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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



TWENTY-FIRST MEETING 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT IPSWICH IN JULY 1851. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1852. 



PRINTED BY 

KICHARD TAYLOR AND WILLIAM FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xi 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xiv 

Table of Council from commencement xvi 

Treasurer's Account xviii 

Officers and Council xx 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxi 

Corresponding Members xxii 

Report of Council to the General Committee xxiii 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxix 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxxii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xxxviii 

Address of the President xxxix 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

On Observations of Luminous Meteors ; continued from the Report of 
1850. By the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford 1 

Eleventh Report of a Committee, consisting of H, E. Strickland, Esq., 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow and Prof. Lindley, appointed to 
continue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality of Seeds 53 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Remarks on the Climate of Southampton, founded on Barometrical, 
Thermometrical and Hygrometrical Tables, deduced from observa- 
tions taken three times daily during the years 1848, 1849 and 1850. 
By John Drew, F.R.A.S., Ph.D. University of Bale 54 

On the Air and Water of Towns. Action of Porous Strata, Water and 
Organic Matter. By Dr. Robert Angus Smith, Manchester 66 

Report of the Committee appointed by the British Association to con- 
sider the probable Effects in an Qiconomical and Physical Point of 
View of the Destruction of Tropical Forests. By Dr. Hugh Cleg- 
horn, Madras Medical Establishment; Professor John Forbes 
RoYLE, King's College, London ; Captain R. Baird Smith, Bengal 
Engineers; Captain R. Strachey, Bengal Engineers 78 

On the Reproduction and supposed Existence of Sexual Organs in the 
Higher Cryptogamous Plants. By Arthur Henfrey, F.L.S 102 

On the Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. By Charles G. B. 
Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.. Professor of Chemistry at Oxford 124 

On two unsolved Problems in Indo-German Philology. By the Rev. 
J.W.Donaldson, D.D 138 

Report on the British Annelida. By Thomas Williams, M.D. Lend. 
University, Extra Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, and 
formerly Demonstrator on Structural Anatomy at Guy's Hospital ... 159 

Second Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phaenomena. By Robert 
Mallet, C.E., M.R.I.A 272 

Letter from Professor Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington, to Colonel Sabine, General Secretary of the British 
Association, on the System of Meteorological Observations proposed 
to be established in the United States 320 

Report on the Kew Magnetographs. By Colonel Sabine 325 

Report to Francis Ronalds, Esq., on the Performance of his three 
Magnetographs during the Experimental Trial at the Kew Observa- 
tory, April 1 till October 1, 1851. By John Welsh, Esq 328 

Report concerning the Observatory of the British Association at Kew, 
from September 12, 1850 to July 31, 1851. By Francis Ronalds, 
Esq., F.R.S., Honorary Superintendent 335 

Ordnance Survey of Scotland 370 

Provisional Report 372 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 

HoM ERSHAM Cox On the Parallelogram of Mechanical Magnitudes 1 

Mr. W. J. Macquorn Rankine's Summary of the Results of the Hypothesis 

of Molecular Vortices, as applied to the Theory of Elasticity and Heat 3 

on the Velocity of Sound in Liquid and Solid 

Bodies of Limited Dimensions, especially along prismatic masses of liquid... 4 

Mr. J. J. Waterston on a General Theory of Gases 6 

Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

M. F. C. Bakewell on the Conduction of Electricity through Water 6 

Mr. Charles Brooke on a New Mode of Illuminating Opake Objects under 

the highest jwwers of the Microscope ■ 7 

on a New Arrangement for facilitating the Dissection 

and Drawing of Objects placed under the Microscope 7 

Professor J. D. Forbes on the Progress of Experiments on the Conduction of 

Heat, undertaken at the Meeting of the British Association at Edinburgh in 

1850 7 

Captain E. J. Johnson's Letter addressed to Lieut. -Col. Sabine 8 

Professor Powell's Remarks on Lord Brougham's Experiments on Light, &c. 

in the Phil. Trans. 1850. Part 1 11 

Professor G. G. Stokes on a new Elliptic Analyser 14 

Dr. John Tyndall on Diamagnetism and Magnecrystallic Action 15 

Professor Walker's Extract from a Letter addressed to Professor Phillips ... 19 

Professor E. Wartmann's Inquiries into some Physical Properties of the Solid 
and Liquid Constituent Parts of Plants 19 

Mr. John Welsh's Description of a Sliding Rule for converting the observed 
Readings of the Horizontal and Vertical Force Magnetometers into Variations 
of Magnetic Dip and Total Force 20 

Astronomy, Meteors, Waves. 

Dr. Bateman's Account of the Astronomical Instruments in the Great Exhi- 
bition 21 

Messrs. G. P. and R. F. Bond's Description of an Apparatus for making Astro- 
nomical Observations by means of Electro-Magnetism 21 

Mr. J. P. Joule on a Method of Sounding in Deep Seas 22 

Rev. Professor Powell on M. Guyot's Experiment 23 



Vi CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dr. Von Galen's Communication respecting the Comet of Short Period dis- 
covered by Brorsen, Feb. 26, 184G, and its reappearance in 1851 23 

Mr. E.J. Lowe's Observations made at the Observatory of Highfield House on 

Zodiacal Light 24 

Dr. John Tyndall on Air-bubbles formed in Water 26 

Rev. W. Whewell on our Ignorance of the Tides 27 

Meteorology. 

Dr. Andrews's Account of an Apparatus for determining the Quantity of Hy- 

grometric Moisture in the Air 29 

Dr. Buist's Sketch of the Climate of Western India 29 

on Hail-storms in India, from June 1850 to May 1851 31 

Dr. John Lee on the Alten and Christiania Meteorological Observations 33 

Mr. E. J. Lowe on some Unusual Phaenomena 33 

Mr. Robert Russell's Observations on Storms 34 

Mr. Henry Twining on some of the Appearances which are peculiar to Sun- 
beams 35 

Rev.T. Rankin's Register of Meteorological Phaenomena at Huggate in York- 
shire 36 

Lieut.-Col. W. Reid's Law of Storms. — On Mooring Ships in Revolving Gales 36 
Mr. John C. Pyle's Abstract of Meteorological Observations made at Fut- 

tegurh, for the Year 1850, North-west Provinces, Bengal 39 

Mr. J. K. Watts's Notice of Aurora Borealis seen at St. Ives, Hunts, Oct. 1, 

1850 41 

— — Notice of a Snow-Storm 41 

Account of a Lunar Rainbow, seen Aug. 23, 1850, between 

Haddenham and Earith, near St. Ives 41 

Mr. W. H. Webster on the Rise and Fall of the Barometer 42 

Mr. John Welsh's Description of a Sliding Rule for Hygrometrical Cal- 
culations 42 



CHEMISTRY. 

Dr. T.Anderson on the Products of the Action of Heat on Animal Substances 43 

Dr. Beke on a Diamond Slab supposed to have been cut from the Koh-i-Noor 44 

M.Boutigny on the Cause which maintains Bodies in the spheroidal state be- 
yond the sphere of Physico-chemical Activity 44 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Dangers of the Mercurial Vapours in the Daguerreo- 
type Process, and the means to obviate the same 44 

on the Use of a Polygon to ascertain the Intensity of the 

Light at different Angles in the Photographic Room 45 

Mr. J. B. Lawes and Dr. J. H. Gilbert on Agricultural Chemistry, especially 
in relation to the Mineral Theory of Baron Liebig 45 

Professor Thomas Graham on Liquid Diffusion , 47 

Professor W. R. Johnson on some Theoretical and Practical Methods of de- 
termining the Calorific Efficiencies of Coals 47 

Mr. Mercer on a new Method of contracting the Fibres of Calico, and of ob- 
taining on the Calico thus prepared Colours of much brilliancy 51 

Professor E. A. Scharling on the Action of Superheated Steam upon Organic 
Bodies 51 



CONTENTS. Vii 

Page 
Dr. ScoPFfeiiN 66 Gambogic Acid and the Gambogiates, and their use in 
Artistic Painting 51 

Dr. R. Angus Smith on Sulphuric Acid in the -Air and Water of Towns 52 

Professor J. E. De Vuy on Solid and Liquid Camphor from the Dryolalanops 
Camphora ■- i 52 

■ on Nitro-Glycerine and the Products of its Decompo- 
sition 52 

Mr. W. H. Walenn on the Construction and Principles of M. Pulvermacher's 
Patent Portable Hydro-Electric Chain Battery and some of its Effects 52 

Professor A. W. Williamson on the Constitution of Salts 54 

GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Mr. J. S. BowERBANK on the probable Dimensions of the great Shark {Carcha- 
rias meyalodon) of the Red Crag 54 

on the Remains of a Gigantic Bird from the London Clay 

of Sheppcy 55 

on the Pterodactyles of the Chalk Formation 55 

Dr. Buist's Indications of Upheavals and Depressions of the Land in India... 55 

Professor E. Forbes on the Echinodermata of the Crag 58 

on the Discovery by Dr. Overweg of Devonian Rocks in 

North Africa 58 

Mr. William Hopkins on the Distribution of Granite Rocks from Ben 
Cruachan 59 

Mr. W. E. Logan on the Age of the Copper-bearing Rocks of Lake Superior 
and Huron, and various facts relating to the Physical Structure of Canada... 59 

Mr. J. W. Salter's Note on the Fossils above mentioned, from the Ottawa 
River 63 

Sir Charles Lyell on the Occurrence of a Stratum of Stones covered with 
Barnacles in the Red Crag at Wherstead, near Ipswich 65 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison on the Scratched and Polished Rocks of Scotland 66 

Professor Owen on new Fossil Mammalia from the Eocene Freshwater Forma- 
tion at Hordwell, Hants Qf 

on the Fossil Mammalia of the Red Crag 67 

Mr. John Phillips on the Structure of the Crag i 67 

M. Constant Provost's Explication d'un Tableau de I'Etude Methodique de 
laTerre et du Sol 68 

Dr. ScHAFHAEUTL on Klinology in reference to the Bavarian Alps 69 

Captain Strachey on the Geology of a part of the Himalaya and Thibet 69 

Mr. Searles V. Wood on some Tubular Cavities in the Coralline Crag at 

Sudbourne and Gedgrave in Suffolk 70 

BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 
Botany. 
Professor G. J. Allman on the Morphology of the Fruit in the Cruciferse, as 

illustrated by a Monstrosity in the Wallflower 70 

Rev. M. J. Berkeley and C. E. Broome on some Facts tending to show the 

probability of the Conversion of Asci into Spores in certain Fungi 70 

Dr. Edwin Lankester on a Monstrosity of Lathyrus odoratus 72 

on the Theory of the Formation of Wood and the 

Descent of the Sap in Plants 72 

1851. b 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
Major E. Madden and Captain R. Sthachey's Notes on the Botanical Geo- 
graphy of part of the Himalaya and Tibet ; 72 

Dr. Thomas Thomson on the Botanical Geography of Western Tibet 73 

Zoology. 

Mr. Joshua Alder and Albany Hancock's Descriptions of two New Spe- 
cies of Nudibranchiate MoUusca, one of them forming the type of a New 
Genus; with the Anatomy of the Genus 74 

■ on the Branchial Currents of 

Pholas and Mya 74 

Mr. J. Atkinson on Sea Sickness, and a New Remedy for its Prevention 75 

Mr. Busk's Drawings of New Species of Zoophytes 76 

Professor E. Forbes on some Indications of the Molluscous Fauna of the 
Azores and St. Helena 76 

on a New Testacean discovered during the Voyage of 

H.M.S. Rattlesnake 77 

Mr. J. H. Gladstone on a Sample of Blood containing Fat 77 

Mr. Thomas H. Huxley's Observations on the Genus (Sajrif^o 77 

Account of Researches into the Anatomy of the 

Hydrostatic Acalephse • 78 

• Description of a New form of Sponge-like Animal 80 

Mr. E. J. Lowe on the Land and Freshwater MoUusca found within seven 
miles of Nottingham 80 

Dr. W. Macdonald on the Antennae of the Annulosa, and their Homology in 
the Macrourals 81 

Mr. C. W. Peach on some recent Calcareous Zoophytes found at Ipswich, 
Harwich, &c 81 

Mr. Lovell Reeve's Observations on the Geographical Distribution of the 
Land MoUusca 82 

Mr. J. Robertson's Observations on Pholas 82 

Mr. Thomas Williams on the Structure of the Branchiae and Mechanism of 
Breathing in the Pholades and other Lamellibranchiate MoUusks 82 

Physiology. 

Mr. T. G. Hake on a New Apparatus for supplying Warm Air to the Lungs 83 

Mr. Richard Fowler on the Correlation of Vitality and Mind with the 
Physical Forces 83 

GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Mr. George Barber Beaumont on the Origin and Institutions of the Cymri 84 

Dr. C. T. Beke's Summary of Recent Nilotic Discovery 84 

Mr. G. A. BoLLAERT on the Meteoric Iron of Atacama 84 

Mr. W. J. BoLLAERT on certain Tribes of South America 84 

Mr. J. B. Brent's Comparison of Athletic Men of Great Britain with Greek 
Statues 84 

Mr. R. Budge's Communication relative to the Great Earthquake experienced 
in Chile, April 2, 1851 : in a Letter to Mr.W. Bollaert, dated AprU 17, with 
Observations by the latter 85 

Mr. W. John Crawfurd on the Negro Races of the Indian Archipelago and 
Pacific Islands 86 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Mr. W. J. Crawfurd on the Geography of Borneo, superadding a Descrip- 
tion of the Condition of the Island and of its chief Products, illustrated by 
Historical References 88 

Dr. CuLLEN on a proposed Canal across the Isthmus of Darien 88 

Mr. Windsor Earl's Notes on Cambodia 88 

M. Antoine D'Abbadie's Synopsis of Seventy-two Languages of Abyssinia 
and the adjacent Countries 88 

Baron Hartmann on an Oreographical Map of Finland 88 

M. Khanikoff's Letter to Mr. Stevens on his Ascent of Mount Ararat 88 

Dr. R. G. Latham on the Ethnological Position of the Brahui, and on the lan- 
guages of the Paropamisus 89 

Lieut. Leicester on the Volcanic Group of Milo 89 

Rev. C. J. NicoLAY on the Systematic Classification of Water- Sheds and 
Water-Basins 89 

Mr. W. D. Saull on the Ethnology and Archaeology of the Norse and Saxons, 
in reference to Britain 90 

Sir R. Schomburgk's Ethnological Researches in Santo Domingo 90 

Capt. R. Strachey on the Geography of Kumdon and Garhwal in the Hima- 
laya Mountains 92 

Mr. John Strachey on the Inhabitants of Kumaon and Garhwal 94 

M. Pierre de Tchihatcheff's Notice of Travels in Asia Minor 95 

Dr. T. R. Heywood Thomson's Observations on some Aboriginal Tiibes of 
New Holland 95 

Mr. Townsend's Notes on the Australians 95 

Mr. Asa Whitney on the best Means of realizing a Rapid Intercourse 
between Europe and Asia 95 

Mr. Robert Young on the Inhabitants of Lower Bengal 95 

Capt. J. L. Stokes's Survey of the Southern Part of the Middle Island of New 
Zealand Qf 

Mr. E. Thornton's Ascent of Orizaba in Mexico 98 

STATISTICS. 

Mr. H. S. Chapman on the Statistics of New Zealand 98 

Mr. T. Corle on the Mortality in different Sections of the Metropolis in 1849 99 

Dr. Cuthbert Finch on the Vital Statistics of the Armies in the East India 
Company's Service 99 

Mr. Joseph Fletcher's Statistics of the Attendance in Schools for Children 
of the Poorer Classes ; 99 

Prof. W. Neilson Hancock on the Prospects of the Beet-Sugar Manufacture 
in the United Kingdom lOI 

■ • on the Duties of the Public in respect to Chari- 
table Savings-Banks 108 

. Should Boards of Guardians endeavour to make 

Pauper Labour self-supporting, or should they investigate the Causes of 
Pauperism? 104 

Investigation into the Question — Is there really 

a want of Capital in Ireland? 100 

b2 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. J. C. G. Kennedy on the Influence of Discoveries in Science and Works of 
Art in developing the Condition of a People, as indicated by the Census 
Operations of the United States 108 

Dr. Edw. J. Tilt on the best Means of ascertaining the Number and Con- 
dition of the Infantile Idiots in the United Kingdom 109 

Dr. W. Whew ell's Mathematical Exposition of some Doctrines of Political 
Economy 110 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Capt, CARPENTER on the Duplex Rudder and Screw Propeller , ,. 110 

Mr. Alexander Doull's proposed Railway Communication from the Atlantic 

to the Pacific in the Territories of British North America Ill 

Mr. Fairbairn on the Construction of Iron Vessels exposed to severe strain... 113 
Mr. Charles May on Railway Chairs and Compressed Wood Fastenings 114 

on the Application of Chilled Cast Iron to the Pivots of 

Astronomical Instruments 114 

Mr, James Nasmyth's Description of an Improved Safety Valve 115 

on a Direct Action Steam-Fan for the more perfect Ven- 
tilation of Coal Mines 116 

on an improved Apparatus for Casting the Specula of 

Reflecting Telescopes Il6 

Mr. Joseph T. Price on a Method of Condensing Steam in Marine Engines, 
at present emploj-ed in several Steam Vessels in the Bristol Channel 116 

Mr. Richard Roberts on Mechanism to explain the Pendulum Experiment... 117 

Prof. P. Smyth on a simple method of applying the Power of Wind to a Pump, 
for the purpose of Irrigation, as put into practice at the Cape of Good Hope 118 

Mr. James Thomson on an Improved Modification of the RcsciToir for Gold 
Peas 118 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The Editors of the preceding Notices considei* tbemselves responsible 
only for the fidelity with which the views of the Authors are abstracted. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 

OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote tlie intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in difl'erent parts of the Briiish Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MKMBEtlS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rides. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in tlic British Empire, shall be entitletl, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, lo become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Meinbers of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a Genrt-al 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to -.dl the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sinn of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members 'of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis: 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 



xii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Tlie Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each followirJg 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845 a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription, 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Pubhcation 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 coines remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Mr. R. Taylor, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has beenprintedin its Transact) ons, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. XIU 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting aCommittee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES, 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the i^ssociation to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 



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XVI 



MEMBERS OF COUNOIIj. 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart, M.P., F.R.S. 
Acland, Professor H. W., B.M., F.R.S. 
Adamson, Jolin, Esq., F.L.S. 
Adare, Edwin, Viscount, M.P., F.R.S. 
Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 
Airy, G.B.,D.C.L., F.R.S. ,AstronomerRoyal. 
Alison, Professor W. P., M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 
Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.R.S. 
Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
Babbage, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 
Babington, C. C, Esq., F.L.S. 
Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. 
Balfour, Professor John H., M.D. 
Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. 
Bengough, George, Esq. 
Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 
Bigge, Charles, Esq. 
Blakrston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 
Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.R.S; 
Boyle, Right Hon. David, Lord Justice-Ge- 
neral, F.R.S.E. 
Brand, William, Esq. 

Brewster,SirDavid,K.H.,D.C.L.,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 
Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L. , F.R.S. 

Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S., President of 
the Linnean Society. 

Brunei, Sir M. L, F.R.S. 

Buckland, Very Rev. William, D.D., Dean of 
Westminster, F.R.S. 

Burlington, William, Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., 
Chancellor of the University of London. 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. 

Carlisle, George William Frederick, Earl of, 
F.G.S. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph. 

Cathcart, Lieut.-General, Earl of, K.C.B., 
F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., late Professor of 
Divinity, Edinburgh. 

Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Profes.sor S. H., M.A., Sec. R.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

Clark, Rev. Professor, M.D., F.R.S. (Cam- 
bridge). 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. 

Gierke, Major Shadwell, K.H., R.E., F.R.S. 

Clift, William, Esq., F.R.S. 

Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. 

Conybeare,Very Rev. W. D., Dean of LlandafF, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. 

Carrie, William Wallace, Esq. 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. 

Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 

Daubeny, Professor Charles G. B., M.D., 
F.R.S. 



De la Beche, Sir Henry T., F.R.S., Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the 
United Kingdom. 

Dillwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. 

Durham, Edward Maltby, D.D., Lord Bishop 
of, F.R.S. 

Egerton, Sir Philip de M. Grey, Bart, F.R.S. 

Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. 

Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. 

Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Fitzwilliam, Charles William, Earl, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 

Fleming, W., M.D. 

Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 

Forbes, Charles, Esq. 

Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. 

Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 

Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 

Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.R.S. 

Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Graham, Professor Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 

Gray, John E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Gray, Jonathan, Esq. 

Gray, William, jun., Esq., F.G.S. 

Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 

Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. 

Grove, W. R., Esq., F.R.S. 

Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Hamilton, W. J., Esq., Sec.G.S. 

Hamilton, Sir William R., Astronomer Royal 
of Ireland, M.R.T.A. 

Harcoiirt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 

Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 

Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 

Harrowby, The Earl of. 

Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 

Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 

Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. William, late 
Dean of Manchester, LL.D., F.L.S. 

Herschel,Sir John F.W., Bart.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 

Heywood, James, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Hill, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 

Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 

Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 

Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 

Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 

Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 

Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 

Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Ibbetson, Capt. L. L. Boscawen, K.R.E., 
F.G.S. 

Inglis, Sir Robert H.,Bart.,D.C.L.,M.P.,F.R.S. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. 

Jeffreys, John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq. 

Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 

Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 

Johnston, Right Hon. William, Lord Provost 
of Edinburgh. 

Johnston, Professor J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 



MEMBERS OP COUNCIL. 



XVU 



Keleher, William, Esq. 

Kelland, Rev. Professor P., M.A. 

Lansdowne, Henry, Marquis of,D.C.L.,F.R.S, 

Lardner, Rev. Dr. 

Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 

Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 

cipal of the University of Edinburgh. 
Lee, Robert, M.D., F.R.S. 
Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, Speaker 

of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Liddell, Andrew, Esq. 
Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Listowel, The Earl of. 
Lloyd, Rev. Bartholomew, D.D., late Provost 

of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Lloyd, Rev. Professor, D.D., Provost of 

Trinity College, Dublin, F.R.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Luby, Rev. Thomas. 
Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A., F.R.S. 
MacCullagh, Professor, D.C.L., M.RJ.A. 
Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal, 
MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 
MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 
Malcolm, Vice Admiral Sir Charles, K.C.B. 
Manchester, James Prince Lee, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Meynell, Thomas, Jun., Esq., F.L.S. 
Middleton, Sir William, F. F., Bart. 
Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 
Moillet, J. L., Esq. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 
Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 
Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 
Moody, T. F., Esq. 
Morley, The Earl of. 
Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 
Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 
Murchison, Sir Roderick L, G.C.S., F.R.S. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Nicol, D., M.D. 
Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 
Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.G., M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. 
Norwich, Samuel Hinds, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 
Norwich, Edward Stanley, D.D., F.R.S., late 

Lord Bishop of. 
Ormerod, G. W., Esq., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. 
.Orpen, J. H., LL.D. 
Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S, 
Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Osier, Follett, Esq. 
Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 
Peacock, Very Rev. George, D.D., Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Peel, Rt. Hon. Sir Robert, Bart., M.P., 

D.C.L,, F.R.S. 
Pendarves, E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Phillips, Professor John, F.R.S. 
Porter, G. R., Esq. 
Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D., FJl.S. 
• Ramsay, Professor W., M.A. 
Reid, Lieut..Col. Sir William, F.R.S. 
Rendlesham, Rt, Hon, Lord, M.P. 



Rennie, George, Esq., V.P.R.S. 

Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S. 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ritchie, Rev. Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 

Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., M.R.LA. 

Robison, Sir John, late Sec.R.S.Edin. 

Roche, James, Esq. 

Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 

Rosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Ross, Capt. Sir James C, R.N., F.R.S. 

Rosse, William, Eatl of, M.R.I.A., President 

of the Royal Society. 
Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, James, Esq. 
Russell, J. Scott, Esq. 
Sabine, Lieut.-Colonel Edward, R.A., Treas. 

R.S. 
Saunders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Sandon, Lord. 

Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Professor Adam, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 
Spence, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Staunton, Sir George T., Bart., M.P., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
St. David's. Connop Thirlwall, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Strang, John, Esq. 
Strickland, H. E., Esq., F.G.S. 
Sykes, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., F.R.S, 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., late Vice-Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. J. J. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Tindal, Captain, R.N. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. ' 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S, 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Walker, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Rev. Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Warburton, Henry, Esq., M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N. 
West, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, John Stuart, Lord, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 
Whewell, Rev. William, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Charles J.B., M.D.,F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Wills, William. 

Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
WooUcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yates, James, Esq., M,A., F.R.S. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



£ 


s. 


d. 


404 


8 


9 


120 








261 


2 





510 








273 








5 









50 ID 5 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 31st of July 

RECEIPTS. 

£ s. d. 

To Balance brought on from last account 

Life Compositions at Edinburgh and since 

Annual Subscriptions at Edinburgh and since 

Associates' Subscriptions at Edinburgh 

Ladies' Tickets at Edinburgh 

Book Composition 

Di\ideud on Stock (six months' interest on iC3500 three per cent. 

Consols) 

From the Sale of Publications, viz. Reports.Catalogucs of Stars, &c. : — 

Volume 1 11 2 

2 12 

3 10 

4 1 7 

5 1 18 

6 1 7 6 

7 5 

8 1 16 

9 4 

10 13 6 

11 19 3 

12 1 

13 3 13 4 

14 4 6 

15 5 17 6 

16 12 3 

17 8 18 6 

18 42 7 3 

19 7 

British Association Catalogue of Stars 43 7 9 

Lalande's Catalogue of Stars 3 7 4 

Lacaille's Catalogue of Stars 18 

Dove's Isothermal Lines 22 16 

Lithograph Signatures 15 



170 19 1 



£1795 9 3 



Audited and found correct, 
'''I 



J. W. GILBAUT," 

JOHN GASSIOT, \ Auditors. 

JOHN LEE, 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



1850 (at Edinburgh) to 2nd of July 1851 (at Ipswich). 



PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 
For Sundry Printing, Advertising, Expenses of Meeting at Edin- 
burgh, and Petty Disbursements made by the General Trea- 
surer and Local Treasurers 212 12 9 

Printing, &c., 18th volume 310 13 

Engraving, 19th volume 12 8 

Salaries, Assistant General Secretary and Accountant, six months 175 

Maintaining the Establishment at Kew Observatory : — 

Balance of Grant of 1849 38 15 2 

On Account of Grant for 1850 270 7 



On account of Grant — 

For Experiments on the Theory of Heat 

Periodical Phaenomenaof Animals and Plants 

Vitality of Seeds 

Influence of the Solar Radiations on Chemical Combina- 
tions, &c 

Ethnological inquiries 

Researches on the Annelida 

Balance at the Bankers 579 12 3 

Ditto in the hands of the General Treasurer and Local Treasurers 113 13 8 



309 2 2 



20 


1 


1 


5 








5 


6 


4 


30 








12 








10 










I 



^£1795 9 3 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1851-52. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I. McRCHisoN,G.C.S'.S.,F.R.S. The Very Rev. George PEAC0CK,D.D.,Deaii 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. of Ely, F.R.S. 

PRESIlfENT. 
George Biddell Airy, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
The Lord Rendlesham> M.P. The Lord Bishop of Norwich. 

Rev.AoAM SEDGWiCK,M.A.,F.R.S.,Professor Rev. John Stevens Hens;low, M.A., F.L.S., 
of Geology in the University of Cambridge. Professor of Botany in the University of- 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., F.R.S. Cambridge. 

John Chevalier Cobbold, Esq., M.P. Sir William F. F. Middleton, Bart. 

Thomas Burch Western, Esq. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Colonel Edward Sabine, R.A., Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal Society. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

The Earl of Enniskillen, D.C.L., F.R.S. Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., Pres.R.I.A., 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., M.R.LA,, Presi- F.R.A.S. „ „ o t 

dent of the Royal Society. George Gabriel Stokes, F.R.S., Lucasian 

Sir Henry T. Db la Beche, CB., F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics in the University 
Director-General of the Geological Survey of Cambridge. 

of the United Kingdom. John Stevelly, LL.D., Professor of Natural 

Rev, Edward Hincks, D.D., M.R.LA. Philosophy in Queen's College, Belfast. 

Rev. P. S. Henry, D.D,, President of Queen's 
College, Belfast. 

SECRETARIES FOR THE BELFAST MEETING. 

W. J. C. Allen, Esq. William M-^Gee, M.D. Professor W. P. Wilson. 

TREASURER FOR THE BELFAST MEETING. 

Robert Patterson, Esq. 
ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Duke of Argyll. Professor Thomas Graham. Professor Richard Owen. 

Professor Thomas Bell. W. R. Grove, Esq. The Bishop of Oxford. 

Professor Daubeny, M.D. James Heywood, Esq., M.P. G. R. Porter, Esq. 
Sir PhiUp De Grey Egerton, William Hopkins, Esq. Lieut.-Col. Sir William Reid. 

Bart., M.P. Leonard Horner, Esq. Francis Ronalds, Esq. 

Professor Edward Forbes. Robert Button, Esq. Sh James C. Ross. 

Professor J. D. Forbes. Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. Lieut.-Col. W. H. Sykes. 

Joseph Fletcher, Esq. Rev. Dr. Lloyd. Professor C. Wheatstone. 

J. P. Gassiot, Esq. WilUam A. Miller, M.D. The Lord Wrottesley. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
neral and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi, 
dents of former yeais,viz. The Earl Fitzwilham. Rev. Dr. Buckland. Rev. Professor Sedgwick, 
Sir Thomas M. Brisbane. The Marquis of Lansdowne. The Earl of Burlington. Rev. W. 
V. Harcourt. The Marquis of Breadalbane. Rev. Dr. Whewell. The Earl of EUesmere. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Sir Robert H. IngUs. Sir Da^id Brewster. 
GENERAL SECRETARY. 
J. Forbes Royle, M.D., F.R.S., Prof. Mat. Med. & Therap. in King's College, London. 
ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., York. 
GENERAL TREASURER. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 
W. Gray, Esq., York. G. W. Ormerod, Esq., Manchester. 

C. C. Babington, Esq., Cambridge. J. Sadleir Moody, Esq., Southampton, 

William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., Swansea. 

J. H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipsvrich. 

Waiiam Sauders, Esq., Bristol. Robert Patterson, Esq., Belfast. 

Professor Ramsay, Glasgow. 

AUDITORS. 
J, W. Gilbart, Esq. J. P. Gassiot, Esq. John Lee, Esq., LL.D. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL. COMMITTEES. XXI 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
EDINBURGH MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— The Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., F.R.S., &c. 

Vice-Presidents.— Rev. Professor Temple Chevallier, M.A. Sir David Brewster, 
K.H., F.R.S. Lieut.-Col. Reid, F.R.S. The Earl of Rosse, Pres. R.S. Lord 
Wrottesley, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Rev. Professor Stevelly, LL.D. Professor G. G. Stokes, F.R.S. 
W. J. Macquorn Rankine. S. Jackson, M.A. 

SECTION B. CHEMICAL SCIENCE, INCLUDING ITS APPLICATION TO 

AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President. — Professor Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Br. Lyon Playfair, F.R.S. W. R. Grove, M.A., F.R.S. 

-Secretaries.— T. J. Pearsall, Esq. W. S. Ward, Esq. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

Presjdewf.— William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Rev. Professor Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. Sir Charles Lyell, 
F.R.S. 

/Secretaries.— Searles Wood, Esq., F.G.S. G. W. Ormerod, Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
C. J. F. Bunbury, F.R.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Rev. Professor Henslow, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Pvofessoi- Owen, F.R.S. C. J. F. Bunbury, F.R.S. C. C. 
Babington, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.- Dr. E. Lankester, F.R.S. Professor Allman, M.R.I.A. F. W. 
Johnson, Esq. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President. — Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., Pres. R. Geogr. Soc. 
rice- PresicZenfe.— The Bishop of Oxford, F.R.S. Captain Sir J. Ross, R.N., F.R.S. 
Captain Fitzroy, R.N. Lieut.-Col. Rawlinson, F.R.S. R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Norton Shaw, M.D., Sec. R. Geogr. Soc. Rev. J. W. Donaldson, 
D.D. Richard Cull, Sec. Ethn. Soc. 

SECTION F. STATISTICS. 

President.— Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — P. B. Long, Esq. (Maj'or of Ipswich). Lord Monteagle, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Hancock, LL.D., M.R.I.A. Joseph Fletcher, Esq. 

SECTION a. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — William Cubitt, Esq., F.R.S., Pres. Inst. Civ. Eng. 

Vice-Presidents. — James Nasmyth, Esq. J. Scott Russell, M.A., F.R.S. William 
Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Charles Manby, Esq., Sec. Inst. Civ. Eng. John Head, Esq. 



XXll 



ttEPOR* — 1851. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts. 

M. Arago, Paris. 

M. Babinet, Paris. 

Dr. A. D. Bache, Philadelpliia. 

Professor H. von Boguslavvski, Brcs- 
lau. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 

Monsieur Boutigny (d'Evreux), Paris. 

Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 

Herr Von Buch, Berlin. 

Chevalier Bunsen. 

Charles Buonaparte, Prince of Canino. 

M. De la Rive, Geneva. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 

Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 

Professor Encke, Berlin. 

Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 

Professor Esmark, Cliristiania. 

Professor G. Forchhammer, Copen- 
hagen. 

M. Frisian!, Milan. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 

Professor Henry, Washington, United 
States. 

Baron Alexander von Humboldt, 
Berlin. 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 



j Professor Kreil, Prague. 
I M. KupIFer, St. Petersburg. 
I Dr. Langberg, Christiania. 

M. Leverrier, Paris. 

Baron de Selys-Longchamps, Liege. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Baron von Liebig, Giessen. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von MiddendorfF, St. Pe- 
tersburg. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordengsciold, Finland. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Philadelphia. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Virginia. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Baron Senftenberg, Bohemia. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struvc of St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

Dr. Van der Hoven, Leyden. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 
Golha. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Professor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIIi. XXIU 

Report OF THE Proceedings of the Council in 1850-51, as presented 
TO THE General Committee at Ipswich, Wednesday, July 2, 
1851. 

I. With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 
Committee assembled in Edinburgh, the Council have to report as follows : — . 

1. Having communicated with Dr. Robinson, on whose suggestion the 
General Committee directed that application sliould be made to the Admi- 
ralty for the publication of the Reports of their Committee on Metals, and 
having also communicated with the Admiralty, — the Council have requested 
Mr. James Nasmyth, who was himself one of the members of the Metal 
Committee, to undertake the task of drawing up an abstract of the principal 
matters contained in its reports, to be presented to the British Association 
at Ipswich, or at the Meeting in 1852 ; and the Admiralty, at the request 
of the Council, have consented to place the three volumes of the Reports in 
Mr. Nasmyth's hands for this purpose. 

2. In compliance with the direction that a Committee should be appointed 
for the purpose of waiting on Her Majesty's Government, to request that 
some means be taken to ensure to the science of Natural History an effect- 
ive representation in the Trusteeship of the British Museum, the Council 
proceeded to name a Committee ; but in consequence of one of two recent 
vacancies in the Trusteeship of the British Museum having been filled up 
by the appointment of a distinguished Naturalist, Sir Piiilip Grey Egerton, 
Bart., the Committee have not deemed it requisite to make the application 
to Government contemplated by the General Committee. 

3. On the subject of an application to Government to institute a Statisti- 
cal Survey relative to the extent and prevalence of Infantile Idiotcy, the 
Council having ascertained that the importance of such an inquiry had already 
been pressed on the attention of Government by the Statistical Society of 
London, and that the representation had been very favourably received, have 
forborne to take any further step for the present. 

4. The Committee appointed at Edinburgh, for the purpose of urging on 
Government the completion of the Geographical Survey of Scotland, recom- 
mended by the British Association at their former meeting at Edinburgh in 
1834, have presented a Memorial to Lord John Russell, showing that, in the 
interval of IG years elapsed since the foi-mer meeting of the Association in 
Edinburgh, but a single county, namely, Wigtonshire (less than a sixtieth 
part of Scotland), has been mapped ; that the surveying force employed in 
Scotland, and the funds allotted to that portion of the United Kingdom, have 
been very much less than that allotted to either England or Ireland ; and 
that on the present scale of procedure upwards of 50 years must elapse be- 
fore the map of Scotland can be completed. The Memorial further solicits 
Her Majesty's Government to endeavour to obtain from Parliament an 
annual grant adequate to the completion of the map in the next 10 
years. The Memorial was courteously received by the First Lord of the 
Treasury, and has been followed by the appointment of a Committee of the 
House of Commons to inquire into the whole subject of the survey of North 
Britain. 

II. Since the last report of the Council to the General Committee was 
presented at Edinburgh, the reply of Her Majesty's Government has been 
received to the Memorial drawn up by Dr. Robinson, President of the British 
Association, with the concurrence of the Earl of Rosse, President of the 

1851. e 



Xxiv REPORT — 1851. 

Royal Society, and presented to Lord John Russell, recommending the esta- 
blishment of a Reflecting Telescope of large optical power, at a suitable 
station, for the systematic observation of the Nebulae of the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. The reply is as follows : — 

" Treasury Chambers, 14th August, 1850. 
"Sir, — I am commanded by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's 
Treasury to acquaint you, that your Memorial of the 3rd ult., addressed to 
Lord John Russell, applying on behalf of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for the 'establishment, in some fitting part of Her 
Majesty's dominions, of a powerful reflecting telescope, and for the appoint- 
ment of an observer charged with the duty of employing it in a review of 
the Nebulae of the Southern Hemisphere,' has been referred by his Lordship 
to this Board ; and I am directed to inform you, with reference thereto, that 
while My Lords entertain the same views as those expressed by you as to 
the interest attaching to such observations, yet it appears to their Lordships 
that there is so much difficulty attending on the arrangements which alone 
could render any scheme of this kind really beneficial to the purposes of 
science, tliat they are not prepared to take any steps without much further 
consideration. 

" I am. Sir, &c., 

" Your obedient Servant, 

"G. CORNEWALL LeWIS." 

The Council have communicated a copy of this reply to the President and 
Council of the Royal Society, who had concurred in the recommendation ; 
accompanying the communication with an assurance that the British Associ- 
ation will not lose sight of this important object, and requesting the con- 
tinued co-operation of the Royal Society. The specific difficulties alluded 
to in this letter have not been communicated by the Government ; but the 
Council entertain the hope that they are not of such a nature that time and 
further consideration may not remove them. The Council will now conclude 
the duty entrusted to them with the expression of their belief that the time 
is not far distant when the subject may be again, and successfully, brought 
under the consideration of Her Majesty's Ministers. 

in. For the purpose of obtaining from the Authorities of the Ordnance 
Department replies which might be satisfactory to the General Committee, 
relative to the progress which had been made towards the publication, re- 
commended in the year 1846, of the meteorological observations made since 
1834, at the Ordnance Survey Office, at Mountjoy, near Dublin, — and also 
towards the publication, recommended by the British Association in 1849, 
and sanctioned by the Treasury in February, 1850, of the principal geodetic 
results of the Trigonometrical Survey of the British Islands, — the Council 
requested two of their members, Lord Wrottesley and Sir Charles Lemon, 
who are also members of the Legislature, to make the necessary inquiries ; 
and the Council are in consequence enabled to state on the authority of replies 
received from the Inspector-General of Fortifications :— 1st. In respect to the 
Mountjoy Observations, that " the whole of the observations have been copied 
into tables for publication, and the monthly means taken, and that consider- 
able progress has been made in abstracting the results; and that the Director 
of the Ordnance Survey will shortly have to make application to the Board 
of Ordnance to obtain the necessary sanction for the Stationery Office, in 
Dublin, to commence the printing of this work " And 2nd, in respect to 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. XXV 

the British Arc of the Meridian, that " during the past season (1850) the 
large theodolites have been on two stations in Scotland that required addi- 
tional observations to be made from them, so as to perfect the chain of tri- 
angulation ; and other observations are now being made at two other sta- 
tions, at which those made in 1809 and 1841, under unfavourable circurn- 
stances, have proved to be insufficient ; but the Director of the Survey is in 
great hopes that no others will require to be done. The Zenith Sector has 
also been employed during the past season in extending to its utmost limits 
the second largest Arc of the Meridian in the British Islands, viz. from North 
Rona Island to St. Agnes in the Scilly Islands, and in establishing, by direct 
observations, at a station near Peterhead, what had previously been imagined 
to be the case, that a deflection of the plumb line, to the extent of 8 seconds, 
existed at Cowhythe Station, near Portsoy in Banffshire, and that in conse- 
quence, its resulting latitude must be exceptionable. These observations 
and others, including those made at 26 stations, are almost entirely printed, 
and far advanced towards publication. In the office, the reduction and 
examination of the observations, so as to fit them for publication, has been 
' steadily proceeded with, but the pressure for the Survey, under the Public 
Health Act, has prevented as much progress being made as could be wished. 
The Director of the Survey trusts, however, that he shall be enabled to 
furnish, for communication to the British Association that will probably 
assemble in 1852, the principal results obtainable from the Geodetic opera- 
tions in Great Britain and Ireland. The Master-General and Board's 
Order, of the 30th of March, 1850, also contemplates the publication of 
the levels in the United Kingdom : this work is also in preparation, and the 
first volume of it is nearly ready for the press." 

IV. Having thus noticed, in the preceding paragraphs of this report, vari- 
ous subjects involving applications to Government, which have been referred 
by the General Committee to the care of the Council, the Council deem it 
their duty to bear testimony to the courtesy with which applications on the 
part of the British Association have been invariably received by the Members 
of Her Majesty's Government, and to their general readiness to comply with 
recommendations so made. The recommendation of a Survey of the South- 
ern Nebulae is the only instance in which there has not been an immediate 
compliance ; and even in this exceptional case, the postponement is accom- 
panied by a full admission of the interest of the proposed investigation. 

V. The General Committee have directed the Council to consider and re- 
port upon such further steps as may appear desirable to be taken in reference 
to the Committee of Members of the Association, also Members of the 
Legislature, appointed to watch over the interests of Science, and to inspect 
the various measures which might from time to time be introduced into Par- 
liament likely to affect such interest. By the original constitution of that 
Committee, as appointed at Birmingham in 1849, it comprised all the Mem- 
bers of the Association who were also Members of the Legislature, and it 
has been found practically that the number of the Members of the Com- 
mittee so constituted, is too large for combined or permanent action. The 
Council therefore recommend to the General Committee at Ipswich, to 
appoint a Committee, consisting of a limited number of Members of the 
Legislature, who are also Members of the Association, for the purposes con- 
templated in the original appointment of the Committee on the 19th of 
September, 1849 ; and they further suggest that the following noblemen 
and gentlemen, being twelve in number, of whom six are Members of the 

c2 



XXVI REPORT— 1851. 

House of Peers, and six of the House of Commons, be requested to fonn 

the Committee, viz. — 



The Lord Wrottesley. 
The Earl of Rosse. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
The Earl Cathcart. 
The Earl of Enniskillen. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 



Sir Philip Egerton, Bart. 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. 
Sir R. H. Inglis, Bart. 
Sir John Johnstone, Bart. 
James Haywood, Esq. 
J. H. Vivian, Esq. 



VI. A Memorial presented to the meeting at Edinburgh, by M. Kupffer, 
Corresponding Member of the British Association, entitled " Projet d'une 
Association pour I'Avancement des Sciences Meteorologiques," having been 
referred by the General Committee to the Officers of the Association, the 
following reply, prepared by the officers, was approved by the Council, and 
transmitted, by their direction, to M. Kupffer: — 

" London, November 29, 1850. 

" Sin, — We are directed by the Council of the British Association to 
acquaint you that your Memorial, entitled ' Projet d'une Association pout 
I'Avancement des Sciences Meteorologiques,' was duly received, and was 
laid before the General Committee of the Association at their meeting at 
Edinburgh. The General Committee, hov.ever, feeling their inability to 
decide immediately on a subject of such extent and importance, directed that 
the Memorial should be printed for the perusal of the Officers of the Associa- 
tion ; and, the officers having thus had opportunity of maturely considering 
the proposal, and having stated to the Council their views upon it, we are 
directed by the Council to transmit to you their reply, as follows : — 

" ' The Council are very strongly impressed with the advantages that must 
result to the science of Meteorology from the prosecution of regular series 
of observations conducted on a uniform plan, and extending over a con- 
siderable portion of Europe and perhaps of Asia. But the Council perceive 
also that there are at present serious difficulties in tiie way of carrying out 
such a plan. It would, as they think, be difficult at any time to nominate 
for each of the associated countries a Director possessing tlie requisite zeal 
and knowledge and leisure ; and the periodical meetings of the Directors 
would be found to be a source of extreme trouble. On the other hand, it 
would be difficult to induce the various Directors to agree to defer to the 
judgement of one Arch-Director. At the present time, when the construction 
of some of the most important meteorological instruments is a subject of 
active criticism, it would not be easy to establish uniformity of plan. And 
it would be difficult to provide the funds which establishments of such extent 
must require. 

" • These considerations, in the opinion of the Council, are sufficient to 
show that the establishment of the proposed Association must at all times 
be difficult. But they cannot omit to add that in the present disturbed state 
of Europe the difficulty must be greatly increased. It is known to members 
of the Council that state necessities, produced by convulsions which are not 
yet allayed, have already caused the withdrawal of some grants for scientific 
purposes of which the amount is small in comparison with those which would 
be required for the proposed Association, and the Council therefore have not 
the least hope that the Association could be established in an effective form 
for some considerable time. 

" ♦ The Council are aware that in France, the construction of some of the 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXVU 

principal meteorological instruments, and the investigation of the theories 
applying to their use, have undergone careful experimental investigation ; 
that these investigations are now in the course of being repeated and extended 
in England, and that they are probably carried on also in other countries. 
For the successful establishment therefore of such an Association, the Council 
are disposed to look to some future time, when the construction of instru- 
ments shall be better understood, when the purposes of observation shall be 
more distinctly fixed, and when the political condition of Europe shall be 
more favourable to the co-operation of nations for a scientific object. 

" * We have the honour, &c. 

;; ; ^^^I^-^^^ ^^^^^^^ j General Secretaries.' " 
" ' J. Forbes Koyle J 

" ' A Monsieur A. T. Kupffer.' " 

VII. The Council have been informed by a Committee of the inhabitants 
of Belfast, appointed in 1848 to make arrangements for inviting the British 
Association to hold an early meeting in that town, that all the public bodies 
of Belfast, and the Grand Jury of the County of Antrim, are prepared to 
renew their invitation for the year 1852, and that a deputation will attend at 
Ipswich for that purpose. 

VIII. The Council are glad to havejt in their power to report to the Gene- 
ral Committee, and through them to the Members of the Association at large, 
that the conduct of the experimental researches proceeding at the Physical Ob- 
servatory of the British Association at Kew, has received the most assiduous 
and unremitting attention from the Committee of Superintendence, continued 
by the General Committee at Edinburgh, and re-appointed by the Council 
at their first meeting in November last ; and that the number, variety, and 
importance of the researches in progress and in preparation, are such as to 
give full promise of the Kew Observatory becoming a most valuable esta- 
blishment for the advancement of the Physical Sciences. In such a brief 
notice of these researches as appears most suitable for this Report, it is the 
purpose of the Council to indicate the objects rather than to explain or discuss 
them, for which the meetings of the Sections will afford more appropriate 
occasions ; and in this view the Council have requested that the Members of 
the Kew Committee who have attended to particular branches of the expe- 
riments in progress, will prepare Reports concerning them specially designed 
for communication to the Sections, in addition to the Report annually pre- 
sented by Mr. Ronalds, whose valuable and gratuitous services are still 
continued. In reference to the instruction of the General Committee to the 
Council at the Edinburgh Meeting, to communicate with the Government, 
if necessary, respecting the possibility of relieving the Association from the 
expense of maintaining the establishment at Kew, the Council have not 
thought it desirable to make such direct application to the Government, but 
they have to report that considerable additions have been obtained to the 
pecuniary resources by which the experimental researches are carried on — 
1st, from the Donation Fund of the Royal Society, and 2nd, from the Go- 
vernment Grant, placed annually at the disposal of the President and Council 
of the Royal Society, the particulars of which will now be stated. 

1. £100 was allotted from the Government Grant of 1850 for the purchase 
of magnetical and meteorological instruments of a new construction, for a 
trial of their merits at the Kew Observatory. This sum has been expended 
' — 1st, in the construction of a Vertical Force Magnetograph, for the self- 
registry on Mr. Ronalds's principle of the variations of the Vertical Force ; 



jQjyjii REPORT— 1851. 

2nd, in the purchase and improvement of M. Regnault's modification of 
Daniell's Hydrometer ; and, 3rd, in the purchase of a Standard Thermometer, 
in which the accuracy of the temperatures indicated by all the divisions of 
the scale has been examined, and is guaranteed by the well-known skill and 
care of M. Regnault ; which instrument it is intended to employ in the 
verification of thermometers made by artists in this country. 

2. The difficultv in respect to funds for the completion of Mr. Ronalds's 
instruments for the self-registry of magnetical observations having thus been 
surmounted, the Royal Society have granted to Mr. Ronalds, from the do- 
nation fund at their disposal, £100, to be applied in an experimental trial of 
those instruments for a period of six months ; during which they are to be 
worked precisely as in an Observatory, and a minute account kept of every 
item of expense incurred in carrying on the self-registry for that period. This 
experimental trial is now in progress, having been commenced in April. 

3. £150 has been allotted from the Government Grant of 1851, for the 
construction and verification of standard Meteorological Instruments at Kew, 
and for the purchase of apparatus required for that purpose. The notifica- 
tion of this grant has been but just received, but, by its aid, M. Regnault's 
apparatus for calibrating and graduating Thermometer Tubes has already 
been procured, and steps have been taken for the examination of the different 
kinds of glass which are likely to be best adapted for thermometers. 

4. £175 has been allotted from the Government Grant of 1851, to Pro- 
fessor Stokes, of Cambridge, for Experiments to be made at Kew, to de- 
termine the Index of Friction in different Gases. The notification of this 
grant is also very recent ; but apparatus has been ordered, and the expe- 
riments will be commenced forthwith. 

With this assistance, the expenditure for the maintenance of the Obser- 
vatory has not exceeded the sum placed at the disposal of the Council for 
that purpose ; and there are no debts. 

In the various experimental researches which have been thus enumerated, 
conducted as they severally are by Members of the British Association, 
whose services are gratuitous, the Council are glad to be able to report, on 
the authority of the Kew Committee, that great advantage is derived from 
the zeal, assiduity and intelligence with which they are assisted by Mr. 
Welsh, late Assistant in Sir Thomas Brisbane's Observatory at Makerstoun, 
whose services the Council have engaged at a salary of £100 a year (with 
residence), payable out of the £300 placed at their disposal by the General 
Committee, but not guaranteed of course beyond the current year, which 
terminates with the Ipswich Meeting. 

In concluding this notice of the present state and prospects of the Kew 
Observatory, the Council take occasion to remark, that the liberality with 
which the British Association has nursed the infancy of an establishment, 
novel in its purposes, and not therefore perhaps duly appreciated by 
all at first, has already produced contributions towards its objects from other 
sources, and which in the present year considerably exceed the sum granted 
by the Association itself; and taking into account that the institution works 
well under its present arrangements and on its present footing, and believing 
that its continuance will be conducive alike to the advancement of science 
and to the credit of the British Association, they recommend that the grant 
of £300 to the Kew Observatory should be continued for the next year. 



BESBARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXIX 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Ipswich Meeting in July 1851. 

Involving Grants of Money. 

The Establishment at Kew Observatory £300. 

That Professor J. D. Forbes be requested to continue a Series of Experi- 
ments, for the purpose of testing the results of the Mathematical Theory of 
Heat ; that Professor Kelland be requested to co-operate with him ; and that 
£50 be placed at the disposal of Prof. Forbes for the purpose. 

That Professor E. Forbes and Professor Bell be requested to continue their 
assistance to Dr. Thomas Williams in his researches on the Annelida, with 
£10 at their disposal. 

That the Committee on the Vitality of Seeds be requested to continue 
their attention to that subject, with £6 at their disposal. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. K. Hunt, Dr. G. Wilson, and Dr. 
Gladstone, be requested to investigate the influence of the solar radiations 
on chemical combinations, electrical phaenomena, and the vital powers of 
plants growing under different atmospheric conditions, with £20 at their 
disposal. 

That Lord Monteagle, Sir J. Boileau, Mr. G. R. Porter, Mr. J. Fletcher, 
Dr. Stark, and Professor Hancock, be requested to prepare a Report on the 
Census of the United Kingdom ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. Fairbairn, C.E., be requested to make a series of Experi- 
ments on the tensile strength of Wrought Iron Boiler-Plates at various tem- 
peratures ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Ramsay be requested to prepare a large Geological Map 
of Great Britain and Ireland for the use of the Geological Section during 
the Meetings of the Association, with £15 at his disposal for the purpose. 

Involving Application to Government or Public Institutions, or Members of 
tJie Legislature. 

That the Parliamentary Committee of the British Association do consist 
of Thirteen Members. 

That the following Noblemen and Gentlemen be requested to constitute 
the Committee : — The Lord Wrottesley, the Duke of Argyll, the Earl of 
Enniskillen, the Earl of Harrowby, the Earl Cathcart, the Earl of Rosse, 
the Lord Bishop of Oxford, Sir Philip Egerton, Bart., Sir Charles Lemon, 
Bart., Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart., J. H. Vi- 
vian, Esq., James Heywood, Esq. 

That in case of vacancies occurring in the Committee, the General Com- 
mittee shall, at their next ensuing Meeting, proceed to fill up such vacancies 
from Members of the British Association who are Members of either House 
of Parliament, and who have either communicated to a Philosophical Society 
any paper which has been printed in its Transactions, or have advanced the 
interests of Science. 

That the Parliamentary Committee shall have power to appoint Members 
of the Legislature who are Members of the British Association qualified as 
above mentioned, to act ad interim till such vacancies be supplied. 

That the Parliamentary Committee have the power to call in the aid of 
any Members of the Legislature on any occasion on which they may deem 
such assistance expedient. 

That the Rev. Dr. Whewell, the Earl of Rosse, Sir John F. W. Herschel, 
and the Astronomer Royal, be a Committee to apply to Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment with a view of inducing them to send an expedition consisting of one 



XXX REPORT — 1851. 

or two small vessels to trace the course of the Tides in the Atlantic, with an 
especial view to ascertain the points of divergence and of convergence of 
the tidal wave on the West Coast of Africa and on the East Coast of South 
America, the progress of the diurnal inequality and of the semi-mensual in- 
equality on those coasts, tiie relation of the tides at islands remote from the 
coasts with the tides on the coasts, and the direction and degree of the 
streams of ebb and flow in the various regions of the Ocean. 

The Committee having had brought to their notice the zoological and 
anatomical investigations made by Mr. T. H. Huxley, Assistant Surgeon oF 
Her Majesty's Ship Rattlesnake, during the Surveying Voyages conducted 
by the late Captain Owen Stanley on the Coasts of Australia and New 
Guinea, and believing those researches to be of the greatest value and to 
throw new light on the structure and history of tribes of animals hitherto 
imperfectly understood, — 

Resolved, — That application be made to Her Majesty's Government for a 
grant towards their publication, since without such aid the materials col- 
lected and researches made during the Expedition in question cannot be 
placed before the public. 

The Committee, having had brought to their notice the extent and im- 
portance of the Botanical Collections and observations made by Dr. J. D. 
Hooker and Dr. T. Thomson in the Himalaya Mountains and other parts 
of India where they have lately been employed on Botanical missions nnder 
Her Majesty's Government and the East India Company, and to which special 
attention was directed in the opening address of the President of the Asso- 
ciation; and having further learned that other vajuable collections have 
lately been made in the Himalaya by Major Madden, Captain R. Strachey 
and Mr. J. E. Winterbottom, which are now available; also taking into con- 
sideration tiie amount of unpublished materials from the same country still 
deposited in our Museums; and knowing that Drs. Hooker and Thomson, 
who are both accomplished Botanists, are willing to undertake the arrange- 
ment of all these materials with the intention of combining them with former 
publications into a general Indian Flora, — 

Resolved, — That Her Majesty's Government and the Court of Directors of 
the East India Company be requested to give the aid essential for the speedy 
publication of such a work, which they conceive would be a most valuable 
addition to our Botanical knowledge, but which is manifestly beyond the 
means of private individuals. They would further add, that it appears to 
them most important that immediate steps should be taken in this matter 
while the great mass of the Collections is still uninjured by time, and while 
their description can be undertaken by the very persons who made them, 
— a combination of advantages which must soon be lost. 
The Committee of the British Association having had brought before 

them the explorations of Captain Richard Strachey of the Bengal Engineers 

in the Himalaya Mountains and Thibet, and the desirableness of the speedy 

publication of these researches, — 

Resolved,— Tliat a request be made to the Court of Directors of the East 
India Company to afford to Captain Strachey such aid as will enable hina to 
lay them before the public with such illustrations in Maps and Plates as 
are essential for their proper elucidation. 

Reports requested. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson. -~0n the Progress of Captive Balloon Experiments. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXXI 

Sir W. S. Harris. — On the Progress of the Reduction of 12 years' Anemo- 
metrical Observations placed in his hands for that purpose. 

Prof. W. Thomson. — On Electrical Theories. 

Professor Powell. — On Radiant Heat. 

Lieut.-Col. Sabine. — Results of Magnetic Cooperation and Magnetic Sur- 
veys. 

Committee (Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Graham, Sir R. Kane, Prof. Gregory 
and Prof. Williamson). — On Nomenclature of Organic Substances. 

W. Thompson, Esq. — On Natural History of Ireland. 

Committee of Prof. Henslow, W. Thompson, Esq., Sir W. Jardine, Prof. 
Phillips, C. C. Babington, Esq., A. Strickland, Esq., H. E. Strickland, Esq. 
Prof. E. Forbes, F. W. Johnson, Esq., Prof. Ansted, Prof. Owen, Dr. J. D. 
Hooker, J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., Rev. M. J. Berkeley, Prof. Harvey, J. E. 
Gray, Esq., J. Alder, Esq., Dr. G. Johnston. — On Typical Arrangements in 
Provincial Museums of Natural History. 

W. Fairbairn, Esq. — On Mechanical Properties of Metals as derived from 
repeated meltings, exhibiting the maximum point of strength and the causes 
of deterioration. 

Sir D. Brewster was requested to publish his Experiments on the Spectrum. 

Printing of Communications. 

That Mr. Drew's Tables of Mean Results of Meteorological Observations 
at Southampton be printed at length in the Volume of the Association. 

That M. Dumas be requested to favour the Association with a written 
statement of his verbal remarks " On Atomic Volume and Atomic Weight, 
with considerations on the probability that certain bodies now considered as 
Elementary may be decomposed," for the purpose of being printed in full in 
the Report for the present year. 

That Professor Daubeny be requested to furnish a copy of his paper " On 
the Chemical Nomenclature of Organic Substances," to be printed in the 
Volume of Reports, and that the Committee appointed on this subject be 
furnished as early as possible with 100 copies of such communication for 
circulation amongst those chemists most likely to afford assistance. 

Miscellaneous. 

That the following gentlemen be requested to act as a Sub-committee to 
consider and report to the Council within two months on the propriety of 
printing, in the next Volume as a Report, Dr. Donaldson's paper " On 
Ethnographical Classification : " — The Chevalier Bunsen, Dr. Latham, Col. 
Rawlinson, Rev. Mr. Rigaud and Mr. Cull. 

That Mr. Cull be added to the Committee to print Ethnological queries, in 
the place of Vice-Admiral Malcolm, deceased. 

N.B. The following Recommendations from the Committee of Section C 
(Geology), did not reach the Committee of Recommendations in time to be 
reported on, but have been since acted on by direction of the Council : — 

That a Committee be appointed to take into consideration and report 
upon the exact position, number and nature of the phosphatic beds of the 
Crag, and to connect this subject with that of mineral manures generally with 
reference to their scientific and oeconomic value ; and further to investigate 
the geological conditions under which the so-called ' Coprolites ' and other 
drifted Organic and Inorganic bodies occur in the Red Crag, and the proba- 
ble sources from which these bodies have been respectively derived. The 



XXXii REPORT — 1851. 

Committee to consist of Prof. Henslow, Mr. Searles Wood and Mr. Long, 
with power to add to their number. 

That Mr. Searles Wood be requested to prepare for the next Meeting 
of the Association, a Report of the observed distribution of the specific 
forms of Vertebrata and Invertebrata in the supracretaceous deposits in the 
vicinity of Ipswich. 

That Mr. Logan's paper on the Geology of Canada be printed in full in 
the next Volume of the Reports of the Association. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated' to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Ipswich Meeting in July 1851, with 
the Name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Committee^ 
is entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory, £ s. d. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying Expenses 300 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 
Forbes, Prof. J. D. — Experiments for the purpose of testing the 

results of the Mathematical Theory of Heat 50 

Chemical Science. 

Hunt, Mr. R.— Influence of the Solar Radiations or Chemical 
Combinations, Electrical Phsenomena, and the Vital Powers 
of Plants growing under different atmospheric conditions. . 20 

Geology. 

Ramsay, Prof. — Geological Map of Great Britain and Ireland, 
for the use of the Geological Section during the Meetings 
of the Association 15 

Natural History. 

Forbes, Prof. E. — Researches on Annelida 10 

Strickland, H. E.— Vitality of Seeds 6 

Statistics. 

Mqnteagle, Lord — Report on the Census of the UnitedKing- 

dom 20 

Mechanical Science. 
Fairbairn, Mr. W.C.E. — Experiments on the Tensile Strength 

of Wrought Iron Boiler plates at various temperatures . . 20 

Grants £441 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXUl 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions .... 62 

BritishFossil Ichthyolog y 105 

£167 

1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

BritishFossil Ichthyology 105 
Thermometric Observa- 
tions, &c 50 

Experiments on long- 
continued Heat .... 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£434 14 

1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants .. 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

' Observations on Waves. 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 89 5 
VitrificationExperiments 150 
Heart Experiments .... 8 4 6 
Barometric Observations 30 
Barometers .......... 11 18 6 

£918 14 6 

1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes . . 100 

MeteorologicalObserva- 
tions and Anemometer 

(construction) 100 

Cast Iron (strength of) . 60 

Animal and Vegetable 
Substances (preserva- 
tion of) 19 1 10 

Carried forward £308 1 10 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 308 1 10 

Railway Constants .... 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee . . 50 
Heart Experiments. .. . 5 3 
Land and Sea Level . . 267 8 7 
Subterranean Tempera- 
ture 8 6 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Commit- 
tee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 

£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 63 
Mechanism of Waves . . 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology andSubter- 

ranean Temperature . 21 
VitrificationExperiments 9 
Cast Iron Experiments . 100 
Railway Constants .... 28 
Land and Sea Level . . 274 
Steam-Vessels' Engines. 100 
Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 
Animal Secretions .... 10 
Steam-engines in Corn- 
wall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron. 40 
Heat on Organic Bodies 3 
Gases on Solar Spec- 
trum 22 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations, Inver- 
ness and Kingussie . . 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 

£1595 11 



10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 






















7 8 
2 9 




XXXIV 



REPORT — 1851. 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Tempera- 
ture c 13 

Heart Experiments .... 18 

Lungs Experiments . . 8 

Tide Discussions. ..,. . 50 

Land and Sea Level . . 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) .... 2G4 

Atmospheric Air. .... . 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 
MeteorologicalObserva- 

tions 52 

Foreign Scientific Me- 
moirs 112 

Working Population .. 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels .... 184 
Chemical and Electrical 

Phcenomena 40 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 80 
Magnetical Observations 185 

£1546 





13 6 

19 

13 



11 1 

10 

15 



15 







17 6 

1 6 





7 





13 9 



1841. 

Observations on Waves. SO 
Meteorologyand Subter- 
ranean Temperature . 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks .. 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents. . 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers. . 6 18 

Stars (Histoire Celeste). 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 

Stars (Catalogue of) . . 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Inverness , . 20 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions (reduction of).. 25 

Carried forward £539 10 



16 4 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 539 10 8 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs , . , , 62 
Railway Sections .... 38 1 6 
Forms of Vessels .... 193 12 
Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Plymouth . . 55 
Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 
Fishes of the Old Red 

Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leilh 50 

x^nemometer at Edin- 
burgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 
Dynamometric Instru- 
ments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae .. 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light SO 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education. . 20 
Marine Steam-vessels' 

Engines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 
Stars (British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of) ..110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites .... 50 
Fossil Reptiles (publica- 
tion of Report) .... 210 . 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experi- 
ments at Plymouth. . 68 
Constant Indicator and 
Dynamometric Instru- 
ments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

LightonGrowthof Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of 

Seeds 8 1 11 

Carried forward £1442 8 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXV 



£ s. 

Brought forward 1442 8 
Questions on Human 

Race 7 9 



£1449 17 8 















12 


8 









1843. 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars .... 2 

Reduction of Stars, Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue 9,5 

Anomalous Tides, Frith 
of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological 
Observations at Kin- 
gussie and Inverness 

Meteorological Observa 
tions at Plymouth . . 

Whewell's Meteorolo- 
gical Anemometer at 
Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Osier's Anemo- 
meter at Plymouth . . 

Reduction of Meteorolo- 
gical Observations . . 

Meteorological Instru- 
ments and Gratuities 

Construction of Anemo- 
meter at Inverness . . 

Magnetic Co-operation . 

Meteorological Recorder 
for Kew Observatory 

Action of Gases on Light 

Establishment at Kew 
Observatory, Wages, 
Repairs, Furniture and 
Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive 
Balloons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails 
of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles .... 40 

Coloured Drawings of 
Railway Sections ... . 147 

Registration of Earth- 
quake Shocks SO 

Report on Zoological 
Nomenclature 10 



77 



55 









6 

12 2 

8 10 



16 1 

4 7 

8 





18 S 







Carried forward £977 6 7 



Brought forward 977 

Uncovering Lower Red 
Sandstone near Man- 
chester 4 

Vegetative Power of 
Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits 
of) 10 

Marine Zoology ...... 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report 
on British Fossil Mam- 
malia 100 

Physiological operations 
of Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments 
on theForms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments 
on theForms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Observa- 
tions on the Forms of 
Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and 
Constant Indicator . . 69 

Experiments on the 
Strength of Materials 60 



s. 


d. 


6 


7 


4 


6 


3 


8 














14 


11 













5 


8 




















14 


10 









£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and 
Inverness 12 

ConipletingObservations 

at Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation. . 25 8 4 

Publication of the Bri- 
tish Association Cata- 
logue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides 
on the East Coast of 
Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomen- 
clature of Stars.. 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment in Kew Ob- 
servatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Ob- 
servatory 56 7 3 

Carried forward £384 2 4 



XXXVl 



REPORT — 1851. 



15 



100 



23 



20 



Brought forward 384 
Influence of Light on 

Plants 10 

Subterraneous Tempera- 
ture in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of 

Railway Sections. . . . 

Investigation of Fossil 

Fishes of the Lower 

Tertiary Strata .... 

Registering tlie Shocks 

of Earthquakes, 1842 

Researches into the 

Structure of Fossil 

Shells 

Radiata and Mollusca of 
the ^gean and Red 

Seas 1842 

Geographical distribu- 
tions of Marine Zo- 
ology 1842 

Marine Zoology of De- 
von and Cornwall . . 
Marine Zoology of Corfu 
Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vi- 
tality of Seeds. . 1842 8 
Researches on Exotic 

Anoplura 15 

Experiments on the 

Strength of Materials 100 
Completing Experiments 

on the Forms of Ships 100 
Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 
investigations on the in- 
ternal Constitution of 

Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and 
Morin's Instrument, 
1842 10 



s. 
2 


d. 

4 














17 


6 








11 


10 









100 



10 



10 
10 







3 

7 3 











3 6 



£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue 
of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Inverness .. 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteoro- 
logical Co-operation 16 16 8 

Carried forward ^6399 10 1 



Brought forward 399 
Meteorological Instru- 
ments at Edinburgh 18 
Reduction of Anemome- 
tricai Observations at 

Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments 

at Kew Observatory 43 
Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment in Kew Ob- 
servatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometro- 

graph 25 

Gases from Iron Fur- 
naces 50 

Experiments on the Ac- 

tinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura ..1843 10 
Vitality of Seeds.. 1843 2 
Vitality of Seeds . . 1 844 7 
Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall 10 

Physiological Action of 

Medicines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York . . 20 
Registration of Earth- 
quake Shocks . .1843 15 



s. d. 

10 1 

11 9 









17 


8 


15 































7 





















14 


8 



£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Ca- 
talogue of Stars, 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the Lon- 
don Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaus- 
sian Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory 146 16 

Experiments on the 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 

Examination of Fossil 
Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds. . 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds.. 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall 10 





15 10 
12 3 



Carried forward £605 15 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXVU 



£, 

605 



15 




7 
S 

3 

ly 



d. 

10 




6 
G 



Brought forward 

Marine Zoology of Bri- 
tain 10 

Exotic Anoplura . . 1 844 25 

Expenses attendingAne- 
mometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs . 2 

Researches on Atmo- 
spheric Waves .... 3 

Captive Balloons ..1844 8 

Varieties of the Human 

Race 1844 7 6 3 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality at York . . 12 



£685 16 



1847. 








Computation of theGaus- 
sian Constants fori 839 


50 








Habitsof Marine Animals 


10 








Physiological Action of 
Medicines 


20 








Marine Zoology of Corn- 
wall 


10 








Researches on Atmo- 








spheric Waves 

Vitality of Seeds 


6 

4 


9 

7 


3 
7 


Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at Kew Ob- 








servatory .•......•. 


107 


8 


6 


£208 


5 


4 



1848. 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory 171 15 11 

Researches on Atmo- 
spheric Waves .... 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues 

of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters . 5 

On Growth of Plants . . 15 
£275 1 8 



£ s. d. 

1849. 

Electrical Observations 

at Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 



On Growth of Plants.. 5 

Registration of Periodi- 
cal Phsenomena .... 10 

Bill on account of Ane- 
mometrical Observa- 
tions 1 < 



9 



£159 19 6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Esta- 
blishment at KewOb- 
servatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake 

Waves 50 

Periodical Phaenomena 15 

Meteoi'ological Instru- 

strument, Azores . . 25 



£345 


18 





1851. 








Maintaining the Esta- 








blishment at Kew Ob- 








servatory (includes 








part of grant in 1849) 


309 


2 


2 


Experiments on the 








Theory of Heat .... 


20 


1 


1 


Periodical Phaenomena 








of Animals and Plants 


5 








Vitality of Seeds .... 


5 


6 


4 


Influence of Solar Ra- 








diation 


30 
12 









Ethnological Inquiries . 





Researches on Annelida 


10 








£391 


9 


7 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 



xxxviii REPORT — 1851. 

statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the As- 
sociation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report 
that the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., C Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings (in the Corn Exchange'). 

On Wednesday, July 2nd, at 8 p.m., the late President, Sir David Brewster, 
K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.R.S.E., resigned his Office to George 
Biddell Airy, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal, who took the 
Chair at the General Meeting, and delivered an Address, for which see 
p. xxxix. 

On Thursday, July 3rd, a Microscopic Soiree took place from 8 to 10 p.m. 

On Friday, July 4th, at 8 p.m., Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S., Professor of 
Anatomy in the College of Surgeons, London, delivered a Discourse on the 
distinction between Plants and Animals, and their Changes of Form. 

On Monday, July 7th, at 8 p.m., the President, G. B. Airy, Esq., F.R.S., 
Astronomer Royal, delivered a Discourse on the Total Solar Eclipse of 
July 28, 1851. 

On Tuesday Evening, July 8th, at 8 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
of the Association was held in the Theatre of the Mechanics' Institute, when 
the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the grants of Money for scien- 
tific purposes were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Belfast in 1852*. 
* The Meeting is appointed to take Place on Wednesday, the 1st of Septemher, 1852. 



ADDRESS 

BT 

GEORGE BIDDELL AIRY, 

M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c., Astronomer Royal. 



Gentlemen of the British Association, — I cannot take the Chair 
at this meeting, even after the cordial invitation of your General Com- 
mittee, without a painful feeling, not only of the general responsibilities of 
the position, but also of the difficulties which are peculiar to myself. En- 
gaged officially in a science the pursuit of which leaves little leisure for the 
employment of time and little freedom for the range of thought, I follow 
a philosopher whose investigations have been dispersed through almost 
every branch of physical science. My own attendance at the meetings of 
the Association has been limited, and my acquaintance with its forms of 
proceedings small : and I feel the disadvantage of succeeding in this Chair 
one who may justly be regarded as the Founder of the Association. Still, 
I have judged it incumbent on me to accede to the honourable invitation 
which was pressed upon me ; and to endeavour, by attention to the busi- 
ness of the meeting, to render such services to the Association as it may 
be in my power to offer, and such as may in some degree compensate for the 
partial disabilities to which I have alluded. We meet, not as a body of ac- 
complished philosophers, but as a number of individuals, each of us anxious 
for the advance of science, each of us sensible that he cannot urge every part 
of it by his own personal contributions, but each of us desirous of assisting 
it in any direction in which his knowledge or his talents, whether scientific 
or administrative, enable him to give efficient aid. Permit me, on this occa- 
sion, to meet you on the same terms ; and let me offer you my assurance that, 

1851. d 



xl REPORT. — 1851. 

tliough the title of President may not be connected with the highest talent 
or the most universal knowledge in this great assembly, you shall neverthe- 
less find that it is not attached to the least industrious or the least ardent of 
its members. 

It is required by the custom of the Association that at the opening of each 
of its meetings the President should lay before the Association such remarks 
on the state of those sciences which are included in its objects, and especially 
such an account of their progress in the past year, as he may judge suitable 
to the time and serviceable for the guidance of the Association in the conduct 
of the commencing meeting. I find it impossible to give even the most sum- 
mary statement of this nature without alluding to the acts of the Association, 
and to the establishment or modification of other institutions connected with 
Science or Art ; and 1 propose, therefore, to submit to you the mingled hi- 
story of the progress of Science, — of the efforts, the successes, and the failures 
of the Association in reference to it,-^and of the state of some other insti- 
tutions. In some departments I fear that my account will be extremely de- 
fective : ,1 trust, however, that those of my hearers who may be sufficiently 
interested in this Address to notice its omissions will not fail to use the op- 
portunities of various kinds which the discussions in the Sectional meetings 
afford for supplying them. 

Commencing, then, with the subject which stands first in the Reports of 
the Association, and on which the funds of the Association have been most 
generously expended and its influence very energetically employed, I remark 
that the progress of Astronomy in the last year has been very great. The 
Earl of Rosse has been much engaged in experiments on the best methods 
of supporting and using his large mirrors. The construction adopted some 
time since is still retained ; namely, a system of levers distributing their 
pressures uniformly over eighty-one points, each pressure being transmitted 
through a small ball which permits to the mirror perfect freedom of slipping 
in its own plane, so as to take proper bearing in the chain or hoop which 
supports it edgeways. To Lord Rosse's critical eye the effect even of this 
imounting, though greatly superior to that of any preceding, is not quite 
perfect. In the progress of the experiments, some singular results have been 
obtained as to the set which a metal so hard as Lord Rosse's composition 
may receive from an unequal pressure of very short duration. A surface of 
silver, I believe, has now been successfully used for the small reflector. Of 
the character of the discoveries in nebulae made with this instrument I can- 
not briefly give any very correct idea. The most remarkable is, the disco- 
very of new instances of spirally-arranged nebulae : but there are also some 
striking examples of dark holes in bright matter, dark clefts in bright rays, 



ADDRESS. 



xli 



and resolvability of apparently nebulous matter into stars. I do not deny 
the importance of the last observation ; but as it might be predicted before- 
hand that the increase in the dimensions of telescopes would lead to more 
extensive resolution of nebulae, I do not hold the inference* to be by any 
means certain that all nebulae are resolvable. Mr. Lassell exhibited at the 
last meeting of the Association a plan for supporting his two-feet mirrors 
without flexure. This plan, slightly modified, has been adopted in use : and 
I am assured that the improvement in what before seemed almost perfect 
definition is very great. The removal of the vexatious fiscal interferences 
with the manufacture of glass, and the enterprise with which Mr. Chance as 
manufacturer and Mr. Simms and Mr. Ross as opticians, have taken up the 
construction of large object-glasses, promise to lead to the most gratifying 
results. Already Mr. Simms has partially tested object-glasses of 13 inches 
aperture ; and one of 1 6 inches is waiting not for the flint but for the crown 
lens. Mr. Ross, it is understood, has ground an object-glass of 2 feet 
aperture ; but it has not been tested. The facility of procuring large object- 
glasses will undoubtedly lead to the extensive construction of graduated in- 
struments on a larger scale than before ; and it is in this view that I contem- 
plate as a matter of no small importance the erection (this year) of the large 
transit-circle at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. It is known to many 
members of the Association that this instrument was constructed in this town, 
by Messrs. Ransomes and May ; and for the admirable proportions of its 
various parts, for the firmness of fitting of the few portions of which it is 
composed, and for the accuracy of the external forms of pivots, &c., it may 
well be considered as one of the finest specimens of engineering that has ever 
been produced. As an example of an excellent mechanical structure carry- 
ing a large object-glass, I think it probable that this Greenwich transit-circle 
may have a great influence on the construction of future instruments. I had 
hoped to be able by this time to report to the Association on the American 
method of recording transits, by a puncture or dot produced by a galvanic 
agency whose circuit is closed by a touch of the observer's finger, — and espe- 
cially on its fitness for the wants of a really active observatory ; but the de- 
lays of construction have prevented me from doing so. Shortly before the 
last meeting of the Association, the President for the time (Dr. Robinson) 
transmitted to the Government, on the part of the Association, a general 
request that a large reflecting telescope might be sent to some of the British 
possessions in the southern hemisphere, for the purpose of observing the 
southern nebulse ; and shortly after that meeting an answer was received 
from the Lords of the Treasury, to the effect that their Lordships entirely 
recognised the importance of the object, but that there appeared to be prac- 

d2 



Xlii REPORT. — 1851. 

tical difficulties in the immediate execution of the design. I cannot doubt 
that when a more explicit plan has been formed, another representation will 
be accompanied with the same success which has attended every application 
made by the Association for aid in a carefully arranged design. It will be 
interesting to the Association to learn that the continuation of the observa- 
tions on a Centauri at the Cape of Good Hope has fully confirmed the result 
first obtained, — namely, that the parallax of that star exceeds nine-tenths of 
a second, or that its distance from the sun is about twenty billions of miles. 
So far as we have the means of judging, this star is our nearest neighbour in 
the sidereal spaces. The attention of foreign astronomers is still directed to 
the irregularities in tlie proper motions of stars, and the opinion seems to be 
gaining ground that many of them are accompanied by non-luminous com- 
panions. In our own solar system, the most remarkable discovery is that 
(made independently, though on different days, in America and in England) 
of a dusky ring interior to the well-known rings of Saturn. It now appears 
that it had been seen several years before ; but it then attracted no attention. 
How such a ring is composed, and how sustained, are questions upon which 
perhaps the physical astronomer may long employ himself. But the disco- 
very for which the year will be most frequently cited is that of tliree addi« 
tional planets, included in the same planetary space — between Mars and Ju- 
piter — in which eleven others had been previously found. The last of these 
(Irene) discovered by Mr. Hind, observer in the private observatory of Mr. 
Bishop, forms the fourth of his list, — and makes his number the greatest 
that any one man has ever discovered. Some time since, a grant was made 
by the British Government for the perfection of the Lunar Theory and Lunar 
Tables on which Prof. Hansen, of Gotha, had been engaged, but whose pro- 
gress was stopped by the interruption of funds in consequence of the unhappy 
Schleswig-Holstein war. I understand, that with the aid of this grant, 
equally honourable to the British Government and to the foreign philo- 
sopher, the work is now rapidly advancing. I have reason to believe that 
the theories of Uranus and Neptune are now undergoing careful revision ; 
and I trust that one of the elements most urgently required, namely, the 
mass of Neptune, will be supplied from observations of Neptune's satellite 
made with the large telescopes to which I have alluded. 

At the Edinburgh meeting, the attention of the Mathematical and Physical 
Section was called by M. O. Struve (there present) to the total eclipse of 
the sun which is to occur on the 28th day of the present month ; and the 
General Committee appointed a Committee of members of the Association 
to draw up Suggestions for the observation of the eclipse. These Suggestions 
have been extensively distributed both at home and abroad : and I am happy 



ADDRESS. Xliii 

to announce one of the results. After consideration of the singular appear- 
ances observed in the eclipse of 1842, it was determined by the Committee 
to recommend (among other things) that observing stations should be se- 
lected, if possible, in triplets : the three stations of each triplet having rela- 
tion to the north boundary, the centre, and the south boundary of the shadow. 
The Russian Government has fully adopted this suggestion ; and has actually 
equipped six triplets, including in all eighteen stations, with observers and 
instruments for the observation of the eclipse. Russian officers in the Sea 
of Azov and the Black Sea will also observe it. Since the issue of the Sug- 
gestions, the observations made last year on an eclipse visible at Honolulu 
in the Sandwich Islands have been received ; and they make us, if possible, 
still more desirous that the spirit of the Suggestions should be complied 
with, as far as possible. There is only one subject of regret connected with 
this remarkable eclipse, — namely, that it will deprive us of the assistance of 
several astronomers who would undoubtedly have joined this meeting but 
for the necessity of being ready, at definite points, for the observation of the 
phsenomena. 

Among subjects related in some measure to astronomy, I may first allude 
to M. Foucault's experiment on the rotation of the plane of a simple pen- 
dulum's vibration ; an experiment which has excited very great attention 
both in France and in England, as visibly proving, if proof were necessary, 
the rotation of the earth. It is certain that M. Foucault's theory is correct, 
but it is also certain that careful adjustments, or measures of defect of ad- 
justment, are necessary to justify the deduction of any valid inference. For 
want of these, the experiment has sometimes failed. The Council of the 
Association have long regretted the very great delay which has occurred in 
the publication of the geodetic results of our great National Survey ; and 
they were prepared some time since to represent strongly to the Government 
the expediency of taking immediate steps for completing the few calculations 
which yet remained to be made, and for publishing the whole in a form 
which should be available for discussions of the figure of the earth. On 
communicating with the Royal Society they learned that that body had made 
an urgent recommendation to the same tenor, and that in consequence 
Government had consented to place on the Estimates a sum of money ex- 
pressly for the purpose of completing and publishing the scientific portions 
of the survey. I have received official information that this work is now in 
active progress ; and I cannot but remark on it as a striking instance of how 
much may be sometimes effected for the purposes of science by simply com- 
pleting what i^ nearly complete. The great Swedish and Russian Arc of 
Meridian, from the North Cape to the Danube, is so far advanced that its 
completion is expected in the present year. 



yliy REPORT. — 1851. 

At the last meeting of the Association, a Committee was appointed ex- 
pressly to urge on the Government, what had long excited the attention of 
the Association, the defective state of the Survey as regards Scotland. I am 
happy in stating that there is strong reason to hope that a large sum will in 
future be appropriated to the Scotch Survey. Whether this be considered 
as giving to the country the advantages of an accurate territorial map or as 
aiding in a most peculiar degree in geological inquiries, — in either point of 
view it is a matter of interest to the Association, and it will be a matter of 
satisfaction to them that, mainly through their representation, this object has 
been attained. 

The next subject to which the influence of the Association was ener- 
getically directed is. Terrestrial Magnetism ; with which Meteorology has 
usually been associated. Although the active employment of several of the 
Colonial Magnetic and Meteorological Observatories has terminated (those 
only of Toronto, Hobartown, Cape of Good Hope, Madras and Bombay 
being retained, and only in partial activity), the work connected with them 
has not yet ceased. Much has yet to be done in the printing and discussion 
of the observations : — a work going on under the care of Col. Sabine. In 
tacit association with the representative of the Government, the agents of the 
Association are employed at the Kew Observatory, under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Ronalds, in devising or examining new instruments. The Da- 
guerreotype method of self-registration (which is perhaps liable to this ob- 
jection, that the original records are destroyed) has been extended to the 
vertical-force instrument. Apparatus has been arranged for the graduation 
of original thermometers — a subject to which the attention of M. Regnault 
and Mr. Sheepshanks had been advantageously directed. And, with the 
assistance of a portion of the sum placed by the Government at the disposal 
of the Royal Society (to which I shall hereafter refer), it is hoped by the 
officers of the Association that the Kew Observatory will be made really 
efficient for the testing of new instruments. Dr. Robinson's very instructive 
account of his new anemometer has lately been received : this instrument, 
however, has not yet been used in many places. Among the immediate de- 
ductions from magnetic observations, I may specially mention Col. Sabine's 
remarks on the periodical laws discoverable in disturbances apparently of the 
most irregular kind, and M. Kamtz's corrections of the Gaussian constants. 
Among the more distant results, there is nothing comparable to the experi- 
mental inquiries into the magnetic properties of oxygen, and especially into 
the variation of its power, made by Messrs. Faraday and Becquerel, — and 
the application of these results to the explanation of the phsenomena, in 
almost all their varied forms, of so-called terrestrial magnetism. It is to the 
former of these philosophers that this great step in the explanation of obscure 



ADDRESS. Xlv 

natural phaenomena by inference from delicate experiments, is mainly or 
entirely due. Much, of course, remains to be done, before we can pronounce 
accurately how far this principle enables us to account, without reference to 
any other cause, for the regular changes, as well as for the capricious disturb- 
ances, in ordinary magnetism. I ought not to omit stating that such general 
explanation had long ago been suggested in a very remarkable paper by 
Mr. Christie; but the experiments actually applying to the magnetic pro- 
perties of oxygen were unknown, and perhaps impossible, at that time. In 
the science of abstract magnetism, the distinction between paramagnetic and 
diamagnetic substances has been thoroughly worked out by Mr. Faraday, 
and is now received as one of the most remarkable laws of nature. In the 
related subject of Galvanism, although much of detailed law has been esta- 
blished by the labours of the same great man and of others, it is difficult to 
fix upon any new law of general character. Experiments made in America 
seem to establish that the velocity of the galvanic current in iron wires of a 
certain size does not exceed fifteen or eighteen thousand miles per second : 
a much greater speed, however, is inferred by M. Fizeau, from the same ex- 
periments. The first part of an elaborate mathematical theory of Magnetism, 
by Prof. Thomson, has been published. In Meteorology, some striking facts 
have been collected and arranged by Col. Sykes in regard to India, by 
Messrs. Schlagintweit in regard to the Alps, and by M. Plantamour in the 
comparison of observations at Geneva and the Great St. Bernard ; and some 
very unexpected facts have been extracted by M. Arago from the obser- 
vations in a balloon ascent at Paris. The systematic collection of observa- 
tions of luminous meteors, in Reports by Prof. Powell, printed in the volumes 
of the Association for the last two years, can scarcely fail to lead to some 
discovery of the origin and nature of those mysterious bodies. An extensive 
series of meteorological observations had been made at the Ordnance Survey 
Office at Mountjoy, near Dublin, and the Association some years since re- 
commended to the Government the early printing of those observations. I 
have the gratification of stating that considerable progress has now been 
made in preparing them for the press. 

At the last meeting of the Association a project was laid before the Ge- 
neral Committee by M. KupfTer, for the formation of a Meteorological Con- 
federation, to be extended over the whole of Europe. A very extensive 
organization, covering almost the whole Russian Empire, has already been 
created. The Council, to whom this project was referred, after very careful 
consideration, deemed it inexpedient to join in the proposed Confederation. 
They were deterred by various practical difficulties, of which some may per- 
haps always exist, while others are felt with unusual force at the present 
time. It was with extreme unwillingness that the Council adopted this reso- 



xlvi REPORT. 1851. 

lution, and with the full hope that at some future time a confederation similar 
to that proposed by M. Kupffer may be firmly established. 

Under the auspices of the Board of Ordnance, the officers of the corps of 
Royal Engineers are making arrangements for the establishment of a uniform 
system of meteorological observations, of a simple kind, at the principal en- 
gineers' stations in every part of the earth. If with these could be combined 
occasional trustworthy observations at sea, we should probably have the most 
complete system of Terrestrial Meteorology that we can hope to obtain. 

Among systematic observations of less ostentatious character, I cannot 
omit referring to the daily report of the state of the wind at 9 o'clock every 
morning, which is supplied by the superintendents of railway stations, over a 
great portion of the British Isles, and printed in the Daily News newspaper. 

A new Meteorological Society has been formed, which (I believe) is at 
least in this respect superior to those which have preceded it — that the in- 
struments used by the various amateur members are strictly comparable : 
great attention having been given to the adjustments of the instruments, by 
the Secretary, Mr. Glaisher. 

In Optics, two or three investigations of rather important character have, 
since the last meeting of the Association, attracted public attention. Expe- 
rimental measures of the velocity of light in air and in water, made by MM. 
Foucault, Fizeau and Breguet, with apparatus nearly similar to that em- 
ployed long ago for analogous purposes by Mr. Whealstone, appear to leave 
no doubt tliat the velocity in water is less than that in air, — a most import- 
ant, and indeed critical, result in regard to theories of light. A remarkable 
investigation by Prof. Stokes, when compared with experiment, seems to 
establish that the vibrations constituting polarized light are, as for other 
reasons was supposed by Fresnel, perpendicular to what is usually called the 
plane of polarization. Some optical theories which admitted formerly of 
very imperfect mathematical treatment have been brought under the domi- 
nion of analysis by Prof. Stokes's powerful methods of investigation. A 
curious series of experiments on diffraction has been i^ublished by Lord 
Brougham ; but they have at present no bearing on theory, as the theoretical 
calculations with which they must be confronted appear to be too difficult 
or too complicated for the present state of pure mathematics. The experi- 
ments of Jamin regarding the reflexion of polarized light under peculiar 
circumstances appear to give support to the theoretical calculations of Cauchy, 
founded on a molecular hypothesis applied to the undulatory theory. And 
lastly, some curious experiments by Masson, Jamin, Prevostaye, and Desains, 
appear to show more fully, what had partially been shown by Prof. Forbes, 
that radiant heat admits of polarization in all respects similar to that of light. 

I hope that we shall receive at this meeting, or shortly, two Reports on 



ADDRESS. xlvii 

subjects connected in some measure with those which I have just mentioned. 
One is from Prof. Stokes, ' On our knowledge of the Theory of vibratory 
Motions of Bodies in general,' — the other from Prof. Willis, ' On Acoustics.' 

Our volume of Reports lately published contains a very complete account, 
by Mr. Hunt, of the present state of our knowledge in regard to the chemical 
effects of solar radiation. 

In the subject of Chemistry, I am not aware that any gi-eat step has been 
made ; although there have been numerous small advances in establishing 
chemical relations and in inventing chemical processes. 

The subject of Geology has always excited much interest in this Associa- 
tion. It is a matter of congratulation that the Museum of Economic Geo- 
logy is now established in a habitation as well as in a form which guarantee 
its permanent and useful existence. Among subjects bordering on Practical 
Geology, I may allude to the late inquiries respecting the supply of water 
from the chalk and Bagshot sand districts as likely to give valuable information. 
In Speculative Geology, the labours of European as well as American geo- 
logists have been continued with their usual ardour, and there are now com- 
paratively few parts of the world which have not been in some degree geolo- 
gically examined. Far be it from me to pretend to assign with exactness 
specific discoveries (in observation or in inference) to specific persons ; to 
say precisely what has been done by Sedgwick, what by Murchison, what by 
Lyeli, what by Verneuil, — or even to state with accuracy what discoveries in 
the aggregate have been made by all. So far, however, as I can gather, the 
principal step made (not in the last year but in the last few years) has been 
of this kind. The line between the chalk group and the lowest tertiary or 
Eocene group has been drawn principally by Sir R. Murchison with great 
distinctness ; and this has been done rather by palaeontological criteria than 
by reasonings from order of superposition, &c. A very great step has been 
made in the classification of the geology of Asia Minor, with the aid of this 
new light, by a foreign geologist, M. Tchihatchef, now present. In the 
course of these investigations, attention has been drawn to the magnitude of 
the disturbances exhibited in these comparatively modern beds, — and the 
question has again been raised in the minds of geologists, whether these 
disturbances can be referred to causes now in action. It would be wrong, 
however, even in this hasty glance, to omit to notice the discovery of traces 
of the tortoise in beds so low as the lowest Silurian rocks, affording (appa- 
rently) evidence of the existence of this animal at a much earlier time than 
had usually been ascribed to it. I should be sorry also to make no reference 
to Sir C. Lyell's calculation of the time of formation of the delta of the Mis- 
sissippi — or to Prof. J. Forbes's paper on the modern extinct volcanos of the 



xlviii REPORT. — 1851. 

Vivarais. I may refer with satisfaction to Mr, Mallet's elaborate 'First 
Report on Earthquake Phsenomena' (lately published in our annual volume), 
— shortly to be followed, I trust, by a second ; and I may also remind my 
hearers that the Association have supplied funds for the construction of a 
machine for earthquake registration, of which the superintendence is entrusted 
to the same gentleman. 

On Zoology and Animal Physiology I can scarcely venture to offer you a 
report, beyond a reference to the three papers on Marine Zoology in our last 
volume, — which I conceive to possess the very highest value. I cannot, 
however, omit all notice of the last Electro-physiological investigations of 
Signor Matteucci : investigations which seem to draw more closely the rela- 
tions of inorganic matter with organic and animated structure than any others 
with which I am acquainted. 

In Vegetable Physiology I must speak in a manner equally undecided. 
But I need scarcely allude to the interest excited among botanists by the 
return of Dr. Hooker from his botanical expedition of some years' duration 
into Upper India and Thibet : an expedition accompanied with great personal 
danger (for the botanist was for some time detained as captive by one of the 
native princes), and in which, moreover, the physical geography of a large 
and hitherto unknown region has been established. In the course of this 
expedition, a peak 28,000 feet high was partially climbed. In European 
Botany the inquiries into the reproduction of cryptogamous plants appear to 
have occupied the most prominent place. I would call your attention to the 
continuation of the Report on the Growth and Vitality of Seeds, which forms 
part of our last volume, — and to the Report, which I trust we may soon 
receive, on the probable effects of the destruction of Tropical forests. 

Before quitting the subject of Natural History, I am bound to allude to 
one subject of great interest to natural philosophers in every branch. It 
had long been matter of regret to many of the most active members of this 
Association that the constitution of the immediate ruling body in the British 
Museum appeared scarcely to offer to them sufficient security for the due 
support of those natural sciences for which, in a great measure, the Museum 
was originally founded. So strongly had this been felt, that the Council 
were prepared to solicit the immediate attention of Government to that point. 
I am happy now to state that, without the exercise of this interference, the 
principal ground of alarm has been removed by the appointment of Sir Philip 
Egerton as one of the Trustees of the British Museum. 

I must omit allusion to Geography, Ethnology and Statistics, and proceed 
to my final subject. 

Engineering and Manufacturing Science have always commanded a great 



ADDRESS. xlix 

$hare of the attention of this Association. The former, indeed, when it is 
made to include experiments on Tides and analogous pheenomena, becomes 
almost one of the cosmical instead of one of the constructive sciences. It 
would be an endless task for the most accomplished mechanic to attempt to 
describe to you the inventions which are constantly made in every part of 
manufacturing science. Confining myself to engineering science, I may 
state, that in the present partial suspension of railway works, and since the 
great achievement of the raising of the Britannia Bridge, there appears to be 
little which has strongly fixed public attention. Considerable importance, 
however, is attached by engineers to some of the processes lately introduced, 
— especially that of thrusting down an air-tight tube or elongated diving- 
bell, supplied with air at the proper pressure, by which men are enabled to 
perform any kind of work under almost any circumstances, and in which 
men or materials may be transferred without disturbance of the apparatus, 
by a contrivance bearing the same relation to air which a common canal-lock 
does to water. Improvements have also been made in the application of 
water-pressure to various mechanical purposes. Some years ago, an exten- 
sive inquiry into the practical uses and properties of various metals was 
made by a Committee appointed by the Board of Admiralty. It appeared 
to the Association a matter of great interest that the Reports of this Com- 
mittee should be published ; and, on their applying to the Admiralty, in- 
structions were immediately given for placing the original Reports in the 
hands of the Council of the Association. The Council have requested Mr. 
James Nasmyth to draw up an abstract of the principal contents of these 
Reports ; and this abstract, I hope, will be presented to the present meeting 
of the Association. Other Reports on important engineering subjects, for 
which requests were made by the General Committee at the Edinburgh 
meeting, will, I trust, be communicated to the present meeting. In treating 
of Practical Mechanics, I may perhaps with propriety allude to the investi- 
gations which have lately been made by able engineers regarding the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of Heat. The subject, in this form, is yet new ; but I 
think that the importance of an accurate determination cannot be overrated. 
This also appears the proper place for alluding to a subject which has at- 
tracted the attention of the Association from its very first formation — namely, 
the simplification of our Patent Laws. The measures of the Government on 
more than one occasion have shown that they are desirous of removing the 
inipediment which, in this country (strange to say) more than in any other 
in the world, have been placed in the way of mechanical inventions. 

I cannot quit the subject of Manufactures without alluding to a thing 
which is, so far as I know, perfectly unique in the history of the world,— I 



1 REPORT. — 1851. 

mean the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. On 
the present occasion I can do little more than respectfully refer to the interest 
taken in its establishment by His Hoyal Highness Prince Albert, without 
whose zealous support and continued superintendence the undertaking never 
could have been brought to maturity. I am, however, compelled to cite the 
labours of His Royal Highness in the cause of the Exhibition, as well as the 
visit witli which in a few hours we hope to be honoured, as a proof how 
much is common to his desires and to ours. The ultimate effects of an en- 
terprise so vast, so novel, must yet be matter of vague conjecture ; but one 
thing can scarcely be doubted — and in the presence of the many distinguished 
foreitrners near me I see an incontrovertible argument for it, — that the Exhi- 
bition will have the effect of uniting more closely than ever the separate 
nations of the earth by the ties of commerce, of hospitality, and of mutual 
esteem. 

There are two matters, applying generally to the whole of the subjects of 
which I have spoken, that require notice on the present occasion. The 
first which I have very great pleasure in stating, is, that in this year, for the 
second time, the First Lord of the Treasury has spontaneously placed at the 
disposal of the Royal Society the sum of 1000/., to be employed at their dis- 
cretion in assisting private scientific enterprise. The second is, that it is 
proposed by the Council of the Association so to modify the organization of 
the Committee of members of Legislature who are also members of the As- 
sociation as to make it a really efficient body for the purpose of watching 
the course of legislative measures which may affect the progress of science. 

From this very imperfect sketch of the progress of science and of the 
Association, two things, I think, will be perfectly clear : — first, that there 
has been no slackness in the progress of science during the last year or the 
last few years, as compared with that in preceding years ; secondly, that in 
this progress the British Association has taken a most active and efficient 
part, in all the ways in which it is possible for it lo act, by the private labours 
of its members, by the discussions in its Sections, by the preparation of 
Reports, by the corporate action of the Association in granting money for 
purchase of instruments and expense of experiments, by its co-operation with 
other scientific bodies, and by its immediate influence on the Government. 
It would not be easy to compare the values of the different results produced 
in these different ways. Those persons who enter actively into the pro- 
ceedings of the meetings will set a very high estimate on the personal inter- 
course and oral discussion of the Sections ; — those who purchase its publica- 
tions are unanimous in regarding its series of Reports as one of the most 
precious collections of documents ever given to the public ; while others 



ADDRESS. 11 

regard as one of its most beneficial effects its influence on the Legislature 
and on the Executive. 

Perhaps this may be a proper opportunity for remarking on the constitu- 
tion of the Association, and on the mode in which its influence has been 
acquired and the rules which its structure imposes on its actions. By con- 
sidering it in relation to other institutions of our country, we shall discover 
the fitness of its arrangements for the purposes contemplated in its institution ; 
and by studying on the broad scale the history of the past, we shall learn to 
guide ourselves for the future. 

One of the strongly-marked distinctions between Britain and the other 
states of civilized Europe is this, tliat we have no Academy of Sciences sup- 
ported by the State for the express purpose of advancing Science. Even 
our Universities do not, in their institution, possess this character ; they are 
essentially places of education only, — although, incidentally, they have ren- 
dered inestimable service to Science. And this absence of Government- 
Science harmonizes well with the peculiarities of our social institutions. In 
Science, as well as in almost everything else, our national genius inclines us 
to prefer voluntary associations of private persons to organizations of any 
kind dependent on the State. 

It is not to be expected that this condition of things will be perfectly 
satisfactory to every individual ; and, indeed, a wish has sometimes been 
expressed that an Academy of Sciences were established in Britain. In this 
wish I, personally, do not join. A great German poet and historian, who 
was also a profound and practical thinker, has ascribed the boldness and the 
originality of German literature to the circumstance that it was not encouraged 
by the most distinguished German princes. He regarded the tendency of 
such patronage as enfeebling and almost calamitous. I am inclined to apply 
the same remark, at least to some extent, to Science. I gratefully acknow- 
ledge the services which Government has rendered to Science by acceding 
to the recommendations of this and other bodies who have indisputably esta- 
blished claims to their attention ; I think it is honourable and advantageous 
to every party that the Government should occasionally grant personal rewards 
for important discoveries ; I am of opinion that when any branch of Science 
has been put in such a form that it admits of continued improvement under 
a continued administrative routine, that administration should be undertaken 
by the Government. But I trust that in all cases the initiative of Science 
will be left to individuals or to independent associations. 

