic needle during an earthquake has presented itself, an 
alteration in its direction for the time has been observed. The usual peri- 
odical oscillations (Abweichungs-Schwingungen) are quicker, or take place 
in a different direction, or are altogether interrupted. It is only in very 
modern times that great and regular attention has been devoted to the 
observation of the magnetic needle ; consequently good observations of it 
made during earthquakes are as yet but few in number. The suddenness 
and unexpectedness of earthquake phsenomena certainly render it difficult to 
obtain accurate observations made at the place where the earthquake occurs, 
if even the necessary preparations for such observations should be ready, 
which is to be expected from very few places. The greatest care and the 
most perfect and accurate instruments also are required for magnetical ob- 
servations made at the place of the earthquake ; the more especially since 
the shock itself, in proportion to its violence, may mechanically put the 
needle in motion, which motion is quite independent of that produced by 
magnetism. 

" More remarkable however are the changes in the direction of the dip- and 
variation-needles, which take place at a distance from the place where the 
earthquake was observed, and at a place where the shock itself is not per- 
ceptible; as, for instance, in Paris, on the 19th of February and 31st of May 
1822, simultaneously with an earthquake which occurred in Savoy and some 
of the southern parts of France. If this observation should be established 
by others carefully made, the existence could not be denied of a connexion 
between terrestrial vulcanism (Erd-vulcanismus) and terrestrial magnetism." 
(Gesch. Veran. Erdober, Th. iv.) It may be here remarked, that without 
self-registering seismometers and magnetometers, any correct or sustained 
observation of a connexion between these forces is impracticable. 
8th. The Wind. 

" The opinion, that surprising calms precede earthquakes, is also sup- 
ported by some evidence, as in the earthquakes of 1704 in England, 1754< 
in Asia Minor, 1759 at Aleppo, and several others noted. But, on the 
other hand, earthquakes are sometimes preceded by high wind and tem- 
pestuous weather; and with respect to this also no law can be laid down. 
Violent storms, which raged at the same time with earthquakes, are men- 
tioned as having occurred in the year 359 in Asia Minor; in 1703 at 
Rome; J 827, 30th of November; 1828, 21st and 23rd of March; 1829, 
13th of April. Storms burst forth immediately after earthquakes, in 893 in 
India; 1703, at Abruzzo ; 1824, 26th of October; 1829, 23rd of April; 
1833, 9th of October; 1836, 18th of November; 1837, 24th of January. 
The few instances here adduced, laboriously sought for out of such a long 
period of time, during which innumerable earthquakes occurred, at least 



74 REPORT — 1850. 

prove nothing in favour of a constant law with respect to any connexion 
between these phaenomena." Such is Von HofF'8 view. (Gesch. Veran. 
Erdober, Th. iv.) 
9th. Meteors. 

" A somewhat nearer connexion may be supposed to exist between earth- 
quakes and phaenomena of this kind. These meteors belong to a class of 
phaenomena proportionally seldom displayed by the atmosphere ; yet they 
have been tolerably frequently observed to occur at the same time with 
earthquakes. To this class belong the so-called globes of fire, and other 
extraordinary lights and illuminations (Entziindungen) in the regions of the 
air, which cannot be considered as belonging to the ordinary methods of 
electrical discharge." 

Such meteors have been observed to occur contemporaneously with earth- 
quakes in the years 95 B.C., and a.d. 893, 1001, 1325, 1640, 1674, 1683, 
1703, 1737, 1752, 1756, 1810, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1824, 1828, 1829, 1831, 
1833 and 1835. 

Humboldt states, that just before the great earthquake of Riobamba, a 
great shower of meteors was seen at Quito (4th of Feb. 1797); that he was 
informed at Cumana, that just before the earthquake of 1766 a similar dis- 
play had been seen; and on the 11th of November 1799, he and Bonpland 
witnessed such a phaenomenon in close connexion as to time with the earth- 
quake which then afflicted Cumana. (Per. Nar., vol. iii. p. 331 ; Cosmos^ 
notes 44, 45.) 

10th. The Aurora. 

This phasnomenon, now so well ascertained to be in direct sympathy with 
terrestrial magnetism, has been often observed before and after earthquakes; 
I have found no instance in which it was remarked during an earthquake- 
shock, but it might then easily escape observation. 

On the 19th and 20th of October 1848, during the New Zealand earth- 
quake, the aurora was very bright in the south-east (the direction nearly 
towards which the shock travelled) ; but there was nothing to show any con- 
nexion, in this or in any other case, with the forces concerned directly in the 
shock. 

If there be any real reaction upon the magnetometer for declination here- 
after discovehed, as due to volcanic action, and not traceable to secondary, 
electrical or other disturbance close to active vents (and nothing can 
be more possible than that the sudden movement beneath of great masses of 
fluid igneous rock, usually rich in iron, shall be found to have such reaction), 
then it may dlso be found that the aurora, that most airy and evanescent of 
all visible meteors, may have some direct, though probably slight relation to 
the most tremendous agency that the mechanism of our planet possesses. 
11th. Other Atttiospheric Pkcenomena. 

Under this head Von Hoff has placed together some curious facts. " I 
have already mentioned," says he, " that it seems to me more probable, that 
the changes going on in the interior of the earth exercise some influence on 
the atmosphere, than thai the latter should in any way influence that process 
which seems to have its seat deep in the inner portions of the earth. As the 
globes of fire before spoken of may have their origin in peculiar gaseous 
exhalations, so it seems probable that other changes in the condition of the 
atmosphere may be produced by these terrestrial forces. Indeed, alterations 
in the ordinary state of the atmosphere have not unfrequently been remarked, 
which ought not too boldly to be ascribed to the influence of the earthquake. 
We have already noticed the observation, that the earthquake in Peru, in the 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKK PHiENOMENA. 75 

year 1687, for a long time prevented the success of certain crops. There 
have also been strange colourings of the heavens and unusual fogs noticed 
as occurring at the same time with earthquakes; such as the unusual colour 
of the sky at Lisbon on the 1st of November 1755, and the dry fog (Nebel), 
which was so thick as to produce darkness, during the earthquake in Cala- 
bria in 1783. Since observations upon phaenomena of this kind, made in 
modern times, deserve more confidence than those which are preserved in 
the older accounts, I do not consider it altogether superfluous to quote some 
instances in modern times of remarkable conditions of the atmosphere existing 
during earthquakes: — 
" 1824', 12th August.— In Tuscany. The sun appeared as it were veiled, and 

was more like the moon. 
" 1824, 30th November. — In Martinique. After the earthquake, the tempe- 
rature of the air (which before had been very high) fell very con- 
siderably. 
" 1825, 19th January. — At St. Maura. Extremely heavy showers succeeded 

the earthquake, and lasted for several days. 
" 1826, 23rd November. — In the Tyrol. The violent wind which had existed 
before the earthquake, ceased during its continuance, and rose again 
after its termination. 
" 1827, 1st February. — In Naples. On the day of the earthquake, the air, 

which before had been very cold, suddenly became pleasantly warm. 
" 1827, 3rd June In Martinique. Rain immediately succeeded the earth- 
quake, although none had fallen for sixty-six days before. 
" 1828. — In Peru. The most unusual and extremely violent rain, lasting four 
days, succeeded the earthquake in the district which had been most 
severely visited by it, namely at Truxillo, Lambeyeque, Chiclaya, Puira, 
and in the desert of Sechua. 
" 1830, 8th February. — At Agram. A fog, having a very bad smell, spread 
itself abroad, and lasted for three hours. 

" 1831, 3rd December At Martinique. Heavy showers of rain fell after. 

the earthquake. 
" 1832, 18th October. — In Saxony. After the earthquake, the thick yellow 
fog, which had existed there for several days, suddenly dissipated itself, 
and the air, which before had been harsh, became mild. 
" 1834, 4th October. — At Bologna. After the earthquake, the air became 
suddenly cold. 

" 1835, 27th October In the Pyrenees. During the earthquake there rose 

clouds of hot air, which gave out a distinct smell of sulphur." (Von 
Hoff, Gesch. Veran. Erdober, Th. iv.) 
Further observations on this whole branch of our subject are imperatively 
called for. Meanwhile we have provisionally concluded, with great proba- 
bility, that earthquakes occur in all times, seasons and weathers, and have no 
very immediate relation with meteorology, in the epochs just before and 
during their occurrence. 

But it is a very difi"erent question how far their occurrence or frequency 
may be influenced, — 1st, by the climate; and 2nd, by the meteorological 
conditions prevailing in a given large district for a considerable time before 
their occurrence ; and again, a totally different inquiry is, what are the im- 
mediate and remote reactions of earthquakes upon the climate and meteoro- 
logy of the country affected. 

It cannot be too often insisted on that earthquakes are not motive agents 
of elevation and depression on the globe, for we find this confusion perpe- 
tually, even in the highest authorities, such as Sir Charles Lyell, who fre- 



76 REPORT — 1850. 

quently alludes to " their upheaving or depressing force," and to land 
elevated by them (Principles of Geol. pp. 4-31, 433, 435, 439, 689); but 
whatever be the ultimate nature of the elevatory and depressive forces to 
which earthquakes are due wlien in action, these forces manifest themselves 
to us in the reaction of the inner portions of our planet, acting through their 
exalted temperatures upon its outer crust. The term volcanic^re has been 
so long used, and so loosely, and become so habitual, that its abuse has pro- 
duced in almost every mind, a conception of chemical interchange of ele- 
ments, of fire in its popular sense, in which something enters into combination 
with something else and burns with a true combustion (like that of a metal 
in chlorine, or of coal or wood in the air), as a true representation of 
the heat of the inner portions of the earth, the external manifestations of 
which we behold in the volcano. Yet nothing probably can be further 
from the truth ; the main phaenomena of volcanic action, so far as we 
know them, are those of ignition, up to liquefaction of solid bodies incapable 
of any combustion; nor is there any evidence of this ignition being produced 
or maintained by the consumption of a fuel, i.e. by chemical combination, 
in which a body, or \)&vt of a body, before solid, becomes gaseous. 

For as the explosive energy shown in volcanic eruptions is but the by- 
play, and not of the same nature with the enormous and quietly-acting force 
by whose (hydrostatic) action from beneath the great elevations are effected, 
so are the local evidences of combustion at the crater of the volcano, but the 
by-play also, and not of the nature of that rise of temperature up to ignition 
Avithout the consumption of a fuel, which is the main phaenomenon. 

In a word, let us not be dazzled by the glare of the volcano itself, grand, 
and to us vast, as may seem its forces and their phaenomena, so as to confound 
these, the true combustions, gaseous explosions, and all the other superficial 
actions at the crater, with the mighty and quietly-acting forces deep below, 
of which these are all but symptoms, and perhaps as slight ones, as some 
cutaneous disorders are of deep-seated and all-pervading inflammatory 
action in the human frame. 

This error is not fallen into by the greater observers amongst continental 
cosmologists : hear Von Hoff (Gesch. Veran. Erdober, Th. iv.) : — 

" In the great mountain-chains of Europe there exists at present no vol- 
canic energy. It seems to have ended by the great act of the upheaving of 
these mountains, and since then to have been turned into other channels. 

" The same seems to be true, at least for the most part, with respect to 
the mountains of i^sia. Only some portions of the Andes are remarkable as 
being continually affected by volcanic eruptions. Such are parts of Chili, 
Quito, and Guatemala. Here we cannot avoid making the remark, that the 
Andes pass along and close to the great Pacific ocean, whereas the great chains 
of mountains of Europe and Asia constitute the inmost centre of great conti- 
nents, whose whole condition of surface has been determined by them. This 
is especially true with respect to Asia, and perhaps this want of volcanic 
openings has been the reason of the upheaval of such a large extent of land. 

" These volcanic springs are the outlets for the violent efforts of the sub- 
terranean vulcanismal processes ; and it is remarkable that in countries where 
there are these outlets, and especially where they exist in large numbers, the 
inner forces never increase sufficiently in strength to upheave large tracts of 
land, or to alter the character of the sea-bottom, whilst in places where 
these outlets for the vapours and gases produced by the subterranean pro- 
cesses are wanting, their concentrated force is able to upheave whole coun- 
tries. Hence probably the neighbourhood of the sea to the most active vol- 
canoes, of which by far the greater number are found on coasts and islands. 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PH^ENOMENA. 77 

The opinion, that active volcanoes are only the outlets for these internal 
workings, or as it were, the chimneys, not of particular fires scattered here 
and there, but of enormous volcanic furnaces existing in the depths beneath, 
has of late been distinctly enunciated by the most eminent geologists and 
observers of volcanic phsenomena." 

Again, hear Humboldt: — "It is only by considering these various rela- 
tions under a general point of view, and following them on a large extent of 
the surface of the globe, through formations of rocks the most different, that 
we are led to abandon the supposition of trifling local causes, strata of 
pyrites, or of coal set on fire." (Per, Nar. vol. iv. p. 47.) 

Steffens, on the other hand, in his 'Geognostich. Geologische Aufsetze,' 
p. 325, finds in such combustibles " the condition, sine qua non" of volcanic 
action ; and it is strange how the same crude notion of the necessity for a 
combustible besets almost every author down to the present day, forgetful 
that cosmical fire needs no fuel, that the perpetual evolution of heat from 
the interior of a planet (without anything being burnt away) is no more 
wonderful, than (nay, is only in analogy with) the perpetual evolution of 
light and heat from the fixed stars and sun, which no one supposes to be 
flaming fires. See on this Humboldt in his ' Pers. Nar.' vol, i. p. 257. 

The whole question of the chemical reactions, conjecturable as occurring 
within the active volcanic foci, has been ably discussed by Gay-Lussac, in his 
' Reflections sur Volcans,' in Annales de Chim. et de Phys. tom. xxii. p. 415, 
which paper contains the germ of nearly everything that has been since ad- 
vanced upon the subject, clearly and succinctly given. 

Thus, then, ignorant as we are of all within the outer surface or skin of 
our globe (and of how much of its exterior, for the ocean shrouds two-thirds 
of it from our eyes !), we are compelled to see the close connexion of these 
mighty heating powers in which ignition is present on the vastest scale, yet 
without combustion, with the forces of terrestrial electricity and magnetisrn ; 
forces which are those alone, that within range of our observation are mu- 
tually convertible, and both convertible into heat. 

Currents of both we know are ever passing with variable activity through 
enormous volumes of the earth's crust, the different parts of which possess 
very difi^erent conducting powers. Can it be that these currents, constrained 
to pass through narrow and bad conductors, at vast depths, in some formations, 
ignite them in their progress? Will it be found that the great lines of vol- 
canic activity (as dreamed of by Bylandt) are in some way connected with 
those of terrestrial magnetism ? are possibly normals to the surface curves 
of equal magnetic intensity ? A glance at one of Gauss's magnetic maps, 
and at another of the great bands of active volcanoes on our planet, almost 
forces the mind into such conjectures. 

If, then, as seems at least possible, there be a direct connexion (still more, 
if this be one of cause and effect) between volcanic action and those forces of 
electricity and magnetism whose cosmical relations we are just beginning to 
get glimpses of; and if, again, these are modified and possibly determined in 
their extent and laws of action by the astronomic motions of the earth, and 
by its variable reception of heat from the sun, and dissipation thereof again 
in the celestial spaces ; it must result that the volcano and the earthquake are 
not independent of the laws which determine climate and regulate the vicis- 
situdes, and the limits of perturbation, of the seasons. 

It is perhaps the most wonderful circumstance in the history of our globe, 
that its mightiest agencies interdepend, upon a balance so precise, that per- 
turbations in any one of the forces, so small as to appear to us at first sight 
perfectly insignificant, would, if continued or not corrected, be sufficient 
totally to alter or disarrange the vast machine. We can prove this in some 



78 REPORT — 1850. 

degree in the exacter branches of cosmical science ; we can show it to be so 
as respects the establishment of the tides, of the great currents of the ocean 
and of the atmosphere, of the relations of land and water to climate, and of 
the astronomical conditions of our planet to its mean temperature ; but as 
yet we can only guess from their analogy, as to what and how great may be 
the total effect, of perturbations of climate, and season, and weather, within 
the limits known to us, upon the molecular forces acting beneath the surface 
of the earth, upon which the great agency of elevation depends, and with it 
the volcano and the earthquake. 

But again, we may view it thus : granting that perturbations of climate, 
season and weather, may not be the appointed agents in determining the 
local play of the all-present force of elevation, may it not be that their dis- 
turbance may be the sufficient and immediately anterior cause, of their being 
brought into play within a given region, where before they were in equili- 
brium, but nearly ready to break forth ; the last drop as it were to cause the 
cup to flow over ? 

To take (in our ignorance) a rude example ; suppose a widely-extended tract 
of sea-bottom, beneath one portion of which, or of adjacent land, the ignited 
or fluid materials of the inner earth have approached the surface by thin- 
ning of the solid crust, or in a word, by any such play of forces as have 
been well imagined by Mr. Babbage and Sir J. Herschel. Let this portion 
be under the dry land ; and suppose the ordinary rise and fall of tide at the 
place to be 15 feet or so, that by any of the combined causes which are 
known to affect the local establishment of tides this becomes a 20-foot tide, 
and that at the same time a rise of 2 inches of the barometer takes place 
over the sea, and a corresponding fall over the land. The conspiring 
effect of all this would be equivalent to a tide of about 80 feet in total 
rise, brought at once to bear upon the already thinned crust of sea- 
bottom ; this, taking the specific gravity of fluid and porous lava at about 
2*0, being equal to a bed of this of 40 feet in thickness, or to a dead 
pressure of nearly 20 tons per square yard, and acting over hundreds of 
square miles of surface, it is conceivable that the combination of circum- 
stances might at once bring on an active eruption and earthquake, felt far 
away upon the land, which otherwise had reposed in safety on its molten 
base. Compare Von Buch, ' Descript. des lies Canar.', Tp. 334, and Hoffman, 
in Poggendorff"s Annalen, band xxiv. s. 8. 

Nor yet may the changes in the organic world of life upon the earth be 
without influence upon these, the most formidable forces that exhibit them- 
selves in nature. Who has yet determined, for example, what meteorological 
effect is produced, by the wonderful change that takes place during the year 
in the vegetable covering, upon the surface of the plains of the Pampas, 
where over thousands of square miles of country covered with scorched and 
embrowned grass and lowly herbage, a forest of gigantic thistles grows up, 
and in a few weeks makes the plain impassable for man or beast, and the 
earth no longer reached by the sun's rays? What may be the co-exercitive 
effect within the tropics of the changes of the vegetable world at the com- 
mencement and end of the rainy season, at the vernal and autumnal equi- 
noxes, and at the changes of the monsoons, at which times popular belief 
has long asserted within the tropics some connexion with earthquake ? and 
long-held popular belief usually contains some deformed truth, misinter- 
preted and overlaid with a mass of error, but yet a truth within. 

On this branch of our subject we literally know nothing; and in the obser- 
vations upon it just concluded, 1 have been anxious rather to suggest the 
directions in which future investigation may run, than to advance any con- 
nected speculations where there is at present no certain basis for them. 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 'J9 

But before quitting the region of conjecture, I would add a few words upon 
the probable nature of that force, or mode of application of that force, upon 
which the earthquake shock, the actual stroke, depends. We have seen 
sufficiently that this force must be an impulse, it must be of the nature of a 
blow, percussive ; hence it is not produced by the direct action of the elevatory 
force itself, which acts slowly, liftingly (erhobenlich), as Humboldt says, and 
hydrostatically. It may result occasionally from fractures, produced by the 
steady pressure of this evenly acting agency, yet these cannot be the usual 
or principal action, but only subordinate- 
Now the almost universal succession of phaenomena recorded in earth- 
quakes is, first a trembling, then a severe shock, or several in quick suc- 
cession, and then a trembling, gradually but rapidly becoming insensible. 
It would be possible to fill page after page with accounts of earthquake 
shocks, which all ring the changes, on a tremor beginning gently and in- 
creasing rapidly, then one or more violent shocks, like blows, and afterwards 
a trembling again, gradually dying away, rarely indeed the shock first. 
Thqs to take one example for all, from Dr. Patrick Russell's account of the 
earthquake in Syria, on 25th November 1759: — "About half-an-hour after 
seven at night the earthquake came on ; the motion at first was gently tre- 
mulous, increasing by degrees until the vibrations became more distinct and 
at the same time so strong as to shake the walls of the house with consi- 
derable violence ; they again became more gentle, and thus changed alter- 
nately several times during the shock, which lasted in all about two minutes." 
In general the average of nunierous narratives seems to give from three 
or four to fifteen seconds as the duration of the great shocks ; from two to 
ten or fifteen minutes for that of the powerful vibratory shakings; and an 
unlimited, or at least uncertain time, for slighter tremors afterwards. What 
sort of impulse then will be competent to account for this general order of 
succession ? I believe it will be foupd either in the sudden bringing into 
contact under pressure of large ignited surfaces with cold water, or the 
blowing, through and into, cold water, of volumes of ^team under pressure, 
and this steam suddenly condensed therein. 

When an irruptjon of igneous matter takes place beneath the sea-bottom, 
the first action must be to open up large clefts or fissures in its rocky ma- 
terial, or to lift and remove its incoherent portions, such as mud, gravel, &c. 
The first portions of water that gain access thus to the ignited surfaces, 
repelled by their heat, are brought into that peculiar state which Boutigny 
and others have called spheroidal. While in this condition their intestine 
motion may be great, but little steam is generated ; and while this is the 
case, no impulses will ever be conveyed to a distance, but only those trem- 
blings or vibrations which precede the shock, and which wjth wonderful 
ftcuteness Aristotle calls ftpatrrai, ebullitions like those of a boiling caldron ; 
but no sooner has the surface of lava become cooled to the point at which 
repulsion ceases, and the water, altering its state, comes into close contact 
with the heating surfaces, than a vast volurpe of steam is evolved explosively, 
and, blown ofi' into the deep and cold water of the sea, is as instantly con- 
densed ; and thus a blow or impulse (or several of these), of the most tre- 
mendous sort, is given at the volcanic focus, and being transferred outwardly 
in all directions, is transmitted as the earthquake shock ; but the surfaces 
of ignited material, now cooled down below the point at which steam can 
be generated rapidly, merely keep up a gentler ebullition, which is trans- 
mitted as the trembling after the shock, dying away as the mass grows cold, 
or again repeating all the phases, as the surfaces again become heated by 
conduction from the fervid magazine in the interior of the lava mass. 

Of course this may be endlessly varied. The first great blow may break 



80 REPORT — 1850. 

up and shatter the bottom, and scatter the molten matter, or may provide 
the conditions for successive shocks; but the above seems to account for the 
general facts. 

Again, if the eruption occur under land communicating with the sea by- 
rents and fissures, and steam be generated therein, or be blown continuously 
for a longer or shorter time from them into the sea-water, its unequal and 
per saltum condensation under pressure, will produce all that trembling and 
repercussion, which, transmitted, will form the earthquake. The phsenomena of 
fluids in the spheroidal state, first systematized by Boutigny, though observed 
in part long before, seem to remove the great difficulty that Gay-Lussac 
found in admitting the possibility, of access of sea-water to volcanic vents, 
viz. that it could not gain access against a pressure capable of sustaining co- 
lumns of fluid lava 7000 or 8000 feet deep. Let us now remember that 
water and white-hot lava might be stirred up together in a huge caldron, 
as one would shake oil and water together, and there would be no repulsion, 
no explosions, until the lava had cooled down nearly to blackness, when the 
whole mass would be suddenly and with explosion shattered into fragments 
from the steam evolved in all its cells. Compare Dolomieu, ' Descr. Calab. 
Earthquake.' 

I do not regard these views as wholly conjectural. I conceive the facts 
known are sufficient to enable us to say, that they are a true, though pro- 
bably most incomplete statement of the operations in nature; and it is 
remarkable, that not only that most accurate observer, Aristotle, was struck 
with the similarity of the sound and trembling motion to the ebullition of 
steam in water, but we have seen a long-practised observer compare his 
experience of South American earthquake sounds and shocks to the blowing 
of steam through the tender of a locomotive engine ; and that some have 
compared the first noise of the coming shock to that of a large piece of red- 
hot iron quenched in cold water; while Mrs. Maria Graham, in her account 
of the earthquake at Chili, in 1822 (Geol. Trans. 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 414), 
says she felt "a general tremor and a sound like that of vapour bursting 
out, similar to the tremor and sound which she remembered to have observed 
at each jet of fire while standing on the cone of Vesuvius during the erup- 
tion of 1818." 

Briefly, then, it seems to me, that, however modified, the immediate im- 
pulses producing earth-waves of shock are due — 

1st. To the sudden formation of steam from water previously in a state of 
repulsion from the heating surfaces, (spheroidal state) and which may 
or may not be again suddenly condensed under pressure of sea-water. 

2nd. To the evolution of steam through fissures, and its irregular and 
per saltum condensation under pressure of sea-water. 

3rd. To great fractures and dislocations in the rocky crust, suddenly 
produced by pressure acting on it from beneath, or in any other 
direction. 

4th. Occasionally, but rarely, to the recoil from mighty explosive eflTects 
at volcanic foci, as when a mass of rock weighing 200 tons was shot 
from the crater of Cotopaxi to the distance of nine miles (Humboldt), 
or when nearly one-half of the crater of Vesuvius was blown away. 

In such cases the shock from recoil must have been far greater than upon 
any occasions when powder magazines have been blown up. Yet during the 
last century, when a powder-mill at Walthani- abbey exploded, the inha- 
bitants of districts so far removed as not to know the true nature of the case, 
felt the shock, and had their furniture and houses, &c. so shaken, as to conclude 
that it was the shock of an earthquake due to natural causes. (Annual Reg.) 
And numerous instances will be found in the pages of the ' Gent. Mag.' of 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHaUAftE PHENOMENA. 81 

explosions of powder being first recorded as earthquakes, and, subsequently, 
the shock ascribed to the true cause ; for example, the blowing up of the 
Amphion frigate at Portsmouth about the end of last century, was taken for 
an earthquake over all the south of England. On occasion of the explosion 
of the powder-mills at Hounslow this year, 1850, it was stated in the papers 
that the shocks, corresponding in number to the explosions (three in all), 
were distinctly felt at Sussex, a distance of between 50 and 60 miles from 
Hounslow ; and at Petworth, ^O miles off, the people ran out of their houses, 
supposing it to be an earthquake ; yet here the weight of powder fired was not 
very large. The same circumstances were remarked when the great Spanish 
powder magazine was purposely blown up during Sir John Moore's retreat, 
said to have contained 1500 barrels of powder; it was felt as an undulation 
of the ground for miles away ; and again, in a less degree, when early in last 
century one of the great lintel stones of Stonehenge fell down upon the 
ground, it was felt all over Wiltshire, and thought at first to have been an 
earthquake. In fact all these were earthquakes, though not originating in 
natural causes*. 

Finally, it remains to make a few remarks upon the directions in which it 
is desirable that earthquake inquiries should be in future extended, and what 
are the chief desiderata of the subject. In the article drawn up for the Ad- 
miralty Scientific Manual, and published in that volume, on the observation 
of earthquake phaenomena, the general character and classification of earth- 
quake observations will be found, and to this I refer. 

But altogether the most valuable and important additions that this branch 
of physics can now receive, must come — 

1st. From a large and careful determination of the moduli of elasticity 
of rocks and of the other substances forming our geological forma- 
tions, and of the changes due to increase of temperature, upon such 
moduli. 
2nd. From systematic and connected observations of the direction, di- 
mensions, and other conditions of earthquake shocks or waves by self- 
registering instruments suitably placed in countries which are subject 
to very frequent shocks. 
3rd. From the co-ordination and comparison of such self-registered ob- 
servations, with those of self-registering meteorological and magnetic 
instruments. 
These observations must be continued for a considerable period, and those 
at distant points of observation must be in connexion as to time, &c. The 
island of Zante, as being almost hourly shaken by earthquakes, almost all of 
which are of a manageable degree of force, and capable of exact registration, 
would be an excellent station for a first trial of such instruments, in con- 
nexion with some other Mediterranean station; but when a complete self- 
registering seismometer shall have been constructed, it would be most de- 
sirable that every astronomical and magnetic observatory on the globe 
should be furnished with one, and this kept constantly in action, and its indi- 
cations systematically recorded in connexion with those of meteorology, 
electricity, &c. 

I have' to regret that in the latest edition of his work on volcanoes. Dr. 
Daubeny has discouraged the employment of such instruments, by an ob- 

* While these sheets have been passing through the press, an explosion of Eome tons of 
gunpowder, effected at Seaford on the south coast of England, for the purpose of removing 
seaward a large mass of chalk cliff, produced so real an earthquake, that a chimney was 
thrown down in an adjacent village, and houses shook at a distance of three miles, yet no 
sound or shock was transmitted through the air. — See ' Times,' Sept. 1850. 

1850. G 



82 REPORT — 1850. 

jection to that which I have proposed, namely the supposed difficulty of keep- 
ing a galvanic battery constantly in action to ensure that of the seismometer. 
One would have tliought that the thousands of miles of electric telegraph 
now kept in hourly activity, would have shown the groundlessness of such 
an objection. 

The observations heretofore made with seismometers, constructed on the 
solid pendulum principle, are worthless, by tiie nature of tlie instrument, even 
if they were not much too few and too ill-connected to be of any service. 
A seismometer must give the direction of emergence of the earth-wave at the 
station, the time occupied by the passage of the wave, and the form of its 
crest, i.e. its altitude and amplitude. The transit velocity at the station 
must for the present be assumed as that due to the modulus of elasticity of 
the formation upon which the instrument stands. 

Upon this subject I would refer to my memoir on a self-registering seis- 
mometer, Trans. Roy. Irish Acad, for 184-0. 

It has been objected to the value of determinations of elastic moduli as 
respects our subject, that they will only give us information as to the purely 
superficial substances of tiie earth's crust. This is however not a valid ob- 
jection. The Belgian coal-measures dip as far below the sea-level as Chim- 
borazo rises above it, so tliat it is in our power to get measures of the 
elasticity of formations extending in actual depth to j-i-y of the earth's radius, 
and by obtaining a series of moduli for the same rock, descending in depth, 
to get the law of its variation, and so to arrive at conclusions as to rocks 
which we can never see or examine by tlie senses ; and again, it is not phi- 
losophic to refuse to investigate to the depth we may, because we are limited 
to a certain depth ; to refuse the aid, as Locke says, of the sounding-line, 
because we cannot always strike the bottom with it. 

To be truly serviceable however to the physical geologist, the elastic mo- 
dulus of any given rock should be ascertained in the three directions as it 
lies in situ, of dej)th, breadth, and length. Those desirous of entering more 
fully into this part of the matter, I refer to the Rev. W. Haughton's Memoirs 
on Elastic wave Motions (Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. 1849). 

Direct experiments for admeasurement of the transit rate of elastic waves 
in the solids of the earth's crust, and especially through its loose and inco- 
herent formations, clay, gravel, sand, &c., are of great value to this inquiry, 
and may be made by the explosion of small quantities of gunpowder in a 
suitable manner. 

These investigations, involving expensive instruments and the devotion of 
much time and conjoint labour, can only be attempted with the aids and 
support that bodies such as the British Association can bestow ; and probably 
no laranch of cosmical science would better reward efforts judiciously made 
to advance it, a reward which would not be confined to geology, but would 
enrich many other departments of physics and natural science. 

I have now concluded the Report upon the facts of earthquakes, so far as 
time and other avocations would permit, but I do not view the subject as 
completed. 

In a second part of the present Report, therefore, I hope, with permission 
of the British Association, to present-— 

1st. A complete catalogue or chronology of earthquakes from the earliest 
times to the present day, discussed with reference to time and to distri- 
bution over the eartli's surface. 

2nd. Earthquake maps founded upon this discussion. 

3rd. As complete a bibliography of earthquake literature as I have been 
able to collect. 



ON THE PACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 83 

^th. An account of my own experimental admeasurements, now in pro- 
gress, of the rate of earthquake-wave transit through some of the rocky 
and incoherent formations of the earth's surface. 

Sth. An account of the progress made in the construction of a self-regis- 
tering seismometer, with the aid of the British Association. 



NOTE (page 8). 

The obscurity of some passages in the original and the extreme difficulty 
of grasping the meaning of the author almost throughout, with other reasons, 
have made it appear desirable to subjoin a veiy literal translation of the 
passages of Aristotle quoted in the text. 

The Greek seems unquestionably corrupt in two or three instances. The 
text is from the Oxford Edition of 1837, in 9 vols. 8vo, an amended reprint 
from Becher. 

" The shakings and movements of the earth are next to be spoken of. For the 
cause of this affection of the earth is closely connected with what we have been 
treating of (namely, the wind). 

" Three theories on the subject have been handed down to us by three different 
persons ; namely, Anaxagoras of Klazoraene, before him Anaximenes the Milesian, 
and later than these Democritus of Abdera. 

" Anaxagoras says that the aether by nature rises upward, but that when it falls 
into hollow places in the lower parts of the earth, it moves it (the earth) ; because 
the parts above are cemented or closed up by rain, all parts being by nature equally 
spongy or full of cavities, both those which are above (where we live) and those 
which are below. Of this opinion it may perhaps be unnecessary to say anything, 
as being foolish ; for it is absurd to suppose that things would thus exist above and 
beneath, and that the parts of bodies which have weight would not on every side be 
borne to the earth, and those which are light, and fire rise ; especially since we see 
the surface of the earth to be convex and spherical, the horizon constantly changing 
as we change our place, at least as far as we know. And it is also foolish to assert 
on the one hand that it remains in the air on account of its great size, and on the 
other to say that it is shaken when struck from beneath upwards. And besides 
these objections, it is to be remarked that he has not treated of the attendant cir- 
cumstances of earthquakes, for neither every time or place is subject to these coii- 
vuisions. 

" But Democritus says, that the earth being full of water, and receiving much 
also by means of rain, is moved by this. For when the water increases in bulk, be- 
cause the cavities cannot contain it, in its struggles it causes an earthquake. And 
when the earth becomes partially dried up, the water being drawn from the full 
reservoirs into those which are empty, in passing from one to the other, by its 
movements it causes an earthquake also. 

" Anaximenes, however, says that the earth when parched up and again moistened, 
cracks; and by the masses thus broken off falling on it, is shaken; wherefore 
earthquakes occur in droughts and again in times of rain ; in droughts, because, as 
we have said, it cracks when highly dried, and then when moistened over again it 
cracks and falls to pieces. Were this the case, however, the earth ought to appear 
in many places subsiding. Why then is it that hitherto many places have been 
very, subject to these convulsions which do not present any such remarkable differ- 
ences from others ? Yet such ought to be the case. And moreover those who think 
thus must assert that earthquakes constantly become less and less, and at last cease 
altogether. For the continual condensation of the earth would cause this. Where- 
fore if this be not the fact, it is plain that this is not the correct explanation." 

g2 



84 REPORT — 1850. 

" But since it is manifest that exhalations must arise both from moist and dry 
places, when this is the case, earthquakes must necessarily occur. For the earth itself 
is by nature dry, but receiving much moisture on account of rain, when it is heated 
both by the sun and also by the fire which burns within itself, a great quantity of 
vapour must be produced both inside and outside of itself, and sometimes the 
whole of this flows uniformly inwards, sometimes outwards, and sometimes it is 
divided. 

" If this then be necessarily so, the next point to consider is, what kind of bodies 
is most easily moved. But it is inevitable that what can go the greatest distance 
and what is most vehement should be specially of this nature. Therefore the most 
vehement is of necessity that which is borne along most rapidly, for it strikes with 
greatest violence on account of its velocity. For that naturally moves over the 
greatest space which can most easily move through everything, and such is the pro- 
perty of that which is most subtle. Wherefore since this is the nature of wind, it 
of all bodies is the most mobile. For fire, when it occurs along with wind, causes 
flame, and is rapidly borne along. Therefore neither water nor earth is the cause of 
earthquakes, but the exhalation of wind, when having flowed inwardly it has 
chanced to be exhaled outwardly. 

" Therefore the greater number of earthquakes and the most violent ones have 
taken place during calms ; for the exhalation being uniform, follows for the most part 
the impetus of its commencement, wherefore either all flows inwards together or all 
outwards. But that some earthquakes should take place during a wind is nothing un- 
reasonable, since we sometimes see several winds blowing at the same time, of which, 
if one be borne into the earth, there will be an earthquake while the wind is still 
blowing. But these are of less magnitude, since their origin and cause are divided. 

" But earthquakes are also more numerous and greater in the night, and, of those 
in tlie day, about the middle of the day. For the middle of the day is in general 
the calmest part of it. [For when the sun has most power it keeps the exhalations 
bound in the earth, and it has most power in the middle of the day.] And the 
nights are even calmer than the days, on account of the absence of the sun, so that 
then the flow of wind is again inward, as if a regurgitation in an opposite direction 
to that in which the effusion took place ; and this especially towards dawn, when 
the winds usually begin to blow. If therefore the origin (or direction r) of them 
shall be changed within, as at Euripus, on account of their great mass the earth- 
quake will be the more violent. 

" Earthquakes also seem to have been most violent about such places as are loose 
and full of cavities, and where the sea has many tides. Such are the places about 
the Hellespont, and Achaia, and Sicilia, and Eubcea, for about these places the sea 
seems to flow beneath the earth on account of the narrowness of the passage. For 
the same reason the hot baths near CEdipus were formed. 

" Near all these places which we have mentioned the earthquakes are very violent 
on account of the narrowness ; for the wind being rendered violent on account of 
the great mass of the sea, which is borne to the land in great quantity, is repelled 
again back upon the earth, though naturally it should blow out from the earth. 
And thus those countries, the earth below which is spongy and therefore capable 
of containing much vapour, are more violently shaken. 

" In spring and autumn also the greatest earthquakes take place, both during 
drought and rain ; but the winter and summer, the one by its cold, and the other 
by its droughts, produce immobility, for the one is too cold, and the other too dry. 
But even in droughts the air contains vapour (jTvevfiaTa>hr)s ea-rl), for this is a drought 
when more dry than moist exhalations are produced. But during rain the wind 
causes a greater amount of exhalation within, and by this kind of secretion (djrd- 
Kpia-Lv) being intercepted in narrower places, and the same mass being driven into a 
smaller space, the hollow places of the earth being full of water ; when it begins to 
have power, on account of a great mass being forced into a small space, the wind 
moving and striking produces violent motion. 

" For it is necessary to be understood, that as in our bodies the force of the wind 
which is intercepted is the cause of tremors and throbbings, so also the wind pro- 
duces similar effects in the earth, and one earthquake appears like a tremor and 
another hke a throb. And as it often happens after a discharge of water (for then a 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 85 

certain tremor is produced through the body, when a quantity of wind is necessarily 
transferred in a mass fiom without inwards), so also it happens with the earth. 

" Such strength has the wind that we need not look for it only in the effects which 
it produces in the atmosphere (for there, on account of its great magnitude, any one 
would presuppose that it could do such great things), but also in the bodies of ani- 
mals. For spasms and convulsions are some of the other motions produced bj' wind, 
and such strength have they, that many people, at once trying to restrain the move- 
ments of the person afflicted, are unable to do so. 

" So also we must suppose it happens in the earth, to compare a great thing with 
a small. 

" Several signs of it also have taken place under our own observation. For in 
several places, when an earthquake has taken place, it has not stopped until the 
wind which caused it burst forth like a storm upon the part of the earth above. This 
happened in the earthquake which took place lately about Heracleia in Pontus, and 
formerly in the island Hiera, which is one of those called the yEolian Isles. For 
in this island a part of the earth swelled, and rose like a hill, the motion being ac- 
companied by noise, until at length rending, much wind came forth, and threw up 
cinders and fine ashes, which burnt the whole city of the Jjiparasi, which was not 
far off, and reached even to some of the cities of Italy ; and where the swelling took 
place is visible to the present daj'. For this is to be supposed to be the cause of this 
fire produced in the earth, that when cut off it burned, the air being first divided into 
small particles (? Greek) . 

" But an infallible sign that winds flow beneath the earth, is afforded by that 
which takes place with respect to these islands. For when the south wind is about 
to blow, it is known beforehand by particular signs, for noises are heard at those 
places from which the eruptions take place ; because the sea being forced forwards 
already from a distance is again repelled from the land where it happens to come 
upon it, by the eruptive force. But it produces a sound without a shock on account 
of the great size of the place (for the sea is poured into an immense space without), 
and also the small quantity of the repelling air. 

" Besides these signs, the sun becoming dull and obscure though without clouds, 
and calms and great cold before earthquakes happening in the morning, are signs of 
the cause we have been speaking of. For it is a necessary consequence of the wind 
(which dissolves and separates the air) beginning to return into the earth, that the 
sun should be obscured and gloomy, and that in the morning, towards dawn, there 
should be much cold and calmness. For it is necessary that the calmness should 
for the most part happen when the wind returns inwards, as we have said before, 
and more so before the greater earthquakes, for then that which is within and that 
which is without are not separated, but the whole being borne along, it necessarily 
produces great effects. 

" But the cold happens, because the exhalation, which is in itself of a warm na- 
ture, now goes inwards. But the winds do not seem to be warm, because they move 
the air which is full of cold vapour, in the same way as the air which is breathed 
through our mouths. For that which is near is warm, as when we exhale, but on 
account of its small quantity it is not equally manifest ; but that which is at a di- 
stance is cold, for the same reason as the winds. Such force therefore being wanting 
in the earth, the vaporous emanations coming together, on account of the moisture, 
produce cold in the places which are thus affected. 

" The same is the reason of a phaenomenon which generally occurs before an 
earthquake, namely, that either during the day or a little after sunset, the weather 
being quite serene, a little cloud appears, narrow and stretched out to a great length, 
and quite straight, the wind being weak on account of its change of place. For the 
same takes place in the sea round the coast ; for when rising in large waves it is 
flung in upon the shore, deep and irregular ripple-marks are produced, but when 
it is calm, less effects are produced, and these are small and straight. What then 
the sea does on the coast, the wind does on the cloud which is in the air, so that 
when there is a calm the cloud is left altogether straight and narrow, being as it 
were a ripple-mark in the air. 

" For the same reason also earthquakes often happen about the time of eclipses 
of the moon. For when now the interposition is near, and the light and heat derived 



86 REPORT — 1850. 

from the sun are not entirely removed from the air, but just decreasing, a calm 
takes place, the wind returning again into the earth, which causes the earthquake 
before the eclipse. For winds also often happen before eclipses, blowing in the 
beginning of the night before those which take place in the middle of the night, and 
in the middle of the night before those which happen in the morning. This occurs 
because the heat diminishes which is derived (rom the moon, when now the path 
((popa) is near in which the eclipse takes place. That therefore being removed which 
detained the air and rendered it calm, the wind is again put in motion, and blows 
previous to the eclipse. But when a violent earthquake has taken place, the shocks do 
not cease suddenly and at once, but in the first instance they often continue for forty 
days, aud after that are in force for one or even two years in the same place. But the 
cause of the greatness of the earthquake is the great amount of wind and the con- 
figuration of the places through which it flows, for where it is repelled and cannot 
easily pass through, there it produces the greatest shocks, being retained in narrow 
places like water, not being able to pass through. Wherefore, as in the body throb- 
bing pulsations do not cease suddenly and immediately, but gradually, as the malady 
spends itself, so also it is with the beginning of the exhalation and the original im- 
petus of the wind ; for it is manifest that the material is not at once consumed from 
which the wind is produced which we call an earthquake. 

" Until therefore the remains of this be consumed, the shocks must necessarily 
continue, but continually becoming less and less until the exhalation is too slight to 
produce any perceptible shock. 

" But the wind also produces those noises under ground which are heard before 
earthquakes. And in some places subterranean noises are heard unaccompanied by 
earthquakes, for as the air by being struck produces every kind of sound, so it does 
also when it is itself the striking agent, for it makes no difference, since when it strikes 
against any object, it is itself stricken. But the sound comes before the shock be- 
cause it consists of more subtle parts, and can therefore penetrate through every- 
thing better than wind. 

" But when it is unable to move the earth, it is on account of its subtlety, which 
enables it to pass through without moving it. But when it strikes against bodies 
whether solid or hollow or of whatever figure, it produces every species of sound, so 
that the earth often appears, as those who utter portents say, to bellow. 

" Water also is often thrown out during earthquakes. But we are not to conclude 
from this that water is the cause of earthquakes, for whether it be on the surface or 
below, the wind it is which supplies the force, which is the moving power, as the 
winds are of the waves, and not the waves the cause of the winds. Since else any 
one might attribute this convulsion to the earth itself, for when shaken it is over- 
turned like water (for pouring out is a sort of overturning) . But both these causes are 
causes as matter is (passive not active causes), but the wind is as an inceptive cause. 

" But when a wave occurs at the same time with an earthquake, it is owing to 
two winds acting in opposite directions. But this happens when the wind which is 
agitating the earth cannot altogether repel the sea which is borne along by another 
wind, but propelling and driving it together, it collects a large body of water. Then 
when this wind is overcome, it necessarily follows that a great impetus is given to 
the opposing wind, and a deluge is produced. And this took place in Achaia, for 
without the south wind was blowing, but there the north ; but a calm taking place, 
and the wind flowing inwards, a wave was produced, and an earthquake at the same 
time, and the rather because the sea did not give an outlet to the wind acting under 
the eaith, but opposed an obstacle to its egress. For of the two forces in action, 
the wind produced the earthquake, and the remains (iinocrTaa-is t) of the wave the 
inundation. 

" Earthquakes arc covfined to particular parts of the earth, and often to a small 
part ; but the. irinds are not so. But they are so when t/ie exhalations vMch are in the 
place itself and the neighhoiiring jilace, Jioio together, since the rains and droughts are 
so too, as we have before said, and the earthquakes take place in this manner, the winds 
do not. For these have their origin in the earth, so thai they all flow toget/ier into one. 
But the sun has not a similar power, but the lofty exhalations rather so as to flow into 
one, when they receive an impetus from the path ((popa) of the sun (? Greek). 

" When a great deal of wind is present, it shakes the earth, producing a sort of 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 87 

tremor sideways, but it occasionally and in some few places happens that it appears 
like a violent throbbing from below upwards. This seldom occurs, for it is not easy 
for much motive power to be collected in this way, for there is a much greater evo- 
lution of this sideways than upwards. When such an earthquake takes place, a 
multitude of stones are thrown up as if shaken up in a sieve. It was by an earth- 
quake of this sort that the parts about Sipylos were overthrown, and the plain called 
Phlegreean, and the Ligurian country. 

" But in islands far out to sea, earthquakes are less felt than in those which are 
near shore. For the great mass of the sea cools the exhalations and keeps them 
down by its force and weight. And besides, the sea is in constant motion, and is 
not shaken, overcome by the winds. And because it occupies a great space, the ex- 
halations are not produced into, but out of this, and those which are produced in 
the earth follow these. 

" But those islands which are close to the main land are in fact part of it, for the 
intervening water on account of its small size has no force. But islands far at sea 
cannot be moved but with the whole sea which surrounds them. 

" Concerning earthquakes therefore, and their nature, and causes, and all other 
circumstances concerning them, we have here treated of the principal things." — 
Arist. Meteor., Lib. II. cap. 7-8. 



" It often happens, however, that a similar wind, hidden in the earth, when these 
(i. e. means of exit) are absent, when it has insinuated itself into hollow places and 
dark passages in the earth, as if breaking out from its proper resting-places, pro- 
duces a vibratory motion in many places round. 

" And it often happens that when much wind from without has got into these hol- 
lows, all means of exit being cutoff, in turning itself within it shakes the earth with 
immense force, in vain seeking a place of exit, from which arises that convulsion of 
nature which we call an earthquake, 

" But those earthquakes which shake the earth obUquely at an acute angle are 
called ' Epiclintse,' as acting in a transverse direction. 

" But those which toss the earth up and down at a right angle are called 
' Brastas,' from their likeness to the motion of boiling water. 

" But when the sinking of the ground leaves hollows in its subsidence, they are 
called ' Chasmatias,' from their gaping. 

" But those which produce chasms by an eruption are called ' Rhectae,' that is 
breakers forth. Now some of these in their eruption carry forth blasts of wind, 
others stones, others mud. There are some also which produce springs where 
before they did not exist. 

"Those are called ' Ostse' which with one thrust overturn what they move. 

" But those which with much shaking, and inclining, and vibrating to either side, 
always throw the objects they shake upright again, are called ' Palmatix,' that is 
vibratory, as producing an atfection very like a tremor." — Arist., De Miindo. cap. 4. 

A mere regard for the verbal construction of the preceding passages 
would, on the whole, lead the reader (especially if unaided by reference to the 
Greek) to the conclusion, tiiat Aristotle meant to convey that wind simply 
in some form or another, was the efficient cause of earthquakes; after care- 
ful consideration, however, I am still disposed to adhere to the view given 
in the foregoing report, and to believe that in so far as he had in reality any 
distinct idea, it was that of some intangible, imponderable force or agent 
present in the earth and above it, acting upon the winds, and acted on by 
them, though not the winds themselves, and giving rise in such reactions to 
earthquakes and volcanoes. Perhaps from the want of any distinct ideas as 
to atmology, and its relations to those forces which we call molecular, and 
having no clear metaphysics of spirit and matter, an abuse of words is found 
in the Greek physical writers, which often renders them (as throughout the 
above passages) almost unintelligible. The word -nyev^ia was used to express 
pure spirit, and the wind (compare John's Gospel, cap. 3, ver. 8), as well as 
condensable vapours, and this alike by the philosopher and by the vulgar. 



88 REPORT — 1850. 

Letter to the Assistant General Secretary to the British Association. 

Dublin, July 22, 1850. 
My dear Sir, — As the working member of the Committee appointed at last 
meeting of the Association for the instrumental admeasurement of earthquake 
waves, I have to report as follows : — A sum of £50 was placed at the disposal 
of this Committee, the entire amount of which has been devoted to the com- 
pletion of a self-registering seismometer, upon my construction. In this con- 
siderable progress lias been made, and we hope to present it in action at the 
next meeting of the Association after the present one, it being found imprac- 
ticable to have it completed in time for the Edinburgh meeting. 

When so finished and found, as we trust, to answer its purpose, it would 
be most desirable that a second instrument at least should be constructed, and 
that both should be sent out and kept at work in whatever earthquake di- 
strict might appear most favourably circumstanced for registration. 

The island of Zante and some other one or more moderately distant stations 
in the Levant, would seem to offer great inducements to fix on tiiem. I have 
reason to know that competent persons could be found at Zante to undertake 
the task of superintending the instruments and recording their indications. 

After such a conjoint arrangement for self-registering observations of the 
peculiarly manageable and almost constant shocks felt at Zante and its sur- 
rounding regions, should have been in operation for a year or so, we might 
expect to arrive at some very definite knowledge as to the position and the 
depth beloiv the surface of the centre of those frequent impulses, in other 
words, probably, of the actual depth of the great volcanic focus of the Me- 
diterranean basin. 

The whole sum of £50 has been drawn, and the whole, with the exception 
of a small sum, remains as yet to the credit of the Committee, but will very 
soon be required for payment. 

Should a second instrument hereafter be constructed a further grant will 
be necessary. 

Previous to the appointment of this Committee at the last meeting, I had 
arranged and in part proceeded with a series of experiments for the experi- 
mental admeasurement of the rate of transit of waves of impulse (analogous 
to those of earthquakes) produced artificially in various coherent and inco- 
herent formations of the earth's crust, and at first proposed that the expense 
of these experiments should be defrayed from the grant made to this Com- 
mittee at Birmingham ; but finding that the cost of the seismometer for self- 
registration would, as a first instrument, involving alterations, &c., absorb 
nearly the whole grant, if not the whole, and that the expense of these transit 
experiments would be very considerable, I proposed to the other members of 
the Committee that the whole grant should be devoted to the seismometer, 
and that I would complete the experiments on rate of wave transit, as I had 
commenced, from my own resources. 

I have already completed that class of those experiments that regard the 
rate of impulse wave transit in incoherent formations, and with very interest- 
ing and unexpected results, and am now proceeding with those in coherent 
or rocky formations. The impulses in the former case were produced by the 
explosion of rather large quantities of gunpowder. In the latter it will pro- 
bably be found most convenient to resort to a blow delivered by the fall of 
a heavy body. 

I propose giving an account of these experiments as a portion of a second 
report on th^ facts of earthquakes, should I be directed by the British Asso- 
ciation, at its approaching meeting, to prepare such report. In this would also 
be embodied the extended catalogue of earthquakes, and discussion of same 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 89 

by curve-diagrams and maps, which I have in progress, and which I expect to 
be the most complete ever tabulated — about two thousand earthquakes, new to 
any previous catalogue, have been already collected, arranged and tabulated. 

The bibliographical catalogue of works relating to earthquakes has also 
been brought to a very forward state, and through the assistance of friends 
abroad I have been enabled to obtain complete excerpts of the seismological 
books existing in several of the most important foreign libraries ; when finish- 
ed, therefore, I expect this will form a better index to future students of this 
interesting branch of physical geology than they have before had access to. 

I am indebted to Dr. Robinson for some valuable suggestions as respects 
my experimental determination of wave transits above adverted to, and to 
my eldest son, William Mallet, for much laborious aid in the preparation of 
those catalogues; but these and other such obligations received from other 
friends will best be fully acknowledged hereafter. 

I would beg the favour (as I am myself unable to be present at the Edin- 
burgh meeting) of your presenting this in the proper quarter, as the provi- 
sional report upon the above matters, in order that the views of the Associa- 
tion may be ascertained upon the question of a second report, &c. 

Believe me truly yours, Robert Mallet. 



On Observations of Lu'minou$ Meteors ; continued from the Reports of 

the British Association for 1849. By the Rev. Baden Powell, 

M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in 

the University of Oxford. 

In continuing my report to the British Association for the year elapsed since 

the last Meeting, on observations of Luminous Meteors made in various parts 

of the world, I have been aided by the contributions of many friends, among 

whom Mr. Lowe, as on former occasions, has been pre-eminent in the number 

of observations he has kindly communicated. From other quarters I have 

not received so many as last year, though Dr. Buist has favoured me with a 

considerable number from India. I have also been enabled to prefix a notice 

of some older observations which in some instances throw light on those in 

former reports. 

The arrangement of the tables is nearly the same as before, with a slight 
extension in their form, which it is hoped will add to their perspicuity. The 
time is usually only common clock time, and therefore open to much uncer- 
tainty, unless otherwise expressed ; but in all Mr. Lowe's observations it is 
Greenwich mean time. 

I. List of a few Meteors prior to the date of the commencement of the 
Catalogue for 1849-50. 

(i.) 18^8 or 1829. At Allport, Derbyshire, about the end of August or 
beginning of September, at 3 p.m., a bright light was seen to traverse the sky, 
slowly when it exploded, with a loud noise ; pieces fell in a field of mown 
grass, where persons at work picked them up. A specimen was picked up 
and preserved by B. Staley, Esq. 

It was analysed by Dr. R. A. Smith. It contains oxide of iron, making 
its specific gravity about 2; also free sulphur, which appears in minute 
crystals visible to the naked eye as a fine dust as soon as a fresh surface is 
exposed. Its composition is in these respects totally unlike any other meteorite. 
It contains also charcoal, which might perhaps be acquired from matter 
among which it fell. The analysis by Dr. R. A. Smith is as follows: — 



90 REPORT — 1850. 

" It contained 22*32 per cent, of sulphur in small crystals, i^S-59 of carbon 
and 34'09 of oxide of iron, in which number is included a fraction of a per 
cent, of silica. It did not contain phosphates, sulphurets or earths." 

Communicated by Dr. R. A. Smith, Manchester. 

(ii.) Observations of Luminous Meteors prior to Aug. 184'9. Commu- 
nicated by Dr. D. P. Thomson. Extracted from his Introduction to 
Meteorology, 18i9. 

1837. Sept. 21, 1^ iS"" p.m Cast a shadow; seen at Paris, (p. 305.) 

184 1. Dec. 21. — Twice the apparent diameter of moon, and exceedingly 
effulgent; the tail was variegated, and the body burst in a blaze of light; 
seen at Glasgow and near to Stirling at the same time. (lb.) 

18'13. Feb. 5, about 8 p.m. — Passed over Notts, resembling a large mass 
of fire of a blood-red coloui-, and assumed various shapes ; its course was 
from N.W. ; its apparent height trifling, and its velocity about fifty-five miles 
per minute. (lb.) 

1846. June 20, about H^ 30"" p.m. — Witnessed at Marieux near Autun, 
Saone et Loire ; it was of a violet colour, and seemed a yard in circumference. 
It continued visible about a minute, and descended perpendicularly to tlie 
horizon, giving off five other balls, each nearly one-fourth the size of the 
parent mass, which nevertheless preserved its original volume; before disap- 
pearing it burst into sparks, spreading i'ar and wide. (lb., Evening Mail.) 

1846. Aug. 1, about \0^ 30'" p.m.— At Cassel, at an altitude of about 
80°, near to the meridian ; it burst with a sibilant sound, leaving behind a train 
of sparks. (lb.) 

1846. Sept. 15. — A bolis appearing as large as an orange, with a train 
some yards in length, crossed Wrenbury, Cheshire, about 10 p.m. (p. 305). 
The observer was my brother, Mr. William Thomson, surgeon, Wrenbury, 
near Nantwich. 

1847. Oct. 17} at 6^ 5°' p.m. — A very fine bolis was observed by my friend 
the Rev. Charles Aldis, crossing from S.W. to N.E. at Wrenbury, with a long 
train and a faint whizzing noise ; another of very large diameter was seen 
near to midnight on the 23rd of November of the same yeai-, at Birkenhead. 

" The finest bolis which the autlior ever witnessed occurred on the 2nd of 
February 1848, about 9 p.m. [near Wrenbury, Cheshire]. The night was 
calm and beautiful, — three hours before he had been testing a reflecting tele- 
scope upon the ring of Saturn [then a difficult object]. Returning from a 
professional visit, his attention was drawn to the south by a sudden and 
brilliant light not far from [the belt of] Orion. It was a fireball slowly de- 
scending at an angle of nearly 20°. Its light was more intense than that of 
Jupiter, which was then shining in great splendour, and it had a decided ap- 
parent diameter. The body of the meteor was coloured grass-green, and it 
was partially bordered with crimson, in a crescentic form in the direction of 
the white and tapering tail. The bolis disappeared without sparks, falling 
seemingly to the ground between the observer and the wood of Combermere 
Abbey, nearly a mile oft'. Before sunrise the sky was overcast ; the follow- 
ing day was bleak and windy, and rain soon followed." (p. 3C6.) 

1848. March 8. — A luminous meteor shot across the clouded sky at Bath 
from the S.W.; the nucleus seemed larger than a cricket-ball, and the tail 
appeared about three-fourths of a yard in length. (lb. p. 306.) 

Query. — Might not this be the same which was seen by Mr. Symonds near 
to Oxford, at P 45"^ on the 9th ? 

1849. Jan. 9. — A bolis crossed the sky at Edinburgh, seemingly one-third 
the moon's diameter; passed slowly to the south. (MS. Edin. Advertiser.) 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



91 



(iii.) Other Meteors up to August 1849. 

1846. — " I never saw more meteors than this winter. From October 17th to 
December 17th they appeared in great numbers almost every clear night, some 
as large as Jupiter. The most remarkable were between October 17th and 26th, 
and on November 10th, 11th, and 12th." (J. F. Miller, Whitehaven.) 

1847. August. Whitehaven, J. F. Miller, Esq. — Multitudes of shooting 
stars, and several larger meteors, almost every clear night between the 2nd 
and 20th. (MS.) 

1847. Oct. 24. — A very large bright meteor fell during a grand display of 
aurora borealis. (Darlington, Durham, by J. Graham, Esq.) 

1848. Jcin.27.— Several very brilliant meteors. (Uckfield. C.L.Prince,Esq.) 
These four communicated by E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Date. 



1815. 
Feb. 18 

1822. 
Aug. 7 

1825. 

Nov. 3 

Nov. 22 .. 

1832. 
June 23 .. 



July24.... 
Nov. 18 . 

1833. 
March 18. 

1841. 
Sept. 10 . 

1842. 
April 11 . 

1843. 
July 26.... 



1848. 
Sept. 4.... 



Sept. 7. 



Oct. 29 

1849. 
July 27 



Aug. 25 



Hour. 



h m 



5 27 p.m. 



4 a.m. 
3-^ p.m. 



8 45 p.m. 

(m.t.) 

6 30 p.m. 



7 p.m. 

8 30 p.m. 



Description. 



Explosion ; meteorite 

fell. 
Meteorite 



Elongated fire-ball . . 
Brilliant meteor like a 

comet. 
Three fireballs united 

into one. 



Innumerable meteors ... 
Very brilliant in N.B.... 



Meteorite fell 



10 



p.m. 



Aug. 12, 13,14 



A very singular lumi 
nous streak dissolved 
in train of sparks. 

Large fireball, from N. 
to S. ; course deviated 
at right angles ; burst 
into fragments. 

Large fireball , from W. to 
E.; horizontaljthenfeU. 

Bright nieteorwith large 
train of red sparks 
visible about 5 sees. ; 
fell perpendicularly 
from an alt. about 70'" 

A splendid meteor 
= 2 ? , followed by 
train of stars ; path 
marked byadark cloud 

Great numbers of me- 
teors observed, and 
their tracks laid down 
on a map ; all a|) 
peared to originate in 
Pegasus. 



Place. 



Dooraila, India. 
Kadonah 



Captain Bird 



Calcutta 
Ibid 



Colonel Blacker 



Delhi 



Meerut 

Bulrampore and 

Asia 
Madras. 



Calcutta 



Wrottesley, 
near Wolver- 
hampton. 

Poona 



Bombay and 

Poona. 
Porebunder, In- 
dia. 



Obsen-er. 



Mr. Taylor 



Capt. Shortrede 

Various ob- 
servers. 
Capt. Abbot. 

Assistant to Lord 
Wrottesley. 

Correspondent 
to Bombay 
Times. 



Id. 



West of Chester- A Correspondent 
field. 



Reference. 



Bombay Times. See 

App., No. 22. 
lb. App., No. 23. 

lb. App., No. 24. 
lb. App., No. 25. 

lb. App., No. 26. 

lb. App., No. 27. 
lb. App., No. 28. 

lb. App., No. 29. 

lb. App., No. 30. 

lb. App., No. 31. 

lb. App., No. 32. 



See Appendix, 
No.l. 

Bombay Times. See 
App., No. 33. 



lb. App., No. 34. 
lb. App., No. 35. 



Derby Courier. See 
Appendix, No. 2. 



Midhurst, Sussex M. Bulard Comptes Rendus, 

No. 10, p. 269. 
See also App. 
No. 3. 



92 



REPORT — 1850. 
II. Catalogue of Luminous Meteors 



Date. 



Hour. 



Magnitude or 
brightness. 



Colour. 



Train or explosion. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1849. 
Oct. 8. 



9. 
10. 



12. 



13... 
14. 

20... 



h m 

10 53 p.m. 

9 45 p.m. 

11 55 p.m. 

12 17 p.m. 
9 58 p.m. 

10 8 p.m. 

10 12 p.m. 

10 13 p.m. 

10 30 p.m. 

9 29 p.m. 
9 35 p.m. 

6 20 p.m. 

6 35 p.m. 



SmaU 



= 4th mag. 
3rd mag. 



Blue 



Blue 
Blue 



No tail Rapid 



No tail 'Rapid. 

Sparks I 



= 4th mag 

= lst mag. ; round, 

well-defined disc. 
= 4th mag. 



Blue 

Orange-red. 



Sparks Rapid. 

Train of bright sparks ... Rapid . 



= 4th mag. 



Yellow 
Blue .. 



= 4th mag ■ 

= 4th; as bright. 



Yellow 
Blue .. 



8 2 p.m. 
8 7 p.m. 
8 30 p.m. 



= 5th mag. 
= 3rd mag. 

= lst mag. 

= 4th mag. 

= 2nd mag 



Orange 
YeUow 

Yellow 

Yellow 



No tail. 
No tail. 

Sparks . 

Sparks . 

No taU . 
No tail. 

No tail. 

Sparks . 



Very brilliant 



31... 



Nov. 1... 
2.. 



3 00 p.m. ... 



No meteor visible 



11 00 p.m. .. 
5 10 p.m. .. 

5 30 p.m. .. 

5 33 p.m. .. 

(g.m.t.) 



6 5 p.m. .. 



7 33 p.m. ... 
(g.m.t.) 



Bright , 



Large ; round . 



With train 



Globe meteor = ^ 
the moon. 



of Orange-red . . 



Rapid . 
Rapid. 

Rapid . 

Rapid . 

Rapid . 
Rapid . 

Rapid. 

Rapid. 



= 



3 or 4 seconds .. 



For the 1st half of course 
separate sparks ex- 
tending through 10°, 
thence without any. 



Nearly 20 seconds 



About 8 seconds 

Very slow ; visi- 
ble 30 seconds 



Small 



Blue 



Larger than ? when 
at S, and twice as 
bright. 



Orange-red 



With sparks. 



Moderate 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 93 
(continued from the Report of ISid). 



Direction. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


^6 Draconis to u Herculis 




Highfield House, 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


M.S. com. to Prof. 






Nottingham. 




Powell. 






Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 


Downward through S , inclining 
1 toN. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 










^om * to a Urs. Maj 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 


iirom X to ^7 Ceti 




Ibid 


Id 


?rom Delphinus -p down ; 
slightly inclined to E. 




Ibid 


Id 








?rom 29 Vulpec. through 12 
Vulpec. and 113 and 109 Her- 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid, 










culis. 










horn y Equulei through 3 
Aquarii. 
Sagitt. to 1° S.of & Serpentis... 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 


Emitting blue stars 
in its track. 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 








through £ Lyrae over 15' 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 


^om 5° above (p Aquilae to N. of 
T Aquilae. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 








from 5° N. of Capella, and at 
same alt. -L down. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 








L. down from Vega through 9> 
to y Herculis. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 














Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 
MS. letter from Dr. 






Ibid 


Id 


Jt. 45°; nearly 1 hour pre- 


Appearance like a 


Hai-twell, Ayles- 


Mr. Horton 


ceding a Aquilae. 


bar of light; then 
explosion at one 
end. 


bury. 




Lee to Mr. Birt. 
See Appendix, 
No. 6. 




Sound heaid; me- 
teorite fell and 


Farm of H. Post, 
county of Ca- 


Mr. H. Post 


Phil. Mag., March 
1850, p. 241. 






splintered a tree ; 


baras, Char- 








buried 1 3 inches 


lotte, N. Caro- 








deep. 


lina. 






)escended obliquely from N., 
diverged suddenly to W. on 




Castle Lecky, 
Londonderry. 


Mr. Webb 


Astronomical Soc. 
Notices, X. 24. 




approaching a dense cloud. 










Vom altitude 45°, obliquely, to 


Velocity decreased ; 


Near and N. of 


W. W. Smyth, 


Letter to Prof. 


N.W. through about 30° 


no explosion. 


Mold, Flint- 
shire. 


Esq. 


Powell. See 
Appendix, No. 4. 


'rom E. to W., considerably 


Seemed to decrease 


12 miles N.N.E. 


Mr. Hill 


See Appendix, No.5. 


below Polaris. 


as it advanced. 


of Swansea. 






■rom between /J and -^ Lyrae to 


[n a slight curve 


Highfield House, 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


MS. list. 


within 6° of W.N.W. horizon. 


inclining towards 


Nottingham ; 


and A. S. H. 






N. 


seen also at 
Kegworth and 
at Beeston ; 
between 
Bramcote and 
Nottingham. 


Lowe, Esq., 
M. Durand, 
R. Felkin, Esq., 
C.Wright, jun., 
Esq. 




let ween yPegasi and \i ; nearly 


Brightness vanish; 


Observatory, 


W. R. Birt, Esq. 


Letter to Prof. 


horizontal towards S. ; disap- 


onceortwice near- 


Richmond 




Powell. See 


peared W. of Pegasi. 


ly extinguished. 


Park. 




Appendix, No. 6. 


Vom 39 Andromedae to 1° N. of 


A.uroral glare 




E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


MS. Ust. 


y Cassiopeiae. 











94 



REPORT — 1850. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1849. 
Nov. 5 



12 



13 



15 



Dec. 4 



19 



h m 

6 8 p.m. 

6 10 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 



6 20 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 

6 30 p.m. 



9 p.m. 
6 18 p.m. 
] 44 p.m. 

9 20 p.m. 

9 21 p.m. 
6 20 p.m. 

10 37 p.m. 

From 
10 30 p.m. 

to 
12 30 p.m. 

From 
10 30 p.m. 

to 

12 15 p.m. 
10 23 12' 

10 29 p.m. 

10 31 p.m. 

10 31 p.m. 

11 40 p.m. 



Magnitude or 
brightness. 



Colour. 



Head composed of 7 
or 8 small balls. 



Bluish 



= 1st mag 

Brightness = Ij. 



Bright circular de- 
fined disc. 



= 4 times ? ; I'ght 
= full moon. 
1st mag 



11 30 p.m. 

10 35 p.m. 

10 36 p.m. 

10 38 p.m. 

5 10 p.m. 



Red 

Greenish white 



=3rd mag. 



= 2nd mag. 



=3rd mag. . 
= 2nd mag. . 



= 4th mag 

)8 meteors ; 1 = ? ; 
1= J^; 15 = 1st mag.; 
31 = 2nd mag. 

69 meteors; 1 = $ ; 

9 = 1st mag.; 

20 = 2nd mag.; 

25 = 3rd mag. 
Afireball 



Small 
Small 



Globular ; three times 
as large and four 
times as bright as 

Appeared to increase 
as it descended to 
mag. =4 limes ^ 

= 3rd mag 



Vivid train of sparks which 
seemed attracted to- 
gether in masses. 



Train of red light ; explo 

sion. 
Leaving remarkable thin 

lines of red light 

through whole path 
Towards end threw out 

train of sparks 10° long ; 

visible 3 or 4 sees, after 

meteor. 
Burst with loud explosion 



Orange 
Blue ... 



Yellow 
Blue .. 



Blue 



Yellow 



Orange-red ... 

Greenish white 
Yellow 



Train or explosion. 



5 seconds; train re- 
mained about 2 
minutes. 



Moderate 



Continuous streak or tail . . 



Streamers 



Sparks over 1° 



= 4th mag. 
= 4th mag. 
= 2 ? 



Shower of sparks ; no 
noise. 

Leaving a continuous lu- 
minous streak in its track 



Leaving a streak. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Rapidly . 



Rapid. 
Rapid . 

Rapid . 



Rapid. 



Rather rapid . 
Rapid 



8 sees. 



Rapid . 



Over 4° ; rapid . 

Rapid 

Rapid 



Remarkably slow ; 
visible 2 mins. 
30 sees. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 95 



Direction. 



From 3° above « Urs. Mag. to 

8° above j3 Bootis. 
From near Pleiades and close to 

a Arietis, [to 10° above Del- 

phinus (from alt. 13°, azim. 

N. 68° E. to alt. 60°, azim. 

S. 8° W.), Glaisher. 
From azim. N. 7°, W. alt. 30°, 

to azim. N. 59° , W. alt. 38°. 
From 14 Draconis to h Herculis 



In Pleiades; about 20° alt.; 
from W. to E. 



Mr. Glaisher sug 
gests this maybe 
the same as last. 
The air full of 
small meteors at 
present." 



Prom E. to W., 



■ down ; from slightly W. of 

« Urs. Maj. 
Through 5° ; from t Ceti at an 

incl. of about 7° to horizon 

towards S. 
E!rom below « Aurigae ; incl. at 

45° downwards. 
Just under <?, through 1°.. 
From 54, 55, 56 Persei to Ca- 

pella. 
From 1° below Capella through 

3°. 



CVom Camelopardalis to Urs 

Maj. 
From /3 Aurigae to » Gemin. ... 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Stone, near 

Aylesbury. 
Chester 



M.V.Fasel 

R. L. Jones, Esq. 



Stone 



Highfield House, 
Nottingham. 