In no country, I apprehend, is so much done for Science in private observa- 
tories and private laboratories as in this. The future historian of Astronomy 
will tell of the enormous catalogues of stars observed and the numerous 



lii REPORT. — 1851. 

planets discovered by the telescopes of private observers. The historian 
of Chemistry will tell that those splendid discoveries which have made a 
radical change in the science have been made in institutions supported by 
private subscriptions. The institution of the British Association is an em- 
bodiment of the same principle in a different form. To facilitate the inter- 
course of individuals ardent in the private pursuit of science, it was necessary 
that its assemblies should be large, and almost unrestricted in admission of 
members ; and this condition necessarily carried with it another, that its 
meetings should follow at wide intervals. To enable the nation to learn 
from the provinces and the provinces from the nation, its wandering character 
is essential. 

That in the course of these meetings there has been ample evidence of 
that stimulation which rarely fails to accompany the assemblage of a great 
number of persons engaged in singleness of heart on the same general object, 
can hardly be doubted. In nothing is it more conspicuous than in the pro- 
duction of those elaborate Reports upon which no small portion of our repu- 
tation and our utility is founded. It has been remarkable also in the direction 
of the labours of our members, who have in many instances eagerly taken up 
the trains of subjects indicated by the Association in its meetings. 

But there is another thing into which it is highly important for us (o inquire. 
We communicate with other scientific bodies, British and foreign, and our 
communications are respected. We ofter suggestions to the Government, 
sometimes implying the outlay of large sums of money, — and our suggestions 
are never lightly received. How is it that the Association has acquired this 
external influence? 

I answer, that we have bought it. We have bought it by our own personal 
labours in the same cause for which we solicit the aid of Government. We 
have bought it by the expenditure of our money in a way which shows that 
Science alone is our object in soliciting contributions from our members. 
But, more than all, we have bought it by the care and the caution with which 
our applications to Government have been made. In no instance, I believe, 
has a request been urged for the aid of the State in things beyond our power 
until we had expended our own money on things of the same class within 
our power. Scarcely can an instance be picked out in which we have not 
manifested our full acquaintance with every detail of the object to be attained 
and the ways of attaining it before bringing the matter before the nation for 
its general assistance. And if I were called on to advise the Association as 
to the means by which this important external power may be best preserved, 
T would above all things insist on the most studious caution and the most 
minute preparation before making application to the Government. 



ADDRESS. liii 

This power of stimulating our own members and this influence on external 
bodies, as I have stated, are, in my opinion, connected in a great measure 
with the independent character of our body, as consisting of a mass of inde- 
pendent elements. But with this consideration we must connect another. 
If we possess the freedom of private persons, we are also under the same 
restraints as private persons : — and nothing could be more injurious to us 
than any step which seemed to imply our belief that we, an unauthorized 
body, could venture to interfere in any matter in which any other company 
of private persons acting publicly could not interfere. For instance : — I can 
scarcely imagine a case in which we should be justified in offensively ex- 
pressing our disapprobation of the course followed by any other person or 
Society. Again : — The past history of science or invention is matter of 
innocent interest to us as to others ; but, in my opinion, nothing will justify 
us in entering on the consideration of claims to priority or superiority in 
which the reputation or the pecuniary interests of the living are concerned. 

And now. Gentlemen, I have only to express my hope that the Meeting at 
Ipswich may be as fortunate as those which have preceded it. I trust that 
on the present occasion we may have unusual opportunities of enjoying and 
profiting by the society of the distinguished foreigners now in England. I 
trust that the subjects in our Sections may be numerous and interesting, and 
the discussions on them animated and courteous. I trust that the important 
Reports which we expect may most fully maintain the character of our annual 
volume, — and that well-chosen subjects will be proposed for Reports on the 
experimental investigations of our members for the next year. I trust that 
your governing body will be bold, yet cautious, in urging on the attention of 
the Government, or of other bodies, those things which appear necessary for 
the good of Science. With these wishes, I now commend you to the daily 
labours of the Meeting. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Oa Observations of Luminous Meteors ; continued from the Report of 
1850. By the Rev. Badem Powell, M.A., F.R.S. ^c, Savilian 
Professor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

In presenting a fourth report in continuation of a collection of observations 
of Luminous Meteors, I have merely to observe that in the present instance, 
for this first time, the tabular form of arrangement agreed upon by a Com- 
mittee of the British Association last year, has been adopted by most of the 
observers : and in connexion with the use of it, I would wish to suggest to 
those who favour the Association with their contributions, the desirableness 
of allowing a more distinct space to each individual observation ; as it is often 
necessary to separate them in order to arrange them with others in chronolo- 
gical order. 

Besides the assistance of several other friends, I have to acknowledge more 
especially, as heretofore, the aid of Mr. E. J. Lowe, of Dr. Buist, and the 
Rev. J. Slatter. Some of the results collected by the British Meteorological 
Society have also been sent to me ; and it is much to be wished that that 
Society would co-operate with the British Association by regularly furnishing 
copies of their Meteor Observations for this Report. 

As on former occasions many meteors have been communicated to me of 
a date earlier than the conclusion of the last catalogue : these are here 
prefixed. It would tend materially to the unity and arrangement of the 
catalogue if this could be avoided. 



1851. 



REPORT — 1851. 



Table I,— Catalogue of Luminous Meteors prior to 



Date. 



1848 
Jan. 2, 3 



Hour. 



h m 



6 a.m. 
15 a.m. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Extraordinarynumber 
of falling stars. 



Many falling stars 
Igneous globe 



21 Igneous globe 



Mar.27 & 

29. 
April 27 
May 2 
24 

June 21 
July6,24, 
27-31 
22,23 
29 



Aug. 



5,6,9,10 



6 30 p.m. 



Superb bolide 

Many falling stars 



From 

10 7 p.m. 
to 

12 7 p.m. 

From 

9 52 p.m. 

to 

11 58 p.m. 



Brigbtness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Many falling stars 
Large falling stars 

Superb bolide 

Many falling stars 
Many falling stars 



Many falling stars 
101 in two hours.., 



104 



10 

28 
Sept, 4 



4,5 



30 

Oct. 20 

22, 23, 25 

22,23 

Nov. 5, 6 

12 



From 

10 21 p.m. 

to 

11 5 p.m. 
From 

2 35 a.m. 

to 

3 8 a.m. 



[of falling stars 
Extraordinary number 



6 large. 



8 11 p.m. 

9 p.m. 



Many large 

Superb bolide 

Vivid ball of fire. 

Same evening many 

falling stars. 



Considerable number 



From 

5 47 p.m. 

to 

6 43 p.m. 



Many falling stars 
Many 



Brigbtness = 
full moon, 
rather lurid, 



Train 

Lasted 3 or 4 sees. . . 

When first seen was just 
bursting in half; scat 
tered sparks in all direc- 
tions, of various sizes 
one mass, nearly ^ of 
whole, fell rapidly to 
wards S. After falUng 
25° burst and dissipated. 



About 3 mins. 
gether. 



Considerable number. 
Numerous 



13. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 3 

the Conclusion of the last Catalogue, July 1850. 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Same as observed at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 



wards N Same as observed at 

Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Observed at Aix-la- 
Chapelle. 



Boards S.E. 



m a Here, to S Serpentis 



Place. 



Parma , 



Observer. 



Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Parma , 



Ibid., 



Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Ibid 



ibid., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



M. CoUa 



M. Ed. Heis. 
M. Colla 



Id. 



M. Ed. Heis. 
Id 



Parma 

Aix-la-Chapelle. 



Ibid. 



!!xting''. .iR. 1 70°, Dec. -|-63' 
leared JR. 280°, Dec. 4-51° 

K by S. Alt. about 50° ".. 



Parma 

Aix-la-Chapelle. 



Ibid., 



Observer sitting out 
of doors. Whole 
vievy suddenly U 
luminated. 



Observed at Aix-la- 
Chapelle. 



M. Colla .... 
M. Ed. Heis. 



Id. 



M. Colla .... 
M. Ed. Heis. 



Id. 



Ibid Id. 

Ibid |ld. 

Ventnor, Isle of Mrs. Dixon 
Wight. Seen 
also in Hamp- 
shire at 40 
miles W. and 
in Sussex, 40 
miles E. 



Parma 



Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Ibid 



Parma 

Aix-la-Chapelle. 



M. Colla 



M. Ed. Heis. 
Id 



M. Colla .... 
M. Ed. Heis, 



Reference. 



Bulletin de I'Acad. 
R. de Bmxelles, 
1850, p. 250, 

Ibid. p. 3. 

Ibid. p. 250. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. p. 3. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. p. 250. 
Ibid. p. 3. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. p. 250. 
Ibid. p. 3. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
MS. com. to Prof. 

Powell. Appen 

dix. No. 1. 



Bulletin de I'Acad. 
R. de Bmxelles, 
1850, p. 250. 

Ibid. p. 3. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. p. 250. 
Ibid. p. 3. 



B 2 



BEPOKT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1818. 
Nov. 15 



Dec. 11 



14,15 

1849. 
Jan. 18 
April 30 



Aua 



h m 
From 

7 8 p.m. 
to 

8 58 p.m. 
From 

5 38 p.rn. 

to 

6 50 p.m. 



Appearance or 
IvIaRiiiUide. 



Bolide = ? (full 
moon). 

10. Many large, and 
with trains. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparlis. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



8 p.m. 



Many 

[stars 
Numerous shooting 
A luniinqus elongated 
body. 



9&10 
10 



9 p.m. 



9 5 p.m. 

From 
9 30 p.m. 

to 
10 30 p.m. 

From 

9 40 p.m. 

to 10 p.m. 

From 

10 p.m. 
to 11 p.m. 



106 

Globe meteor 



Brightness 
that of a star 
of 1st mag. ; 
white ; no 
twinkling. 



Train 



Slow;^^siblene^ 
30 sees. 



Bluish, bright- Vanished, leaving a tram 
er than ? . 



Two superb meteors. 

42, some singly; 20 at 
once. 



9 shooting stars 
9 shooting stars 



= ?■ 



From 

9 p.m. 
to 

2 a.m. 

From 

9 14 p.m. 

to 

10 50 p.m. 
From 

9 24 p m. 
to 

I 35 a.m. 
From 

9 45 p.m. 

to 10 p.m. 

From 

10 p.m. 
to 11 p.m. 

From 

11 p.m. 
to 

11 45 p.n.. 

From 

11 43 p.m. 

to 

II 8 a.m. 



Mean no. per hour 28 
254 shooting stars 



22 falling stars, some 
= 1st mag. 



which lasted G or 8 mins. 
No explosion 



Some with trains lasting 
from 2 to 4 sees. 



22 of 1st mag. 88 with trains. 



13. 



6 shooting stars . 
23 shooting stars. 
9 shooting stars . 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 5 



Direction or altitude. 



iipeared M. 102°, Dec. 32° 
lexting-". M. 108°, Dec. 2G° 



St seen not much above hori- 
!0n in N.W. ; descended to 
lorizon at inclination 45°, 



»m Pegasus towards Aqua- 
US. 



bra zenith towards N.W, ... 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Seen also at Neu- 
stadt, by M. Ma 
yer. 



Aix-la-Chapelle. 



Ibid. 



Pai'ma 



Ibid... 
Liege 



erne Correspondent. 

Panna M. Colla 



Observer. 



M. Ed. Heis. 



Id. 



M. Colla 



Id 

M. De Koninck, 



Neustadt, near 

Vienna. 
Ibid 



ii3° from a point in Perseus 
H. 50°, Dec. 51°. 44° from 
iDraco ; JR. 302°, Dec. 65 
L9°from near Pole; ^.337°, 
Dec. 86°. 

.Reared in various constella- 
ions. 



„ apparent divergencefrom one 
entre ; mostly from N. to S. 



Ghent 
ibid.... 



Bruxelles 

Aix-la-Chapelle. 



Parma 

Bonn , 

Ghent . 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Parma , 



M. Mayer. 
Id 



M. Duprez 
Id 



Reference. 



M. Qiictelet. 
M. Heis .... 



M. Colla , 



M. Schmidt. 

M. Duprez . 

Id 

Id 



M. Colla 



Bulletin de I'Acad, 
R. de Bruxelles, 
1850, p. 3. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. p. 250. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. p. 177. 



Ibid. p. 367. 
ibid. p. 364. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. p. 320. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. p. 367. 

Ibid. p. 363. 

Ibid. p. 367. 

Ibid. p. 320. 

ILid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. p. 363. 



REPORT — 1851. 



f 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
dmation. 



1849. 
Aug. 10 



10, 11 
11 



h m 

From 
8 a.m. 
to 2 a.m. 
44 a.m. 



None 



From 
9 p.m. 
to 12 p.m. 

From 
9 24 p.m. 

to 
1 35 a.m. 



[bright 
1, extraordinarily 

370 

Many 

114 



65. 



13 
14 
15 

Sept. 3 



133 

20 

35 

29 

71 

52 

79 

36 

22 

27 

36 

1st mac 



Dec. 21 



30 



5 O&few 
minutes. 



5 45 p.m. 



= i (I 's diameter 



1850 
Feb. 3 



11 p.m. 
6 50 p.m. 



A meteor . 



Red 



Very brilliant 
bright red. 
Wlien the 
flames ap 
peareditwas 
almost 
bright 
lightning, 



Far exceeded 
Venus. 



Like a globe of 
l)right light. 
For a mo- 
ment a per- 
fect sphere. 



Train of sparks 



Rapid. The flan 
lasted from 5 
7 sees. 



It then burst near its N. 
point, and emitted up- 
wards a knotted stream 
of red light in a direction 
N. by E. and at an angle 
of about 18° from a ver- 
tical line. The length of 
this projected stream of 
light was 10 diameters 
of the d . 



Dull diik, increased 
till =i more. 



Reddish 



Burst, discharging redfrag, 
ments and bright train 
perpendicularly down 



Stationary at 
forlmin.45s 
tiU explosion 
ter which ) 
body slowly 
ved horizon 
for 45 sees. 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS Of LUMINOUS METEORS. 7 



Direction or altitude. 



ora y Cygni to a Androm. 



'i all points of horizon 

; ° from Perseus (as above) : 
28° from Draco (as above) 
18°from inner Pole (as above) 



I;. 40° in N.E., and moved 
horizontally to N.W., vrhere, 
instead of giving out a mere 
brilliancy of sparks, it burst 
into a full blaze (like a wisp 
of straw). The blaze had the 
appearance of being abou 
1 foot in length (doubtless it 
was many yards) [?]. It rose 
directly upwards like any 
other flame, and had a large, 
wavy, upright motion. No 
stars were visible, as the twi- 
light was so strong. 
]Dved downwards through i 
short arc, exploded into nu 
merous fragments at an alt. of 
20° to 30°. 



General remarks. 



Parma 



Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Berne 

Chanberry 

A.ix-la-Chapelle. 



Also seen at Ayles. 
bury .Weeden and 
Dunton, exhibit- 
ing the sam 
pha;nomena. 



|t 28° 30' at first appearance. 



Place. 



M. CoUa 



M.Ed. Heis 

Correspondent.. 

Id 

M. Heis 



Bonn 



M. Schmidt. 



Berne 

Frankfort 

Neurkircken . 

Hamburgh .. 

Bremen 

Dilke 

Breslau 

Timmel 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Between Belton 
and Castle 
Donington. 



New Haven, U.S 



Between Hart- 
well and Stone 
Observatory 



General appearance 
remarkable. 



Hartwell Rectory 

near Aylesbury 

Sandwich, Kent 



Observer. 



Bulletin de I'Acad, 
R. de BruxeUes. 
1850, p. 363. 

Ibid. p. 367. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. p. 364. 

Ibid. p. 367. 



Ibid. 



Correspondents. 



Rev. J. Dalby.., 



Rev. C. Lowndes 



Reference. 



Ibid. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



New Haven Palla^ 
dium. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Rev. C. Lov/ndes 

W. H. Weekes, 
Esq. 



Ibid. 

Communicated by 
Mr. Lowe. See 
Appendix, No. 2 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
maguitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1850. 
Feb. 9 
11 



April 



May 



June 



h m 

11 15 p.m. 
10 37 p.m. 

10 35 p.m. 



A large meteor 



Light only seen 



" An immense light 
shone in at the win- 
dow of a spare room 
in which 1 happened 
to he, so bright as to 
cast even a shadow 
of the irregularities 
of the glass, but it 
had ceased before I 
could reach the win- 
dow, the access to 
which was blocked 
with furniture." 

Very brilliant 



The explosion in about 1 
minute. 



10 



16 



10 p m. 



30 



10 p.m. 

10 5 p.m. 

11 28 p.m. 

10 12 p.m. 



Increased as it de- 
scended till nearly 
= 11.. 



Pure white .. 



Vanished, no explosion, no 
train, 



Very brilliant Increased in 

size. 



12 25 p.m. 
12 40 p.m. 



12 40&few 

sees. 
12 45 p.m. 

1 3 a.m. 

1 20 a.m. 
11 42 p.m. 
11 30 p.m. 



1 1 p.m. 



Larger than 1st mag. * 



Small 



= lst mag. 
= 1st mag. 
= lst mag. 



Burst into luminous frag, 
ments. 



Shot rapidly aerr 



Blue Train left 20° in length . 



Beautiful red. 



Blue... 
White 



Train left. 



No tail. 



Table II. — Catalogue of Luminous Meteors, continued 



July 1 
4 



7 30 p.m. 
9 25 p.m. 



9 26 p.m. 



Increased in size ; be- 
came very large. 



From a mere point in 
creased to 3 times 
diameter of %. . 



Bright 



Became very 
bright. Sil- 
very blue. 



6 times bright- 
er than %. 
Pale blue. 



Exploded viith a bright 

flash and l)urst into sparks 

At last a few sparks . . 



At first no spai'ks 



Duration 2 sees. 



Duration 2 sees, 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 9 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



ies to Orion 

•ise heard, resembled the fall 
ing of a distant avalanche. 



[nearAylesbury. 
HartwellRectory, 
Ibid 



Rose Hill, near 

Oxford, 
lat. 5r43'50"N 
long.l°14'08"W, 



Aden 



piterto yLeonis 

E. Alt. 45°; fell nearly 20' 



Virgo, 4° from Jupiter to 
Jupiter. 

)m a Cygni southwards . . 
laris to S Ursse Majoris . . 



im near Scorpio S.W. to N.E 



jst of /3 Cassiopeise; went4°N 
,, )m\V.ofCapellalO°E. ofdue 
N. and 1 5 above horizon, and 
went in W. direction near 
Jl Lyncis. 
ove Polaris to Cassiopeia ... 



min. after, report 
lasting i min. 



Stone Observa- 
tory. 

Bycullah, Bom- 
bay. 

Stone Observa- 
tory. 

Ibid 

lb.; also at Hart- 
well Rectory. 



StoneObservaf. 
Ibid 



Ibid., 



lerpentis; went 5°S Ibid. 

ootis to Arcturus Ibid. 

)ra s passing by a Urs. Maj Ibid. 

,yrse to a, Cygni Ibid. 

nurus went 20° magnetic W Ibid., 

iturus to withinlO" of horizon] Ibid., 

)m « Coronee Borealis to Castle Doning- 

t S erpentis. | | ton, near Derby 



Rev. C. Lowndes 
Id 



Rev. J. Slatter. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



Communication to 
Prof. PoweU. 



Correspondent to 

Dr. Buist. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 

Correspondent to 
Dr. Buist. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 



Id 

Id., and Rev. C. 
Lowndes. 

Mr. Brown, cor- 
respondent to 
Dr. Buist. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 

Id 



Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Rev. S. K. Swann 



See Appendix, 
No. 11. 

British Meteorolo- 
gical Soc. Report 

See Appendix, 
No. 11. 

British Meteorolo- 
gical Soc. Report, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

See Appendix, 
No. 13. 

B. M. S. Report. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



from the Conclusion of the last Catalogue, July l^SO. 



■m S.E. to N.W. for about 
!0°; exploded at alt. 70° 
.jRirer x than 9 Antinoi, and 
iJuther above the level of those 
4tars, to a. Capricorni. 



.[jlsed ^ between A and i An- 
iinoi to 2° E. and same level 
ks a Capricorni. 



The same as one 
observed at Bee 
ston, but appa 
rently seen more 
southerly than at 
Beeston. 

On bursting disap- 
peared suddenly. 



Bombay 

Highficld House. 



Stonyhurst Ob- 
servatory. 



Correspondent to 

Dr. Buist. 
k. S. H. Lovi^e, 

Esq. 



Rev. A. Weld 



See Appendix, 

No. 14. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



B. M. S. Report. 



10 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 

1850. 
July 



12, 16, 
30, 
13 

14 



Hour. 



h m 
10 p.m. 



16 



23 



25 



Appearance or 
maKiiitude. 



Twice the size of J/. . 
Twice the apparent 

size of If. . 
Meteors very nume 

rous. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Colour of 2^ . . 
Same colour 
as v.. 



11 20 p.: 

8 54 2'-42 Large 
Grantham 
M.T. (Nearly 
daylight, 
no stars to 
be seen.) 
8 54 p.m. 



Large 



9 30 p.m. 



August 1 



9 57 20= 
9 57 25' 
11 05 p.m. 

G.M.T. 

16 a.m. 

O.M.T. 

9 57 p.m. 



= to Venus as 
a morning *. 

White (O ou 
the point of 
vision). 



Several luminous 
baUs. 



Very fine night ; no 
meteors; the 24th 
was cloudy. 

From 4th to 5th mag, 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



On bursting left a train of 
light 1° in length, at an 
altitude of 25°. 



From 4 th to 5th mag, 

4th mag , 

3rd mag 



10 21 p.m. 
10 22 p.m. 
10 25 p.m. 
10 p.m. 

9 50 p.m. 
10 55 p.m. 

9 45 p.m. 

9 50 p.m. 
9 53 p.m. 
9 55 p.m. 
9 57 p.m. 
9 58 p.m. 

10 03 p.m. 
10 05 p.m. 



=3rd mag. , 
= 2nd mag. 
= 3rd mac;. 



Time 2 sees. ?> 
report heard, a 
tliough listenc 
for. 



Slight smoke 

With streams of light.. 



Slow. 



Small , 
Bright 



Duration 1 sec. ., 
Duration 1 sec, 

2 or 3 sees 

Momentary .... 



i 



Small 



Small 

4th rnag. 



= 5th mag. 
= 5th mag. 

= 4th mag. 



1 mag., bright as Arc 
turus. 

2nd mag 

3rd mag 

3rd mag 

4th mag 

1st mag 

1st mag 

2nd mag , 



Train of light 
Train of light 



Ued 
Red 



Immediate 

Visible -J- sec. .. 
Duration 2 sees. 



Time 1 sec. 



Coarse sparks 



Fine sparks 2 or 3 sees 



None 
None . 
None . 
None . 
Sparks . 
None . 



Duration 0'*5 .. 
Duration 2 sec. ;i 

tion tolerably rs 
Durations-sec. ;i 

tion tolerably n 
2 or 3 sees. . 



2 or 3 sees. . 
2 or 3 sees. , 
2 or 3 sees. , 
Momentary 
2 or 3 sees. 
2 or 3 sees. 



* The courses of all the meteors of Aug. 6, produced backwards, meet in IV^ 00™ JR 45° N.P.D 
giayity : such was that of July 25th. The foUowiug days spent in Monmouthshire the weather 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 11 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



II down from Coma Berenices 
t. 50° ; fell perpendic. down 
for 7" in due west. 



om Arcturus to Peterson's 

comet. 

t. 50° to 55° ; fell perpendi 

Icular down for 25° ; direction 

8° or 10° N. of E. 



Stonyhurst Obs^. 
HigMeld House. 

Uekfield, Sussex. 

Stone Observa- 
tory. 

H mile from 
Grantham. 



Rev. A.Weld .. 
A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
C. L. Prince, Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 

J. W. Jeans, Esq. 



)m S.W. to S., through 10° 
or 12°. 



Crackling noise 

heard. 
Amid electric eorus 

cations ; the balls 

moved along the 

streams. 



Boston 

Manchester . 



P. Clare, Esq. 



Rev. J. Slatter. 



lar «Geminorum towards Arc- 
turus. 

Draconis to 2° below S Urs. 
Maj. 

ove a and below /3 & y An- 
drom. 
down for j3 Andromedae 

fossed Corona Borealis from 
N. to S. 

IN.ofyHerculis; disappeared 

jtvithout any visible motion. 

ar a. Corona; Borealis ; moved 

2° perpendic. down. 
J loronse Borealis passed a little 

W. of /3 Serpentarii. 
. zenith in S.S.E. perpendic. 

iown. 

. bm a. Aquilfe downwards 

M iit under a Draconis to mid- 

.vay between y and fi Urs. Maj . 

iim a Cor. Borealis to ? Bootis 
; imi a Coronas Borealis to 
( g Bootis. 

; bm E to » Bootis 

'M 

.|' below Arcturus 



Tenby, 

N.lat.51°40'55' 
W. long. 4° 38' 
Castle Donington W. H. Leeson, 
Esq. 



Ibid.... 
Tenby 
Ibid.... 



Stone Observa- 
tory. 

Darlington, near 
Durham. 

Ibid 



Ibid., 



Inftantaueous ex- 
tiuction. 

Instantaneous ex- 
tinction. 



.Jltween ? and ri Urs. Maj 

„Mween 10 and 11 Camelop.... 
,| & S U. Maj. between 7 & /3. 
.i|tie last as much right of /3.... 

I Perseus 

.kough ;i; Persei 

.^ow £ and |S Persei 



Highfield House, 

Stonyhurst Obs''. 
CastleDonington 

Stonyhurst Obs''. 
Nottingham.. 

Highfield House. 

Rose Hill, Ox- 
ford. 

Ibid , 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Id. 

Rev. J. Slatter. 

Id 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
J. Graham, Esq, 

Id 

Id 



A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
Rev. A. Weld ... 
W. H. Leeson, 

Esq. 
Rev. A. Weld .,. 
E. J. Lowe 



A.S.H.Lowe,Esq 
Rev. J. Slatter... 



B. M. S. Report. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 

B. M. S. Report. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Boston Papers. 

Brit. Assoc. Report 
1850,Trans.Sect 
p. 31. 

Com. to Prof. 
Powell. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Com. to Prof. 

Powell. 
Ibid. 

B. M. S. Report. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

B. M. S. Report. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 

B. M. S. Report. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



]iting those at 9'' 55", 57", 58", and 2^ 15", which seemed to have no projectile force to fall from 
jpdy. Sea extremely phosphorescent on Aug. 6. 



12 



REPORT — 1831. 



Date. 



1850. 
August 6 



Hour. 



h m 
2 10 a.m. 

2 11 a.m. 

2 15 a.m. 
10 p.m. 
10 22 p.m. 



10 36 p.m. 

10 33 p.m. 

10 41 30' 
10 52 30' 
10 56 30' 



10 20 p.m. 

11 15 p.m. 



From 
9 30 p.m. 
to 11 p.m. 
9 45 p.m. 

9 48 30' 

9 49 p.m. 



9 50 p.m. 



9 57 p.m. 
10 p.m. 



10 1 p.m. 

10 1 2' 

10 1 3' 

10 3 p.m. 

10 5 p.m. 

10 G p.m. 



10 8 p.m. 

10 10 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



2nd mag. 

2nd mag. 
2nd mag. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



=to Sirius 

= to Arcturus =to Arcturus, 



= 3rd mag. 

= 3rd mag. 
= 4th mag. 
= 4lh mae. 



Cloudy ; no meteors 
seen. 



40 shooting stars 



= 3rd mag. 
-=4th maar. 



Much larger than Ve- 
ga- 



Small 

= lst mag. 

Small 

Small 



Small 

= 2nd mag. 
= 1st mag. 
= 3rd map:. 



Small 



= 3rd mag. 
= 4th mag. 



Verv brilliant. 



Red ... 
White 



White 



Train or sparks. 



None 



Train 2 or 3 sees. 

None 2 or 3 sees. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



2 or 3 sees. 



Train of light which linger- , 

ed for 20 sees, in the sky. 
Brilliant train of 15° in Duration 4 sees. 

length. 



Train 



Train 



Left a visible train 



Train 



Train of light visible for 
some seconds. 



Train 



Duration 1^-5 



1 sec. over 15° 

space. 
Quick ..,...., 



Quick 



Less than 1 sec. 

Time 1 sec. ., 

Motion at first si 
and waved ; du 
tion 2 sees. 



Time i sec. 
Time 1 sec. 
Time -J sec. 
Time -J- sec. 



Instantaneous , 
Time 2 sees. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSEaVATtONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



13 



Direction or altitude. 



irough Pleiades 



ime course as last 
E. of/3Tauri 



lOm ( Pegasi to /3 Aquarii 



below a Coronae Borealis and 
3" below S Setpentarii ; its 

tpath convex to those stars, 
moved over 30° of space, 
below a Coronae Borealis and 
\ betwixt 8 Serpentarii and 
? Bootis ; moved through 20'' 
of space. 

;ar y Herculis passed \ be- 
tween a and S Serpentarii. 

I. Ophiuchi passed between y 
Serpentarii and 35 Ophiuchi.. 

.)Ove O Ophiuchi and through 
y Serpentarii ; its path par- 
allel to the last. 

1 N.W. from i UrsEe Majoris... 

; S.W. from a Ophiuchi 



General remarks. 



3 meteors in S.E. 



Limited view of sky 
from buildings, 
looking towards S. 



iPrsse Minoris to near s Ursae 
Majoris. 

Ilaris to midwaybetween a and 
» Draconis. 
bm a Lyrae in the direction of 
lArcturus. 

\is % Cygni to near a Aquilae. 



JDelphini to 9- Aquite 

i/ulpeculae to » Serpentis . 
sLiyrae towards Arcturus .. 

jrough Vulpecula 

lar zenith 

ksed through the zenith .. 



Place. 



Rose Hill, Ox- 
ford. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Highfield House 
Ibid 



Observer. 



Rev. J. Slatter... 



Darlington 



Ibid. 

Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid., 



Highfield House. 

Ibid 

New Coll. Lane, 
Oxford. 



Haverhill . 



Issed just above Polaris 

ttxs perpendic. to horizon .. 

[jar ■v/' Sagittarii 

IJar sSagittarii 

'pen meteors were seen with 
;in 1 minute in Great Bear, 
Lyra and Camelopardalus,but 
in too rapid succession to 
note them with precision. 

Ineb. towards horizon , 

tjiebaran towards Polaris.., 

t)m y Pegasi 

lAquarius , 



Castle Doning- 
ton, near Derby 
Ibid 



Id 

Id 

A.S.H.Lowe,Esq 
Id 



Reference. 



J. Graham, Esq. 



Id. 



A.S.H. Lowe, Esq 

Id 

Prof. Powell. 



Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Mrs. W.W. Bore- 
ham. 

W. H. Leeson, 

Esq. 
Id 



Ibid.. 



Ibid. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Highfield House. 
Ibid 



CastleDonington 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid., 



Id. 



Rev. S. K. Swann 
Rev. J. Sowter 
W.H.Leeson,Esq 

Id 

Id 

Id 

A. S.H.Lowe, Esq 
Id 



W.H.Leeson,Esq 

Id 

Rev. S. K. Swann 

Id 

W.H.Leeson,Esq 



Id 

Id 

Rev. J. Sowter... 

Id 

Rev. S. K. Swann 



M S, communication 
to Pi-of. Powell. 
See Append. No. 5. 
E. J. Lowe. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



14 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1850. 
August 9 



li m 

10 20 p.m. 



10 



Cloudy. 
Some clear 
intervals. 
10 p.m 
(about). 



Inl^ hour 75 meteors. 
All except 4 or 5 
emanated from a 
point near .8 Came- 
lopardah. [rous. 

Meteors very nume- 

No meteors seen. 
Nearly =to full([ ... 



p.m. 

1 p.m. 



5 p.m. 

6 30' 



10 10 p.m. 

From 
9 15 p.m. 
to 11 p.m. 
9 30 p.m. 



9 35 p.m. 

(partly 

clouded) 

9 50 p.m. 

(clouded 

over) 

10 10 p.m. 

= 10 12 14' 

(g.m.t.) 

10 14 p.m, 



10 15 p.m. 



= 2nd mag. 



Red 



= lst mag. 
Large 



Atfirstreddish, 

afterwards 
brilliant blue. 
The light cast 
strong sha- 
dows of ob 
jects. 

Bright 

Bright 



Its train consisted of three 
long tails which remain 
ed wa^^ng backwards and 
forwards for 30 sees. af. 
ter the meteor had dis- 
appeared. 



Bright train. 
Left a train . 



Time 1^ sec. 
Visible 2 sees. 



3rd mag. 

Small 

Very small 
= 3rd mag. 



Time 1 sec. 
Very rapid 
Very rapid 



55 shooting stars 



= 2nd mag. 



Brilliant 



Train ; no explosion 



:1st mag. 



= lst mag. 



BrilUant train , 



Brilliant train , 



Large 



10 23 p.m. 

(partly 

clear) 

10 30 p.m. 

(entirely 

clouded) 



Bright flash in W.; 
from centre a lumi- 
nous line running 
E. and W., first red, 
then paler light, 
darting backwards 
and forwards alon 
the line, became in- 
distinct and faded 
away. Shooting 
stars numerous. 
:1st mag 



Light, gave a 
distinct sha. 
dow. 

One (marked 
1™) of extra- 
ordinary bril- 
liancy. 



Luminous track, lasted 30 
sees. 



Instantaneous , 



Instantaneous , 



Instantaneous , 



Visible about i 



Brilliant train . 



Instantaneo! 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 15 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



ith short and inclined 20' to 
horizon, passed between « and 
/5 Sagittarii. 



CastleDonington 



Collingwood, 
Hawkhurst, 
Kent. 



Rev. J. Sowter... 



Uckfield 



j)Out 50° above N.E. horizon, 
passing through the Galaxy 
and proceeding some distance 
fiurther in a S.W. course. 



i'rsse Majoris towards Arcturus 
idway between i Ursae Majoris 
and Cor. Caroli towards Arctu- 
rus ; it exploded like a rocket 

iissiopeia towards a Lyrae , 

j;ar a Ursae Majoris 

j;ar « Ursae Majoris 

^om zenith passed just below 
a Lyrae ; lost in a cloud. 



Tipperaiy. 



? of meridian, inclining to 
'S.S.W. from Cygnus towards 

Ophiuchus. 
yough Hercules perpendicU' 

lar to horizon. 

;om near « Aquilae to Sagitta- 
rius; course inclined 45° to 
Imeridian. 



Disappeared behind 
buildings. 



CastleDonington 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Haverhill 



New Coll. Lane, 
Oxford. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ibid., 



Itid. 



Hartwell Rectory 



C. L. Prince, Esq, 



Correspondent. . 



\V.H.Leeson,Esq 
Id 

Id , 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Mrs. W. Bore 
ham. 

Prof. Powell. 



Id. 



Rev. C. Lowndes 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Letter to Prof 
Powell. See Ap 
pendix, No. 3. 



B. M. S. Report. 



Illustrated London 

News. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

See Appendix, 
No. 5. 



South Claydon, 
Bucks. 



Rev. J. J. Irwin.. 



B. M. S. Report. 



Ibid. 



Times, Aug. 15 ; 
and subsequent 
letter to Prof. 
Powell. See Ap 
pendix, No. 4. 



jfcm a Lyrae towards Ophiu- 

'jchus. 

J 

j|. of meridian; slightly in- 

"llclined. 



Disappeared behind 
buildings. 

Ditto 



New Coll. Lane, 
Oxford. 



Ibid., 



Prcf. Powell. 



Id. 



16 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 

1850, 
Aug. 12 



13 



14 



Hour. 



h m 

8 p.m. 
(soon after} 
10 22 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 
10 22 15' 
10 23 p.m. 
10 31 p.m. 



10 32 p.m. 

10 32 15» 

10 33 p.m. 

11 9 p.m. 



11 40 p.m. 



10 7 p.m. 



10 55 p.m. 

10 57 p.m. 

11 15 p.m. 



8 45 p.m. 



9 48 p.m. 
9 49 p.m. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



5 size of full ([ 
3rd mag 



4th mag 

3rd mag 

Like a spark 



At first = 5th mag. ; 
at last = 3rd mas. 



= 5th mag. 
= 3rd ma<?. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Equal to the 
rising C • 



Yellow . 



Blue ; it in- 
creased in 
brilliancy. 

Blue 



12' in diam. and glo 
bular. 



Shooting stars nurae 
rous. 

A shower of meteors, 
too many to count, 
all having the same 
origin and direc 
tion, only a few de 
grees above horizon 
and descending to it 
about S.E. by S 

Verv small 



= 3rd ma" 



= 3rd mag 

Bright meteor. 



10 p.m. 
10 p.m. 
10 9 p.m. 

10 24 p.m. 



4 or 5 times larger 
than !{. . 



Small, =4th mag. 
= 3rd mag 



= 3rd mag 

=toa Aquilae . 



■■ 1st mag. 



Blue... 
Yellow 



Train or sparks. 



Slight streak 



Divided streak 

Streak 

Train of light ., 



Splendid train . 



Duration 15 sec# 

I sec , 

Momentary . 
Momentary , 
Lasted -^ sec. ; ve 
rapid. 

ioti second 



Velocity or 
duration. 



i sec. 
i sec. 
Slow.. 



Pale straw 



Yellow 

Blue 



White 

Colour of 
a Aquilje. 



Over 5° in 1 sec. 

Over 10° in 1 se 
Over 12° in 1 se 



Leaving a long bright 
streak. 



No tail. 



No tail . 



Splendid train, 15° long.. 



Duration 2 sees 



Duration 1 sec, 



Over 20° in 4 s 



t From a point about XIX'' 00 M 100° N.l 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



11 



Direction or altitude. 



jving towards tlie S.W. .., 
tweeu a and /3 Capricorn. 



low feet of Capricorn 

low Scorpio 

pm T Cassiopeias to below 
Polaris. 

rizontallyfrom H.24 Camelo- 
pardi towards X Draconis. 

ved perpendicularly up for 

1° from T Cassiopeice. 

>m C. 11.157 Lyucis, towards 

p Ursas Majoris. 

im /3, ySiX Pegasi perpeiidic. 

lown to within 20° of hori- 

;on, when it went behind a 

■loud. 



General remarks. 



Penzance, Corn- 
wall. 
Rose Hill, Oxford 



Had tlie appearance 
of a spark very 
near us. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Highfield House 



In 1 to 2 sees, after 
a flash resembling 
lightning, and as 
vivid, and imme- 
diately a second 
from the same 
cloud. 



above y Persei ; its path 
learly parallel to horizon 
lut cdpped a little. 
ibove /3 Herculis, and paral- 
el with it and 19 Herculis. 
Eqiiulei to near 64 Capricorn! 
m below /3 Aquilse to just 
bove Fomalhaut, moving 
early horizontally from E 
owards S. 
m between X Bootis and 

T XJrsae Majoris perpendicu- 
irly down, inclining slightly 
orth ; passed near Cor. Ca 
oli and about 3° to 4° N. of 
lie large group in Corona Be 
enices. 

/.m H. 24 Camelopardi to 

' Ursae Majoris. 
Ipendicularly down from 

'" ! Cassiopeise. 



Tygni to ^ y Pegasi 
'"|j a Aquilse 



Ibid.. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Highfield House, 



Circular, well-de- 
fined disc. 



Place. 



Observer. 



R.EdraondSjjun. 

Esq. 
Rev. J. Slatter.. 



Id 

Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Ibid., 



South Claydon, 
Bucks. 



Dai-lington 



Ibid.. 



Ibid 

Port Madoc, 
Caernarvonsh. 



Beeston Railway 
Station, 1 J mile 
S. of Highfield 
House. 



Highfield House. 



Id. 



Rev. J. J. Irwin.. 



J. Graham, Esq. 



Id 

Id 

Mrs. Smyth 



R. Enfield, Esq. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



A. raeteor. 



fcut 30° N. of a, Herculis and 
'TS. of/3 0pliiuchi. 



Ibid., 



Id. 



Ibid 

CastleDonington 
Ibid 



Darlington 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Com.to Prof. Powell 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Il)id. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
iJ. M. S. Report. 



Ibid. 

Times, Aug. 15 ; 
and subsequent 
letter to Prof 
Powell. Sec A^j. 
pendix. No. 4 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Letter to Prof. 
Powell. See Ap- 
pendix, No. 3. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 



A.S.H.Lowe,Esq 
Rev. J. Sowter 
Id 



J. Graham, Esq. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



dieemed at right angles with others with no projectile force. 
"' 1851. 



18 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
macrnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1850. 
Aupr. 14 



15 



h m 
10 28 p.m. 

10 35 p.m. 

9 35 p.m. 



2nd mag. 
4th maR. ... 



Bright train, 12° long. 



Over 15° in 2 se 
1 sec 



Small 

Large Much brighter Visible train left Time 2i sees. 

than 1st mag. 






18 



29 



2 cot a.m. 
9 30 p.m. 



7 50? twi- 
light. 
10 p.m. 

10 24 p.m. 



14 25 p.m. 
9 55 p.m. 



9 59 35" 
10 1 p.m. 
10 2 p.m. 



10 3 p.m. 



2nd mag.... 
3rd mag. 



1st mag. 



=to Arcturus 



Twice the size of 2/.... 
3rd mag 



= 3rd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 



At first = 5th mag. 
star, at last 3 times 
size of Saturn. 



10 4 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 



= 2nd mag. 
= 3rd map;. 



10 20 p.m. I = 1st mag. 



Yellow . 



Yellow 



Duration^ sec. 

Blue. 
Red , 



Orange-scarlet 



Slight train . 
Train 



2 sees 

Over 10° in 1 set 



1 sec. 



Duration 1 sec. 



Left a red train of sparks.. 

Magnificent train, fully 25° 
long. 



Over 20° in 2 at 

Duration ^ sec. 

Rapid 

Over 45° in 8 » 



Fragments Slow, duratio 

sees. 
This diagram will show the 
appearance. 



-^^«5^?;i^ 



Train of at least 30° inOver 40° in 6 

length. 



Rapid 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 19 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



irough /3 Lyrse and 1° E. of 
/3 Cygni. 
■jove a Pers. Gave same centre 
as in Aug. 6 

om y to ^ Ursse Majoris .. 
om a point nearly 10° left of 
c Lyrje In a vertical direC' 
tion towards horizon ; ex. 
ploded like a rocket ; at 
starting it appeared rather 
small, gradually increased, 
then decreased; for an in- 
stant disappeared, then in- 
creased, and decreased again. 
(See fig.) 

irough Cetus above /3 from 
Ihead of Cetus 

]om 15 Persei, and moved 
nearly parallel with y and a 
Persei, being nearly perpen- 
die. with horizon. 
• down from Urs. Maj 



Darlington 



Rose HiU, Ox- 

ford. 
Castle Donington 
Near Union 
House, Shard 
low (near Cas- 
tle Donington) 



Rose Hill, Ox- 
ford. 
Darlington 



J. Graham, Esq. 

Rev. J. Slatter... 

Rev. J. Dalby ... 
W. H. Leeson, 
Esq. 



MS. of E. J. Lowe 

Communicated to 

Prof. PoweU. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



bm zenith towards E., passing 
S. of a Cassiopeise. 

]:arly perpendic. down, incli- 
ning to N. from 5° below 
y Bootis. 

lorn a to ;c Ursaj Majoris. . 

■jirough «• Andromedse and 
about 1° N. of ? Andro 
medae. 

bm ft, Bootis to Arcturus 



Rather rapid 



Rapid 



bm y Trianguli to Saturn 
(i. e. near t Piscium). 

■^rough 11 Muscse Borealis, 
slightly above a Arietis and 
1° below y Pegasi; as it 
moved along, an increase in 
its apparent alt. was evi- 
ient. 

bm £ Persei to near No. 21 
Persei. 



labove i Arietis, and directly 
south in a line parallel with 
horizon. 

Irpendicularly down from Po- 
laris. 

Irpendiciilarly down from S 
Herculis. 



Moved horizontal- 
ly ; it was not 
one meteor but 
separate frag- 
ments, wliich in. 
creased as they 
proceeded, until 
all suddenly va 
nished. 



Rose Hill, Ox- 
ford. 
Highfield House. 

Ibid 

Nottingham 

Darlington 

Highfield House, 

Ibid 

Darlington 



Hiffhfield House. 



Rev. J. Blatter.., 
J. Graham, Esq. 

Rev. J. Slatter.., 

A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
E. J. Lowe .:.... 



Communicated to 
Prof. Powell. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



G. AUcock, Esq. 
J. Graham, Esq. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Id 

J. Graham, Esq. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Darlington near 
Durham. 

Highfield House, 
lat.52°57'30" 
long. 1° 10' W, 

Highfield House, 



J. Graham, Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq, 
Id 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



C2 



20 



REPORT— 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Briglituess 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1850 
Aug. 29 



h m 
10 7 p.m. 



Greater than 2nd mag. 
star. 



Blue. 



30 



Sept. 1 



10 7 30* 
10 39 p.m. 

10 40 30' 
9 5 p.m. 

Evening; 
twilight 
immediate 
ly after. 



■=3rd mag 

= to Saturn ... 



10 11 12' 

10 20 p.m. 

11 13 p.m. 

11 16 p.m. 
11 17 p.m. 



9 6-43 



= to Sirius . 
= 4th mag. , 

= 4th maff. 



9 33 p.m. 
11 p.m. 



c=2nd mag. 

= Gth mag. 

= 6th mag. 
= 6th mate. 



= to V-. 



= 2nd mag. 



Slight tail Duration 1 sec. 

Curious path of a meteor. 



Blue.... 
Yellow. 



Train of sparks 



Red 



YeUow . 



No tail . 



Left streamers... 
Itself as a spark 



Very rapid .>..i 
Duration i sec. 



1 sec. 



1 sec. 



Nearly a: 
bright as 2/.; 
white. 



Train of 5° to 6° in length 



As a spark 
As a spark 



Duration 1 sec. 

Almost instanta 

ous. 
Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous 



Duration 2 sees 



Train 15° long 



Over 18° in 3 I 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSBRVATJONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 21 


Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


•om r Andromedae to nearly r 


Three meteors ol 


Highfield House. 


E. J. Lowe, Esq 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 


Persei, when it suddenl) 


Aug. 29th gave a 








turned at more than right 


point of diver- 








angles, and fell back again 


gence at about H 








towards horizon inclining E., 


3 Camelopardi 








disappearing at j3 Persei. 


and the meteoi 
at lOh 7'", al- 
though at first 
coming from an 
almost opposite 
point, on its 
changing its 
course, if this 
latter motion 
were continued 
backwards, it 
would also give 
H.3.Camelopardi 
as the points of 
divergence. 












Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


oni ^ between y Pegasi and 
X Piscium to between d and y 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 








Aqiiarii. 














Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Communicated to 


.:ross the zenith 




Ibid 


A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
Rev. J. Slatter. 


- down through Capric 




Rose Hill, Ox- 


1 




ford. 




Prof. Powell. 


ft down through Ophiuchus... 




Ibid. 
Uckfield 


Id. 


Ibid. 

B. M. S. Report. 


I „....„ 


Meteors very nu- 
merous. 


C.L. Prince, Esq. 


I 




iom between Kockal and y f 


These four gave a 


Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


Ibid. 


to e Ursae Majoris. 


point of diver- 








Squulei to B Antinous 

<iquarii to /3 Capricomi ... 
faunis-Ponitoski to fi Ophi- 
uchi. 


gence near fi Pe- 
gasi. The three 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 






first were very 
small, very rapid, 
and appeared as 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Ibid 


Id. 








if much further 










from the earth 


- 






L. 


than usual. 








w it commence. Little E. of 




Grantham 


J. W.Jeans, Esq. 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 


y Cephei, and nearly in a 








line between that star- and fi 










1 Cassiopeiae, passed close to 










y Cephei, and about mid- 










way between a and 3 Ursa; 










Minoris ; it disappeared mid- 










way between those stars and 




' 






» Draconis ; when between a 










and S Ursae Minoris it rapidly 










(diminished in brightness. 










mediately below 13 Herculis, 
ind passed 40' W. of S Ophi- 




Darlington 


J. Graham, Esq. 


Ibid 






Jchi. 










^m Pisces to Fomalhaut 




Stone 


Rev. J. B. Reade, 


B. M. S. Report. 


i 






T 











22 



REPORT — 1851. 



I 



Date. 



1850, 
Sept. 10 



12 



21 



Hour. 



h m 

9 35 p.m. 



8 31 p.m. 
12 6 p.m. 

9 31 p.m. 



Small 



10 4 p.m. 



10 18 30' 



Oct. 



9 30 p.m. 
10 45 p.m. 

8 10 p.m, 

9 40 p.m. 

9 40 r 

9 48 p.m. 

9 50 p.m. 

10 3 p.m. 

Between 

9 10 p.m. 

and 
9 30 p.m. 



Appearance or 
masnitude. 



= 2nd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= lst mag. 



Gradually increased 
till it was 6' in diam 



Briglitness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Train 



Blue. 



Train 7° long 
Streamers .. 



iUso in bright, 
ness until 
brighter than 
Venus when 
she is bright 
est ; colour 
bluish, at first 
pale, but he- 
came gradu- 
ally deeper 
blue. 



Left a straight line of 
sparks ; it threw off a 
quantity of sparks on 
bm'sting. 



[ness. 
= to Capella in bright- 
Large 



= 1st mag. 
= 3rd mag. 



Colourless 
Bright 



= 3rd mas. 



= 1st mag. 



Small 

3rd mag. 
Ordinary . ■ . 



Instantaneous , 

Over 15° inl'Ssf 

Rapid 

Over 25° in 4 set 



Left a train of light 40° in 
length. 



Very bright . 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Moved very slov 
and rather it 
gularly ; pass 
over 7° in 6 se 



Slowly 

Very rapid 



Very rapid 



Slow. 
Slow. 



J 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



23 



Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


/* Bootis. 




Clifton 


Prof. Powell. 









* Arcturus. 










iar ? Serpentarii passed mid- 
way between S Ophiuchi and 




Darlington 


J. Graham, Esq. 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 








ft Serpentarii. 

om below « Aquilse and 


Came from direc- 


Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


[bid. 


moved towards W. at an an- 


tion of the Dol- 








gle of 65°. 


phin. 








° S. of Lyra, and passed close 

N. of ? Herculis. 

vorouaj Borealis to 4° above 

Saturn. 




Darlington 

Stone 


J. Graham, Esq. 


Ibid. 




Rev. J. B. Reade 


B. M. S. Report. 










3ved from a point situated in 
la line perpendicular to the 




Darlington 


J. Graham, Esq. 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 










ihorizon, passing through (f 










|Ursae Majoris (the starting- 










point was 2° below this star) ; 










it descended towards horizon 










in a direction a little E. of N. 










The line along which it passed 










subtended an angle of about 










^10°, with the line perpendic. 










|to horizon, meeting that 










ipoint of the meteor's path 










from which it started. Its 










'disc tapered off to a point 










where it joined the train. It 










appeared like a flying-kite 










inverted. 










(jDraconis to y Ursae Majoris. 
&. 45° in S.S.E., moved hori- 
zontally to S.W. 




Stone 


Rev. J. B. Reade 

A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. [Esq. 


B. M. S. Report. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 




Highfield House 




.St below Polaris to Cassiopeia 
I':ar oit L vraj • • 




Castle Doniiigton 


W. H. Lceson, 


E. J. Lowe. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


^Dm midway between Cassio- 
peia and Delphiuus to mid- 




Ibid 


Id 








way between Delpbinus and 










Altair. 










iDm midway between Delpbi- 
nus and Altair, in a vertical 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 










direction; path about 10°. 










hm a. CapeUa; towards Pola- 
ris, in an upward direction. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 








bm « Lyrfe perpendic. down. 
K CEasi towards liorizon 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 

Private report to E. 
J. Lowe. 


'. ree meteors at different times 




Observatory, 
Durham. 


R. C.Carrington, 
Esq. 


during the Aurora Borealis 




were seen to shoot from the 










arch, not passing through it, 










but emerging from it ; theii 










paths seemed irre 


gular. The 










first shot out fro 


m near the 










Pleiades and ma 


de for the 










horizon; the second dartec 










out about the meridian and 










took an oblique path south 










the third was in the west ant 






• 




fell towards the horizon. 










-H 













24 



BEPOBT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
maRnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1850. 
Oct. 1 



h m 
9 ii 3' 



Asa spark , but = to 2^ . 



Orange. 



No tail 



Duration } sec. 



5 C 30 p.m. 
6 45 p.m. 



Same size 



Nov. ] 



7 p.m. 

7 35 p.m. 

7 40 p.m. 
10 10 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 
10 28 p.m. 

10 40 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 
9 30 p.m. 
(g.m.t.) 
10 30 p.m. 
10 45 p.m. 



9 45 p.m. 
9 23 p.m. 

10 p.m. 
6 p.m. 

11 5 p.m. 



Small 

= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 

Small 

Small 

= 3rd mag. 

= 3rd mag. 

Two 



Small , 

Small 

Larger than a cricket- 
ball [?]. 



Several shooting stars 



Blue, very 
bright. 



= 2nd mag. 



Four. 



Small 

Brilliant meteoric ball 



Rapid 

Rather slow. 
Rapid 



Over 10° in 1-3 s< 
Over 8° in 1 sec» 



Two or three sec 



A well-marked line of liffht Slow 



= 2nd mag. 



7 50 p.m. 



One as large as Venus 



Threwthestars Burst with various colours 

into shade. 



Blue. 



iReddish 



9 26 p.m. 
7 20 p.m. 



6 20 p.m. 
6 25 p.m. 
6 35 p.m. 
6 38 p.m. 

6 51 p.m. 



= 3rd mag. 



.Vs a spark, appearing 
to be quite low in 
the air. 



Left a mass of light ; blue 



Long tail of light, and 
sparks. 



Yellow , 



Small 

Small 

= 3rd mag. ... 
Very brilliant 

= 3rd ma?;. ... 



No accompaniment 



Over 20° in 3 se< 
Short 



Instantaneous ... 
Duration i sec. 



Duration 3 sees. 



Over 15° in 2 se 
Duration 1 sec. 



Train 



Time 1 sec. 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 



Slow. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 25 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



m y Pegasi at an angle of 
5° towards S. Had the ap- 
earance of being near me 
turora Borealis at the time. 
mN.W. toS.E 



m X, Ursse Majoris perpen- 
iculai-ly towards horizon : 
)st in clouds. 

m /S to /K Ui-soe Majovis 

m 8 Bootis to Arcturus 

iris to Z, Ursa; Majoris 

n a to 6 Arietis 

romeda to Cassiopeia 

Lyncis, about 2° of S Urs, 

laj. 

n » towards fn. Ursae Majoris 

uopeia to Capella 

n above Aries under An 
rem. 

45°in\Y.S.W 

ast 

45° in N.W., moved to- 
wards the N. nearly horizon 
illy, but incliuiug slightly 
irthwards. 



Circular though as 
a spark ; disap- 
j)eared at an al- 
titude of 15°. 

Did not explode ; 
frequentlightniiig, 



Nottingham 



Hereford , 



Castle Doning- 
ton. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Highfield House 
Hart well Eectory 
Darlington .. 



Exploded into half 
a - dozen large 
sparks. 

With a faint Aurora 



Ibid 

HartwellRectory 
Rose HiU, Ox- 

ford. 
Highfield House 

Ibid 

Hereford 



?^ed 2° E. of ! Cygni, and 3' 
. of the cluster in Delphinus. 

■Ldown from left-hand of; 
ootes. 

ifrn zenith to the north 

. lin zenith about half-way to 
lorizon. 

; iln half-way between e and jj 
jagittae through y Sagittae, 

I Ihen it turned, rose and ex 
^.oded near /S Cvgni. 



Huggate, near 
Pocklington, 
Yorkshire. 

Darlington 



Rose Hill, Ox. 

ford. 
Highfield House 
Toronto, Canada 



,ia Orion to W 

,j i r zenith moved nearly hori- 

mtally, with slight dip in a 
' .E. direction, disappearing 

ightly E. of Limerick. 
,'bugh No. 27, and 1° E. of 

0. 11 Lyncis. 
I ed over 10° of space; pass 

I 30° under a, Pegasi. 



sse Majoris perpendic. down 
sae Majoris to y Bootis ... 

Ikab to Mirach 

jtima Coronae Borealis per- 

. mdic. down. 

Uts to Gemma 

i| — 



It passed behind se. 
veral clouds. The 
accompanying 
diagram will best 
show the curious 
path. 

Several 



Highfield House 



Trowbridge .. 
From Galway to 

Limerick, 

coach (8 miles 

fromLimerick) 

Darlington 



Nearly horizontal, Highfield House 

inclining slightly 

downwards, mo- 
vingtowardsS.W. 

Castle Donington 

Ibid 

Ilbid 

Ilbid 



Jibid., 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Correspondent... 

W. H. Leeson 
Esq. 

Id. 

Id. .: 

Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq 
Rev. C. Lowndes 
J. Graham, Esq, 

Id 

Rev. C. Lowndes 
Rev. J. Slatter. 

[Esq. 
A. S. H. Lowe, 

Id 

C. Lingen, Esq. 



Rev. T. Rankin. 



J. Graham, Esq. 

Rev. J. Slatter. 

[Esq 
A. S. H. Lowe, 
Correspondent... 



E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



C. J. Astley, Esq. 
J.W.Kelly, Esq. 



J. Graham, Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq 



[Esq 
W. H. Leeson 

Id 

Id r.. 

Id 

Id 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Hereford Times. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
H. Lawson, Esq.'s 

letter to E. J. 

Lowe. 

Letter to Prof. 

Powell. See Ap. 

pendix, No. 8. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 

Globe, Oct.19,1850. 

See Appendix, 

No. 6. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



B. M. S. Report, 
Ibid. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



26 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
maartiitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or ;■ 
duration. |, 



1850. 
Nov. 2 



h m 
6 54 p.m 

6 58 p.m. 

7 



SmaU 

Small 

p.m. I Intensely bright, and 
large meteor. 



9 35 p.m. 

9 57 p.m. 
10 p.m. 



8 p.m. 



14 



5 50 p.m. 

5 45 p.m. 

6 12 p.m. 



7 5 p.m. 
5 to 6 a.m 



5 45 a.m. 
5 to 6 a.m.? 



10 55 p.m. 



= 3rd mag. 

= 4th mag. 
= 3rd mag. , 



iVfter bursting, a streak of 
light remained for about 
20 minutes, 10° or 12° 
in length, with a bright 
nucleus at one end, like 
a comet; decreased in 
length and vanished. 

Train 



Slow 

Slow 
Shot 

N 



rapidly fi 
" to S.E. 



,W. 



frain 



about 3 sees. ; 
noise. 

Over 9° in 1'5 8 

Over 10° in 1 se 
Over 6° in 3 sec 



Visible 10 sees, 
last suddenly 
appeared. 



Dm-ation 1 scci 



Larger than ? IBright and 

bluish. 
Large 



No explosion 



About = ? Bright yellow, 

38 meteors (only a Light on com 

portion of the sky 

visible). 



Brilliant meteor 



16 small meteors 



3 times larger than 
Saturn. 



bustion ; 
seemed to 
increase as 
they de- 
scended. 
= twice 'if- ,, 



Disappeared with faint ex- 
plosion. 



Tail 3° long ; lijf^ht became 
pale red and then dis 
appeared. 



About 6 sees. 



Disappeared ; no explosion 



Yellow . 



Shght taU 



Rapid 



* Mr, Leeson gives g,m.t. His lat, and long, a 



A CAtALOGXTE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 27 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarlis. 



)1 towards « Ceti 

kal to S Aquarii 

a about 60° alt. passed 
ithin 10° N. of 9 i at about 
i" alt. burst into stars of 
rilliant colours. 



'ed from half between ft and 
and passed 2° below s Ge- 
inorum. 
)ugli southern confines of 
igitta and towards a Aquilse, 
4° N. of /S, and passed 
irough No. 3 Aquarii. 

iral in all directions 

sky was clouded. Suddenly 
very luminous appearance 
■csented itself, as seen 
nrough the clouds. The 
5ht was lenticular-shaped; 
3 base rested on the hori- 
m a little E. of S., the mid 
e pait being from 5° to 10' 
1 E. of that point. Its 
•eadth at base was 4°, the 
ititude of its apex (which 
jipeared to be perpendiciilar 
|i its base) was about 30°. 
he brightest part was the 
^ntre of the base, and the 
5ht shaded off gradually to 
le edges. This probably was 
large meteor. 
ii.S.E., half-way to zenith... 



Overcast, a brilliant 
vivid flash; could 
it be a meteor ? 



r 1 zenith towards horizon in 
.W. ; lost behind clouds. 

r 1 the zenith perpendicularly 
)wn, in N.W. 



zenith towards N.W. 
E. toW 



. . to S.E. 



IliioN'.'E. 



.JtoN.W 

,M half between S and t to S 
■tti. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Castle Donington 

Ibid 

Bombay : Mala- 
bar Hill. 



Darlington 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Trowbridge 

Darlington 



W. 
Id. 

A correspondent 
to Bombay 
Times. 



J. Graham, Esq. 



H. 



[Esq.* 
Leeson, 



Id. 



Id. 



F. J. Astley, Esq, 
J. Graham, Esq. 



tlighiield House, 



Oxford . 



Wild E.; supposed 
by observer to 
influence the mo- 
tion of the me 
teors. 



Circular, well -de. 
fined disc. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Beeston Railway 
Station (l^J mile 
S. of Highfield 
House). 

O.Kford. 

India : Bore 
Ghaut. 



Ibid., 



Ibid 

Bombay 



Ibid. 

Highfield House 



Keference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Bombay Bimonthly 
Times, Nov. 15. 
Communicated 
by Dr. Buist 
See Appendix, 
No. 15. 

E. J. Lowe. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

B. M. S. Report. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



J. Watson, Esq. 



A correspondent 
to Bombay 
Times. 



Id. 



Id 

Correspondent to 
Dr. Buist. 

E, J. Lowe, Esq. 



Ibid. 



Statements made to 

Prof. Powell. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Bombay Times, 
Nov. 20. Com- 
raunicated by Dr, 
Buist. See Ap. 
pendix, No. 16. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

See Appendix. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 



jte2° 51' 23"-75 N. Long. i° 18' 42" W. 



28 



REPORT — 1831. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1850 

Nov. 28 



Dec. 



29 



30 



h m 

9 38 p.m. 

9 43 p.m. 

9 47 p.m. 



10 10 p.m. 
10 30 p.m. 

7 30 p.m. 

7 45 p.m. 

8 43 p.m. 

9 p.m. 



10 35 p.m. 
(g.m.t.) 



11 30 p.m. 



5 a.m. 



= 4th mag. 
= 5th mag. 



=3rd mag. 



4 times size of Jupiter 
Large meteor 



Colour of Ju- 
piter. 



Very large 

Very large 

Meteor bright = twice 
?• 



White or 
bluish. 



Fine meteor. 

Fine meteor. 
= 4th mag. . 

Large 



Blue. 



Blue.... 
YeUow 



Fully = i diara. of C, 
or 10' of arc. 



Very bright, 
seen in- 
doors with 
candles. 

Most dazzling 



Bright 
Large 



Very bright, 
seen in- 
doors with 
candles. 



9 33 p.m. 
11 50 p.m. 



Large 

= 3rd mag. . 



Large 

About = $ 



Blue . 



Train 5° long 



Over 6° in less } 
Over 10° in 1 s 

Over 10° in 2 s 



Veiy slowly.. r, 



Train of light 

Train of light 

Left brilliant ; train visible 
through whole track for 
C sees. : no explosion. 

Long light tail, visible for 
some time. 

Ditto 

Slight taU 



Velocitv model 



Rapid 



A glow of light continued, 
after the meteor had 
vanished, for some little 
time. 



Heard to explode 



Either statio 
or else appni 
ingmeinastr I 
line some 4 
sees., and a i 
time shone i 
from behii 
cloud. 



Over 10° in 1 1 



Duration 3 S6 
Little train Velocity mod 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 29 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



j)Ugb 8 towai-ds No. 12 Tauri 

jugh a, and about 1° S. of 

Tauri. 

i'.a a point 4° W. of, and of 
T me alt. as a Ceti ; a pas 
I idway between Saturn and 

Ceti. 

jra near Aldebaran perpendic. 
' )wn over the space of 30°, 



Darlington 
Ibid 



J. Graham, Esq. 
Id 



Ibid. 



Id. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Highfield House 
Oxford 



A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
Mr. G. A. Rowell 



k Major to Orion 

bris to Pleiades 

^•ly perpendicularly down 

rough about 15° in W. 

sappeared between a and y 

quilae. 
ri E. to N.W. 



Trowbridge . 

Ibid 

Oxford 



F. J. Astley, Esq. 

Id 

Mr. G. A. RoweU 



Worthing.Sussex 



M y Draconis downwards to- 
irds W. at an angle of 60°. 
iiended nearly perpendicu 
\ rly in W. 



Edinburgh .. 
Highfield House 



Oxford . 



Afterwards it came 
out in a break in 
the clouds, and 
was most briL 
liant for a few 
seconds. 



Mr. Bishop's Ob- 
servatory, Re- 
gent's Park. 



a Orion towards Polaris 
1 W. to E., nearly horizontal 



Jersey . 
Oxford. 



p W. to Arcturus 

jpugh K 2 Tauri and about 2' 
. of Aldebaran. 
.Ejiendicularly down in E.S.E, 
°,a 6° to 8° E. of h nearly per- 
' indicularly down but a lit- 
'?. towards E. , though nearly 
i*", then disappeared. 



One of oui' labour- 
ing men reported 
there was quite a 
shower of me 
teors for some 
time ; he never 
saw so many. 

ileteoric stone fell, 
3 feet circum- 
ference; dug up 
immediately. 



Highfield House 



A. H. Lowe, Esq, 

Correspondent... 
E. J. Lowe. 

Mr. G. A. Rowell 



J. R. Hind, Esq. 
F.R.S. 



Rev. S. King 
Mr. G. A. Rowell 



Thomas Cox (a 
farming man) 



Ibid. 

Communicated to 
Prof. Powell. 
Appendix, No. 7. 

B. M. S. Report. 

Ibid. 

Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 
Appendix, No. 7. 

Letter toE. J.Lowe, 

Ibid. 



Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 
Appendix, No. 7. 

Letter to E.J. Lowe, 



Bengal . 



Trowbridge 

Darlington 



Highfield House 
Oxford 



J. Astley, Esq, 
J. Graham, Esq. 

S. Watson, Esq. 
Mr.G. A. Rowell 



B. M. S. Report. 
Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 
Appendix, No. 7. 

Mr. Lowe's MS, 



See Appendix, 'No. 
18. 



B. M. S. Report. 
E. J. Lowe. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Communicated to 

Prof. Powell. 

Appendix, No. 7. 



30 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



1850. 
Dec, 6 



h m 

9 33 p.m. 



= 2nd mag. 



Train fully 15° long 



Middle size . 



12 



13 



24 



26 



Large, =4 times 1st 
ma?. 



6 p.m. 
9 20 p.m. 

9 32 p.m. 



9 37 p.m. 
11 40 p.m. 



= 2nd mag. 
=2nd mag. 



= 3rd mag. 
As a spark 



9 30 p.m. = 2nd mag. 



28 



1851. 
Jan. 5 



9 35 p.m. 
10 30 p.m. 

10 31 p.m. 

10 40 p.m. 
7 38 p.m. 

6 30 p.m. 



6 53 p.m. 



Small 
Small 



Small 



= 4th mag. 



= 5th mag. , 
Large 



= 3rd mag. 



= 2nd mag. 



7 1 p.m. =4th mag. 



Long train 



Orange-red 



Yellow . 



Blue. 



Burst into shower of sparks 

Tail fan-shaped ; length 
about double diameter 
of body ; separated into 
sparks. 



Sparks followed it 



No accompaniment. 



Colourless ... 

Bright ; no de- 
crease or in. 
crease. 



Continuous tail 
Sparks 



Tail Duration \ s» 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 31 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



ed through « 2 Ononis, 47 
iami and about 1° above x 2 
eti. 



Daflington 



feared in tail of Ursa Major, 
lOved parallel to the body, 
lien curved below the 
ointers ; disappeared about 
0° alt. towards N.E. 

I 2ti to Fomalhaut 

•lied 1° below $ and « Tauri, 
id i way between a and 2 Ceti 

i)eared near Sirius ; its path 
as nearly perpendicular to 
jiizon, but formed a some- 
hat greater angle with hori. 
)n W. than S. ; the meteor 
isappeared when 5° E. of 
irius. 

Hsugh y Ononis, and above n 
rionis, passing that star at 
St. of 3° 30'. 

i!iin between c and Gemi- 
}rum. 



Sherapore, Dec 
can. 

Huggate, Pock- 
lington, York- 
shire. 



Hartwell .. 
Darlington 

Ibid 



J. Graham, Esq. 



Correspondent to 

Dr. Buist. 
Rev.T. Rankin... 



Rev, C. Lowndes 
J. Graham, Esq. 



Id. 



Fell nearly perpen 
dicularly down, 
inclining slightly 
toN. 



Ibid 

Highfield House 



^menced 20° above the W, 

f prizon, passed through the 
i;nith and through thcTwins, 
Jsappearing suddenly in E. at 
1 altitude of 30° ; ill-defined 
sc. 

f\a K Ursa: Majoris to ^ be- 
veen Castor and Pollux. 

X.iuS.W 

,^nalt. of 45° in W 



in alt. of 45° in S.W. 



Ibid. 



Id 

E. J. Lowe 

Id 



Moved horizontally 



Ibid. 



Id. 



i y to 5 Ursse Majoris , 



Fell perpendicularly 
down. 

Nearly perpendicu- 
larly down, incli 
ning to S. 

lU-defined, darted 
rapidly. 

Parallel to Milky 
Way and brilliant. 



Ibid 

Highfield House 



A. S 
E. J, 



Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Id. 



Id. 



[Esq, 
H. Lowe, 
Lowe 



St.Ives, Hunting- 
donshire. 



m a point 3° below a straight 
'le joining Erica and a Pe 
isi, about -^ between those 
ars, and moved S. in a direc- 
jn nearly parallel with that 
le, but tending slightly to 
ards the horizon. 

lliway between <p 2 and ^ 3 
eti, and passed 2° 30' S. of 
;Ceti. 

ifledfrom a point in a straight 
le joining a and 45 Ceti 
)0ut 1° nearer the former 
ar,and passed2° above t Ceti 



Darlington 



J. King Watts, 

Esq. 

J. Graham, Esq. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



E. J. Lowe. 



See Appendix, No. 
17. 

Letter to Prof. 
Powell. Appen- 
ds, No. 8. 



E. J. Lowe. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Communicated to 
Prof. Powell. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



32 



REPORT 1851. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1851. 
Jan. 5 



10 



h m 

7 39 p.m. 

8 9 a.m. 



= 5th mag. 



Over 3° in less 
isec. 



Seen in bright sun- 
shine. 
= 9 



Brilliant co- 
loured ball. 
Red 



27 
31 

Feb. 3 

4 
6 
8 

16 
24 
.Mar. 11 



3 15 p.m. 

10 23 p.m. 
10 28 p.m. 



10 13 p.m. 
(g.m.t.) 



13 7 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 

10 40 p.m. 

9 p.m. 

10 39 p.m. 
(g.m.t.) 

7 30 p.m. 

10 p.m. 

Daybreak.. 



A.pril 



10 30 p.m. 
8 p.m. 
8 26 p.m. 



7 45 p.m. 



9 5r 

Grantham 

Time. 



= 2$ 



= 4th mag. 
:1st mag. 



Yellow . 
Blue.... 



Burst into numberless 
sparks. 

Train of crimson sparks 
vanished ; no explo- 
sion. 

Long white train ; no ex- 
plosion. 

No tail 

Pale train 



= 3rd mag. 



No train 



= 2nd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 



Red .... 
YeUow . 
Yellow . 



Train 



= to Venus 
= to Sirius 
»Sirius ... 



Pale colour 
Yellow 



No tail... 
No tail... 
No train 



Night 

= V- 

Brilliant, full 



Violet train . 



Train 



Small 

Small, spark-Fike. 
Large 



3rd mag. 



As bright as S 
Leonis, and 
of a dull red. 



Bright and 
white. 



Train of light 



Brilliatit 



None 



=to2^. 



As bright asiTrain of light 
li- , rather 
more blue. 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Duration ^ sec 
Duration 0-5 1 



Slowly 
Rapid 
1 sec. 



Loud noise, a) 
ed close. 



Duration 2 si 



Rather slow. 



Duration ui 
sees. 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 33 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



led above Sirius at a distance 
■ 4°, moved southward, par 
lel with horizon. 



Black mass fell 



,yN. 



.vS. 



n Pleiades to e Tauri , 
1 No. 22 Monocerotis , 



Downwards . 
Meteor 



ci alt. 80° in S. to alt. 15' 
)m N.E. to S.S.W. 



u zenith through Leo 
lari to a Ceti 



Meteor 

Meteor 

During Aurora 
Dorealis. 



Ve from direction of Pleiades; 

,d started from Z Tauri, 

:d moved to « Ceti. 
■■c|i y Cancri 35° perpendicu- 

My down. 
"tji S Eridani perpendicularly 

•wn. 
■•«i below /3 Urs. Maj. through 

i Draconis almost to ho- 

l.OU. 

"i'cally down from Bootes 
sm dt. 15° to 5°. 



I.N.E. 



^if 8 Can.-Venatici ; took a 
snewhat wavy course to- 
frds a Leonis ; when nearly 
3!r S Leonis it disappeared 
"i 5° or 6°, then reappeared 
name colour ; it finally dis- 
*)eared at Regulus. 



"MyCepheijtooka downward 
:irse, passed over i Cephei, 
^low diminished in bright 
IS, and disappeared 5° to 6° 
liow t Cephei. 



Meteor. 
Meteor. 

Many . 



Issued from Pleia- 
des. 
Meteor 



DarUngton J. Graham, Esq. 



Beerbhom, IndiajCorrespondent to 

Dr. Buist 
Bombay 



Ibid., 



Highfield House E. J. Lowe, Esq 

Ibid lid. 

Bedfordshire ...! Mr. Maclean ... 
RoseHiU.OxfordiRev. J. Slatter... 



Ibid 

Uckfield 

Highfield House 

Cardington, Bed- 

fordshire. 
Highfield House 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Rose Hill, Oxford 



Huggate, near 

Pocklington. 

Bombay 



Id. 

C.L. Prince, Esq 
E. J. Lowe, Esq 

Maclean, Esq, 

E. J. Lowe 



Caffraria ; 
Lat. 30° 40' S., 
Long.27°30'E. 

Uckfield 

Thame, Oxon ...] 
Highfield House 
Grantham, Line. 
Ibid 



A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq 

Rev. J. Slatter.., 



Rev. T.Rankin.. 

Correspondent to 

Dr. Buist. 
Lieut. Gavvler 



St. Ives, Hunts .. 



J. Kiug Watts, 

Esq. 
W. Johnson, Esq. 
Correspondent 
to Dr. Buist. 
Grantham, Line. jJ. W. Jeans, Esq, 



Thame, Oxon 
Aden 



C. L. Prince, Esq 
W. Johnson, Esq. 
A.S.H.Lowe.Esq 
J. \V. Jeans, Esq 
Id 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



See Appendix, 

No. 19. 
Ibid. No. 20. 



Ibid. No. 21. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

B. M. S. Report. 
MS, 

B. M. S. Report. 

Il)id. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



MS. com. 



Letter. See Ap- 
pendix, No. 26. 
Appendix, No. 22. 

Appendix, No. 30. 



B. M. S. Report. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

liiid. 

Ibid. 



Communicated to 
Prof. Powell. 

B. M. S. Report. 

See Appendix, 
No. 10. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 



34 



UBPORT~1851. 



Date. 



185L 
April 5 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



h in 

8 25 p.m. 



18 



19 



27 



= 4th mag. star until 
it passed 20 Argus 
Navis, when it in- 
creased and sur- 
passed Ij.. 



8 53 p.m. =to Procyon 



During half Numerous meteors ; 



Rather bluer 
than y. 



= to Sirius ; 
orange-red. 



hour about 
10 p.m. 



10 20 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 

10 o'clock 

10 5 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 



some = 9 or 2^ 

most small. 
Meteoric shower 
Gradually brightening 

till =lst mag. 
A splendid meteor 



10 5 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 
10 5 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 



10 5 p.m. 
(g.m.t.) 



10 5*p.m 

(g.m.t.) 



10 5 p.m. 
(g.m.t.) 



size of d 



(Account similar to 

that above.) 
^ size of C 



Brightness 
and colour. 



At first a single line of 
sparks ; afterwards an 
increasing number of 
lines. 



Abundance of streams, 
which rapidly vanished. 



Intense; it was 
surrounded 
by rich pur- 
ple fading 
into blue, 
then much 
orange, and 
lastly light 
yellow. 



A considerable train of 
light yellow light. 



not =i(l 



Nearly -J full moon, 
illuminating the 
whole horizon, like 
daylight. 



So brilliant, 
that distant 
objects were 
as distinct as 
in the day. 

Bright blue 

when it 

burst ; com 

pared to that 

of a lucifer 

match. 
= ^of d's. 

Bluish red ; 

did not in. 

crease or di 

minish. 



Surrounded by 
a rich purple 
light, suc- 
ceeded by 
blue, orange 
and yellow. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



No train 



When it burst sparks were 
seen to drip from it. 



Sparks very blue. 



Continuous train left be- 
hind ; the meteor broke 
into sparks. 



Yellowish train, disappear, 
ed in sparks ; no noise. 



Duration 2-5 se<| 
vanished sud- 
denly. 



Duration 0-5 sec. 



From 4 sees, tij 
sees. 



3 sees. 



Velocity consi( 
able, viz. 4 
sees. 



* lO*" 5" was the exact g.m.t., although at OU 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 35 



Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


a 29 Monocerotis, near 20 




Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe, A. S. 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 


rgus Navis, to a Pj-xis-nau- 






H.Lowe, Esq., 




cae; it disappeared instantly 






and S.Watson, 




1- attaining its maximum 






Esq. 




rightness ; point of first ap- 










earance 4?. 8'' 1", N.P.D. 










9° 33' ; point of disappear- 










ice M. Sh Se-, N.P.D. 










T 14'. 










n t Hydrae, 7° perpendicu- 


Aurora Borealis at 


Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


Ibid. 


rly downwards. 


the time. 


Bombay and Co- 
lapoor. 
















[Ur. Buist. 


[No. 24. 




Same as last ? 


Caunpoor 


Correspondent to 
Rev. J, Slatter... 


See Appendix, 


n 30' below Capella, nearly 
/3 Aurigie. 




Rose Hill, Oxford 


MS. 










lE, toW 




Gainsborough ... 


Nottingham 


Correspondent. 








Journal. 




31 first seen alt. 70° in 


Suddenly a blaze of 
soft yellow light 


Durham 


.\ friend of Rev. 


Prof. Chevallier's 


^N.W., and moved gradu- 




Prof. Cheval- 


letter to E. J. 


ly towards N., disappear- 


overspread the 




lier. 


Lowe. 


g nearly due north. 


country ; tlie 
hght seemed to 
fall gently on the 
ground and to 
run along it ; lis- 
tened for sound 
of explosion, but 
heard none. 












Bishopwear- 
raouth. 


Correspondent... 


Ibid. 








>peared near the zenith in 
.W., and moved towards N. 


Very favourably 
seen from a hill 


Esh 


Id 


Ibid. 








rotably it was nearer the 


side; no noise 








nith than at Durham). 


heard, although 
listened for, for a 
few minutes. 








.E. moving to N.W 




Aldcn Grange (2 Td 


Ibid. 






miles W. of 










Durham). 






attracted by a light ; on 


Thefragmentswhen 


Beeston (is 1 mile 


Rev. M. H. 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 




it burst were 


exactly S.W. 


Ricketts. 




ar 1 and 2 CassiopeiiB, 


prismatic ; no 


of Highfield 






ssed through <r, and ended 


noise was heard 


House). 






S Cassiopeiae. Positions 


though listened 








len first seen, M. 23'- 30'", 


for. 








P.D.32°; whenit exploded, 
.. O"* 20", N.P.D. 50° 40'. 








' 










Jk first about 70° in W.N.W. 




Durham and 
neighbour- 


Several observers 


Communication to 
Prof. Chevallier. 


1 oving towards N. ; another 




•server saw it first in S.E., 




hood. 




Appendix, No. 9. 


iien moved to N.W. 










i ^ven at 10" 30"°, and Gainsborough lOi-. 


i 








d2 



36 



REPORT — 1851. 



Date. 



Hour, 



Appearance or 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or ^ 
duration. 



1851. 
April 27 



29 
May 8 



28 



h ni 
10 5 p.m. 



10 10p.m. ± 

(g.m.t.) 
10 30 p.m. 

10 p.m. 
10 20 p.m. 



10 18 30' 



BrOliant 



Large meteor, pear 

shaped. 
Large as a cricket-ball 

[" 

Small 

Large meteor 



29 10 3 p.m. 



31 

June 2 
20 
22 



26 



July 2 



Like a ball out 
of a Roman 
candle. 

Brightness = 

morn, nearly. 

Light = C ..- 



= 2nd mag. star 



Large meteor 



10 40p.m. ± 
(g.m.t.) 

10 35p.m. ± 
(g.m.t.) 

U 30 p.m. 

9 30 p.m. 



11 p.m. 
9 40 p.m. 



9 35p.m. ± 
(g.m.t.) 

9 35p.ra.± 
(g.m.t.) 



= 4th mag 

=4th mag 

Large fire-ball... 
Ball nearly = J 



Brilliant fire-ball.. 
= lst or 2nd mag. 



= 2nd mag. 
= 2iid mag. 



•t"- 



No train 



3 sees. 



Large stream of fire 



30 sees. 



Brilliant and 
white. 

= 2nd mag.; 
colour 
white. 



None 



White 



Red 



Whitish red ; 
appeared 
near. 



Behind it left a streak, 
which disappeared al- 
most instantaneously. 



Rapid 

Duration 3 sees. 



t' 



None 



Rapid 



No train 



Leaving a thread of light.. 

Waving luminous streaks 
remained after disap- 
pearance. 



Stream 60° long 

Continuous train of light. 



Scintillation. 



3 or 4 min. ; dii 
pated slowly, 
7 minutes .... 



Slowly; 1 sec. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF liUMINOUS METEORS. 37 



Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


)m S.E. towards N.W., hori- 
jontally. 

"lall elevation from N. to N,W. 

dm 'Nli' tn N W 




Nottingham, 
near Trent 
Bridge. 

Near Oxford ... 

Ollerton 


W. B. Carter, 
Esq. 

Statement to 

Rev.J.Slatter. 
Correspondent... 

A.S.H.Lowe.Esq. 
J. King ^A^atts, 
Esq. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

J. King Watts, 
Esq. 

Rev. J. Slatter... 
Id 


MS. of E. J. Lowe. 

MS. 

Nottingham Re- 
view. 

\Ir. Lowe's MS. 

Communicated to 
Prof. Powell. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Communicated to 
Prof. Powell. 

MS. 
Ibid. 

See Appendix, 
No. 28. 

Letter. See Ap- 
pendix, No. 31. 

Letter. See Ap- 
pendix, No. 30. 

Communicated by 
Mr. Lowe. 

MS. com. 

Ibid. 




Soon exploded with 
a hissing noise. 


rpendicularly down in S.W. 
W 


Highfteld House 
Saint Ives, Hunts 

Beeston (1 mile 
S.W. of High- 
field House). 

Saint Ives, Hunts 

Rose Hill, Oxford 
Ibid 


Issued from below 
Jupiter and near 
him. 

Moved over a great 
space, perpendi- 
cularly upwards. 
Point when first 
seen, IR. X* 2", 
Dec. 48°30'N.; 
point of disap- 
pearance, jH. 
XIIP 14% Dec. 
51° N. 

Issued from be- 
tween two clouds 
and had a singu- 
lar appearance by 
falling perpendi- 
cularly down the 
face of a dark 
cloud until it 
vanished. 


bm X through /J, between y 
Imd I (being 30' dist. of 2), 
,1° E. of I, 11° E. of i, fading 
jiway near and to N. of n 
[Jrsa Majoris. 


1 

rom near /S Ophiuchi to 1 2° W. 
Df »i Ophiuchi. 




1 
l)m Delphinus to Ursa Maj.... 

BimW. to E. 


Rounded on the ad- 
vancing side. 

Assumed a di- 
spersed form, 
threw out red 
balls and disap- 
peared. 


Kilkenny House, 

Bath. 
Belfast 


Lieut. R. W. H. 

Hardy, R.N. 
J. Cameron, Esq. 

W. Frost, Esq.... 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

and F. E. 

Swann, Esq. 
Rev. J. Slatter... 

Id 




E. part of London 

Highfield House, 
Nottingham. 

Rose Hill.Oxford 

Ibid 


Ilwnwards at 45° to S. ; from 
l^cturus through 20°. 

5E.of Altair to 10° below it 

JE. of Altair to about 10° be- 
ow it. 

















38 REPORT — 1851. 

APPENDIX, 

Containing details from the original Communications of the above Observations 
made to Prof. Powell. 

No. 1. — Note from Mrs. Dixon. 

A Meteor seen at Ventnor, Isle of Wight, Monday, September 4, 1848, about 
9 o'clock P.M. — " I was sitting out of doors when the whole view was sud- 
denly illuminated as brightly as by the full moon, the light being rather lurid. 
On looking S.W. by W. at the altitude of about 50°, I saw a vivid ball of fire 
about two-thirds the diameter of the moon, just bursting vertically in half, 
scattering bright sparks of various sizes in all directions, and one large body, 
about one-third the size of the whole meteor, fell rapidly towards the earth," 
bearing a little south, leaving a luminous track. As it fell it became less 
bright and defined ; when it had fallen about 25° it again burst, scattered 
itself, and was dissipated : three minutes at least must have elapsed before 
the luminous track and ail the bright sparks had disappeared. I heard much 
the same account of the meteor as seen in Hampshire, nearly forty miles to 
the west, and in Sussex, forty miles to the east of Ventnor. 

" On the same evening there were several falling stars in other parts of the 
heavens, more (as far as I remember) to the south, but I have no memoran- 
dum of the point of the compass. ,, . Oixon " 

No. 2.— A Letter to Prof. Powell from E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
" My dear Sir, — Mr. Lawson has been kind enougli to forward the follow- 
ing account of a meteor seen by W. H. Weekes, Esq., at Sandwich, in Kent, 
of which I send you these particulars. 

" Yours truly, 

" E. J. LowK. 

" ' 1850, February 5, C" 50™ (clock time). My attention being fixed upon 
Orion (a greyish liaze jirevailing at the time), I observed a speck of dull light 
commence at a point little west of that splendid group of stars, at an altitude 
of 28° 30' above the horizon. The light went on increasing rapidly in mag- 
nitude and intensity, continuing stationary the while, and glowing through 
the thin grey mist like a moderatelj"^ red-hot iron ball, until it had acquired 
an apparent diameter equal to at least one-third that of the full moon, when, 
without any noise of an explosion being heard, it suddenly burst, the main 
body taking a slow rectilineal motion parallel to the horizon and to the east- 
ward; the instant when the motion of the meteorolite commenced many large, 
glowing, red fragments were thrown off in various directions from the centre, 
and a brilliant shower of variegated fire descended perpendicularly towards the 
earth. So beautiful was it that it resembled the coloured rain from a sky-rocket. 

" 'The following cliaracteristics are remarkable : — 

" ' 1st. It formed, or at least appeared gradually, at a stationary point in the 
sky, and from the moment it first became visible, until it burst and took 
motion, the period was 1 minute 45 seconds. 

" ' 2nd. The motion of its main body was so deliberate that it lasted 45 sees. 

" ' 3rd. At the place of its gradual formation the appearance of a luminous 
disc, equal to 1° in the heavens, was left after it took flight, which luminous 
disc, with the line of its flight to the eastward, and also the course of its de- 
scending coloured rain, though all of them, gradually decreasing, continued 
visible fully 3 minutes after the primary body had disappeared.' 

" Perfect reliance may be placed on these observations, and especially on 
the duration of time elapsed between each feature, as Mr. Weekes has been 
accustomed to count seconds in his astronomical observations." 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 39 



No. 3.— Note from Mrs. Smyth to Prof. Powell. 

" Port Madoc, Carnarvonshire, (? 13th Aug. 1850. 

" About a quarter past 11 p.m., looking eastward, we saw a meteor rush 
horizontally towards the south, leaving a long bright streak behind it. 

" First seen below /3 Aquilse and ended above Fomalhaut. 

" The Pleiades had just risen above the peak of Cynicht to the N.E. The 
night was splendid. " A. S." 

Note to Capt. Smyth. " Collingwood, 16th August, 1850. 

" Of 75 meteors we saw in about an hour or an hour and a half, on the 
night of the 9th, only 4 or 5 did not emanate from a point somewhere near 
/3 Camelopardali. It clouded, and the 10th was bad." 

No. 5. — Letter to Prof. Powell from Mr. Boreham. 

" Haverhill, Aug. 17, 1850. 

" Dear Sir, — I beg to forward you a rough diagram, made by Mrs. W. W. 
Boreham on the night of the 11th of August, of the approximate paths of 
55 shooting stars observed by her from 9^ 15™ till 11 o'clock on that evening. 

" Forty were observed on the night of the 9th from 9^ SO'" to 11 o'clock. 

" The course of that headed 1 /» ought to have been placed a little more 
westward, but I send the diagram uncooked. 

" I am, dear Sir, yours most truly, Wm. W. Boreham." 
" Rev. Prof. B. Powell, SfC. S,c., Oxford." 

Approximate directions of 55 Meteors observed at Haverhill, by Mrs. Boreham. 

N. 




40 REPORT — 1851. 

No. 4. — Letter to Prof. Powell from Rev. J. Irwin. 

" Vicarage, Steeple Claydon, Aug. 2D, 1850. 
" Sir,— In reply to j-our communication, I beg to say that the shower of 
shooting stars I saw on the night of the 12th of August, at about 20 minutes 
before 12, was not in the south-western, as misprinted in the ' Times/ but in 
the south-eastern horizon, a little to the eastward of south. I was walking; 
home with some friends on that night, and our attention was attracted by 
the beauty and brilliancy of several of these meteors, which we observed, 
each exclaiming ' How beautiful ! I never saw anything like that ; ' but, a ' 
the period I have mentioned, there was a perfect shower of them, all issuing 
as it seemed, from the same tract, and taking nearly the same direction to 
wards the horizon, above which they were but a very few degrees, I cannot 
state with accuracy how many. It seemed to us something like the finale 
of a display of fireworks, if one could conceive them taking the same direc ■ 
tion instead of diverging at aU points. 

" I remain, yours faithfully, 

" John J. lawiN." 

" Toronto, Canada, Oct. 13th. 
No. 6. — " Curious Meteoric Phanomenon. — On Sunday evening, about six 
o'clock, a very brilliant meteoric ball darted forth from the zenith, and 
descended about half-way towards tlie horizon. It then burst as if it had 
been a rocket, displaying all the varied and beautiful shades of the rainbow. 
The sky at the time was clear and cloudless, the stars were shining prettily, 
but the dazzling glare of the meteor seemed for the moment to throw them 
into the shade." — Globe, Oct. 19, 1850. 

No. 7. — Letters from Mr. G. A. Rowell. 

" Alfred Street, Oxford, Dec. 2, 1850. 

" Rev. Sir, — On Friday evening, November 23, about half-past seven 
o'clock, I was on the Woodstock road, a little north of the Observatory, 
when I saw a very beautiful meteor in the westward ; it descended at a 
moderate pace, through about 15° of space, alm.ost in a perpendicular direc- 
tion, but a little towards the north. It appeared about double the diameter 
of Venus when at her brightest, was of a bright white or bluish colour, and 
left behind it a brilliant train which was distinctly visible throughout the 
whole space through which the meteor had passed, for full six seconds. The 
meteor did not seem to explode, but disappeared at a point exactly between 
the two stars n and y Aquilse. 

" The same evening, about nine o'clock, a large meteor was seen descend- 
ing also nearly perpendicular in the west. This was observed by a person 
in the Town Hall during the lecture, and must have been bright to attract 
the attention from a room so lighted. 

" Again, about half-past eleven o'clock the same night, my wife was sitting 
by the fire with a lighted candle, when she was startled by a bright light, 
and, looking up, saw a very brilliant meteor pass the window from west to 
east, almost in a horizontal direction, but rather downwards. This meteor 
was seen bj' a very intelliger.t person in St. Clement's, who noticed its course 
with respect to certain stars, and can point out the direction. It was also 
noticed by several of the night-police men, and all describe it as having the 
appearance of a Roman candle of a bright bluish tint. 

" Aly wife had, previously to this evening, told me of a very bright meteor 
about a quarter past ten o'clock on the night before, i.e. the 26th, not so 
large as the one on the 2E)th, but very much more so than usual. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 41 

" I take the liberty of troubling you with these particulars, as it seems 
extraordinary that so many large meteors should appear, when, at the same 
time, very few shooting stars were to be seen, as I was watching one or other 
part of the heavens on Friday evening, from seven to nine o'clock, and, ex- 
cepting the one described, did not catch sight of any other, although the 
night was veiy clesr. 

" I am. Rev, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

" G. A. RowEi-L." 

" Alfred Street, Dec. 6, 1850. 

•' Rev. Sir, — Last night I saw another bright white-coloured meteor, about 
=Venus ; it descended from somewhere about 6° or 8° east of Saturn, in a 
straight line a little towards the east of the perpendicular ; its pace was 
moderate, and it left very little train. My view of it was rather imperfect, 
but I think, from the point at which it stai'ted to that of its disappearance, it 
could not be less than 25°. There were very few shooting stars last night ; 
I only saw one, at about half-past nine o'clock ; it was small, and passed 
with great velocity, 

" There was not the slightest appearance of an aurora during both even- 
ings, and I have only seen the aurora twice for some months past, and on 
both occasions I could not see one shooting star. I beg to suggest that it 
would be well if parties noting their appearance would notice whether there 
be an aurora during the time when there are many shooting stars, or during 
an aurora if there be many meteors. 

" I am. Rev. Sir, your obedient Servant, 

" G. A. RoWELL." 

No. 8. — Letters from the Rev. T. Rankin. 

" Huggate Rectory, near Pockliugton, Dec. 12, 1850. 

" Dear Sir, — On the evening of Monday, the 9th, when coming home 
from a neighbouring village, with Ursa Major directly before me, shining 
with great splendour, a large luminous meteor made its appearance in the tail 
of Ursa, and moved nearly parallel with the body, then made a curved motion 
below the pointers, and disappeared about 10° above the horizon. The ap- 
pearance was most brilliant ; the tail was fan-shaped, about double the length 
or size of the body, which might be four times the size of either of the 
pointers. Before it disappeared the tail separated in a number of scintillse. 
The evening was very clear, but a thick haze of about 10" edged the horizon. 
The day had also been calm and clear. At the time of the appearance the 
thermometer stood at 31°; barometer, 30'12; wet bulb of the hygrometer 
2° below the dry (the motion was N.E.). Having expressed a wish, in your 
Report, for communications upon the occurrence of meteors, I take the plea- 
sure of forwarding the present account ; 

" Remaining, dear Sir, yours very truly, 

"Professor Powell." " Thos. Rankin." 

" Huggate Rectory, near Pocklington, Jan. 23, 1851. 

" Dear Sir, — On looking over my meteorological memoranda for the last 
year, I find that on the evening of October 9th there appeared some common 
shooting or falling stars. There was at the same time some faint aurorae. 
Barometer 29"58 ; thermometer 42°. The moon in her 5th day. 

" I do not know whether you observed the singular appearance of the 
moon in her 8th day on the evening of September 14th. It resembled a 
capital D with a flat bottom. The southern and eastern sides formed a 
right angle l . I thought at first that some optical illusion had caused the 
appearance, but having viewed her through some lenses, I found that the 



42 REPORT — 1851. 

appearance was the same as that by the naked eye. I repeated the examina- 
tion at different times for more than an hour, with always the same appearance 
and shape. I could account for the perpendicular line, but not for the hori- 
zontal, unless it had been the shadow of a huge mountain. Leaving the 
matter to your superior judgment, I remain, 

" Dear Sir, yours very truly, 
"Rev. B. Powell." " Thos Rankin." 

No. 9. — Extract communicated by Prof. Chevallier. " May 1, 1851. 

" Brilliant Meteor. — An unusually bright meteor was seen at Durham, and 
in the neighbourhood, on the evening of Sunday, April 27, at 10^ 5™ p.m., 
mean Greenwich time. It was j^articularly noticed at Durham, at Bishop- 
wearmouth, and at Esh, six miles west of Durham, and no doubt will have 
been seen over a large district of country. The following account is given by 
a gentleman of Durham, who observed the meteor from the cross road which 
leads from the London road, south of Durham, towards the Grammar School 
and South Street : — 

" ' It was a clear starlight night, when suddenly a blaze of soft yellow 
light oversjjread the country for some distance. The light seemed to fall 
gently on the ground and to run along it. It was so intense, and came on 
so suddenly, that I was startled by it. One or two seconds must have elapsed 
before I discovered the cause. This proved to be a beautiful meteor, which 
seemed to be about a quarter as large as the moon at the full. It was sur- 
rounded by a rich purple light, fading into blue ; then a good deal of orange ; 
and lastly, a light yellow, which was the colour of a considerable train which 
followed the meteor. It moved with considerable rapidity, and was visible 
for four or five seconds after I first discovered it. I could not tell whether it 
vanished into the air, or was hidden by some intervening object ; but the 
impression on my mind was that it had fallen to the ground. It did not 
appear at any very great height ; and, indeed, I listened for the sound of it 
falling, which I thought would most likely be heard very shortly after it dis- 
appeared.' 

" Upon revisiting the place where this observation was made, and comparing 
the direction in which the meteor passed with the surrounding objects, it ap- 
pears that the meteor, when first seen (which was some seconds after its light 
was first noticed), was at an altitude of about 70°, in the W.N.W. direction, 
and moved gradually towards the north, disappearing very nearly due north. 

" The appeai-ance of the meteor, as seen at Bishopwearmouth, was very 
similar. 

" At Esh, the meteor was seen very favourably, the jjerson who noticed it 
being on the side of a hill quite open towards the north. The light was so 
brilliant, that distant objects were seen as distinctly as in daylight. The 
meteor was estimated to be about half as large as the full moon ; it appeared 
near the zenith in the north-west, and moved towards the north. When 
the meteor burst, sparks were distinctly observed to drip from it ; but no 
noise was heard, either at the instant or within a few minutes afterwards. 

" From the first description it appears, probably, that the meteor appeared 
somewhat nearer to the zenith at Esh than at Durham. 

" Near Alden Grange, two miles west of Durham, the sparks falling from 
the meteor, when it burst, were distinctly observed, and appeared of a bright 
blue colour, compared to that of a lucifer match. One person there observed 
the meteor first in the S.E., moving gradually to the N.W. 

" If this meteor should have been noticed in other parts of Great Britain, 
a comparison of different accounts may lead to a knowledge of its real course. 

" Temple Chevallier." 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 43 

No. 10. — Extract from a letter from Dr. Buist to Prof. Powell. 

"Meteors seen in India from June 1850 to May 1851. 
By Dr. Buist, F.R.S., Bombay. 

" The following notices contain amongst them a list of meteors which have 
been seen in India, in so far as I have been able to observe or to hear from 
correspondents. The list does not in all likelihood contain a hundredth part 
of those that have been noticed by Europeans, or a thousandth part of those 
that have been visible in the sky ; nor is there any reason to suppose that 
those which have been described have been by any means the most notable 
or conspicuous. In India we have probably not one man, at an average, for 
every thousand square miles, who thinks of making a note of, or of writing 
about such things ; and all that can be done therefore is to accejjt of such 
notices as we receive, — drawing, no conclusion from the number of meteors 
described as to the number or magnitude of those that have been visible. 
As the attention bestov/ed on such matters is every year on the inci'ease 
amongst us, I am disposed to ascribe the scantiness of the list to a deficiency 
of meteors visible in our sky rather than to any defect in the number of ex- 
ertions of the observers. I have myself not been able to see one-tenth of 
what I have been accustomed to notice, though my opportunities of observa- 
tion have been as good as usual. There is a peculiarity in a large number of 
the meteors I have observed in India, which I do not recollect to have seen 
noticed. As they approach the termination of their course, they begin to 
shine out and disappear at intervals of about a quarter of a second, present- 
ing the appearance closely allied to that of a disc or quoit thrown up in the 
air, and presenting alternately its edge and its face to the spectator. This 
occurs in general two or three, occasionally four or five times, before the ex- 
tinction of the meteor, and does so equally whether it explodes or not. 

" Of this list one aerolite has fallen to the ground, and been found, and for- 
■warded to the Asiatic Society's Museum. A second has without doubt im- 
pinged upon the earth, but has not yet been discovered. It was seen in 
bright sunshine ; the fragments thrown off alone appeared in a state of igni- 
tion ; the central mass appeared black as it fell towards the earth, as if not 
heated to redness ; and this most likely is the case almost always. But then 
at night when meteors are generally observed, it is the ignited portions that 
alone are visible. One meteor left a long train of hazy light behind it, 
■which was visible for nearly twenty minutes, and was mistaken for a comet 
by those who had witnessed the train without observing the fireball itself. 
We have four remarkable instances on record in India of meteors vanishing 
gradually or leaving trains of light behind them after they had vanished :. 
that seen in Palmacottah in 1838; it was the size of the full moon, and 
Seemed to remain in one place for twenty minutes, when it grew gradually 
fainter and fainter, and then disappeared ; that described by Capt. Shortrede 
as seen from Charka in 1842, which, with its train, was nearly five minutes 
visible ; that seen from Calcutta on the 2nd December 1825, first visible as 
a ball of fire, then in the shape of a comet, in which form it remained for 
several minutes, when it vanished ; and that described by Mr. Orlebar in the 
Bombay Observatory Report for 1846, seen on the 7th of December, and 
which left a luminous train behind it, visible for several seconds. The most 
notable instance of this sort is that of Jenny Lind's meteor seen from Boston 
on the 30th of September 1850, and which was visible for an hour. A very 
brilliant meteor was seen at Aden on the 1st of April. We have no par- 
ticulars regarding it, further than this, that it was mistaken by the sentry at 
the Turkish Wall for an alarm rocliet, and that he discharged his musket 
accordingly and gave the usual notice, when the whole garrison were sum- 



44 REPORT— 1851. 

moned to arms. This is perhaps the only meteor on record that caused 3000 
men to be roused from their slumbers. Were officers in command of Euro- 
pean troops in India to direct soldiers on duty to keep watch on the appear- 
"ances of the sky, a vast mass of information on nocturnal phsenomena might 
in a short time and with very little trouble be placed in our possession." 

No. 12. — Meteor of 2nd May 1850, observed at Bombay. — A meteor seen 
from near BycuUah Church on the 2nd of May seemed due east : first visible 
about 45°, it fell nearly 20^ and then vanished without explosion. It v.-rs 
nearly pure white, increased in size as it descended, did not librate, and left 
no train behind it, and was at its brightest about the size of Jupiter. — G. B. 

No. 13. — Meteor of lOth June 1850, observed at Kishnaghur. — "To the 
Editor of the Morning Chronicle, — Sir, — As the phsenomenon I am about to 
record was a most extraordinary one, I hope you may receive further notices 
of it. Last night I was sitting in the open air with two other gentlemen at 
about twelve or thirteen minutes after ten o'clock, when a most beautiful 
brilliant meteor appeared, which we all saw. It issued from the heavens 
near a star of second magnitude about midway between Scorpio and a planet 
to the west ; its direction was very nearly from south-west to north-east ; it 
did not drop, but shot rapidly across the heavens, appearing to increase in 
size and brightness, and after proceeding a considerable distance (gaining 
rather than losing its splendid brilliancy) it burst and numerous luminous 
particles were discharged from it. About a quarter of a minute after it had 
so disappeared, and while we were expressing our wonder and admiration, a 
distant though loud rumbling sound commenced and reminded us of regi- 
mental file firing. At first we thought it might be thunder, though there 
were very few clouds, and they were only near the horizon. The sound 
continued for certainly half a minute, and we had time to receive the impres- 
sion that it followed in the track of the meteor, when the sky was perfectly 
clear and bright. It was also seen by natives and described exactly.— 
J. C. Brown." 

" Kishnaghur, June 11, 1850." 

No. 14. — "Meteor of \st July 1850, observed at Bombay. — On Monday 
evening, the 1st of July, about half-past seven o'clock, a beautiful meteor 
was seen to shoot across the sky from south-east to north-west for a distance 
of about 20°, when it exploded about 70° from the horizon, bursting with a 
bright flash into a number of pieces." — Bombay Times, July 3. 

No. 15. — "Sir, — DidI, or did I not, see a comet yesterday (Nov. 6) evening 
in the south, about 15° above the horizon ? It was about a degree, or per- 
haps two, in length, pointing towards the east. Whatever it was, it was 
very faint, so I might have been mistaken : this evening will decide it. — E." 
" November 7." 

" Sir, — I know not whether you have received any account of a shooting 
star which I saw last evening ; if not, you are welcome to the following de- 
scription of it. I was walking in company with a friend on the terrace of 
his bungalow, situated on Malabar-hill, about seven o'clock last evening, 
when our attention was directed towards that part of the sky from whence 
proceeded a sudden emission of intensely bright light, and we found it was 
caused by a large meteor which shot with inconceivable velocity across the 
heavens. Its course was from north-west to south-east, leaving in its track 
a luminous train. It was visible about three seconds, and then burst into 
innumerable stars of the most brilliant colours, very much resembling a large 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 45 

and beautiful rocket. When first seen it was about 60° above the horizon, 
and passed within 10° to the north of Venus : it appeared a great distance 
ofi^, and was doubtless traversing the remote regions of our atmosphere, as it 
exploded without any perceptible noise in the direction of Caranja, and at 
that time it could not have been more than 18° or so above the horizon. 
The most singular part of this phsenomenon was, that after the meteor had 
burst into fragments, it left a stream of light behind about 10° or 12° in 
length, and for a time it strongly resembled the tail of a comet, with a 
nucleus of its own appended to it. Hooked at it through an inverting tele- 
scope, and could plainly perceive a small bright spot like a star of the second 
magnitude, surrounded as it were by a luminous vapour or cloud. This ne- 
bulous appearance continued visible for full twenty minutes, wlien it gradu- 
ally diminished in size, became more and more indistinct, and at last vanished 
altogether. The earth, it is well known, is at this moment travelling through 
the region of meteors in its annual orbit round the sun, and now is the period 
in fact when our globe incurs the liability of encountering streams of these 
ehooting stars ; and Sir John Herschel informs us in his ' Outlines of Astro- 
nomy,' that the meteors of the 12th to 14th of November, or at least the 
vast majority of them, describe apparently arcs of great circles passing through 
or near y Leonis. No matter what the situation of that star with respect to 
the horizon, or to its east or west points, may be at the time of observation, 
the paths of the meteors all appear to diverge from it. I was unable last 
evening to prove the correctness of this theorj', as I had no celestial map, 
and unfortunately I know not the exact position in the heavens of y Leonis, 
nor the constellation in which it is placed, but this could be easily ascertained, 
and I shall therefore look again tonight at the quarter from whence this 
meteor came and see if the star alluded to is anywhere near, as I have no 
doubt Herschel is right. We should now be on the qui vive every evening 
for these interesting phsenomena, as by a more extended series of observations 
a greater knowledge might be gained as to the real nature of these singular 
though beautiful periodical visitors. With hopes that you will excuse this 
hasty and imperfect sketch. — Astkr." — Bombay Times, Nov. 8. 
" 7th November, 1850." 

" A Correspondent sends us the following : — ' A meteor was observed 
from the Esplanade a few minutes before 7 p.m. on Wednesday evening, 
leaving an extraordinary train, traced one-third its flight midway from start- 
ing-point, and continuing in view all the time we remained there, say 15 mi- 
nutes. Had our attention been drawn thereto accidentally, after the explo- 
sion of the meteor, we must have taken it for the comet expected in July last. 
Its course was from about 15° S.W. above Jupiter to 15° due south above 
the horizon ; most brilliant and rapid in its descent, when it burst into 
numerous minor lights, much in the style of artificial meteors or sky-rockets, 
observed before from the same position.' " — Telegraph and Courier, Nov. 8, 
1850. 

No. 1 6, — "Novemher Meteors. — The attention of several observers has lately 
been directed to the heavens, in hopes of seeing some indications of those 
annual ' showers of falling stars ' which are noticed in November. Most of 
them appear to have been disappointed in their expectations, — lost their sleep 
and watched in vain. Sublunary affairs, unsought things, often fall in our 
way, while we pui-sue others to no purpose. By chance we found ourselves 
on the morning of the 14th toiling, not up, we are thankful to say, but down 
the * many- winding way ' of the Bhore Ghaut (the mountain pass betwixt 



46 BEPORT — 1851. 

Bombay and Poonah), when we remarked numerous shooting stars, and, re- 
collecting the period of the year, we determined to count them. 

" In the course of one hour, from 5 to 6 a.m., thirty-eight of these aerolites 
passed across that part of the sky within the scope of our vision, and one 
bright comet-like meteor, almost at day-break, was alone worth the devotion 
of a whole night's watch had we been so philosophically inclined. But as 
we were walking, and only looking in one direction, it is probable that little 
more than an eighth of the celestial vault was under observation : it is not 
unreasonable to suppose that if the whole had been embraced at least 200 of 
these bodies might have been noticed. It is also probable that several escaped 
our attention, which was now and then required for other purposes than star- 
gazing when the precipices of Khandalla were near. 

" There was nothing very remarkable in these aerolites, unless from their 
numbers. Their light, or, if you please, combustion, seemed to increase 
rapidly as they dived into the lower strata of the atmosphere, and finally dis- 
appeared with a faint explosion, or what looked like it, for it was not audible. 
Several of these must have been very near to the earth, as by their light they 
were distinctly seen to traverse the dark shade of the ravine below the sum- 
mits of the mountains. The wind was easterly at the time, and appeared to 
influence the course of these astral travellers, which was generally from east 
to west. 

" The most interesting object, however, Avas a large and brilliant meteor, 
which showed itself about a quarter before six, rushing from north-west to 
south-east, almost in an opposite direction to that followed by the smaller 
asteroids. A sudden blaze of light illumined the sides and very depths of 
the ravine, and, attracting our notice, we turned round and the cause was 
visible enough. A dazzling nucleus, about twice the apparent diameter of 
Jupiter when free from refraction, with a tail about 3° in length, and nearly 
as luminous as the head, was seen sinking behind the crest of the Ghauts on 
the Khandalla side; or rather I should say it inclined downwards, for it was 
evidently moving rapidly to the south-east, and, gradually fading into a pale 
reddish light, became invisible, not by a sudden coruscation or sign of ex- 
plosion, for during the whole time that it was visible, about six seconds, the 
nucleus and its tail retained their original relative proportions, and became 
indistinct by loss of their luminousness, or from entering the beds of aqueous 
vaj)our in the lower part of our atmosphere. 

"About an hour afterwards, on meeting a fellow-traveller who had also been 
descending the Ehore Ghaut at the same early hour, and inquiring if he had 
seen the meteor, he said 'no !' but he was surprised to find the inside of his 
palanquin suddenly lighted up by a bright but transient gleam. 

" Even the brightness of Aurora's ' golden hair,' rising in the east, was 
thrown into the shade by this brilliant stranger darting across the sky. 
Whether there was a ' close current ' or an ' isolated cloud of sulphur ' 
resting on the Khandalla Ghaut we cannot pretend to say ; neither are we 
bound to show from whence either originated, assuming their presence at 
the time. Certainly the dismal gloom before dawn which pervaded the deep 
chasm among the Ghauts, into which the road wends, reminded us of the 
entrance to that nameless region once visited by .^neas and a few others, 
famous for its sulphureous vapours," — •Bombay Times, Nov. 24. 

No. 17. — " We have been favoured with the subjoined account of a meteor 
observed at Shorapore, in the Nizam's dominions, on the morning of the 8th 
December : — ' Notices of meteors always appear welcome to me, and I beg 
to add my mite to your collection this year. I was looking at y Leonis just 
before daylight on the morning of the 8th instant ; I had no watch to note 



J 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 47 

the exact time, when a bright yellowish glare suddenly illumined the tele- 
scope, and looking up I was in time to follow the course of a very fine me- 
teor, which probably appeared somewhere in Leo, and had passed not far 
from the field of the telescope. There was a strong glare on the ground as 
the meteor passed on in the direction nearly of Arcturus, a little below which 
it burst into a number of brilliant balls and sparks. It was a little larger ap- 
parently than Venus at her greatest brilliancy, but the light was very vivid 
while it lasted. The most curious thing connected with it was, after the 
burst, the sparks or dust remained apparent^ in the same spot, or, falling 
into a spiral form, preserved a bright light not unlike that of the great ne- 
bula in Orion as seen through a telescope. I put the telescope on the spot 
instantly, and could see the sparks or dust slowly descending, some sparks 
being very bright indeed. This appearance lasted several seconds, and when 
I had taken my eye from the instrument, there was still a nebulous appear- 
ance in the sky, which however gradually faded. It is probable that this me- 
teor burst not very far from the earth. The telescope was a 44-inch DoUond, 
with a power of 120. This is the most remarkable meteor I have seen this 
year, and though I have noted several others of remarkable appearance and 
brilliancy, yet there was nothing which required any particular mention to 
you. I think there have been quite as many small meteors or falling stars 
this year as I remember before, but your correspondents and yourself have 
taken ample notice of them, and the time is past when observations are 
necessary." — Bombay Times, December 1 8. 

No. 18. — " We have heard of the fall of a remarkable aerolite, which took 
place at a village named Sulker, a short distance from Bissempore, on the 
30th November (1850) at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. The fall was accom- 
panied by an explosion, said to have resembled that of a cannon. The stone 
buried itself about 4 feet in the ground. On being extracted, it was found 
to be Z^ feet round by If. "We hear that Captain Hannington has obtained 
possession of it,'and that it will be forwarded to the Asiatic Society." — Ibid. 

No. 19. — " We have received from a friend a letter, dated Camp Beerb- 
hoom district, 8th January, 1851, giving the following description of a me- 
teor, the more singular as seen in the day time : — 

" ' A meteor of surpassing brilliancy was seen this morning at twenty mi- 
nutes past nine, in a N.N. W. direction; its elevation when first observed 
was about 25° above the horizon ; its appearance was that of a brilliant 
electric spark-coloured ball of fire, with a narrow but bright train ; its de- 
scent towards the earth was in an oblique direction, and when a few degrees 
from the horizon, it broke into a thousand brilliant and glittering particles 
of light, from amongst which a darker mass was seen to fall towards the 
earth, the glittering particles disappearing and reappearing as they fell ; or 
to use a terrestrial simile, the numerous particles of light looked like a shower 
of broken glass, or a highly polished metallic surface glittering in a bright 
sunshine : the shower lasted a few seconds only. The sky was cloudless, 
and the sun shining brightly; thermometer in the shade S?'^ Fahr.'" — 
Citizen, January 1 1 . 

No. 20. — January 10th. A large meteor was seen at half-past one o'clock 
P.M. on the E. by N., as observed from the Esplanade. It first appeared 
about 45° from the horizon, was of a light red colour, and shot downwards 
and northwards ; it vanished without e?:plosion after traversing a path of 
about 15°. It increased in apparent size as it advanced, and left a long line 
of red sparks behind it, the whole extent of its path. These did not appear 
to change their position for some time after the disappearance of the meteor ; 



48 REPORT — 1851. 

in about half a minute they dimmed and vanished. They were of the same 
bright red hue as the meteor itself. The meteor was about the size of the 
planet Jupiter at its brightest, and of a somewhat deeper tint than Mars. 

No. 21. — January 16th. At a quarter past three o'clock a.m., Dr. Cole, 
Assistant-Garrison-Surgeon, on returning from visiting some of his patients, 
saw a very brilliant meteor, nearly double the size of the planet Venus at its 
brightest, shoot along from E. to S.W. It appeared to be about 18° above 
the horizon. It was follov/ed by a long train of sparks, which disappeared 
almost simultaneously with the meteor. It vanished without explosion or 
change of appearance. 

No. 22. — February 24th. A large meteor was seen by Mr. Tiller, mer- 
chant, Bombay, about ten I'.M. It shot across the sky from S.W. to N.E., 
and vanished without explosion. 

No. 23. — " A Correspondent mentions a striking and very beautiful phe- 
nomenon, seen from Mazagon about ten o'clock ou Saturday evening, 19th 
April, when a display of meteors, following each other in succession, appeared 
from a point about 15° above the north-eastern horizon. In the space of 
little more than half an hour about twenty were observed ; they darted across 
the sky in all directions : some of them shot upwards ; by much the greater 
part moved tovv'ards the south or south-east. The largest of them were about 
the size of Veims at her brightest, and so down to mere specks of light. None 
of them were observed to explode, but the largest of them left long trains of 
light behind them." — Bombay Times, April 24th. 

No. 24.. — " The following is an extract from the letter of a Cawnpore 
correspondent : — ' Your paper of the 24th ultimo came in this morning ; I 
have intended writing you several days past, but I have been stirred up by 
your notice of the meteors at Mazagon, your correspondent states, the pre- 
ceding Saturday [April 191. We had here tlie precise similar beautiful phse- 
nomenon, time much the same, but your correspondent and myself differ by 
twenty-four hours, as I have noted them in my diary on Sunday evening as 
follows ; — This evening from eight to ten p.m. constant meteors flying across, 
chiefly from N. towards S., often three or four at a time. The largest I did 
not see. I had my face towards N., facing a white building, when suddenly 
the wnole was as bright as you see in a vivid flash of sheet lightning. Ere 
I could turn round it was out of sight, but leaving a vertical line of light, 
lasting perhaps ten seconds, from Sirius downwaid as far as I could see, a 
bungalow being close. This was the only vertical one, all the others shoot- 
ing off at various degrees in a horizontal direction, but all from N.E. up to 
N.W., not towards, as all had a southerly direction. Your expressed wish 
to have information from those who may have seen the phaenomenon, induced 
me to take up my pen.' " — Bombay Times, May 16. 

No. 25. — " Meteoric Showers of the 19 th April. — ^We extract the following 
notice from a Kolapore letter, of a magnificent shower of meteors witnessed 
there on tlve 19th; the same phsenomenon was seen at the same hour from 
Bombay, and was described in our paper of the 24th; it is curious that no 
other notice of an ajipearance so striking should have been given us, though 
ten P.M. is, we allow, a bad hour for out-of-door observation in India : — ' 1 
do not see any mention made of the appearance elsewhere ; but on looking 
out about half-past ten on the night of the 19th April, Sunday, the entire 
sky to the north was seen in a perfect blaze with meteors shooting from east 
to west. The phsenomenon lasted about five minutes, when all was again 
still.' " — Bombay Times, May 6. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 49 

No. 26.— Letter from the Rev. T. Rankin. 

" Huggate, near Pocklington, June 23rd, 1851. 
" On the evening of February 16th, 1S51, about half-past seven o'clock, a 
beautifully shooting star descended vertically from the right-hand of Bootes, 
about 15° above the horizon. It disappeared, after throwing off a violet-co- 
loured veil, in a haze about 5° above the horizon : the appearance seemed 
about five miles distant. 

" I remain, dear Sir, yours very truly, 
" Rev. Professor Powell." " Tho. Rankin." 

No. 27. — Considering the great interest attaching to the announcement 
made some years ago by M. Pettit, that one if not more meteors might be 
actual satellites performing regular revolutions round the earth, it seems 
surprising tliat so little should have been done by observers towards verify- 
ing this discovery or extending it, especially as the opportunities of doing so 
ought to be perpetually recurring. As possibly connected with this point, 
Sir J. Lubbock has kindly communicated the annexed list of meteors ob- 
served in past years, extracted from the Annual Registers. (See also Astron. 
Soc. Notices, x. 94.) 



1758, 26th Nov. Edinburgh. 

1759, 4th April. Bombay. 

1762, llth June. Sydenham. 

1763, 15 th January. Reading. 

1763, 2nd September. Sweden. 

1764, 31st January. St. Neots. 

No. 28. — From a Letter to Prof. Powell from E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Meteor seen at Kilkenny House, Bath, by Lieut. R. W. H. Hardy, R.N. 
1851, June 20th, \l^ 30"". 



1764, 20th July. Philadelphia. 

1765, 3rd May. Rome. 
1765, 9th August. Greenwich. 
1765, 8th October. London. 
1765, llth November. Frankfort. 




»jf JJeiphiuus 



No clouds visible. It moved horizontally. Apparent size = a large fire- 
balloon at a distance of 600 yards. Rate of motion about thirty miles an hour. 
1851. E 



50 REPORT — 1851. 

Its form was rounded on the advancing side. It left a clear thread of light 
as bright as a Hydrae along its whole course, which lasted three to four mi- 
nutes with undiminished brilliancy, and then slowly faded away. It moved 
from Delphinus to Ursa Major. Lieut. Hardy thinks it was only 600 yards 
above our earth. " This is a mistake, for my brother saw it in London, but 
has not unpacked his account since his return." — E. J. L. 

No. 29. — Letter from Dr. Buist, inclosing extracts from the 'Bombay 
Times.' 

" Bombay, 27th May, 1851. 
" Dear Sir, — I enclose you further extracts on the subject of the meteoric 
shower of the 20th April, seen all over India. You have now received ac- 
counts from the following places : — 

Lat. Long. 

Bombay 18° 58' 72° 38' 

Poena 18° 30' 74° 02' 

Kolapore 15° 37' 73° 38' 

Cawnpore 26° 30' 80° 13' 

The first and last of these places are above 1000 miles apart. I do not re- 
member ever before to have seen notices of displays of this sort visible over 
so large an expanse of country. We must see and get soldiers on duty to 
make observations ; a word from the War Office would effect all that is 
wanted at once. The Geographical Society here will always be delighted to 
play the part either of supervisors of observations, or receptacles for contri- 
butions, or to become the handmaid of science in any way, however humble. 

" I ever am your obedient servant, 
" Professor Baden Powell, Oxford." " Geo, Buist." 

" We have been favoured with the following from a correspondent, who 
dates Cawnpore, 5th May, in reference to the meteoric showers seen from 
Mazagon and Kolapore on the 19th April. The phaenomena agree so closely 
in all respects save date, that we should greatly wish our two previous in- 
formants to refer to their notes, and refresh their memories. We should like 
to make quite sure of the fact, as to whether meteoric showers, so remark- 
able as those referred to, were seen on two successive nights at nearly the 
same hour; or whether they Avere seen on the same night at Bombay, 
lat. 18° 56', long. 72° 57'; at Kolapore and at Cawnpore, lat. 26° 30', 
long. 80° 13', the two extreme points being, as the crow flies, about 700 
miles from each other. Our Cawnpore friend is far too exact and methodi- 
cal, and attaches too much weight to such things to be in error. This, with 
the other notes of meteors and hail-storms that have been forwarded to us, as 
well as the valuable paper on the meteorology of Futtegurh, just received, 
will be forwarded to the British Association. An account of them will, we 
doubt not, be in due time found in the reports of the July number of the 
' Athenajum,' as well as in the extended Reports of the Association : — ' Your 
paper of the 24th ultimo came in this morning. I have intended writing 
you several days past, but I have been stirred up by your notice of the me- 
teors at Mazagon, your correspondent states, the preceding Saturday. We 
had here the precise similar beautiful phrenomenon, time much the same, but 
your correspondent and myself differ by twenty-four hours, as I have noted 
them in my diary on Sunday evening, as follows : — This evening from eight 
to ten P.M. constant meteors flying across, chiefly from N. towards S., often 
three or four at a time. The largest I did not see. 1 had my face towards 
N., facing a white building, when suddenly the whole was as bright as you 
see in a vivid flash of sheet lightning. Ere I could turn round it was out of 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 51 

Sight, but leaving a vertical line of light, lasting perhaps ten seconds, from 
Sirius downward as far as I could see, a bungalow being close by. This was 
the only vertical one, all the others shooting off at various degrees in a ho- 
rizontal direction, but all from N.E. up to N.W., not towards, as all had a 
southerly direction. Your expressed wish to have information from those 
who may have seen the phsenomenon induced me to take up my pen. Since 
my list of hail-storms, I have only had to record one under my own observa- 
tion, and which occurred about three p.m. at a place called Oomree, seven 
miles west of Rewah, on the 7th February last, the hailstones fully as big as 
pigeons' eggs. It did not last long, but was very violent, and tore my tent 
sadly. This village, Oomree, must have been about the centre, as it did not 
extend to Rewah east, and only about four miles to the westward, as my 
camels were about that distance, and had only rain.' " 

" We feel greatly indebted to a Poona correspondent for the following ac- 
count of the meteors of the 20th ultimo, of which we have already published 
several notices ; we trust that we shall be able to secure a few more ; those 
that have hitherto reached us are all perfectly consonant with each other : — 
* In your issue of the 15th you wish for further information regarding the 
shower and meteors seen last month. I can speak positively that it was seen 
here on Sunday the 20th about ten o'clock. I was sitting outside my house 
with a friend, and we observed two or three in a minute. One was of sur- 
passing brilliancy ; it left a tail (if I may so express myself) which lasted at 
least a minute. With one exception in the north, which fell, they all went 
from east to south-west.' " 

" We find that the shower of meteors, mentioned in our paper of the 24th 
as having been seen from Mazagon on the evening of the 19th, was in reality 
observed on the 20th ; we have no doubt that a similar error will be found 
to have occurred in reference to the date on which they were visible at Ko- 
lapore, so as to identify the display with that observed from Cawnpore on 
Easter Sunday. At any rate, we have the matter now established in refer- 
ence to the exhibition as witnessed from two extreme stations, and this is 
the most striking point of the whole." 

No. 30. — Extract from a letter from Mr. Frost. 

" Ipswich, July 4th, 1851; and at Chatham Place, Hackney. 

" Rev. Sir, — I have great pleasure in sending you a communication I have 
received from Lieut. Gawler of the 73rd Regiment in British Caffraria ; the 
extract from the letter is as follows : — ' On Tuesday morning, March 11th, 
1851, we commenced our march in two divisions at one a.m., one under 
Colonel Mackinreon, and the other under Colonel Eyre; we reached the 
mountains about day-break, in lat. 32° 40' S., and long. 27° 30' E., when we 
saw a most curious meteor, which passed us within 30 feet, with a loud hissing 
noise, like a spent ball, going as fast as a bird would fly ; it appeared like a 
ball of fire about half the size of an egg, with a tail of fire about a foot long. 
It was seen by the other division six miles to the east of us.' 

" Another remarkable meteor was seen on Sunday night, the 22nd ultimo, 
at 11 o'clock, at the east part of London, about 30° of altitude; this ap- 
peared like a brilliant ball of fire, leaving a stream of light about 60° long. 
" I am. Rev. Sir, your obedient servant, 

" To the Rev. Baden Powell." " Wm. Frost." 

No. 31. — Extract from a letter from Mr. Cameron to Prof, Stevelly. 

" Belfast, 30th June, 1851. 
" My dear Sir, — On the evening of June 22nd, when in my parlour, I ob« 

b2 



52 



REPORT — 1851. 



served a large ball of a whitish red appearing north-west from where I was, 
and I think about one mile from me, and about half a mile from the surface 
of the earth ; it seemed at first enveloped in a cloud or haze, but upon 
emerging out it showed about the size of the full moon, travelling slowly from 
west, and taking an easterly direction ; after having travelled about 100 
yards, it began to throw out small ball-like comets in every direction, and 
the balls had a greater velocity than the main body, and preceded it for a 
short distance ; and before each ball exploded, it became scarlet-red, and 
threw out small shocks of matter ; and after the ball had travelled 400 or 
500 yards, it then appeared to be totally exhausted, and as it were dissolved, 
without showing any remnant of matter. After this, the whole length that 
the large ball travelled had the appearance as if the space were filled with a 
reddish-white matter, and remained so for seven minutes, and then became 
to get disordered and irregular, and in three minutes got spread, or flattened, 
and ultimately dispersed, ai)parently by contrary currents of air. I might 
mention, that from my residence adjoining New Court House, the first ap- 
pearance I observed of the ball was over Mr. Reid's farm, west of Old Park, 
and the direction taken was that of Mr. Harris's works, and then towards 
the Upper Dam ; but certainly it did not reach so far. 

" I am, dear Sir, yours very truly, 

" J. Cameron." 
The annexed diagram represents the appearance. 




A B, course of centre of meteor. 

F F F F, &c., small balls and lines of light projected in advance of its course, 

and oblique to it. 
C C C, D D D, outer boundary of reddish space which remained long after 

disappearance of meteor and small balls. 
E E E, E E E, waving appearance this red space assumed when beginning to 

break up and dissipate. 



I 



ON THE VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



53 



Eleventh Report of a Committee, consisting o/H. E.Strickland, Esq., 
Prof. Daubeny, Prof. Henslow, and Prof. Lindle y, appointed to 
continue their Experiments on the Gh'owth and Vitality of Seeds. 
In the spring of the present year the allotted portions of each kind of seed ga- 
thered in 184?3, being the third sowing of such kinds, were subjected to experi- 
ment, under circumstances similar to those resorted to on previous occasions*. 
So few additions have lately been made to the Depot at Oxford, that it 
becomes a duty on our part, to request that persons interested in these expe- 
riments, will lend their aid by contributing seeds of known date, and where 
possible, in quantities sufficient for distribution, especially those of genera 
not included in the list given in the Report for 1848. 

The annexed Table contains the names, &c. of the kinds sown : — 



Name and Date when gathered. 



1843. 

1. Asphodelus luteus 

2. Arctium Lappa 

3. Angelica Archangelica ... 

4. Allium fragrans 

5 Borkhausia rubra 

6. Bartonia aurea 

7. Campanula Meadia 

8. Dianthus barbatus 

9. Euphorbia Lathyris 

10. Gypsophila elegans 

11. Hesperis matronalis 

12. Hypericum birsutum 

13. Kaulfussia amelloides...... 

14. Loasa lateritia 

15. (Enanthe Crocata 

1 6. Plantago media 

17. Polemonium coeruleum ... 

18. Rumex obtusifolia 

19. Silene inflata 

20. Smyrnium Olusatrum 

21. Tigridia Pavonia 

22. Ageratum mexicanura ... 

23. Aster tenella 

24. Bidens diversifolia 

25. Biscutella erigerifolia 

26. Callistemraa hortensis ... 

27. Centaurea depressa 

28. Cladanthus arabicus 

29. Cleome spinosa 

30. Convolvulus major 

31. Echium grandiflorum 

32. Eucharidiura grandiflorum 

33. Helenium Douglasii 

34. Hebenstretia tenuifolia ... 

35. Heliophila araboides 

36. Koniga maritima 

37. Leptosiphon androsaceus 

38. Lunaria biennis 

39. Matthiola annua 

40. Melilotiis coeruleus 

41. Phytolacca decandra ...... 

42. Schizanthus pinnatus 

43. Talinum ciliatum 

44. Viola lutea vai-s 



No. 
sown. 



50 
100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
100 
100 

50 
200 
100 
150 
100 
150 
100 
150 
100 
150 

50 
100 
100 
200 
200 
150 
100 
200 
100 
200 
100 

50 
100 
200 
200 
100 
200 
200 
200 
100 
200 
100 

25 
200 
200 
150 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



Time of vegetating 
in days at 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford, bridge, wick 



Ox- Cam- Chis- 
ford. bridge, wick. 



16 



5 16 



15 



10 



16 



10 


S ni 










20 


^ g 




>.u 










16 


-s " 












Ts a 


10 


Ps 








=a t: 




a 


14 


r3 


















20 





54 REPORT — 1851. 

Remarks on the Climate of Southampton, founded on Barometrical , 
Thermometrical and Hygrometrical Tables, deduced from observa- 
tions taken three times daily during the years 1848, 1849 and 1850. 
By John Drew, F.R.A.S., Ph.D. University of Bale. 

Shortly after the Meeting of the British Association in Southampton, I de- 
termined upon commencing a series of meteorological observations in that 
town : its position in the centre of the southern line of coast appeared to me 
an important one, and in this view I was confirmed by those whose authority 
stands high on meteorological science. I entered therefore on an unbroken 
series, with the hope of suppljdng data for the determination of the climate 
of the place, towards which object no systematic efforts had as yet been di- 
rected. 

With this view I consulted Mr. Birt, as to the instruments best adapted 
to the purpose, and he kindly undertook to superintend the construction of a 
Barometer by Mr. Newman, from whom, at his recommendation, I procured 
the greater part of the instruments emploj'ed in the observations, the results 
from which I am about to lay before the Section — for the most part in a 
tabular form. I have spared no pains in arriving, as near as possible, at ab- 
solute mean values in the instrumental readings ; and for the purpose of satis- 
fying those who may hereafter consult the Tables, I shall accompany them 
with a few remarks on the plans adopted and the instruments employed. 

The observations have been taken three times daily, viz. at 9 a.m., 3 p.m., 
and 9 p.m., local mean time, for a period of three years, extending from 
Feb. 1, 1848 to January 31, 1851. The barometer, with its attached ther- 
mometer and the wet and dry-bulb thermometers, have been read at these 
hours ; the force and direction of the wind and the amount of cloud recorded : 
in addition to these, at 9 a.m. daily, the readings of the maximum and mini- 
mum thermometers, and the amount of rain during the previous 24 hours, 
have been registered. The system pursued has been as nearly as possible in 
accordance with that followed in the Greenwich observations. 

The Latitude of my Observatory is 50° 54' 34" North. 
The Longitude in Time 0"^ 5™ 37-7= West. 

The height of the barometer cistern above the mean level of the sea is 
60 feet; and of the rain-gauge above the surface of the ground 9 feet 
6 inches. 

Table I. shows the mean height of the barometer for every month, with 
the highest and lowest readings, and their difference, or monthly range. 
These have been corrected for capacity and capillary action, and have been 
reduced to the temperature of 32° Fahrenheit. 

To determine the zero correction, Mr. Birt undertook to compare the in- 
strument, before it came into my hands, directly with the Royal Society's 
Standard, and indirectly with a mountain barometer of Col. Sabine's, whose 
index correction had been previously ascertained : the result of the whole 
series of comparisons was the necessity of applying -(-0036 in. to the read- 
ings of my barometer to bring them up to those of the standard : this has 
been applied in every case ; although when on a late occasion I carefully 
compared it with others whose correction was thought to have been known 
I found it somewhat too great, yet the differences were not so consistent as 
to induce me to alter the index-error as originally determined. 

The barometrical readings have not been corrected for daily range, as I 
have reason to believe that the daily periods of atmospheric pressure do not 



REMARKS ON THE CLIMATE OF SOUTHAMPTON. 



55 



coincide with those at Greenwich. On frequent occasions I have applied 
separately to the monthly means of the 9 a.m., 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. observa- 
tions, the corrections given by Mr. Glaisher in the Phil. Trans, part 1, 1848, 
and the results were in no case consistent : nor is this surprising, when we 
regard the situation of Southampton at the head of an estuary which is di- 
vided into two arms by the Isle of Wight. Most probably the local varia- 
tions of atmospheric pressure are peculiar, but what these may be can only 
be determined by a far more extensive series of observations than I have had 
the leisure to undertake : one on the plan of photographic registration would 
admirably answer the purpose. 

Mr. Glaisher on one occasion expressed himself to me unfavourably with 
regard to barometers to which it was necessary to apply the capacity correc- 
tion. His reason was, that as the mercury descends in the tube and the 
cistern becomes fuller, a portion of the hollow cylinder of glass composing 
the tube is enclosed, and the mercury rises higher than the capacity correc- 
tion would indicate, by a quantity dependent on the volume of the section of 
the tube vvhich it had enclosed. After having carefully considered the sub- 
ject, I entered upon an investigation which should result in leading me to 
reject the observations I had taken, or to confirm my confidence in them. 

Let a = the area of the hollow part of the 
tube. 
ra = the area of the surface of the cis- 
tern. 
h = the area of the annulus or section 

of the glass tube, 
c = the ascent or descent of the mercury 

from the neutral point. 
X = the correction required, + in the 

former case, — in the latter. 
Then acz=(ra — h)x. 




• True height. 
Supposed height. 



ra — b 
Substituting the values of these quantities 
measured from my barometer, the internal 
diameter of the tube being 0'283 in., the ex- 
ternal 0'41 in., and the proportion between 
the area of the section of the tube and that of the cistern as 1 to 42, we 



have 
then 



a = 0-0629, r -. 



42, b = -0691 ; let c = 1 inch, 
•0629 



■2-535 — -069 



= •0248; 



but the correction for capacity, as applied in the usual way, 

^«£= 1-0238; 
ra 42 

it follows therefore that when the mercury has ascended or descended from 
the neutral point one inch, the diiference caused by the enclosure of the tube 
will be exactly -001 ; a quantity less than that read by the vernier — proba- 
bly less than the error of observation — and therefore one which may fairly 
be neglected in practice. If therefore the exact proportion between the areas 
of the tube and cistern be carefully -ascertained by the maker, we are able to 
arrive at sufficient correctness with a barometer to whose readings it is neces- 
sary to apply the capacity correction; the trouble of reading otf is less. I 
have tabulated the capacity correction and the index error ; so that by taking 



56 REPORT — 1851. 

the algebraic sum of one quantity and the conection for temperature, I get 
the true reading directly, and with little labour ; while there is a great ad- 
vantage in the cistern being of iron, and in getting rid of the leathern bag 
which accompanies some barometers of a certain construction. 

On comparing the pressure at Southampton with that at Greenwich 
monthly, I find a difference varying between 0' 1 1 in. and 0" 1 45 ; the height 
of Greenwich observatory above my station, measured from the level of the 
sea, is 100 feet. 

Greenwich. Southampton. DifTerence. 

11 months of 1848 29-711 29-839 0-128 

12 months of 1849 29-801 29-943 0-142 
12 months of 1850 29-812 29-949 0-137 

The consistent results, arising from reducing the readings to the sea-level and 
deducting such portion of the pressure as is due to the aqueous vapour in the 
atmosphere, tend to give considerable confidence in the barometrical obser- 
vations. 

Mean pressure of dry air reduced to the level of the sea, 

Greenwich. Southampton, Diflference. 

1849 29-692 29-677 -015 

1850 29-697 29-686 -014 

Table II. Determination of the mean temperature The dry and wet- 
bulb thermometers were compared by Mr. Glaisher and myself with a stand- 
ard by immersion in water of a high temperature, which was allowed to cool 
gradually, simultaneous readings being taken from time to time : the result 
was that the dry-bulb was found to read too high by —-4 in., and the wet- 
bulb by —-2: to the means of the monthly observations these corrections 
have been applied ; and by an extended series of simultaneous readings, the 
indications of the maximum and minimum thermometers have been corrected 
and reduced to the same standard. 

Mr. Glaisher's corrections for daily range h'dve been applied to the 9 a.m., 
3 P.M. and 9 p.m. observations, and the mean monthly temperature thus de- 
duced ; the quantities given by him have also been subtracted from the arith- 
metical means of the maxima and minima, to obtain an independent mean 
temperature : although these two results, as may be seen by inspection, are 
not absolutely identical in every case, they are sufficiently near to show that 
the variations in the rise and fall of the temperature occur at Southampton 
at nearly, if not quite, the same local time as at Greenwich. Mr. Glaisher 
considers that these corrections might not apply to localities on the coast, 
and that the agreement is nearer than might have been expected. Taking 
the entire series, the following is the result : — 

1848. 1849. 1850. ^^.°^® 

series. 

M. T. from the daily obs 51-4 50- 2 49*4 50-3 

M. T. from max. and min 52-1 50-1 49-1 50-4 

Difference 07 0-1 03 O'l 

This table also shows the mean of the maxima and minima ; the highest and 
lowest readings during the month, with the date of their occurrence ; and the 
differences between these, or monthly range of temperature. 

Table III. gives the monthly means of the readings of the dry and wet- 
bulb thermometers reduced to the mean temperature by the application of 



REMARKS ON THE CI.1MATE OF SOUTHAMPTON. 57 

Mr. Glaisher's corrections ; the dew-point deduced by the factors given in 
the Greenwich observations ; the degree of humidity, and the mean amount 
of cloud, considering a cloudy sky to be represented by 10, and a cloudless 
sky by 0. 

From this table I find, as my experience had told me, that the atmosphere 
of Southampton is moist compared with places farther inland ; nor will this 
be a matter of surprise when we regard its situation between two rivers (one 
of which is a mile in breadth for a considerable distance above the town), 
and on an arm of the sea, from which the prevalent winds are constantly 
wafting the over-laden clouds. 

The degree of humidity as compared with Greenwich, situated inland and 
on a considerable elevation, approaches, as might be expected, nearer the 
point of saturation. 

1848 (11 mo.). 1849. 1850. 

Greenwich -820 -802 805 

Southampton '878 '844 -861 

Table IV. shows the prevalent winds for each month during the three 
years ; it has been formed by inserting under each head the number of times 
the direction has been recorded at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. 

In the year 1848, the south, south-west, and westerly winds were largely 
in the ascendant, and the consequence was an exceedingly wet season, as 
these winds were usually accompanied with rain ; they are, for the most part, 
warmer than those from the northward and eastward, and hence we find the 
mean temperature of that year higher by 2 degrees than 1849, and by 3 than 
1850. 

In 1 849, the northerly and north-easterly winds were frequent ; the pro- 
portion between those winds from the quarters north to east inclusive, and 
those between south and west, being as 254 to 321. The difference in the 
fall of rain during this year and the preceding, amounted to upwards of 10 
inches : the loss of the January observations prevents my stating the exact 
amount. 

In 1850, the south-west winds predominated over the north-east in the 
proportion of 372 to 252 ; the amount of rain collected was as nearly as 
possible the same as in 1849. The mean temperature was low, especially in 
the months of January, March and October, when the wind set frequently 
from the north and north-east, as the tables will show. During the month 
of March especially, the low degree of humidity shows the dry nature of the 
air on the prevalence of the northerly wind. In the month of March, gene- 
rally the north and north-east winds prevail, while winds from the south and 
south-west are about equally distributed throughout the other months of the 
year. 

Table V. requires but little exjilanation or remark. It exhibits the 
monthly mean of the readings of two thermometers, one near the surface of 
the soil protected from the sun's rays, the other sunk 1 foot below : they 
have been read oiF simultaneously at 3 p.m. daily during the year 1850. 

Table VI. is a contribution towards the comparison of the climate of 
different localities, and exhibits certain conditions of the atmosphere, as in- 
stanced at Southampton and three other places ; viz. Falmouth, which is 
Xiear the most southern and western point of England; Stone, between 
Aylesbury and Oxford, a central situation ; and York, a northern position, and 
also inland. By the courtesy of the gentlemen who have kept constant 
meteorological registers at those places, I have been supplied with the parti- 
culars on which the table is based : these are, — 



58 



REPORT — 1851. 



1 . The number of days on which the temperature fell below the freezing- 
point. 

2. The number of days on which rain fell in greater quantities than half 
an inch in 24 hours. 

3. The amount of rain in inches during each month of the three years. 

4. The number of days on which rain fell. 

5. The mean temperature of each month for each of the four places men- 
tioned. 

Confessedly imperfect as this table is, we ma}' nevertheless deduce from it 
some interesting facts. It is imperfect from the construction of the rain- 
gauges employed, which would give more satisfactory results did they record 
the duration of showers of rain as they fell on the principle of Osier's rain- 
gauge. They are imperfect indicators, moreover, of the mean amount of rain 
for their localities, from the varying height at which they are placed above 
the ground. I apprehend that to obtain the due amount of rain we should 
plant several gauges in different parts of a town, and the mean of the quantity 
received would give a much fairer estimate. Till, however, the number of 
those who take an interest in the subject of meteorology is greatly increased, 
we must be satisfied with such imperfect means as we possess for acquiring 
a knowledge of the atmospheric variations and the laws which regulate them, 
of even so small a portion of the world as our own country. 

The following are a few particulars deduced from the table under consi- 
deration : — 

1 . During the course of the year, the number of days on which the freezing- 
point is reached at Falmouth is about ^ of that at Southampton, at Stone 
11^. at York If. 

2. With regard to the number of falls of rain beyond ^ an inch in 24 hours, 
Southampton and Falmouth are about equal ; at Stone and York the number 
of such days is i of those at the former places. 

3. The entire quantity of rain at Falmouth during the three years is some- 
what more than y'^th beyond that at Southampton ; at Stone and York 
somewhat more than half the quantity at Falmouth ; York having received 
77-6 in., and Stone 683. 

4. The number of days on which rain is stated to have fallen is less at 
Southampton than at any other place ; being 474 to 577 at Falmouth, 502 at 
Stone, and 519 at York. This result is consistent with that just mentioned 
and with the table that follows, and leads us to the conclusion that the rain 
falls in larger quantities at Southampton than at any of those places with 
which I am comparing it. 

The days and amounts of falls of rain exceeding one inch in 24 hours 
during the time through which these observations have extended, are as 
follow : — 



Southampton. 


Falmouth. 


Stone. 


York. 


1848. June 10. 
June 17. 
Oct. 24. 


1-055 
1-025 
1-215 


Sept. 25. 1-268 
Dec. 27. 1-500 




June 18. 1-63 
Sept. 25. 1-99 






1849. Oct. 4. 


2-105 


Sept. 28. 1-925 


May 28. 13 




Dec. 8. 


1-810 


Sept. 26. 1-964 






1850. June 27. 


1-960 


May 6. 1-750 






July 18. 


1-588 


July 3. 1-100 






Sept. 28. 


1-130 


Aug. 7. 1-024 






Nov. 25. 


1-636 


Sept. 24. 1-900 
Dec. 15. 1-306 






1851. Jan. 21. 


1-300 


Jan. 21. 1-222 






Sums 


14-824 


14-959 


1-3 


3-62 , 













REMARKS ON THE CLIMATE OP SOUTHAMPTON. 59 

It would appear, then, in conclusion, that the climate of Southampton is 
mild, differing but little from that of the most southern town in England ; 
that the air is more generally laden with moisture than that of inland towns, 
arising from its proximity to the sea and freshwater, and from the prevalence 
of winds from the points between south and west and those inclusive, which 
are laden with aqueous vapour from the sea : that this moisture falls in 
copious showers on a fewer number of days than the less quantity in the in- 
land towns with which it has been compared ; occasionally in large quantities 
at a time, as on June 27*, 1850, when nearly tjyo inches of rain, accompa- 
nied with thunder and lightning, fell in 12 hours : that severe cold is less 
prevalent than at places inland, but the quantity of rain is greater ; while 
the average amount of cloud appears, from comparison with about forty other 
places, to be a mean between the more and less cloudy skies. Though the 
air may be less bracing than places higher and more inland, we have the ad- 
vantage comparatively in mild winters, and the absence of that severity which 
is so trying to the invalid. 

I avail myself of a high medical authority to subjoin the following enume- 
ration of the prevalent diseases, and of those which are unusual in the 
neighbourhood ; which, being written entirely independently of -my observa- 
tions, will, I apprehend, be yet found to harmonize with the opinions which 
I have founded on the meteorological observations. 

" Inflammatory diseases of an active kind are not at all common, nor do 
they require or bear active depletion when they occur. The town is quite 
free from ague : the mud lands do not produce it, as the water upon them is never 
stagnant. Intermittent neuralgias are not met with. Fever is not common. 
Twenty years ago it was very rare, but since the town has increased greatly 
in numbers it is more prevalent, though not of a malignant type. There is 
a considerable amount of complaint from uneasiness, discomfort, indisposition 
and local pains produced by indigestion of an atonic kind, or the result of 
want of general power. The system is not so vigorous as in a more bracing 
climate, and therefore not so able to digest the same quantity of food ; and 
unless much greater attention is paid to quantity especially, and also quality 
as well as to habits, headache, distension, constipation and general debility are 
not uncommon. Young and vigorous persons who come here from a colder 
and drier air, usually complain at first of sleepiness, and an inability to per- 
form the same amount of muscular or mental exertion. On the other hand, 
rather delicate and susceptible people (especially women), who are never well 
in colder parts of England, enjoy much more bodily comfort here. For the 
same reason it suits children and elderly people, especially if they have been 
subject to inflammatory diseases of the air-passages in colder or drier places. 
Gouty and rheumatic diseases are not common here, as might be expected, 
from the inability to digest' a large quantity of food; in short, there is a 
greater amount of indisposition from indigestion, and a less than an average 
amount of active secondary diseases, such as fever and violent inflamma- 
tion." — Dr. J. Bullar. 

Looking at what private observers like myself have been able to accomplish 
in the science of meteorology, we must arrive at the conclusion that com- 
paratively slow progress will be made until our number is greatly increased, 
and till we embrace in our observation a more extensive range. In addition 
to the pressure, temperature, and hygrometric state of the air, it would be 
highly advantageous, could we, for all localities, ascertain in addition the ra- 
pidity of evaporation ; the range and intensity of solar radiation ; and the 
state of electric tension, — all which in their varied combinations go to make 
up that general result which we call climate, and which unitedly produce 
effects upon the natural world and the human frame, according to the pre- 
ponderance in the atmosphere of one or the other element. 
* This was the heaviest fall of rain recorded. 



60 



REPORT 1851. 



Table I. 
Atmospheric Pressure. 





Mean height 

of the 
Barometer. 


Highest read- 
ing during the 
month. 


Date 
of the 
occur- 
rence. 


Lowest read- 
ing during the 
month. 


Date 
of the 
occur- 
rence. 


Monthly 
range. 


1848. 


29-645 
29-621 
29-710 
30038 
29-787 
29-971 
29-861 
29-958 
29-765 
29-945 
29-929 


30-459 
30-287 
30-119 
30-295 
30-146 
30-448 
30-098 
30-407 
30-252 
30-492 
30-364 


18 
8 
30 
11 
20 
12 
31 
16 
13 
13 
22 


28-396 
28-753 
29-270 
29-299 
29-231 
29-365 
29-411 
29-285 
29-361 
29-120 
29-139 


26 
12 
19 
17 

3 
20 

1 
24 
27 
23 

5 


2-063 
1-534 
0-849 
0-996 
0-915 
1-083 
0-687 
1-122 
0-891 
1-372 
1-225 










July 
















29-839 














1849. 
January 


29-939 
30-256 
30-055 
29-636 
29-905 
29-988 
29-934 
29-997 
29-886 
29-882 
29-871 
29-975 


30-564 
30-855 
30-683 
30-296 
30-226 
30-215 
30-344 
30-366 
30-319 
30-684 
30-387 
30-580 


23 
11 

6 
30 
11 

3 

12 

•20 

19 

29 

8 
27 


29-431 
29-216 
29-191 
29-197 
29-258 
29-633 
29-479 
29-629 
29-198 
29062 
29-115 
29-257 


28 

23 

28 

19 

17 

10 

24 

13 

30 

4 

4 

5 


1-133 

1-639 

1-492 

1099 

-968 

-582 

-865 

•737 

1-121 

1-602 

1-272 

1323 




March 








July 






October 










29-943 














1850. 


29-986 
30-010 
30-191 
29-755 
29-806 
30-052 
29-977 
29-928 
30-039 
29-774 
29-856 
30-017 


30-536 
30-408 
30-632 
30-337 
30-259 
30-374 
30-198 
30-343 
30-454 
30-414 
30-367 
30-624 


27 

22 

6 

9 

2 

19 

30 

31 

8 

13 

9 

23 


29-387 
29-086 
29-549 
29-094 
29-379 
29-460 
29-614 
29-608 
29-402 
29-181 
28-720 
29-136 


15 
5 
23 
16 
8 
14 
25 
21 
30 
23 
20 
18 


1-149 

1-322 

1-083 

1-243 

-880 

•914 

•584 

•735 

1-052 

1-233 

1-647 

1-488 












Julv 














Mean 


29-949 














1851. 


29-738 


30-297 


23 


29-046 


15 


1-251 







REMARKS ON THE CLIMATE OP SOUTHAMPTON. 



61 



Table II. 
Temperature. 





Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
from 
three 
observa- 
tions 
daily. 


Mean 

of the 

maxima. 


Mean 

of the 

minima. 


Mean 
tempe- 
rature 

from 
maxima 

and 
minima. 


Adopted 
mean 
temp. 


Highest 
reading 
during 

the 
month. 




Lowest 
reading 
during 

the 
month. 


Is 


Monthly 
range. 


1848. 
February 


43-3 
43-6 
47-7 
58-7 
56-7 
61-7 
58-5 
56-9 
51-9 
42-8 
441 


49-5 

54-2 

59-9 

72-9 

70-2 

74-1 

69-6 

68 

58-9 

49-7 

48 


38-5 

39-1 

41-6 

46-7 

52-2 

54-2 

53 

49-1 

46-5 

36-4 

40 


43-3 
46-6 
49-1 
58-1 
59-4 
62-2 
59-6 
57-2 
51-7 
42-6 
44 


43-3 
45-1 

48-4 

58-4 

58 

62 

59 

57 

51-8 

42-7 

44 


54-1 
67-1 
74-3 
80-6 
82-6 
86-1 
76-1 
75-3 
71-1 
58-1 
59-5 


27 

31 

5 

24 

23 

18 

13 

3 

8 

1 

12 


25-6 
30-1 
29-1 
381 
44-6 
42-1 
44-1 
391 
35-6 
28-1 
291 


18 

15 

10 

1 

2 

1 

10 

12 

18 

16 

21 


28-5 

37 

45-2 

42-5 

38-0 

44 

32 

36-2 

35-5 

30 

30 








July 








November 






Means 


51-4 






521 


51-8 














1849. 


40-1 

43-6 

43-2 

44-4 

571 

59-5 

60-8 

61 

56-3 

51-6 

45-5 

39-9 


44-9 

50 

50-6 

53-6 

72-8 

73-4 

70-6 

69-9 

65-9 

57-7 

50-3 

43-5 


35-2 
36-6 
37-6 
38-6 
48-2 
51-5 
531 
54-5 
50-7 
46-4 
39-9 
34 


39-8 

42-7 

431 

44-6 

58-8 

60-7 

599 

60-5 

57 

51 

44-8 

38-7 


40 

43-1 

43-1 

44-5 

58 

60-1 

60-3 

60-7 

56-6 

51-3 

45-1 

39-3 


52-6 

58 

62-2 

65-2 

84-3 

87-6 

83 

77-6 

76-6 

63-8 

58-6 

54-6 


15 
23 
13 
30 
24 
24 
16 
8 
5 
28 
10 
15 


27-6 
27-6 
27-1 
28-4 
36-1 
42-5 
42-6 
41-6 
37-6 
32-6 
19-3 
10-6 


12 
13 
11 
21 

5 
U 

1 
17 
19 
10 
28 
29 


25 

30-2 

35-1 

36-8 

48-2 

451 

40-4 

36 

39 

31-2 

39-3 

44 


February 


March 




May 


June 


July 


August 


September . ... 


October 




December 




Means 


50-2 






501 


50-2 














1850. 


34-9 
44-6 
40-4 
48-4 
51-6 
59-5 
61-6 
59-5 
56-3 
46-6 
47-1 
42-8 


38-7 

49-3 

46-7 

56-5 

60-3 

71-1 

71-6 

70 

65-2 

54-1 

52-8 

471 


29-2 

39 

32-6 

43-6 

48-4 

51 

56-4 

53-8 

48-4 

40-2 

41-3 

36-8 


33-8 
43-8 
38-7 
48-6 
52-5 
59-2 
62-1 
60-2 
55-5 
46-2 
46-7 
42 


34-4 

44-2 

39-6 

48-5 

52 

59-4 

61-9 

59-8 

55-9 

46-4 

46-9 

42-4 


51-9 
54-8 
59-6 
64-6 
74-9 
81-6 
82-6 
77-8 
72-8 
62-6 

eo 

53-1 


30 

10 

8 

2 

30 

25 

16 

1 

3 

19 

1 

6 


9-6 
27-6 
21-6 
35-8 
29-9 
39-4 
46-6 
41-1 
37-6 
31-6 
27-8 
26-4 


14 
13 
26 
23 

3 
15 

8 
22 

9 
24 
15 
21 


42-3 

27-2 

38 

28-8 

43 

42-2 

36 

36-7 

35-2 

31 

32-2 

26-5 




March 








July 




September 


October 


November 


December 




Means 


49-4 






49-1 


49-3 














1851. 
January 


44-5 


49 


40 


44-5 


44-5 


53-6 


2 


30-6 


23 


23 





62 



REPORT — 1851. 



Table III. 
Hygrometrical state of the Atmosphere. 





Dry bulb. 


Wet bulb. 


Wet below 
dry. 


Dew-point, 


Degree of 
humidity. 


Amount of 
cloud. 


1848. 


43-3 
43-6 
477 
58-7 
56-7 
61-7 
.58-5 
56-9 
51-9 
42-8 
44-1 


42 

42-5 

45-9 

54-5 

54-8 

59 

56-7 

55-1 

49-8 

41-4 

42-8 


1-3 
1-1 
1-8 
4-2 
1-9 
2-7 
1-8 
1-8 
2-1 
1-4 
1-3 


40-2 

41 

43-7 

50-7 

53-1 

56-9 

55-1 

53-5 

47-7 

39-5 

41-1 


•906 
•880 
•877 
•788 
•896 
•858 
•903 
•901 
•868 
•873 
•909 


6-4 

V 

25 

7-3 

6 

7 

7 

6 

6-5 

7 


March 








July 




September 












51-4 






47-5 


•878 


6-4 




1849. 


40'1 

43-6 

43-2 

44-4 

57-1 

59-5 

60-8 

61 

56-3 

51-6 

45-5 

39-9 


39-1 

421 

4M 

42-2 

53-3 

54 

56-3 

57-5 

53-5 

49-1 

43-7 

38-5 


1 

1-5 

2-1 

2-2 

3-8 

5-5 

4-5 

3-5 

28 

2-5 

1-8 

1-4 


37-7 

40-2 

38-2 

39-4 

49-9 

49-6 

52-7 

55-3 

51 

46-6 

41-4 

36-5 


•926 
•892 
•853 
•848 
•806 
•731 
•775 
•820 
•852 
•846 
•878 
•898 


8 

6^8 

7 

6^3 

6^4 

5-1 

53 

6 

5 

6 

6 

5-4 




March 




May 




July 






October 




December 






50-2 






44 


•844 


6-6 




1850. 


34-9 
44-6 
40-4 
48-4 
51-6 
59-5 
61-6 
59-5 
56-3 
46-6 
471 
42-8 


34-1 
42-6 
37-8 
46-2 
49-6 
551 
58-4 
57-4 
53-8 
44-2 
451 
41-7 


•8 
2 

2-6 
2-2 
2 

4-4 
3-2 
21 
2-5 
2-4 
2 
M 


32-9 
40-2 
34-2 
43-6 
47-6 
51-6 
55-8 
55-7 
51-6 
41-3 
42-7 
40 


•932 
•863 
•815 
•854 
•871 
•778 
•836 
•888 
•865 
•840 
•867 
•920 


7-3 

7 

5 

7 

66 

4.4 

6^8 
6^5 
5-1 
5^5 
6^1 
6-9 


February 




April 




June 


July 
















49-4 






44-7 


•861 


6^2 




1851. 


44-5 


43-3 


1-2 


41-7 


•917 


7 





REMARKS ON THE CLIMATE OF SOUTHAMPTON. 



63 



Table IV.— Wind. 



1848. 


N. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


s. 


s.w, 


W. 


N.W. 


Force. 


February 


8 

15 

14 

5 



3 

4 

5 

4 

11 

4 


4 

1 
11 

7 

6 
11 

3 
13 

4 
15 

3 


1 
1 

2 
9 
2 
1 

1 
6 
1 
1 


1 

6 
6 
10 
4 
1 
2 
4 
2 
1 
2 


3 
15 
11 
19 
10 
10 

5 
16 
10 

4 
14 


9 
1 
2 
5 

15 

13 
5 
5 

17 
5 

12 


36 
14 

9 

6 
18 
17 
41 
11 

8 
17 

8 


5 
7 
5 
2 
5 
5 
2 
1 
2 
6 
2 


1-4 
•8 
•6 
•5 

1- 

1- 

1- 
•4 
•7 

1- 

1-1 


March 






June 


July 








November 


December 




Sums 


73 


78 


25 


39 


117 


89 


185 


42 


•8 




1849. 


6 

2 

9 

7 

11 

14 

6 

4 

3 

7 

9 

17 


11 

2 

15 

14 

11 

16 

4 

10 

13 

13 

9 

7 


2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
5 
6 

7 
4 
3 
3 


6 
5 

7 
12 
6 
3 
2 
3 
4 
1 
10 
3 


4 
3 
5 
5 
6 
5 
9 
6 
8 
8 
9 
5 


9 

13 

8 

6 

7 

3 

16 

17 

14 

14 

9 

8 


19 

20 

11 

5 

7 

10 

15 

12 

4 

9 

7 

5 


5 
9 

7 
5 
4 
1 
4 
7 
4 
3 
4 
8 


11 
•3 
•2 
•3 

11 
•1 
•3 
•2 
•2 
•2 
•1 
•3 










June 


July 




September 




November 






Sums 


95 


125 


34 


62 


73 


124 


124 


61 


•37 




1850. 


19 

8 
26 

9 
13 

5 
15 
13 

7 
14 

9 

3 


10 

"9 
6 
8 
2 
3 
3 
16 
15 
4 
1 


5 
1 

2 
3 

4 
4 

1 

"5 
2 
1 
6 


8 

"3 
2 
6 
3 
1 
5 
2 
1 
7 


2 
2 
5 
13 
9 
9 

12 
14 
9 
1 
2 
8 


5 
21 

7 

12 
13 
12 

4 
10 

3 

5 
18 
13 


8 
15 
3 
3 
5 
9 

13 
17 
6 
13 
12 
4 


6 
7 
6 
2 
3 
5 
4 
2 
5 
10 
3 
8 


•5 
•5 
•2 
•6 
•3 
•2 
•3 
•3 
•3 
•3 
•4 
•3 












July 


August 


September 


October 




December 




141 


77 


34 


38 


86 


168 


108 


61 


•35 




1851. 


2 




6 


6 


10 


16 


6 


1 


•5 





Table V. 



-Differences between the Readings of a Thermometer near the 
surface and another one foot below. 



1850. 


Therm, 
at the 
surface. 


Therm, 
one foot 
below the 
surface. 


1850. 


Therm, 
at the 
surface. 


Therm, 
one foot 
below the 
surface. 


January 


35-8 

45 

45-8 

54-4 

58^7 

68-8 


35^4 

40-8 

39-2 

47 

47-8 

61-5 


July ... 


69-5 
66-1 
63-7 
511 
47-4 
411 


6V3 
59-1 
54-5 

47-1 

46 

40-8 


February 




March 




April 




May 




June 









64 



REPORT — 1851. 



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1851. 



66 REPORT — 1851. 

On the Air and Water of Towns. Action of Porous Strata, Water and 
Organic Matter. By Dr. Robert Angus Smith, Manchester. 

It is becoming daily more important to find out from what source it is best 
to obtain water for great towns, and by what means it is to be collected. It 
is probably true that a mode of supply suited to the conditions of all parts of 
the country is not to be our direct aim, as every town must have its supply 
modified by its own peculiarities of position, but it has still to be settled what 
water is preferable when there is a choice before us. I have here put together 
a few facts and reasonings which seem to me to deserve prominence, and 
which have not, as far as I know, been sufficiently' dwelt on. 

Water has been got from rivers and small streams, sometimes from the 
surface drainage of ground, and from deep wells and springs. The use of 
well-water is the first that is resorted to where there is no stream or spring, 
and where the inhabitants are not too many to be satisfied with such a source. 
The water from this mode of supply is often exceedingly pure and brilliant, 
according to the nature of the filtering-bed; but as most soils have a good 
filtering-bed underneath, want of cleanness is not a common fault of wells. 
There is in fact a proverbial purity about springs and wells ; and mountain 
streams frequently share in receiving the same character from, the literary and 
poetic observers of nature. It is interesting to know how this purity is attained. 
There are many springs which never become muddy, which possess a con- 
stant brilliancy, which never become cool in winter and never warm in sum- 
mer. They seem to be unaSected by what is going on at the surface of the 
ground. From this it appears that there is a purifying heat-regulating 
action going on beneath. The surface-water from the same place, even if 
filtered so as to become clear, has not the same purity, i. e. the same freedom 
from organic matter or the same brilliancy ; neither has it the same amount 
of carbonic acid or the same quantity of oxygen in it. There are influences 
therefore at work, under ground, which are not at work on the surface. 

The rain which falls has not the same purity, although it comes directly from 
the clouds ; it may even be wanting in cleanness, as is often the case ; it may 
be nauseous to the taste, and be wanting in carbonic acid and in oxygen. It 
never has the brilliancy of the spring water, nor is it so free from organic 
matter. For these reasons all the world has admired spring water. The 
mountain streams have had their share of admiration, and sometimes they 
equal the spring water. Spring water and well water are of course essen- 
tially the same ; both have passed through a considerable depth of soil. The 
well has been dug in order to convert a portion of the surrounding ground 
into a filter, and" in order to make a depositing place for the water which 
trickles through. The spring has made its way through similar passages, 
sometimes easily traced, and has the advantage of coming to the surface clear, 
without any such accidents as may occur to disturb the purity of a well. In 
many parts of the country these springs are hard ; they often go through a 
great extent of soil and collect a considerable amount of inorganic salts, 
varying, from the strong solutions found at celebrated watering-places, to the 
milder form of a few degrees of hardness. Whilst the inorganic matter in- 
creases with the depth of the flow of water, the organic matter decreases, and 
may be said entirely to disappear. This is accomplished even at a depth not 
very great. It always happens, except when the well is not sufficiently 
sheltered from the surface-water, either from the soil being too porous in 
proportion to the depth, or from the surface-water having in some way a too 
readv passage into the well. 

In" examining this matter, I have been struck with the numerous cases 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 6f 

of this kind which happen in country places ; the well is put in a garden or 
back yard.and often verylittle defended. The number of cases of sickness from 
these causes is, I am inclined to think, greater than is believed. Although 
it is not my province to examine the matter in a medical point of view, I have 
had opportunities of perceiving, partly alone, partly in conjunction with me- 
dical men, that there are constantly occurring cases which seem to be brought 
on or aggravated by the state of the wells. The impurities which occur in 
the country wells are chiefly organic matter. This is known by its decom- 
position, a small amount producing a disagreeable smell and taste, and at the 
same time a dullness in the water, so that it makes itself known to us by three 
of our senses. If it is merely surface-water somewhat cleared by standing still, 
it will make itself known by depositing a great amount of green vegetation, 
when a little is allowed to stand in a clear bottle. The remedy for this evil 
is not difficult, and probably very well known. It consists in defending the 
entrance of water into the well in such a manner that the Avater shall be fil- 
tered. If a well be badly supplied with filtering material, the use of sand will 
make a good filter, placed round the well so that the water may pass down 
and bubble up like a spring from the bottom. In the country the organic 
impurity may be easily removed in this manner ; but in the town, or near 
cesspools and similar places, the impurity, if removed, leaves behind it an 
unfortunate result, — the formation of nitrates and increase of chlorides, and 
often of other salts, chiefly of lime. This water may be perfectly clear and 
often is brilliant ; and some people do not discover a nauseous taste until the 
solution of salts becomes so strong as to give the water the sluggish flow of 
oil. So little is the taste of good water known in a town, that water, which 
to an ordinary taste was nauseous and almost painful, has been in use for 
years by people who might rationally have been expected to know better. 

This complete nitrification and thorough removal of the organic matter 
occurs chiefly in town wells, the complete change being much less frequent 
in the country; the cause of this lies, no doubt, in the slower and more 
thorough filtration, and therefore the more elaborate cleansing when passed 
through a hard soil, and in the removal of the rain-water by surface-drainage 
or by sewers before it is allowed to weaken the solutions by being absorbed 
into the soil. The amount of organic matter which is removed or altered in 
this way is surprising, and the power of efi'ecting this transformation is a 
most important and valuable part of the functions of a soil. Of course 
the same change takes place in country places, in gardens, for example, well 
ornamented and not well drained, where the water has much organic matter 
in solution and stands long on the soil. This change takes place very close 
to the cesspool or to the source of the flow of organic matter, and at a very 
short distance water may be found containing very little besides inorganic 
salts. Very near a sewer, in one of the worst streets in Manchester, I found 
sand which was almost free from organic matter, although the drain had given 
way and was allowing the sand to absorb whatever it could. The same ob- 
servation was made on the sand of a churchyard in which burials Avere very 
frequent, showing the great advantage of a porous soil in removing offensive 
materials by an agency within itself, preventing the corruption of the atmo- 
sphere to an extent greater or less, according as the powers of the soil are 
under- or over- taxed. 
I As an agent for purifying towns this oxidation of organic matter is one of 
I the most marvellous, we might almost say, and necessary. If the impure 
organic matter were taken underground by the natural flow of Avater, the 
, state of the subsoil would become pestilential in the extreme, and towns could 
I not be inhabited without such careful drainage as we have never yet seen ; 
' f2 



68 REPORT — 1851. 

in fact the soil would require to be impenetrable. To inhabit a place for a 
few months would be to make it unhealthy. Instead of such a result, we 
have the soil of towns, which have been inhabited for centuries, for a time 
longer than history can tell us of, in a better state than the soil round many 
a country-house. St. Paul's churchyard may he looked on as one of the 
oldest parts of London, I suppose ; the water there is remarkably free from 
organic matter, and the drainage of the soil is such that there is very little if 
any salts of nitric acid in it. A well at Tower Hill was in a similar condi- 
tion, but not so thoroughly nitrated. Of course there are parts of a town 
Avhere the matter becomes too great to be managed well, and being combined 
with bad drainage, even the active state of the subsoil, which seems to do 
its utmost to destroy all the elements of disease which enter into it, is not 
sufficient to remove the amount continually supplied to it from some hundred 
acres of closely-built ground. Even in these cases however we are more 
surprised at the comparative purity of the subsoil than at the impurity. As 
it is, the impurity of the subsoil in certain parts of towns requires proof; and 
although proof can be got and is got, without this action of the soil the 
proof would stare us all painfully in the face and hunt us out of its vicinity. 
It has become necessary to prove the great amount of evil resulting from 
burial in towns, whilst the enormous amount of organic matter has disap- 
peared rapidly from our view, and the evil seems only to become distinct to 
us when the mould of the churchyard has become in a great measure the 
remains of organized beings. 

If soil has such a power to decompose by oxidation, we want to know how it 
gets so much of its oxygen, and here there appears a difficulty ; we must, 
however, look at once to the air as the only source, and see how it can furnish 
the supply. When water becomes deprived of its oxygen, it very soon takes 
it up again. If watei' be deprived of its oxygen by the use of sulphate of 
iron, so as to make a white precipitate of protoxide of iron, or if it be de- 
prived of it by boiling, and a little white precipitated protoxide of iron placed 
at the bottom, it will be found that a few minutes will give some colour to the 
iron. It will pass through the blue and almost black stages to the yellowish 
brown, taking the oxygen from the water, which again supplies itself from the 
air, and is in fact a kind of porous medium for the gas. This shows us readily 
how the soil may be oxidized, how the nitric acid may be formed under the 
surface of town soil. We do not in fact find it formed at great depths, but we 
find it formed in undrained places which have no other source of oxygen. 
It may seem a trifling matter to explain this, but it was a difficulty to me to 
see how the oxygen could be collected in some of the almost subterranean 
circumstances in which it accumulated. Water from wells in a soil like this, 
continually obliged to force oxidation, is sufficiently objectionable, and it 
requires no eloquence to deter people from using it when they once know it. 
Perhaps, however, when the nitrates are in not very large quantities, M'hen 
they cannot be tasted, the water may be reasonably considered much better 
than any water with matter in it liable to putrefactive decomposition, and 
the general testimony of tradition is to consider it so. 

It appears, in fact, that organic matter is incapable of passing deep into a 
soil ; by conversion into soluble salts it becomes soluble, and by that means it 
is easily washed away in an inorganic state. When this occurs in the country, 
the use of it is not so apparent as when it occurs in a town. When there is 
a great excess of organic matter on the surface of the ground, it does of 
course decompose, and the results are bad for health ; and if ammonia is 
formed too rapidly, bad also for the soil, which loses its food for plants. The 
formation of nitrates prevents the passage of nitrogen into the atmosphere, it 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 69 

subjects the soil however to a loss by drainage. The use of nitrates as a 
manure has long been known to be valuable ; our old English philosophers 
have been well-aware of it, for example, Boyle and Bacon. Before the nitre 
can be formed in the soil, the ammonia must be oxidized ; and before it can 
be used as food for plants, the process must be reversed and it must become 
deoxidized. The oxygen thus stored up may then readily be applied for rapid 
oxidation when this is wanted, and in this way it becomes a kind of concen- 
trated atmosphere, a source of air by which to form carbonic acid from the 
mould of the soil. We can readily view it as a great stimulator of vegetable 
life, besides being a source of nitrogen to feed the plants. In dry climates, 
perhaps it might be viewed as a supply of water, as we might readily consider 
it formed by the union of the oxygen with the hydrogen of substances in the 
ground. The organic matter in a soil may be supposed to decompose in 
two methods, by the formation of ammonia and of nitric acid. If the soil is 
very alkaline and moist, the conversion of the organic matter into ammo- 
niacal compounds is very rapid. I put some soil, not very rich in organic 
matter, into this condition by the assistance of a little ammonia so as to make 
it alkaline, and the consequence was the rapid occurrence of a very intense 
putrefactive decomposition, not in any Avay differing, as far as could be per- 
ceived, from that of ordinary putrefaction of animal and vegetable matter. 
These nauseous and unwholesome odours are therefore possible from the 
ordinary soil of our fields ; but any occurrence such as this on a large scale 
would be disastrous, and the ground is protected from it by an almost con- 
stant acidity, whicli sometimes increases so as to be injurious, forming what 
is called sour land. This very acid state generally occurs in wet land, where 
it is probable that alkalinity would be most injurious, but the soil may be 
found alkaline in a well-manured garden and where the ground is dry without 
apparent injury. The other mode in which the organic matter may decom- 
pose is by the formation of nitric acid, the nitrogen obtaining oxygen indi- 
rectly from the air, and so providing against the excess of ammonia which 
might readily occur in certain soils, producing results which would be fatal 
to animal life, if not provided for by an enormous vegetation. At the same time 
it does seem reasonable to suppose that the cause of a diseased climate may 
frequently be found in such a decomposition as that mentioned, when too 
much ammonia has been formed, or too little nitrogen has been removed 
by the formation of nitric acid. All the circum.stances may be found for the 
purpose, abundance of nitrogen compounds and moisture ; even a warm 
climate is not essential. And it also seems reasonable to suppose that the 
formation of nitric acid is one of the means by which such evils are avoided, 
whether in town drainage, \i here it becomes evident from the great amount 
found, or in the imperfectly drained and rich, although not swampy lands of 
tropical climates, where the large amount of nitrogen, if converted into am- 
monia, would no doubt produce the worst eifects. 

Water alone on soil often becomes too saturated with organic matter for 

use, and either attacks also the living plants, or induces circumstances which 

forbid them to grow. Let us suppose the soil dried up ; the decomposition 

would cease, and the nitrates formed would come out in efflorescence. Let 

us suppose it not dried, but kept constantly moist and cold, and we have the 

1 ground in a state described in a very interesting manner by Bernardini Ra- 

i mazzini, producing a disease which is not unlike the potatoe disease with us, 

I and although perhaps not directly bearing on my subject, may yet come in 

I by a natural association. A wet and mild winter in the territory of Modena 

I was followed by a summer of a similar kind, and " the sound of the grass- 

! hopper gave way to the croaking of frogs." The crops were destroyed and 



70 REPORT 1851. 

the fish increased in such quantities as was not before known on any previous 
year, so " that Neptune, instead of Ceres, supplied food" to the country. 
About the beginning of June there appeared on vegetation a form of ru- 
higo, a rusty withered appearance ; the same disease had occurred the year 
before, which had also been very wet, although in a less degree. This disease 
increased in spite of all prudential care, beginning with the mulberry and 
attacking afterwards the beans very fiercely. This began in low -putrid 
places, but it afterwards made its way into elevated situations. He says, 
"Luctuosum sane ac deplorandum spectaculum omnium oculis fuit, campos 
circumquaque non virentes, sed atratos ac fuliginosos intueri. Anno praece- 
dente, rubro colore, hoc anno non creta sed cdrbone notando." " It was a 
melancholy sight and painful to every one to look on the fields, which, instead 
of being green and healthy, were everywhere black and sooty. The former 
year might be marked red, but this year must be marked, not with white, but 
black.". ..." The very animals returned the food which they had eaten, it was 
so nauseous .... the sheep and the silk-worms perished .... the bees went 
timidly to work with their honey-making .... the waters became corrupt and 
fevers attacked the inhabitants, chiefly the country people, such as lived in 
the wet lands." 

If the rain falls on land where plants are decomposing it will not be fit for 
domestic use, unless passed through strata deep enough to clear it ; and water 
of this kind, although not so bad as that described at Modena, will be found 
more or less to make up rivers which surface-drain rich lands. This water 
is always liable to deposit a large amount of green matter, and often in great 
quantities, with abundant animalcules. One may even tell this kind of 
water by burning the residuum from boiling ; if it has a vegetable odour, it 
will after a time deposit vegetation and animalcules interspersed ; if it has 
an animal odour, having much nitrogen, the animalcules will be of a different 
kind; if it has a peaty odour only, having no albumen, it will produce little 
or no deposit. It becomes therefore a matter of great importance, when 
examining waters for use, to find v/hat becomes of them after standing awhile. 
To say how much organic matter is in them is not enough, but it is import- 
ant to know its quality. This difference of quality is the most important 
thing to know ; suppose a specimen having merely humus in solution or 
crenic acid, an analysis would put it in a very inferior condition to a specimen 
of water having organic matter from rich fields, which water had never passed 
through the soil, or water which had passed by towns and had in it matter from 
the town sewers. The first would be shown by mere chemical analysis to be 
the worst, having a larger quantity of organic matter ; the result by standing 
would show the superiority. Water may pass by towns, and after standing 
a little be very clear ; if kept still longer and in a suitable place, it will de- 
posit its impurities in an organized state; it may be filtered again, and again 
deposit impurities. The matter is in solution ; and very clear river and other 
water is often found in this condition. It is therefore most important, as an 
element in the appreciation of water, to find the amount of organizable 
matter in it. 

The water from rivers which have run far is apt to contain salts of various 
kinds, besides those contributing to hardness, and in this they seem to agree 
with water from cultivated land. This would agree also with the deep 
drain-water from cultivated land, so far as inorganic salts are concerned. If 
water contains lime as a carbonate, the hardness and the amount of lime 
ought to be the same. This occurs at the sources of the Thames, where, in 
two instances, the hardness was rather greater than the whole amount of in- 
organic matter. This is to be accounted for by the excess of carbonic acid 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 7l 

decomposing a little of the soap used to test for hardness. These waters 
came out of the inorganic strata direct : the difference in this respect may- 
be seen by the following specimens : — luorganic matter 

in a gallon. Hardness. 

Drain 4<-feet deep, near Manchester 8-4 4--2 

Another on the higher grounds, less cuiti- "1 ^.g g.^^ 

vated land and shallow drain J 

Another on bog-land 7* 3*75 

Water near the soil .... - SO'S , Y'*? 

Well at Stretford near Manchester, badly- "1 ^q, j^.22 

drained garden land « J 

, another near it 29'7 15*5 

Thames at London Bridge 29-06 15*5 

From an underground street-cistern 4a'05 15-5 

Thames at Oxford 17-25 16- 

Thames at Seven Springs 12-25 12*75 

Thamesat Andover Ford, 13-3 13-88 

Hl<'her up the river the extraneous salts diminish as well as the ashes of 
the organic substances. The best-drained land (the first two) has very little 
in excess, but the badly-drained land has a great deal in excess. Tiie under- 
ground cistern, with many impurities, may be looked on as water of very badly- 
drained land, and is the worst ; it was taken from a court in London. There 
mifht be many instances given of the same kind from wells and elsewhere. 
If we take the excess of inorganic matter over hardness, we shall have: — 

Excess of inorganic matter over hardness . 
grs. per gallon. 

4 foot drain 4<-2 

Shallow drain in poor land 1'85 

Bog-land drain 3"25 

Water near the soil 22-33 

Stretford, 1st 8-72 

Stretford, 2nd 13-2 

Thames, London Bridge 17* 

Cistern in London (underground) 27-55 

Thames, Oxford 1'25 

Thames, Seven Springs. , 0*5 below. 

Thames, A ndover Ford 0-58 minus. 

Thames, at Kemble '6 above. 

Chelsea, filtered 8-528 

Windsor 6-51 

New River 6-46 

Apparently then the difficulty of obtaining water free from impurity in- 
creases as we go down a river, and as we come to cultivated land. The deep 
drain-water of cultivated land, although having more inorganic matter, is 
not in other respects to be objected to. I have several specimens, which, 
after standing a long time, have deposited organic matter only in very minute 
quantities, and are in fact equal to well-water of considerable depth. The 
organizable matter seems to have been removed, although the organic 
matter is not entirely removed, the only thing remaining being some of the 
highly carbonaceous compounds of the soil. Its superiority over river-water, 
which consists often of drainage water from the mere surface, cannot there- 
fore be questioned, except when the river-water itself is composed of the 
under-drainage of a country, or the drainage of such barren tracts as give off 
little organic matter, or readily part with it. 



72 REPORT 1851. 

There is a not very distinct idea common enough with regard to water, 
that it decomposes or becomes putrid. Now, properly speaking, this cannot 
be ; it is entirely unchanged in all situations ; but as a vehicle for impurity, it 
may be said in popular language to become putrid. Water does not become 
putrid therefore in any sense but this, that the matter which it has in solu- 
tion becomes decomposed ; this putrefiable matter is obtained by the passage 
of the water over the soil or out of the soil at a depth not sufficiently great 
for its removal. Sir Humphry Davy says, " Common river-water generally 
contains a certain portion of organizable matter which is much greater after 
rains than at other times, and which exists in largest quantity when the stream 
rises in a cultivated country." A good deal of this matter is in very fine 
suspension, and without making it appear very turbid takes away at least from 
the brilliancy of the water. To give instances will be unnecessary ; water 
taken from the surface and allowed to stand, and water from a deep well, or 
water taken from a drain which runs clear, may be compared easily by any 
one. The soil contains an abundance of organic matter, but the under soil 
contains little or none, diminishing as v.e go down. The line of demarcation 
between tlie organic and inorganic portion of the soil is very distinct ; if 
water be filtered through the upper soil even for a great length of time, the 
organic matter is not removed from it; it will even be dissolved out, whereas 
the soil immediately below it has first very little and then no organic matter 
in it, whilst the constant draining downwards does not drag down to it the 
soil of the surface ; the two remain distinct portions of the organism, so to 
speak, of the soil. The use of this is also sufficiently clear; in growing, the 
plants require that the food should be in solution, and the water dissolves it ; 
but when it passes away tlie plants require that it should leave the food be- 
hind it, and accordingly it leaves it. 

Although the soil is acid, it is worthy of remark that waters flowing 
from soils, river-waters and well-waters are alkaline, made so by lime- 
salts generally, and also by niagnesian and alkaline salts. It is remarkable 
with what rapidity the lime is dissolved, and how steadily the hardness of the 
water is preserved at one point for years. The acidity of the soil must first 
be neutralized by the lime, and an additional quantity be then taken up, the 
lime compound being retained in the filtering medium, and the organic mat- 
ter thereby prevented from removal. But the power of the soil to retain 
matter does not depend on any mere formation of insoluble compounds, on 
alkalinity and acidity ; but entirely on the action as a filter on what may 
perhaps be termed its mechanical power, although it is not purely so. 

To show this, a solution of peaty matter was made in ammonia; the solu- 
tion was very dark, so that some colour Avas perceived through a film only the 
twentieth of an inch in thickness. This was filtered through sand, and came 
through perfectly clear and colourless, having still a great excess of ammonia. 

Acetic acid was added to it until it became acid ; this solution was perfectly 
clear (I may mention that acetic acid does not dissolve it if used first) ; it 
passed acid through the filter of sand, and became colourless. 

Thinking to try the power of such a filter, I dissolved some organic matter 
in strong sulphuric acid, to see if the strength of the acid would not act as a 
counter agent to the great decomposing power of the sand. The acid was 
allowed to pass through almost pure, although the depth was only about four 
inches. 

The same was tried with muriatic acid, which was black by the mixture of 
some organic substance ; it passed through the sand rapidly, and was in fact 
brilliant. 

Sometimes, if the purifying is not completed by merely passing through 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OF TOWNS. 73 

the sand, it is completely done by simply allowing it to stand in contact with 
the sand. This would seem to indicate that the action was in a great mea- 
sure, if not entirely mechanical ; at the same time it is not an action which 
takes place in a moment ; some time is required for it. 

If the water is driven too rapidly on it will not be filtered, and wells in 
wet weather often indicate this by becoming turbid. It is true that beco- 
ming turbid is different fi'om discoloration, but the particles which are carried 
forward by the water are frequently those which have organic matter in them, 
as may be shown by the deposit on standing. Time, however, is wanted ; 
as a continued standing with the sand shows, and as the slow percolation 
through soil also shows, the purification is most complete when the passage 
of the water is continued for some time. A case was related to me by a 
gentleman who had attempted to filter beer through a barrel of sand and 
charcoal ; the filter was too strong for it, and it came through pure water. 
I may add, from my own experiments, that a bottle of porter after standing 
some time was made into a bottle of something like ale, the dark colouring 
matter quite removed, and the taste nearly destroyed. 

The material of the filter is also of inferior importance; one of the best 
filters which I have made, as far as clearing of the water is concerned, was 
of steel filings ; the water was of course rather a chalybeate. Oxide of iron 
and oxide of manganese made very good filters ; pounded bricks also, as far 
as clearness is concerned, and mere removal of colour from the water. 

Filtration, therefore, has another object in view besides the mere straining 
through a substance, the pores of which are not sufficiently large to allow the 
larger pieces to pass. The removal of organic matter in solution is one im- 
portant object, as well as the formation of nitrates in some conditions. The 
passage thi'ough the soil is very slow, and the complete act of filtration has 
time to be elaborated. We sometimes see water flowing from land having 
only a slight moisture visible in it, and we see from whole acres a mere 
dropping from the drains. We know, too, that water is kept close in contact 
with surfaces, so much so as to give us the idea of very great force. It will 
not pass through a porous substance unless its place is supplied by other 
water; it will not keep its level in such situations as it does in a free state. 
We may imagine, then, the great amount of surface with which it must 
come in contact, moving slowly through acres and sometimes miles of 
soil. 

Mere freedom from matter in suspension is got very readily by the use 
of fine porous substances ; the upper soil itself will take away matter in sus- 
pension ; and peat will do so readily, sometimes without giving any colour 
to the water. Mere fineness of pores is not therefore what is wanted, as the 
finest part of the soil is uppermost. 

Rivers have often a brown colour, arising from clayey particles in union 
or in conjunction with organic matter; that is, the water in these cases, if 
allowed to stand, does not deposit mere mud, but also organized bodies, the 
same circumstances which bring one, bringing also the other. Motion 
through soil with fine particles in it requires to be slow, otherwise there is 
turbid water formed. It is remarkable how bright most of the chalk waters 
are ; although hard, the chalk removes the fine substances that are so often 
found suspended in water like small hairs, or in an invisible form, causing only 
a dullness of appearance. This mechanical action is not difficult to procure, 
as even in a laboratory the most brilliant solutions are obtained by the use of 
paper only. Some substances are readily filtered out ; others are very difla- 
cult to filter, and some cannot be filtered ; some will not filter in water, but will 
readily in acid. There does appear to be an action by which a substance 



74 REPORT — 1851. 

attracts all the impurities in water, or envelopes them in itself, as alum or 
albumen or lime is used to clear water, but I don't see any of these acting to 
cleanse the streams to any extent. 

The decoloration of water is not so striking on cultivated laud, because 
the colour is not so great ; but the colour on the hills which are covered with 
peat is of a deep brown, and it is curious that we have from such places the 
finest water. 

I have observed in several places that where the brown streams have been 
led into reservoirs on the top of the hill, or on the sides of the hill, or even at 
the bottom of the hill, these reservoirs have continued brown. The canal also 
from Leeds to Manciiester is brown, although the water is brought down a 
considerable distance. When these streams are led through artificial conduits 
or pipes, they do not become colourless ; at least the Sheffield water, although 
it may clearitself to some extent on the way, is still delivered in the town of 
a decidedly peaty colour. It is believed that plants obtain carbonic acid by 
the oxidation of humus and analogous substances ; but it is difficult to believe 
that in the course of a few miles so much oxidation should take place on the 
surface of a stream as to remove colour. Many of the streams come out pure 
from the hill, and, although fi-om a bed of peat of great thickness, are brilliant 
and colourless. These hills may be found covered above, and in all hollow 
and flat places, with water which is of a deep brown colour, and strong taste. 
It has been said that the purification is made by the dashing among the peb- 
bles and mingling with the air, but the most highly-aerated water is not found 
in these streams. If this were a very important agent in purifying a short 
water-course, the streams would have around them an atmosphere of car- 
bonic acid, or they would sparkle with increased beauty as they proceeded, 
until they bubbled with carbonic acid. I have never traced a stream in this 
state of purification ; there is generally an influx of other water from various 
points which influence its purity, and which probably contribute more to it 
than the action of the air. It is curious, too, that the streams are brighter 
in summer, although the water dissolves more peaty matter ; for then stronger 
solutions of peat are to be found on the hills and in some streams. 

The water, however, may often be observed in tiie act of being cleared. On 
the top of a hill we see a swamp over which it is difficult and indeed impos- 
sible to pass without sinking deep enough to become wet ; we go round it, and 
on every side it is dry. Very often there is one side depressed with a passage 
for the water down the hill. This passage is often wet all the way down ; the 
water collects from all sides and forms into a stream. I shall describe a pretty 
common case as I have observed it at Tintwisle. There was no perceptible 
passage of water from the swamp, although there was an easy natural flow 
whenever the water rose high enough to take that mode of discharging itself. 
This bed, if it may be so called, was at the time I examined it quite dry ; under 
the turf there was coarse gravel, the surface of the white siliceous rock being 
considerably broken. The v/ater in the swamp above was very brown ; going 
further down there issued from the side of the hill a stream of pure water ; 
the water came from the swamp through the gravel, and went down the side 
of the hill pure; before getting down it was lost again, entirely disappearing 
through some more gravel, but it made its appearance again still lower down. 
It was nearly lost a third time by going into some grass land, which it made 
very swampy, before it got finally down to the main brook. There was no 
want of an opportunity to clear itself; the space was not above a few hundred 
yards in which it sunk twice and re-appeared. After having seen this, I began 
to find that it was common ; I found two streams near together, each draining 
a considerable amount of wet land ou a hill neap Buxton, and disappearing 



ON THE AIR AND WATER OP TOWNS. 75 

entirely, after beginning their flow down a narrow gorge which they seem to 
have made for themselves. On walking up these streams, which were of a 
considerable size, each was found to disappear ; the bed of the streams be- 
came entirely dry, although it could be seen that they were very often filled 
high with water. On going a little higher the streams appeared again, with 
a taste of peat, which they had not below. Afterwards I began to find that 
the disappearance of a stream which was wonderful in fable, was a very 
common thing on these hills. Of course perfect purity is not found in these 
cases ; the last traces of organic matter are only removed by passing through 
great depths or long standing. 

Again, by observing the manner in which a stream collects water, this 
disappearance, however common, may be seen not to be essential to the fil- 
tering of a stream. On the sides of the stream the water may be observed 
oozing out of the soil at the lower points, sometimes very slowly, so as only 
to give an appearance of moisture to the side ; but when this is continued the 
whole length of a stream, the increase of water becomes plain. The actual 
point of egress of the water from the soil into a stream which is purified, is, 
I conceive, under the upper soil, and the water is in reality filtered, whilst 
there is an accession of water from every point of both sides of the stream. 

This will in a great measure explain how a stream becomes colourless by 
mere running ; if it has come off the grounds without filtration, as is 
sometimes the case, especially with the higher streams, by getting too readily 
into a channel, the water is mixed with other water, oozing into it on every 
side, and thus the filtered water mixes with the unfiltcred ; that water which 
comes further down the hill before entering the channel, being most likely to 
come through a filtering bed. Water flowing over unbroken and impervious 
rocks could not become purified in this way ; it could not be subjected to any 
action but the ordinary influence of the air. It would not, however, be ne- 
cessary for the purification to be entirely confined to those cases ; a modifi- 
cation of them is found when water flows down a hill through the sand or 
gravel under the soil, in which case it may break through the soil, or trickle 
through the subsoil, as occasion offers. The mere passage upwards through 
the soil, in the manner of a spring, will not give it impurity, unless it be very 
slow, as in this case it does not much come in contact with it. 

This mode of natural purification would indicate that a reservoir for the 
supply of pure water should not be put on very high ground, such as at 
Blackstone Edge, or in fact so high that these natural processes should be 
interfered with. It might lead us also to a mode of collecting, which has not, 
as far as I know, been adopted, to drain the ground in such a way as not merely 
to collect the water, but to filter it at the same time. When the rains are 
heavy, the water does not follow any of these courses spoken of, and runs 
over the surface, falling into streams without becoming filtered, and taking 
down a great deal of matter in suspension. This could not be prevented pro- 
bably when there is a great amount of water ; but in ordinary cases it might be 
so hemmed in as to prevent it flowing away except through a filtering medium. 
In some cases this would be very easy, where the water flows very gradually 
out of a mass of peat. No filtering beds would be required, and little if any 
attention. In looking over a large extent of sandy district in Surrey slightly 
covered with heath, I was struck with the fact, that the upper sand, wherever 
it was. bared, was washed white ; it was also white wherever it was on the sur- 
face, although sometimes mixed with peat so as to give it a dark colour, 
until the peat was washed off. The under-sand, however, was of a yellow- 
ish or reddish colour, caused by oxide of iron. The acid from the peat had 
washed away all the iron out of the sand, and left the colour of the silica pure. 



76 REPORT — 1851, 

whilst even a few inches below there was no colour removed from the sand. 
There was another circumstance to be mentioned, that the water coming from 
the lower strata had no taste of peat, whilst that coming from the upper strata 
had. The whole surface might be taken as an instance of a great filtering 
bed ; but it is very remarkable that the filtering did not appear to be gradual, 
but instantaneous ; the sand did not gradually become redder on going down, 
but it was red at once, and did not ciiange. The organic matter seems to be 
removed at a certain point, and not to go below it. A few inches below the 
soil there was to be seen a black band running all along the country, I might 
say, and I dare say most persons will have seen something similar where peat 
lies on sand. The blackness was evidently caused by a constant deposit of 
dark peaty matter on the point of filtration, as it may be called. There were 
cases in which the water Howed over the bare sand, and then the blackness 
was on the surface of the sand ; where there was vegetation, it was below the 
roots. This black matter along with the sand looks like a sand and charcoal 
filter. The same may be seen to a less extent on land which has not been 
ploughed up for some time, a mark running along under the soil where 
colouring matter seems to have been deposited. We may very correctly look 
on the soil as the greatest agent for purifying and disinfecting. Every im- 
purity is thrown upon it iu abundance, and yet it is pure, and the breathing 
of air having the odour of the soil, lias, on what evidence I dnn't know, but 
evidently with truth, been considered wholesome. Whatever may be taken 
up by the soil the water is discharged clear, and although vegetation does its 
part, we do not wait the return of the season to remove impurities from the 
air above the soil ; they are laid on in autumn, but do not disturb us. The 
purity of drainage water has been observed long ago, so that 1 do not pretend 
to advance a novelty; and we find in Loudon's Cyclopaedia of Agriculture, 
that " Marshall, seeing the formation of natural springs, and observing the 
effect of subsoil drains, and being at the same time aware of an objection to 
roof-water, which, though more wholesome, is seldom so weli-tasted as spring 
water, was led to the idea of forming artificial land-springs to supply farm- 
steads with water in dry situations. He proposed arresting the rain-water 
that has filtered through the soil of a grass ground situated on the upper side 
of the buildings, in covered drains, clayed and dished at the bottom, and par- 
tially filled with pebbles or other open materials, thus conveying it into a well 
or cistern, in the manner of roof-water, and by this means uniting, it is pro- 
bable, the palatableness of spring water with the wholesomeness of that which 
is collected immediately from the atmosphere." 

Besides this action of the soil, there is the chemical action by which wells 
get filled with carbonic acid ; and water percolating through underground 
strata becomes aerated by oxygen or by atmospheric air, and thus nitric 
acid is formed. It is known that many substances in the act of decomposition 
cause the union of oxygen and hydrogen, and in doing this some of the oxy- 
gen is used for the formation of carbonic acid. This is a sufficient source of 
the carbonic acid found in water, where time' and opportunity is given, such 
as in passing through deep strata; and when we suppose it pressed into 
the water by the mechanical force, such as is found in capillary and surface 
action, we have in nature a close resemblance to the artificial plan of prepa- 
ring soda and aerated waters. Sharp sand has been found to be most suitable 
for the passage of water, and sharp pieces of glass have been found to cause 
the union of oxygen and hydrogen more readily, and at a lower temperature 
than rounded pieces. If the wells get their carbonic acid in this way, that is, 
from the decomposing organic matter, the very impurities of the soil become 
the greatest elements in purifying the water, and in rendering it palatable 






ON THE AIB AND WATER OF TOWNS. 77 

and sparkling, as well as dissolving rocks, and making those various solutions 
which we often find difficult to imitate. At the same time we must infer that 
the purest water is a great agent in removing the vegetable matter from the 
soil, in the form of carbonic acid, and that it is not essential that the carbonic 
acid should rise directly from the soil, or that plants should be placed on the 
spot to consume it. It has never been the custom to add oxygen to any of 
the aerated waters ; but although very little is absorbed, it would probably 
be a very useful imitation of the natural process to add that gas in addition 
to carbonic acid. 

Rain-water has often been asserted to be the purest of all water, and if 
falling on siliceous rocks it must still remain pure, as they have very little 
soluble matter to impart. This may be the case in some districts, but the 
probability is against it, as rain is a mode of removing impurities from the 
atmosphere ; and for the large towns in Lancashire, and similar places, there 
can be no reliance placed on mere rain-water. Collected in a town, we know 
it to be a nauseous and black liquid ; and when we go a mile from a town it 
is no less nauseous, although it loses its blackness. This would show that the 
black soot from chimneys is deposited very near a town, although the soluble 
substances are carried further ; and it may be observed, that in wet weather 
the smoke falls more rapidly, from the soot becoming heavy with moisture, 
as well as from the change of the barometer. Even many miles round a town 
the rain is unfit for use, without being passed through purifying materials. 
I have tried it as far as ten miles from Manchester ; and it is probable that it 
is nowhere free from objection, as it has been found necessary to take means 
to render it palatable even in agricultural districts. But this same water 
having passed through sand or rock comes out brilliant and in every respect 
good, being purified by the natural process. For this reason, as has been 
often remarked, the water springing out at some depth is much superior to 
that lying on the surface. 

Even rain-water standing for a time gives indications of organization, which 
is not the case with deep water. Although the water which does not come 
from a great depth does contain more organic matter than rain-water, it has 
gained other advantages sufficient to overbalance that fault ; if, indeed, the 
small amount of organic matter found in water from sandstone can be looked 
on as a disadvantage. As the washing of the air seems to be one of the duties 
of rain, it is not surprising that some mode should be again employed by na- 
ture to purify the rain. The action of the soil for this purpose seems to be a 
necessary completion of the process. Dew does not exhibit the same extent 
of impurities, no doubt arising from the limited space in which it is formed 
whilst the rain passes through a large extent of air. 

As the use of surface-water has been so highly recommended, I have thought 
it well to state the valuable qualities of a good filter, and the mode in which 
I believe the best wiiler is produced. This I believe to be by filtration, which, 
even more than distillation, removes the organic matter, and more than any 
known method, improves the taste and the appearance. As the rain-water 
has washed the air, and the deep well-water has brought with it solutions of 
degraded rocks to a large extent, both seem objectionable ; and as the surface- 
water carries along with it matters of all kinds in solution and suspension, 
according to circumstances, it seems more advisable that the water which has 
been purified by passing not too deep under the surface should be used, since 
all the advantages and all the peculiar powers of filtration are found in that 
portion of the ground. 



78 REPORT — 1851, 

Report of the Committee appointed by the British Association to consider the 
probable Effects in an (Economical and Physical Point of Vieto of the De- 
struction of Tropical Forests. EyDv.HvGii Cleghorn, Madras 3Tedical 
Estahlish7nent; Professor Forbes ^oyi,^, King' s College, London; Captain 
R. Baird Smith, Bengal Engineers \ Captain 11. Strachey, Bengal 
Engineers, 
As preliminary to the Report which your Committee has now the honour to 
submit, we have to make the following remarks. The great extent of the 
subject prescribed to us, involving as it would have done, if completed in its 
integrity, the collection of materials from every tropical region on the surface 
of the globe, would have involved an amount of labour which we had neither 
the time nor tlie means of devoting to the subject. Three of our members 
had special duties required from them, which did not admit of being in any 
way postponed*, and it has been consequently on the fourth (Dr. Hugh Cleg- 
horn) that almost the entire labour has devolved of collecting and digesting 
the materials now laid before youf. 

The personal relations of the whole of the members of your Committee 
with the Tropical Region of British India, naturally suggested to them the 
propriety of limiting their researches to that field wherein they had them- 
selves been employed, and with the circumstances of vvhich they were not 
only best acquainted, but had also the best means of filling in any imperfec- 
tions which might exist in their knowledge. The subsequent report has 
accordingly reference solely to the Forest Question as applied to India, and 
we have endeavoured to collect all such information as would illustrate the 
physical and ceconomical effects of the destruction of the natural woods, 
which in that, as in other countrie's, are of such admitted importance. 

In reference to the physical efl^ects of the removal of forests, we found 
considerable variety of opinions. There is, it must in fact be admitted, a 
deficiency of exact or experimental information on ihe subject. Observations 
of a, precise character on climate in countries once covered by forests but 
now cleared, do not to our knowledge exist, and the evidence with which we 
have to deal is a kind of evidence which admits of considerable variety of 
interpretation. Of such evidence we have exhibited a number of examples, 
and the general conclusions which appear to be warranted by these may be 
perhaps best given in the following words of Humboldt, the most eminent 
authority who has discussed the question : — 

" By felling trees which cover the tops and sides of mountains, men in 
every climate prepare at once two calamities for future generations — the 

want of fuel, and the scarcity of water Plants exhale fluid from their 

leaves, in the first place, for their own benefit. But various important 
secondary effects follow from this process. One of these is maintaining a 
suitable portion of humidity in the air. Not only do they attract and con- 
dense the moisture suspended in the air, and borne by the wind over the 
earth's surface, which, falling from their leaves, keeps the ground below 
moist and cool ; but they can, by means of their roots, pump it up from a 
very considerable depth, and, raising it into the atmosphere, diflTuse it over 
the face of the country. Trees, by the transpiration from their leaves, 
surround themselves with an atmosphere, constantly cold and moist. They 

* Professor Royle has been engrossed with the Exhibition and his other duties. Capt. 
Baird Smith has been employed on duty abroad, and Capt. Strachey was digesting his own 
Himalayan researches for the press. 

t In drawing up the Report, it was necessary to alter and compress the language of the 
original documents ; but care has been taken to give the opinions of the authors as nearly 
in their own words as possible. — H. C. 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OF TROPICAL FORESTS. 79 

also shelter the soil from the direct action of the sun, and thus prevent eva- 
poration of the water furnished by rains." In this way, as Humboldt states, 
the forests contribute to the copiousness of streams. 