Bombay 



Asseerghur 



Highfield House, 

Nottingham. 
Ibid 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Breslau. 



From under CapeUa towards S 

Under Pleiades 

Horizontal from between t and 

Eridani ; ^ nearer the former ; 
: about 1° beneath «• and ;j; 

Ceti ; fading away near ai 

Piscium. 
From zenith to S.W. ; exploded 

at alt. 20° nearly. 

From 4° below <J ; in direction 

of Orion's belt. 
From H. I. Camelopardalis to 

y Persei. 
From between y and | Draconis 

-J- down. 
From a Draconis; slightly above 

X Draconis to just above Ca 

pella. 



Dimmed the hght 
of stars. 



Ibid. 



Highfield House 
Nottingham. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Observer. 



M.V.Fasel 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id , 

Id 

Prof. Bogus- 
lawski and 
Assistants. 



Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Reference. 



Phil. Mag. 

Feb. 1850, 115. 
Communication to 

J. Glaisher, Esq.. 

Phil. Mag. 

May 1850, p.381. 

lb. Feb. 1850. 

MS. list. See 
Appendix, No. 7. 

Bombay Times, 
Nov. 3-16, 1849, 
See Appendix, 
No. 8. 

lb. See Appendix, 
No. 9. 

MS. list. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Comptes Rendus, 
Nov. 26, 1849. 
Phil. Mag. Jan. 
1850, p. 75. 



Id 

Id 

S. Watson, Esq. 
& F. E. Swann, 
Esq. 



Near Shorapore. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Beeston, near 
Nottingham, & 
at Whitehaven 



CoiTespondent 
to Bombay 
Times. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq 



M. J. E. Durand, 

J. F. MiUer, 
. Esq. 



Ibid. 

MS. list. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 
list. 



See Appendix, 
No. 36. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



96 



REPORT — 1850. 






Date. 



1849 
Dec. 19 



30 



1850. 
Jan. 30 



Feb. 3 

4 
6 



10 



Hour. 



h m 

5 15 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 



Nl <? 



10 16 p.m. 
7 58 30» 

6 36 30' 



7 30 p.m. 
(g.m.t.) 



5 21 p.m. 
5 45 p.m. 



6 23 p.m. 

6 50 p.m. 

8 48 p.m. 

9 30 p.m. 

8 10 p.m. 

8 55 p.m. 
8 15 p.m. 
8 20 p.m. 

7 p.m. 



6 30 p.m. 

&at 11 

11 15 p.m. 

8 30 p.m. 



8 46 5^ 
8 46 50' 



= 2nd magnitude, but 
brighter than 1st. 

Size = 4th magnitude ; 
brightness = 3rd 
mag. 

Size= If. ; brighter 
than ^ at ,?; cir- 
cular disc. 

At first small, but in- 
creased to brighter 
than Aldebaran. 



Magnitude or 
brightness. 



Bright nucleus = 2 <J ; 
another estimate 
= 4 2A. 



Orange-red 
Blue 



Fine red. 



2nd mag. 
Brilliant ... 



Rather red. 



Globe about 4' diam. 



Bolide brighter than 
S at brightest. 



Several small, and one 
Much larger than 2/. 



Smaller than J/. 
= 4th mag 



=2nd mag 

= lst mag 

= 4th mag 

Large, =moon 



Many shooting stars . 



Brilliant, =^moon. 



=- Sirius, but brighter 
= Rigel 



Colour. 



A few separate sparks. 



Reddish . 



YeUow 



Yellow 
Orange 



Red.. 
Blue 



Train or explosion. 



Train increased in length 
as meteor advanced; 
length established from 
30' to 5° ; no explosion. 

Train 



No streamers 



Uniformly through 
65° in 30 sees. 



Through 76° in 15 
sees. 



Slow ; 4° in 1 sec. 
Rapid; ^sec........ 



Scintillated like a rocket 
before disappearing ; no 
explosion ; left a con- 
siderable train. 

No streak 



H sec. 
2 1 sees. 



Bright train ; no noise 



Oblong form 
No train 



Slight train . 

Train 

No tail 



Some with streaks 



Tail = 4 times diam. of 
head. 



Tail 

Leaving white streak 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Instantaneous 
Rapid 



About 35 sees. 



Slow 



Quick 
Rapid . 



Instantaneous 



Rapid . 
Rapid. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OV LUMINOUS METEORS. 97 



Direction. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


Alt. 10°; N.W.byN.; horizon- 
tally towards E. ; disappear- 
ed N. by E. 

From W. to N.; alt. 15°; burst 
at alt. G°. 

From near C. H. 117 Leonis 

Min. to 5 Leonis. 
From direction of Cassiopeia; 

from /3 Lyrse to 108 Herculis. 

From 1 Tauri through x and 94 
Ceti. 

From near ■v^ Persei to 30' be- 
yond Aldel)aran. 

From Pleiades to a. Ceti 


Separatedintothree 
or four fragments 
falling horizon- 
tally. 

Separated in two 
parts which mo- 
ved on together ; 
these again each 
separated into 
fragments. 




Mr. Carrington 
and several 
Observers. 

Prof. Forbes and 
numerous other 
Observers. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id. 

Id. 

W. II. Leeson, 
Esq. 

Rev. K. Swann... 
Rev. G. King ... 

Rev. C. Lowndes 
M. Liais 


Letter from Prof. 
Chevallier to 
Durham paper. 
See App. No. 10. 

Proceedings of the 
Roval Society of 
Edinburgh,1850. 
ii. 309. See Ap- 
pendix, No. 10. 

MS. list. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Phil. Mag. 

Ib:d. 

Comptes Rendus, 
1850, No. 8, 
p. 208. 

MS. letter to Prof. 
Powell. 

MS. list. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Bombay Times, 

March 13, 1850. 

See App. No. 11. 
Mr. Lowe's list. 

Phil. Mag. May 

1850, 363. 
Bombay Times, 

March 13, 1850. 

See App. No. 12. 
MS. list. 

Ibid. 


Edinburgh ; 
through parts 
of Ireland and 
Scotland, from 
N.E. to S.W. 
300 miles long, 
140 broad. 

Highfield House, 
Nottingham. 

Ibid 




Vanished suddenly. 


Ibid 


Castle Doning- 
ton, Leicester- 
shire. 

Ibid 






Burst in fragments ; 

visible some sees. 
Burst and emitted 

knotted streak of 

red light 5° or 6° 

long. 
Nearly vertical ... 




S.W. of Andromeda ; moved N. 
by E.; inclination 20" to 
vertical. 

From about ^ distance from a to 
yUrs. Maj. ; passed E. of y; 
\ disappeared at alt. = «. 

[ 

Tlirough 12° between Procyon 

and j3. 
Through about 20° from N.W. 


Hartwell 


Cherbourg, 380 
metres W., 60 
metres N. of 
Cherbourg 
Church. 

Ileadington Hill, 
Oxford. 

Ibid 


Mr. W.Ray 

Id. 

Id. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id 




' of Cassiopeia to 20° alt. N.W. 

byN. 
.Below Sirius; disappeared about 
' 20° above S. horizon. 
From H. 17 Camelopardi to 

/Cassiopeia;. 
From 19Monocerotis to9 Argus. 




Ibid 




Highfield House, 

Nottingham. 
Ibid 




From Rigel to y Can. Maj 




Ibid 


Id 


Procvon to Sirius 




Ibid 


Id 


From alt. 40° in E. to alt. 2-5° in 
N.E. 

Chiefly in Ursa Major and Ursa 

Minor. 
From Aries to Orion 


Vanished 


At sea, 

lat. 24° 53' N. 

long.66=16'E. 
Highfield House, 

Nottingham. 
Hartwell 


A Correspond- 
ent. 

M. J. E. Durand. 

Rev. C. Lowndes 

A Correspond- 
ent. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id 






From alt. 8° S.S.W. to alt. 2°. 
Procyon to y Canis Maj 




At sea, 

lat. 24° 18' N. 

long. 66° 30' E. 
Highfield House, 

Nottingham. 
Ibid 




|Froml7MonocerotistoyOrionis 










IS-TO. 








H 



98 



REPORT 1850. 



Date. 



1850, 
Feb. 11 



Hour. 



Magnitude or 
brightness. 



h m 

5 p.m. Brilliant nucleus . 



Colour. 



Reddish . 



Train or explosion. 



Tail blue 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Slow 



Accounts of the great meteor of February 11 were collected by Mr. J. 
a large part of England, in the Phil. Mag., March and April 1850. 
tabular form as the preceding : — 



Feb. 11 



10 41 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 



Various estimates from 
= moon to about i ; 
very bright and in- 
creasing in bril- 
liancy till disap- 
pearance. 



Various 
contrary 
accounts ; 
changeable. 



Long train, emitting sparks 
according to some, not 
so according to others ; 
report afterwards at in 
tervals of from 1 to 5 



From 10, 41, 16, to 

10, 41, 27 at 
Greenwich =11 
sees. ; others es- 
timated from 2 to) 
40 sees. 



Mr. Glaisher institutes calculations on the data furnished which give the 
Height at 1st appearance 84 miles, nearly over a point 
Height at disappearance 19 miles, nearly H mile S. 
Height of luminous sparks at disappearance 10 miles. 
Real velocity 30 miles per second. 

In addition to the accounts cited by Mr. Glaisher, the 



Feb. 1110 50.' p.m. 



11 42 p.m. 



10 50 p.m. 



At first like a star 



Large ; brilliant 



Round ; gradually ex- 
panding. 



Nucleus bril- 
liant red. 



Greenish 



Train bluish ; outer edge 
with rainbow tints ; n0| 
report. 

Descended with a stream 
of light of various co- 
lours ; explosion like di- 
stant thunder. 

A succession of sparks ; no 
explosion. 



Succession of 
colours — 
green, red, 
violet. 



10 40 p.m. Bright light followed 
by a distant report 
after 2 min. 

10 30 p.m. Brilliant 



Small globe increasing 
as it advanced, by 
successive jerks or 
bursts till it be- 
comes nearly 
= moon ; intensely 
brieht. 



Head intensely 
blue. 



Slow; visible abou 
5 sees. 



Disappeared with sparks 



Train darting out sparks 
disappeared without 
noise, throwing off 
bright fragments. 



A report afterwards 



Rapid. 



Rapid; 2 or 3 sees., 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 99 



horn W. to E., slightly in 
dined, at a mean altitude of 
about 20°. 



Direction. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



i Atmosphere elec- 
tric ; thunder 
heard. 



[Holy Moorside, 
Derby. 



Observer. 



A Correspond- 
ent. 



Reference. 



Derby Courier. 



Glaisher of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, from various observers, over 
The following is a brief summary of the main results thrown into the same 



Numerous parts 
of England : 
extreme points 
Penzance, 
Brighton, 
Durham. 



Correspondents 
to Mr. Glaisher 



Phil.Mag.vol.xxxvi, 
pp. 221 and 249 
See Appendix, 
No. 18. 



following ultimate results : — 

13 miles N.E. of Montgomery. 

18° E. of Biggleswade. 

Real diameter from 1800 to 2000 feet. 

Path, Parabolic. 

following have been furnished from other quarters : — 



•om W. to E. by N., horizontal Undulatory or jerk- 
ing motion 



rom W. to E. ; path curved... 



•liquelv from W. to E.; mean 
alt. about 20°. 



SouthgateHouse, 
near Chester- 
field. 

Renshavr Street, 
Hulme, Man- 
chester. 

Hollovpay, Isling- 
ton. 



Seemed to roll Kennington 
over and disap- Lane, 
pear." Lambeth. 



Light illuminated a 
room vrith fire, 
candles, and 
blinds down. 




Hartwell Rec- 
tory. 

Wrottesley, 
Wolverhamp- 
ton. 



P. C. Maxwell, 
Esq., and H.J 
Bowdou, Esq. 

A Correspond- 
ent. 



F. Barnard, Esq. 



W. F. Whitmore, 
Esq. 



Derby Courier. See 
Times, Feb. 13. 
See App. No. 13. 

Ibid. See Appen 
dix, No. 15. 



Letter to Prof. 
Powell. See Ap- 
pendix, No. 16. 

Times, Feb. 13. See 
Appendix, No. 
14. 



Rev. C. Lowndes Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Lord Wrottesley 
and others. 



New Coll., Lane, Mrs. Baden 
Oxford. Powell. 



Mean estimate of 5 Oxford , 
observers; inter- 
val between dis- 
appearance and 
report 2 min. 



Communication 
to Mr. R. 
Wheeler. 



Letter to Prof. 
Powell. 



See Appendix, 
No. 19. 



Letter to Prof. 
Powell. 



h2 



100 



REPOET — 1850. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1850. h m 
Feb. 1110 30 p.m. 



10 48 p.m. 



13 



Magnitude or 
brightness. 



Several globes follow 
iug in a luminous 
train. 



7 45 p.m. 

7 47 p.m. 

8 p.m. 

8 1 30' 



8 p.m. 



9 45 p.m. 



Very small 

= 4th mag. 
Small 



8 32 p.m. 
11 50 p.m. 



11 47 p.m. 



Colour. 



= 3r(l mag ; defined 
disc. 



Small 



= ^ moon ; dazzling 
brightness ; pear- 
shaped. 

Several small 

= lst mag 



Train or explosion. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



White Train 

Yellow No tail 



Deep red 



Deep red 



Gave out sparks 



Bluish white . 



Orangcred. 



Bright, = moon ; be- 
came pear-shaped ; 
round end below 



11 57 p.m. 
2610 32 15^ 



Mai-. 4 
6 



7 20 p.m. 
9 p.m. 

9 15 30' 

9 25 p.m. 
9 40 p.m. 



8 47 p.m. 
7 25 p.m. 

9 12 p.m. 
6 55 p.m. 



9 48 p.m 

8 59 50' 

9 3 40' 



Large 



Bright blue, =3rd 
mag. ; defined disc. 



= Sirius 



Small, =3rd mag. 



= lst mag 

Larger than % and 
brighter. 



Blue 



Deep orange 
Red 



Mo noise 



Separate stars 

Explosion with no noise. 



Rapid . 
Mean . 



Slow 



iVbout H sec. 



Rapid . 



Anterior part remained 
round ; back separated 
into luminous fragments 
and streaks ; no report. 



3 or 4 sees. 



Train with falling sparks, 
most numerous about 
the middle part. 



Tail 

Continuous stream of light 



= 4th mag 

Brilliant, = "4 . 



Small, = 2nd or 3rd 



ning. 
Small 



Blue 



Continuous train of light. 

Train of blue light extend- 
ing 5° 



10 sees. 



About 15 sees. 



About 1 sec. 



Rapid 

Slow, 2 or 3 sees. 



Hardly 1 see.. 



Slow. 



About 1 sec 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 101 



Direction. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



2° above Procyon, just above 
the head of Hydra, ending 
near 15 Sextantis. 



Beeston, Not- 
tingham. 



A drawing taken 
immediately and 
an engraving ex- 
ecuted. 



Paddington , 



Mr. Butler. 
Mr. Wyatt. 



Mr. Lowe's list. 

See Appendix, 

No. 17. 
Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 



Horizontally from 42 to H. 35 
Ursa Major. 



From £ to below / Cassiopeise 

through Polai'is. 
from « to ;t; Orionis 



Phrough 2° from 25Monocerotis 
upwards towards zenith, at 
inclination about 70°. 

)bliquely downwards ; disap 
peared before reaching hori- 
zon, from about 15° alt. in E. 



Gave the appear- 
iance of a small 
ball at no great 
height. 



'rem I Draconis to a Cephei. 
rewards S.E 



n S.S.E. by S. ; alt. 15° per- 
pendicularly down. 



from W, of Crater to S. ; 
ploded near horizon. 

'erpendicularly down from 30' 
E. of a Hydras, and same alt. 
over 15°. 

Crossed Orion 



horn RA. 15°, N.P.D. 20°, 
through 5° from E. to W, 

i'rom /3 Comae Beren. to just 

I under S Leonis. 

'Vom H. 35 to <s Cassiopeiae. . . . 

I'rom a Draconis through c Urs 

\ Maj. to 6 Urs. Maj. 

i^rom E. of 2/ towards N 



I'rom a Urs. Maj. to « Hydrse, 

! through llegiilus. 

'hrough 1° perpendicularly 

down from a. Cephei. 
'rom above Sirius to 15° S. ... 



'rom i Cancri through 30' ... 
'rom 30' to E. of y Leonis, to 

nearly 2° below Regulus ... 
'Vom y Urs. Maj. to near Cor 

Caroli. 



Highfield House 
Notliugham. 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Hincksey, near 
Oxford. 

Highfield House. 

Ibid 

Aylesbury 



Albany Road, 
Camberwell. 



Stone, Aylesbury, 



Highfield House 
Nottingham. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Id. 



Id. 



Aylesbury. 



Surat 



Castle Doning- 

ton. 
Highfield House, 
Ibid 



Aylesbury 



Ibid. 



Highfield House, 

Nottingham. 
Aylesbury 



Ibid 

Highfield House, 

Nottingham. 
Ibid 



A. Locker, Esq., 
Pemb. Coll. 

E. J.Lowe, Esq 
Id 

A Correspondent, 

J. Wallis, Esq. 



Rev. J. B. Read 
and Mr. Dell, 
Aylesbury. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



T. Dell, Esq. .. 
A Correspondent 



W. H. Leeson, 

Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 



T. Dell, Esq. ... 

Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
T. Dell, Esq. ... 



Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



Id. 



MS. list. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 



MS. communica- 
tion, 

JIS. list. 

Ibid. 

Oxford Journal, 

March 2. 
Phil. Mag. 

vol. xxxvi. 

p. 318. 

Phil. Mag. May 
1S50, p. 363. 

MS. list. 



Phil. Mag. May 

1850. 
Bombay Times, 

Mar. 13, 1850. 

See App. No. 20 
Communicated by 

Mr. Lowe. 
MS. list. 
Ibid. 

Phil. Mag. May 

1850. 
Ibid. 

MS. list. 

Phil. Mag. ibid. 

ibid. 
MS. 

Ibid. 



102 



REPORT — 1850. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Magnitude or 
Brightness. 



Colour. 



Train or explosion. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1850. 
Mar. 24 



28 
31 
April 2 

May 1 



30 



June 1 



h m 

9 3 40' 



Almost at the same 
instant ; another 
smaller. 



8 45 p.m. 

9 5 p.m. 
8 30 p.m. 

10 31 p.m. 



10 33 p.m. 

11 10 p.m. 
10 38 p.m. 



Red 



Small 

5th mag. .. 



= 2nd mas 



Small 

= 2ud mac 



10 30 p.m. Defined globe meteor 
= 2j: , but duller 



July 



10 30 p.m. 

10 45 p.m. 
Evening .. 



Between 
9 & 10 p.ra 

9 15 p.m. 



8 20 p.m. 

9 26 p.m. 



8 45 p.m. 

8 54 2^-42 
Grantham 
mean time 
(disappear- 
ance). 



Train of blue light 



Blue 

Pale yellow 



White. 



Blue .. 
Yellow 



Red 



Small, ill-defined, 
= 3rd mag. 
3rd mag 

Lightning-flashes termi- 
nating in sr/uiires and 
balls of fire, whence 
again streamers flew 
out, sometimes in 
straight lines and occa- 
sionally in spirals. 

Globular, = moon ; 
much more bril- 
liant. 

Brighter than gas- 
flames, as if lumi- 
nous balls formed 

. out of each other 
successively. 

= J at brightest. 

Increasing brightness 
from just visible in 
twilight to 3 times 
% in size and 6 
times brighter ; ill- 
defined. 

Bright 



Blue 
Blue 



Very brilliant ; = <? 
at brightest. 



Pale blue 



Rapid. 



Small tail. 



No tail. 



White. 



No streamers 



Train of gradually decrea 
sing brightness. 



Curvilinear luminous track 



Slow .. 

Rapid . . 
Rapid.. 

H sec. 



i sec; rapid. 
^ sec.'; rapid. 



Several minutes. 



At first without sparks ; 
afterwards separated 
into sparks and dis- 
appeared. 



Burst, leaving a train 1° 
in length. 



Rapid . 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 103 



Direction. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Prom nearly same point, but 
inclined slightly downwards. 

From a Pegasus to y Androra. 
From y Virginis to 3° or 4°E. 
Under J/, j downwards 



Nearly perpendicular ; inclining 
slightly to N. from 4' Dra 
conis over 1°. 

From Spica 5° in direction of 
2 Corvi. 

Perpendicularly from 5° S. of 2/. 

Horizontally towards S. from 
« Lyrae. 

From y through ip Cassiopeiae 
across the face of Perseus, 
disappearing 3° E. of a Persei. 

From a Cygni through Lacerta . 



From A. through » Draconis 



From S.W. to N.E. ; lost behind 
hills. 



In S.E. nearly perpendicular ; 
diappeared at alt. 10° or 12° 

Nearly perpendicularly down 
inclining to E. fi'om half-way 
bewteen x and 3 Antinoi to 
2° E. of » Capricorni. 



Down towards E. horizon . 



From alt. between 50° and 55° ; 
perpendicularly down for 
about 25° ; direction from 
8° or 10° N. of E. ; too much 
light to see stars. 



Explosion heard \ 
min. after disap- 
pearance. 



Highfield House, 
Nottingham. 



Aylesbury 

Ibid 

Hartwell House 

Observatory. 
Highfield House, 

Nottingham 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



T. Dell, Esq. 

Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Ibid., 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Ibid 

Wingerworth, 
Derbyshire. 



Havre 



Rouen 



Haverhill . 



Bee>ton Railway 
Station, Not 
tiuarham. 



Oxford . 



At Boston "left a 
smoke behind, 
aud a crackling 
noise was heard;" 
no smoke nor 
noise at Gran- 
tham. 



Grantham and at 
Boston. 



Id. 



A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
Mrs. E. J. Lowe 
E. J. Lowe, Esq 

Id 

Id 

Id 

A Correspondent 



Id. 



Id. 



W. W. Boreham, 

Esq.,r.R.A.S. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq, 

and Mrs. Lowe. 



.T. W. Jeans, Esq. 



MS. 

[1850 
Phil. Mag. May 
Ibid. 
MS. List. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Derbyshire Courier, 
June 8, 1850. 



Journal des Debats 
9th June, 1850. 
SeeApp. No. 21 

Ibid. 



Letter to 

Prof. Powell. 
MS. list. 



Communicated to 
Prof. Powell. 

Communicated by 
Mr. Lowe. 



104 



REPORT — 1850. 



APPENDIX, 

Containing details from the original Records of Observations, commtmicated 
to Professor Powell, referred to in the foregoing Catalogue. 

No. 1. — Note communicated by Lord Wrottesley to Prof. PoM-ell from the 
Assistant at the Wrottesley Observatory. 

" September 4, 1848. 

" Standing with my back to the south, at the west end of the Observatory, 
there came a flash of light from the south which completely illuminated the 
shrubs and the gi'ound around me. I immediately turned round and there 
saw a beautiful pale yellow streak, about half an hour west of the star 
a Aquilae, the vertex of the streak being about the same altitude as that star, 
and in length about 25°, perpendicular to the horizon ; I saw this streak 
about 10% when it began gradually to dissolve (commencing at the vertex) 
into a beautiful train of large sparks of a fiery red, and disappeared in about 
S' after. On going into the Observatory to note the time, I found it exactly 
gh 4.5m p_^j_ xne&n time. This must have been the train of a meteor, and from 
the flash it emitted (which v^as equal to the most vivid flash of lightning I 
ever saw), it must have been one of an extraordinary size. The night Avas 
beautifully clear, large dusky clouds very low in the S.W. horizon. — R. P." 

No. 2. — From the Derbyshire Courier, August 25, 1849: — 

" Meteor On Monday evening, August 20, 1849, about ten o'clock, a 

splendid meteor was seen to the west of Chesterfield. It was about twice the 
apparent magnitude and brilliancy of Venus, and moved slowly in an almost 
horizontal line from north to south, leaving a train of small stars in its track 
which speedily disajipeared. In a few moments afterwards a long dark cloud 
marked its path" 

No. 3. — M. CouLviER Gravier 071 Shooting Stars, ^c— Comptes Rendus, 
1849, No. 7, p. 179. 

The number of meteors, as we have always remarked, has been very small 
in the first half of the year ; but since the commencement of July, the num- 
ber has progressively increased, and the maximum has been about the 10th 
of August. 

The following shows the increase for the year, taking the observations for 
the horary number at midnight: — 



1849. 


July 


August 


10. 


11. 


13. 


14. 


15. 


20. 


21. 


22. 


26. 


27. 


28. 


6. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


Horary number 
at midnight 


}» 


8 


10 


7 


10 


13 


13 


12 


26 


28 


33 


50 


60 


107 


120 


80 



/ftiV?.— N0.2I, p.601. 

" The maximum of August rises this year to 120 meteors in a hour, and 
its duration is about fifteen days. The maximum of November rises to forty 
meteors per hour, and lasts about thirteen (lays. 

" The maximum of August happens invariably about the 10th, while that 
of November may happen from the 15th of October to the 5th of December. 
This year it has been observed from the 15th to the 17th of October. Thus 
the maximum, which we always expect on the 12th of November, took place 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 105 

twenty-four days earlier, so that the 12th of November had only thirteen or 
fourteen meteors for the horary number. 

" This state of the phsenomena is not peculiar to 1849. Since 1841, and 
especially since 1845, the maxima of August and November, as we\l as the 
maxima of less importance in February and May, have always an ascending 
and descending progress more or less marked and gradual ; these appearances 
never being sudden, as is the case with those periodic returns which come at 
fixed days and leave no trace behind of their appearance." 

The meteors of October 15-17 are also mentioned by A. Von Humboldt, 
Comptes Rendus, November 26, 1849. See Phil. Mag. January 1850, p. 75. 
To which he adds the following interesting remarks : — 

" I think that many apparent anomalies are explained if we admit that the 
stream (of cosmical matter) is of a certain magnitude, — a variable magnitude ; 
and that the asteroids in the annular zone are unequally distanced and agglo- 
merated. Have we not seen the comet of Biela divide into two comets since 
December 19, 1845, each having its tail, advancing parallel at twenty minutes 
distance from one another? Cosmical nebulae that have so little mass, such 
as comets, fireballs and shooting stars, must be subject to undergo many 
transformations in form, direction and velocity." 

No. 4.— Letter from W. W. Smyth, Esq., M.A., Mining Geologist to the 
Geological Survey, to Professor Powell. 

" Holywell, Flintshire, Nov. 19, 1849. 

" On the 2nd of November I was walking westward along the hill of Gwy- 
sanan, the residence of Mrs. Davies Cooke, north of Mold; the sun had just 
sunk behind the mountains of the Clwydian range, which were in front of me, 
and the sky was so light and brilliant that I could see no stars for some time 
afterwards: it was ten minutes after five, when my eye was attracted by an 
intensely bright white speck falling from a point about 45° above the hori- 
zon in a north-westerly direction. As it fell its velocity appeared to decrease, 
and when, after I had watched it through 30°, it disappeared near a light 
cirrostratus cloud, I think as much as twenty seconds must have elapsed 
from the moment of my first seeing it. Indeed, towards the conclusion of its 
course it seemed to be almost floating, as one may see one of the coloured 
lights of a rocket, almost stationary in the air. Its vivid brightness was so re- 
markable, that I remained some minutes on the spot, actually trembling from 
excitement, and expecting to hear a detonation or some sound indicative of 
its not very distant fall. In this I was disappointed ; but shall be curious to 
learn whether it happened to be observed by any one else. 

" Very truly yours, 

" Warington W. Smyth." 

No. 5.— Letter from W. R. Grove, Esq., F.R.S. &c., to Prof. Powell. 

"London, Nov. 17, 1849. 

*****" The following extract from a letter of a correspondent of 
mine near Swansea may be interesting to you. He writes, ' Have you seen 
or heard of a remarkable meteor that passed over the earth on Friday evening 
the 2nd of November? The following is a description of it: — Time, half- 
past five, evening ; direction from east to west, and to the north of the ob- 
server at this place ; duration about eight seconds ; colour bright red ; size 
about 6 inches diameter, with a tail 3 feet long ; the body appeared to diminish 
as it went along.' 

" The place whence this was seen is twelve miles fi'om Swansea, in a direc- 



106 REPORT 1850. 

tion N.N.E. * * * * My correspondent (Mr. Hill of Swansea) * * * * says 
it was considerably below the Polar star ; the weather was cloudy ; but he 
concludes it was near the lowermost conspicuous stars in Ursa Major. It 
appears his account was gathered from dift'erent observers. 

" Yours very truly, 

"W' R. Grove." 

No. 6.— Letter from W. R. Birt, Esq. to Prof. Powell. 

" Observatory, Old Deer Park, Richmond, Surrey, Dec. 5, 1849. 

" My dear Sir, — On the evening of my arrival here I observed a shooting 
star, which in its features bore very materially on the stars h, Nos. 4 and 5 in 
ray former communication*. I annex a copy of my original memorandum 
made at the time. 

" ' Nov. 2,1849, e"" 5'" by estimation. — Observed a shooting star pass about 
two-thirds of the distance between Saturn and y Pegasi ; nearest the star and 
above Saturn the direction was nearly horizontal towards the south. I par- 
ticularly observed that this star did not present the same brilliancy throughout 
its course, being once or twice nkarly extinguished, but not entirely so, so that 
the identity of the star ivas preserved. It disappeared some distance west of 
y Pegasi. Colour and magnitude blue, small, and very variable in its 
brilliancy.' 

" Dr. Lee has communicated to me the following very interesting observa- 
tion of a shooting star, by Mr. Horton, his assistant. I give you it verbatim, 
as I received it : — 

" ' October 20th, 1849. — Observed a very brilliant shooting star, which was 
visible three or four seconds, almost due west, about half-way between the 

horizon and the zenith at 8*^ 30'" p.m. When first seen it appeared thus \ 
it afterwards burst, and at that moment the whole appeared as follows 



" In a memorandum added by Dr. Lee is the following remark: — ' It was 
about an hour preceding the star a Aquilae.' 

"I have been very unfortunate in observing these interesting bodies since 
I have been here. On the 14th of November, in the evening, I looked occa- 
sionally for them, but saw only two. My son, who was on the roof with me 
at the same time, saw six. From all the information I have received, it ap- 
pears that while they have not been abundant at the November epoch, the 
character of periodicity has been maintained. 

" I have the honour to be, my dear Sir, 
" Yours very respectfully, 

" Rev. Prof. Powell." " W. R. Birt." 

No. 7. — Extract from Mr. Lowe's MS. communication. 

" Nov. 5th, 6^ 20"\ — The meteor fell at a tolerable pace, leaving a thin 
pencil of red light in the sky in the whole extent of its path, which was 50° 
in len<'th. This pencil of light lasted visible five minutes, becoming gradu- 
ally fainter, and altering from a straight line, in 2'" 30% to that of a series of 
waves, thus :— -.^'~s_/-^'~^'~-'-n-''\-^^'---''---/'^-/\>'"^ , and in another mi- 
nute these became twice the width \_y'A,.,/'X,_/A._/''"N,./~V-/'^ 

The width of the line of light when first formed was=to that of Vega, but now, 

from the apex of the one wave to that of the opposite wave, it was 35' (or 

* See Report, British Association, 1849, p. 50. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 107 

larger than the diameter of the sun). It begun to disappear from each end 
of its path (i. e. when first and last seen), the middle remaining visible the 
longest. 

" On this meteor, which seems to be the same observed by Mr. Jones and 
Mr. Fasel, Mr. Glaisher makes the following remarks : — 

'■Jones. — Altitude when first seen 13° and in azimuth 68° E. of N. 

„ at explosion.. 60° „ 8° W. of S. 

' Fasel— „ when first seen 30° „ 7° W. of N. 

„ at explosion. . 38° „ 5'^° W. of N. 

" ' The path of the meteor was from E.N.E. to W.S.W., and contrary to the 
order of the planetary motions. The intersections of azimuths at explosion 
indicates the meteor to have been vertical over a spot fifteen miles from 
Montgomery and N.E. of it. Its distance from the earth about eighty miles.' 
(Glaisher Phil. Mag., May 1850.)" 

No. 8.— From the Bombay Times, Nov. 17th, 1849. 

" A beautiful uaeteor was seen at half-past six on Thursday evening (8th 
inst.) rushing from west nearly due east. As seen from the Esplanade, it 
appeared to disappear over Butcher's Island : it was in the constellation of 
the Pleiades, then about 20° above the horizon. It was of a bright greenish 
white colour — disc circular and perfectly well-defined — about four times the 
sizeandbrilliancy of the planet Venus when at its brightest. When near the end 
of its career, it threw out a mass of red fragments or spark?, and left a train of 
these behind it about 10° in length, visible for three or four seconds after the 
disappearance of the meteor itself, which seemed to vanish at once, without 
altering its form or size. The air at present is full of the smaller-sized 
meteors, for which October and November are remarkable." 

No. 9. — " About half-past nine the previous evening (Nov. 7th) one of the 
most magnificent fireballs ever witnessed was observed rushing towards the 
east. Seen from Mazagon, it seemed to burst over Elephanta, and descend in 
a perfect stream of blazing fragments. All night long the air was filled with 
shooting stars of lesser magnitude, but after one such as that alluded to, they 
seemed scarcely worthy of attention." — Ibid. Nov. H. 

^^ Meteor at Asseerghur . — A beautiful meteor was seen at Afeseerghtir about 
nine o'clock on the evenins^ of the 9th ult. It travelled rapidly from east to 
west : the natives describe it to have been the size of a small water-ghurree, 
from which we should infer that it must have appeared at least four times as 
large as the planet Venus at her brightest. It lighted up the whole sky for 
some seconds, as if the full moon had been shining. It burst with a loud ex- 
plosion, the sound being heard over the whole neighbourhood like that of a 
heavy gun at sea. B3 some it was supposed an explosion had occurred at 
Berhampore ; by others, that a mass of rock had fallen. We have not as yet 
heard of any fragments having been picked up." 

No. 10. — Letter from Prof. Chevallier to Prof. Powell. 

"Durham, Jan. 11, 1850. 

" My dear Sir, — With respect to the meteor seen here on the 19th of De- 
cember last, the account which I have gathered from four intelligent persons, 
one of them Mr. Carrington, the observer at Durham Observatory, is as 
follows ; — 

"• The meteor appeared at 5^ 15" Greenwich mean time, December 19th, 
1849, in the N.W. by W. quarter, at an altitude of about 10°. The altitude 



108 REPORT — 1850. 

is estimated from the position of the meteor with reference to the star in the 
tail of Ursa Major, the meteor appearing to have half the altitude of those 
stars.' 

" Its size was estimated by Mr. Carrington as twice that of Mars, as now 
seen in opposition, both in magnitude and brightness. Another person con- 
sidered it to be six times larger than Jupiter. 

" Its motion was parallel to the horizon from N.W. by W. to about N.E. : 
its progress was quite steady and uniform, continuing for twenty or thirty 
seconds of time. 

" Tiie bright head was followed by a tail, the length of which is estimated 
variously. Mr. Carrington considers it to have been 20' or 25': the other 
observers estimate it at from 6 to 10 diameters of the moon, or from 3° to 5°. 
Before the meteor disappeared, its head broke up into three or four fragments, 
which followed one another horizontally till the whole gradually disappeared. 
No sound was noticed after the disappearance of the meteor. 

"I have written to several parts of Great Britain and Ireland, with a view 
of comparing observations of the meteor made elsewhere; but I have not 
heard of its being seen anywhere but at Edinburgh. 

" By a letter dated January 8th, from M. Piazzi Smyth, I find that it was 
seen at Edinburgh by Mr, James Stirling, C.E., who perceived it pass across 
the opening of a street, and has since measured the altitude of the part of the 
house where the body disappeared. He found it about 8° 20', and is quite 
sure it could not have been 9°. 

" Professor Forbes and Professor Kelland also saw it ; and Prof. Forbes 
published an account of it in the 'Edinburgh Courant' of December 20. 

" The altitudes of the meteor, as seen at Durham and Edinburgh, are 
sufficiently consistent on the supposition that the meteor had but very small 
parallax; and Mr. P. Smyth informs me that the same conclusion follows 
from several accounts which Prof. Forbes has collected from various pai'ts of 
the country. 

" As you are the centre to which all information of this kind converges, 
you Mill probably have already received intelligence of this meteor. 

" About a quarter of an hour before its appearance (that is about 5 p.m.) 
a bright falling star passed downwards vertically near the Pleiades. 

" Believe me, yours very truly, 

" Prof. B. Powell. " Temple Chevallier. 

" P.S. — Since writing this, I have found a copy of the printed account, 
which I enclose. 

"'Brilliant Meteor seen at Diirham, ISiQ. — In the evening of Decem- 
ber 19, at 5^ 15"" mean Greenwich time, an unusually bright meteor was 
seen at Durham, in the northern part of the sky. By a comparison of 
three different accounts, it appears that the meteor was first observed in 
the north-west by west quarter, and moved slowly in a horizontal direc- 
tion from west to east, disappearing nearly north by east, thus moving 
through 65° in about half a minute. Its altitude, obtained by referring 
the meteor to the tail stars of the Great Bear, was about 10°, half the 
altitude of those stars. The head was estimated by one observer, accustomed 
to notice the heavens, to be twice the brightness and twice the apparent size 
of Mars, as now seen in opposition ; and by another observer to be four times 
as large and bright as Jupiter. The meteor had a tail nearly straight, which 
became sensibly longer as the meteor advanced. The length «;f the tail was 
estimated by one of the observers to be less than the diameter of the moon, 
about 20' or 25' : another estimated it at six, and another at ten diameters 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 109 

of the moon. Such differences of impression are likely to arise in a case 
where a sudden phenomenon talies place, under circumstances in which the 
iudsement cannot be corrected by even rough measurement, or by subsequent 
examination. It is probable that the tail of this meteor may have been at 
least four or five diameters of the moon, or about 2° or 3 in length. Beiore 
the meteor disappeared, the head broke up into three or four fragments, 
which continued to follow one anotlier horizontally, and then the whole very 
gradually disappeared. Tiiere was no sound heard as of any explosion. It 
would be desirable to obtain accounts of this meteor as seen m other places, 
and especially in places further north, with a view of determining its altitude. 

Account of a remarkable Meteor, seen December 19, 1849. 
By Professor J. D. Forbes. 
[From the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. ii. No. 39.] 
On the evening of the 19th December 1849, whilst walking near the 
southern part of Edinburgh, about fifteen minutes past five, Greenwich time 
(as 1 afterwards estimated), I observed a meteor, fully brighter than Venus 
at her average brilliancy, moving from W. towards N., parallel to the horizon, 
elevated 15° above it, and followed by a distinct luminous train. This angle 
was subsequently taken by estiraatioh by daylight, with the aid ol a theodo- 
lite ; and the compass-bearing of the meteor, when first seen, asceitained m 
the same way, must have been 47° W. of N. When it bore 29 E. of mag- 
netic north, it was observed to have divided into two, the one part following 
the other at some distance; and I soon after lost sight of it in the obscurity 
of the smoke of the town. When it split, its altitude was estimated at 6 . It 
thus described an arc of no less than 76°, in doing which it occupied, as 1 
roughly estimated, about fifteen seconds, or possibly more. 

Having sent a short notice of the appearance of the meteor to the Courant 
newspaper, I received from many quarters accounts of its having been seen 
under circumstances remarkably similar to those just described. I believe 
that nearly forty communications on the subject have reached me from places 
included between Longford, in the centre of Ireland, to near Bervie,m Kin- 
cardineshire, a distance of above 300 miles, in a direction nearly N.E. and 
S W., whilst in a perpendicular direction, or from N.W. to S.E., the range ot 
observation has been comparatively small ; for I have received no information 
from beyond Renfrew in the one direction, and Durham in the other, being 
about 149 miles distant in a straight line. The meteor was seen at Longford, 
in Ireland, 74 miles west of Dublin, but not in Dublin itself. It was seen at 
Belfast, between Carlisle and Gretna at Stewarton in Ayrshire, at Johnstone, 
at Paisley, Renfrew, and by many persons in Glasgow and the neighbour- 
hood. It was also generally seen in Edinburgh, in East Lothian, near Mel- 
rose, and at Durham, as already mentioned. Further north, I have received 
accounts from Crail, St. Andrews, Dundee, Perth, and Johnshaven to the 
north of Montrose. • • • u 

The greater number of these communications concur in estimating the 
direction of the motion of the meteor to have been from S.W. to N.E., 
although, as might be expected, thev vary excessively as to its distance and 
magnitude; being described by some persons as only 50 or 100 yards off, 
and as large as the moon; by others, as a ball of 9 inciies in diameter, or the 
size of a large egg. One person only professes to have heard a sound. The 
time during which it was seen was variously estimated. At Longford, by 
Mr Curtis, 20 seconds ; at Glasgow, by Mr. Stevenson, at 20 seconds ; at 
Johnstone, by Mr. Cunningham, 15 seconds; at Perth, 15 or 20 seconds; 



110 REPORT— 1850. 

at Durham, by Mr. Carrington, 30 seconds ; at St. Andrews, 15 seconds ac- 
cording to one observer, and 1 8 to 21 seconds according to another; at 
Johnshaven, ^ths of a minute. The liour of the appearance of the meteor, 
in most of the descriptions, is stated at between 5^ 10" and 5^ 16'". 

The arc of tiie horizon which it was seen to traverse depended, of course, 
on the point where the meteor first caught the observer's eye. At Granton, 
it was traced by Professor Kelland through 125° of azimuth ; at Perth, 130° ; 
at St. Andrews, 74°; at Edinburgh, 76°; at Durham, 65° ; at Glasgow, from 
60° to 70°. The division of the head or nucleus into several parts, and, first 
of all (in most cases), into two, has been noticed with remarkably slight 
variation ; consequently, the explosion of the meteor marks a well-determined 
point in its path. The separation was specially noticed at Edinburgh, Gran- 
ton, Glasgow, Renfrew, Melrose, Haddington, Johnshaven, Perth, Durham 
and St. Andrews. 

In a ma,jority of cases a luminous train was observed ; and I am confident 
that the existence of this train, which has been estimated from 2° to 3° long, 
cannot be questioned. Dr. Adamson, however, especially remarked that no 
train was to be seen at St. Andrews. 

On revising the whole accounts, it does not appear that any of them 
can be relied upon for ascertaining the position of the meteor in space, 
except the observations of Mr. Carrington of the Durham Observatory ; of 
Professor Kelland, Mr. Stirling and myself, at Edinburgh ; of Dr. Adamson 
and anotlier observer, communicated by Professor Fischer of St. Andrews ; 
of a young gentleman at Perth, communicated by Thomas Miller, Esq., Rec- 
tor of the Perth Academy; and of A. D. Stevenson, Esq., and W. Gourlie, 
Esq., jun., at Glasgow. My inquiries were chiefly directed to the two fol- 
lowing points: Jii'st, the angular elevation of the meteor in the N.W. quarter 
of the heavens, where it is admitted by all that its path appeared almost ho- 
rizontal ; secondli/, to the bearing of the meteor at the instant of explosion. 

At Durham, Mr. Carrington saw the meteor first when the bearing was 
true N.W., the altitude (by theodolite) was then 10°, or not exceeding 11°; 
when it burst, it was due N. (true), and continued to move 10° or 12° further 
before it disappeared. Professor Chevallier, who obligingly communicated 
these results, states that the meteor appeared rather to rise as it approached 
the north, but with a doubt. This supposition, however, appears inadmissible, 
from the unanimity of the other accounts. 

At Granton, near Edinburgh, Professor Kelland caught sight of the 
meteor a little to the N. of the moon, and several diameters below it. This 
corresponds, by after estimation, with a theodolite, to 75° W. of magnetic 
N., and an altitude of 12°. Professor Kelland thinks that it rather rose after- 
wards. It split into two at 20° E. of magnetic N., having then an altitude of 
only 5° ; it continued for a considerable time bright, then began to fade, as 
if by the effect of distance, and also to separate into several parts ; it was 
finally lost sight of 50° E. of magnetic N. (this bearing is well-ascertained), 
with an altitude estimated at only half a degree. The position and circum- 
stances of these observations, made at an elevated station above the Frith of 
Forth, were eminently favourable. 

Mr. J. Stirling, civil engineer, looking up North Hanover Street, Edin- 
burgh, saw the meteor separate into two parts ; the bearing he afterwards 
estimated at 25° E. of magnetic N. (the probable error not exceeding 1°), 
and the altitude at 8° 30', certainly not exceeding 9°. 

I think we may conclude, that at Edinburgh the meteor attained a maxi- 
mum elevation of 15° (that mentioned in the commencement of this paper), 
since it no doubt rose after Professor Kelland first saw it to the S. of the true 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. Ill 

W., with an altitude of only 12°. The course of the meteor was evidently 
such as to be nearest the spectator when in the true N.W. or W.N.W. 
The place of the meteor when it burst stands thus : — 

Kelland, N. 20° E. (mag.) Alt. 5°. 
Stirling, N. 25° E. Alt. 8° 30'. 

Forbes, N. 29° E. Alt. 6°. 

The average is almost 25° E. of N., or about 1° W. of the true meridian, 
the variation being nearly 26°. The mean of the three observations of alti- 
tude would be 6° 30' ; but admitting Mr. Stirling's to be entitled to the 
greatest confidence, we may suppose it 7°, or possibly a little more. 

At St. Andrews, the meteor was seen by Dr. Adamson, when riding in a 
northerly direction, on the Largo road. Professor Fischer was so kind as to 
accompany him afterwards to the spot, and to reduce his observations Avith 
all the accuracy of which they were capable. It was first noticed when bear- 
ing 8|° W. of magnetic N., and disappeared at 42|^° E. of N. ; the altitude 
was conjecturally stated as between 14° and 18^°, and it appeared to move 
horizontally, but rather declining towards the N. 

After describing three-fourths of its course, it split into two parts, which 
went on close together for a little, then brolie into four or five, became dull 
red, and rapidly disappeared ; the separate pieces travelling on together until 
the last. 

Another intelligent observer near St.Andrews, whose evidence was taken 
by Mr. Fischer, first saw the meteor 29f ° W. of magnetic N., and estimated 
the point where the meteor burst at 44° E. of N.; but this last number coin- 
cides so closely with Dr. Adamson's estimate of the point of final disappear- 
ance, that it is perhaps allowable to suppose, that this second observer had 
mixed up these two events in his description. Dr. Adamson's statement, that 
one-fourth of the arc which he saw was described after the meteor had split, 
would give an azimuth at that moment of almost 30° E. of N. magnetic, or 
4° E. of N. true, as Mr. Fischer determined the magnetic declination to be 
about 25° 46'. The altitude of the meteor, as seen by this observer, appears 
not to have exceeded 15° (the same as at Edinburgh) ; which number we 
shall therefore adopt. 

At Perth, the passage of the meteor was seen from the North Inch, by a 
young gentleman of intelligence, whose observations were reduced to num- 
bers by Mr. Miller, Rector of the Perth Academy, who was so good as to 
accompany him to the spot, and take the angles with a theodolite. Its bear- 
ing, when first seen, was 46° S. of W. true ; its angular altitude was at that 
time only 3° 30'. This is by far the most southern azimuth which has been 
observed. Its bearing, when it disappeared, was 6° W. of N., but it was then 
lost in a cloud. If 1 understand right, it had by this time separated into 
fragments. Its apparent altitude in tiie middle of its course was about 17° 30'. 
These observations, extending over an arc of 130°, taken along with Professor 
Kelland's, clearly demonstrate that the meteor appeared M-ith a very low alti- 
tude in the S.W. quarter of the heavens, and disappeared in a similar way in 
the N.N.E., attaining its greatest elevation about W.N.W. (true). 

At Glasgow the meteor was very generally and well seen. Mr. William 
Gourlie, jun., saw it move fi-om S.W. to N.N.E., over an arc of 60° or 70°, 
and divide into two, when it bore 40° E. of magnetic N. He estimates its 
greatest elevation at S0°, and that it decreased to between 15° and 17°, or 
even less, at tlie time of its separation : he adds, that he is not much ac- 
customed to such observations. Mr. A.D. Stevenson, living in South Port- 
land Street, Glasgow, saw the meteor moving along at a height just suf- 



112 



REPORT 1850. 



ficient to clear the chimney-tops, on the west side of the street; an elevation 
which he afterwards estimated, as he states, with considerable accuracy at 28°. 
I have received further and more minute accounts of the appearance of the 
meteor from Mr. Stevenson, who has been most kind and intelligent in his 
communications; and my friend Mr. James Peddie has verified the accuracy 
of Mr. Stevenson's observations beyond the possibility of mistake. It ap- 
pears that the meteor passed quite clear of a stack of chimneys on the oppo- 
site side of the street, which would give it a well-defined minimum altitude 
of 25° 41' ; but Mr. Stevenson is of opinion that it rose more than 2° higher, 
or to not less than 28° (perhaps even to 28° 21'); when it was highest, its 
bearing was 59^° W. of N. (magnetic), and it disappeared from his view when 
it bore 40° 27' E. of magnetic N. It ivas then decidedly single. Now this bear- 
ing coincides with that at which Mr. Gourlie observed it to become double; 
and, consequently, the limit towards the N. of this event is severely defined. 
The following table contains the most definite of these observations, and 
the azimuths are all reduced to the true meridian : — 





Greatest 
altitude. 


True azimuth 
when first seen. 


True azimuth of 
disappearanee. 


Arc 
observed. 


True azimuth of 
first explosion. 


Altitude at 
first explosion. 


Durham ... 


10° 30' 


N. 45° W. 


N. 12° E. 


57° 


N. 




Edinburgh 


15° 


W. 11° S. 


N. 24° E. 


125° 


N. 1° W. 


7° 


St. Andrews 


15° 


N. 55° W. 


N. 16° E, 


71° 


N. 4° E. 




Perth 

Glasgow ... 


17° 30' 

28° 


W. 47° S. 


N. 7° W. 

(in a cloud) 


130° 
100°? 


p 
N. H^E. 


15° 







Remarks on the Observations. 

1. On the whole, these observations are not consistent, and cannot (I 
conceive) be cleared up without additional and accurate ones, which it may 
now be too late to procure. The central group of stations, Edinburgh, Perth 
and St. Andrews, are sufficiently accordant, and indicate that the path of the 
meteor must have been nearly parallel to a line passing through the first and 
last of those places, or in a direction N. 27° E. (true) ; which accords well 
with the observations at most of the individual stations, and particularly with 
the vanishing direction in Professor Kelland's remarkable observation at 
Gran ton. 

2. The Durham observation is compatible with the above-mentioned 
group within the limits of error. By the combination of Durham and Edin- 
burgh (the base line perpendicular to the assumed direction of the meteor's 
motion being 95 miles), I calculated that the meteor passed vertically nearly 
over the island of St. Kilda, with an absolute elevation of about 88 miles. 
But this solution seems absolutely excluded by observations at Glasgow which 
admit of no question, and which I have spared no pains in verifying. Had 
the position of the meteor been such as I have first assumed, it could not 
possibly have been seen over even the roofs of the houses from the station 
occupied by Mr. Stevenson, much less over the chimney-tops. The bearing, 
at the moment of explosion at Glasgow, also singularly enough corroborates 
sufficiently well the comparatively small elevation (about twenty miles above 
the earth) which the combination of Edinburgh and Glasgow gives ; and this 
bearing we have seen to have been also accurately defined by the physical 
obstacles bounding the observer's view ; it would have given a parallax of 15°, 
subtended by the perpendicular on the meteor's path, referred to Glasgow 
and Edinburgh respectively. Now, if this calculation were anything like 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 113 

correct, the Perth observation is entirely wrong ; and the meteor could not 
have risen about 6° above the horizon of Durham, instead of 10° or 11° as 
estimated. I am unable in any degree to explain these conflicting results. 

3. The observations of Professor Kelland at Granton, and those at Perth, 
through the great azimuths of 123° and 130°, described by the meteor with 
such remarkable deliberation of motion, lead, when analysed, to the very 
same results which presented themselves to the mind of the spectator intui- 
tively; namely, that the motion must have been sensibly rectilinear, equable 
and parallel to the horizon at Edinburgh. Assuming that the greatest alti- 
tude at Edinburgh was 15°, and the bearing then N. 63° V/. (true), we may 
calculate that the altitude should have been on this hypothesis, when first 
seen by Professor Kelland, 11°47', instead of 12° as observed ; at explosion, 
6° 59' (7° observed), and at its final disappearance 0° 47' (instead of 0° 30' 
observed). Again, at Perth, the observed altitude, when first seen, was 3^°, 
and the calculated altitude 5° 3', taking the maximum altitude at 17i°. The 
coincidence is, on the whole, remarkable, though it would be rash to push it 
to an extreme, as an error of some degrees may exist in the assumption of 
the direction of the meteor's course. Some later observations, received from 
Mr. Curtis at Longford, and a consideration of the effects of perspective at 
Perth and Edinburgh, incline me to admit that the path might make an angle 
3° or 4° greater with the meridian than I have above supposed. These con- 
clusions are independent of the actual distance or parallax of the meteor; 
which, as I have said, cannot be determined without further observations, 
which I should be glad to receive from any quarter, but more particularly 
from Ireland, and from the centre and N.W. of Scotland. If correct, they 
entitle us to infer that the meteor in question was most probably a body mo- 
ving in space, in a path little curved, and not revolving round the earth. 

No. 11.— From the Bombay Times, March 13, 1850. 

" ' Palinurus,' at sea, February 21st, 1850.— The following memorandum of 
meteors lately seen, I hope may prove interesting to you : — Feb. 7th, latitude 
24° 53' N., longitude 66° 16' E. at 7 p.m., a large meteor, about ^th the dia- 
meter of the moon, appeared to the eastward, about 40° elevation, and vanished 
to the north-eastward, about 25° elevation." 

No. \2.—Ibid. 

" February 10th, latitude 24° 18' N., longitude 66° 30' E., at 8-30 p.m., a 
large meteor, at least ^th the diameter of the moon, appeared, elevated 8° 
S.S.W., and disappeared again instantly about 2° to the southward. This 
meteor displayed a most brilliant light, and had a clearly defined short tail, 
not more than four times the diameter of its body in length." 

No. 13 — Meteor of February 11. The following details may be of interest 
in addition to the particulars given in the table. 

[From the Derbyshire Courier.] 

" Southgate House, Feb. 14, 1850, 
" Sir, — In looking over this morning's ' Times,' there appear two letters, 
one dated from Oxford, the other from Lambeth, mentioning the appearance 
-of a most extraordinary body in the heavens, which took place between ten 
and eleven o'clock on Monday last, the eleventh inst. On the same evening, 
Mr. Henry John B. Bowdon and myself were returning home from Mount St. 
Mary's, which place we left shortly after ten o'clock, and just before we arrived 
at home, it being a particularly dark night, the entire atmosphere of a sudden 
1850. 1 



114 REPORT 1850. 

became illuminated with the most brilliant light. Astonished at the cir- 
cumstance, we all at the same instant looked out of the carriage window, and 
beheld a most brilliant substance descending towards the ground. It ap- 
peared not more than fiftj'^ or sixty yards from us. The head of the light 
appeared of the most splendid and brilliant red colour, whilst the tail was of 
a pale bluish tinge. It had veiy much the appearance of a sky-rocket, though 
much larger and brighter. Just before reaching the earth it seemed to ex- 
plode, though we could hear no noise. This took place about twenty minutes 
or a quarter before eleven o'clock on Monday night. 

" If you think this curious appearance, which has shown itself at nearly 
the same time in places so distant from each other, worthy of a place in your 
columns, it is much at your service. 

" I remain, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

" Peter C. Maxwell." 

No. 14. — The following account is most remarkable with respect to the 
mode of disappearance of the meteor. 

[From the same Journal.] 

" Mr. Whitmore of Kennington Lane, Lambeth, says, ' On Monday night, 
at about a quarter or ten minutes to eleven o'clock, a very beautiful shooting 
meteor of dazzling appearance was visible in the heavens, taking, as it seemed 
to me, a direction bearing west to east. The night in the early part of it had 
been rainy, with a fair amount of wind, from the westvvard and southward 
(as during the day), but at the time of the above luminous appearance it had 
partially cleared off, and the stars were visible, with only a few light clouds, 
which served materially to heighten the effect when illuminated. The course 
the light described was a fine curve, commencing with a small feathery ap- 
pearance, gradually expanding in width and radiance as it proceeded, and its 
duration was of soxiie seconds. At first it occurred to me it was a trial rocket 
of some description, as it dropped precisely as they do when near exploding, 
but it afterwards lighted up still more brilliantly, and resumed its course with 
increased splendour, leaving in its track a long train of intense light. It ap- 
peared rounded or bulbed at its head or point of combustion, and went off to 
an elongated taper, as some of the comets have been represented. Its alti- 
tude I should judge was not great, as its edges were distinct, and one slight 
wave in its progress was to me very discernible. As it brightened it displayed 
the most lovely colours, which could be distinctly traced to the radial colours 
produced by the sun — at one period green, violet (deep), pale red, &c., and 
their effects through the thin stratum of clouds which were in its path were 
most gorgeous. Before vanishing it appeared to roll over, like to something 
molten, and contracting all its light at once, suddenly disappeared. It was 
perfectly silent, although my expectation was that from its extent and bril- 
liancy a report might possibly be produced.' " 

No. \5. — " The following is from Manchester, which also differs from the 
others in some respects : — In passing along Renshaw Street, Hulme, on Monday 
night, at ten to eleven o'clock, I saw the most singular phsenomena that I ever 
heard of, in the form of a meteor. I observed what appeared to be a bright 
star, situate about E. by S., when suddenly it fell straight downwards, leaving 
a stream of fire of the most beautiful colours — crimson, purple and green. The 
light was so great from it, that it cast my shadow along the ground, as clear 
as at noonday. It appeared to burst in the air like a rocket, and made a 
noise like distant thunder, accompanied by a thick cloud all around the light. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 115 

Several parties who saw the light, but not the meteor, supposed that it was 
caused by vivid sheet lightning, until I undeceived them." 

No. 16. — These appearances are further illustrated by the very graphic 
description contained in the following letter to the author from Mr. F. 
Barnard : — 

8 Cross Street, Islington, London, Feb. 12, 1850. 

« Sir, — Since the month of May 18-t8, when I sent you a short account of 
a meteor I had seen, I have had no opportunity of repeating any similar ob- 
servation until last night, when, in common with many others, 1 had the 
good fortune to see the phaenomenon of most extraordinary size and brilliancy. 
The circumstances were as follows : — At eighteen minutes to eleven, my sister 
and self were walking in a southerly direction through Holloway, when we 
■were startled by a greenish white light that suddenly lit up the whole scene 
in front of us. At first I thought it was lightning ; the quantity of light flung 
round seemed equal to that from a vivid blaze of lightning, but it continued 
with a slight glimmer. This was all conceived before I turned round and 
beheld a large and intensely bright meteor traversing the sky, almost from 
west to east, perhaps a trifle to north. The most remarkable feature besides 
its light, was its duration and slowness. It appeared almost to struggle loith 
the atmosphere — if it vms within our atmosphere — ivith an undulatory motion, 
just as the electric fluid is zigzaged by atmospheric resistance, so this meteor 
appeared to be alternately impeded on this side and on that. It meandered, 
it trickled through the sky ; and as it moved, gave ofl^' a succession of balls or 
sparks which stretched out in a tail of some length, and vanished as rapidly 
as the nucleus proceeded. In fact, it might well have been mistaken for a 
rocket, but that it was lofty, horizontal and silent. 

" This was somewhat of its appearance, though it is difficult to form a de- 
finite image of such an object. The time that it was visible was, I think, 
about four, perhaps five seconds. I find that either itself or its light has been 
seen by a great many ; indeed I suppose more have seen it than have not, and 
from various parts of the metropolis. You cannot fail, I think, to hear of it 
from numerous correspondents ; but from many accounts the trtith is ex- 
tracted. So this comes from. Sir, 

" Yours very respectfully, 

" To Rev, Baden Powell." " Frank Barnard." 

No. 17. — Mr. Lowe has favoured me v»ith the following details (besides 
those inserted in the Catalogue). 

" February 11th, 10|^— Tail and all together = size of ^ ; much brighter 
than ([ ; colour yellow, with yellow light for tail, ex- 
cepting round the edge of the tail, where was a purple 
light. When it disappeared, it broke up like a rocket 
into separate stars and almost instantly disappeared, 
leaving a slight stain at the spot for about half a 
second. The edge of meteor was well-defined. ***** I regret I did 
not see it, though I watched until within a minute of its taking place ; but a 
dense cloud rising rapidly, I left off obs^erving, unluckily too soon, as it oc- 
curred before the cloud came over. The cloud discharged much snow. It 
was seen in Nottingham by G. Allcock, jun., Esq., and at Beeston, by theRev. 
J.Wolley." 

No. 18. — Mr. Glaisher has collected a large number of details of the ob- 
servations made on this meteor. The following are a few particulars, both 

I 2 




116 REPORT 1850. 

from that paper and other sources, bearing on the physical characters of the 
meteor. [The numerals refer to those in Mr. Glaisher's paper.J 

(iii.) It had a train, besides which it threw off" sparks literallj'. 

(xx.) Before disappearance it emitted numerous sparks from the end of 
the tail. 

(xxxv.) At first it was of the size of an ordinary meteor ; it increased as it 
went on. 

(xxxvi.) The tail was conical from the head, throwing out sparks before 
disappearance; it had a wavy motion. 

(xli.) Fireballs in profusion fell from the tail. 

(xliii.) It burst at alt. 30°, but did not disappear till it had descended to 
25° ; at 2° or 3° above 30° it separated into six bodies, which spread very 
little laterally. 

Mr. Glaisher thinks (p. 271) from the violence of the report that it must 
have been the bursting of a solid body by expansion of an elastic fluid. Some 
fragments may probably have fallen near Biggleswade (Bedfordshire). It 
seems certain it must have come from regions beyond the influence of our 
vapours : this circumstance, its extreme velocity, and intensity of light, are 
more conformable to the nature of a solid than a gaseous body. 

One of the most remarkable observations is that of Mr. Hind, who says, 
(x.) " the appearance of its light was such, that in my idea no doubt can be 
entertained but that it was of electrical origin ; it moved precisely in the 
direction in wiiich the wind was blowing at the time." 

No. 19. — At Oxford, Mrs. Baden Powell described the appearance as of a 
small globe advancing, and rapidly expanding by three or four successive 
jerks or bursts, at each burst remaining stationary for an instant, and thus 
forming successively larger globes — intensely bright and blue, all the while 
emitting a stream of sparks on each side, till the final globe was nearly as 
large as the moon, which dissipated into brilliant globules, shot off" in all 
directions, and appearing to fall. It was compared by another person present 
to an umbrella pushed onwards, and alternately opened and shut rapidly. 

The subjoined sketch gives an idea of this peculiar appearance, it being 
understood that the globes here represented were in reality seen in succession. 




This peculiarity bears a close resemblance to that represented in Mr. 
Wyatt's engraving. Also in the accounts collected by Mr. Glaisher several 
of the observers allude to what was apparently the same appearance. Thus 
(xxvi.) " A bar of light with sparks issuing on every side, advanced with 
a jerking motion." 

(vi.) After explosion it was followed by three globes in the same direction. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, ll? 

(viii.) The Astronomer Royal saw a brilliant body, followed by two others 
close behind it. 

(xxi.) " Like an enormous flaming umbrella opened and shut alternately." 

No. 20.— From the Bombay Times, March 13, 1850. 

" Surat, 7th March, 1850.— I send you the following, believing it will in- 
terest you. On Wednesday evening, 6th, at nine o'clock, a beautiful meteor 
burst suddenly into sight in a quarter of the heavens to which my eye was at 
the instant directed, viz. R.A. 15°, N. P.D. 20° (very nearly). It remained 
in sight but a moment, and was in brilliancy, size and colour like Sirius ; and 
its appearance and disappearance were quite startling from their suddenness. 
It passed over about 5° of the heavens irom east to west, leaving behind it a 
train of dull red sparks of the same length, strikingly resembling a comb, the 
teeth pointing downwards towards the horizon. The train descended very 
slowly, and the teeth, as it were, gradually shot out from each, and down- 
wards, increasing in length as they approached the centre, until the train as- 
sumed the form of the Roman letter V, the angle being composed of large 
egg-shaped drops, like molten iron, and the intermediate space between the 
lines forming the letter, filled with parallel vertical lines of sparks. This ap- 
pearance gradually faded from the sight (without altering in shape), very like 
the colour disappearing from a piece of heated iron as it cools. It had de- 
scended about 5°, when it finally disappeared : it remained in sight full fifteen 
seconds, I counted fifteen slowly, and did not begin to count till a second or 
two after the disappearance of the meteor. If the accepted theory is correct, 
perhaps I shall not be wrong in assuming that the meteor must have cut a 
chord of an arc through the verge of our atmosphere, the outer surface being 
fused and thrown off in its passage, the principal body continuing its course 
through space beyond the limits of the atmosphere, the attraction of some 
other body acting more powerfully upon it than that of the earth, which, by 
the way, it is difficult to conceive. — Ursa Minor." 

No. 21. — From the Journal des Debats, June 1850. 

" On ecrit du Havre, le 6 juin : 

' " Hier, entre neuf et dix heures du soir, un meteore lumineux a ete observe 
dans le firmament au dessus de notre ville. II affectait la forme d'un globe de 
feu du diametre de la lune dans son plein, mais brillait d'un eclat beaucoup plus 
vif. Apres avoir suivi la direction du sud-ouest au nord-est, laissant apres 
lui une trainee lumineuse d'une longueur de trente metres environ, dont la 
clarte allait graduellement s'effa9ant, il a disparu, au bout de quelques mi- 
nutes, derriere les hauteurs qui dominent la ville. 

" Le meme phenomene s'est produit presque simultanement a Rouen et au 
Havre. Voici ce qu'on lit a ce sujet dans le 'Journal de Rouen :' 

" Hier soir, vers neuf heures un quart, un brilliant meteore a tout a coup 
projete sur notre ville une viva lumiere, qui I'a entierement eclairee pendant 
quelques secondes. 

" La journee, qui avait ete tres belle, pouvait cependant faire craindre un 
orage, tant la chaleur etait forte et tant I'air ^tait rarefie. Chacun ressentait 
cet alourdissement general de tout le corps, suite du pen de densite de I'at- 
mosphere trop dilatee par un soleil ardent. 

" A la fin du jour, quelques nuages parurent ^a et la ; bientot ils se reuni- 
rent vers le Boulingrin, mais pour se dissiper tres promptement. A neuf 
heures un quart, le ciel etait pur et I'obscurit^ assez pen sensible, lorsqu'un 
globe de feu eclata sans bruit dans I'atmosphere. II semblait etre a la dis- 
tance de terre qu'atteignent habituellement les fusees a etoiles. 



118 REPORT — 1850. 

" Ce m^teore repandait une magnifique clarte, plus vive que celle du gaz 
de I'eclairage, et d'une coloration s'approchant de la couleur aurore. A peine 
eut-il annonce sa presence, qu'il decrivit dans le ciel une courbe lumineuse 
s'etendant de Test a I'ouest. Cette courbe se forma de la maniere suivante : 
de la premiere boule de feu, grosse comme un ceuf, sortit une autre boule qui 
se detaclia sous la forme d'une larnie ; de cette iarme, subitement arrondie, il 
s'en detacha une seconde, de cette seconde une troisieme, et de la troisieme 
une quatrieme ; puis, de ces sortes de larmes qui s'etaient successivement 
6teintes a mesure qu'elies s'etaient engendrees, la derniere disparut, et la nuit 
reprit son empire. Une demi-minute apres, un unique coup de tonnerre se 
fit entendre. Rien autre chose n'est venu troubler I'atmosphere, qui toute 
la nuit a ete des plus calmes," 

No. 22. — The following details have been communicated by Dr. Buist of 
Bombay. 

Meteoric Stone presented to the East India Company s Museum. — The fol- 
lowing is an authentic account of a meteoric stone which was lately brought 
from India by Lieut.-Col. Penington, and presented to the Hon. E.I. Com- 
pany, who have deposited it in their museum. 

Extract of a letter from Capt. G. Bird, first assistant in the Political De- 
partment to Major-Gen. Sir D. Ochterlony, Bart., K.G., C.B., to Major 

Penington. 

"Loodianah, 5th April, 1815. 

" My dear Major, — I lost no time, after my receipt of your letter, to take 
the measures for obtaining the information you desire relative to the meteor- 
olite which lately fell near the village of Dooralla. Accounts of this extra- 
ordinary phaenomenon had spread over the whole of the Seikh country; and 
for more than a month before your letter reached me, the account of its fall, 
connected with a great number of wonders, had been reported to me, and 
that the people from all the neighbouring villages had assembled at Dooralla 
to pay their devotions to it, but now, after a very full inquiry, I feel quite 
satisfied that you may rest confident in the accuracy of the following state- 
ment. On the 18th of February last, about noon, some people who were at work 
in a field about half a mile distant from the village of Dooralla, were suddenly 
alarmed by the explosion of what they conceived to be a large cannon, * the 
report being louder than that of any other gun they had ever heard,' which 
report was succeeded by a rushing noise, like that of a cannon-ball in its 
greatest force. When looking towards the quarter whence the noise pro- 
ceeded, they perceived a large black body in the air, apparently moving 
directly towards them, but passing with inconceivable velocity, buried itself in 
the earth, at the distance of about sixty paces from the spot where they stood. 
As soon as they could recover from the terror with which this terrific vision had 
appalled them, they ran towards the village, where they found the people no less 
terrified than themselves, who, though not having seen the stone, imagined 
that a marauding party was approaching, and, as but too frequently happens, 
would sack their village. VV'hen the brahmins of the village wex'e told what 
had really happened, they determined to proceed, and were followed by all 
the people to the spot where the stone fell, having with them instruments for 
digging it out. On their arrival at the place, they found the surface broken 
and the fresh earth and sand thrown about to a considerable distance, and at 
the depth of rather more than five feet, in a soil of mingled sand and loam, 
they found the stone which they cannot doubt was what actually fell, being 
altogether unlike anything known in that part of the country. The brahmins, 
taking immediate charge of the stone, conveyed it to the village, where they 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 119 

commenced a Poosa, and covering it with wreaths of flowers, set on foot a 
subscription for the purpose of erecting a small temple over it, not doubting 
from the respect paid to it by the Hindoos, to turn it to a profitable account. 
As I said before, it fell on the 18th of February, about mid-day, in a field 
near the village of Dooralla, which lies about lat. 308° 20', long. 76° 41', 
within the territory belonging to the Pattialah Rajah, sixteen or seventeen 
miles from Umballah and eighty from Loodianah. The day was very clear 
and serene, and as usual at that season of the year, not a cloud was to be 
seen, nor was there in the temperature of the air anything to engage their 
attention ; the thermometer of course may be stated at about 68° in the shade. 
The report was heard in all the circumjacent towns and villages, to the di- 
stance of twenty coss, or twenty-five miles from Dooralla. The Pattialah 
Rajah's Vakeel being in attendance here when your letter reached me, I de- 
sired him to express my wish to the Rajah to have this stone, and as it 
appears that he had been led to consider it rather as a messenger of ill omen, 
he gave immediate orders for its conveyance to Loodianah, but with positive 
injunctions that it should not approach Pattialah, his place of residence. It 
arrived here yesterday, escorted by a party of brahmins and some Seikh horse. 
It weighs rather more than twenty-five pounds, and is covered with a pellicle 
thinner than a wafer, of a black sulphureous crust, though it emits no smell 
of sulphur that I can discover; but, having been wreathed with flowers while 
in possession of the brahmins, the odour originally emitted may by these be 
concealed. It is an ill-shapen triangle, and from one of J;he corners a piece 
has been broken off, either in its fall or by the instruments when taking it 
out of the ground. This fracture discloses a view of the interior, in which 
iron pyrites and nickel are distinctly visible. Since its arrival, all the brah- 
mins in the neighbourhood have assembled at my tents to pay their adoration 
to it, and no Hindoo ventures to approach but with closed hands in apparent 
devotion, so awful a matter is it in their eyes. I shall avail myself of the 
first escort that leaves Loodianah, to forward it to you." — Original Commu- 
nication. 

An uncommon phaenomenon appeared on the evening of the 14th, be- 
tween seven and eight o'clock, which has produced a curious sensation 
amongst the inhabitants of this settlement. A meteoric globe of fire of about 
the size of a full moon, when seen in the horizon, approached from the south- 
east, and passed over the town in a north-west direction, at a height not much 
above the tallest trees. It was followed by a rattling broken noise, somewhat 
resembling that of thunder, produced, we suppose, by the bursting of the 
ball, which took place at some distance from the town. The oldest people 
in Malacca say they never witnessed such a thing before, and many, not 
knowing its real nature, consider it a portentous omen for evil. Some very 
sagely prophesy that there will be war ; others that rice will be dearer ; 
and others again aver that the world will soon be at an end ; the Malays say 
that it is an Antoo Api, or fire spirit, sent to destroy some wicked man's 
house ; and others that it is the serpent of the sun which has got loose and 
is going its peregrinations. We understand that a Chinaman, who had been 
sickly for some time previously, was so terrified by the appearance, that he 
sunk down in a fit and instantly expired. — Malacca Obs., May 20. 

A correspondent of the ' Englishman,' at Dinagepore, gives an account of 
a fall of meteoric stones at that station. The fall occurred at noon, and was 
accompanied by a rumbling noise, similar to that which precedes an earth- 
quake, with this difference, that the noise was from above. Some of the 
stones were of considerable size, the largest weighing about four pounds. 
They were all much alike in appearance, with a thin black crust over them, 



120 REPORT — 1850. 

as if they had been intensely heated. The sky was perfectly clear at the 
time of the fall. 

No. 23. — Meteoric Stone wliichfell near Agra on the 1th August, 1822. — 
At a late meeting of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a large meteoric 
stone was placed on the library table, with a particular account of its fall, in 
the Persian language. This was translated by Dr. Wilkins. The stone fell 
in the night of the 7th of August, 1822, near the village of Kadonah, in the 
district of Agra. It descended with much noise as of cannon and of the 
wind, awakening those who were asleep, and alarming a watchman who heard 
it fall. On making a search in the morning the stone was found warm, and 
with a little smoke arising from it. It is to be subjected to examination. 

No. 24. — Meteor of 3rd November 1825, observed at Calcutta. — Colonel 
Blacker's third communication gives an account of a singular meteor, having 
the appearance of an elongated ball of fire, which he observed on the 3rd of 
November, a little after sunset, when on the road between the custom-house 
and the court-hall. Its colour was pale, for the daylight was still strong, and 
its larger diameter appeared greater, and its smaller less than the semi- 
diameter of the moon. Its direction was from east to west, its track nearly 
horizontal, and altitude about thirty degrees. Col. B. regrets not having heard 
of any other observation of this phasnonicnou at a greater distance, whereby 
he might have estimated its absolute height. As, however, it did not appa- 
rently move with the velocity of ordinary meteors, it was probably at a great 
distance, and consequently of great size. So long as Col. Blacker beheld it, 
which was for five or six seconds, its motion was steady, its light equable, and 
its size and figure permanent. It latterly, however, left a train of sparks, 
soon after which it disappeared suddenly, without the attendant circumstance 
of any repoi't audible in Col. Blacker's situation. Col. Blacker concludes his 
paper with some interesting observations on luminous meteors, and considers 
them of perpetual occurrence, although daylight, clouds and misty weather, 
so often exclude them from our view. Of their number no conception can 
be formed by the unassisted eye, but some conjecture may be formed of their 
extent from the fact mentioned by our author, that in using his astronomical 
telescope he has often seen what are called falling stars, shooting through the 
field of view, when they were not visible to the naked eye ; and when it is 
considered that the glass only embraced one twenty-five thousandth part of 
the celestial hemisphere, it will be apparent that these phajnomena must be 
infinitely numerous, in order to occur so frequently in so small a space. — Cal- 
cutta Government Gazette. 

No. 25. — Meteor of 22nd November 1825, observed at Calcutta. — A re- 
markable meteor was visible on Friday night S.W. of the comet and near it. 
It appeared in shape at first like a ball of fire, which assumed the form of a 
vividly brilliant comet. This continued beautifully and powerfully luminous 
for some minutes, but gradually waxed fainter and fainter, until at length it 
totally disappeared. — India Gazette, Dec. 5. 

]>q^o. 26. — Meteors of 23rd June and 2^th July 1832, observed at Delhi and 
Meerut. — Delhi, 28th July 1832. An extraordinary large meteor, or rather 
three balls of fire, at first arose out of the E.S.E. horizon on the 23rd of last 
month, and after rising to the elevation of about fifteen degrees, joined into 
one, forming a large ball of brilliant fire, nearly as big as a full moon in the me- 
ridian, and passed over an arc of the heavens of about 115° before it vanished 
in the W.N.W. The light was very brilliant. This took place about ten 
o'clock at night, and I suppose but few persons witnessed it. — India Gazette. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. i-.121 

No. 27. — Another, almost equally big, passed over Meerut a few nights 
ago, and disappeared with a brilliant and dazzling light in the W.N.W. 
N.B. The first meteor passed over the city of Delhi, and its greatest altitude 
was about 70°. It passed to the north of the Juma Musjid. — India Gazette. 

No. 28. — Meteors of 18th November 1832, observed at Bulrampore and 
Agra. — The 'India Gazette' contains extracts from two letters, one from 
Bulrampore, in the Jungle Mehauls, the other from'Agra, communicating 
accounts of a very remarkable atmospherical phsenomenon. 

" Camp Bulrampore, 13tli Nov. 

" During our march this morning the sky presented a most brilliant spec- 
tacle. Innumerable meteors were flying in every direction, and some of them 
the most beautiful I ever saw. They appeared to burst finer than the finest 
sky rockets, leaving a long line of various-coloured light in the heavens be- 
hind them, which remained several minutes and vanished gradually. I never 
saw anything like it before, and I should think it not a common thing in 
India, for I have travelled frequently at different hours of the night, and 
never before witnessed a similar phsenomenon." 

" Agra, 18th November. 

" Some nights ago there was a most extraordinary appeai'ance in the hea- 
vens. The sky was all one blaze, owing to the number of falling stars." 

The same phasnonienon was seen at the same time at the three presidencies. 

No. 29.— Meteor of 18th 3Iarch 1833, observed at Madras.—'' On the even- 
ing of the 18th inst., at 5^ 27™ mean time, a meteor of great brilliancy and 
magnitude made its appearance towards the N.E., in the constellation Cor 
Caroli, from whence, pursuing a north-westerly direction for about 3°, through 
the constellation Hercules, it disappeared at an altitude of 35°. The time it 
remained visible did not exceed two or three seconds. Listening attentively, 
at about 6| minutes after the disappearance a report was distinctly heard, 
which very evidently proceeded from the bursting of the meteor; the di- 
stance resulting from this interval is in round numbers about 81 miles. 

"Madras Observatory, 20th Mar. 1833." "T. G. Taylor, H.C.'s Astronomer." 

No. 30. Meteors of 10th September 1841, observed at Calcutta. — About 
two in the morning on Friday last, innumerable meteors of surprising beauty 
were perceptible in the heavens. Vast myriads of shooting stars were seen 
darting through the air in a S.S.W. direction, leaving a long and brilliant 
train of light. The whole atmosphere was illuminated, and at one period the 
light was so great, as to have enabled a person to read the smallest print with 
the utmost facility. This magnificent spectacle was visible during a period 
of ten or twelve minutes. — Englishman, Sept. 1 3. 

No. 31. — Account of a luminous meteor seen at Charka, lat. 24° 06', 
long. 81° 02', on the morning of the 11th April 1842, by Capt. Shortrede, 
First Assistant G. T. Survey. 

" A little before four o'clock this morning I saw a meteor of a singular ap- 
pearance, of which the following is an account: — 

" I was lying awake outside my tent, and about a minute or two before had 
closed my eyes, intending to have a short sleep before marching, when my 
attention was roused by some brilliant light before me. On opening my eyes, 
I saw a meteor having very much the appearance of a rocket : it was situated 
in the constellation Scorpio, having its middle about 10° to the westward of 
Antares, and pointing towards the constellation Corvus, the lower star of 
which was about 4° above the horizon. The meteor was about 10° or 20° 
long, and equally bright throughcmt except at the upper end, where it was 



122 REPORT — 1850- 

rather faint. It continued in tiie same position and of the same brightness 
for between two and three minutes as well as I could judge, and then gra- 
dually became fainter and fainter, till it lost its brilliancy altogether ; and 
as it began to fade, it began also to become crooked and to move towards 
the west. It became gradually more crooked, and continued to fade till 
it became like a thin smoke, and at last vanished away at about 3° or 4;° 
from the place where I first saw it. I listened attentively, but heard no noise. 
From the time I first saw it till its brilliancy ceased, was probably about five 
minutes, and in about three minutes more it ceased to be any longer remark- 
able. I was then at Charka, in lat. 24° 06' and long. 81° 20'." 

" Dewra, 11th April, 1842." 

No. 32. — An account of a remarkable aerolite which fell at the village of 
Maniegaon, near Eidulabad in Khandeesh. Communicated, with a specimen, 
to the Asiatic Society by Capt. James Abbott, B.A., late Resident, Nimaur. 

A chemical examination of the above aerolite, and remarks, by Henry 
Piddington, Curator, Geological and Mineralogical Department of the Mu- 
seum of Q^conomic Geology. 

At the meeting of October IS^^, Capt. Abbott communicated to the So- 
ciety the following documents, with two small specimens of the aerolite. 
" Capt. J. Abbott, Artillery, Dum Dum, to the Secretary of the Asiatic 
Society, Calcutta. 

" Dum Dum, Sept. 16th, 1844. 

" Sir, — In July 1843, I received at Mundlaisir, from the Komarder (or 
native collector) at Asseer, a report of the fall, in that part of the country, of 
a meteoric stone, together with a few grains, said to be particles of the same. 
1 immediately despatched a karkoon to the spot, to ascertain the truth or 
falsify of the statement, and to collect specimens of the supposed aerolite. 
These accompany my letter. They differ so much from the structure of 
every reputed aerolite I have previously met with, that I should be inclined 
to doubt the veracity of the reporters, could I discover any other reason for 
questioning it. I have never heard any other instance of an aerolite in that 
neighbourhood. The fact is implicitly credited in the neighbourhood of 
Eidulabad, where it is said to have occurred. These specimens appear to 
me to resemble masses of friable rock of the quartz family which I have met 
with in iMalwa. But it is evident that a mass of texture so loose could 
never have borne unshattered the propelling agency of fire, nor has any vol- 
cano existed within the memory of man in Nimaur or Mahiswah, nor, I 
believe, in Khaundes, although fable declares Oojyne to have been buried 
beneath a shower of mud, and Mahiswah to have been destroyed by the mis- 
chievous malice of a demon. The depositions of the observers I have trans- 
lated and appended. The spot was beyond, my district, or I would myself 
have visited it. It is probable that the collector of Khaundes may have 
reported it to the Bombay Society. 

" This report, and the note upon granite in the Nerbudda, were prepared 
many montlis ago, but restricted leisure and many concurring events, pre- 
vented their being forwarded." "J. Abbott, Capt. Artillery." 
Fall of a Meteoric Stone in Khaundes. — Deposition taken by a karkoon, 

despatched from Asseer by Capt. James Abbott, to collect information 

upon the subject. 

"Oonar, Puttail, and Ghubbahjee, Chowdry, of village Maniegaon, per- 
gunnah Eidulabad, Tuppeh Sowdah, Illaquh Dliooliah in Khaundes, depose as 
follows : 

" Taken July 26th, 1843. On Mittee Asarr, Soodie Teei, Goraur ke din. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 123 

We were in our house. At lialf-past three o'clock p.m., whether from heaven 
or elsewhere, a prodigious ball (ghybee golah) fell. The noise it made was 
very great, it might be heard twenty miles round. We heard it with our 
own ears, and in fear and trembling ran outside to look, as running out we 
found that it had fallen outside the village on the southern asjject, and that 
in falling it had been shattered to pieces, some of which had been scattered 
far. We put our hands upon that which lay together; it felt cool; shortly- 
after it became rather warm. When first we saw it, the pieces were black ; 
after a day's interval the colour changed to blue, and now the fragments 
are white. 

" Question. When the ball fell, was any flash perceptible, or was the heaven 
darkened ? Who saw it fall ? How large was it ? And who heard the noise 
at the distance of twenty miles ? 

" Answer. We sato nothing. When the ball fell, we heard the noise and ran 
to see what had caused it. The spot on which it fell was hollowed by the 
shock a span and a half in diameter, and three fingers' breadth in depth. The 
ball was about the size of a kedgeree pot (ghurrah, i. e. about ten inches in 
diameter) ; the people of Edulabad and of other parts heard the noise in 
the clouds, at least so they say. The ball being shattered, people came and 
carried away the pieces. The remainder was sent to the Sowdah Komardar, 
and by him to Dhooliah. What remains I give you*. 

" True and literal translation. " J. Abbott, Capt., 

" Mundlaisir, Angust 1843." Pol. Asst., in Nimaur." 

"Note. — Afew grains of this aerolitewere first sent me by letter from Asseer. 
I despatched a karkoon immediately to the spot, to make inquiries and collect 
as much of the fragments as possible, supposing that he would have cause 
to believe the report well-founded. The greater part of what he collected 
accompanies this report. It agrees exactly with the grains first sent me. — 
J. Abbott." 

At Capt. Abbott's suggestion, the collector of Khandeish, J. Bell, Esq., 
Bomb. C. S. was written to, and he has kindly forwarded us a few small frag' 
ments more, with the following letter and deposition. 

" To W. W. Bell, Esq., Collector of Khandeish. 

" Sir, — With reference to your Mahratta Yad of the 5th ultimo, with en- 
closure from the Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, requesting me to 
transmit any information along with specimens procurable of an aerolite that 
fell in the month of July 1843, in the vicinity of the village of Manegaumof 
this talooka, I have the honour to transmit translation of a deposition given 
before me, by a couple of individuals who were spectators of the fall of the 
aerolite in question, along with five small specimens of the same, all that I 
have been able to procure after much search ; these however I trust will be 
suflScient to indicate the nature of the meteorolite. 

"I beg to return your enclosure, and to remain. Sir, your most obedient 
Servant," " C. Inverakity, Acting 1st Assist. Col." 

" Camp, Circuit at Rawere, Talooka Joada, Jan. 1st, 1845." 

Translation of a deposition given in Mahratta, by Goba WuUud Nagojee 
Chowdrie, and Hunmunta ud Dama Naik Solie, inhabitants of the village 
of Manegaum, pergunnah Edulabad, turaf Jaoda, of the Khandeish Collec- 
torate, who were spectators of tiie fall of an aerolite in the vicinity of their 
village, in the month of July ISiS. 
" On the day the aerolite fell we were both seated, about three o'clock of 

•* The supposed and the actual circumstances are in this expression oddly involved ; we 
consider that the natives employed this language, and that the author of the letter gives their 
literal words. — Ed. 



124 REPORT— 1850. 

the afternoon, on the outskirts of the village, in a shed belonging to Ranoo 
Patel. There was at the time no rain, but heavy clouds towards the north- 
ward ; there had been several claps of thunder for about two hours previously, 
and some lightning. Suddenly, while we were seated in the shed, several 
heavy claps of thunder occurred in quick succession, accompanied with 
lightning, on which we both went out to look around us, when in the middle 
of a heavy clap, we saw a stone fall to the ground in a slanting direction 
from north to south, preceded by a flash of lightning. It fell about fifty 
paces distant from us ; on going up to it we found that it had indented itself 
some four or five inches in the ground ; it was broken in pieces, and as far 
as we could judge, appeared to be about fifteen inches long and five in dia- 
meter, of an oblong shape, somewhat similar to the chouthe grain measure; 
it was of a black vitreous colour outside, and of a grayish yellow inside ; it 
was then of a mouldy* texture, and hardened to the consistence of the pre- 
sent specimens afterwards. Only one stone fell. No rain had fallen for 
eight days previously, nor did it until four days after the fall of the stone. It 
had been warm all day before, but not much more so than usual. From 
midday until the time the stone fell (3 p.m.) it was very cloudy towards the 
northward ; after its fall, the thunder ceased and the clouds cleared away. 
No stone of a similar description had ever fallen near our village before. 
The pieces of the stone were immediately after carried off by the country 
people. Our village is situated on the banks of the small river the Poorna ; 
there are no hills in its vicinity, the nearest being three coss (or six miles) ofl^". 
The above is a true statement, dated at Rawere, talooka Jaoda, on the 17th 
December, 184'4'. (Signed) " Goba ud Nagojee Choworie. 

" HUNMUNTA UD DaMA NaIK." 

" True translation of the deposition given before me on the above date. 

" C. J. Inverarity, Acting 1st Assist Col." 

Chemical Examination. — The specimens were referred to me for exa- 
mination, of which this is my report. 

The specimens are mainly composed of an earthy grayish white pul- 
verulent mass, slightly tinged with a bluish gray in some parts. It is 
excessively friable, and both crumbles and soils the fingers even when most 
delicately handled. In the earthy mass are thickly imbedded light greenish 
glassy particles of olivine, single and in nests, resembling green mica or 
felspar; the appearance in some parts being almost that of an earthy variety 
of lepidolite. On the side of one piece of Capt. Abbott's specimens is a 
bright black crust, thickly but minutely mammillated. When this is touched 
with the file, it leaves a rusty mark, but gives no metallic trace. This crust 
is exceedingly thin and splinters off", and in one place a mass of the olivine 
in it is melted to a green bead. It is too fragile, and our specimens too 
small to attempt obtaining sparks from it. Two of Mr. Bell's fragments also 
have small portions of crust yet adhering to them. 

Internally, and by the magnifier, a few bright white metallic points are 
discoverable, and in one or two places small nests of it : there are also a few 
of a brown kind. We have one fragment of an aerolite which fell in 1808, 
at Moradabad, which is pulverulent, but not so much so as the present spe- 
cimen by a great deal. The present specimen is in this respect almost unique ; 
as the only one I now recollect to have read of as very pulverulent, is the 
one from Benares, mentioned in the Philosophical Transactions. 

The aerolite of Moradabad is studded over with rusty specks from the 

* So in MSS. Perhaps muddy, i. e. soft, earthy texture, was meant ? — H. P. 



1 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 125 

oxidation of the iron. All our other aerolites are of a compact texture. I 
may note here, that we now possess in our collection ten specimens, com- 
prising six varieties of aerolites, and four of meteoric iron from Siberia, 
Brazil and India. One of the Society's aerolites is also well entitled to be 
called meteoric iron, as it consists mainly of that metal (and no doubt nickel) 
rather than an aerolite, by which we usually designate the more earthy- 
looking stones. 

The magnetism of the Kandes aerolite is nowhere apparent except at the 
patch of pyrites (magnetic pyrites?) on the piece which has the crust, but 
here it is strong and distinct. 

From its extreme friability I have not ventured to take its specific gravity, 
which is about 4 or 4'5, 1 judge, for it might crumble to pieces in the water, 
and is too rough and tender to admit of varnishing. Specific gravity how- 
ever is an indication of no value in these heterogeneous compounds. 

The green crystals, when examined separately, eff'ect a somewhat rhom- 
boidal or cubical form, but none are clearly defined. Their colour is a 
bright, clear, and very light grass-green. 

List of Meteorolites in the Collection of the Asiatic Society, Jan. 1, 1845. 

1. Fell at Rloradabad, 1808, Capt. Herring. One piece of this is rather 
friable, three pieces. 

2. Dr. Tytler's aerolite at Allahabad, three large pieces. 

3. Aerolite fell about 40 miles to the west of Umbala, between the Jumna 
and Punja, 1822-23. Obtained by Capt. Murray; given by Mr. J. Bird to 
Mr. Cracroft. 

4. Fell at Bitour and Shapoor, 75 miles N.W. of Allahabad, 30th No- 
vember 1822. 

5. Fell at Mhow Ghazeepore, February 1827, R. Barlow. 

6. Fell at Manegaon in Khandeish, July 1843, Capt. J. Abbott, B.A., and 
J. Bell, Esq., Bombay, C. S., Collector of Khandeish. 

Meteoric Iron, or Stones having a large proportion of it. 

1. Meteoric stone, containing iron and nickel, fell at Panganoor in 1811. 
Mr. Ross of Cuddahpah. 

2. Meteoric iron ; Siberia, Pallas. 

3. Meteoric iron ; Sergipe, Brazil, Mornay and Wollaston. 

4. Lightning stone of Nepal ; not examined, but may be meteoric. 
Blowpipe Examination. — The grass-green crystals above described. Per 

se infusible, but take a rusty brown appearance, as of semi -fusion or oxidation 
on the exterior, remaining still translucent. On platina ivire, with borax and 
phosphate of soda, fuses at first in part only (a lump remaining), giving a 
light clear olive glass ; adding more of the flux, it finally dissolves with various 
shades of olive and grass-green according to the proportions of assay and 
flux. A minute crystal in muriatic acid does not soften, gelatinise, or colour 
it by several days' digestion. These are doubtless meteoric olivine. 

The white friable part, taken as free as possible from the gray specks and 
entirely so from the green crystals. In the forceps slightly oxidates to a rusty 
appearance at the outer part, but does not fuse. 

Onplatina wire and loith soda. Fuses to a dirty olive-coloured bead, which 
in the reducing fiame gives metallic iron with some earthy residuum. With 
nitrate of cobalt only a dull rusty colour. Hence the absence of alumina, 
except perhaps in very minute proportion. 

The metallic-looking vein was assayed in various manners for nickel, but 
no trace of it could be elicited, the vein being apparently pure pyrites. 



126 REPORT — 1850. 

Nickel may nevertheless exist, though in small proportions, and we cannot 
venture on consuming more of these precious fragments, since tlie fused crust, 
the olivine, and the white matrix are chemical evidence enough of the me- 
teoric origin of the stone. 

The whole of the dust which had collected in the paper being carefully 
collected, was assayed both by the blowpipe and via humida for chromium, 
but no traces were detected. As said of niciitl however above, so also of 
this substance, it may exist in minute proportion, tliough not detectable in 
such extremely small assays. 

No. 33. — On the 7th of September, about half-past six p.m., a large fireball 
was seen at Poona to shoot from nearly north to south ; it then made a 
sudden sweep, and jiroceeded nearly at right angles to its previous path. 
After being visible for five or six seconds, it split into a number of large 
fragments which rapidly descended towards the earth ; and these again broke 
up into lesser fragments, till they appeared to descend in a shower of sparks. 
Before the first bursting, the meteor was of exceeding brightness, of an in- 
tense blue colour, and at the instant of explosion it changed into red ; it 
seemed to light up the whole heavens, though the moon was siiining, so as 
to render the lesser stars visible. The last meteor of the sort we remember 
at Bombay was seen in the sky in the middle of October 1844. Now is 
the season when a display of luminous meteors in all parts of the heavens 
may be looked for, tiie earth appearing in August and November to track a 
part of its orbit through which a current of these things rushes along. — 
Bombay Times, November 1, 1848. 

No. 34. — Meteor of 29th October 1848, observed at Poona and Bombay. — 
On Sunday evening, about seven o'clock, a magnificent fireball was seen to 
shoot across the air from nearly west to east, when its horizontal motion 
suddenly ceased, and it seemed to drop perpendicularly into the sea betwixt 
Mazagon and Sewree. At the time of its explosion — for such we may take 
that of its change of direction to have been, — its illuminating power was 
equivalent to that of an ordinary -sized blue light ; it dazzled the eyes of those 
near it and who looked at it directly ; and though the evening was at the 
time perfectly dark, the most minute objects in the landscape were for ten or 
fifteen minutes made visible by it. It appeared to become extinguished some 
three or four hundred feet before touching the water. It left a long trail of 
light behind it, which was visible for the space of nearly half a minute. 

No. 35. — Meteor ofTith July 1849, observed at Porebunder. — Porebunder, 
2nd August 1849. On the night of the 27th of July, about half-past eight 
o'clock, a very bright meteor shot out from the northern sky. When first 
seen, its elevation was about 70°, and it fell nearly perpendicularly. Its fall 
was not very rapid, it being distinctly visible for about five seconds when it 
burst, leaving a large train of bright red spots to mark its track. The light 
was so bright as to attract the attention of persons whose faces were towards 
the south. At the time of its appearance the weather was calm and cloudy, 
a slight air now and then from the west, and scud flying rapidly from the 
same point. An hour afterwards heavy rain set in, which has continued 
almost without intermission ever since. The whole country in the neigh- 
bourhood is under water. Several houses have fallen down in the town, but 
no serious injury has accrued therefrom. Such a quantity of rain has not 
fallen in the Zillah for the last five years. 

No. 36. — Meteor of l^th December 1849, observed near Shorapore. — Camp 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 127 

Bohnal, near Shorapore, December 14th. You are desirous of intelligence 
of meteors, and therefore I mention that the night before last, about half-past 
eleven (I had no watch with nie), I observed a very brilliant meteor pass ra- 
pidly from the zenith, and fall in a south-west direction, exploding when 
within about 20" of the horizon, in a shower of brilliant sparks ; I cannot 
speak accurately as to its size, which appeared to increase as it descended, 
but it was at least four times as large as Venus at her brightest, and gave out 
light enough to dim the light of the stars in the direction of which it passed. 
I have no doubt, if there had not been many torches burning near me at the 
time, that its light would have been strong on the ground. I could hear no 
noise on its explosion. The colour of the meteor was a greenish white. 

No. 37. — The following additional extracts from correspondence on me- 
teors observed in India, and inserted in the Catalogue of 1849, have been 
recently forwarded by Dr. Buist. 

Meteor of March 19, 1849. 

"Poona, 22nd March. 

(1.) " Sir, — None of the Bombay accounts sent you of the aerolite which 
fell on the 19th are sufficiently explicit. Most of your correspondents must 
have seen it crossing tlieir meridian ; can none of them estimate its angular 
height at that moment ? I am not very well acquainted with your localities, 
but the meteor would seem to have been north of you, and at no great ele- 
vation. Supposing it to have had a meridian altitude of 20% and combining 
this with the data we sent you two or three days ago, you will find that it 
must have been about thirty miles high (perhaps ten when it burst), and taking 
its apparent diameter at 4', must have measured nearly 200 yards across — an 
enormous mass, sufficient to furnish, on exploding, a very large r-hower of 
meteoric stones. It appeared to pass over about 30° of the heavens in some- 
thing less than two seconds ; and this, at the distance at which it must have 
been, if the data we have here assumed are anything near the truth, will give 
a real velocity of thirty miles per second. 

" The theory of these bodies, which considers them as moving through 
space, and becoming hot and luminous on entering our atmosphere, from the 
rapid compression of the air, would seem to be pretty consistent with all this. 

" P.S. — I will just add a word or two concerning the probable errors of 
these estimates. The height and velocity are certainly if anything under- 
stated, while on the contrarj', the volume assigned is not unlikely to be con- 
siderably in excess, since the apparent magnitude may have been partly an 
optical deception, or may have been that subtended — not by the meteor 
itself, but by its luminous envelope." 

****** 

(2.) " I saw it on the lyth, at about 6'30 p.m., away in the S.W., high up 
in the heavens, falling with great velocity towards the earth, but directed to 
the N.E. It was intensely brilliant, of a bluish white colour, like a Roman 
candle, bursting into a sparkling sliower of a dull red colour. We heard no 
sound after it burst here, but at Aurungabad, some considerable time after- 
wards, a sound of distant thunder was distinctly audible. Everybody differs 
as to the time; some minutes — say three — elapsed ; that will take us just 
about to the region of fireballs, for assuming 1125 as the rate sound travels 
per second, three times that will reach about to the crepuscular atmosphere, 
the nursery of these meteoric bodies. At Aurungabad its course appeared 
northward, passing over the heads of the good folks there, and bursting 
about twenty miles to the north of the station. — W. H. B." 

" Boldanah, 1st April, 1849." 



128 REPORT — 1850. 

(3.) " Sir, — On the evening of the 19th ult., between six and seven, I 
observed the meteor alluded to in the Times oi 23rd and 26th March. I 
wixs in latitude 21° 58' (by observation next day,) and longitude 76° (taken 
from a map). The meteor was, as well as I can judge, S.W. by S. Ii was 
very brilliant. The longitude I could not work out exactly, not having the 
necessary tables. — L. H. E." 

" Mundlaisir, April 5th, 1849." 

(4.) "Sir, — Your correspondent of the 21st inst. desires information about 
* a supposed meteor.' It may be gratifying to him to know, that we were 
favoured, back here in the country, with one of whose personal identity we 
could have no doubt. It appeared six miles east of Ahmednuggur, in the 
vicinity of a hill known here by the name of ' Shaha Donger.' The fall of a 
more splendid meteor I never had the pleasure to witness. Myself riding 
eastward, its line of direction declined towards the same point, the meteor 
appearing at right angles on my left. It first invited my attention by throw- 
ing across my pathway a brilliant light, seeming for the instant to light up 
the whole horizon. Instantly glancing to the north, the stranger appeared 
in full view, a beautiful globe of fire, apparently sixty to eighty yards high, 
and some three inches in diameter, with a long tail of bluish and red light. 
At the height of twenty to twenty-five yards it burst, and fragments of a 
brighter red were visible an instant longer." 

(5.) " Sir,— In your issue of Wednesday last I observe a correspondent 
notices a meteor he had seen in Bombay about half-past six p.m., on the pre- 
ceding Monday. As you appear anxious for further information on the sub- 
ject, I send you the following, though I know not if it be worth much. On 
the same evening, and about a quarter before seven (of our time), I saw from 
hence a meteor, answering in so many respects that described by your cor- 
respondent, as to leave no doubt on my mind but that it was the same as 
attracted his attention. To my eye the meteor appeared in size rather less 
than a man's fist; its brilliancy was excessive, and it was surrounded by a 
colour more yellow I think than green. The flakes it threw off were very 
large, and strewed its path, so as to form a long and most luminous tail. I 
note the following particulars : — commencement of course at a height of 
about 50° ; end of height 20° ; direction of height nearly perpendicular ; 
direction from Asseer about S.S.W. If I mistake not, your correspondent 
makes its direction from Bombay to have been about easterly : by a glance 
at a map I should therefore suppose the meteor would be vertical over some 
spot between Jooneer and Kandahalla. — A. W." 

" Asseerghur, March 26, 1839." 

(6.) " The proximity of the hill enabled me to determine its distance to 
be within 300 yards, the meteor being distinctly visible after passing below 
the summit. "The coincidence which will perhaps most interest your corre- 
spondent is the fact of its appearance at thirty-five minutes past six on Mon^ 
day evening (19th in»t.). — W." 

"Ahmednuggur, March 24, 1849." 

(7.) A Mahabuleshwar correspondent says, the meteor seen there on the 
19th ultimo, presented nearly the same appearance at Malcolm Peth as at 
Bombay. 

(8.) " Sir, — The same appearance as that described by your correspondent 
E. in your paper of the 21st, was observed by myself and others from this 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS I\[ETEORS. 129 

place on the evening of Monday tlie 19tli, about the same hour mentioned 
by him, and in a soutii-nesterly direction. — W. R. M." 

"Fortress of Asseerghur, March 28, 1849." 

(9.) " Sir, — I suppose you have had enough of the meteor of the 19th 
instant, but I cannot forbear writing to let you know that it was seen at 
Ahmednuggur also at the time mentioned by the other observers. 1 was 
driving, at the time, about a quarter of a mile distant on the west side of the 
fort, Avhen I observed the meteor towards the N.E. It did not occur to me 
that it was anything more than a rocket thrown up Irom tiic native town, and 
I was sure it had fallen between myself and the fort. I have been much in- 
terested in the accounts sent by your correspondents from such distant places 
as Sholapoor and Surat, most of them supposing, as we did here, that it was 
not very distant. Were proper measures taken for simultaneous observation 
of such meteors at different places, it would be easy to ascertain by a little 
calculation the height at which they begin to appear and at which they burst, 
and the velocity with which they move, /fhe apparent velocity of this meteor 
being so great, while at the same time it v as so distant, its real velocity must 
have been great indeed, more nearly approaching that of electricity than that 
of any solid body whose velocity has hitherro been calculated. — B." 

"Ahmednuggur, JIarch 31, 1849." 

(10.) " Sir, — The accounts received by you from different stations re- 
garding the appearance and supposed course of the magnificent meteor of 
Monday evening, the 19th instant, induce me to add my evidence, with the 
view of assisting in the determination of the true course of the luminous ob- 
ject. About 6| P.M. I happened to be seated in the open air, facing due 
south, and the 'shades of evening' were fast closing over head, when I ob- 
served a meteor, which, apparently commencing its course at a point bearing 
about S.S.W. and about 30° above the horizon, darted in a Rightly descend- 
ing line, and with different degrees of brilliancy, towards a point bearing about 
S.S.E. and about 15° or 20° above the horizon ; and there burst without any 
perceptible noise into spark-like fragments, flame-coloured, which immediately 
disappeared. The colour of the meteor, when most brilliant, appeared to me 
not unlike that of the ordinary 'blue light.' The observer at Aurungabad 
(near which place the meteor appears to have burst) does not mention the 
apparent length of the course of tlie luminous body. If this was not very 
great, nor the apparent motion of the meteor very rapid, it seems to me not 
improbable that the course of the meteor was seen at Aurungabad fore- 
shortened as it were ; and, taking into consideration the various accounts, I 
am disposed to think that a line drawn from the Malsej Ghaut (or a point 
half-way between Nasik and Jooneer) in the direction of EUora, would 
pretty well represent the course of the meteor ; and it is not unlikely that 
fragments of the aerolite may be yet found near the caves. — H. W. B. B." 

" Malligaum, March 30, 1849." 

Meteor of April 4, 1849, observed at Delhi. — A very brilliant meteor, of 
a deep red colour, was observed at Delhi, on Wednesday evening, at a quarter 
past seven. Its progress was extremely slow, from N.W. to S.E., and the 
inclination small. It seemed to have become extinct for an instant, and then 
assumed greater brilliancy before its final disappearance. The elevation at 
which it was noticed cannot have been more than 28° or 30°. — Delhi Ga- 
zette, April 7. 

Meteor of April 10, 1849, observed at Ahmednuggur. — Ahmednuggur, 

April 11, 1849 You may be interested to hear that another meteor was 

seen here last night nearly about the same time, and in a similar direction, 

1850. K 



130 REPORT 1850. 

as the mcieor of the 19th ultimo. It was observed at a quarter before seven 
o'clock, and was of a dark yellow colour. When first seen it was just below 
Deneb in the Lion, and of course about due east from us; and having 
fallen through an arc of the heavens of 20° or 30°, disappeared at an altitude 
of 10° or 15°. Its apparent diameter was about the same as that of Venus at 
present. I would also remark that the meteor of the 19th ultimo started 
from near the same region of the heavens (perhaps more to the north, in the 
vicinity of Berenice's hair), and having fallen nearly perpendicularly towards 
the earth, burst at an altitude of 15° or 20°. Its light was a brilliant white 
silvery light, and its apparent diameter, as observed here, was two or three 
times that of Venus. I also observed three other meteors in the course of 
last evening ; one about half-past seven o'clock seemed to commence in the 
vicinity of the constellation Corvus, and after traversing an arc of 20° or more, 
disappeared in the vicinity of the large star in the southern part of the ship, 
about 20° west from the Southern Cross. Its motion was very slow, and it 
left a bright path behind it. 

Meteor of April 13, 1S4-9. — " Sii", — On opening your paper of this morning 
I was astonished at not seeing any mention made of another very brilliant 
meteor that burst last night. At about a quarter past nine o'clock last night, 
a light all of a sudden, as brilliant as that of the moon, shone for a second or 
two. Wondering from where this appeared, I looked round, and saw it just 
as it was dv/indling away. The direction that it burst was south-east. This 
is the tJiird meteor seen within three months." 

" Bombay, April 14, 1849." 

A meteor of surpassing brilliancy was observed here on Friday evening, 
13th inst., at about three minutes to nine o'clock. Our informant was walk- 
ing in a westerly direction, when the atmosphere, which had been somewhat 
dull and heavy, was suddenly illuminated by an intense light immediately 
behind him; turning instantly round he perceived it emanated from a bril- 
liant meteor of a bluish colour and about the size of an egg. It first appeared 
due east, and proceeded towards the horizon in a southern direction. It was 
in sight about three seconds, and was first seen at near 30° altitude, and be- 
came lost to view at about 8°. — Poona Chronicle, April 20. 

Meteor of May 6, 18i9, observed at Kurrachee. — Kurrachee, May 7, 1849. 
— As you ask for notices regarding meteors, here is one for you. Yester- 
day evening (May 6th), at 6'4<5, a meteor fell here. When first observed, it 
was at an elevation of about 25° or 30°, and appeared to be falling from the 
zenith to a point of the horizon a little to the eastward of north, where it 
vanished at an elevation of about 5°, without any appearance of explosion, 
and I should say that it fell below my horizon in a perfect state. I cannot 
say that 1 savv it from the commencement of its course, as I was observing 
something tlse at the moment intently when it attracted my notice at the 
elevation above-mentioned, it had the appearance of a clear ball of fire, with 
a slight green tinge, and was considerably larger than Venus when at her 
brightest. Had it occurred an hour later, it would have presented a splendid 
appearance ; but as the sun had oidy just set, it was still broad daylight. The 
day had been hot and sultry, but at the time alluded to there was a cool breeze 
from the N.W., with a clear sky. 

Meteor of June '2,5, 1849, observed at Kurrachee. — A Correspondent gives 
a somewhat more minute account of the meteor seen through Lower Scinde 
on the 25th of .June than that extracted from the 'Kurrachee Advertiser' in 
our last, or given I'rom the same source in our present issue. It was observed 
by our friend about ten o'clock at night, just before it broke out. It seemed 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 131 

to be proceeding from south to north, and appeared to explode about 60° 
above the horizon. It broke into a multitude of bright red fragments, which 
vanished from sight shortly after the explosion. About five minutes after 
this a report was heard like that of a heavy piece or ordnance fii'ed at a di- 
stance, and we have no doubt that this was the sound of the bursting meteor, 
the fragments of which may yet be found. We hope our friends at Hydra- 
bad and Sukkur will inform us whether it was seen by any of them. There 
were no stars visible in the direction of its path at the time when it was first 
seen, and no immediate means therefore of comparing it with any celestial 
object; so brilliant was it that it filled the room with light. The following 
is a list of the meteors for 1849, witli the particulars of whose appearance 
we have been favoured: — 24th February, Madras; 19th March, the gi-eat 
meteor seen off the sea-coast of Goozerat, at Bombay, Khandalla, Poona, 
Ahmednuggur, Mundlaisir, Malligaum, Asserghur, Jaulnah, &c. ; 23rd 
March, Bombay and Khandalla; 4th April, Delhi; 10th April, Ahmeduug- 
gur, one large and two small meteors; 1 3th April, Bombay, Poona, and 
Hingolee; 30th April, Poona; 2nd May, Bombay; 6th May, Kurrachee; 
25th June, Kurrachee. The meteors of the 19th March and 25th June are 
the only two that were heard to explode ; there is every reason to believe 
that the former of these was burnt to ashes and fell to the ground in the 
shape of dust. Tlie atmosphere all over the Saugor and Nerbudda territo- 
ries was throughout the last week of March so filled with fine dust that the 
sun could be looked at, especially at near noon, with tiie naked eye. 

A most brilliant meteor appeared about half-past nine o'clock on the night 
of the 25th instant. We did not ourselves see it, having been within doors, 
but the light thrown out was plainly perceptible for some five or six seconds. 
About fifty or sixty seconds after its disappearance, a report like that of a 
distant heavy gun was distinctly heard. — Kurrachee Advertiser, June 27. 

No. 38. — The following interesting repiarks on periodic meteors are ex- 
tracted from Prof. Silliman's Journal, vol. xxxi. p. 386: — 

For six years in succession there has been observed, on or about the 13th 
of November of each year, a remarkable exhibition of shooting stars, which 
has received the name of the " Meteoric Siiower." 

In 1831 the phaenoraenon was observed in the State of Ohio*, and in the 
Mediterranean, off the coast of Spain f. In 1832 the shower appeared in a 
more imposing form, and was seen at Mocha, in Arabia;}:, in the middle of 
the Atlantic Ocean §, near Orenburg, in Russia ||, and at Pernambuco, in 
South America^. The magnificent meteoric shower of 1833 is too well 
known to require the recital of any particulars. Of the recurrence of the 
phaenomenon at the corresponding period in 1834 and in 1835, evidence has 
been presented to the public in previous numbers of this journal. (See vols, 
xxvii. pp. 339 and 417 ; xxix. 168.) I now feel authorized to assert, that 
meteoric showers reappeared on the morning of the \Sth November 1836- 

It has been supposed by some, that the appearance of an extraordinary 
number of shooting-stars, at several anniversaries since the great phaenome- 
non of November 1833, can be accounted for by the fact, that a general 
expectation of such an event has been excited, and that many persons have 
been on tlie watch for it. Having, however, been much in the habit of ob- 
serving phaenomena of tliis kind, I can truly say, that those exhibitions of 
shooting-stars which have for several years occurred on the 13th or 14th of 

* Amer. Journal of Science, vol. xxviii. p. 419. f Bibliotheque Universelle, Sept. 1835. 
J Amer. Journ. xxvi. p. 136. § Edin. New Phil. Journ. July 183G. 

II Amer. Journ. xxvi. p. 349. ^ New York, America, Nov. 15, 1836. 

k2 



132 REPORT— 1850. 

November, are characterized by several peculiarities, vhich clearly distinguish 
them from ordinary shooting-stars. Such peculiarities are the following:— 

1. The mimber of meteors, though exceedingly variable, is much greater 
than usual, especially of the larger and brighter kinds. 

2. An uncommonly large proportion leave luminous trains. 

3. Tiie meteors, with few exceptions, all appear io proceed from a common 
centre, the position of which has been uniformly in nearly the same point in 
the heavens, viz. in some part of the constellation Leo. 

4. The principal exhibition has at all times, and at all places, occurred 
betv.een midnigiit and sunrise, and the maximttm from three to four o'clock. 

In all these particulars, the meteoric showers of 1834, 1835 and 1836, hav« 
resembled that of 1833 ; while no person, so far as I have heard, has observed 
the same combination of circumstances on any other occasion within the same 
period. I have not supposed it necessary, in order to establish the identity 
of these later meteoric showers with that of 1833, that they should be of the 
same magnitude with that. A sm.all eclipse I have considered a phaenome- 
non of the same kind with a large one ; and, conformably to this analogy, I 
have regarded an eclipse of the sun, first exhibiting itself as a slight indenta- 
tion of the solar lindj, but increasing in magnitude at every recurrence, until 
it ijecomcs total, and afterwards, at each return, but partially covering the 
solar disc, until the moon passes quite clear of the sun, as affording no bad 
illustration of what probably takes place in regard to these meteoric showers. 
The fact that the Aurora Borealis appears unusually frequent and magnifi- 
cent for a few successive years, and then for a long time is scarcely seen at 
all, was proved by iMairan a hundred years ago*. There is much reason to 
suspect a like periodical character in the phsenomenon in question, which 
first arrested attention in 1831, became more remarkable in 1832, arrived at 
its maximum in 1833, and has since grown less and less at each annual return. 
Some seem to suppose tliat we are now warranted in expecting a similar ex- 
hibition of meteors on the morning of every future anniversary; but this, I 
think, is not to be expected. It is perhaps more probable, that its recurrence, 
unless in a very diminished degree, will scarcely be witnessed again by the 
present generation. The shower, however, at its late return, was more stri- 
king than I had anticipated ; and it must be acknowledged to be adventurous 
to enter the region of predication respecting the future exhibitions of a phee- 
iiomenon, whose origin and whose laws we so imperfectly understand. 

Accounts of observations before us show, that the meteoric shower was 
seen in most of the Atlantic States, from Maine to South Carolina. 

From these accounts compai'ed, we are led to conclude that the meteoric 
showers increased in intensity from north to south, that of South Carolina 
having been the most considerable of all, so far as accounts have reached us. 

Does not the recurrence of this ])hBenomenon for six successive years, at 
the same po'iod of the year, plainly show its connexion with the progress of 
the earth in its orbit? and does not the fact that the greatest display occurs 
everywhere in places differing widely in longitude at the same hour of the day, 
as plainly indicate its connexion with the motion of the earth on its axis? 
The supposition of a body in space, consisting of an immense collection of 
meteors sti'etching across the earth's orbit obliquely, so that the earth passes 
imder it in its annual progress, while places on its surface lying westward of 
each otlier are successively brought, by the diurnal revolution, to the point 
of nearest approach, will satisfy both these conditions. 

* Traitc Phys. et Hist, de I'Aurore Borcale. Par M. de Maiian. Memoirs of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences for 1731. 



RESULTS OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIOXS. 133 

On the Stmcture and History of the British Annelida. 
By Thomas Williams, M.B., Sivansea. 
At the meeting of the British Association, held at Swansea, I was appointed, 
in conjunction witli Prof. E. Forbes and Thomas Bell, to collect into a report 
the undigested materials relating to the organization and habits ol the British 
Annelida, which may be distributed throughout the scientific periodicals oi 
this country. To this most interesting department of natural history, a cur- 
sory inquiry soon satisfied me, that the older English writers had contributed 
little or nothing, and that, with the honourable exception of the papers pub- 
lished from time to time byDr. Johnston of Berwick, in the 'Annals of Natural 
History,' the subject on which a systematic and digested report was required 
by the British Association constituted the least cultivated branch of the zoo- 
logy of this country. It became evident, therefore, that a repovt, composed 
only of such scanty and insufl[icient materials, would be little worthy of the 
Transactions of the Association : I accordingly turned the whole ot my atten- 
tion to the collection of new species, and to the elucidation of the anatomy 
and physiology of the subject. It is already in my power to state to the As- 
sociation, that I have made numerous additions to the list of British species, 
and that on the subject of the organization of the known species, I have suc- 
ceeded in elucidating the anatomy of the branchial, cucu ating and ali- 
mentary systems. To render the description of these parts intelligible, it would 
be necessary, in this preliminary report, to introduce numerous diagrams, 
which would materially add to the expenses already incurred. I have, how- 
ever, prepared a few of those original illustrations which will accompany he 
finished report, and which are now presented to the Section through the 
kindness of Prof. Edward Forbes. 
Swansea, July 23, ISoO. 



Results of Meteorological Observations taken at St.MichaeVsfrom the 
\st of January 1840 to the ^\st of December, 1849. 

British Consulate, St. Michael's, May 1, 1850. 
Sir -I be- leave to inform you that the three barometers and thermometers 
sent out to me by LieutenaM-Colonel Reid, in application of the grant re- 
fmeSto in your letter of October the 3rd,184.9. have arrived here and that 
I have forwa^rded two of them to the Vice-Consuls at Flcn-es and Fayal, ij- 
erving thi third for presentation to the Vice-Consul at Terceira it he can 
make ft convenient to keep a record of his meteorological observations. 
I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

Thomas Carkw Hunt. 

John Phillips, Esq., Assistant General Secretary 

of the British Association for the Advancemenl of Science. 



The Tables of Results follow on pp. 134. to 136. 



134 



REPORT 1850. 





NO 


■-j- 




o 


V~i 


in 


vo 





CO 


„ 





u 




p 




i^ 


r^ 


00 


vp 


.■* 


vo 


_d 


^n 


"2 


i? 




M 


■$ 


JT 


10 


00 


vb 


in 


in 


li 


t^ 


o 




ON 


r^ 


CO 


vo 


t^ 


M 





in 


p 


p 






•-I 


.-• 


."* 


^ 


^ 


j^ 


00 


C i^ 




o 




in 


rn 


M 


00 


00 


1^ 


M 


00 


n 


!-• 


^ 






r» 


M 


CO 




CO 




CO 
























s ^ 


C\ 


•* 




^ 


oo 


M 





CO 


d 


„ 


m 


s ? 




p 




tn 


CN 


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d 


d 


in 


m 


vo 


e^'^ 


t^ 


'a\ 




vb 


b 


c) 


CO 


b 


ON 


CO 


vb 


3-:= 




^ 






D 




d 




CO 






M ;:; 


















































t) 


„ 




M 


o 





d 


10 d 


CO 


00 


~ *° 


^ 


o ^^ 


t^ t^ t-^ 


u-t 


r^ 


vr, r« 'J5 


.^ CO 


0\ J-~ CO 


p d m 


00 vo 10 


00 


Ov CO 


a 


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Vi- o ■- 


%t- b Vo 


'd b d 


h\ '<-' in 


!n b " 


d b vb 


b b 


coo t^ 




oo 


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0\ 


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rh 


ON 


00 





d 


j^ 


p J-- 


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p 


w^ 


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00 o\ 


CO 


d 


" 


M On ^h 


1 


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b V>i> 


" 


o b 


U b Vn 


^ M 


b Vj-vb 


d 'i-i 




M b 


d d vb 




u-i 


w-i 




rl 


in 


»_, 


CO 


m 


ON 


in 


d 


* 


r^ M 


in ON 


p 


VO 


u->t^^ 


tn in 


CO " 


in CO 


00 p •1 


m vo 


vo -+ 


° 


Vh O N 


K "-i- b 


" 


o b 


b\ "m '^ 


H ■« 


i io ii- 


Vh ■" 


bv CO in 


M b 


w '■* 




o 


M 




o 


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d 


* 


n 


CO 


^ 


t^ 


4^ 


o ^ 


r^ O ^o 


P 


r) 


i-i ro 0> 





r- r^ 'i- 


m CO 


d CO in 


d t^ 


d p 


£li 


M O '" 


00 ^ " 


'm 


■" 


rp« "^ 


■« b 


<i> b CO 


d b ■" 


M b in 


d b 


CO d 


CO 




M f-i 




















^ 


rh 


CO 




O 


t^ 


00 


0^ 


CO 


CO 


OS 





2 


p ." 


^ 






_" M 5-- 


00 


COOO 


t^ CO 1-^ 


00 t^ 


d d 


d 


3) 


« b 


K ■"-! 


M 


b 


00 "I '■+ 


b b 


lb b d 


'cob ■" 


K b ■* 


to M 


" b 


3 
























< 


























M 


c^ 




r^ 


m 


M 


CO 


On 


d 


f-- 


CO 


>> 


O " 


p r- _" 


p 


»-< 


t^ (-^ 


C^ " 


d t^vo 


d CO 


00 00 


M 


CO 


-3 


■* O f> 


>b 00 ro 


rt 


'" 


V rl 


b b 


Vo ■« Vh 


'rS- M d 


■- b ■■=^ 


■« b 


b b 


•-3 




l-« w 










" 




" 








u-t 


rl 




VO 


m 


^ 


CO 


M 


Ov 


■+ 





OJ 


t^ OO 


O O M 


rt 


t~^ 


t^ P .►" 


covo 


t- t~. -4- 


d ;n 


vo CO d 


d 


10 


§ 


■« o b 


'w '*" "2 


M 


o b 


W il CO 


■" b b 


■■*■" Vh 


CO »-t 


b Vi-oo 


M b 


*o b 


■-B 










" 




^ 




'^ 








d 


„ 




oo 


--? 


vn 


CO 


00 


On 





in 


t^ 


u-t vn 


U-> t-^ M 




r) 


o\ 


10 t^ t^ 


p CO 


CO CO p 


in 


m iH 


rt 


V» o '" 


o ^ b 


M 


o ■" 


^b b 'n 


d b 


K b io 


in d 


invb 00 


" b 


d ■" 


S 


















^ 








t^ 


ON 




o 


t^...^ 


o\ 


00 


„ 


vo 


t~~ 





" 


O M 


r* j^oo 


O 


oo 


t--. t-^ 


t^ 


vo u-i 10 


CO in 


in 


t~- 


A 


V> O M 


^ b 00 


ro 


o ■" 


Vh b V) 


■« b 


b d Vj- 


d b M 


vb 'rt-io 


" b 


00 d 


< 














" 




'^ 








00 


to 




VO 


CO 


in 


n 


00 


■4- 


d 


Ov 


*« 


n VJ-, M 


VO •+ t-^ 


O 


«3 


r P 


P d 


p p 


vn 10 


_d 00 _•* 


d « 


vo ■+ 


a 


V^ b ^ 


i/^ V^'b 


^ 


b 


00 CO 


t-. d 


CO i-i ON 


cob M 


d d vb 


■" b 


CO vb 


s 




M 










ri 




•^ 




M 


■ o ■ 


d 


ro 




ro 





m 





t^ 


•+ 


vo 




^,— ^ 


o 


ro t^ >-t 


p 


^-n 


p p _CS 


1^ _CN 


00 d 10 


" 


d 


in 


P 


•g S"^ 


rt O ■" 


V> b i 


^ 


b 


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^ b 


CO « 


Vo ■" 


b K 


" b 


in M V^ 
























fa-oS 


























M 


oo ■!)- 




r^ 


vn 


00 





vo 


vo 


ON 


CO 


1 


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r~" r *? 


00 


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* 


00 00 


moo ^ 


m CO M 


in 00 


M 


CO w 


rt O '" 


U w v~. 


b 


o « 


^■« '^h 


^ d 


M d 


CO b ■" 


*b CO in 


•too 


f^ b K 






N 










" 




" 








^ 


j3 




fl 


• . B 


• . a 


• . C 


• c 


^ ■ = 


s 


a 




Si s 


si g 


S 


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J< e c3 
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X C £8 
CD .S (U 


g.S g 


g.s s 


g c « 


JS.2 g 


g c g 




s s s 


S E 2 


s 


S 3 


S 3 S 


H s a 


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22s 


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•s 






































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w 








H 






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s- 














































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a 
















































^ 





























































RESULTS OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIOiNS. 



135 





«5 




r- 


o 




1 to 




li 


»0 


CO 


to 


OS 


^ 


1 COCOM 


OS OS d 


r< 




bs 


b 


.* 


d~ r .« 


y-> cl J^ OS 


S t>> 


N 


t^ 


o 


« 


tb 


— OS 


-< b b d Vo 




*^ 




^ 




CO 


CO H to 


OS ^SO 


li 


M 


O 


t-^ 


00 


CO 


Cl 


CNO so 


a >. 


y^ 


M 


y^ 


d 


to 


^ 00 "-1 M 


10.^00 C^ 


S^ 


HI 


U-) 


b 


b 


^ 


■^ b bs b 


M b b ° M d bs 


J3 


"^ 


CO 


so 


" 


M 


CO C* CO 


00 ^ to 


S3 S3 


-*■ 


CO 





H 


„ 





■^ OS OS to 


if 


." 


N 


r 


so 


o\ 


jJtO CO Cl 


" r" i^o tooo 




b 


OS 


b 




— b CS b 


" OS ^to 


t^ 


-* 


■* 


M 


'"' 


CO rl CO 
























c» 


N 


t^ 




so so 


coto d 


s 


CO o 


W !>, M 


C« to 


vn u-1 f^ 


M U->'0 


d"? .■*?> 


00 ^ t^ 00 


Q 


b '■*■ K 


b Vl- 'r^ 


•o K b 


Vj- b M 


b b Vo 


■" Ot 


b b b ° OS ■*• V-- 




*^ 


•^ 


M M 




M 




so ^ to 






VO 


o 


so 


OO 


•i- u-,^ 


CO M fv. 


Q 


vo 0\ 


CO p CO 


O OO CO 


c» C^SO 


ON CO M 


^ to to M 
— OS 


CS to t--. so 


z 


Vh ■"-. b 


K CO to 


■« "^io 


"co b ■>- 


SO M •^. 


b b b ° ^i- to b 




Ht M 




•^ 






CO rl CO 


t^ -^-to 




VO 


o 


OO 


r^ 


CS 


cl 

CO to ^ 


so d 00 


o 


r« O 


00 O CO 


cJ so O 


CO ^ « 


p p CO 


. to^S^ 


CO 10 _t^ d 


o 




K '-sl-ys 


N Vhoo 


'n b ■" 


tb M CO 


.3 b (7s b 

CO cl CO 


b 6 b ° iH d ^ 

00 LOtO 




« 


•^ 


Tt- 


Ot 


OS 





cl t-- 


o. 


p _>o _m 


IH CO 0\ 


t^ CO 


M ir, CO 


SO CS 


• y^ r" r* 


►1 coto 00 


w 


irioo w 


b " «3 


sb '-i-oo 


N b M 


tb b '" 


.5 b bs b 


M b b ° tooo bs 




M M 


" 


»H 








00 toto 


1 


»^ 


vo 


trs 


N 


c< 


-. rs.'^ 


00 CO CO 


to 

3 


J^ vo _iri 
V) 00 "to 


p OO _M 

vb ■« 00 


CO _U-l CS 

r< Vl tb 


t^ coto 

M b b 


COOO t-^ 

rt b M 


. tosb M 

.3 b bs b 


so CO to OS 

b b b ° d Vj- 


<; 


N " 


^ 


•^ 






CO M CO 


OSSO t-^ 


9 


^ 


0\ 


„ 


so 


OS 


CO E--. M 


^ to 


^« 'J- 


00 ISI t^ 


p °° r^ 


CO r-~ CO 


to CO « 


. to Ot CO 


to S ri- 0^,^ M 


b b V 


CO M vi> 


OS CO tn 


OO b Vo 


ci b M 


.3 b (js b 


bob 00 00 Vo 




« M M 


"^ 








CO cl CO 


00 to C^ 


^ 


M 


c-- 


1-^ 


to 


OS 


c^ cl to 


M to ^ 


H 


rn p y^ 


OMO OS 


CO CO t^ 


C^ CO t-^ 


t^ t^ OS 


. tooo cl 


c^ -i- to 0^,., to 


3 


iy^ ►-< CO 


b "n io 


w u-1 K 


Vo b b 


Vo b M 


.3 b CS b 


b b b to so CS 




" " " 


^ 


■^ 






CO cl CO 


00 toso 














r-- 




fc^ 


O 


"^ 


t-^ 


00 




M d to 


r^ c-~ 


r f .■* 


poo 


OO cooo 


t-^ »-( *H 


so O OO 


.so to cl 


t>0 CO 1^ O^V, CO 


^ 


'm 00 ON 


b\ co^b 


b 'loio 


^ Vl Vo 


^ ■>-■ V) 


.2 b bs b 


b b ."^ CS M "to 




■^ 




" 






CO H CO 


t^ toso 














r^ 






„ ^ 


o 


to 






00^ 


■+ OS t^ 


'C 


_rt p 00 


p CO M 


p r-. ■* 


OO t^ to 


r" p r' 


.to -^ M 


HI _d to 00 


<3 


Vj-kb 00 


On ^vb 


cooo ■« 


■« b ■" 


CO '<- Vl 


.S b bs b 


HI b b ° t^ to b 




■^ 




M M 






CO cl to 


t^ ^-to 


^ 


* 


„ 


o 


^ 


„ 


M CO 1^ 


M CO t-^ 


*2 


CO OS CO 


OO 1-1 


so _M OS 


to CI 


r> r- CO 


•S OS 


y-ito OS 00 


rt 


b ^ K 


■h O '-i- 


tb bs CO 


C) O M 


OO C^ 'lO 


M b b ° cl to t^ 


S 


^ 






^ M 






CO cl CO 


t-^ ^ to 




i3» 












to 




''•a I- 


o 






so 




•-■ OstO 


■2 ^cS ^ 

"Ob a 5 D^ 




p N oo 
00 « K 


^ r- p 

b b -b 


CO CO .t 
M cooo 


"to b c) 


^ ■-■ Vo 


„• CO ^ « 

= b bs b 

CO tl CO 




^ 


M 


O •& 


CO 


CO 


■+ 




c 


CO CO 


OS _f^ _o 


rio r- 


CO N 


c> ■+ 


• 00 cl _rt 


osoo d 

toto 0^,^, <ii- 


►H 


00 io\b 


c^ covb 




tb ci 


b ■-< V}- 


— b bs b 

CO C) CO 


M HI CS d tb 

so -^ to 




.J • == 


kJ • ° 


a 


■ . a 


a 


a 


: . a . . a 




i; S =S 


X a ci 


M a c3 


X a =8 


^ a "5 


a.ss 


y, ~ a X ^ t3 




cs .^ a 


C3 .^ iU 


« .3 (U 


c3 .a « 


cs .a » 


CS .a <u es .a S 




s a a 


a a a 


a a a 


a a a 


a a a 


^ a a 


a a a a a a 




















1 
1 






: g g 
































^ 




to 










1 






to C j= 






c' 


>. 




id 


>. 






S £ ■- 






3 


5 




■3 






>s -0 










"3 




h 






2 53 s 
























M' 


= 


E 


= 


s 


t« 


1 IL 

a ^ ^ 






"i 


. 


J 


. 


. 


a 
c 


a ill 




n< 
















^ 










m 


ft H *' 



136 



UEPORT 1850. 



■o.: 










w^ CO Ti- 


* HI O 


o 


CO 




H 


Ov'o CO 


oo b>oo 


OSOO JO 
OS rt io 


lo o CO 
lO to u-1 


^ 


5- 


$-^ 


rt 


r>. -d-vo 










CO 


c 










loso rt 


•+ O «o 


t^ 


00 


S3 




•i- 


VTN HI 


vs u^ 


lO o oo 


to HI CO 


to 


to 




o as 00 




eo cn 


HI OS ^ 00 CO th 

t-^ CO */-> 




d 
d 


" 


J= 


















.- C 










u-,^ to 


o o ■+ 


CO 


to 




r.-l "^ 



CO O K 




00 O V) 


OS HI Jl 
OS COS© 


to o d 


00 


OS 

d 


u;5 
























1 




CO r^oo 


cl so VO 


cs OS OS 


O CO HI 


• 




On 


VOO 


00 t^ 


OS c< I-^ 




d d « 




Q 






t^ O CO 


VO HI CO 


so CO ^1- 


to to to 


r-b '-i- 


MO" 


IH 


VO U^ U1 




VO ■* >« 






1 




■ 










•d- OS u-l 


HI -(J- CO so oo Ti- 


r- HI d 


^ 


a\ 


.•+ 


t^ 1-1 CO 


oo rt Vj- 


OS CO OS 
K "to Vh 


to HI CO o O d 

^^^ k Vo Vi- 


_d « OS 

d H< M 




vO "~iv© 










1 1 
















co O oo 


1 •* o ^ 1 


OS OssO 










o 


»y-i OS to 


t1-" c: 


oo OSO 


OS CO d 


o 




^ t^ Vj- 


r^ M CO 




00 CO W-1 


•^ '^ '^ 1 -to b Vo 1 


CO d CO 


hH. tH 


t^ U1VO 










1 








1 








1 t--oo 


CO d d 


& 


„,,VO 


M 


OO IH CO 


O CO CO 


-+ OS .;)- 

OS Vhvb 


CO o d 
to to tr 


^ 'tob d 


■^ Vo %lr 


m 




t^O vo 






















LOOO Cs 


HI M ^ 


vj- CO OS 


so OS to 


^ 




N 





CO 


OS CO Th 


CO o H 










O O '^ 


oo ec C\ 


OS to r~ 


to to t/ 


"" CO b « 


t^ tovo 


< 


r) •-' 


ir^vo i^ 
























lo M 1^ 


so OS C 


^ oo o to 


CO HI O 


>. 


"1- -c r* 

w CO "m vo tJ- O 


'o\ w ■«!^ 


00 ^vij 


oo OS o 

OS '•+ K 


CO OS H 

to^t, 


d to t^ 

^ ■" b b 


p d 00 
t , to to 


>-> 


M ►■ 


t^vO t- 












r>. 














HI HI r- 


oo O c 


o OS ■* 


so 00 ^ 


►^ 






U1VO 


VO 


t^ HI d 


CO o 1 


1 O CO HI 


d ■+ d 




^ O t- 


OS O CO 


t^ HI fj 


OS .4■^iJ 


to to t 


" d b '"> 


to •+ to 


rt i-< t^so o 


j r^ */^\o 




















O "-I »o 


O c 


3 oo d HI 


VO O to 






'^ -w oo 


oo 




SOri-HI 






CO HI VO 


s 




On HI CO 


c) toso 


CO CO irt 


to to t 


o d 1-1 


so •* -J- 


M •■ 


t^ U^VO 




t^ rj- u-1 




















ITS -^ HI 


O * t 


^ OS O CO 


t--0O Ov 


— 


1-4 CO 


o 


o\ 


M HI HI 


to HI C 


o 00 r^so 


■4- 'l-vo 


a 




CO HI CO 


t-t O \j^ 


00 CO to 




" iob ■« 


^ CO CO 


< 


cl t-i so vrivo 
























O •+ to 


O O s! 


3 CO ^ 


CO d to 




--I ."^ .'^ 


u-i o 




O HI t^ 


to d 


o O to 




1 


t^ HI CO 


so CO 


r^ co^ 


to to 


■^ K d CO 


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CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 137 

On the present State of our Knowledge of the Chemical Action of the 
Solar Radiations. By Robert Hunt. 

The present state of our knowledge of the phsenomena of chemical changes 
produced by the influence of the solar radiations, is very imperfect. But 
though we have scarcely advanced beyond the threshold of this new line of 
research, we are enabled to contemplate a large number of strilving facts sur- 
rounding the very entrance of this fresh field for experimental investigation. 

It was thought advisable to gather these facts, which have been hitherto 
scattered through numerous Transactions of the learned societies and scien- 
tific periodicals of these islands, of Europe and of America, into a Report, but 
which should shov/ all that has hitherto been accomplished in this branch of 
inquiry. This task having been committed to my hands by the British Asso- 
ciation at the recommendation of the Committee of the Chemical Section, I 
have now much pleasure in submitting the result of my labours to the con- 
sideration of this Meeting. 

I find it necessary to state the progress of the investigation on those re- 
markable phsenomena, of chemical changes produced by the sun's rays, for 
the purpose of reviving a consideration of many very curious facts, which have 
been recorded, but which, from the circumstance that the attention of men 
of science was directed more earnestly into other channels, at Ihe time of 
their publication, appeal' to have escaped attention. In stating, however, the 
earlier researches, I shall be as brief as possible, since many of them stand 
merely isolated facts which require new investigations to connect them with 
the subject in the improved form which it now wears, under the more advan- 
tageous lights which have been thrown upon it by the refinements of modern 
science. 

"We find, from time to time, in the writings of the elder chemists, faint in- 
dications that the changes produced by sunshine in many substances had not 
entirely escaped their attention ; but it is not until the commencement of the 
eighteenth century that we have an exact record of any observations of these 
phsenomena. 

Petit in 1722 noticed that solutions of nitrate of potash and muriate of 
ammonia crystallized more readily in the light than they did in darkness*. 

Scheele about 1777 appears to have been led to an examination of the con- 
ditions under which nitrate of silver was blackened by solar influence ; and 
with that refined system of research which distinguishes every inquiry of 
this Swedish chemist, he employed the prismatic sjDectrum, and observed for 
the first time, that the nitrate and chloride of silver were blackened by the 
rays at the blue, or most refrangible end, while no change was detected by 
him under the influence of the rays at the red or least refrangible end of the 
spectrumf . 

Senebier repeated these experiments, and he states that he found chloride 
of silver darkened in the violet ray in fifteen seconds to a shade which required 
the action of the red ray for twenty minutes J. He also experimented on the 
influence of light in bleaching wax. 

In the Philosophical Transactions for 1798 will be found a memoir by Count 
Rumford, entitled, 'An Inquiry concerning the Chemical Properties that have 

* Sur la Vegetation des Sels. Mem. de Paris, 1722. In 1788, Chaptal published, 
' Observations sur I'influence de I'air et de la lumiere dans la vegetation des sels.' Me- 
moires de I'Acad. Roy. des Sc. de Toulouse, vol. iii. ; and in the Journal de Phys., vol. 
xx.xiv. DizE in 1789. Dize deals with the same subject in a paper entitled, ' Sur la cris- 
tallisation des sels par Taction de la lumiere.' 

t Scheele, Traite de I'Air et du Feu. J Senebier sur la Lumiere, vol. iii. p. 199 



138 REPORT — 1850. 

been attributed to Light.' In this paper a number of experiments are brought 
forward to prove that all the effects produced upon metallic solutions by bright 
sunshine can be obtained by a prolonged exposure to a temperature of 210° 
Fahrenheit. We are now, however, in a position to show that the chemical 
effects produced by rays of dark heat are of a very different character from 
those usually attributed to light. Mr. Robert Harrup. in a communication to 
Nicholson's Journal in 1802, refuted the experiment of Count Rumford, show- 
ing that several salts of mercury were reduced by light alone, and not heat. 

In 1801 Ritter of Jena* demonstrated the existence of rays beyond the 
spectrum which have no luminous power, but which exhibited very active che- 
mical agencies. Hitter stated that the red rays had the power of restoring 
darkened muriate of silver to its original colour, and he infers therefore the 
existence of two sets of invisible rays, the least refrangible favouring oxygena- 
tion, while the most refrangible on the contrary deoxidize. Similar results to 
these have since been obtained by Sir John Herschel, and more recently still 
by M. Claudct. Bockman about the same time observed that the two ends 
of the spectrum acted differently on phosphorus f. 

Desmortiers in 1801 published a paper in Gilbert's Annals, entitled ' Re- 
cherches sur la Decoloration spontanee du Bleu de Prusse', subsequently 
translated into Nicholson's Journal, in which he has mentioned the influences 
of the solar rays in producing the change. 

About the same time Dr. WoUaston I examined the chemical action of the 
rays of the spectrum, and arrived at nearly the same results as Ritter. He 
states, " This and other effects usually attributed to light are not in fact 
owing to any of the rays usually perceived." 

Attention having been directed by Dr. Priestley in 1779 to the influence of 
light on plants, numerous inquirers were started on this track, and the valuable 
researches of Senebier, Ingenhousz, DeCandoUe, Saussure and Ritter§ were 
the result. These are already too well known to require anything beyond 
this incidental notice; but in ISOl Labillardiere communicated to the Phi- 
lomathic Society his discovery that light was necessary to the development 
of pores in plants, and subsequently we find Victor Michellotti of Turin, in a 
paper, ' Experiments and Observations on the Vitality and Life of Germs||,' 
stating " that light has a decided action on those germs which are exposed to 
it, that this action is prejudicial to them, and it manifests its action by re- 
tarding their expansion if the light be weak, or a reflected light ; or by the 
total extinction of their life, if it be very intense, as that which comes directly 
from the sun." 

M. Macaire Prinsep again states, " that sheltering leaves from the action 
of light prevents their change of colour in the autumn ; that if the entire leaf 
■was placed in the dark, it fell off green ; if only a part, the rest of the paren- 
chyma changed colour, and the covered portion retained its original colour^." 

Those appear to be the more important researclies in connexion with this 
particular section of the inquiry, until the correction of the statements of 
Saussure were published by Dr. Daubeny, who satisfactorily proved that 

* Nicholson's Journal, August 1804. f Voigt's Maazgine, vol. iv. 

X Philosophical Transactions, 1802, p. 379. 

§ Senebier. Experiences sur I'Action de la Lumiere Solaire dans la Vegetation. Paris, 
1788. 
Ingenhousz. Experiences sur les Vcgetaux. Phil. Trans. 1782. 
Decandolle. Memoires des Savans fitrangers, vol. i. 

Saussure. Recherches Chimiques sur la Vegetation. Annales de Chimie, vol. 1. 
Ritter. Geh'.en, Journ. der Chein., vol. vi. 
II Journal de Physique, Ventose, an 9. 
^ Memoires de ia Societe de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve, torn, iv, p. 1. 



I 



CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 139 

Light, the luminous power as distinguished from the chemical power, was the 
most active in producing the decomposition of carbonic acid by the leaves of 
plants* ; and these results were confirmed by my own researches published in 
the Reports of the British Associationt- Although these influences upon living 
organisms are directly connected with the chemical influences of the solar 
rays, the phsenomena being of a very complicated character, and requiring a 
very enlarged series of researches, it is thought advisable to confine attention 
mainly, in this Report, to the chemical changes produced upon disorganized 
matter. 