The question as between the maintenance and removal of forests appears 
to us to be a question of compensations. Wherever the progress of popu- 
lation requires that every portion of the soil be made to yield its quota of 
human food, there the destruction of forests is to be desired, and the disad- 
vantages to which want of wood for social and general purposes may lead, 
must be compensated for, as they doubtless will be, by the ingenuity which 
is born of necessity. But there are localities in nearly all countries to 
which the tide of population can never flow, but where the forest can 
flourish, and wliere it ought to be maintained. To tropical countries, the 
preservation of the springs which feed the rivers, on which the fertility of the 
land and the prosperity of the people are so essentially dependent, is of the 
greatest importance. These springs rise in the mountain regions where 
forests prevail, and it is to such regions that a protective agency should be 
extended, for there can be but little doubt that the entire removal of wood 
leads to the diminution of water. In a single sentence, we would say that 
where human exigences, whether for subsistence or for health, require the 
destruction of forests, let them be destroyed ; but where neither life nor 
health is concerned, then let a wise system of preservation be introduced 
and acted upon. 

The planting of such trees as are desirable from the fruit which they 
afford, or grateful from the shade which they yield, is an act which has been 
held in high esteem in eastern countries, especially India, from very early 
times. The eastern appreciation of the luxury of shade led to the banks of 
the canals, constructed by the Mahommedan emperors, being planted, and 
the waysides of the imperial roads being lined with trees of various kinds ; 
in the Sunnud of the Emperor Akbar, it is directed, " that on both sides of the 
canal down to Hissar, trees of every description both for shade and blossom, 
be planted, so as to make it like the canal under the tree in Paradise ; and 
that the sweet flavour of the rare fruits may reach the mouth of every one, 
and that from those luxuries a voice may go forth to travellers calling them 
to rest in the cities where their every want will be supplied*." 

But the planting of trees for timber seems to have been neglected there, as 
it has been in most other countries, until modern times. This is no doubt 
owing to self-sown forests being more than sufficient to supply all the wants 
of man in tlie earlier states of society. As population and civilization are 
advanced, such forests are looked upon rather as impediments to agriculture, 
than as sources of wealtli, and the means of removing trees are more thought 
of than the readiest modes of propagation, or how they should be treated so 
as to produce tiie best timber in the shortest time, and in the fullest quan- 
tity that the ground is capable of bearing, and so managed that it may yield 
some profit even M'hile the timber is growing f. 

British India is so extensive an empire, so diversified in soil and climate, 
as well as in natural and agricultural products, that it is impossible to pre- 
dicate anything respecting it generally ; that which is descriptive of one 
part, is not necessarily applicable to another. Thus some parts are covered 
with primaeval forests, as the mountainous coasts of Canara and Malabar, the 
country surrounding the Neilgheerics the Tenasserim Provinces, much of 
Central India, the base of the Himalayan Mountains from Assam up to the 

* Calcutta Review, No. 23. 

t The substance of the above and following paragraphs is extracted from a valuable MS. 
Report of Dr. Royle on the advantages of increased planting in certain districts of India. 



80 REPORT 1851. 

banks of the Ganges, as it issues from the hills, and beyond it ; while other 
parts are not only bare of trees, but even of vegetation of any kind, as the 
deserts which run parallel with the Indus, and stretch more or less into the 
interior of India. The North-western Provinces, as well as many parts of 
the Peninsula of India, are generally bare of timber-trees, as are also the 
highly cultivated Southern Provinces of Bengal. But in most parts of India 
clumps of trees may be seen by the traveller in every direction in which he 
can look. This is owing to the Indian practice of embowering every village 
in a clump or tope of trees, generally of the Mango, but frequently the 
Bur, Peepul, Tamarind, &c. are found, some yielding fruit, others grateful for 
their shade, and some yielding fodder for elephants and camels. In the 
neighbourhood of every village also may be seen tracts of jungle, more or 
less extensive, which by some are accounted so much waste land. They ai'e 
often composed of long grass, or of low shrubs, as the Dhakand wild Jujube, 
with a few trees intermixed, as the Babool and Seriss. These tracts, though 
disfiguring the rich appearance of a cultivated country, are far from useless, 
as they form the only pastures wliich the natives possess for their cattle, as 
well as their whole source of supply for firewood, and whatever timber 
may be required for the building of their huts or the making of their agri- 
cultural implements. 

From the number and extent of the forests and jungles of India, it might 
be inferred that timber was abundant in all parts, not only for home con- 
sumption, but that a supply might be obtained for foreign commerce : this is 
far from being the case. Though forest lands are extensive, their contents 
in accessible situations are not of a nature, or sufficiently abundant, to 
supply even the ordinary demands. In India, as in other long inhabited 
and early civilized countries, the parts best adapted for agricultural purposes 
have long been cleared of jungle. The forests lying nearest to the inha- 
bited tracts were first stript of their timber, and as no precautions have been 
taken to replace the old trees, a gradual diminution has been observed in the 
supply of timber, which has consequently increased in price (as may be seen 
in the Government contracts for building and the Commissariat outlay for 
firewood), not solely from actual deficiency, but because timber is only ob- 
tainable from less accessible situations, with considerable increase of labour 
and expense. 

As the principal cities where the greatest demand for timber exists are in 
the centre of cultivated tracts, so are they necessarily remote from the forests 
from which they require wood, either for the construction of houses and 
machinery for ship-building, or other purposes. Hence a commerce in 
timber has long been established in India. Calcutta and the cities situated 
on the Ganges are supplied with timber grown in the forests which skirt the 
foot of the Himalayan Mountains, from Assam to the banks of the Junma. 
These supplies are floated on rafts down the numerous feeders of the Ganges, 
which forms the great artery of the plains of India. But this is not suflfi- 
cient for the consumption of Calcutta, as considerable quantities are im- 
ported from the Burman Empire. In the same way there is an insufficient 
supply for the Madras Presidency, which is made up by importing timber 
from Ceylon. 

Bombay has long been celebrated for the building of ships with teak-wood, 
supplied from the forests of Malabar and Canara, whence timber seems always 
to have been exported even to Arabia and Persia. 

Looking at the extent of India, and reading of its interminable jungles, it 
may seem a work of supererogation to talk of the deficiency of timber or of 
the necessity of protecting its forests. Timber to be valuable must be of the 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OP TROPICAL FORESTS. 81 

proper kind, of the proper age, and at proper distances, that is, in accessible 
situations. As might have been expected, from continual drains being made 
on these forests, without adequate measures having been adopted to keep up 
the supply, a continued and increasing deficiency has been experienced in 
all parts of India, which has frequently attracted the attention of the Indian 
and Home Governments, so that in the Bombay Presidency numerous reports 
have been made on the state of the teak forests, and measures adopted for their 
improvement, without as yet much benefit. 

In the Madras Presidency steps have at different times been taken to 
encourage planting, as in the time of Dr. Anderson ; ami lately we have seen 
the Madras Government applying annually to Bengal for the seeds of Saul 
and Sissoo, for planting in Madras. These have been very successfully intro- 
duced and acclimated in the territories of Mysore and other southern pro- 
vinces. In a letter from Capt. Onslow to Dr. Cleghorn, dated Shemogah, 
21st July 1847, that intelligent officer writes in reference to a plantation on 
the banks of the Toombudra, — " I have never seen any vegetation so won- 
derful as that of the Sissoo ; last year's seedlings are almost too large to 
transplant. It would be a pity to allow the monsoon to pass over without 
putting in more seed." The Mahogany (^Sivietenia Mahogani), a tree of 
great value and beauty, has been introduced successfully into the Calcutta 
Botanic Gardens, and a few specimens are thriving at Madras and in Mysore, 
giving promise of its being nearly equal to the finest varieties from the Hon- 
duras. Specimens of furniture prepared by Dr. Wallich from trees grown 
at Calcutta are now in the museum at the India House. 

Dr. Wallich was despatched in 1825 to the Upper Provinces in order 
to inquire into and watch over the extensive forests of the empire, which 
were found to be undergoing most wasteful and rapid decay. Three MS. 
volumes of reports and proceedings, with two original maps of the route 
taken by Dr. Wallich and Captain Satchwell, were placed by the Supreme 
Government with the Agricultural and Horticultural Society '^ for informa- 
tion and deposit." These volumes contain the labours of a body of public 
officers, which, under the denomination of " The Plantation Committee," 
originated under the administration of the Marquis of Hastings and con- 
tinued in existence six years. The records of its proceedings, as contained 
in these volumes, extend over 1070 pages of manuscript. They contain much 
and most valuable, indeed generally unknown information, bearing on the 
great practical measure of forest cultivation, the Sissoo localities in par- 
ticular ; and every eflTort should be made to rescue this information from 
oblivion. The late Dr. Spry, Secretary of the Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society, was desired to undertake the examination of these records, 
and favour the Society with a report upon their contents. He devoted much 
time to this duty, and reported in July 1841, that the really valuable part of 
these papers might be condensed into a small-sized volume of about 250 pages. 
The work of condensation, that is the compilation, so as to avoid the official 
forms in which the information is introduced that the matter may be brought 
into a continuous form, will necessarily be great, and require that some 
specific allowance be made for its performance. The carrying out of this 
proposal was committed to Dr. Spry, and had his life been prolonged, would 
have been executed by him. We regret that the fulfilment of his intentions 
has not devolved upon any of his friends, considering the importance of 
giving publicity to such valuable information, and we still think the matter 
deserving of recommendation to Government. Dr. Wallich has borne testi- 
mony to the value of the information, and stated that if the undertaking be 

1851. G 



82 REPORT — 1851. 

sanctioned, he would be most happy and willing to give his valuable assist- 
ance in the work, of publication. 

" The reports of Dr. Wallich are particularly valuable respecting the 
natural forests, both of those within the British territories in India, and also 
those of the neighbouring powers. In his visit to the Turai, or low and 
moist forest-land skirting the base of the Himalayas, he particularly recom- 
mends a vast extent of forest-land in Oude, situated on the east side of the 
Kowreala river, as holding out the prospect of very valuable supplies, pro- 
vided that means are adopted for preventing wanton destruction and of 
allowing the young plants to grow up and supply the place of those which 
are cut down. Among the forests in our own provinces, Dr. Wallich adverts 
particularly to those occupying the Islands of the Gogra, commonly called 
Chaudnee Choke. He represents them as extremely important, and in every 
way deserving of being pi'eserved for the exclusive use of the Government, and 
especially of being emancipated from the destructive depredations which are 
annually committed. The Sissoo and Saul forests of the Deyra Doon are 
also recommended to be preserved for the use of the service ; though from 
these the facility of transportation is represented as not equal to that from 
the otiier quarters previouslj' mentioned. But they are nevertheless as im- 
portant for the stations in the north-west of India, as the forests of Oude 
and Gorukpore are for those in the south. As considerable deficiencies of 
timber, at least of those kinds usually employed, such as Saul and Sissoo, 
besides Bamboos, had been experienced, and as the deficiency every day in- 
creased, Dr. Wallich was induced to recommend that Government should 
interfere in the management of the forests; for the natives, from their ex- 
tremely injudicious mode of felling forests, cut and carry away all that are 
easily accessible, both young and old plants, without planting any thing new 
in their place, or encouraging the growth of the young seedlings. Another 
great defect in the native mode of managing timber, is their total neglect of 
any regular system of seasoning :— timber ever being seasoned by them 
at all, depends upon the proprietor not having been able to sell it." — Royle's 
Prod. Resotirces of India, p. 189. 

The glory of the Malabar and Tenasserim forests is their teak, the vast 
importance of which is becoming daily more known and appreciated ; the 
timber indeed has been long prized. Bontius described the tree under the 
name of Quercus Indicu, though except as regards the timber it has no re- 
semblance to the Oak. Rhaede has given an accurate representation of 
Tectona grandis, and refers to the teak forests of Malabar in these terms 
(Hort. Malab. iv. t. 27) : — " Crescit ubique in Malabar, at praesertim in pro- 
vincia Caiicolan (Calicut) ubi integrse sylvae ingentium harum arborum 
reperiuntur.* ♦ * Lignum vero hujus arboris quercino ligno hand absimile, 
operi fabrili accommodum, atque naupegis ad navium fabricam in usu est: 
sed in aquis (prsesertim dulcibus) teredini facile obnoxium.'" 

It Avill be shown that these large I'orests, supplying thejlnest sort of teak, 
had fallen long ago into a deplorable state, both old and young trees having 
been indiscriminately cut down, without regard to future supply. 

" This work of destruction," according to John Edye, Esq. (As. Soc 
Journ. ii.), " is conducted by a company of Parsee merchants, who take a cer- 
tain number of the natives from Mangalore at the proper season for felling, 
and, without consideration for the future, cut all sorts of peon-spars, saplings 
as well as large trees, to the great injury of the forests. There were hun- 
dreds of small spars from five to nine inches diameter, and thirty-five to 
Beventy-five feet long, actually decaying on the beach at Mangalore at the 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OP TROPICAL FORESTS. 83 

time I was there ; from which circumstance in the course of a few years these 
valuable forests must be exhausted. The whole of this trade is in the hands 
of a combined party of these people, who never fail to take advantage of any 
particular demand that may occur." 

Jn Wight's ' Illustrations,' vol. ii., just received, he remarks, — " The timber 
of the Tectona grandis is about the most highly esteemed in India, that of 
nearly all other trees is spoken of as jungle-wood and inferior. Time does 
not now permit, otherwise some remarks might have been offered on the 
subject of the preservation of the teak forests, and the recent fearful waste 
and destruction of that valuable, I had almost said invaluable, tree in all our 
teak forests, without a single step being taken either to keep up the stock 
or preserve young trees from the ruthless hands of contractors and others, 
licensed to cut teak timber. Measures are now, I believe, in. progress to 
arrest the ruinous destruction that has for some years been going on, and it 
is hoped that the Directors will succeed in their object ; otherwise the stock 
in hand will soon be exhausted." 

The following extract is from a private letter of Dr. Macfarlaue, late 
Zillah Surgeon, Mangalore : — 

" For the Canara forests, I can testify from personal observation as late 
as December 1849, that Coomree clearing was being carried on to a most 
destructive extent in those tracts surrounding the falls of Gair-soopah. As 
far as I could get any information on the subject from Lieut. Walker of the 
Engineers, who is employed in the district of Canara, and with whom I 
visited an extensive Coomree inclosure near the Deva-raunny Ghaut, no 
check seems to be exercised over the forest population in this respect. 
Lieut. Walker's description to me was, that the jungle people ringed the 
trees to kill the large ones, took the branches and made a fence against wild 
animals, burnt as much as they could, and then took one or two crops of 
millet (or ragee) out of the soil, going over to another tract and repeating 
the same practice. All around in that primaeval forest, thousands of acres 
were, or had been, evidently under Coomree, the large timber-trees de- 
stroyed, the spaces left blank in the forest, and in all these Coomree spaces 
that had again been left to nature, I could not help remarking that wild 
plantains invariably sprang up in myriads." 

The extensive forests of teak mentioned by Buchanan in his ' Journey 
through Mysore in 1 800,' have well nigh disappeared, as will be seen by the 
details in the following Report : — 

" Nuggur Division, Superintendent's Office, Shemoga, 
5th May 1847. 
" To the Secretary, to the Commissioner of the Government of the 
Territories of the Rajah of Mysore. 
"Sir, — In connection with the subject of my letter of the 11th March 
last, there is another, unquestionably of great importance, now occupying the 
attention of the Government of India, and which I am confident will at once 
engage the attention of the Commissioner, — I allude to the conservation of 
the forests as regards timber, the value of which might with care and atten- 
tion be made very important in Nuggur. From want of these nearly all the 
fine teak and other timber which once flourished on the banks of the Toonga 
and Bhudra rivers have disappeared, and the Government has derived but 
very little benefit from it. 

" 2. Vast quantities of various kinds of timber are yearly carried down the 
Toongabhadra river to the open coimtry, by people who pay a small sum to 
the farmer of the forests for the privilege of cutting it. In the months of 
August and September these people take down hundreds of floats made of 

g2 



84 REPORT — 1851.. 

bamboos loaded with timber. Teak, black-wood, and ebony are forbid to 
be cut ; but I am well assured that these proliibited timbers are taken away 
in great quantities every year ; we have no means whatever of preventing it. 

" 3. The forests are rented yearly to the highest bidder; the renters, holding 
their farms for a year only, have no interest in preserving the forests ; on the 
contrary, their interests are best served by their destruction. They make 
their profits by taxing the timber-cutters and coomri cultivators ; therefore 
the more jungle there is cut, the greater are their profits. The consequence 
of this indiscriminate cutting is the total disappearance of teak in localities 
where it formerly abounded, especially in the vicinity of the river Toonga. 
Buchanan in his ' Journey ' says at vol. iii. p. 287, ' Here {i. e. between Teer- 
thully and Mundagudda in the Cowledroog Talook) were many fine teak- 
trees, more indeed than I have ever seen in any one place. They might be 
of value could they be floated down the Toonga to the Kerishna, and so to 
the sea.' This is after he had seen the Soonda and other fine forests in Canara. 
When at the same place in February last, I saw no teak, and I saw none the 
whole length of the river as far as Mundagudda. 

" 4. There is some teak remaining in the forests near Mundagudda about 
twenty miles from this, but it is fast disappearing, and in a few years there 
will be none M'ithin the reach of the river. Teak is occasionally cut on 
account of Government, brought to Shemoga, and sold ; but it does not bring 
a good price. The average amount of sale for the last five years is Com- 
pany's rupees 181 6, as is shown in the accompanying statement, which 
exhibits also the average of each item of i-evenue, the produce of the forests 
for the same time, and a total average of Canteroy pags. 1168 5, or Com- 
pany's rupees S397 i 2 annually. 

"5. This is all the revenue that the magnifijcent forests of Nuggur are made 
to yield by the present system, which is fraught with mischief. There is no 
preservation of the timber that stands, nor encouragement of the growth of 
young trees ; and at the present rate of destruction there can be no doubt 
that in a few years there will be no valuable timber left in places from which 
it can be carried away. 

"6. But this is by no means the only evil : Coomri cultivation is mischie- 
vous in various ways. The following are some of the most prominent objec- 
tions to it. It causes llie most rapid destruction of the forests, which, it is 
a well-ascertained fact, lessens the quantity of rain and moisture, and must 
thus, in the course of no very long time, seriously affect the cultivation and 
prosperity of the country. The cultivation of the Mulnaad* is solely de- 
pendent on rain (there being no irrigation), and requires abundance of it. 
The people of the Mulnaad begin already to remark that there is a diminu- 
tion of rain ; and I think it highly probable that it is attributable to the vast 
extent of Coomri clearings all over the country, but especially along the crest 
of the Ghauts. Looking over Canara, immense tracts of Coomri are to be 
seen as far as the eye can reach. Some weeks ago I went down the new 
Ghaut leading from Hunnaur, above the Ghauts, to Colioor in Canara, and 
Avas much struck with the immense extent of Coomri. I saw tens of thou- 
sands of acres cleared on the hills. The new pass is six miles long, and is en- 
tirely through clearing, where not a single forest-tree is left standing. In these 
clearings, the primaeval forest, with all its beautiful timber and valuable pro- 
ductions, has given place to a thick scrub of noxious weeds and brambles, , 
containing nothing useful. It may be supposed that clearing the forest would . 
make the country more healthy, and so it would if the clearing were more; 
permanent ; but the forest is now destroyed only to be replaced by a thick ; 
* i. e. Rain-country. 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OP TROPICAL FORESTS. 85 

jungle of rank vegetation, still more unhealthy than the forest, which being 
open below, admits of circulation of air ; but the scrub is a dense mass of 
vegetation, and from bottom to top it is about twenty feet high. But however 
this may be, I think it is a question worthy of serious attention, whether the 
present unlimited destruction of the forest shall be allowed to continue, risk- 
ing the diminution of rain, the effect of which would extend over the whole 
of the southern part of the peninsula, and perhaps occasion most disastrous 
consequences. 

" 7. More inland, Coomri cultivation is destructive of much sandal-wood. 
There is now a case under inquiry in the Shikarpoor Talook, in which eighty 
trees have been destroyed. The average valueof a sandal- wood tree is from 
five to fifteen rupees. In the coffee districts this system is very objectionable. 
Coffee will not grow in a Coomri clearing, the soil having been exhausted, 
and the fires in the neighbourhood of plantations endanger it. The Coomri 
cutters would be nmch better employed in the plantations. Upon a repre- 
sentation of these objections, I forbid Coomri in the Chickmoogloor Talook 
some months ago. 

" 8. This cultivation has great attractions to the lower classes of cultivators 
and labourers; it leads numbers from the cultivation of the beriz-lands, and 
thus directly injures the revenue, and produces in those who take to it law- 
less and vagabond habits. Along the Ghauts t!ie Coomri cultivators, when 
not engaged in their cultivation, employ themselves in smuggling, which the 
clearings and their knowledge of the country greatly facilitate. In the MuU 
naad a trifling rent is paid to the forest-renter. In the open Talooks a low 
rent is paid directly to Government. In either case the payment of it is often 
evaded by those who have clearings in remote and inaccessible parts, where 
they are not easily discovered. The cultivation is of the rudest and simplest 
mode. The trees are felled in January and February, and allowed to remain 
in the ground till the next season, when they are burnt. The earth is not 
turned at all, and the seed, ragee, castor-oil, or dhoU*, is thrown broad-cast 
upon the ashes among the stumps. The crops thus produced are always 
abundant. Formerly the practice was to take only one crop, and leave the 
clearing, which allowed the stumps to shoot out again, and the same spot 
would bear cultivation again after from twelve to twenty years. Rut of late 
the practice of repeating the process the second year has grown up. The 
same clearing will bear cultivation again after from twelve to twenty years : 
when it has been cultivated for only one season the stumps of the trees shoot 
out again if only once cut and burnt ; but if this is done a second year, they 
perish, root and branch, and the spot is ever after productive of nothing but 
scrub. The soil has been totally exhausted, and produces nothing but 
weeds. It is probably this practice, which did not formerly exist, that has 
caused such extensive destruction of the forest. 

" 9. Coomri cultivation is therefore directly injurious to the revenue ; it 
has a demoralizing effect upon a great number of people, and is in all respects 
objectionable, except under the circumstances explained in the following 
paragraph. The renting system is unproductive of revenue, and destructive 
of the forests ; I am therefore of opinion that it ought to be abolished, that 
the forests should be kept in the hands of Government and preserved, and 
that Coomri should be altogether forbidden, except under strict supervision, 
and the orders of the superintendent. 

" 10. There are some parts of the country where clearing the jungle might 
be done with great advantage in many ways. There are extensive ranges of 
jungle composed of bamboo and stunted trees, which are quite unproductive, 
* Eleusine coracana, Ricinus communis and Cajanus indieus. 



86 REPORT — 1851. 

and the clearing of which I would encourage. The people might be taught 
to clear and cultivate the land in a way which would not be destructive of 
its powers. There are immense ranges of this kind of jungle between Chick- 
moogloor and Belalryandroog, and in the Luckwolly Talook, to the west of 
the Bababooden Hills, which produce nothing whatever, and are very un- 
healthy. In other parts, more to the east, there are similar jungles, which 
produce sandal-wood. In these, Coomri could be allowed, care being taken 
of the sandal-wood. It is along the Ghauts where I think Coomri is particu- 
larly objectionable ; there the forests are composed of fine timber-trees, hold 
many valuable productions, and are perfectly healthy ; and it is there where 
the formation of rain would be most aiFected by clearing the forest. 

" 11. To bring out the value of the forests, not only should that which exists 
be preserved, but considering the vast importance of its timber, teak should 
be planted, as is done in other parts of India. Hearing of the successful 
planting of teak in Malabar, I applied to Mr. Conolly, the collector, for in- 
formation, and he has been kind enough to send me a memorandum of his 
method of planting, which he tells me is most successful ; I am confident that 
the same could be done in many parts of Nuggur, in the most favourable 
positions along the banks of the Toongaand Bhudra rivers, where teak grows 
spontaneously, and where, from the facility of transportation afforded by the 
river, it would become very valuable. I annex a copy of the memorandum I 
have received from Mr. Conolly. I have collected a quantity of teak-seeds, 
and Dr. Cleghorn undertakes to raise seedlings here, which I purpose to 
plant as an experiment along the banks of the Toonga, between Shemoga 
and Mundagudda, where formerly teak grew large and abundantly. 

"12. Should the Commissioner sanction my proposal to preserve the forests 
and form plantations of teak, it will be necessary to keep up a small establish- 
ment. Perhaps the following would be sufficient for the present : — One 
Darogha on 6 rupees per month, and twelve Carnatties on 3 rupees. It is 
desirable not only to plant young trees, but to facilitate the growth of the 
spontaneous seedlings by clearing away obstructions. Buchanan remarks on 
this subject in the same paragraph that I have quoted above, ' I know of no 
place that would answer better for rearing a teak forest than the banks of 
the Toonga, where close to the river there is much excellent soil which is 
considered as useless, as there are on the spot many fine teak-trees. All that 
would be required would be to eradicate the trees of less value, which I look 
upon as a necessary step to procure any considerable quantity of teak in a 
well-regulated government.' This remark is perfectly applicable to the 
locality I have in view, which is twenty miles lower down the river than the 
place he alluded to. « j 1^^^^^ g^^^ 

(Signed) " W. C. Onslow, Superintendent. 

" ' The depredations of wood-cutters seem to have sufiered no check until 
the last year, and I fear the means taken are still very insufficient to prevent 
indiscriminate havoc. To give you some idea of the waste of valuable and 
ornamental timber in this country, I will just mention what I discovered at 
Hydrabad. I was in want of light-coloured wood for picture-frames, and 
applied to the legimental contractor: what was my surprise to find that 
every third or fourth log in his great store of firewood was most beautiful 
satin-wood of large size ! Only imagine the victuals of a whole regiment, not 
to say of a large community, being cooked with satin-wood ! On this fact 
becoming known, applicants for the satin-wood became numerous. I con- 
sider it nearly equal to the bird's-eye maple for ornamental work.' 

" ' Capi. Harvey, in Uteris.'^' 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OF TROPICAL. FORESTS. 87 

In the following extract of a letter from Dr. Wight to Dr. Cleghorn, 
dated Coimbatore, 3rd April, 1851, it is well observed, — "As to the destruc- 
tion of forests, it appears to me that there can be but one opinion on the 
subject, and that is, that it is most injurious to the welfare of any country, 
but especially of a tropical one, and ought upon no account to be tolerated, 
except where the ground they occupied can be turned to better account, and 
even the entire denudation should be avoided. I am not yet prepared to 
admit that trees have the property of attracting rain-clouds, and thereby in- 
creasing the quantity of rain that falls ; but there can be no doubt that they 
increase the retentiveness of the soil, and moreover keep it in an open 
absorbent state, so that in place of the rain running off a scorched and baked 
soil as fast as it falls to the earth, it is absorbed and gradually given out by 
springs. I am not prepared to go so far as to say, that forests, especially on 
high hills, have not the effect of attracting rain-clouds, but I am quite sure 
that if they to ever so small an extent have that property, the benefit is aug- 
mented a hundred-fold by their property of maintaining an open absorbent 
soil. 

" On this ground it is that I should like to see this country extensively 
planted, especially on all the elevated lands, because water absorbed in 
elevated grounds forms springs in the low ones : you truly say, that short- 
sighted folly has already done much mischief, and the Ryots have suffered 
to an immense amount. This is most true, but the difficulty is to put the 
saddle upon the right horse. Who has done the mischief? 

" Within about fifty miles of the spot whence I write, a tract of country has 
been cleared ; the result is that the inhabitants are now so much distressed 
for the want of water that they contemplate leaving the country, their wells 
being all dry. On inquiry, it does not appear that the rains have fallen below 
the usual average, but notwithstanding, the country has become so dry that 
their wells no longer provide a sufficient supply of water. 

" Major Cotton, from whom I have the information, attributes it to the rain 
running off the baked soil as fast as it falls, in place of sinking into the earth 
and feeding springs. The subject is now attracting attention, and doubtless 
before long it wilt be ascertained whether forest has the effect of augmenting 
the fall of rain, or whether it results from the increased capacity of the soil 
for moisture. If the former, it is to be hoped that extensive plantations will 
be had recourse to as a means of equalizing the monsoons ; and if the lattei", 
that it will be adopted as a means of retaining the water that falls from the 
clouds." 

Concerning the vast forests on the opposite side of the Bay of Bengal, the 
principal observers, so far as we can learn, have been Wallich, Heifer, 
Griffiths, Blundell, Seppings, and O'Riley. 

Dr. Heifer, who has written a Report on the Tenasserim Provinces, speaks 
of the Teak as furnishing one of the greatest riches of the country, and being 
the foundation of all those improvements which have followed our acquisi- 
tion of it. He informs us that many trees perish by bad management ; that 
many trees which are killed are not found subsequently fit for use ; that they 
are suffered to decay, and generate a host of insects, which attack good 
trees before they are seasoned, and that much timber is wantonly destroyed. 
" The same negligence of the natives which reigns throughout the country 
with regard to wanton destruction of the forests by fire, extends equally to 
teak forests ; and I saw extensive tracts utterly destroyed, because it was 
the pleasure of some wild Karean to fix his abode in the vicinity, and for this 
purpose to clear the jungle by burning all down. 

" As teak is such a valuable article in general, and it may be safely asserted, 



88 REPORT — 1851. 

hitherto the only one to which Moulmein owes its daily increasing prosperity, 
the preservation of teak forests should be the principal care of government." 
The following observations are extracted from a paper by Mr. O'Riley, in 
a recent number of the ' Journal of the Indian Archipelago:' — "At the 
head of the vegetable productions of spontaneous growth of these provinces, 
the Teak of its extensive forests holds the most prominent place ; forming as 
it does, the only staple article of commerce that has as yet undergone any 
degree of development, and upon which the interests of the port of Moulmein 
have arisen and steadily progressed to their present scale of importance. 

" Many obstacles oppose themselves to the attainment of an accurate 
knowledge of the actual resources of the teak localities; the most important, 
and the only insuperable one, being the excessive unhcalthiness of the forests, 
which possess an atmosphere loaded with malaria, and fraught with fever to 
all persons unused to its bsuieful influence. Since the demand for teak- 
timber for the home market has been created, it will be apparent from the 
following statement of the exports from 1840 to IS-tS, that the quantity to 
be obtained is fully equal to the demand for it ; and this is more evident from 
the circumstance of there being at the present time a stock of rough logs 
equal to 15,000 tons of converted timber, which has not yet passed the 
general department, the absence of a demand preventing the holders from 
paying the duty upon it. 

Exports of teak-timber for the years from 1840 to 1848 inclusive. 

1840 4-,952 tons. 

1841 6,399 „ 

1842 11,487 „ 

J843 10,528 „■ 

1844 14,245 „ 

1845 13,360 „ 

1846 16,798 „ 

1847 11>250 „ 

1848 18,000 „ 

To which may be added 3415 tons appropriated to ship and house building, 
and other purposes, giving a value at the rate of 40 rupees per ton of Company's 
rupees 869,800 as an annual amount derivable from this commercial staple of 
Moulmein.* * * * For the due encouragement of the timber trades in the first 
instance it was deemed advisable to grant licenses to cut teak within certain 
ill-defined limits to parties connected with the trade of the place, which teak, 
on its arrival from the forests, was subjected to a certain rate of duty. 

" For the preservation of the forests, certain terms were demanded by 
Government from the holders of licenses, to the effect that trees below a 
standard size were to be left, and for each full-sized tree felled, a stated 
immber of young trees were to be planted, the latter from experiment 
having been found to be impracticable. With so frail a tenure, it might 
have been anticipated that the holders of such licenses, perhaps without any 
large amount of cajutal available for forest purposes, would endeavour to 
realize the largest possible amount of benefit at the least possible outlay, with- 
out reference to tlie ultimate productions of the forests ; hence the system of 
sub-letting supervened, as being the most congenial means to the end ; and 
the result of such measure has been the working of the forests by Burmese, 
who receive an advance on a contract to pay to the holder of the cutting- 
license the half of the timber on its arrival in Moulmein. To the same cause 
must be assigned the reckless destruction of property, which has become a 
system in the extraction of the timber from these forests. Many of the trees 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OF TROPICAL FORESTS. 89 

being of the largest size, and admirably adapted for ships' masts, are for the 
sake of convenience and expedition in their transport to Moulmein, cut into 
lengths of more manageable dimensions, say from fifteen to twenty cubits, and 
in this form of log depreciate the value of the original spar to one-tenth of 
the amount it would have realized as a ship's mast ! No excuse can be ad- 
mitted in extenuation of this defective process of \vorking the forests : the 
most powerful and effective animal power, in the shape of elephants (which 
are in general use in the forest work), is abundant and cheap, and if to that 
power the simplest European mechanical appliances were systematically 
applied with ordinary skill and management, the British navy might be 
masted from the teak forests of these provinces. 

" Whether it be found expedient to reserve the forests as a government 
property exclusively, or on the other hand, granting right of property in per- 
petuity to the holders of forest licenses on certain well-defined terms, and 
thereby enlist their pecuniary interest in the preservation of the tree, and 
improvement of their grants, — whether either of the foregoing form the basis 
of the ultimate measures of Government, it must be evident that in the 
establishment of a well-organized system of administration instead of the 
present obviously defective one, permanent good must result. 

" The subject of teak-timber has claimed the attention of several public 
journals of late, in consequence of some disclosures made in the proceedings 
of the Government dock-yard of Bombay, and all are unanimous in directing 
attention to it as a most important commodity, demanding the most stringent 
legislation to secure supplies for the future from the British possessions 
equal to the growing demand for it, as a staple, thus noticed by the ' Friend 
of India' : — ' The amazing durability, we might almost say indestructibility 
of teak, renders it not only one of the most valuable, but the most valuable 
wood, in a climate like that of India, where the elements of decay are so 
numerous and powerful, where dampness brings on rapid corruption, and 
the white ant devours without scruple.' 

" The principal trees of Tenasserim are the following, some of them classed 
by Dr. Wallich in his notice of the forests of these provinces : 

1. Anan. 6. Kouk Kmoo. 

2. Thengan, Hopea odorata. 7. Padouk, Pterocarpus. 

3. Peengado, Acacia. 8. Theet Kha. 

4. Bambwai. 9. Toung Baing. 

5. Pumah, Lagerstrcemia. 10. Yin dick, " a bastard Ebony." 

" The foregoing are the most generally knownwoods of the forestsin common 
use with the natives, but to them might be added a list of forty or fifty others 
more or less useful, which require but a careful examination to reveal some 
quality that may render them of serviceable application. Of the remaining 
forest trees and shrubs which possess valuable properties, the following are 
those most adapted to a demand for European consumption ; but owing to that 
absence of commercial enterprise already noticed, are at the present moment 
all excluded from the list of exports in Great Britain. 

Dyes. 

Sapan-wood Ccesalpinia Sapan Teni-yeit. 

Jack-wood Artocarpus integrifolia .... Pemgnay. 

Red-dye Morinda citrifolia Neepatsay. 

"Of trees and plants possessing odoriferous properties those forming 
articles of trade are as follows : — 



90 REPORT 1851. 

Native Name. 

Kurrawa Laurus Sassafras Sassafras. 

Keiiamet Santalum Bastard Sandal-wood. 

Thee-Kye-bo. . . . Laurus C. Wild Cinnamon. 

Akyan A very fragrant and a very scarce wood, of high value 

with the natives. 

" The oil-producing trees are — 

Ten-nyeng and Eing ; both of the class Dipterocarpus, and 
Theet-Tyee, producing the black varnish peculiar to the Burman terri- 
tory, and of which the lacquered ware in general use is made. 

" The Tavoy province, from the large number of wood oil-trees found in 
its forests, supplies the whole of the provinces with materials made from the 
oil, <Src. 

" The other known forest productions, which in quantities would form a 
valuable acquisition to the exports of these provinces, are, — 

Gamboge, produce of Tha-nahtan, Garcinia elliptica. 
Camphor, „ Blumea. 

Balsam tolu. 
Cardamoms. 

" The trees producing both Gamboge and Balsam tolu, are unequally 
dispersed through the jungles, and are comparatively scarce; the gamboge 
predominates, and might afford a considerable quantity of the article, did the 
knowledge of its value and the process of collecting it exist with the Karens; 
the tree however is felled indiscriminately with the rest of the forest in the 
annual clearings for upland paddy, and vegetable plantations, and an article 
which forms a prominent item in the rich exports from Siam, is on this side 
of the border range utterly neglected and destroyed. 

" The most common weed which springs up after the fires of the new 
clearings in the jungle, is that which produces the camphor ; of its abun- 
dance it is scarcely necessary to remark, that it is, next to grass, in excess of 
all other spontaneous vegetable life, and with proper appliances in the ma- 
nufacture of the salt (its property), might be rendered useful as an article of 
commerce*." 

The probable effects on the climate of Penang, of the continued destruc- 
tion of the hill jungles of that island, are ably stated by J. S. Logan, Esq., 
in the same journal (vol. ii. p. 534 et seq.). " It was remarked that the whole 
of the eastern front of the range (in Penang) has within a few years been 
denuded of its forest ; the greater part of it is too steep for any permanent 
cultivation, and in all probability, after the fecundity of the fresh soil en- 
riched by the ashes of the trees has been exiiausted, it will be abandoned by 
the Chinese squatters. It was not here alone that I was surprised to see the 
rapid progress which squatters and Chinese charcoal-burners have made in 
destroying the jungles in the hills during the last two years. In Singapore, 
the present zealous Governor (Col. Butterworth) has in an enlightened spirit, 
akin to that which has for some time characterized the Government of India 
in reference to the same subject, absolutely prohibited the further destruction 
of forests on the summits of hills. Representations have often been made to 
the local authorities at Penang, urging the necessity of reserving the jungles 
on the summits and higher slopes, but hitherto without effect. The reply 

* Mr. O'Riley, ' Vegetable Productions of Tenasserim.' Provin. Jouin. Iiid. Arcliipel. 
Feb. 1850. 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OF TROPICAL FORESTS. 91 

has been, if the forests are of so much importance as the agriculturists insist, 
they must have a certain value to them, and they are at liberty to purchase 
any tract they choose. But it is impracticable for the holders of land to 
unite in making such a purchase; and were it at all practicable, the majority, 
from ignorance and selfishness, would refuse to contribute. But climate con- 
cerns the whole community, and its prohibition from injury is one of the duties 
of Government. In Germany and France there are especial laws for the 
protection and extension of forests*. It is not necessary to cite Humboldt or 
Boussingault to prove the great influence in tropical regions of forests, and 
especially mountain forests, in attracting and condensing clouds, diminishing 
local temperature, and increasing humidity. But if tlie forests had no other 
effect than to protect the clay soil of the mountains from the action of the sun's 
rays, this ought alone to be sufficient to secure their careful preservation. It 
is in this soil that the waters which supply all the streams of the island, and 
which percolate downwards to the lower lands, are enclosed. These moun- 
tains are, in fact, great natural reservoirs, elevated in mid-air and exposing 
the most extended surfaces possible, which are covered to a small depth with 
a sponge of porous decomposed rock, for the absorption and retention of 
water. In ordinary seasons, when there is a considerable fall of rain, the im- 
portance of preventing the contents of these reservoirs from being dissipated 
may not be so obvious ; but it may now be considered a well-established fact 
that the Eastern Archipelago is subject to periodical droughts, although the 
laws of their recurrence are not yet ascei'tained. That such droughts will 
again and again happen, and are in fact the settled course of nature, admits 
of no question. 

" Nature, when left to herself, provides a compensatory influence in the 
dense leafy forests ; but if these are consigned to destruction, every successive 
drought will prove more baneful than the preceding. Unless Government 
will reserve at least the steeper mountain tracts, which are not adapted for 
permanent culture, there is nothing visionary in the apprehension, for it has 
been realized in other localities, that in some prolonged droughts, after the 
naked sides of the hills have been exposed to the direct heat of the sun, every 
stream in the inland will be dried up, and universal aridity ensue. The 
great extent to which the mainland of Penang has been shorn of its forests, 
would of itself produce an urgent necessity for a stop being at once put to a 
war with nature, which must entail severe calamities for the future. In those 
mountains in Greece which have been deprived of their forests, the springs 
have disappeared. In other parts of the globe the same consequence has 
followed. The sultry atmosphere and dreadful droughts of the Cape de 
Verd Islands are owing to the destruction of the forests. In large districts 
of India, climate and irrigation have rapidly deteriorated from a similar cause, 
and the Government having become fully impressed with the necessity of 
respecting the stubborn facts of nature, every means have been used to avert 
and remedy the mischief. Forests which had been so easily and thoughtlessly 
cut down have at great cost been restored." 

We extract the following very interesting results of tree plantations, show- 

* They have the sar8e in all the Italian States. So far back as 1475 the subject attracted 
the attention of the famous Venetian Council of X., by which a law was passed on the 7th of 
January of that year, regulating in great detail the clearance of the forests on terra firma. 
The mountain forests especially were protected by judicious regulations, which were renewed 
from time to time down to the very year of the extinction of the old republics. Tuscany and 
the Pontifical governments were equally provident. — IdrauUca Ragionata di Menyotti, p. 321 
gt seq. 



92 



KEPORT — 1851. 



ing that they may be self-supporting, from an article in the Calcutta Review 
(No. 23), by Captain R. Baird Smith, Bengal Engineers: — 

" The formation of plantations early occupied the attention of the British 
Superintendents of the Western Jumna Canal. Something was done by 
Captains Blane and Tickell ; but it was left to Colonel Colvin to proceed 
systematically in this useful duty. An allowance originally of 2000 rupees, 
afterwards increased to 2000 rupees per annum, was allotted to the plan- 
tations, and they have been spread over all parts of the canals to which water 
could reach. The trees planted are chiefly the Sissu, the Toon, the Kikur, 
the Cirrus, the Saul, and the Teak, all furnishing wood of value for cecono- 
mical purposes. The revenue derived from the plantations, although not 
large, has more than covered all expenditure upon them ; and their ultimate 
value will be very considerable. The details of the kind, number and esti- 
mated present value of the trees on the 30th April 184-7, are shown below : — 



Kikur ( Vachelliafarnesiana) 
Bambus {Bamhusa, var. sp.) . 
Jamun (^Eugenia Janiboi'). . . 

Kutchna (^Bauhinia) 

Mangos (JSIarigifera indica) . 
Mulberry (^Morus, var. sp.) . 

Nim (Melia AzaderacJi) 

Cirrus (Acacia Serissa) 

Sissu (jDalbergia Sissoo) . . . 

Toon ( Cedrela toona) 

Sundry 



Total. 



91,520 
4,420 
6,914 
1,771 
1,060 

18,746 
7.126 

13,966 
1,84,252 

35,487 
9,990 

3,75,252 



"The estimated value of these trees is 5,66,998 5 4 rupees, and the total 
expenditure by Government up to the present time amounts to only 
27,363 5 7 rupees, or about one-fourth of the revenue derived from the plan- 
tations, as shown in the annexed statement : — 

" Statement of Revenue from Sale of Wood, Grass, <^c. from the Plan- 
tations of the Western Jumna Canals : — 

RUPEES. 

1835-36 4,957 11 9 

1836-37 2,245 6 

1837-38 5,221 8 8 

1838-39 6,171 4 2 

1839-40 4,822 14 10 

1840-41 5,481 6 

1841-42 5,607 3 7 

1842-43 6,756 12 2 

1843-4-4 4,827 5 3 

1844-45 5,149 11 1 

1845-46 7,056 1 

1846-47 10,167 10 4 



RUPEES. 

1820-21 635 11 

1821-22 1180 

1822-23 741 

1823-24 656 

1824-25 545 

1825-26 370 

1826-27 713 

1827-28 1460 

1828-29 1289 

1829-30 1142 15 

1830-31 1265 

1831-32 2127 

1832-33 2651 

1833-34 3894 

1834-35 3,682 



9 


4 


7 


11 





10 


7 


7 


9 


9 


13 


11 


13 


9 


8 


8 


15 


4 


4 


8 


7 





2 


11 


6 


11 


2 


10 



Grand total 90,822 6 4 



" The plantations on the Eastern Jumna Canal were commenced simul- 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OF TROPICAL FORESTS. 



93 



taneously with the canal itself, and have been extended systematically from 
that period up to the present time. The kinds and numbers of the trees in 
the canal plantations are shown below : — 

Sissu 209,870 

Cirrus 8,058 

Kikur 28,501 



Nim 6,799 

Mulberry 9,305 

Bambus 1,906 



Lullow 2,774 

Teak 1,158 

Toon 15,967 

Sundry 7,416 



Total 291,754 



" The estimated value of the plantations is 1,46,793 rupees; and the total 
expense incurred by Government in their formation up to April 1847, is 
22,142 1 2 rupees, which sum, as will be seen by the following statement, 
has been nearly covered by the sale of wood, &c. from the banks. 

" Statement of Annual Revenue from Sale of Plantation Produce on the 
Eastern Jumna Canal : — 

RUPEES. 

1840-41 2,470 5 

1841-42 1,645 3 5 

1842-43 1,940 7 6 

1843-44 1,413 12 9 

1844-45 1,704 1 11 

1845-46 1,725 11 1 

1846-47 1,842 11 





RUPEES. 


1830-31 .... 


.... 592 15 


3 


1831-32 .... 


. . . . 606 6 


2 


1832-33 .... 


... 665 7 


n 


1833-34 


... 773 1 1 


8 


1834-35 .... 


... 815 15 


5| 


1835-36 .. .. 


. . . 1,034 9 


4 


1836-37 .... 


... 1,168 5 


2 


1837-38 .... 


... 1,222 5 


2 


1838-39 


... 1,073 9 


1 


1839-40 


. . . 1,282 8 






Grand total 21,977 2 10# 



" In addition to the plantations of forest-trees, grafted mango gardens 
have lately been established with the view of introducing a superior fruit 
into the country adjoining the canal. Of these gardens five are in existence, 
containing about 300 trees each, and being from three to five acres in extent ; 
the result of their establishment has been very satisfactory ; and although 
only one of the number has yet arrived at maturity, they have proved very 
successful, the demand for grafts and fruit being much in excess of the means 
of supply. The native community, for whom they were chiefly intended, 
have shown their appreciation of them by purchasing a large number of 
grafts, and there is every probability that the intention of Government in 
sanctioning the project will be fully realized." 

The following observations on the spread of tree-cultivation throughout 
the north-western provinces, are from the Proceedings of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society of India, April 1841 : — 

" The Hon. the pivsident (Sir Edward Ryan) called attention to a subject 
which engaged much the consideration of parties interested in furthering the 
agricultural welfare in the provinces of Upper India. He alluded to the 
great want which was felt for a sufficiency of timber-trees and firewood 
throughout the Azimghur, Jaunpore, part of the Benares, the Dooab, Rohil- 
cund, and Delhi provinces, now that the manufacturing energies of the people 
were becoming aroused by the increasing demand that there was for sugar. 
This Society (he stated) had a gold medal placed at its disposal by Mr. 
Tucker, for presentation to any individual who might raise the largest plan- 
tation of trees in the Agra presidency, so impressed was this gentleman of 
the necessity of some steps being taken to promote so important a measure. 



94 KEPORT — 1851. 

" In recommending more general attention to the subject of planting in 
India, it is perhaps unnecessary, after detailing the foregoing facts, to dwell 
longer on what appears to be tiie absolute necessity of something being done 
either by Government or by individuals for the preservation of old forests or 
the formation of new ones, whether this be immediately profitable or not, 
because so long a time is required to bring timber to perfection, that unless 
some means are adopted to provide for the future, so great a dearth of timber 
will be experienced as to put a stop to constructions of all kinds, that is to 
almost everything required for civilized life, or to force the Government and 
natives of India to import timber at any sacrifice, even when there are abun- 
dant tracts of unprofitable land, which might have been occupied by valuable 
timber, and which would have yielded yearly some returns long before the 
trees were fit to cut doM'n. In India, not only would the thinnings and 
prunings of forests be required for all the purposes for which these are sold 
in Europe, but a constant demand and profitable sale must always give value 
to even the smallest fragments of wood in a country where it is the universal 
fuel for daily cooking the food of millions, as well as for imparting warmth 
in the cold-weather months, and required also for all the chemical arts in 
which heat is necessary, some of which, as the preparation of sugar and of 
indigo, are performed on the very farms where the plants are grown. The 
leaves also of many trees are employed as fodder for elephants, camels, and 
in the Himalayas even for goats, sheep, and horned cattle. They are col- 
lected also when dry for fuel, and are preferred, I believe, for some fires, aa 
those for heating ovens ; but their more legitimate employment, of being al- 
lowed to enrich the soil, becomes neglected." — Royle, MSS. cit. 

" Another object I would particularly call attention to, is the felling of 
timber at the proper season when the sap is at rest. It requires no botanist 
to point out when this is to be done ; although the leaves do not fall off in 
India, as in more temperate climates, it is impossible to find any difficulty 
in deciding, from the appearance of the tree, when the time for felling has 
arrived. When the sap is rising, the leaves are generally somewhat soft and 
perfect ; when it is at rest, the leaves are harder, and, in India, almost always 
corroded by insects. In consequence of the facility of barking a tree when 
the sap is rising, oaks are often felled at this season in England, always with 
disadvantage to the timber ; and this same facility of barking is too often an 
inducement to the renters of forests in India to fell timber at improper 
periods of the year." — (Capt. Munro on the Timber Trees of Bengal, in 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. XI. new series, page 1.) 

It is not only in affording indigenous woods of wonderful variety, serving 
all the purposes to which timber is applied, that the Indian forests claim our 
attentive consideration. In them Nature presents to us other sources of 
wealth, which under judicious management may yield a considerable increase 
to the present revenue. Gums, drugs, dyes, resins abound, as gutta-percha, 
caoutchouc, kino, gamboge, camphor, dammer, piney, varnisli, wood-oil, 
with many other products not sufficiently known or appreciated, but which, 
as the light of European science penetrates these partially explored regions, 
will be applied to many useful purposes in the arts and sciences. 

The Isonandra gutta flourished for centuries in its native jungles, exuding 
its juice only to be received by the soil, before the discovery Avas made that 
gutta-percha was suited for such an infinite number of applications (the pro- 
perties of the other species remain to be examined), and the geographical 
limits of the Tahan-ivee have yet to be ascertained. To urge the necessity 
of exercising careful vigilance in protecting the trees whence so valuable a 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OF TROPICAL FORESTS. 95 

product is derived, will perhaps appear unnecessary, but we know that even 
their admitted financial value has not been sufficient to protect them from 
thoughtless waste, but the contrary, as has been illustrated by various writers 
in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago. 

The recent discovery of the source of East Indian Kino by Dr. Royle*, 
the researches of Dr. Christison as to the new varieties of gamboge, and the 
various investigations of Dr. Pereira, are instances of interesting and im- 
portant advances in the medical botany of the Indian forests. The abundance 
of Pterocarpus marsupium over the continent of India, producing the kino, 
and the occurrence of Garcinia pictoria and elliptica, yielding the gamboge, 
both in Coorg and Burmah, lead to the conclusion that much remains to be 
done in developing the pharmaceutic resources of these forests. 

We are assured by the Rev. Mr. Mason f, Mr. 0'Riley|, and other ob- 
servers, that the gamboge-trees ( Gamwza e/^ijof«ca) are dispersed through 
the forests of Burmah in such numbers as to afford a considerable quantity 
of the exudation, did the knowledge of its value and the process of preparing 
it exist with the natives (Kareans). The tree however is felled indiscrimi- 
nately with the rest of the forest in the annual clearings which take place, 
and the article, which forms a prominent item in the rich exports from 
Siam, is on the eastern side of the border range utterly neglected and 
destroyed. 

" The districts where the Burmese gamboge is produced are nearly in the 
same latitude with Cambodia, where the commercial gamboge of Siam is 
known to be collected ; the two localities are even at no great geographical 
distance from each other, and hence a strong presumption arises that the 
tree of Burmah is the same with the unknown gamboge-tree of Siam§.' 

The Coorg or Wynaad gamboge-tree has an extensive range ; we have 
seen it along all the higher parts of the Malabar Ghauts for fully 120 miles 
from north to south, and in some parts it is very abundant ; yet the produce 
for the most part is made little use of, and the tree is considered of so small 
value, that we have seen the supports and scaffolding of bridges, &c. entirely 
composed of the stems of Garcinia pictoria, though from the valuable ob- 
servations of Dr. Christison, this gamboge may be advantageously applied to 
any use to which the gamboge of Siam is habitually put. We are glad to 
learn that it is now becoming much used as a pigment 1| ; and as the exudation 
may be obtained in large quantity, it may be introduced equally to European 
trade, when once the natives learn how to collect it in a state of purity, and 
make it up in homogeneous masses, in imitation of pipe gamboge, the finest 
Siam variety. 

The names of the trees producing gamboge and kino should be added to 
the list of trees protected from indiscriminate destruction, which list, so far 
as we know, is at present limited to the Teak, Ebony, Black-wood and Sandal- 
wood. 

Many other trees should no doubt be added to this list. In the present 
state of our knowledge, however, we shall not venture to refer to any, except 
the oil-yielding trees, of which the commercial importance cannot be over- 

* Pharmaceutical Joiu-nal, May 1846, p. 500. 

t Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. % Journal of Indian Archipelago. 

§ ChristisoTi, in Pharmaceutical Journal for August 1846. 

II In illusti ation of the variety- of indigenous pigments, we may state that one of our 
number (Dr. Cleghorii), finding his colour-box becoming exhausted, was enabled to supply 
all his deficiencies, without difficulty, from the natural products of the surrounding forest, 
including yellow from Garcinia pictoria, blue from various species of Indigofera, red and 
piurle from Oldmlandia timiellata, " Pupplay Chukkay" ( Ventilago ?) and Vatica laccifera. 



96 REPORT 1851. 

rated, and to which comparatively little attention has yet been paid. In the 
limits of a report like the present, we can only indicate in a cursory manner 
the names of the more important and best known trees of this class. We 
may especially allude to the different species of Bassia, Stillingia sebifera 
(tallow-tree of China), Valeria Indica, which, from the high melting-point 
of their oils or fats, have a peculiar importance from their use in the manu- 
facture of candles, and from their being capable of replacing animal fats for 
other purposes. Of those trees which yield fluid oils, Calophyllum inophyl- 
lum, Aleurites triloba, and Pongamia glabra, may be particularly mentioned 
(though various others possessed of equally valuable properties would pro- 
bably be discovered by a more careful examination of those forests). The 
demand for oils in European commerce has been steadily on the increase 
for some years past, and the quantities consumed are now so large that these 
and the other oleaginous products of tropical climates must sooner or later 
acquire considerable commercial importance, and render the preservation of 
the plants which yield them deserving the attention of Government, not so 
much from their present importance, as from the value which they are likely 
soon to acquire. 

We have alluded to gutta-percha ; its brief but remarkable history was 
lately detailed in an overland journal. The history oi gutta-percha ox gutta- 
taban, is brief but not uneventful. Previously to 184'4 the very name of 
gutta-percha was unknown to European commerce. In that year two cwts. 
of it were shipped experimentally from Singapore. The exportation of 
gutta-percha from that port rose in IS^S to 169 piculs (the picul is 133^lbs.), 
in 1846 to ISS^, in 184.7 to 9296, in the first seven months of 1848 to 6768 
piculs. In the first four and a half years of the trade 21,598 piculs of gutta- 
percha, valued at 274,190 dollars, were shipped at Singapore, tiie whole of 
which was sent to England, with the exception of 15 piculs to Mauritius, 470 
to the Continent of Europe, and 922 to the United States. 

But this rapid growth of the new trade conveys only a faint idea of the 
commotion it created among the native inhabitants of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. The jungles of Johore were the scene of the earliest gatherings, and 
they were soon ransacked in every direction by parties of Malays and Chi- 
nese, while the indigenous population gave themselves up to the search with 
unanimity and zeal. The Tamungong, with the usual policy of Oriental 
governors, declared the precious gum a government monopoly. He appro- 
priated the greater part of the profits, and still left the Malays enough to 
stimulate them to pursue the quest, and to gain from 100 to 400 per cent, 
for themselves on what they procured from the aborigines. The Tamun- 
gong, not satisfied with buying at his own price all that was collected by 
private enterprise, sent out numerous parties of from 10 to 100 persons, and 
employed whole tribes of hereditary serfs in the quest of gutta-percha. 

This organized body of guni-hunters spread itself like a cloud of locusts 
over the whole of Johore. peninsular and insular. They crossed the frontier 
into Linga, but there the Sultan was not long in discovering the new value 
that had been conferred upon his jungles. He confiscated the greater part 
of what had been collected by the interlopers, and in emulation of the 
Tamungong, declared giitta-jiercha or giitta-taban a royalty. The knowledge 
of the article, stirring the avidity of gatherers, gradually spread from Singa- 
pore noi'thward as far as Penang, southward along the east coast of Sumatra, 
to Java, eastward to Borneo, where it was found at Brune, Sarawak and 
Potianak on the west coast, at Keti and Passir on the east. The imports of 
gutta-percha into Singapore from the 1st of January to the 12th of July 
1848, according to their geographical distribution, were from the Malay 



ON THE DESTKUCTION OF TROPICAL FORESTS. 97 

peninsula 598 piculs, from the Johore Archipelago 1269, from Sumatra 1066, 
from Batavia 19, from Borneo 55. The price at Singapore was originally 
8 dollars per picul ; it rose to 24, and fell about the middle of 1848 to 13, 
In the course of 3^ years 270,000 taban-trees were felled in order to get at 
the gum, and nothing has been done to replace them. — Express. 

We cannot help adverting in this place to the superb series of Indian tim- 
bers in the Exhibition, and also the very extensive collections of woods in the 
East India House ; the former contain large contributions from the Northern 
Circars, Coimbatore, Assam, Arrackan and Malabar. The East Indian Mu- 
seum contains a collection of 1 17 specimens sent by Dr. Roxburgh, 100 from 
Java by Dr. Horsfield, and 456 from Dr. Wallich, who gave the duplicates 
of his collection to the Society of Arts, of which they published a list in 
their Transactions, vol. xlviii. p. 439, and for which they awarded the gold 
Isis medal. These sufficiently illustrate the great variety and great import- 
ance of the timber-trees of India, of which the following are the kinds chiefly 
used. Much useful information will be found in Holtzappfel's Descriptive 
Catalogue of Woods used in Turnery, to which notes have been added by 
Dr. Royle*. 

Timber-Trees of India. 

Botanical Names. Natural Orders. 

Tectona grandis. Teak Verbenaceae. 

Gmelina arborea. . „ 

Heraigymnia Macleodii „ 

Vitex arborea „ 

Premna hircina „ 

— — — flavescens „ 

Cedrus Deodara Pinacese. 

Cupressus torulosa „ 

Diospyros Melanoxylon Ebenacese. 

Pterocarpus marsupium, Kino-tree Fabacese. 

santalinus „ 

Dalbergia Sissoo „ 

latifolia, Blackwood „ 

Acacia arabica, Babool „ 

catechu „ 

speciosa „ 

sundra „ 

Serissa „ 

Vachellia farnesiana „ 

Vatica robusta Dipterocarpacese. 

Calophyllum, Peon Garciniacese. 

Heritiera minor Sterculiaceee. 

Tamarix Tamaricaceae. 

Rhododendron arboreum EricaceEe. 

Nauclea cordifolia Cinchonacese. 

Hyraenodictyon excelsum „ 

Buxus emarginatus, Box Euphorbiace«. 

Grewia elastica Tiliacese. 

Berrya ammonilla 

Quercus dilatata ...'*. Quercaceae. 

* I have here to express regret that my approaching departure for India prevents me 
from giving so complete a list as I could wish, and entering at length upon details regarding 
the oeconomic uses of some to which I paid considerable attention in India, 
1851. jj 



98 REPORT — 1851. 

Botanical Names. Natural Orders. 

Cedrela Toona Cedrelaceae. 

Chloroxylon Swietenia, Satin-wood „ 

Santalum album, Sandal-wood „ 

Swietenia Mahogani, Mahogany „ 

Soymida febrifuga „ 

Chickrussia tabularis „ 

Lagerstromia Lytbraceae. 

Terminalia tomentosa Combretaceae. 

Belerica „ 

■ Catappa „ 

Conocarpus latifolia „ 

Artocarpus integrifolia. Jack Artocarpaceae. 

The general conclusions which appear to the Committee to be warranted, 
by the various statements of fact and opinion as given in their Report, are 
summed up as follows : — ■ 

1. That over large portions of the Indian Empire, there is at present an 
almost uncontrolled destruction of the indigenous forests in progress, from 
the careless habits of the native population. 

2. That in Malabar, Tenasserim, and Sciude, where supervision is exer- 
cised, considerable improvement has already taken place. 

3. That these improvements may be extended by a rigid enforcement of 
the present regulations and the enactment of additional provisions of the fol- 
lowing character ; viz. careful maintenance of the forests by the plantation 
of seedlings in place of mature trees removed, nurseries being established 
in the immediate neighbourhood, — prohibition of cutting until trees are well- 
grown with rare and special exceptions for peculiar purposes. In cases of 
trees yielding gums, resins, or other valuable products, that greater care be 
taken in tapping or notching the trees, most serious damage at present 
resulting from neglect in this operation. 

4. That especial attention should be given to the preservation and main- 
tenance of the forests occupying tracts unsuited for culture, whether by reason 
of altitude or peculiarities of physical structure. 

5. That in a country to which the maintenance of its water supplies is of 
such extreme importance, the indiscriminate clearance of forests around the 
localities whence those supplies are derived is greatly to be deprecated. 

6. That as much local ignorance prevails as to the number and nature of 
valuable forest products, measures should be taken to supply, through the 
officers in charge, information calculated to diminish such ignorance. 

7. That as much information which may be of practical utility is contained 
in the Manuscript Reports and Proceedings of the late " Plantation Com- 
mittee," it is desirable that the same should, if practicable, be abstracted and 
given to the public. 

To show the sources whence the information has been derived, the Com- 
mittee annex the following statement of authorities : — 

I. On the general question of Indian Forests : — 

Dr. Roxburgh : In Flora Indica, on properties of different Timber Trees 
of India. 

Dr. Wallich : Reports connected with Natural Forests of the Empire, and 
Proceedings of Agri-Horticultural Society of India. 

Dr. Royle : Productive Resources cf India. Passim, 
MS. Report on Plantations. 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OP TROPICAL. FORESTS. 99 

On the Sources of East India Kino. Pharmaceutical Journ. April, 1846 
Capt. Munro : Timber Trees of Bengal. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
Ur. h. G. Balfour: Effects of Trees on Climate and Productiveness. 
Madras Journ. Sc. 

II. Forests of Malabar and Canara. 
Df. Gibson: Various Reports on the above. 

Dr. A. TurnbuU Christie : Jameson's New Philosophical Journal. 
. Mr. J. Edye : Malabar Forests. Journ. As. ^'oc. II. 
Capt. Threshie: On the Timber of Malabar, MS. 
Dr. D. Macfarlane : Private Correspondence. 

III. Travancore. 

General CuUett : On the Influence of Forests on Climate. Madras Journ. 
oc, 1850. 

IV. Mysore. 

Dr. Buchanan Hamilton : Journey through Mysore. 1801. Passim. 
Dr. Chnstison : On Gamboge, a Vegetable product of the Mysore Forests. 
Pharm. Journ., Aug. 1 846. 

Capt. Onslow : Report on Forests of Nuggur, MS. 

C. J. Smith, Esq. : On Effects of Trees on Climate. Madras Journ. Sc>, 

vo?vi." Aho m'sS.' ^'^^^ ^^^"*' "^ ^"*^'^' ^"''- ^"^' ^''^•' ^°^ '^"^'' 
V. Coimbatore and Neilgherries. 
Dr. Wight: Private Correspondence and Neilgherry Plants. 

VI. Tenasserim. 
Dr. Wallich : Various MSS. very valuable. 

m; ^f ^^^Si^T'^' °° Tenasserim Provinces. Journ. Asiat, Soc, Bengal. 
Mr. Blundell : Reports, MS. 
Mr. Seppings : Reports, MS. 
^.^%5,' fS 18^o''''''' Productions of Tenasserim. Prov, Journ. Ind: 
Col. Tremenheere : Reports on Teak Forests, MS. 
VII. Penang and Singapore. 

J. S. Logan, Esq. : Climatic Effects of Destruction of Fofests in Penang. 
Journ. Ind. Archipel. vol. ii. p. 534, ^ 

VIII. North-Western Provinces. 

Dr. J. Forbes Royle : Illustrations of Himalayan Botany. 

Colonel Cautley : Report on Forests of Dejrah Dhoon, MS. 

Mr. Tucker: Proceedings of Agric. Soc. of India. 

Captain Baird Smith : Agricultural Resources of the Punjaub. Canals 
Of Irngatiorl in the N.W Provmces (Plantations). Calcut. Review, No. ix. 

Captain R. Strachey : Journ. Asiat. Soc, Bengal 
in?o'i™.Ti.t;B"rgair ''•"«°f Excursion f™„, Da,jeeli„g ,„ SilUim 



H 2 



100 REPORT — 1851. 

APPENDIX. 

In 184-7 the Court of Directors sent a despatch to the Supreme Govern- 
ment, requesting the attention of the authorities to the effect of trees on the 
climate and productiveness of a country or district. On receiving this com- 
munication, the Madras Government directed a circular to their revenue 
officers requesting them to forward any of the required information in their 
power, and several valuable reports were accordingly received in reply, some 
of which we annex as follows : — 

General Cullen, Resident of Travancore : — " There cannot perhaps be a 
more beautiful illustration of the effect of mountain chains in arresting and 
condensing the vapour, than the generally luxuriant forests which clothe the 
eastern as well as the western ghauts, but which cease almost immediately on 
quitting those chains. The forests on the east coast, as might be expected, 
are less lofty and luxuriant than those in Malabar, not only from the fall of 
rain on tiie east coast being only half that of Malabar, but also because 
they are in general double the distance from the sea, the chief source of all 
vapour. 

" There can of course be little question as to the effect forests must have 
during a great part of the year, in preventing the dissipation of the super- 
ficial moisture, but I should doubt if that circumstance can have much in- 
fluence on the supply of water from springs. The effect of the sun's rays 
on the earth, even when fully exposed to them, is sensible to but a very 
inconsiderable depth from the surlace, and not at all so far as the subsidence 
of the water forming springs. The copiousness of springs must be influenced 
so much by a variety of other causes as to render the effect of forests hardly 
appreciable. The vicinity to elevated table-lauds and mountains and hills, 
the nature of the rocks, and inclination of the strata, the general slope of 
the country, the absorbent qualities of the soil, &c., must all have the 
most important influence. At Trevandruin, even on eminences, the wells at 
a depth of forty feet from the surface rise occasionally several feet with a 
fall of rain of only the same number of inches, and within two or three days 
after heavy falls. 

" In the forests of this coast, and above the ghauts in the western parts of 
Mysore, Wynaad and Coorg, the trees are, I believe, everywhere nearly 
destitute of leaves during the early part of the year, the driest and the hottest 
season ; so that even in forest tracts the earth is at that period exposed to 
nearly the full force of the sun's rays. 

" The long grass and low jungle are also generally burnt down in these 
months, and the general heat and dryness in passing through such tracts are 
frequently intolerable. The almost entire absence of moisture and springs 
in forest tracts in the dry season is well known. 

" The district of Ernaad in Malabar, formerly so celebrated for its teak 
forests, and still, I believe, with nmch forest of other kinds, is, I believe, for 
the most part a plain and nearly level, but in the hot season is like the other 
tracts I have noticed, equally destitute of vegetation and moisture, and I 
speak of these facts from having, although many years ago, passed over all 
the tracts in question." 

Surgeon C. J. Smith, Bangalore : — " In the Mulnaad and Coorg the quan- 
tity of rain that falls is very great ; and to what can we attribute this, but 
to the influence of the ghauts and hilly country inland, covered with dense 
jungles, which attract and retain the largest portion of the south-west mon- 
soon ? Bellary, Seringapatam, and Octacamund are nearly in the same pa- 
rallel of longitude, but at different distances from the line of ghauts, and to 



ON THE DESTRUCTION OF TROPICAL, FORESTS. 101 

this circumstance we may attribute the difference in the falls of rain at these 
stations." 

Assistant-surgeon Balfour, in his notes on this subject, has well remarked, 
' that the observations of scientific men support the belief that a mutual re- 
action goes on between these two physical agents, and that the presence of 
trees greatly adds to the supply of water and feeds the running streams.' 
The instance of a single district losing its supply of water on being cleared 
of forest, and regaining it again when restored to its original state, would not 
alone establish more than strong presumption that the clearing of the forest 
and the loss of rain followed each other as cause and effect ; but the Ho- 
nourable Court of Directors, in their circular, mention that this is not 
uncommon in America. 

On the subject of springs, Assistant-surgeon Balfour quotes from Jameson's 
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, a very remarkable instance at Popayan in 
Peru, of a district losing its supply of water from the clearance of the forest : — 
" Two instances corroborative of the above have come under my own obser- 
vation, and happened to friends in different parts of the country engaged in 
coffee-planting. The first happened in a range of hills south-east of Ban- 
galore, at a coffee plantation now called Glenmore, in ihe Debenaicottah 
talook of the Salem district. The proprietor, when preparing ground for a 
coffee garden which was watered by an excellent spring, was warned by the 
natives not to clear away the trees in the immediate neighbourhood of his 
spring ; he disregarded their warning, cut down the trees, and lost his stream 
of water. The other instance happened at the village of Hoolhully, about 
eight miles distant from the head of the new ghaut in M ungerabad ; 1 wrote 
to the gentleman to whom it occurred, who answered as follows : — ' The 
cutting down trees and clearing jungle on the sides of ravines in the close 
vicinity of springs, undoubtedly has a great effect in diminishing the quan- 
tity of water. I found it so in one or two instances in ravines I had cleared 
for planting ; at one place where I had a nursery, which I used to water by 
turning a water-course from the spring, I found that since I cleared up the 
sides of the ravine in which the spring is (for planting), I have not anything 
like the quantity of Avater I had before the shade was cleared. I presume 
this is to be accounted for by the increased action of the air and sun ; at any 
rate the natives about here are of that opinion. I leave the cause, however, 
to be settled by more scientific men than myself; that the effect is so, there 
is no doubt. A ravine close to the bungalo where there is a spring, a few 
years ago I cleared for planting, and found the water decrease in like manner ; 
but the coffee-trees dying away, and the place being too small for a plan- 
tation, I did not renew them, but allowed the jungle to grow up again, since 
which the stream has nearly regained its former size.' " 

The superintendent of Nuggur writes, " that springs of water shaded by 
trees, almost invariably dry up on the trees being cleared away. This has 
been observed on the Neilgherry Hills and many other woody districts." In 
what way trees influence springs it is impossible to say ; that they do so 
seems to be established, as also that they condense and attract vapoui*. 

" This effect of trees in mitigating the intensity of tropical heat, has also 
been alluded to by the present superintendent of forests in our western pre- 
sidency, who mentions that in the southern districts of Guzerat the vicinity 
of the sea and the proximity of the mountain tracts covered with jungle, tend 
to render the climate more mild, and the temperature throughout the year 
more equable than is the case in the other parts of the province. Further in- 
land, and in the immediate vicinity of the hills, the heat is greatei', and in both 
situations the humid and loaded atmosphere in the S.W. monsoon is often pain- 



102 REPORT — rl851. 

fully felt, particularly at night. In tiie whole of this district rain falls in greater 
quantities than to the northward ; in the jungle districts to the east, the 
supply of rain is said never to fail in the driest of seasons, and it often falls 
there when none is apparent in the more open districts. 

" It is in such tracts as these that rivers rise, for from the number, height, 
and comparative proximity of the hills to the southward of the Taptee, we 
might, a priori, suppose that the supply of water in that district would be 
abundant : and such is actually the case, as we find in a breadth of fifty miles 
eight rivers, all containing water throughout the year. Reasoning from these 
facts, we may also predicate the sort of country in which tiiese rivers have 
their origin, viz. underlying hilly tracts abounding in rich soil, highly retentive 
of moisture, and rendered still more so by luxuriant jungle." — ^Surgeon Gibson 
in Tr. Bomb. Med. and Phys. Soc. Journ., pp. 37, 4-1. 

Report from Dr. Gibson, dated 9th March 1846 — "In the collectorate 
comprising the South Conkan, under Bombay, since this tract has been 
denuded of forest, as it now has been to a great extent fi'om the pressure of 
population, all the inhabitants concur in asserting that the springs have left 
the uplands, that the climate has become greatly drier, the seasons more un- 
certain, and the land less fertile. I believe that this can be confirmed by 
the testimony of the late collector Mr. Elphinstone, but indeed it is most 
apparent to a person travelling along that line of country, as I have just now 
been doing, mainly with the intention of remarking changes which have 
taken place in the interval of fifteen years, which period of time has elapsed 
since I visited that line of country before; I have also understood that 
effects of a similar kind have been experienced at the Neilgherry Hills. A 
change of climate, similar to that now under contemplation, is by no means 
limited in extent to the mere district in which the clearing has taken place, 
but its influence extends far inland. Take for example all the southern and 
western portion of the Dharwar Zillah. This fertile country abounds in 
moisture, insomuch that it has been (though rather inaptly, I think) com- 
pared to the valley of the Mississippi ; at all events American upland cotton 
grows there, which it will hardly do in other parts of the Bombay presidency. 
I think it is not too much to say, that much of this moisture depends on the 
wooded country forming its western border, and that with the complete re- 
moval of this, the climate would greatly change. My own opinion is, that 
in the Bombay presidency some cause of this kind has had a great share in 
producing that irregularity of the rainy season which has of late years been 
so much complained of, as to diminished fertility of the soil from the removal 
of belts of wooded country ; the rationale of this is most evident." 



On the lieproduction and supposed Existence of Sexual Organs in the 
Higher Cryptogamaus Plants. By Arthur Henfrey, F.L.B. 

Having been prevented by the pressure of other engagements from comply- 
ing with the request which the Association did me the liono^ir to make last 
yeai-, that I should assist Prof. Lindley and Dr. Lankester in preparing a 
Export on Vegetable Physiology, I venture to present a fragmentary contri- 
bution on ti-.e subject, relating to a branch of the science to which my atten- 
tion has been recently strongly attracted, in the pursuit of my own investiga- 
tions. I was the more induced to devote the short time at my disposal to 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 103 

drawing up a summary of the state of knowledge of the repi-odaction of the 
higher flowerless plants, by the importance of the discoveries which have re- 
cently been made in this department, tending completely to change the general 
views which have hitherto been entertained by most botanists as to the extent 
to which sexuality exists in the vegetable kingdom, and in connexion with 
other new facts relating to the Thallopbytes, to indicate that the existence 
of two sexes is universal. 

Under the name of the higher Flowerless Plants, I include all those classes 
which are distinguished on the one hand from the Thallophytes or Cellular 
plants by the presence of a distinct stem bearing leaves, and on the other 
from the Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons by the absence of the organs con- 
stituting a true flower ; they are, the Hepaticae, Musci, Equisetaceae, Filices, 
Lycopodiaceae, Isoetacese, and Marsileaceae or Rhizocarpese. 

On no subject has more discussion been maintained than on the existence 
of sexes among the Cryptogamous families. The discovery of the two kinds 
of organs, the antheridia and jiistillidia, in the Mosses and Hepaticae, and of 
the peculiar organs containing analogous spiral filaments in the Characeee, were 
for a long time the chief facts brought forward by those who supported the 
sexual hypothesis ; and in the endeavour to carry out the view into the other 
tribes, a similar nature to that of the antheridia was attributed to most varied 
structures in the Ferns and other plants. These attempts to find distinct 
sexual organs were in some instances pursued with so little judgement, that 
the opinion had of late years fallen in some degree into discredit, and two 
circumstances contributed still further to strengthen the doubts which were 
entertained. The first was the exact analogy, pointed out by Prof, von 
Mohl, between the mode of development of the spores of the Cryptogamia 
and the pollen-grains of the flowering plants, which interfered very import- 
antly to prevent any comparison between the sporangia and ovaries, and 
apparently determined the analogy of the former to be with anthers. The 
second was the discovery by Prof. Nageli, of organs producing spiral fila- 
ments, therefore analogous to the antheridia of the Mosses, on the germ 
frond, Qv pro-emhyo developed from the spores of the Ferns. 

At the same time, the facts observed in Pilularia were altogether equivo- 
cal. Mr. Valentine* traced the development of the larger spores, exhibiting 
in germination an evident analogy to ovules, from cells closely resembling 
the parent-cells of pollen and spores ; while Prof. Schleiden stated that he 
had observed a fertilization of these supposed ovules by the smaller spores 
resembling pollen-grains, and thus seemed to remove the ground for attri- 
buting a fertilizing influence to the spiral filaments contained in the so-called 
antheridia of the Cryptogams. 

In this state the question remained until 1848, when Count Suminski |- 
published his observations on the germination of Ferns, showing that the 
researches of Nageli had been imperfect, and that two kinds of organs are 
produced upon the pro-embryo of the Ferns, one kind analogous to the 
antheridia, and the other to the pistillidia of Mosses ; from the latter of 
which the true Fern stem is produced, like the seta and capsule from the 
same organ in the Mosses ; further stating that he had actually observed a 
process of fertilization. Soon after this M. G. Thuretij; discovered anthe- 
ridia like those of the Ferns in the Equisetaceae ; Niigeii § had previously 

* Linnean Transactions, vol. xvii. 

t Entwickelungsgeschicbte der Farreukrauter. Berlin, 1848. 

X Ann. des Sci. Nat. ser. 3, vol. xi. 1849. 

§ Zeitscbrift fiir Wiss. Botanik, Heft 3. Zivrich, 1846. 



104 REPORT — 1851. 

published, in opposition to Schleiden's observations, an account of the pro- 
duction of spiral filaments from the small spores of Pilularia, and finally 
M. Mettenius* discovered them in the small spores o{ Iso'ctes. Thus they 
were shown to exist in all the families above enumerated, with tlie exception 
of the Lycopodiaceae, in which they have recently been stated to exist by 
M. Hofmeisterf . Before entering into a detailed account of their discoveries, 
it may be mentioned, that, besides their well-known occurrence in the Cha- 
racese, which most authors consider as Thallophytes, antheridia are stated by 
Niigeli to exist on the Florideaj, among the Algae ; and peculiar bodies to 
which the same nature has been attributed, were recently discovered by M. 
Itzigsohn in the Lichens; a discovery confirmed by Messrs, Tulasne, who 
state that analogous bodies exist in many Fungi. Our knowledge of these 
latter points is, however, far less definite than that concerning the higher 
tribes, and I shall not include them in the following summary. 

One of the most remarkable circumstances concerning the antheridia of 
the leaf-bearing Cryptogams, is the very varied nature of the time and place 
of their development ; so great indeed is this, that it is only their essential 
structure, and the production of the moving spiral filaments in particular, 
which warrants the assumption of their identity of function in the different 
families. In order to make these variations clearly comprehensible, it will 
be necessary to describe the characters exhibited in the germination of the 
spores in each tribe, as it is only by this means that the important peculia- 
rities of each case can be made evident. It will be most convenient to give 
a separate sketch of all that is known of the process of reproduction in each 
family, taking these separately and in succession; after this we shall be in a 
position to compare them together, and trace out their differences and ana- 
logies ; the advantage of recalling all the essential facts to memory will, I 
trust, serve as an apology for the introduction of much that is already fami- 
liar to most botanists. 

Mosses. — 'i'he antheridia of the Mosses occur in the axils of the leaves 
or collected into a head, enclosed by numerous variously modified leaves, 
at the summit of the stem. Tliey are produced either on the same heads as 
the pistillidia, or in distinct heads on the same individuals, such Mossesbeing 
called monoecious ; or tlie heads are found only on distinct individuals, such 
Mosses being termed dioecious. 'J"he structure of the anthcridium is ex- 
ceedingly simple; it consists of an elongate, cylindrical or club-shaped sac, the 
walls of which are composed of a single layer of cells, united to form a de- 
licate membrane. Within this sac are developed vast numbers of minute 
cellules, completely filling it, and, the sac bursting at its apex at a certain 
period, these vesicles are extruded. When the nearly perfect sacs are 
placed in water, the vesicles within appear to absorb water, and swell so as 
to burst the sac of the antheridium, and often adhering together, they col- 
lectively appear to form masses larger thnn the cavity from which they have 
emerged. Through the transparent walls may be seen a delicate filament 
with a thickened extremity, coiled up in the interior of each vesicle. Often 
before the extrusion, but always shortly after, a movement of this filament 
is to be observed when the object is viewed in water under the microscope. 
The filament is seen to be wheeling round and round rapidly within the 
cellule, the motion being rendered very evident by the distinctness of the 
thickened extremity of the filament, which appears to be coursing round the 
walls of the cellule in a circle. According to Unger, this filament breaks 

* Beitrage im Botanik, Heft 1. Heidelberg, 1850. t Flora, 1850, p. 700. 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 105 

out of its parent cellule in Sphagnum, and then appears as a spiral filament 
moving freely in water, in fact, as one of the so-called spermatozoa. 

The pistillidia of the Mosses are the rudiments of the fruit or capsules. 
When young, they appear as flask-shaped bodies with long necks, composed 
of a simple cellular membrane. The long neck presents an open canal like 
a style, leading to the enlarged cavity below, at the base of which, according 
to Mr. Valentine*, is found a single cell projecting free into the open space. 
This single cell is the germ of the future capsule; at a certain period it be- 
comes divided into two by a horizontal partition, the upper one of these two 
again divides, and so on until the single cell is developed into a cellular fila- 
ment, the young seta ; tlie upper cells are subsequently developed into the 
urn and its appendages, and as this rises, it carries away with it, as the 
calyptra, the original membrane of the pistillidium, which separates by a cir- 
cumscissile fissure from the lower part, the future vaginula. These obser- 
vations of Valentine are not exactly borne out by those of Schimper")" in 
some of the detail points. According to this author, the lower part of the 
pistillidium (the germen of Dr. Brown) begins to swell at a certain time, 
when a capsule is to be produced, becoming filled with a quantity of what 
he terms " green granulations." As soon as the thickness has become about 
that of the future seta, the cell-development in the horizontal direction ceases, 
and its activity is directed chiefly to the upper part, which begins to elon- 
gate rapidly in the direction of the main axis. This elongation causes a 
sudden tearing off at the base, or a little above it, of the cell-membrane 
enveloping the young fruit, and the upper part is carried onwards as the 
calyptra ; the lower part, when any is left, remains as a little tubular process 
surrounding the seta. While the young fruit is being raised up by the 
growth of the seta, the portion of the receptacle upon which the pistillidium 
is borne, becomes developed into a kind of collar, and at length into a sheath 
(the vaginula) surrounding the base of the seta which is articulated into it 
there. 

M. HofmeisterJ, again, describes the details much in the same way as 
Mr. Valentine. He states that there exists at the point where the ' style ' 
and ' germen ' of the pistillidium join, a cell, developed before the canal of 
the style has become opened. In those pistillidia which produce capsules 
this cell begins at a certain period to exhibit very active increase ; it becomes 
rapidly divided and subdivided by alternately directed oblique partitions into 
a somewhat spindle-shaped, body formed of a row of large cells. Mean- 
while the cells at the base of the germen are also rapidly multiplied, and the 
lower part of the pistillidium is greatly increased in size. The spindle- 
shaped body continues to increase in length by the subdivision of its upper- 
most cell by oblique transverse walls, and the opposition which is offered by 
the upper concave surface of the cavity of the germen, causes the lower 
conical extremity of the spindle-shaped body to penetrate into the mass of 
cellular tissue at the base of the germen, a process which resembles the 
penetration of the embryo into the endosperm in the embryo-sac of certain 
flowering plants. The base of the spindle-shaped body, which is in fact the 
rudiment of the fruit, at length reaches the base of the pistillidium, and 
penetrates even some distance into the tissue of the stem upon which this is 
seated. The growth of the upper part going on unceasingly, the walls of the 
germen are torn by a circular fissure and the upper half is carried upwards, 

* Linnean Transactious, vol. xvii. 

t Recherches Anatomiques et Morphologiques sur les Mousses. Strasbourg, 1848. 

t Botanische Zeitung, 1849, 798. Botanical Gazette, vol. ii. p. 70. 



106 REPORT— 1851. 

bearing the calyptra, the lower part forms the vaginule. The upper cell of 
the spindle-shaped body then becomes developed into the capsule, and the 
calyptra often becoming organically connected with this, as the base of the 
seta does with the end of the stem, it in such cases undergoes further deve- 
lopment during the time it is being carried upwards by the growing fruit. 

The view now entertained by Schimper, Hofmeister, and others of the 
reproduction of the Mosses is, that the antheridia are truly male organs, and 
that they exert, by means of the spiral filaments, a fertilizing influence upon the 
pistillidia, it being assumed tliat those bodies, or the fluid wliich they are 
bathed in, penetrate down the canal of the style or neck-like portion of tlie 
l^istillidium to reach the minute cell, the supi)0sed embryonal cell, situated 
in the globular portion or ' germen ' of the pistillidium, and thus render it 
capable of becoming developed into a perfect fruit. 

No such process of fertilization has actually been observed in the Mosses, 
and therefore all the evidence is at present merely circumstantial ; but this is 
very strong. In the first place it is stated as an undoubted fact by Schimpev 
and Bruch, that in the dioecious Mosses, those on which the antheridia and 
pistillidia occur in separate plants, fruit is never produced on the so-called 
male plants, and never on the so-called female unless the males occur in the 
vicinity ; several examples are cited in the work of Schimper above referred 
to ; when the sexes occur alone, the increase of the plant is wholly dependent 
on the propagation by gemmae or innovations. 

By the discovery of the antheridia and pistillidia in the other higher Cry- 
ptogams, the arguments from analogy greatly strengthen the hypothesis of 
the sexuality of Mosses. 

Further observation is required, then, for the direct proof of the occur- 
rence of a process of fertilization in the Mosses ; but the facts now before us 
all tend to prove their sexuality if we argue from analogy, and the probabi- 
lities deduced from the negative evidence above referred to in regard to the 
dioecious species. 

It is unnecessary to give any account of the well-known structure of the 
Moss capsules ; yet in order to render the comparison with the phsenomena 
of the life of Mosses with those of tlie other leafy Cryptogams complete, it 
may be worth while to allude to the germination of the spores. The spore 
is a single cell, with a double coat, like a pollen-grain ; tliis germinates by 
the protrusion of the inner coat in the form of a filamentous or rather tubu- 
lar process, which grows out and becomes subdivided by septa so as to form 
a confervoid filament. The lateral branches bud out from some of the 
cells, some elongating into secondary filaments, others at once undergoing 
a more active development, and by the multiplication of their cells, assuming 
the condition of conical cellular masses, upon which the forms of Moss leaves 
may soon be detected ; these cellular masses becoming buds from which the 
regular leafy stems arise. 

Hepatlcce. — The genera comprehended in this family present a wonderful 
variety of structure in the reproductive organs, but in almost ail of them 
the existence of the two kinds of organs called pistillidia and antheridia have 
long been demonstrated, and in most cases the development of the sporangia 
from the so-called pistillidia has been traced. In those genera in which the 
plants most resemble the Mosses in the vegetative portion, as in Jungerman- 
nice, the pistillidia are very like those of the Mosses ; this is also the case 
in Marchantia ; but in Pel/ia, Anlhoceros and other genera, the rudiment of 
the sporangium bears a striking resemblance to the so-called ovules of the 
Ferns, Rhizocarpeae, Sfc, pcguyrjog upon the expanded fronds very much in 



ON THE HIGHER ORYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 10? 

the same way as those bodies do upon the pro-embryos of the said families. 
It would occupy too much space to enter into a minute detail of tlie various 
conditions that are met with. It is sufficient to say that in all cases the 
physiological stages are analogous to those of the Mosses ; since the pistil- 
lidia produced upon the fronds or leaf-bearing stems developed directly from 
the spores, go on to produce a sporangium alone, in which the new spores 
are developed, without the intervention of the stage of existence presented 
by the pro-embryo of the Ferns and Equisetacas, where the pistillidia and 
anlheridia occur upon a temporary frond, and the former give origin to the 
regular stem and leaves of the plant. 

Ferns. — This class formed for a long time the great stumbling-block to 
those who sought to demonstrate the existence of sexuality in the Crypto- 
gamous plants. The young capsules were generally considered to be the 
analogues of the pistillidia of the Mosses, and the young abortive capsules 
which frequently occur among the fertile ones were supposed by some 
authors to represent the antheridia. Mr. Griffith*, sliorlly before his death, 
noticed a structure which he was inclined to regard as the analogue of the 
antheridium in certain of the ramenta upon the petioles. 

In the year 1844, Prof. Nagelif published an account of his observations 
on the germination of certain Ferns, and announced the discovery of moving 
spiral filaments closely resembling those of the Charag, on certain cellular 
structures developed upon the pro-embryo or cellular body first produced by 
the spore. It is not worth while to enter into an analysis of his observations, 
as they have since been clearly shown to have been very imperiect ; it is 
sufficient to state that he only described one kind of organ, and from his de- 
scription it is evident that he confounded the two kinds since discovered, re- 
garding them as different stages of one structure. The announcement of this 
discovery seemed to destroy all grounds for the assumption of distinct sexes, 
not only in the Ferns but -in the other Cryptogams, since it was argued that 
tl)e existence of these cellular organs, producing moving spiral filaments, the 
so-called spermatozoa, upon the germinating fronds, proved that they were 
not to be regarded as in any way connected with the reproductive processes. 

But an essay published by the Count SuminskiJ in 1848 totally changed 
the face of the question, and opened a wide field for speculation and investi- 
gation on this subject, just as it was beginning to fall into disfavour. Count 
Suminski's paper gives a minute history of the course of development of the 
Ferns from the germination of the spore to the production of the regular 
fronds, and he found this development to exhibit phaenomena as curious as 
they were unexpected. The cellular organs seen by Nageli were shown to 
be of two perfectly distinct kinds, and moreover to present characters which 
gave great plausibility to the hypothesis that they represented reproductive 
organs ; moreover, this author expressly stated that he had obtained abso- 
lute proof of sexuality by observing an actual process of fertilization to take 
place in the so-called ovules, through the agency of the spiral filaments or 
spermatozoa. 

The main points of his paper may be briefly summed up as follows. The 
Fern spore at first produces a filamentous process, in the end of which cell- 
development goes on until it is converted into a Marchantia-like frond of 
stmall size and exceedingly delicate texture, possessing hair-like radicle hairs 
on its under side. On this under side become developed, in variable num- 

* Posthumous Papers, Journal of Travels, 444. 

t Zeitschrift fiir Wiss. Botanik, Heft 1. Zurich, 1844. 

\ gvjT Eiitwiclie|ungsgescluchte ^pr Farrenkrauter. Berlin, 1848. 



108 REPORT— 1851. 

bers, certain cellular organs of two distinct kinds. The first, which he terms 
antheridia, are the more numerous, and consist of somewhat globular cells, 
seated on and arising from single cells of the cellular Marchantia-like frond. 
The globular cell produces in its interior a number of minute vesicles, in 
each of which is developed a spiral filament, coiled up in the interior. At 
a certain epoch the globular cell bursts and discharges the vesicles, and the 
spiral filaments moving within the vesicles at length make tlieir way out of 
them and swim about in the water, displaying a spiral or heliacal form, and 
consisting of a delicate filament with a thickened clavate extremity ; this, the 
so-called head, being said by Count Suminski to be a hollow vesicle, and to 
be furnished with six or eight cilia, by means of which the apparently volun- 
tary movement of the filament is supposed to be effected. 

The second kind of organ, the so-called ' ovules,' are fewer in number and 
present different characters in different stages. At first they appear as little 
round cavities in the cellular tissue of the pro-embryo, lying near its centre 
and opening on the under side. In the bottom of the cavity is seen a little 
globular cell, the so-called embryo-sac. It is stated by Count Suminski 
that while the ovule is in this state one or more of tlie spiral filaments make 
their way into the cavity, coming in contact with the central globular cell. 
The four cells bounding the mouth of the orifice grow out from the general 
surface into a blunt cone-like process, formed of four parallel cells arranged 
in a squarish form and leaving an intercellular canal leading down to the 
cavity below. These four cells become divided by cross septa, and grow 
out until the so-called ovule exhibits externally a cylindrical form, composed 
of four tiers of cells, the uppermost of which gradually converge and close 
up the orifice of the canal leading down between them- Meanwhile the 
vesicular head of one of the spiral filaments has penetrated into the globular 
cellule or embryo-sac, enlarged in size and undergone multiplication, and in 
the course of time displays itself as the embryo, producing the first frond 
and the terminal bud whence the regular Fern stem is developed. In con- 
sidering the import of these phaenomena, the author assumes the analogy 
here to be with the process of fertilization in flowering plants, as described by 
Schleiden, regarding the production of the embryo from the vesicular head 
of the spermatozoa as representing the production of the phanerogamous 
embryo from the end of the pollen tube after it has penetrated into the 
embryo-sac. 

The promulgation of these statements naturally attracted great attention, 
and since they appeared we have received several contributions to the history 
of these remarkable structures, some confirmatory, to a certain degree, of 
Suminski's views, others altogether opposed to them. 

In the early part of 1849 Dr. Wigand* published a series of researches 
on this subject, in which he subjected the assertions of Suminski to a strict 
practical criticism ; the conclusions he arrived at were altogether opposed to 
that author's views respecting the supposed formation of the organs, and he 
never observed the entrance of the spiral filaments into the cavity of the so- 
called ovule. 

About the same time M. Thuret-j- published an account of some observa- 
tions on the antheridia of Ferns. In these he merely confirmed and corrected 
the statements of Nageli respecting the antheridia, and did not notice the 
so-called ovules. 

Towards the close of the same year, Hofmeister| confirmed part of 

* Botanische Zeitung, vol. vii. 1849. 

t Ann. des So. Nat. Jan. 1849. ser. 3. vol. xi. Botanique. t Botanische Zeitung, 1849. 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 109 

Suminski's statements and opposed others. He stated that he had observed 
distinctly the production of the young plant (or rather the terminal bud for 
the new axis), in the interior of the so-called ' ovule,' but believed the sup- 
posed origin of it from tlie end of the spiral filament to be a delusion. He 
regards the globular cell at the base of the canal of the ' ovule ' as itself the 
rudiment of the stem, or embryonal vesicle (the embryo originating from a 
free cell produced in this), analogous to that produced in the pistillidia of the 
Mosses. He also describes the development of the ovule differently, saying 
that the canal and orifice are opened only at a late period by the separation of 
the contiguous walls of ihe four rows of cells. 

About the same time appeared an elaborate paper on the same subject by 
Dr. Hermann Schacht*, whose results were almost identical. He found the 
young terminal bud to be developed in the cavity of one of the so-called 
' ovules,' which were developed exactly in the same way as the pistillidia of 
the Mosses. He stated also that the cavity of the ' ovule ' is not open at 
first, and he declares against the probability of the entrance of a spiral fila- 
ment into it, never having observed this, much less a conversion of one into 
an embryo. 

In the essay of Dr. Mettenius already referred tof, an account of the de- 
velopment of the so-called ovules is given. His observations did not decide 
whether the canal of the ' ovule,' whicl! he regards as an intercellular space, 
exists at first, or only subsequently, when it is entirely closed above. Some 
important points occur in reference to the contents of the canal. 

The contents of the canal in a mature condition consist of a continuous 
mass of homogeneous, tough substance, in which fine granules, and here and 
there large corpuscles, are imbedded. It reaches down to the globular cell 
or ' embryo-sac,' and is in contact with this. This mass either fills the canal 
or diminishes in diameter from the blind end of the canal down to the 'embryo- 
sac ;' in other cases it possesses the form represented by Suminski, having a 
clavate enlargement at the blind end of the canal, and passing into a twisted 
filament below. In this latter shape it may frequently be pressed out of isolated 
* ovules ' under the microscope, and then a thin transparent membrane-like 
layer was several times observed on its surface. In other cases the contents 
consisted of nucleated vesicles, which emerged separately or connected 
together. 

The embryo-sac consists of a globular cell containing a nucleus, and this 
author believes that the commencement of the development of the embryo 
consists in the division of this into two, which go on dividing to produce the 
cellular structure of the first frond. 

With regard to the contents of the canal the author says, — 

" Although I can give no information on many points, > as in regard to the 
origin of the contents of the canal of the 'ovule,' yet ray observations on the 
development of the ' ovule ' do not allow me to consider them, with Suminski, 
as spiral filaments in course of solution ; just as little have I been able to 
convince myself of the existence of the process of impregnation described by 
that author. It rather appears to me that the possil)ility of the entrance of 
the spiral filaments and the impregnation cannot exist until the tearing open 
of the blind end of the canal in the perfectly-formed ovule, as after the open- 
ing of the so-called 'canal of the style' in the pistillidia in the Mosses." 

Another contribution has been furnished by Dr. Mercklin J, the original of 

* Linnsea, vol. xxii. 1849. 

t Beitrage zur Botanik, 1. Heidelberg, 1850. Zur Fortpflanzung der Gefass-Cry]3togamen. 

% Beobachtungen aus dem Prothallium der Farrenkriiuter. St. Petersburg, 1850. 



110 REPORT— 1851. 

which I have not seen, but depend on analyses of it pubHshed in the ' Bota- 
nische Zeitung*,' and the 'Flora' for 1851 1> and further in a letter from 
Dr. Mercklin to M. Schaclu*|;, which appeared in the ' Linnaea ' at the close 
of last year. 

He differs in a few subordinate particulars from M. Schacht in reference 
to the development and structure of the ^^rothallium or pro-embryo, and of 
the antheridia and spiral filaments ; but these do not require especial men- 
tion, except in reference to the vesicular end of the spiral filament described 
by Schacht, which Mercklin regards as a remnant of tlie parent vesicle, from 
which the filament had not become quite freed. The observations referring 
to the so-called ovule and the supposed process of impregnation are very im- 
portant ; they are as follows : — 

" 1. The spiral filaments swarm round the * ovule ' in numbers, frequently 
returning to one and the sajne organ. 

" 2. They can penetrate into the ' ovule.' This was seen only three times 
in the course of a whole year, and under different circumstances ; twice a 
spiral filament was seen to enter a still widely open young ' ovule,' then 
come to a state of rest, and after some time assume the appearance of a 
shapeless mass of mucilage ; t1ie third case of penetration occurred in a fully- 
developed ' ovule,' through its canal ; it therefore does not seem to afford 
evidence of the import of the spiral filament, but certainly of the possibility 
of the penetration. 

" 3, In the tubular portion of the ' ovule,' almost in every case, peculiar 
club-shaped, granular mucilaginous filaments occur at a definite epoch, 
these filaments, like the spiral filaments, acquiring a brown colour with 
iodine. These mucilaginous bodies sometimes exhibit a twisted aspect, an 
opake nucleus, or a membranous layer, peculiarities which seem to indicate 
the existence of an organization. 

" 4. These club-shaped filaments are swollen at the lower capitate extre- 
mity, and have been found in contact with the ' embryo-sac ' or globular cell 
which forms the rudiment of the future frond. 

" 5. The spiral filaments, which cease to move and fall upon the prothal< 
lium, are metamorphosed, become granular and swell up." 

Hence the author deduces the following conclusions : — 

" That these clavate filiform masses in the interior of the ' ovule' are trans- 
formed spiral filaments, which at an early period, while the ovule was open, 
have penetrated into it; which leads to the probability that — 

" 1. The spiral filaments must regularly penetrate into the 'ovules,' and 

" 2. They probably contribute to the origin or development of the young 
fruit frond (or embryo). In what way this happens the author knows not, 
and the details on this point given by Count Suminski remain unconfirmed 
facts." 

An important point in this essay is the view the author takes of the whole 
process of development in this case. He regards it as not analogous to the 
impregnation in the Phanerogamia, since the essential fact is merely the de- 
velopment of a frond from one cell of the prothaUium, which he considers 
to be merely one of the changes of the individual plant ; while all the other 
authors who have written on the subject, with the exception of Wigand, call 
the first frond, with its bud and root, an embryo, and regard it as a new in- 
dividual, or at all events a distinct member of a series of forms constituting 
collectively the representatives of the species. 

* Botanische Zeitung, vol. xxxiii. 1850. t Flora, vol. Mxiii. p. 696, 1850. 

X Linnsea, vol. xxiii. p. 723. J 850. 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. Ill 

Finally, Hofmeister, in his notice of this essay in the ' Flora*,' declares that 
the development of the so-called ' embryo' or first frond commences, not by 
the subdivision of the globular cell or ' embryo-sac,' but by the development 
of a free cell or 'embryo vesicle' in this, like what occurs in the embryo-sac 
of the Phanerogam ia ; and he asserts that this is the first stage of develop- 
ment from the globular cell in all the vascular Cryptogams, including that 
found in the pistillidia of the Mosses. 