In 1803 Wedgwood, who was assisted by Sir Humphry Davy in some part of 
bis experiments, published in the 'Journal of the Royal Institution,' vol. i. 'An 
account of a method of copying paintings upon glass, and of making profiles 
by the agency of light upon the nitrate of silver.' In this communication 
we have the earliest indications of the photographic processes which have 
within a few years been brought to a great degree of perfection. " Nothing," 
says Davy, " but a method of preventing the unshaded parts of the delineation 
from being coloured by exposure to the day, is wanting to render the process 
as useful as it is elegant." 

An experiment on the dark rays of Ritter, by Dr. Young, included in his 
Bakerian Lecture :j: is a very important one. Dr. Young, after referring to the 
experiments of Ritter and Wollaston, goes on to say, " In order to complete 
the comparison of their properties (the chemical rays) with those of visible 
light, I was desirous of examining the eff'ect of their reflection from a thin plate 
of air, capable of producing the well-known rings of colours. For this pur- 
pose I formed an image of the rings, by means of the .solar microscope, with 
the apparatus which I have described in tlie Journals of the Royal Institution ; 
and I threw this image on paper dipped in a solution of nitrate of silver, 
placed at the distance of about nine inches from the microscope. In the 
course of an hour, portions of three dark rings were very distinctly visible, 
much smaller tlian the brightest rings of the coloured image, and coinciding 
very nearly, in their dimensions, witli the rings of violet light, that appeared 
upon the interposition of violet glass. I thought the dark rings were a little 
smaller than the violet rings, but the diff^eixnce was not sufficiently great to 
be accurately ascertained : it might be as much as -gL- or -^-^ of the diameters, 
but not greater. It is the less surprising that the diff^erence should be so 
small, as the dimensions of the coloured rings do not by any means vary at 
the violet end of the spectrum so rapidly as at the red end. The experiment 
in its present state is sufiiciezit to complete the analogy of the invisible with 
the visible rays, and to show that they are equally liable to the general law, 
which is the principal subject of this paper," tliat is, the interference of light. 

M. B. G. Sage, in the 'Journal de Physique, 1802,' mentions a fact ob- 
served by him, that " the realgar which is sublimated at the Solfaterra under 
the form of octahedral crystals, known under the name of ruby of arsenic, 
effloresces by the light ;" and that ordinary native realgar from Japan changes 
to orpiment by exposure to sunshine §, 

In 1806 Vogel exposed fat carefully protected from the influence of the air 
to light, and found that it became in a short time of a yellow colour, and ac- 
quired a high degree of rancidity. Vogel subsequently discovered that phos- 
phorus and ammonia exposed to the sun's rays were rapidly converted into 
phosphureted hydrogen, and a black powder, phosphuret of ammonia. He 

* Philosophical Transactions, 1836. t Report of Seventeenth Meeting, 1847, p. 17« 

t Experiments and Calculations relative to Physical Optics, Phil. Traus., 1804. 
§ Philosophical Magazine, vol. xiii. 



140 REPOBT 1850. 

also noticed that the red rays produced no change on a solution of corrosive 
sublimate (bichloride of mercury) in ether, but that the blue rays rapidly de- 
composed it*. Dr. Davy much more recently repeated a similar set of expe- 
riments to those of Vogel. He found that corrosive sublimate was not 
changed by exposure ; but that the Liquor Hydrarg. Oxymur. of the London 
Pharmacopoeia quickly underwent decomposition in the sunshine, depositing 
calomel. 

Seebeck in, and subsequently to 1810, made some important additions to 
our knowledge of the influences of the solar radiations, the most striking of 
his statements being the production of colour on chloride of silver ; the violet 
rays rendering it brown, the blue producing a shade of blue, the yellow pre- 
serving it M'hite, and the red constantly giving a red colour to that salt. Sir 
Henry Englefield about the same time was enabled to show that the phos- 
phorescence of Canton's phosphorus was greatly exalted by the blue rays. 

Dr. Wollaston's experiments on the tincture of gum guaiacum also tended 
to prove the peculiar diiferences in the most and the least refrangible rays. 
Cards moistened with this tincture acquired a green colour in the violet and 
blue rays, and the original yellow colour was rapidly restored in the red rays. 

Gay Lussac and Thenard, being engaged in some investigations on chlorine, 
on which elementary body Davy was at the same time experimenting, ob- 
served that hydrogen and chlorine did not combine in the dark, but that they 
combined with great rapidity, and often with exjjlosion, in the sunshine, and 
slowly in diffused light. Seebeck collected chlorine over hot water, and com- 
bining it with hydrogen, placed different portions of it in a yellowish red 
bell glass and in a blue one. In the blue glass combination took place im- 
mediately the mixture was exposed to daylight, but without explosion. The 
mixture in the red glass was exposed for twenty minutes without any change ; 
but it was found that the chlorine had undergone some alteration, probably a 
similar one to that noticed by Dr. Draper, which I shall have shortly to 
describe. If the gases were placed in a white glass and exposed to sunshine, 
they exploded ; but if the gas had been previously exposed to the action of 
the solar radiations in the yellow red glass, it combined with hydrogen in 
the white glass in the brightest sunshine without any explosion. 

Berzelius noticed some peculiar conditions in the action of the solar rays 
upon the salts of gold ; and Fischer pursued some i-esearches on the influence 
of the prismatic rays on horn silver f. 

The most important series of researches however were those of Berard in 
1812, which Avere examined and reported on by BerthoUet, Chaptal andBiot. 
These philosophers write, " He (M. Berard) found that the chemical intensity 
was greatest at the violet end of the spectrum, and that it extended, as Ritter 
and Wollaston had observed, a little beyond that extremity. When he left 
substances exposed for a certain time to the action of each ray, he observed 
sensible effects, though with an intensity continually decreasing in the indigo 
and blue rays. Hence we must consider it as extremely probable, that if he 
had been able to employ reactions still more sensible he would have observed 
analogous effects, but still more feeble, even in the other rays. To show 
clearly the great disproportion which exists in this respect between the ener- 
gies of different rays, M. Berard concentrated, by means of a lens, all that 
part of the spectrum which extends from the green to the extreme violet ; 
and he concentrated, by means of another lens, all that portion which extends 
from the green to the extremity of the red. This last pencil formed a white 

* Ann. de Chimie, vol. Ixxv. p. 225. 

t Philosophical Magazine, vol. vii. Second Series, p. 462. 



CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 141 

po{7it SO brilliant that the eyes were scarcely able to endure if ; yet the muriate 
of silver remained exposed more than two hours to this brilliant point of light 
without undergoing any sensible alteration. On the other hand, when exposed 
to the other pencil, which was much less bright and less hot, it was blackened 
in less than six minutes*." This is the earliest intimation we have of any 
indication that the luminous and chemical powers may be due to dissimilar 
agencies. On this, the Commissioners remark : — " If we wish to consider 
solar light as composed of thi'ee distinct substances, one of which occasions 
light, another heat, and the third chemical combinations ; it will follow that 
each of these substances is separable by the prism into an infinity of different 
modifications, like light itself; since we find by experiment, that each of 
the three properties, chemical, colorific and calorific, is spread, though un- 
equally, over a certain extent of the spectrum. Hence we must suppose, on 
that hypothesis, that there exists three spectrums one above another ; namely 
n calorific, a colorific and a chemical spectrum. We must likewise admit that 
each of the substances which compose the three spectrums, and even each 
molecule of unequal refrangibility which constitutes these substances, is en- 
dowed, like the molecules of visible light, with the property of being polar- 
ized by reflection, and of escaping from reflection in the same positions as 
the luminous molecules, &c." Some other objections to M. Berard's views 
are then urged. The experiment, already named, by Dr. Young on the che- 
mical action of the dark rings, and analogous ones, to be yet noticed, by 
M. Edmund Becquerel and Professor Miller, go to show, that whether the 
chemical agency is due to the same principle which produces light or not, it 
certainly obej's nearly all the same general laws. 

It was stated by Arago and others, that M. Charles, an experimentalist of 
some celebrity, had a process by which he was enabled to produce portraits 
by the aid of light. He died however without disclosing his secret ; and even 
the Abbe Moigno, always anxious to claim for France the honour of any 
discovery, admits tliat Charles left "no authentic document to attest his dis- 
covery ; " and he consequently gives to Wedgwood the merit of being the 
originator of photography. M. Niepce, of Chalons on the Saone, communi- 
cated to our Pvoyal Society, in 1827, an account of his experiments, upon 
which it would appear he had been engaged since 1814. This memoir was 
not printed by the Royal Society, owing to the circumstance that M. Niepce 
refused to publish the secret of the process by which he produced the pictures 
he then exhibited, some of which are now in the possession of Mr. Robert 
Brown of the British Museum. 

^. The discovery of Niepce appears to have been, that the luminous rays have the 
property of solidifying several resinous substances, thus rendering the parts 
which had been exposed less soluble than those which have been preserved in 
shadow. He appears to have also observed, that resins thus changed by the 
influence of sunshine returned to their original state when kept for a short time 
in the dark. We have not however any exact statement of the researches of 
Niepce, which appear to have been extensive, but devoted principally to the 
production of what he called heliographic pictures. In 1829 Niepce associated 
himself with Daguerre, to whom we owe the iodized silver plate and the disco- 
very of that peculiar condition induced by the solar rays, which regulates the 
deposit of mercurial vapour ; the distinguishing feature of the well-known Da- 
guerreotype process. In addition to this, Niepce discovered that silver plates 
could be rendered sensitive to solar agency by being washed " with a decoction 
of the herb Shepherd's purse (Thlaspi Bursa-pastoris) , fumes of phosphorus, and 

* Annales de Chimie, vol. Ixxxv. p. 309. 



142 REPORT — 1850. 

particularly of sulphur, as acting on silver in the same way as iodine ; and that 
caloric produced the same effect hy oxidizing the metal, _/or/rom this cause 
proceeded in all these instances this extreme sensibility to light." 

Mr. Henry Fox Talbot commenced his experiments in photography in 1834; 
and in 1839, about six montlis prior to the publication of Daguerre's process, 
he published ' Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing, or the pro- 
cess by which natural objects may be made to delineate themselves without 
the aid of the artist's pencil.' Mr. Talbot, pursuing his inquiries, discovered 
his extremely sensitive process, the " calotype," which consists in exalting 
the sensibility of iodide of silver hy the action of gallic acid. 

From the period of the announcement of the discovery of Daguerre in 1 839, 
the inquiry into the phacnomena connected with the chemical action of the 
solar radiations assumed a more inductive character ; and having no longer to 
record isolated discoveries made at far distant intervals, the historical arrange- 
ment will now be abandoned for a more philosophical examination of the 
subject. 

All the observations which had been made on the influence of the prismatic 
rays upon the salts of silver and other bodies, point to a very remarkable dif- 
ference in the action of the several rays ; and this class of observations being 
more completely carried out by living philosophers, among whom Sir John 
Herschel demands the most distinguished notice, a still larger number of 
curious facts were elicited. 

It is the peculiar habit of our minds to endeavour to explain new phseno- 
mena by received theories, and thus, I fear too often, to create imaginary re- 
semblances Avhere no real analogies exist. In this way it has, I think, been too 
hastily decided that the varieties of action observed in the colorific rays of the 
spectrum in relation to chemical change are due to varying undulations and to 
the phsenomena of wave interferences. The amount of mathematical skill 
which has been brought to bear on the wave theory of light, has placed it in 
a most popular position ; but, without for one moment attempting an objec- 
tion to any part of this theory as it explains luminous phsenomena, it cannot 
be too strongly insisted on, for it is too often forgotten, that excepting Dr. 
Young's experiment already quoted, no attempt has ever been made by any 
mathematician to associate the chemical agency of the solar rays with the 
theory of luminous undulations. Speculations there have been, but all these 
have been ventured on without any attempt at analysis. This is particularly 
mentioned to show that the entire subject remains open for examination, and 
that this examination should be prosecuted without reference to any precon- 
ceived hypotheses. 

Sir John Herschel* remarks on "the high probability at least that the 
chemical energy is distributed throughout the spectrum in such a way as to 
be by no means a mere function of the I'efrangibility, but to stand in relation 
to other physical qualities, both of the ray, and of the analysing medium, and 
that relation by no means the same as that which determines the absorptive 
action of the latter on the colorific rays." 

Without stopping to consider the question of the colours of the bands con- 
stituting the spectrum, it being perfectly indifferent to this subject whether 
we adopt the seven rays of unequal refrangibility of Sir Isaac Newton or the 
views arrived at by the refined researches of Sir David Brewster, which reduce 
the chromatic phsenomena to three, — I shall at once pass to the chemical agency 
exercised along different lines of the spectrum. It is however necessary that 

* On the Chemical Action of the Uavs of the Solar Spectrum, &c. Philosophical Transac- 
tions, 1840, pt. 1. 



CHEMICAL ACTION OP THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 143 

we should regard the spectrum, from the extreme red ray at one end of the 
spectrum to the lavender or gray ray at the other*, as representing the extent 
of luminous power, which has its maximum in the yellow ray and its minima 
at the outer limits of the extreme red and the lavender rays, since we have not 
been enabled to trace any luminous effects beyond these points. It is conve- 
nient to employ these coloured rays to mark points of action and of inaction ; 
but it ajipears important that we should dispossess our minds of the idea that 
chemical change, or the contrary, takes place by virtue of any function of a 
particular coloured ray. 

It had been already noticed by Berard, that the mean luminous rays, even 
when condensed by a lens, produced no chemical change on chloride of silver. 
Sir John Herschel was the first to observe that the rays at the red end of the 
spectrum protected chloride of silver from that change which is induced even 
beyond the spectrum by the diffused light which always accompanies the pris- 
matic image ; that whereas papers prepared for photographic purposes were 
darkened more or less over every other part ; over the space " on which the 
full red of the spectrum had fallen, there was an appearance of whiteness, a 
sort of white prolongation of, or appendage to, the dark photographic impres- 
sion." It is thus proved that the red end of the spectrum is not inactive ; it 
is not, that any sort of polai'ity exists in the spectrum : we have a positive 
evidence, an action as energetic as that of the blue end of the spectrum, but 
exerted in an opposite direction. If paper is blackened by exposure to the 
violet end of the spectrum, or by the influence of diffused light, and subse- 
quently exposed to the action of the red rays, it becomes of " a fuU and fiery 
red" over the entire space upon which those rays fall. A similar result, but 
not so decided, is produced by the radiations which permeate a ruby glass 
coloured with oxide of gold. 

It has lately been shown by M. Claudet that on the Daguerreotype plate 
these red rays restored the sensibility of the iodized silver after it had been 
acted upon by the more refrangible chemical raysf . The powerful action of 
the red end of the spectrum was further proved by Sir John Herschel, who 
employed two prisms and threw the red rays of one spectrum upon the 
violet rays of another. " The blackening power of the more refrangible raj^s 

* It is important that tlie condition of the prismatic spectrum sliould be distinctly com- 
prehended : for a complete examination of the subject I nmst refer to the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh for 1822 ; and to Sir John Herschel's Treatise on Light, Ency- 
clopasdia Metropolitana ; Sir Da^nd Brewster's Optics, Lardner's Cyclopaedia ; and numerous 
memoirs in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. To state in brief the facts 
as presented to us, upon examining the Newtonian spectrum of seven colours — red, orange, 
yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, — we must at once perceive that those seven are com- 
pounds of but three colours — red, blue and yellow. By the combination of these all the 
others can be produced, but not by any combination of the other rays. By examining the 
spectrum with coloured media we can detect extensions of these priraaiy colo\ns, and fair 
evidence is afforded that these colorific bands overlap eacli other. Now, if we look at the 
spectrum through a cobalt blue glass, a colour unseen by the naked eye becomes visible, the 
extreme red ray. This is evidently the result of a mixture of blue and red. By throwing 
the spectrum upon turmeric paper a prolongation of the luminous portion beyond the violet 
is seen, to which Sir John Herschel gave the name of the lavender ray. Thus nine instead 
of seven bands present themselves. Now, if we examine all the conditions of these colours, 
we shall find that the yellow ray blends with the blue, and produces green ; then, that the blue 
becomes more and more decided, passing on to blackness in the indigo ; but that red reap- 
pearing at that, the most refrangible end, produces by mixing with blue the violet, and yellow 
blending with the violet produces the neutral lavender or gray ray. On the other side, yellow 
mixing witli red produces orange, and then the red growing in intensity and purity, again 
blends witli blue at the least refrangible end of the spectrum to produce the crimson ray or 
extreme red. 

t Philosophical Magazine, 1850. 



144 REPORT — 1850. 

seemed to be suspended over all that portion on which the less refrangible fell, 
and the shades of green and sombre blue which the latter would have im- 
pressed on xchite paper, were produced on that portion, which, but for their 
action, would have been merely blackened." 

It was, however, subsequently proved by the same excellent experimental- 
ist, that if a paper, blackening under the influence of the red rays of the spec- 
trum, was repeatedly drenched with the solution of the iodine salts, the black- 
ening eventually gave way, and was succeeded by a very feeble degree of 
bleaching. This bleaching appears to be distinctly due to thermic action, as 
it can be jn-oduced to an equal degree by the influence of heat alone. The 
action of the spectrum on this variety of paper may be divided into four 
parts : — 

1st, bleaching by the most refrangible rays ; 2ndly, blackening by the least 
refrangible rays ; then, Srdly, bleaching by the same rays of low refrangibility ; 
and, 4thly, an actual darkening to a pale brown, by the more active chemical 
rays. 

If paper blackened by exposure is washed with a solution of iodide of po- 
tassium and exposed to sunshine, it is rapidly bleached. This forms the basis 
of a process for obtaining positive pictures which appears to have been noticed 
nearly about the same time by Dr. Fyfe, Lassaigne and myself. Dr. Fyfe, I be- 
lieve, being the first to publish his process. If, however, this paper is exposed 
to the prismatic spectrum, it will, at the same time as it is bleaching under 
the influence of the most refrangible rays, blacken under that of the least re- 
frangible ; the iodine under the action of the chemical (actinic) rays com- 
bining and forming an iodide of silver, while under the operation of the calo- 
rific rays and others associated with them, an actual exaltation of the oxida- 
tion of the silver salt results. 

Here we have evidence of two sets of rays of widelj' different refrangibility, 
and consequently of dissimilar lengths of undulation, producing equally ener- 
getic chemical changes, but of an opposite character. This might have been 
predicated by what we already knew of the action of the red and blue ends of 
the spectrum ; but the experiment mentioned by Sir John Herschel, in which, 
under the combined influence of these two sets of rays acting upon one spot, 
an eff^ect was produced which did not belong to either of them when separated, 
could not have been expected, and has not been explained upon any of the 
theories of light. 

A very interesting modification of the above phsenomena maj' be produced 
by the use of coloured media. If an engraving is placed upon a piece of 
darkened photographic paper Avashed over with a solution of iodide of potas- 
sium, and it is then exposed to sunshine, a positive copy of the engi-aving, as 
has been already explained, results. Now, if we place a piece of blue glass 
over one portion, and a ruby glass over another, the bleaching process goes 
on with great energy under the blue, and the blackening with equal intensitj'- 
under the red ; and we obtain a positive and negative copy of the engraving 
at the same time on the same piece of paper. 

It has been proved by the experiments of Sir J. Herschel that this black- 
ening power is exerted by rays beyond the extreme red ray, where no lumi- 
nous influence can be detected. This result is particularly shown ujjon papers 
prepared with acetate of lead, chloride of platinum, and washed when under 
the influence of the light with hydriodate of potash. 

When experimenting with photographic papers prepared with the tartrate 
of potash and soda (Rochelle salts). Sir John Herschel observed that a pro- 
tected line presented itself on every side of the spectrum. " If the light was 



CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 145 

allowed to continue its action, there was observed to come on suddenly a new 
and much more intense impression of darkness confined in length to the blue 
and violet rays, and, what is most remarkable, confined in breadth to the mid- 
dle of the sun's image, so far at least as to leave a border of a lead-coloured 
spectrum, traceable not only round the clear and well-defined convexity of the 
dark interior spectrum, at the least refrangible end, but also laterally along 
both its edges." 

At the same time, ignorant of these refined researches of Sir John Herschel, 
I observed similar results upon a Daguerreotype plate : the record of these 
observations will be found in the Philosophical Magazine (vol. xvi. 3rd Series, 
p. 2G7), the same number containing the abstract of the Memoir of Sir John 
Herschel, read before the Royal Society, which first made me acquainted with 
his observations. It was most distinctly stated that there was " a real differ- 
ence between the chemical agencies of those rays which issue from the cen- 
tral portion of the sun's disc, and those which emanating from its borders have 
undergone the absorptive action of a much greater depth of its atmosphere." 
Therefore the first observation of this is not due to M. Arago, who has only 
very recently noticed the fact in his ' Memoirs on Photometry.' It must not, 
however, from any evidence yet afforded us, be supposed that the peculiar 
protecting influence of the extreme red ray, and the similar influences of the 
lateral edges of the spectrum, are of precisely the same order. It would rather 
appear that the least refrangible rays have a function arising from a combina- 
tion of chemical and calorific power which is distinct from anything exhibited 
by the other radiations. 

We have now to consider the remarkable fact, that nearly all bodies sus- 
ceptible of receiving any impression from the ordinary red rays assume more 
or less a red colour. This was noticed very early by Daguerre and Talbot, 
and it has been confirmed by every subsequent experimentalist. The cause of 
this production of colour is not very evident ; but -we must regard it as due 
to the new molecular arrangement produced by the chemical changes effected 
by these radiations. From time to time we hear of the productions of co- 
loured images of prismatic spectra, and lately M. Edmund Becquerel has 
created some sensation by exhibiting such images, and also copies of highly 
coloured drawings. 

This is not a novelty in photographic phenomena. Herschel, in 1839, 
obtained a coloured spectrum upon a paper prepared with two washes of a 
solution of nitrate of silver and a wash of muriate of soda applied between each. 
This was described as " coloured with sombre, but unequivocal tints imitating 
those of the spectrum itself." In the same year I found that papers prepared 
■ with muriate of hary tes and nitrate of silver, would, after having been allowed 
tc darken, if placed under diflPerent coloured media, assume, to a certain extent, 
t\.z ccictirs cf the rays permeating them. " After a week's exposure to dif- 
fused light, it became bright red under the red glass, a dirty yellow under the 
yellow, a dark green under the green, and a light olive under the blue=^." 
Again, in 1844, I was fortunate enough to obtain very decided evidences of 
colour upon papers prepared with the fluoride of potassium and nitrate of 
silver f. 

M. Edmund Becquerel, investigating the conditions of the spectrum -with 
particular reference to its influences on the Daguerreotype plate, was led to 
regard the spectrum as consisting of two remarkable divisions, which he calls 
rayons excitateurs and rayons continuateurs ; the least refrangible rays being 
supposed to continue the action set up by the chemical or most refrangible 

* Philosophical Transactions for 1840, pt. J, p. 43. t Researches on Light, p. 106. 



146 REPORT — 1850. 

rays. For example, a Daguerreotype plate being impressed in the camera 
with its dormant, invisible image, is placed under the influence of radiations 
■which are deprived of their actinism, and yet the image is slowly and steadily 
developed. On this curious question the papers of M. Claudet should also 
be consulted. M. E. Becquerel's classification of the effects observed, which 
is as follows, is good : — 

1st series. Bodies exhibiting a physical modification without any change 
in composition. 

2nd series. Elements combined under solar influence. 

3rd series. Combination destroyed in part or entirely by the influence of 
solar rays. 

If a careful examination is made of spectra chemically formed, it will 
be found that scarcely one of those impressed upon papers prepared with 
inorganic matter exhibit any influence over the space covered by the yel- 
low ray ; that is, the most luminous portion of the prismatic spectrum pro- 
duces no chemical change upon them. This is only a confirmation of the 
observation of Berard previously mentioned. As the sensibility of the pho- 
tographic preparation is increased, we find the resulting chemical impression 
considerably lengthened : it is not only extended to a greater distance beyond 
the utmost extent of the luminous image, but chemical change becomes evi- 
dent more nearly up to the centre of the yellow ray, — the point of maximum 
illuminating power. In no case however has any decided effect been observed 
up to this point. I have been disposed to refer this to a power of light an- 
tagonistic to that of chemical action. But it must not be disguised, that the 
phoenomenon appears to be explicable also upon some view of interference, 
although this is by no means reducible to any satisfactory condition in the 
present state of our knowledge. It has been proved by experiments with 
coloured media, which have been employed to analyse the prismatic spectrum, 
that every luminous ray may he made to protect chloride of silver from chemical 
change. Thus lines of blue, yellow and red rays, with their interblending 
tints (after having been filtered by a glass stained with oxide of silver), have 
been thrown upon highly sensitive photographic papers, which have been at 
the same time under the influence of diffused light ; and it has been found, 
that although every part of the paper, except that portion covered by the spec- 
trum, has been deeply darkened, the whole of this line has been protected 
and preserved perfectly white*. We have usually been accustomed to speak 
of the chemical agency of the solar radiations, as belonging in their varieties 
to some particular coloured ray. Thus the yellow ray has been regarded as 
the least chemical, and the blue as the most energetically so. Evidence how- 
ever has been afforded to show that the blue ray may be deprived of its 
chemical power, and we shall i^resently see that some forms of chemical 
change are in a peculiar manner determined hy the raj^s emanating from the 
yellow band. Therefore, without in any way interfering with any theoiy of 
luminous action, we can no longer regard the colour of a particular ray as 
an indication of its power to produce chemical change. Colour is a peculiar 
function of light, not directly connected with any chemical piiEenomena. 

It becomes important to ascertain the effects of transparent media on these 
chemical radiations. It was shown by Malagutti that certain colourless 
transparent media possessed a power, in virtue of which the chemical action 
of the rays permeating them was very frequently exalted f. This subject has 
also been investigated by M. Biot and M. Edmund Becquerel, who have 
* British Association Reports, 1848, Swansea. Lecture bv R. Hunt, Royal Institution, 
Atheuncum, 1849, No. 1122, p. 438. 
f Annal, de Cliimie, vol. Ixxii. 5. 



CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 147 

equally remarked the differences produced on actinic power by colourless 
screens. 

The exalting or depressing power of certain media was also particularly 
examined by Sir John Herschel, who observed very early in the progress of 
his inquiries, that if a piece of thin post-paper, merely washed with nitrate 
of silver, was exposed to clear sunshine, partly covered by and strongly 
pressed into contact with glass, and partly projecting beyond it, the portion 
under the glass was very much more affected than the part exposed, it being 
often blackened, in the same time, to a tone which would require at least three 
times the exposure uncovered. In practice photographers have availed them- 
selves of this, and it is usual to place the prepared paper in the camera behind 
a plate of glass. 

The philosophy of this is ill understood : it has been thought to be due to 
the circumstance, that the most transparent glass abstracts a portion of light, 
and thus leaves the actinic power more free to act on the sensitive material. 
The entire question demands a more attentive examination than it has hitherto 
received. The peculiar action of coloured media is more accurately defined; 
and as a knowledge of the influences exerted will have its value in guiding 
new observers, the more decided and peculiar cases of obstruction to the ac- 
tinic radiations must be given. It cannot however be too strongly impressed, 
that every variety of glass or fluid media employed should be submitted to 
prismatic examination, since the colour alone is not a guide to the quality of 
the radiations permeating a particular medium. 

Supposing the effect of exposure of a standard photographic preparation to 
the direct solar radiations in a given time to be represented by 100, the action 
produced by the interposition of coloured media is relatively shown in the 
other numbers. Although many specimens of blue glass show an exalting 
effect, and consequently should be represented by a number in excess, it is 
thought advisable to regard them as equal to unshaded exposure. 

Glasses, 

Exposure to unshaded sunshine + 100 

Ruby glass coloured with oxide of gold which insulates perfectly 

the red rays — 25 

Brown red coloured with copper, which admits the permeation of 

all the rays below the orange, and a faint line of blue .... — + 30 
Orange glass coloured with iron, cutting off the violet, indigo, and 

nearly all the blue rays — 10 

Lemon-yellow glass, probably coloured with iron, reducing the 

spectrum to three patches of blue, red and yellow — 8 

Yellow glass stained with oxide of silver — 3 

Green glass, — a deep pure green produced by oxide of copper . . -f 74 

Blue glass, cobalt, obliterating all the mean luminous rays, and 

exhibiting the extreme red in great purity + 100 

Fluids. 

Red. — Carmine dissolved in ammonia ; — cutting off all the rays above 
the red, except when in very thin layers it admits a small line of 
the violet — 20 

Orange yellow. — Solution of bichromate of potash with a little sul- 
phuric acid ; giving but a trace of the blue rays, all the least re- 
frangible being well-defined — 7 

Lemon yellow. — Quadro-sulphuret of lime of Dalton; — cutting off all 

the prismatic rays above the inner limits of the blue 5 

L 2 



148 REPORT— 1850. 

Green. — Muriate of copper and iron ; — blue, green, yellow and orange 

rays permeate freely + 64 

Blue. — Ammonia, sulphate of copper ; — obliterating all the rays below 

the green + 100 

When the mark + is affixed to a number it indicates that the kind of 
action detected is positive, or belongs to the so-called chemical rays (actinism); 
on the contrary, when — is employed, the action detected belongs to that 
class which is associated with the least refrangible rays, or is of a negative 
order. Thus, when the ruby-glass is employed, the chloridated photographic 
paper is very slowly changed to a red, as under the red rays ; but in the case 
of the brown-red glass, an action, both positive and negative, is detected : 
the resulting colour is a gray ; but if the spectrum is passed through such a 
medium, the impression is made at the two extremities of the spectrum -|- by 
the small portion of the blue ray which passes and — by the ordinary red ray. 
From these notices it will be seen to how large an extent we can succeed in 
separating the phaenomena of the solar radiations from each other. Under 
one set of conditions, we can command a large amount of light, which possesses 
no positive chemical power ; while under another set, we can cut off nearly 
all the light, and admit freely the full amount of the chemical rays (actinism). 

Again, it must be remembered that we can, as Melloni pointed out*, sei)a- 
rate the luminous and calorific radiations very readily from each other. By 
the use of a green glass stained with oxide of copper, for example, a very 
large amount of the calorific rays are obstructed ; and I have found that a very 
slight tint of green is quite sufficient to stop those radiations which have been 
distinguished by Sir John Herschel as parathermic rays, and to which in all 
probability the browning of the autumnal leaves is due. From a series of 
experiments undertaken at the request of the Commissioners of Woods and 
Forests, I was induced to advise that a glass, stained slightly green with the 
oxide of copper, should be employed for glazing the Palm House in the Royal 
Botanical Gardens at Kew. This advice was acted upon ; and as far as the 
opportunities of observing enable us to form an opinion, nothing can be more 
satisfactory f. 

A peculiar difference is found in the action of the solar spectrum on vege- 
table colours. This branch of the inquiry has particularly engaged the atten- 
tion of Sir John Herschel, and, notwithstanding the interesting nature of the 
inquiry, it appears to have been pursued by but one other experimentalist, 
Mrs. Somerviile. 

It is proved that the chemical action of the solar rays upon all vegetable 
juices is confined within the limits of the luminous radiations, no change 
having been detected over those dark spaces which are purely chemical and 
calorific. 

In the instance of gum guaiacum, it was observed by Dr. WoUaston, that 
paper \yashed with its tincture was changed to a blue or green by the most 
refrangible rays, and restored again to its original yellow colour by the least 
refrangible, which he regarded as due to the heat of those rays. M. Biot 
has shown that that portion of the resin soluble in water was not affected by 
the sun's rays. These experiments have been confirmed by Herschel, who has 
however proved, contrary to the opinion of Wollaston, that the return of the 
colour was not due to heat alone ; since beyond the luminous rays, where the 
calorific effect is at a maximum, no such change is produced. " Obscure 

* Bibliotheqiie Universelle de Geneve, No. 70, for October 1841. 

t On the Coloured Glass employed in glazing the New Palm House in the Royal Botanic 
Garden at Kew (Report of the British Association for 1847). 



CHEMICAL ACTION OP THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 149 

terrestrial heat is shown to be capuhle of assisting and being: assisted in operatino- 
this peculiar change, by those rays of the spectrum, whether luminous or 
thermic, which occupy its red, yellow and green regions ; while on the other 
hand it receives no such assistance from the purely thermic rays beyond the 
spectrum, acting under precisely similar circumstances, and in an equal state of 
condensation." The action of the solar rays is jjositive, that is to say, vege- 
table colour is destroyed ; but in most cases it is susceptible of restoration by 
chemical agents. When vegetable colours have been removed — bleached — 
by th» action of bleaching agents, they may be restored by the action of the 
sun's rays. If exposed to the action of the prismatic spectrum, it will be 
found that the restoration of colour is operated by rays complementary to those 
which destroy it in the natural state of the paper; " the violet rays being the 
most active, the blue almost equally so ; the green little, and the yellow, orange 
and most refrangible red not at all*." 

Although the restoration of vegetable colours is occasioned by rays within 
the limits of the luminous spectrum, it must be remembered that the green, 
yellow and orange rays — those having the most illuminating power, — are, in 
nearly all cases, inactive. The effects would appear to be due to the com- 
bined influences of the light and of the chemical agency, whatever it may be. 
But even under this view a peculiar difficulty presents itself; we find for ex- 
ample the blue rays, or the actinic power associated with that colour, destroy- 
ing a vegetable colour ; and then, having used a chemical agent, — as sul- 
phurous acid — to destroy that colour, it can be restored by the action of the 
orange or red rays. The peculiar variations in the scale of action which we 
find in almost every different substance exposed to solar influence, presents 
the greatest difficulty to any theoretical view of the physical constitution of the 
sunbeam. 

Mrs. Somerville has pointed out some very remarkable actions of the 
spectrum on vegetable juices f. The colouring matters examined by this. 
lady were derived from the 

Pomegranate. Scarlet Geranium. 

Globe amaranthus. Scarlet Balsam. 

Plumbago auriculata. Dahlia. 

Beet root. Scarlet Zinnia. 

Rose Verbena. "Walnut. 

Nasturtium. Fig. 

These were sometimes employed pure, in other cases they were united with 
common salt, some acid, or carbonate of soda. The differences produced were 
singular, presenting, as in the case of the silver salts, a variation in the scale of 
action in every case. The maximum amount of action was observed, however, 
to lie between the yellow and the green rays, and seldom extending beyond the 
blue ; showing that those radiations which exert the most energetic action on 
metallic compounds have little or no influence on the products of the vegetable 
Avorld. In nearly all cases a pecuhar effect was observed at the least refran- 
gible end of the spectrum. Coloured spots were produced, which appear to 
correspond to the rays named by Sir John Herschel, the Parathermic rays ; 
and at the same time, as the evidences of heat were clear from the drying of 
the paper, it became apparent that some peculiar chemical change was being 
induced. At present, however, there is nothing determined as to the real 
agency producing this set of phsenomena. Allusion having been made more 

* Herschel, Philosophical Transactions, Part 2 for 1842, p. 192. 

t On the Action of the Rays of the Spectram on Vegetable Juices (Philosophical Trans- 
actions, 1846, p. 111). 



150 BEPOET — 1850. 

than once to a set of rays acting in some respects like heat, and at the same 
time exhibiting chemical power, it appears necessary that the mode of ascer- 
taining the positions of the points of maximum calorific power should be de- 
scribed. 

Paper being blackened or strongly coloured, is stretched on a fi-ame, so 
placed that a well-defined luminous spectrum is thrown iipon its uncoloured 
side. This is then washed over with alcohol or ether, and the points of greatest 
heat are shown by the rapid evaporation which takes place. After a few 
minutes a whitish spot begins to appear considerably below the red ray^which 
increases in breadth until it equals that of the luminous spectrum, and in 
length till it forms a long appendage exterior to the spectrum, and extends 
moreover within it and beyond the mean yellow ray. By applying a second 
wash of alcohol or aether, thermographic spots are produced still lower than 
the first heat spot, which show a very remarkable and unexpected extension of 
calorific radiations. The want of continuity in the calorific spectrum is its 
most striking phaenomenon ; it consists of four distinct patches, extending to 
a distance below the luminous rays equal to the whole length of the spectrum, 
and a prolongation through the luminous rays up to the end of the violet rays. 
The parathermic rays can scarcely be said to have a defined place amid the 
calorific radiations, but they are usually most strongly manifested in the red 
rays. In this part of the Report it appears likely to prove useful, if we give 
a list which shall as correctly as possible exhibit most of those bodies which 
have been shown to be susceptible of chemical change under the influence 
of the solar radiations, distinguishing the date of observation as far as it can be 
ascertained, and the name of the earliest observer. Although every care has 
been taken in examining authorities, it is not improbable that some errors of 
dates will occur, — but it is hoped they maj' be few and trivial, — the date of 
publication always being given as correctly as it can be ascertained. 

Silver. 

Nitrate of Ritter 1801 

(photographically employed) Wedgwood and Davy 1802 

with organic matter J. F. Herschel 1839 

with salts of lead J. F. Herschel 1839 

Chloride of C. W. Scheele 1777 

(photographically employed) { SoT""^; ." [ .' .' .' '. '. [ [ ITsl 

darkened, and hydriodic salts Fyfe, Lassaigne 1839 

Iodide of (photographically used) {njan^'^: ! : ! : ! : .' ! ! ! .' 1^840 

with ferrocyanate of potash Hunt 1841 

with gallic acid (Calotype) Talbot 1841 

with protosulphate of iron (Ferrotype) Hunt 1844 

with iodide of iron (Catalysotype) . , Woods 1844 

Bromide of Bayard 1840 

Fluoride of Channing 1842 

Fluorotype Hunt 1844 

Oxide of Davy 1803 

with ammonia Uncertain. 

Phosphate of Fyfe 1839 

Tartrate — Urate — Oxalate — Borate, &c. . . Herschel 1840 

Benzoates of Hunt 1844 

P'ormiates of Do 1844 

Fulminates of Do 1842 



CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 151 



Silver Plate. iqqq 

With vapour of iodine (Daguerreotype). ... Daguerre l»rfy 

With vapour of bromine Goddard 1840 

With chlorine and iodine Ciaudet . . . . : 1840 

With vapour of sulphur Niepce 1820 

With vapour of phosphorus Niepce 18^0 

Gold. fRumford 1798 

Chloride of |Herschel ' 1840 

Etherlal solution of Rumford 1798 

Etherial solution of, with percyanide of po- 

• tassium • ■ •• ■ Hunt 1844 

Etherial solution of, with protocyanide of 

potassium Do 1844 

Chromate of ^°- ^ ' \ iclo 

Plate of gold and iodine vapour Goddard 1842 

Platinum. 

Chloride of Herschel 1840 

Chloride of, in ether Herschel 1840 

Chloride of, with lime Herschel 1832 

Iodide of Herschel 1840 

Bromide of . Hunt -. 1844 

Percyanate of ■ • • Do 1844 

Mercury. 

Protoxide of Uncertain. 

Peroxide of Guibourt. 

Carbonate of Hunt 1844 

Chromate of Do 1843 

Deutiodide of Do 1843 

Nitrate of Herschel 1840 

Protonitrate of Herschel 1840 

Chloride of BouUay 1803 

Bichloride of Vogel 1806 

Iron. 

Protosulphate of. 
Persulphate of. 
Ammonia citrate of. 
Tartrate of. 

Attention was first called to the very 
* peculiar changes produced in the iron 

salts bv • ■ ■ Sir John Herschel. . . . 1845 

' \"''^„"'. ^, N fScheele 1786 

Cyanic compounds of (Prussian blue) . | Dgsmortiers 1801 

Ferrocyanates of Fischer 1795 

Iodide of Hunt 1844 

Oxalate of Do 1844 

Chromate of Do 1844 

Several of the above combined with mercury Herschel 1843 

Copper. 

Chromate of (Chromatype) Hunt 1843 

dissolved in ammonia Do 1844 



}' 



152 REPORT — 1850. 

Copper. 

Sulphate of. Hunt 1844 

Carbonate of Do 1844 

Iodide of Do 1844 

Copper-plate iodized Talbot 1841 

Manganese. 

Permanganate of potash Frommherz 1824 

Deutoxide and cyanate of potassium Hunt 1844 

Muriate of Do 1844 

Lead. 

Oxide of (the puce-coloured) Davy 1 802 

Red lead and cyanide of potassium Hunt 1844 

Acetate of lead Do 1844 

Nickel. 

Nitrate of 

with ferroprussiates ^Do 1844 

Iodide of 

Tin. 

Purple of cassius Uncertain. 

Cobalt Hunt 1844 

Arsenic sulphuret of Sage 1803 

Arsenical salts of "^ 

Antimony | 

Bismuth >Hunt 1844 

Cadmium j 

Rhodium J 

Chromium. 

Bichromate of potash Mungo Ponton 1838 

-with iodide of starch E. Becquerel 1840 

Metallic chromates (Chromatype) Hunt 1843 

Chlorine and Hydrogen Gay-Lussac & Thenard 1809 

Chlorine (tithonized) Draper 1842 

. • and ether Cahours 1810 

Glass, manganese, reddened Faraday 1823 

Cyanogen, solution of Pelouseand Richardson 1838 

Methyle Cahours 1846 

r Petit 1722 

Crystallization of salts influenced by light< Chaptal 1788 

LDize 1789 

„, , r Schulze 1727 

P^^^P^"'""^ JRitter 1801 

in nitrogen Beckman 1 800 

Phosphorus and ammonia Vogel 1806 

Nitric acid decomposed by light Scheele 1786 

Fat matter Vogel 1806 

Development of pores in plants Labillardiere ■ 1801 

Vitality of germs Michellotti 1803 

Resinous bodies (Heliography) Niepce 1814 

Asphaltum Niepce 1814 

Resin of oil of lavender Niepce and Daguerre. . 1830 

Guaiacum Wollaston 1803 



CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 153 

Resinous bodies (Heliography) . 

Bitumens all decomposed Daguerre 1839 

All residua of essential oils Daguerre 1839 

Flowers, colours of, expressed, and spread 

upon paper Herschel 1842 

Yellow wax bleached Senebier 1791 

TLicetas 1646 

j Kircher 1646 

Phosphorescent influences of solar rays . . < Canton 1768 

! Biot 1840 

[^E. Becquerel 1839 

Vegetation in stagnant water Morren 1841 

Influence of light on electrical phaenomena . E. Becquerel 1839 

Magnetism induced hj Solar Rays. 
Affirmative. Negative. 

Morichini 1812-13 Configliachi 1813 

Moscati 1812-13 Firmas 1819 

Grotlhuss 1812-13 Berard 1819 

es..'pa 1816 Seebeck 1829 

Ridolfi 1816 Riess and Moser 1829 

Playfair 1817 Berzelius 1829 

Christie 1826 Matteucci 1829 

Baumgartner 1826 Kastner 1832 

Somerville : 1826 Haser 

Mark Watt 1827 

Barlocci 1829 

Zantedeschi 1829 

Moleyns 1842 

Knox, G. J. & T 1840 

This array of names will show the exceeding degree of uncertainty which 
hangs about the supposed magnetic results ; and, notwithstanding the ela- 
borate experiments of Riess and Moser*, it does not appear safe, as they 
require of us " to reject totally a discovery which for seventeen years has at 
different times disturbed science." 

Memoirs, 8tc. embracing hifluences of Light on Organic Bodies. 

Experiments upon the influence of light on plants. ... B. C. Meese. . 1775 

Experiments on ditto Priestley .... 1 779 

r 1782 

Experiments on vegetation Ingenhousz < 1784 

t 1786 

f 1782 

Physico-chemical memoirs Senebier . . < t «qo 

Observations on Ingenhousz's experiments De la Ville . . 1783 

The effects of light on certain plants Tessier 1783 

On the influence of light Berthollet 1786 

f 179*^ 

On vegetable nutrition Hassenfratz < „_^ 

On the green colour of vegetables exposed to light. . . . Humboldt . . 1792 

Experiments on germination Lefeboure . . 1799 

* Edinburgh Journal of Science, N. S. No. 4, p. 225. 



154 REPORT 1850. 

Experiments relative to the influence of light on some 

vegetables DecandoUe . . 1 801 

On the vegetation of plants Woodhouse . . 1801 

Chemical researches on vegetation Saussure .... 1803 

Foxglove leaves in dry powder. 

Hemlock ditto 

Henbane ditto 

Aconite ditto 

Jalap root ditto . 



posure to light. First particu- 
larly noticed in the Journal of 
the Pharmaceutical Society, 1 846. 



Ordinary observation has shovi^n 
that all these preparations lose 
colour, and are much deteriorated 
««io|j .u^i, uiii.^^ I j^ their medicinal values by ex- 
Ipecacuanha ditto ' ^ T , ^ T-.- ^ \.- 

CascariUa bark ditto P"'"^"^ ^^ ^'-^^- ^''^^ ^^^^icu- 

Valerian root ditto 

Rhubarb root ditto 

Ginger root ditto 

Uber Pflanzencrregbarkeit im AUgemeinen und Beson- 

deren Ritter 1808 

Recherches sur la respiration des plantes exposees a la 

lumiere du soleil Ruhland .... 1816 

On the action of light on plants, and of plants upon the 

atmosphere Daubeny .... 1836 

On the action of light upon the colour of the river 

sponge J. Hogg .... 1838 

Experiments and observations on light which has per- 
meated coloured media, and on the chemical action 

of the solar spectrum Hunt 1840 

Influence de la lumiere sur les i*acines Payer 1843 

On the action of yellow light in producing the green 

colour, and indigo light the movements of plants . . P. Gardner . . 1844 

On the influence of light on plants Hunt 1844 

Note on the decomposition of carbonic acid by the 

leaves of plants under the influence of yellow light. . Draper 1844 

Influence des rayons solaires sur la vegetation Zantedeschi . . 1844 

Ueber die Respiration der Pflanzenblatter Grischow .... 1845 

Ueber die Nahrungsstofi"e, aus denen die Pflanzen in 

Lichte das Sauerstoffgas ausscheiden C. H. Schultz 1845 

Tendance de certaines racines a fuir ou rechercher la 

lumiere Durand .... 1845 

Quelques experiences sur la respiration des plantes . . Matteucci. . . . 1846 

Reports of British Association Hunt 1846 

Directions of plants as influenced by light Maccaire .... 1847 

Report. Influences of the solar rays on the growth of 

plants. British Association Hunt 1847 

As the last Report comprehends the principal points of interest in con- 
nexion with the influences of the solar radiations on vitality, and we have 
now aff^orded the means of referring to the inquiries of those numerous au- 
thors who have examined this part of the subject, it is thought unnecessary 
to dwell on this important subject in the present Report. 

From the extensive list which has been given, it will be seen that the action 
of the solar radiations, — so far from being confined, as it was formerly thought 
to be, to a few peculiar chemical compounds, which, existing in a state of 
exceedinglj' nice equilibrium, were liable to have their affinity disturbed by 
the operation of any external force, — is so extensive, that scarcely any body in 



CHEMICAL. ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 155 

nature, organic or inorganic, is independent of the solar influences, although 
their scales of sensibility to them are widely different. 

There are a few remarkable chemical facts recorded, which prove j'^et further 
how very extensive is the operation of the actinic force, and point at the same 
time to a line of inquiry, which is only now beginning to engage attention. 

Dumas was the first to point out, that when crystallizable acetic acid 
C^ H' O^ + HO is exposed to sunshine in an atmosphere of dry chlorine, it is 
gradually decomposed, and that an equal volume of chlorine completely takes 
the place of the hydrogen, a new acid composed of C 4 CI 3 3 + HO 
(chloracetic acid) resulting*. 

Auguste Cahours has shown that some very striking effects are pro- 
duced by sunshine on the combination of chlorine and some ethers of the 
methylic seriesf. " La preparation de I'oxalate et du formate de methylene 
perchlores est des plus simples : il suffit, en effet, de placer ces produits bien 
purs et bien sees dans des flagons remplis de chlore desseche, puis d'exposer 
ces derniers a la radiation solaire directe. Dans les premiers moments, I'at- 
taque est excessivement vive, mais elle se ralentit a mesure que la chlorura- 
tion fait des progr^s ; on reconnait que I'operation est terminee, lorsque, apr^s 
une exposition de plusieurs jours a un soleil assez vif, la teinte de I'atmo- 
sphere du flagon ne s'affaiblit plus." 

At the meeting of the British Association at Cork, Dr. Draper of New York 
communicated the very remarkable fact, that chlorine which has been exposed 
to daylight or sunshine possesses qualities which are not possessed by chlo- 
rine made and kept in the dark. It acquires from that exposure the property 
of speedily uniting with hydrogen, under circumstances in which the combi- 
nation with ordinary chlorine is effected with very great slowness. Dr. Draper 
found that if a flask of chlorine and hydrogen was placed in an atmosphere 
of chlorine, and then exposed to sunshine, no formation of hydrochloric 
acid took place. The agent producing the combination had been stopped by 
the yellow atmosphere of the chlorine surrounding the flash. It was now found 
that if this chlorine which had stopped the chemical agent, was itself mixed 
with hydrogen, it combined, under the influence of the weakest light, with an 
energy which unsolarized chlorine did not exhibit. Hence Dr. Draper inferred, 
" that those rays are absorbed by ponderable bodies, and that they become 
latent after the manner of heat |." He also concludes, that the indigo rays are 
the most active in effecting the formation of hydrochloric acid, and that the in- 
digo rays are absorbed by the solarized chlorine. That remarkable changes do 
take place under the influence of sunshine in elementary bodies is further shown 
by the experiments of Berzelius on phosphorus §. This chemist has proved 
that when phosphorus, dissolved in ether, oil, or hydrogen gas, is exposed to 
sunshine, it undergoes a peculiar modification, and separates under the form 
of red phosphorus ; and that in the Torricellian vacuum it sublimes in red 
scales. 

I have also shown 1| that a solution of protosulphate of iron in distilled 
water, (freed of, and carefully kept from the air,) exposed to sunshine, acquires 
a property of precipitating gold and silver from its solutions with much greater 
rapidity than a similar solution kept in the dark. In the same paper I have 
given some experiments, proving that with certain compounds precipitation 

* Sur les Tj^pes Chimiques, Ann. de Ch. et Ph. Ixxiii. 77. 

f Recherches relatives a Taction finale du chlore sur quelques ethers composes de la serie 
methylique sous I'influence de la radiation solaire. Comptes Rendus, xxiii. 1070. 
J On Tithonized Chlorine. Philosophical Magazine, July 1844. 
§ Traite, torn. i. 258. 
II Contributions to Actino-Chemistry. Phil. Mag. 1845, 



156 REPORT— 1850. 

goes on much more rapidly in light than in darkness, and that peculiar 
chemical changes take place in virtue of some solar force. 

These phsenomena stand at present as isolated facts, and serve only to 
show how extensive a field of inquiry is indicated, into which the experimen- 
talist has scarcely ventured. I am not prepared at present to support the 
view which I once entertained, in common with Dr. Draper and others, that 
the results obtained afford evidence of the absorption of any solar radiation. 
We know so little of the constitution of molecules, and of the peculiar powers 
grouped under the name of molecular forces, and variously referred to as ca- 
pillarity, endosmose, catalysis, allotropic and epipolic forces, that it is neces- 
saiy to pause in our consideration of this intricate question. 

The subject of this Report has been investigated with considerable caution 
by M. Edmund Becquerel*. His conclusions in general do not widely differ 
from those of the other investigators already named ; but from these and a 
subsequent series of investigations on the dark lines of the chemical spectrum, 
M. Becquerel expresses his conviction that all chemical change is the result 
of light — luminous power. — " Je ci'ois qu'on pent conclure de I'ensemble des 
faits que j'ai reunis dans ce travail, que les phenomenes lumineux chimiques 
et phosphorogeniques proviennent d'un seul et meme agent, dont Taction est 
modifiee suivant la nature de la matiere sensible exposee a son influence et 
la genre de modification dont cette substance est susceptible." The fact 
noticed by E. Becquerel, and also by Professor Miller and Dr. Draper, that 
the chemical spectrum has the same inactive or dark lines as the luminous 
spectrum, has been thought by some to be conclusive as to the identity of 
the chemical and luminous rays ; but although it certainly proves that the 
agency in both cases obeys a similar law of motion, or is subject to the same 
wave interference, it does not appear necessarily to follow that the two phse- 
nomena, so broadly distinguished in their effects, are the result of a precisely 
similar cause. 

It has been already stated that M. Edmund Becquerel distinguishes the 
most chemically active rays as exciting rays, and the least refrangible rays of 
the spectrum as continuing rays, since he finds that the chemical change 
commenced by one set of rays is capable of being continued by the other set. 
Shortly after this announcement, M. Gaudin found that the red, orange and 
yellow rays not only continue the action on iodized plates, but that they de- 
velope without mercury an image having the same appearance as that pro- 
duced by mercurial vapour. 

This class of phsenomena has been also investigated by M.Claudet, so M'ell 
known for the success with which he has prosecuted Daguerreotype portrait- 
uref. Tliis experimentalist states, as the result of his inquiries, that upon 
silver plates, prepared simply with iodine, all the rays " have the property of 
decomposing the iodide of silver in a longer or shorter time, as they have that 
of producing the affinity for mercury on the bromo-iodide of silver ; with the 
difference, that on the former compound the sei^arate actions of the several 
rays continue each other, and that on the second compound these separate 
actions destroy each other. We can understand, that in the first case, all 
the rays are capable of operating the same decomposition ; and that in the 
second, the aflSnity for mercury, when imparted by one ray, is destroyed by 
another." 

The phEcnomena of phosphorescence have attracted much attention, and 

* Des EfFets produit sur les Corps par les Rayons Solaires. Ann. Ch. et Ph. vol. is. N. S. 
p. 257. 

+ Researches on the Theory of the principal Phaenomena of Photography in the Daguer- 
reotj^ie Process. Phil. Mag. November 1849. 



CHEMICAL ACTION OP THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 157 

in many of the instances, that electricity is an active exciting agent appears 
proved ; but in the phosphorescence, produced by the solar rays, we have 
effects which can scarcely be referred so easily to electrical effect. 

If sulphuret of calcium (Canton's phosphorus) or the sulphuret of barium 
( the Bolognian stone) are exposed to sunshine they become luminous in the 
dark. If a paper covered with either of these substances is rendered luminous 
by exposure to sunshine, and is put under the influence of the solar spectrum, 
two very dissimilar actions occur ; over that portion of the spectrum where 
the chemical rays exert their maximum power the phosphorescence is greatly 
increased, but that portion on which the least refrangible rays fall, is com- 
pletely darkened. If the phosphorescent body is rendered luminous by the 
action of the actinic radiations, this phosphorescence is immediately destroyed 
by the momentary action of the calorific rays of the red spaces of the spec- 
trum. This latter effect is not a mere formation of heat, since by the agency 
of artificial heat we can increase the amount of phosphorescence which is 
excited by the rays at the chemical end of the spectrum. Seebeck appears 
to have been the first to notice this peculiar property of the red rays. 

In 1839 Edmund Becquerel first directed attention to the electricity deve- 
loped during the chemical action excited by solar agency. Plates of platina, 
being placed in acidulated water, were connected with a delicate galvano- 
meter ; and the needle, after the first disturbance having come to rest at zero, 
the spectral radiations, commencing with the red, were thrown upon one of 
the plates. Neither the red, orange, yellow or green rays produced any 
action ; the blue and indigo induced a slight disturbance ; but the violet rays 
and the dark rays beyond the violet gave very decided indications of action 
by the deflections of the galvanometer. These experiments were repeated by 
me with many modifications*. I never obtained any deflections of the gaU 
vanometric needles by any rays below the green ; we must therefore conclude 
that electro-chemical action is due to the most refrangible rays. At the York 
meeting of the British Association I produced some experiments, showing 
that certain electro-chemical decompositions which took place in the dark, 
giving rise to delicate metallic precipitates, were entirely prevented by expo- 
sure to sunshine. It is my intention to prosecute this line of inquiry with 
all care at the earliest opportunity. 

In Poggendorff's 'Annalen' for 1842, M. Ludv/ig Moser announced the 
discovery of some very remarkable phssnomena which he attributed to light. 
These are, " If a surface has been touched in any particular parts by any 
body, it acquires the property of precipitating all vapours which adhere to it, 
or which combine chemically with it, on these spots, differently to what it 
does on the other untouched parts." Dr. Draper desci-ibed som.e similar 
phaenomena in 1840. In three papers, whicli have been translated and 
published in the ' Scientific Memoirs,' Moser has stated all the results which 
he obtained : the deductions from these were, that light was susceptible of 
becoming latent, and that it was continually being radiated as " invisible 
light" from all bodies, different bodies giving off rays of different refrangibi- 
lity. After a very searching examination of all the phsenomena, I arrived at 
conclusions widely differing from those of Moser, and I was induced to refer 
them all to the influence of calorific radiations f. M. Fizeau| states his 
belief that the effects observed are the result of organic matter being trans- 
ferred from one surface to another, and Professor Grove has expressed him- 
self favourable to the same view. I believe, however, that invisible heat 

* Researches on Light, by Robert Hunt, p. 213. 

t On Thermography. Phil. Mag. Dec. 1842. J Comptes Rendus, Nov. 1842. 



158 KEPORT 1850. 

radiation is capable of producing a sensible action on surfaces rendered per- 
fectly free from organic matter. Those interested in this branch of inquiry 
are referred to the ' Scientific Memoirs,' since the subject can scarcely be said 
to belong to this Report. 

I have purposely avoided any special notice of the photographic processes 
which have been discovered during the progress of the investigations we have 
been considering. Herschel, Talbot, Woods, Fyfe, Ponton, the writer of this 
Report, and others, in our own country, have introduced new processes ; and 
Dao-uerre, Becquerel, Lassaigne, Fizeau, Everard, Niepce, &c. on the continent 
have enriched our store. Improvements in the Daguerreotype have been 
effected by Goddard, Claudet and others, until they have brought the silver 
plates to a state of sensil)ility which is almost marvelous. We have recently 
been surprised with an announcement, that by the agency of fluorine the pro- 
cesses on paper are rendered instantaneous, particularly on the calotype variety. 
In justice to myself, I must however claim to have pubhshed, in 1844*, a pro- 
cess called by me " the Fluorotype," which corresponds with the process now 
introduced in France, and which enabled me, with a non -achromatic meniscus 
lens, to procure " good images in the camera in half a minute." If the differ- 
ences between the lenses employed be taken into account, it will be found 
that the result I then obtained was equal to that of which the discoverer of the 
new process (?) now boasts. 

It will be evident that the question which assumes the most prominence 
in our consideration of these remarkable phsenomena is that of the identity 
or otherwise of light and actinism. 

Fresnel has stated that the chemical eifects produced by the influence of 
light are owing to a mechanical action exerted by the molecules of aether on 
the atoms of bodies, so as to cause them to assume new states of equilibrium 
dependent on the nature and on the velocity of the vibrations to which they 
are subjected. 

Arago saysf, it is by no means proved that the photogenic modifications of 
sensitive surfaces result from the action of solar light itself. These modifica- 
tions are perhaps engendered by invisible radiations mixed with light properly 
so called, proceeding with it, and being similarly refracted. 

These views fairly represent the condition in which ihe argument stands, 
and a yet more extensive set of experiments appears to be necessary before 
we can decide the question. It appears however important that we should 
dismiss, as completely as possible, from our minds, all preconceived hypo- 
theses. The phaenomena were all unknown when the theories of emission 
and of undulation were framed and accepted in explanation of luminous effects ; 
and it will only retard the discovery of the truth, if we prosecute our researches 
over this new ground, with a determination to bend all our new facts to a 
theory which was framed to explain totally dissimilar phsenomena. 

We may sum up the amount of our knowledge of the chemical influences 
of the solar radiations as follows : — 

1. The rays, having diff'erent illuminating or colorific powers^ exhibit 
different degrees and kinds of chemical action. 

2. The most luminous rays exhibit the least chemical action upon all in- 
organic matter. The least luminous and the non-luminous manifest very 
powerful chemical action on the same substances. 

3. The most luminous rays influence all substances having an organic 
origin, particularly exciting vital power. 

4. Thus, under modifications, chemical power is traced to every part of the 

* Researches on Light, p. 106. t Comptes Rendus, 1843. 



EXPERIMENTS ON SOME SPECIES OF FERNS. 159 

prismatic spectrum ; but in some cases this action is positive, exciting ; in 
others negative, depressing. 

5. Tlie most luminous rays are proved to prevent all chemical change upon 
inorganic bodies exposed, at the same time, to the influence of the chemical 
rays. 

6. Hence actinism, regarded at present merely as a phaenomenon differ- 
ent from light, stands in direct antagonism to light. 

7. Heat radiations produce chemical change in virtue of some combined 
action not yet understood. 

8. Actinism is necessary for the healthful germination of seed ; light is 
required to excite the plant to decompose carbonic acid ; caloric is required 
in developing and carrying out the reproductive functions of the plant. 

9. Phosphorescence is due to actinism, and not to light. 

10. Electrical phsenomena are quickened by actinism, and retarded by light. 
Numerous other points ' of minor importance will present themselves on 

studying the facts described. Without venturing to obtrude my own views, 
I now leave the subject for that full investigation which it will, I trust, re- 
ceive, as promising beyond all others to enlighten us on those curious phse- 
nomena which appear to link together the organic and the inorganic worlds. 



Dr. Daubeny reported that some little progress had been made by him 
during the present season in the inquiry which was commenced last year, as 
stated in the Reports of the British Association, vol. xviii. p. 56. The object 
he last had in view was to ascertain whether such an addition to the amount 
of carbonic acid in common air, as that which had been shown by the ex- 
periments of the preceding year to be compatible with the health of ferns, 
would tend to promote their growth and luxuriance in a greater degree, than 
the proportion of the gas normally contained in the atmosphere did under 
similar circumstances. 

He therefore had placed three species of ferns, viz. Pteris longifolin, 
Pteris serrulata and Nephrodium molle, under a jar, the air of which vvas 
impregnated with about five per cent, of carbonic acid gas, which amount was 
kept up by occasional additions throughout the whole period during which 
the experiments were continued ; whilst three other ferns of the same kinds 
were kept under a similar jar containing common air without any such 
addition. 

After the expiration of eleven weeks the two sets of ferns presented in 
their general aspect no material difference, although whatever superiority 
there might be, appeared to be on the side of the plants which had grown 
in air containing only the normal amount of carbonic acid. 

In another set of experiments, however, in which two similar sets of ferns 
were watered, the one with rain water, tlie other with water impregnated 
with carbonic acid gas, those under the latter treatment appeared, after a 
time, decidedly more vigorous than the former. 



160 



REl'OBT — 1850. 



Tenth Report of a Committee, consisting of H. E. Strickland, Esq., 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow, and Prof. Lindley, appointed 
to continue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality of 
Seeds. 

The seeds which were collected in 1842 have been sown for the third time 
this season, and tlie results are registered in the accompanying Table, and 
also in the General Summary of the results of these experiments since IS^l, 
which is annexed. 

Besides those named in the General Summary, there have been small 
quantities of many kinds submitted to a single sowing ; but as in most cases 
the probable age at which they ceased to germinate could not be traced, 
they have been omitted. This observation applies more especially to those 
registered in vol. xiii. pp. 96-99, vol. xv. pp. 22-24, and vol. xvi. p. 147, of 
these Reports, where, by glancing at the numbers of each kind sown, it will 
be seen, that a just result could not be arrived at from so slight a test. Those 
kinds hoM'ever which germinated at any known period have been inserted, 
merely to show that vitality had not altogether ceased at such ages. 

We are again indebted to Miss Molesworth of Cobham, Surrej', for many 
packets of seeds from which we selected six kinds, being all that were avail- 
able for our purpose ; the remaining kinds having been either already tested, 
or, if new seeds, were in such small quantities, as would not admit of their 
beino- distributed in conformity with the specified instructions. 

The seeds sent to Cambridge last year were not sown till the present sea- 
son, the results of which have been received and i-egistered in the General 
Summary. 



Name and Date when gathered. 



1842. 

Aconitum Napellus 

Adonis autumnalis 

Amaraiithus caudatus 

Anagallis arvensis 

BiiflFonia annua 

Buphthalmum coidifolium. 
Bupleurum rotundifoliura . 

Coniiim maculatum 

Cytisus Laburnum 

Dipsacus laciniatus 

Elslioltzia cristata 

Erysimum Peroifskianum . 

Helianthus indicus 

Heracleum elegans 

Hyoscyamus niger 

Iberis umbellata 

Iris sibirica 

Latbyrus heterophyllus .... 

Leonurus Cardiaca 

Malcolmia maritima 

Malope graudiflora 

Momordica Elaterium .... 

Nepeta Cataria 

Nicandra physaloides 

Nigellanana 



No. 
sown. 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



100 

50 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

50 

50 

100 

100 

25 

50 

100 

100 

50 

50 

100 

100 

100 

25 

100 

100 

50 



Ox- 
ford. 



74 



Cam- 
bridge. 



Chis- 
wick. 



Time of vegetating 
in days at 



Cam- 
bridge. 



Chis- 
wick. 



10 



20 



ON THE VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



161 



Name and Date when gathered. 



1842. 

26. Orobus niger 

27. Steaactis speciosa 

28. Tetragouolobus purpureus 

29. Trigonella foenum-graecum 

30. Tropaeoluni majus 

31. Cucurbita Pepo, var 

32. Gilia achilleaefoiia 

33. Capsicum 

34. Medicago maculata 

35. Calandrinia speciosa 

36. Callichroa platyglossa 

37. Collomia coccinea 

38. Coreopsis atrosanguinea 

39. Cotoneaster rotundifolia 

40. Crataegus macracantha 

41. „ punctata 

42. Cynoglossum glochidatum 

43. Digitalis lutea 

44. Eutoca viscida 

45. Glauciuiu rubrum 

46. Godetia Lindleyana 

47. Gladiolus psittacinus 

48. Impatiens glanduligera 

49. Lupinus succuleiitus 

50. Nolana atriplicifolia 

51. Oxyura chrysanthemoides 

52. Papaver arnoenum 

53. Phacelia tanacetifolia 

54. Potentilla nepalensis 

55. Sphenogyne speciosa 

56. Acacia pseud-acacia 

57. Alstrcemeria pelegrina 

58. Betula alba 

59. Carpinus Betula 

60. Catalpa cordifolia 

61. Cercis canadensis 

62. Cerinthe major 

63. Cichorium Endivia 

64. Cobsea scandens 

65. Cuphea procumbens 

66. Dolichos lignosus 

67. Galinsogea trilobata 

68. Ilex AquifoUa 

69. Juniperus communis 

70. Liriodendron Tulipiferum 

71. Loasa nitida 

72. Magnolia, sp 

73. Martynia proboscidea 

74. Mesembryantberaum crystallinum 

75. Mirabilis Jalapa 

76. Morus nigra 

77. Ricinus communis 

78. Rudbeckia amplexicaulis 

79. Scorpiunis sulcatus 

80. Tetragonia expansa 

81. Ulex europsea 

82. Quercus Robur 

83. PhcenLx Dactylifera 



No. 
sown. 



50 

100 

25 

50 

25 

15 

100 

25 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

20 

50 

50 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

50 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

20 

200 

100 

50 

50 

50 

150 

6 

50 

25 

100 

100 

100 

50 

100 

15 

20 

100 

25 

100 

15 

150 

25 

15 

100 

10 

3 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



Ox- 
ford. 



12 



Cam- 
bridge. 



11 



48 



40 



17 



Chis- 
wick 



11 



72 



Time of vegetating 
in days at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



10 



17 



12 



12 



1850. 



162 



REPORT — 1850. 



Name and Date when gathered. 


No. 
sown. 


No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 


Time of vegetating 
in days at 


Remarks. 


Ox- 
ford. 


Cam- 
3ridge. 


Chis- 
wick. 


Ox- 

ford. 


Cam- 
bridge. 


Chis- 
wick. 


1844. 


35 
50 
50 

50 
50 
50 

50 


20 

3 












r Sown 
only 

X at 
Ox- 

[ ford. 






1845. 












88 Fedia dentata 




Upwards of 50 years old. 





General Summary of the Experiments from 1841 to 1850 inclusive. 



1. Graminace^. 

1. Zea, Cobbeifs wheat .. 
Zea Mays 

2. Phalaris canariensis 



3. Panicum Miliaceum 

4. Avena sativa 



5. Triticum sestivum , 



„ Mummy wheat 

6. Secale Cereale 

7. Hordeum vulgare 



2. Palmace^. 
8. Phoenix Dactylifera . 



3. Amaryllidace^. 
9. Alstroemeria pelegrina 



,, aurantia .. 

4. Iridace.e. 

10. Sisyrinchium bermudianum 

11 . Iris sibirica 



sp. 



1846 
1848 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1844 
1850 
1848 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1844 
1850 

1845 
1850 

1845 
1850 
1847 

1848 
1845 
1850 
1848 



12 
127 
147 

19 

nil. 
178 
100 
237 

37 

nil. 
210 
163 

nil. 

nil. 
139 
140 

nil. 

4 

167 

nil. 

nil. 
236 

nil. 

nil. 



27 
300 
300 
200 

400 
200 
300 
200 

300* 
300 



300* 
300t 

600 
300 



300+ 



60 



75 



14, 



15, 



23, 



24, 



25, 



4. Iridace^, continued. 

Tigridia Pavonia , 

Gladiolus psittacinus 

5. Liliace^. 

Allium fragrans 

,, senescens 

Camassia esculenta 

Ornithogalum pyrenaicum 

Asphodelus luteus 

Asparagus officinalis — 

6. PiNACEiE. 

Pinus Pinea 

Juniperus communis 

j» " 

7. Betulace^. 

Betula alba 

AJnus glutinosa 

8. Cannabinace^. 
Cannabis sativa 

i> )> 

9. Morace^. 

Morus nigra 

10. Euphorbiace^. 
Euphorbia Lathyris 

Croton, sp 

Ricinus communis 

11. C0RYLACE.a;. 

Fagus sylvatica 

Carpinus Betula 



1846 
1845 
1850 

1846 
1842 
1847 
1848 
1842 
1847 
1850 
1846 
1847 

1846 
1845 
1850 

1845 
1848 

1844 
1849 
1850 

1845 
1850 

1846 
1842 
1844 
1845 
1850 

1848 
1845 



300 
300 



300 



450 
60 



300 



150 
450 



19 



100 



300 



150 



* Preserved (in waxed cloth). f Preserved (in open jar). J Preserved (in waxed cloth). 



ON THE VITAIilTY OP SEEDS. 



163 



11. CoRYLACE^, continued 
Quercus Robur 



12. CUCURBITACE^. 

Momordica Elaterium 



Cucurbita Cucuzza 

„ di Spagna 

Green Egyptian Melon . . 

Marari 

Mellone di Acqua 

„ di Pane Bianca 

Valencian Melon 

Early Cantalupe Melon,. 

Melon from Lisbon 

Melon 

Melon from Cassabak .. 



Cucurbita, sp. 



Bryonia dioica 

13. Passiflorace^. 
Passiflora Herbertiana . . 
Tacsonia pinnatistipula 

14. VlOLACE^. 

Viola lutea 

15. Crucifer^. 

Matthiola annua 

Cheiranthus, sp 

Turritis retrofracta 

Arabis hirsuta 

„ lucida 

Koniga maritima 

Lunaria biennis 

Vesicaria grandiflora 

Iberis umbellata 



Biscutella erigerifolia 
Malcomia maritima ... 



Hesperis matronalis 

Erysimum Peroflfskianum . 



9. Lepidium sativum. 



Ethionema saxatile 

Isatis tinctoria , 

Brassica Napus 



Rapa oleifera 
oleracea 



1845 
1850 

1845 
1850 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1845 
1850 
1847 

1842 
1842 

1846 

1846 
1846 
1842 
1848 
1842 
1846 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1845 
1850 
1846 
1845 
1850 
1846 
1845 
1850 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1848 
1848 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1846 
1844 



2 
20 
50 
11 
50 
11 

4 
37 
19 

5 

nU. 
nil. 

99 

236 
38 
nil. 
36 
nil. 

170 

114 
nil. 
11 

150 

71 

178 

nil. 

66 

82 

195 

19 

1 

15 

15 

323 

4 

nil. 

335 

15 

5 

85 

11 



30 



13 75 



40 
20 
40 
29 
90 
50 
50 
72 
20 

150 

15 

5 

45 

45 

300 



450 

600 
80 

200 

600 
300 

100 
200 

300 
300 

300 
300 

300 
200 
100 
100 
100 
450 
300 

900 
600 
300 
100 
150 



56. Heliophila araboides.... 

57. Schizopetalon Walkeri . 

16. Capparidace^. 

58. Cleome spinosa 

17. Byttneriace^. 

59. Hermannia, sp 

18. Trop^olacejE. 

60. Tropaeolum majus 



,, peregnnum 

61. Limnanthes Uouglasii .. 
19. Malvace^. 

62. Malope grandiflora 



15. Crucifer^, continued 
52. Brassica oleracea 



53. Diplotaxis tenuifolia . 

54. Crarabe maritima .... 

55. Bunias orientalis .... 



63. Kitaibelia vitifolia 

64. Lavatera trimestris 

65. Malva mauritiana . . 
,, moschata . 



66. Hibiscus, sp 

67. Gossypium, sp 

68. Sida, sp 

20. TlLlACE^. 

69. Corchonis, sp 

70. Triumfetta, sp 

21. HYPERICACEJi:. 

71. Hypericum hirsutum .. 
,, Kalmianum 

22. Magnoliace^. 

72. Magnolia, sp 



73. Liriodendron Tulipiferum . 

23. Ranunculace^s. 

74. Clematis erecta 

75. Thalictrum minus 



76. Anemone coronaria 

77. Adonis autumnalis 



78. Ranunculus caucasieus . 



79. Nigeila nana 



80. Aquilegia sibirica 

81. Helleborus foetidus 

82. Delphinium intermedium. 



1844 
1849 
1850 
1846 
1847 
1849 
1850 
1846 
1848 

1846 

1844 

1845 
1850 

1848 
1848 

1845 
1850 
1848 
1848 
1847 
1846 
1846 
1844 
1844 
1846 
1844 

1844 
1844 

1846 
1842 

1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 

1842 
1849 
1850 
1849 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1849 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1850 
1847 
1848 



40 

nil. 

nil. 
4 
6 

57 

2 

165 

30 

61 



52 
nil. 
15 
nil. 

127 
10 
23 
50 
281 
18 
6 

17 

3 

2 

75 

2 
30 

94 

nU. 

4 
nil. 
nil. 
nil. 

nil. 
nil. 
nil. 
nil. 
nil. 
79 
7 
nil. 
nil. 
40 
nil. 
nil. 
nU. 
nU. 



* (In waxed cloth.) 



M 2 



164 



REPORT — 1850. 



23. Rancnculace-e, conii 
32. Delphinium flexuosura 



83. Aconitum Napellus 

84. Paeonia, mixed vars. 



24. Papaverace.*. 

85. Argemone alba 

,, grandiflora 

. Papaver somniferura... 

„ orientale 

„ amccnum 



87. Glaucium rubniin . 



88. Eschscholtzia californica ... 

89. Chrvseis crocea 



sp. 



25. FCMARIACE.E. 

90. Hypecoum procumbens 



91.Fumaria spicata 

26. BERBERIDACE.a:. 

92. Mahoiiia Aquifolia. 

27. Anacardiacejl. 

93. Rhus, sp 

28. Xaxthoxylace^. 

94. Ailantus glandulosa 

29. Linage.*. 

95. Linum perenne 

„ usitatissimum . . 



30. Balsaminace.e. 

96. Balsamina hortensis .... 

97. Impatiens glanduligera. 



31. Geraniace.^. 

98. Pelargonium, sp 

32. CARYOPHYLLACE.E. 

99. BufFonia annua 



100. Dianthus barbatus . 

„ chinensis . 

101. Saponaria annua 

102. Gypsophila elegans. 



103. Silene quadridentata 

„ pendnla 

„ inflata 

,, Armeria alba 

104. Yiscaria oculata 

105. Phamaceum, sp 

33. PORTULACACE^. 

106. Talinum cihat um ... 



nued 
1842 
1847 
1848 
1845 
1850 
1844 
1849 
1850 

1847 
1848 
1846 
1842 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 
184/ 
1842 
1847 

1842 
1842 
1848 

1842 

1844 

1848 

1848 
1846 
1844 
1849 
1850 

1846 
1845 
1850 

1844 

1845 
1850 
1846 
1846 
1847 
1846 
1842 
1848 
1848 
1846 
1848 
1848 
1844 

1846 



10 



nil. 
nil. 
1 
13 
nil. 

nil. 
nil. 

159 
nil. 

73 
nil. 

47 
nil. 

47 

nil. 

124 

4 

nil. 

nil. 

nil. 

5 

nil. 



200 
30) 



300 



150 



300 
300 



600 
100 



300 



50 

150 

100 
200 
450 
300 



150 
150 
150 

62 

300 

300 
150 
450 
600 
500 
100 
200 
150 
100 
450 
100 



33. PORTULACACE^, COtlH 

107. Calandrinia grandiflora 



speciosa 



34. POLYGONACE.E. 

108. Polygonum fagopyrum 



109. Ruraex obtusifolium 



sp. 



35. Nyctaginaceje. 
110. Mirabilis Jalapa 



36. Phytolaccaceje. 

111. Phytolacca decaudra . 

37. Amarantace^. 

112. Amaranthus caudatus . 



38. Chenopodiace-e. 
113. Chenopodium Botrys .. 

„ Quinoa.. 



188 600 



114. Beta vulgaris 

39. Saururace.s:. 

115. Saururus, sp 

40. Mesembryace.*. 

116. Mesembryantheraum cry- 

stallinum 



41. Tetragoxiace.e. 
117. Tetragonia expansa.... 



42. Proteace^. 

118. Leucadendron, sp. .. 

43. Leguminos.^. 

119. Podalyria, sp 

120. Pultensea, sp 

121. Lupinus succulentus 

,, rivularis 



grandifobus 



„ polyphyllus 
„ lucidus 

122. Crotalaria, sp 

123. Aspalathus, sp 

124. Ulex europaea 



125. Spartium Scoparium 

126. Cytisus albus 

,, Laburnum ... 



127. Tetragonolobus purpureus. 

128. Trifolium repens 



nued 
1848 
1842 
1847 
1845 
1850 

1844 
1849 
1850 
1846 
1846 

1845 
1850 

1846 

1845 
1850 

1848 
1847 
1849 
1850 
1848 

1844 



1845 
18.50 

1845 
1850 

1844 

1844 

1844 

1845 

1850 

1842 

1847 

1842 

184 

1842 

1847 

1844 

1844 

1845 

1850 

1848 

1848 

1845 

1850 

1845 

1850 

1844 



nil. 

39 
nU. 
171 

18 

25 

7 

nil. 

162 

13 

30 
nil. 

21 

178 
1 

nil. 

nil. 
171 

14 
155 



94 
1112 

22 
nU. 

19 

113 
2 

85 

nil. 

1 

nil. 

nil. 

1 

1 

nU. 

4 

1 

113 

27 

38 

24 

21 

2 

40 

nU. 

22 



ON THE VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



165 



43 . Leguminos.«, contin 
Trifolium giganticum .. 
sp 

Melilotus Cierulea 

„ leucantha .. 
„ macrorhiza . . 



Trigonella foennm-graecum 
Medicago tnaculata 



Ononis angustifolia- . 

Indigofera, sp 

Psoralea bituminosa 



sp 

Galega sibirica. . . , 

.. sp ■ 

Sutherlandia, sp., 

Colntea, sp ,.. 

Pisum sativum... 



Fullard's German 
Marrow Fat 



.. sp 

Ervum, sp. . 
Vicia sativa . 



141. 



„ lutea 

i» »» 

„ grandiflora. 

Faba vulgaris .... 



„ Augusta Beans 



Canada Beam 



142. 



143. 
144. 



145. 
146. 



Lathyrus annuus 

„ sativus 

„ heterophyUus 



Orobus niger 

Scorpiuras sulcatus 



Coronilla, sp 

iBschynomene, sp. 



ued. 

1846 

1849 

1850 

1846 

1846 

1846 

1849 

1850 

1845 

1850 

1845 

1850 

1842 

1844 

1849 

1850 

1844 

1846 

1844 

1844 

1844 

1844 

1849 

1850 

1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1844 
1846 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1846 
1848 
1848 
1846 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1848 
1848 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1844 
1844 



38 
nil. 

5 

149 

60 

36 

180 

69 

89 

nil. 

71 

113 

1 
28 
46 

7 
107 

9 
16 

5 

1 
94 
15 
nil. 

4 
100 
36 
90 
87 
82 

8 
nil. 
115 
27 
91 
18 
70 
71 
40 
14 
24 
30 

5 
42 
16 
21 

6 
105 
63 
18 
12 
22 

17 

28 



100 

150 
300 
100 
100 
500 
250 
150 

300 
300 
100 
175 
100 

50 
200 
110 
100 
100 

75 
150 
100 



4 
150 
50 
100 
150 
100 
100 

150* 

100 

100 

25 

150 

75 

50 

25 

50 

30 

5 

50 

16 

25 

6 

150 

150 

150 

150 

75 

25 
100 



43. Leguminos.35, contin 

146. iEschynomene, sp 

147. Hallia, sp 

148. Hedysarum, sp 

sp 

149. Clitoria, sp 

150. Erythrina, sp 

151. Phaseolus multiflorus 



sp. 



152. Dolichos lignosus 



sp. 



153. Caesalpinia, sp 

154. Cassia Canarina .. 
" sp 

? „ sp 

155. Tamarindus, sp. .. 

156. Cercis canadensis 



157. Gleditschia triacanthos 

158. Mimosa, sp 

1 59. Adenanthera, sp 

160. Acacia pseud-acacia .., 



44. POMACEJE. 

161. Cotoneaster rotundifolia. 

162. Crataegus macracantha . 

,, punctata 



45. ROSACE^E. 

163. Potentilla nepalensis 



164. Geum, sp. 



sp. 



46. Lythrace,«. 

165. Cuphea procurabens 

47. Rhamnace^ij:. 

166. Trichocephalum, sp. 

167. Phylica, sp 

168. Cryptandra, sp 

48. AaUIKOLIACE^. 

169. Hex Aquifolium 



49. SOLANACE^. 

170. Petunia odorata 

171. Datura Stramonium 



ued. 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1845 
1850 
1844 
1846 
1844 
1846 
1844 
1846 
1844 
1845 
1850 
1848 
1844 
1844 
1845 
1850 

1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 

1845 
1842 
1850 
1842 
1842 
1847 

1845 
1850 

1844 
1844 
1844 

1845 
1850 

1848 
1844 
1850 
1849 
1850 



1 

14 

3 

9 

2 

1 

47 

1 

nil. 

25 

61 

25 

2 

36 

2 

1 

86 

4 

1 

4 

nil. 

nil. 

5 

4 

30 

nil. 

10 

nil. 

4 
nil. 

3 
nil. 

52 
nil. 
nil. 
nil. 
nil. 
3 

45 
nil. 



2 
1 
9 

nU. 
nil. 

nil. 
109 
20 
30 
nil. 



* (In waxed cloth.) 



166 



REPORT — 1850. 



Name. Sown ^ 


8= 

7 

4 

143 

142 

33 

nil. 

! nil. 

) 76 

> 31 

} 41 

J 64 
i nil. 
5 69 
3 214 
B 1 
i nil. 
9 nil. 
7 nil. 
3121 
3 78 

7 nil. 
3 3 

8 nil. 

2 62 

3 84 
8 nil. 
3122 

4 50 
8 nU. 

3130 

3 nil. 

7 

3 nil. 

3 89 

8158 

3150 

8 nil. 

3 79 
8 nil. 
3 135 

2 3 

3 45 
8 nil. 

3 44 
8 nil 

7 nil 

2 3 

3 43 

8 2 


Z 

500 
500 
500 
300 
75 

100 

73 

150 

300 

300 
600 
400 

600 
300 

18 

200 
300 

300 
150 

450 

300 
300 

300 

150 

300 
100 
300 

300 

100 
300 
300 


Name. Sown i 


1 


1 
1 


49. SoLANACE.'E, contini 


led. 
845 3 
L850 8 
1845 3 
1850 i 

1845 ; 
1850 i 
1847 : 

1846 f 

1847 5 

1846 . 

1845 
1850 
1845 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1850 
1842 
1846 
1846 
1842 
1845 
1850 

1842 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1846 
1850 

1846 

1848 

1848 
1845 
1850 

1845 
1850 

1845 
1850 
1846 
.1848 
.1845 
1850 

.1845 
. 1850 
. 1842 
. 1848 
. 1845 
.1850 


58. Labiate, continued. 
198. Dracocephalum denticula- 


847 3 

1845 2 
1850 f 

1849 : 

1850 A 

1848 ; 

1846 . 

1845 
1850 

1848 
1845 

1848 
1846 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1848 
1848 
1848 
1847 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1848 
1848 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1842 
1842 
1845 
1850 
1849 
1850 

1846 

1846 
1850 

1845 
1850 
1848 

1846 
1846 
1846 
1845 
1850 
1846 
11845 


24 ' 
78 . 
5 
1 nil. 

1 nil. 

$ nil. 
5 102 

5 10 
i nU. 

3 3 
3 nil. 

3 6 
3 240 
3126 

8 nil. 

9 nil. 
3 5 
3 6 
3 3 
3 1 
3 475 

8 nil. 

9 nil. 
3 9 

2 nil. 

3 578 

8 1 

9 nil. 

6 nil. 
6 3 
3 46 
8 nil. 

3 nil. 

4 nU. 

3110 

3 17 

5 3 

3 60 
8 nil. 
3 nil. 

3135 
3 120 
3 161 
3 18 
8 nil. 
3114 
3 26 


>60 
500 
500 

300 
60 

300 

150 
600 
1500 

300 
100 
100 
600 
900 

25 

900 
600 

1000 
300 

300 

300 
50 

150 

600 
600 
600 
300 

300 
300 




173.Nicaudra physaloides 






200. Betonica hirsuta 








59. Verbenaceje. 


176. Lycopersicum esculeutum. 

50. ASCLEPIADACE/E. 

177. Asclepias verticillata 

51. CONVOLVULACE^. 


60. Selaginace^. 

202. Hebenstreitia tenuifolia ... 

61. Pedaxiace.*. 

203. Martynia proboscidea 

62. BlGNONIACE*. 

204. Eccremocarpus scaber ... 

205. Catalpa cordifolia 


52. POLEMONIACEJE. 








63. SCROPHULARIACE-*. 

206. Browallia data 




" " 


207. Scbizanthus pinnatus 

208. Verbascum Thapsus 

j> » 


" " 




181. Leptosiphon androsacea... 

182. Polemonium caeruleum ... 

„ gracile 




,, Spartea 




,, Prezii 


53. Hydrophyllace^. 
184. Nemophila atomaria 






" " 




„ calycinum ... 

212. Scrophularia vernalis 

213. Collinsia heterophylla 

214. Pentsteraon, 8 sps 


186. Phacelia tanacetifolia 

»> »» 

54. Plantaginace^. 




215. Mimulus moschatus 


55. Primulace^. 

188. Androsace macrocarpa ... 




217. Veronica peregrina 






56. NOLANACE^. 

190. Nolana atriplicifolia 

57. B0RAGINACE.E. 


64. Campanulace.*;. 

218. Campanula Medium 

65. VALERIANACEiE. 

219. Valeriana officinalis 

220. Fedia dentata 




66. DlPSACACE^. 


192. Echium grandiflorum 

193. Amsinckia angustifolia .. 

194. Cynoglossum glochidatum 

58. Labiat.e. 






67. CoMPOSIT,-E. 

223. Ageratum mexicanum .. 

224. Aster tenella 




225. Callistemma hortensis .. 


196. Horminum pyrenaicum .. 






227. Kaulfussia amelloides 

228. Buphthalmum cordifoliun 




" " 



ON THE VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



167 



67. CoMPosiTJE, continued 

228. Buphthalmum cordifolium 

229. Zinnia elegans 

„ multiflora 

„ grandiflora 

230. Rudbeckia amplexicaulis... 

231. Calliopsis tinctoria 

232. Coreopsis atrosanguinea 

„ Drummondii 

233. Helianthus indicus 

234. Bidens diversifolia 

235. Tagetes patula 

„ lucida 

236. Gaillardia aristata 

237. Helenium Doiiglasii ... 

238. Callichroa platyglossa... 

239. Galinsogea trilobata . . . 

240. Sphenogyne speciosa ... 

241. Oxyura chrysanthemoides. 



242. Madia splendens 

243 . Cladanthus arabicus 

244. Lasthenia glabrata 

„ califomica 

245. Chrysanthemum corona 
rium 

246. Athanasia, sp 

24 7. Ammobiuin alatum 

248. Senecio Doronicum . . .., 

249. Xeranthemum anauum . . 

250. Calendula maritima 

„ officinaUs 

,, pluvialis 

251. Arctotis, sp 

252. Centaurea depressa 

253. Kentrophyllum tauricum . 

254. Carthamus tinctorius 

255. Onopordon tauricum 

„ acanthium .. 

256. Arctium Lappa 

257. Rhagadiolus stellatus 

258. Catauanche ccerulea 



1850 
1848 
1846 
1848 
1845 
1850 
1846 
1845 
1850 
1848 
1845 
1850 
1846 
1848 
1848 
1848 
1848 
1846 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1845 
1850 
1842 
1847 
1847 
1846 
1844 
1848 
1844 
1849 
1850 

1848 
1844 
1847 
18S0 
1846 
1848 
1848 
1848 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1846 
1848 
1847 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1849 
1850 
1847 



nil. 

nil. 

37 
2 

55 

nil. 

3 

138 

nil. 

nil. 

68 

nil. 
124 

20 

nil. 
5 

nil. 
186 

92 

nil. 
100 

nil. 

75 

nil. 

67 

nil. 

nil. 
1 

nil. 
175 
363 

53 

270 

4 

nil. 

122 
16 
1 
nil. 
64 
nil. 
26 
53 

401 
nil. 
nil. 
48 
49 
11 
44 
22 
40 
64 
34 
31 
94 



450 
300 
450 

150 
300 



75 

450 
200 

450 

600 
300 

300 

300 

300 

225 

600 

600 

100 

600* 

400 



450 

25 

600 

600 

100 
200 
600 



100 
300 

25 
300 
150 
100 
300 
100 

50 
600 



262. 
263. 
264. 



67. CoMPOSiTJE, continued 
Cichoriura Endivia 



Tragopogon porrifoKum . . . 
Arnopogon Dalechampii.. 

Scorzonera hispanica 

Picris echioides 

Lactuca sativa 

Borkhausia foetida 

„ rubra 

68. ONAGRACEyE. 

CEnothera tenella 

,, tetraptera 

sp 

Godetia Lindleyana 

if ft 

lepida 

Clarkia elegans 

Eucharidinum concinnum 

Lopezia racemosa 

69. Myrtace^. 
Eucalyptus, sp 

70. LOASACE^. 

Loasa lateritia 

,, nitida 

Bartonia aurea 

71. Umbellifer^. 
Petroselinum sativum 

>i >f 

Carum Carui 

Slum Sisarum 

Bupleurum rotundifolium 

CEnanthe Crocata 

iEthusa cynapiodes 

Foeniculum dulce 

Ligusticum Levisticum .. 



282. Angelica ArchangeUca .., 



1845 
1850 
1848 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1847 
1848 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1848 
1846 

1848 
1850 
1848 
1842 
1847 
1845 
1850 
1842 
1847 
1842 
1847 
1848 
1846 
1848 

1844 

1846 
1845 
1850 
1846 

1844 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1847 
1849 
1850 
1847 
1845 
1850 
1846 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1849 
1850 
1844 
1849 
1850 
1846 



260 

139 
32 

138 
10 
10 
nil. 
32 
73 
1 
nil. 
nU. 
35 

196 

1 

nil. 

nO. 

nil. 
1 

90 

nil. 

15 

nil. 
1 
1 

nil. 
256 
268 



1 

112 
52 
nil. 

160 

42 
1 

nil. 

nU. 
2 
2 

nil. 

nil. 

67 

nil. 

65 
3 
1 

nil. 

84 
4 

35 
2 

nil. 

47 



* (In open jar.) 



168 



REPORT — 1850. 



Name. 


Sown 
ill 




s 

H 


1 
1 


Name. 


Sown 
in 


i 

< 

8 

10 
3 
3 
8 


•a 
S 

^ 

37 
nil. 
95 
144 
nil. 
2 
nil. 


Z 

900 

180 
300 

150 


71. Umbellifer.«, con/in 


ued. 

1844 

1849 

1850 

1845 

1850 

1844 

1849 

1850 


3 
8 
9 
3 
8 
3 
8 
9 


20 
nil. 
nil. 
17 
nil. 
79 
1 
nil. 


300 

150 

300 
200 


71. UMBELIIFER.E, eon/m 


ued. 
1845 
1847 
1848 
1845 
1850 






" " 


286. Scandix brachycarpa 

287. Conium maculatum 

)> )> 

288. Smyrnium Olusatrum 








1842 5 
184710 
1846 3 




*' " 


66 |300 1 


" " 








1 1 



From the above Table we extract the following examples of Plants whose 
seeds have germinated at considerable ages. 

I. At from 10 to 19 years inclusive. 



Cassia canaiina. 

Geum, sp. 

Oxyura chrysantliemoide.s 

CEnotliera, sp. 

Clarkia elegans. 



Allium fragrans 
Camassia esculenta. 
Piuus pinea. 
Cucurbita cucuzza. 
Lupinus grandifolius 
Galega sibirica. 
II. At from 20 to 29 years inclusive. 

Croton, sp. Hedysarum, sp. 

Malva, sp. Clitoria, sp. 

Hibiscus, sp. Pliaseolus, sp. 

Sida, sp. Dolichos, sp. 

Coicliorus, sp. Caesalpinia, sp. 

Triumfetta, sp. Cassia, sp. 

Pultengea, sp. Tamarindus, sp. 

Crotalaria, sp. Adenanthera, sp. 

Galega, sp. Cryptandra, sp. 

iEschynomene, sp. Eucalyptus, sp. 

III, At from 30 to 39 years inclusive. 

IV. At from 4-0 to 49 years mclusive. 
Colutea, sp. Coronilla, sp. 

It will be seen by the above summary, that seeds of no less than 288 ge- 
nera, which illustrate 71 natural families, including too nearly all the kinds 
cultivated for culinary and other domestic purposes, have been collected, and 
to a certain extent tested. 

Many of the kinds show a considerable decrease in the comparative num- 
bers which vegetate after their periodical sowings, and a few kinds have ap- 
parently already ceased to germinate ; but some years must yet elapse before 
the subject can be sufficiently investigated to enable us to submit what we 
should consider a decided and satisfactory statement, respecting the limits 
assigned to the vegetative powers of the seeds in different genera. 

Examples of seeds belonging to any of the natural families not enumerated 
in the above Table, will be very acceptable, and may be addressed to Mr. 
W. H. Baxter, Botanic Garden, Oxford. 



A 



ON THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF INDIA. 169 

On the Aboriginal Tribes of India. By Major- General John Briggs, 
F.R.S., Vice-President of the Ethnological Society of London. 

On the occasion of the meeting of this Association at Oxford, I was pressed 
to read a paper on the Aboriginal tribes of India. At that period my in- 
quiries were incomplete, and I was unable to trace them to any separate 
stock, though it appeared clear they were in almost every respect distinct 
from the mass of the population consisting of Hindus of the Bramanical per- 
suasion. Since that period I have extended my researches, and have given 
two or three lectures on the same subject at the meetings of the Ethnological 
Society in London. 

The Hindus are universally acknowledged to be of that branch of the human 
family denominated by Blumenbach Caucasian, and they believe they in- 
vaded India from the north-west. They were at one time further adva'nced 
in literature, in philosophy, in the science of mathematics, in anatomy, in 
surgery, in medicine in all its branches, in legislation, and even in purity of 
religious doctrines than their contemporaries in other regions of the globe. 

This description will be readily admitted if it can be shown that the Vedas, 
or holy scriptures of this people, date, as is asserted, fourteen centuries before 
our own sera ; and that the commentaries on a code of civil and criminal law 
(of a more ancient date) were written about twenty-seven centuries ago. At 
that period, it appears, from the latter work, that the Hindus had not yet pe- 
netrated further south than the twenty-second parallel of north latitude, 
beyond which (the work states) there tlien existed " extensive forests, in- 
habited by a wild and impure race speaking barbarous tongues." 

Here we find an aboriginal race clearly alluded to, and subsequent in- 
quiries and monumental remains prove that they were a numerous people, 
having established forms of government though living in a very simple and 
rude state of society. 

My investigations lead me to believe that these abnormal tribes, probably 
of one common stock, had previously occupied the whole of the extensive re- 
gion of India, in successive incursions made from some other remote country. 
Though the religious tenets and civil institutions of these aborigines were 
alike, yet two separate hordes subsisted by different means. The one ob- 
tained their food by the chase, dwelling in or near the forests abounding 
with game; the other occupying the open plains, subsisted on the milk of 
their cattle (cows and buifaloes), and fed on the flesh of their flocks of 
sheep. 

These two classes Avere eternally at war, and the same aversion and innate 
hostility agamst each other exist at the present day. At the time the Hiudias 
entered India both classes of this race appear to have been spread over the 
whole surface of the country, under the several denominations of Minas, 
Mers, Bhils, Dhiro Kolies, Mhars, Mangs or Mans, Beders, Dhers, Gowlies, 
Carumba, Cherumars, Morawa, CoUary, PuUy, Pariah, Yenedy, Chenchv, 
Barka, lallary.Gond, Kond, Sawara, Banderwa, Cheru, Bengy, Kooki,Garro, 
Kassia, Hajin, Bhar, Dhanuk, Dhome, with many others of which I have not 
sufficient details. 

Among these tribes the etymologist may without difficulty trace the names 
of many of the territorial divisions which have been assigned to several por- 
tions of India by the Hindus. 

n/r J**"^ Kolwan, from the Koles ; Bhilwan and Bhilwara, from the Bhils • 
Mhar-rashtra, by contraction Mharatta, from the Mhars ; Man Desa, from 
the Mans or Mangs; the city of Beder, from the Beders; Gondwara, from 
the Gonds; Oria-Desa or Orissa, from the Orias ; Kolwan and Koliwara, 



170 REPORT 1850. 

from the Koles ; Bengala, from the Bengies ; Behar, from the Bhars ; Merwar 
or Marwar, from the Mers ; as also the forts of Ajmere, Jessahnere, Com- 
behnere, so called after chieftains of the Mer race, and Ahirwara from the 
Ahirs. 

At what precise period the Hindu invasion from the west first occurred it 
is impossible to say, but the geography of India indicates at once, that that 
race necessarily came through Afghanistan and the Punjab, ere it turned the 
borders of the Great Desert and penetrated in the direction of Dehli. 

One of the ancient Hindu works left to us, indicates that at a very remote 
period a great war broke out between the Sovereign Princes of the Punjab 
and those of the Plain, including Hastnapoor, since called Dehli, and the 
latter people, aided by the Princes of Mathura and others, maintained on the 
field of Panipeet a long and desperate conflict. 

There is every reason to believe that the Hindu race gradually overspread 
the territory of Upper India east and west, between the Himalaya mountains 
and the Great Desert, without penetrating to the south for many centuries ; 
that it enslaved the aboriginal races as it subdued them, compelling them to 
till their own lands as serfs, and took from the latter the whole produce, 
except what was actually required as food for the tillers of the soil. 

The Hindu race introduced into India municipal institutions wherever they 
formed townships. To each of these were attached a certain number of 
families of the aboriginal tribes, as villains or praedial servants of the com- 
munity. The Hindus brought with them also the Sanscrit language, not in 
its present highly refined state, but as a colloquial tongue. Hence it comes 
that the language of the aborigines has in many parts gradually disappeared. 

The historical as well as the religious works of the Hindus, of a compara- 
tively modern date, together with monumental remains existing in sculptured 
edifices and rock caves, all tend to show that no portion of the Peninsula of 
India was subdued by them anterior to the fifth century of the Christian aera. 
About that time it is supposed that the Peninsula became gradually over- 
spread by the Bramanical race. They seem to have entered in two direc- 
tions; the one from Guzerat, gradually extending over Khandeish and Berar 
till they reached to the forests which fringe the banks of the river Wurda, 
where it meets with the Godavery ; the other invasion, according to tradition, 
occurred about the same time. It passed from the valley of the Ganges and 
penetrated southward along the line of coast of the Bay of Bengal, keeping 
within the range of mountains on the east and the Ocean, till after reaching 
the embouchures of the Godavery and the Kistna, the invaders spread out 
over the plain and proceeded southward. It has been assumed that about the 
same period, the Bhudists, a peculiar sect of Hindus, reached the shores of 
Ceylon and Southern India from the opposite coast, and thence proceeding 
northward spread their religious doctrines among the aborigines. About 
the ninth or tenth century the Bhudists and Bramans appear to have met 
from opposite directions, which led to deadly conflicts, and ended in the 
Bramans putting down the Bhudist tenets. 

We have historical proof that the island of Bombay was not subjugated 
to the Hindu rule till the fourteenth century ; and that in the beginning of 
the next century the Mahommedans found princes of the aboriginal race 
occupying in force several strongholds not far from Poona. The town and 
district of Sorapoor, lying between Hydrabad and the Western Mountains, is 
still held by an aboriginal chief with a portion of his tribe ; and within the 
memorv of man the kingdom of Mysore contained several principalities of 
the Becier race. Further south, the Morawas and Collars obtained celebrity 
in modern times by their adhesion to one or other of the European belligerent 



ON THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF INDIA. l7l 

powers (France and England), and evinced fidelity and even devotion to the 
cause of the party which each espoused. Further north we find the vast re- 
gion of Gondwana still peopled almost entirely by the aboriginal race, which 
extends throughout the hilly districts of Orissa in the direction of the valley 
of the Ganges. The territory of Gondwana appears never to have been re- 
duced to the condition of a Hindu state, but has preserved through successive 
ages its institutions, its laws, and its religion intact. 

In the more northern part of India there are recorded instances of princi- 
palities of the aboriginal tribes which have resisted with great resolution and 
sometimes with success the efforts of the Hindus and Mahommedans to sub- 
due them, but at present there is hardly one in existence which retains any- 
thing like independence in the plains ; indeed there are not many of any im- 
portance throughout all India, even in the hills. 

I have described the ancient Hindus as having attained, at a very remote 
period, a high degree of perfection in literature and in science. They were 
not less remarkable for their civil institutions. At whatever period they 
settled in the northern regions of Upper India, there is no doubt that (in 
common with the greater part of the Caucasian family, of which they must be 
deemed a branch) they established throughout the territory they occupied, 
municipal institutions in each village and township, by means of which, the 
inhabitants managed their own aff"airs. Besides this peculiarity of govern- 
ment, the Hindus adopted the practice of dividing their municipalities into 
castes, which could neither eat together nor intermarry. These consisted of 
four principal divisions, from each of which are minor ramifications. 

The four castes comprise, — 

1st. The military, from which are sprung sovereigns and princes, as well 
as warriors. 

2nd. The priesthood, derived entirely from Bramans. 

3rd. The mercantile and mechanical tribes or families. 

4th. The cultivator or landholder. 

As has been stated, these castes never intermarried, and thus kept themselves 
free from any admixture with any other race. 

The Hindus burn their dead. They abstain from eating the flesh of 
horned cattle, and from tasting ardent spirits. They believe in the transmi- 
gration of souls, give themselves up wholly to the guidance of the Bramanical 
priesthood, and are taught to worship their ancient heroes as demigods, who 
are supposed to plead with the supreme God for those who in humility ask 
in repentance. 

The aboriginal races, one and all, differ in every respect from the Hindus. 
Their government is strictly patriarchal; all crimes are punished and disputes 
settled by the award of the elders or heads of tribes assembled. They have no 
prejudices against animal food of any kind, whether the animal be slaughtered, 
or die a natural death. They have no municipalities ; have no laws of caste : 
they bury instead of burning their dead. They have no regular priests, but 
select them for the moment, as necessity requires, out of the lay body. 
These are chosen usually from those believed to possess the power of magic. 
They have no other knowledge of a future state than what they occasionally 
pick up from their intercourse with Hindus or with other people. Instead 
of offering up thankgivings with a grateful heart for all the blessings they 
may enjoy, they confine their prayers to requests from the divinity to gratifj' 
their desires, supply their wants, and avert evil. For these purposes they 
ofi'er up bloody sacrifices. In those parts still unsubdued, such as a great 
part of Gondwana and the contiguous tracts of Goomser and Bustar, and 
in some portion of the country lying farther eastward among the Assam 



172 REPORT — 1850. 

Hills, they continue to make human sacrifices, a practice to which these races 
have been prone, according to Hindu records, from the earliest ages. 

Their offerings are made to the god of the elements, of floods and of the 
soil ; they propitiate the goddesses of contagious and epidemic diseases. They 
also worship power in every shape to avert danger ; hence all beasts of 
prey, such as tigers, bears and leopards, venomous serpents and other rep- 
tiles; as also the elephant and the rhinoceros in a wild state. 

Their domestic habits and institutions have a strong affinity to those of 
the great Tartar family ; they may serve as a specimen of the whole race. 
They employ whipping as a remedy for tertian fever and ague, as practised 
among tiie Turkish hordes in Persia ; and it is also adopted as a remedy for 
violent insanity, for they consider persons so afflicted to be possessed of an 
evil spirit, whom they thus endeavour to expel. 

In some parts both men and women bore their ears and wear heavy rings 
to extend the lower lobe. Unlike the Hindu women, they wear no bodice 
to support tlie breasts, instead of which, in many cases they gracefully throw 
the end of a muslin cloth ten or twelve yards long, as it comes from the loom, 
round the body, and which is tastefully arranged so as to cover the person. 
Their weapons are the sword, the bow and arrow, the javelin, and almost 
universally a bill-hook, which is worn in a belt over the right hip. 

The virtues of this race consist in dauntless courage, fidelity and loyalty to 
their superiors and chiefs, and probity towards those with whom they may 
have entered into engagements. They have great regard to truth, and ex- 
ercise hospitality, and are generous in their dealings with each other, as well 
as with strangers. 

In Rajputana such is the consideration they obtain from the Hindu princes, 
that the latter submit to the form of being placed on the throne by an 
aboriginal chieftain, from whom each receives on his succession a recogni- 
tion of his sovereignty by the impression of a spot of blood fresh drawn from 
the foot of one of the ancient race. 

This act ensures devotion and loyalty ; these are never withheld unless in 
case of some acts of wanton oppression on the part of the sovereign, which 
calls forth resistance and open war. Such are the virtues of the aboriginal 
tribes. 

Among their vices may be reckoned drunkenness on all occasions of do- 
mestic or national festivity. Those who dwell in the forests and mountains 
chiefly subsist (where they can succeed) by plundering or levying tribute on 
the inhabitants in the open plains, on the plea of the latter having dispossessed 
them of their native soil. In their pursuit of this object they seldom commit 
murder, if it can be avoided; but they sometimes practise cruelty on their 
prisoners in order to extort confessions of concealed wealth, or to deprive 
them of the means of escape in the absence of guards, which is effected in 
the latter case by burning the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands of 
their captives. 

Captain Newbold of the Madras army, who has written on the Chenchies 
of the Nalla Malla or Black Mountains, represents those he saw as having 
long bushy hair, thick lips, high cheek bones, and small but piercing eyes. 
Sir Richard Jenkins and Colonel Agnew confirm this description in speaking 
of theGonds; and I believe no instance will be found of those residing entirely 
on the hills having the aquiline nose or the delicacy of feature of the Cauca- 
sian family. In this respect they partake rather of the Tartar or Thibetan 
physiognomy than of the Hindu. 

The remote period of their settlement in India, and the possibility of an 
occasional intermixture with the Hindus, may in some cases have somewhat 



ON THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OF INDIA. 173 

changed their physiognomy from that of their ancestors, so as to render it 
doubtful whether or not they are derived from that branch of the human 
family, though in their habits and institutions they certainly bear a strong 
affinity to the Tartar branch. 

It remains now to say something of their language. It is not disputed 
that when the Hindus came to India from the westward, they brought with 
them that language now recognised as Indo-Germanic, and Avhich pervades 
almost all the spoken languages of Europe, extending from the banks of the 
Ganges westward to the shores of the Atlantic. 

There is the strongest reason to believe that the Hindus occupied the con- 
tinent of India, north of 22 degrees of north latitude, for twenty centuries in 
succession before they invaded the south. Hence our ablest Oriental phi- 
lologists have divided the various dialects in India into two classes called 
the Northern and the Southern groups, viz. the Hindi, Bhirji, Guzeratti, 
Mharatti, Bengali and Oria, constitute the northern group, which consists of 
six languages; and the Gondi, Telugu or Telingi, Canari and Tamili, con- 
stitute the southern group, which consists of four languages. 

Each of these may be subdivided into local dialects, differing from each 
other as much, and even more so than those of portions of the same countries 
in Europe ; but it is not my intention to enter here upon an examination of 
these dialects. 

In the languages of the northern group (especially the Hindi), Sir William 
Jones and Mr. T. H. Colebrooke after much pains found that nearly nine- 
tenths of the words have a Sanscrit origin. This great abundance of Sanscrit 
diminishes as we proceed southwards ; and the language at the extreme point 
of the Peninsula, and that spoken on the Niigherry hills, scarcely contains any 
Sanscrit words at all but those of science and abstract metaphysical terms. 

The Rev. Dr. Stevenson of Bombay, one of the closest investigators of the 
Hindu institutions and languages, and who is well-versed both in the San- 
scrit and in the vernacular tongues of the South, has discovered in the 
Mharatti (which is apparently a Sanscrit dialect) numerous words belonging 
to the southern group. For the purpose of these inquiries he consulted the 
following dictionaries compiled by Europeans, viz. — 

1. Dr. Hunter's Hindu published in 1808 

2. Campbell's Telugu or Teliugi. . „ 1821 

3. Marshrcan's Bengali „ 1828 

4.. Cloughs's Cingali(of Ceylon).. „ 1830 

5. Molesworth's Mhratti „ 1831 

6. Reeves's Canari „ 1832 

7. Rolter's Tamili „ ] 83* 

8. Guzeratti Vocabulary 

Dr. Stevenson carefully compared all these dictionaries one with another; 
and he made out tables placing words of similar sound and meaning in juxta- 
position, by M'hich he traced several hundred vocables to be identical, though 
the nations using them are at the present day unknown to each other, and 
living hundreds of miles apart; but not one of these identical words was of 
Sanscrit origin. 

To Dr. Reinhold Rost of Berlin I am deeply indebted for the aid which 
he has aff'orded me in my philological investigations, from his accurate know- 
ledge of the Sanscrit and some of the languages of Southern India. He ad- 
mits the propriety of classing the languages of India into the northern and 
southern groups, and allows that the former contain a very large proportion 
of Sanscrit words with a certain admixture of words of the southern group. 
He remarks that the palatial sounds of the letters r, d,j) t are confined to 



174 REPORT 1850. 

India, and cannot, as stated by Dr. Stevenson, be pronounced without diffi- 
culty by any but by a native of the province in which the language containing 
them is spoken. These sounds are unknown in Sanscrit. 

He is disposed to think that the Sanscrit of the languages spoken in the 
northern group owes its present grammatical construction to the gradual 
adoption of the forms of speecii of the abnormal nations, this construction 
being universal throughout India, even among tiie Hill tribes, and so different 
from the rules of Sanscrit construction, that it is impossible to conceive the 
one to be derived from the other. The similarity of words and formation of 
sentences in the language of the Todas on the Nilgirry Hills, and that of the 
Gonds on the Nerbudda, is very remarkable; and it is stated on good autho- 
rity that some American missionaries who had long resided in Mysore could 
understand and make tliemselves understood when they spoke the Canarese 
language among the Gonds at Amarkantak. The identitj' of the Gond lan- 
guage with those of the South of India has been proved by myself in com- 
paring 350 words of Gondi, Telingi, Mharatti, Marwari, and Guzeratti to- 
gether, and of these scarcely one word occurs that is not coniraon to one 
or more of those languages. 

The peculiarity of construction of all these languages diffei'ing from the 
Sanscrit, consists, — 1st. In the termination and in the conjugation of the verbs. 
2nd. In the preposition of the Sanscrit, and the languages derived from it, 
becoming in India a postposition. 3rd. In the several meanings of the plural; 
being inclusive and exclusive, such as. We — including the person spoken to 
and the speaker that is — You and I, only ; while another plural form signifies 
We ourselves, only and not you. 4th. Different words are used as adjectives, 
in their application to animate and inanimate objects. 5th. The passive voice 
of verbs is formed by auxiliaries, such as to suffer, to fall, to get, to take, to 
eat. 6th. In the languages of India each sentence is divided into two parts, 
viz. the subject and the verb ; the latter is invariably placed at the end of 
the sentence. In the same way, remarks Dr. Rost, the affirmative branch of 
a sentence is preceded by the negative ; the eff"ect by the cause ; the infer- 
ence by the reason, and the consequence by the condition, — all of which in- 
dicates a radical form and construction essentially different from the Sanscrit. 

Dr. Stevenson winds up his dissertation on this subject by arriving at the 
same conclusion, viz. " that Bramanical influence has modified grammatical 
structure, and introduced into the northern group of Indian languages some 
affixes for those in former use, especially in the inflexion of nouns, need not 
be denied, but the general structure of all of them has remained unaff'ected. 
There is as little analogy in the construction of a Hindu or Mharatti sentence 
to the syntax of the Sanscrit, as there is in that of an English or French 
sentence to that of the Latin." 

The next question, then, is to consider to what great class these Indian 
languages belong. We are naturally disposed to place them in the position 
indicated by the physiology of the people, and in support of this conclusion 
we have the following testimony. The peculiarity of the plural which has 
been pointed out belongs to the Manchou and Mongolian tongues, and also to 
the Malayan, an offset of the same family. " The peculiarity of str>icture of 
the Indian languages belongs equally," says Dr. Rost, "to those of Northern 
Asia. Of this the position of the pronoun affords proof; also the same use 
of an affix to supply the place of the inflexions in the Sanscrit and its deri- 
vatives the Greek and Latin. The Mongolians and the Indians use special 
personal pronouns to denote respect ; they also use a distinct relative parti- 
ciple in lieu of a relative pronoun. 

" In short," observes Dr. Rost, "the same rigorous structure of sentences 



ON THE ABORIGINAL TRIBES OP INDIA. l75 

pervades the whole class of Indian languages and those of Upper Asia, and 
which cannot be better explained than it has been by Gablenz in his ' Gram- 
raaire Mandchou,' p. 276. ' On y place toutes les expressions modificatives 
avant celles auxqucUes elles s'appliquent ; ainsi I'adjectif avant le substantif; 
le regi avant le mot qu'il regit ; le regime direct et indirect avant le verbe ; 
I'expression modificative avant I'expression modifiee ; la proposition incidente, 
conditionelle, circonstantiale, hypothetique, et causale avant la proposition 
principale.' " 

Almost all these peculiarities diflPering from the Sanscrit construction are 
participated in by the languages of Thibet and Burma, which Dr. Rost con- 
siders to be the connecting link between the languages throughout India and 
the Chinese. 

In confirmation of the opinions of Rost and Gablenz, I find Professor 
Westergard of Copenhagen, in writing to a friend in London so late as Sep- 
tember 1846, observes, " I never entertained any doubt of these [the Indian] 
languages being of Scythian descent, a term which I adopt from Rask for the 
stock of languages usually called Tartar, and which I prefer as a more general 
name to be adopted in speaking of the Fins, the Mongols, and the Deckan or 
southern languages of India." Professor Rask, alluded to by Professor 
Westergard, who passed some years in the South of India, was an excellent 
Sanscrit scholar, and was also well acquainted with the Tamili, writes in 
like manner : — " I am of opinion, that not only are many words of the 
southern group of languages (in India) common to those of Upper Asia, but 
that the construction of the whole of them differs essentially from the San- 
scrit, and is based on the languages of Northern Asia." 

The supposition, that all the aborigines are derived from the stock of 
Northern Asia, meets with strong additional confirmation when we find a 
very prevalent opinion to that effect confirmed by tradition, as in the ancient 
poems of Chand and others of the bards of Rajputana, who describe the 
Gujers and the Jats as of the Tacshac or Scythian race, in common with the 
Gackers since converted to Mahomraedism, which are spoken of as the 
bravest of the opponents of Mahmud of Ghizny, in the tenth and eleventh 
century, in the Punjab, and on the banks of the Indus. When the remote 
period of the Hindu invasion is considered, which cannot bj'^ any possibility 
be less than thirty-two centuries ago, — when there are so many proofs from 
tradition and history that they found India peopled by races of hunters and 
herdsmen, — when we find these races still existing in every part of India, and 
living in a state of prsedial slavery in towns as a portion of each village com- 
munity, and in the hills claiming the right of the soil though dispossessed of it, 
— we cannot fail to recognise the fact of their being a wholly distinct people 
from the Hindus. To establish with any degree of certainty, however, their 
origin, may well be deemed a diflScult task. In my endeavour to do so, I 
have, I think, shown that the whole of those who have been described as 
aborigines must belong to one great family ; that they in many respects re- 
semble the character of the great Scythian horde ; that they are also found to 
partakeof the featuresof the same race, and that all the Indian languages differ- 
ing in construction from the Sanscrit (the language of the Hindus), assimilate 
not only in grammatical form, but also in words with the Tartar tongue. 

While writing this paper I have met with a singular coincidence of lan- 
guage and physiological character in the remarks of Dr. James Bird, the 
President of the Bombay branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland. That gentleman read some time since a paper before 
the Ethnological Society, on the affinity of the language of the Gonds, the 
purest of all the aborigines of India, and the mountaineers east of the Hima- 

1850. N 



176 REPORT — 1850. 

laya chain, giving rise to the Ganges and to the Bramaputra river, and which 
are denominated Bhutia. Of these Dr. Bird remarks, the connexion of this 
race with the Nomadic Tartar tribes possessing the central region of Upper 
Asia may perhaps account for that mixture of Sabeism wliich prevails in the 
relio'ious worship of the Gouds, and is characteristic of tlie superstitious 
system of belief existing among the ^Mongolian tribes. Mr. Bradley, who has 
taken some pains on this subject, traces also a close connexion between the lan- 
guage of the Gonds and that of the Burmas, called by Mr. IMarsden Oraug 
6e«o?fas,signifying literally the aboriginesof the Malayan or Malacca peninsula. 

The result of all my inquiries ou tlie several aboriginal tribes of India 
leads me to the following conclusions : — First, that they are of a stock essen- 
tially differing in almost every character of a race from the Caucasian Hindu. 
That the whole have a common origin ; and though they may have come, as 
they probably did at different times, both from the east and from the north, 
they are all derived from the same great Tartar horde, and undoubtedly in- 
habited India anterior to the invnsion of that ancient and venerable people 
the Hindus. The latter, proceeding eastward from Persia, extended over the 
barbarous nations of India, and introduced their laws, their civil institutions, 
and their language, at the same time enslaving the aborigines wherever they 
settled. The exclusive rules of caste forbade the intermixture of the two 
races, and this circumstance alone suffices to account for the separation 
having continued to exist for so lengthened a period. 

While the Hindu branch of the Caucasian family proceeded eastward, 
other portions of the same race spread themselves westward and became the 
progenitors of the present European race. They subjected those they sub- 
dued to the yoke of slavery as serfs of the soil ; they brought with them the 
Sanscrit or Indo-Germanic tongue, and to them Europe owes the introduction 
of that system of municipal administration which is the only true foundation 
of free institutions and constitutional government. 



Report concerning the Observatory of the British Association at Kew, 
from September 12, 1849 to July 31, 1850. By Francis Ronalds, 
Esq., F.R.S., Honorary Superintendent. 

At the conclusion of my last Report (for 184-8-49), various proposals were 
made for the prosecution of new experiments and observations, and for the 
continuance of others already instituted at Kew : and the General Committee 
of the British Association, at the Birmingham meeting in September 1849, 
resolved that "Sir John Herschel having reported that the Meteorological 
Observations made at Kew are peculiarly valuable, and likely to produce the 
most important results, the sum of £250 be voted for the continuance of that 
establishment for the ensuing year," &c.* 

Endeavours have accordinjily been made, not only to cause this sum, added 
to about £50, the residue of the former year's grant, to go as far as possible 
toward the attainment of the principal objects contemplated, but, at the same 
time, to promote the views of Her Majesty's Government in the establishment 
of a convenient and exact system of self-registering magnetical and other 
meteorological instruments in the colonial observatories under the superin- 
tendence of our highly distinguished Honorary Secretary Colonel Sabine. 

* Vide Report for 1849, p. xx. The olservations here alluded to were principally those 
on atmospheric electricity. 



ON THE KEW OBSERVATORY. l77 

It would be seen (on reference to some of the following details) that 
several of the proposed experiments have resulted in the construction of a 
new magnetograph ; in considerable improvements upon others ; in an im- 
provement upon the barometrograph ; in a convenient method of producing 
engraved copies of photographic curves, &c., procured by the self-register- 
ing instruments ; in a few minor contrivances, &c. of other kinds ; and 
finally, in an attempt to institute a series of observations on the frequency 
of atmospheric electricity, intended as preliminary to the formation of a 
system, and an apparatus which should permit the self-registration of this 
species of observations. 

In the Kew Report for ISiS-i*, p. 141, are tabulated a very few of my 
observations on the subject of frequency made at Kew in that year ; and the 
apparatus then employed, consisting of two atmospheric conductors, is shortly 
described. I believe that they were the first experiments of the kind whicJEi 
have been published since Beccaria's extremely interesting observations at 
Turin about 1750 (which were effected by means of apparatus having very 
imperfect insulating power), and I think that the above-named apparatus, of 
two conductors, <S:c., is somewhat better suited to the purpose than one rod 
which I now employ ; but the funds and localities at Kew do not at present 
permit the use of the former. These ieyf experiments, however, taken in 
conjunction with Beccaria's, with my own old experiments (at Highbury 
Terrace, and at Hammersmith, Upper Mall, not published), and with what 
little has been done at Kew this year, have tended to increase in my estima- 
tion the importance of carrying out such researches effectively. Their 
results may form a link in the chain of phaenomena connecting the static 
with the dynamic electricity of the atmosphere ; for it is only when frequency 
is great that galvanometers manifest a current. If atmospheric electricity 
exerts a7iy agency on animal life, &c., is it not this condition (of frequency) 
which has prime influence ? 

These considerations, joined to the circumstance of frequency having been 
already in some measure a subject of inquiry at the Royal Greenwich, and 
even at the Bombay Observatories (with apparatus of the kind which I use), 
naturally create very great regret that the indisposition of the observer who 
was engaged at Kew during a part of this year, caused the series of observa- 
tions on frequency to be so limited as it will be found to have been. 

We shall, I trust, fully compensate for the deficiency under Mr. Welsh's 
able exertions next year. 

I now proceed, as usual, to matters regarding — ^first, the Building, Instru- 
ments, &c., of the Observatory ; secondly, to some remarks concerning ob- 
servations; and thirdly, to an account of what has been done in the way of 
experiment since the last general meeting of the Association. 

I. The Building, Instruments, &c. 

The exterior of the premises has required very little repair. The addi- 
tion of a rail, &c. has been made to the former arrangements on the Dome 
for the greater security and convenience of the observer whilst attaching the 
lantern to the top of the principal conductor. 

In the interior, some painting, plastering, papering, &c. have been executed 
(in the basement). A few book-shelves have 'been added to those in the 
North Hall, for the reception of books presented to the Association, and for 
the stock of the Association's Reports, &c. 

A small upper apartment has been appropriated to the mechanic or pho- 
tographist as a sleeping-room. 

The South Upper Room (or laboratory) has been supplied with a good 
lathe, turning tools, various chucks and necessary appendages ; also with a 

n2 



178 , REPORT — 1850. 

vice-bench, &c., in order to render it efficient for experimental purposes, and 
to avoid tlie great delay and expense occasioned by having to send to London 
for many articles which can be constructed here. 

The Principal Conductor on, and in, the Dome is in an efficient state, but 
should be dismounted and cleansed, &c. The slight inclination spoken of in 
ray last Report lias been remedied. 

The Volta- Electrometers in the Dome have been repaired. 

The Galvanometer (Goujon's) appears to have lost a little in sensibility, 
the needles being no longer perfectly astatic. 

Tiie Discharger, the Gold-leaf Electroscope, the Distinguisher, and the 
three Niyht-registering Electrometers are etfective. 

Tlie pair of portable Volta Electrometers, and the Peltiers or rather 
Ermans Electrometer, are in working order. 

The Electrograph (at tlie central window of the upper south room) has 
been somewhat damaged by a violent storm. It is intended to repair it, re- 
move it to tlie dome, and connect it with the principal conductor there after 
the preliminary observations on frequency have been accomplished. 

The Wind- Vane has been restored. 

The Rain and Vapour- Gauge, and the Balance Anemometer, have been 
properly examined and adjusted at the requisite intervals. 

The Standard Thermometer, and the Wet-Btdb Hygrometer, have been 
removed from their position at the north window of the Quadrant Room, 
and mounted on a thermometer stand. 

The Ordinary Barometer has been (again) compared with the Royal 
Society's Instrument. 

The Kreil's Barometrograph has been repaired, and a few curves have 
been drawn by it. 

The Photo-Barometrograph has been removed from the Transit Room to 
the Quadrant Room, and has had a little alteration made in it for the purpose 
of rendering it applicable to either the Daguerreotype or the Talbotype pro- 
cesses. It still requires further alterations and improvements. 

The Declination Mugnetograph (in the Transit Room), described in the 
Phil. Trans, part 1 for 184'7, has had some alterations made in it similar to 
those made in the Photo-Barometrograph. 

A Horizontal-Force Magnetograph has been added to our collection, from 
apparatus sent fromW'ooIwich, with my photographic self-registering arrange- 
ments. This instrument is in most respects similar to that described in my 
last Report, and sent to Toronto ; the differences will be alluded to and easily 
understood when the experiments, &c. for the construction of the vertical- 
force instrument sent to Toronto are described below. 

Also some apparatus of an improved kind, used in the Daguerreotyjie 
process. 

An instrument for dividing right lines (necessary for the scales, &c. of all 
self-registering instruments), and a new kind of compasses or dividers, will be 
described under the head of " Experiments," as they are not yet considered 
to be complete. 

The Storm-clock is in proper working order, and greatly facilitates obser- 
vations on frequency. [As it is applicable extensively to meteorological, and 
even some astronomical observations, it should perhaps have the more general 
appellation oi" Observer s Clock."'] 

The description of this instrument in our Journal for ISM- 4-5 not having 
been printed, the following short account of it may not perhaps be deemed 
unnecessary : — 

A (in Plate III. fig. 1) is a strong deal table firmly secured upon the stage 
in the Electrical Observatory. B is an inclined writing-board solidly attached 



;-vs.-i*»i 






Mr. Ronald's Report.— To face p. 179. 



FREaUENCY PAPER. No. 1. 

May 12. 17" l/™ P 650 



. 12-5 
. 17-5 P 

. 25 
. 27-5 

. 30 
. 35 

. 37-5 

5 

. 42-5 
. 45 

. 47"5 
. 50 

• 55 

• 57-5 
, 62-5 

. 65 
XO 



, tJ7'5 11"' 15' 



Cirro cumuli in zenith. 



• ti7-5 



P 



ON THE KEW OBSERVATORY. 179 

to A, and C is the clock-case, rf' is the long pendulum within C, and rf* its 
very heavy bob. d^ is a lever which enters C through a slit, and whose ful- 
crum is at 6?* : a spring (not shown) forces the nearest end of d^ upwards 
when it is not stopped in the horizontal position, d^ is a little stop fixed 
upon rf3. c?6 js a rod attached, by a pivot, through a slit to d^, and passing 
through a hole in a piece of wood (not shown) attaciied to A. This part of 
the instrument is so constructed, that when the clock is not in motion d" is in 
a higher position than that shown, and the extremity of the then inclined pen- 
dulum </' is placed by the observer against its nearest side, preventing vibra- 
tion ; but when it is to be set in motion, d^ is brought into the position shown 
by depressing the handle at the top of cZ". d^ is a gut-line proceeding from 
the barrel of the clock contained in C, passing over B, round a pulley at an 
angle of A, and sustaining a weight, d^, which gives motion to the clock-work. 

d^ is another line sustaining the winding-up weight, d'''\ which line passes 
round another pulley (unseen) under B, and entering C is attached to and 
winds round the barrel of the clock in the contrary direction to d^. 

The continuity of rf^ is interrupted by a small steel wire, upon which turns, 
or hangs freely, a little pointed brass plate rf'*, pressing very lightly on B. 

When the clock is at rest f/''* is adjusted to the upper part of a " Frequency 
Paper" fixed (by drawing pins) upon B, and the whole is ready for use. 
When an observation is to be commenced, the time (by our chronometer) is 
written exactly opposite to the point of the index c?'* (which has been placed at 
the top of the paper by pulling down the weight c?"^); the conductor is then 
discharged, and thependulum started (by pressingdownrfs)at the same moment. 

As the charge of the conductor advanctis towards irs former intensity (or 
any other approximative maximum intensity), marks are made opposite to the 
index from time to time at convenient intervals ; and the various tensions are 
noted down at those intervals near the marks until a maximum has been 
arrived at by estimation (i. e. when no increase of tension seems to be going 
on, or when a decrease has actually begun). The observation now ceases, 
and the fiducial edge of a scale, accurately divided into spaces corresponding 
with the rate of our chronometer, is applied to the above-mentioned first and 
last marks or "notes of tension," and occasionally to other of the marks. Or, in 
order to estimate as accurately as possible by these means the time of a maxi- 
mum, the observation is carried on even beyond the apparent first maximum. 

A copy of one of the "Frequency Papers" is annexed which has been 
employed for procuring the " Frequency Observation of Atmospheric Elec- 
tricity," where it may be seen that on May 12th, 17'' 17', the charge of the 
conductor was positive and =65 divisions of the Electrometer, and that the 
Frequency (at about 11 minutes afterwards) was =11' 15" (the charge had 
increased to 67*5 divisions). 

The remaining apparatus and instruments of various kinds belonging to 
the Association, or on loan to it, do not seem to require particular notice 
here. They are carefully preserved. 

II. Observations. 

The only observations (or experiments) worth notice here, on the fre- 
quency of atmospheric electricity which have been made at Kew this year 
(by means of apparatus particularly described in the Society's Reports for 
184!3-4'4), commenced on the 12th of May and terminated on the 1st of 
June. The plan of procedure adopted was intended as merely preliminary, 
and in order to arrive at certain data for choosing the preferable mode of 
instituting a regular series of such observations (self-registering or ordinary). 
The instructions given to the observer were as follow : — 
" The pillar lamp, and the lamp of the lantern belonging to the electrical 



180 REPORT 1850. 

apparatus in the Electrical Observatory having been filled with good olive 
oil, and provided with wicks of the usual uniform size, which have not been 
used more than three or four days, to be at sunrise of every day, excepting 
Sundays and Wednesdays, lighted and placed in their usual positions for 
observations. 

" At one hour after sunrise, or as near to that time as possible, an obser- 
vation of the barometer, its attached thermometer, the standard thermometer, 
the wet-bulb hygrometer, the balance anemometer, and the wind-vane, to- 
gether with remarks on the state of the sky, to be made and entered in the 
appropriate columns and page of the printed form headed ' Electro- Meteoro- 
logical Observations,' &c., noting also the time of these observations, &c. 
having been commenced. 

" As soon as possible after these entries have been effected, a note of the 
kind and tension of electricity to be made and recorded, with the time, on a 
paper, called a ^Frequency Paper^ and immediately afterwards the principal 
conductor to be discharged suddenly and allowed to assume a new charge. 

" A series of notes of tetision, with the times, to be then commenced for 
the purpose of ascertaining (as nearly as the conditions below stated and 
other circumstances will permit) the length of time which may elapse between 
the moment of allowing the new charge to commence and the moment of 
that new charge arriving at a maximum tension. These notes of tension and 
times to be also set down upon the above-named frequency paper (or papers), 
together with any variation in the kind (positive or negative) of charge which 
may have occurred. 

" The primary observation of kind and tension to be copied into the 
columns headed ' kind ' and ' periodical ebservations ' respectively ; and the 
length of time which may elapse (as above) for obtaining a maximum ten- 
sion, in the column headed 'frequency' of the above-mentioned printed 
form or journal. 

" If a maximum tension should occur at any time after the expiration of 
half an hour, and within one hour, from the moment of allowing the above- 
mentioned new charge to commence, then fresh observations of the baro- 
meter and of the above-named other meteorological instruments, with remarks 
on the state of the sky, to be made as nearly as possible at the time of the 
maximum. This second set of observations of the barometer, &c. to be 
also entered in the printed form as before, with the times of these observa- 
tions having been commenced. 

" If a maximum tension should not occur before the lapse of one hour 
after the moment of allowing the above-mentioned new charge to commence, 
the series of notes of tension (which serve for endeavouring to attain the 
frequency observation correctly) to be discontinued ; and the circumstance 
to be noted in the ' frequency paper' and the printed form as above. 

" The lamps of the electrical apparatus to be kept burning and ready for 
observations from tlie time of being lighted until one hour after sunset. The 
charcoal stove (Joyce's) to be lighted and kept burning whenever the hygro- 
meter indicates a damp state of the atmosphere, in order to preserve a suflS- 
cient insulating power in the distinguisher, &c. 

" At one hour after meridian, or as near to that time as possible, and at 
sunset, the frequency observation, accompanied by observations of the baro- 
meter and other above-mentioned meteorological instruments, and remarks 
on the state of the sky, to be repeated. An observation of the rain and 
vapour-gauge to be also made at sunset (only), and the whole to be entered 
as before. The rain and vapour-gauge to be set at or near to this time. 

" The frequency papers, the electro-meteorological journal, and the chro- 
nometer, to be kept usually ou a table at the south end of the Transit Room. 



ON THE KEW OBSERVATORY. 181 

" The mode of procedure here spoken of is chiefly applicable to serene 
weather, including fogs, mists, &c. If rain or snow, impending or more 
distant clouds, or sudden changes from a positive to a negative state of charge 
should occasion difficulties or impossibilities of observing frequency, these 
circumstances to be noted in the electro-meteorological journal and frequency 
paper." 

III. Experiments. 

The first subject of consideration, as respects instrumental experiments, 
after the last annual meeting, was a better mode of mounting the standard 
thermometer and wet-bulb hygrometer. 

In October, a revolving stand, on the Greenwich plan, was erected at the 
north entrance of the building ; but objections exist to this, and in fact to all 
" thermometer-stands" hitherto invented. Either the sun or the wind has 
injurious influences, which it should seem are hardly to be got rid of. I trust, 
however, the method will be improved under the suggestions of Col. Sykes. 
In November 1849 some work and preparations were executed here for 
the vertical-force magnetograph {vide Plates I. & II.), alluded to in my last 
Report as being in an advanced state for the Toronto Observatory. In De- 
cember some principal parts of it arrived from Mr. Ross and Mr. Newman, 
and its completion was proceeded with. 

A successful attempt to improve this sort of apparatus was that of fitting 
a sliding plate to the frame containing the Daguerreotype plate, in such 
manner that it completely excluded light from the latter, whilst it was not 
in its place in the instrument, but allowed the focus to act upon it when 
properly placed there. This contrivance (a modification of one commonly 
practised by photographists) precludes entirely the necessity of operating 
upon the plate or paper in a dark room before the mercurializing part of the 
operation is performed. 

An improvement in the mouth-piece permits a much greater facility and 
accuracy of adjustment in the breadth of the slit than had been before 
attained', a matter of some importance, when the delicate and rapid changes 
of the magnet's position are required to be registered. A chain was substituted 
for a gut-line for suspending the sliding-frame, which somewhat improves 
the accuracy of the magnetic curve produced on the contained metallic plate 
or paper. A little frame, containing ground glass, was added, in order to 
save time and trouble in examining the image of the slit in the shield. A 
screen, placed temporarily in the place of the fixed shield, was used with 
advantage for dividing the aberration of the lenses between the central and 
the outer parts of the range of the said image. This screen was provided 
with a series of slits, in lieu of the one sUt only of the fixed usual shield. 
An improvement applicable to this and all photo-registering instruments of 
similar construction was adopted, consisting in a sliding shutter, which, by a 
simple, small, rotatory movement, given by the fingers to an arbor passing 
through the clock-plates, is opened in order to expose the Daguerreotype 
plate to the focus of light, and at the same moment to set the clock in mo- 
tion, and vice versa. 

In order that the new arrangements may be clearly comprehended, and 
trouble saved in recurring to former descriptions, it will be convenient to 
place the whole apparatus before the eye as finally constructed. 

Description of the Vertical-Force Magnetograph. 
Similar letters jefer to similar or analogous parts ingthe figures of this Ih- 
strument, as well as of the horizontal-force magnetograph described at page 80 
of the British Association's Report for 1849. 



182 REPORT — 1850. 

The figures 1 and 2 of Plate I. are drawn to one-eighth of the real size ; 
fio'ures 3, 4, 5 and 6, to one-fourth of the size. Tlie figures of Plate II. to 
one-quarter of the real size. 

V, figs. 1 and % Plate II., is the magnet box (in section), of mahogany, not 
coatedj'as before, with gold paper, provided with a squared tube, T, of cast 
brass, which opens into A. 

A is the camera box (of mahogany). 

a' is the usual solid brass casting, forming (in part) one of the ends of 
A. 

B is a fifteen-inch magnet belonging to a vertical-force balance magneto- 
meter of Dr. Lloyd's construction. 

i-, a piece screwed upon the upper edge of B. 

6\ a pair of very light, sliding brass tubes attached to If; and capable of 
vertical adjustment (for length). 

6^, a weight adjustable on a screw attached to the lower edge of B, for 
poising ¥, &c. properly. 

6', the moveable shield, composed of very light sheet-brass, flat, and having 
its upper edge curved to a radius of 12 inches, and attached to b"^. It has a 
very narrow slit at the centre of its upper edge. 

O is a diaphragm plate, whose aperture is about an inch long (horizontally), 
and a quarter of an inch wide ; it is supported by two angular plates (as o^) 
restino- upon X, and attached (with means of adjustment) to g^ by screws 
passtng through slits. 

o\ the fixed shield attached to O by means of a little bolt, washers and 
nut, 0-. It is capable of adjustments for horizontality, height, &c. At about 
three-eio-hths of an inch from its centre is a slit, somewhat larger than the 
slit in &'. The lower edge of this shield stands at about a twentieth of an 
inch lower than the upper edge of 6', and at about the same quantity from 
its interior plane. 

C is the shutter apparatus. 

c' is a plate screwed upon A, and having an aperture about equal to and 
corresponding with an aperture and little plate of glass in A. It is provided 
with grooved pieces, between which slides freely c'-. 

c^ is a plate having an aperture (c^) equal to that of c' and A, but cor- 
responding with the latter only when it has slid into its lowest position. 

c* is a small line attached at one end to c-, passed over a pulley, c^ under 
another pulley, c", and fixed to a lever, c? (fig. 7, Plate I.), within the clock 
case K, which lever is attached to the apparatus used for stopping and start- 
ing the clock (vide k% Plate IL of the Report of the British Association for 

18i9). 

The object of this arrangement (C, &c.) is to admit light into A at the 
moment of starting the clock, and to exclude light therefrom at the moment 
of stopping it. 

D (Plate I. fig. 1) is a modification of Count llumford's polyflame lamp, 
having three flat wicks and rack-work to raise them. 

d\ its high, squared copper chimney, with a narrow glass plate opposite to 
the best part of the flame. 

E (Plate II. fig. 1 ) is the mouth-piece, in section, consisting of two angular 
pieces and of two little plates attached to them, forming the lips and aper- 
ture e', which aperture can be diminished or increased at pleasure, with great 
and requisite accuracy ; for, 

,e^ is a plate screwed upon a}. 

V e^ (fig. 3) are two screws, which, freely sliding through e« and screwing 
into the upper portion of E, are employed to elevate that portion. 

e* is another screw, screwing through e'^ and pressing occasionally upon 



ON THE KEW OBSERVATORY. 183 

the upper portion of E. This is employed to move it downwards (when the 
mouth is to be more nearly closed e^ e^ must, of course, be released before e* 
is screwed downwards, and vice versa). 

A narrow vertical slit is cut in the lower lips of E, as shown in fig. 3, and 
a horizontal aperture of about 3 inches long, and about a quarter of an inch 
broad, (not shown) is cut through a' for the passage of light to c'. 

F is the slider-case for receiving the sliding-frame, 

f-, a perfectly true ruler of brass attached vertically to «' by means of 
three screws passing through it, through three little pillars and through three 
oblong slits in a', &c., which admit of its vertical adjustment. 

/^ is a roller spring attached to a', and acting upon H laterally, pressing 
it gently againsty"-. 

f^ is a pair of similar springs acting upon H in front, and pressing a plate 
belonging to it (to be presently described) against E. 

G is the lens tube containing two groups of achromatic lenses (by Ross), 
and of curvature specially adapted to the purpose. The range of the image 
of the slit in the moveable shield is four times greater than the range of the 
slit itself (vide fig, 2. Plate I.). 

g^ is apparatus of sliding plates, &c., for support and due centring of G. 

g'^ is apparatus of stud, pinion, milled-headed key, &c., for moving the 
rod g^ which is attached to the stud at g*, and serves for adjustment to 
focus (of G). 

H is the sliding-frame suspended in F. h* is a door closed by means of 
three little turn buckles, h^. Upon its interior side are fixed three springs, 
h', for retaining the Daguerreotype plate ?/ (or a glass plate, if Talbotype 
paper is used) in its proper place. 

h" are the three friction rollers. 

h^, a hook with a little peg in it, which attaches it to a clock chain, 

A^ is a brass plate capable of sliding freely in a groove in H. 

When both h'' and H rest on the bottom of E, /t" covers entirely y (of 
course not touching it); and the height of /«^ is such that when placed in F 
properly its upper edge always stands at about one-twentieth of an inch below 
the opening of the mouth at E, as shown by the dotted line ; but when H is 
drawn upward (carrying V with it and leaving ¥ still resting on the bottom 
of E), portions of V ai'e successively exposed to the action of light passing 
from the lamp (or daylight) through the slit in 6', the lenses in G and the 
aperture e'. 

At the upper end of h* a narrow aperture and a piece of finely ground 
glass is placed opposite to it and above 7/, for the purpose of receiving the 
image (before the clock is started), and the microscope,/^ (fig, 1, Plate L), 
is used in examining the image on the ground glass for focus and colour. 

I is the pulley on the hour-arbor (or barrel arbor) of the time-piece. Its 
diameter is somewhat less than ■i inches. It moves H upwards at the rate 
of an inch per hour: but a pulley of half that diameter may be substituted 
for it, and the time-scale thus diminished to half an inch p6r hour if required. 

i' is the clock chain by which H is suspended from I ; and 

i^ is a counterpoise to H, &c. 

K (fig. 1. Plate I.) is the time-piece, 

A^ (fig, 7.) is the back view of the lever and fork, &c, above mentioned, 
attached to an arbor passing through the clock plates, and furnished with a 
milled-headed nut (not shown in front), and by a spring and detent, k, by 
means of which the fork can be made to stop or to release the pendulum at 
any given second, 

K' is the frame supporting K & F {vide Plate I. of former Report). 

k^, brass tubular braces. 