Equiselacece. — The first discovery of the analogy between the developments 
from the spore in germination, in the Ferns and Equisetaceae, is due to M. G. 
Thuretf, who saw the spores of the latter produce a cellular pro-embryo 
somewhat like that of the Ferns, and in this were developed antheridia of 
analogous structure, emitting cellules containing many spiral filaments. 

This announcement was confirmed by M. MildeJ, whose observations 
extended over some months, during which time no ' ovule ' was produced, 
but he saw what appeared to be the rudiment of one. Dr. Mettenius§ states 
that he has met with decaying ' ovules ' precisely like those of the Ferns, 
upon the pro-embryo of an Equisetum, and thus the evidence is completed, 
so far as the occurrence of t^he two kinds of organs is concerned. 

Lycopodiacece. — The fructification of this family consists, as is well known, 
of spikes clothed with fruit-leaves, bearing on their inner faces sporangia 
containing spores. These spores are of two kinds. One sort occur in large 
numbers in their sporangium, and are very small ; the others are much 
larger, and only four are met with in a sporangium. Spring ||, who has devoted 
great attention to the general characters of the Lycopodiaceae, has given 
especial names to the two kinds of sporangia ; those with the four large 
spores he calls oophoridia, those with the small spores antheridia ; yet he 
did not mean to attribute a sexual antithesis, merely a morphological one, 
as he expressly states. 

The general impression however with regard to the import of the two 
kinds of spores has long been, that the large spores alone are capable of pro- 
ducing new plants, and five years ago Dr. C. Miiller published an elaborate 
account of the development of the Lycopodiaceae^, in which the germination 
of the large spores was described at length. The following are the essential 
results of his investigations. 

The large spores are more or less globular bodies^ usually flattened on 
the surfaces by which they are in contact in the oophoridium ; thus, while the 
outer side has a spherical surface, the inner side has three or four triangular 
surfaces, as in L. selagmoides, and L. denticulatum. They possess two coats, 
the outer very thick and composed of numerous cells, the cavities of which 
are almost completely filled up by deposits of secondary layers. This outer 
coat exhibits various forms of raised markings on its outer surface, and in 
some cases these seem to form a distinct layer, a kind of cuticle, capable of 
being separated from the subjacent cells. The inner coat of the spore is 
usually perfectly structureless, and not very firmly attached to the outer coat. 
In L. gracillinmm Dr. Miiller observed below the outer coat a structure com- 
posed of a layer of rather large parenchymatous cells, wiiich could be easily 
isolated ; and as there was no structureless membrane within this, he regarded 
tlie layer as the proper inner coat. This observation is important in relation 
to the discrepancies between Dr. Miiller's statements and those of Mettenius, 

* 1850, p. 700. t Ann. des So. Nat. 1849, vol. xi. 5. % Linnsa, 1850. 

§ Beitriige zur Botanik, 1850, p. 22. H Flor. Brasiliensis, 106-108. 

f Botanische Zeitung, July 31, 1846, et seq. num. Ann. of Nat. History, vol. xix. 1847. 



112 REPORT— 1851. 

to be spoken of presently. The cavity of the spore is filled with granular 
mucilage. 

Wiien the spore is placed in favourable circumstances for germination it 
begins to swell up, and if the contents be examined with the microscope, a 
few minute cells will soon. be found to have become developed in the muci- 
lage. This cell-formation commences at a determinate spot upon the inner 
coat of the spore, the cells being so firmly applied that they appear blended 
with this inner membrane. Tiie cell-formation goes on till an obtuse conical 
process is developed, which breaks through the outer tough coat of the spore, 
and this process is recognized as the germinal body or keim-korper, corre- 
sponding to the pro-embryo of the other Cryptogams. From this, which at 
this period does not by any means fill the cavity of the spore with its lower 
portion, an ovate process is produced, at first obliquely directed upwards, the 
bud of the future stem, and a conical process taking the opposite direction 
representing tlie radicle. On the ascending process a distinction can soon be 
observed between the terminal bud, a little oval body, and a short thread-like 
stem on which it is supported ; as the bud opens, the leaves appear in pairs. 

At the conclusion of the paper Dr. Miiller offers some remarks on the 
evidence with respect to the import of the spores, the substance of which may 
be transcribed. " Up to tiie present time it remains doubtful what purpose 
is served by the antheridium-spore. Some persons maintain one opinion, 
others another. One author declares he has seen it germinate, another that 
he has never been able to do so. Kaulfuss* relates that Fox sowed Lye. 
Selago, and Lindsay L. cernuum with success, and that L. clavatuni sprung 
up abundantly with Willdenow. With himself it did not succeed ; but the 
garden-inspector. Otto of Berlin, raised L. pygmceum several years in suc- 
cession from seed. The last case however is readily explicable, since 
L. pygmceum possesses oophoridia." 

Goppertf however states that he has seen the development of young 
plants from antheridium-spores in L. denticulatum. Dr. Miiller expresses 
some doubt as to whether the observation was absolutely exact, since Gop- 
pert never mentions seeing a young plant actually adherent to an antheridium- 
spore, neither does he give the structure of the leaf, and the young plant he 
figures closely resembles a Fissidens, frequently springing up in flower-pots 
in green-houses. In his own attempts to raise plants from antheridium- 
spores. Dr. Miiller in every case failed. He does not deny, however, that 
they may be capable of germination, especially as some Lycopodiaceae 
appear to be devoid of oophoridia. 

In 1849 appeared M. Hofmeister's notice on the fructification and germi- 
nation of the higher CryptogamiaJ, in which he indicated the existence on 
the pro-embryo of Sclaginella, of a number of peculiar organs, composed of 
four papilliform cells, enclosing a large globular cell in the centre. In one 
of these large spherical cells the young plant is produced. The nature of 
the structure was only briefly described in this paper for the purpose of 
showing its analogy with what occurs in Salvinia. 

In 1850 Dr. Mettenius§ published an essay on the Propagation of the 
Vascular Cryptogams, and in this is to be found a full description of the 
organs mentioned by Hofmeister and altogether overlooked by Dr. C. Miiller. 

* Das Wesen der Farrenkrauter. Leipzig, 1827. 

t Uebers. der Arbeiten und Verand. der scfilesischen Geseilscli. fiii- vaterf. Kultur, 1841 und 
1845. 
t Bot. Zeitung, Nov. 9, 1849. § Beitrage zur Botanik. Heidelberg, 1850. 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 113 

According to this author, the large spores of Selaginella invohens possess 
two coats, each composed of two layers ; and in an early stage of the germi- 
nation, the inner layer of the outer coat, together with the inner coat, form 
the walls of a globular body which does not wholly fill the cavity enclosed 
by the outermost membrane. This globular body is firmly attached to the 
outer membrane immediately under the point of junction of the three ridges 
separating the flattened surfaces of the inner side of the spore. The globule 
enlarges until its walls come to be applied closely to the outer layer, com- 
pletely filling up the large cavity. Then between the two layers of the inner 
coat, at a point immediately beneath the point of junction of the three exter- 
nal ridges, a process of cell-formation commences, producing a flattened plate 
of tissue interposed between the two layers ; this structure is the pro-embryo. 
The cells are at first in a single layer, but the central ones soon become di- 
vided by horizontal septa so as to produce a double layer, and finally four or 
more tiers of cells one above another. The outline of the pro-embryo, seen 
from above, is circular, spreading over the upper part of the spore. On its 
surface appear the so-called ovules. The first is produced at the apex of 
the pro-embryo, the rest, to the number of twenty or thirty, arranged upon 
its surface in three lines corresponding to the slits by which the outer coat 
of the spore bursts. These ovules, closely resembling those of Salvinia, Pi' 
lularia, the Ferns, fkc, consist of a globular cell surmounted by four cells, 
which rise up into four papillae, and leave a canal or interceHular passage 
between them, leading down to the globular cell or embryo-sac. The four 
cells are usually developed into four or five cells, one above the other, by 
the production of horizontal septa ; sometimes they are developed unequally 
and to a considerable extent so as to form papillae, presenting an orifice be- 
tween them at some point on the outer surface, indicating the canal leading 
down to the embryo- sac. 

During the development of the ovules, a delicate parenchyma is produced 
in the great cavity of the spore, finally entirely filling up this spore. 
Before it has completely filled it, the embryo makes its appearance in the 
embryo-sac of one of the ovules. 

The first change in this sac is the appearance of a nucleus ; from this cells 
are developed representing the suspensor of the embryo. The cells of the 
suspensor multiply and form the process which penetrates down into the 
parenchyma of the cavity of the spore ; at the lower end may be detected 
the embryo, a minutely cellular body. Dr. Mettenius never saw the embryo 
produced in the embryo-sac before the suspensor had broken through the 
bottom of it to penetrate the parenchyma of the spore-cell ; it was always 
within this parenchyma and attached to the end of the suspensor. In this point 
he is decidedly opposed to Hofmeister, who states that the embryo originates 
in the embryo-sac, whence a young embryo attached to its suspensor may 
easily be extracted from the spore. 

The part of the embryo opposite to the point of attachment of the suspen- 
sor corresponds to the first axis of the Rhizocarpeae, which never breaks out 
from the spore-cell in Selaginella ; it pushes back the loose parenchyma of 
the spore- cell as it becomes developed, and when completely formed, is sur- 
rounded by a thin coat composed of several layers of the parenchymatous cells 
much compressed, enclosed in the still existing inner coat of the spore. On 
one side of the point of attachment of the suspensor the embryo grows out 
towards the point where the spore-cell has been ruptured, thus apparently 
in a direction completely opposite to the end of the axis. As it enlarges it 

1851. I 



114 REPORT — 1851. 

produces in this situation tlie leafy stem growing upwards, and the adventi- 
tious root turning downwards. The pro-embryo is at first distended like a 
sac, and finally broken through on the one side by the first leaf, on the other 
by the adventitious root ; upon it may be observed the numerous abortive 
ovules, with their embryo-sacs filled with yellow contents ; part of its cells 
grow out into radical hairs. Dr. Mettenius several times saw two young 
plants produced from one spore; the ends of their axes lay close together, 
and separated inside the cavity of the spore. No account is here given of 
the characters exhibited by the small spores, or of anything like a process of 
fertilization ; yet we have indicated in the foregoing description of the so- 
called ovules, a clear analogy between these bodies and the so-called ovules 
of the Ferns and Rhizocarpese. These points will be referred to again at 
the close of the report. 

In a review of Dr. Mercklin's essay on the reproduction of the Ferns, in the 
Flora*, Hofmeister states that spiral filaments are produced from the small 
spores of Selaginella, but does not state that he has seen them or give any 
authority. 

Isoetacece. — The spores of the Isoetes lacustris are of two kinds, analogous 
to those of the Lycopodiaceae ; both kinds being produced in sporangia im- 
bedded in the bases of the leaves, but the large spores are found in great 
numbers, not merely four in a sporangium as in the Lycopodiaceae. The 
development of the spores was little known until the publication of an essay 
on the subject in 1848, by Dr-CMiillerf, forming a sequel to his researches 
on the Lycopodiaceae. Here, as in the other case, his observations on the 
earlier stages were imperfect; but he indicated the existence of the struc- 
tures which have since been recognized as the so-called ovules ; as also did 
Mr. Valentine J in his essay on Pilularia. 

In his essay Dr. C. Miiller compares the complete large spore, as discharged 
from the sporangium, to the ovule of flowering plants ; and lie describes it as 
a globular sac enclosed by three coats, which he names the primine, secun- 
dine, and the nucleus. The outermost coat, or primine, is stated to be com- 
posed of a thick cellular membrane exhibiting a raised network of lines, which 
give it the aspect of a cellular structure, but are in reality analogous to the 
rnarkings on pollen-grains. The outer surface exhibits the lines indicating 
the tetrahedral arrangement of the spores in the parent cell, as in Selaginella, 
and it is at the point of intersection of these that the membrane gives way in 
germination. The next coat, or secundine, is another simple membrane lining 
the first. The nucleus is a coat composed of delicate parenchymatous cells, 
but among these are found groups of peculiar character. These are de- 
scribed as consisting of a large cell divided by two septa crossing each other 
at right angles, projecting from the general surface, being either oval in the 
general outline, or having four indentations opposite the cross septa, so as to 
give the appearance of the structure being composed of four spherical cells. 
The cells surrounding them are of irregular form, different from the gene- 
rally six-sided cells of the rest of the nucleus. Many of these groups occur 
on the nucleus, always at the surface of the coat where the primine and se- 
cundine afterwards give way, scattered without apparent order over it, but 
one always near the point of the opening. To these structures Dr. Miiller 
did not attribute any important function, explaining them merely as produced 

* Flora, 1850, p. 700. 

t Botanische Zeitung, April and May, 1848 ; Annals of Nat. Historj', 2nd ser. vol. ii. 1848. 

t Linnxan Transactions, vol. xvii. 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 115 

by peculiar thickenings of the tissue to protect the pro-embryo during germi- 
nation. The contents of the nucleus were stated to resemble those of the 
cavity of the spores of Selaginella. 

In these contents, which become dense and mucilaginous, a free cell is de- 
veloped near the upper part of the cavity ; this is the rudiment of the embryo, 
and by cell-multiplication becomes a cellular mass, which soon begins to ex- 
hibit growth in two directions, producing the first leaf and the first rootlet, 
projecting from a lateral cellular mass, which the author calls the " reservoir 
of nutriment." The embryo then breaks through the coats ; the first leaf 
above and the first root below, the coats remaining attached over the central 
mass of the embryo. The subsequent changes need not be mentioned here, 
further than to state that the leaves succeed each other alternately, and are 
not opposite as in the Lycopodiaceae ; moreover no internodes are developed 
between them, so that the stem is represented by a flat rhizome, like the base 
of the bulb of many Monocotyledons. 

In the paper by Dr. Mettenius*, already alluded to, we find some very im- 
portant modifications of and additions to this history of development of the 
spores of Isoetes, bringing them into more immediate relation with the other 
vascular Cryptogams. 

This author describes the spore-cell as a thick structure composed of seve- 
ral layers ; in some cases he counted four. It completely invests the pro- 
embryo, which is a globular cellular body filling the spore-cell. Among 
the cells of the outermost layer of the pro-embryo (which layer forms the 
nucleus of Dr. Miiller), on the upper part, are produced the ovules, fewer in 
number than in Selaginella, arranged in three rows converging upon the 
summit of the spore, these rows corresponding to the slits between the lobes 
of the outer coat of the spore. The four superficial cells of the ovules (which 
are evidently the peculiar groups mentioned by Miiller and previously no- 
ticed by Valentine f) grow much in the. same way as in the Rhizocarpeae 
and in Selaginella, into short papillae. The embryo is developed in the sub- 
stance of the pro-embryo, displacing and destroying its cells, and a globular 
portion (corresponding to the " reservoir of nutrition" of Miiller) remains 
within the spore after the first leaf and rootlet have made their way out. 
This body is the analogue of that portion of the embryo oi Selaginella which 
penetrates into the cavity of the spore, and to the end of the first axis in the 
Rhizocarpeae. 

The most important point, however, of Dr. Mettenius's researches relates 
to the phaenomenon exhibited by the small spores. In the water in which 
the spores were sown he observed moving spiral filaments resembling those 
of the Ferns. He was not able to trace all the stages of development of these 
spiral filaments from the small spores, but he obtained nearly all the evidences 
relating to their origin which Nageli has done in reference to the similar 
organs in the Pilularia%. In the small spores minute vesicles are produced 
of varying size and number, seen through the outer coat. The inner coat or 
spore-cell breaks through the outer coat either in the middle or at both ends 
at the projecting ridges, by which they are originally in contact with the other 
spore-cells. Its contents are expelled, as is proved by finding numerous 
empty membranes. The expelled vesicles are met with in considerable num- 
ber in the water, and contain one large or several small granules, and in 
them the spiral filaments are apparently produced ; but the actual course of 
development was not observed. In one case a spiral filament was seen halt 

* Beitrage zur Botanik. Heidelberg, 1850. t Linnsean Transactions, vol. xvii. 

t Zeitschrift fur Wiss. Botanik, Heft 3. Zurich, 1846. 

i2 



116 REPORT 1851. 

way out of the spore-cell in active rotation, finally emerging completely, so 
that the moving spiral filaments are probably developed in the vesicles, while 
these are still contained within the spore-cell. 

No actual connexion of these moving spiral filaments or spermatozoa with 
the so-called ovules has yet been traced. 

Rhizocarpece. — Almost from the earliest period of the study of Cryptoga- 
mous plants, attempts have been made to prove the existence of distinct sexes 
in the Rhizocarpeas, various parts of the structure being regarded by differ- 
ent authors as analogues of the stamens and pistils of flowering plants. Ber- 
nard de Jussieu* went so far as to class them {Pilularia glob, and Marsilea 
quad.) with the Monocotyledons, with Lemna, considering the large spore- 
sacs as pistils and the small ones as stamens. 

Others have sought the male organs in the hairs upon the leaves or recep- 
tacles f ; but the rest of the numerous authors who have written on the sub- 
ject, have either denied tiie distinction of sexuality altogether, or are agreed 
in considering the large spores as either ovaries or ovules, the small spores 
as pollen-grains. Experiments have frequently been made upon the gene- 
rative powers of the two kinds of spores. Paolo Savi:|; found that the large 
spores of Sakinia would not germinate alone, and tlierefore he regarded the 
small ones as anthers. Duvernoy§, on the contrary, states that he saw the 
large spores of Salvinia germinate when separated from the small ones, and 
therefore he did not regard the latter as anthers, but only rudiments. Bi- 
schoff||, who minutely described the structure of the European species, said 
that in his experiments the large spores of Salvinia germinated as well with- 
out the small granules as with them. Agardh^ saw the large spores of Pi- 
lularia germinate separately, but later than those united with the anthers. 
Pietro Savi** made careful observations on the germination of the separated 
large spores o{ Saloinia, and found them to produce a green raamilla which 
underwent no further development ; he therefore regarded the small spores 
as necessary for impregnation. Esprit Fabreff carefully experimented on 
Marsilea Fabri. The separated large spores did not germinate ; they did 
not even produce the stationary green papilla observed in Salvinia by Pietro 
Savi. Dr. C. MvillerJ:^ found that the large spores o? Pdularia would not 
germinate when separate from the small ones. 

The development of the spores and the germination of the larger kind in 
Pilularia appear to have been first accurately described by Mr. Valentine §§, 
in a paper read before the Linnasan Society in March 1 839. It is unnecessary 
to enter into the particulars of this paper, which gives accurate statements in 
most points, and mentions for the first time the occurrence of the cellular pa- 
pilla upon the pro-embryo which has since been regarded as the " ovule," ana- 
logous to that found on the pro-embryo of the other vascular Cryptogams. 

Dr.C.Muller'sllll essay appeared in 1840, and agrees in some points ; but 
he appears to have mistaken the mode of origin of the pro- embryo. In 1843 
Schleiden^^announced that hehadobservedaprocessof impregnation in Pilu- 
laria, in which the small spores acted the partof pollen-grains, producing tubes 
which entered into a cavity on the surface of the large spore or " ovule," and, 
in accordance with his views of impregnation in general, became the embryo. 

* Hist, de I'Acad. Roy. des So. 1739 and 1740. + Micheli, Linnaeus and Hedwig 

X Biblioth. Italian, xx. § Diss, de Salv. nat. &c., 1825. 

II Nova Actaxiv. and Cryptogam Gew. part 2. 1828. ^ De Pilularia diss. 1835. 
** Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1837. ft Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1837. %% Flora, 1840. 

§§ Linnaean Transactions, vol. xvii. |||| Flora, 1840. 

in Grundz. der Wiss. Botanik, 1843. 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 117 

The next paper on the subject was an essay published by Dr. Mettenius* 
in 1846, in which the anatomy and development of /ya^umfa is treated at 
length; that o{ Pilularia and Marsilea less perfectly. He did not observe 
the process of impregnation described by Schleiden, yet from the want of 
organic continuity between the embryo and the " ovule," he inclined to adopt 
the theory of fertilization propounded by Schleiden, both for the Phaneroga- 
mia and the Rhizocarpeae, namely, that the end of the pollen-tube penetrated 
into the so-called ovule and became the embryo ; nevertheless he had some 
doubts, since he could not reconcile the production of " pollen-tubes " from 
the small spores of Salvin'ia with the facts he had observed, and never saw 
the " tube" penetrate the " ovule " in Pilularia. 

In 1846 Prof. Nageli published some new and important observations on 
Pilulariaf, in which he stated that the observations of Schleiden were alto- 
gether incorrect, and that the bodies which that author had described as 
three or four " pollen-tubes," produced by the small spores and adherent to 
the summit of the large spore, were in fact parts of this, constituting a papil- 
liform structure, forming a part of the pro-embryo developed by the large 
spore itself. Moreover he discovered a totally unexpected fact in regard to 
the small spore or " pollen-grains." He found that these, without coming in 
contact with the large spores at all, became elongated by the inner coat pro- 
truding like a short pouch-like process through the outer. This contained 
starch-granules; and s<ome he found burst and surrounded by starch-grains 
exactly like those inside the others ; and in addition to these, minute cellules 
which seem to have been expelled from the small spores. In these cellules 
were developed spiral filaments exhibiting active movement, just like those 
of Chara, the Mosses, &c. These filaments finally make their way out and 
swim about freely in the water. They were constantly met with in the gela- 
tinous mass in which the spores were enveloped. 

In 1849 M. Hofmeister J published the essay on the higher Cryptogams 
already alluded to, and there briefly described his own critical observations, 
referring to the points of difference from his predecessors. His statements 
are as follows : — 

" The publications of Mettenius and Nageli, as also those of Schleiden 
himself, sufficiently show that the large spores of the Rhizocarpeae (the organs 
called by Schleiden 'seed-buds' (ovules)) originate essentially in the same 
way as the spores of the Cryptogamia generally, and as the small spores of 
the Rhizocarpeae ('pollen-grains' of Schleiden) in particular. One young 
spore in each sporangium becomes developed more rapidly than the others, 
and finally usurps the whole cavity. At the time when the spores are ripe, 
a large spore does not differ from a small one in any respect except in dimen- 
sions (the size of the organs allows of the structure of the outer secreted 
layer being very distinctly observed ; An Pilularia five layers can be clearly 
detected). The large spore is a simple tough-walled cell filled with starch 
or oil-drops and albuminous matter, enclosed by a thick exine, which, at the 
point when the ' sister-spores' were in contact with the developed spore in 
the earlier stages, exhibits peculiar conditions of form, displaying, according 
to the generic differences, a splitting into thin lobes or a considerable thin- 
ning of the mass. Not the least trace of the cellular body (the pro-embryo, 
papilla of the nucleus of Schleiden) is to be seen at this point at the time when 
the spores are just ripe. 

* Beitrage zur Kenutniss der Rhizocarpeae. Frankfort, 1846. 

t Zeitschrift ftir Wiss. Botanik. Heft 3, 4. 188, 1846. 

t Botanische Zeitung, vol. vii. 1849 ; Botanical Gazette, vol. ii. 1850. 



118 REPORT — 1851. 

" After the ripe spores have lain a longer or shorter time in water, a process 
of cell-formation commences at that point of the spore, within the proper, 
internal spore-cell, whence results the formation of a cellular body occupying 
only a small portion of the internal cavity of the spore. The cells multiply 
rapidly, and break through the exine, appearing externally as the green cellu- 
lar papilla called the ' keim-nmlst' by Bischoft', the 'papilla of the nucleus' 
by Schleiden. I see no ground why this should be named otherwise than as 
the fro-embryo. In Pilularia it is very soon seen, where the pro-embryo 
consists of only about thirty cells, completely enveloped by the exine, and 
where the only external evidence of its existence is a little protuberance, — 
that the pro-embryo consists of a large central cell surrounded by a simple 
layer of smaller ones. The smaller cells covering the apex of this large cell, 
four in number, elongate into a papilla before the pro-embryo bursts through 
the exine, which splits regularly into twelve to sixteen teeth ; — subsequently 
they become divided by horizontal walls, and then appear as the organ which 
Schleiden, and after him Mettenius, supposed to be ' pollen-tubes ' produced 
from some of the small spores. These papilliform cells most certainly ori- 
ginate from the pro-embryo, a fact which takes away all material ground 
from Schleiden's theory. 

" The four papilliform cells separate from each other and leave a passage 
leading to the large central cell. In this cell the young plant originates 
shortly after the smaller spores, which never produce ' pollen-tubes,' begin 
to emit the cellules containing spiral filaments discovered by Nageli. I ob- 
served and dissected out an embryo consisting of only four cells. It com- 
pletely filled the large central cell, and there was not the least trace of a 
pollen-tube attached to it. 

" The organization of Salvinia is somewhat different from this. On every 
pro-embryo several, as many as eight cells of the outer surface of the cellular 
layer next but two to the obtuse triangular cellular body, acquire a consi- 
derable size, a spherical form, and become filled with protoplasm ; the four 
cells covering each of these larger cells lose the greater part of their chloro- 
phyll and separate from each other to leave a passage leading down to the 
large central cell. In this large cell the young plant originates. The number of 
these organs inSalvinia allows the possibility of the occurrence of poly-embry- 
ony in this genus ; I observed two embryos on one pro-embryo in one case. 

" It is out of the question to talk of a ' larger pollen-tube' in Salvinia. 
Mettenius has already shown that the structure of the small spores renders 
such a product from them impossible." 

Dr. Mettenius's Essay on the Vascular Cryptogams*, already frequently 
referred to, confirms the preceding account in all essential points, some slight 
criticisms relating only to the structure of the coats of the spore ; and it adds 
a description of the development of the *' ovules " in the pro-erabryo of 
Marsilea Fabri, which agrees closely with that in Pilularia. Hofmeister-j* 
has recently announced the discovery of the production of cellules contain- 
ing spiral filaments from the small spores in Salvinia, ']\x&t as Nageli saw thera 
in Pilularia. 

General Conclusions. 

In the facts of which I have given confessedly a very imperfect resumi in 
the preceding pages, we have two important points to consider. In the first 
place, we have to determine how far they suffice to warrant the belief in the 

* Beitrage zur Botanik. Heidelberg, 1850. 

t Flora, 1850. p. 700 (in a note to a review of Mercklin's Essay on the Reproduction of 
Ferns). 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 119 

existence of a distinction of sexes in these families. In the second place, we 
have to endeavour to trace the analogies which exist between the different 
conditions presented by the supposed sexual organs in the different families. 
These considerations, if we adopt the hypothesis of sexuality, lead to some very 
interesting questions in reference to the process of reproduction generally. 

In regard to the first question, that of the existence of two sexes and the 
necessity of a process of fertihzation, we have several kinds of evidence. 

1. The inferences to be deduced from the universality of the existence of 
two kinds of organs in connexion with the reproductive process. We have 
seen that these exist in all the families at some period or other of the life of 
the representative of the species. In the Mosses and the Hepaticae they occur 
in the fully developed plant. In the Ferns and Equisetacese they occur upon 
cellular structures of frondose character developed from all the spores, which 
frondose bodies or pro-embryos have an existence of some permanence, espe- 
cially in the Equisetaceae. In the Lycopodiaceae, the Isoetaceae and Rhizo- 
carpese, the pistillidia occur upon very transitory cellular structures produced 
from one kind of spore, the larger, while the smaller spores at once develope 
in their interior cellules containing moving spiral filaments such as occur in 
the antheridia of the other families. 

2. The inferences to be deduced from the observations on the development 
of those plants in which the two kinds of organs, occurring in distinct places, 
can be separated. Strong evidence has been brought forward that the dioecious 
Mosses, as they are called, do not produce sporangia when the pistillidia are 
kept apart from the antheridia by natural accident. The majority of observers 
state that the large spores of the Rhizocarpeae do not germinate if the small 
spores are all removed from contact with them ; a few counter-statements 
however do exist. Again, the majority of authors, and all the recent ones, 
state that only the large spores of the Lycopodiaceae and Isoetaceae produce 
new plants ; while some older writers believed that they had seen the small 
spores do so. 

3. The direct observation of a process of fertilization, of which we have 
only testimony from two authors, Suminski and Mercklin, in reference to 
the Ferns alone ; since the assertions of Schleiden in regard to the Rhizo- 
carpeae have been demonstrated by Nageli, Hofmeister, and Mettenius to 
have been based on very imperfect observation. 

The circumstantial evidence furnished under the first head seems to rae 
very strong, so much so that I am inclined to adopt the idea of sexuality on 
this ground as the legitimate provisional hypothesis arising out of our present 
knowledge, especially when supported so strongly as it is by the negative 
evidence indicated under the second head. 

The positive evidence of the third head is certainly very insufficient as 
yet, considering the extreme delicacy of the investigation. Suminski's other 
observations on the details have been contested in many particulars ; and 
Mercklin, the only other observer who asserts that he has seen the spiral 
filaments within the so-called ovules, describes the conditions differently, and 
states that he has only been able to observe them positively there three times. 
At the same time the difficulty of the investigation should make us hesitate 
in attaching too much weight to the failure of the other observers in tracing 
a process of fertilization ; moreover it is quite possible that actual entry of 
the spiral filaments into the canal of the ovules or pistillidia is not always, if 
ever, necessary. 

The facts before us, then, appear to me strong enough to warrant the 
adoption of the views propounded by the latest authors on this subject, and 



120 REPORT — 1851. 

the acceptance of tlie hypothesis of sexuality in the Vascular Cryptogams 
as the most satisfactory explanation of the phsenomena as yet observed. 
The question lies now much in the same condition as that of the sexuality 
of flowering plants before the actual contact of the pollen-tubes with the 
ovules had been satisfactorily demonstrated. 

Further arguments may be adduced from grounds lying out of the pre- 
ceding statements, viz. 1. The late discovery of two forms of organs in the 
Algse, Lichens and Fungi, which, although imperfect at present, lead to the 
expectation that the analogues of the antheridia and pistillidia of the 
Mosses, so long known, will be found in all Cryptogamous plants. 2. The 
analogies between the processes of animal and vegetable reproduction which 
appear to be offered by these new views of the nature of the phaenomena in 
the Vascular Cryptogams. To this last argument I shall merely allude, as 
it may be considered to lie beyond the special province of the vegetable phy- 
siologist ; yet when we recollect the imperceptible character of the gradations 
of the lower forrn^ of the two kingdoms, there seems far sounder ground 
than is allowed by Schleiden for arguing from apparent analogies between 
the phasnomena occurring in the two great kingdoms of nature. 

Under the second point of view mentioned above, the facts of structure 
may soon be disposed of, so far as the analogies of form are concerned; the 
antheridia of the Mosses, Hepaticae, Ferns, and Equisetaceae agree with the 
small spores o£ Isoetes, Selaginella, Pilularia, and Salvinia in producing- the 
cellules in which are developed the moving spiral filaments which constitute 
the essential character of the organs of the one kind ; while the pistillidia of 
the Mosses and Hepaticae agree with the so-called " ovules " of the Ferns, 
EquisetacCcE, Lycopodiacesc, Isoetacea?, aiid Rhizocarpese, in general struc- 
ture and in the presence of the central large cell from which the new form 
of structure originates. 

The great difTerences depend on the position in time and space of the or- 
gans, in the different classes, and the nature of the immediate product of the so- 
called " embryo-sac," the large central cell of the pistillidia and " ovules." 

In the Mosses and Hepaticas the pistillidia occur upon the plant when the 
vegetative structure is perfect, — and the immediate product of the great cell 
is a sporangium. If a process of fertilization take place here, we may re- 
gard the antheridia and pistillidia as analogues of the anthers and pistils of 
flowering plants, the sporangia of their fruits; or with Hofmeister we may 
regard the phaenomenon as an instance of an " alternation of generations," 
where the pistillidium would be looked upon as an ovule, producing (in the spo- 
rangium) a new individual of totally different character from that developed 
from the spore (the leafy Moss plant in the usual acceptation of the term). 

In tlie Ferns and Equisetaceae, we find the spores producing a frondose 
structure of definite form, upon which are developed antheridia and pistil- 
lidia, or " ovules." Here then we seem to have one generation complete, and 
the new development from the pistillidium or " ovule " appears in a totally 
new form, producing stem and leaves which have a distiyct individual form 
and existence, and produce the spores after a long period upon tem])orary 
parts of the structure, on the leaves ; and by no means cease to exist when 
those are matured. Here we seem to have a real " alternation of genera- 
tions," and Hofmeister compares the whole permanent plant of the Fern or 
Equisetum to the sporangium of the Mosses and Hepaticag. In all the 
other families, the Lycopodiaceae, Isoetaceae, the Rhizocarpeae, the p ro 
embryo is a very transitory production, and is developed from a differ en 
spore from the spiral filaments. This pro-embryo is clearly analogous to 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 121 

that of the Ferns and Equisetacese ; and if the existence of sexes be a fact, 
we have here a dioecious condition as contrasted with a monoecious condi- 
tion in the two last-named families. Hofmeister here again assumes that 
the pro-embryo developed from the large spore is an intermediate genera- 
tion between the two perfect forms of tlie plant. 

It is rather difficult to decide upon the real analogies of these structures with 
those of the flowering plants. The resemblance of structure is so close between 
the pistillidia of the Mosses and Hepaticae, and the " ovules " of the other 
Vascular Cryptogams, that they must be regarded as analogues, and then the 
former could not well be conceived to be analogous to the pistils of flowering 
plants, but rather to ovules ; if this be the case, the sporangium must be 
considered the analogue of the perfect plant in the Fern, &c., and the 
leafy stem as the analogue of the pro-embryo of the Ferns, &c. The 
pistillidium of the Mosses can indeed liardly be regarded as analogous to the 
fruit of a flowering plant, as in that case the spores would be ovules pro- 
duced long after fertilization ; and on the other hand, if we consider the 
pistillidia of the Moss as an ovule, which it might be, analogous to that of 
the Coniferae, — in which a large number of embryonal vesicles or rudiments 
of embryos are produced after fertilization on the branched extremities of 
the suspensors, — then we seem to lose the analogy between the product of 
the pistillidium of the Moss and that of the ovule of the Fern, unless we 
would regard the entire plant of a perfect Fern as analogous to the ovule of 
a Conifer. 

Perhaps the time has hardly come for us to arrive at any conclusion on these 
points. The phaenomena in the Ferns and Equisetaceae, as well as in the 
RhizocarpcK, Lycopodiaceae, and Isoetaceae less strikingly, seem to present 
a series of conditions analogous to those which have been described under 
the name of " alternation of generations " in the animal kingdom, and seeing 
the resemblance which tlie pistillidia of the Mosses have to the ovules of the 
other families, we can hardly help extending the same views to them ; in which 
case we should have the remarkable phaenomenon of a compound organism, 
in which a new individual forming a second generation, developed after a 
process of fertilization, remains attached organically to the parent, from which 
it differs totally in all anatomical and physiological characters. It is almost 
needless to advert to the essential difference between such a case and that of 
the occurrence of flower-buds and leaf-buds on one stem in the Phanero- 
gamia, as parts of a single plant, yet possessing a certain amount of indepen- 
dent individuality. These are produced from each other by simple extension, 
a kind of gemmation ; while the Moss capsule, if the sexual theory be cor- 
rect, is the result of a true reproductive process*. 

In conclusion, I may remark, that these anomalous conditions lose their 
remarkable character to a great extent if we refuse to accept the evidence of 
sexuality which has been brought forward here. If the structures are all 
products of mere extension or gemmation, the analogies which have been 
supposed to exist between them and the organs of flowering plants all fall 
to the ground. But believing that the hypothesis of sexuality is based on 
solid grounds, I am by no means inclined to allow the difficulty of the ex- 

* Moreover we have an analogy to the increase by huds in the innovations by which the 
leafy stems of the Mosses are multiplied, both in the earliest condition, where a number of 
stems are developed from the byssoid mass produced by the spore, and afterwards by gem- 
mae on the stems and leaves, as in the Liverworts also. The byssoid mass produced by 
the Moss-spore has usually been called the pro-embryo, but it is evidently not analogous to 
the bodies termed pro-embryos in the Ferns, Lycopodiaceae, &c. &c. It would almost seem 
to constitute a third member of a series of generations. 



122 REPORT — 1851. 

planation of these relations to be urged as a valid argument against their 
existence, and I trust that this imperfect report may be the means of attract- 
ing new investigators to a subject which presents so many points of interest 
and importance. — July 3rd, 1851. 

Postscript. — Since the above Report has been in print Dr. W. Hofmeister 
has published his promised work upon ihe higher Cryptogams*, which con- 
tains an elaborate series of researches upon this subject. He there confirms 
all his previous statements, and all the essential particulars given by Su- 
minski, Nageli, Mettenius, &c., excepting i\\e facts of the impregnation by 
means of the spiral filaments or spermatozoids, which however he considers it 
warrantable to assume. His speculations as to the relation of the Conifers 
to the Lycopodiaceae, as shown by the development of the embryo, are very 
interesting. We can only claim space to indicate the general results of his 
work as given in the concluding summary: — " The comparison of the course 
of development of the Mosses and Liverworts on the one hand, with the 
Ferns, Equisetaceae, Rhizocarpeae and Lycopodiaceae ou the other, reveals 
the most complete agreement between the development of the fruit of the 
former and the developmentof the embryo of the others. The archegonium 
of the Mosses, the organ within which the rudiment of its fruit is formed, 
resembles perfectly in structure the archegonium of the Filicoids (in the 
widest sense), that part of the prothallium in the interior of which the embryo 
of the frondescent plant originates. In the two great groups of the higher 
Cryptogams, one large central cell originating free in the archegonium, gives 
origin by repeated subdivision to the fruit in the Mosses, and to the leafy 
plant in the Filicoids. In neither of them does the subdivision of this cell 
go on, in both does the archegonium become abortive, if spermatic filaments 
do not reach it at the epoch when it bursts open at the apex. 

" Mosses and Filicoids thus afford one of the most striking examples of a 
regular alternation of two generations widely different in their organization. 
The first of these, produced by the germinating spore, developes antheridia 
and archegonia, sometimes few, sometimes many. In the central cell of the 
archegonium, in consequence of a fertilization through the spermatozoids 
emitted from the antheridia, becomes developed the second generation, des- 
tined to produce spores, which are always formed in a number much greater 
than that of the rudimentary fruits of the first generation. 

" In the Mosses the vegetative life is exclusively committed to the first, 
the production of fruit to the second generation. Only the leafy stem pos- 
sesses roots; the spore-producing generation draws its sustenance from the 
foregoing. The fruit is usually of shorter duration than the leaf-bearing 
plant. In the Filicoids the opposite condition obtains. It is true the pro- 
thallia send out capillary rootlets ; those of the Polypodiaceae and Equise- 
taceae under all circumstances, those of the Rhizocarpeae and Selaginellae 
frequently. But the prothallium has a much briefer existence than the 
frondescent plant, which in most cases must vegetate for several years be- 
fore it comes to bear fruit. Yet the contrast is not so strong as it appears 
to be at first sight. The seemingly unlimited duration of the leaf-bearing 
Moss-plant depends upon constant renovation {verjiingung). Phaenomena 
essentially similar occur in proliferous protliallia of the Polypodiaceae and 
Equisetaceae. The structure of the lowest Mosses (^Anthoceros, Pellia) is 

* Vergleichende Unteraucftungen der Keimung, Entfaltung und Fmchtbildung hoherer 
.Kryptogamen {Moose, Farm, Equisetaceen, Rhizocarpeen und Lycopodiaceen) und der Sa- 
menbildung der Coniferen. 1851, Leipsic, Hofmeister, 4to, pp. 180, tt. 33. 



ON THE HIGHER CRYPTOGAMOU3 PLANTS. 123 

less complex, and the duration of the fruit-bearing shoots is little longer than 
that of the fruit itself. On the other hand, the ramification of ti)e prothallium 
of the Equisetaceae is exceedingly complicated ; its duration is even equal to 
that of a single shoot. 

" It is a circumstance worthy of notice, that in the second generation of 
Mosses, as of the Filicoids, destined to produce spores, more complex thick- 
enings of tlie cell-walls regularly occur (teeth of the peristome of Mosses, 
wall of capsule and elaters of Liverworts, vessels of Filicoids, &c.), while in 
the first generation, springing from the spores, such structures are found only 
rarely and as exceptions. 

" The manner in which the second generation arises from the first, varies 
much more in the Filicoids than in the Mosses. The Polypodiaceae and 
Equisetacese are hermaphrodite ; the Rhizocarpeae and Sehtgineiiae monoe- 
cious. All the Filicoids agree in the fact that the first axis of their embryo 
possesses but a very hmited longitudinal development; that it is an axis of 
the second rank which breaks through the prothallium and becomes the main 
axis ; further, in the end of the axis of the first rank never becoming elon- 
gated in the direction opposite to the summit. All Filicoids are devoid of a 
tap-root, and possess only adventitious roots. 

" In more than one respect does the course of development of the embryo 
of the Conifers stand intermediately between those of the higher Cryptogams 
and the Phanerogams. Like the primary parent-cell of the spores of the Rhi- 
zocarpeae and Selaginellae, the embryo-sac is an axile cell of the shoot, which 
in the former is converted into a sporangium, in the latter into an ovule. In 
the Conifers the embryo-sac also very early becomes detached from the cel- 
lular tissue surrounding it. The filling-up of the embryo-sac with the albu- 
men may be compared with the origin of the prothallium in the Rhizocarpeae 
and Selaginellae. The structure of the 'corpuscula' bears the most striking 
resemblance to that of the archegonia of Sahinia, still more to that of the 
Selaginellae. If we leave out of view the different nature of the impregna- 
tion, in the Rhizocarpeae and Selaginellae by free-swimming spermatic fila- 
ments, in the Coniferae by a pollen-tube (which ^jer/iaps developes spermatic 
filaments in its interior), the metamorphosis of the embryonal vesicle into the 
primary parent-cell of the new plant in the Conifers and Filicoids is solely 
distinguished, by the latter possessing only a single embryonal vesicle which 
completely fills the cavity of the central cell of the archegonium, while the 
former exhibits very numerous embryonal vesicles swimming in it, of which 
only one pressed into the lower end of the ' corpusculum' becomes impreg- 
nated. The embryo-sac of the Conifers may be regarded as a spore which 
remains enclosed in its sporangium ; the prothallium which it forms never 
comes to light. The fertilizing matter must make a way for itself through 
the tissue of the sporangium, to reach the archegonia of this protliallium. 

*' Two of the phaenomena which led me to compare the embryo-sac of the 
Conifers with the large spores of the higher Cryptogams, are common also 
to the embryo-sac of the Phanerogams : the origin from an axile cell of the 
shoot, and the independence of the surrounding cellular tissue (so striking, 
for example, in the Rhinanthaceae, through the independent growth of the 
embryo-sac). By their pollen-grains producing tubes the Conifers are closely 
connected with the Phanerogams, from which they differ so much in the course 
of development of their embryo-sac and the embryonal vesicles. The sepa- 
ration of the prothallium of the Conifers into a number of independent sus- 
pensors,is aphaenomenonof a most peculiar kind, having no analogue through- 
out the vegetable kingdom." — (^Loc. cit. pp. 139-41.) — A.H. Dec. 16,185 1. 



124 KEPOBT — 1851. 

On the Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. By Charles G. B. 
Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry at Oxford. 

Introduction. 
My attention has of late been in some degree attracted to the nomenclature 
of organic combinations, and on considering this subject, it has struck me 
as a matter of surprise, that none of the British treatises on chemistry 
with which I am acquainted should contain any rules to guide us, either in 
affixing names to substances newly discovered, or in divining the nature and 
relations of bodies from the appellations attached to them. Nor do I find 
this deficiency supplied in a manner which to me appears satisfactory, when 
I turn to the writings of continental chemists. Amongst these I may men- 
tion two in particular, namely Gmelin and Gerhardt, who have busied them- 
selves on this subject ; both men of eminence in their respective countries, 
neither of whom however appears to me to have proposed a scheme of no- 
menclature at all calculated for general adoption. 

Gmelin, indeed, in his Handbook, has invented entirely new names for all 
simple bodies whatsoever, designating compound ones by means of words 
made up of those which he had affixed to their constituents. He has even 
gone further than this, first, in suggesting a method by which the number of 
atoms of each element may be implied by the inflexion of the name which 
expresses it ; and secondly, in extending the same mode of designation to 
organic bodies, by the use of distinct terms for each of the supposed radicals, 
from which, with the addition of certain other elements, the various sub- 
stances met with in this department of nature are conceived to be built up. 
Thus for example, — 

1 atom of oxygen is expressed by the word ane, 

2 atoms ene, 

3 atoms ine, 

4 atoms one, 

5 atoms une, 

6 atoms aene ; 

and so on. 

1 atom of hydrogen is called ale, 

2 atoms, by inflexions of the like description. 

1 atom of carbon is called ase, 

——— of sulphur afe, 

of nitrogen ate, 

of chlorine ahe, 

• of potass pate, 

of soda nate ; 

and so with others. Water will be designated by two syllables, derived from 
its two constituents, and is therefore called alan ; sulphurous acid a/ew ; sul- 
phuric acid afn ; sulphate of soda therefore will be naian-afin. Arbitrary 
names are attached to the compound radicals : thus ethyl is vine ; amyl is 
myl; pheuyle is/wwe, &c. 

Now it will be seen, that as the new names assigned to the elements bear 
no relation whatsoever to those in common use, the amount of labour incurred 
in the adoption of such a nomenclature would be equivalent to that attending 
the acquisition of a new language, and one too all the more embarrassing 
from the near resemblance which the words themselves bear to each other. 
Accordingly I cannot bring myself to believe that such a nomenclature as 
Gmelin's will ever come into general use ; for although it be true, that the 



ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 125 

one for inorganic bodies introduced by Lavoisier and his associates, which 
with all its faults has wonderfully facilitated the advancement of the science, 
met with rapid success, it must be recollected, that the innovations then 
made did not extend beyond a few bodies, and those for the most part of 
recent discovery ; whilst even in their case the names imposed were by no 
means so arbitrary, or so destitute of meaning, as are those of Gmelin. 

Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, comprise perhaps the entire 
catalogue of new names for elementary substances devised by the French 
chemists, and in every one of these the Greek or Latin root of the word 
suggests some at least of the chemical properties or relations of the body 
itself. 

It is indeed true, that the changes which they introduced pervade the whole 
of chemistry, because the elements to which new names had been assigned 
enter so largely into combination with others; but the principles upon 
which they proceeded in the innovations proposed were nevertheless in 
themselves few and simple. 

Gmelin's method, on the contrary, involves the rejection of the entire 
system of names in common use, and requires moreover such a perfect fami- 
liarity with those which he has substituted, as should enable us to perceive at 
a glance the import of any combination of them which may occur, and to 
appreciate the value of each of the inflexions to which the terms are subject, 
according to the number of atoms which the constituents of the substance 
designated may severally present. What chemist, for instance, would tolerate 
such an expression as natan-qfin for sulphate of soda, or follow the lecturer 
when he spoke of lenevine for wine-alcohol ? I have no idea, therefore, that 
a nomenclature formed upon such a principle as that of Gmelin will ever 
meet with general adoption, or can be regarded in any other light than as an 
exercise of ingenuity, or as a kind of philosophical puzzle. 

With respect to the other scheme proposed by Gerhardt in his ' Precis de 
Chemie Organique,' I perhaps need only remark, that such modifications as he 
has recommended in the established method are foundedupon his own peculiar 
theoretical views, and upon the system of classification which he has thought 
fit to adopt with respect to organic bodies. Whatever therefore may be its 
merits, it does not meet the object I have in view, which aims at nothing 
further than rendering the existing nomenclature more consistent with itself, 
and with the principles agreed upon by the great body of scientific chemists 
who are employed upon this department of the subject, and which therefore 
excludes the adoption of any alterations which imply the recognition of 
views not yet generally assented to. Moreover, the classification of organic 
substances with which Gerhardt has set out, is entirely artificial, and one 
which places bodies belonging to the same type often in the most distant parts 
of his system ; nor has it, to compensate for this defect, the same recom- 
mendation which the Linnaean system possesses in Botany, namely, that of 
enabling us promptly to distinguish the object denoted ; since the composition 
of the body, upon which its place in the series depends, can only be ascer- 
tained after a minute and laborious investigation. 

But dissatisfied as I may be with the methods hitherto proposed, it is 
foreign from my intention to suggest any new principle of naming organic 
substances, convinced as I am that none, except the great masters of the 
science, who possess influence enough to give laws in the first instance to a 
numerous band of pupils, and a general reputation so extensive as to cause 
them to be submitted to afterwards over a much wider circle, have a right to 
expect that a patient hearing would be given to them, were they to under- 



126 REPORT — 1851. 

take to originate a Sj'stem of Nomenclature. All that I aim at accomplishing 
is to impart, if possible, something like definiteness to our ideas on the sub- 
ject ; and this I propose to do, first by comparing the names assigned by the 
highest authorities to various organic compounds with the relations in which 
the bodies themselves stand to each otlier, and by submitting to you such 
inferences with respect to the general principles which appear to have guided 
them in the choice of the terms they employ, as I may have thence deduced ; 
and secondly, by pointing out instances in which the principles assumed ap- 
pear to have been departed from, and thus anomalies to have been intro- 
duced into the language employed. 

The plan adopted by the founders of that distinct branch of science now 
recognised as Organic Chemistry, seems to have been nothing more than an 
extension of the system common in all similar cases, namely, to select, 
as a generic name for a class, that of some body belonging to it which hap- 
pens to be most familiarly known to us. Thus, as the use of the term Salt 
has been from time immemorial extended, from the substance commonly and 
best known to us as such, to all that class of bodies which possesses a similar 
constitution, so in organic chemistry Alcohol is employed as a generic term 
for a class of bodies, of which spirits of wine is the type ; Ether for that of 
which the body commonly called sulphuric ether is the best known ; Camphor 
for the one to which the well-known product from the Laurus Camphora 
belongs. It is also customary to employ one of the syllables of the word 
expressive of a class as a part of the name of any particular member of it. 
Thus chloraZ is a body of the type of aldehyde, but containing chlorine ; ure- 
thane, a compound of an ether with an organic base, urea. These indeed 
may perhaps be regarded rather as abbreviations of the former, than as 
distinct names for the members of a series. 

I shall therefore begin by considering the names applied to those classes 
under which the multiplied products of natural and artiticial processes which 
present themselves in the domain of organic chemistry have been ranged, at 
least provisionally, by our systematic writers. 

Part I. — On the Classes of Organic Bodies. 

The following classes of organic bodies appear to be recognized : — 

Hydrocarbons. Alcohols. Nitriles. 

Essential oils. Aldehydes. Ureas. 

Camphors. Hydrurets. Cetones. 

Resins. Ethers. Glycerides. 

Acids. Amides. Neutral or indif- 

Neutral salts. Imides. ferent compounds. 

Alkalies. 
Hydrocarbons. — Hydrocarbon is a term comprehending too miscellaneous 
a collection of bodies to be of much use for the purposes of classification in 
the ordinary sense in which it is employed, embracing, as it does, not only the 
so-called compound radicals, but likewise a large number of the essential oils. 
As however several of these latter contain in addition oxygen, and others sul- 
phur, such a classification would be inapplicable to a large proportion of the 
members of this family ; and it is also to be considered, that in those oils 
which consist only of carbon and hydrogen, a portion of the latter principle 
seems bound to the other element by a looser affinity than the remainder, so 
that even these may be regarded rather in the light of hydrurets than of 
simple hydrocarbons. Reserving therefore this latter term for bodies which 



ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 127 

stand in the relation of compound radicals, we have three distinct families to 
set apart from them : namely, essential oils, or eleoptenes ; 2nd, camphors, or 
stearoptenes ; and 3rd, resins. 

Essential Oils Essential oils agree sufficiently in physical and chemical 

properties to admit of being referred to the same class, notwithstanding such 
subordinate differences as the superaddition of oxygen, nitrogen, or sulpho- 
cjanogen may occasion. 

Camphors. — Camphor is a term applied to a class characterized by re- 
maining solid at ordinary temperatures, and by corresponding with the 
essential oils associated with them in the same plant in the relation between 
their hydrogen and carbon, the essential difiference between the two being 
the superaddition of an atom of oxygen to the ingredients of the oil. 

Resins. — They thus are distinguished from the class of resins, which seem 
to be derived from the essential oils through the substitution of oxygen for 
hydrogen. Thus oil of turpentine is represented by C'o H** ; whilst its resin 
is C'o H7 O, H being removed, O added. 

Acids, — With regard to this next class; I am not disposed to recom- 
mend any innovation upon existing usage, though aware that Gerhardt has 
proposed uniting those which contain the elements of water with the neutral 
salts, distinguishing the former by the generic term usually applied col- 
lectively to the whole series of combinations which they contribute to form, 
and designating the members of each group by specific names taken from 
those of the several bases united with them. 

Thus oil of vitriol would be called normal sulphate, whilst the several com- 
binations produced by its action upon the alkalies, earths, and metallic oxides 
would retain their present distinctive appellations. I much doubt however 
whether chemists in general are as yet prepared for such an innovation; and 
for my own part 1 should not easily reconcile myself to the propriety of 
transferring to the acid constituent a name so long applied to the genus, of 
which the several salts constitute the species. 

This latter objection indeed might be got over, by calling the hydrous acid, 
in the instance before us, sulphate of water ; but such an expedient would 
compel us to class together bodies, whose physical and chemical properties 
appear to differ from each other as materially as those of an acid from a 
neutral salt. 

To do this at the present time would be nothing less than to assume the 
Binary Theory of salts as established on incontrovertible evidence, instead 
of remaining amongst the debateable points of science, and would therefore 
be inconsistent with the principle upon which I have proceeded, of recom- 
mending no system of nomenclature which implies the adoption of views 
not generally recognized. 

Neutral Salts. — Hence I should prefer that the compounds which are 
produced by the union of a vegetable acid with a base, or, if you please, 
by the replacement of the hydrogen in the former by a metal, should still 
be thrown into the class of salts, the genus and species of each being cha- 
racterized, as at present, by terms expressive of the acid and base which 
contribute to its formation. 

Vegetable Alkalies. — With respect to these, it will be seen that the bodies 
so-called may be thrown into one or other of the three classes of amides, 
imides and nitriles, if these words be any longer retained in the nomencla* 
ture of science. 

There are indeed bodies called amides which possess acid properties, such 
as the oxamic acid, which is composed of oxamide NH^ C^ O- + oxalic acid 
C* O' ; but this is nothing more than an instance of a conjugate acid, or of a 



128 REPORT — 1851. 

body which retains its acid properties, when united to another which does 
not neutralize it. Oxamide, however, and many other so-called ammonia 
compounds are not alkalies, although all alkalies derived from the vegetable 
kingdom appear to be obtained through the medium of ammonia. 

The recent researches, however, of Wiirtz and Hofmann bid fair to rid us 
of these three classes of bodies. They have shown, for instance, that many 
compounds termed amides are nothing more than replacements of one of the 
hydrogen atoms present in ammonia by various hydrocarbons, and that 
imides and nitriles are often formed by the substitution, the first of two, the 
latter of three atoms, of an organic base for the hydrogen of the ammonia. 

That the vegetable alkalies, indeed, using the term in its stricter and more 
ordinary sense, are thus formed, seems now in a manner demonstrated ; but 
before we allow ourselves to substitute the term alkali for the three classes 
under consideration, it must be shown on the one hand that all organic 
bodies possessing alkaline properties are formed in this manner, and on the 
other, that all amides, imides, and nitriles possess alkaline properties. 

The existence of acid-amides would not in itself militate against this 
view, as the chemical relations maj' in them be determined by the acid pre- 
sent, but whether other exceptions may not occur in the way of such a ge- 
neralization must be left for further inquiries to decide. At any rate it 
deserves to be considered, whether the bodies of the class known as Ureas, a 
term which has been extended from the animal excretion so designated to 
other bodies possessed of an analogous composition to it, and therefore to 
bodies isomeric with the alkaline cyanates, are to be ranked under this same 
head. 

Their analogy of constitution to that of the vegetable alkalies may be seen 
by comparing the composition of normal urea, as well as of aniline urea, with 
that of the bodies we have been considering. 

Urea is often represented as C^NO, HO + NH^; and aniline-urea is shown 
by Hofmann to have the composition of C'^ NO H0 + C- H'N, or of cyanate 
of aniline. 

But the former may be regarded as composed of two atoms of ammonia 
conjoined, in each of which one atom of hydrogen is replaced by CO, forming 
as it were a double carbamide, viz. — 
NH 



H 
CO 
NH 



H i 



= N2H*Ci02; 



=N2 H» C* O'. 



CO J 
and in like manner aniline-urea as — 
NH 
H 

C>«H* 
NH 
C 0' 
CO' 

But I do not see how the bodies newly discovered by Wiirtz, consisting 
respectively of — 

Cyanurate of methvl ...... C^ N^ O^ -f-SC^ H' O 

„ ethyl'. C« N3 03 + 3C+ H5 O 

Cyanate of ethyl C^ N O -t-C* H^ O 

„ methyl C^NO-t-CaH'O 



ON THE NOMENCLATURE OP ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 129 

can be referred to this same class. They are analogous, indeed, to urea, if 
this body be regarded as — 

Cyanate of ammonia C* N O + HO + NH^ 

but not to the alkaloids, if the latter be represented as replacements of hy- 
drogen atoms by hydrocarbons. 

Alcohols. — The term alcohol, although applied to a number of bodies, 
whose physical properties deviate widely from those of the substance which 
it was originally meant to signify, is a convenient expression for a class be- 
longing, chemically speaking, to a common type — whether we regard them 
with Liebig as the hydrated oxides of a hydrocarbon ; with Dumas as dif- 
fering from their respective ethers simply by the addition of a second atom 
of water ; or with Gerhardt as a cluster of atoms, the arrangement of which 
is unknown to us, but which possess in common the property of being meta- 
morphosed into a carburet of hydrogen, by abandoning the elements of one 
equivalent of water ; and into a monobasic acid, by the substitution of two 
atoms of oxygen for two of hydrogen. 

Although not more than six or seven of such bodies have as yet been dis- 
covered, there seems a probability that we may eventually be able to form as 
many as shall be equal in number to the vegetable acids already recognized, 
and hence a particular name for the class in general seems indispensable. 

Aldehydes. — I am not aware of any objection that applies to the next 
class — that of aldehydes, which, designating in the first instance the substance 
prepared by the abstraction of two atoms of hydrogen from wine-alcohol, is 
intended to stand as a generic term for all bodies similarly constituted. 

It ought therefore, as it might seem, to take in the essential oil of bitter 
almonds C* H^ O^ which by the addition of O^ is converted into benzoic 
acid, as .well as the analogous compounds derived from salicine, from cinna- 
mile, and from cuminile, each of which gives rise to a corresponding acid. 

Thus, essential oil of — 

Almonds C* H^ O^ + O^ produces Benzoic acid. 

Spirsea O*Yi^"-0* + 0^ „ Salicylic acid. 

Cinnamon.. ..C'8H»6 02 + 02 „ Cinnamic acid. 
Cumin C^o H^-* O^ + O^ „ Cuminic acid. 

In none of these cases, however, have the corresponding alcohols been 
discovered, and hence it will be seen that in Turner's Chemistry they are 
referred to the class of hydrurets, being considered as compounds of the or- 
ganic radical, benzoyle C"H*0-, with 1 of hydrogen. The chemist, how- 
ever, will have to take his choice of these two views, for he cannot without 
confusion adopt both ; aldehydes in one sense being hydrurets, and hydru- 
rets in another putting in a claim to be regarded as aldehydes. 

Ethers. — I next proceed to the class called ethers, a name originally ap- 
plied to the peculiar volatile fluid produced by the action of sulphuric acid 
upon wine-alcohol. Here, however, a considerable confusion has been 
created by placing under the same head bodies connected together by a very 
vague analogy. 

Whether, indeed, we regard sulphuric ether as the oxide, or as the hydrate 
of a hydrocarbon ; or whether, discarding theory, we simply state it as 
the product of the union of an alcohol with an acid, accompanied by the 
elimination of the elements of water ; it will be found that this generic term 
has been extended beyond the strict limits of its definition. 

Chemists, indeed, in general seem to consider it sufficient to place all those 
bodies, the basis of which is an ether, under the head of compound ethers ; 

1851. K 



130 REPORT — 1851. 

forgetting, that on the one hand, the greater part of those classed under the 
latter head differ from the simple ethers, as much as the class of alkalies does 
from that of neutral salts ; and that on the other, bodies of the same compo- 
sition as the so-called compound ethers, such as the xanthic acid, consisting 
of two atoms of sulphuret of carbon united to sulphuric ether, 2CS'--l-AeO, 
are referred by them to a different head — the groundwork of the classification 
being thus shifted from the composition of the body to its chemical pro- 
perties. 

One is also at a loss to draw a line between a compound ether. . AeO-l-a; 

and sulphovinic acid iHoX 

Indeed sulphovinic acid, instead of being excluded from the class of ethers, 
would seem to be the only known body to which the term sulphuric ether 
can properly be applied. 

In short, if the term, compound ether, be retained at all, it should be re- 
stricted to bodies like those produced by Williamson, in which a simple ether 
is united with an ether radical, as the oxide of ethyl with methyl or with 
amyl, constituting what he calls two and three carbon ethers, according to 
the number of atoms of carbon present. 

I do not cavil with such a mode of distinguishing these several compounds ; 
but as the same nomenclature would be applicable to the simple ethers as well 
as to those which he describes, it would seem preferable to call them by the 
name of compound ethers, adding the specific term indicating the number 
of atoms of carbon present in them, as a method of distinction. 

There is likewise another cause of confusion traceable to the use of the 
term ether for the oxides alike of methyl and amyl, as well as for those of 
the ethyl series. 

Hence, when nitric, carbonic, acetic, benzoic ethers are spoken of, we are 
left in doubt as to the class meant to be expressed, whether it be an acetate, 
or other salt, of methyl, of ethyl, or of amyl. 

I therefore approve of the method of naming, already practised with 
regard to certain of these compounds, and would extend the same to all, 
calling them respectively — 



And in like manner 
Chloride of methyl; 

Sulphate of oxide of methyl. 
Benzoate of oxide of methyl. 

Acetate of oxide of methyl. 



Chloride of ethyl. 
Bromide of ethyl. 
Nitrate of oxide of ethyl. 
Hyponitrate of oxide of ethyl. 
Sulphocarburet of oxide of ethyl. 
Acetate of oxide of ethyl. 
And so with the rest, 

Cetone. — This term, improperly, as -I conceive, changed to Ketone, has been 
applied to a class of bodies, formed like acetone by exposing to heat an an- 
hydrous salt of some one of the fatty acids with lime or barytes, such as the 
acetate, butyrate, benzoate, margarate, or stearate of these bases. 

Under such circumstances the acid parts with one atom of carbon and with 
two of oxygen, which form together an atom of carbonic acid. This com- 
bines with the base, whilst the remaining atoms are driven off as acetone in 
the form of vapour, 

C* H3 03 acetic acid 
leaving C O^ carbonic acid 

forms C Hs O' acetone. 



ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 131 

Mr. Morley has described a product of an analogous kind derived from 
the distillation of metacetonic or propionic acid, which he calls propione, 

C6 H* OS 
leaving C O^ 

Q5 jj5 O' propione, 

Kane indeed has referred acetone to the class of alcohols, regarding it as 
the hydrated oxide of his hypothetical radical mesytyle ; but the mode of its 
formation keeps it apart from the alcohol series, to w^hich indeed it would 
be difficult in the present state of our knowledge to refer the other members 
of this division, so that it would seem advisable that this name should be 
retained for the entire class of organic compounds which are framed in the 
manner represented. 

Glycerides. — This is another series of organic compounds which deserves 
our notice, including most of the fixed oils. They are essentially composed 
of some acid of the description called fatty, and of the oxide of a base called 
Glycerine. 

Although they are in fact neutral salts, yet the peculiarity of their phy- 
sical characters, and their frequent occurrence throughout both kingdoms of 
organic nature, appear to render a distinct term for them advisable. 

Neutral Bodies. — I do not know that chemical writers have as yet suc- 
ceeded in establishing any other well-defined groups for the multiform pro- 
ducts of the vegetable world, except it be that extensive one consisting of 
bodies commonly designated as neutral or indifferent, and composed of car- 
bon with a certain number of atoms of water, or at least of oxygen and 
hydrogen in the proportions that form that fluid. 

These in consequence possess much of a common character, and are often 
convertible one into the other, the diiferences between them being rather 
structural than chemical, and their affinities being less intense than those of 
bodies which belong to any of the preceding classes. 

Part II. 
On the Terminations of the Words designating the Members of each Class. 

Most chemists have found it convenient to denote bodies which belong to 
the same class by words terminating alike, although Gerhardt in his classifi- 
cation of organic compounds has neglected this principle, inasmuch as he 
gives to the general terms indicative of classes the same termination, and 
moreover places under each head bodies terminating very differently. 

Of the terminations commonly understood to designate the members of 
particular classes, the most unexceptionable perhaps are, — 1st, the termina- 
tion yle for the compound radicals, methyle, ethyle, amyle, benzoyle, &c. ; 
and as the above has been assigned to the bodies possessing the atomic con- 
stitution assigned to the organic radicals by Liebig, namely C® H^ with the 
superaddition of two or more multiples of C' H', it may prevent confusion 
to adopt the termination ene or en for those hydrocarbons with an equal num- 
ber of atoms of carbon and hydrogen which Dumas used to regard as the 
real organic radicals ; thus etherene will be a compound of C* HS methylene 
of C* H-, and other compounds with an analogous constitution will terminate 
in the same manner. 

The termination ine is reserved for the vegetable alkalies, or for bodies 
possessing properties of at least an analogous nature. 

Thus strychnine, morphine, nicotine, as well as isotine, aniline, and even 
kreatinine, cholesterine, &c. belong to this group. 

K 2 



132 REPORT — 1851. 

It may be doubtful whether kreatine, not being alkaline, is strictly entitled 
to this termination, and at any rate it should be understood, that it is to be re- 
stricted to bodies containing nitrogen ; thus the ethers are rightly excluded, 
because although possessing basic properties, the absence of nitrogen is 
attended with properties of quite a different nature. 

Dr. Hofmann, whose most valuable researches on the nature of the vege- 
table alkalies have added so much to the number of these bodies, proposes 
to designate them by terms constructed out of those which signify the hydro- 
carbons present in each. 

Thus Aniline being denoted by NH 

H 
C- H% will be phenylamine ; 

Ethylaniline NH 

C* H^ 

C"^ H*, will be ethylophenylamine ; 

Methylaniline NH 

C2 H» 

C'2 H^, will be methylophenylamine ; 
and when all the three atoms of hydrogen are replaced, we should be com- 
pelled to adopt words of the truly formidable length of methylethylophenyl- 
amine. 

I would suggest to the distinguished author, who amidst the herculean 
labours of unravelling these intricate combinations, may have wanted time to 
bestow upon so subordinate a point as their nomenclature, whether his names 
may not be conveniently abridged by using only the first syllable of that ex- 
pressive of the organic radicals which replace the hydrogen atoms. 
Thus let meth stand for methyl, 

eth ethyl, 

am amyl, 

chl* chlorine, 

br bromine, 

nitr nitric acid, 

phe phenyl ; 

adding in the five former cases to the end the next vowel, when the succeed- 
ing syllable begins with a consonant, and in the last the next consonant, when 
the succeeding syllable begins with a vowel. 

In this manner it will rarely happen that the number of syllables of which 
the word consists can exceed six, as will be seen by the following table : — 

Symbol. Common Name. Hofmann' s Name. Abbreviation proposed. 

Aniline Phenylamine Phenamine. 



" 1 

H J.N...Anilir 

C»2 HsJ 



H 

Qu JJ4 ^N ... Chloraniline Chlorophenylamine Chlophenamine. 

CI'. 

* Some may prefer the abbreviation chlor for chlorine, and brom for bromine. This 
change however will involve the use of an additional syllable, whenever the next substance 
expressed begins with a consonant : thus chlophenamine would be chlorophenamine, brophe- 
namine, bromophenaraine, &c. The advantage in point of perspicuity will therefore have to be 
balanced against the inconvenience of increasing still further the length of words, often of 
necessity extended already to the limits of ready utterance. When however nitrous acid 
is the replacing body, the introduction of a second syllable to indicate its presence cannot 
well be avoided, for ni alone might stand for several other substances. 



ON THE NOMBNCIiATURBl OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 133 

St/mbol. Common Name. Hojmann's Name. Jbbreoiatio proposed. 

H I 

C's H^ [N ... BromaniUne Bromophenylamine Brophenamine. 

Br»J 

" 1 . 

CIS H4 p ... Nitraniliiie Nitrophenylamine Nitrophenamme. 

NO-'J 
H lN...Ethylamiiie Ethylammonia Ethamine. 

C4 HslN-EthylanUine Ethylophenylamine Ethyphenamine. 

C« HsJ 

C2 Hsl^-^^'^y^^'"^'"® Methylopheuylamine Methyphenamine. 

. Amylaniline Amylophenylamine Arayphenamine. 



C'OH" In... 

C»2 H^J 



H -1 

^* ^Hn ...Ethylochloraniline ,,. Ethylochlorophenylamine ... Ethychlophenamine. 

CliJ 

H 1 

^^ HM j^ ^jjjylobromaniline ... Ethylobromophenylamine ... Ethybrophenamme. 

Br' 
H . . 

^^ H« 1 jj _ Ethylonitraniline Ethylonitrophenylamine Ethyniphenamme. 

N0< 



" 1 
C* H«J 



Diethylamine Diethylammonia Diethymine. 



C* H5 In ... Diethylaniline Diethylophenylamine Diethyphenamine. 

C* W 1 

C^ H» In... Methylethylaniline „. Methylethylophenylamine ... Methethyphenanune. 

C'2 H'J 

CioH" lN...Diamylaniline Diamylopbenylamine Diamyphenamine. 

C>2H5 J 

^* ^* In ... DietbylocMoraniline ... Diethylochlorophenylamine ... Diethychlophenamine. 
Cl'J 

C< H' In ... Triethylamine Triethylammonia Triethamine. 

C HsJ 

If we restrict the termination amine to the alkalies artificially produced by 
replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia with a hydro- 
carbon, and retain that of ine for those resulting from natural processes, and 



poH" In ...Ethylaraylaniline Ethylamylophenylamine Ethamyphenamine. 



134 REPORT — 1851. 

only eliminated by art, we shall mark in this manner the distinction between 
bodies, which though often isomeric are not identical. 

Thus the compound artificially produced, which consists of NH 

may be called methypheimmine ; whilst the principle extracted from oil of 
tolu, which is found to have the same composition, may retain its name of 
toluidine. The dissimilarity in properties between these isomeric bodies 
renders a different name for the two indispensable. 

Analogy therefore might perhaps lead us to assign to Fownes's artificial 
alkali, furfurine, the name of furfui amine, although its composition is more 
complicated than that of Hofmann's alkaloids, as it contains oxygen 
(CsoN«H'2 06). 

No such change would be warrantable in the names of bodies, like kreatine, 
kreatinine, thialdine, &c., which, even if entitled to their present designations, 
as they contain nitrogen, and the two latter at least possess decided basic pro- 
perties, bear little resemblance to the vegetable alkaloids, and can neither be 
referred to the class of amides, according to the old theory, nor yet be resolved 
into substitutions of hydrocarbons for hydrogen, agreeably to the views of 
Hofmann. 

But how are we to deal with bodies which, like oxamide, bioxamide, &c,, 
though artificially produced in the same manner as the bodies we have been 
considering, do not, nevertheless, possess alkaline properties? For them 
I would propose to retain the received name of amides ; only as the distiuc- 
tipn between amides, imides and nitriles, seems now to point to an exploded 
theory, it would be better to extend to them the same principle of nomen- 
clature as that adopted by Dr. Hofmann, namely, that of calling the com- 
pound in which 2 atoms of benzoyle are substituted for 2 of hydrogen, not, 
as Laurent has done, henzimide, but d'lbenzamide ; and if one were discovered 
in which 3 atoms were so introduced, to name it tnhenzamide, and so with 
the rest. 

Mr. Robson, indeed, in a late communication to the Chemical Society, has 
already pointed out a compound which he terms dibenzoylimide, but this has 
the composition of C^s H" NO^, or NH3+2C"H«0-. It is therefore an 
ammoniacal compound of benzoyle, and not an amide. 

Some chemists have adopted a still more abbreviated form of expression, by 
attaching the termination am, with the name of the combining body prefixed, 
to indicate such compounds. 

Thus hemidam has been used to designate aniline ; melam for the com- 
pound of ammonia with mellon, in the proportion of three of the former to 
two of the latter. Nothing, however, is gained in point of convenience by 
adopting the former term, in compensation for the confusion which its use 
would introduce; for phenamine is as concise a term as benzidam, and cer- 
tainly more euphonious ; but melam belongs altogether to another series, 
since in it the mellon does not replace the hydrogen atoms of ammonia, but 
unites with ammonia as such, in the proportion of 2 to 3 : — 
Benzidam, NH Melam, NH-, 

H hI+C«H* 

C'^H^ HJ 

NH-, 

hI-i-c«h* 
hJ 

NH-, 
Hi 
Hj 



ON THE NOMENCLATURE OP ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 135 

Laurent has proposed to give the termination se to those bodies which are 
formed from a hydrocarbon by the substitution of some element for one or 
more of the hydrogen atoms present in the original compound. To these 
letters he prefixes one or other of the vowels, according to the number of 
atoms so replaced, a being used when only 1 atom of the new ingredient is 
introduced, e when 2 atoms, i when 3, and so on, till the whole number of 
vowels is exhausted ; after which the series recommences by prefixing the 
syllable al to the vowel. 

Thus, from naphthaline, C*^ H*, he derives, — 

Chlornaphthase C* H^ CI, 
Chlornaphthese C^ H6 C% 
Chlornaphthise C^ H* C*, and so on ; but 
Chlornaphthalese is C^ H^ CP. 

Other refinements upon this mode of nomenclature are proposed in 
M. Laurent's various papers, and well deserve the attention of those who 
follow up similar tracks of research. 

The termination al has been appropriated to combinations into which 
aldehyde enters as a constituent, or which are derived from that body. It 
may be right, however, to point out, that many substances bound together by 
a very loose analogy are thus embraced. 

Thus chlora/ is aldehyde in which the 3 hydrogen atoms are replaced by 
3 of chlorine. C* H^ O + HO becomes C* Cl^ O + HO. 

Aceta^, on the contrary, is aldehyde united with oxide of ethyl. 

C* H* O' aldehyde 

C* H5 O' oxide of ethyl 

H' O' water 
C8 H9 03 acetal 

whilst the analogous compound of aldehyde with ammonia is called simply 
aldehydammonia. 

The term ethane, in like manner, comprises compounds of which ether 
forms a part ; but it should be confined to those into which an acid does not 
enter as a constituent, since in the latter cases the nomenclature of the salts 
may be preferable. 

Thus urethane may be retained as the name for a compound of urea and 
carbonic ether, or the carbonate of oxide of ethyl, its composition being — 

Urea C * H * O* N^ 

2 Carbonic ether. . C" H"> O^ 

Ci2Hi*08N« 
But it would seem better to designate the substance called oxamethane, by 
the term oxamate of oxide of ethyl — 

Oxamic acid. . C* H^ N' O* 
Ether C^ H^ O^ 

C« H7 N' 06 

and oxamethylane by that of the oxamate of oxide of methyl. 

In this manner we shall also avoid the confusion that may arise between 
names so related as oxamethylane and oxamethane, the former indicating 
the oxamate of methyle, the latter that of ethyle. 

I am unable to attach any definite meaning to the termination an, by 
which certain organic compounds connected with urea are now designated. 

Alloxan, one of them, is regarded as an acid, the erythric of Brugnatelli. 
Murexan may probably be a salt of cyanoxalic acid and ammonia; but not- 



136 REPORT — 1851. 

withstanding the researches of Liebig and Wohler, the true relations of their 
bodies one to the other still appear obscure. 

The termination one appropriately denotes bodies formed from vegetable 
acids by the abstraction of 1 atom of carbonic acid, and should be reserved 
for this same description of bodies ; but the use of the analogous termination 
ole for those formed by the abstraction of 2 atoms of carbonic acid from the 
same may be apt to cause some ambiguity. Thus we use the terms benzofe, 
pheno/e, and aniso/e, as being derived respectively from the benzoic, salicy- 
lic, and anisic acids. 

Benzole C'^ H^ + C^ O* forming benzoic acid C* H^ 0*. 

Phenole ... C'2H6 02 + C«0* „ salicylic „ C* H^ O^. 
Anisole.. ..C'<H8 0"-+C2 0* „ anisic „ C'« H8 Qs. 

But unfortunately the same termination, or one so similar as to be easily 
confounded with it, has been applied to bodies of an entirely different com- 
position, in order to indicate that they belong to the class of oils. Thus ben- 
zoilo/ is the name given by some to the essential oil of bitter almonds; 
cinnamoZ to the oil of cinnamons, and so with the rest. 

It would seem better that these latter names should be abandoned, and 
that the termination ole should be applied only to bodies formed in the same 
manner as benzole and its analogues. 

The above remarks and suggestions in relation to the classification and 
nomenclature of organic compounds, crude as they may appear in the eyes of 
chemists more thoroughly versed in the subject than myself, will not be 
altogether thrown away, if they only serve to stimulate others to make it the 
subject of their consideration, and thus lead to the establishment of more 
precise and convenient terms of art. Some indeed may object that the whole 
of this department of chemistry is at present in a transition state, and conse- 
quently that no fixed rules, for classifying or naming the various products 
that present themselves to us whilst investigating it, can as yet be laid down. 
But the fact is, that we are compelled, whether we will or no, by the very 
necessity of the case, to adopt a certain system of nomenclature whenever a 
new body comes before us, and the only question is, whether this system 
shall be consistent with itself, and shall convey a correct impression of the 
relation in which, at the time of its discovery, we suppose the body to stand 
with reference to others. 

It has been my endeavour, in the preceding remarks, to point out what 
appear to me to be the views which have guided the most eminent chemical 
authorities in the names they have thought proper to impose, and thus rather 
to give expression to their ideas, than to advance any theories or methods of 
my own invention. 

I would however submit to the chemists here assembled, whether the want 
of precision which has been shown to exist in the application of those prin- 
ciples of nomenclature to particular cases, does not suggest the expediency of 
having the whole subject brought under revision by this Section, or by a 
Committee appointed by it, and of having certain definite rules laid down by 
their joint authority, in conformity with the usage, and in accordance with 
the understood principles, of those great masters of chemical science to whom 
we all look up in deference. 

In the mean time, I will, in conclusion, submit to the Section the few fol- 
lowing directions, as calculated, in my humble opinion, to simplify the nomen- 
clature of organic compounds, and therefore as worthy of adoption, at least 
provisionally, in order to render it more expressive and perspicuous. 

1st. That in the case of bodies only known to be produced by artificial 



ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 137 

processes, names should, if possible, be given them by putting together terms 
expressive of the several constituents which contribute to form them ; but as 
no name ought, for the sake of convenience, to exceed in length six or seven 
syllables, the first syllable only of the vi^ord indicating each component part 
should be introduced into that of the compound designated. 

This principle I have endeavoured to carry out, in the modifications pro- 
posed for the names given by Hofmann to the various substances, produced 
by him through the replacement of atoms of hydrogen by hydrocarbons. 
The necessity for such abbreviations will, I conceive, be the more felt, now 
that iu the further prosecution of his researches no less than 4 atoms of 
hydrogen have been so replaced*. 

2nd. When, owing to the complicated nature of the body discovered, or to 
the obscurity that hangs over its real nature, it seems impracticable to name 
it on the plan above proposed, a word expressive of some obvious and 
marked physical or chemical character should be selected, and one whose 
Greek or Latin root may be readily apprehended. 

* I must confess myself quite unable to invent pronounceable names for such compounds, 
if it be ruled, that they are to express, not merely the nature of the constituents, but likewise 
the origin or mode of fonnation attributed to each. 

Provided the latter condition be waved, I do not despair of assigning to them terms little 
more difficult to articulate than those proposed for the bodies described in Dr. Hofinann's 
preceding papers. Should the alterations suggested be regarded as sinning against any un- 
derstood Canons of Nomenclature, I see no alternative, but that of discarding names for these 
new bodies altogether, and contenting ourselves vvith symbols ; for a word which cannot be 
uttered, whilst it is iu no respect preferable to a symbol, is much less easily written ; and such 
I apprehend to be the case with some of the terms which I have given below, and for which 
therefore, I venture to propose the annexed substitutes : — 

Symbol. Hofmann's Names. Names suggested. 

C* H5 f NO, HO... Oxide of Triethylophenylammonium Oxide of Triethyphenine. 

C12 H5 J 
C2 H3 1 

CioSu [no, HO...{j^^thyIethylamylophenylammomum}-" Oxide of Methamyphenine. 

C»2H5 J 

C^ H5 1 

C* H5 [NO, HO... Oxide of Tetrethylammonium Oxide of Tetrethine. 

C* H5 J 
C* H5 1 

C* H5 f NO, HO... Oxide of Triethylammonium Oxide of Triethine. 

CIO HH J 
C* HS 

(-14 XI5 I 

C* H5 f NO, HO... Oxide of Triethylomethylammonium Oxide of Triethemethine. 

C2 H3 
C2 H3 

c* HI r^O, HO... Oxide of Diethylomethylamylammonium... Oxide of Diethemethamine. 

C" H*. J 
(7 H3 1 

r2 H3 f-NO, HO... Oxide of Tetramethylammonium Oxide of Tetramethine. 

C3 H* J 
CIO Hii 1 

rioHii f^O, HO... Oxide of Tetramylammonium „ Oxide of Tetramine. 

CiOH"J 



138 REPORT— 1851. 

Thus mercaptan, kapnomor, pittacal, parabanic acid, allophanic ether, 
seem for the above reasons objectionable ; whilst such terms as mellon, cre- 
osote, glycerine, &c., are perhaps as good as could have been fixed upon under 
the circumstances for the bodies so designated. 

3rd. That when the substance to be named has been produced by natural 
processes, and only eliminated by art, a name expressive of its origin would 
seem preferable to one taken from its composition. 

Hence not only should the tei-ms strychnine, nicotine, &c. be retained, 
but even toluidine, xylidine, and cumidine, although apparently produced 
by the replacement of hydrogen atoms, like the artificial compounds which 
Hofmann has discovered, should be preferred to words indicative of their 
component parts. 

4th. That in general bodies belonging to the same class, or formed accord- 
ing to the same type, should preserve the same termination ; but that never- 
theless when a body, long recognized and familiarly known to us, has been 
shown to belong to a type to which a particular termination is assigned, it 
may not be advisable to alter its recognized and received appellation, so as 
to bring it into harmony with the rest. 

Thus the term urea should be retained unaltered, notwithstanding its 
analogy in certain respects to the organic alkalies, which have the termina- 
tion ine appropriated to them. 



On two unsolved Problems in Indo-German Philology. 
By the Rev. J. W. Donaldson, B.D. 

The science of Ethnography, which involves the arrangement and classifi- 
cation of the different members of the human family, and explains their 
common origin and casual juxtapositions, must be regarded as the most im- 
portant accession to systematic knowledge which has been made in our time. 
It is only recently that it has found a place among the subjects of inquiry 
suggested to the British Association ; and until the present year it has been 
entrusted to a subsection only. But if we estimate its value properly, and 
consider the diversified range of study which it implies, and the vast number 
of labourers who are contributing in different ways to lay the foundations of 
this great edifice, we may fairly plead for a recognition of its right to a fore- 
most place among those sciences which it is the design of this Association to 
advance. At any rate there is no branch of study which is more likely to 
profit by the retrospective surveys, for which an annual meeting like the 
present furnishes so good an opportunity. For while no science is more 
steadily progressive than ethnography, and while none more rapidly accu- 
mulates the materials of induction, its encyclopedic range, and the want of 
communication between the many active minds engaged upon it, especially 
necessitate a periodical report of its existing state, such as may suffice to in- 
dicate what has been really effected, and to point out the objects to which 
the attention of inquirers may still be most profitably directed. At the 
present season, when the Great Exhibition in the metropolis has brought to 
our shores deputations from all the leading families of the Indo-European 
race, and when we are met near the East- Anglian coast, where Britain re- 
ceived the first instalments of that northern colony which gave a new name 
to our island and ingrafted on our language its most characteristic elements, 
it seems particularly incumbent upon us to look back on what has been 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 139 

secured in the scientific classification of the race to which we belong, and to 
indicate the outlying difficulties which invite the united efforts of modern 
genius and learning. 

Those who have fully studied the subject will readily admit that the great 
majority of questions raised by the various writers on Indo-Germanic ethno- 
graphy have received satisfactory answers, and that our general results rest 
on the solid basis of scientific certainty. There are, in fact, only two pro- 
blems suggested by this subject which still demand an adequate solution — 
the amount and nature of the affinity which connects the Indo-Germanic and 
Semitic branches of the human family, and the origin and interpretation of 
the ancient Etruscan language. The difficulties occasioned by the Basque or 
Euskarian language may be considered as having received at least an approx- 
imate settlement, and it may be concluded generally that this isolated idiom 
is due to a combination of the Celtic and Finnish elements, which form, either 
separately or together, the outer fringe or hem of the population of Europe. 
But the other two problems still require a scientific investigation. Indeed 
it may be considered as the greatest reproach to modern scholarship that the 
Etruscan language is little better known to us than it was to Dempster ; and 
that while we can read the Cartouches of the Pharaohs, and interpret the 
cuneiform records of Darius, we cannot come to any satisfactory result 
respecting a language which was spoken by the immediate ancestors of 
Maecenas, and which, long after the time of Pericles, was the vernacular 
idiom of one of the most powerful and civilized of the nations of antiquity. 
And with regard to the Semitic question, it is scarcely less strange that we 
should still allow Rabbis and Talmudists to separate the language of the 
Jews from that of the Greeks by a Chinese wall of demarcation, and that the 
two adjacent sources, from which the streams of European civilization flowed 
until they converged in one united channel of religious philosophy, should 
still be referred to different hemispheres, and should be thought to present 
indisputable marks of a diversity of origin. 

Having approached the discussion of these topics on various occasions, 
and having surveyed them from different points of view, but always with a 
tendency to the same result, I have thought that my best contribution to 
this Meeting would be such a general statement of the conclusions at which 
I have arrived as might tend to facilitate a mutual understanding between 
myself and others who have not yet developed the direction of their researches 
in the same field. For it appears to me to be one of the most important of 
the objects of this Association to promote the intercourse of those who cul- 
tivate science, and thus to substitute a systematic division of labour for that 
purposeless repetition of the same exertions, which is the natural consequence 
of unconnected inquiries. 

I have been led to include the two unsolved problems in Indo-Germanic 
ethnography under one head, because I believe that one and the same channel 
of investigation will conduct us to the proper issue in each case. The sci- 
entific procedure, according to my view of the matter, will show that the 
solution of both difficulties depends on a satisfactory definition of the Asiatic 
starting-point and European limits of the Sclavonian emigration. And I 
shall endeavour to show you that the first and last contacts of this great 
family of men, — the extreme edges of this great stratum of population, — fur- 
nish us with the points of transition to the Syro- Arabian stock in general, 
and to the Etruscan nation in particular. 

But I must begin with some principles of universal application, which 
appear to me to be the axioms or postulates in every ethnological argument, 
but which, I fear, are not sufficiently regarded as such. As the sum of our 



140 REPORT — 1851. 

knowledge hitherto acquired tends to confirm our instinctive belief and almost 
universal tradition respecting the unity of the human race, it seems reason- 
able to start with the assumption that men cannot be divided into zoological 
genera ; and as every presumption is in favour of this axiom, we must leave 
the omis probandi, with regard to any other hypothesis, upon those who feel 
disposed to contradict us. For my own part, I confess I feel somewhat in- 
dignant when I fall in with an attempt to classify men according to the ex- 
ternal peculiarities of feature and colour. I consider it a degrading theory 
to maintain that man belongs to the merely animal kingdom at all ; and if in 
other departments of their own science naturalists would refuse to place in 
the same group, whether zoological or phytological, species which were not 
connected together by at least three marks of essential affinity, affecting their 
absolute definition, I cannot understand why man, the only reasoning and 
thinking being, should be placed by the side of those creatures, which cannot 
reason or speak, merely on the strength of an outward analogy, which does 
not in tlie slightest degree affect our distinctive attributes. Scientific eth- 
nology seems to me to start from the postulate that our race is essentially 
one, and accidentally different. In many cases, we can clearly trace the 
causation of these differences to the influence of climate, aliment, and civi- 
lization, and as they do not, in the widest and most pronounced form of dis- 
crepancy, interfere with the definition of man, as such, it is surely unscientific 
to make ethnography dependent in any way on the casualties of physical 
conformation. Speaking with reference to the whole period of time which 
must have elapsed since the establishment of our species on the surface of 
this planet, we may say that the settlement of the Anglo-Saxons in North 
America is an event of yesterday, and yet they already begin to exhibit 
physical characteristics more akin to those of their neighbours than to those 
of their ancestors. Peculiarities affecting the cellular substance and max- 
illary process may place an almost Turanian stamp on a highly cultivated 
United States man, who can discourse eloquently in the language of Shaks- 
peare, who bears an English name, and exhibits in all his actions the energy 
of that race which has spread its colonies over the whole world. Differences 
of craniological structure and intellectual development must also be re- 
garded as accidents perfectly consistent, not only with the aboriginal unity, 
but also 'vith the present identity of men. May not the same family contain 
an idiot and a philosopher ? Does not every family exhibit the gradation 
of helpless infant, thoughtless boy, and mature man ? It is surely idle to 
endeavour to classify the human race by distinctions which may be found in 
the same household. The latest book* which has treated " the varieties 
of man" as a branch of "natural history," arranges the population of the 
world under three great subdivisions : the MongolidcB, corresponding mainly 
to the Turanians; the AtlantidcB, including the Semitic race; and the 
JapetidcB, who are identical with the Indo-Europeans. Now almost any 
man's experience may convince him that hereditary civilization and similar 
opportunities will place Jews and Gentiles, Mongolians and Indo-Germans, 
on a footing of the most perfect equality. The Atlantid Toussaint was a 
match for his Japhetic antagonists ; the Mongolian Kossuth has held his own 
in European statesmanship ; and on the battle-field of Austerlitz the same 
military talents were displayed by Miloradowitch, who was a Servian and 
therefore of the purest Indo-German stock, by Bagration, who was a Geor- 
gian prince, and thei-efore of Mongol extraction, and by Soult, who, according 
to DTsraeli, derived his origin from the Semitic Jews. 
As then a difference of climate and aliment is calculated to produce, in 
* Dr. Latham's. 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 141 

the same race and within a limited time, striking bodily distinctions, and as, 
on the contrary, similarity of culture and habits seems to cause, in different 
races, an identity of craniologlcal structure and intellectual development, 
it is clear that ethnography, as the science which treats of the different fa- 
milies into which mankind are divided, and accounts for their distribution 
over the surface of the globe, cannot be satisfied with the results of physio- 
logical investigation. The comparative anatomy of the different races of 
men is not at all calculated to explain the facts of our science or to assist 
us in forming our classification. Interesting on its own account, as an im- 
portant branch of pathology, it is useful to the ethnographer only as removing 
the difficulties by which he would otherwise be encumbered. It is our 
projjer business to show why a nation or people, having its own peculiar 
modification of language, came to be settled in a particular locality, and in 
what manner it is related to the contiguous tribes. Now it is obvious that 
there can be but four elements in such an inquiry as this. (1.) Our first and 
most important step is to examine philologically the language of the tribe; 
(2.) the ancient designation of the people, and the names of persons and 
places within the district, furnish us with additional materials of the same 
kind ; (3.) the knowledge thus acquired is to be compared with any historical 
traditions which may be available ; and (4.) the final test is supplied by phy- 
sical or descriptive geography. To take a simple and easy example : the 
district called Hungary is mainly occupied by the Magyars, who are distin- 
guished by their language from the German, Sclavonian and Wallachian 
tribes with which they are intermixed. It is by their language that we per- 
ceive their ethnical identity with the Laplanders of the North and with the 
Bashkirs of the South. The names of their nobles, of their cities, and of 
their rivers and plains, show to what an extent they have superseded or 
yielded to conterminous influences. Their history gives a distinct account 
of their immigration, and the geographical conformation of the country which 
they occupy shows how they originally entered it by the outlet of the 
Danube, and how their ulterior development was controlled by natural ob- 
stacles. The same process might be applied in eveiy case ; and thus, while 
the facts are established by a philological investigation of the language 
spoken and of the names imposed, these facts are explained and accounted 
for by the results of our historical and geographical knowledge. If we desire 
to ascertain the origin of any branch of the great human family, this is the 
only course which we can pursue, and if we have access to all four sources 
of information, the result is safe and satisfactory. It rarely happens that any 
further light is derived from the observation of physical peculiarities. Ex- 
cept as an evidence of hereditary descent, within narrow limits and without 
the operation of climatologic peculiarities, an appeal to physiology is super- 
fluous. If ethnography can solve the problems which it undertakes, it must 
do so without the aid of the anatomist, and we should only complicate our 
difficulties, if we allowed the precarious and casual to take the place of that 
■which is a proper and essential element in our inquiries. 

Under these circumstances, we cannot too soon relinquish, as unscientific, 
the attempt to classify mankind by the accidents of physical conformation. 
Differences of race are not regulated or explained by differences in the 
parietal diameter of the cranium, or in the maxillary process, or in the pelvis, 
any more than by varieties in the colour of the hair and skin. To separate men 
into different groups according to their outward distinctions, which do not 
affect the essential characteristics of our race, is not less puerile than the 
prima fade classification, which gives rise to the earliest nomenclature in the 



142 REPORT 1851. 

natural history of lower animals. There some one prominent quality is 
grasped by the mind, and an attributive noun is formed, which, so far from 
defining the species, is often equally applicable to animals of the most different 
genera. We smile when we are told that theyba;, the stoat, and the lobster, 
are designated in Old English by a common name referring to the wideness 
of the tail. But surely this is only the same process as that which induces 
us to distinguish the human race into great families by a reference to external 
characteristics, many of which may be exhibited by the different members 
of the same family, and all of which may exist, at least in approximate forms, 
in members of the same national tribe. Scientific classification ought to be 
regulated by (he most advanced results of our knowledge, and not by the 
vague impressions resulting from our first cursory observations. Imperfect 
science, like imperfect manhood, dwells upon differences long before it can 
perceive resemblances. It is the business of the matured intellect to find 
the common element by which classes are linked together, and to subordinate 
the multiform exterior to the unity which reigns within. If this is true in 
all cases, it is so especially when we have to do with man, whose essential 
definition is independent of his external frame. The instinct which convinces 
us that our race constitutes one family, dispersed indeed by emigration, but 
connected with one home by a common pedigree, is confirmed by all access- 
ible knowledge, and it seems that no ethnographical classification can be 
permanently satisfactory, unless it recognises this primeval unity, and con- 
trasts it with the subsequent process of separation and dispersion. As the 
evidences furnished by language, tradition, and physical geography all point 
to Armenia as the first cradle of the human race, it would seem to be most 
scientific to contrast the original nucleus, which formed itself in this region, 
and more gradually expanded itself in massive outpourings, with the scat- 
tered offshoots which were always dispersing themselves in scanty streams of 
restless wanderers. We shall thus find two great subdivisions of the popu- 
lation of the world — the central and the sporadic. The former will include 
the Jndo- Germanic race, which extended itself from Iran to India on the 
one side, and on the other side peopled the whole of Europe : and the Semitic 
race, which after having reached the highest pitch of civilization in Syria 
and Egypt, pushed forward its undulations of decreasing intelligence until it 
had covered the whole of Africa. All the rest of the world, the north and 
east of Asia, America, and the intervening islands are peopled by branches of 
the sporadic race, more or less connected with the Eastern or Iranian group. 
Among the various advantages of this classification, I may mention that it not 
only represents the present results and obvious tendencies of our researches, 
but is also conformable to our daily experience. For the world is still but par- 
tially peopled, and still exhibits itself as a central mass, sending forth spo- 
radic ramifications of colonies. And even if we were to discover reasons, 
much more convincing than any which have as yet been produced, in favour 
of the Polyadamism of our race, nothing can alter the fact that there has been 
a centre and starting-point of human civilization, and that the cradle of the 
Semitic and Indo- Germanic families has sent forth those tribes, whose history 
is that of the world. 

However, it is not my purpose on the present occasion to pursue these 
general reasonings any farther. I may be content to refer to what I have 
elsewhere written on the subject. And I shall proceed at once to my im- 
mediate object, namely, to the indications of the important conclusions 
deducible from a more accurate survey of the first and last contacts of the 
Sclavonians. 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GKRMAN PHILOLOGY. 143 

It can scarcely be necessary to trouble this Association with prolix details 
respecting the Indo-Germanic family. For the sake of method and clearness, 
however, I must recapitulate the main facts of the case. 

The district called Iran, which we must regard with filial respect as the 
birthplace of our race, and with lively political interest as the western 
limit of our eastern empire, may be defined generally as the plateau which 
is bounded by the sea on the south, and by the Tigris, the Oxus, and 
the Indus on the other three sides. These great rivers are however only a 
part of the fences by which it is enclosed on the land side. On the north the 
Caspian and Aral seas, together with long ridges of mountains, the offshoots 
of the Himalayas, form a cordon more or less difficult of transit. And to 
the east, more than one rocky range, now advancing to the Indus, now 
receding from it, and penetrated only by passes white with the bones of 
slaughtered armies, stand fast as a natural wall not easily surmounted by 
those who would sally forth from the Sindian plains. 

Within these limits sprang up, side by side, the different members of that 
great Iranian or Indo-German race, with the subdivisions of which I am now 
concerned. One band after another of hardy and enterprising emigrants 
escaped from the comparatively narrow limits of this plateau, and carried 
their high courage and intellectual capabilities to be strengthened and in- 
creased under the bracing influences of the climate of Europe. Among 
themselves and within the limits of Iran they were known by different names, 
just as brothers are distinguished from brothers; they had also marked di- 
stinctions of moral and speculative qualities, just as the children of one parent 
may differ from one another in these respects. According to their different 
characteristics were their different destinies, which they have all fulfilled 
according to the original pattern. 

Omitting the desert interior of the Iranian plateau, we may divide its an- 
cient population into the four following groups : the Persians or Germanians 
who abutted on the Persian Gulf and Sea and looked towards Arabia ; the 
Medes or Matians, who extended from the Caspian until they reached the 
Persian borders ; the Sacce, who extended from Khorassan to Bokhara ; and 
the Arians, who spread themselves from Hinduh-kuh over the mountains 
which look down upon the Indus and its tributaries. It is the consistent 
result of all ethnographic speculations that the conquerors of the Punjab and 
Hindostan, to whom we owe the Pali and Sanscrit languages, belonged to 
this last branch of the Iranian stock ; and it is equally clear that the di- 
stinctive elements of the population of Europe are traceable to the other 
three branches. 

The Turanian and Celtic races, to whom we undoubtedly owe the first 
beginnings of the population of Europe, have been extruded to the uttermost 
parts of the continent, and are so overruled by and intermixed with sub- 
sequent importations of ethnical ingredients, that they may be and usually 
are omitted in a general survey of the Indo-Germanic race. Indeed, if we 
except the comparatively modern settlements of the Ugro-Tatarians in Hun- 
gary, and of the Turco-Tatarians in Macedonia and Greece, we must divide 
the whole population of Europe into three and only three classes — the Scla- 
vonians, whom we will call A ; the Low- Germans, Goths or Saxons, B ; and 
the High- Germans, or Herminones, C. Of these it is clear that class A en- 
tered Europe first, and that throughout the greater part of the district where 
it is now found, it escaped all mixture with the subsequent bands of emi- 
grants from Iran, In ancient Greece and Italy the fusion in different pro- 
portions of A+C and A + B gave rise to the Pelasgo-Hellenic and Pelasgo- 
Umbrian races, and a similar mixture of A + B in the north of Europe 



144 REPORT — 1851. 

constituted the Lithuanian people. Among the Teutonic tribes there are 
frequent compounds of B and C, but the Scandinavian tribes exhibit the 
Low-Germans, or class B, in the purest form. It is the intention of the 
following pages to use the distinction between the Scandinavian and pure 
Sclavonian languages for the purpose of resolving into its separate elements 
the Italian compound of the two which has caused so much difficulty to phi- 
lologers. But in the first place I must consider the Asiatic contacts of the 
Sclavonian race, and the problem, which is suggested and solved by these 
juxtapositions. 