184 REPORT — 1850. 

P" & Ps (fig. 1. Plate 1.), are stone pillars whose common centres are in 
the mean magnetic meridian (about). 

Q Q are two of four brass tubular columns. 

q' and q- are screws and nuts which enter and clamp those four columns to 
two marble slabs. 

R is the lower slab of black marble resting on P'*. 

fi j.« are bolts and nuts which firmly secure the magnet support upon R. 

S is the support of and apparatus for raising and lowering the magnet of 
Dr. Lloj'd's construction, but without the cross wires, &c. 

s\ the base. 

s°, four leveling screws. 

5*, pieces carrying the agate pallets. 

s^, frame-work moveable by means of a key, &c., for raising the magnet 
off from its pallets. 

T, a squared brass tube passing through V into A. 

X is the upper black marble slab carrying A, G, a', K', &c.* 

Some minor improvements have been made in the apparatus used for the 
preparation, Sec. of the Daguerreotype plates, viz. on the polishing board, 
Plate I. fig. S ; the buifs, fig. 4 ; the coating boxes, fig. 5 ; and the burning- 
offand fixing stand, fig. 6. 

The Polishing Board. 

A (fig. 3. Plate I.) is the mahogany board. 

a' a' are screws which attached it to a firm table. 

B is a piece of mahogany attached to A by means of two screws. 

b^ 6' are the two screws which pass through it and screw into A. 

b- b- are two pins fixed firmly in B but sliding stiffly in A. 

b^ is a rim (or edging) of thin sheet brass attached to A and projecting 
upwards a little less than the thickness of a photo-plate. 

b* is a similar edging of sheet brass attached to B. 

The surfaces of ^' and b* are always in exactly the same plane, and the 
photo-plate may be firmly held between them by using the screws i' 6'. 

The Buffs. 

A (fig. 4.) is a deal board 1 inch thick in the middle and f inch at each 
end. Its lower surface is bellied (in the manner of a large file), and covered 
first with flannel and then with thick plush cotton velvet. It is rubbed across 
the plate. Its handle («') is glued and screwed firmly upon it. 

The Coating Boxes. 

A (fig. 5.) is the deal box. 

a' a' are the usual openings in its sides. 

a^ is the door which carries the usual mirror (on its interior face). 

a' a^ are strips of mahogany with screws and washers which fix them upon 
the edges of A but allow them to be approached towards, or withdrawn 
from each other a little, in order that any sliding-frame, as H, may fit exactly 
between them. 

a* is a little projecting piece to support the glass plate below mentioned. 

B is the glass cistern fitted into A, and containing crystals of iodine, distri- 
buted on the bottom. 

i' is the glass plate cover of B resting on its upper edges and projecting 
beyond A. 

H is the sliding-frame containing the photographic plate (or paper) and 

* This vertical -force magnetograph was shipped for Toronto on the 23rd of March, and 
Captain Lefroy, the Director of the Royal Observatory of Toronto, has acknowledged the 
arrival of it as well as of the horizontal-force magnetograph. I understand that he has 
mounted and successfully worked this latter instrument. 



ON THE KEW OBSERVATORY. 185 

its sliding plate ¥ (vide fig. 1. Plate II.), with a little handle for withdraw- 
ing it in order to expose the photo-plate to the action of the iodine, &c. 

The Burning-off and Fixing Stand. 

A (fig, 6.) is a heavy mahogany board. 

a', a milled-headed screw passing through A and projecting (about half 
an inch) below it. 

a* cS two little brass feet projecting (about the same quantity) below. 

B is another heavy mahogany board. 

6', another screw similar to a' and pressing on A. 

5*, one of two feet similar to a^ a-, also resting on A. 

C C, two tubular pillars fixed upon B. 

c' c', two wires attached perpendicularly to caps on C C, which caps can 
turn on their axes. 

V is a photo-plate resting on c' c'. 

The axes of a^ a"- are in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the axes of 
i^ b"^. This stand allows of much more rapid adjustment for horizontality 
than the usual stand having three adjusting screws. 

About the end of the month of February last, I think, Sir John Herschel 
proposed a very ingenious method of procuring surfaces in relief (as in wood 
engravings) on gelatine paper, which should exactly coincide with impressions 
procured on the gelatine by photographic means, in order that they might be 
employed in printing. 

On hearing of this, I suggested to Colonel Sabine the expediency of en- 
graving gelatine paper as if it were actually copper, with the figures of the 
magnetic and other curves on our Daguerreotype plates, by using the gela- 
tine as tracing-paper commonly is used for the purpose of copying drawings, 
&c., and also of employing such engraved gelatine as copper plates are em- 
ployed for printing any required number of copies of such magnetic and 
other curves. 

The experiment succeeded on the first trial. 

Specimens are preserved in our Journal of gelatine paper thus engraved, 
and of declination, horizontal force, and barometric curves as printed from 
the gelatine. 

The ordinate board has been slightly modified to render it useful in this 
process. 

The method of Sir John Herschel, however, will certainly be found far 
preferable to this, when chemical difficulties have been conquered, as I sin- 
cerely hope they will be. 

In order to correct certain errors of the clock's rate — errors arising from 
expansion, &c., — it has been found necessary sometimes to divide the time- 
scale belonging to the curves produced into equal parts. An instrument, 
correct in principle at least, and which I hope to render an accurate and 
generally applicable mathematical instrument, has been experimented upon- 

Its principle of action is that of a well-known instrument called the " Lazy- 
back," and will be instantly understood by reference to Plate III. figs. 2 and 3 
(the perpendicular rods &ie Jixed to the lower joints, but slide through the 
upper ones). 

It is evident that the points of this instrument cannot be brought very 
close to each other : if, therefore, minute divisions of a scale are required, 
the first large division may be subdivided by means of a pair of parallel 
dividers (figs. 4 and 5), which, it may be readily seen, is an instrument 
constructed on similar principles to the above, but allowing the points to 
touch each other. The first large division having been so subdivided, the 



192 REPORT— 1850. 

first instrument (figs. 2 and 3) may be evidently so applied as to divide with 
accuracy, facility and dispatch, each of the other large divisions into the same 
subdivisions " without stepping." 

In the early part of the year many experiments were made on electrotyped 
and other kinds of plates. It was found that the former were preferable. 

About the end of April Mr. Ross's portion of the horizontal-force magneto- 
graph already alluded to arrived, and claimed our attention and labours. It 
was placed on the corbels in the Quadrant Room, which had been occupied 
by its predecessor the vertical-force magnetograph sent to Toronto. No 
material variation was introduced differing from those already described re- 
lative to the vertical-force instrument, excepting such as were required for 
its special object. It was so arranged, that it might be, with very slight 
variations, used either for a declination or horizontal-force magnet. Ihe 
gold-paper covering of the magnet-case is dispensed with, yet this magnet 
seems to be as quietly disposed as the former horizontal-force instrument. 
Increased diligence has been used for promoting accuracy, &c. 

In concluding this Report, I will only allude slightly to a little correspond- 
ence which I have had M'ith gentlemen who seem obligingly disposed to 
second my views as to the establishment of electrical observatories, both in 
this country and in distant parts of the globe, and have proposed to them a 
portable modification of mine at Kew, which would, I believe, be found 
efficient in promoting a more extensive range of inquiry into the interesting 
subject of Atmospheric Electricity. 



Report on the Investigation of British Marhie Zoology by means of 
the Dredge. Pax-t I. The Infra-littoral Distribution of Marine In- 
vertebrata on the Southern, Western, and Northern Coasts of Great 
Britain. By Edward Forbes, F.R.S., Professor of Botany in 
King's College, London, and Palceontologist of the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom. 

At the Meeting of the British Association at Birmingham in 1839, a Com- 
mittee was appointed for the investigation of the Marine Zoology of the 
British seas, by means of the dredge ; and at the joint recommendation of 
the Natural History and Geological Sections, a sum of money was granted 
towards its expenses. Ever since that time the Committee has been annually 
reappointed, with grants of various amounts placed at its disposal. At each 
meeting, a provisional report, stating the nature and success of the researches 
conducted during the interval, has been presented. A considerable mass of 
valuable materials having been collected, it is now proposed in this Report to 
present the results in connexion, in such a form as may be useful to science. 
The extent and value of the data will sufficiently prove the expediency of 
the researches. 

For some years past much attention has been paid to marine zoology by 
the naturalists of Europe and America. Among the inhabitants of the sea, 
are many creatures whose organization is as attractive to the physiologist as 
the singularity of their shapes to the students of external conformation. 
Many of them were apparent anomalies in their respective classes, and of 
doubtful position in the animal series. To throw light on the general history 
of animal tissues, and on the various modifications of vital organs, to fill up 
gaps in the scale of being as known to zoologists, to ascertain whether in the 
depths of the ocean there are not still remaining the analogues and homologues 
of apparently lost species, and the representatives of unknown or conjectural 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 193 

types, it was most desirable that a more searching investigation should be 
conducted into the number, kinds, and distribution of the inhabitants of the 
ocean. No single tract had been scientifically explored, and the dredger was 
in most instances a distinct person from the naturalist by whom he was em- 
ployed. 

The chief purpose for which the dredge had been employed on our coast, 
was for the procuring of specimens of shells of the Mollusca. Consequently 
our knowledge of the extent of the marine molluscous fauna of Britain, and 
of the distribution of the testaceous species in our seas, was much in advance 
of that of other departments of marine zoology ; but even this could be but 
partially depended on. It was formerly too much the aim of British natu- 
ralists and collectors, to endeavour to swell the catalogue of British animals, — 
the former, from a mistaken patriotism, the latter not always with such dis- 
interested motives; consequently the catalogues of our fauna, especially of the 
marine mollusca, became enriched by numerous species, very doubtful natives 
of our coasts. Some of these did not excite surprise, their true distribution 
being then unknown : others led to hopes of the finding in our seas species 
of a far more southern type than really inhabit them ; and all went to 
destroy the authority of our lists, and to confound the calculations of the in- 
vestigators of the laws of geographical distribution, and of the relations of 
living animals to fossil. The only hope of purging catalogues so vitiated, 
and at the same time of extending them in those departments to which but 
little attention had been directed, lay in the establishment of a new series of 
researches more rigidly precise than had ever before been attempted, and set 
on foot solely with regard to the determination of the true state of our sub- 
marine fauna. 

It was for this object mainly the "Dredging" Committee was formed. 
Their first act was to print blank formulas, in which the information obtained 
might be registered at the time and place where procured. Each form con- 
sists of a ruled sheet, with a heading for the registration of particulars of 
date of the operation, of the locality/ where conducted, of the depth of the sea 
in the place where the dredge was sunk, of the distaiice from the shore at 
which the observation was made, of the ground, i. e. the nature of the sea 
bottom in the place examined, and of the region under which the portion of 
the sea-bed explored might be classed. Below the heading are ranged the 
names of the species procured, opposite cclu!r,ns stating the number of living 
individuals taken, the number of dead specimens, and any observations which 
might be suggested by the condition of the specimens, or the manner in which 
they were associated together. 

A great mass of these papers has now been accumulated, and are in the 
possession of the reporter. The time has come when they can be tabulated 
and reduced to an uniform language with advantage to science. Until very 
lately this could not have been done. British marine invertebrate zoology 
has advanced with gigantic strides since the year the Committee was esta- 
blished. Within the last ten years, the nomenclature and characterization of 
the species of British Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Acalephce, and 
Zoophyta, have undergone complete and thorough revision. Much has been 
done too among the Annellidous tribes*. Indeed, at the present moment no 

*_The following works are used as text-books for these reports: — Yarrell's History of 
British Fishes ; Forbes and Hanley's History of British Mollusca ; Bell's Histor>- of British 
Crustacea ; Baird's Monograph of British Entomostraca ; Forbes's History of British Echi- 
nodermata ; Forbes's Monograph of British Medusae ; Johnston's History of British Zoo- 
phytes, 2nd Edition ; Johnston's History of British Sponges. All these works, with the ex- 
1850. o 



194 REPORT 1850. 

marine fauna in the world has been investigated with anything like the care 
devoted to that of the British seas. 

Nevertheless much remains to be done. All parts of the British and Irish 
shores have been more or less explored, but not all in an equally systematic 
manner. On the eastern coasts, the registration of the depths of marine 
animals has been carefully attended to by Mr. Alder, Lieut. Thomas, R.N., 
Mr. Albany Hancock, Mr. Howse, and Mr. King ; whilst Dr. Johnston, Sir 
John Dalyell, Dr. Fleming, Mr. Bean, Mr. Embleton, Professors Goodsir and 
Macgillivray, the late lamented Dr. J. Reid, and many other able observers, 
have devoted themselves to the examination of the marine invertebrata. 
From the north-eastern coast of Scotland, many valuable dredging papers 
have been filled up by Mr. MacAndrevv, and a considerable accumulation of 
valuable data for tabulating the depths of the Testacea in the southern part 
of the German ocean, were accumulated by the late Capt. Owen Stanley, R.N., 
and are in possession of the reporter. Around the shores of Ireland, a valu- 
able mass of data has been collected by Mr. W. Thompson of Belfast, Dr. 
Robert Ball, Mr. Patterson, Professors Harvey, AUman, and McCoy, Mr. 
Hyndman, Dr. Farran, Mr. Humphreys, and Mr. Warren, all Irish natural- 
ists, and added to by Mr. Barlee, Mr. Jeffreys, Mr. Hassell, Mr. MacAndrew, 
and myself. Both from the eastern coasts of Britain, and the whole range 
of the Irish coast, more well-filled tabulated forms are still wanting ; conse- 
quently I have thought it advisable in the first instance to report on the re- 
sults of dredging on the western, southern and northern shores of Great 
Britain, from which data have been collected very fully and systematically, 
and more than 140 forms of " Dredging papers " fully filled up. With one 
exception (by Mr. Hyndman), these have been recorded on the spot at the 
time of the operation, by Mr. MacAndrew and myself, jointly or separately. 
Numerous isolated records of depths of particular species within this area 
are embodied in the following tables from the observations of Mr. Jeffreys, 
Mr. Smith of Jordan Hill, Mr. Barlee, Mr. Alder, Mr. Hanley, Mr. Clark of 
Bath, and Captain Otter, R.N. ; and for the Orkney Isles, a most valuable 
record of depths has been drawn up by Lieut. Thomas, R.N., during his 
survey of those islands. The obligations of science to the officers engaged 
in the Hydrographical Survey of the British seas cannot be too strongly ex- 
pressed. 

In order to reduce the contents of these papers, and to embody the isolated 
observations in a useful form, I have tabulated the data in two series of 
tables. One includes all the depths at which the species of testaceous MoUusca 
and Radiata were taken during these operations, the species themselves being 
ranged in systematic order. The nature of the ground upon which they were 
found is in every registered case recorded, and also whether the individuals 
were taken alive or dead. 

In a second series of tables, all the fully-registered dredging forms are 
tabulated and analysed, with a record of the year of observation, the 
distance from shore, the depth, the nature of the sea-bed, the number of 
species of Univalve testacea taken alive and dead, the same of Bivalve testa- 
cea, and the number of Echinodermata, a statement of the species taken 
most abundantly, of the rare forms found, and of any peculiarities in the 
assemblage of creatures observed in the particular locality. 

ception of the first, have been published since the Meeting of the British Association at 
Birmingham in 1839, and much of their most valuable materials have been collected in con- 
sequence of the researches set on foot at that meeting. 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 195 

The above sets of tables ooncern mainly the Testacea and Eehinodermata. 
A statement of the results of the search for plants and for animals of other 
classes and orders is given in a less formal manner in supplementary para- 
graphs. 

To show the range of the several species of Testacea and Eehinodermata 
as perfectly as possible, the lists of English and Scottish species are drawn 
up separately. Each are moreover grouped under provinces, these provinces 
being not merely sections of the coast chosen for convenience, but areas pre- 
senting peculiar zoological features of their own, dependent on causes which 
are briefly discussed in the general observations oflFered in the latter part of 
this Report. 

The English provinces which have contributed materials to this Report are 
five: — 1st, the coasts of Hants and Dorset; 2nd, the coasts of Cornwall and 
Devon ; 3rd, South Wales and the British Channel ; 4th, North Wales and 
the neighbouring sea ; and 5th, the sea around the Isle of Man. 

The Scottish provinces (western and northern) are also five: — 1st, the 
Clyde region ; 2nd, the Inner Hebrides ; yrd, the Outer Hebrides and the 
sea off Sutherlandshire ; 4th, the Orkney Islands; and 3th, the Zetland 
Islands. 

As all these provinces, English and Scotch, have been personally explored 
by myself, I am enabled, in tabulating the contents of the dredging papers 
and the isolated observations on depth embodied in the list of species, to 
judge with greater accuracy than I otherwise could have done of the value 
and bearing of the data, and to venture with greater confidence on the general 
considerations which follow. 

The reader must bear in mind constantly that the object of the following 
papers and tables is not to give a complete enumeration of the animals in- 
habiting each province, but to present an authentic series of accurate obser- 
vations on the distribution of such species as can only be procured by the aid 
of the dredge. 



o2 



196 



iiEPORT — 1850. 



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ON 


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(Ab.) Pecten varius, R 
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^ r-< rt rt 




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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



199 



imeria 
hians 

a, Nu- 
parva 

arities 




3 

H 


■llli^ 




g 


1.-^ 


S3|2| 




3 .§.-.. 




373 


Pectunc 

candidus 
nacina, V 
s tumidu 
•cea alive 




■^'-i 






-C- » O 3 C. 
S 3'3j= >, 




« rt 


colo 
ecurt 
lina 
Tioc 
ndC 


= 5 


■S|^§« 




3 ^ 


3"S 1 § 1 




> S 


^ QB ^,C a . 












■c^.tJts.S o 




■qo 


emarkably 
and dead s 
tt in quani 
similis an 
ni, Nassa 
acea numei 




fe ^ 




oc 


1 

o 


■S s 


-i „ 0) c g -g 


i 


fi*-" 




s 


^ 3 


"*■ a 3,3 =.« 


y 


J3 fi 




3 
W 


QJ3 


T.s si 2.8 


JJ 


J2-C 



,WS 



1 . 

3 a 

Z a 



3 3 



Sg 






2l 21 



P' Eh «8 !* C 

tote "^ "S =« 
OO W 



P3 T3 S jS 
P=5 ffl ^ 



a S ■' 



«1 a> 






;£ 2(1. 



« : 


- 


: o5 




CO 


.. 


.. 


•a : 




»>. 00 


CQ 


05 


-* 


o 


tiM 


00 


rt in 


C<l 


o 


00 


CO 


«o : 


CO 


r-( ^D 


<N 


- 


t^ 


o 


« : 


- 


CO CO 


l>* 


to 


(N 




«^ 


^ 


Sa 


S) 


» 


^ 


^ 




in 


in 

CO 


CO 
1 

o 

CO 


CO 


O 
in 


o 
in 


■«ji m 


CO 


- : 


= 


OO 


o 
o 


lO 

to 



St; o c 3 5 





is a s 








o =5 ^ 






xs 


.1^ -c .2 -o 


o 

a 


miles 
th-wes 
id's En 
five m 
id's Eu 


Q 


>.~ 5 >. 5 


t- 


■5; 5 -:3 15 J 


O 


03 O) 



to to 
-* 'I" 

00 00 



« 

a ^ 



S o 



I I 



82 



-a? 
5-3 S' 



^ssirri 



.-Sfi 



3 a^ a-5; -5 H 

s a^ a c ^ a 
a H a "rt O a ^ 

il I ffSzc 

; g.sS s■^;„- 



c 2-° 
•a =■« 



^ as 3 to 

S '^ ^ C 3 

■c c S i g 



^ a dti: ® PQ 
£ ? "3 to 3 „~ 

a.ti g cii a 
O'E'Sog^ « 

•« ■'^ al ^ 
ft< > a" s) -o 5 

g"a.S'tb3:a' 



S e-3 ga c 



s-a o 



5«i 



^'ii'S^ 



H|aH|||>|> §1': 

o2 S ^ 3 " 3 O B '■.■ g.3 



: Sis a ^.H 



O- 


o- 




c> 








O- 


CO 


CO 


(N 




CJ 


: 


<M 


(N 


CO 


(N 


01 


- 


(M 


o> 





00 


- 


C5 



(N 


in 


»- 


IN 






t^ 


CO 


to 




m 


■* 


-* 


CI 


in 








^ 


a 


a 


a 
to 

3 


So 




a 


t^ 


«>. 


CO 


1 

00 




(M 

1 

in 





in 


:^" 


C^) 


Si 


I 


Ol 


- 


- 



-^ ^ 



to to o o 

00 00 00 cb 






200 



o 
xn 



o 



REPORT — 1850. 



05 


f-| 


03 


CS 


3 


hfl 


^ 


a 


o 




r« 


o 


3 


m 


O 

o 


O 


-w 


O 









^ 
^ 



m 

a, 

4) 



a 



























J. V. 




























jI 




CO o o 


2° 

. 1 


i s 


c^ o 


o 


o o 


o 
m 
1 


C-1 


bO 




o « c-5 CO 


V? 


C-1 


en en 


'—< 


5 




^1 II 


o2 


ID "^ 


1 1 

O t^ 


1 


^.i 


o 


cij 






"^ 




















-a 
c 




Cm ..-.•. 












s 


A • ^ 








w 


I 




,-: iT " 5o Sb = 


> : 


lb : 










Cfl " "sT 










O 




■3 bo 












to ^ 










w • 








































1 


r^ 


T3 


a = 










































s 
















































a 


^ 








































1 


-w 














































i 




u^ 








































n 


in lO 




















n 


< 


3 


in <Y m in =;' in 


t^ * 


',2 * 


* 




in o in in 

-< CM rt r^ 


* 




1 






N CM 














































■a 


. 








•6 ir' 












en 


,f 




B 


1 


^1^ 








s fc^J ^ 


^ "5 






^^ 




<" M i 


1 


O 










w ca 




tn 






cfl 




1 




s 




















in 


in 






m 


in 


r 


tJ 


1 


a 




















1'^ 


CM 






CM 

1 


=1 


o 




c 


a 


j:: 




















o<>^ 


O 






c 


c 


in 




^ 


tS 




















CM 


CM 






CM 


CO 


























































3 






* 


; * 


n. n. CM 

r>. O 7 


in 

7 * 

CM 






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1 


» 






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^ 


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til 






•^ tb to ■" i 




J_ 


g 


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2 « a 




» 






S <' 




M 


























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i 






























in 




L 
























^ 






















1 


^ 




c in 








«fS£ 


in 






in 11 


> 


go ei 


o 


Cs 


CM 


* <=^ 


^ Am 


CM CM 1 


;3 




^ r-1 1 




: 




J^ 


-s 1 








r^ ■ 


W 


«; 


1 t- 




; i> 




■"j-ll^ 


i^ 






II 




























TJ 


-1-: .• 








^ 




lT 






C 










c 
s 


tO°^ . to bO to 








to 




6D^ 


-w '-^ 




tO;. 


• 




















^ i^ 


M to 




. tOM 






? 


O 


^2 








s 




s 






S 








n3 


i 




















CM 




CM 








CM 


C 

in^ 






1^ 


a 


























'"' 








'"' 


=^«- 






1 




«^ 
































































^ 




g o o 




















c 










^ 












* 


c 

CM 


in o 

CM M 


* 


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^ 






























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3 

S 


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^ "^ c 


•4 -^ 




s ^ 




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^ 






U 


o 




" 










OT 








TS 


s 






































t-i 










































■a 


1 


pC 








































2 CO m 00 o oc 

B^ C^ nH (M r- 


in CM cr 


in 


00 IT 




in CO 










^ 


CM ■-! ■- 


^m 


^. '"' "^ 




'7 7'-' 


j^ 






< 


< 


2 ' ^ 11 

r^ i-O O in O i-" 


O t- 1/ 


ci^ 


"' in c 




iJ-in-^ 


Cs 






^n rt IM .-1 CM — 


04 r- 


CM 


—1 c^ 




^ '-I 












1 

1 
























r 










M 




o 


: -s 




2 


=» X 




■ _S 






a 




.2 


1 




o 


; 1 




- 


=3 S 
g 1 


-§2 


« 




1 




CO 




P 1 1 

C5 S «2 i 


5 i 


S £ 


2 « 
■3-3 


« 






S 






^ C 


.3 .S 


i=< c 


C 




a 






c3 a r 
o S £ 
15 IS i£ 


O C 

2 1= 


"a 'a 

1 1 


* 'So 

■s a 




11 

g J 


1 


is 

OS 






o o c 


oc 


O 1= 


e-H 


w 


<t!(i, 


s 


O 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



201 



^Sb' 









f— t »o ,^ u^ 
• - I rH "-^ r-H 



(M '-'' "^ 
Ej <M CO -, 

"^ (M CO 






s s 



^J ^ M so 



s •& 



rt 00 J^H r-J T 



I a>S^ 



iDM S) Silo S)1 






_^__H^__H 






2.3 



§ a 






1^ 




HOOH 



202 



BEPdiiT— 1850. 



s 


fathoms. 
0-50 

5-30 
3-50 

5-25 

7-30 

50 

5-30 ? 

3-12 ? 
1-20 

.3-15 .' 

3-15 .' 

50 

7-30 

1-30 
15P-30 

7-30 

10-30 

1 Ut. 

j 0-15 
0-12 
0-30 

1- 


i 

i 


1 

■3 


« 










& 


H-- 








£0 


fe : 






^ ^" J 
































in ; 












> 


1 
1 

■s 




* : * 








1i 








IN 

T 

CD 






IN 

00 


i 

! 


c 

5 








a 


g a _^ 






^ 










•5 


o 


fathoms. 
7-12 
20-25 

50 
20-25 

20-25 

27 

50 
20-25 

7-12 

20-25 

50 




T 


IN IN 









IN 

I 


IN 


T 




93 

> 














* * 








O 




in 
IN 
* 1 * * * 

IN 


3M 

'-IN , 


1 
« 

•a - 
rt c 
» c 

^" 

.d 

I 


C 
3 

o 


S E is S feSfe 




s& 


s s 












"f-^ 


-a 


3 *^ t^ t^ 




M CM 


00 






CD in 
1 1 




in m 






in 

IN (N M 

>-i 1 — 


« S 

^ 1 




^ ! 




* 






(M 










© 


* 4: * 




1 

1 
1 


c 

3 

O 


















S) & 










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1 

a 


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C 
IM 
1 
IT 












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- 








> 

< 


S 




* : 




* 




o 
















* * * * 


1 

•a 
2 


■6 
c 






























&, C ^ 




.. r 


1 


1 
1 




























in 

CO — 








3D 

1 ■ 


< 1 




* 1 










: * 














in ^ ^ i-H 


": .; 


!»■ 


< i 

a - 
o s 
c - 
o = 

a .: 

■^ "5 
^■■ 

1 


3 
1 = 

3 £ 

5 <! 


3 c 

5 < 

: i 

> i 
) < 


\ 1 ^ 

I g 1 

5 CO y 


3 ^ 

S _c 

j 1 
i "i 
1 1/ 


j 1 
a T 
3 (/ 


3 1 
1 J 


' J. 
> t. 


: c3 

■ S 

ill 

; « 1- 

j a \ 


.a 


3} 

Li 


■ t 
J 

"i. 

£ 

1 

c 


: "O 

■ s 

cS 

;5.| 

)0 






i 

CI 

£ 


1 

.1: 


c 
Z 
2. 


1 
1 

1 

c 

1 


C 


'.w 

I ! 
1 ! 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



203 



0-5 
1-12 

0-30 

> 
5-50 

5-20 
5-50 

0^7 
0-10 ? 

7-30 

15-50 

5-30? 
5-30 

lit.-7 
5-30 

5-30 
5-20 

5-20 

10-40 
5-30 
5-30 


: ^ 






& 


^ 


i &) 




. to 


to to to H to : 












- 










in 


in 


«-2 




: m 




in m • 


in • 




do 00 • 




in . 

< 1 • 

J- '• 




* 










* 


7 




in 




'^ \ 












i ; 


"S £ 


i-s^j« ■ 


i ^ 






^ " °° . 




* "^ - 


E-S 




^^ 


> • 
1 : 

1 : 


7 


7-12 
15-20 

7-12 

20-25 

50 


in 

7© 

©'-'' 






in 


o 
o 














in 
c^ 

1 

© 

CM 


20-25 
7-12 
30-35 
20-25 


k» in 






o 






* • 


* * * 


in ro *^ 

7 ** *7i 














'^fe9 


& 


to 


a> 


to 




« E ^ ^ 


to 




1. to 1- iI to 
to . to to . 












m in 


in 


o 

(N 

i 


in 




© 


in 
© e^ 


!s 








CM • 


© N 










\ 




<M 










* 


Ol 












2-" 


in 
7* 














i) 


















» fe« 8 ^ 




tOM fe) to » 








-i 1> fc- 

= P to 






a 

'> 

4 




© 

in 




1 

in 






22 










© 

7ino 












© 




























7 

12 
14-20 
15-20 






-!s 












© 

(M 
1 

in 










= 


» 










ji JS ^J3 


\i44-i 








































© 
































© 


O 
(M 










15,20 

15-18 
20-25 
1 25 
20-25 
















1 1 


ii 

\ 


1 
1 

I 

a c 
6 B 


1 J 


! i 

i 

3 c 
? < 


3 
3 

3 t 

2 ' 

i i 


! < 

5 1 
3 ■ 

2 C 

3 


s ° 

i "S 

3 <r 

^ i 


1 

i 1 

i ( 


i c 

; c 

1 ,; 

5^ 




i 

\ i 

3 t 


: i 

\ I 


J 
'I 

1> 


2 
■ B 


- S 

.: 

3 a 


! 

! 1 

; i 


'Z 


1 

C 
1 


c 
c 

) s 


S 

b 
a 

"a 
t 

S 


= 

c 

a 

"a 
o 

1 


On 
1 

o1 

c 

12 


1 
= 

> 

a 

3 S 
1 


s 

a 

J i 

c 
a 


) 



204 



REPORT — 1850. 



Range. 

fathoms. 
10-30 

15-50 

5-30 

5-30 

0-20 
1-15 

1-12 

1-40 

0-30 

5-30 

5-50 

0-30 
0-30 

2-50 
3-30 


i 

c 

1 


t3 
C 
3 

2 




to 


S 


CO M » 05 to 






to C 
. to 












1 


i 

5 






1 
00 










































> 
< 


t2 


o 


t>» 


(N <N C^ CM 

*^ 1 1 -H*^ 1 rt 1 ,-. 
CO 00 00 00 






CM 

—1 in 
oi-- 




* 






§ 

T3 

a 
% 

3 


•3 
C 
S 

2 




^ 


« y^ 


s 


"S S ■» >- t^ 

" •'"mot 

S 3-3 « S 


""■"i-g-f 


«; 


•J 


oj ^ "^ 


1 


J 


o 


o o 

IM IN 

=!> i 

N (N 


















in 

t>.o7 

(N 






o 
in 


^ :2cM 
o ^J.o 
CM :*^eM 


< 


3 










1 




-^ in lO *, (N lo 
. ' o o J oo 

"^ <N CO *^ rt <N 








*, in in 

2 CMM 

J oo 

"^ CM CM 


* 


O 

in 






" s 

1 


c 
1 

o 




to <j to : 




S a5 


.^ to 


j;'"t03-t;>-*itoto'=to 

C j^ . C m toco . . ^ . 

to " M M M M 






& aa, 


a 


o 










00 


(N 




















in 

CM 

1 










in in 

CM CM CM , 


1 


i 


<N o 

1 -^ 




1 

00 


in 

22 


^in in 
o ^ "^ "^ t-l 


in 

O CM 




* 






1 

s 


-d 
1 


..... ^ . 

'5/ 3)M ■*! to bo « to 






? 03 60 to • i; to 00 to 

M to 




ii 






^ 






so 






o 
in 


o 




























lO 
CM 












> 


S o in 
gN'^'=^o 




O O 
« (N 






o 
^in"^r,<MO^ino 










CO 




a 
3 

i 
1 


•d 

B 
3 

2 

o 


■5 c-S-g c 






c-S c-g c-S -g 


= 












1 

o 


i 
























oo 

1 

in 




00 

in 












< 


§7 7«?o o 


* 


00 in 00 in 

>-l N r- C<l 
II II 

in o in o 

rt (N --CM 


■n in 

. M CM 
CM CM 








* * 




.2 

1 

0} 


a 

O : 

i 

c 


3 <■ 

i 1 


i 

: "E 
3 B 


3 

I i 

3 c 
3 C 


: !l 

'• s 

3 T 

3 c 

9 >. 


: I. 
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1 c 


1 c< 
O 1 




1 

1 c 


E 
•J 

; -J 

s : 


' .E 

c 

1 £ 


r 
i 
; 
: 


1 

■i- 

\ % 


<L 

f 

r 
0^ 

> 


c; 


r 

£ 
"c 


c 


.t 


e 

c 

c 

3 r 






ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



205 



3-30 
1-30 

0-20 
0-20 
0-20? 
0-20 

5-20 
0-30 

0-30 

0-30 

50 
5-50 

5-30 

5-30 

1-30 
3-30 

0-30 

> 

0-10? 
5-20? 
5-50 

10-30 




to so 




sH J sHfe 
















s j i 






Si 


ST 

00 











































: >n 




7 




15-17 

15-17 

15 

20 
15-17 




CM (N IN : 
!>. 00 00 


* • 














IN : 

00 




"S^ 










■S 601:? M 


S M W M 


"""^"■i-i 




X 


1 


60 


















*>• 

(N 


(N 
1 












IN 




in 


in 

IN (N 


IN IN 




IN 

1 

IN 








© 10 
<N 


N-H 1 

00 










7-12 

"20-25 " 

3 

50 

7-12 

10-12 

25 

50 






" 2 
"^ 

CO 


* * 


* 




© 


in 

<^t-© 

ciiNin 

IN 




^& 










" &,s & & 


to s a to to 














U^ 
























00 




IN 
1 










to 
1 

CO 








C^ IN 


in 

IN 
1 




ra ira 










c 


ira 










* 








00 








60 






c »; *: i: ^ «• "> 

60 to M 60 M <a ^ 


: t-' 

■ bOM 6O M 












^.•^ 








IN 


















- 
























IN <N 



















IN "^ t^ © to lO 

'"12 






M "^ ira IN <N 
















•^ * 














■"■S 


■i 




: a-S s 








= 






\4= -4 




















in 

(N 
1 

(N 


























' 






: * 










2S 








<N a; 
r-i IN IN 04 * 




00 






'0 00 
IN r-l IN 


it 

3 1 

5 j 

>3B 


: < 

; s 

Ml 

1 a 

; o 

! J 

3 0. 


1 

a. 


c. 
J 
a 


£ 

> 

1 

c 


.1 

-. c 

^ £ 

1 


1 


i 
1 


IS 

= 
C 

> 


c 


_1 

£ 

c 
.| 

c 


'i 

tj 

c 

« 



■£ 

K 
,c 
p 


) g 

"c 

S 

c 

-a 
c 


■fc 
> 

t. 

c 
s 

_c 

E 

> 


0. 
E 

1 

a 

-a 


"S 

td 

1 
H 


1 
H 


c 

'■i 
ca 
c 
cd 

In 

H 


c 
1 

P 

t! 

H 




a 
> 

e 


H CJ 

£ 

H 


CI 

J 

P 
a 

"3 
en 


P 


"a; 

p 

a 

a. 
"o 


1 
1 

s 

"o 





206 



REPORT — 1850. 



:n "C « 5 



• irt o O I 
: M CO IN 1^ Q ( 

-. o o o '=^ ■» < 

• M CO Cv) ( 



a s 



s a 



C So 



00 «n ;::; 7 






a-s 



,^ (N N 0^ 



< (N "? O N 



CO * 



fc s '& g S « 



a ?! 



a c3 



^ g a s a 
li-i a 2 a 

-= o cs a a 



= ■= 'rs P 



= 3 313 a 



£ S C3 ft. 

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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



207 



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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



209 



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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



211 



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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



213 



man& 

Getty. 

M'A.& 

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ectuncuius glycimens, fecten op 
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£ -1.2 8 




J5 3 

o a 

■3?, 






n eo 


- 






o 




.. 


- 


OS 
cq 
H 


« 


■* 


M 




- 




























3 CO 


-^ 




Tf 


CO 




i>. 


to 




(N 


t^ 


(N 


50 




CO 


CO 


'- 


to 


00 


». 


t^ 


- 


00 


■* 




00 


00 


3 : 


« 




IM 






■* 


CO 




-* 


CJ 




- 


- 


00 


m 


- 


CO 


- 




!>. 




p-l 


-i< 


t>. 


o 


(O 




^ 




^J 














s 


n 




3 ! 


m 


a 


■** . 


a 




s 


bo 




^ 


g 


60 




& . 




s 




<» 
















« 


M 


CO 




























» o 


O 


o 


o 


o 
o 




O 


o 




in 


in 


1 


IM 

1 


o 

C<1 


*l ■* 


>n 


to 






1 










in 


in 












in 










•— < 


*— ' 






















(M 








« : 




«]N 








T 


Hl« 






-1« 








:• ^ 




J3 


i3 T3 


<u 


? r 


■g s 






%V^% 




-T3 

a 




^ i 




. o 


-a 

a 


.2 ^ 

D O 














3 

o 




-'s . . 




|| 


^ N 


Xu 




^ 






■= b iS 




o 




Saua island 
of Cantyre 

Loch Fyne 
Tarbet. 


S3 

S3 






o S p3 

.S -g p^ o « 




O 


O 3 ..-a 

° gi§ 


"its 

O 


ci 
S 

< 
it! 

o 


oil 
.c o 










in 




o 


o 


in 


lO 


00 


in 

00 


in 

00 


'^ » 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




00 


00 




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00 


ir 





























214 










REPORT 


1850. 










1 




^ 


■^r- 












■*i . 








^ . 1 




^i 


<;^ 


:; 


:; 


E 


5; 


- 


. ^^ 


. . 


. 


< 


^^ 1 




gW 








^ 




gH 






g 


gW li 




a' 


^2 

i 

as 




■a 
c 

1 

c 


i 

c 
■a5 






*C 






c 


1 




§ 


So 




Is 


is 


f'g 






3 






ei 


a 




3 
1 


II 


i 


1^ 

aa 
11 

11 


if 
|| 

si 


1 






3 

■£ 
•a 

s 

.1 






3 

'S 
•3 


3 
3 

S5 



s 

> 
a 




S 


a u 


si 


If 














Pu 


■a 
a 




i 
'■§ 

c 


3'g) 

3 S 

C S 


If 

>. 

ill 
"I! 


21 

3 S 










P 
a q< 


S i 




s 

■a 

> 


c 

3 1 

a 


f 


1 

1 


II" 

n 3.2 


oa 

i 

S-aS 

So|„- 


£ 3 

■g-o 


£•'3 
»S 

■J > 

II 
■Si 

^1 
4'^ 






Anomiae and Terebratul 
ropilidium ancyloides, L 

abyssicola and Nucula p 


s?l 

»!5g- 


1 


1 

1 

s 
< 




8 




§^S 




M^g.3 


2| 
5. 






S£ 2 


.2 i'^ 




§ 



^^ 3 


2I ^^' 
< 




























•BlBOUap 


(N 


C4 










,_, ; 


l-H CO 








H 




















































> 




J^ 


- 


^ 




- 


in 


^ : 




- 


CI 


: 1 


o 
























pa 


a 


(N 


o 


t>. 


o 





rH 


S -" 


CrH 




CO 


M 






< 




























-3 


























!fi 


ff. 


(N 


CO 


■* 




-* 




CM 




i-H 


CO 


CO 1 




> 

5 


Q 
























aJ 


























t3 


5 


: 


00 


t^ 


■* 


*^ 


^ 


00 -< 




CO 


00 








<ii . 




«a . 


=a . 




■s 




fi 


^ 






•panoiQ 

1 


s^ 


s " 


w 


■i ^ 


-s S 


01 


i a 


S E 




a 




o 




O 






















•mdaa 


2 




CO 


o 

CO 




CO 


1 


2 § 


2^ 


2 





in 


III 


T 

-1^ 


«!ei 


1 

-H 


-lei 


«K 


X 




:- 


-,ie. 


f 


- 






•a 
g 

o 


'2 
3 


2 C S 




« a 


s^s 




a 




•a 

a 


a 










w 










ci a — 


a 


T 








1 


^3 

„ 3 

i.s 


■1 
1^ 


^ o 


"3 " 







S ^^ BS 3 

."3 e 




S "0 
pi CI 




"0 
tj 


1 

a 








!)3 =" 


lo 


^S3 




>,r3 a 


l|l|l 










ca 


O 


:z 


M 





OT 


tn ^ 


WW 


w 





s 


. 


to 


in 


«5 


lO 


t^ 


lO 


in 4ri 


ifi iri 


>n 


«5 


06 














f 
















Q 


CO 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 00 


00 00 


00 


00 


CO 




■-• 


■-• 




'-' 


^ 












"-I 

































ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



215 






■« 






c5 S 



11^ 



" g c -.2 B 



> o «i a 



ir.f^ Z 



.2 .2 ■= s „- = •; 



3 1-3 

= 2^ 






u-5 " 









i(^c 




, a » S -E S 2 
S i" o. c g 3 S 

■s2sr".f.» 

oSh'S M n £ 
" a S--^ bo o 

■H 3 o «2s " 

CD > ■*-» c -- O 

3H = og'g.g 

•3 .5 ■" == 3 B M 






S M* C " S O^ 

S "^S So S s « 

„-,3 = I* a -■o 8i .g s 



3"S 



a'ga 



2-g< 

M 3 O 

■ c 3!a 



•aS2> 
.2^ = 5 

S0.2I 



o- .-g 



2§« 



s s 



J3.S-, 
60 3W j^ 

° = .-, . 

S « 3 o 



n aJJl 5 



1-5 ■s.s a^- 
III III 

c 'C ^ '? ^o 
.g ^ o 2 3 



«•§ Shop 



|s s ;rgi 









a 
a =oS"»3 

3 •- S M j: _ '2 

sfo . £ g^'S 
u £ c &."§>!; 

" o » g c.g 2'^ 3 

=.«-;;.£ 3'sSs>> 

S .5 S ^ 0-5 o 2 = 



i"£S 



"131 

I Is. 2 

5£§o 



22-? 

C,3 i 



S'£2 l-g 



5 • S'-< 
g c S ■» . 
c^ o u :3 « 

g fL,,£ 60 

o o « o 5 
""," 5 «;« 
■"e .2-- - 

s« a5| 



fl 3 — -a 60 

..'53 ° a'o 
- = «-=aS 
■§ Jh^b 

= 53 iS 



S 



rt G> " eg 13 ■y G 

I sl'l III 
„-.S«<i: .-Sc 



33 =ss'S ts 

u 9 5 Bm "* m 



5£ag 









•5.2reH-S = 



.323BS60 
ass <u? 

^< 3t3 ff-3 

■o b'S S.3.S 

■ie^2°'»-B- 
&Sc Eel's 



(N S 



<o 


(N 


>n 


IN 






N 


to 


00 




»n 


IN 


- 


a> 


- 


2 




a 


^ 


^ 


bo 






■s 


^ 


A 


i- 




a 


tia 


■i 


i 


<! 
& 









in 


>o 






to 




<N 




>n 

















*? 


C5 


'^ 








lO 











(N 


>o 










^ 




i 

m 









^ 


■* 


=!. 




N 




IN 


IN 


CO 


IN 




S 




-ie> 


1 ^ 
00 


a 


T 


r 


t 




t 


t 


r 


^ 




X 








lO 















© 






















»— ' 



























a-i<! 

SfcO 

o 



S^§1-5 



o o 



go C a> . 
:^ D >■ S 03 j4 





S ^ 


a 




c 

3 





g s 


n 




0) 






§ -s 




^ 




y; 




!» 1-1 


te 




^ 




!^ 




3 


^ 



1^ 






tS 






a" S 





1 


"3 


1 


"3 


< 



216 



REPORT — 1850. 



X 



•B^Bouap 
-ouiqoa 



•qidaa 






13 
on 



^-5 

Is 



S S S .2 
2 3= 5 



5 §og< II 






o, s- ^a 



oCO 






5515.3 oj 



! £ cO 



S3" 



s"^ 



.g ■= 1 a. o B 
o!^ 2rt ao- 



•S.SSS 


^M 






"^ " rt a 


oil 


^i '1 


■Sm'O 


4^-nS 




Og- 


S'^-S o 


c--ff 






«s|s 


._'.= a 


2il^ 


1-3 














rt « c — 


s"-! 




" o cd M 


2=5 -2 








,2 j; "^ 


3 £= g 


lis 


«^£S 


n,-S^ 


s^-s" 




e Li 
valve 
Asia 
me ii 
ken. 




Sj 'n -*^ -2 


.S2?, 



.?->-; 



SJ 2-2 o ~ 



= ^is 



•S Sj 



3 3 c ^j: 



> "HlSs 



SB S.3 



>''^ ■S'S —■-sS'o 



> '5) 3 "y w 



sag 



r- "^ 



3^ a 



_fcp ^ 



.2 


►-1^ 




3 


-a's 




O 


og 




u 


1-5^ 


OT 


!tl 


SB o 


St3 


O 


O 


O 



^i^ 
^►J 


2 
o 


-a 


o o 


SB 
O 


O 



2m "s^ So 
Co «>""" 
= !s •- S o « 



g« Ills 

o g I. J, 3 r 

oJ S te S ai a 

^1 K^..^< 



3K 
Oo o 

t 5 = 

H 3 rn 






Bum 



O cS 
• =.c 



*2> i. 



■gs's 



so I lis 
s g 



« CO 


>n 


M 


(N 


^ C5 


<N 


!>. 


■<)« 


eo -fl" 


t^ 


00 


•«< 


-H <N 


eo 


N 


o 


■v ■* 


in 


O 


eo 






a 


a 


oo2 


00 


00 


o 


• o 


-*1 
1 

o 


- 


- 



& ^ 


^ 


^ 


&: 




C3 


o 




f= 3 


^ 

^ 


s 


g 


















W M 


m 


m 


VI 


sese 


5(3 


ta 


!t3 


oo 


O 


O 


O 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



217 





























<a . 




s 


= 


= 


= 


< 
S 


= 


:; 


= 






= 








1 






° 
28 


1 

■■3 


3 


.SH 


E 

3 
'a 


> 


.J 

a 


^1 


■a 
S 


g 






"^ 


u 


§- 


St! 


& 




.2 


w 




?1-^ 

>§ 


3 

e 


i 






So- 








■a 




s 


Cm 




Bk 






li 


S 

3 


2 


S3 
cue 


2 




60 

i 

3 


J3 




33 


0. 


1 

■1 

1 






i-is 

l!i 

111 

111 


=3 
1 


c 


Si 
is 

u 3 


3 
c 

> 




■3, 
■> 


3^ 

•3 

C 

a 






■H 
<5 


1-1 

• 

% 

!l 
If 

U 




i 

1 

a 
3 


1 
a 

3 


s 

c 

2" 
n 


Z'fi 


"5 
1 

ii 

Q 1 


CO 

<; 



8 
1 
< 

■a 

S 
3 

i 




11 




If 

•S c 

I"* . 

H-3 2 
1: ^i 


i 

> 

> 

'3 



u 






3 

Is 


a « 
If 

si 


0*^ 

rt -3.3 

Si? 


« 3 " 
a ^-3 = 

S3 •3 a" 




H 
as 

<! 


III 

a g 3 

•§.1 r- 

1 J ^ 
S •a ^ 


133 

(D<! 

S 

3-2 

2a 


M 

H 


|3 -C 22 

.5 3 iS'S 
«M .5.5 
3-5 a a 

11. 11 
d|3^ 


al 


it 

on 


=s 


c 



■5 2:= 

III 
< 


S| 


>.i£ 




1 


«^ 


1— ( 




1 


'S 


^= 


^" 


^Hg 


iJ 3 To 


<! 5. 


^ = 




< 




<" 


























* 


^ 


: 


(N 








01 


s 


«o 00 : 


m 


E-i 
U 
tS) 


"^ 


OJ 


























* 


o> 


-^ 


M 


-^ 


■^ 


in 




Q 


«"^2 


i>. 


s 
H 


t>. 


(M 


























N 


PS 


- 


in 


« 








in 


< 


■* =^ =0 


to 




to 



CO 


















>* 















w 


CO 




'^ 


-* 




^ 


z 

M 

b: 



MC02 


t>* 




^ 


l>. 


























" 


eo 




-- 


to 


ira 





«o 


;o2S 


00 




t>. 


in 


a 








^ 


o3 




ti 


^■S a ^ 


^ 




^ 


a 


m 


s 


^ 





&> 


<« 






s 


" 


» 



























us 








■* 


in 










OP=?(N 


■'1' 




«>. 




J 


'-' 




n 


in 


in 


in 






X 






1 


■< 




















eo 








H 


rt 


«S> 


a 




CS 


m 


© 


: :^ 


in 




"l 
































































































a a> 






































?? "O 
































>. 


^ 


a* 


>. 




C3 

.a 


g 

,3 


■?:°^ 




a as 


K 






^ 


s 
a 
3 
5 




1 


2 



1 




s 


a 


-a 
0^ 






.1 






a 
3 


CO 
cd 


s 


SB 


its 


45 


S'^ 


S-^'-' 


a 




lis 




3§^ 


"3 














M 










xnm^Z* 







a 


a 


r" 














»n 


in 


CO 










5 
























































Jli:- 


"" 


___ 


'"' 


'^ 


^ 


'"' 


'"' 















218 



REPORT 1850. 









'^ . 










3 ^ 




< 




- ' 


r - 


= 


< 


'fi 1 




OM 


3 


^ 


i 




.2 


IS -a i" 
"Si ? 






in 


> 

1 




E 

3 

o 


c 
> 

13 
C 


1 

■3 




_j 


SB 




« 


•c 


Q 


^1 -§ 




c 

•o 

c 

3 
X! 


H 

3 = 


is 

« H 


1 

.11 


•o 

c 

1 1 


3 


c 

1 


>1 II 




S 


5 3 
§" 

3 C9 


si 

§.2 
11 


E-g 

o ^ 

•o 2 


.5 3 


C 

3 


3 
1 


1 lllfl 








CO 














S " 
Q.5 
arff 

3'- 


s - 


If? 

o ™ o 

!li 

bo ^ Si 

T3 " O 

c » S 
« 3Eh 

■(3 MM 
> > 


Fragments of Balani, Serpulas and broken b 
(Ab.) Venus fasciata alive. 

(Ab.) Trochus tumidus, Psammobia tellinel 
ciatum. Cynthia tubularis. 


1 

> 


c 
2» 


^ ■3'-S.?"o.& j 


<5^ 

S 

'■S 
1 


1 
1 


3 « 


Ab.) Dead valves of Mactra 
ovata. Cynthia tubularis abun 

Ab.) Dead valves of Area tetrag 
E.) Comatula europaea. 


n 

if 

'■a a 

2i 


S'-i 

3 g 

2 g. 

. §* 

11 

a-d 


Ab.) Dentalium entalis and Mac 

Ab.) Dentalium entalis and Em 
donacina, Venus ovata, Mactr 
specimens of Pleurotoma purpu 

M.) Meliboea and Eolis ; nine sp 
nine Hydroid and Helianthoid 




























1 


1— 1 


•BiEoiaap 




-t CO 




: ,_, 


,_, 


^ 


CO ■* 1 


q 


-ouiqaa 














il 


a 




































< 


m 


'O 


Oi 


^ 2 


-* r-( 


# '• 


to 


CO 


2 =^ "l 




> 


Q 


































N 

w 
M 
H 


> 

n 


< 


-* 


■* lO 


CO ^ 


N '^ 


in 


00 


00 o> 


i 


-3 


■* 


^ -* 


00 IfJ 


: ^ 


in 


CD 


OS O 




> 


Q 


















jj 


















& 


< 


M 


'-< : 


e^ : 


rt rt 


CO 


■* 


-* «o r 




tfl 




M 








o5 a 




■punoiQ 


d 


m 'O 


fe« 


bo &0 


& 


" 




o 
to 




in 
^in 












■qiiaa 


O lO 


in o 


o 




in o 






<N IN 


ico 


CO -"S" 


-^ 


^ 


-* in 










CO 




























pS 


-HiCT 


t r 


rl «hS- 


-^ :? 


(N 




■* '^ 




3*-S 


-hr 


o o 








o 


"" ! ■ 




5 

3 


*i ^ a a • bo 

S !» O « S g 




a 
"1 >. 

>§ o §" 




ravel here not 
ways rounded. 

Island bearing 
Buth - west by 
BUth ; bottom of 








2: 

o c 


t. Magnus Bay, 
of Zetland. 

ft' Papa Stour i 
Magnus Bay 
a bottom of br 
Barnacles and 
pulse in a st 


caw 

>> S 3 
t8 C 3 

1 « « 




coarse sand. 

Off Foula Is 
bearing south 

Between Fair I 
andFitfulHead. 
locality was fert 
rare species, an 
veral new Mol 
and Zoophytes 
added to the B 
faunaonibigocc 






V [^ 




^ ■" its 


!«* 


to « .a cc « 






CO 


Vi O 


M (/J 


O! O 


O 


(^ 


. 


^ 


>n in 


■n in 


in in 


in 


t^ 


t^ in 1 








'^ Tt< 


-f -t> 






-* 


■<J< TK 1 




o 


CO 


00 00 


CO CO 


00 00 


00 


00 


00 00 1 








r1 rt 








^ l-H 























ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOI^OGY. 



219 






E.2 3 <1.S 

s-gs as 

lis ?l 

< o o -so 

5 2 «" 






o 3'5c 3 Sa 
.gg§ ^.2 o 

^><o "In 
gill -^-S" 



§3 = '« 2"« 



H "« 



- S 



3 3 

'■3-° 






>.J3 

o a 



13 "!~ 
= M M 

■3 = S 
«.2i§ 

G H-w 

3 It 

«'S'3 



,5 j; oi b « 
« > « '0.2> 



5= s;aa 






■3 ■-= 



ie a 



S •tj ^ S* -^ K <u 

a . "^cZ.a 



05 0-55 =lt;|Q.: 
^£ oS 5 Sock's t. 
5u 5«ij gg'S'SsaS 



gs 






•33 ■" 

o - 

•sgg 

" O 3 



XJ 3 

.A 

■2 c 






C « pH g g* « 

0.11 .Ogs p 

^^ o ^j rt ^ > ^^ 



Z m a s 

S" « - = 



ga^ g 
>f aS 



"lis . 

C 3 .2 gjM 

<"« ra C C 






Cfl to 



o 3 



o» " to o ;^ 



M ■* 00 



« S 



a "^ 



a^ «*j 



r-l ■* 












5 ..^g^ ."I 

'^ "^ "S "^3 ^ o 
M M O 



ts S3 aw 

N 2 9 (/2 



C8 3 O 



'a'f "giM ^.S 



_^ o 



220 



REPORT — 1850. 







=8 








J3 bf 


i 




:: r 






cS"^ 


B C 








— .3 S" 


■3 " 




























l2»» 






■3 




Syndos 
arbonis, 
serrulati 
'0 specie 


§°-3 
§1.2 






en 


•S S,Sf . 






a 


■r. 






S 

a 


c 

3 


"^'1 o i 






s 

'S 


1 


{en. Pectc 
etula, Apor 
ifer and PI 
linus norve 


ast. 

a and of 
olourless 
ns of Ape 






aj 






? 


1 


« a s." 




? 


c 

i 

a 


1 

■a 

■3 

i 


bulata var. stenostoma, firs 
I, Neaeracuspidata, Cerithiu 
Cemoria noachina, Brissu 
r to this assemblage ; also 
taken. 


he same character wit 
of Venus ovata and s 
occasion were remark 
s dredged. Several sj 


•5 


w 


s 


r 1, 01 « 
= §3 * 


•^^ 




3 


a) J, -w « 


^ 

M 




ji 


ulima su 
termcdi 
fulvum, 
charactc 
pridina 


ssemblag 
le specii 
alive on 
islandic 








W 


■< H 


•Fjeraiap 






lO (M 




z 


-ou iqaa 


















< 

H 


> 


s 


CO 


O 


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. 








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> 


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CO O) 




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5 to 




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00 00 








rt rt 



< 



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^ 



C3 >i 
3 'S 



qj CO 



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s 



1 


fathoms. 
5-100 


i 


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3 
3 

2 


3 '"aa« 


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1 

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in CO 


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1 












> 




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■i 
a 

2.2 

" a 

"e 
Q 





ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



221 



15-80 
0-20 
2-50 
2-100 

2-50 

1-20 
ht. 
0-15 
0-12 

0-50 

15-90 

20-100 

15-100? 


g a « 




a a a 






o o 

2 'k'^ 


















■ O 

•3 








'in :' IN 
N . in in in »>. 00 




^1 




o 

00 

o 






5-10 
15-20 

40 
45,50 

50 

80 
100? 

15-20 

7 


- in 













in to 








•S a 




»-^ a °^ 






U 




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4 a 








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in 


in 
1 


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in rH IM 

1 . 1 

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in 




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00 











in 




w. 

St. 

gr. m. 
gr.s. 


bo CO bb ^ « =" 


) 


i 




P»H B(-'*iH.,»»tiO oBo 

6D fcoa <" "5 &a 






































o o 

■* r-t 








25,40 
... 
""46 " 

20-30 
"'36 " 




in 
05 CO 


a> IN 


15 

20, 30-40 

25 

20-25 

* 

15 

18 

20-25 


in o 
o in 


gr. 12, 15-20 
20,25 

30 
20,35 
30-40 

sh. 12-16 

! 30-40 

n. 1 20-25 


in * 


^ in in o o 

27 oo=)»«oo"?inoo 000 

" (N IN N IM 




a 








e a 




fl S 


•S S) ^ fe -d a -s 




























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1 : 
in 







■n 







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i 7 * 




5-10 

40 

15,30 

40 
5-10 


o "^ 
u.^i.i-'^^in o ooo : 
^ ^ 'in'"' "* eo^'S' . 






r J 

1 1 

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1 

It 


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1 

E 
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c 

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E 
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c 

i 

C 


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(1 


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).= 

c 

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P- 


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1 
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< 


> 
-^ 

K 


Is 



c 

S 
cs 

•c 

c 

a 

0. 


t: 
■£ 

1 

a 
= 

1 

p- 


^ 



222 



REPORT 1850. 



1 


so 
:|7 




o© 

in in 


c 
o 




C 
CC 

-J 


o 
o 

T 

in 





to 
1 
in 




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in IT 








in'^o 


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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



223 



1-20 
0-18 

0-12 

0-50 

10-40 
0-15 

lit. 

15-70 
7-60 

30-100 
0-80 

0-15? 
0-50 

0-10 
15-40 
0-15 

0-5 




EJ ^"B^« E^^^-S": 






^ 1 




o»5 "3 &s'S"fl"5fe^: 






















in in : 

CO T)l - 






© ; 






" ^ i 


15-20 
30-35 
45,80 

25,45 














4-7 

4-7 
3-10 
15-20 

5-10 
15-20 






m : 

CO : 




© 

lO 




o 
in 


15-20 ? 

5-10 

50 

4-7 










Spg-ga .ga^ri 






fl . 


o : 






rS fl.g i 


^ a : 


^ 


_ ^-S o « j 








in : 




(N 










in 










in 
1^ ^ ■=> 




IN 




© ; O 

■qi : -* 










2 i"2 "? ** 

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i>. 


in to 

CM ■* 










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■* ■* 


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b> : 




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: .sin 
: m 
: w 










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: m 

: CO 


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4 

15-20 

4 

12,15,20 

4 

4,15 
20-25 

(10-40) 
12-16 


: * * 


* 




■ o 

: in 


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CO "^ 

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in o 

r-t <N 


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: ^ 

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1-1 
















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i * -r 

: m 










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1 

: 

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J 


1 "8 

a "S 


J 


3 J 

3 1 

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! 

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3 C 

3 '5 

3 : 
3 s 

3 J 
1 F- 


1 ;= 
11 

3 j 

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1 

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3 ■> 


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a 

3 ^ 


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C 




c 


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1 

. 1 

c 

1 


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s 


1 
tc 

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1 

s 


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1 


I 
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1 


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1 

c 

CI 

c 

i 


c 

c; 

c 

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J: 
1 


1 

OS 

o 

1 



224 



REPORT 1850. 



IS 525 






&: &: 



"" ifS ►^ ^ '— ' 



^ ^ 



t & 



e ^s 



^ '-' o ■* o lo o ' 

1-1 -S (M IM <>J CO — , 

(N i-i ^ >n lo o o " 

rt .;2 ,_ rt c^ cv) 



<"■ a M 



H & 



t- I => 






1:3 

£ a 
a a 

3 3 

•c-c 



as 

3 4) 

> ^ 

a. 2 

3 ca 

■ga 

0<! 



■si 

8 S; 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



22: 



"^ 



^ 2 



O lO O 1-1 



'^ r-H C>) lO I 



*S 



E ^-S 






o o o 

CO Q CO Q CO 



2 * * * * * 



J3 '-' a 



=.:^=^po 



sten 
leata 
s .. 
isima 
eleg 
fulv 


111 






> :3 s ;= ;2 ■« 


N N CS 






g g ca o c c 




E a «, « g a 


ass 






3 3 o o j= j: 


^ J3 3 


tdia-a^-alOO 


OOCi) 



.s •= 



•■^■■5^, ^ g a 



- .. „ ^ .. te-o SJ*' 
a S -e -2 !=i J2 .-^ 'o 5-3 



^ e 



' -"S 3 ;s --^ 

a a a 'as a ■ 



HS 



P3 rt 

b's'b s 



ooooopoooooo* 

OOOOOOOOOOOO' 



&3S 



18,50. 



226 



REPORT — 1850. 



§00 



2 ^ 



C fe)' 



o o 
<^^ ^ = ( 

« .1 J. s ; 



^ G 'A f: 



§2< 






c fe^S 






O < 



i3 « 2 



■■5 '5 £ 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



227 



! 






40^0 
0-80 

0-15 
0-60 

10-60 

15-100 

15-70 
10-100 

10-60 
0-5 


i «^.^fe^. i^.c .. .n^^.^i^., ^,a ,g\,,,c.\ 








: « ^ ; : 
: : ■* 






: : •■ (N : 

: ; ift ■. CD ; 
: t^-* io ; 
; : : *^ : 


: © : : 

. n< : : 


: 

rt in • 


15-20 
45-60 

80 
70-80 

""50" 

50 
15-20 

"5-16' 

50 
50-60 

60 

"56"' 
50-60 


': g ■■ ■ © 

: '^ oo S i^ : : «o 00 


: * 


: H ;^ : : : : 






: : : c 






: • ; ^ « " »5 : 


: 






2! M 






: in 

—1 TJ. 




: : : : 


: : in : 


: N ifs : : : : • 

■'-'*' : : : : : 


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: : 1 r- in ; * 
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: : 00 : 




: ■ • • *" '■ ' b) : "^ '^ 


: !& J 


pS 


; iflC ; so 






• • - • 2 '• '■ • :' 00 
::::<» .• ; : : .-. .n 


: : c> * 




: 00 : • 




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mH ^ M -JSi 




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: : © 

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: : : * 


^' "^ : : a : « ^ ': '■'•'■ bo's -g a " &, • • '^ "S fe . . '^ S -S -U 


"^ : : : : « : i . =§3 





: 
M : 


Lo 1 ; 


': i in : 


in 





■ •■'72 


15-20 
20-30 

4,5,12-ie 
12-15 

* 

"20-25"" 
25 

12-16 
15-20 
20-30 
20,45 

20-30 

25 
90-95 

40 

4,5 

10, 20-30 

25 



j to 6 -S lb 



A^ 






3 3 3 3 

,3333 
. ^^ fa fa pu 






§ 3 



Q2 



228 



REPORT 1850. 



« 


fathoms. 
15-80? 

> 
15-40? 
10-30 

10-00 

3-70 ? 

3-90 

> 
> 

5-60 
15-100 

10-50 


1 


-a 

B 

a 


1S«5 1 










&£&,-; 




«fe : 


iife«^-gis-^'S» 


1 

Q 












o o 

t-S 1.-5 






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1 - • 
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■■=© 


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o 
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1 


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J i 

3 1 
3a 


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3 "c 
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1 r 

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1 


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1 

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1 le; 


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si 


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t 
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5 c 
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ox BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



229 





















































0-50? 
0-60 


So O U5000 O© O ©2 
2o O 9»P4.-id CO© o oi 


|d.^...d^.. .=. 


: "5 i: -^ '^ « ^ « •'■ >= ^ 












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1 2 io©°§ 

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jS 
















IN 


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: M 


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: 1 o 






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O .n 4.T O ^ "* O ,^ 
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13 


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(s St ^- S 


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^ Sjf 


90-95 
15-24 








© 

«<5 












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■^ ■* ©» 


Ss 






* t« * * . 


* 


*S : 


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':& 1^ -= 2 : 








2 j 
















■"■is" 

15-20 
15-20 
























© 
eo 


















* * * : 


o 


t 






5 * * :' 


* 1 




j' 1 

^ 1 
a 
'I 

' a 

s 

• 1 


J 


> ^ 


a 

8 




« 


« 


1 


a 

5 


"5 
« 

a 


9 

a 

c 

J 

"5 


i 


2 


"n 

£ 




1 

S e 



830 



REPORT — 1850. 





P3 


fathoms. 
0-? 

60-100 ? 
3-80 

10-80 ? 

10-100 
10-80 

0-80? 
0-80? 

0-80? 
10-70 

0-20 
2-20 




i 


■a 

1 




^^^"^^ ; 


- 4P \ 






w o! OT » »; : 


H 






1 


■3 '• 




70-80 
15-30 

100 

82 


o : 
00 : 


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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



231 






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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



233 



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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



235 





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237 



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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 241 

Record of Classes and Tribes partially observed. 

The enumeration of species in each dredging paper is complete so far as 
the Testaceous MoUusca are concerned, and usually, also, the Echinodermata. 
Other tribes of animals, as well as plants, in consequence, in most cases, of the 
impossibilitj' of determining all the species at the time, and partly from the 
great amount of labour required to register completely the tribes above 
noted, did not receive the same degree of attention. In most instances they 
were, however, carefully collected ; and in the works of Bell and Johnston 
especially, many records of depths and localities will be found which were 
derived from specimens collected and transmitted to those eminent naturalists 
during the course of these researches. In the majority of the dredging 
papers, there are, however, memoranda of various extent, noting the more 
remarkable instances of every tribe found, and often their comparative 
abundance. These I shall now proceed to abstract. 

MoUusca Nudibranchiata. 
The small number of these beautiful creatures recorded in the dredging 
papers is not to be attributed to their having been unobserved, but rather 
to their absence from the ground usually examined. The majority of species 
inhabited the shallower parts of the Laminarian zone, and very numerous 
forms are littoral — hence living without the region assigned for this inquiry. 
In the magnificent work of Alder and Hancock on the British Nudibranchia, 
published by the Ray Society, the distribution and localities of this tribe have 
been most carefully attended to. 
Those noted in the papers are, — 

Melibcea coronata, Dorset, in 15-20 f. s. gr. 

fragilis, Isle of Man, 20-25 sh. Cornwall, 25 sh. s. Dorset, 

20-25 s. 
Tritonia, sp., Dorset, in 15-20 gr. 

■ Hombergi, Isle of Man, in 25 sh. 

plebeia, Isle of Man, in 28 sh. 

EolidicB, Isle of Man, in 18-25 f. Clyde, in 20 f. Zetland, in 7 f. 
Polycera, Hebrides, in 4-5 f. 
Idalia, Zetland, in 35 f. s. 

MoUusca Cephalopoda. 
Cephalopods are difficult to take with the dredge on account of the 
rapidity of their motions. The following instances are recorded : — 

Sepiola, 15-20 f. gr. and 40 m. Hebrides; and its spawn, in 25 s. s. 

Cornwall. 
Octopus, 30 f. gr. Hebrides, and 25 f. sh. Isle of Man. 

MoUusca Ascidia. 
These are rarely recorded in detail, because the difficulty of determining 
the species in the present state of our knowledge of the tribe is very great. 
Such records however as are given are important : — 

Cynthia microcosmus is recorded from 10 f. s. m. and 25 f. st. s. in 

the Hebrides. 
echinata, from 50 f. m. in the Hebrides, and 80 f. sand in Zet- 
land, where it also occurs among weed in 7 f. 

, a new species from 30 f. gr. Croulin Island. 

aggregata, from 7-12 f. st. gr. Dartmouth. 

tesseUata and morus, Devon, in 20-25 f. Localities for other 

members of this genus may be found in the ' British MoUusca,' 
vol. i. part 1 and 2. 
1850. R 



242 REPORT — 1850. 

Ascidia grossularia, Devon, in 12 f. Clyde, in 30 gr, 40 m. He- 
brides, in 20 gr. , ^^ 

pnmum, Devon, 20-25 f. Hebrides, 25 gr. ra. and 30 gr. 

. intestinalis, Dorset, in 15-20 gr. Hebrides, in 30-4-0 sh. Ork- 
neys, in 7 w. T 1 /^T • 1 c 1 Q 

commwiis, Dorset, in 7 w. and 15-20 gr. Isle o Man, in 15-18 

m. Clyde, in 30 gr. Hebrides, in 15 w., 25 gr. n., 30 gr., 30-40 
sb., 50 m. 

scabra ?, Dorset, in 15-20 gr. 

vitrea, Clyde, in 30 gr. Hebrides, in 30-40 sh., 25 gr. m. Ork- 
neys, in 35-40 sh. 

rosea, Hebrides, in 30 gr. Zetlands, in 4-7 w. 

m«j;j«, Orkneys, in 7-18 weed. ^ , j . o^ ,r> 

3Iolgula tubtdaris, Clyde, in 9 and 18 m. Zetlands, m 20 s., 40 gr., 
60 and 80 m. s. Hebrides also. 

oculata. 

Pelonaia glabra, in 9 m. Clyde. 
Syntethys hebridicus, 30 f. Croulin Island. 

Compound Ascidians in all depths of the Laminarian zone, rarely lower. 
Mollusca Bryozoa. 
So many of the specimens of these curious pseudo-zoophytes procured 
during these researches uere transmitted to Dr. Johnston for publication in 
his most valuable ' History of British Zoophytes,' that the few memoranda 
made in the dredging papers of the more striking species at the ime ot 
capture, can give but little insight into their distribution. The following 
notes of depth may serve as contributions to future histories ot them. 
Diastopora obelia, 14 f. st. Anglesey ; 40 f. Clyde district. 
Tubulipora patina, 20, 27 f. Cornwall ; 50 f. gr. Zetland. 

truncata, 50, 80 f. st. Zetland. „ ^, > 

serpens, 15-20 gr. Dorset ; 20-25 and 27 sh. Cornwall. Clyde, 

40. Zetland, 7 w., 50 gr. 

hispida, Clyde, 40. 

Idmonea atlantica, Zetland, 50 gr., 80 s. 
Ptistulipora proboscidea, Zetland, 50 gr. 

defiexa, Cornwall, 20-25 sh. s. 

Alecto major, Clyde, 40. 

Crisia, sp., Dorset, 12 s. gr., 15-20 gr. Anglesey, 14 st., 30 gr. Clyde, 

40. Zetland, 50 gr. 
Hiiypothoa, sp., Cornwall, 20-25 sh. s. Anglesey, 14 st. Zetland, 40 

gr., 50 21'. 
Cellepora pumicosa, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Devon, 20-25 gr. s. Corn- 
vall, 20-25 sh. s. Anglesey, 7 st., 30 gr. Isle of Man, 18 n., 25 
sh. Clyde, 40 sh. Hebrides, 10 s. m., 28 gr. s. Zetland, 50 gr. 

ramulosa, Dorset, 25 gr. Clvde, 40 sh. Zetland, 50 gr., 80 m. s. 

skenei, Dorset, 18-20 gr. Cornwall, 20-25 sh. s. Zetland, 25 

sh., 80 m. s. r, , J 
cervicomis, Hebrides, 15-20 st., 25 gr. n., 30 st. Zetlands, 

50 <^r. 