Schafarik has shown that the earliest names under which the Sclavonian 
race is recognised in Europe are the appellation of Wends, Winden, O.-H.-G. 
Winidd, A.-S. Veonodas, which was given to them by their German neigh- 
bours, and the title of Servians, Serbs, Sorbs, which they bestowed upon 
themselves. It is of no avail for the purposes of ethnography to examine 
the name which this race received from their neighbours, but it is interesting 
to inquire why they called themselves Servians. From a comparison of the 
forms Sermende, Sirmien, with others in which the b is changed into m, 
Grimm {Gesch. d. deutschen Sprache, p. 172) is disposed to recognise the 
root Serb' in the name of the ancient Sartnatians. I consider this latter 
word as a compound, and shall discuss its meaning by and by. Schafarik, who 
does not now admit the Sclavonian affinities of the Sarmatians (Slawiscke 
Alterthiimer, i. p. 333, seq. ed. Wuttke), connects the ethnic name Servian 
with the Russ. jaaseri =z puer, privignus, PoL pasierb, which he identifies with 
pastorek, pasterka=privignus, the t in the latter being an arbitrary insertion, 
as in strjbro for srebro ^= argentum, &c., so that pa-ser-b and pa-ser-k differ 
only in the formative affix, and the two words fall into an equality with one 
another and with the S&nscT. paser = puer, Pers. puser, Pehlevi poser, &c. 
The root then is that of the Sanscr. su = generare, and the meaning of the 
ethnical name Serb is merely " natio, gens," after the analogy of the term 
Deutsch, Thiotisk, derived from the Gothic thidda=^gens {Slatv. Alterth. i. 
p. 178-180). This appears tome very vague etymology, and I have no he- 
sitation in proposing another derivation, which, though it ultimately falls 
back on the same root, presents it under a special form and not in a mono- 
syllable, which, as Grimm says, might be the mother of every word beginning 
with the letter s. The old gloss of the Mater Verborum, published by 
Schafarik and Palacky, in Die dltesten Denhndler der Bohmischen Sprache, 
contains the following definition, p. 225 [303] : " Sr'bi, Sarmate si7bi turn 
dicti a serendo i. quasi sirbtiim." Now the earliest notice which we have 
respecting the Sclavonians is the statement of Procopius (B. Goth. iii. c. 14. 
p. 498) that their ancient name was STropot, which he refers to the fact that 
they were a-Kopah^v lii.a^r]vi)ixkvoi. We cannot doubt that SttcJ/jos involves 
a metathesis of the genuine Serb or Sorb, and it is equally obvious that this 
metathesis was occasioned by a wish to make the word correspond in Greek 
to the meaning which Procopius had heard attached to it. But there is no 
reason whatever for supposing that the metaphor, involved in the Greek 
adverb and in the name of the scattered islands of the ^gean, was also 
common in the old Sclavonian idiom. On the contrary, the analogy of other 
Sclavonian gentile names would show that the word would designate them 
by their employment, or by the physical features of the locality, and that 
they might be called "sowers," i.e. "agriculturists," as occupiers of the 
plains, in contrast to their neighbours, just as the Chorwats got this name 
from being mountaineers, and just as the Pomerajiians were so called from 
living on the sea. Thus the name Serb will correspond in effect to that of 
Pole, the latter denoting the plains in which the agriculturists were settled, 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 145 

and the former indicating their usual occupation. The name Sclavonian, 
Sloio-ja7ie, Sloio-jene, has generally been derived, either from s/«?<7a, 'glory,' 
and so considered as synonymous with slawetnj = gloriosi, laicdabiles, celebres, 
or else from slotvo, 'a word,' in which case it would signify the o/.i6yXwTroi, 
Sermonales, articulateiy-speaking natives, as opposed to the Nemj, Nemci, 
' dumb,' /japjSapoi, or unintelligible foreigners. Instead of these compli- 
mentary derivations, Schafarik now proposes {Slmo. Alterth. ii. p. 42 foil.) 
to consider the word as a local title, like the other words in -a7ie or -ene, and 
would rather derive it from the geographical name Sloioi/, which he would 
connect with sallmca, ' an island,' ' meadow,' or ' holm,' so that the Sloivjanin 
would be the ' islanders,' with reference perhaps to the marshes which sur- 
rounded their original settlements. A comparison ofsrebro with silver might 
even suggest the possibility of identifying the roots xerb and slaiv. At any 
rate it is clear that when the wars of the ninth and tenth centuries furnished 
an abundance of Sclavonians as prisoners and captives, the German names 
for these unhappy persons were indifferently Slave and (Sly?;/", a circumstance 
which indicates a widely-spread identity of ethnical designation. 

That the ancient Saiiromatce or Sarmatians wei'e ethnologically identical 
with the Sclavonians appears to me to be certain. The grounds on which 
Schafarik has maintained tiie contrary opinion do not amount to a valid ar- 
gument. It is quite possible that the ancients may have used the term Sar- 
matian in a lax and vague manner, and may have classed with the Scla- 
vonian tribes, to whom this name belonged, some others which were more 
or less connected with different branches of the Indo-German family. For 
example, the title seems to have included the Lithuanians, who were Scla- 
vonized Low-Germans belonging to the great stock of the Getas. In the 
same way, the term Scythian is extended so as to include, not only the Sar- 
matian tribes, but also others of Gothic and Turanian origin. It is quite 
clear, indeed it is generally admitted, that the Sarmatians, as such, were 
Sclavonians, and, as Grimm has observed (Gesch. d.deulschen Spr. p. 173), 
if the Sarmatian word ft'pts, given by Lucian in his Toxaris (40), can be 
shown to be Sclavonian, this alone would settle the point. Schafariii himself 
admits (p. 370), that many of the Sarmatian proper names betray a Scla- 
vonian origin. The question is one of considerable importance ; for if the 
universal belief, that the Sclavonians and Sarmatians are identical, be allowed 
to hold its ground, we can trace the Sclavonian migration from Iran through 
all its stages, until we get back to the original starting-point. Every au- 
thority concurs in assigning a Median origin to the Sauromatce, and according 
to Gatterer's etymology, which is generally received, the name itself signifies 
" the Northern Mateni or Medes." One of their tribes was called Ixa-matce 
or laxa-matce, i. e. " Medes from the laxartes or Oxus." And thus we can 
lay down the route of the Sclavonian population from the borders of Assyria 
through Media and Hyrcania, round the eastern shores of the Caspian and 
Aral seas, across the Tanais, and so on, until we find them extending from 
the Baltic to the Adriatic. 

Now if we can identify the Sclavonians with that branch of the great 
Iranian family which occupied Media, it will follow that their language, in 
its oldest form, must furnish the point of contact between the Indo-Germanie 
and Semitic idioms. And I proceed to indicate some of the important in- 
ferences which may be drawn from the comparison thus suggested. 

The researches of Col. Rawlinson may be regarded as supplying us with 
at least prima facie evidence of the fact that the language of the ancient 
Assyrians and Babylonians was in the same syntactical or disintegrated con- 
dition as the Hebrew and other Semitic dialects. He seems to have recog- 

1851. L 



146 REPORT — 1851. 

nised a definite article, prepositional determinatives of the oblique cases, 
personal pronouns prefixed rather than affixed to the verb-form, and even 
the peculiar modifications which are generall)'^ known as conjugational 
varieties of the Semitic verb. On the other hand, it has long been an 
opinion maintained by ancient orientalists that the Chaldceans, Kasdim, or 
Kurds, were an Indo-German tribe who descended from their mountains and 
conquered the plains of Mesopotamia about the time of the Prophet Isaiah. 
Michaelis and Reinhold Forster have gone so far as to claim for them a 
Sclavonian affinity, and Gesenius, who rejects this hypothesis, still connects 
them with the Medo-Persians. But if they were of the Median stock, they 
were also Sarmatian or Sclavonians. And thus, starting from two opposite 
points of view, we come to the same conclusion, and find the Indo-Germans 
and Semites in close contact, if not intermingled with one another, on the 
banks of the Tigris. Every step which we take in the way of induction 
confirms our d-priori reasoning, and the internal evidences of language en- 
able us to arrive at a demonstrative result. 

The distinctive characteristics of the Semitic languages may be said to 
consist in the generally triliteral form of their uninflected words, and in the 
invariably syntactical contrivances by which the whole mechanism of speech 
is carried on. I seek the cause of this in the early adoption of alphabetical 
writing, in the establishment of a literature, and in the unusually frequent 
intermixture of cognate races. The distinctive characteristics of the Scla- 
vonian languages, as they appear in Europe, may be said to consist in the 
perfection of the etymological forms and in the total absence of merely syn- 
tactical contrivances, and the cause of these peculiarities may be sought in 
the known fact that they have been more free than any other branch of the 
Indo-Germanic family from intermixture or fusion, and that their literature 
is of moi'e recent origin than that of any great section of the human race. 
Thus we may say, that the Sclavonian and Semitic tongues stand in direct 
antithesis or contrast, as far as their state or condition is concerned. And 
if, in spite of this, they still retain marks of their original contact, we must 
admit that the argument from internal evidence is the strongest possible, 
because it is obtained under the most unfavourable circumstances. 

Now the facts, on which I rely as conclusive, are these : — (1.) that there 
are verbal coincidences between the Sclavonic and Semitic languages which 
cannot be accidental, which are not traceable to any subsequent intercourse 
between the two races, and which are not common to the Sclavonic and other 
Indo-Germanic idioms ; (2.) that the Sclavonian language alone furnishes 
parallels to the Semitic conjugations, and presents words in such a state of 
agglutination as would be liable to the triliteral pollarding from which the 
existing system of Semitic articulation seems to have sprung. 

(1.) There is no word more peculiar to the Semitic languages than the 
expression for goodness and convenience, which in Hebrew is ^\\0y dhob^ 
in Arabic j,«t> debr. I have remarked elsewhere that the articulation of the 
Hebrew £2 must be a medial rather than a tenuis aspirated, and the Arabic 
synonym shows that it is so in this particular case. Now this root, which does 
not occur in any other Indo-Germanic language, is as common in Sclavonic as 
in Hebrew, and, what is remarkable, it constantly occurs with the affix r, which 
it exhibits in Arabic. Thus we have in Polish dob, " a suitable time," dob-ro, 
in both Russian and Polish, with the signification " good," " useful," &c., 
with an infinite number of derivatives. Although we might find other Indo- 
Germanic analogies for the root of the Russian doroga, " a road," it is only 

in the Hebrew *^y\ dei-eh and the Arabic ^0 derej that we have the exact 



I 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 147 

synon^^tn. There are some Semitic roots which we should not understand 
without the help of the Sclavonic ; thus H^D dhdba'h is generally supposed 

to signify " he sacrificed ;" but HUtO dhabbd'h means " a cook," D^H^D^};? 

Viai^arfAf Aim means "ripe melons," and the Arabic i^sjjs dhaba'h means "he 

cooked," •\j^ dhabbd'h is "a cook," and ^nIaL dhabaik means "hot 

winds," so that we are led to the well-known Sclavonic word tep-lei, " warm," 
whence the name of the hot baths of Tceplitz ; and we may assign the same 
origin to the title of the Scythian goddess of fire, which, as Herodotus tells 
us, was Tabid. We might recognise the monosyllabic root of *1I1"T dd-bar 

in ver-bum, as we might in the Sclavonic ^o-z;or-iY', but it is only in the Rus- 
sian that we have the genuine compound do-varei, as in raz-dovarei, " fami- 
liar discourse." The Greek SoXix^s belongs to the Pelasgic or Sclavonian 
state of the language ; in the Sanscrit dirgha, Zend daraga, Behistun daragOf 
&c. the / is changed into r, but in all the Sclavonian forms the I is retained, 
as in dolgie, dlauhy, dlugi, &c., and the same is the case in Arabic JUs 
dhdl for dhol ; Hebrew vH-J gd-dol, " great," H 7T and 7 71 ddldh and 

ddlal, " to hang down." These examples, which are taken at random and 
might be multiplied to any extent, will suffice to show the nature of the re- 
semblance between Sclavonian and Semitic roots. Nor is the resemblance 
confined to the roots. The mode of using them is also marked by features 
of similarity, and we have some cases in which these classes of idioms pre- 
sent solitary examples of a corresponding process of thought. Thus, it is a 
peculiarity of the Semitic race to regard "four," and especially its multiple 
"forti/," as a round number or expression of indefinite pluralitj'. Similarly, 
in Russian, we find that, although the other numbers are formed on a prin- 
ciple of internal development, the term for " forty " is so-rok', which is not 
connected with chetere, " four," and is obviously a collective noun formed 
with the preposition so. Again, in common Hebrew we never find the sim- 
ple relative she, but always the lengthened secondary form 'hasher. Simi- 
larly in Sclavonic the simple form koe is only used in poetry ; the lengthened 
form hotorei, hotoraia, kotoroe, which is equivalent to Koropolos, being invari- 
ably employed in common discourse. The form kto is a variation of the im- 
personal chfo. 

(2.) But agreements of sound and even of usage are less conclusive, as 
proofs of common origin and ethnical contact, than a communion in those 
principles which regulate the structure of a language. And this remark 
particularly applies to the comparison of the Sclavonian language which 
exhibits a living power of etymology in its most active state, with the Semitic 
languages in which the development of the form has been checked and the 
whole stock of inflected words petrified into a congeries of triliteral fossils. 
Every person, who is acquainted with the Sclavonian languages, must have 
been stj-uck by the fact, that none of the other Indo-Germanic idioms ex- 
hibit the monosyllabic roots in such a constant state of accretion or agglu- 
tination with the affix, prefix, or both. And with regard to the prepositional 
prefix in particular, there is certainly no class of languages which can vie 
with the Russian, i. e. the purest Sclavonian, in the number, variety, and 
constant use of these distinctive initials. Now modern philology leads us 
to the conclusion that the Semitic languages were originally built upon the 
same system of monosyllabic roots as the Sanscrit and Greek, and that the 
additions by which every such element is accompanied in the existing state 
of the language are formative appendages belonging to the time when the 



148 REPORT 1851. 

etymological activity bf the idiom was still unimpaired. According to this 
view, it is quite clear that the particular form of the Indo-Germanic lan- 
guages, under which such a permanence of crude trigrammatism became 
possible, must have been tliat which we recognise in the Sclavonian family, 
namely, a state of accretion, in which the separability and independent sig- 
nificance of the monosyllabic root are no longer regarded, or taken into con- 
sideration. The converse phasnomena, in the case of the Sporadic or Tura- 
nian languages, furnish the best illustration of the Semitic word — forms. It 
cannot be doubted that the tribes which supplied the continents of Asia, 
Europe and America with the first Avide-spread sprinkling of population, mi- 
grated from the central district, while the monosyllabic root was still regarded 
as independent and separable, and the civilization which gathered round a 
fresh nucleus in China has not been able to deprive the monosyllabic lan- 
guage of this inherited characteristic. As then we have in the one case a 
luxtaposition of formative contrivances without any real fusion, we observe 
in the Semitic languages the development of etymology checked after it had 
assumed the concrete forms of Sclavonic agglutination. We require then, 
for the explanation of the only known condition of the Semitic languages, 
that ethnographic fact of Sclavonian antiquity to which another train of rea- 
soning had already conducted us. 

Again, it is a distinguishing characteristic of the Semitic languages to have 
a great abundance of derivative forms for the verb itself by the side of a 
striking parsimony in the inherent tense-forms. This is equally a character- 
istic of the Sclavonian idioms. The Semitic languages have no proper di- 
stinctions of tense as past and present; the forms which they use designate 
transient or momentary, as distinguished from continuous states or actions. 
The derivative forms which are called conjugations, such as NipMial, Hi" 
ph^'hil, Hithj}a"hel, are contrivances for expressing the various relations, de- 
grees, and modes of agency. Precisely the same is the anatomy of the Scla- 
vonic verb. Instead of the proper distinctions of tense, the verb-forms are 
divided according to the mode of action into branches or classes, which 
modern grammarians designate as semelfactive or monologous (in Polish 
iednotliwe) as opposed to frequentative or iterative (in Polish czestotliwe), and 
complete or perfect (in Polish dokonane) as opposed to incomplete or imper- 
fect (iiiedokonane). A simple examjjle will show, even to those M'ho have 
not studied the subject, how completely the usual distinctions of tense are 
set aside by this mechanism. The Russian verb trogaf, 'to touch,' makes 
ja trogaiti, ' 1 am touching,' in the present tense of w hat is called the indefi- 
nite branch. But if we prefix the particle ras, we get^'a rastrogaiu, ' I shall 
touch,' for the future of the perfect branch, which, in its so-called present 
ja rastrogaV, 'I touched,' exhibits all the characteristics of a past tense. In 
the same way, we find no real present tense in the semelfactive tronut, ' to 
touch once,' and in the iterative trogivat', ' to touch repeatedly,' but only 
the past forms ya tronid', 'I touched,' and ^a trogivaV, 'I kept touching,* 
while the present form of the semelfactive ja tronu is used as a future, 'I 
shall touch.' This habit of substituting distinctions of complete or incom- 
plete, of single and continued or repeated action, for the true distinction 
between past, present, and future, is peculiar to the Sclavonic as compared 
with other Indo-German idioms, but common to all the Semitic dialects. 
The internal or etymological modifications by which the change of significa- 
tion is expressed are, of course, less distinct in the Semitic idioms, but they 
are still sufficiently apparent. Into the origin and value of these pronominal 
insertions, it is not my business to enter on the present occasion. I will only 
call the attention of scholars to the fact, hitherto unnoticed and unexplained, 



ON FBOBIiEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 149 

that the insertion wm, which marks the semelfactive verb in Sclavonian, is 
never found in Sanscrit, Greek, or Latin with any trace of that reduplication 
which is the proper expression of repeated action. Thus we liave da-ddmi^ 
hut ap-no-nti ; Si-dw^i, ridr] jii, 'i/rrrifii, hut ^euy-rvfii, cdfx-vri-fii, 'ti;-veofMai, &c.; 
rjTiTtTb) for TTt-Trerw, but ttit-vo) ; and Latin verbs which insert n, always omit 
this adjunct in the perfect, their only reduplicated tense ; thus we have tundo, 
but tutudi. The syntactical contrivance by^ which the Semitic languages 
express the passive or reflexive voice is also introduced in Sclavonic verbs, 
which have no etymological mechanism for the purpose, although their per- 
son-endings are remarkably complete. I have shown elsewhere {Maskil le 
Sopher, p. 33) that the prefix of the reciprocal hith-pa"htl is the subjective 
n combined with the objective ilJ*?, and that the passive nipk'hal has for its 

initial the objective J only. The Sclavonic verb absolutely subjoins the re- 
flexive pronoun sya to all persons of the verb. It is useless to weary you by 
pursuing this grammatical comparison any farther. Those who have studied 
the refinements of philology will be able to estimate the argument from 
these hints, and it would be idle to present the details to those who take no 
interest in the subject. 

But independently of the arguments deducible from these lexicographical 
and grammatical coincidences, there are certain phonological peculiarities, 
common to the Semitic and Sclavonian languages, which seem to me to 
confirm the view which I have taken of their original contact and congruity. 
It is well known to the philological student that whole families of languages 
have been discriminated by the different degrees in which they have main- 
tained the integrity of their sibilants, or, in other words, by the various sub- 
stitutes which they have allowed to supersede these more ancient articula- 
tions. In examining the sibilants of a particular language, we have to con- 
sider two classes of sounds : the original sibilants, which in secondary 
states of the idiom degenerate into mere breathings, or are softened into 
semi-consonants and vowels ; and those palatal sibilants, which are themselves 
generated by a softening of guttural and dental consonants. The latter class 
of phsenomena, to which we owe the constant employment of the ^ in Greek, 
and our own soft g,j, and ch, must be carefully distinguished from the causes 
which interfere with the permanence of an original assibilation. An example 
will show the nature of the difference. The substitution of an aspirate for 
an initial s is one of the main characteristics of the change from old or Pe' 
lasgian Greek to the classical Hellenism with whicli we are acquainted, and 
this substitution has very much diminished the use of sibilants in the language. 
On the contrary, the aversion to palatal sounds on the part of the Hellenes 
has almost invariably substituted Hi, which is a sibilant, for all the softened 
gutturals or dentals of the older dialects. This procedure, which a recent 
philological writer (Schleicher, Sprachvergleicheiide Untersuchiingen, p. 33) 
has proposed to term Zetacismus, may take place in any language, in which 
a guttural or dental is affected by an immediate contact with i. But the 
evanescence of s, or its change into a mere breathing, belongs to a particular 
state or condition of language, and we may classify idioms according to this 
phaenomenon. Thus the Pelasgian and Latin as compared with the Greek, 
the Sanscrit as compared with the Zend, the Erse as compared with the 
Welsh, retain an initial sibilant, which in the corresponding but later forms 
of the same language is consistently changed into h. The history of the 
Greek alphabet, with which we are best acquainted, teaches us that the effect 
has been to diminish the number of sibilants. In spite of the Zetacismus, 
the old Sav has vanished, and while p and v have usurped many of the func- 
tions of 5, usage has deprived I of one of its original employments. If on 



150 REPORT 1851. 

the other hand we examine the Sclavonian alphabets, we shall be struck by 
the superabundance of sibilant articulations for which they furnish the ex- 
pression. They are rich not only in palatals, but in varieties of pure dental 
assibilation. We notice precisely the same phonology in the Semitic dia- 
lects, but here the guttural and nasal breathings also play an important part. 
The Sclavonian alphabet, as is well known, is an adaptation of the Greek, 
increased by characters borrowed from the Armenian and Coptic. The 
author was Cyril, otherwise called Constantine the philosopher, who was 
brother to Methodius, bishop of Pannouia and Moravia. The Greek order 
is preserved with the following exceptions. Before Vjedi and Zjelo, which 
corresponded to the Greek /3>jra and /3av, Cyril inserted Buki and Zivjete, 
and remanded to the end those letters peculiar to the Greeks, namely \, \(/, 
6, and v. The alphabet thus enlarged contains the following sibilants : 
(a) pure dentals, zj'elo, zemlja, slovo, tzi ; (6) palatals, cero, sha, shcha, besides 
the compounds ksi and psi. If we take the Arabic as the most extensive 
form of the Semitic alphabet, we shall find that it contains the following 
sibilants : (a) pure dentals, thse, dsal, ze, sin, ssad, zza ; (Z») palatals, ^Vm, skin. 
The Hebrew, which has its full complement of pure dental sibilants in zain, 
tsade, and ^amech, has no palatal except shin. Now as the palatals are 
softened or degenerated forms of the gutturals, it is a natural consequence 
that the guttural aspirate should abound in proportion as the palatal is 
wanting. This is strikingly the case in Hebrew, which has no less than four 
distinct aspirates, 'haleph, he, 'heth, "hayin, besides its guttural mutes gimel, 
kaph, and hoph. The only approximation in Hebrew to that softening of the 
gutturals, to which the formation of zetacised articulations may be ascribed, 
is to be found in the semivowel use of yod, which is undoubtedly the off- 
spring of the gutturals. But it is never so combined with gutturals or 
dentals as to form a pure palatal sound, unless we recognise it in shin as a 
substitute for sk. Reverting then to the principle which enables us to di- 
stinguish between the pure sibilant and the subsequently formed palatals, we 
shall come at once to the conclusion that the Semitic and Sclavonian lan- 
guages exhibit a complete coincidence in regard to their unimpaired deve- 
lopment of the original sibilant, for they alone possess the three sounds of 
zain and zemlja, of tsade and tsi, of famech and slovo ; and while the for- 
mation of palatals has proceeded to its full extent in Sclavonian and Arabic, 
the permanence of the pure sibilant in Hebrew is shown by the fact, that 
with a full array of breathings there is no diminution in the use of the 
sibilants in anlaut or as initials. The force of this observation will be felt 
by those who know that even in the Zend, as compared with the Sanscrit, 
the transition from the initial s to an initial h has established itself in uniform 
observance. Important conclusions to the same effect may be derived from 
the palaeography of the cuneiform characters, which have preserved to us a 
record of the Median or Sclavonian idiom at the earliest known period of its 
subjection to Persian or Germanic influences. If we examine this alphabet, 
we shall see that the arrangements of the arrow-heads or wedges,of which each 
character is composed, are not casual, but technical and systematic, having 
reference to a perception, more or less scientific, of the true affinities of arti- 
culation. Thus we shall see that all the characters, which are connected with 
the lateral angle / turned to the left, are more or less affected by aspiration. 
The distinct aspirate h \X^\ has two of these marks, and the inclusion in this 
character of n ^/ only shows that, like the Hebrew "hayin y, it was re- 
garded as a nasal breathing. As d and r, the affinity of which is well known, 
are but slightly different forms of the same character in the Semitic lan« 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 151 

guages (1, 1i I \), and as r and « ( ^J ) are similarly related in Arabic, we 
find in the cuneiform alphabet that r and s are represented by the same cha- 
racter turned in different directions (for r is ^j and s is T^). With 
these indications of contrivance and design, it becomes important to note that 
a lateral mark only distinguishes s J^ from v T^ . For as Col. Rawlinson 
has shown that the character which he calls u \vi has an inherent aspi- 
ration, and as hit is, in the passage from Sanscrit to Zend, the representative 
of sv, we find thus in the very contrivances of the alphabet an explanation 
of that transition from the sibilant to the breathing, and from the labio-dental 
to the vowel u, which is the main characteristic of the Persian as distin- 
guished from the Median, and of the Gra3C0-German as contrasted with the 
Pelasgo-Sclayonian idioms. Compare, for example, the transitions of sound 
in the Sanscrit gvan, Median gpaka, Russian sabac, Greek kvuv, German 
hund ; in the Russian svera, Lettish svehrs, Latin fera, Greek Q))p, English 
deer ; Sanscrit svapna, Greek virvos, and so forth. 

Putting all these circumstances together, there cannot, I conceive, be any 
doubt that the Sclavono-Median language furnishes us with the point of de- 
parture and line of demarcation between the Indo-German and Semitic 
families. With the most pronounced ditferences of subsequent condition, 
the Semitic and Sclavonic idioms exhibit those marks of internal resemblance 
which could only spring from contact and intermixture at a very early period, 
and this contact and intermixture are preserved in all that we can learn re- 
specting their geographical settlements respectively. And it is as easy to 
explain the differences as it is to account for the resemblances. The Scla- 
vonian languages are the most full in etymology and the most meagre in 
syntax of all varieties of Indo-German speech, because the race has remained 
pure, and because it did not till a late period adopt alphabetical writing or 
encourage the development of a national literature. The Semitic idioms, 
on the contrary, are the most completely fossilized in etymology and the 
most distinctly syntactical of all languages, because the races which spoke 
them were constantly exposed to fusion and intermixture, and because they 
were the first to adopt alphabetical writing and the earliest possessors of 
literary records. The efiiects, which an admixture of different races, whe- 
ther proceeding from migration or conquest, produces upon the inflexions of 
a language, have long been recognised, and the familiar illustration furnished 
by the modern English language, as the result of a combination of the 
Norman with the Anglo-Saxon, has often been adduced. But perhaps I 
shall not make my meaning as clear as I could wish without adding a few 
remarks on the influences of alphabetical writing and literary cultivation; 
for sufficient attention has not been paid to the fact that these influences are 
most decisive and permanent when their first operation is contemporaneous. 

Alphabetical writing was not invented by one effort. It is the last result 
of a series of successive improvements. The first step is a system of picture- 
writing or significant signs, which is the usual concomitant of an application 
of art to the service of idolatry. The constant use of an ideographic picture 
in connexion with the name of a particular object leads to its employment 
as a determinative initial for all names which begin with the same or a similar 
sound. Hence we have phonetic signs intermixed with emblems or pictures. 
A further step in advance takes us to combinations of phonetic signs alone, 
and a greater use of writing naturally leads to abbreviations and cursive forms 
of them, which are first syllabic and then literal. This is the origin of al- 
phabetic writing. Whether there has been more than one invention of the 
art, or whether all existing alphabets may be traced back to a common 



152 REPORT — 1851. 

source, are still open questions. Thus much, however, is certain, that all the 
civilized nations with which we are acquainted in Asia and Europe, have 
either passed through the various steps of the process which I have just 
described, or have borrowed the Semitic syllabarium in some stage or other 
of final development. 

It is by no means necessary that the use of alphabetic writing should 
precede the formation of a national literature. On the contrary, the purely- 
epic period in a national literature will generally, if not always, precede the 
adoption of a mode of writing calculated to supersede the memory, especially 
in the case of those languages which still retain their etymological structure, 
and are thus calculated to meet the exigencies of uniform metre, and to pass, 
by oral teaching, from one generation of bards to another in unbroken suc- 
cession. It is pretty clear that the Pali literature of the Buddhists was 
committed to writing long before the Brahmins borrowed from them the 
means of writing down their old epic and religious poetry. So that although 
the Sanscrit language is in a more perfect etymological condition than the 
Pali, and though the Vedas and even the Mahdhhdrata are older than the 
Pali inscriptions, the records of the Sanscrit literature are preserved in bor- 
rowed characters of comparatively recent date. Notwithstanding all that 
has been written on the Homeric question, it remains a fact that the epic 
poetry of the Greeks is of earlier date than their adoption or familiar use of 
the Semitic alphabet. The result has been, in both cases, that the forms of 
the words in Greek and Sanscrit retain their exuberant fullness, which in 
the former language is unaffected even by the existence of a perfectly logical 
syntax. The converse cases are furnished by the Old Egyptian and Chinese 
languages, which never entirely shook ofFthe symbolical and sensual reference 
of their written characters. The Egyptian, indeed, did in the end arrive at 
a purely phonetic use of its hieroglypliic signs; but the Chinese never lost 
the point of departure suggested by their sidng-hing or " figurative images;" 
the highest abstraction being that of the hing-ching or "figurative sounds," 
which however were always combined with ideographic or pictorial signs. 
The palaeography of the Semitic nations lies half-way between that of the 
Greeks and Indians, who adopted no system of writing except the alphabetic, 
and did not make use of this until their poetical literature had taken root 
and began to flourish ; and tiiat of the Chinese and Egyptians, who employed 
picture-writing instead of their memories from the very earliest period, and 
who never attained to a perfectly abstract and simple alphabet. I believe 
that the first Semitic alphabet was due to the Hebrews rather than to the 
Phoenicians. The Sacred History of this nation tells us that their great 
legislator was educated in Egypt at a time when the phpnetic hieroglyphs 
were in general use, and there cannot be the least doubt that the Phoenician 
and Hebrew characters may be traced to particular signs in the Egyptian 
Byllabarium. Some very satisfactory specimens of this have been given by 
Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood in the ' Transactions of the Philol. Soc' vol. v. 
No. 101. It has always appeared to. me a most interesting fact, that we 
should owe our first alphabet to the same race from which we derive the 
foundations of our religion. Picture-writing and picture-worship are inti- 
mately connected. Abstraction is anti-idolatrous, and is manifested in the 
invention of an alphabet quite as much as in the adoption of a pure theism : 
nor would I quarrel with any one, if he thought fit to ascribe to the same 
inspiration, tiie Commandments written on the two tables of stone, and the 
simple characters by Avhich they expressed their meaning. Be this as it may, 
it seems pretty clear that the Hebrews never had any but an alphabetical 
system of writing ; and it is also clear that they had no literature except that 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 153 

which was written down alphabetically. The same may be said of the other 
pure races of the Syro- Arabian family ; and this alone will explain the perma- 
nence and uniformity of their syntactical structure. 

With regard to the cuneiform characters, I cannot doubt that they are of 
Mesopotamian and therefore of Semitic origin. Internal evidence shows that 
their origin was not immediately hieroglyphic, but that they emanated from 
a system of phonetic writing in which affinities of articulation are fully per- 
ceived and recognised. The form of the character was regulated by the 
materials. The alluvial plain of the two rivers furnished abundance of 
brick earth, and nothing could be more simply ingenious than to form a set 
of letters which might be made by impressions on the unbailed clay struck 
with the end of an iron tool, and arranged in different groups according to 
a technical plan or convention. The lapidary character whicli was subse- 
quently imparted to this mode of writing does not interfere with our evi- 
dences of the fact tiiat the cuneiform letters were the natural and simple 
invention of a people of brickmakers, who had abundance of clay, and no 
hewn stones to write on. In these days of note-paper and envelopes we do 
not sufficiently consider how much the mode of writing, in the first begin- 
nings of the art, depended upon the nature of the stationery. The ostracism 
of Athens and other cities, and thepetalism of Syracuse show what difficulties 
were caused by a general demand for slips of paper. When the great body 
of citizens in those populous towns wished to get rid of an obnoxious states- 
man, it was usual to effect this by writing down the name of the party to be 
exiled and sending it in as a ballot-paper. In the want of other substitutes 
for waste-paper, the Syracusans employed olive-leaves, and the Athenians, 
Argives and Megarians used fragments of broken pottery, i. e. pot-sherds. 
It is amusing to observe how the old blunder about the offrpuKoy still main- 
tains its ground. Even Mr. Grote talks of votes given by means of oyster- 
shells I To say nothing of the fact that oarpaKov never meant an oyster-shell, 
how would they write on such a material, and whence would they obtain 
such a superabundance of these shells ? On the contrary, the most econo- 
mical and abundant substitute for waste-paper would undoubtedly be broken 
pottery ; a mons testaceus might be formed in any town where porcelain is 
used ; and any pointed instrument would scratch the obnoxious name on a 
piece of tile or broken vase. 

But while we can explain the cuneiform writing even down to the origin 
of the characters of which it is composed, and while we can not only read 
the Cartouches of Egyptian kings, but discuss the fii'st beginnings of hiero- 
glyphic writing, it certainly is most unsatisfactory to reflect that we cannot 
understand the remains of the Etrurian language, which we find in the midst 
of the old Italian civilization, written in a character with which we are fa- 
miliar, belonging to a well-known historical epoch, and surrounded on every 
side by literary and linguistic associations. It is the remaining object of 
this paper to show, by a process of ethnographic exhaustion similar to that 
which I have employed in discussing the Semitic question, that there can be 
only one solution of the Etruscan problem, and that if we cannot explain 
everything in the inscriptions, we can at least see the limits within which 
their explanation is possible, the line of motion in which our future progress 
must take place, and the goal at which we must ultimately arrive. 

Looking at the population of Europe just as we should regard the geology 
of a district, we must recognise the following ascertained facts in the strati- 
fication of the Indo-Germanic family. The eastern half of Europe, from the 
Baltic to the Mediterranean, is filled by diflerent branches of the Sclavonian 
family. In the south no less than in the north these Sclavonians abut upon 



154 REPORT — 1851. 

members of the Gothic or Low-German race, with whom of course, on the 
oscillating boundary-lines of the two families, they are intermixed in diflerent 
degrees of fusion. Such an intermixture by tlie side of pure Sclavonism we 
find in the Lithuanians of the north and in the Latins of the south. There 
cannot be any doubt as to the Sclavonian origin of the Tyrrheno-Pelasgian 
race. There cannot be any doubt that the other element in the old popu- 
lation of Italy was, like the Lithuanian, a mixture of the Sclavonian and 
Gothic. As then, in the north, our next transition is to the Scandinavian or 
purely Gothic race, it is reasonable to conclude that the Rasena, who con- 
quered Umbria and Tuscany, and who are expressly described as a neigh- 
bouring tribe, must have been either pure Sclavonians or pure Goths ; for 
there was no Celtic tribe in that district. But it is clear that if they had 
been Sclavonians, their language would not have differed so strikingly from 
that of the Tyrrheno-Pelasgians. It follows therefore that they must have 
been pure Getse, Goths, or Low-Germans. This is ihe inevitable result of 
the prima facie evidence. Let us see how it is borne out by the remains of 
the Etruscan language and by the traditions respecting this nation. 

To begin witii tradition, there cannot be a more definite ethnological 
statement than that in Livy (v. 33) which connects the Etruscans with the 
original inhabitants of Lombardy and the Tyrol, on whom the Gauls after- 
wards encroached. That the Rhasti in particular were of the same stock as 
the Etrusci is stated also by Justin (xx. 5) and Pliny (H. N. iii. 25), and 
relics of art, names of places, and peculiarities of language tend to confirm 
the ethnical tradition. Niebuhr (ii. 525, i. IIS, 114) is favourable to the 
conjecture, that the Etruscan race, which maintained its ground among the 
Alps, with Gauls all round it, must at one time have spread along the 
northern skirts of those mountains and into the plains of Germany. Be this 
as it may, we find that all along the eastern boundary-line of the Sclavonic 
population, wherever they abut on Teutonic tribes, they have received from 
their neighbours the name of Wind or Wend. What this name signifies is 
quite unknown, but it is certain that it is not the Sclavonian or native desig- 
nation, for that, as we have seen, is Serb or Servian. And it is reasonable 
to conclude that it is a Gothic or Low-German name, given to the Servians 
by their Teutonic neighbours. Now we find that the Etruscans in Lombardy 
called their neighbours to the east Veneti, and that the Etruscans in Rhsetia 
called their eastern neighbours Vindelici, or " Winds on the Lech." The 
fair inference would be, that the Rhaeto-Etruscans were a Teutonic tribe, 
and, if Teutonic, they must have been of the Scandinavian, Gothic, or Low- 
German branch. If we are compelled to recognise the same admixture, and 
indeed the same name, in the Lithuanians of the north and the Latins or 
Latuinians of the south, w^e must recognise also the same juxtaposition of 
separate elements in the Scandinavians who stand opposite to the Sclavonians 
on the Baltic, and in the Rhaetians who face the Wends in central Europe. 
Consequently, if we accept the tradition which identifies the Rasena with the 
RhEetians, — and I agree with Dr. Latham that it is entitled to the greatest 
consideration, — we must also identify them with the Scandinavian race. 

On the philological confirmation of this tradition I hope to throw some 
new light in the remarks which follow. It is unnecessary to repeat the 
statements of Lepsius and others respecting the composite structure of the 
old Etruscan language, and the different degrees in which the Pelasgian or 
quasi-Greek element prevails in it. There can be no doubt that the civili- 
zation of northern Italy is due to the Tyrseno-Pelasgians, and that they 
belonged to the same branch of the Sclavonic race which constituted the 
basis of the old Achsean population. Their name Tvpar)vos, as Lepsius has 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GERMAN PHILOLOGY. 155 

shown, signifies ' the 'tower-builders.' I am prepared to prove, that both in 
Greece and Italy the Pelasgians were the original architects, that the Dorians 
in the former case, and the Etruscans in the latter, borrowed the arts of the 
nation which they subdued, and that the so-called Dorian architecture was 
imported, in a complete form, from Asia Minor. Just in the same way we 
find that the North American Aztecs who conquered Mexico adopted the 
arts which the civilized Toltecs had previously established there. It is worthy 
of remark that the name Toltec is a synonym for 'architect' (Prescott, 
Conquest of Mexico, i. p. 12). Their capital Tula may therefore be com- 
pared with Tyrrha, from which the Tyrrhenians derived their origin. In 
general, the mixed race of Aztecs and Toltecs, which Cortez found in 
Mexico, with their gorgeous luxury, their skill in cookery, &c., remind one 
very much of the Etrurians. 

On the fullest consideration, I cannot assent to the opinion of Otfried 
Miiller {Etr. i. 71), that the name Etruscus is another form of Tyrsenus\ 
and in spite of its alluring facility, I feel myself obliged to abandon the fa- 
vourite hypothesis that Rasena is a mutilation of Tarasena, the genuine form 
of thePelasgian designation. The true philologer will find theproofs of a com- 
mon origin in forms presenting to the unskilful eye the marks of an almost total 
dissimilitude, and he will also, in many cases, reject as inconclusive the most 
striking evidences of merely outward resemblance. He knows, for example, 
that sero, sertus, is a difierent word from sero, situs; and that the concessive 
modo has no connexion with the ablative of modus. It is therefore not a sci- 
entific procedure to conclude that Etruria and Etruscus, which always begin 
Vi'\thEovHe, are elongated forms of Tuscus and Tyrsenus ; or conversely that 
Rasena is a mutilation of a more original word beginning with T. If we admit 
the RhcBtian origin of the Etruscans, the name Rasena must stand. And as 
Et-rus-ci or Het-rus-ci presumes an original Het-rus-i, it would be more rea- 
sonable to conclude that this term comprises the root ras, with a significant 
prefix, and Niebuhr has shown that Ras-ena contains this root with the aftix 
-ena found in Pors-ena, &c. The old Scandinavian will tell us what this 
prefix means ; for in Icelandic hetia is ' a warrior or soldier,' and in the same 
language ras implies rapidity of motion : so that the Ras-ena and Het-rusi 
would be as good names for a warrior tribe as TroSas diuvs was for Achilles, and 
Owes for a troop of predaceous animals. Another identification of similar 
roots must be equally avoided. Nothing is more natural at first sight than 
to suppose that the names Tapx^vioi/, Tarkynia, Tarquinii, are harder fornas 
of the Pelasgian Tvpirijvds. But there is a conclusive reason against this 
assumed identity, which has not yet occurred to any philologer. If rapx- or 
rpox- and rvp-a- belonged to the same root, the latter must be a secondary 
or assibilated form of the other. Now to say nothing of the fact that the a- of 
rvp-fftiios and rvp-cris belongs to the termination, and is not found in rup- 
avvos, &c., it is clear l^at the form rvp-crjjvds is the only one which was ever 
known to the Pelasgians in Greece, whereas the harder form belongs to the 
later or mixed race in Italy. It would be, therefore, more reasonable to 
conclude that while Tvp-arivos is the Pelasgian, whether in Italy or Greece, 
the Tar-chons and Tar-quins belong to the Etruscans properly so-called. 
Now if we admit this, we at once fall back upon the Scandinavian race. 
For the prefix Tor or Thor is a certain indication of the presence of the 
North-men. Thus we have the town of Thor-igny m the N.W. of Normandy, 
where the termination is the same as that of many other towns in the same 
district, as Formigny, Juvigny, &c., and corresponds to the Danish termina- 
tion -inge, as Bellinge, Helsinge, &c. (Etienne Borring, Sur la Limite meri- 
dionale de la Monarchic Da7ioise. Paris, 1849, p. 9). It is worthy of remark 



156 REPORT — 1851. 

that the word -ing, which is appropriated by the Ing-cEvones, Angli, English, 
and other pure Low-German tribes, seems to signify 'a man,' or 'a warrior' 
(Grimm, I).3L i. p. 320), and as cpiinna is the Icelandic for mulier. Tor' 
ing and Tar-quin are antithetical terms. The Low-German name Tor-quil 
is probably a by-form of the latter ; at any rate we cannot but be struck by 
the resemblance of these Northern and Etruscan names. The mythical 
Tanaquil of Etruria reminds us of Tanaquisl, the old Scandinavian name 
for the Tanais, which however is feminine (Grimm, D. Gr. iii. 385). 

It is obvious that we cannot expect to find one uniform language in the 
Etruscan Inscriptions, which belong to very different epochs, and are 
scattered over the whole of the territory occupied in different proportions by 
a mixture of cognate tribes. In the most ancient fragments, and especially 
in those which are found in the south of Etruria, we should expect to find a 
predominance of the Pelasgian element, which is common to Greek and 
Latin : and in point of fact, many of these inscriptions differ little, if at all, 
from Archaic Greek. We should have no difficulty about the remains of the 
Etruscan language, if all the fragments were as easily deciphered as mi 
Kalairu fuius=^eljx\ KaXuipov Fikos. In some we find not only the Greek 
language, but the Hexameter line, which is peculiar to the Greeks ; thus we 
have, in the Museum at Naples,, the following line : mi ni Mulve nehe Velthu, 
IT Pupliana, " I am not Mulva nor Volsinii, but Populonia;" and we find a 
complete couplet on the vase found by Galassi at Cervetri : 

mi ni kethtima, mi mathu maram lisiai thipure'imi ; 
ethe erai sie epana, mi nethu nastav helephu, 

** I am not dust, I am ruddy wine on funereal ashes : where there is feasting 
under-ground, I am water for thirsty lips." In other inscriptions we natu- 
rally find a nearer approximation to the IJmbrian language, as represented by 
the Eugubine tables. And I propose to show that where we cannot derive 
any assistance from Pelasgian or old Italian sources, the Scandinavian lan- 
guages will furnish us with certain and ready help. I must premise, how- 
ever, that I do not intend to engage in any detailed explanation of the 
Etruscan inscriptions : it will be sufficient for my present purpose, if I can, 
by a few decisive instances, establish the character of the language, and thus 
confirm the other proofs of Scandinavian or Gothic affinity. 

With this view, the proper mode of proceeding, as it appears to me, is to 
begin with those inscriptions which involve repetitions of the same phraseo- 
logy, and of which the jsrimayacie interpretation is most simple and obvious. 
When, for example, we find on sepulchres such inscriptions as : eca suthinesl 
Titnie (Dennis, i.24-2. p.443), or eca suthi Larthial Cilnia (Dennis, i. p. 500), 
or kehen suthi hinthiu thues (Vermiglioli, i. p. 64), or eka suthi amcie Titial 
(Vermigl. i. p. 73), we can hardly doubt that eha and kehen are either adverbs 
or pronouns signifying ' here ' or ' this,' in accordance with the root which 
appears in all the Indo-German languages, and that suthi implies either 
lamentation or recollection. Now in Icelandic sut is dolor, mcestitia ; and, in 
the same language, nesla or hnesla* is futiis, laqueus ; so that we might trans- 
late eka suthinesl Titnie and eka suthi Larthial Cilnia. by : " this is the sorrow- 
ful inscription for Titinius," and " this is the mourning for Cilnius the son of 
Larthius." If this were an isolated parallelism between the Scandinavian and 
Etruscan, it would prove little beyond the fact that there is a certain similarity 
of sound between the two languages. But by the side of the eka or keJien 

* In the transition from Icelandic to Swedish, h falls away before all consonants ; thus 
hnyckr becomes nyck, &c. The same occurs in Latin, as in res for hra-is, from hir = x^'p. 
The root of hne-sla is ne, the terminatioa beiug sla, as in reyn-sla, &c. 



ON PROBLEMS IN INDO-GEBMAN PHILOLOGY. 157 

suthi we have cen phleres tree (Vermigl. p. 31) and eka erske ndk achrum 
phler-thrke (Dennis, i. xc.) ; wheve phleres differs ivom suthi in being the de- 
signation of moveable objects rather than of fixed monuments or sepulchres. 
Thus we have ken phleres teke (or trke) on the toga of the statue of Aulus 
Metellud (Micali, Antichi Monumenti, pi. 4^. n. 2), and on the left thigh of 
the laurel-crowned Apollo (Gori, Museum Etruscum, i. pi. 32) we have the 
legend: mi phleres Epul aphe Aritimi, Phasti Ruphria turce den cecha. 
From these and a number of other examples it is clear that phleres must de- 
note the object offered up or consecrated. As most of the objects are of the 
nature of supplicatorj' gifts, it would be natural to suppose that the word 
denotes a votive oblation. Now we know from Festus (p. 230, cf. 77, 109) 
that ploro and imploro or endoploro in old Latin signified ' to call for aid.' 
If then we compare the Icelandic fleiri, Suio-Gothic Jlere, with the Latin 
plures, we shall easily see how phleres may contain the same root as ploro, 
especially since the Latin language recognises a similar change in the cognate 
Jieo. The word is then in its effect equivalent to the Greek avadrjfia, and 
means a " votive offering," like the votiva tahella of the ancient temples, or 
the veto of the modern churches in Italy, and it is easy to see how the ideas 
of ' vow,' ' prayer,' and ' offering,' run into one another. But though we can 
at once translate mi phleres Epul aphe Aritimi, " I am a votive offering to 
Apollo and Artemis," this does not tell us the meaning of the word tree or 
three, which in the other cases is appended to phler or phleres. Here the 
Scandinavian languages at once come to our aid ; for in Suio-Gothic trcega 
is dolere, and trcBge=^dolor ; and in Icelandic at trega is desiderare and tregi 
is desiderium or mceror; and to the same root we may refer the Icelandic 
threk=gravis labor or molestia, for tregi also means impedimentum. Now 
as the monuments on which three or tree occurs are clearly sepulchral, it fol- 
lows th&t phler-thrce must mean "a votive offering of sorrow." The inscrip- 
tion eka erske nak achrum phler-thrke appears on an amphora found at Vulci 
and in connexion with a picture representing the i'arewell embrace of Adme- 
tus and Alcestis. It may be assumed then that the amphora was a funereal 
offering from a husband to his deceased wife. We learn from Galassi's vase 
that era in Etruscan signifies 'earth,' and therefore er-ske* would naturally 
denote an earthenware vessel ; nak is the preposition which, under the form 
na, nahe, nach, occurs in all the Teutonic and Sclavonian languages; and 
achr-um is the locative of achr=-acker, ager, which occurs in the great Peru- 
gian inscription; so that the legend signifies: "this earthen vessel in the 
ground is a votive offering of sorrow." It is as well to mention that I do not 
consider turce on the statue of Apollo as connected with the word thrke : its 
position between the proper name and the well-known den shows that it is a; 
family adjunct; and as the word ceca, compared with cechaze on the Feru- 
gian Inscription (1. 45), and with cechase on the Bomarzo Sarcophagus 
(Dennis, i. p. 313), seems to be a reduplicated verb-form (perhaps akin to 
the Icelandic hasa, Danish hokase, ' to heap up,' or ' build,' — perhaps con- 
nected with gefa, geben, x^Fw, &c.), we may I'ender the passage thus: 
" Eastia Rufria, Tuscijilia natu maxima, dedit." 

It is not necessary for my present purpose to pursue these comparisons of 
individual words any farther. Arguments of this nature are alwaj's more or 
less precarious, and no number of instances would be more decisive than the 
fact that the Scandinavian sut=.dolor and trage=dolor stand under the forms 
suthi and treke on funereal monuments in Etruria. I shall therefore with- 
hold the other examples which I have collected, and direct your attention to 

* The termination -sX:a is very common in derivative Icelandic nouns, as bem-ska, * child- 
ishness/ ill-ska, * malice,' &c. 



158 REPORT — 1851. 

a grammatical identity between the Icelandic and Etruscan, which appears 
to me to furnish an indisputable proof of affinitj'. 

No one can have read any of the Runic inscriptions without noticing the 
constant occurrence of the auxiliary or causative verb lata ; thus we have : 
Ltithsmother lit aliva stin aufti Julibirn Path : i. e. " Lithsmotherus incidi fecit 
saxum in memoriam Julibirni patris." Thorstin lit gcra merki stir Suin 
fathur sin : i. e. " Thorstinus notas fieri fecit in memoriam Suini patris sui." 
Ulfkitil Ilk Ku uk Vni thir litu raisa stin iftir U If fathur sin : i. e. " Ulf- 
kitillus et Bos et Unius, hi fecerunt extollere saxum in memoriam Suini pa- 
tris sui." (See other instances in Dieterich's Runen- Sprach- Schatz, p. 372.) 
Now here we have, as part of a constantly recurring phraseology, an auxiliary 
verb signifying 'to let' or ' cause,' followed by an infinitive in -a. If then 
we had nothing else to induce us to suppose that there was some connexion 
between the Scandinavians and Etruscans, we should be struck by the coin- 
cidence that the largest of the Etruscan inscriptions, that of Perugia, actually 
begins with this phraseology : " eu lat tanna La Rezul amev achr Lautn 
Velthinas." Of course there is no prima facie reason to conclude that tanna 
is a vei-b ; on the contrary, I am well aware that it has been generally con- 
sidered as a feminine prsenonien, found, for example, in the name Tana-quil. 
It so happens, however, that I have recently been favoured with the means 
of confirming the supposition which brings this celebrated record into contact 
with the old Runic inscriptions. A small patera, brought from Chiusi by my 
friend Mr. J. H. Porteus Oakes, and now in the Bury Museum, contains the 
following legend: '^ stem tenilaeth nfatia," The very first glance at this 
must convince us that tenilaeth is the third person of a transitive verb, the 
nominative being Nfatia, probably the name of a woman (cf. Caphatial= Ca- 
fatia natus in Dennis's Bilinguallnscription, ii. p. 475), and the accusative 
being the pronoun stem for istam. The verb tenilaeth obviously belongs to the 
same class of forms as the agglutinate or weak-perfects in Gothic, which are 
formed by the affix of the causative -da, as soM-da, " I did seek" (Gabelentz u. 
Lobe, Goth. Gramm. % 127). We have the same formation in the Latin ven-do, 
pen-do, &c., and I have indicated the existence of a remarkable class of cau- 
satives in -so, -sivi, as arces-so, capes-so, quce-so ( Varronian. p. 207>252). We 
may therefore see that lat tanna represents as separate words what teni-laeth 
exhibits in an agglutinate form, the auxiliary, in the lalter case, however, being 
in the present tense, which in Gothic is formed in th ; and lat being a strong 
perfect. With regard to the verb tana, tent, it is clearly the same as the 
Icelandic the?i, at thenia=-tendere, O.H.G. danjan, denjan, A.-S. dJienjan, 
N.H.G. dehnen, Gr. Teivw, tcivvm, Sanscrit tan-, and therefore signifies " to 
ofier," like the Latin j^orrigo or porricio. As ten-do, which is an agglutinate 
form quite analogous to this teni-lata, is really synonymous yi\t]\ porrigo* , we 
have in the cognate and conterminous Latin and Etruscan languages a per- 
fect compendium of ritual phraseology ; and stem tenilaeth Nfatia is quite 
as near to istam ten-dit or porrigit Nefatia as we should a priori expect. 
The Perugian inscription is, however, even nearer to the Runic than this 
patera legend is to tlje Latin ; and the evidence furnished by the two, taken 
together, seems to me conclusive. Without entering upon any lengthened 
examination of the Perugian monument, I will only remark ihdXlautne, which 
occurs in other Etruscan inscriptions (Vermiglioli, p. 64), is best translated 
by a reference to the Icelandic laut-=locus defossus, so that the beginning of 
the document will signify : " Here Lars Raesial let offer or give a sepulchral 
(ama, Ice\.=ango) field as the grave of Felthina." As we have elsewhere 

* Thus we have (Cic. de Orat, i. 40, § 184) : " praesidium clientibus atque opem amiciset 
prope cunctis civibus lucem ingenii et consilii %\i\ porrigentem atque tendentem." 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 159 

lautnescle (Vermiglioli, p. 64), so we have shortly after kemulmleskul, and it 
would be curious if it were only by an accidental coincidence that kuml is 
the regular Runic name for a monumental stone : thus we have ku lit rasa 
kuml, i.e. " Bos fecit erigere monumentum" (Dieterich's Runen-Sprach- 
Schatz, p. 124). 

The companion patera or saucer to that which I have just examined con- 
tains an inscription, of which a fac-simile has been kindly sent to me by its 
possessor, Mr. Beckford Bevan, and which tends to confirm what I have just 
said. The words are : flenim dekinOl Qm-tf-lan-eQ. In Icelandic flenna 
is^hiaius, chasma, so ihsA. flenim may =paterani, \iam=^egelida obsciiritas 
aeris; tef=morari ; and Idn (at ldna)=)mttuum dare, credere, commodare, 
English le7id, — so that the compound verb may denote, " he lendeth for a dark 
dwelling," and the inscription means : Thekindul datpateram ad commoraU' 
dum in tenebris. The Icelandic has compounds of nouns and verbs, as 
hdlshoggra, 'to behead,' and also of verbs with other verbs, as brenni' 
merhja, ' to brand.' 

And here I must conclude this paper. It was not my intention to discuss 
at length all the topics on which I have touched. To do this, I must have 
written a volume. Enough has, I think, been said for the fulfilment of the 
object which I proposed to myself at starting — namely, to indicate the direc- 
tion of ray own researches, and to invite either sympathy or correction from 
those who are engaged like myself as labourers in the great vineyard of 
ethnographic philology. 



Report on the British Annelida. By Thomas Williams, M,D. 

Land. University, Extra Licentiate of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, and formerly Demonstrator on Structural Anatomy at Guy's 
Hospital. 

Historical Introduction. 

Into the nomenclature of Zoology the word ' Annelida ' is of comparatively 
recent introduction. Ancient naturalists adopted the term Vermis, plur. 
Vermes = Worms, as denotive, generally, of all lower animals resembling 
in form the leech and the earth-worm. In this uncircumscribed acceptation 
the latter word prevailed in use among naturalists down to the epoch of the 
writings of Lamarck. Appellations no less indefinite were employed by 
the Greeks in characterizing all forms of animals distinguished by soft and 
elongated bodies. The words aKwXrit,, ehXai, eXfxirs, were used by the Greek 
writers as names of different animals marked by the common character of a 
vermiform figure. The okuiXtiS, of Aristotle is evidently paronymous with the 
Latin Vermis, and this latter word is conjugate with ?5erto, to turn, = i. e. tor- 
tuous. All animals whose movements were tortuous, were known under this 
designation. The Aristotelian word probably related only to the larva of 
insects. The Scolex of iElian, however, is limited in its application to the 
earth-worm : by Ctesias, a still more ancient author, the same expression 
conveys the idea of some fabulous animal, engendered and nourished in 
wood. The Scolezia of Athengeus denotes a parasitic worm peculiar to the 
mule. 

The second Greek term, euXa), seems to have been one of less extended 
employment, and to have been restricted in its application to the larvce of 
insects. In many of the works of Hippocrates, the word ekjxivs occurs as 



160 REPORT — 1851. 

the definite designation of the class of animals now known as the intestinal 
worms. By ^Elian and Aristotle, this term has also been employed under 
the same signification. The Vermis of Pliny comprehends in extent of 
meaning the three Greek terms already explained, and by this illustrious 
naturalist it was that the intestinal worms were first grouped under the 
special denomination of " lumbricus," the Vermes of Pliny having a co-exten- 
sion of meaning with the modern term worms. Neither this word nor the 
French vers, both of which are traceable to a Latin origin, conveyed any 
clearly bounded ideas as to the zoological place and form of the animals of 
which they became the conventional names. In the writings of Lucretius, 
the word Vermes is thus used : " Videre licet vivos existere Vermes stercore 
de tetro." In the works of Celsus, the substantive Lumbricus occurs in the 
following sense, " terram rimentur, effodiantque lumbricos." 

Der Wurm of the Germans, Vers of the French, and Worms of the En- 
glish, are in the vernacular of these three people no doubt representative or 
equivalent expressions, all employed in an equally confused acceptation. 
Among the Romans, the generic name of Exsanguinia was subsequently in- 
troduced to signify those animals, previously comprehended under the all- 
embracing denomination of Vermes, of which the blood was colourless, viz. 
the Insecta, MoUusca and Zoophyta of modern zoology. It was not, how- 
ever, until the sera of the naturalists of the last century that the old Latin 
word Vermes reached the full vagueness of its sense. In consequence of 
having united in the definition of the term, the consideration of the softness 
of the body to that of its elongated form, it came to embrace in the range of 
its application all animals, except the Vertebrata, Insecta, and Crustacea. 
To the authority of Linnaaus is ascribed by Cuvier this undue extension of 
the word, since anteriorly to the epoch of the Swedish naturalist, Isidore of 
Seville had grouped under the class Vermes such animals only as might with 
zoological propriety have received that appellation. 

To the ancients, the marine worms circumscribed within the modern class 
Annelida were almost wholly unknown. The Nereides are probably identi- 
cal with the marine Scolopendrce of Aristotle ; leeches and intestinal worms 
were also familiar to this author. In the writings of ^lian, Oppian, Dios- 
corides and Galen, and even those of Pliny, no additions to the natural history 
of these animals occur. By each, tiie sagacious statements of Aristotle are 
servilely copied or grossly exaggerated. By Isidore of Seville, the attempt 
was first made to classify the Lumbrici, Ascarides, leeches and flesh-worms 
in an independent group. In his work on the Animals exsnngtiinia, Albertus 
Magnus alludes to the leech and the earth-worm in alphabetical order. 
Wotton has not extended the number of the animals of this class, and only 
speaks of the Nereides under the name of Marine Scolojjendra in his book 
upon Insects ; — of leeches among the fish ; and of earthworms under the 
name of intestini terrce, as well as of intestinal worms under the generic de- 
nomination of Lumbrici, Elmins of the Greeks, among the insects. Belon, 
in his History of Aquatic Animals, mentions for the first time under the phrase 
lumbricus marinus, in opposition to the earth-worm, which he names lum- 
bricus terrestris, the worm which is now known as Arenicola Piscatoriim. It 
is susceptible of historical proof that to Rondelet is due the merit of having 
first clearly defined the genera of marine Annelids now characterized as the 
Nereides. In his work, under the head of Sea-Scolopendra, figures of these 
worms occur. By the same acute observer, a genus of tubicolous Annelids, 
probably identical with our Serpul^, was also definitively described*. About 
this period a useful compilation, under the heads Vermis and Scolopendrae, 
* See Supplement to Griffith's edition of Cuvier, vol. xiii. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 161 

appeared from the pen of Gesner, presenting a synoptic view of the state of 
knowledge with reference to this class of animals. The alphabetical order 
observed by Gesner in the arrangement of the Vermes, was violated by AI- 
drovandus. It is remarked by Cuvier as singular, that to Aldrovandus and 
his disciples the Chaetopodaof Gesner, and the setigerous Annelida of recent 
observers, should have been unknown ; and no less is it to be wondered at, 
that this writer and his abridgers were unacquainted with the deep differences 
of zoological characters which separate the slug from the earth-worm — a di- 
stinction, too, which Isidore of Seville had already precisely defined — (" Fer- 
mis Umax dictus eo quod in limo nascitur, tmde et sordidiis semper et immun- 
dus habetur"'). The Chsetopoda, or setiferous worms, are however mentioned 
in the seventh book of Aldrovandus, in allusion to aquatic insects. The 
Nereids are comprised under the appellation of Sea-Scolopendr^. The Gor- 
dius is called ^^ seta vel vitalis aquaticus," and which has been denominated 
Gordius from the habit of twisting itself up like the Gordian knot. The 
Ololygon of Theon appears to have been the same worm. By this author 
the Sipunculi of Rondelet are spoken of as sea-leeches ; under the same name 
are characterized the Arenicola of Belon. The epoch of Ray had now ar- 
rived, distinguished as it was by a radical regeneration of natural science. 
In the group Insecta of Ray were comprehended all articulate animals : 
amongst other subdivisions of this class, that of the Apoda, including those 
worms which live in the earth, and that of Infesfince, those which infest the 
bodies of animals, may be recognised. Under the head Insecta terrestria, Ray 
ranks (the Myriapods) the true Scolopendras ; and in his aquatic division of 
Insecta, the Sea-Scolopendrae or Nereids occur. In the first edition of his 
* Systema Naturae,' Linnaeus extended the term Vermis to all animals except 
the Vertebrata and Insecta ; excluding however the insect-worms of Ray from 
his class Vermis. After this first essay appeared an account of the genera 
Amphitrite, Nereis and Aphrodita, which belong to the Chaetopoda. In the 
subsequent edition of IJnnasus, the name Intestines was substituted for Rep- 
tilfa for the first order. In a following edition the class of Worms is sub- 
divided into five orders — Intestina, Mollusca, Testacea, Lithophyta, and 
Zoophyta, and the genera which at present constitute the class of red-blooded 
worms were parcelled out, some as Lumbricus and Hirudo in the first order ; 
others, as Terebella, Aphrodita. and Nereis, in the second ; and finally, some, as 
Serpula and Sabella, in the fourth, in consequence of the tube in which they 
live. The true zoological limits of the Annelida were, however, only con- 
fusedly determined by the observers of nature antecedently to the time of 
Pallas (1766). To the sagacity and industry of this naturalist, science is 
indebted for the first clear definition of the boundaries of this class. By his 
successful researches on the Aphroditce, the Nereides and the Serpula, a 
material advance was imparted to the knowledge of the Annelida as a class. 
He recognised the principle, that the presence or absence of a calcareous en- 
velope did not constitute a sufficient ground for placing in two separate 
orders animals which in other respects are similarly organized. The Aphro- 
dites and Nereids of the order Mollusca of Linnaeus, and the Serpulce and 
Amphitritce of his order Testacea, were accordingly grouped into a single 
order, through which lay the passage to the Zoophytes. To this order were 
also annexed the Hirudines, Lumbrici, the Ascarides, the Gordius, and the 
T(Bni(B. The data thus accumulated by Pallas constitute the foundation of the 
modern classification of the Worm-tribe. 

After this the Nereids were made the subject of extensive inquiries by the 
two Danish philosophers, O. T. Miiller and O. Fabricius. By these authors 
additions were also made to the history of the Ndides and Amphitrites. 

1851. i^ 



162 REPORT — 1851. 

Blumenbach it was who first observed that true worms are in no instance 
distinguished by the possession of articulated organs of motion, a negative 
character in whicli they are separated from all insects and Crustacea. Ad- 
ditions to the number of genera at this period were made by Gmelin in his 
new edition of the ' Systema Naturae.' 

Under the name of Worms^ Cuvier, in the year 1798, in his Synopsis of 
Animals, introduces a chapter in which the Vermes of Linnaeus are presented 
under two leading groups, of which one includes those worms in which the 
setae or spines for locomotion are present ; and the other those in which these 
organs are absent : thus were first instituted the two orders ChcEtopoda and 
Apoda, a distinction afterwards adopted by M. de Blainville. Cuvier thus fol- 
lowed in the direction first indicated by Pallas, and abandoning the views of 
Linnaeus, ret^urned to the adoption of those of Aldrovandus, Mouffet, and 
Ray. 

Even at this period in the history of invertebrated animals, which after- 
wards he himself was destined so remarkably to extend, Cuvier saw, though 
only with dim insight, the necessity of separating the Entozoa (which at the 
time could be thrown only into a sort of i7icerta sedes) from the true worms. 
In the year 1802, in a memoir read before the 'Institute' on the organiza- 
tion of the Chatopoda,M.. Cnwier first proposed to designate this division under 
the phrase red-blooded worms, adding to it the genera Hirudo and Lumbricus, 
It was about this time that M. de Lamarck defined with increased clearness 
the line indicated by Cuvier which divided the Chcetopoda from the Intestina. 
A new aera in the history of the Annelida was now about to occur, for it was 
in the year 1812 that the class-name Annelides sprang from the fertile and 
inventive fancy of M. de Lamarck. By this denomination, through various 
mutations, the Worm-tribe has ever since been known among naturalists. 

Nomenclature. — The word Annelides, invented by M. de Lamarck, and 
adopted by M. Bruguiere in his excellent article in the French Encyclopae- 
dia, by M. de Blainville, by M. de Savigny, and Milne-Edwards, is probably 
derived from the Latin annellus, to which has been affixed the Greek termi- 
nation eidos. It is therefore a compound epithet of illegitimate construction, 
for the rules governing the formation of new words require that the consti- 
tuent etymons should be drawn from the same language. It is not a purely 
French word, for the substantive annelet is used in French to signify the di- 
minutive of ring. It is not a Latin word, for the substantive annus, i. e.cir- 
culus, gives the participle annulata, and this is the name which Mr. Macleay 
has preferred*. 

The Vermes of Linnaeus, then, became the Vers a sang rouge of the early 
editions of the 'Regne Animal' : i\ie Annelides of Lamarck, Blainville, Savigny, 
Fleming, Audouin and Milne-Edwards, has settled into the latinized Annelida 
of all English authors on comparative anatomy ; a word, however ungram- 
matical, which has grown into universal and unalterable employment among 
all modern naturalists. 

Zoological position oftlie. Class. — The attempt to allocate animals in a linear 
series from the zoophyte to the mammal has led to many false distributions 
of classes ; nor is it yet manifest that the truly natural principle of arrange- 
ment has been evolved out of the wondrously accumulated data of modern 
science. Neither the nervous nor the circulatory system is available, in the 
inferior extreme of the scale, as a groundwork of classification. From ex- 
tended researches on the homology of the nutritious fluids of the Invertebrata 
recently conducted by the authorf, it is certain that below the Echinoder- 

* Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 385. 

t For a full statement of these observations, see Art.PDi.MO, Cyclop. Anat. and Physiology. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 163 

mata no true blood exists, defining the blood as a fluid circulating in a di- 
stinctly and independently organized system of vessels. In the Zoophytes 
and Acalephae, the blood is replaced by a fluid, the basis of which is sea- 
water. In the organism of the Echinoderm and the Annelid, notwithstanding 
the superaddition of a distinct system of vessels for the blood proper, this 
fluid, the characters of which will be afterwards described, constitutes an or- 
ganic zoological character more significant of locality in the series than any 
other single element of structure. Guided by the affinities of this important 
fluid, the naturalist may discover unquestionable points of serial approxima- 
tion between the Annelid and Echinoderm through the Sipunculidce on one 
side ; at another angle of the group, the Aphrodita aculeata exhibits the most 
striking resemblance in structure (the mere outward form excepted) to the 
AsteridcB. 

In another direction the Annelida approach the inferior Mollusca. Many 
features of analogy exist between the Tunicata and the Echinodermata 
through the genus Pelonaia, which in its general form and in some structural 
characters betrays an obvious tendency towards the Sipunculidce, whilst in 
other respects in that group an undoubted approximation is traceable to the 
annulose division, in the appearance of a disposition to bilateral symmetry in 
the packing of the viscera and the transverse segmentation of the external 
tunic. Among the Gasteropod Molluscs, as originally indicated by Milne- 
Edwards*, an approach is made through the Chitons in the direction of the 
annulose families. It was M. de Blainville, however, who first suspected this 
alliance, and accordingly constituted a special group, transitional between the 
Mollusca and Annelida, under the name oi Polyplaxiphora, In the transverse 
segmentation of the shell of the Chitons, a remarkable resemblance is offered 
to the covering of an articulated animal : nor is this resemblance limited to the 
shell, for its several parts arc connected together by means of a complex 
muscular apparatus, which enables the animal to move them one upon the 
other in such a manner as to roll itself up into a ball : nor are there wanting 
other similarities of external structure ; the generative apparatus presents a 
symmetrical arrangement after the type rather of that of the Annelid than 
of that of the Mollusc. The heart occurs under the character of a pulsatile 
dorsal vessel, indicative of another affinity to the Annulosa. In the Chito- 
nellus the tendency to the transverse division of the body is still more signi- 
ficantly marked. Here the shell is not sufficiently developed to cover the 
dorsum of the animal, yet its several rudimentary pieces are disposed at 
regular intervals like the scales of the Aphrodite ; the vermiform elongation 
of the body is more decided, and the circulating system is still more obviously 
constructed on the plan of that of the Annelid. The respiratory and digest- 
ive organs, and the lingual apparatus on the other hand, remind us, as sug- 
gested by Prof. Forbes, of the corresponding organs of the Prosobranchiate 
Molluscs, while the creeping disc is that of a true Gasteropod. 

It is a subject of surprise that the Dentaliadce, the molluscan nature of 
which is now so conclusively established, should have received, in the last 
French edition of the 'Regne Animalf,' a place among the tubicolous Anne- 
lida. The researches of Deshayes and Savigny, and more satisfactorily those 
of M. de Blainville and Mr. Clark J, have abundantly proved that these 

* Mem. on the Classification of the Gasteropoda, in Ann. des Sci. Nat. Ser. iii. Zool. 
vol. ix. p. 102. 

f This is by far the most perfect and elaborate edition of this great work ever published, 
the editorship of which has been conducted by the disciples of Cuvier. It is known as Cro- 
chard's Edition. 

X See Annals of Natural History, Nov. 1849. 

m3 



164 REPORT — 1851. 

Gasteropods should rank somewhere between the Chiton and Patella. In 
Dentaliiim, the symmetrical subventral position of the branchiae, the posterior 
flow into them of tlie water, and the resemblance of the foot to that of some 
of the bivalves, appear in a striking manner to prove its connection with the 
Conchiferae; whilst by its oesophageal cerebral ganglions, and the completeness 
of its circulating system, its affinity to the Gasteropod is established. But it 
cannot be disputed that there are, on the other hand, evidences of approxima- 
tion to the Annulose tribes ; the red blood, and the vermiform configuration 
of the posterior part of the body, the tubular figure of the shell, the operation 
of the operculum, the apparent resemblance of the branchiae to those of the 
Sabellce, may be readily conceived as prefiguring some of the outward features 
of the Annelida. These points of analogy however are merely apparent and 
supel-ficial ; the Dentaliadce are therefore hereby excluded from the pale of 
this Report. 

Both Cuvier and Lamarck saw in the Cyclostomatous fishes indications of 
resemblance to the Annulose tribes. In the anatomy of Amphioacus there 
exists only one fact of structure which likens it to the Annelid. The circu- 
lating system consists of two longitudinal trunks, a dorsal and ventral; the 
movement of the blood, however, being the exact reverse of that of the An- 
nelids ; the current in the dorsal vessels sets in the direction of the tail, that 
in the ventral forwards I The affinities of the Amphioxus, indeed, connect it 
much more intimately with the Ascidian MoUusk than with the Annelid. 

The data to be advanced in the subsequent portions of this Report will 
prove that a much closer analogy exists between the Annelida and the Ento- 
zoa than that which is implied in the received divisions of systematic natu- 
ralists. It will be shown that in every detail of organization the Cestoid En- 
tozoa link directly with the genera Borlasia and Lineus, both of which rank in 
the family of the Planarice, The disposition of the intestine, the peculiar situ- 
ation of the chylo-aqueous fluid, the curving of the intestine as in the Sipuncu- 
lidcB, the corpuscles of the chylo-aqueous fluid in these latter marine worms, 
establish between them and Tcenia an immediate relationship. But the au- 
thor has proved that in the PlanaricR the csecal ramifications of the digestive 
system are not, as taught by Owen and all other comparative anatomists, 
adherent to the parenchyma of the body ; for a fluid, rendered visible by 
moving corpuscles, intervenes and is set in motion as in the Echinoderms by 
vibratile cilia. This fluid, of which much more will hereafter be stated, 
exists also in the Cestoid Entozoa, and suggests doubts as to the propriety of 
the nomenclature of Prof. Owen, in which they are characterized as solid- 
worms, or Sterelmintha. 

In the Nematoid Entozoa, the space between the intestine and integument 

is more capacious and filled with a much larger amount of that fluid, which 

in this Report it is proposed to distinguish under the name of Chylo-aqtieoics 

fluid. This division of the Entozoa is denominated by Professor Owen the 

Coelelmintha or cavitary worms. 

Notwithstanding the recent excellent researches of M. Blanchard*, the 
difficulties raised by the investigations of the author of this Report on the 
structure of the allied genera of Annelida, will demand a re-examination of the 
whole class of Entozoa. Impressed at present in a strong manner with the 
conception of the essential unity of the type on which the Entozoa and Anne- 
lida are constructed, we applaud the caution and doubt with which Professor 
Owenf speaks as to the place in the zoological series in which the Entozoa are 
made at present to stand. " These animals are associated together chiefly in 
consequence of a similarity of local habitation, which are the internal parts 

* Ann. des Sci. Nat. 1849. f See Art. Entozoa, Cyclop. Anat. and Physiology. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 165 

of animals. In treating therefore of tlie organization of these parasites, we 
are compelled to consider them, not as a class of animals, established on any 
common, exclusive or intelligible characters, but as inhabitants of a peculiar 
district or country." In the progress of this Memoir it will be rendered in- 
disputable, that if the ' denominations ' established by the learned Hunterian 
Professor among the Entozoa be applicable and rightful on the ground of 
anatomical structure, the same terms, on the same plea, will become avail- 
able in the methodical distribution of the Annelida. Anatomical inquiries 
afford no sanction to the use of these phrases : There is no solid annelid, 
neither is there a solid Entozoon. — Why then perpetuate the employment of 
terms productive only of false conceptions ? Difference of habitat neither 
suggests nor requires a corresponding difference of organization : species of 
the same genus, and nearly allied, are frequently found to maintain existence 
under very diverse physical conditions. The inference is, therefore, even 
d priori probable and just, which demurs to the separation of the Entozoa 
from the Annelida on the ground of a difference in the outward circumstances 
of existence ; nor is the propriety of such division yet clearly sanctioned by 
the evidence drawn from anatomy. There is no single trait by which the 
separation is so much justified as in that of the absence in the Entozoa of the 
transverse annuli so characteristic of the true annelid. 

From these observations it must be evident, that the interposition, as has 
been done by Dr. Carpenter*, of the Rotifera between the Entozoa and An- 
nelida, can only be regarded as the putting asunder, on hypothetic principles, 
those whom nature has intimately united in the bonds of consanguinity. 

Surveying the Worm- class in its affinities to those, superior to the Anneli- 
dan standard in the scale, the eye encounters the highest forms of the arti- 
culate type. In the structure of the Annelida and the Myriapoda, marks of a 
community of plan may be readily discerned. The leech and the earth-worm 
on one side, and lulus on the other, occupy the verge of the frontier-line 
dividing these two articulate families. Neither the leech nor the earth-worm 
is provided with any special organs for atmospheric respiration. The so- 
called respiratory sacculi have nothing whatever to do with the respiratory 
process ; and though from the date of the early Essays of Duges to the pre- 
sent time, they have received the fondest marks of attention from every suc- 
ceeding anatomist, as beautiful evidences of design, fitting these humble 
worms for the double luxuries of an amphibious life ; to these parts, hence- 
forth, must be assigned a far different function. 

It is only in this particular that the leech and the earth-worm, whose orga- 
nization is singularly similar, stand distinguished from all other Annelida ; 
that in them, more especially in the leech, the intestine is so uniformly ad- 
herent to the integument as to preclude the existence of the chylo-aqueous 
fluid. The intestine is joined to the integument by means of a thick spongy 
layer, blended intimately with pigmentary epithelium, and composed of ca- 
pillary blood-vessels. This is the true apparatus of respiration, and the me- 
chanism of its function will be afterwards explained. The general proposi- 
tion may here be enounced, that, in all Annelids, the true blood system and 
that of the chylo-aqueous fluid are inversely proportional to each other. 
The greater the amount of the latter, the less the complexity of the former, 
and conversely. In the leech the peripheral circulation is densely complex, 
and the chylo-aqueous fluid is superseded. In the earth-worm the latter 
fluid is present in small amount, and the proper blood system is, in this pro- 
portion, less elaborately developed. Between these two important systems of 
nutritious fluids, there exists in the economy of the Annelida a wonderful 
* See Principles of Physiology, 1851. 



166 REPORT — 1851. 

physiological balance ; it is a subject which conducts to a new path of in- 
quiry. The problem of organization in the Echinoderm, Acalephae and 
Zoophytes, through aid of its suggestive guidance, will soon receive a new 
solution. 

From the researches of Mr. Newport it appears that the series of lateral 
respiratory sacculi (sic) already described in the leech and the earth-worm, 
are also present in lulus. This fact, more than any other, serves to demon- 
strate a near zoological relationship between this myriapod and the Annelida. 
In the tendency to segmental repetition in the body, in the history of the deve- 
lopment of the embryo, and in the character and distribution of the main 
vascular trunks, the lulidce exhibit a close similarity to the Annelida. As 
the lulidcB differ from insects in the absence of wings, they no less strikingly 
differ from the Annelida in the possession of articulateil members. 

The true classification of articulate animals can only be reached through 
the joint aid of comparative anatomy and embryological metamorphoses. In 
the latter department Agassiz has done much*. These two methods lead, 
however, to different results. By the naturalist it has been considered that 
the presence of a heart in Crustacea entitles this class to the highest place 
among the Articulata. This arrangement is founded upon the view that all 
animals should form a natural linear series, disposed in one progressive line 
according to their successive gradations of structure. The distinction intro- 
duced by Cuvier of different types, of four distinct plans of structure, has 
not yet sufficiently penetrated the spirit of those who have followed in his 
steps. Viewed thus as separate types, it is evident that what might be re- 
garded as a character of superiority in one group, may not be entitled to 
such consideration in another; that in each type a separate ruling principle 
should be recognised, and that these types could not be brought into con- 
nection with each other unless upon the most general considerations. 

The embryo of the Annelid undergoes few, if any, metamorphoses. It is 
true that the young are at first almost wholly devoid of appendages ; but the 
body in no instance suffers those deep transmutations traceable in the growth 
of the larvae of Insects and Crustacea. A considerable change of outward 
form is impossible, without some mutation of structure. Embryological 
metamorphoses accordingly become grounds of comparison and induction in 
the eye of the systematic zoologist. As the metamorphoses of an embryo by 
which it is raised to its mature phaise cannot be held, at all events, as retro- 
grade steps in organization ; it is not difficult to perceive that these ' changes ' 
from the ovum to the perfect animal may lead to valuable inferences as to 
the real and final place of the adult animal in the series. Now, since the 
insect reaches the standard of the annelid in its first metamorphose (the 
vermiform caterpillar), its ultimate destination, after two further mutations, 
must place it far above the rank of the worm. It cannot be doubted that a 
comparison, instituted between the larval conditions of Insects generally and 
the Annelida, would issue in many interesting discoveries : such compara- 
tive view has actually led M. Agassiz to see in the naked larvae the proto- 
types of the non-setigerous or Abranchiate Annelids, — and in those provided 
with appendages a resemblance to the dorsibranchiateand cephalobranchiate 
worms. Nor does this distinguished naturalist scruple to descend to parti- 
culars in this comparison, declaring that the larvae of Simacodes may be 
viewed as terrestrial representatives of the genus Polyno't ; those of Bomhy- 
ces as corresponding to the Nereids \ while some among the larvae oi Papilio 
proper, with their protractile branching appendages upon the neck, remind us 

* " Classification on Embryological Data." Trans, of American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, 1850. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 167 

of Terebella. The same line of argumentation applied to the Crustacea has 
led this naturalist to infer that this class should occupy a place immediately 
above the Annelida and below Insects ; that thus the Annelida should stand 
at the bottom of the Annulose series and the Insecta at the summit, the Crus- 
tacea being intermediate. 

While we are willing to applaud the sagacity of these speculative thoughts, 
we must persist, in this Report, in adhering to the evidence drawn fromadult 
rather than embryonic structures, and that on the plea that mature forms in 
the same sub-kingdom must bear to each other constant and invariable re- 
lations, and that the perfect animal no less than the transfigurations of the 
embryo, by the deep written characters of its organism, must attest its true 
relative position. It will accordingly be maintained in this memoir, that 
below, the nearest connection of the Annelida are the Entozoa ; that the Si- 
punculidcB associate them in a direct and natural manner with the Echino- 
derms, and with far greater intimacy of resemblance in structure than that 
with which they are joined to the Mollusca by the intervention of the Chi- 
tonidce, and that above the Annelida should be placed the inferior species of 
the lulidce. Considerations founded on anatomical evidence will be after- 
wards advanced confirming the propriety of this distribution. 

It is proposed now to enter at some length upon that division of our Report 
which relates to the anatomy of Annelida, as an appropriate prelude to a de- 
tailed study of species. 

Anatomy of the Annelida. — Anatomical details, correctly determined, will 
be found hereafter indispensable to the classification of the Annelida. These 
animals, unlike all other inferior tribes, in many instances present so little 
external diversity among themselves, while their internal organization at the 
same time may be strongly marked by specific peculiarities, that a careful 
consideration of the anatomy of the class will here appropriately precede that 
of its methodical arrangement. Certain leading points in the structure of 
worms were established by the dissections of the earlier anatomists. The 
researches of Willis* gave some rude conception of the character of the cir- 
culation of the blood, and the outline of the alimentary system. By Sir E. 
Homef this inquiry was prosecuted to some further extent ; and in this path 
of investigation, this comparative anatomist was followed by M. de Blain- 
ville J and Morren§. It was about this date that the labours of M. Duges 
were given to science, by the publication of his memoirs on the circulation 
and reproductive system of the Annelides||- It is a fact lamentable to relate, 
that the errors and imperfect dissections of the professor of Montpellier should 
have been propagated through the classic works of the most distinguished 
modern authors down to the present time. The account which M. Duges 
has given of the reproductive organs of the leech and the Nais is full of grave 
errors, and it will be afterwards proved that those of M. Quatrefages, although 
nearly fifty years later, are little less remote from the truth of nature. It 
should have been previously stated, that in the year 1806 a M. Thomas^ had 
already thrown some light on the anatomy of the leech. The 'Le9ons d'Ana- 
tomie Comparee ' of Cuvier, edited by M. Dumeril, which appeared about 
this period, on the subject of the anatomy of the Annelida, contained little 
more than an epitomized statement of what had been previously published. 

* De Anima Brutorura. f Philosophical Transactions. 

X Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles, t. Ivii. p. 407. 

§ De Lumbricibus terrestribus historia natnrali necnon anatomia tractatus. Bruxelles 1829. 
II Recherches sur la circulation, la respiration et la reproduction des AnneUdes abranches. 
Annales des Sciences naturelles, l'" Serie, t. xv. 1828. 
1[ Memoire pour servir a I'histoire naturelle des Sangsues, in 8vo, Paris 1806. 



168 REPORT — 1851. 

The names of Moquin-Tonquin of Montpellier and M. Phil'ippi of Milan*, 
should be honoui-ably associated with this branch of comparative anatomy. 
Hunter had formed a correct appreciation of the general structure of several 
species of Annelids, as exemplified in the beautiful preparations which he has 
bequeathed to the science, in the Hunterian collection f. The organization 
of the Serpulce, the Amphitritce, and Nereidce, have been meritoriously studied 
by M. Delle ChiajeJ. 

The researches of the earlier English zoologists were for the most part 
limited to the descriptive history of species ; the names of Leach and Mon- 
tague should, notwithstanding, be gratefully allied with this department of 
natural science in England. Dr. George Johnston of Berwick-on-Tweed 
has done more than any other modern observer to rescue the Annelids from 
the region of obscurity and confusion. The descriptions of this excellent 
naturalist are characterized by exactness and truth, and his investigations of 
structure, as far as they have extended, seldom deviate much from the results 
attained through aid of the modern microscope §. 

It is scarcely required to remark, that the efforts of ancient anatomists, how- 
ever laborious, in those fields especially in which the subjects of investigation 
were minute in size and of difficult manipulation, anterior to the era of the 
microscope, could at best have been but imperfect. In the preparation of 
this memoir, it will be accordingly found that the author will have few ac- 
knowledgements to render to the works of these venerable authors. This 
observation, however, does not apply to the labours of Owen and Milne-Ed- 
wards, by whom, indeed, almost everything hitherto known to science with 
reference to the organization of the Entozoa and Annelida has been contri- 
buted. The researches of Milne-Edwards have been principally confined to 
the system of the circulation in the Annelida|| ; those of Prof. Owen are re- 
stricted to the Entozoa^. The author of this Report desires in this place to 
bear testimony to the accuracy of the observations of Milne-Edwards. His 
account, however, as stated, embraces little more than the central apparatus of 
the circulation, and yet it will be subsequently seen that the study of the cha- 
racters oi the periphery of the circulation, identified as it must be with the 
intimate structure of the integral organs of the body, will conduct to results 
of the highest interest. The author regrets that it has not been in his power 
to refer in any satisfactory manner to the recent works of the Swedish and 
Danish naturalists on the subject of the AnneMda. The reports by Prof. 
Siebold of Erlangen, published by the Ray Society, are very insufficient for 
the purposes of reference ; nor are all the anatomical investigations of M. 
de Quatrefages and M. Blanchard within reach. 

The Circulating Fluids. — In the economy of all Annelids, one or two 
species excepted, two distinct and separate fluid elements of nutrition exist ; 
of which one consists of the proper and true blood, contained in closed vessels 
and moving in a definite orbit, and constituting a well-marked circulation ; 
the other of a liquid mass, filling the open space which, in all species, in- 
tervenes between the intestine and the integument, holding organic corpuscles 

* Memoria sugli Anaelidi della famiglia delle Sanguisughe, in 4to, MUan 1837. 

t Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Physiological Series, &c. by Owen, vol. ii. 

X Memorie sulla storia i uotomia degli Animali senza vertebra del regno di Napoli, 
torn. ii. and iii. 

§ The contributions of Dr. Johnston to this branch of natural history will be found dis- 
tributed throughout the early series of the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History.' In 
treating of species, separate references will be made to this author's publications. 

II Recherches pour servir a I'histoire de la circulation du sang chez les Annelides, lues a 
I'Academie des Sciences, le 30 Octobre 1837. 

f Art. Entozoa, Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 169 

in suspension, varying in different species, and performing irregular to and 
fro oscillations under the agency of the muscular contractions of the intestine 
and integuments. On these two fluids, two separate physiological functions 
devolve : each is essential to the maintenance of life in the Annelid ; nor is 
it improbable that the clue unravelled by the study of these fluid elements in 
this class, will lead to important conclusions in relation to the mechanism of 
nutrition in all invertebrate animals. All the recesses and ramifications of 
the general cavity of the body in the Annelids, communicate freely with each 
other, constituting thus one common space. This cavity is lined by a distinct 
membrane, which is obviously the anatomical analogon of the peritoneum, and 
is filled by a fluid which is unquestionably an organic fluid. Reasons will 
be afterwards adduced for regarding this fluid as phyBiologically allied to the 
chyle of the higher animals, and the containing cavity as the prototype of the 
peritoneal. It is therefore proposed in this memoir to distinguish this general 
splanchnic chamber as the peritoneal cavity, and the contained fluid under 
the designation of the peritoneal fiuid, or the chyle-aqueous fluid of the 
peritoneal cavity. In the Annelida, the peritoneal membrane is not vihra- 
tile; the oscillations of the fluid contents cannot therefore be due to ciliary 
vibration. This fact distinguishes the Annelid from the Echinodermata, of 
which the peritoneal space, in all species, even in the SipuncididcB, is richly 
lined with vibratile cilia. Tliis observation it is only necessary to qualify by 
the single remark, that in some species of Annelids, as that of Glycera, the 
hollow interior of the branchice in which the peritoneal circulates is lined 
with mobile cilia. 

The real characters of this fluid have remained up to the date of the 
researches of the author of this Report quite unknown to anatomists*. 

* About two years ago he communicated to the Swaaisea Literary and Scientific Society a 
paper " On the Structure and Habits of the Annelida," in which a summary was presented 
of the results at which he had then arrived, with respect to the organic and chemical compo- 
sition of this fluid. In that communication, illustrations of the floating organic corpuscles 
were also exhibited, and the views, expounded in the text, with regard to the physiological 
signification of the fluid in the economy of the worm, were first sketched. The author has 
only recently become acquainted with a memoir, " Sur la famille des HermeUiens," by M. 
De Quatrefages (Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 3""^ serie, 1848), in which this industrious 
French anatomist alludes in the following language to the general cavity of the body in the 
instance of Sabella alveolata : — 

" Chez les Hermelles comme chez toutes les Annelides, et on pent le dire aujourd'hui, comma 
chez la majorite des invertebres, les teguments et les couches musculaires sousjacentes cir- 
conscrivent une cavite, dans laquelle est renferrae le tube digestif. Dans les Annehdes en 
general, dans les Hermelles en particulier, cette cavite n'est pas d'une seule venue. Entre 
chaque anneau se trouvent des cloisons incompletes fermees par des colonnes musculaires qui 
s'elevent en s'elargissant, et se soudant de has en haut, de maniere a former en dessus une 
membrane. Entre le dernier anneau thoracique et le premier anneau abdominal, la cloison 
est beaucoup plus epaisse et plus complete ; eUe manque, an contraire, entre le deuxieme, et 
le troisieme anneau abdominal, espece qui correspond an jabot. Dans chaque anneau de 
I'abdomen considere isolement, la cavite renferme une portion du tube digestif et des organes 
geuitaux. Sur les cotes, a la hauteur des pieds, cette cavite se prolonge dans I'interieur de 
ces derniers. Les gaines des soies, les muscles qui les mettent en mouvement, sont entiere- 
ment Ubres dans ces especes des chambres. La couche de tissus tres dehcats qui tapisse 
I'interieur des pieds est herissee de grands cils vibratiles. Le mouvement de ces cils est loin 
d'etre regiilier et constant ; on le voit quelquefois regner dans toute I'etendue de la cavite ; 
d'autres fois s'arreter entierement ; mais le plus souvent, il est partiel, et se raanifeste tantot 
sur un point, tantot sur un autre. Malgre le nombre d'observations, tres considerable que 
j'ai faites sur des Annelides errantes ou tubicoles, c'est la seconde fois seulement que j'ai 
rencontre des cils vibratiles dans une dependance de la cavite generale du corps. A I'epoque 
de la reproduction, la cavite dont nous parlous est rempUe par les oeufs ou les spermatozoi'des, 
qui penetrent jusque dans I'interieur des chambres des pieds. En temps ordinaire, on trouve 
dans la cavite generale im Uquide parfaitement incolore, au milieu duquel nagent des corpus- 
cules irreguhers refractant fortement la lumiere, et dont 1^ ngmbre varie dans les divers mdi- 



170 REPORT — 1851. 

The coagulating principle consists of fibrine, and there can be no doubt 
that thp great bulk of the fluid portion is composed of sea-water. The mor- 
photic elements vary in a remarkable manner in different species ; that is, 
for the same species the corpuscles of the peritoneal fluid are constant, 
and nearly the same for every season of the year. In different species, there- 
fore, these solid elements become signs of specific distinction, but the specific 
variation is much less marked than the generic ; this is exemplified in the 
instances of the Spios and Terebellce. In Sjjio coniocephala these corpuscles 
are large flattened oval cells, enclosing smaller elliptical bodies and a nucleus, 
and presenting a singularly serrated border. (Plate II. fig. 1.) In Spio vul- 
garis, a smaller species of the same genus, the same bodies occur under a re- 
duced size ; the serrated edges, however, are still observed. The serrations 
are not endowed with any motive property, for these cells manifest no loco- 
motive power. The otm of these same Annelids are orbicular, nucleated 
bodies, and differing strikingly from the serrated corpuscles just described ; 
these latter are always present in the peritoneal fluid ; the ova are very 
seldom to be found. These facts, which are readily and demonstratively esta- 
blished, prove beyond doubt that the serrated bodies are not germ-cells. 
The illustrations present them in the maturity of growth ; they never attain 
a larger size. In two species of Terebella which abound on these coasts, the 
peritoneal fluid contains morphic elements of a similar character, and no less 
specifically peculiar. 

These bodies, in Terebella nebulosa, the larger of the two species, are 
smooth-edged oval cells, slightly compressed, containing six or seven or more 
oil-globules, highly refractive, and filled with spherical molecules, floating 
in a fluid possessing a refractive power greater than that of the outer fluid 
(Plate If. fig. 2). In these bodies no nucleus is discoverable, a fact which 
clearly distinguishes them from true ova. 

They are commonly however mistaken for ova in this species, and the 
peritoneal chamber is accordingly described as a marsupium or incubating 
cavitj' ; additional proofs will be afterwards adduced of the fallacy of this 
conclusion. In this species, other bodies than those described floating in 
the peritoneal fluid may be seen ; these latter consist of spindle-shaped 
and irregular cells, fragments of cell-membrane and other compound bodies, 
all differing from the regularly oval cells which constitute the bulk of the 
solid elements of the fluid. The spindle-figured bodies, especially when affix- 
ing themselves at one extremity into a stellar bunch, may be readily mistaken 
for sperm-cells, with which, however, on other grounds, they are not to be 

vidus." From tliis passage it is evident that Quatrefages has done little more than recognise 
the existence of a fluid in the general cavity of the body. It is true, as explained in the 
author's Report, that in some species ova and speimatozoa are sometimes found floating 
in this fluid. But it is not in accordance with his observations that this fluid is kept in 
motion by cilia. In no single species are these internal cilia to be found in the general 
peritoneal cavity. It is easy to mistake those wliich in many species clothe the bases of the 
feet and branchiae externally, for the agents occasioning the motion of the fluid in the inte- 
rior. Quatrefages saysnothingof the composition of this fluid, of its uses in the economy; he 
makes no allusion to the specific differences which the floating corpuscles exhibit in different 
species, nor does he appear to have suspected any connexion between this fluid and the true 
blood contained in the blood-vessels. The merit of priority in the demonstration of the com- 
position, and in the appreciation of the physiological significance of the peritoneal fluid of the 
Annelida, is therefore claimed for the author of this Report. 

It is only possible in the larger species to obtain it in sufficient quantity for chemical ana- 
lysis. In Terebella nebulosa, Arenicola, and the large Nereids, it may be readily collected 
for examination. It is denser in gravity than conmion sea-water. 

In a few minutes after removal from the body of the animal, it throws down an unques- 
tionable coagulum, like the clot of true blood. The organic corpuscles cohere into groups 
and masses, and sink with the clot. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. l^l 

confounded. In Terebella conchilega, a species very closely allied to the 
former, but inferior in size, the corpuscles of the peritoneal fluid consist 
of cells of precisely analogous organization. Like the corresponding bodies 
in Terebella nebulosa, they are regular and uniform in figure, size and struc- 
ture. Such remarkable uniformity proves incontestably that they are governed 
by a definite law of parentage, birth and growth ; that they are restricted to 
determinate dimensions by a singularly invariable principle of increase. In 
these two species the cephalic cirrhi or tentacles are composed of hollow 
tubes, filled with the peritoneal fluid ; the movements of this fluid are 
determined by the muscular walls of the containing cavity ; the tentacles 
are extended and contracted by the alternate flux and reflux of this fluid 
in their axes. In the general cavity of the body it is urged to and fro in 
large waves by muscular agency, and not by ciliary. Mechanically and 
physiologically, this fluid is immediately essential to the maintenance of life ; 
mechanically, by preventing contact between the intestine and integument, 
thus favouring the circulation of the blood-proper; and physiologically, 
by furnishing the pabulum out of which the latter fluid is perpetually being 
reinforced. 

In other species this fluid is characterized by equally distinctive peculiari- 
ties. In Arenicola Piscatorum it is abundant, and highly charged with 
corpuscles. Towards the month of August it increases in amount by the 
influx of oviform bodies, but at every season it abounds in corpuscular ele- 
ments, which consist of compound granular cells, from the circumferences of 
which digitate and filiform processes project, imparting to the cells an ap- 
pearance resembling that of spermatozoid bodies ; the oviform corpuscles are 
spherical, and distinguished at some point of their circumference by a bright, 
pellucid, nucleated cell. It will be shown in another part of this memoir, 
that although these bodies severally resemble the sperm- and germ-cells of 
this Annelid, yet general analogy requires that they be regarded as peculiar 
to the peritoneal fluid (Plate II. fig. 3). 

In the earth-worm the space between the intestine and integument is almost 
obliterated, these two cylinders being so closely bound to each other at the 
interannular bauds. There exists, however, in the chambers between these 
dissepiments a small quantity of viscid fluid, the morphotic elements of which 
consist of uniformly figured spherical molecules, bearing a few granules, and 
in some instances a nucleus. The true ova, which in this familiar Annelid 
can be proved never to enter the peritoneal cavity, are perfectly distinct from 
these corpuscles ; these latter being manifestly peculiar to the peritoneal 
fluid, another datum corroborative of the view which regards this fluid as 
fitted to discharge functions independent of the reproductive. In the Onone 
maculata the fluid is thickly charged with minute orbicular particles, all of 
the same size and figure, and very minute, and bearing no analogy whatever 
to the ova of the same worm. 

The BorlasicB and Liniadce, of the family Planarice, present a plan of 
structure which distinguishes them in a very marked manner from other 
orders of Annelida. The oesophageal intestine, turned upon itself, terminates 
here not far from the cephalic extremity of the body, after the manner of 
that of the Sipunculidce. A hollow sacculated organ then proceeds from the 
base of the proboscis throughout the body as far as the tail. By Quatrefages, 
Blanchard and Milne-Edwards, this remarkable organ has been mistaken for 
the ovarian system. It is, however, a true alimentary system, and it is in its 
cavity in these species that the peritoneal fluid is contained, and not in 
the space, which in these instances is obliterated, between this organ and the 
integument, The corpuscular elements consist here of fusiform and ellip- 



172 REPORT 1851. 

tical cells, transparent and devoid of granular contents, and quite dissimilar 
in character from the true ova. 

lu the genus Sabella, the peritoneal fluid is opalescent and thickly cor- 
pusculated; it does not change its colour with that of the true blood, since 
its colour is the same in those species which are distinguished hy green blood 
as in those of which the blood is red. The bodies in this instance consist 
of several varieties of cells, some of which are fibre-like, others orbicular, and 
bearing granules; but in different individuals of the same species they are 
constant. In the Nereids (fig. 4} these corpuscles are more or less oviform, 
and the fluid is distinct, but not large in quantity. In the Aphroditacece it 
is charged with epithelium-like scaly bodies. To this remark the Aphrodita 
acideata is an exception, for here the fluid bears no visible morphous sub- 
stances, and seems to depart little from the standard of salt water. In one 
other respect this aberrant Annelid approaches tlie Asterias ; namely, in the 
fact that the peritoneal cavity is lined by vibratile epithelium. 

It must not be overlooked, however, that in this Aphrodite the alimentary 
system exhibits a curious modification when considered in relation to the 
plan prevalent among the Annelida as a class. The chylous fluid in this 
case is transferred from the outside (peritoneal cavity) to the interior of the 
digestive c£ecal processes, from which it is absorbed into the system of the 
blood-proper; the exception therefore becomes more apparent than real- 
No example occurs in the whole class in which the real physiological 
character of this peritoneal fluid becomes so unequivocal as in that of 
Glycera alba (fig. 5). The general cavity of the body in this beautiful 
worm is filled with a fluid, bearing in great abundance blood-red flattened 
oval corpuscles, resembling the blood-corpuscles of the frog. This is 
the only Annelid in which the bodies of the peritoneal fluid are coloured. 
The blood-proper in this species is almost devoid of colour, faintly red, and 
quite incorpuscular. The bases of the feet in this worm, as in many others, 
are hollow, and the branchial processes are tubular and filled with the peri- 
toneal fluid, the interior being lined by vibratile epithelium. The branchial 
process, which is lined within and without by vibratile epithelium, is filled 
with the peritoneal fluid, the corpuscles of which move under ciliary agency, 
peripherally along one side, and centrally along the other of the process. 
The walls of this appendage contain no true blood-vessels ; and there exists 
no other respiiatory organ. The inference is therefore irresistible, that 
the peritoneal fluid it is, and not the blood-proper, which in this case is 
submitted to the influence of the aerating medium ; and the branchial pro- 
cess exhibits a structure modified with express reference to the efiicient ex- 
posure of this fluid rather than of the blood. These facts lead by ob- 
vious induction to the two-fold division of the process and mechanism of 
respiration in the Annelida, that, first, in which the true blood is submitted 
directly to the process of aeration ; and that, secondly, in which the 
peritoneal fluid is the medium which immediately receives the external oxy- 
gen. The system for the circulation of the blood-proper under the latter 
circumstances is little developed ; under the former it is more elaborate, and 
the volume of the peritoneal fluid is proportionately reduced. There 
is observable, then, both physiologically and anatomically, an inverse relation- 
ship between these two systems of nutritious fluids. It follows further from 
the facts, which, in the example of Glycera alba are so easy of demonstration, 
that if the peritoneal fluid, which is so unquestionably the recipient, be the 
reservoir for the collection of the external oxygen, and consequently of car- 
bonic acid from the blood-proper, the interchange of gases between it and 
the external sea-water could not occur if both were of the same specific gra- 



QN THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. l73 

vity. This is an inferential datum, which proves that the peritoneal fluid, 
although consisting of a large proportion of sea-water, is nottvithstanding 
an organic Jiuid. This fluid, in the instances of the TerebellcB and Arenicola, 
in which it is abundant, is rendered opake by the addition of nitric acid, 
proving the presence of albumen ; and by standing, a coagulum is formed, 
sufficient to prove the presence of fibrine ; and the microscope establishes the 
existence of highly organized compound corpuscles. 