Lepralia, sp., Dorset, 15-2:) gr. Devon, 12 s. gr. Cornwall, 20-25 
sh., 27 s. Devon, 20-25 gr. s. Isle of Man, 15-18 n. &c. 

Flustra foliacea, Dorset, 15-20 gr., 25 gr. Anglesey, 12 st., 30 gr. 
Isle of Man, 15-18 n. Clyde, 40 st. Hebrides, 15-20 st. Zet- 
land, 50 gr. 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 243 

Flustra truncata ?, Dorset, 1.5-20 gr. Devon, 7-12 st. gr. Clyde, 40 

sh. Hebrides, 20 gr., S5 gr., 15-20 st. Orkneys, 35-40 st. 

avicularis ?, Dorset, 15-20 gr. 

Murrayana, Hebrides, 15-20 st. Zetland, 50 gr. 

• coriacea, Isle of Man, 25 sh. 

Membranipora pilosa, 7 gr. 

Escharafoliacea, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Cornwall, 20-25, 27 sh. 

bidentatu, Cornwall, 20-25 sh. 

Retepora Beaniana, Hebrides, 50 m. Zetlands, 50 gr., 70 s., 80 sh. 
iiahcornanafarcimioides, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Devon, 12 st. Devon 

20-25 gr.s. Cornwall, 20-25. Isle of Man, 25 sh. Clyde, 40 sh! 

Hebrides, 15-20 s. Outer Hebrides, 20 m. s. Zetlands, 50 er. 
Alcyomdmm, Dorset, 12 s. gr. Anglesey, 20. Orkneys, 35-40 s. 

Zetlands, 20 s. 
Sertularia lendigera, Dorset, 7 m. Anglesev, 7 sh. s., 12 st. 
Beania mirabilis, Cornwall, 20-28. 

CTttStdCBCl 

In Professor Bell's ' History of British Crustacea,' numerous localities 
derived from the dredging expeditions which furnished the matter for this 
Keport are inserted. And in the volume of the British Association Reports 
tor the Meeting at Southampton in 1846, there is an abstract of a paper read 
by Professor Bell, in the Natural History Section, containing an account of 
the Crustacea procured by Mr. MacAndrew and the reporter durin.- their 
voyages. These need not be here repeated. A kw notes of localities con- 
tained in the papers themselves, may, however, be indicated with advantage 
atenorhynchus phalangium, Anglesey, 7-9^-12 gr. s. Dorset, 12 m 

15-20 gr. Hebrides, 15 m. Isle of Man, 25 sh. ' 

Inachiis Dorsettensis, Dorset, 7 m., 12 m., 15-20 gr. Anglesev 7-12 

gr. Isle of Man, 25 sh. 6 J' ' 

Pi^a tetraodon or Gibbsii, Isle of Man, 25 sh. 
Hyas araneus, Dorset, 12 m. 

• coarctatus, Isle of Man, 28 sh. 

Eurynome aspera, Dorset, 1 2 ra., 1 5-20 gr. Isle of Man, 25 st. Loch 

ryne. 
Pilumnus hirtellus, Dorset, 7 w., 15-20 gr. Isle of Man, 18, 25 sh. 
^mela denticulata ?, Dorset, 12 m., 15-20 gr. Cornwall, 25 sh. 

25"sh^^" ^'"''^*' ^^"^^ ^^' ^°™^^^' 20-25 sh. Isle of Man, 
Pinnotheres, Isle of Man, 18, 25 sh., &c. 

J^balm sp., Dorset 12 m., 15-20 gr. Devon, 10 s., 27 s. Anglesey, 
12 s. Isle of Man, 25 sh. Mull, 25 st. m. ^ ^ 

^lecyclus heterodon, Cornwall, 20-28 n. 
Pagurus Forbesii ?, Dorset, 20-25. 

• lavis'i, Dorset, 20-25. 

Prideauxii, Clyde, 25, 30. Isle of Man, 25. 

wf nl^^r.^^fl''"^' ^' ^^' ^2 S'- ^^''^^ 15-20 gr. Corn. 

wall, 20-25 sh. Devon, 27 s. Orkneys, 5-8. Shetland, 50 gr., 

Porcelhnahnffieornis, Dorset, 7-12 s., 15-20 gr. Anglesey, 7, 12 gr. 
Cralathea strtffosa, Dorset, 20 n. ^ 

r:Z'J'^''^''fl'^"^r^-^^^'- Cornwall, 20-28 sh. Zetland, 50 gr. 
Calocarts MacAndrew, Loch Fjne, 100 m. Mull, 30 mud. ^ 

CroTiffon vulgaris, Anglesea, 7 w. 

Pandalus annulicomis, Dorset, 7'w., 15-20 gr. Anglesey 7. 

r2 



244 REPORT — 1850. 

Arcturus, sp., Hebrides, 15 ra. 
Pycnogonum, large species, Zetlands, 50 gr. 
Cypridina AlacAndrei, Hebrides, 70 f. 

Brenda, Zetland, 80 f. 

Cirripedes. 
Until Mr. Darwin's researches on the Cirripedes be published, there can 
be no certainty in the determination of the species of this difficult group. 
The leading forms, however, are usually noted in the dredging papers. 

Balanus scoticus, Anglesey, 25 gr. Isle of Man, 25 sh. Clyde, 15 gr. 
Bcdanus sulcaUis, Dorset, 7 w,, 12. Cornwall, 28 sh. Milford, 8 w. 
Anglesey, 9i, 12 gr. Isle of Man, 18 n., 28 sh. Clyde District, 
15 gr., i50 gr., 20 sh. Zetlands, 25 st. Hebrides, 10 s. m., 15-20 
St., 15 sh., 25 gr. s., 30, 35 gr., 90 st. Outer Hebrides, 18 s. gr., 
15-20 gr. 
Clitia verruca, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Devon, 7-12 s. gr. Anglesey, 30 
gr. Isle of Man, 25 st. Hebrides, 15 w., 15-20 w. gr., 25 gr. s., 
90 gr. s. Zetlands, 50 gr. 
Adna anglica, Cornwall, 12 gr., 25 sh. s. 

Scalpellum vulgare, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Cornwall, 27. Devon, 20-25. 
Isle of Man, 25 sh. 

Annelida. 
This department of tlie British Fauna is the one requiring most elucidation. 
The researches of Dr. Johnston have done much, and those of Dr. Williams 
promise much ; but until we have some available manual of species, the pro- 
gress will not be sufficient to bring it up to a level with the other sections of 
British marine zoology. The entries of worms in the dredging papers are, 
except for the more striking species, only occasional. 

Michelia trilineata, Clyde dist. 20 st. Hebrides, 25 gr. n. 
Planaria rosea, Anglesey, 12 gr. Zetland, 60 s., 80 m. s. 

, sp., Dorset, 12 m. 

Pontobdella muricata, Isle of Man, 28 sh. 
Trophonia Goodsiri, Zetlands, 7 w. 

Pectinaria helgica, Anglesey, 7 w. Clyde, 30 gr., 50 m. Hebrides, 
90 gr. s. Stornoway, 18 s. m. Zetland, 50 gr., 80 m. s., 80 s. 

(large species), Hebrides, 15 ra. 

Sabellaria alveolata, Anglesey, 12 s., 14 gr., 25, 30. Hebrides, 8 s. 

Clyde district, 15, 20 sh," 
Terebella conchilega, Cornwall, 20-25 sh. Devon, 20-25 s. Hebrides, 
15 w. Zetlands, 50 gr. 

• compressa, Cornwall, 20-25. Devon, 20-25 s. Zetlands, 50 gr. 

60 s., 80 m. s. 

(convoluted sp.), Hebrides, 12-14 st. m. 

Pomatoceros Iricuspis, Dorset, 7 w., 15-20 gr. Devon, 20-25 s., 27 
s. Anglesej', 12 st., 14 s., 20 gr., ^5 gr. Isle of Man, 28 sh. 
Clyde district, 5-10 n., 20 sh. Hebrides, 15 w., 25 s. gr., 18 n., 
30-40 sh., 90 gr. Zetland, 50 gr., 60 gr., 70 s. 
J5'2(pow?a<?<s, sp., Dorset, 7 w., 15-20 gr. Cornwall, 27. Devon, 25-27. 
Clyde district, 30 gr., 20 sh. Hebrides, 15 w%, 15-20 s., 25 gr. s., 
90 gr. Zetlands, 50 gr., 60 s., 70 s. 
Serpula vermicidaria, and tubidaria, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Anglesey, 25 
gr., 12 s. Isle of Man, 25 sh. Clyde district, 5-10 n., 18 m., 20 
St., 30 gr. Hebrides, 30-40 sh., 28 s., 15 m., 18 n., 90 gr. Zet- 
lands, 50 gr. 
Spirorbis, Dorset, 15-20 gr. &c. 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 245 

Placostegus vitreus, Clyde district, 30 gr., 40 st. Hebrides, 15-20 st., 
25 St., 25 gr. m., 30 st., 30-iO sh., 90 gr. Zetlands, 50 st. 

Filograna implexa. Isle of Man, 28 sli. Hebrides, 25 gr. m. Zet- 
lands, 80 s. 

Ditrupa subulata, Zetland, 50 gr., 60 s. 

Onuphis tubicola, Clyde, 20 sh. Stornoway, 1 8 gr. Zetlands, 50 gr. 
60 s., 80 m. s. 

Siphostoma? (Lancelet-like worm), Clyde district, 9 m., 6 m., 60 m. 
Zetlands, 50 gr. 

Aphrodite aculeata. Isle of Man, 18 n. Hebrides, 15 w. 

histrix ?, Dorset, 12 m. South Wales, 10 ni. Isle of Man, 25 sh. 

, sp., Hebrides, 15 w., 25 gr. m. 

Polynoe, sp., Anglesey, 12 s. Dorset, 7 w. Clyde, 50 m. 

Zoophyta. 
This department is in the same position as some of the preceding, so far 
as our lists are concerned, but the accumulation of authentic localities in Dr. 
Johnston's History is such as fully to remedy any deficiencies. In the sup- 
plement of that work, a most valuable paper on the distribution of Zoophytes 
in depth, on the north and east coasts of Britain, by Lieut. Thomas, R.N., 
should be consulted and taken in connection with the following record of 
localities. 

Hydractinia echinata, South Wales, 10 gr. Anglesey, 12 s. gr. Isle 

of Man, 25 sh. 
Eudendrium rameum, Clyde, 20 sh. 
Tubularia indivisa, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Clyde, 40 st., 7 m. Hebrides, 

30 m., 40 m. Zetlands, 50 gr. 

larynx, Anglesey, 12. 

Corymorpha nutans, Orkneys, 10 f. Zetlands. 

Halecium lialecinum, Dorset, 15-20 gr. 

Sertulariapolyzonias, Anglesey, 12 gr. Devon, 7-12 gr. Clyde, 40 sh. 

rosacea, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Hebrides, 90 gr. s., 15, 20 gr. m. 

Zetlands, 50 gr. 

pinaster, Clyde district, 40 sh. 

abietina, Devon, 10-12 gr. Anglesej', 12 f. gr. Clyde, 40 sh. 

Hebrides, 12-14 s. m., 15-20 st. Orkneys, 35-40 sh. Zetlands, 

50 gr. 
argentea, Dorset, 1.5-20 gr. Anglesev, 7 gr., 12 s., 20 gr., 20 ra., 

30 gr. Isle of Man, 25 sh. Zetlands, "80 s. 

cupressina, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Devon, 7-12 m. s. 

Thuiaria articulata, Clyde, 40 sh. Isle of Man, 25 sh. 

Antennularia antennina, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Cornwall, 27 st. Devon, 

20-25 s. 
ramosa, Anglesey, 12 gr. Isle of Man, 15-18 n., 25 sh. Clyde, 

40 sh. Hebrides, 25 s. st., 25 gr. m., 20 gr., 15-20 gr. m. Stor- 
noway, 18 n. Zetlands, 50 gr. 
Plumularia falcata, Devon, 7-12 st. Anglesey, 7 s. s., 12, 14 st., 20 

gr. Clyde, 40 sh. Zetlands, 50 gr., SO m. s. 
cristata, Hebrides, 10 m., 20 gr., 15-20 sh., 30 gr. Dorset, 15-20 

gr. Cornwall, 20-25. Devon, 27 s. 

catherina, Clyde, 40 sh. Isle of Man, 25 sh. 

myriophyllum, Cornwall, 20-25 sh. Dorset, 15-20 gr. Isle of 

Man, 25 sh. Clyde, 40 sh. Hebrides, 12-14 st. m., 15 m., 15-20 

sh., 90 gr. 
Lamnedea, sp., Dorset, 15-20 gr. 



246 REPORT — 1850. 

Campanularia volubilis ?, Dorset, 15-20 n. Clyde, 4-0 eh. 

verticillata, Clyde, 15 m. 

dumosa, Devon, 20-25 sh. Isle of Man, 25 sh. Hebrides, 25 

sh. Zetlands, 50 gr. 
Pennatula phosphorea, Clyde, 9 m. Hebrides, 15 m. Zetlands, 80 m. s. 
Virgularia mirabilis, Clyde, 9 m. Zetlands, 70-80 s. Hebrides, 28 m. 
Pavonaria quadrangularis, Hebrides, 12-14' st. m., 15 m., 20-30 m. 
Gorgonia verrucosa^ Cornwall, 20-25 sh. 

pinnata, Hebrides, 30 st. 

Alci/onium digitatnm^DoTset, 15-20 gr., 21 sh. Depon, 7-124. Corn- 
wall, 20-25 sh. Anglesey, 12 gr. Isle of Man, 18 n., 25 sh. 

Clyde, 30 gr, Hebrides, 25 st. 
Sarcodich/on catenate, Clyde, 20 st. Hebrides, 20 st, 15-20 sh., 25 

gr. n., 25 st., 20-30 st. 

agglomerata (new), Hebrides, 30 st. 

Turbinolia miUetiana, Cornwall, 20-28. 

Caryophyllia Smithii, Cornwall, 20-25 sh., 27 gr. Hebrides, 7 s., 10 

s., 25 gr. s., 40 gr., 30 st. Outer Hebrides, 18 n., 15-20 gr. 

Zetlands, 50 gr., 70-80 s. 
Zoanthus Couchii, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Cornwall, 20-25 st. Devon, 

20-25 gr. Outer Hebrides, 18 n. 
Capnea sanguinea, 18 n. Isle of Man. 
Adamsia maculata, Anglesey, 12 gr. Isle of Man, 15-18 n., 25 sh. 

Hebrides, 15-20 st. Outer Hebrides, 25 s. 
Actinea vermicularis, Zetlands, 50, 80 sh. 

crassicomis, Anglesey, 16 st., 20 m. Isle of Man, 18 n. 

bellis, Isle of Man, 18 n. 

dianthus, Anglesey, 12 s. gr. 

other species, Anglesey, 7 s. Dorset, 7 ni. 

Iluanthos scoticus, Clyde region, 4 m. 
Lticemaria fascicularis, Zetlands, 4-7 w. 

Amorphozoa. 
Halichondria oculata, Dorset, 7 w. 

cervicornis, Zetland, 80 st. 

infundibuliformis, Clyde district, 40 st. 

ventilabrum, Hebrides, 30, 40 st. 

sttberea, Dorset, 15-20 gr. Isle of Man. 25 sh. Hebrides, 10 s. m. 

Jicus, Isle of Man, 25 sh. 

> hispida, Cornwall, 20-25 sh. 

Cliona celata, Anglesey, 12 s. South Wales, 12 gr. Isle of Man, 18, 

25 St. Hebrides, 1 8 n. and ra. 
Spongia pulchella, Isle of Man, 25 st. 
Grantia ciliata, Devon, 7-12 m. st. Cornwall, 20-25 st. Anglesey, 

9i gr. Isle of Man, 15-18 n. Hebrides, 25 gr. s. ? Zetlands, 

50 gr. 
Duseidea fragilis, Isle of Man, 25 sh. 

Plants. 
The greater part of these dredgings are beyond the region of the majority 
of algae. Between and 10 fathoms, numerous fuci were taken, olivaceous 
species prevailing in the lesser depths, red ones in the greater. Delesseria 
and Desmarestia are the genera of which species were met with at most 
considerable depths, i.e. at 15 and 18 fathoms (Hebrides). A straggling 
Jjamifiaria was once taken as deep as 18 fathoms in the Zetlands. Beyond 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 24/ 

15 fathoms, and between that depth and 20 fathoms, we have the region of 
NuUipora. Below 20 fathoms, unless it be an occasional straggling Nullipora, 
no decided algae were met with. 

Traces of Vertebrata and land animals. — Had we no other evidence of the 
inhabitants of the sea than that afforded by the contents of the dredge, we 
might be tempted to infer a great rarity, almost amounting to an absence, of 
vertebrate marine animals within our area. Possibly such an inference 
would be quite as warrantable as the negative conclusions assumed from 
comparable observations by many palaeontologists and geologists, who some- 
times go so far as to infer an entire absence of terrestrial creatures during 
some of the more ancient geological epochs, because no traces of them can 
be found in sedimentary strata of marine origin, and announce the laws 
which regulated the order of creation of animated beings accordingly. 
During the 145 detailed observations which form the bases of this Report, 
fishes were taken by the dredge not half-a-dozen times, and in three instances 
the fish taken was one of the rarest and most curious of British vertebrata, 
the Amphioxus lanceolatus. Although always carefully looked for and noted, 
the bones of fishes were never observed among the contents of the dredge 
above three times, and in two of those instances (at a depth of 4-0 and 50 
fathoms mud in the western coast of Scotland) the remains consisted of 
otolites only, reminding us of similar relics in the crag of the east of 
England. Of terrestrial vertebrata I have never seen a trace ; and though 
no small number of the human race have diffused their bodies over our sea- 
bed, no human bone has occurred to me in dredging ; when very near shore 
and in the immediate neighbourhood of a town, broken bottles and old shoes 
have strewn the sea-bed, affording unquestionable evidence of the presence of 
man on the neighbouring shores. Doubtless by dredging close to towns, in 
harbours and in estuaries, like the Mersey, where there are great cities on the 
banks, numerous relics of such a description, as well as the bones of animals, 
might be taken, but immediate proximity to towns is avoided by the dredger. 

On one occasion, recorded in the dredging papers from the Anglesey 
coast, the shell of a common snail (Helix aspersa) was dredged at some 
distance from shore in the entrance of the Menai Straits. It was covered 
by Balani and SerpulcB, and inhabited by a hermit crab. Naturalists 
familiar with the active movements of the Paguri, can readily conceive to 
what a distance a land shell may be transported under such circumstances, 
and at length become imbedded along with the remains of creatures of very 
different origin and habits. 

Fossil remains taken in the dredge. — In no instance have we taken the re- 
mains of fossil vertebrata when dredging on the western shores of Britain, 
but many times have met with fossil testacea. These are of the pleistocene 
epoch, and often it requires a practised eye to distinguish between them and 
the dead shells of existing moUusca associated with them ; indeed there are 
some species, as Astarte crebricostata, Natica grcenlandica, Panopcea nor- 
vegica, Tellina proxima and Scalaria granlandica enumerated in the pre- 
ceding pages, which, whilst from various considerations we hold the weight 
of evidence to be in favour of their presence as living species in our seas, are 
yet under suspicion, and are not admitted by all British conchologists. In 
several localities among the Hebrides, especially in the Kyles of Bute, and in 
the sea between Raza and Applecross, quantities of pleistocene fossils may 
be dredged ; at the former place, Panopcea norvegica is common, as pointed 
out by Mr. Smith ; and in the latter there occur numerous fossil valves of 
Pecten islandicus and danicus, the large sulcated variety of Saxicava nigosOy 
Astarte elliptical Leda truncata and oblonga, and very lately Leda thracice- 



248 REPORT — 1850. 

formis : of these, Pecten danicus and Astarte elliptica are living inhabitants 
of the Scottish seas, the latter in places still abundant, the former very rarelj' 
taken alive, though the dead shells occur in such vast quantities, that we 
cannot but regard it as a species which has lived on since the glacial epoch, 
though gradually becoming reduced in numbers, and now very nearly ex- 
tinct. These shells often occur at considerable depths, and almost always 
on a bottom of dark pleistocene sand. Pecten islandicus is enumerated in 
Hebridian and Zetland dredging papers from depths of 30, 40, 50 and 90 
fathoms. That this remarkable species is extinct in our seas we can scarcely 
doubt, but I have good reasons for surmising that its extinction has taken place 
at a period considerably later than that of several of its glacial companions. 
The colours of this Pecten, as well as of some other pleistocene fossils, are 
beautifully preserved, and the general aspect of the shells is very deceptive. 
Occasionally, fossils of older date, but in such a condition of petrifaction 
as can lead to no mistake respecting their origin, are brought up in the 
dredge. Thus Mr. Mac Andrew has dredged the loose joints of Liassic pen- 
tacrinites off the Shiant Islands, and we have seen Oolitic testacea dredged in 
the sound between Scalpa and Raza. 

General Considerations. 

Numerical distribution of species in depth. — Of the species of Testaceous 
MoUusca enumerated in the preceding tables, I have assigned a range to 188 
in the Scottish, and 183 in the English sections. Of the 188 Scottish sub- 
Kttoral species, whose i-ange in depth I venture to state, 96 are Gasteropo- 
dous Testacea, and 92 Acephala. Of these, 17 univalves and 11 bivalves 
inhabit the region between low-water mark and 15 fathoms, i. e. the Lanii- 
narian zone ; 8 univalves and 7 bivalves extend their range from within the 
Laminarian zone to a depth between 1 5 and 30 fathoms ; 26 univalves and 
11 bivalves from the Laminarian zone to between 30 and 60 fathoms ; and 
25 univalves and 53 bivalves, from the Laminarian zone to a depth between 
60 and 100 fathoms : 3 univalves and 4 bivalves are confined in their range 
between 15 and 30 fathoms, i. e. to the Coralline zone ; 1 univalve to between 
30 and 60 fathoms; 4 univalves and 1 bivalve to between 30 and 100 
fathoms; and 1 univalve and 1 bivalve to between 60 and 100 fathoms. 

Of the 183 in the English tables, 19 univalves and as many bivalves are 
from the Laminarian zone only ; 45 univalves and 46 bivalves range from 
some point within the Laminarian zone to between 20 and 30 fathoms ; 16 
univalves and 28 bivalves extend their range from the same region to between 
30 and 60 fathoms. 

It is evident that the capacity of bivalves to enjoy a great bathymetrical 
range exceeds considerably that of univalves. This power of enduring many 
conditions of depth, implies the power of adapting themselves to varying cir- 
cumstances, which cannot be supposed to exist without considerable varia- 
tion in the features of the individuals of such wide-ranging species. The 
rules which should guide us in determining the selection of diagnostic cha- 
racters from the shells of Acephalous mollusks, must consequently be less 
strict than those which should determine our selection of characters for the 
majority of Gasteropoda, and in the determination of fossil species this should 
constantly be borne in mind. The difi'erence of power to range presented 
by univalves as compared with bivalves, has a further important bearing on 
palaeontological inquiries, for it would indicate the probability of our not 
unfrequently finding geological formations connected together by the fossils 
of the one class of mollusca, whilst those of the other are altogether distinct, 
even in strata proximate in time. It is possible also, that by a careful de- 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 249 

termination of the relative proportions of bivalves to univalves in ancient 
sea-beds, all mineral indications of the nature of the sea-bed being at the 
same time noted, we may get at an additional clue to the determination of 
the depth of the ancient sea in which such animals lived. 

The distribution of the sub-littoral forms of testacea, as shown by our 
dredging papers, may be illustrated by the following examples : — 

Certain species are common to the Laminarian, Coralline and Deep-sea 
Coral Zones, as — 

Psammobia ferroensis. Turritella communis. 

Syndosmya intermedia. Cerithium reticulatum. 

Venus striatula. Natica Alderi. 

Venus cassina. Natica montacuti. 

Venus ovata. Nassa incrassata, 

Venus fasciata. Aporrhais pes-pelecani. 

Cardium suecicum. Buccinum undatum. 

Cardium fasciatum. Fusus antiquus. 

Lucina borealis. Fusus gracilis. 

Lucina flexuosa. Trophon Barvicense. 

Kellia suborbicularis. Clavatula linearis. 

Crenellae. Trichotropis borealis. 

Nuculse. Eulima distorta. 

Pinna ingens. Eulima subulata. 

Pecten similis. 
Some of them, under rare circumstances, as in a few localities (Skye and the 
lochs of Ross-shire) in the West Highlands, are found occasionally living at 
low-water. I have before called attention to this fact, and to the circum- 
stance that on the neighbouring shore in such localities the alpine plants 
descend from the mountains and are distributed along the water's edge. I 
am strongly impressed with the suspicion that this curious phasnomenon, so 
far as I have observed it, always seen in connexion with the neighbourhood 
of outliers of the glacial submarine fauna, has a relation, as yet unexplained, 
with the history of the changes in the configuration and elevation of land at 
the close of the glacial epoch. 

Certain species are common to Laminarian and Coralline Zones, and in* 
differently inhabit both, as — 

Cypraea europaea. Tellina donacina. 

Natica helicoides. Lucinopsis undata. 

Eulima polita. Lepton squamosum. 

Velutina laevigata. Lima hians. 

Mactra elliptica. Lima Loscombi. 

Artemis exoleta. Modiola modiolus. 

Artemis lincta. Ostrea edulis. 

Circe minima. Pecten varius. 

Certain species commence their range in the Coralline Zone, as — 
Rissoa abyssicola. Cerithium metula. 

Pleurotoma teres. Trochus alabastrum. 

Cemoria noachina. Fusus islandicus. 

Propilidium fulvum. Neaera costellata. 

Pilidium ancyloides. Neaera abbreviata. 

Nucula tenuis. Leda pygmaea. 

Area raridentata. 
And it is curious to observe that all these are members of the Scandinavian 
fauna. 
^ A few species appear to be confined to the region of deep-sea corals ; as Apor- 



250 REPORT — 1850. 

rhais pes-carbonis, Poranvja granulata, Tellina proximo, probably Terebra- 
tula cra7iium, and a few Echinoderms and Zoophytes. 

Certain species which enjoy a great vertical range in the north, extending 
through the second, third, and in part the fourth regions of depth, are in the 
south found only within limited tracts of deep-sea, as — 

Cardium suecicum. Syndosmya intermedia. 

Nucula polii. Terebratula Caput-serpentis. 

Pecten fuci. Scalaria Trevelyana?. 

These species are essentially members of the boreal or glacial fauna, and 
their presence in the south is dependent, if my views be correct, on the 
former spread of the glacial sea, and the preservation of its inhabitants at the 
existing epoch in many isolated and distant localities, where they live usually 
at considerable depths in the midst of, and mixed up with an assemblage of 
creatures of a Celtic and often a much more southern character. 

Hoiv far the nature of the sea-bottom determines the number and diff'usion of 
species. — In the preceding tables, the nature of the sea-bed is expressed by- 
letters representing the several mineral characters of the bottom, whether 
sand, sandy mud, mud, rock, stones, gravel, nmddy gravel, shelly, shell-sand, 
or nullipore ; the last kind of bottom being that commonly called " coral " in 
the charts of the European seas. 

Now, though our evidence certainly goes to show that the range of species 
in depth and distance from shore is often considerably extended by a con- 
tinuity, whether vertical or horizontal, of the same kind of ground, yet as- 
suredly ground alone will not determine the extension of any species ; for 
otherwise we should have the stone- and gravel-inhabiting species of the Lit- 
toral zone carried in many places into the Laminarian and Coralline zones, and 
the peculiar inhabitants of the muddy and sandy tracts in the Laminarian 
zone carried far into the depths of the sea, since in very many places these 
kinds of sea-bed range without interruption from shallows to great depths. 
But this is not the case ; no continuity of mud, for instance, enables Scrobi- 
cularia to live beyond its bounds, or the characteristic i?mo« of the gravelly 
parts of the Laminarian zone to extend themselves into the deep sea. 

The conditions of the sea-bottom which are most favourable to variety of 
species may best be illustrated by referring to those dredging papers in which 
the number of species of either univalve or bivalve testacea taken alive ex- 
ceeded ten. In the southernmost of the districts within the area under con- 
sideration, out of eighteen papers ten come under this category. Three of 
these belong to the Laminarian zone, five to the Coralline region, and two to 
the upper region of deep-sea corals. The three first-mentioned are all from 
a muddy and stony or gravelly bottom with weed, and within two miles of 
the shore ; their number of univalves exceeds that of bivalves ; in all three 
the number of living univalves is very high, being 15 and above; and in 
two of them the numbers of living bivalves are respectively 10 and 19, and of 
dead 9 and \.9.. Of the five papers from the Coralline zone, four are within 
three miles from the shore ; three of these are from bottoms more or less 
stony and gravelly, in one instance mingled with nullipore; and one is from 
a floor of shell sand. They are also very prolific ; one in dead and living 
univalves, one in dead and living bivalves, and two equally so in bivalves 
and univalves. The fifth of these coralline papers is from a depth of 30 
fathoms and under, and a bottom of sand and gravel at a distance of 11 miles 
from shore ; it exhibits a great preponderance of bivalves, and an equal 
number of species taken dead and alive. The two deep-sea papers are from 
a depth of 50 fathoms, on a sandy bottom, 60 miles from land ; they scarcely 
come under the head of prolific papers, since few living species were taken, 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 251 

though many dead, the number of dead univalves predominating in the one 
instance, and of dead bivalves in the other, respectively 17 and 20, both high 
numbers. 

Twenty-six papers from the Irish sea relate to a sufficiently limited range 
in depth to admit of a similar inquiry. Of these, eight included more than 
10 species of univalves and bivalves, or both. Two are from the Laminarian 
zone, and within 2 miles from shore ; in the one instance, where the bottom 
was gravelly and stony, univalves prevail, and those alive ; in the other, where 
it was sandy, bivalves prevail, and those mostly dead. The remaining five 
papers are from the Coralline zone ; in three of them, where the bottom was 
a scallop bank several miles from shore, the number of both bivalves and 
univalves taken alive was very considerable, reaching in one instance respec- 
tively to 21 and 27. In one, from a nullipore bottom one mile from shore, 
univalves prevail, but bivalves are also abundant. In one, on a gravelly and 
stony bottom near shore, bivalves prevail (the numbers being 24- living and 
25 dead), but univalves are also plentiful. 

Among sixty-four dredging papers from the Clyde district and the He- 
brides, twenty-two exhibit numbers either of bivalves or univalves above 10; 
of these three come within the Laminarian division, and one from depths very 
close to shore ; in two of these the number of species of living univalves pre- 
vails ; in one, of the bivalves. From the upper part of the Coralline zone 
there are eleven papers, in six of which the bivalves prevail, all from muddy 
or sandy bottoms, sometimes mixed with stones, close to shore ; in two, uni- 
valves prevail over bivalves, in gravelly and stony bottoms near shore ; and 
in two, the numbers are nearly equal on stony and mixed bottoms near to 
shore. From depths between 40 and 60 fathoms, there are six prolific papers, 
all richer in bivalves than in univalves, and all from sandy, gravelly or muddy 
beds, varying from two to ten miles from shore. A bottom of gravel and 
sand in 90 fathoms, close to shore, is richest in bivalves. 

Of thirty papers from the Zetlands, sixteen are rich in species ; one only 
is from the Laminarian zone, on a sandy bottom, especially rich in living bi- 
valves (30), and having many (15) univalves also. Of two, from the upper 
part of the Coralline zone close to shore, one, with a nullipore and stony 
bottom, is richest in univalves ; the other, from a shelly bed, in bivalves. Of 
the thirteen remaining papers from depths between 40 and 100 fathoms, eight 
present considerable numbers of both univalves and bivalves, and in five (all 
from depths below 60 fathoms) bivalves prevail. The numbers of species of 
bivalves are high in the depths at a considerable (30 to 100 miles) distance 
from shore. The bivalves are also predominant at these great depths on more 
or less muddy bottoms, and at the farther distances ; the univalves most 
numerous alive where the bottom is more or less stony. 

Gregarious and prolific species. — Many of our littoral moUusca, as the 
shore-living species of Littorina, Purpura, Trochus, Cardium, Donax, 
Scrobicularia, Mya, Pholas, &c., are truly gregarious, and the individuals of 
each are constantly found assembled together in considerable numbers. This 
is not so commonly the habit among sub-littoral species ; among them, how- 
ever, there are some habitually gregarious (as Ostrea edulis, Pecten opercu- 
laris, Corbula fiucleus, Syndosmya alba, Pectuncidus glycimeris, Modiola 
modiolus, and Turritella terebra ; and among radiata, Ophiura rosula, 
Uraster rubem, Comatula europcea. Echinus sphcera), though with this dif- 
ference as compared with most littoral gregarious forms, that whereas the 
individuals of the latter are always assembled together, the sub-littoral species 
are gregarious in some zones of depth, and under certain conditions of sea- 
bottom, whilst they are at the same time diflFused in small numbers, or evea 



252 REPORT — 1850. 

as solitary individuals in situations where the conditions do not seem so 
favourable to fecundity. Many species also, not at all gregarious in the true 
sense of the word, having a very wide range in depth, are not equally pro- 
lific throughout that range, but are developed in much greater numbers in 
one region than in another, or in different parts of the same region accord- 
ing to the conditions of the sea-bed. Cliniatal differences also have a con- 
siderable effect in determining the prolific or non-prolific character of a 
species, and this may be observed clearly, even in such a limited area as that 
under review. Hence, when we state of many species that they are diffused 
throughout all the provinces of that area, it is not to be understood that they 
are equally abundant, so far as their individuals are concerned in all. Thus, 
for example, Dentalium entalis is distributed throughout the British seas ; but, 
whilst it is so abundant as to be almost gregarious in the northern provinces, 
it becomes scarce and solitary in the southern. Many examples of this may 
be seen by consulting the analysis of dredging papers in the preceding tables, 
and afterwards comparing them with the tables of enumeration of localities 
of species. 

In the Littoral region, as mentioned already, the species of Littorina, Tro- 
chus. Patella and Purpura are most abundant, and among bivalves, Mytilus 
edulis, Cardium edule and Kellia rubra. These, with many other animals, 
and with peculiar marine plants, which it is not the province of this Report 
to enumerate, give a character to the sea-belt between tide-mark*. 

In the Laminarian region, extending from low- water mark to 15 fathoms or 
thereabouts, LacuncB and RissocB are abundant. The species observed to be 
most prolific within this region during the dredging researches on the English 
shores, were Rissoa parva and interriipta ; in Laminarian shallows. Lacuna 
puteolus, Rissoa labiosa and Phasianella pulliis, where Zostera prevailed ; 
Trochus cinereus, Magus and Ziziphinus, Acmcea virginea, Modiola modiolus, 
Nucula nucleus on muddy gravelly bottoms; Turritella, Corbula nucleus^ 
Syndosmya alba, Dentalium tarentinum, Ophiocoina rosula in sandy and 
muddy places ; Solen pellucidus and Mactra subtruncata where sand pre- 
vailed ; Chiton asellus everywhere where shells or stones were present ; 
Echinus miliaris on many bottoms ; Ascidia and Crustacea everywhere. 

On the Scottish shores in like depths, most of the above-named forms 
(except the Rissoa labiosa, Phasianella, Lacuna and Dentalium tarentinum) 
were equally prolific, whilst others seldom observed in great numbers in the 
south became very plentiful, as Dentalium entalis, Lucina Jlexuosa, Lima 
Mans, Venus striatula, Ophiocoma chiagii ; and in places, Cardium pygmceum, 
Crenella decussata and Bulla akera. 

Between 15 and 25 fathoms in the upper part of the Coralline zone, Tro- 
chus ziziphinus and tumidus. Chiton asellus, Acmtea virginea, Nassa reticU' 
lata, Turritella, Venus ovata and V. fasciata, Pecten opercularis, Modiola 
modiolus, Crenellce, Pectuncubis, Nucula nucleus, abound in individuals on 
the English shores. The same species, with the addition of Astarte sulcata 
and A. elliptica, Syndosmya intermedia, Lima subauricidata, Leda caudata, 
Cardium fasciatum and Lucina sinuata, mark the same region in the Scottish 
seas. In both north and soai\i Echinus sphcera and Ophiocoma are very pro- 
lific in this belt. 

Between 25 and 40 fathoms, in the middle and lower sections of the 
Coralline region, the species observed most prolific in individuals on the 
English coast were few, comprehending Solen pellucidus, Pecten varius, 
Modiola modiolus and Dentalium tarentinum. 

* For a tabulated view of the subdivisions and inhabitants of this zone, see the first 
volume of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 253 

On the Scottish coast this region is remarkable for prolific and peculiar 
species. Great numbers of Brachiopoda {Terebratula Caput-serpentis, and 
Crania norvegica) are found in gravelly and stony places. Dentalium en- 
talis, Nucula nucleus, Astarte sulcata, Leda caudata, and (in places) L. pyg- 
mcea, Mactra elliptica and Modiola modiolus, are all very prolific. 

Between 40 and 60 fathoms, on the verge of the region of deep-sea corals, 
we have too little experience on the English coast to judge. Cardium sue- 
cicutn, however, essentially a northern form, was noted as abundant at a depth 
of 50 fathoms between Cornwall and Ireland. 

In the Scottish seas between these depths, besides most of the species noted 
as prolific in the last region, we find Nucula tenuis, Cardium suecicum, Nu- 
cida decussata (locally) and Venus fasciata abundant ; also Turritella in 
places. Below that depth, Leda caudata, Syndosmya intermedia, Venus 
ovata and striatula (var.), Lucina spinifera, Dentalium entalis, Turritella, 
Ditrupa and Echinus norvegicus, liave been taken in considerable numbers 
in several Scottish localities. Widely diff"used species of Turritella, Denta- 
lium, Modiola, Nucula, Vemis and Astarte, appear to be most prolific through- 
out the range of their distribution. 

Generic and subgeneric groups confined to particular zones in depth. — In 
the Littoral and Laminarian zones, we find all the species of certain well- 
marked natural groups assembled, but very few, if any, of those which are 
distributed in the regions of corallines and of deep-sea corals are peculiar, 
the s])ecies of moUusks in the lower zones especially, being members of 
genera which have representatives in the Laminarian or in both Littoral and 
Laminarian zones. Within the two higher zones we find all the British 
species of Patella, Purpura, Littorina, Otina, Cmiovulus, Truncatella, Ca- 
lyptrea. Lacuna (except L. aassior), Aplysia, Scrobicularia and Danax. 
Almost, though not entirely confined to them, are also the genera Phasianella, 
Mya, Lutraria, Mytilus, Pholas and Cytherea. Some important genera, 
such as Rissoa, Chiton, Trochus, Mactra, Venus, Bulla and Cardium, are 
mainly developed in the Laminarian zone. In the genus Patella we have one 
section, that of Patella proper, confined to the Littoral zone, and another, 
Patina, confined to the Laminarian zone. The subgenus Hydrobia o{ Rissoa 
is almost wholly littoral. Very rarely do we find instances of a species 
strictly littoral descending far into the Laminarian zone or below it; on the 
west coast of Anglesey Purpura lapillus was dredged in 10 fathoms, and 
three specimens taken at that depth were remarkable for the development 
and perfection of the crenulated laminas of growth on the surface of the 
shell. Rissoa Barleii of JeflPreys appears to be a variety of the littoral 
Rissoa ulvce, descending below its usual level. More frequently do we find 
mollusks and radiata of the Laminarian zone and the upper part of the region 
of Corallines ascending into the littoral belt. This is especially the case in 
certain localities on the Hebrides, as in Skye and on the west coast of Ar- 
gyleshire ; and very generally is it to be observed, as the registrar pointed out 
to the Natural History Section in 1836, in the immediate neighbourhood of 
those localities where alpine plants, such as Silene acaulis &c., are found 
abundantly near the water's edge. 

Certain genera, such as Necera, Crania, Pilidium, Cemoria and Propilidium, 
have, so far as the area under review is concerned, a range in depth entirely 
confined to the Coralline region and that of deep-sea corals. But elsewhere 
species of these genera ascend into the Laminarian, and possibly some of them 
into the Littoral zones, so that great stress cannot be laid upon their distri- 
bution as genera indicative of depth. Very important, however, are the 
facts stated with regard to the Laminarian and Littoral genera ; and the geolo- 



254 REPORT — 1850. 

gist will do well to bear in mind that entire well-marked generic groups of 
testacea are confined to, and indicate with certainty, the space between tide- 
marks and the sea-bed to a depth of about \5 fathoms beloiv low-water mark. 
' Relation of colour to distribution. — Althougli the extent and depth of our 
seas scarcely afford sufficient data for illustrating the influence of light in the 
colouring of marine animals, yet some facts bearing on this subject may be 
gathered from the papers before us.- In the horizontal diffusion of species, 
several, as some of the Trochi and Veiieridce, exhibit a distinct influence of 
light upon the brightness of their hues, in the south, as compared with the 
dull aspect of specimens from the north, and this in individuals of the same 
species. It is easy for the practised conchologist to distinguish specimens of 
most painted shells, gathered on the southern coasts of England, from those 
taken on other parts of our shores. We have evidence also of the distinct 
effect of depth in the defacing of the hues of the same species, when it has a 
great bathymetrical range. Thus the examples of Venus striatula, Venus 
ovata and Turritella terebra (all having a range from the Laminarian zone to 
the deepest recesses of the British seas), taken alive at a depth of 100 
fathoms off tiie Zetland Isles by Mr. MacAndrew, were colourless ; whilst 
those from more moderate and shallow depths are almost always conspicu- 
ously coloured. Between 60 and 80 fathoms in the Scottish seas, dirty white, 
dull red, yellow or brown, rarely broken into stripes or bands, are the pre- 
vailing hues of the testacea ; though at ,50 fathoms, shells painted in patterns 
and vividly coloured (as Natica Alderi and Clavatula purpurea), exhibit their 
hues unimpaired. At the same lime it must not be forgotten that the vividly 
painted animal of the coral Caryophyllia thrives at a depth of 80 fathoms. A 
curious phaenomenon apparently connected with depth is the blindness of the 
crustacean Calocaris. 

Condition of the exuvice of marine invertebrata taken in the dredge. — In the 
great majority of instances and places, the dead shells of mollusca are taken 
nearly entire, or, in the case of the bivalves, with the valves disunited but 
not broken. This applies especially to all localities of a considerable depth, 
and where strong currents are not in action. Very near the shore, broken 
shells are not uncommon ; and in current-ways, even at the depth of 30 
fathoms, the bottom may be composed in great part of triturated shells. 
Lieut. Thomas, R.N., observes, when communicating his lists of Testacea 
dredged around the Orkney Islands, that " between Fair Island and the 
Orkneys, the bottom near the latter islands is either rocky or composed of 
large pieces of Modiola modiolus or Pectunculus glycimeris. I make no 
doubt," he remarks, " that these are broken by some large species of Crus- 
tacea (?) ; their freshness of fracture is astonishing, as if the creature feeding 
had been disturbed at his meal." Among bivalves, besides those mentioned, 
the shells of Thracia, Cyprina, Isocardia, and the larger species of Cardium 
are most frequently found broken ; among univalves, those of Succinum and 
JFusus. Some few bivalves are frequently dredged dead, yet with their 
valves united ; such are Ltccina radula, the Necerce, Mactra elliptica, Psam- 
mobice, Venus ovata and striatula, Tapes virginea, Tellina donadna, Thracia 
phaseolina, Lucinopsis, Nucula pygnicea. Salens, Syndosmyce and Pectunculus 
pilosus, this last open and gaping. The monomyarious bivalves are often 
found dead in quantities, but almost always with valves disunited ; and this 
may be said of the great majority of dimyarious bivalves also. Echinoderms 
fall to pieces when dead, or if taken entire have lost their spines. 

Phcenomena of tJie horizontal distribution of species on the western shores 
of Great Britain. — In the older accounts of British marine animals, the phrase 
" from Devon to Zetland " was frequently given as marking their range, and 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY, 255 

the natural inference from such statement was that such species were uni- 
versally diffused through our seas. The researches embodied in this Report, 
however, put beyond question the fact that there are marked peculiarities in 
the distribution of British marine animals, and that though there are nume- 
rous species common to the whole area, there are also numerous species 
peculiar to parts of that area. We have clear evidence of more elements 
than one contributing to the composition of our submarine population, of 
a southern element, derived from the Lusitanian provinces of the European 
seas, of a northern element introduced from the Scandinavian seas, of a Celtic 
element having its centre within our own region, of an oceanic element ma- 
nifested by the floating Gasteropoda and the Pteropoda that reach our 
shores, and of an arctic element due to causes which were in action 
before the British Isles had assumed their present conformation *. The 
following statements, founded mainly on the data contained in the prece- 
ding tables, will serv6 to illustrate the phajnomeua, so far as this Report is 
concerned. 

The northern and southern provinces of the western coast of Great Britain 
may be distinguished hy certain Mollusea of the Littoral Zone. — Thus, in the 
extreme south, along the shores of the English Channel, we find Truncatella 
truncatula, and there only. Trochus lineatus commences its range to the 
west of Portland Island, and is found around the coasts of Devon, Cornwall 
and the Bristol Channel, until it ceases in Cardigan Bay or a little higher 
up; a similar cessation of its diffusion taking place on the opposite shores of 
Ireland. Acmcea testudinalis, on the other hand, appears in the Orkneys 
(its presence in the Zetlands is doubtful), and ranges through the Hebrides 
and the Clyde region until it reaches the northern shores of Ireland and the 
northern coast of the Isle of Man ; but it is not found on coasts southwards 
of those points. Chiton marmoreus ceases sooner; Littorina petrcea is 
abundant in the British Channel, and equally plentiful in the Hebrides, but 
rare in the central part of the Irish sea. All the other Littorince, Chiton 
marginatus, Rissoa parva and cingillus, Patella vulgata, Trochus cinerarius. 
Purpura lapillus, Skenea planorbis, Mytilus edulis and Kellia rubra, are 
common throughout the area, even as they are all round the shores of the 
British Isles. Trochus umbilicatus is equally abundant throughout the area, 
whilst on the other hand it is entirely absent from the eastern coast of 
Britain. 

The differetices between the northern and southern provinces are equally 
shown by the sublittoral testacea. — These are evident, — 1st, in the presence of 
a number of species in the south which are not found in the north, and vice 
versa ; and 2nd, in the greater frequency of the individuals and localities of 
certain species as we proceed from south to north, and vice versa ; thus — 

1. The following testacea are confined to the extreme south ; they are all 
Spanish or Mediterranean species : — 

Trochus striatus. Pholas parva. 

Trochus exiguus. Ervilia castanea. 

Ghemnitzia fenestrata. Cardium rusticum. 

Volva patula. Crenella rhombea. 
Pholadidea papyracea. 

2. The following species are peculiarly southern, but more general than 
the former; they are also species of the Mediterranean and Lusitanian 
type :— 

* See the Memoir on the British Fauna and Flora, in the first volume of the Memoirs of 
the Geological Survey. 



256 



REPORT — 1850. 



Dentalium tarentinuin. 
Emarginula rosea. 
Adeorbis subcarinatus. 
Calyptrsea sinensis. 
Scalaria clathratulus. 
Nassa varicosa. 
Cliemnitzia scalaris. 



Modiola barbata. 
Area lactea. 
Cytherea chione. 
Cardium aculeatum. 
Diplodonta rotundata. 
Venus verrucosa. 
Gastrocliaena modiolina. 



3. The following species increase in frequency of occurrence as we proceed 
from uorth to south : — 

Chiton fascicularis. Cerithiopsis tubercularls. 

Trochus granulatus. Clavatula rufa. 

Rissoa crenulata. Modiola tulipa. 

Scalaria clathrus. Mactra subtruncata. 

Cerithium adversum. Pecten varius. 

4. On the other hand, a greater number of species become more frequent 
in proceeding from south to north, showing thereby the more powerful in- 
fluence of the Scandinavian element in our fauna : — 



Dentalium entalis. 
Chiton cancellatus. 
Emarginula MuUeri. 
Trochus millegranus. 
Lacuna crassior. 
Cheranitzia fulvocincta. 
Eulimella MacAndrei. 
Natica Montagui. 
Fusus gracilis. 
Trophon Bamfium. 
Bela turricula. 

5. The power of the Scandinavian element is still more strongly shown m 
the number and character of species, which are peculiarly northern: — 



Tapes puUastra. 
Cyprina islandica. 
Astarte danmoniensis. 
Astarte compressa. 
Lucina borealis. 
Lucina flexuosa. 
Modiola vulgaris. 
Leda caudata. 
Lima subauriculata. 
Pecten tigrinus. 



Chiton Hanleyi. 
Acmsea testudinalis. 
Propilidium ancyloide. 
Scissurella crispata. 
Chemnitzia rufescens. 
Natica grcenlandica. 
Velutina plicatilis. 
Trichotropis borealis. 
Trophon Barvicense. 
Bela decussata. 
Mangelia brachystonia. 
Mangelia Boothii. 
Bulla hyalina. 
Bulla Cranchii. 



Bulla akera ?. 
BuUaea quadrata. 
BuUaea scabra. 
Pecten danicus. 
Pecten striatus ?. 
Crenella decussata. 
Crenella nigra. 
Pecten niveus. 
Astarte elliptica. 
Astarte crebricostata. 
Lucina ferruginosa. 
Poromya anatinoides. 
Neaera costellata. 
Nesera abbreviata. 



To which may be added certain species found in the southern part of the 
British seas only in a few isolated patches, spaces which I regard as " glacial 
outliers," as — 

Pilidium fulvum. 

Emarginula crassa. 

Rissoa abyssicola. 

Scalaria Trevelyana. 

Terebratula Caput-serpentis, 

Crania norvegica. 

Area raridentata. 



Nucula decussata. 
Nucula tenuis. 
Leda pygmaea. 
Nesera cuspidata. 
Syndosmya intermedia. 
Cardium suecicum. 



ox BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 257 

6. There are also a number of species confined to the extreme north ; as — 
Trochus alabastrum. Natica helicoides. Astarte arctica. 
Cerithium metula. Fusus albus. Tellina proxima. 
Aporrhais pes-carbonis. Fusus decemcostatus. Terebratula cranium. 
Scalaria grcenlandica. <'t-:*' 

7. A few, of which Rissoa vitrea, Isocardia cor and Ostrea ^diMs'sxe ex- 
amples, are very local in various degrees of abundance, the cause of their 
localization being obscure. 

8. Certain species are more or less common at both ends of the area under 
exploration, though very rare or not found at all in the Irish sea ; they can, 
most of them, however, be tracked making their way northwards along the 
western coast of Ireland. 

Rissoa costata. Marginella Isevis. Cardium pygmgeum. 

Rissoa zetlandica. Psammobia costulata. Lucina spinifera. 

Cerithium reticulatum. Diodonta fragilis. Pinna pectinata. 

Mangelia teres. Tapes decussata. Area tetragona. 

Mangelia costata. Circe minima. Pecten similis. 

Mangelia attenuata. 

9. Not a few species appear to be equally diffused everywhere throughout 
our area ; of these, there may be cited as examples, — 

Chiton asellus. Mangelia linearis. Tellina crassa. 

Acmaea virginea. Cypraea europaea. Tellina donacina. 

Ti'ochus cinerarius. Crenella discrepans. Syndosmya alba. 

Trochns tumidus. Crenella marmorata. Mactra elliptica. 

Trochus ziziphinus. Pectunculus glycimeris. Tapes virginea. 

Rissoa parva. Nucula nucleus. Venus ovata. 

Rissoa striata. Lima hians. Venus fasciata. 

Turritella terebra. Lima Loscombi. Venus cassina. 

Aporrhais pes-pelecani. Pecten maximus. Venus striatula. 

Natica Alderi. Pecten pusio. Artemis exoleta. 

Buccinum undatum. Pecten opercularis. Artemis lincta. 

Fusus antiquus. Solen pellucidus. Cardium fasciatura. 

Trophon muricatum. Psammobia ferroensis. Kellia suborbicularis. 

Tlie harder Echinodermata exhibit similar phmnomena of distribution. — 
Thus, Cidaris histrix, Echinus norvegicus. Echinus neglectus and Euryale 
verrucosa, are peculiarly and extreme northern species, and all of Scandina- 
vian origin. 

Erissus lyrifer (which occurs also in glacial outliers in the south), Ophio- 
coma filifortnis, Comatula petasus, Goniaster Templetoni (i. e. pulvillus), and 
Uraster rosea ( = Cribella rosea), are peculiarly northern. 

Echinus Flemingii is northern and southern, but deficient in the interval. 

Echinus sphcera and Echinus miliaris, with many of our starfishes, are 
general throughout the area. 

Echinus Melo and the extra-limital Echinus lividus are peculiarly southern. 

Similar peculiarities of distribution are shown by the soft Echinoderms, 
by the soft Mollusca and by the Zoophytes. 

Numerical comparisons of the Testacea and hard Echinodermata inhabit- 
ing the regions explored, with the total number of British species. — In the fol- 
lowing table, one of the striking features is the small number of testacea and 
hard echinoderms inhabiting tlie British seas, which do not live upon the 
western shores of Great Britain ; such as are beyond their limits, are either 
of excessively southern and scarcely British character, as Haliotis tuberculata, 

1850. s 



258 REPORT — 1850. 

Jeffreysia opalina, JRissoa lactea and Murex corallinus ; or oceanic forms of 
lanthina, Hyalcea and Spirialis ; or species probablj' of arctic origin, ex- 
tending only to our north-eastern coasts, as Fusus norvegicus and Turtoni, 
Ncdica Kingii, Hypothyris psittacea and Goniaster equestris. The number 
of doubtful or not sufficiently investigated forms is also very small. A con- 
siderable number of genera have no, or few, representative members in the 
Scottish and English columns of western sublittoral species ; these are either 
extra-limital, as Hyalcea, Haliotis and Hypothyris ; or excessively rare in 
our seas, as Avicula, Stylifer, Cidaris and Astrophyton ; or oceanic, as lan- 
thina and Spirialis ; or wholly or mainly littoral, as Liltorina, Otina, Cono- 
vulus, Truncatella, Jeffreysia, Skenea (proper), Patella, Pleurobranchus, 
Teredo, Xylophaga, Petricola, Venerupis, Ceratisolen, Turtonia, Galeomma, 
Mytilus, Asterina. In Odostomia we have a genus which is not fairly re- 
presented on account of the excessively critical character of its species. Five 
genera of Gasteropoda, three of Lamellibranchiate acephala, three of Pallio- 
branchiate acephala, and three of hard Echinodermata, all having members 
in the Scottish portion of the regions explored, are without representatives in 
the English western and southern provinces. On the other hand, seven 
genera of Gasteropoda and eight of Lamellibranchiate acephala having 
English representatives, are altogether wanting on the western and northern 
coasts of Scotland. All our brachiopods found within the area explored are 
Scottish species ; the number of nionomyarious Lamellibranchiata is slightly 
in favour of Scotland over England, which, however, shows a considerable 
majority of dimyaria. The proportion of Gasteropoda in the Scottish seas 
is, however, so great, that the total number of testacea is in favour of the 
north. This is to be attributed partly to the greater variety of depths and ' 
ground, and partly to the presence in the north of isolated colonies of arctic 
forms which swell the ranks of the inhabitants of those regions to beyond 
their natural proportions. 

This table shows the total number of species of each genus of British tes- 
tacea and hard Echinodermata, compared with the number of species recorded 
in the following tables of depths ; the Scottish and English regions of the 
areas to which this Report is devoted, having the number of their species 
dredged in separate columns. In order to facilitate the comparison, and to 
show cause for the diiferences between the latter or district columns and the 
first or general enumeration, columns showing the number of species normally 
living in the Littoral andLaminarian zones, of obscure forms said to live within 
the area explored, and of British species found only beyond the limits of 
these areas, are inserted between. I have added for general comparison a 
column showing the number of species identical with existing British forms, 
of which we find fossil remains in the later British tertiaries, taking my data 
from the valuable monographs by Mi". Searles Wood. In two other columns, 
I have inserted in the one the total number of Scandinavian species of each 
genus in the British list, irrespective of identity, founding the list on Loven's 
researches; and in the other, the total number in like manner of Mediterra- 
nean species, founding tiie list on the works of Phillippi, on my iEgean lists, 
and on the dredging papers of Mr. MacAndrew. These two columns, when 
compared with the others, will afford not a few indications of the respective 
influences of the northern and southern elements in the British marine fauna. 
The numbers of the Scandinavian Echinodermata are taken from the excel- 
lent memoir by Duben and Koren. 



ON BRITISH MARINE Z0OI..OGY. 



259 



British genera. 


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British later ter- 
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British species. 


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Test. Mollusca. 
Lamellibranchiata. 
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1 

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4 
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1 
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4 
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3 

2 

1 
2 
1 
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1 
2 
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4 
1 
3 
1 

5 

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5 
1 
2 
3 
1 

13 
3 
2 
4 
1 
5 
1 
6 
3 
6 
2 
1 

1 
4 
1 
17 
12 
2 
1 
? 

3 

1 
1 
2 
4 
4 
5 
2 
9 
2 
1 


Xylophaga 


Pholas 


Pholadidea . . . 


Gastrochaena 


Saxicava 


Petricola 


Venerupis 


Mya 


Panopaea 


Corbula 


Sphsenia 


Nesera 


Poromya 


Pandora 


Lyonsia 




Cochlodesma ... 


Solen 


Ceratisolen 




Psammobia 


Diodonta 


Tellina 


Syndosmya 


Scrobicularia 




Ervilia 




Tapes 


Cytherea 




Artemis 




Cyprina 




Astarte 




Cardium 




iDiplodonta 




'Turtonia 




iLepton 










'Nucula 


licda 




Pectunculus 


Avicula 


1- 



s2 



260 



REPORT — 1850. 



British genera. 



Test. Mollosca. 
Lamellibranchiata. 

Pinna 

Lima 

Pecten 

Ostrea 

Anomia 

Palliobranchiata. 

Hypothyris 

Terebratula 

Megathyris 

Crania 

Pteropoda. 

Hyatea 

Spirialis 

Gasteropoda. 

Chiton 

Patella 

Acmaia 

Pilidium 

Propilidium 

Dentalium 

Pileopsis 

Calyptrsea 

Fissurella 

Puncturella 

Emarginula 

Haliotis 

Trochus 

Phasianella 

Adeorbis 

Scissurella 

lanthina 

Littorina 

Lacuna 

Rissoa 

Jeffrej'sia 

Siienea 

Skenea? 

Turritella 

Coecum 

Aporrhais 

Cerithium 

Scalaria 

Aclis 

Stylifer 

Eulima 

Chemnitzia 

Odostomia 

Eulimella 

Truncatella 

Otina 

Natica 

Lamellaria 

Velutina 

Cerithiopsis 

Trichotropis 



1 








2 





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3 








10 


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8 


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1 








1 








2 





2 


1 








1 





1 


1 





1 


1 








3 


2 


2 


1 


1 





16 


5 


11 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1? 


1 


1 


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1.' 


3 








4 


4 





4 





4 


29 


10 


14 


2 


2 





1 


1 





4 





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1 





1 


2 





2 


2 





1 


3 


1 


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3 


4 





3? 


1 





1? 


4 





4? 


8 





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22 


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2 


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ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 



261 



British genera. 


.a 


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British later ter- 
tiary fossils iden- 
tical with living 
British species. 


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Test. Mollusca. 
Gasteropoda. 


1 
3 
9 
4 
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1 
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Murex 


Fusus 


Buccinum 


Nassa 


Trophon 


Mangelia 


Marginella 


Volva 


Cypraea 


Tornatella 


Bulla 


Bultea 


Pleurobranchus 


Aplysia 


Conovulus 


ECHINODERMATA. 

Comatula 


Ophiura 




Euryale 


Uraster 


Cribella 




Paltnipes 


Asterina 


Goniaster 


Asterias 


Luidia 


Echinus 


Cidaris 




Brissus 


Amphidetus 


Spatangus 


1 ::: i 






1 



Causes which seem to determine or to have determined the peculiarities of the 

horizontal distribution of Species on the western coast of Great Britain. 

These seem to be mainly, — first, the influence and distribution of existing 
oceanic currents; and secondly, the geological changes which the region has 
undergone since the tertiary epoch, and during the last term of that epoch. 
The first is the climatal influence, acting by its regulation of the temperature 
of the sea; the second, a geological influence, the action of which, so far as 
the present epoch is concerned whilst under review, has passed away. 

Along the southern coast of England, the upper portion of the Coralline 
zone (18-30 fathoms) has a wide extension from the shore towards the eastern 
extremity of the English channel, occupying its whole breadth and gradually 
narrowing along the coasts of Devon and Cornwall, where the deeper por- 
tion of the same region approaches the land more nearly than elsewhere 
on the western English coast*. To the extension and connection of lauds 

* The naturalist, besides consulting the usual hydrographical charts, cannot do better 
than study the interesting Map of the English Channel by Mr. Austen, published in the 
Geological Journal. 



262 REPORT — 1850. 

across the eastern channel, ancient but not anterior to the existing population 
of the British seas, we may ascribe some of the peculiarities of our southern- 
most marine fauna, especially the presence there of southern forms of mol- 
lusks, inhabitants of the Littoral or Laminarian zones, and u ndoubtedly colonists 
from a more southern assemblage, such as we now see in the Channel Islands. 
The inhabitants of greater depths taken off the Cornish coast at considerable 
distances from shore, we have seen to be species of a different climatal 
character, boreal instead of southern ; and when the distribution of animals 
on the Nymph Bank and off the southernmost coast of Ireland shall have been 
more fully explored, we shall find — at least, so the facts already made known 
indicate — that there is a large tract of considerable depth in the southern 
part of St. George's Channel, of the great deep-sea fishing-grounds, charac- 
terized by this boreal fauna, bearing a close relationship with the extinct 
fauna of the northern drift of the south-eastern districts of Ireland and parts 
of the coast of Wales. A great part of the Irish sea is very shallow, rarely 
sufficiently deep to affect the character of its fauna ; parts of its floor, as be- 
tween the Isle of Man and Lancashire, barely emerging from the Coralline 
zone, and its deepest portions of any extent scarcely infringing on the region 
of deep-sea corals. Between the Isle of Man and the Mull of Galloway, it is 
true, there is the deep and narrow ravine, 150 fathoms in its deepest part, 
discovered by Captain Beechey and dredged by him. But the results of his 
valuable research, carefully investigated by a most able naturalist, Mr. W. 
Thompson of Belfast, have shown that we have no fauna in that limited 
gulf at all corresponding to its depth, and that its contents are normally inha- 
bitants of shallower regions. For this reason, the absence of the assemblage 
of subarctic or boreal species met with in all the older British submarine 
areas of considerable depth, and the curious interruption in the distribution 
of the smaller terrestrial quadrupeds which occurs in this quarter, reaching, 
as many of them do, the extreme parts of the south of Scotland, yet not in- 
habiting the nearest portions of Ireland opposite or any part of that island, I 
am induced to hazard the conjecture, that the great ravine in question dates 
its origin from a period later than the close of the glacial epoch, yet before 
that of the general spread of the greater part of the Germanic fauna and flora 
over these islands — of that part which, from causes varying in different spe- 
cies of animals and plants, was the more tardy in its progress. In the regions 
of the Clyde and along the inner Hebrides we have a great variety of depths ; 
but the pbeenomenon most striking is the great depth of many of the lochs, 
often of considerable dimensions, whilst the entrances to them are exceedingly 
shallow ; and in some cases the seas without them for a considerable distance 
are very shallow also. The fauna of these isolated deeps is very different 
from that of the Gallovegian ravine, for in the former we find assembled and 
imprisoned creatures which are characteristic of very deep regions of the 
sea, and which are mainly of a marked Scandinavian character. Sometimes, 
as in the neighbourhood of the Croulin iislands, between Skye and the Ross- 
shire coast, we find a deep area of the sea thronged with Scandinavian spe- 
cies, living on the remains of the ancient glacial sea-bed and mingled with 
the exuviae of their extinct ancestors, and of other creatures, now wholly ex- 
tinguished within our seas, of an equally boreal or even arctic complexion. 
We have to sail a long way from the islands before we eome to the edge of 
the permanently 100- fathom line, which, as we go northwards, must be 
sought for considerably to the west of St. Kilda and north of the desolate 
rocks of Sulisker and Rona. Around the Zetland Isles is the region in which 
the British explorer has the best opportunity of inquiring into the features of 
the fauna of the greater abysses of our seas, though of these depths we can 
scarcely claim more than the 100-fathom region as coming within the com- 



ON BRITISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 263 

pass of British natural history. The soundings for a degree and a half north 
of Unst do not reach 300 fathoms ; and from the Naze of Norway to the 
coast of Scotland there is a line of soundings not reaching to 100 fathoms, 
quite sufficient, as may be seen from an examination of the tables here 
given, to keep up a considerable communication and interchange with the 
Scandinavian marine fauna. 

That the diffusion of Lusitanian forms along our southern shores and for 
some distance up St. George's Channel is due to the action of southern cur- 
rents and their climatal influenee, must be evident to any person who will 
compare the range of those species with the course and extension of Rennell's 
current, which, striking towards our shores from the coast of Spain, im- 
pinges on our south-western English provinces and diifuses its influence over 
an area exactly corresponding with the extension of our marine creatures of 
southern types. The extension, more or less powerful in different years, of 
the Gulf-stream towards the Irish coast, and the combined influence of it 
and its branch-current already mentioned, affects an area extending from our 
south-western English province round the western coast of Ireland and im- 
pinging on the western shores of Scotland in its northern portion, sufficient 
to account for the curious curve of distribution taken by those animals 
which range in that line almost from Devon to Zetland, but are rare or 
absent in the central portions of the Irish sea. The setting-in of the arctic 
current from the centre will account for the transmission to our northern 
shores of numerous Scandinavian forms. But no action of currents, as at 
present maintained, can account for the isolated patches and imprisoned 
assemblages of glacial animals to which I have more than once alluded ia 
this Report. To account for them we must trace the physical conformation 
of the British seas in an epoch anterior to the present, and by doing so, shall 
find that the causes similar to those now in action differently disposed, will 
give us a clear insight into the origin of these phaenomena. I have elsewhere 
theorized fully on this subject*, and have only to add, that all subsequent 
researches, a great mass of which is embodied in this Report, go in the 
strongest manner to confirm the views I had ventured to advance. 

Desiderata within this area. — A great deal may yet be done for the ex- 
ploration of the part of the British seas which has furnished the subject of this 
Report. Although little that is new, if anything, can be expected from the 
coasts of Hants, Sussex and Kent, yet it would be satisfactory to have a 
well-filled series of dredging papers relating to those counties. The central 
portion of the English channel and its entrance have yet to be systematically 
explored, and the depths of the Cornish coast and around the Scilly Isles 
should be sedulously examined. Off the entrance of the Bristol channel are 
isolated, or nearly so, patches of 60 fathoms and thereabouts which require 
to be carefully explored. The deeper portions of the Irish sea should be 
looked to more minutely. A more difficult task, and one which can be 
hardly hoped for fulfilment without the help of a steam-vessel and continued 
calm weather, is the dredging of the deeps ofl" the Hebrides in the open 
ocean. Much of the deep sea area around the Zetlands is sure to reward the 
explorer. The lochs of Sutherlandshire have not as yet been systematically 
examined. And lastly, though I fear the consummation, however devoutly 
wished for, is not likely soon to be effected, a series of dredgings between 
the Zetland and the Faroe Isles, where the greatest depth is under 700 fathoms, 
would throw more light on the natural history of the North Atlantic and on 
marine zoology generally, than any investigation that has yet been under- 
taken. 

* Memoirs of Geological Survey, vol. i. 



264 



REPORT — 1850. 



Notes on the Distribution and Range in depth of Mollusca and other 
Marine Animals observed on the coasts of Spain, Portugal, Barbary, 
Malta, and Southern Italy in 1849. By Robert MacAndrew, 
Esq., F.L.S. 

List of Species of INIoUusca obtained in Vigo Bay during the first week of 
April and the last week of August 184^9. 





Depth. 


Ground. 


Living at 


Fre- 
quency. 






4 fath. 
4 fath. 

8 fatli. 
shore 
shore 
8 fath. 
shore 
10 fath. 

shore 

shore 
sh. to 4 f. 

3 fath. 


sand 
mud 
mud 
mud 
sand 
sand 
mud 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
null, 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
mud 
mud 

sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 

mud 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
mud 
null, 
null, 
mud 
null, 
null, 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
mud 
mud 

sand 
sand 
mud 
sand 
mud 
mud 


8 fath. 
5 to 25 f. 
20 fath. 

10 fath. 
8 fath. 

low water 
low water 
low water 
low water 

shore 
10 fath. 
10 fath. 

shore 

5 to 10 f. 

shore 

low water 

8 fath. 
low water 
low water 
low water 

5 fath. 

20 fath. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 
8 fath. 
low water 
low water 
littoral 
littoral 
littoral 
10 fath. 

10 fath. 
shore 

10 fath. 
10tol5f. 

4 fath. 
10 to 12 f. 


rare 
abun. 
rare, 
rare, 
rare, 
rare, 
rare, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
rare 
freq. 
rare, 
rare, 
rare 
rare 
abun. 
freq. 
rare, 
rare, 
not ab. 
freq. 
freq. 
rare 
rare 
rare 
num. 
abun. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
lim. 
freq. 
rare, 
abun. 
rare, 
abun. 

abun. 
rare, 
rare 
freq. 

lim. 
local 
rare, 
rare, 
r.&sra. 
local. 


smooth variety in mud. 

sold in the market. 

valves small. 

one valve, 
one valve, 
one living. 

or solida. 

valves. 

sold in the market. 

valves, three pairs. ' 

very highly coloured. 

large, 
large. 

finely coloured, sold in market, 
more rare than preceding. 

one specimen more square than 
medium specimen, 

[loured, 
only a few specimens, rose-co- 
larger than British specimens. 










Thracia villosiuscula ? 








Psammobia vespertina ... 


















Scrobicularia piperata ... 


Mesodesma donacilla 

Mactra subtruncata 




























Astarte triangularis 












norvegicum 

papillosum, var 













ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



265 



Lucina spinifera var 

Moutacuta bidentata 

Kellia suborbicularis 

Lepton squamosum 

Galeomma Tiirtoni 

Kellia ? (genus uncertain) 

Mytilus Galloprovincialis ? 

edulis? 

Modiola tulipa 

Crenella marmorata 

costulata 

Nucula nucleus 

radiata 

nitida 

Area tetragona 

— lactea 

Pectunculus glycimeris ... 
Avicula tarentina 



Pecten maximus . 

opercularis . 

varius 

— obsoletus . 

distortus . . . . 

similis 

fuci 

Ostrea edulis .... 



var. parasitica 

Anomia ephippium 

pateUif ormis 

Crania anomala 

Chiton rufus 

fascicularis 

marginatus 

asellus 

Isevis 

cancellatus 

Patella vulgaris 

pellucida 

Acmaea virginea 

Emarginula rosea 

Fissurella reticulata 



Calyptrsea sinensis 
Bullaeaaperta 

scabra 

Bulla hydatis 

akera 

cylindrica ... 

lignaria 

- umbilicata ... 

truncata 

Aplysia depilans . . . 

Rissoa ulva; 

vincta 

costata 

-^— costulata 

labiosa 

interrupta? 



Depth. 



Ground. 



8 fath. 



shore 



8 fath. 
8 fath. 



8 fath. 



20 fath. 
15 fath. 



4 fath. 



4 fath. 
4 fath. 



4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 



mud 
mud 
mud 
sand 
mud 
mud 

rocks 
rocks 
mud 



mud 

mud 

mud 

nul.&gr. 

nul.&gr, 

nul.&gr. 

mud 

sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
rocky 
mud 
sand 



s. & gr. 
s. & gr, 



s. &m, 

s. & m. 
s. & m. 
s. & m, 



sand 
sand 



shells 
mud 
mud 
mud 
mud 
sand 
mud 
mud 
mud 
sand 
mud 



Living at 



10 to 12 f. 