Now, that the basis of this fluid consists of sea-water, is rendered almost 
certain by the following simple expedient : — If the peritoneal fluid of 
Arenicola or Terebella nebulosa be collected in adequate quantity and care- 
fully filtered, and the clear liquor be then submitted to evaporation, the 
crystalline products will be found identical with those resulting from the 
evaporation of simple sea- water. The inference then is probable, that the 
fluid bases of the peritoneal fluid in all Annelida must consist chiefly of 
sea-water ; nor does inductive caution here forbid the generalization sug- 
gested by the preceding facts, that in the lower forms of life the surrounding 
medium is assimilated with remarkable rapidity ; that sea-water under such 
circumstances readily assumes the character of an organic fluid \ in other and 
more specific language, that sea-water is vitalized with wonderful facility 
by the solid organic elements contained in the peritoneal fluid. It is per- 
fectly impossible to demonstrate any direct communication between the peri- 
toneal cavity and the exterior. The channel of communication lies through 
the alimentary canal ; the water is swallowed, and under the agency of the 
intestinal, glandular and vascular systems, it receives the first impulse to or- 
ganization ; thence it probably passes by direct transudation into the general 
peritoneal chamber. The anterior extremity of the intestinal canal is endowed 
with the power of readily absorbing this fluid, while the caudal end no less 
readily gives it exit into the rectal division of the same canal ; and this is the 
mechanism by which the peritoneal cavity is supplied with its fluid contents. 
Whether the peritoneal fluid is organically capable of maintaining the 
nutrition of the solid structures of the system, cannot be directly proved; 
but it is scarcely susceptible of doubt, from the intricate manner in which 
the true blood-vessels coil in the midst of the fluid contents of the general 
cavity, that the former must absorb from the latter the elements from which 
the true blood is afterwards manufactured ; that in fact it presents the same 
relation to the contents of the proper blood-system of vessels, as the chyle of 
the higher animals does to the true blood ; the peritoneal fluid of the An- 
nelid differing from the chyle of the mammal only in the fact that the latter 
is contained in vessels, while the former rolls in a capacious chamber. 

The absorbent power of the peritoneal fluid for oxygen is increased 
in proportion as its density is increased ; this property the author deduces 
from his experiments on salt water. When this fluid is evaporated to dif- 
ferent degrees of density, and allowed to stand for a day or two, the gases 
extricated by boiling bear a direct proportion in volume to the specific gra- 
vity. Liebig has recently shown that the absorbent property of water for 
carbonic acid is very much increased by the addition of phosphate of soda, 
or a solution of sulphate of copper saturated with nitric oxide. These and 
analogous facts render the inference highly probable, that the peritoneal 
fluid, in virtue of its augmented absorbent power, readily withdraws oxygen 
from the circumfluent medium, and brings this vitalizing gas in a more con- 
densed and concentrated form into immediate contact with the true blood 
and the solid structures of the body. This mechanism therefore, so far from 
diminishing, actually multiplies the aerating influence of the surrounding 
medium. The respiratory process ia rendered not less, but more efficient, by 



174 REPORT — 1851. 

the interposition of the peritoneal fluid between the blood-proper and the 
external medium. 

The history of the remarkable fluid element of nutrition, as now described 
in the Annelida, will henceforth enable the physiologist to understand how 
intimately and immediately necessary to the maintenance of the vital actions, 
the influence of the surrounding medium must be in these inferior orders of 
animals ; how instantaneous the death when transferred into fresh water, and 
how important the part must be which the mineral and saline ingredients of 
sea-water perform, in preserving the integrity of the voluminous organic 
fluids of the body. 

Blood-proper. — When Cuvier first constituted the Annelida into an inde- 
pendent class, he attached great importance to the discovery of red blood in 
these animals, and this fact became the ground of his classification : " Frappe 
de la couleur si remarkable du liquide nourricier, chez ces animaux, il les 
designa d'abord sous le nom de Vers a sang rouge." Lamarck, no less than 
Cuvier, was impressed with a sense of the important significance of red blood 
iu the animals to which he now applied the name of Annelides ; like Cuvier, 
he viewed the red blood as the essential distinction of the class*. 

M. de Blainville now discovered that in Aphrodita Herissa the blood was 
coloiirkssf. Pallas, however, had in fact anticipated both Cuvier and De 
Blainville in this discovery, and also in that of the existence of red blood 
in the Annelida generally t. 

To the laborious researches of Milne-Edwards, the zoologist is indebted 
for a full and complete history of the colour and distribution of the blood in 
the Annelida§. But it is a remarkable circumstance that so searching an 
observer should have overlooked the question aflfecting the microscopic cha- 
racters of this fluid. After stating that in the EunicidcB, Euphrosinida, Ne- 
reides, Nephthys, Glycera, Ojionidce, Arenicola, Hermellce, Terebellce, Ser- 
pulce, Lumbrictis and Hirudo, the blood is of a red colour, he remarks, " Mais, 
du reste, examine au microscope, ce liquide ne m'a pas semble difl'erer du 
sang des autres animaux sans vertebres. Les globules qu'on y voit nager 
n'ont pas du tout I'aspect de ceux propres au sang des animaux vertebres : ce 
sont des corpuscules circulaires dont la surface a une apparence framboisee, 
et dont les dimensions varient extremement chez un ineme animal." 

In the passage cited, this eminent author admits the existence of circular 
corpuscles in the blood of the Annelida, Avhich according to his account pre- 
sent the appearance of raspberries, varying much in dimensions in the same 
individual ||. In his excellent memoir in the Philosophical Transactions^, 

* " Ce qui a effectivement paru tres singulier, ce fut de trouver que les Annelides, quoique 
moius perfectionnes en organisation que les Mollusques, avaient cependant le sang veritable- 
nient rouge, tandis qui depend de son etat et de sa composition, et qui est celle du sang de 
tous les animaux vertebres. On sent bien que, parmi les animaux que nous rapportons a 
noti'e classe des Annelides, ceux qui si trouveraient n'avoir pas dans leur organisation le 
caractere classique, n'infirment point ce caractere et ne sont places ici qu'en attendant que leur 
organisation soit mieux connue." — Lamarck, Animaux sans Vertebres, t. v. p. 276. 

t Art. Vers, du Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, t. Ivii. p. 409. 

X See his Miscellanea Zoologica, p. 89. " Sectis in dorso longitudinaliter tegumentis, 
occurrit vasculum lympha sfepe turbidula plenum : " from tliis sentence it is much more pro- 
bable that in this section Pallas merely opened the great cavity between the intestine and in- 
tegument, out of which the "IjTupha turbidula" escaped, and that it was not the blood-pro- 
per, as Milne-Edwards supposes, but the peritoneal fluid which Pallas saw. 

§ Annal. des Sciences, 2™^ serie, Oct. 1838, ' Circulation dans les Annelides,' par M. H.M 
Edwards. 

II Recherches pour servir a I'histoire de la circulation du sang chez les Annelides, lues a 
1' Academic des Sciences le 30 Oct. 1837. 

^ ' The Blood-corpuscle considered in its different Phases of Development in the Animal 
Series,' by T. W, Jones, F.R.S. &c., Phil. Trans, part 2. 1846. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 17$ 

Mr. Wharton Jones describes and figures the blood-corpuscles of the Earth- 
worm and the Leech, and thus defines the mode in which he obtained the 
specimens submitted to examination : — 

" The blood was most readily obtained for examination from the abdominal 
vessel, but in abstracting it, care was required to guard against its becoming 
mixed with the secretion poured out from the skin in great abundance when 
the animal is wounded," p. 94: Mr. Jones then observes, " The corpuscles 
of the blood of the Earth-worm are remarkable for their great size, being on 
an average yjij^dth or y^^j^dth of an inch in diameter. There are both granule 
and nucleated cells*." 

Investigations of the most extended and scrupulously exact description 
enable the author here to affirm most confidently that in the account of the 
corpuscular elements of the blood of the Annelida just cited from the memoirs 
of Milne-Edwards and Wharton Jones, these distinguished observers have 
fallen into extraordinary errors. In no single species among the Annelida 
does the blood-proper contain any morphotic element whatever I In all in- 
stances, without a single known exception, it is a perfectly amorphous fluid, 
presenting under the highest powers of the best microscope no visible cor- 
puscles or molecules or cells whatever ; it is a limpid fluid variously coloured, 
as originally and correctly described by Milne-Edwards, in different species. 
No complete distinction into venous and arterial blood can be observed, and 
the plan of the circulatidn renders such a distinction only partially possible. 
In all cases the colouring matter is fluidified and uniformly blended with the 
fluid mass of the blood ; the colour therefore must be developed in the fluid 
mass, for there exist here no morphotic elements in the blood itself by 
which the separation of the coloured substances from the peritoneal fluid 
can be effected, unless indeed the parietes of the vessels of the blood-proper 
discharge this eclectic function. With one exception, namely, that of Gly- 
cera alba, in which they are red, the corpuscles of the peritoneal fluid 
are in all species destitute of colour. But it is not at all chemically impos- 
sible that the coloured ingredients may exist in this fluid in a colourless 
state, and that these ingredients, through entering into new combinations, 
may become brightly coloured after transition into the true blood. In con- 
sequence of the impracticable minuteness of the quantity, no direct chemical 
analysis of the blood in the Annelid can be executed. As to the colour, 
however, analogy removes all doubt that the red tinge is due to the salts of 
iron, and the green to those of copper. In those species in which the blood 
is light-yellow, opake, or lymph-like, it does not follow that the salts of the 
coloured minerals are altogether absent ; they may exist under colourless 
combinations. The physiologist cannot view with unconcern the question 
which in this class of animals affects the mode in which the peritoneal 
fluid and the blood-proper stand related to each other. That the former is 
higher than the latter in degree of organization no doubt can exist ; but it 
is not quite clear that the true blood is reproduced out of the elements of the 
peritoneal fluid ; since the vessels distributed over the parietes of the 
alimentary canal may take up some of the immediate products of digestion 
before the latter exude into the general cavity of the body to mingle with its 
semi-aqueous contents. Nor can it be affirmed, from the evidence drawn 
from its composition, that the peritoneal fluid is unfitted to supply the 
means of nutrition to the solid structures, into the interior of which in every 

* Here follows an elaborate account of the metamorphoses which these two varieties of 
corpuscles undergo ; and with respect to the Leech, Mr. Jones states, " that whilst the corpus- 
cles of the blood of the Earth-worm are the largest which I have yet found in any vertebrate 
animal, the corpuscles of the Leech are the smallest." (p. 95, op. cit.) 



176 REPORT — 1851. 

part of the body it intimately penetrates. It is more probable, because more 
in accordance with analogy, however, to suppose that it is a manufactory in 
itself, that its corpuscles execute an office by which the mineral substances 
and proximate principles are vitally assimilated, that the corpuscular elements 
in the Annelida do in this fluid what in the higher animals analogous bodies 
efl"ect in the blood-proper. From these facts the physiologist may advisedly 
say thus much, that in these animals nature divides the vital fluids into two 
separate and distinct orders, on one of which the preparative and elaborative 
cell-agency devolves, on the other the work of solid nutrition. They prove 
Avith great clearness that the corpuscular elements, either in the blood itself, 
or as in this case, in some contributory fluid, are essential to the preparation 
of the blood-proper ; for when in the zoological series, as in the higher 
Articulata, this corpusculated fluid disappears, the blood itself becomes 
corijusculated, or when the peritoneal fluid, as in the Echinodermata, 
becomes less organic, then also morphotic elements are developed in the true 
blood. From these observations the inference may be further drawn, that 
between these two nutritions fluids there exists a definite physiological 
balance, that one is capable of absorbing or merging into the other, according 
as the observer ascends or descends the organic scale. The peritoneal 
system of fluid terminates at the standard of the insect, the true blood system 
traced downwards terminates at the Echinodermata. 

Circulating System. — Under this division of our subject we propose to 
consider only the central apparatus of the true blood-circulation in the Anjie- 
Uda, postponing the study of the periphery of this system to the time when, 
in the order of our arrangement, the branchial, pedal and tentacular appen- 
dages shall have to be described. 

To Prof. Milne-Edwards is due the merit of having first contributed to 
science a systematic and exact exposition of the circulating system of the 
worms. Preceding and contemporary anatomists had indeed offered at 
different times detached and ill-digested observations on this branch of com- 
parative anatomy. Elaborate memoirs on the organization of some species 
of Annelida from the pen of M. Quatrefages, have recently appeared in the 
* Annales des Sciences Naturelles*.' From the conclusions and descriptions 
of this naturalist, the author of this Report will have frequent occasion very 
materially to diff'er. In the following account, which will be drawn almost 
entirely from original observations, no order will be observed in the selection 
of examples. So great is the simplicity of the plan on which the main vas- 
cular trunks, constituting the central apparatus of the circulation in Annelids, 
are arranged, that a few general statements, expressive of leading constructive 
principles, will be found not inapt as introductory to the study of details : — 

1st. In all Annelids the blood flows in the great dorsal trunk from the tail 
towards the head. 

2nd. In all Annelids the blood flows in the great ventral trunk from the 
head towards the tail. 

3rd. In the whole integumentary system of vessels the blood moves from 
the great ventral towards the great dorsal trunk ; this movement constitutes 
the annular or transverse circulation. The main current of the blood in the 
ventral trunk pursues a longitudinal course until exhausted by successive 
lateral deviations. 

ith. In the majority of Annelids the intestinal system of vessels consists of 
four longitudinal trunks : one dorsal, which may be called dorso-intestinal ; 

* Etudes sur les types inferieurs de rembranchement des Annelides, par M. de Quatre- 
fages ; et Memoire sur la famille des Hennellieus, S"'^ serie, 1848. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 177 

one ventral, whicli may be distinguished as the sub-intestinal ; and two lateral. 
These several trunks are joined together by circularty disposed branches, 
bearing a dense, glandular, capillary system. In the inferior intestinal system 
the general movement of the blood is from before backwards, in the circular 
branches from the ventral towards the dorsal trunk. 

5th. In Arenicola, Nais, Lumhriciis, Hirudo, the dorso-intestiiial trunk 
sends off the afferent branchial vessels, and tliese latter return into the great 
dorsal trunk. In these species the former vessel therefore discharges the func- 
tions of a pulmonary artery or branchial heart. 

6th. In the Terebellce and Serpulce, which are cephalobranchiate, the ante- 
rior extremity of the great dorsal trunk enlarges fusiformly and propels the 
blood directly into the branchial appendages. In these genera tlierefore 
this vessel becomes the branchial heart ; and the great ventral trunk, into 
which the efferent branchial vessels empty themselves, becomes the systemic 
aorta. 

7th. In all cases, without exception, the three inferior intestinal trunks 
carry arterial blood, and in nearly all species, the dorso- intestinal venous. 

8th. In Arenicola, Nais, and the Borlasice and Liniadce, there exists a di- 
stinct heart. 

9th. In all other species the main vessels, more or less modified in different 
species, constitute the propulsive centres. 

To these general statements, which in the Annelida express the main laws 
of the circulating system, no real exception occurs. 

In different species different portions of this system receive augmented de- 
velopment, in accordance, first, with the method of the respiratory process, the 
position of the branchiae, and the degree of muscular mobility conferred on 
different parts of the body. In those species in which locomotion is accom- 
plished by alternate and extreme elongation and contraction of the body, the 
vessels are in all parts remarkably coiled and convoluted. This feature is 
exemplified most perfectly in Naisfiliformis. If a part of the body only be 
endowed with this vermiform mobility, the convoluted character of the blood- 
vessel is limited to such part ; and this embraces most frequently the region 
of the oesophagus. 

In the Leech the circulating system is more highly developed than in any 
other Annelid. The presence or absence of a heart-like centre to this system, 
is by no means in this class of animals the true criterion of the degree of its 
evolution. The amount of blood relatively to the size of the body, the degree 
of capillary subdivision which occurs on the periphery of the blood-system, 
and the proportion of the latter to the peritoneal fluid, form more correct 
indications. In the Leech there exists no free space between the intes- 
tine and integument ; to this anatomical fact the highest interest will be sub- 
sequently shown to belong when explaining the mechanism of respiration in 
this Annelid. Here the chylous fluid, which, as formerly shown in nearly all 
other Annelids, occupies the general cavity of the body, like a cylindrical 
fluid stratum, separating the intestine from the integument, is transferred into 
the interior of the lateral diverticula of the stomach. The peritoneal chamber 
being no longer required, is obliterated by the adhesion of the intestine to 
the integument ; the union of these parts is effected through the medium of 
a dense, spongy layer of capillary blood-vessels, the contents of which are 
exposed internally to the influence of the fluid contained in the digestive 
caeca, and externally to that of the circumfluent element ; hence the mecha- 
nism of the respiratory process, and the power enjoyed by this and other 
abranchiate Annelids of dispensing with all external breathing appendages. 
While, however, the peripheral segment of the vascular system in the Leech 

1851. N 



178 REPORT — 1851. 

exhibits proofs of great complexity, the main currents of the blood obey two 
leading directions. If the body of the worm be longitudinally bisected by 
an imaginary, horizontal plane, into a doi'sal and ventral semi-cylinder, then 
the blood in the primary trunks of the dorsal half will move from the tail 
towards the head, and in the ventral half from the head towards the tail : 
this movement prevails equally in the great longitudinal trunks of the integu- 
ments and alimentary canal. The transverse or circular movement of the 
blood is performed by means of branches which run between the main lon- 
gitudinal vessels ; this latter system is divisible vertically into as many por- 
tions as there are rings in the body of the worm ; each segment of the body 
under this arrangement has its own independent circulation, transverse and 
longitudinal. Thus the currents describe two eccentric ellipses, cutting each 
other at right angles ; of course the segmental divisions of the general system 
communicate with each other most intimately at every part, while the primary 
longitudinal trunks are common to all the segments. From this description 
it is manifestly impossible that a distinction of venous and arterial blood can 
exist in the circulating system of this Annelid ; in every part of the circum- 
ference of each ring the blood is being arterialized as it is being rendered 
venous ; the two opposite processes proceed simultaneously in the same capil- 
lary system ; the blood must be therefore as arterial and as venous at one 
and the same time in the dorsal and in the ventral trunks ; the dorsal main 
is notwithstanding recipient, the ventral distributive of the blood ; all the 
secondary currents converge upon the former and emanate from the latter ; 
the blood in both is nevertheless identical in physiological properties. 

A diagram accompanying this Report conveys a correct expression of the 
principles as now explained (fig. 6). 

There is, however, in the Leech another distinct and almost independent 
segment superadded to the general circulation, which, since the aera of the 
memoirs of M. Duges*, has been called the respiratory or pulmonary system. 
If there existed really in nature what this anatomist has described, most 
wonderful and admirabe indeed, estimated by the Annelidan type, would be 
this pulmonary system. The illustrations of the singular vessels composing 
this " minor circulation " for breathing, as originally given in the memoir of 
M. Duges, must be familiar to every one who has ever opened a book on 
zoology ; since every European writer, from the year 1 828, has servilely 
copied the figures given by M. Duges. M. Quatrefages, in the illustrations 
published in the last edition (Crochard's) of the ' Regne Animalf ,' has indi- 
cated the pulmonary hearts of M. Duges as the " poches secretrices laterales 
avec leurs caecum," an error no less extraordinary than that committed by 
his eminent predecessor in this branch of comparative anatomy. The fol- 
lowing description of the minute anatomy of these parts will prove conclu- 
sively, that these two observers, in whose track all modern anatomists, with- 
out a single exception, have followed, have imperfectly described what they 
saw, and saw most incompletely what existed in nature. The curved branches 
supplying the respiratory sacs J, to which M. Duges has assigned the name of 

* ' Recherches sur les Auuelides Abranches,' Annal. des Sciences Naturelles, t, xv. 

f See Plate 24, Vol. sur Annelides. 

X If the reader will refer to Rymer Joues' ' Animal Kingdom,' Art. Annelida, by Milne 
Edwards, in the Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, or Owen's ' Lectures on Comparative 
Anatomy,' he will see that the so-called pulmonarj' hearts of Duges, which are represented as 
thick-walled, fusiform vessels, arising from the dorso-lateral trunk, and breaking into a 
plexus of capillaries upon the parietes of the so-called respiratory sacs, correspond in outline 
■with the upper edge of the utero-ovarian system as figured in the illustration, fig. 6. More 
than this resemblance of outline, there is uothing in common between the results of the 
inquiries and the conclusions of Duges. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 179 

pulmonary hearts, form in reality the edge of the utero-ovarian organ (fig. Q,f) 
The walls of these fusiform hearts are described as muscular, highly irritable, 
and perforated only by a small bore. The error of this description is so 
flagrant, that we are constrained to stop, that we may indulge in one more 
expression of surprise, that English authors for a period of twenty-three 
years, and that in the epoch of the microscope, should have lent themselves 
to the propagation of statements so diametrically at variance with nature. 
The detailed description of these parts will belong to that division of this 
memoir which treats of the reproductive organs of the Leech ; to this source 
the reader is accordingly directed for full information. 

In addition to the main dorsal and ventral trunks, there exists in this An- 
nelid and in the Earth-worm, two strong and obvious lateral trunks, one on 
each side (fig. 6, e, e), as to position and size, correctly enough described 
by Duges under the appropriate name of latero-abdominal vessels ; the 
remarkable structure of these vessels has, however, altogether eluded the 
observation of M. Duges. In his account they are described as ordinary 
vessels, while the branches proceeding from them are represented as furnished 
with very strong muscular parietes. Our researches have led us to conclu- 
sions directly the reverse of those of M. Duges. The branches exhibit in 
their walls a structure precisely the same as that which distinguishes the 
vascular system in every other part of the body, while the primary lateral 
trunks are provided with remarkable muscular parietes, the fibre of the 
muscle being of the striped kind. The fascicle of the muscle composing the 
walls is arranged in a manner which is quite distinctive of and peculiar to 
this vessel (see fig. 6, e, e) ; it is coiled with so much regularity as to en- 
close a perfect cylinder, in which the blood flows ; the longitudinal fibres are 
almost entirely suppressed ; the circular fascicles, lined within by a hyaline 
membrane, constitute therefore the exclusive coat of the vessel ; such a ves- 
sel is almost unique in structure in the animal series, but none other would 
perform so admirably the peculiar duties for which it is introduced into this 
part, obviously as a special provision. Its business is to transmit with aug- 
mented force a current of blood, in a transverse direction, from the side to 
the utero-ovarian organs ; these organs form a double longitudinal series, one 
on either side of the ventral mesial line* in each annular segment of the 
body. An express branch from the latero-abdominal trunk on either side is 
rendered to these reproductive organs (fig. 6, h) ; so that the amount of blood 
propelled by this vessel, measured in its totality, must be very considerable ; 
and the quantity, during the generative season, must undergo great increase, 
in consequence of the augmentation of size which at this period these organs 
experience. The lateral longitudinal vessel is strikingly adapted ta meet 
such alternations of extremes ; constructed of muscle, it readily yields under 
the_/?ow of the blood-tide to the organs to whose wants it ministers ; and 
constructed of muscle, its parietes augment by accelerated nutrition during 
the periods of increased local determination of blood ; formed of any other 
structure than muscle, such admirable adaptive alternations could not happen. 

In the dissections of Quatrefagesf, the great dorsal trunk in the Leech is 
correctly represented as common to the integument and intestine. In con- 
sequence of the layer of pigmental glandular cells by which all the vessels 
in this Annelid are enveloped, to trace their courses individually is rendered, 
practically, very difficult. 

The Earth-worm exhibits a vascular system (Plate III. fig. 7), of which the 
plan coincides in a remarkably intimate manner with that of the Leech. This 
correspondence between the circulatory systems of these two Annelids arises 

* Vide Reproductive Organs, &c. t Begne Animal, Vol. Anmlides. 

n2 



180 REPORT— 1851. 

from a similarity in the structure and disposition of the utero-ovarian organs ; 
while the male organs in these two worms strikingly differ in structure and 
arrangement, the female systems are almost identical. To this system in the 
Earth-worm, again, M. Quatrefages has erroneously applied the description of 
'■'^ Secretory pouches^' " poches secretrices venant s'ouvrip sur le dos par les 
canaux renflis*." The primary longitudinal trunks are similar in number and 
disposition to those of the Leech ; the direction of the blood-curreut is also 
the same. In the dorsal longitudinal half of the system, the blood moves from 
the tail towards the head ; in the ventral, contrariwise. In the Earth-worm, 
in this respect distinguished from the Leech, the intestine is only tied to the 
integuments at the interanuular points; the intervals or segmental spaces 
being left as chambers, containing a small quantity of viscid corpusculated 
fluid, which is the peritoneal fluid of this worm. The interposition of 
a fluid stratum in this part involves other anatomical modifications, which 
still further separate the organization of the Earth-worm from that of the 
Leech ; the spongy vessels described as occupying this part in the latter are 
absent in the former. The intestine as well as the integuments are reticu- 
lated with elaborate capillary plexuses (fig. 7,/), both of which enact a part 
in the process of respiration. The complex character of the peripheral cir- 
culation in the Earth-worm, proves with great force the inverse proportion 
which in all Annelids exist between the volume of the blood-proper and that 
of the peritoneal fluid. In this worm accordingly, from the denseness of the 
peripheral capillaries, the physiologist may predicate almost the absence of 
the peritoneal fluid. 

Superadded to the primary median blood-channels (fig. 7, a and d, c), a 
minor lateral system, founded upon the latero-abdominal trunk, may be de- 
monstrated in the Earth-worm as in the Leech ; in all essential particulars in 
the two cases, the main trunk of the system and its branches are the same. 
The Earth-worm is essentially a water-breathing animal ; it dies in pure water 
from starvation, in dry air from asphyxia; the character of the circulatory 
fluids obviously suggest the above inferences. The larger blood vessels, where- 
ever they come into relation with the intestine, are more or less embraced by 
the peritoneal membrane of this canal, and in this, as in all worms, this mem- 
brane is intimately adherent to the biliary gland-cells. In its foldings, this 
structure, with its yellow-coloured cells, more or less envelopes the vessels, 
and gives to them the appearance of being surrounded by a spongy pigmental 
coat. M. Merren, in the refinement of his dissections, saw in this covering a 
separate structure, and distinguished it as the " ChloragogenaV An order 
of vessels in the circulating system of the Earth-worm now presents itself, to 
which there exists no parallel in that of the Leech. At the segments occu- 
pied by the testicular masses, the great dorsal trunk detaches symmetrical, 
lateral, successive branches (fig. 1,b,b) of large calibre, to the number of 
seven or eight, which vertically embrace the oesophageal intestine, and empty 
themselves, without subdivision, into the ventral trunk. By Duges and all 
subsequent writers these vessels have been called the mojiiliform hearts. 
Quatrefages, in his recent and beautiful illustrations, published in Crochard's 
edition of the ' Regno Animal,' has depicted these vessels as consisting of a 
succession of beads, as moniliform as those given in the lectures of Sir Everard 
Home, or by the ancient Willis, in his classic work 'De Anima Brutorum !' 
In real truth, these vessels are not in the slightest degree whatever monili- 
form; they consist of nearly uniformly outlined cylinders ; the middle of each 
vessel, however, is slightly bulged (fig. 7, V"). They constitute direct com- 

* Crochard's edition of the Regne Animal, Vol. Annelides, pi. 21. Extrait des recherches 
inedites sux les Annelides, par M. de Quatrefages. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELinA. 181 

munications between the dorsal and ventral trunks ; in them the blood sets 
vertically downwards from the dorsal to the abdominal vessels. In other 
vertical vessels situated more posteriorly and parallel to the so-called monili- 
form hearts, the blood moves in a converse direction from below upwards : 
the moniliform character which these vessels exhibit is produced by the pro- 
cess of dissection. If, in the ordinary way, a longitudinal dorsal incision is 
made, and the two halves be then separated and pinned down, the vessels under 
such tension are sure to assume a moniliform outline ; that is, one part will 
contract, and another will dilate, and so on successively throughout the length 
of the vessels ; the dilated portion will be filled with blood, and the contracted 
will be empty, and the beaded figure will be perfect. If, however, a more 
careful mode of opening the worm be adopted, dividing by means of a fine 
scissors the membranous segmental partitions, and laying gently open the 
integuments, these vessels will present a perfectly smootii outline; if now one 
of them be seized with the forceps and gently pulled, it will become irregu- 
larly knotted or moniliform. Muscular fibres, chiefly circular, are present in 
their parietes, and it is to the uneven action of these elements that the beaded 
fonn is attributable. The contraction of the circular fibres at two points 
separated by a short interval, imprisoning in that interval a globule of blood, 
the same conditions occurring at another part, explain clearly the mode in 
which the moniliform character occurs. Every European writer for the last 
thirty years has glowed with admiration in describing these "moniliform 
hearts" in the Earth-worm! And yet even without the refutations of de- 
monstrative anatomy, how easy, on a little mechanical consideration, would it 
have been to see that no form of vessel could have been mechanically less 
adapted for reinforcing the moving power of the blood-current than a conduit 
composed of a succession of contractions and dilatations ! it is evident that 
the efficient propeller would be the last dilatation only in the series. A 
spindle-shaped tube, on the other hand, and muscularly contractile, will be 
seen to realize all the physical conditions required under such circumstances 
for imparting a new impulse to the moving current. The latero-abdominal 
trunks, destined for the supply of the utero- ovarian system, are present in the 
Earth-worm, and present a structure and relations analogous to the corre- 
sponding vessels in the Leech ; in the latter, however, the circular muscular 
fibres are much more developed than in the former, and the vessel is relatively- 
larger. 

It was imagined by Willis* that he had discovered the existence of a series 
of pores upon the dorsal aspect of the Earth-worm, which by him were con- 
strued into stigmata ; and in confirmation of their perforate character, he re- 
lates that air blown into the openings is dispersed between the integument 
and intestine, diffusing itself throughout the segmental compartments. It is 
stated by Duges that he has repeated these experiments with the same results, 
finding that the pores, instead of terminating in muciparous follicles, as they 
were supposed to do by many anatomists, penetrate into the interior of the 
body, so that air injected into one of them passes freely along the segmental 
chambers which surround the intestine and escape through other neighbour- 
ing orifices. By these distinguished authors it is further affirmed, that water 
is imbibed into the segmental chambers through the same orifices, and from 
which it is given out when the animal is too rapidly dried by exposure to the 
sun, or irritated by external stimuli. And it is conjectured that aerated water 
thus taken into the system, and brought immediately into contact with the 
deep-seated vascular network dispersed over the intestinal parietes, must, 
therefore, necessarily contribute to the respiratory formation. 
* De Anima Brutorum, 4to, 1672. 



182 REPORT — 1851. 

These observations of Willis and Duges are totally irreconcileable with the 
facts adduced in this Report: — first, the alleged orifices (stigmata), commu- 
nicating directly with the cavity of the body, cannot now be proved to exist; 
and secondly, it is susceptible of demonstration that the fluid contained in 
the peritoneal space is not watery in this worm, even though it may have 
been immersed for some hours in water previously to the examination. As 
already described, the contents of the cavity are composed of a viscid, cor- 
pusculated fluid, insusceptible, from its consistency, of such rapid removal as 
is implied in the above observations. The orifices which communicate with 
the interior in this worm, as in nearly all others, open directly into the mem- 
branous utriculi of the generative system. No other perforations can be proved 
to exist. 

In Nats filiformis, so abundant in the freshwater pools of this country, 
the anatomist 'is presented with a favourable opportunity for resolving the 
problem of the circulation (fig. 8). A living specimen, placed between two 
slips of glass, from the perfect transparency of the integuments, will exhibit 
to the eye, in a perfect manner, all the circulating movements both of the 
vessels and the blood. In Nais, the large dorsal vessel (fig. 8, a) is first seen 
travelling wavingly along the dorsum of the intestine as far as the heart, 
which corresponds in situation with the intestinal end of the oesophagus. 
This vessel is enveloped by the glandular peritoneal layer of the intestine, 
while the coats of the ventral vessel are clear and transparent ; the dorsal 
vessel is endowed with parietes of greater strength and density than the 
ventral. Each of these vessels (as at fig. 8, a', b') dilates into a fusiform heart, 
which is situated on either side of the oesophagus. These hearts, which are 
joined together by transverse vessels, pulsate alternately, and with exact 
regularity. In the dorsal vessel the blood moves forwards from the tail, as 
far as the dorsal heart ; thence it descends into the ventral heart, by which it 
is now propelled, chiefly in a backward direction, partly through the main 
ventral trunk, and partly through the inferior intestinal. The other portion 
of the blood, conveyed by the great dorsal vessel into the ventral heart (6'), 
passes forwards as far as the head, where its moving power is again rein- 
forced by a cardiac dilatation, which now impels the current from before 
backwards through a superior oesophageal trunk into the dorsal heart (a'), by 
which organ, the blood, received from the region of the oesophagus, and coming 
from the head, as well as that received from the great dorsal, and coming from, 
the tail, is urged downwards into the ventral heart, and thence, chiefly in the 
direction of the tail, through the ventral and intestinal trunks {e,f); this 
latter, therefore, is the true systemic heart. At the oesophageal end of the 
body the two primary trunks, dorsal and ventral, are connected together by 
means of a remarkable class of vessels (g, f/, like g, g', g), which in this region 
proceed at successive points from the dorsal oesophageal, and which may be 
traced in long coils, without division of the vessel, floating in the fluid of the 
peritoneal cavity. Posteriorly to the heart-centre these vessels (fig. 8, g, g, g) 
emanate from the dorsal intestinal (b), and correspond precisely with those 
branches from the same vessel, which in Arenicola Piscatorum proceed to 
supply the branchial arbuscles. In Nais, therefore, partly from this ana- 
logy, but chiefly from their anatomical relations, bathed by, and floating in, 
the chyl-aqueous contents of the peritoneal cavity, the physiologist can ex- 
perience no difficulty in dedicating these coiled vessels to uses very definite. 
First, it cannot be doubted that they absorb from this fluid the elements by 
which the blood-proper is formed and replenished ; and secondly, it is in the 
strongest degree probable, that the true blood is in great part &ei'a.ted through 
the agency of these vessels upon the gaseous elements contained in the peri- 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 183 

toneal fluid. They constitute the special branchial system of vessels (internal 
branchiae), while they discharge incidentally an absorbent function. In the 
movement of the blood, then, in Nais as in Lumbricus, there are discernible 
only two leading directions, — one forward, in the primary and intestinal dor- 
sal vessels (fig. 8, a, b), the other backward, in the primary and intestinal 
ventral (fig. 8, d, e,f). It is not possible to trace the blood into the capil- 
lary parietal system of the intestine, in consequence of the transparency of 
the stream when thus minutely subdivided. In Nais there is also an integu- 
mentary system which intervenes between the two primary (dorsal and abdo- 
minal) trunks (a,/), ramifying on the substance of the integuments, upon 
which in part a respiratory function may devolve. 

In the Terebellcs, in consequence of the concentration of the tentacles and 
branchige around the head, the blood-system at this extremity of the body 
discovers a great increase of development. The peritoneal fluid in this 
genus is very voluminous and densely corpusculated ; the system of the 
blood-proper is notwithstanding elaborate and full-formed. The chamber of 
the peritoneum is one undivided space — the segmental partitions of the 
Earth-worm and the Leech being here replaced by limited bands proceeding 
from the intestine to the integument, tying together these two cylinders, such 
as to permit one to move longitudinally within the other with remarkable 
freedom. 

The great dorsal vessel in Terebella nebulosa is limited to the anterior 
extremity of the body (fig. 9, a). It emanates chiefly from a large circular 
vessel (6), embracing the base of the oesophagus which receives the whole 
blood of the intestinal system. In this species, therefore, the primary and 
intestinal dorsal trunks, over the whole intestinal region, are united, or the 
former vessel is superseded by the latter. 

On the dorsal view of the oesophagus, a large, pulsatile, fusiform vessel (a) 
is displayed on the first opening of the integument in a loqgitudinal directian. 
Little attached to the structure on which it rests, it appears as if suspended 
in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity. Advancing to the occipital ring, it 
breaks out into six branches (rf), of which three proceed to the branchiae of each 
side, while the reduced continuation of the original trunk furnishes minute 
ramuscules to the tentacles, in the hollow axis of each of which an afi'erent 
and efi"erent vessel is contained, surrounded by the peritoneal fluid, which 
penetrates to the remotest ends of these exquisite organs. Both from the 
tentacles and branchiee, the blood now returns into the great ventral trunk (c), 
which to the posterior extremity of the body is distinct from and independ- 
ent of the intestinal system (/). From this trunk branches are detached on 
either side of the median line, for the supply of the feet and integument. 

At the point corresponding with the circular vessel (fig. 9, b), the primary 
ventral sends off a considerable division for the supply of the intestinal system. 
The current therefore entering the glandular parietes of the intestine is purely 
arterial in this genus, for it is unmixedly composed of blood returning from 
the tentacles and the branchiae, by both which the function of respiration is 
performed. Here again there exist but two principal directions in which 
the blood circulates, viz. longitudinally and transversely, or circularly, the 
former currents being connected by the latter. The circular vessel (fig. 8, 6) 
acts like an auricle ; it receives the blood from the intestinal system and de- 
livers it into the great dorsal (a). The alimentary canal is embraced in this 
genus, as in all Annelids, by a framework of longitudinal and transverse 
vessels, in which the blood moves backwards below and forwards above (/). 
In Terebella conchilega the circulating system is planned on the same 
type with that of the former species. Here, as in the former case, the main 



184 REPORT — 1851. 

agent of the circulation is seen in the large oesophageal dorsal trunk, which 
commences at the confluence of the intestinal longitudinal vessels. The 
ventral-most of these latter, on rising to the dorsal aspect of the canal and 
meeting in the common dorsal oesophageal, produce, as in T. nebulosa, the 
appearance of the vascular ring encircling the oesophagus. The infra- 
neural or ventral trunk, bearing a current from the branchiae and tentacles 
to the intestine and integument, constitutes the apparatus for the systemic 
distribution of the blood, the dorsal oesophageal being the true branchial 
heart. The alimentary canal, posteriorly to the ring-vessel, is embraced in 
a framework of four longitudinal trunks, severally communicating through 
the medium of glandular capillary plexuses. The peritoneal fluid in this 
species is less voluminous than in the former. The peritoneal space is a 
continuous chamber, and the parietes are vascular. The tentacles, orga- 
nized nearly as in the former species, are smaller and fewer in number. 

The resemblance is remarkable betv/een the circulating system of the 
Euniciadce and Terebellce. At an early period M. Delle Chiaje recognised 
and described the leading features of the blood-system of Eunice gigantea, 
under the name of Diopalre*. M. de Blainville has also given some account 
of the circulation of this wormf. To Milne-Edwards belongs the honour of 
having first fully and minutely investigated the anatomy of the circulatory- 
system in this and other Annelida. In accuracy his description is not to be 
surpassed. It is only in one particular that the author's account, which has 
been drawn with repeated care from his own dissections, will be found to 
differ from the statement of Milne-EdwardsJ. 

As a great degree of mobility is conferred upon the cephalic extremity of 
the body in Eunice, and as the protrusile oesophagus is considerably less 
vascular than the intestine, the great dorsal vessel occurs here as in the Te- 
rebellce under the character of an wwbranching tube, reaching from the in- 

* Memoire sulla storia e uotomia degli Animali senza vertebre del regno di Napoli, t. ii. 
p. 396. 

t Art. Vers du Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, t. Iviii. p. 405. 

X Compare the diagram given by the French naturalist, of the circulating system oi Eunice 
(pi. 12, fig. 2, Annales des Sciences Natm-elles, ser. 2, Octobre 1831) with the author's de- 
scription as given in the text with reference to this Annelid, a worm which probably 
attains less gigantic proportions in this country than on the southern parts of the coast of 
France, and the reader will perceive that the lateral branches going, at each segment, into 
the branchise, undergo no heart-\\k.e dilatation as represented in the illustration of Milne- 
Edwards. In relation to these branches the description of this profound anatomist runs as 
follows : — " Enfin par son extremite anteriem'e, le vaisseau dorsal envoie divers branches a la 
tSte et d'autres rameaux qui se portent en dehors corame chez les Terebelles, mais qui, au 
lieu de se rendre aux branchies, remontent en arrit-re et vont se distrihuer au pharynx ou 
leurs divisions s'anastomosent avec celle du vaisseau ventral. Ce dernier tronc suit le meme 
trajet que chez les Terebelles et donne egalement naissance, dans chaque anneau du corps, a 
une paire de branches laterales. Mfiis la conformation de ces branches est differente ainsi 
que leur usages. Aussitot apres sa naissance, chacune d'elles se renfle beauconp et se re- 
courbe brusquement sur elle-meme, de fa9on a ressembler, lorsqu'on I'examine superficielle- 
ment, a une vesicule o\iilaire, disposition qui a probablement induit en erreur M. Delle 
Chiaje, quand il a aunonce I'existence d'ampoules ou pouches arrondies, situees sur le trajet 
des branches laterales du vaisseau dorsal de I'Eunice gigantesque. Ces vaisseaus transversaux 
se. portent ensuite en dehors, foumissent une branche ascendante au tube digestif, gagnent 
la base des pieds, y donne naissance a plusieurs petites branches anastomiques dont la re- 
union constitiie un lacis vasculaire, et a des ramuscules destines aux muscles et aux tegumens 
voisins ; enfin penetrent dans les filamens branchiaux coiTespondans et s'y terminent. Le 
sang qui a subi I'iufluence de I'oxygene, a travers la surface de ces appendices dermoides, 
est refu dans d'autres canaux transversaux qui se dirigent vers le tube digestif en suivant les 
cloisons interannulaires, et debouchent dans le vaisseau situe de chaque cote de la ligne 
mediane sur la face dorsale de cet organe." In the references to the diagram Milne-Edwards 
describes these lateral branches which supply the branchies, as " bulbes contractiles de ces 
branches ' laterales' remplissant les fonctions de coeurs pulmonaires." — Op. cit. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 185 

testinal commencement of the oesophagus to tlie occiput, and, tortuous and 
little attaclied, reposing on the upper surface or oesophageal portion of the 
digestive tube. Coinciding with the whole extent of the intestine-proper in 
this worm, the anatomist will observe a double vessel along the dorsal-median 
line, and lodged in parallel apposition in the longitudinal sulcus of the upper 
surface of the alimentary tube. These two trunks belong to the intestinal 
system, I'eceiving branches however at numerous points from the integn- 
nientary veins. In these vessels the blood moves from behind forwards, and 
mingles in the oesophageal circular vessel with that coming from the lateral 
intestinal, in which also the blood-stream sets anteriorly, while in the infe- 
rior intestinal, as in the great sub-ganglionic or ventral, the current sets in 
the direction of the tail. In this Annelid the branchise are limited to the 
posterior two-thirds of the body, each branchia consisting of two, three, four 
or five blood-vessels, according to the species, projecting in a comb-like 
manner from the dorsal base of each foot. The great heart-like oesophageal 
dorsal vessel therefore, while anatomically similar, is physiologically very 
different in this worm and the Terebellce. In the latter species it is exclu- 
sively a branchial heart, in the former it is indirectly systemic and branchial. 
It empties itself into the anterior extremity of tiie main ventral trunk, by which 
the lateral segmental branches are directly supplied to the feet, integument 
and branchia. 

It was formerly stated ihat Milne-Edwards has described and figured the 
branchial vessels as ampullated soon after the origin of each from the com- 
mon trunk, the ampullae being designed to fulfil the function of branchial 
hearts. These vessels, therefore, according to the representations of Milne- 
Edwards, are, in Eunice, the exact analogons of those remarkable cardiac 
vessels (pulmonary hearts) described by M. Duges in the Leech. The ex- 
istence of these latter vessels has already been demonstrated, beyond doubt, 
to be altogether imaginary, M. Duges having mistaken for them the curved 
edges of the reproductive utriculi. According to the author's observations, 
these vessels in Eunice present nothing approaching to the ampuUas figured 
in the illustrations of Milne-Edwards. The pouched dilatations are produced 
by the dissection and exposure to atmospheric stimulus, just as in the Earth- 
worm the moniliform character of the descending vessel was shown to be 
caused by the stretching. In Eunice the lateral segmental branches are re- 
latively large at first, but soon divide into three lesser branches, of which 
one goes to the foet, the other to the intestine, and the third to the branchiae, 
from which the blood returns into the dorsal vessel, which in this worm ac- 
cordingly carries arterial blood. The suddenness of this division favours the 
imprisonment of a drop of blood in the first stage of the vessels, the drop 
thus enclosed occasioning a bulged enlargement in this portion of the vessel ; 
but that this appearance is altogether accidental, the author has repeatedly, 
and with various kinds of proof, shown to be unquestionable. The blood is 
admitted into and returned from the branchiae by alternate movements of 
contraction and dilatation ; these movements are not simultaneous in all the 
branchiae, but variously and independently in each individually, the afflux 
into one being synchronous with the efflux of blood from those contiguous. 
This contractile power is by no means peculiar to these vessels. The motion 
of the blood in the vessels in every part of the body of the Annelid is effected, 
not through the agency of uniformly travefling undulatory contractions of 
their coats, but by complete contractions and relaxations of successive por- 
tions of the tube ; so that during the instant of contraction, the cylinder ol' the 
vessel in the part contracting is completely emptied of blood, the sides col- 
lapsing and meeting in the axis ; and during the period of dilatation, the 



186 REPOET 1851. 

same portion of the vessel becomes densely distended with blood ; and this 
is the true mechanism of the circulation in those species even in which a 
central propulsive organ exists, for example, in Nais and Arenicola. In no 
part of the system, therefore, is the superadded contractile bulb required as 
an agent of circulation, since this contractile power resides in every part of 
evei-i/ vessel, in virtue of the muscularity of its parietes. The truth of these 
observations, opposed as they are to the statements of Milne-Edwards, may 
be established beyond doubt, and easily, by a scrutiny of the circulating 
system of Arenicola Piscatorum *. 

A general survey of the circulation in Eunice will suffice to satisfy the 
physiologist that no part of the system contains pure arterial and no part 
pure venous blood. Into the double dorsal trunk arterial blood is poured 
from the branchiae, but into the same trunk the intestinal branches contri- 
bute venous blood ; the mingling of these two classes of currents in the same 
trunk must result in blood of an intermediate quality. It is then manifest 
that the great subneural trunk, which in this worm is both systemic and 
branchial, must distribute blood of composition intermediate between venous 
and arterial. No part of the circulatory apparatus therefore contains pure 
arterial blood but the efferent branches of the branchiae. 

The SabellcB, in the number and general disposition of the primary blood- 
vessels, do not very materially differ from those Annelids of which the circu- 
latory apparatus has been already described. The evidence of " centraliza- 
tion" is less complete in this genus than in the genera i'zmice and Terebella, 
The dorsal vessels preserve a uniform diameter from origin to termination. In 
Sabella alveolata, the dorsal vessels, whicii repose on, and belong to, the ali- 
mentary tube, commence at the caudal extreme of the body as a small single 
trunk. Where the true intestine begins, as indicated by the segmental saccu- 
lations of the canal, this single vessel divides into two trunks perceptible on the 
dorsum of the intestine, which on either side of the median line proceed for- 
wards in parallel directions. At the crop-like dilatation, which occurs at the 
commencement of the oesophagus, these two vessels are united by a large 
transverse branch, and advancing round the sides of the crop-like bulge, be- 
come again united into a single trunk, which follows the oesophagus as far as 
the occiput, where it resolves itself into numerous minute branches for the 
supply of the cephalic tentacles. These latter organs are penetrated by the 
peritoneal fluid which moves to and fro in a liollow axis, along which a 
single delicate blood-vessel reaches the extreme end of the tentacle and then 
returns upon itself. The functions of these tentacular ramusculi have refer- 
ence more to an absorbent than a respiratory process. In this worm the 
sub-ganglionic trunk is comparatively small, while the sub-intestinal is more 
developed. It is from the latter and not the former vessel in Sabella alveo- 

* Speaking of the circulating system in Eunice, this anatomist thus expounds the mecha- 
nism of the circulation : — " Les vaisseaux sanguins, consideres d'une maniere absolue, se dis- 
tribuent done a-peu-pres de la menie maniere chez les Eunices et les Terebelles, mais, si on 
les considere dans leur fonctious et dans leur rapports avec I'appareil respiratoire, on y voit, 
dans ces deux genres, des differences tres grandes. Dans les Eunices, le cours du sang n'est 
pas determine par les contractions des branehies ni meme du vaisseau dorsal, dont Taction 
perd presque toute son importance ; mais par les battemens de bulbes contractiles formes par 
la dilatation de la base de chacune des brancbes transversales du vaisseau ventral. Ces bulbes 
au nouibre de deux dans cbacun des anneaux du c6rps, excepte les six ou sept premiers, en- 
voient le sang aux branehies en meme temps qu'a Tintestin, aux muscles, a la peau, etc., et 
par consequent, sous le rapport physiologique, ils representent autant de coeurs. On en 
compte quelquefois plusieurs centaines ; et cette multiphcite des organs moteurs du sang, iu- 
dependans les uns des autres, est probablement une des circonstances qui donnent aux 
tronfons du corps de ces Annelides la faculte de vivre pendant fort long-temps apres avoir 
ete separes du reste de I'animal." 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 187 

lata that the lateral branches designed for the branchiae proceed, the effe- 
rent vessels of these organs returning the arterialized blood into the dorsal 
intestinal trunks. Between the longitudinal trunks a complex capillary system 
of vessels is interposed. Upon this system the glandular functions of the 
biliary cell-layer of the alimentary canal depend. From the relative con- 
nection and directions of the primary and secondary trunks, it may be seen 
that the blood in all the lateral branches connected with the dorsal vessels 
sets towards the median line, while that in the ventral secondaries sets/ro;w 
the median line. In this Annelid therefore, as in every other, there are two 
concentric circular currents, while in many there exist also concentric lon^ 
gitudinal movements of the blood. 

On the British shores two other species of Sabellce are familiar, of which 
the circulating system is distinguished in several respects from that of Sa- 
bella alveolata. In S. a sang vert o{ Milne-Edwards* the dorsal vessel is 
single, maintaining a median position from one extreme of the body to the 
other. It is branchial in office. Situated at the cephalic end of the body, 
the entire blood of the branchial tentacles is derived immediately from this 
vessel. Its contributory branches proceed from the intestine and integu- 
ments ; its contained blood is necessarily venous. The sub-neural trunk 
receives the branchial veins. This vessel in Sabella chhroema ie large, and 
distributes unmixed arterial blood to the feet, integuments and intestine. 
There exists in this worm a considerable amount of peritoneal fluid, which, 
in common with the blood-proper, penetrates into and follows the sub- 
divisions of the branchial appendages. The blood, bright-green in colour, 
is perfectly destitute of all morphotic elements ; it is entirely fluid. The 
peritoneal fluid is colourless and corpusculated. The blood-current in 
this Annelid observes two leading directions : in the dorsal vessel it moves 
forwards, in the ventral backwards, in the lateral branches upwards and cir- 
cularly, in conformity with the law controlling the circulation in all Annelida. 

In the subsequent portion of this Report another species of Sabella will be 
described, in which the branchial tentacles coexist with the bilateral series 
of branchias. In this graceful Annelid the features of the circulating system 
of S. alveolata and S. chlorcema are interfused. The species characterized 
by Montagu as Sabella vesiculosa, in which the branchial appendages are 
concentrated around the head, exhibits a blood-system, of which the dorsal 
vessel is single and branchial, conforming in every detail with that of S. 
chlorcema. 

The Nereides are elaborately organized ; the blood-system is highly deve- 
loped ; the peripheral portion is densely subdivided ; the nervous system is 
numerously ganglionized. Thus is explained the vigorous muscular power 
of nearly all the species of this genus. 

In Nereis margaritacea of our coasts the system of the blood is double. 
There exists a primary dorsal vessel and intestinal dorsal, much smaller than 
the former. This latter vessel is not represented in the diagrams of Prof. Milne- 
Edwards, but it may be readily exposed to view. The superior or greater 
dorsal presents its largest diameter about the middle of the body. It receives 
at every segment considerable venous branches from the intestine, and arte- 
rial from the bases of the feet. Anteriorly about the commencement of the 
oesophagus it sends down to the great ventral a large proportion of its blood 
by means of descending lateral branches, like the moniliform (sic) vessels of 
the Earth-worm. 

* I have constructed a Greek specific name for this elegant Annelid, namely, Sabella chlo- 
rcema, in accordance with the French designation applied to it by Milne-Edwards, both sig- 
nifying the existence oi green blood. 



188 KEPORT— 1851. 

The sub-ganglionic trunk in this worm exceeds the dorsal in calibre; it 
re-circulates throughout the system the contents ol' the dorsal trunk ; lateral 
branches, slightly coiled and lengthened, a provision against injury during 
the vermiculations of the body, are detached at each ring, to the feet and 
intestine. Those for the former penetrate at the roots of these appendages 
and reach the cutaneous surface, whereon a complex network of capillary 
vessels is formed, veiled from the exterior only by a layer of epithelium. 
This plexus is the true respiratory organ of the Nereid (see fig. 13, a). This 
plexiform subdivision of the vessels is not seen in many worms ; it is a forma- 
tion almost peculiar to the Nereids. In the neighbourhood of these respiratory 
plexuses, artfully arranged, a system of vibratile cilia is provided, without 
which the great function devolving on these vessels were incompletely dis- 
charged. The intestine is embraced in a framework of four longitudinal 
vessels, between which a glandular capillary system intervenes, which pro- 
vides the digestive secretions. 

In the Nereids, then, no heart-like centre to the circulation exists. The 
great dorsal, the reservoir of the centripetal streams of the body, may be 
likened to a right ventricle (the lungs cut off), and the great ventral to a 
left ventricle. The duty of the former is to collect the refluent blood of the 
system, of the latter to circulate it again. 

A slight modification in this system occurs in Nephthys Hombergii, a dorsi- 
branchiate Annelid allied to the Nereids, and common on our coasts. A 
strong proboscis, enclosed in an oesophagus of corresponding strength, by 
its constant motions would, in this worm and in this situation, endanger the 
safety of lateral vessels. The position of these branches is accordingly 
thrown back as far as the commencement of the intestinal division of the 
alimentary tube. The crowding of the branchial veins upon this point of 
the vessel imparts to the latter an augmented diameter or a heart-like form. 
The vessel then creeps along the dorsal surface of the proboscidian oesopha- 
gus, neither giving nor receiving branches, as far as t!ie occipital segment, 
where it divides into two branches which descend on either side to the ven- 
tral trunk, while a i'ew small twigs proceed forward to supply the tentacles. 
In this worm a distinct branchial organ is provided, which is situated at the 
inferior base of the superior foot. The branchial veins stretch across the 
peritoneal space and empty themselves directly into the great dorsal vessel. 
As in the Nereids, the afferent blood-vessels of the branchiae are derived 
from the great ventral ; the branches corresponding in number with the 
segmental divisions of the body. It remains to note a peculiarity of the 
ventral or sub-ganglionic system in Nephthys, which Milne-Edwards was the 
first to recognise. The vessel, which is a single trunk in all other Annelids, 
is double in this. The parallel trunks, however, communicate freely here and 
there by cross branches. It appears then that the lateral series of vessels of 
one side destined for the branchiae are independent of those of the other. 
This conformation, so remarkable, has a meaning. It is a beautiful provi- 
sion against the consequences of injury, to which the habits of this worm 
render it obnoxious. 

The resemblance is most striking between the circulating system of Nais 
Jiliformis and that ofArenicola Piscatormn (fig. 10). From the dimensions of 
this last worm, it is easily dissected ; the older anatomists had discovered the 
existence of a heart-like centre. Hunter, SirE.Home and Lamarck, have each 
described the blood- system of this vulgar worm. But it was reserved to 
Prof. M. Edwards to unravel its details with a demonstrative accuracy worthy 
of modern science. Nothing remains to be added to the account given by 
this naturalist. The blood-system is more centralized in this worm than in 



ON THE BRITISH AMNELIDA. 189 

any other known Annelid. A large dorsal trunk (a) at the anterior three- 
fourths of the body, receiving exclusively the efferent vessels of the branchiae, 
proceeds forwards from the tail and empties itself into the cardiac cavities, of 
which one is situated on either side of the oesophagus (b, b). Another ves- 
sel, proceedingyrom the head towards the heart, empties itself into the same 
cavity with the former. The blood then enters a second cavity (c', c') more 
ventrally situated, by which it is propelled forwards into the subcesophageal 
trunk, but principally backwards into the great longitudinal trunks of the ali- 
mentary canal. The blood, returning from the intestinal system of vessels, 
reaches the dorsal intestinal (^) (lying in the median line, underneath the 
great dorsal trunk), from which the current diverges laterally at right angles 
into the branchiae (/,/)• This conform' 'i:on differs from that prevalent in 
all other dorsibranchiate Annelids, in which the great ventral trunk is the 
source of the branchial arteries. But the typical plan of the circulation is 
observed in the system of Arenicola, at the posterior half of the branchial 
division of the body, whereas the afferent vessels of branchiae emanate from 
the ventral trunk. It may be necessary to explain that the motion of the 
blood in that part of the circulating system which is anterior to the heart is 
the reverse of that in that posterior to this centre. The ventral oesophageal 
carries the blood forwards and the dorsal backwards towards the heart. 

The independent contractile (ergo circulating) power of each individual 
vessel may be very completely proved by an examination of the branchiae of 
a living Arenicola (see fig. 12). A single ramuscule in the branchial tuft 
may contract and empty itself, while the surrounding branches are expanding 
diastolically. There is no synchroneity in the circulatory movements of these 
vessels. Both the afferent and eff'erent vessels of the branchiae are long and 
tortuous, but discover no cardiac ampullce in any part of their course. In 
fact such formations exist in no known Annelid, and this conclusion has now 
been substantiated by anatomical demonstration. 

Over the parietes of the stomach in this worm a very dense reticulation 
of capillary vessels may be observed with the naked eye, from the bright yel- 
low colour of the biliary gland-layer. In Arenicola the peritoneal chamber 
is filled with a highly corpusculated fluid, the basis of which consists of sea- 
water, and the presence and movements of which are indispensable to the 
circulation of the blood-proper. By this remarkable mass of fluid, the slender, 
tortuous vessels are shielded from injurious pressure. 

In the BorlasicE, a genus of Annelids, of which the true organization is ex- 
plained for the first time in this Report, the central organ of the circulation 
occurs as a bilocular heart, which is situated on the dorsal surface of the 
proboscis and near the occiput. 

This organ, in every species oiBorlasia hitherto examined by the author, 
consists of two chambers, between which, by means of a large transverse 
channel, a free communication exists ; into one of these cavities the blood of 
the dorsal vessel is poured. This blood is derived from the cutaneous system 
of capillaries, which in these worms are superficially situated, and only pro- 
tected from the surrounding element by a coating of vibratile epidermis. 
This vibratile epidermis is limited to the dorsal half of the body, which may 
be therefore assigned as the true area of the respiratory process. Vibratile 
epidermis in all other Annelids is restricted to special localities, wherein the 
function of respiration is performed. In the Borlasice and Liniadm it is co- 
extensive with the whole dorsal region of the body, and becomes a distinct- 
ive anatomical character of these unfamiliar genera. From the dorsal cham- 
ber of the heart, the blood through the connecting channel is directed into 
the ventral cavity, and thence distributed over the integumentary and intes- 



19@ BEPORT — 1851. 

tinal sj'stems. The extreme elongation of the body in these worms necessi- 
tates tlie existence of a central propulsive power, notwithstanding the con- 
tractile property with which every part of the circulating system is endowed. 
In these singular worms, the alimentary system of which will be afterwards 
described, the blood-proper is red in colour, and perfectly devoid of globules 
of any sort. The peritoneal space, as it exists in most other Annelids, is not 
to be found in these genera, since the alimentary organ superadded to the 
proboscis and oesophagus is adherent to the general integument. 

A general idea has now been given of the central agents of the circulation 
of this class of invertebrate animals. The special elaboration of the circum- 
ferences of this apparatus to meet the exigences of local and special func- 
tions, will be further considered in describing the ultimate structure of the 
several gland-organs of the body. Over the intestine the blood-vessels ramify 
in accordance with a special plan of subdivision. This observation applies 
also to all the other constructional elements of the organism : each is provided 
with its peculiar order of blood-vessels. A subordinate system of blood- 
vessels, distinct and remarkable in its anatomical relations, is susceptible of 
demonstration in all Annelids in which the peritoneal fluid exists. These 
vessels may generally be distinguished by their coiled length, perfect naked- 
ness, and floating in the fluid of the cavity, and liwbranching (see again fig. 
8, g,g,g). And, finally, it must impress the physiologist with surprise, that 
amid so great apparent complexity of arrangement in the blood-vessels of the 
Annelida, it should be possible to reduce the movement of the blood to a 
single definite orbit of remarkable simplicity. The anatomical details now 
presented suffice to establish the general propositions formerly enounced, 
which indicated only two circles of motion, longitudinal in the primary trunks, 
circular in the secondary. 

Integumentary System. — The integumentary system will anatomically in- 
clude a consideration of the whole apparatus of the appendages, wherever 
these latter are found to exist. In the organization of the Annelida, no part 
presents such constancy and fixity of character as the hard elements of the 
appendages. They constitute the least fallacious ground for the classifica- 
tion of species. The soft elements, on the contrary, are liable to endless 
variations from age and the accidents of growth. The appendages in all 
cases are true productions of the integ\unentary structures. In no instance 
do they exhibit any connexion whatever with the visceral and intestinal 
systems. All Annelida are comprised in the twofold division of Branchiata 
and Abranchiata ; this however is neither an unobjectionable nor a convenient 
distribution. Several species exist, of which the soft pedal appendages do not 
contain a specially organized branchial element: this remark is true of all the 
Syllidce. The proposition is notwithstanding not difficult of anatomical 
proof, that the Annelida are really divisible into those which have and into 
those which have not external and apparent branchial organs. M. Dumeril 
had realized a clear conception of the practicableness of such a division, 
when he proposed the terms Cryptobranchia and Gym7iobra?ichia as expressive 
of this bipartite arrangement. Far-sighted and sagacious as must have been 
the views which suggested this general proposition, the word Cryptobranchia 
involves an anatomical untruth : there exists no species in which the branchiae 
are internal or concealed. Respiration in all those destitute of external 
appendages is performed internally, but not by any specially constructed 
organs. This function, under such circumstances, devolves either upon the 
general walls of the alimentary canal or external surface of the body, as in 
the Borlasiudce, Gordiusida. ; or it is enacted by the fluid, which, in nearly 
all the Abranchiate genera (except the Leech and the Earth-worm), occupies 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 191 

the peritoneal cavity. One or two exceptions only can be urged against the 
statement that all Annelida breathe either by an external or an internal me- 
chanism ; in the former case special organs are nearly always provided, in the 
latter never. All the external branchial appendages are again subdivisible 
into two leading varieties, radically and essentially distinguishable. In one, 
the branchial organ is constructed with special reference to the exposure of 
the blood-proper to the agency of the respiratory element ; in the other, the 
branchia is a mere hollow process filled with the chyl-aqueous fluid of the 
peritoneal cavity. Without this division, which is now for the first time sub- 
mitted to the consideration of the physiologist, no correct ideas could have 
been formed with refei'ence to the nature or the mechanism of the process of 
respiration in those genera of Annelids in which the true-blood, in proper 
blood-vessels, is not brought directly under the action of the surrounding 
water. Neither is it possible, without the new light afforded by this theory, 
to comprehend the manner in which the function of breathing is discharged 
in the Entozoa, in which the integuments are perfectly devoid of proper 
blood-vessels. 

The blood-proper in the external branchia of the Annelida is distributed 
on two distinct plans. According to one method, & plexus of blood-vessels 
embraces the circumference of the branchial process (fig. a, a, a, a) ; while 
under the other type, the axis of the appendages is traversed longitudinally 
by a single blood-vessel, which at the extreme end returns upon itself. The 
NereidtB present examples of the former type, the genera Spio, Cirrhaiulus, 
Eunice, &c., of the latter (figs. 16, 18). 

The body of the Annelid is for the most part vermiform in figure ; it is 
generally cylindrical in outline, but frequently flattened, or more or less oval. 
It is composed of a longitudinal succession of annuli or rings, which first 
suggested, as already stated, the name of the class to the mind of Lamarck. 
In structure these rings are neither horny nor calcareous ; they are always 
fleshy and soft. The true Annelid is distinguished therefore from the true 
articulated animal in the perfect absence of any approach to a hard skeleton. 
The segmentations are divided from each other only by a circular band of 
muscular fibres ; the annular segments are not, as in the Articulata, perfectly 
distinct from each other ; the longitudinal muscles pass over and under the 
constricting circular bands. The segmentation therefore is not real, it is only 
apparent. The rings form the bases of the appendages ; the latter grow out 
of the former. The structure of each is produced laterally under various 
shapes to constitute the foot. The feet are never situated perfectly dorsally 
or perfectly ventrally, always more or less laterally. Each appendage, that 
is, the lateral processes of each segment, is divisible from above downwards 
into a dorsal and ventral half. The dorsal group of appendages is called the 
superior or dorsal foot, comprehending a cirrus, which may be flat or oar- 
shaped, tapering or cylindriform ; a true branchia, which in shape may be a 
tapering lamelliform naked vascular, or cylindriform and ciliated process; 
and lastly spines, which are imbedded in the central substance of the foot for 
the purposes of mechanical support, and setse or bristles, of numerously 
varied forms, for the purposes of locomotion or tube-making. In each foot 
then there is discernible, — 1st, abranchial organ, which is generally developed 
on the dorsal moiety ; 2nd, a tactile process or cirri, which are for the most 
part of largest size in the superior foot ; and 3rd, the setae and spines, which 
are constant in shape, although diff'ering at the anterior, middle, and posterior 
thirds of the body. The annular segments are most distinctly marked in the 
middle third of the body, least so at the tail. In many genera the cirri are 



192 REPORT — 1851. 

extremely exaggerated at the head ; this fact is exemplified in the Syllidce. 
The tentacular cirri of the Nereidce are instances of the same development. 
Both the fleshy and branchial appendages in the dorsibranchiate Annelids 
are more or less suppressed in the ventral feet. 

The further study of these complex and compound organs, the appendages, 
will be more advantageously prosecuted under the threefold division of, — 1st, 
the branchial ; 2ndly, the tactile and locomotive ; and 3rd, the setae. 

Branchial Processes. — In nearly all the species of the genus Serptila, the 
true branchiae are grouped around the cephalic extremity, in two divisions, 
one on either side of the mouth ; the feet in these tubicolous worms are com- 
posed exclusively of the setae. The branchial processes are remarkably com- 
plex in their minute structure (Plate IV. fig. 11, A). Projecting in a comb- 
like form from the head, and tinted variously and beautifully in different 
species, they ai-e admirably adapted for the exposure of the blood to the influ- 
ence of the surrounding medium. Each process is supported by a camerated 
frame or basis (fig. 1 1 , A, a), large and distinct in the back of the comb, from 
which are sent off, on one side only, a double row of secondary processes, 
corresponding to the teeth of the comb. This supporting framework is com- 
posed of an extremely delicate and flexible cartilage, the chambers of which 
are filled by a limpid fluid, which is in communication with that of the peri- 
toneal cavity ; an afferent and efferent blood-vessel, in parallelism, accompany 
this frame-structure. In the secondary processes (fig. 11, A") the two ves- 
sels (b, b') are brought towards the inferior aspect, to which the vibratile cilia 
are in some species limited. 

The cilia are large and vigorous, and cause the current, resulting from 
their vibration, to set strongly in the direction of the mouth. The branchiae 
therefore in the genus Serpula are rendered at once, by virtue of their pecu- 
liar structure and situation, subservient to the two grand oftices of respira- 
tion and prehension. By these sedentary Annelids, and that necessarily from 
the nature of, and the mode in which they obtain their food, a large quantity 
of water is swallowed ; this circumstance suggests an explanation of the fact 
that in the Serpula and Sabellce the interior of intestine throughout the 
rectal or posterior third of its extent, is lined by active vibratile epithelium. 
By the ceaseless agency of these cilia, a projecting force is imparted to the 
fluid emerging at the inferior orifice, which reacting against the bottom of 
the tube, assumes the direction of an upward tending current, and maintains 
the tube in the best sanitary condition, and the animal always, within and 
without, in contact with a constantly renewed stream of fresh water. When 
the animal is about to retire into its cell, the branchiae are furled into a 
compact ball, which is drawn under cover of the strong membranous hood 
situated at the base of the branchial tuft, and the whole compressed and pro- 
tected by the retracted operculum. More minutely watched, the process of 
furling the branchiae discovers other refinements of mechanism. Each 
separate secondary process is first rolled upon itself into a minute concentric 
coil ; this movement begins at the extreme end of each process, and rapidly 
creeps towards the base, at which moment the axis or vertical shaft rolls 
concentrically upon itself, and every trace of the gill disappears, so exqui- 
sitely perfect is the packing. By this movement of folding, both the blood- 
movement and the vibration are arrested. The process of unfurling is the 
reverse of that described (fig. 11, A). 

The preceding description applies almost in every minute particular to the 
ultimate structure of the branchial appendages of the Sabellce, in which 
geaus these organs affect a corresponding cephalic situation, — in Sabella d 



ON THE BKITISH ANNELIDA. 193 

sang vert, S. vesiculosa, S. Unispira, and in Sabina Poppcea*. Like 
those of the Serpulce, the branchiae in the Sabellce and Sabince subserve the 
double office of determining an alimentary current towards the mouth, and 
of aerating the blood. In these genera, the true-blood, in its proper vessels, is 
the subject of the respiratory change, and not the peritoneal fluid ; the branchiae 
are organized with this express intention. This is a point of extreme intei-est, 
to which attention will be drawn under each successive species, as the de- 
scription proceeds. 

The genus Amphitrite is distinguished from the former by the distribution 
of the branchiae over the dorsal aspect of the body. To this rule however 
exceptions occur in some species, as in A.auricoma, in which the branchige 
constitute comb-like appendages on either side of the third and fourth 
cephalic rings of the body. In A. alveolata, which expresses the typical 
structure, the branchial processes are situated on the dorsal surface of the 
body, except the caudal portion, on which they do not exist. They may be 
described as tapering, prominent, blood-red appendages (fig. 12, a, a'), carry- 
ing in their interior, axiallj% a single longitudinal blood-vessel, which at the 
distal extremity returns upon itself (fig. 12, b, b'). By Quatrefagesf this 
vessel is figured and described as giving off lateral transverse branches, which 
envelope the circumference of the appendage : such an arrangement does 
not exist ; an appearance leading to such an error may be readily produced 
by pressure. The axis of each process is hollow, and perforated by the fluid 
of the visceral cavity ; it is along this hollow axis that the blood-vessel pro- 
ceeds from the attached to the free end of the process (fig. 12, b, b'). So 
great is the disproportion between the quantity of blood carried by these ves- 
sels and the volume of the peritoneal fluid which penetrates the process, that 
in this genus also the respiratory function may be affirmed to be limited almost 
exclusively to the true-blood. A spirally arranged line of large vibratile cilia, 
coiling from the base to the apex of each appendage, provides for the con- 
stant renewal of the aerating medium (fig. 12, a). In Amphitrite, the tenta- 
cles, grouped into tufts on either side of the mouth, are organized on a plan 
not dissimilar from that of the branchiae-proper. They consist of fleshy fila- 
ments, irritable and flexible in the highest degree, hollow on the axis, carrying 
a single minute longitudinal blood-vessel returning upon itself, and penetrated 
by the fluid of the visceral cavity. They differ from the branchiae in the im- 
portant fact of the absence of cilia. In A. auricoma the branchial combs 
are attached by a single root, expand and divide in a pectinated manner, each 
tooth carrying only a single longitudinal vessel. 

This species indicates a transition from the typical Amphitrite to the 
Terebellce. 

In the genus Terebella the branchial organs appear under the form of 
blood-red tufts, proceeding from three separate root-vessels on either side 
of the occiput. The vessels divide for the most part dichotomously, forming 
an arborescent bunch of naked florid blood-vessels ; each ramusculus is 
enclosed in a delicate cuticular envelope, perfectly destitute of cilia : each 
ramusculus is also double, that is, it is composed of an aff"erent and efferent 
vessel. Although extremely transparent and attenuated, the cuticular struc- 
ture, embracing these branchial blood-vessels, must include some contractile 
fibres, since each separate ramusculus may be emptied, rendered bloodless, 
shrivelled, by the compression of the parietes. This provision for reinforcing 

* I have constituted the genus Sabina to receive a new tubicolous Annelid, to be described- 
in the sequel, which I have placed between the genera Serpula and Sabella, as liaving an 
intermediate organization. See description of species, part second. 

t Organisation des Hermelles, Ann. des Sciences, 3°»« serie, 1848. 
1851. o 



194 REPORT 1851. 

the circulating powers exists in various parts of the circulating system of the 
Annelida. It may be affirmed generally, that in all true Terebellce the 
branchiae occur under the character of naked uncilicUed blood-vessels 
restricted to the occipital rings of the body. 

In Terebella nebulosa they form thick rich tufts ; in T. conchilega they 
are less prominent ; in the small species they are scarcely visible, but in all 
the structure is identical. 

The cephalic tentacles in the Terebellce constitute, unquestionably, auxiliary 
organs of respiration, not for the aeration of the blood-proper, but for that 
of the peritoneal fluid, by which they are freely and copiously penetrated. 
They present a problem interesting alike to the physiologist and the mecha- 
nician. From their extreme length and vast number, they expose an exten- 
sive aggregate surface to the agency of the surrounding medium. They 
consist, in T. nebulosa, of hollow flattened tubular filaments, furnished with 
strong muscular parietes. The band may be rolled longitudinally into a 
cylindrical form, so as to enclose a hollow cylindrical space, if the two edges 
of the band meet, or a semi-cylindrical space if they only imperfectly meet. 
This inimitable mechanism enables each filament to take up and firmly grasp, 
at any point of its length, a molecule of sand ; or if placed in a linear series, 
a roio of molecules. But so perfect is the disposition of the muscular fibres 
at the extreme free end of each filament, that it is gifted with the twofold 
power of acting on the sucking and on the muscular principle. When the 
tentacle is about to seize an object, the extremity is drawn in, in consequence 
of the sudden reflux of fluid in the hollow interior ; by this movement a 
cup-shaped cavity is formed, in wJiich the object is securely held by atmo- 
spheric pressure ; this pover is however immediately aided by the contraction 
of the circular muscular fibres. Such then are the marvellous instruments 
by which these peaceful worms construct their habitation, and probably 
sweep their vicinity for food. The inferior aspect of each of these tentacles 
is profusely clothed with cilia, and this side is thinner than the dorsal. The 
peritoneal fluid, which is so richly corpusculated, and which freely enters the 
hollow axes of all these tentacles, is thus brought into artful contact with 
the surrounding water. To deny to such a mechanism the express design of 
aerating the organic fluid by which they are distended, were indeed to argue 
against the strongest probability. The minute blood-vessel which runs in 
the hollow axial space along the whole extent of the filament is so dispro- 
portionately small in comparison with the volume of the peritoneal fluid by 
which this space is filled, that the former cannot reasonably be supposed to 
share in the respiratory function of these organs. In addition to the two 
important uses already assigned to the tentacles in the Terebella, they con- 
stitute also the leal agents of locomotion. They are first outstretched by 
the forcible injection into them of the peritoneal fluid, a process which is ac- 
complished by the undulatory contraction of the body from behind forwards ; 
they are then fixed, like so many microscopic cables, to a distant surface, 
and shortening in their lengths, they haul forwards a step or two the helpless 
carcass of the worm. 

In T. conchilega, the cephalic tentacles are inferior to those of the former 
species in number and size ; they are also difl'erently configurated. They 
approach the prismatic in outline ; in transverse section they present a trira- 
diate shape. In minute structure, mechanism of action and uses, they 
coincide in the most exact manner with the tentacles of T. nebulosa. It is 
not a little curious that in the Terebella, these organs, which are homologous 
with true cirri, should be so richly provided with vibratile cilia, while the 
true- blood branchiae are entirely destitute of these motive organisms. Nothing 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 195 

but the view propounded in this memoir, with reference to the share taken 
by the peritoneal fluid in the function of respiration, will enable the phy- 
siologist to reconcile this apparent incongruity. 

The dorsibranchiate order comprehends a considerable proportion of the 
class Annelida. Of them, Cuvier remarks, "Ont leur organs et surtout leur 
branchies distribues a-peu-pres egalement le long de tout leur corps, ou au 
moins de sa partie moyenne." In the Cuvierian arrangement, at the head 
of this order stands the genus Arenicola. Respiration is performed in 
Arenicola Piscatorwn by means of naked blood-vessels, projecting at the 
root of the setiferous process upwards and outwards one-fourth of an inch 
in the adult worm from the surface of the body (fig. 13). They are limited 
in number and distribution to the fourteen or sixteen middle annuli of the 
body. They are commonly described as forming an arborescent tuft ; the 
division of the vessels is however regulated by a fixed principle. When fully 
injected with blood, the vessels of each branchia form a single plane (fig. 13), 
rising obliquely above and across the body, and immediately behind each 
brush of setae. In the adult animal each gill is composed of from twelve to 
sixteen primary branches (fig. 12, a, a), proceeding from a single trunk, which 
arises from the great dorsal vessel ; the vessels in the branchial tuft describe 
zigzag outlines ; the secondary branches project from the salient point, or the 
outside of each angle of the zigzags ; and the tertiary from similar points on 
the secondary branches. This mode of division, occurring in one plane, and 
in all the smaller branches, results in a plexus of vessels of extreme beauty of 
pattern or design. Each branchial tuft, and each individual vessel possess an in- 
dependent power of contraction ; in the contracted state the tuftalmost entirely 
disappears, so completely effected is the emptying of the vessels. The con- 
traction, or systole, in any given tuft occurs at frequent but irregular inter- 
vals ; this movement does not take place simultaneously in all the branchiae, 
but at different periods in different tufts. As there is no heart-like dilata- 
tion in the afferent vessels of the branchiae (fig. 10,/,/), the contractile 
power with which the exposed branches are endowed, becomes an important 
means of reinforcing the branchial circulation. The vessels appear quite 
naked, and if examined in the living state, each ramuscule seems to consist 
only of a single trunklet ; if this were really the case, it would of course re- 
solve itself into a tube ending in a cul-de-sac, and the blood movement would 
be a flux and reflux ; but by injection it is easy to show that the finest divi- 
sion of the branchial arbuscle contains a double vessel (fig. 13, B), enveloped 
in a common muscular, although extremely diaphanous sheath. That these 
vascular sheaths, which are only fine productions of the integuments, are 
furnished with voluntary muscular fibres, is proved by the rapid and simultane- 
ous retraction of all the branchiae into the interior of the body, which follows 
when the animal is touched. This sheathing of the blood-vessels with true 
muscular coats is a frequent character of the circulating system of the Anne- 
lida; it is a power which compensates the absence of a heart. It is extremely 
interesting to watch in the young Arenicola, the manner in which one little 
blood-vessel after another, in the progress of growth, shoots slowly from its 
stock-branch. In Arenicola, as in all Annelida in which the vessels of these 
organs are naked, the branchiae are destitute of vibratile cilia. It will be 
found that under such circumstances, viz. when the branchial vessels occur as 
naked projections from the external surface, the description now given of 
these organs in Arenicola will apply in every minute respect of structure to 
all other Annelida. It will prove exact in relation to the structure of the 
branchiae in the several species of the beautiful genus Euphrosyne of Savigny. 
In E.foliosa (M. E.) the branchial vessels form larger and richer tufts, having 

o2 



196- REPORT — 1851. 

a similar situation in relation to the setiferous feet. These organs assume 
the same character in E. laureata (S.). The elegant worm described by Au- 
douin and M.-Edwards* is furnished with branchial organs in form of ar- 
buscles of naiied vessels, after the pattern of those of the dorsibranchiate 
Annelids now described. Under the genus Amphinome, occurs Plerone tetrae- 
dra (of Savignj'), in which the breathing organs assume the form of larger 
florid bunches of naked blood-vessels, situated on the dorsal aspect of the 
body, each tuft being protected in front by a bundle of strong bristles. These 
organs assume a still more beautiful form in Chloeia capillata, in which the 
division of the vessels occurs on the bipinnate principle. 

The genus Eunice presents another and diiferent type of branchial vessels. 
Arranged in a prominent row of bright vessels, standing erect as minute 
combs at the dorsal base of each foot in the body, the branchiae impart to all 
the species of this genus a graceful and characteristic appearance. In every 
species the branchial vessels divide on a uniform plan peculiar to this genus. 
The primary trunk rises vertically along the inner side of the branchia, and 
sends off from its outer side, at intervals, straight vessels, which gradually 
decrease in size from below upwards : each branch forms a straight undi- 
viding vessel, curving gently upwards and towards the median line: these 
branches become in their number ciiaracteristic and distinctive of species. 
In some of the smaller species inhabiting the British coasts, the branchiae are 
composed only of a single vessel ; this is the case also with the young of the 
larger species ; in others they vary from the single vessel to the number of six 
and eight. In Eunice gigantea, according to the figures of Milne-Edwards, 
the vessels of each branchia amount to thirty-six in number. These vessels, 
although perfectly naked and unciliated, like those of Arenicola, are both 
less contractile and retractile ; they extend in this genus from the head to 
the tail, and equal in number the annular segments of the body. In the dor- 
sibranchiate genera, the branchial organs of which have now been described, 
the true-blood circulating in its proper vessels, has been proved to be exclu- 
sively the seat and subject of the respiratory process. The fluid of the peri- 
toneal cavity, abundant in quantity, and highly organized though it be in the 
genera j^ist reviewed, does not in the least degree participate in this great 
function. Judged by such a test, the genera of this grand order of worms 
should be marshalled under two primary groups, of which one (embi'acing 
the preceding species) would comprehend those in which the function of 
breathing devolves exclusively on the true-h\oo(\, while the other would be 
characterized by the fact that the branchiae are organized such as to permit 
more or less completely the exposure, in conjunction with the blood-proper, 
of the chyl-aqueous fluid of the visceral cavity, to the influence of the sur- 
rounding aerating element. It will be seen in the succeeding description, 
that when the branchial apparatus is penetrated thus by two separate and 
distinct fluids, coordinate probably in organic properties, the vascular system 
of the body generally will be found by so much the less developed by how 
much the peritoneal fluid supplants the blood in the branchiae. The structure 
of the branchial organs becomes thus a significant test of the position of any 
given species in the Annelidan scale, — those being entitled to the highest 
rank of which the respiratory organs are exclusively designed for the expo- 
sure of the blood-proper to the action of the oxygenating medium, those to 
the lowest in which the peritoneal fluid alone circulates in the branchiae. 
The subgenera Lycidice, Aglaura, and (Enone, of the genus Eunice, are 
distinguished in the circumstances now defined, from all the former genera 
of the dorsibranchiate order. Naked, unciliated blood-vessels no longer in 
* See Cuvier, Regne Animal, AnneMis, pi. 8. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 197 

them form exclusively the branchial organs : loose and large-celled tissue is 
superadded to the proper blood-vessels, which are far less in relative size 
than those in the former variety of branchiae ; into the cells of this tissue the 
fluid of the visceral cavity insinuates itself, its course being marked by a slow 
motion. There exists however another point of structural difference between 
the branchial organs of this group and those of the former ; this difference 
admits of the following general expression, — that whei'ever the fluid of the 
peritoneal cavity is admitted into the interior of the branchial organs, the 
latter are invariably supplied more or less profusely with vibratile cilia. 

In the genus Lycidice the branchia consists of a flat, lanceolate process, 
more or less developed, surrounded marginally by a blood-vessel, the mid- 
space between the lines of the advancing and returning vessels being com- 
posed of large-celled tissue, lacunose, into which the peritoneal fluid pene- 
trates by a flux and reflux movement. The branchiae in L. Ninetta are situ- 
ated dorsally, and are supplied at their bases with single rows of vibratile 
cilia. Those of Aglaura fulgida are similarly constructed, although they 
differ slightly from those of the former genus in size and figure. In CEnone 
maculata they occur under a more developed form, constituting flattened, 
pointed trowel-shaped processes, the plane of which is vertical with reference 
to that of the body. A blood-vessel, as in the former cases, trends along the 
borders, immediately beneath the cuticle. The course of these vessels is 
followed by a row of large and prominent vibratile cilia. 

In the branchial system of the genus Nereis (Cuv.), Lycoris (Savigny), 
the minute anatomist encounters a structure strikingly different from any- 
thing hitherto described. Whether round or laminated, the true branchiae 
in this genus are always penetrated by the fluid of the visceral cavity, and 
the blood-vessels assume a peculiar disposition. When the branchial pro- 
cess is conical in shape, its base is embraced by a reticulated plexus of true 
blood-vessels (fig. 14, a, a, a, a), which is situated quite superficially and 
immediately beneath the epidermis. These vessels are most prominently 
developed on the dorsal-most process, which therefore may be called the 
branchial, but they extend more or less over all the cirri. A better charac- 
teristic of the branchiae, both the conical and the foliaceous, in the Nereids, 
is that of their being penetrated by the peritoneal fluid. In those species in 
which the branchial process is round, the interior of the base is hollow, and 
filled with the fluid of the visceral chamber. Floating in this fluid may be 
seen, when viewed transparently,coils of naked blood-vessels; in those in which 
they are laminated or foliaceous, as in Nereis renalis, the step of the exterior 
surface does not extend beyond the limits of the base, the flat portion, how- 
• ever, tunnelled by straight spacious canals (fig. 14, b, b), which radiate with 
great regularity from the base to the expanded circumference of the process. 
In these canals the corpuscles of the peritoneal fluid may be seen rolling to 
and fro, advancing and returning in the same channel. These movements 
are regulated by those of the great current in the chamber of the perito- 
neum. This type of structure prevails in Nereis renalis, N. longissima, 
and in a slightly modified form, in consequence of the less flattened shape of 
the branchiae, in N. viridis. The round variety of branchial processes 
obtains in N. margaritacea, N. Dumerillii, N. fucata, N. pelagica, and 
N. brevimanus. It is a fact difficult to explain that the branchial organs 
in the Nereids should be destitute in every species of vibratile cilia. 

The laminated or foliaceous type attains the point of its maximum deve- 
lopment in the branchial appendages of the genus Phyllodoce (fig. 15). 
It was difficult to assign any other than a respiratory use to the rich, leaf- 
like projections in these beautiful worms. In the absence of all ideas 



198 REPORT — 1851. 

tending to a knowledge of the nature and capabilities of the fluid con- 
tents of the visceral chamber, the real meaning of the radiating channels 
(fig. 15, a, a, a) by which the respiratory laminae are perforated, and therefore 
of the mechanism of the function of which they are the scene, never could 
have been rightly apprehended. It was only by mistaking the peritoneal fluid 
for blood that the branchial office of these appendages could have been pre- 
dicated, and this very mistake has been committed by M. Quatrefages. The 
branchiae in Phyllodoce viridis are prominent dorsal appendages : in this 
worm the blood-system can be traced only by a few scanty vessels distributed 
over the roots of these processes ; nor are the canals very spacious and di- 
stinct ; they are more like lacunar in a spongy tissue. In P. bilineata and 
P. lamelligera, the radiating passages, distinct from each other, and communi- 
cating only indirectly through cells, are extremely obvious under the micro- 
scope (fig. 15, «, a, a). They carry the fluid of the peritoneal cavity, the 
corpuscles of which may be seen flowing and ebbing in the same channel. 
Nothing can, however, more conclusively prove the true branchial character 
of these laminae than the presence of cilia, the vibrations of which can be 
observed only at the edges of the respiratory laminae. These are best seen 
in P. lamelligera. This is a striking point of distinction between the Phyl- 
lodoce and the Nereids, in which vibratile cilia on the branchiae have no 
existence. The peritoneal fluid then may now be affirmed as that, in the 
ceconomy of the Phyllodoce, which is the subject exclusively of the respira- 
tory function, the true blood receiving its supply of oxygen from this fluid, 
afterwards to convey it to the solid structures of the body. 

In the genus Glycera the blood-proper is entirely excluded from the organs 
of respiration. This office devolves exclusively on the chyl-aqueo.us fluid, 
which in nearly all the species of this genus is profusely supplied with red 
corpuscles. The gills consist of hollow cylindrical appendages (fig. 16, a), 
emanating from the base of each dorsal foot at its superior aspect, filled in 
the interior with the fluid of the visceral cavity ; but, what is remarkable in 
the structure of these organs and quite peculiar to this genus, is that the 
interior parietes of the cylindrical hollow of the branchiae is lined with 
vibratile cilia ; these motive organules cause the corpuscles of the fluid by 
which the branchiae are penetrated, to move with great rapidity in a definite 
direction, viz. peripherally on one side and centrally along the other, each 
corpuscle whirling on its own own axis as it proceeds. Ciliary vibration 
cannot be detected on the outside of the branchial appendage. 

It is a feature of structure more strikingly illustrated in Glycera than in 
any other Annelid, that whenever the peritoneal fluid is the subject of the re- 
spiratory function, it is brought into the branchial organ in much greater re- 
lative proportion than the blood-proper when it is the subject of this process ; 
and the branchiae are always constructed in adaptation to this difference. 

In the SyllidcB the branchial organs (fig. 17) are penetrated only by the 
peritoneal fluid, but it can be detected in motion only in the bases of the feet, 
and these parts only are furnished with vibratile cilia, which are large and 
active. The long filiform and, in some species, moniliform appendages which 
are described commonly as the branchiae of these worms, have no central 
hollow (fig. 17, a) ; they are filled with large-celled tissues through which 
the fluid parts of the contents of the visceral cavity slowly penetrate. But in 
the spacious chambers occupying the bases of the feet (fig. 17, b), a whirl- 
pool of the peritoneal fluid may be readily observed. The structure now de- 
scribed is very perfectly typified in S. prolifera; the moniliform variety is 
best seen in S. armillaris and S. maculosa, A similar confirmation prevails 
in the genera loida and Psamathe of Dr. Johnston. In the Syllidan family^ 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 199 

which excels all others in grace and beauty, the proper blood-system is almost 
indetectable, in consequence of the colourlessness of the contents. It may be 
stated with confidence that blood-vessels do not enter into the structure of 
the branchial processes. The respiration therefore devolves exclusively on 
the chyl-aqueous fluid. 

Amongst the family Ariciadce, first defined by Audouin and Milne-Ed- 
wards, several other varieties in the configuration of the breathing organs 
occur. In the genera Leucodore, Nerine and Aricia, the branchial appen- 
dages affect a dorsal situation. In every species they are traversed from 
base to apex by a single blood-vessel returning upon itself (fig. 18, a). This 
vessel, however, is supported by a lobule of spongy tissue (fig. 18, b), into the 
cells of which the fluid of the visceral chamber penetrates. The office of re- 
spiration in this family is therefore discharged in part by the blood and in 
part by the chyl-aqueous fluid. In every species of this family the branchiae 
are supplied by vibratile cilia having a distinct disposition in each. Lincodore 
ciliatus, on the dorsal aspect, and over the posterior two-thirds of the body, 
is covered on either side with a row of flattened conical branchial processes, 
blood-red in colour and richly ciliated. They are largest anteriorly and small- 
est near the tail. The cilia are disposed in a spiral line from the attached to 
the extreme end. Viewed with a high magnifying power, and transparently, 
a camerated axis, composed of exquisitely fine hyaline cartilage, may be dis- 
covered, fulfilling on the branchiae of this elegant little boring Annelid the 
office of mechanical support, as a similar structure was formerly shown to 
do in those of the Sabellcs. 

In the genus Spio or Nerine the respiratory organs occur under forms of 
the highest beauty (Plate V. fig. 18). They constitute flat, membranous, 
penknife-shaped appendages, curving gracefully over the back with the curve 
of the " ring " of the body by which they are supported, and crossing over the 
dorsal median line and alternating with the corresponding process of the other 
side. The plane of each process is vertical in relation to the longitudinal 
axis of the body ; they lie therefore one over the other in an imbricate 
manner. They are less flat and close in N. vulgaris than in N.coniocephala. 
They are largest in size towards the middle of the body ; smallest anteriorly 
and posteriorly. The blood-vessels, the aff"erent and efferent (a, fig. 18), 
run close to and parallel with the inferior border of the process ; the upper 
part of each is composed of a membranous lobular addition to the inferior 
and vascular portion. Into the cells of this lobule the chyl-aqueous fluid 
slowly finds its way, and participates obviously in the office of respiration. 
In N. coniocephala it is remarkable that the cilia should be limited in their 
distribution to the margin along which the true blood-vessel runs. This 
fact is less manifest in N. vulgaris in consequence of the smallness of the 
membranous lobule. In Aricia Cuvieri the branchial appendages are more 
conical in figure, more vertical in position, and developed only at the poste- 
rior four-fifths of the body. They are covered with large vibratile cilia, which 
likewise extend over that segment of the dorsum which separates the bases 
of the branchiae. Like those of the preceding genera, they are supplied with 
spongy tissue (fig. 18, b) for the exposure of the peritoneal fluid*. It may 
have been remarked that in all the members of the preceding family the real 
branchial organ has consisted of an evolved or exaggerated development of 
the superior element of the dorsal foot. In the genus Nephthys, which 
comes now under review, it is the inferior element of the dorsal foot which 
becomes the subject of this evolution. Nephthys Hombergii oi our coasts 

* I have described a species of Aricia in which these branchial organs are entirely sup- 
pressed. 



200 REPORT — 1851. 

is a remarkably vigorous and active worm, and yet its organ of breathing 
consists only of a comparative small curved ciliated process, situated under 
cover of the dorsal foot, and carrying only a single-looped vessel. It may 
be mentioned as an interesting proof of the real appropriation of this process 
in Nephthys to the function of breathing, that the same process, although 
similarly shaped, on the ventral or inferior foot, is not provided with cilia, 
nor is it penetrated by any blood-vessel. 

The genus Cirrhatulus of Lamarck, and the allied group constituted by 
Savigny under the name of Ophelia, introduces to the physiologist another 
modification of the branchial organs within the limits of the dorsibranchiate 
order. As in the preceding families, they are in these latter only ' develop- 
ments' of the dorsal cirri. In Cirrhatulus Lamarckii (fig. 19, a, «), a linear 
series of yellowish, and blood-red threads, remarkably irritable and contrac- 
tile, project to a considerable distance, from either side of the body, through- 
out its whole length ; at the occiput, however, they are arranged in a crown- 
like form. These beautiful filaments, which are obviously designed to fulfil 
the twofold office of touch and respiration, appear under the microscope to 
consist only of a single blood-vessel enclosed in a delicate sheath of integu- 
ment. Closer analysis, however, discovers ttvo vessels (fig. 19, a") in each 
of these filaments, and traces of longitudinal and circular muscular fibres in 
the investing sheath. By the contraction of this sheath, the enclosed vessels 
may be completely emptied of their blood from one end of the filament to 
the other. This contraction does not take place simultaneously in every 
part, but undulatorily, the wave motion beginning at the extreme fore-end. 
It is especially to be noted, that, in this variety of appendage, in which the 
respiratory is only an incidental function, there exist 7io vibratile cilia. These 
organs in Ophelia coarctata exhibit analogous characters, while they are less 
numerous and much shorter*. The Aphroditacea constitute a group of An- 
nelids to which the term " dorsibranchiate " by no means correctly applies ; 
that is, in the majority of the species embraced in this order no branchial 
appendages exist either on the dorsum, or any other part of the body. Respi- 
ration is performed on a novel principle, of which no illustration occurs in 
any other family of worms. In all Aphroditacece the blood is colourless. 
The blood-system is in abeyance, while that of the chyl-aqueous is exagge- 
rated. Although less charged with organic elements than that of other 
orders, the fluid of the peritoneal cavity in this family is unquestionably the 
exclusive medium through which oxygen is absorbed. The true Aphrodite 
type of respiration occurs in Aphrodita acideata. In this species the tale of 
the real uses of the ' elytra' or scales is plainly told. Supplied with a com- 
plex apparatus of muscles, they exhibit periodical movements of elevation 
and depression. Overspread by a coating of felt readily permeable to the 
water, the space beneath the scales during their elevation becomes filled with 
a large volume oi filtered water, which during the descent of the scales is 
forcibly emitted at the posterior end of the body. It is important to remark 
that the current thus established laves only the exterior of the dorsal region 
of the body. It nowhere enters the internal cavities; the latter are every- 
where shut out by a membranous partition from that spacious exterior 
enclosure bounded above by the felt and the elytra. In this species the peri- 
toneal chamber is very capacious, and filled by a fluid which only in a slight 
degree contains organized particles. The complex and labyrinthic appen- 
dages of the stomach We floating in this fluid, and in the chambers which 

* I have recently discovered several new species in which the branchiae assume the fili- 
form shape and structure as described in the text, and of which the position in the AnneU- 
dan scale should be near that of Cirrhatulus. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 201 

divide the roots of the feet. * From this relation of contact between the peri- 
toneal fluid and the digestive CEeca, loMch are alioays Jilled hy a dark green 
chyle, it is impossible to resist the conclusion that the contained fluid is 
really a reservoir wherein the oxygen of the external respiratory current, 
already described, becomes accumulated. From the peritoneal fluid the 
aerating element extends in the direction of the caeca, and imparts to their 
contents a higher character of organization. These contents, thus prepared 
by a sojourn in the casca of the stomach, become the direct pabulum for 
replenishing the true blood which is distributed in vessels over the parietes 
of these chylous repositories. The sequence of events now indicated will 
convey to the mind of the physiologist a clear idea of the mechanism of 
the processes both of respiration and sanguification. It cannot have escaped 
observation that there prevails a striking resemblance between the general 
anatomy of Aphrodita aculeata and that of the Asteridse among the Echi- 
noderms. The point of junction thus established between the Echinoderms 
and Annelida is as obvious and natural as that which exists between the 
SipuncididcB and the Nemertinidce. It is thus constantly observed by the 
philosophical anatomist that in the animal kingdom adjacent classes are 
linked together into a continuous series at more than one point. 

In the genus Palmyra no external respiratory appendage is provided ; 
although theyee^ of the Aphrodite are absent, the elytra in the elegant Pal- 
myra aurifera generate a true branchial current. 

This observation is also true of the family of the Polynoe. These worms 
are destitute of external branchial processes. The fleshy cirri, by which the 
true respiratory appendages of Sigalion Boa are represented in the Polynoe, 
are solid, not hollow and ciliated, and further situated only on every third or 
fourth foot. The f}.uid of the peritoneal cavity in these worms is voluminous ; 
it is little corpusculated, like that of ^. aculeata, and moreover the stomach in 
the genus Polynoe is more or less extended laterally in form of diverticula. 
The organisation of the familiar Sea Mouse therefore conveys exact ideas 
with reference to the principles of structure on which nearly all the scale- 
clad worms are formed. In all ' the scales ' are mechanical, and very skil- 
fully contrived instruments for generating true branchial currents. In Siga- 
lion Boa, however (fig. 20, «), which is a worm considerably more elon- 
gated than the Polynoe, an exception occurs to the principle observed in 
the other scale-clad worms ; i. e. express external organs of respiration are 
provided. They exist under the character of hollow, cylindrical and curved 
appendages (fig. 20, «) emanating by a mammilla under cover of the scales, 
and projecting a short distance beyond their outer edges. These processes are 
profusely lined within, but not without, by vibratile cilia. The corpuscles of the 
peritoneal fluid may be readily brought under the eye, while whirling in the 
interior. In Polynoe semisquamosa, Williams (fig. 21, a), a flat appendage 
is added to the base of the foot, presenting radiating canals for the exposure 
of the peritoneal fluid. It is thus then established by direct demonstration, 
that the fluid contained in the great visceral cavity is the real and exclusive 
subject of the process of oxygenation in these scale-armed Annelids. If this 
fluid consisted only of pure water, that is, if its specific gravity were iden- 
tical with that of the external element, those conditions would exist which 
are least favourable to the interchange of oxygen and carbonic acid. It is 
therefore no departure from cautious reasoning to infer that the oxygen 
received into the peritoneal fluid exerts upon the elements of the latter the 
effect of raising them in the scale of organic fluids, and of preparing them 
for the work of solid nutrition. 