4 fath. 
8 fath. 



10 fath. 
5 fath. 

littoral 
littoral 
12 fath. 
12 fath. 



5 to 25 f. 
20 to 25 f 
20 to 25 f. 



8 to 12 f. 
8 fath. 

8 fath. 
8 to 20 f. 
8 fath. 



6 fath. 
low water 



low water 
10 fath. 
10 fath. 
25 fath. 

1, w. to 12 f. 

8 fath. 

littoral 
8 to 12 f. 
8 to 12 f. 
8 to 12 f. 

littoral 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 
8 to 12 f. 
8 to 12 f. 
8 to 12 f. 

1. w. to 20 f. 

4 fath. 



sh. to 4 f. 
4 fath. 
8 fath. 
10 fath. 



l.w.to8f. 
low water 



4 fath. 



Fre- 
quency. 



local 
rare, 
freq. 
rare 
V. r. 
rare 

abun. 
abuu. 
rare, 
rare 
V. r. 
freq. 
rare, 
freq. 
rare 
rare 
rare, 
rare 

freq. 
not f. 
not f. 

rare 
local. 

rare 

rare 



freq. 
rare. 
V. r. 
abun. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
rare, 
rare, 
abun. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
rare 
rare 
v.f. 
freq. 
rare. 
V. a. 
freq. 
freq. 
V. r. 
local, 
local. 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

V. r. 

freq, 

local. 



smooth, cream or buff-colour. 

in dead shells of Tapes virginea. 

valves. [shells. 

one specimen in mud with dead 

of same genus, perhaps species, 
as a shell, procured alive un- 
der stones in Faro Harbour. 

entrance of the bay. 

in Ascidiae. 
one valve. 



valves, 
valves. 

one living, several dead on the 
shore, where they were proba. 
bly brought by the Seine nets. 

small. 

valves. 

valves, 
valves. 

abundant in shallow water near 
the head of the bay, and ex- 
cellent quality, 
covering rocks near head of the 
bay, small. 

[trance of bay. 
dredged one specimen near en- 
creeping on the shore and at- 
tached to dead shells, &c. ; 
some came up with the chain 
every time we got under way. 



on fucus. 
large, 
not large, 
small, 
small. 



one specimen. 



extremely abundant on the 
shore. 



266 



REPORT — 1850. 



Rissoa striata 

pellucida 

parva 

calathiscus 

cimex ? 

lactea 

violacea ? 

Alvania albella 

Odostomia of 2 or 3 species 

Skenea ? 

Chemnitzia elegantissima 

scalaris 

fulvocincta 

fenestrata 

indistincta ? 

scalaris 

— — new? 

Eulima polita 

subulata 

Natica Alderi 

nionilifera ? 

Velutina lasvigata 

Tornatella fasciata 

Lamellaria perspicua . . 
Haiiotis tuberculatus .. 

Scalaria communis 

Turtoni 

clathratulus 

Vermetus semisurrectus 
(Serpula tubularia) 

triqueter 

Mullen 

Solarium luteura 

stramineum 



Depth. Ground, 



4 fath. 
4iFath. 



4 fath. 
shore 
8 fath. 



4 fath. 

4 to 12 f. 

8 fath. 



4 fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 



shore 



Living at 



low water 
4 fath 



8 fath. 



Trochus umbilicatus 

tumidus 

— — striatus 

exiguus 

Montagui 

magus 

Laugieri 

cinerarius 

ziziphinus 

crassus 



Adeorbis subcarinatus 

Phasianella pulla 

Lacuna puteolus ? 

Littorina littoreus 

rudis 

littoralis 

saxatilis? 

Turritella tricostalis .. 

terebra 

Cerithium reticulatum 



perversum 

Pleurotoma atteuuatum . 

costatum 

lineare 

elegans 

brachystomum . . . . 



shore 



shore 
4 fath. 



8 fath. 
shore 



12 fath. 



4 fath. 
shore 



4 fath. 
6 to 10 f. 



8 fath. 
12 fath. 



s. &m. 

sand 
sand 
sand 
mud 
mud 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 

sand 
sand 
sand 



mud 



8 to 12 f. 



8 fath. 



10 fath. 
10 to 15 f. 
6 to 10 f. 



8 fath. 

8 fath. 

8 & 12f 



shore 



shore 



s. & ra. 5 to 12 f. 



s. &m 
mud 
mud 
mud 

sand 
saud 
null, 
sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 
rocky 

sand 
mud 



sand 
mud 
mud 

mud 
mud 
sand 
sand 
mud 



5 to 12 f. 
20 fath. 
8 fath. 



8 to 12 f. 
8 to 12 f. 

8 fath. 
15 fath, 

7 fath. 



10 fath. 
8 fath. 
shore. 
10 fath. 



8 f. & sh. 



littoral 
Uttoral 
littoral 
littoral 

8 to 12 f. 

12 to 25 f. 
4 fath. 



8 fath. 
8 fath. 



Fre- 
quency, 



freq. 
rare, 
rare, 
rare, 
f. but 1 
rare, 
rare. 

local, 
rare, 
freq. 
V. r. 
V. r, 
V. r. 
V. r. 
V. r. 
V. r. 
rare, 
rare, 
freq. 

rare 

rare 

few. 

one. 



freq, 
freq. 



freq. 
freq. 
abuu. 
V. a. 
rare, 
freq. 
V. r. 
freq. 
freq. 

freq. 
rare, 
local. 

fi-eq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
abun. 



rare, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 

freq. 



one specimen (lost). 



only one specimen, 
only two specimens, 
only two specimens, 
only two specimens, 
a fragment, large. 



one, dead and imperfect. 

smaU. 

one, young. 

animal a bright orange colour. 

fragment. 

fragment. 

extremely abundant, in large 
groups brought in by fishing 
nets. 

one, living, 
one, living. 

minute, depressed, bicarinated 
{qy. young of preceding ?). 



on fucus. 



on fucus {qy. vars. of T. cinera- 
rius). 

one dead specimen. 



more rare than preceding ; very 
produced. 



one specimen. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



267 





Depth. 


GrTound. 


Living at 


Fre- 
quency. 




Pleurotoma purpureum ... 


8 fath. 
8 fath. 

15 fath. 

4 to 25 f. 
8 fath. 

8 fath. 


sand 
sand 
saud 
sand 

sand 
sand 
sand 

sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 

sand 
mud 

s. &m. 

mud 
mud 
sand 
sand 
sand 

mud 
mud 
sand 
mud 


8 fath. 
8 fath. 
shore 

8 fath. 
8 fath. 

shore 
shore 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
littoral 

4 to 8 f. 
4 fath. 

20 to 25 f. 
6 to 25 f. 

8 fath. 
8 fath. 

5 to 20 f. 
5 to 20 f. 

26'fath. 


rare, 
rare. 

V. r. 
freq. 
rare 
freq. 
freq. 

local, 
freq. 

freq. 
rare, 
freq. 

V. a. 
V. a. 
local. 

freq. 

abun. 
rare, 
rare, 
local 


tvfo, fine and large. 

obtained seven living specimens 
on shore near the town, five 
dead in 8 fath. near the mouth 
of the bay. 

carinated ; some resemblance to 
P. lapillus. 

three specimens together, 
one, living, 
one, living. 

near the town and low dovra 
the bay small and dark colour, 
at head of the bay large and 
white. 

ordinary form, in sand, dark co- 
loured undulated var. in mud. 

large, never striated. 

smooth, purple, obscurely 
banded ; animal very active. 

two specimens living. 

pellucid, very narrow in propor- 
tion to length, ^in. : greenish 
colour when living. 

gathered from rocks at entrance 
of the bay, sold abundantly 
for food, and much esteemed. 


— — coarctatumorSmithii 












cristatiis? var. ? ... 




Chenopus pes-peiecani ... 








Ringuicula auriculata 

Buccinum, new sp 






Dentalium dentalis or 








Spirorbis. 

Pollicipes cornucopia 

Balani. 

Clitia verruca. 
Acasta Montagui. 
Anatifa vulgaris. 
striata. 


4 species of Echinus. 
4 species of Star-fishes. 
4 species of Comatula. 
Holothuriae. 
Cucumariae. 


Alcyonium digitatum. 

Pennatula (Med. species). 
Actiniae &c. Zoanthus 

Couchii. 
Edwardsia. 
Veritmuru. 



Vigo Bay extends 16 or 18 miles inland; in raid-channel the bottom is 
muddy, 25 fathoms, near the entrance, gradually shoaling as you proceed 
upwards ; the littoral fauna, which is of a British or Celtic character, better 
developed towards the head of the bay, being more abundant, and the indi- 
viduals attaining larger size. 

Of the preceding list of 200 species of MoUusca (omitting Balani and Ze- 
pades), twenty-six are not inhabitants of the seas of the British Islands, 



268 



REPORT — 1850. 



Tellina serrata. 
Mesodesnia donacilla. 
Lutraria rugosa. 
Cardium papillosum, var, 
Lucina digitalis. 

(genus unknown). 

Mytilus galloprovincialis. 
Chiton ruf'us*. 

, new ?*. 

Fissurella gibba. 
Rissoa violacea?. 
Cheiunitzia (new)*. 
Solarium luteum. 



Solarium stramineum. 
Trochus Laugieri. 
Turritella tricostalis. 
Fusus contrarius*. 
Pleurotoma maravigni. 
Murex Edwardsii. 

cristatus?. 

Triton variegatum. 

corrugatum. 

Ringuicula auriculata. 

Buccinum (new ?)*. 

Dentalium quadrangulare. 
(new?)*. 



The shell which I have designated above under the name of Fusus contra- 
rius I believe to be distinct from the reversed var. of F. antiquus. 

Of the species not British, at least twenty have been found in the Medi- 
terranean ; the exceptions are marked * in the list, and of these two, viz. 
Fusus contrarius and Buccinum, new species (which may be a var. of B. mo- 
destum), I look upon as doubtful. 

The subjoined list contains thirty species found at Vigo, and not known to 
inhabit the Mediterranean. Six of them may be considered doubtful, viz. 
Fusus contrarius and Buccinum (new?), for the reasons already mentioned ; 
Natica monilifera and Lacuna puteolus, because they are in the Vigo list 
upon the faith of single, old, dead and imperfect specimens ; Natica Alderi 
and Pecten obsoletus, because possibly identical with N. Marochiensis of 
authors, and a Pecten procured at Gibraltar. 

The twenty-nine species procured at Vigo, but not in the Mediterranean, 
all inhabit the British seas except six or seven (marked * in the list), Fusus 
contrarius being doubtful. 



Donax anatinus. 

Mactra truncata. 

Tapes puUastra. 

Kellia? (genus unknown)*. 

Pecten obsoletus. 

Chiton rufus*. 

marginatus. 

asellus. 

, new?*. 

Patella pellucida. 
Rissoa ulvae. 

pellucida. 

vincta. 

striata. 

Chemnitzia, new?*. 



Natica monilifera ?. 

Alderi. 

Velutina laevigata. 
Trochus tumidus. 

cinerarius. 

Lacuna puteolus ?. 
Littorina littoreus. 

rudis. 

saxatilis. 

Fusus contrarius*. 

(carinated). 

Purpura lapillus. 
Buccinum — — (new?)*. 
Dentalium -. (new*). 



From the foregoing lists, it appears that the marine fauna of Vigo, as 
regards Mollusca, is more nearly related to that of the British Isles than to 
that of the division in which it is situated, the Lusitanian. 

The only land shells I met with in the neighbourhood of Vigo, are, — 



Helix aspersa. 

caperata. 

r cellaria. 



Helix nemoralis. 

barbula. 

I revoluta. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



269 



I attempted to dredge off the Berlings bearing E.S.E. 8 or ] miles, but 
could obtain no bottom Avith 200 fathoms' line. 

Species obtained by dredging off Cascaes Bay, south of the rock of Lisbon : 
bottom hard sand, depth 15 to 20 fathoms. 



Corbula nucleus. 

Solen ensis. 

Solecurtus legumen. 

Syndosmya alba. 

Artemis lincta. 

Venus striatula. 

Cardium aculeatum Cyoung). 

Pinna (fragment). 

Patella pellucida {qy. southern 
limit of range ?). 



Bulla cylindrica. 
Odostomia conoidea. 
Chemnitzia fulvocincta. 
Eulima subulata — 7 or 8 living. 
Nassa varicosa. 

Cymba olla — 2 living (gy. most 
noi'thern locality?). 



Dredging Paper No. 1. 

Date, 5th of April, 1849. 

Locality, Cape St. Mary's, South Coast of Portugal. 

Depth, 15 to 30 fathoms. 

Distance from shore, about 1^ mile. 

Ground, coarse sand, mud. 

Region, 



Species obtained. 



Number 
of living 
specms 



Serpula filograna , 

Ditrupa subulata or co- 
arctata 

Dentalium quadrangu- 

lare , 

— tarentinum 

Pholas dactylus 

Corbula nucleus 

Pandora rostrata 

Thracia phaseoUna 

Solen siliqua 

pellucidus 

Solecurtus candidus . . 

antiquatus 

Lutraria? 



Psammobia tellinella 

ferroensis 

Diodonta fragilis 

Tellina distorta 

— crassa 

— planata 

— COStiB 

Donax trunculus 

politus 

Syndosmya alba 

Ervillia castanea 

Mactra stuitorum . . . 

subtruncata . . 

Cytherea chione 

venetiana 



Number of dead' I 
specimens. Ij 



Species obtained. 



1 group 

innum. 

8 
5 

"i 



Number 
of living 
specms 



a fragment. 

valves. 

1 valve. 

a fragment. 

fragments. 
a valve, 
frag, of 1 or 2 
species, 
valves 
valves, 
1 valve. 

1 
4 valves. 

2 valves. 
2 valves. 

valves. 

num. valves. 

num. vidves. 

num. valves, 

fragment 

2 

1 

valve. 



Venus verrucosa. 

striatula 

fasciata .... 



casnia 

Circe minuta 

Cardium edule 

laevigatum 

papillosum, var.... 

fasciatum 

Cardita trapezia 

Lucina lactea 

spinifera 

digitalis 

divaricata 

Diplodonta rotundata.. 

Mytilus afer ? 

Modiola 

Nucula nitida 

radiata 

Leda emarginata 

Area tetragona 

— lactea 

Pectunculus glycimeris 

Pinna ingens ? 

Pecten maximus. 

opercularis 

varius 

polymorplms 

Emarginula fissura ...., 

FissureUa gibba 

Calyptrsea sinensis .... 



Number of dead] 
specimens 



abun. 
1 



fragment. 

fragment, 
valve. 



valve, 
valve, 
valve. 

1 
valves, 
valves, 
valves, 
valve, 
valve. 



num. valves 

valves. 

valves. 

valves. 

fragment. 

valves, 
valves, 
valves. 

2 

2 

3 



270 



REPORT — 1850. 



Species obtained. 


Number 
of liWng 
specms. 


Number of dead 

specimens. 


Species obtained. 


Number 
of livinp 
specms. 


Number of dead 

specimens. 




4 

18 


2 

1 
fragment. 

1 
fragment. 

1 

1 

2 
1 
3 
several. 
1 


Pleurotoma elegans 


6 

1 

5 

4 

6 
4 


4 

fragment. 
1 

several. 

several. 

several, 
fragment, 
fragments. 

1 

12 


Natica Guilleininii 

sagra 




Tornatella fasciata 


attenuatum 




Trochus ziziphinus 






canaliculatus 

Turritella terebra 


Chenopus pes-pelecani 








Cerithium vulgare 

— — reticulatum 


Buccinura modestum ... 
Ringuicula amiculata ... 





The port of Faro in Algarve is situated behind the low islands, or rather 
salt marshes which form Cape St. Mary's (Cabo de Santa Maria), There 
are several channels leading to it, but only one (facing the east) navigable 
for vessels drawing 8 to 12 feet water. This is only accessible at high tide 
over a succession of sand-banks. At low water most of the channels are 
nearly dry : bottom mud, with abundance of Zostera. I remained in the 
port five days, but was able to do but very little in the way of research. 
The following is a list of the shells obtained in the harbour and on the 
neighbouring shore, the species marked * being procured alive : — 



Pholas candidus. 

' dactylus. 

Petricola lithopbaga*. 

Venerupis irus*. 

Fauopsea Aldrovandi — numerous 
valves, 2 or 3 united. 

Solen siliqua* — in the market. 

• ensis. 

— — vagina* — in the market. 

Solecurtus legumen — valves. 

■ strigillatus — valves. 

Psammobia vespertina — valves. 

costata (Hanley) — large, con- 
centrically wrinkled, radiated. 

Tellina tenuis. 

Diodonta fragilis. 

Syndosmya prismatica*. 

Scrobicularia piperata. 

Donax trunculus. 

politus. 

Ervillia castanea — several perfect 
shells, united valves, but none alive. 

Mactra helvacea — numerous valves 
on the exposed shore. 

i stultorum. 

subtruncata*. 



Lutraria elliptica*. 

oblonga*. 

Lutraria rugosa. 

Cytherea chione. 

Tapes aurea. 

decussata. 

perforans. 

Venus verrucosa. 

fasciata*. 

striatula. 

.Circe minuta. 

Artemis exoleta. 

lincta. 

Cardium edule*. 

var. rusticum of Mont 

. var — very wide in propor- 
tion to length. 

— norvegicum. 

tuberculatum. 

exiguum ?*. 

Lucina lactea. 

Bornia corbuloides* — abundant 
under stones. 

t genus unknown* — abundant 

under stones. 

Kellia suborbicularis*. 



t Somewhat resembling Bornia corbuloides in form, but larger, much wider, opake. An 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



271 



Mytilus galloprovincialis*. 

minutus. 

Modiola barbata. 

tulipa. 

Crenella marmorata*. 

Lithodomus caudigerus* — in stones 

found in Asturias, but not at Cadiz 

or in the Mediterranean. 
Arcalactea* — abundantunder stones. 

tetragona* — one under stones. 

Pectunculus glycimeris — abundant 

valves, used by fishermen instead 

of lead. 
Lima scabrella ?. 
Pecten maximus. 
«— — varius. 
Ostrea edulis. 
Chiton marginatus ? ?* 
— — fascicularis*. 
Patella vulgaris*. 
Siphonaria concinna*. 
Fissurella graeca. 
Bulla striata. 
Natica intricata*. 

■ Guilleminii. 

Sigaretus haliotoideus (of Lam.). 
Littorina neritoides. 
Phasianella intermedia — on Zostera. 
Rissoa labiosa — on Zostera. 

lactea. 

Chemnitzia elegantissima. 
fTrochus crassus?*, var. — pale colour 

(Qy. is it met with further south?). 
— — umbilicatus* — on Zostera. 
■■ ■ striatus* — on Zostera. 

It will be noticed, that of the foregoing list, there are only TrocJiUS umbi- 
licatus and crassus (doubtful), and perhaps Chiton marginatus (a doubtful 
determination), British species not found in the Mediterranean. 

Dredged at San Lucar de Barameda (mouth of the Guadalquivir), 12th, 
21st, and 22nd of April, locality not favourable for dredging ; bad enough for 
anchorage on account of the strong tide and freshwater coming down after 
the heavy rains — sandy shore. The most abundant species were Mactra 
stvltorum, ordinary variety, and one pure white in about equal plenty ; Tel- 
Una costce not uncommon ; valves of Lutraria rugosa small. Numerous com- 
mon South European species. 

Between the bar of San Lucar and Cadiz I made use of the dredge at 
various points, in 8 to above 20 fathoms, and found the bottom to be black 

epidermis furnished with minute tufts of hair arranged in rows, diverging from the limbs, 
giving it the appearance of being striated. 

N.B. I have formerly found dead and worn specimens on the shore of Asturias, when I 
supposed it to be Bomia complanata. I procured the same, or an allied species, smaller, 
dead, from mud in Vigo. 

t Poatibly a variety of T. articulatus, or intermediate between the two species. 



Trochus Laugieri* — on Zostera. 

canaliculatus* — on Zostera. 

, var. ? 

, var.? 

Turbo rugosa. 
Turritella sulcata. 
Cerithium vulgatum. 

reticulatum. 

perversum. 

Murex corallinus*. 

truncatus*. 

Brandaris*. 

erinaceus*. 

Edwardsii*. 

Triton variegatum*. 

corrugatum. 

cutaceum. 

Chenopus pes-pelecani. 
Purpura hgeniastoma. 
Cassis saburon ? — two, dead. 
Nassa reticulata. 

macula. 

Columbella rustica. 

Mitra (yellow, large). 

Cymba olla — picked up abundantly 

from bottom of a narrow channel 

at low water. 
Cyprsea Europaea*. 
Conus mediterraneus — abundant on 

muddy banks. 
Serpula triqueter, &c. 
Balanus* — on stones. 
, two species*^upon fishermen's 

cork. 



272 



REPORT — 1850. 



mud, with hardly any shells except Nucula nitida and Turritella terehra. 
Between Cadiz and Cape Trafalgar, I met with better success (see dredging 
papers No. 2 and No. 8). 

Dredging Paper No. 2. 

Date, 23rd of April, 1849. 

Locality, between Cadiz and Cape Trafalgar. 

Depth, 30 fathoms. 

Distance from shore, 8 to 10 miles. 

Ground, sand and gravel. 

Resion, 



Species obtained. 



Number 
of living 
specmns. 



Number of 

dead 
specimens. 



Gastrochaena cuneiformis 

Saxicava arctica 

Corbula nucleus 

Pandora obtusa 

Solecurtus antiquus 

Psammobia ferroensis 

Tellina serrata 

Syndosmya alba 

— intermedia? 

ErviUia castanea 

Mactra subtruncata 

Tapes virginea 

Cytherea venetiana 

Venus verrucosa 

— fasciata 

— ovata 

Circe minuta 

Astarte incrassata ? 

Cardiiim echinatura .,,... 



1 or 2 



roseum .' 

minimum 

Lucina radula 

digitalis 

— - spinifera 

Diplodonta rotundata. 

Modiola vestita 

Nucula nitida 

Leda emarginata 

Area lactea 

obliqua 

antiquata ? 

tetragona 

Lima fragilis 

Pecten maximus 

op ercularis 

varius 

polymorphus . . . . 

FissureUa grseca ? .... 
Calyptraea sinensis .... 

Vermetus 

Bulla cylindrica 

truncata 

Rissoa Montagui 



several. 
1 



2 young. 



Odostomia conoidea 
acuta 



several 



in the root of the coral {qy. Oculina ?). 
minute. 



1 & valves, 
valves. 



valves. 



2 valves. 
1 valve, 
several, 
valves. 
1 valve. 

valves. 

1 valve. 
1 valve. 



valve. 

1 & valve. 

valve. 

valve. 



num. valves. 

1 valve. 

num. valves. 

1 valve. 

1 valve. 

fragments. 

fragments. 

fragments. 

fragments. 

2 



several. 

3 

1 
several. 

1 



allied to vitrea ? 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



273 



Species obtained. 



Euliraa polita 

subulata 

Chemnitzia elegantissitna .. 

rufa 

new? 

new (rosea) 

fulvocincta ? 

Scalaria communis 

Trochus ziziphiniis 

millegranus 

Turbo rugosus 

Turritella terebra 

tricostalis 

Cerithium reticulatum 

perversuni 

Fusus corneus (Lin.) 

Pleurotoma gracilis 

brachy stomum 

reticulatum var. spino- 

sum 

, new sp 



Number 
of living 
specmns. 



Buccinum modestum 

minus 

Nassa reticulata 

macula 

Ringuicula auriculata 

Dentalium quadrangulare ... 

Ditrupa subulata 

Balanus 

Adna anglica 

Numerous Zoophytes, a large 
red coral, Occulina. 



several, 
several, 



1 
1 
1 

several 
several 
several 
several 

1 

1 



Number of 

dead 
specimens. 



1 broken. 

1 

1 

2 opercula. 



several. 

1 

1 

1 
several. 



1 

several. 

2 
several, 
several, 
several, 
several, 
several. 



Observations. 



very slender oblique undulated ribs. 



banded, black and yellow. 



on Caryophyllia. 



Dredging Paper No. 8. 

Date, 26th of July, 1849. 

Locality, 8 miles north and west of Cape Trafalgar. 

Depth, 15 fathoms. 

Distance from shore, 5 miles. 

Ground, coarse sand with broken shells. 

Region, 



Species obtained. 


No, of living 
specimens. 


No. of dead 
specimens. 


Observations. 


Dentalium entalis or taren- 
tinum 


few. 

few. 

few. 

6 

1 
I 
1 

1 


4 




Ditrupa strangulata? 

Serpula intorta 


triqueter 


Corbula nucleus 


Pandora obtusa 


rostrata 


] small. 

valves, 
valves. 




Psammobia ferroensis 


tellinella 


Mactra elliptica? 






1 



1850. 



274 



REPORT 1850. 



Species obtained. 


No. of living 
specimens. 


No. of dead 
specimens. 


Observations. 


Lutraria elliptica 


"3" 

"e" 

■■■2* 

1 

5 

"2" 

"1 

1 

8 

""2" 
1 

'3" 

10 

4 

8 
abundant, 
abundant. 

2 

numerous. 

"1 " 

3 

5 

2 

numerous. 

10 

"1 " 
2 
2 

7 


1 valve. 

abundant. 

valves. 

1 valve. 

1 

valves. 
1 & valves. 

1 valve. 

a valve, 
valves. 

1 
1 valve. 

:e; } 

1 

1 

1 
2 

several. 

3 

2 

2 

1 

3 


small. 

much incrusted with sponges, &c. 






venetiana 




casina 








Astarte triangularis 






Kellia suborbicularis 




Nucula nucleus 


radiata 




Area tetragona 




Pectunculus glycimeris 

Lima subauriculata 








polvmorphus 


Ostrea edulis 






Fissurella grseca 


Calyptraea vulgaris 




Bulla ti'uncata 


Natica Alderi 


Trochus magus 








Pleurotoma 


Marginalia miliacea 






Triton nodiferum ? 


Nassa varicosa 








Ampbioxus lanceolatus 

Echinus, 2 species. 
Ophiurse, &c. 



On the 24th of April, in the Strait of Gibraltar, the water was teeming 
with SalpiE, generally in the form of double chains ; the individuals varying 
in size from a quarter of an inch or less to three inches in length. The 
opake part of the smaller was blue, of the larger brown. They were very 
phosphorescent when agitated in water. Various small and beautiful Me- 
dusae. Near the entrance of the Bay of Gibraltar I put down the dredge in 
130 fathoms of water, but had the greatest difficulty in recovering it from a 
rocky bottom, and obtained nothing. 

I spent a full fortnight in Gibraltar (on my way out and home), and 
dredged more or less nearly every day : bottom sand and mud. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 275 

Species of Mollusca obtained at Gibraltar end of April and beginning of 

May 1849. 





Depth. 


Living at 


Fre- 
quency. 




Gastrochsena cuneiformis . 
Saxicava arctica 


shore 

45 fath. 
45 fath. 

45 "fath. 

shore 

4 to 8 f. 

shore 
sh. & 6 f. 

shore 

shore 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 

shore 

shore 

15to45f. 

shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 

shore 
shore 
shore 

shore 
8 fath. 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
8 fath. 
sh. 40 f. 

20 to 45 f. 

sh.8fath. 
shore 

sh. to 6 f. 
sh.to20f. 


4 to 8 f. 
8 to 40 f. 
40 fath. 

8 to 20 f. 

10 to 25 f. 
Sfath. 
40fath. 

6 fatii. 

8 ifath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
40 fath. 
45 fath. 

Sfath. 
8 ifath. 

8 fath. 
6 to 25 f. 
30 fath. 

8 fath. 

40 fath. 

6 fath. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 
6 to 40 f. 

8 fath. 

45 fath. 


local 

1 spm. 

freq. 

local 

freq. 

rare. 

rare. 

rare. 
1 valve. 

rare. 

freq. 

V. r. 

rare 
local. 

rare. 

rare 

freq. 

rare, 
local. 

freq. 
local, 
local. 

rare 

rare 

rare 

freq. 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
rare, 
freq. 
freq. 
a frag, 
rare 
valves, 
valves. 
1 valve, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
rare 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
rare 
freq. 
rare 

local 


in stone, 
not common. 

fragments on Med. shore. 

valves, 
valves. 

only one living specimen. 

Med. shore. 

one specimen. 

one specimen. 

frequent valves. 

one specimen (large), size of the 
British specimens ; it appears to 
become smaller, but more abun- 
dant further eastward. 

small, triangular, elongated. 

valves not unfrequent, only one or 
two living, white, concentrically 
wrinkled. 

finely coloured. 

two small specimens allied to V. 

casina, smaller, more orbicular, 

convex, white, 
young and old, identical with British. 


, var. .' 




Panopaea Aldobrandi 






Pandora obtusa 


Thracia convexa 


pubescens 


Solen siliqua 




Solecurtus antiquus 

strigillatus 




Solemya mediterranea ... 
Psammobia vespertina . . . 


ferroensis 


Tellina tenuis 


pulchella 


distorta 










depressa 


Diodonta fragilis 


Scrobicularia Cotardi 

Donax trunculus 


venustus 


poUtus 


Mesodesma donacella 

Mactra subtruncata 

helvacea ? 


Corbula , new ? 

Lutraria eUiptica 






Tapes decussata 




^— Beudantii 






virginea 


Cytherea venetiana 


, var. ? or new ? . 

chione 

Venus galUna 


striatula 






casina 






Astarte Danmoniensis 



T 2 



276 



REPORT — 1850. 



Depth. 



Living at 



Fre- 
quency. 



Astarte incrassata 
, var. .'.. 



triangularis 

Artemis exoleta 

lincta 

Cardium erinaceum 

, var. (wliite) ... 

tuberculatum 

■ , var., white ... 

aculeatum : 

l.Tvigatum 

papillosum 

punctulatum ? 

minimum 

papillosum, var 

Cardita sulcata 

squamosa (aculeata, 

Ph.) 

calyculata 

Lucina lactea 

spinifera 

digitalis 

Diplodonta rotuudata 

Lepton squamosum 

Bornia corbuloides 

complanata 

Mytilus galloprovincialis.. 

Modiola harbata 

tulipa 

vestita 

Crenella marmorata 

costiilata 

rhombea 

Nucula nucleus 

nitida 

polii 

radiata 

Leda emarginata 

striata 

Area? 

lactea 

antiquata 

raridentata 

tetragona 

Pectunciilus glycimeris ... 

pilosus 

Avicula tarentina .. 

Pinna squamosa 

Lima fragilis 

tenera 

subauriculata .. 

scabrella .' 

Pecten maxim us 

opercularis 

varius 

distortus 

polymorphus . . 

gibbus 

obsoletus .' 



shore 
8 fath. 



30 to 40 f. 
30 to 40 f. 

30 fath. 

7 to 8 f . 
shore 
6 fath. 



shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 



8 to 12 f. 

20 to 40 f. 
30 fath 
30 fath 

20 to 40 f 

sh.to lOf. 

15 to 45 f. 



shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 



8 fath. 
15 to 25 f. 
4 to 30 f. 
4 to 8 f. 



12 to 45 f. 



10 to 25 f. 

20 to 40 f. 

10 fath 



shore 
40 fath. 



shore 
shore 

15 fath. 

10 fath. 



6 to 20 f. 

12 to 40 f. 

30 to 45 {. 

30 to 45 f. 

4 to 12 f. 

30 to 40 f 
20 fath. 

20 to 12 f. 

30 to 45 f. 
45 fath, 
30 fath, 
30 fath, 
8 fath. 



35 fath. 



shore 
sh.to 40 f. 



15 to 45 f. 



4 to 25 f. 
20 to 40 f. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 

6 fath. 
25 fath. 
30 fath. 



local 

local 

rare 
local 
local 
local, 
local 
local 
freq. 
rare 
rare 
local, 
local. 
V. r. 
V. r. 
rare. 
V. a. 

freq. 
valve, 
local, 
rare, 
freq. 
freq. 
valve, 
freq. 
rare 
freq. 
local, 
rare, 
local. 



rare 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
rare 
local, 
local 
V. r. 
V. r. 
rare 
local 

1 
local 
locar 
local 
rare 
local 
freq. 
local 
freq. 
local. 



very distinct from preceding,grooved 

only towards the umbo, 
sulca; more numerous, closer, and 

extending to the margin, smaller, 
smaller than preceding, radiated. 
large and fine. 
(Med.). 

large. 

from fisherman. 

(Med.). 

(Med.). 

(Med.). 



two or three valves. 



valves, 
valves. 



small, living ; resembles A.fuaca. 

numerous valves, few living. 

three specimens. 

one specimen, small. 

small, one very large valve on shore. 

mud. 

fragments at various depths. 

valves. 

valves. 

one living, small, several fragments. 

valves. 

small. 



common on shore. 

one, living, numerous valves. 

one, living. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



277 





Depth. 


Living at 


Fre- 
quency. 




Pecten Fuci .' 


20 to 40 f. 
8 fath. 

45 fath. 
45 fath. 

various 
8 to 15 f. 

12fath. 

8 "fath. 

10to40f. 
20 to 40 f. 

20 fath. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 
to 30 f. 
to 30 f. 

15 fath. 

shore 
to 30 f. 
15 to 30 f. 
15 to 30 f. 
15 to 30 f. 
15 to 30 f. 
to 40 f. 
0tol2f. 

12 fath. 

shore 

sh.toibf. 

shore 
sh.tolOf. 

8 fath. 


30 fath. 

various 
8 fath. 

sh. to 8 f. 
8 fath. 

sh. to 8 f. 
littoral 
littoral 
littoral 

8 fath. 
shore 

littoral 

8 fath. 

litt. to 8 f. 

8 fath. 

to 30 f. 

12 fath. 

15 fath. 
15 fath. 

15 fath. 
15 fath. 
8 to 30 f. 
8 to 30 f. 

ibfath. 

sbifath. 

12 fath. 
8 to 10 f. 

8 to 20 f. 

8 fath. 

30 to 40 f. 

shore 

s'fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 

8 fath. 
8 fath. 


rare 
local 
local, 
freq. 
rare. 

freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
rare. 
V. a. 
rare, 
rare, 
local 
local. 

1 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
rare, 
rare. 
1 spm. 
local, 
local 
local, 
rare. 

1 
local, 
rare, 
rare. 
1 small, 
rare, 
freq. 
freq. 

V. r. 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

rare. 

local. 

rare. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

local, 
local, 
local. 


destitute of spines. 
valves. 

varieties, aspera, electriua, &c. 

one, pellucid, radiated with pink, 
fragment. 

angulated. 

some large. 

whorls flat, deeply groored between. 






Anomia ephippiura 


patelliformis 


H valaea tricornis 










Patella athletica ? 




Siphonaria concinna 

Acmeea virginea 


Haliotis tuberculata, var. ? 

Emarginula elongata 

Fissurella rosea 






costaria ? 


Capulus UDgaricus 


Calj-ptraea sinensis 


Bulla hgnaria 






— ^ umbilicata 


acuminata 


Rissoa cimex 




Montagui ...'. 


— — 2 others 


Eulima polita 


Ditida 




Eulimella acicula 


(Scilte?) 

Odostomia conoidea 

spiralis 


Chemnitzia varricosa 

elegantissima 


varicosa 




fulvocincta 


or cerithium ? . 




bicallosa. 


Alderi 






Sigaretus perspicuus 

Scalaria communis 




Turtoni ? 






canceUatus.' 


semisurrectus (Ser- 


triqueter (Serpula)... 





278 



REPORT — 1850. 



Depth. 


Living at 


Fre- 
quency. 






8 fath. 
40 fath. 

40 fath. 

40 fath. 

12to'4bf. 

12 fath. 

to 30 f. 

10 to 30 f. 
20 fath. 
20 fath. 

15 "fath. 

ibfath. 
8 fath. 

40 fath. 

8 to 15 f. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 


40 fath. 

8 fath. 
littoral. 
15 fath. 
8 to 15 f. 
8 to 15 f. 

6 to 10 f. 
littoral 
littoral 
littoral 
littoral 
10 fath. 
littoral 
6 to 8 f. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
littoral 
littoral 

to 30 f. 

8 to 40 f. 

8 to 15 f. 
15 fath. 

15 to 30 f. 

15to30f. 
littoral 

lit.tol2f. 

8 "fath. 
8 to 15 f. 
8 to 40 f. 
8 to 12 f. 

4 to 30 f. 
8 fath, 

8 fath. 
10 to 30 f. 

8 to 15 f. 
8 fatb. 
4 to 8 f. 
to 8 f. 

4to8f. 
4 to 8 f. 

6 to 25 f. 

lb fath. 

5 to 30 f. 
5 to 10 f. 
OtolOf. 

8 fath. 


local, 
rare 

freq. 
abun. 
local, 
freq. 
local 
rare, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
abun. 
abun. 
abun. 
freq. 

rare 

abun. 

local. 

local. 

rare 

rare 

rare. 

rare 

local. 

local. 

freq. 

local. 

local 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
local. 

local 
rare 
one 
freq. 
local 
one 
local 
V. r. 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
local. 


more compressed than specimens 

from Vigo, one living, 
one, resembling in form S. perspec- 

iivum. 
one, small, flat, strongly reticulated, 
with varieties. 

smaller than in Britain, 
smaller than in Britain. 

large only in shallow water, 
produced, narrow, in deep water, 

nearly all distorted, 
two, living, qy. (new .'). 
four, Uving, smooth like terebra. 
one, living (minute). 

white, 
white. 

white. 

one, known hitherto as a fossil only. 

one, short. 

some resemblance to T. corallinus, 
but conical, more produced, varies 
in colour from white to dark 
brown, latter genera true. 

[hermit crab). 

one, fine, but dead (occupied by a 

one, imperfect. 

, probably some others not iden- 
' tified. 

banded yellow and black, one living, 

one dead. 


Solarium stramineum ? ... 
















divaricatus 






Vieillotti 












Littorina littoraUs 




Turritella tricostalis 








3 . 


Cerithium vulgatum 






. .. ' 


Cancellaria cancellata 


Fusus pulchellus 


rostratus .' 




— — corneus (Lin.) 

Murex multilamellatus . . . 
Fusus .' 


5 


Pleurotoma brachystomum 
ginnannianum 




Boothii 






gracile (Mont.) 


elegans 

— — vauquelinii ? 






Murex brandaris 






■ ■ cristatus 





ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



279 



Depth. 



Living at 



Fre- 
quency. 



Ilanella gigantea 

Triton variegatum 

nodiferum 

— — cutaceum 

corrugatum 

Chenopus pes-pelecani 

Cassis sulcosa 

Nassa mutabilis 

neritoides 

incrassata 

reticulata 

varicosa 

Buccinum minus 

minimum 

variabilis 

corniculum 

granum 

scriptum 

Columbella rustica 



Ringuicula auriculata ,.. 

Mitra ebenus 

columbellaria 

Cymba oUa 

Erato tevis 

Marginella clandestina 

miliacea 

Ovula spelta ■ 

Cyprsea pyrum 

europaea 

Conus mediterraneus .. 

Spirula Peronii 

Dentalium tarentinura 

quadrangulare . . 

Ditrupa subulata 

, new? 

Anatifa Isevis 

striata 

fascicularis 

Balani. 



shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 



8 fath. 
8 to 15 f. 



OtolO 



8 fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
4 to 12 f. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 



4 to 10 f. 
littoral 
10 fath. 
8 fath. 
littoral 



8 fath. 
10 to 25 f. 



8 fath. 
8 to 30 f. 



shore 
8 to 20 f. 



shore 



15 to 40 f. 

8 fath. 

8 to 10 f. 



shore 



8 fath. 
littoral 



8 to 40 f. 
8 to 20 f. 



30 to 45 f. 



Echinus esculentus, abun- 
dant. 

Lluydia fragilissima 
Asterias, &c. 



15 to 40 f. 
shore 



local 

local 

local 

local 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

rare. 

freq. 

freq. 

two. 

local. 

freq. 

local. 

local 

rare. 

freq. 

freq. 

rare 

rare. 

local. 

freq. 

freq. 

rare 

freq. 

rare. 

local 

local. 

rare. 

rare. 



of Mediterranean. 

of Mediterranean and bay. 

of Mediterranean. 

bay. 



small variety. 



Mediterranean. 



on Gorgonia. 



some of the smaller specimens finely 
striated longitudinally with a 
waved appearance. 

small, transparent, not much arcu- 
ated, narrow end grooved fore and 
aft. 



Few species of land-shells on the rock ; the prevailing are — 

Helix pisana. Helix lactea, var. Hispanica. 
virgata. Bulimus acutus. 



280 



REPORT — 1850. 



List of Shells procured at Malaga from 6th to 11th of May 1849, with the 
addition of some species obtained in same locality on a former occasion. 



Living at 



Fre- 
queacy. 



Dentalium fissura, or ru- shore 
bescens. 

■ tarentinuni 

Pholas dactyliis shore 

Candida shore 

parva shore 

Corbula nucleus 

Pandora rostrata 

Thracia phaseolina 

Solan ensis I 



vagina 

Solecurtus legumen . 

antiquus 

Psamraobia ferroensis. 

Diodonta fragilis 

Scrobicularia piperata. 

Tellina costfe 

— — (new) 

pulchella 

- tenuis 

depressa 

distorta 



■ punicea 

planata 

Syndosmya alba 

Donax trunculus 

venustus 

Mesodesiua donacilla ... 

Lutraria elliptica 

oblonga 

rugosa 

Mactra subtruucata .... 

Tapes Beudantii 

— geographica 

Cytherea venetiana 

chione 

Venus gallina 

striatula 

fasciata 

ovata , 

, new.' 

Circe minima 

Artemis lincta , 

Cardiuni aculeatum 

tuberculatum 

edule 

fasciatum 

Cardita calyculata 

Lucina lactea 

Pectuuculus violascens 

Nuculapolii ^ 

nucleus 

Leda emarginata 

Avicula tarentina 

Chama gryphoides , 

Mytilus afer 

Crenella costulata 

Pecten yarius 

Ostrea edulis 



shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 

shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
4 fath. 
shore 



shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 



shore 



shore 
shore 



4 fath. 
8 to 30 f. 



4 to 30 f. 

4 to 8 f. 



4 to 8 f. 



4 fath. 
4 fath. 



4 fath. 
shore 
shore 
shore 



4 fath. 



4 to 12 f. 

4 fath. 

4 fath. 

35 fath. 
4 to 12 f. 
4 to 12 f. 

35 fath. 
4 to 12 f. 

4 fath. 

4 to 8 f. 

4 to 8 f. 

4 to 8 f. 
littoral 
littoral 
4 to 8 f. 
35 fath. 
4 to 30 f. 
4 to 8 f. 
35 fath. 



littoral 
4 fath. 
4 to 8 f. 
4 to 8 f. 



local 

locaL 
rare 
rare 
rare 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
abun. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local. 
1 valve 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
abuu. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 



abun. 
abun. 
abun. 
local 
freq. 
local, 
rare 
rare, 
abun. 
rare, 
freq. 
freq. 



all the specimens have (upon close 
examination)a very narrovr fissure. 

valves, 
valves, 
valves. 



in the harbour. 



some resemblance to T. costce, but 
larger and with more colour. 



1 sold for the table and much 
J esteemed ; obtained by men wa- 
ding with nets, as shrimps in 
England. 



procured extensively for food. 



large, closely laminated. 



rocks, 
harbour. 

large and fine. 



two fine groups. 

rocks, the common species. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



281 



Anomia ephippium and var. 

electrina 

Hyalaea tricornis 

Chiton fascicularis 

Patella, species uncertain 

Siphonaria concinaa 

Emarginula elongata 

Fissurella rosea 

Calyptraea sinensis 

Sigaretus haliotideus 

Bullaea aperta 

Truncatella Montagui 

Rissoa monodonta 

labiosa 

, new sp. ? 

Odostomia conoidea , 

Chetnnitzia elegantissinia 

Neritina viridis , 

Natica sordida 



Guilleminii 

intricata , 

Tornatella fasciata 

lanthina nitens 

Scalaria communis 

pseudoscalaris .. 

Vermetus gigas 

, gy. corneus? 

Solarium stramineum .. 



Trochus ziziphinus . 

striatus 

magus 

Laugieri 

conulus, var. . 

granulatiis .... 

tessellatus .... 

Richardii 

divaricatus .... 

articulatus . . . . 

Vieillotti 

fragaroides . . . , 



Phasianella pulla 

Littori naneritoides 

petraea 

tigrina (D'Orbigny) 

Turritella tricostalis 

terebra 

Cerithium vulgatum 

reticulatum 

perversum 

Cancellaria cancellata 

Pleurotoma bracliystomum 

ginnannianum .. 

attenuatum 

Jsevigatum 

Triton variegatum 

Cassis sulcosa 

Murex trunculus 

brandaris 

erinaceus 



shore 
shore 



to 8 £. 



shore 
shore 
shore 



30 fath. 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 



shore 



shore 
shore 
shore 



30 fath, 



shore 



Iiiving at 



4 to 8 f. 



littoral 
littoral 
littoral 



littoral 
to 8 f. 



4 fath. 



4 fath. 
4 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 
4 fath. 



4 to 8 f. 



35 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 to 8 f. 
4 fath. 



littoral 
littoral 
littoral 
littoral 
littoral 
littoral 
4 fath. 



littoral 
littoral 



12 to 35 f. 



4 fath. 



4 fath. 
2 to 4 f. 
2 to 4 f. 
4 fath. 



4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 to 8 f. 



Fre- 
quency. 



freq. 

rare. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

local. 

local. 

abun. 

one. 

freq. 

rare. 

abun. 

freq. 

rare 

local. 

local. 

local 

one. 

freq. 

freq. 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

rare 

local. 

freq. 
freq. 
local 
rare, 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
rare, 
abun. 
local. 

freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
rare, 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
local, 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 



on Zostera. 
on Zostera. 

resembling R. abyssicola, but di- 
stinct. 

on Zostera. 



on Avicula, minute, flat, bicarinated. 
extremely abundant on Zostera. 

small. 



a fragment. 



282 



REPORT — 1850. 



Nassa mutabilis 

neritoides 

macula 

reticulata 

I varicosa 

PoUia maculosa 

Buccinum minus 

variabilis 

corniculum 

granum 

modestum? 

Columbella rustica .... 
Ringuicula auriculata . 

Mitra ebeneus 

Cymba olla 

Cyprsea pyrum 

europaea 

Conus mediterraneus 

Spirula Peronii 

Anatifa fascicularis . . . 

striatus 

Balani. 



Large Asterias, abundant 
Comatula, abundant. 
ZoanthusCouchii uponAvi- 
cula. 



shore 



shore 
shore 
shore 



2 to 8 f. 



shore 
shore 
shore 



shore 
shore 
shore 



Living at 



4 to 8 f. 



4 to 8 f. 
4 to 8 f. 
4 to 8 f. 
littoral 
4 fath. 



4 fath. 
4 to 8 f. 
littoral 



littoral 



littoral 



Fre- 
quency. 



freq. 

local. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

v. a. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

local 

abun. 

freq. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

freq. 

freq. 

freq. 

local. 



rocks. 

on Zostera. 



two varieties. 



numerous valves. 



Sea-bottom mud, to a distance of 5 or 6 miles from land. 

A small shrimp-formed crustacean, claws short and broad, emits a sharp 
snapping noise when taken in the fingers and even after it is in spirits. 
The species not uncommon in most of the ports I visited in the Mediter- 
ranean. 

On the 1^2th of May, between Malaga and Carthagena, attempted twice 
to dredge, but obtained no bottom with 350 fathoms line. 



Carthagena, 1 4th to 16th of Maj'. 





Ground. 


Dead at 


Living at 


Fre- 
quency. 




Saxicava arctica 

Petricola lithophaga 

Venerupis Irus, var 


mud 

s. & m. 
s. & m 
s. & m 
s. & m 

sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 

mud 


shore 
shore 
30 fath. 

SOfath. 
shore 

6 fath. 

7 fath. 
7 fath. 
7 fath. 
shore 

shore 
shore 


35 fath. 

30 fath. 
30 fath. 

40 fath. 


rare, 
freq. 
freq. 
rare 
rare 
rare, 
rare 


valves, 
one living. 

valves. 










local. 1 




rare 

local. 

local. 

local. 

local, 
rare 
freq. 

local. 


valves. 

small, pellucid. 










Syndosmya 







ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



283 



Dead at 



lAviiig at 



Fre- 
quency 



Tapes florida 

Cytherea venetiana 

— chione 

Venus gallina 

ovata 

fasciata 

Circe minima 

Lttcinopsis undata .... 
Cardium laevigatum ... 

exiguum 

papillosum 

echinatum 

Cardita trapezia 

sulcata 

Lucinalactea 

spinifera 

pecten 

divaricata 

Diplodonta rotundata. 



Kellia corbuloides .... 

Modiola tulipa 

petagnae 

Mytilus minimus 

Nucula nucleus 

nitida 

polii 

Leda emarginata 

striata 

Area 

Pecten gibbus 

hyalinus 

striatus .' 

polymorphus .... 

pes-febs? 

Spondylus gaederopus. 
Anomia epMppium .... 
Chiton marmoreus .... 



siculus 

Patella 

Fissurella rosea 

gibba 

Calyptraea sinensis 

Crepidula unguiformis 

Bulla striata 

Cranchii 

truncata ....'. 

acuminata 

umbilicata 

, new spec. ? 

striatula ? Forbes 

Auricula bidentata .' . . . 
Rissoa monodonta? 



• parva 
■ acuta 



purpurea 

Bruguieri 

granulata .... 

—'— calathiscus .... 
— Montagui .... 

new ? 

and some othens. 



s. & m. 
sand 

s. & m. 
s. & m. 
s. & m. 

sand 
s. & m 

weed 
s. & m, 

weed 



mud 

weed 
weed 
weed 

weed 



s. & m 

sand 

raud 

mud 

s. & m 

s. & m 

s. & m 

weed 

sand 

sand 

1. & m 

s. & m 

& m. 

s. & m 

s. & m, 

s. & m 



s. & m. 
& m 
&m, 

s. & m. 



s. & m 



shore 
shore 



30 fath. 
7 fath. 



7 fath. 



30 fath. 
30 fath. 
30 fath. 



shore 
shore 
shore 
5 fath. 
shore 



30 fath. 
5 fath. 
30 fath. 
5 fath. 



7 fath. 
30 to 40 f. 
5 to 40 f. 
5 to 8 f. 
7 fath. 



shore 
shore 



40 fath, 
40 fath. 



10 to 40 f. 

10 fath. 
30 to 40 f. 

7 fath. 
30 to 40 f. 



5 fath. 
8 fath. 



6 to 8 f. 

40 fath. 
etolOf. 
6 to 10 f. 



shore 
shore 
shore 



5 to 10 f, 
5 to 10 f. 
5 to 10 f. 
5 to 10 f. 



5 to 10 f. 



shore 
30 fath. 



30 to 40 f. 
30 to 40 f. 



30 fath 

30 to 40 f. 

30 to 40 f. 

30 to 40 f. 
shore 
shore 
shore 

sh. & 5 f. 
shore 
10 fath. 
shore 
shore 
shore 
30 fath. 



30 to 40 f. 



5 fath. 
5 fath. 



local 
rare, 
local 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
rare 
rare 
local, 
local. 

one. 
freq. 

one 

freq. 

local. 

local. 

local 

local. 

local 

local. 

local. 

local. 

freq. 

freq. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

valve 

local 

one. 

one. 
local 

local 
freq. 
rare, 
one 
one 
local 
local, 
local, 
abun. 
one. 
one. 
rare, 
local, 
one. 
rare, 
local 
local, 
oue. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
local. 
V. r. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
one. 



(small), 
small. 



one specimen, 
young. 



large. 

small. 

very convex, yellow or buff. 



[a fusca. 
same as at Gibraltar, resembling 
valves. 



valves. 

fragment. 

valves. 



same as at Gibraltar, elongated, 

small. 

smaU. 



subcylindrical, thin, pellucid, 
broad, extremity contracted, 
giving the appearance of Cu- 
vieria. 



284 



REPORT — 1850. 



Odostomia 's. & 



Eulima polita 

— — distorta 

subulata 

Natica inacilenta.... 

intricata 

Alderi 

Scalaria crenata .... 

pseudoscalaris 

Neritina viridis .... 
Vermetus semisurrectus 

(Serpula) 

Vermetus gigas ., 

cancellatus ? 

Trochus striatus .. 



m. 
s. & m 
s. & in. 

S. & 111. 

s. & ni. 

& ni. 

s. & m. 



Phasianella puUa 

intermedia ? 

Littorina petraea 

Turritella tricostalis .. 

terebra 

Cerithium reticulatum 



pei-versum .... 

Fusus muricatus ..,. 

coralliDus .... 

corneus, Lin. . 

Pleurotoma gracile . 

laevigatum .... 

purpureum .... 

ginnannianum 

brachystomura, and 

about 3 others 

Nassa neritoides 

Buccinum minimum ., 
Ringuicula auriculata . 

Erato laevis 

Marginella clandestina 

miliacea 

Dentalium tareutinum 
— - fissura or rubescens . 

Ditrupa 

Brissus lyrifer 

Starfish 

A fragment of Pavonaria.. 



weed 

sand 
sand 
sand 
sand 

weed 
weed 

s. & m. 

s. & m 
weed 
weed 

s. & m 



Dead at Living at 



shore 
shore 
shore 



30 to 40 f. 
!30to40f. 

30 fath. 
I 30 fath. 
130 to 40 f. 

40 fath. 
!30to40f. 



shore 



4 fath. 



sand 

sand 130 to 40 f. 

sand 8 fath 

sand I 8 fath 

mud 



5 fath. 

30 fath. 
30 fath. 
30 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 
4 fath. 



Fre- 

quency. 



30 fath. 
30 fath. 
4 fath. 



30 fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 



mud 
sand 
sand 
mud 
sand 

s.&m.! 
sand j 
sand 
mud 

s. & m. 
mud 
sand 



10 to 40 f. 

30 to 40 f. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 

40 fath. 

8 fath. 
30 to 40 f. 

8 fath. 

8 fath. 

5 fath. 
30 to 40 f. 

40 fath. 

10 fath. 

40 fath. 



rare, 
rare. 
V. r. 
rare, 
rare, 
rare 
rare, 
one. 
rare, 
abun. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

freq. 

rare. 

local. 

local. 

freq. 

local. 

local. 

freq. 

local. 

rare 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

rare. 

local. 

local. 

local, 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
local 



small. 



two specimens. 



(fissured), 
species obtained at Gibraltar 
one. 

mud. 



Bay of Algiers, 18th to 21st of May ; bottom sand and mud. 





Dead at 


Living at 


Fre- 
quency. 




Dentalium tarentinum ... 




10 to 35 f. 


local, 
local, 
local, 
local 


striated, waved appearance, qy. var. 




fitnlftf 




35 fath. 
35 fath. 

35 "fath. 


35fath. 
surface 
surface 
8 fath. 










abun. 
abun. 
freq. 
raie. 


on floating reeds, &c. 
on blades of Zostera and other float- 
ing substances. 


fascicularis 




Thracia phaseolina 





ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATA. 



285 



Dead at 



Living at 



Fre- 
quency, 



Solecurtus antiquus .... 
Psammobia ferroensis.. 

costulata 

Tellina pulchella 

donacina 

distorta 

balaustiua 

punicea 

depressa 

Syndosmya, sp 

Donax trunculus 

venustus 

politus 

Mactra stultorum 

subtruncata 

Tapes virginea 

nitens? 

Budantii 

florida 

Cytherea chione 

venetiana 

, var. ? or new ? 

Venus gallina 

striatula 

verrucosa 

fasciata 

ovata 

Artemis exoleta 

lincta 

Astarte incrassata 

Cardium tuberculatum 

ciliare 

echinatum 

exiguum 

papillosum 

Isevigatum (sulca- 
tum?) 

Lucina digitalis 

pecten 

radula.' 

lactea 

divaricata 

bipartita 

Cardita trapezia 

calyculata 

squamosa (aculeata, 

Phil.) 

Chama gryphoides 

Mylilus galloprovincialis ... 

Modiola barbata 

vestita 

Nucula nucleus 

—^ nitida 

radiata 

polii 

Leda emarginata 

striata 

Area noe 

barbata 

lactea 

tetragona 

obliqua 



35 fath. 
lOfath. 



10 fath. 



shore 
shore 



8 fath. 
10 fath. 
10 fath. 
10 fath. 



20 to 30 f. 



shore 
shore 



10 fath. 
6 fath. 
6 fath. 
6 to 8 f. 



35 fath. 
shore 



8 fath. 



6 to 8 f. 
6 to 8 f. 



35 fath. 
8 to 6 f. 
shore 



6 to 8 f. 



8 fath. 
shore 
6 fath. 
10 fath. 



35 fath. 
35 fath. 
shore 
30 fath. 
6 fath. 
6 to 35 f. 
6 to 35 f. 
6 to 8 f. 
6 to 8 f. 



25 fath. 



6 to 10 f. 
35 fath. 



35 fath. 
35 fath. 



6 to 8 f. 
6 to 8 f. 



35 fath. 



shore 
6 to 8 f. 
35 fath. 
6 to 8 f. 
6 to 8 f. 
6 to 8 f. 
35 fath. 
6 to 10 f. 
35 fath. 



shore 
6 to 10 f. 



6 to 10 f. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 



rare 
local 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
rare, 
local, 
local, 
rare 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
local, 
one. 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
rare 
freq. 
freq. 

freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
rare 
local, 
local 
local 
local, 
local. 

I'are. 
rare, 
local, 
rare 
local, 
local 
rare 
local 
freq. 

local, 
rare, 
freq. 



freq. 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
local 
local, 
local. 



valves, 
small. 



very narrow and pointed. 



white, striated. 

mud. 

sold in market. 



valves. 



mud. 
valves. 



valve. 

one large. 

valves. 

valves. 



very large and fine. 



valves, 
valves. 



one or two valves. 



286 



REPORT 1850. 



Pectunculus glycimeris 

violascens 

Pinna 

Lima squamosa 

scabrella 

tenera 

fragilis 

subauriculata 

Pecten maxim us 

- polymorphus 

similis 

pes-felis 

varius 

gibbus 

distortus 

opercularis 

byalinus 

sulcatus 

Spondylus gaederopus.. 

Ostrea edulis 

Anomia ephippium 

Chiton 



Dead at Living at 



35 fath. 



shore 
6 to 8 f. 

shore 

shore 
6 to 10 f. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 



35 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 



6 to 8 f. 



6to8f. 



Fre- 
quency, 



35 fath. 
6 to 8 f. 
6 to 8 f . 



Patella 

Umbrella mediterranea 
Emarginula elongata . . 

Fissurella gibba 

rosea? 

Haliotis tuberculatus . . 

Capulus Ungaricus 

Calyptrsea sinensis 

Crepidula unguiformis 

BuUeea aperta 

punctata 

, new 

Bulla striata 

Cranchii 

truncata 

— acuminata 

Rissoa acuta 

— cimex 

— Montagui 

— labiosa 

— Macandreae, Hanley, 



35 fath. 
35 fath. 
shore 
8 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 
6 fath. 
6 fath. 
35 fath. 
6 to 10 f. 



6 to 10 f. 



35 fath 
6 to 10 f. 
6 to 10 f. 
6 to 10 f. 
6 to 10 f. 

35 fath. 

Odostomia conoidea ? I 10 fath. 

Chemnitzia elegantissima .35 & 10 f. 
scalaris | 35 fath. 

35 fath. 

35 fath. 



6 fath. 



shore 
6 fath. 
35 fath. 
6 fath. 
6 fath. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 



indistincta ? 

Eulimella acicula 

Natica millepunctata vai-. 
maculosa 



Alderi 

Neritina viridis .... 
Tornatella fasciata . 
Scalaria communis . 

lameUosa? .... 

Trochus crenulatus . 

ziziphinus 

dubius 

tessellatus . . . . 



8 fath. 



8 fath. 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 
35 fath. 
8 to 10 f. 
35 fath. 
35 fath. 



8 fath. 



35 fath. 
littoral 



small. 

fragments. 

valves. 

valves. 

valves. 

valves. 

valves. 

valves, 
valves, 
valves, 
valves, 
valves, 
valves. 



V. a. 

local 

local 

local 

local 

rare 

local. 

local 

local 

V. r. 

freq. 

freq. 

local 

local. 

rare. 

rare. 

local 

local. 

rare 

rare. 

freq. 

V. r. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

rare. 

abun. 

freq. 

rare. 

one 

rare. 

rare. 

local. 

V. r. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

local. 

V. r. 

rare 

local. 

rare. 

rare. 

rare. 

freq. 

rare. 

local. 

local. 

rare. 

rare. 

rare. 

local. 

local. 

rare. | 

freq. large. 



valves. 

in the market. 

valves, white, 
a fragment. 



in a dead Cassis. 



animal resembling B. aperta ; sheU 
and gizzard small and totally dif- 
ferent. 



a fragment, 
large. 



in the market. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPE.\N MARINK INVERTEBRATA. 



287 





Dead at 


T • • » Fre- 
Livingat q^^g^^y 






8 to lb f. 
8 to 10 f. 

35 fath, 

8 to'] Of. 
35 fath. 

shore 
shore 

8toibf. 

8 fath. 
35 fath. 

8 "fath, 
8 fath. 
8 fath. 


littoral 


local. 


• 
jroung. 

small, 
mud. 

a fragment.banded, black and yellow. 

market, 
market. 

market. 

market. 

large, reticulated, serrated opercu- 
lum. 

fi-agmeut. 


Vieillotti 


stoibf. 

8 to 10 f. 

Uttoral 
35 fath. 
20 fath. 
6 fath. 
35 fath. 
8 to 10 f. 

8 to 25 f. 

lb fath. 
8 fath. 
10 fath. 
10 fath. 
6 fath. 

8to"ibf. 
littoral 
littoral 

8 to 10 f. 

35fath. 

shore 

6 fath. 

6 fath. 

6 fath. 
6 to 10 f, 

35 fath. 
6 to 10 f. 
6 to 10 f 
6 to 10 f 

35 fath. 

8 fath. 

35 ifath, 
shore 


local, 
local, 
local, 
local, 
local 
freq. 
local 
local 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
local, 
freq. 

rare, 
local, 
local, 
rare, 
rare, 
local 
local 
local, 
local 
freq. 
local, 
local, 
rare, 
freq. 
freq. 
freq. 
freq_. 
freq. 
one 
local, 
freq. 
local, 
freq. 
freq. 
rare, 
local, 
local. 

local, 
local, 
dead. 


Phasianella puUa 




Turbo rugosus 


Littorina petraea 


TurriteUa tricostalis 


Cerithium vulgatum 

— — , var 




reticulatum 


Cancellaria cancellata 

Pleurotoma balteata 








Murex cristatus 


Triton variegatum 




Chenopus pes-pelecani ... 

Purpura hsemastoma 

Columbella rustica 






columbellaria 














Buccinum mutabile 




Marginalia clandestina ... 




carnea 

Ringuicula auriculata 






Conus mediterraneus 



Of the foregoing, those from 10 fathoms and under were obtained in the 
harbour, sand and mud ; from 35 fathoms off Cape Matafus, east point of 
the bay, sand ; and from between 10 and 35 fathoms in the bay, mud. 

Spondylus gcederoptis, Lithodomus lithophagus, Area noe, &c., sold alive 
in the market, but brought from Mahon. 

I was disappointed in not being able to dredge on the ground of the great 
coral fishery between Algiers and Tunis, but the wind was too strong when 
I passed over it. 

Goletta, near Tunis, 23rd to 27th of May. 



Dentalium fissura or rubescens, white. 
Solemya mediterranea. 



Tellina costse. 

Lutraria rugosa — a valve. 



288 



REPORT — 1850. 



Mactra stuUorum. 
Tapes florida ? 
Donax trunculus. 
Scrobicularia tenuis 
lake. 



Cardium edule, var. — shore of the 
lake, small, wide, thin. 

? — shore of the bay, 



Corbula rosea? 

numerous. 
Cytherea venetiana — small. 
Area noe — valves. 
Area antiquata ? — valves large. 
Bulla striata. 
Natica olia. 

millepunctata — banded var, 

Nassa neritea. 



-shore of the strong, triangular, fewer ribs (22), 
and other common littoral species. 

In Tunis Bay 25 fathoms, mud. 
small, thin, pellucid, Cerithium fuscatum (living). 
Trochus articulatus (living). 

tessellatus (living). 

Helix pisanaf. ^ 
Glandina foHicula — largef. 
Bulimus decoUatus — largef. 
Clausilia papyraceaf . 
Helix melanostomaf. 1 , , 
naticoidesf. J 



• alive. 



Erato laevis. 

Dredging Paper No. 3. 
Date, 29th of May, 1849. 

Locality, north-east of the Island of Zembretta, mouth of Gulf of Tunis. 
Depth, 3.5 fathoms. 

Distance, 1|- to 2 miles from the island. 
Ground, sand and gravel with occasional rocks. 



Species obtained. 


No. of living 
specimens. 


No. of dead 
specimens. 


Obsenations. 


Dentalium tarentinum 


3 

several 

1 

"l"' 

several. 

2 

"l" 
2 

1 
2 

1 young 

2 young 
1 young. 

5 

1 

' 4 * 
2 

several 
3 


2 

3 

numerous. 

few 

1 
2 

1 

1 
1 



3 valves, 
valves. 

valves. 

valves. 

valves. 

3 

2 & valves. 
1 valve, 
valves. 


stiiated with waved appearance. 

small. [Gibraltar, 
pellucid, notched aperture, species at 

young, 
young, 
young, pellucid. 

very minute. 

small, 
small. 




Ditrupa subulata, var 






























Tellina donacina 












fabula 










, qy. astarte ? 


6 valves. 

1 young. 
Iminute. 


Artemis exoleta? 








1 



t The most abundant land shells among the ruins of Carthage. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBUATA. 



289 



Species obtained. 



No. of living 
specimens 



No. of dead 
specimens. 



Venus fasciata 

striatula 

ovata 

Cardium papillosum 

fasciatum 

laevigatum 

minimum 



several 
2 young, 
several. 

4 

1 

2 

2 



Cardita trapezia .> 

corbis 

Nucula nucleus . 

radiata 

Leda e margin ata. 

striata 

Area tetragona . 

lactea 



Pectunculus glycimeris 

lineatus .' 

Diplodonta apicalis .' . . . 

Modiola tulipa 

Crenella rhombea 



— marmorata 

Avicula tarentina 

Lima fragilis 

— subauriculata 

Pecten Jacobaeus 

— varius 

— opercularis 

— distortus (pusio) 

— similis 

— obsoletus or striatus ?. . . 

— polymorph us 

gibbus 

Chama gryphoides 

Anomia ephippium 

Terebratula detruncata 

Ghiton lasvis 

Haliotis tuberculatus ? 

Emarginula elongata 

— capuliformis 

Fissurella grseca 

Calyptraea sinensis 

Crepidula unguiformis 

— fornicata 

BuUsea aperta 



numerous 

numerous 

5 



few. 

1 young. 

4 



scabra ? 
Bulla hydatis 
truncata 

Cranchii 

cylindrica 

Rissoa calathiscus 

cimex 

Montagui . 

acuta 

Desmarestii 

Bruguieii . 

labiosa .... 



purpurea 



Odostomia conoidea 



2 
1 
2 
1 
20 

"2" 

1 small 

1 

2 



2 

6 small. 

1 

1 



1 

1 

4 
few. 



several. 



1 

valves, 
numerous, 
numerous, 
numerous. 

valves 



1 valve 
1 valve 



valves. 

several val, 

valves. 

1 valve. 



valves, 
valves, 
valves. 



valves, 
valves. 
1 valve, 
several 
several 



several. 

1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 



several 

2 

4 
few. 
few. 
few. 
few. 

1 

1 
few. 

1 
3 or 4 



young. 

small, white. 

the most abundant species, most dead. 



[wide. 

resembling antiquata, but short and 

reticulated. 

young. 



minute. 

attached to a yellow Gorgonia. 



small. 

valves, 
valves. 

small. 

one large, one small, 
small, on operculum of Murex bran- 
mall. 



290 



REPORT 1850. 



Species obtained. 



Odostomia conoidea 

Chemnitzia elegantissiraa 

pallida 

scalaris 

gracilis ? 

indistincta? 

Eulima nitida 

subulata 

Eulimella acicula ? 

Tornatella pusilla ? 

Natica millepunctata 

macilenta 

Alderi 

Gtiilleminii 

Scalaria clatliratulus 

lamellosa 

Vermetus triqueter 

semisurrectus , 

glomeratus? , 

corneus? , 



No. of living 
specimens. 



several 
several 



Mitra columbellaria 

Trochus Montagui 

crenulatus and exiguus 

sanguineus 



canaliculatus 

graniilatus 

Turbo rugosus 

Turritella terebra 

tricostalis 

Cerithium vulgatum, var. 

per\'ersum 

reticulatum 



Fusus coraUinus 



Pleurotoma maravignae 

rude ? 

lineare 

reticulatum, var. spino- 

sum 

crispatum 

teres 

brachystomum 

septangulare 

pui-pureum 

attenuatum 

and some not identified. 

Buccinum minus 

minimum 

If arginella secalina 

miliacea 

clandestina 

Ringuicula auriculata 

Erato la;vis 

Cypraea pulex 

Some minute shells not ident 

Adna anglica 

Various Zoophytes, Sponges, 



several. 
6 
3 



ified. 



No. of dead 
specimens. 



several. 
1 



2 
1 
2 

several, 
several. 

1 

1 & frag. 

2 

1 

few. 

few. 

few. 

1 

1 

1 

2 

8 

several. 

2 

6 

1 

1 

numerous 



3 

several, 
several 
several. 

2 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 
several. 

3 

1 
several. 



1 
several, 
several. 

1 

several. 
1 



polished like Eulima. 



Observations. 



small, white, 
young. 



coronated. 



very pellacid. 



species obtained larger at Malta. 

small. 

small. 

numerous young. 

small. 



qy. whether var. of preceding .' 

species at Gibraltar. 

small. 



fragments. 



&c. 



ON SOUTH-EUROPEAN MARINE INVERTEBEATA. 



291 



30th of May. Becalmed between Cape Bon and the island of Pantellaria, 
captured fifteen turtles; obtained from them two specimens of Coronula and 
several groups of Anatifa Icevis ; also several specimens of a species of crab. 

A fish (Remora ?) attached to bottom of the vessel near the bow, 18 inches 
under water. In form something like a dog fish, about 12 inches long: at- 
tempted to catcii it from the boat, but it innnediately let go its hold and 
dived, leaving a black mark upon the copper where it had adhered. 

Obtained in the tow-net a specimen of a small Hyalasa, several of Atlanta, 
of Creseis spinigera, and two other species. N.B. I found after sunset to 
be the most favourable time for catching Pteropoda, &c. 

Several Velellae ; a turtle was seen to eat one. 

31st of May. Calm, 6 to 8 miles from Pantellaria, attempted to dredge, 
but got no bottom with 360 fathoms. 

1st of June. Calm, near Pantellaria ; not being able to get bottom from the 
vessel, went ofi" in the boat, about 200 yards from shore ; obtained bottom in 
50 fathoms, shoaling rapidly to 35 fathoms. For species obtained see Dred- 
ging Paper No. 4'. 

Dredging Paper No. 4. 

Date, Istof June, 184.9. 

Locality, south side of the Island of Pantellaria. 

Depth, 35 to 50 fathoms (steep). 

Distance from shore, a furlong. 

Ground, gravel, sand and nuUipore. 

Region, 



Species obtained. 


No. of living 
specimens. 


No. of dead 
specimens. 


Observations. 


Dentalium entails or taren- 


1 " 

"l" 



1 

1 
'5" 


1 
1 

3 

1 valve. 
1 valve. 
1 valve. 

valves. 

valves. 
1 

1 valve, 
valves, 
valves, 
valves, 
valves, 
valves. 

2 &a