It now remains to consider the mode in which the process of breathing 



202 REPORT — 1851. 

is accomplished in the Abranchiate Annelids. Of this division of worms, 
it is stated in all systematic works that the function of respiration de- 
volves on " the external cutaneous surface of the body," and this is re- 
garded as expressing the principle on which the same function is performed 
in all Entozoa. It will be afterwards proved that between some »[)ecies 
of Abranchiate Annelids and some species of Entozoa there really does 
obtain almost an identity of structure, under a striking diversity of ex- 
ternal form. In the Entozoa, however, the space between the peritoneum 
and integuments is much larger than in the corresponding species of 
Abranchiate Annelids. The difference affects materially the mechanism in 
the two cases of the respiratory process. The Entozoa are remarkable for 
the large amount of the peritoneal fluid ; the true blood-system being in 
proportionate abeyance. In the Abranchiate Annelids, the system of the 
peritoneal fluid is suppressed proportionately to the greater development of 
that of the blood-proper. Here, as in other Annelids, the proportion 
between the system of the chyl-aqueous fluid and that of the true-blood is 
observed to be inverse. 

It may be affirmed as a law of the organization in all abranchiate worms, 
that the system of the blood-proper is more developed on the parietes of the 
intestinal canal than on the integuments. This fact, wherever the peritoneal 
space is obliterated by the adherence of the intestinal cylinder to that of the 
integument, transfers the office of respiration from the latter to the former 
region ; that is, as is practically demonstrable in the instance of Naisjiliformis, 
the large volume of water which is incessantly streaming throughout the 
length of the alimentary canal, holding atmospheric air in solution, while it 
ministers by its organic particles to the nutrition of the system, contributes 
also by the air with which it is mixed, to the great purpose of aerating the 
living fluids of the organism. This is accomplished partly by the exosmose 
of the dissolved air from the m^ra-intestinal into the peritoneal or extra-in- 
testinal space ; and partly by the absorption of it into the true-blood circu- 
lating in the vascular plexus by which the intestinal parietes are embraced. 
In the Entozoa it is not improbable that more of the aerating element is 
derived by the peritoneal fluid ab extra, from the medium on which they are 
parasitic, than ab intra from that which they swallow. Whichever of these 
two great systems of the body (intestinal and integumentary) be entitled to 
the o-reater share in the process of respiration in the Abranchiate Annelids, 
it should be remembered that in the Entozoa the structure of the integuments 
is almost entirely destitute of true-blood-vessels. This fact renders the infer- 
ence probable, that the partition of the integuments, which in the Entozoa is 
thin, is permeated by the gaseous elements without, and that they thus ewfer, 
without meeting much of the true-blood in transitu, into the fluid of the 
visceral cavity, by which it is brought into contact with the solids of the body. 

In the genera Lumbricus and Hirudo, the peritoneal fluid and space being 
very small, the function of breathing falls on the united structure of the 
intestine and integument. These two genera are remarkable for the great 
development of the reproductive organs, which occupy, to crowding, the inter- 
val of the peritoneal cavity ; and for the excessive elaboration of the system 
of the blood-proper. 

The genus Trophonia is characterized, as compared by the former, by an 
increase in the volume of the contents of the peritoneal fluid. Here also all 
, traces of external branchiaj are wanting; life is maintained through the 
aerating influence of the chyl-aqueous fluid. 

In the Naides, observation proves beyond doubt, that breathing is accom- 
plished through the medium of the peritoneal fluid; its movements are 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 203 

rapid, and composition highly organized ; in every sense it is organically and 
chemically qualified for the discharge of this function. 

By Audouin and Milne-Edwards, in this place in the Annelidan series 
is placed the anomalous genus Clymene. No attempt has been made by these 
distinguished authors to unravel the anatomy of these eccentric worms. On 
the head and body no vestige of external appendage (except the hooks) is 
discoverable. At the tail, however, irregularly scalloped, membranous pro- 
cesses may be observed, which are in every essential respect to these worms, 
what the cephalic processes in them are to the SipunculidcB ; that is, they are 
hollow membranous projections of the peritoneal cavity, admirably adapted 
to expose the contents of this cavity to the influence of the surrounding 
medium. A blood-vessel or two may be traced at the roots of these pro- 
cesses, being only enough to prove that the system of the blood-proper in 
these Annelids is very insufficiently developed to enact the great function of 
respiration. The branchial processes of the Clymenidce are not provided with 
cilia ; they afford the only illustration in the class Annelida of branchial 
organs specialized around the outlet of the alimentary system. 

It has now been shown that the branchial organs in the Annelida arrange 
themselves under two leading divisions, between which a clearly legible line 
of demarcation exists. Under one of these divisions, the blood-vessels bearing 
branchiae occur ; under the other, those organized for the exposure of the 
chyl-aqueous fluid. It was formerly demonstrated in detail that this fluid, 
in larger or smaller volume, and in proportions varying in different species 
relatively to those of the true-blood system, occurs in nearly every known 
Annelid. When the contents of the latter are well exposed to the agency of 
oxygen, no provision in general exists for the exposure of the former fluid ; and 
conversely, when the appendages designed for the office of breathing are con- 
structed with especial reference to the outspreading of the former to the 
aerating medium, blood-vessels are seldom found to enter into their structure. 
It is probable therefore that in the ceconomy of the Annelid these two fluids 
are co-ordinate elements; they are convertible proximate principles; they 
exhibit equal physiological capacities ; both are capable of discharging the 
function of respiration, and both are capable of supplying the solids of the 
body with the materials of increase. 

Locomotive and tactile appendages. — The cirri and setae of the feet are 
included under this head. The former admit of subdivision into two varieties 
of which one may be classed as the natatory and the other as the tactile. 
The setae, constituting in many species appendages to the body, of the most 
brilliantly ornamental character, are always important mechanical means of 
locomotion. Sensation and locomotion are thus in the Annelida provided 
for by means of organs of elaborate construction. So numerously and inter- 
estingly diversified in number, proportions, and form, are these several parts 
of the feet, that a detailed description of them becomes here necessary in 
order that what is most characteristic in the anatomy of species may be fully- 
expounded. That element of the foot which is dedicated to the function of 
breathing has already been made the subject of minute inquiry. Under the 
present head therefore the branchice will receive no further notice. 

The branchicB and operculum which plume so richly the head in the ge- 
nus Serpula, are endowed with extreme sensibility. This provision super- 
sedes the necessity lor fleshy tactile appendages to the body, which is enclosed 
by the calcareous tube in which the worm lives : in structure and curvature 
these tubes differ in different species. The interior is smooth, not so smooth 
however as to be slippery, nor so hard as to render difficult or impossible the 
fixing of the hooks and bristles of the feet, by which the animal is enabled to 



204 REPORT — 1851. 

rise or descend at will. The body of the Serpula is obviously distinguished into 
two parts, of which one may be called the thoracic, and the other the abdomi- 
nal. The former is provided with prominent feet, powerfully protrusile, and 
a system of strong bristles (Plate VI. fig. 22, a), which during the movement 
of the feet run to and fro in the axes of the feet. On the dorsal aspect of these 
appendages, a row of microscopic hooks, marked by a minutely dark line, 
extending transversely in part round the body, may be discerned (fig. 22, b). 
It is by aid of these inimitable instruments that the worm grasps the interior 
of the tube. They are wielded by means of long thread-like tendons, fixed 
on artful mechanical principles, to the attached end of each hook. During 
the action of the muscles, of indescribable delicacy, the hooks are pro- 
jected to some distance beyond the plane of the surface on which they repose 
"in the inactive state. These singular organs are formed after the pattern of 
the common "bill-hook" of farmers, having the edge deeply notched into 
teeth, directed downwards. Through the agency of these hooks the worm is 
enabled to withdraw itself into its tube with extraordinary precision, rapidity, 
and muscular force. In this movement, arithmetic would fail to compute the 
number of these instruments, which is simultaneously extruded : their office 
is exclusively that of pulling the animal back into its cell. Gifted with such 
marvellous instruments, and alarmed by external danger, these elegant 
Annelids will retreat with the rapidity of lightning. The advance move- 
ment, in which it pushes itself out of its tube, is of course the reverse of the 
former; but what is remarkable is, that this movement of emergence is per- 
formed by means of organs quite distinct and diffei-ent from those used in 
the act of retreating. In principle of action and construction, these instru- 
ments are strikingly dissimilar — one is a pidling and the other is a pushing 
machine. The setae or bristles, which are protrusile, are the pushing organs 
(fig. 22, a). Nothing in nature is so perfect as the adaptation with which 
these organules are fitted for the end in view. Each seta is composed of a 
strong rigid and unresisting shaft, and an expanded shoulder, drawn out into 
a point. On one side of this pointed shoulder may be remarked a double 
row of serrations which are admirably calculated to catch against the surface 
of contact, forming thereby a firm and fixed point of propelling force. 
Computing the pushing force which each seta is capable of exerting, and 
multiplying this amount by the number of setae in each foot, and this again 
by the number of feet with which the worm is provided, a conception may 
be formed of the aggregate of mechanical power with which the animal 
executes its " march forwards." A similar calculation applied to the hooks, 
will give a correspondingly prodigious resultant of power for retreat. The 
mechanical principles thus imperfectly expounded, will correctly apply in 
every particular to the instances of all tubicolous worms ; the hooks perform 
one movement, the bristles another. Never before has the meaning of these 
matchless instruments been differentially defined. The hooks and the 
bristles are characteristic and distinctive of species. By one single micro- 
scopic hook or seta, visible only under the highest powers of the microscope, 
the naturalist may pronounce the species, and mentally reconstruct the indi- 
vidual — no mean triumph for the science of observation I In the Serpuli- 
dans, as in all the fixed tubicolous Annelids, the feet near the tail, acting 
therefore at the bottom of the tube, are modified in structure with express 
reference to the duties of mopping, sweeping, scraping, and wiping the caecal 
end of the habitation. The organs for the discharge of these necessary 
household duties will be afterwards described more at length in the Amphi- 
tritans. 

The SabellcB, like the Serpulidce, are tubicolous ; the tubes of the SabelUs 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 205 

are however soft, tenacious, flexible, and muddy. Slimy mucus, furnished 
by the integumentary glands of the body, is the mortar or cement, fine sand- 
molecules are the ' stones ' or solid material of the architecture. In the 
SabellcB, the lime of which the tubes are built is held in solution in the 
mucus provided by the cutaneous glands. It is adjusted in the fluid form, 
and moulded by appropriate tools into the required shape : it then solidifies ; 
solidifies too under water, like the "Aberthaio lime ! " The tube of the Sabellce 
fits closely round the body of the worm ; it is slightly elastic, and the interior 
is smooth. 

It is a fact of singular mechanical interest, that the thoracic feel, which vary 
in number in different species, are disposed in a manner which is the exact 
reverse of that in which the abdominal are arranged ; the latter being distri- 
buted over the posterior iths or fths of the body. This remarkable pro- 
vision confers manifestly on the inhabitant of the tube, which is frequently 
unattached except at its inferior end, the power of rolling on its own axis, of 
turning round, in order that it may sweep with its branchiae in search of 
food and fresh portions of water, the whole circumference of the circle. This 
disposition of the thoracic feet on the dorsal aspect of the body, while the 
abdominal are placed on the ventral, with a simplicity of mechanism per- 
fectly wonderful, arms the worm with the means oi fixing the tube whilst it 
executes its complex movements. If all the feet were disposed on the same 
side of the body, this important object, it must be at once obvious to the 
mechanician, never could be accomplished. The W'Orm would be a palsied 
prisoner in its self-constructed cell. 

The brushes of setae in the thoracic feet point dorsally, and the row of 
hooks extend from their bases in the direction of the dorsal median line. The 
brushes of the abdominal feet point ventrally, and the row of hooks extend 
from their roots transversely in the direction of the ventral median line. It 
is evident then that these classes of feet must act in opposite directions. The 
hooks slightly vary in form in different species, but the setae in all the species 
are constructed on one plan (fig. 23, a). In Sabella a sang vert (M. Edwards), 
the hooks (fig. 23, B) are formed by the turning of a finely sharp beak very 
much upon itself, the attached»end or root expanding into a broad base. 
From this latter part a very curious claw-like process, surmounting a straight 
shaft, proceeds (fig. 23, B), the use of which must consist in tightening the 
tube after the hook has been fixed, and that to render the hold of the latter 
more secure. The setce present a leaf-like form, and margins strongly toothed 
(fig. 23, a). Composed of an unyielding horny material, they are admirably 
fitted for pushing ; the feet in these, as in other worms, act in obedience 
to the principle of the composition of forces. The forces meeting and uniting 
in the ideal axes of the body, or rather in the centre of the body of the 
animal, produce a resultant expressed by its raoWon forward. 

In Sabella vesiculosa (Montagu), the hooks are formed somewhat differ- 
ently. The broad bases observed in the former instance, are replaced by a 
tapering curved end to which the muscle is attached (fig. 23, B). The feet 
are similarly distinguished into thoracic and abdominal : the setae are con- 
structed upon the same precise type. The same disposition of the feet pre- 
vails in Sabella unispira (M.-Edwards) ; here, however, the bases of the 
hooks are broad, and the claw-like process described in S. a sang vert reap- 
pears. The setae preserve the type of construction characteristic of the genus. 

The feet in Terebellce are composed only of hooks and setae. The soft 
appendages are transferred to the head, where, under the form of tentacles, 
they assume an extreme degree of development. A full statement of the 
history of these remarkable organs has already been given. 



206 REPORT— 1851. 

The Terebellce differ from the SabellcB in the uniformly abdominal position 
of the feet and rugae for the hooks. Since the tube \s fixed, this arrange- 
ment entails no inconvenience. In another essential respect the Terebellca 
are distinguished from the SahellcB. In the former the cephalic tentacles are 
powerful manual appendages, uniting in themselves the threefold office of 
touch, prehension, z^wA pulling \ for it was shown that through their aid the 
animal assists the operation of the hooked and setiferous feet in drawing 
itself forwards; in the Sahella, the cephalic appendages are quite incapable 
of any, the slightest motive act ; they are exclusively branchial. The duties of 
locomotion therefore in this latter genus devolve exclusively on the feet. 
In the Terebella, the setiferous feet are limited to the anterior end of the 
body ; the posterior presenting the form only of hook-armed ridges. In 
Terehella nebulosa these feet amount to twenty-three in number; the setae 
with which these feet are furnished, are simple or unserrated lancet-shaped 
and flattened hairs. The feet themselves are capable of only slight extrusion 
beyond the plane of the body, serving more the purpose of trowelling, 
plastering, and polishing the interior of the tube, than of moving the animal 
in its cell. The hooks (fig. 24'), in nearly all species of Terebellis, are disposed 
in double rows on the dorsum of each ridge. This arrangement exists inva- 
riably on the " ridges " of the posterior |^ths of the body ; on the anterior 
setiferous portion they are often in single rows. It is evidently designed as a 
means for ^rm\jfixitig to the tube the tail end of the body, in order that 
upon it as a pivot, the anterior portion and the head may enjoy perfect free- 
dom of motion. Considering the extreme power of elongating and contract- 
ing the body with which these ornamental worms are gifted, it is mechanically 
clear, that upon such a basis a great range of movement is secured. The 
hooks themselves are furnished with one long and large tooth, and several 
smaller ones above the former ; the back presents a projecting spine, to which 
a tendon is attached, the office of which is to /<ngrasp or loose the tooth from 
its hold, and which may be called thelaxator hamuli. The attached conical 
base of each hook is furnished with another tendon, the muscle of which may 
be called the tensor hamuli, as through its agency the act of ^a:m^ the hooks 
is performed. On the ventral median line in Werehella nebulosa thick muscular 
transverse scale-like rugae, mistaken by Montagu fur actual scales, are de- 
veloped, forming in part afulcrumfor muscularaction,andin part steadying the 
cephalic end of the body, with a view to the pulley-like operation of the ten- 
tacles. In Terehella conchilega the setiferous feet are only sixteen in num- 
ber, the hooks and setae differing very slightly in model from those of the 
former species (fig. 25). The feet effect a similarly ventral situation, and 
the scale-like rugae under the thorax present a corresponding character, 
only that in Terebella conchilega the ventral median line is painted red by a 
ba7id of cutaneous pigment, which is commonly mistaken by cursory observers 
for a large blood-vessel. In two other and nmch smaller species, which the 
author has recently added to those generally known, the setiferous feet in one 
are thirteen in number, and in the other eight ; in the latter they stand on 
prominent peduncles, and differ strikingly from those of the other species. 
The hooks vary only in the number of the teeth and in size (fig. 26). 

The tubeof the 7ere6eZ/«, according to the author's observation, is perforated, 
not caecal, at its inferior termination. The fajculence rejected by the animal 
is thus made to escape from the tube, by the force of a current of the external 
water which is admitted into the tube, between the tube and the body of the 
worm, and driven out through the posterior aperture of the tube by the sudden 
retreating and swelling of the animal in its tube. It is accordingly found 
that in the Terebellce there exists no provision, such as that which will after- 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 207 

wards be explained in the Amphitriiee, for directing and impelling upwards 
along the tube the rejectamenta. It is desirable to remark, at this place, that in 
the TereMlcc the number of the setiferous feet consitates by far the best, most 
constant, and most easily determined character for the establishment of the 
boundaries of species. Between some of the species constituted by Montagu 
no difference exists but that of age ; the same individual at two periods of its 
growth is frequently referred to two distinct species. Having no fixed and 
constant mark of species, his definitions are vague, and quite incapable of 
verification. The tentacles undergo numerous variations with age, so like- 
wise do the branchiae ; these organs are therefore valueless for classification. 
The genus Amphitrita is also tubicolous, and generally fixed ; some species, 
as A. auricoma, are distinguished however for the power of carrying their 
tubes about from place to place ; and though tubicolous, are not therefore 
sedentary. In one species, A. alveolata, the branchiae appear as dorsal ap- 
pendages of the annuli of the anterior -|ths of the body ; in another these 
organs occur at two pectiniform vascular processes on either side of the neck. 
In a third and most beautiful species, which I have recently established under 
the name of Sabina, the branchiae assimilate themselves in structure and 
situation to those of the Serpulidans. In this genus, in addition to the hooks 
and setae, the feet are provided with tactile papillae or cirri. The hooks are 
disposed on elevated ridges extending round the body from the bases of the 
feet. First, in A. alveolata, a group of flexible tentacles is gathered round 
the occiput, which discharge the office of sensation and prehension. On the 
three first post-occipital rings, branchiae, cutting instruments, and hooks are 
developed ; each hook-bearing ridge supports at either end a brush of acutely 
cutting double-edged setae (fig. !27, a). These cutting tools are limited to the 
three first feet ; they are fitted in the most perfect manner for the uses of 
" dressing " the materials wherewith the architecture of the tube is raised. By 
them rough hewn stones are polished, rugged surfaces worn down, and angry 
projections from the interior of the tube smoothed off. At one extremity 
these ridges are elongated into branchial processes ; all the feet below these 
are furnished with setas, which are formed on a totally different plan of 
structure, and which are evidently intended for a distinct office. Each seta 
consists of a straight flattened shaft, terminating in an extremely fine point, 
from either side of which minute sharp teeth point towards the free end 
of the seta. These setae, from their construction, are obviously designed for 
pushing ; that is, they constitute the agents by which the worm advances 
towards the mouth of its tube. Below, and at the base of each setiferous ap- 
pendage, the three first excepted, a minute papilla is observed, which through- 
out the anterior |^ths of the body preserves its rudimentary proportions ; 
near the tail however these papillae augment rapidly in size, and assume the 
peculiar characters of club-shaped processes, perforated at the distal end by 
orifices leading into their hollow axes. In these axial channels lies a bunch 
of singularly formed setae, capable of protrusion to an immense distance 
beyond the club-ends of the fleshy processes ; each of these setae enlarges at 
its extremity into an oval sponge-body (fig. 27, 6), from the base of which, in 
one direction, there proceeds backwards (recurved) an acute seta, and from 
the end, another needle-like process directed towards the root, projects on 
the other side. Nothing in nature or art is comparable in perfection of 
mechanism to these exquisite organs. 

The work of scraping, scouring, planing, mopping and sponging, cecono- 
mic duties for the discharge of which art has never yet produced a single 
capable instrument, is performed by these marvellous implements alternately, 
successively or simultaneously with equal facility and completeness. They 



208 REPORT— 1851. 

preserve the inferior end or bottom of their tube-house in a constant state 
of tenantable purity and cleanliness, for the tube inhabited by the Amphi- 
trite is caecal. Another provision, of a no less ingenious description, against 
feeculent and noxious accumulation, is remarked in the organization of the 
tail. At a given point the processes and branchiae abruptly terminate ; from 
this point, the true tail, under the form of a cylindrical, contracted and coiled 
portion, extends to some further distance, and then turns upwards parallel 
with the body of the worm, in order with the greater mechanical advantage 
to project in the direction of the upper orifice of the tube the faical refuse. 
This sagacious contrivance has not eluded the discriminating eye of Cuvier. 

In A. auricoma (fig. 28) the papillee and cirri of the feet are entirely 
absent ; tiie hooks, however, similarly disposed on transverse eminences, are 
stronger and larger, and the setse are serrated only on one side. The tail- 
like appendage to the inferior extremity of the body, in all respects but one, 
is formed on the model of that of the former species. One labium of the 
terminal orifice is here extended into a flap-like process, which by a sudden 
act of muscular contraction, imparts a smart blow to the fceculent mass as it 
escapes from the intestine, and thus effectively conveys it to the upper out- 
let of the tube. This terminal extreme of the alimentary canal is richly 
provided with large and vigorous cilia. In Sabina Poppcea (Williams) the 
anal orifice is fringed with fleshy processes, which, clothed with vibratile 
cilia, fulfil offices which in the former species devolved on a specially formed 
tail. In all cases the office of the hooks is the same. 

It is here in alliance with the Amphitrite that the author would locate the 
little rock-boring Leucodore ciliatus. Its occipital tentacles are only two in 
number — long, muscular and mobile ; they are subservient to prehension. 
The thoracic region of the body is definitively marked from the abdominal, 
and is terminated by a foot much larger than any of the rest. The rows of 
hooks (fig. 29, «) are placed dorsally ; each hook is double-toothed and 
supported on a long stem. The branchiae are dorsal like those of Amphitrite 
alveolata. The feet are biramous, carrying a double bunch of setas 
(fig. 29, h). These latter occur under three varieties of form ; some are 
awl-like for piercing ; some are pincer-like for grasping ; others are plain- 
edged for scraping. Nothing in the structure of this little worm equals 'the 
tail' in beauty and singularity. The lower extremity of the tube inhabited 
by it is caecal and smooth, and not drawn out, as in other cases, into Zifine 
conical cell. The tail is organized peculiarly and with express reference to 
this formation of the bottom of the cell. It is expanded with geometrical 
exactitude into a hollow cone, the anus occupying its receding apex. This 
remarkable and most beautiful apparatus acts on the principle of the sucher. 
Its sides are composed of a membranous muscle. When it is being applied 
to its point of attachment, the worm lets down its weight upon the part, in 
order to press out the water with which the bottom of the tube may be 
filled. The tail is then suddenly drawn up, a movement by which the 
apex of the cone is raised from the surface of contact. The pressure of the 
■water with which the tube is filled is now rendered operative, and the little 
worm amid the raging billows is securely anchored to its cell. It is impos- 
sible to discover in this wondrous vital mechanism a single particular in 
which the principles of hydrostatic pressure are not minutely obeyed. 

In the organization of the feet of the familiar genus Arenicola, there 
is little to call for remark. Formed to move readily through loose sand, 
pedal appendages are scarcely required. The brushes of bright iridescent 
setae (fig. 30), which arise on either side out of the twenty anterior rings of 
the body, constitute the sole motor elements of the appendages. The thir- 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 209 

teen last of these setae, though beautified by the branchial tufts, are identical 
in structure and action with the seven anterior. The setae consist of a long 
rigid flattened shaft, supporting on either side long, closely-adjusted and 
slender secondary setas, after the pattern of a joen. They are exactly penni- 
form. Such a figure fits these organs most admirably for the practical work 
which they are required to perform. Moving through a loose, yielding, 
pulverulent soil, a smooth-edged seta would oppose too little resistance in 
penetrating such a substance to enable the worm to make any forward 
movement. Supplied, hovvever, with secondary setae, which expand and 
separate from each other as the resistance of soil operates from the point 
towards the root, each foot, although planted only into sand, becomes a firm 
fulcrum on which the worm elongates its body and carries forward its snout 
in its boring operations with considerable muscular power. 

A worm has lately fallen under the author's observation for the reception 
of which he has ventured to constitute a new species under the name of Cly- 
menoida arenicoida. The anterior part of the body in all essential characters 
is closely similar to that of the Areiiicola. It is to this region of the body that 
the setiferous feet are limited ; they amount to about seventeen in number ; 
the setae are organized after the type of those of Arenicola ; the snout and 
proboscis are also -analogous : there are no external branchiae. The poste- 
rior four-fifths of the body is two-thirds embraced by strong muscular raised 
rings, which support three lines of hooks (fig. 31), distinguished from all 
those hitherto described in the Tubicola, in being sustained on a long stalk, 
the whole forming the figure of S. These instruments are well calculated 
to gain for the active and boring cephalic end of the body a firm basis of 
movement, by securely anchoring the posterior portion to the walls of the 
factitious tube in which the animal is generally found to be lodged. 

In these worms there are no specialized tactile organs under the form of 
papillae or cirri. 

In the kindred genera, however, oi Euphrosyne, Hipponoe,Pleione, Chlceia, 
while the feet are furnished with denser and larger brushes of setae, cirri 
more or less developed are found always to exist. Of these genera few 
illustrative species are found on the English shores. The feet are organized 
more for moving readily through water than a solid soil. 

-Several elegant representative species of the genus Eunice frequent the 
British shores. They are organized to move in underground tunnels. In 
structure the feet present an adaptation to the wants of such a mode of life. 
In the largest species oi Eunice, as E. antennata, below the branchiae, which 
are most dorsally placed of all the parts of the feet, a tapering fleshy process 
is observed, the office of which is evidently to guard the root of the branchia ; 
it is tactile. Next to this element, on the ventral side, is situated a broad fan- 
shaped cirrus, fitted well for the work of rowing through water or liquid mud. 
This lamellated cirrus is perforated irregularly by canals, into which the fluid 
of the peritoneal cavity freely enters; it is also protected by two bunches of 
bristles, which are arranged on a vertical plane. At the extreme end of each 
seta is remarked a joint-like break, at which the junction occurs between the 
end (sabre-shaped) of the seta and its shaft (fig. 32). The union between these 
two parts of the seta is not, however, an articulation. A true articulation 
happens nowhere in the appendages of the Annelida. These quasi-articu- 
lated setae act on a definite mechanical principle ; the extreme portion is 
first firmly planted on the surrounding substance, on it then as a point 
d'nppui the shaft revolves, and the body of the worm is moved forwards or 
backwards, according to the direction of muscvilar action. The setae in 
E. gigantea, of which no example has yet been found by the author on our 

1851. p 



210 REPORT — 1851. 

Coasts, are armed with an articulated seta, which is bi-edged, and some- 
times serrated. In this species the foliaceous cirri are wanting. The sub- 
genera Lycidice, Aglaura and CEnone, present, in the construction of the 
mechanical constituents of the feet, examples of exquisite contrivance. 

The solid elements entering into the composition of the feet of Lycidice 
Ninetta, occur under two varieties: the first is limited to the superior foot, 
the second to the inferior ; the superior foot consisting of the branchia, a pro- 
trusile foot from the end of which the setse proceed, and in the axis of which 
they run freely under muscular agency. These setae are constructed for 
rowing (fig. 33) ; they include two forms of oars ; the first having a flat- 
tened blade-like shape, and that in which the expanded extremity is abruptly 
cut across spade-like (fig. 33, a). These oars are capable, while in action, 
of being turned upon their own axes, in other words, of being " feathered." 
The terminal edge of the spade-like variety is minutely serrated, adapting it 
for scraping when required. The setae of the inferior foot are quite dif- 
ferently formed. They are composed of a long strong stem expanded at its 
extremity, to which is attached a second piece bifid at its remote end, and 
designed for hooking or fixing or anchoring the body, according to the me- 
dium in which the animal may be moving. A ligament-like membrane ties 
on one side this articulated piece to the shaft. It is not impossible that this 
sort of joint may be the faint foreshadowing of the true articulations observed 
in the members of Insects and Crustacea. The anatomist must not, how- 
ever, misinterpret this statement. In the Annelids, as already stated, there 
is no true articulated member; the pieces of the hard parts or setae are never 
united together by joints properly so called. The setae, being in all cases 
composed of a whalebone-like substance, remarkable for its elasticity and 
tenacity, are readily modelled into innumerable forms without the necessity 
of actual joints. In all cases the connected portion is continuous in sub- 
stance with the supporting shaft. In some cases the weak point of union is 
strengthened b(' a ligamentous membrane (jiever muscular), which is really 
only a portion of the setae thinned off" into a membranous form. To such a 
mechanism the word ' articulation,' in its correct anatomical sense, cannot 
apply. 

Below the setiferous foot in Lycidice is observed two foliaceous blunt 
cirri, useful in swimming and feeling. The author has discovered two or 
three smaller species of Lycidice, in which the feet differ from the former in 
the construction of the soft parts, retaining in the setae the same type of for- 
mation, while the hooks present slight variations. 

The worm described by Savigny under the name oi Aglaura fulgida, oi 
which no British specimen is known on our coast, exhibits the same type as 
that of Lycidice in the organization of the appendages. 

CEnone maculata is a graceful and active worm. Its feet are formed at 
once with a view to ready and vigorous locomotion through loose soil or 
through water. Each foot is composed of two flat fleshy appendages, of 
which one is dedicated to respiration, and the other to tactile and mechanical 
purposes. The setae, which are placed intermediately, supported on a pro- 
trusile base, consist of long shafts, the ends of which are curved upwards 
and club-shaped, the under surface being deeply notched into hooks which 
recurve (fig. 34). An elastic membrane is also at this end of each seta, the 
object of which seems to be that of wiping and cleansing the hooks by 
passing over their plane surface. This worm is capable of creeping over a 
hard surface at a very rapid pace. Each opposite pair of feet constitute 
for its supporting annular segment an independent mechanism for progres- 
sion ; the posterior part of the body is not therefore dragged or drawn 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 211 

forwards by the anterior. Each ring throughout the bodj' has its own legs, 
which move with perfect independence. Remarkably long and gracefully 
slender, then, as the body of this worm may be, every part advances or recedes 
at one and the same time, and locomotion is active and vigorous. Under 
such a complicated repetition of oars, hooks, paddles and fins, a final result, 
unerringly harmonious, is obtained, which man's ingenious handivvork would 
attempt in vain to imitate. 

The Nereids constitute the most common and most obtrusive family of 
sea-side Annelids. The majority of the species inhabit galleries, detectable 
under every stone between tide-marks, along which they crawl like subter- 
ranean beasts of prey. They are by no means inviting to the eye, either by 
their colour or conformation. They are carnivorous in habits, and perpe- 
tually on the watch for prey. In nearly all species the feet are constructed 
with express reference to progression on solid surfaces. Among the Nereids, 
in the classification of species, it is very important in determining the cha- 
racters of the feet, that those compared in difi'erent individuals should be 
selected as nearly as possible from the same region of the body. The ce- 
phalic feet in one should be compared with those in another species from the 
same division of the body ; those from mid-body with others from mid-body, 
and those near the tail with others from the same part. If this be not done, 
and done with exact and minute accuracy, it will be found quite impossible 
to arrive at a clear knowledge of constant and invariable anatomical cha- 
racters for the definition and limitation of species. In all Nereids the feet 
are biramous, but coalescent at the base. Every foot, in every species, 
consists of a superior and an inferior cirrus, three papillae, generally de- 
scribed as branchial, and two tubercles armed with compound bristles. 
The superior tubercles are always situated between the dorsal and second 
papillae, and the inferior tubercle between this and the ventral papillae. In 
Nereis margaritacea the setae are jointed, the articulated piece being serru- 
lated, and seeming calculated only for walking. The setae of the superior 
feet always, in the Nereids, differ in structure from those of the inferior feet. 
In N. margaritacea the extreme portion is sabre-shaped and fine-edged 
(fig. 35). In N. renalis the same portion presents a finely toothed edge 
(fig. 36). In the superior foot the setae are strong, and the connected piece 
is short, strong, curved, and always serrated ; while those of the inferior are 
more slender, and longer, the connected piece being needle-shaped and pro- 
longed. These worms are endowed with no mechanical means for the con- 
struction of their galleries, unless they be those of the jaws and proboscis. 
The feet are mainly constituted for walking ; the setae, if destined for such 
work at all, can only scrape and polish the interior of the gallery when made. 
Viewed by the light of mechanical principles, nothing can be so obvious as 
the reason why the setae in these as in nearly all other Annelida are jointed. 
If they consisted of rigid, unbending levers, it is manifest that they would 
prove most awkward additions to the sides of the animals ; if fixed too deeply 
in the surrounding soil, they would not act at all as levers ; if too super- 
ficially, the worm would be compressed in its tube at the moment when the 
setffi of the opposite feet would meet in a straight line. These difficulties are 
effectually and skilfully obviated by the introduction of a joint or a point of 
motion on each seta. This is one instance among many, which the eye of 
the mechanician would detect in the organization of the Annelida, in which 
nature takes adroit advantage of mechanical principles in the attainment of 
her ends. 

The Phyllodocidce are by common consent the most ornamental worms 
among the Nereidce (" Virgines pulcherriraae inter Nereides," Fab.). They 

p2 



212 REPORT — 1851. 

owe their beauty of form to a series of compressed foliaceous lamellae, which 
attain in some species a considerable size, and which in all elegantly garnish 
the sides of the body. The office of these appendages has already been 
described as that of ' breathing ; ' they are well fitted, however, to aid in 
progression through water. Following the motion of the feet, and capable 
of being partially altered from a horizontal to a perpendicular position, they 
operate as a brush of oars, and must pi-ove especially useful when the worm 
glides from a solid surface, and finds itself unsustained in the water. Hence 
the species are quick and lively, and swim with great mechanical facility. 
" Currit egregie ; natare etiam valet lamellis suis retroversis oblique sursum 
erectis," says old Fabricius of them in his ' Fauna Grcenlandica.' The occi- 
put and snout are armed and ornamented by cylindrical tentacles, which are 
the modified homologa of the lamellae of the feet. Observing the habits 
of these worms, it becomes at once obvious that these appendages are acute 
organs of touch. 

In all the Phyllodoce the feet are uniramous. There is only one seti- 
ferous process, and this is capable of elongation and retraction as usual. 
The brush of bristles is always situated between the dorsal lamella and 
the blunt ventral cirrus. The setae are jointed in all species (see figs. 
37 and 38). The joint is apparently constructed on the ball-and-socket 
principle. The base of tlie extreme piece is enlarged into a small knob, 
while the end of the shaft is hollowed into a cavity, into which the former 
accurately fits. These two parts are really tied together by means of a 
ligamentous membrane extending from the margins of the acetabulum round 
and over the ball, to embrace the stem ; and yet it is not a true articula- 
tion ; its action is due to elasticity, not to any muscular voluntary agency. 
In P. viridis, one admirably adapted for walking on solid surfaces, the 
extreme articulated portion, pointed to the acuteness of a needle, is first 
firmly fixed on the unhinged surface: the other now lifts the body of the 
animal forwards, moving upon this as a fulcral pivot. In an undescribed 
species, the stem of the seta at its distal end and on the under side, is 
•' roughened " with strong teeth, for pushing purposes. Other minor varie- 
ties in the structure of the bristles occur in other species. In P.lamelligera, 
the most attractive of all, a second foliaceous lamella is superadded to the 
respiratory one, and the setiferous process is ventralmost in situation. The 
tail in the Phyllodoce, without exception, is provided with two flattened 
styles, which exceed in size by three or four times the lateral appendages, 
and which act on the principles of the caudal fin of the fish in sculling and 
helming. It is a remarkable fact, proving their true homology, tliat the 
styles in the Annelids, wherever they exist, are formed on the model of the 
lateral cirri. When these last are blunt and clavate, as in a new species 
which the author has lately established, the former are blunt and clavate 
accordingly ; when acute and flattened, the latter are so also. The styles, 
however, are always considerably larger in dimensions than the lateral cirri. 
This correspondence of plan does not, indeed, obtain between the tentacles 
and the lateral appendages. The former are nearly round and tapering, while 
the latter may be flat. 

An exception to this rule occurs in the Syllidce, in Avhich the two orders 
of appendages present the same character. In this interesting genus the 
appendages are distinguished for their extreme length and slenderness. 
The feet are uniramous or undivided. The superior cirrus it is, which 
by its unusual length and tasteful figure and easy movements, procures for 
these little Annelids their charm for the eye. Elongate and submouiliforra 
throughout their entire length in S. armillaris, S. maculosa, and PsamathCf 
these branchial cirri are beaded only through the distal half of their length. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 213 

The question of how far they are capable of fulfilling a lespiratory function 
was formerly considered. That they are of great use in locomotion and 
sensation admits of no doubt. The inferior cirrus in every species is short and 
unjointed. Between these cirri is placed the setiferous process. No single 
anatomical character is calculated to suggest so much with reference to the 
habits and manners of the Annelidae as that derived from the structure of 
the setae. Moreover, these characters are subject to no variation. They are 
in the Annelids as fixed in their constancy as the teeth are in the higher 
animals ; they form a magic key which unlocks the hidden secrets of the 
ceconomy and organization of these worms. In S. armillaris, moving over 
the hard surfaces of stones and shells, the setse are furnished only with a fine 
shape-edged penknife-like articulated piece, well adapted to fit itself into 
cracks and crevices, while the extremity of the supporting shaft is pointed 
sharply, with an obvious view to catch the surface against which it is applied 
during progression. Faithful to the inviolable law of "appropriate means 
to intended ends," it may be remarked that in kindred species, differing in 
scarcely any other respect than that of its habitat from the former, ingenious 
nature, by a trifling modification in the figure of the setae, enables S. pro- 
lifera to creep with ease and steadiness over the smooth and slippery surfaces 
of the glutinous Algae. This object it accomplishes in the most artistic 
manner, merely by curving downwards the extreme end of the articulated 
portion of the seta. This is done twice ; so that each piece is furnished 
with two minute hooks on the inferior side, by which, when planted into the 
soft vegetable tissue, the worm is enabled to secure itself ' in place' with 
strength and certainty. The author has recently discovered that in twct 
species oi MyrianidcB which affect similar situations in Algae, the setas exhibit 
a structure which is designed to secure the same object, which are no less 
marvellously adapted to the exigences of the case than the feet of the house- 
fly or those of the Polar Bear. 

In Psamathe fusca there prevails an arrangement of the setae which is 
the exact reverse of the formation just described in the former species. In 
this Annelid, which also lives on algae, the setae are constructed for pushing, 
and not for pulling and fixing. The articulated piece is serrated in the 
direction of its point. These teeth are well appointed for catching in the 
soft surface while they are being protruded from their sheath. This worm 
therefore accomplishes its locomotion by pushing, the feet being directed 
backwards. The true Syllidoe walk by creeping, pulling themselves for- 
wards, the feet being first thrown in advance of their respective rings. 

The genus Nerine or Spio exemplifies, in the disposition and actions of its 
tactile and motive appendages, the principle which Paley has matchlessly 
expounded, that every mechanical perfection realized in the animal organism 
is attained in strict conformity with the laws of physics, illustrating the 
subordination of the principles of one kingdom of creation to those of an- 
othei*. The Nerine move with remarkable facility through sand or shingle. 
They progress in water slowly and awkwardly, oscillating from side to side 
without making scarcely any advance. This is the necessary result of a 
bodily structure suited in none of its mechanical appliances for progression 
in such an element. In loose sand, however, " the medium " in which they 
are designed by nature to revel, they display the most vigorous agility. By 
means of their pointed snout they burrow with great skill and effect, carrying 
passively at the sides their long manual appendages. The mechanical 
constituents of the feet are peculiarly adapted to aid in this operation. The 
dorsal foot, situated below the branchia, is composed of a fan-shaped cirrus, 
"the plane of which is vertical, that is, parallel with a line carried from the 



214 REPORT 1851. 

dorsal to the ventral median line round the body. On the posterior side 
this cirrus is protected and strengthened by a brush of strong bristles, which 
are opened into a fan-like form also, fortifying thus the fleshy cirrus from 
one edge to the other, and rendering an injury to it almost impossible : the 
ventral foot is an exact repetition of the former. The setae present a very 
apposite figure for aiding in progression (figs. 39 and 40). During the oar- 
like motion of the foot from before backwards, the setae go before the cirrus, 
protecting it thus from injury. The setae resemble the common oar in 
figure, differing from this instrument only in having on either side of the 
blade a membranous process, hooked slightly at the end towards the middle 
piece or shaft (fig. 39). In virtue of this beautiful formation, the resistance 
offered by the little oar to the surrounding element is so perfectly graduated, 
that it slowly passes through the sand, while it forms the fulcral point of 
motion ; the longer setae are simply blade-like (fig. 39, a). The foot, in being 
carried forward to reperform the step, revolves slightly on its axis, and thus 
feathers the setae, a manoeuvre by which resistance to progression is very 
materially diminished. In Nerine, the tail in all species is a broad semicir- 
cular and horizontal Jin, the anus being situated on its dorsal side. In con- 
sequence of the vertical direction of the plane of the lateral fleshy appen- 
dages, on that very account well qualified for aiding in progression through 
loose sand, the animal is scantily and imperfectly pi'ovided with the means 
of supporting itself in water ; under such circumstances the tail comes in as 
an important instrument of locomotion. These observations are applicable 
in every detail to the case of the larger species of Nerine, N. coniocephala. 
This latter species differs from the former only in the structure of the 
branchiae ; the other elements of the appendages are identically formed, and 
the tail discovers the same ingenious construction. The author has added 
another species of Nerine to those described, in which the fleshy cirri are 
broader and larger, and better adapted for swimming, the tail having the 
generic typical formation. There remains one remarkable and characteristic 
feature of structure, with reference to the " appendages " in these eccentric 
worms, to be noticed. All the species of this genus may be immediately 
distinguished from all other Annelids by the extraordinary development 
which occurs in the occipital tentacles. From the dorsal aspect of the first 
or occipital annulus, two long tojoe-like appendages arise. In N. vulgaris 
they equal in length one-third of the body ; in N. coniocephala they are not 
so long, but stouter and stronger. 

In the new species to which allusion has now been made, these branchial 
appendages extend as far as the middle point of the body, so remarkable are 
they in length. The branchial appendages are true prehensile organs, used 
almost exclusively in the search for food. On their under surface, in each 
species, they are transversely roughened with angularly raised edges, these 
again being armed by stiff gristly spinelets, a provision expressly introduced 
for scraping, for which description of manual labour no implement yet con- 
trived by the cunning of man can be better adapted. From the structure of 
the soil, that of a shelly fragile loose sand, in which the lot of these worms 
is cast, the perfect adaptation of these instruments to the end to be accom- 
plished may be readily predicted. Their history in an especial manner exem- 
plifies the rule, that even the humblest and meanest worm finds in its ap- 
pointed habitat the conditions of prosperous and felicitous existence. 

Glycera, although an inhabitant of the shingly sand, has yet received a 
special organization. It does not tunnel the soil into permanent subterra- 
nean passages like the Nereids ; it struggles through the sand by the batter- 
ing-ram operation of its proboscis. To the extremity of this vigorous organ 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 215 

four strong teeth are affixed, which perform the business of so many pickaxes, 
in tearing and disintegrating the soil. This worm possesses no other instru- 
ment for pioneering its way through the ground than the proboscis ; though 
a part of the alimentary system, it has therefore been cursorily mentioned 
here. The antennae, which exist in Glycera under the character of four 
minute horns, crowning prettily the apex of the conical head, are exclusively 
organs of touch. The feet are prominent, and supported on a long muscular 
uniramous base. They are separated from each other by an appreciable 
interval. The branchia, as already described, is dorsalmost. At the in- 
ferior base of this appendage is situated the setiferous process of the dorsal 
foot. The setae are very protrusile and jointed ; the articulated portion 
being long and extremely finely pointed and penknife-shaped. In the centre 
of the setae is observed a strong rigid spine, which, in all the Annelids in which 
it exists, contributes materially to the mechanical strength of the foot (fig. 41). 
Below the setiferous process is found a conical cirrus of a length equaling the 
setae in their retracted position. This organ can be of little service in 
swimming ; it is exclusively tactile. The inferior foot is an exact repetition 
of the superior, wanting the branchial process, while the cirrus is larger and 
flatter than the corresponding part of the dorsal. Two strong round taper- 
ing styles are superadded to the tail, which materially assist the worm in 
its progress through its native soil. Actual observation of its habits can 
scarcely be required to convince the intelligent naturalist that Glycera is 
almost entirely incapable even of sustaining itself in water. In this element 
its movements are those of irregular contortions and oscillations from side to 
side, convulsive struggles without progress. The study of its structure suf- 
fices in proof of the inference that it was made for the exact place in 
nature in which it is found. If the soil is too hard, its struggles to move are 
fruitless ; if too dry, it is paralysed ; if too wet, the proboscis is rendered use- 
less, and it shows immediate evidence of discomfort. Its organization fits it 
only for a soil of peculiar consistence and structure ; and such exactly are 
the circumstances under which it is found. The above considerations have 
arisen out of those bearing on the mechanism of the appendages in this 
merry and beautiful little worm. 

Like Glycera, Nephthys is a frequenter of the sandy shore ; it selects 
spots, however, in which the soil is quite different in several respects from 
that ol' the native places of Glycera. Nephthys lives in fine sand saturated 
with water. It advances through such a medium with a swimming motion. 
It is admirably organized for progression in water. The cirri of its feet 
consist of large fan-shaped processes, the plane of which is vertical and suitably 
appointed for swimming. The setae are composed of two distinct layers, of 
which one is placed anterior and the other on the posterior surface of the 
cirral lamina (fig. 42). The brush of setae on both sides radiates from a 
common centre at the root of the foot. The posterior setae are constructed 
on the exact pattern of the flattened fibre of striped muscle, ending in a fine 
point ; they are strong and elastic. Those anterior to the cirrus are much 
longer than the former, and assume the shape of sharp-pointed, finely serrated, 
bi-edged blades. From the inferior base of the superior foot the branchia 
depends ; from the same point of the inferior, a conical cirrus. The ventral 
foot in all other characters is a precise repetition of the dorsal. 

Nephthys is distinguishable from all other Annelids by its remarkable 
tail. It is a median style, extending to a considerable distance backwards, 
like the occipital ornament in the head-dress of the Chinese. It is singularly 
flexible and mobile. Its use can scarcely be conceived, unless it be that of 
defence for the posterior part of the body of the worm. In swimming, how- 



216 REPORT 1851. 

ever, it becomes a steering and a sculling-machine. Nephthys progresses in 
water by throwing its body into a rapidly succeeding series of the most ele- 
gant undulations, maintaining at the same time a steady position of the head, 
advancing prettily like a fairy-wave through the fluid. 

The Annelids grouped under the Cuvierian genus of Ariciadm are little 
known. In the sj'stematic portion of this Report, it will be seen that the 
author has succeeded in multiplying this genus by the addition of several 
iindescribed species. The body of Aricia Ctivieri is distinguished into two 
distinct portions, one of M'hich, the cephalic or anterior, is characterized by 
the absence of branchias, the presence of a double row of setiferous processes 
on either of the dorsal aspects of the body, and of short conical cirri beneath 
each ventral foot. This segment of the body is prominently annulated, and 
vigorously muscular. It exceeds in diameter very much the posterior ; it is 
the true motive apparatus of the worm. The posterior two- thirds of the 
body is apparently motionless and lifeless, and scarcely at all capable of 
voluntary motion. To this region the branchial organs are exclusively 
limited. The setae of the inferior feet are of a bright mother-of-pearl ap- 
pearance, strong (figs. 43, 44), short and curved ; they are carved on one 
side in a very peculiar mannei*. This sculptured work can only be described 
as resembling scales laid transversely one over another imbricately, each 
scale being strengthened by a minute " corpus " on the mid-point of its free 
edge. This variety, it is obvious from the structure, is designed for pushing. 
The setae of the other feet are flat, blade-like, and unserrated in their edges. 
The brushes of setae in the vicinity of the head are sessile, those near the 
feet are pedunculate. Placed on the dorsal aspect of the body, the ventral 
being smooth, it is easy to understand the manner and mechanism of loco- 
motion. The soil is preparatorily channelled by the fore-part of the body, 
expressly constructed for such description of work. Through the gallery 
thus formed the posterior and passive moiety of the worm is slowly urged 
along by the mechanical operation of the setiferous feet, which are dorsally 
placed for this purpose. In this memoir, for the first time, several new 
species of Aricia will be described, presenting the generic characteristic of 
closely approximated ' rings ' at the oesophageal portion of the body. Within 
the limits of this portion each segmental ring is furnished with four strong 
setiferous feet, the posterior part of the body being intestiniform and desti- 
tute of branchiae. In another species the posterior four-fifths of the body is 
provided with ridges armed with three rows of stalked hooks. 

The appendages in the Opheliadce assume a new character ; they are 
short fleshy threads attached to either side of the body, and chiefly to the 
two posterior thirds. Ciirhatidns Lamarckii is the culminating perfection 
of this type of structure. In this worm, elegant only for its long, wavy, 
bright red and filiform appendages, the setiferous feet are thrown into abey- 
ance. Frequenting concealed passages, under stones resting almost always 
on a clayey soil, the presence of these worms can only be discovered by ob- 
serving in the vacuity the tangled webs of red threads which seem gifted 
with the power of independent voluntary motion ; these are at once motive 
and branchial appendages. This worm seems to enjoy very little power of 
locomotion. It rolls and coils itself in a self-emitted slime, if withdrawn 
from its native habitat. It is furnished on the under surface of the body 
with two rows of strong curved blunt spines, as if specifically intended for 
walking or creeping. At some little distance on the side of the same seg- 
ment, is observed another row of setae, much exceeding the former in length 
and differing from them in structure, being only long, slightly curved and 
flattened hairs ; they are well calculated to aid in progression by pane- 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 217 

trating the adjacent soil. To the genus Cirrhatulus^ through the author's re- 
searches, several new species have lately been added. Here the setae assume 
the shape of elastic tape, ending in a fine point, affecting on each segment 
a lateral situation. The lateral cirri are shorter and less numerous. 

In Aphrodita aculeaia, it is not difficult to discover every locomotive ap- 
pliance required to move with facility through semi-fluid sand. The feet 
form thirty-two pairs in number ; the anterior and posterior are minute, but 
they gradually increase in size towards the middle of the body, where they 
attain their greatest development. They are of two kinds; the squamiferous 
and cirrigerous, both varieties being divisible into two branches — a ventral 
and a dorsal. The ventral branch or proper foot forms a stout rough tuber- 
culated conoid process, armed with a stout spine protruded from the pale 
papillary apex, and with four or five firm bristles proceeding from under the 
apex, and partially surrounding the spine. The spine tapers insensibly to 
an obtuse point, is smooth and of a pale yellow colour : the bristles are of a 
rich burnished brown colour, with a round shank which grows a little thicker 
upwards, and is terminated with a curved cutting point, like a pruning-knife : 
in most of them there is a tooth-like process on the inner side beneath this 
point. The cirrus of the foot does not reach its apex, excepting that of the 
first pairs ; it is fleshy, setaceous, and of a pale colour. The dorsal branch 
of all the feet has an upward direction, and cannot be used as an organ of 
progression along the ground; that of the squamous feet is armed with two 
bundles of bristles, arranged in a fan-shaped manner : they are compara- 
tively short, curved like the italic letter/, and roughened with minute gra- 
nulations on the upper half; the bristles of the other brush, placed between 
the dorsal one and the proper foot, are remarkable for their stoutness and 
length ; they are of a rich dark brown colour, straight, and terminated with 
a lanceolate point, which is notched on each side with four reverted barbs ; 
so that the bristle resembles the barbed arrow or spear of the South Sea 
Islander. The notches are not opposite, but alternate, and they are enclosed 
within a plain sheath, consisting of two dilated valves which shut upon them. 
The cirrigerous foot has a single fan-shaped brush of bristles only ; the 
bristles are simple and curved like those of the dorsal fascicles of the squa- 
mous feet, but they are more numerous, slenderer, longer, of a paler colour, 
and quite smooth ; they are unequal in length, some of them very fine and 
hair-like, and the whole brush is usually matted and soiled with extraneous 
matters. This worm is generally an occupant of deep water. It crawls 
along the muddy bottom at a few fathoms below the surface. In motion on 
a hard surface its feet present an extremely interesting spectacle. It gives 
pleasure to watch the precision with which they are unsheathed, and the 
regularity and order with which each foot succeeds another in the slow and 
snail-like march. 

Polynoe are always found on the under surfaces of stones, over which they 
are capable of creeping with considerable freedom. Their swimming capa- 
city is very inferior — sinking soon to the bottom to crawl along. In relation 
to the Polynoe generically it may be stated, that the feet are bifid, the supe- 
rior branch being small and almost confluent with the inferior, which is 
greatly developed ; that the superior cirri are long and the inferior short and 
conical ; that the bristles of the superior branch are short and always slenderer 
than those of the inferior, subulate and smooth at the point, or like the infe- 
rior bristles, somewhat thickened and serrulate along the edge. The spines 
present no peculiarity. The first pair of feet are destitute of bristles, but 
are terminated by two long tentacular cirri, which advance on each side of 
the head and resemble antennae ; while on the last segment we find filiform 



218 REPORT 1851. 

appendages formed by a mutation of the superior cirri, and constituting a 
general terminal style. The setae are serrulated at their extremities, and 
formed for pushing (figs. 45 and 46). 

The Abranchiate Annelids, although destitute of outward organs of respi- 
ration, are not all unprovided with external organs of locomotion. The 
familiar Lumbricus exemplifies this statement. Tlie Eai-th-worm in its move- 
ment displays great force of muscle. Its integumentary system is a complex 
web of strong circular and longitudinal muscular fascicles. The whole force 
of this machinery is brought to bear in progression on the stiff' advantageously 
curved spines, which are planted in form of feet, in a double row on either 
side, on the ventral aspect of each segmental annulus. These setae present the 
form of the italic/ (fig. 47), only two of which exist in each foot. To the 
inserted extremity of each seta an appropriate system of muscles is attached. 
To the free end minute flexible hairs are added, the office of which is evi- 
dently to prevent the gathering of dirt and earth on the part. These setae 
will actually penetrate a deal board ; for if the path of a worm on the fine- 
polished surface of a deal board be examined with the microscope four 
series of minute perforations may be detected. In Lumbricus these setae 
begin at the fourteenth annulus from the head. In the act of burrowing 
into a fresh surface, as when the worm, irritated by the observer, strives to 
return to the earth, the foremost feet are firmly planted in the ground, the 
head retracted, and then thrust forwards with extraordinary force. It is 
manifest from tlie mechanism of this operation, that feet placed nearer the 
head, if such were the case, would rather obstruct than aid the burrowing 
and thrusting power of this part. A sioollen wave of contracted rings may 
be seen travelling from the tail towards the head while the worm is thus 
engaged, showing the intermittent and successive manner in which the 
" labour of contraction " falls on every segment of the body. While running 
through its subterranean vaults, this Avorm continually plunges " into fresh 
fields and pastures new," swallowing almost with the voracity of the Arenicola 
the very substance of the earth which gives it shelter. 

The little lively Naides, though terricolous in habits like the Earth-worm, 
are very dissimilar in organization. Of the genus Nais there are several 
marine and terrestrial and freshwater species. In all, the mechanical ele- 
ments of the feet conform to a common type of structure. A strong seta, 
forked at the extremity for pushing (figs. 48 and 49), accompanied by one 
or two plain hairs much longer than the former, composes the foot. This is 
only a provision for enabling the worm to run up and down its soft tube, 
which in N.filiformis is constructed in bottom-mud of freshwater pools, and 
in the marine species in the substance of the hardest calcareous rocks. In 
these latter Annelids, as will be afterwards shown, there is furnished no 
special boring apparatus. The genus Chjmene is remarkable for the cha- 
racter of its tube. The worm, in the instance of nearly every species, con- 
structs a tube to envelope only the middle of the body ; the head and the 
tail projecting beyond its limits. The worm, however, can by the retraction 
of the two extremes of its body, conceal and protect itself within its tube. 
These, like all other tubicolous Annelids, are provided with special mecha- 
nical organs (hooks) for moving up and down its cell. In this genus the 
hooks are supported on long stalks, and placed only at long distances on the 
body. Each row of hooks comprehends hundreds of individual hooks, so 
closely packed are they and microscopically minute. 

The genera Hirudo and Linus are wholly destitute of external appen- 
dages, even for mechanical purposes. The former progress on the rings 
immediately, the latter by the undulatory swelling and tightening of sue- 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 219 

cessive portions of the body. In all Annelids the swelling of certain por- 
tions of body in progression is accomplished by aid of the fluids of the inte- 
rior. This is driven to a given point of the containing cavity, and then 
momentarily imprisoned there by the contraction of the circular integument- 
ary muscles in front of it and behind it. Hereat, for a moment, the body 
bulges. The muscles of the integument are then excited to action, and the 
fluid is forcibly compressed forwards or backwards, according to the direc- 
tion of the muscular agency. This is a summary exposition of the mecha- 
nical uses of the chyl-aqueous fluids of the peritoneal cavity, of which the 
vital and physiological meaning was formerly studied in extenso. 

Nearly all Annelids are struck with paralysis when this fluid is made to 
escape from its cavity by a puncture through the external walls. The power 
of voluntary motion is suspended. The body of the worm becomes passive 
and flaccid. The peritoneal fluid is really the fulcrum on which all muscular 
action is based. Without it the worm cannot direct the contraction of its 
muscles with efficiency and precision. But its mechanical uses are not ex- 
clusively limited to the aid aff"orded in progression. It prevents mutual and 
injurious pressure amid the internal organs, without which the course of the 
blood in its proper vessels is arrested. In the leech-tribe it is the fluid which 
is contained within the stomach that accomplishes this important object. 
This singular anatomical peculiarity is also observed in the Liniadce. Nothing 
in the history of the Annelids can be conceived more wonderful than the 
mechanically perfect and facile manner in which Linus longissimus, a worm 
of many yards in length, performs the feat of locomotion, and that too over 
craggy and rugged rocks. Without the fluids of the body, its motor appa- 
ratus would be incapable of eff'ort. 

Alimentary system In the majority of Annelids the alimentary system 

constitutes a cylindrical tube, which bears a general resemblance of outline 
to the integumentary, this latter forming with respect to the former an ex- 
terior concentric or embracing cylinder. As formerly explained, these two 
cylinders are in no instance in agglutinated contact; a space intervenes, 
varying in capacity in different species, to designate which the term ' peri- 
toneal' or 'splanchnic' may be used with perfect anatomical propiiety. This 
space is occupied by a vital or organized fluid, charged with corpuscles, 
which discover under the microscope characters distinctive of species. In- 
dependently of its physiological uses, this fluid enacts mechanical functions 
indispensable to the well-being of the animal. On it, as upon a pivot, the 
vermicular motions of the intestinal cylinder are performed. In locomotion 
the shortening and lengthening of the body in many species are quite extraor- 
dinary. The alimentary canal participates in this longitudinal motion. In 
the small species, as the JVa'ides, having transparent integuments, the longi- 
tudinal play of the intestine, running as it were backwards and forwards 
through the integumeiitary cylinder with great rapidity and precision, may 
be readily observed. This motion, more or less appreciable, occurs even in 
those species least gifted with the power of elongation. The septa of the 
segments approximate under the action of the longitudinal muscles, and the 
included portion of the intestine is shortened. This process, multiplied by 
the number of segments in the body, will give a considerable resultant of 
aggregate longitudinal motion. 

Although as a whole forming a cylinder, in no instance does the ali- 
mentary canal present the figure of a smooth-walled tube. The parietes are 
invariably sacculated, and often superficially multiplied in the most elaborate 
manner. In the lumbriciform species each segment of the body has its own 
independent stomach. Those of contiguous segments communicate through 



220 REPORT— 1851. 

an opening considerably more contracted in diameter tlian that portion of 
the intestine from which it leads. Thus the intestine of the Errant Annelids 
especially, may be aptly compared to a line of pears, the apex of each suc- 
cessive pear being applied to the base of its predecessor in the series. If 
these ' bases ' were prolonged on each side, the stomach of the leech would 
result; if compressed, that of those species in which the tube is nearly 
straight. The membranous bridles tying the intestine to the integument 
are endowed with contractile muscular property, minute fascicles of muscu- 
lar fibre being detectable amidst the elastic fibres which form the bulk of the 
structure. In nearly all Annelids the alimentary tube is provided with two 
distinct orifices. An exception to this rule occurs in the instance of the 
Planarian family, in which the digestive apparatus is constructed on the 
type of that of the Radiata. There exist other minor families of Annelids 
in which the terminal outlet of the alimentary system is not seated at the 
extreme end of the body, but at a point, at the side, more or less removed 
backwards from the head, resembling intimately the pattern on which that 
of the Sipunculidce is formed. These varieties will be afterwards studied in 
detail. 

The digestive apparatus of the Annelid, considered as a whole, admits of 
subdivision essentially only into two portions, distinct alike in structure and 
function. The first would comprehend the proboscis and oesophagus, the 
second the glandular portion of the canal. The proboscis is no other than 
a modification of the oesophagus. It is analogous to the latter in structure 
and uses. It is not always a merely prehensile instrument. Its parietes are 
beset in many species with glands which contribute a salivary secretion. 
The jaws are only evolutions of the epithelial layer. The proboscis is to 
the worm what the whole buccal apparatus is to the mammal. The true 
oesophagus is essentially a muscular tube, in some species capable of ex- 
traordinary elongation, and destined only to convey the food from the mouth 
to the glandular segment of the digestive canal. 

On the parietes of the glandular or intestinal segment only one class of 
glands is distinguishable. From various considerations, it cannot be doubted 
that this forms the true biliary system of the Annelid. These glands, viewed 
collectively, constitute a layer, more or less thick, almost always brilliantly 
yellow, embracing, like a membrane, the whole cylinder of the intestine. A 
separate glandule consists only of a minute bag, communicating by a separate 
opening with the intestine, and filled with oil-molecules of a bright yellow 
colour. These glandules become, as the posterior extremity of the canal is 
approached, separated from each other by a more and more sensible interval, 
enabling the eye to resolve them into their true elementary structure. Esti- 
mated then by the evidence derived from anatomy, the zoo- chemist would 
recognise only two classes of secretions in the digestive processes of the 
Annelid ; first the salivary, and secondly the biliary. It is not without strong 
reasons that the inquiry may be here suggested, whether a given secretion, 
although physiologically identical in different orders of animals, is on that 
account chemically identical. A secretion may be entitled to be called ' bile,' 
and the organ secreting it may, in all cases, with strict anatomical propriety, 
be called the liver, and yet the secretion, in ultimate analysis, may present 
the most striking diversities. According to the most recent researches of 
Strecker, for instance, the bile of diff'erent animals is found to contain dif- 
ferent proportions of alkaline taurocholates and glycocholates. In the bile 
of fishes the resinoid constituents consist almost entirely of taurocholates, 
with mere traces only of glycocholates. In the bile of dogs scarcely any- 
thing but taurocholate of soda is discovered ; and the same remark applies 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 221 

to the bile of serpents. The observations of Strecker further show, that in 
the case of the dog, the nature of the food exercises no influence on the 
composition of the bile. Sheep's bile contains a great preponderance of 
taurocholate over glycocholate of soda ; while the bile of the goose, accord- 
ing to Marson, contains scarcely anything but taurocholic acid. 

This tendency to variation occurs even in the colouring elements of the 
bile. The characteristic bile-pigment is present in all classes of animals ; in 
the Carnivora and Omnivora, including Man, it is brown in colour — the cho- 
lepyrrhin of Berzelius ; while in Birds, Fishes and Amphibia, the same bile is 
intensely green in colour — the biliverdin of the chemist. The cholepyrrhin is 
always combined with soda or lime ; most commonly with the former. These 
two varieties of biliary pigments will be found in the Annelids. In most 
animals, the bile of which has been hitherto examined, the taurocholate of 
soda is the principal constituent. 

In every kind of bile there exist invariably two essential constituents, namely, 
the resinoid and the colouring element ; the resinoid constituent is the soda- 
salt of one of the conjugate acids (glycocholic and taurocholic), having either 
glycine or taurine for its adjunct. Another extraordinary fact very recently 
established by Bensch, and confirmed by Strecker, may here be mentioned, 
to illustrate the observation that the same function may be discharged in 
different animals by a secretion which exhibits as many special diversities in 
composition as the organ by which it is formed varies morphologically. 
This fact is, that the bile of salt-water fishes consists almost entirely of potash- 
salts, while that of the herbivorous mammalia consists almost entirely of 
soda-salts, the very reverse of that which the chemist would have antici- 
pated. Thus, then, in terms in common use in physiology, implying an es- 
sential unity of idea, particulars, essentially diverse, are utterly lost. In the 
invertebrate animals fat-cells constitute the chief morphological elements of 
the bile. There can be no doubt that between fat and bile, in the lower 
invertebrata especially, there obtains an intimate relationship. In the biliary 
glandules of the Annelida, Crustacea and Echinodermata, all that is visible 
consists only of oil-cells. Whatever be the real office discharged by these 
oleaginous principles, observation, chemical and microscopic, proves that they 
exist also in the higher animals. The proportion of fatty matter which (for 
instance, in man) is contained in the blood of the portal vein, is to that in 
the blood of the hepatic vein as 3*225 is to 1*885. It is supposed by Schmidt, 
that the oily matter brought to the biliary organ by the blood, resolves itself 
into sugar and water on the one hand, and into cholic acid and water on the 
other ; the two constituents of cholic acid, glycerine and oleic acid, with 
certain proportions of oxygen, being equivalent to sugar and cholic acid. It 
may be at present affirmed as most probable, that the essential agency of the 
ultimate hepatic cells results in the production out of the blood of sugar and 
cholic acid, the former being eliminated by the hepatic veins, while the latter 
remains in the secretion, and may be regarded as bearing to the bile the same 
essential relation as that which exists Ijetween the urea and the urine. It 
must now be clear that the action of the bile on the contents of the aliment- 
ary tube must vary with the' differences of chemical composition exhibited 
by this secretion. This must also be the case with reference to other organic 
secretions. The true gastric juice of the Annelid, however, or wherever 
secreted, may, for example, diff'er in many striking respects from that of man, 
and yet it may enact a part in the process of digestion essentially correspond- 
ent to that of which the human stomach (not the moutK) is the scene. There 
remains, however, another general proposition with reference to the chemistry 
of the fluids in the inferior animals which should be enounced with precision 



222 REPORT— 1851. 

to the comparative physiologist. The processes of preparation which the 
food is required to undergo in its transit from the mouth to the blood may 
not, and observation proves that it cannot be, divisible into the salivary, 
gastric, biliary and pancreatic stages, in the humble invertebrate organism 
as in the higher orders of vertebrated animals. The function of one secre- 
tion is in reality merged into, and confounded with that of another, and that 
in a manner which zoo-chemistry cannot yet explain. 

In the higher animals all proximate organic principles, such as albumeti, 
fibrine, caseine and gelatine, from whatever source derived, must in the pre- 
paratory processes, be first reduced to one common principle. Accordingly, 
actual observation has i-epeatedly proved that the organic bases of chyme and 
chyle consist of a soluble variety or phase of albumen. But in the lower 
animal, if this object is accomplished at all in the digestive system, it may be 
realized by the agency of some other products than phosphoric, hydrochlo- 
ric or lactic acid and pepsin. In the higher animal the food first undergoes 
the influence of the saliva, an alkaline fluid ; then that of the gastric juice, 
an acid fluid ; and lastly, that of the biliary and pancreatic secretions, which 
are alkaline again. In the Zoophytes and Medusae, the digestive and the 
blood-making processes are conducted in one and the same system of chan- 
nels. How striking the contrast when estimated by the standard of what 
occurs in man ! The parietes of these channels may in some cases be or- 
ganized such as to be capable of furnishing a secretion fitted to accomplish 
the required changes in the vital and chemical composition of the contained 
fluid. But observation, in many others, places beyond doubt the fact of the 
absence of any such special organization in these parietes. In a memoir 
recently submitted to the Royal Society, the author has recorded a large 
mass of carefully collected evidence to prove that in invertebrated animals, 
the circulating or nutrient fluids are charged in great profusion with highly 
organized freely floating corpuscles; and that upon these moving-cells, and not 
upon any parietal system of glands, the function 'devolves oi elaborating \h& 
nutrient fluids — of raising them from a lower to a higher grade of vitality. 

The parietes of the cavities of the body and polypidom in Zoophytes ex- 
hibit no glandular formations. The corresponding parts in the Medusae are 
little less specialized in structure. And this is also the case with the Echi- 
nodermata. In the Annelida, as already observed, the anterior half of the 
alimentary canal is furnished with an order of glands, obviously distinguish- 
able from that prevailing over the posterior moiety. The Crustacea present 
a still further specialization of the glandular systems engaged in the element- 
ary functions. Now, if in these several cases the digestive agency consist 
essentially of a process by which heteromorphous principles are reduced to 
one common principle, this object must be accomplished with a facility pro- 
portionate to the simplicity of the animal's structure and its degradation in 
the zoological scale : the chemistry of the humblest being becomes thus more 
wonderful, because more vigorous, than tiiat of the highest animal. This 
reasoning must be necessarily conjectural until facts whereon to rest it are 
collected, to prove in what and how many respects the ultimate product of 
the digestive chemistry, the finished blood, differs in difl^erent animals. In 
the memoir quoted, the attempt has been made to demonstrate that in Zoo- 
phytes, Medusae, Echinodermata, and the Annelida, sea-water is admitted 
through the digestive organs directly into the midst of the nutritive fluids ; 
that the latter possess therefore a power of assimilating, vitalizing, this ex- 
traneous substance with a facility quite unknown in the higher animal. 

It has never yet occurred to the physiologist to consider that a " simpli- 
city " iu the architecture of the solids of the animal body must iuvolve a 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 223 

correlative " simplicity " in the composition of \he fluids. If the solids are 
reduced in their standard of organization, it follows that the fluids are re- 
quired to be less elaborately prepared, in order to supply these solids with 
the materials of increase and renewal. If the solids of the Zoophyte or 
Medusa were complexly structured like those of the human body, the fluids 
of the Zoophyte, in obedience to the law of correlation now expounded, 
■would present the same highly-wrought composition as those of the human 
body. The position then may be defined as involving a physiological law, 
that the processes of nutrition are simple in proportion as the animal is low 
in rank in the zoological scale ; in other words, the fluids and solids are less 
and less removed from the standard of lifeless, inorganic matter, as the ani- 
mal nears more and more the primordial link in the zoological chain. 

These general observations will tend to remove the mystery of the absence 
in inferior organisms of systems of solid parts on which, in the higher, the 
most important functions devolve. They will also explain why it is that the 
digestive and circulating systems are fused into and confounded in one 
common order of channels; that special organs answering to the renal, of the 
vertebrated animal, do not exist. It is probable, from the very chemical 
nature of the inferiorly organized fluids of the lower grades in the inverte- 
brate series, that there may exist in these fluids no urea to be removed ; a 
renal apparatus would therefore prove superfluous and unnecessary. A 
separate order of gastric glands, supplying an acid fluid, may not exist in 
the Annelida, because that description of change which such a product is 
fitted to impress on the food, may not be required in order to its conversion 
into their blood*. 

This subject deserves the deepest study of the physiologist. It is obviously 
pregnant of valuable results. The real question is, whether the same organ, 
homologously, in the animal series produces the same secretion chemically, 
capable of doing the same work and no other ; for if, for example, the bile 
of the Annelid does the work, not only of bile, but also of gastric juice, then 
it follows, that, although the gland producing this fluid in the Annelid may 
be homologous with the liver of the higher animals, the secretion furnished 
by that gland is not the correlate of that afforded by the liver of the higher 
animals. Within the province of human physiological anatomy, it may indeed 
be argued, that although it may be proved by dissection that the group of 
salivary glands constitute truly one homogeneous apparatus, the parts of 
which bear by their texture a perfect analogy to each other, yet that physio- 
logical analysis and chemical experiments, on the contrary, by pointing out 
the diversity of the secreted fluids, and by causing the observer to notice the 
nervous force which regulates the secretions, teach us that each gland pre- 
sides over one special act, and that, although the structure may be the same, 
the functions are performed under the agency of distinct and independent 
influences. It cannot, for instance, at present be disputed, that although the 
different kinds of saliva are poured into the mouth simultaneously, their use 
remains nevertheless distinct; and experience proves that the principal 
function of the parotid gland is to secrete a fluid which is to favour masti- 
cation, that of the sub-maxillary gland for gustation, and of the sub-lingual 
gland and buccal follicles for deglutition. It is only by the assistance of 
these physiological data that the modifications which the salivary organs 
undergo in the different classes of vertebrated animals can be studied and 
understood according to their true meaning. The characters of salivary 
glands are not to be deduced from their anatomical structure, their volume 

* M. Bernard has recently, I find, read a paper before the Academy of Sciences of Paris, 
on the very points to which attention is drawn in the text. 



224 REPORT— 1851. 

or form, but from the nature of the functions to which they are subservient. 
It would therefore prove a physiological error, such as has been committed 
by J. F. Meckel, to look for parotid and sub-maxillary glands in birds, as those 
organs cannot exist; since the two corresponding functions, mastication and 
gustation, are generally wanting in this class of animals. It is thus clear that 
the useof all the salivary glands which arefound in birds,should be looked upon 
as ministering to the only function which with them accompanies the inges- 
tion of food, viz. deglutition. The thick and viscous fluid which is secreted 
by the glands of birds has nothing in common with the saliva of the parotid 
and sub-maxillary glands, and is perfectly analogous to the fluid secreted by 
the sub-lingual gland and buccal follicles of the Mammalia. The parotid is 
found in its greatest degree of development in such of the Mammalia as ha- 
bitually chew dry and hard substances, whilst it becomes atrophied in those 
which live in water and feed upon moist food, though the salivary glands 
preserve their normal development with reference to the functions with which 
they are connected. 

The preceding principles, drawn from considerations resting on the evi- 
dence of general physiology, will, it is hoped, prove of service in elucidating 
some of the difficult questions which will arise in the attempt to resolve the 
true meaning of the gland structures engaged in the alimentary system of the 
Annelida. 

This class of animals, like all others, is distinguishable into those families 
which subsist on animal food, and into those which are phytophagous ; in ad- 
dition to which a smaller group may be recognised, whose food is the fluid 
medium in which they live, extracting from it when swallowed all that it 
may contain of matter suitable to their wants. The researches of modern 
naturalists with reference to the Mollusca, have shown that all the species of 
the same genus do not always inhabit the same kind of situation ; for in 
many instances some are found on land, some on fresh water, and others in 
salt. These researches would throw little light on the habitats of the Anne- 
lida, since of them it may be stated at once that more than four-fifths of the 
whole class are inhabitants of the sea and the sea-shore. 

The genus Nais is represented on land and freshwater by one species, 
the genus Lumbricus, by the familiar Earth-worm ; while the genera, Ilirtido, 
Hcemopis, Nephelis, Clepsina, Gordius and Planaria are almost entirely 
land and freshwater in their habitats. With these exceptions it may be 
stated of the Annelida as a class, that it is exclusively marine. The marine 
Annelida are again subdivisible into the carnivorous and herbivorous groups ; 
and these again into minor groups, according to the varieties of these two 
descriptions of food for which they exhibit an instinctive preference. Of the 
phytophagous species, many affect particular families of Algte, near high- 
water mark ; others those restricted to the ebb-line of the tide. The car- 
nivorous species, as regards their mode of obtaining food, exhibit still more 
numerous varieties. These may always be distinguished by the conformation 
of the proboscis and of the alimentary canal. In few cases is it possible to 
infer the nature of the food of any given worm, merely by the inspection of 
the contents of the intestinal canal ; it is more practicable to predicate the 
habits of an Annelid by the general structure of its digestive system in which 
the proboscis, when present, is included. 

" The disposition of the alimentary canal," says Cuvier, " determines, in a 
manner perfectly absolute, the kind of food by which the animal is nourished ; 
but if the animal did not possess, in its senses and organs of motion, the 
means of distinguishing the kinds of aliment suited to its nature, it is obvious 
it could not exist." — Cuvier, Comp. Anat. vol. i. p. 55. Trans. It will be 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 225 

necessary therefore to resort to the general principles of the science of Com- 
parative Anatomy, while elucidating the uses of these divisions of the di- 
gestive system in the Annelida which dissection discloses. The external 
organs (tentacles) appended to the head, have already been shown to be 
used by some species in the prehension of food. In others they subserve 
only the purposes of touch and general protection to the head. 

The proboscis, though used also for the seizure of the I'ood, bears not to 
the tentacles the remotest anatomical analogy. It is now proposed to enter 
at length upon the consideration of the conformation, anatomical structure 
and physiological meaning of the numerous varieties traceable in the organs 
devoted to the processes of digestion and assimilation in this class of 
animals. 

The genera SerpulcB, Sabellce and Amphitritce, are distinguished by the 
fact, that they subsist on fluid food ; if not absolutely so, on those minute 
particles of organic matter which perchance may float on the surrounding 
water. This water is directed in a perpetual stream towards the mouth, by 
means of the vibratile cilia with which in part for this purpose the branchiae 
are provided. The current thus dashed against the mouth is swallowed, and 
the suspended particles of food arrested in the digestive organs, while the 
water, which was used only as a mechanical vehicle for the conveyance of 
the food into the interior of the body, is rapidly carried along the intestinal 
canal, and ejected through the extreme outlet of the body, situated at the 
bottom of the tube, in streams sustained in rapid motion by the ceaseless 
vibration of definitely disposed cilia. This water current, traversing in the 
manner indicated the whole interior length of the body, constitutes ' a fact ' 
of great consequence in the ceconomy of these tubicolous Annelids. It is 
through its agency that the feculent refuse is projected from the bottom to the 
upper orifice of the tube, and that the habitation of the worm is maintained 
in a state of never-varying cleanliness and purity. The rectum or tail extre- 
mity of the intestine in these genera is lined internally, and to some distance 
inwards from the anus, with large and vigorous cilia, which at this situation 
reinforce the current descending along the intestine and drive it outwards 
with great force. 

In the SerpulcB, the pharynx and oesophagus extend from the oral orifice 
to the termination of what may be called the thoracic segment of the body ; 
whereat is situated a crop-like dilatation of the canal. The pharynx and 
oesophagus are beset on their internal surface with numerous minute follicles, 
which contribute a secretion having some digestive property. The walls of 
this segment are delicate and membranous. At the ' crop,' however, the 
parietes present increased density, having become more strongly muscular. 
The uses of this portion of the canal are manifestly those of crushing minute 
fragments of stones, sand-particles, &c. which may be swallowed ; that this 
description is swallowed by the Serpulce, may be proved conclusively by the 
observation of the sandy and earthy contents of the intestine posterior to the 
crop. Like the corresponding structure in graminivorous birds, it is in these 
worms a crushing and grinding engine. It is curious, however, to remark, 
that it does not exist in some few species of Sabellce, so nearly akin in organ- 
ization to the Serpulce; it is present in Amphitrita alveolata (Plate XI. 
fig. 50 a), absent in Sabella chlorema, absent also in S. vesiculosa. The pre- 
sence of this dilatation of the canal is ordinarily indicated externally by a 
bulge of the body. From the annulus, coinciding in situation with the crop, 
the true intestine begins (fig. 50 h) ; this portion of the alimentary tract in 
nearly all Annelids, is characterized by a bright yellow-coloured, streaked 
by a rich network of strikingly red blood-vessels, composing a surface of 

1851. Q 



226 jiEPORT — 1851. 

great beauty. At this point the true biliary apparatus begins ; it is the source 
and cause of the yellow colour. The ultimate glandular cells of the liver are 
disposed in minute groups, square or round, or oblong, according to the 
figure of the space enclosed by the ultimate capillaries of the vascular mesh. 
No part of the structure of the Annelid is so profusely supplied with blood 
as the parietes of the biliary segment of the intestine. There are here de- 
tectable in all species elaborate reticulations, while a blood-vessel can only 
with difficulty be observed in other parts of the body. The group of oil-cells 
contained in a separate involucrum, just large enough to occupy a mesh of 
this rete mirabile, constitute the liver in real fact. This little group of oleous 
molecules, floating in a semi-fluid substance of a brilliantly yellow colour, 
represent the real elements of the biliary organ. In no instance, in any 
species, is any departure from this type of structure exhibited ; the liver, 
therefore, in these animals is diffused under the character of a bright yellow 
flocculent stratum, over nearly the whole extent of the alimentary canal. It 
is most developed near the raid-body, the elementary glandules becoming 
gradually more distinct and removed from each other in proportion as the tail 
is approached. In the Serpulidm, Sabellce, and Amphitrita, the rectal por- 
tion of the intestine dilates, becomes greater in diameter, and the orifice itself 
is a capacious opening. It is not difficult, in this provision, to perceive the 
manifest indications of design; by it every obstacle to the free escape of the 
contents of the intestine is removed ; no impediment, such as that would be 
if the orifice were guarded by a sphincter muscle, is offered to the action of 
the cilia, upon the efficient operation of which the well-being of the little 
cell-prisoner so completely depends. 

The intestinal system of the Terehellce (fig. 51) differs in several material 
respects from that of the Serpulm and Sahellce. The oesophagus, a strong 
muscular tube, in this genus is remarkably long ; it is not however in the 
least degree protrusile. These worms are distinguished for the strength and 
muscularity of the lips, which are superiorly and inferiorly placed with re- 
ference to the mouth. These appendages to the mouth are well-adapted in 
a mechanical sense for swallowing mud, soft earth, clay, and dirty water. 
During their slow, awkward and tedious locomotion, the Terebellce carry the 
mouth close to the ground, the lips being actively at work in turning up 
the soft soil. The posterior half (fig. 51 a) of the oesophageal tube is em- 
braced by a bright yellow glandular mass, differing from the ordinary biliary 
layer in being composed of larger, more prominent, lobulated masses. It is 
quite indisputable, both from its structure and situation, that this is a true 
glandular structure, and that it supplies a secreted product tributary to di- 
gestion. From this structure the lesson may be drawn, that the comparative 
physiologist should not feeKoo confident in assigning a biliary function to 
any structure in the inferior animals merely because it possesses a yellow co- 
lour. Other glandular structures generate the yellow pigment, while in- 
stances might be multiplied in considerable number, in which true biliary 
organs are not distinguished by a yellow colour, but by a green, or dark 
brown. In the progress of our studies in the Annelidan class of Inverte- 
brata, the varieties mentioned in the mere colour of the liver will soon fall 
under description. From its position around the posterior end of the oeso- 
phagus, the glandular organ in the TereheUa. supplies probably a fluid bear- 
ing some analogy to saliva, and yet it is far too elaborate a structure to be 
dedicated exclusively to a mere salivary function. Here again is an illus- 
tration of the difficulty of determining the strict meaning of an organ on the 
mere ground of a similarity in anatomical relations ; no less fallacious is that 
resting on analogy of ultimate structure. These physiological difficulties are 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 227 

not encountered in the anatomy of the higher and more specialized or- 
ganisms ; but in inferior forms, fusions of organs and substitutions of func- 
tions are frequent in their occurrence. 

In the TerehellcB, the CESophagus is succeeded by a segment of the canal, 
distinguished by the absence of the yellow colour. It presents the charac- 
teristics of an elongated gizzard (fig. 516); the parietes of this portion are 
muscular and dense, and little vascular. It is generally found on examina- 
tion to be devoid of contents ; the alimentary substance does not stop or 
lodge in it. This gizzard-like portion is followed by the true biliary in- 
testine, divided by constrictions into annular segments, equalling those of the 
integument in number, although not similar in character. In intimate struc- 
ture this portion answers with exactness to the Annelidan type. The bile- 
gland consists essentially of minute lobuli of oleous molecules (fig. 51 c), en- 
veloped in a common capsule, surrounded by a blood-vessel, and opening into 
the intestine by a common orifice. It is remarkable that in these animals 
there should exist such a monopoly of blood in the biliary apparatus, while 
so little blood-proper is observed in the body as a whole. From this circum- 
stance it may be reasonably argued that the bile in these inferior forms of 
organization unites in itself some other function in the work of primary 
assimilation than that limitedly defined office which is discharged by the bile 
of the higher animal. The biliary glandular layer of the intestine becomes 
thinner and thinner as the posterior termination is approximated ; and the 
contents acquire more and more the excrementitious character. The rectum, 
as in the Terebella, expands, and ends in a large anal outlet ; the interior of 
this part of the intestine exhibiting, as in kindred genera, a rich lining of 
vibratile cilia. 

Arenicola Piscatorum lives almost exclusively on sand. The ' coils ' ob- 
served on soft sandy shores, supported always by a substratum of clay, are 
caused by these familiar ' lugs.' The sand is swallowed as the animal 
advances through the soil, traversing the whole extent of the body ; and 
yielding up for the purposes of digestion what it happens to contain of 
organic matter, it is finally rejected under the form of sand-coils, remarked 
so commonly on the sea-shore. Arenicola is capable of exserting the pha- 
ryngeal membrane to some distance beyond the extremity of the head 
(fig. 52 a). When thus protruded it answers all the mechanical purposes of 
a proboscis, although devoid of hard parts, or jaws. The mucous surface, 
both of this part and of the oesophagus to some distance inwards, is thickly 
beset with minute glandules projecting in relief above the surface. They 
contribute the first organic fluid to the action of which the food is sub- 
mitted. Deglutition is impracticable in this worm, unless the sand be almost 
saturated with water ; dry sand cannot be swallowed, and if too wet, it is not 
well grasped by the proboscis. 

The oesophagus (fig. 52 b) is a strongly muscular tube, surrounded by a 
frame-work of four longitudinal vessels, with detached smaller branches for 
the nutrition of this segment of the canal ; compared, however, with the in- 
testinal segment of the canal, the oesophagus is scantily supplied with blood. 
At the point of junction between the oesophagus and true intestine, and just 
anterior to the cardiac centre of the blood-system, may be seen two pyriform 
bodies (fig. 52 c), hollow in the interior, and communicating by a large 
opening with the channel of the oesophagus. They are sometimes found to 
contain a greenish yellow fluid, which tinges the surface over which it flows. 
The microscope entirely fails to discover in the parietes of these diverticula 
of the oesophagus, any evidences of glandular formation, — nothing to throw 
light on the mechanism of their secreting function. It may be affirmed with 

q2 



228 REPORT— 1851. 

certainty that they do not enact any part concerned in the reproductive func- 
tions. With the organs devoted to the hitter uses they exhibit no sort of 
communication. The structure of the cesopliageal parietes are coloured by 
no pigment. The intestine proper, however, coincides to the Annelidan law, 
and displays the brightest yellow colour, streaked in every direction by the 
plexiform blood-vessels, in the meshes of which the biliary gland-structure is 
lodged. A correct conception of the ultimate structure of intestinal parietes 
may be derived from a close examination of the figure of the circulation of 
Arenicola, formerly given (Plate III. fig. 7,/). At the commencement of the 
posterior third of the body the digestive canal of this worm loses its enteric 
character. The liver-enveloped tube degenerates into a smooth-walled, 
straightened canal, stretching under this form from this point to the tail ; 
the traces of segmentation so general in the digestive system of the Annelida 
are here scarcely perceptible. Although destitute of biliary glandular 
tissue in its coats, the posterior straight segment of the canal is surrounded by 
a curious loose flocculent tissue, which both Lamarck and Cuvier have mis- 
taken for a part of the reproductive system. Each elementary process of this 
tissue consists ofashigle vessel, terminating in a culde-sac, and enveloped in a 
layer of nucleated cells ; they project to the distance of about the eighth of 
an inch from the exterior surface of the intestine ; they are also attached to 
the interior surface of the integumentary cylinder, a few extending from the 
one to the other. Milne-Edwards defines them as "appendices secreteurs 
de la matiere faune, excretee par la peau " (vaisseaux biliares ?). Lamarck 
has described them as ovaria. As already stated, they consist of a single 
vessel (not a looped vessel), around which a layer of nucleated cells clusters. 
If these cells produce anything, it must enter the blood-channel, which forms 
the axis of the process, and thence mingle with the blood. If they do 7iot, 
the blood-vessel must be regarded merely as a collateral receptacle into 
which the blood may rush during the contortions of the animal, and as bear-' 
ing some analogy to that system of vessels which surrounds the lungs of the 
cetacean mammalia. If they are glands, they are most certainly destitute of 
excretory ducts. If they are designed to supply a fluid tributive to diges- 
tion, it is anomalous that they lie disposed over the hindmost segment of the 
digestive canal. There is ho character detectible in the structure of the cells 
suggestive of their true function. Neither these appendages, nor the pyri- 
form diverticula attached to the oesophagus (Plate XI. fig. 52c), can in the 
present state of knowledge be physiologically defined. It is not easy to ex- 
plain, within the limits of the same class of animals, why the same secretion 
should proceed in different species from organs so remarkably dissimilar in 
structure. Between these pouches in Arenicola, for example, and the salivary 
glandules which beset the proboscis and oesophagus of nearly all other 
Annelids, there exists no homological affinity. Analogy therefore affords no 
ground whereon to rest the supposition that their secretion consists of saliva. 
Neither can it consist of bile, for already an extensively diffused gland is 
furnished for the production of this fluid. It admits of no denial that special 
necessities arise in some species of animals, from the nature of the food,. 
obliging the provision of some special organ to supply peculiar wants. The 
physiological signification of such organs cannot be explained on " general 
principles." The peculiar want must first be understood, the peculiar cor- 
relate of that want may then be defined. 

In Arenicola the cutaneous system is very profusely supplied with mucus- 
producing follicles. The slippery secretion by which the animal is externally 
covered, must very materially facilitate its progress through the sandy soil 
of the shore, by diminishing the friction between its sides and those of the 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 22^ 

channel through which it is advancing. It requires little knowledge of the 
composition of the sand of the sea-shore, saturated twice every twenty-four 
hours by the tide, to understand that the food of these worms must share the 
properties of the animal and the vegetable kind. The inferior forms of 
life swarm in every minute mass of sand. The microscope detects thousands 
of infusoria and entomostraca, and fragments of algaceous vegetables; 
these organic substances constitute the food of these worms. The sand 
swallowed " gives bulk," distends the canal, and sustains by mechanical con- 
tact, the stimulus required for the due vermicular action of the tube. 

Clymene arenicoida displays a proboscis formed precisely on the same 
model as that of Arenicola, and devoted to the same uses ; as this worm, like 
Arenicola, lives on sand. The digestive system, however, is constructed 
very differently from that of the latter. The oesophagus is short, the biliary 
intestine begins near the head, and continues without any variety of struc- 
ture to the tail. Neither the diverticular pouches of the oesophagus, nor 
the gland-like flocculent vessels noticed in Arenicola, are detectible in this 
species ; so that while the food and proboscis are identical, the digestive 
system presents nothing in common in the two species. Another exemplifi- 
cation is here given of the difficidty and danger of predicating the function 
of an organ from the nature of its anatomical structure. 

The cognate genera of Amphinome, Chloe, Pleione, Euphrosyne, and 
Hipponoe, far from common on the British coasts, in the pattern of the 
alimentary canal, approach more or less intimately to the dorsibranchiate 
type already described. 

The Euniciadcp. (Plate X. figs. 53, 54) are invariably armed with a power- 
fully-jawed proboscis. It is capable of protrusion to a very slight degree beyond 
the level of the mouth ; when fully extended it does not extend to the point of 
the head. The jaws in all the species are very similarly formed and disposed 
on the proboscis. Taking E. antennata for type, we observe that the jaws are 
symmetrically bilateral, moved by strong muscles. The corneous processes 
on either side of the proboscis, which constitute the jaws, are seen to con- 
sist of two denticulated plates or saws, the teeth being directed inwards, of 
a reaping-hook like piece, blacker in colour and stronger than the former, 
and presenting a sharp edge; and another straight, tapering, and acutely 
pointed piece, which in some species is situated to the outside of the former, 
and in some to the inside. In such an engine the mechanician may recog- 
nise the presence of the crushing, cutting, sawing, and piercing elements 
artfully designed to do the multifold labour which the proboscis of these 
rapacious worms is required to perform. In their native haunts they prowl 
under stones, and closely resemble the Nereids in their habits, affecting simi- 
lar situations. The oesophagus in this genus supports the tubular heart, and 
presents the characters of an elongated gizzard. The intestine is brilliantly 
yellow throughout the middle third of the body, and segmented by constric- 
tions corresponding with those of the external body. The ultimate anatomy 
of the biliary layer corresponds with those accounts of this organ already 
given : it is densely vascular. Although the biliary gland commences in 
front by an abrupt defined line, it very gradually disappears posteriorly, nor 
entirely until it reaches the caudal extreme of the body. The anal orifice is 
situated on the dorsal aspect of the tail, the latter being prolonged into two 
long styles. It is a fact of fixed constancy in the organization of the Anne- 
lida, that the outlet of the alimentary canal is situated dorsally whenever it 
is not terminal. In the Serpulce, Amphitritce, Terebellce, it is terminal, the 
mouth being also terminal. Whenever the anus is dorsally situated, the 
mouth is ventrally placed ; these are fixed quantities in the organization of 
the Annelids. 



330 REPORT — 1851. 

The genera Lycidice, Aglaura and (Enone, are distinguished readily from 
all other Annelids by, the existence o{ four styles, two on either side of the 
anal outlet. It is not a little to be wondered at that such exact observers as 
Audouin and Milne-Edwards should have overlooked this most peculiar con- 
formation. In all other respects the portraits of these worms given by these 
distinguished authors in Crochard's edition of the ' Regne Animal,' are 
faithful and characteristic. These genera, remarkable for the beauty of 
the curves into which their very elongated bodies are thrown during loco- 
motion, frequent, in search of food, all those situations in which the Euni- 
ciadce are found. To the latter family they bear an intimate resemblance in 
the structure of the jaws of the proboscis. Like that of Eunice, this organ 
is short and armed with jaws of four separate plate-like pieces on either side 
(fig. 55 a). The edge of each element presented towards the median-line is 
denticulated with recurved short serrations. The two inferior portions are 
drawn into the shape of a reaping-hook, the base being toothed. The descrip- 
tion now given applies more especially to Aglaura fulgida of Savigny. 

In Lycidice Ninetta (fig. 54) the jaws comprise three elements, having each 
a peculiar conformation. The inferior jaw is a flattened club-shaped instru- 
ment adapted for slicing ; the next displays the form of an acutely-pointed 
reaping-hook, while the next is bluntly serrated. These three peculiarly con- 
structed instruments are evidently designed for three distinct mechanical pur- 
poses in the seizure and mastication of food. In another species of Lycidice, 
hitherto undescribed, the proboscis is furnished with jaws which are com- 
posed of pyramidal pieces only, and adapted exclusively for piercing. The 
hook-like and serrated elements are wanting. This species is found only on 
certain Alga, and its food is probably of an exclusively vegetable nature. 

The proboscis in the genus (Enone coincides closely in character with that 
of the two preceding genera. The jaws occur under the shape of curved 
denticulated plates. In the conformation of the alimentary canal in these 
genera there is nothing peculiar to be noticed. The oesophagus is long, 
and terminates where the biliary segment begins. At this point it is em- 
braced by a large circular vessel, by means of which a communication is 
established between the ventral and dorsal moieties of the circulating system. 
It is strong-walled and muscular. It is destitute of glandules ; these are 
limited to the parietes of the proboscis. 

In the biliary intestine of this, as indeed of nearly all other Annelids, 
the stomach proper and intestine are confounded both in structure and in 
function. It is not improbable from the disproportionately extensive tract 
of surface over which this yellow glandular organ is distributed in the Anne- 
lida, that the product secreted by it may unite the qualities of the gastric 
and biliary digestive fluids. On the possibility of such fusion of functions, 
observations have already been adduced. 

Dr. Johnston observes with reference to the proboscides of the Nereids, 
that "the pattern after which they (prickles of the proboscis) are arranged, 
varies in some species ; but it is almost impossible to define those variations 
in words, and the character fails us in the nearest allied species, where only 
it is required. Such is also the case with the number of serratures along the 
falcate edge of the jaws; though the character is one not to be neglected ; 
but from the peculiar shape of the jaw, I have sometimes found a diflSculty 
in determining the exact number of these serratures ; and in other instances 
have had a doubt whether one or two of them, from their obsoleteness, ought 
to be reckoned*." These difficulties do not accord with my experience. 
With a good microscope it becomes quite clear always that different species, 
however nearly allied, are characterized by proboscidian jaws of distinctive 
* Annals and Magazine of Natural History, vol. iv. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 231 

conformations. This, however, is only true with reference to adult indivi- 
duals, since it is easy to assign to distinct species individuals which really 
differ only in age, and that on the ground of an apparent difference in the 
form and shape of the proboscidean jaws. 

The Nereids (figs. 55, 56, 57, 58) swallow a considerable amount of clay 
and sand. Observation of the habits and habitats strongly suggest, however, 
their carnivorous disposition. The proboscis is well- constructed, and the jawa 
aptly disposed, for seizing a living prey. The intestine is filled always, espe- 
cially throughout the posterior half of the body, with a pulpy matter, of which 
sand and clay form a large proportion. These worms frequent subterranean 
channels constructed by themselves ; and this mechanical purpose is not the 
least important of the uses to which their proboscides are devoted. Through 
these haunts they move with great rapidity. They prowl on all animals which 
perchance may be brought within the precincts of their territory by the 
mechanical force of the tidal currents. 

As the British species in the genus Nereis amount to a considerable num- 
ber, it were tedious in this place to enumerate all the specific variations from 
the generic type which are found to occur in the figures of the proboscidean 
jaws (figs. 55, 56, 57, 58). In the definition of species, these particulars may 
hereafter prove of essential service. 

Assuming for type this organ as it occurs in Nereis margaritacea (fig. 55), 
it is found to be capable of extrusion to some distance beyond the line of the 
head; that the jaws are two in number, one on each side of the terminal 
orifice of the proboscis ; that each jaw consists of a falcate, horny, dark pro- 
cess, the internal curved edge of which is irregularly notched : the cha- 
racters of these notches become distinctive of species. In some they are 
uniformly round ; in others they are sharp and recurved ; in others these 
serrations point forwards. This latter is the case in more than one of the 
smaller species. It is important to remember that in no species of this genus 
do the jaws exceed 'i\ie pair ' in number. In addition to the jaws, properly 
so called, the proboscis in some species is pricked with minute corneous 
points at various parts of its surface, for the purposes obviously of protec- 
tion from external injury. In N. margaritacea the oesophagus extends back- 
wards to the level of the seventh or eighth foot ; it is a straight muscular 
tube as usual; but it is curious to observe that the two lateral pouches 
communicating with the oesophagus already described in Arenicola, re-appear 
in the genus Nereis. They are obviously identical in structure to those of 
Arenicola, and subservient to similar purposes. At the distance of three or 
four feet beyond the point of these pouches the biliary intestine begins. It 
is strongly segmented. In the smaller species the interval of constriction 
equals in length the sacculated portion. The only means of distinguishing 
between the limits of the true ' digestive ' intestine and the colonic, consist 
in the character of their respective contents ; true faecal matter never lodges 
in the former, it always accumulates in the latter. In those Annelida, as the 
Nerine, for ejcample, which are remarkable for the elongation of the body, 
the posterior half or third of the intestinal canal is loaded with fseculent 
accumulations, imparting their colour to the whole body. The system of 
the blood-proper, as formerly indicated, is elaborately developed in the Ne- 
reids, and the walls of the digestive canal are embraced by a dense tissue of 
a closely reticulated plexus. In the Nereids, the integumentary structures 
are far more vascular than those of any other known Annelid. This circum- 
stance suffices to account for their proverbial muscular activity. The evi- 
dences of structure and habits concur to support the view which assigns to 
these worms an almost exclusively carnivorous character. 



232 REPORT^— 1851. 

The PhyllodocidtB unquestionably live exclusively on animal matter. They 
are always found near low-water mark, amongst corallines, sponges, minute 
Actiniae, shelled Mollusca, and Cirrhipeds. Phyllodoce viridis prowls amidst 
the small Cirrhipeds of our rocks, and is frequently found in companionship 
with the LiniadcE. These worms may be frequently observed to thrust their 
heads between the valves of the shells, protruding their proboscides to suck 
up the juices of the defunct prey, for they seldom attack the living inhabitants. 
In all the species of this genus the proboscis is constructed with express refer- 
ence to the operation of sucking. This instrument, in these worms quite 
ceaseless in its operation, is edentulous. It is gifted with no means of grasp- 
ing, or cutting or piercing ; circumstances from which it may be reasonably 
inferred that the food upon which the worms subsist must be so fluid as to 
admit of being sucked into tlie oral orifice seated at the extremity of the 
proboscis. This instrument in Phyllodoce viridis equals a fourth of the 
body in length when fully extended. The surface, which is exterior when 
protruded, is beset profusely with mammillary glandules raised above the 
plane of the surface. Under the higher powers of the microscope these 
glandules resolve themselves into minute Florence flask-shape involucra, 
filled with spherical oleous cells, which, unlike ordinary oil-molecules, are 
charged with brownish molecules surrounding a central nucleus. It is im- 
possible to trace with the eye the presence of an excretory channel in the 
axis of the flask. It is therefore probable that the secretion furnished by 
these proboscidian papillae (as at 58), considerable in quantity, evidently 
from their vast number, results from the successive bursting of the contained 
cells ; those dehiscing first which are situated nearest to the attached extre- 
mity of the gland. When withdrawn into the interior of the body, the pro- 
boscis may be seen in an inverted position embraced by the oesophagus. It 
may be here remarked, that in every Annelid in which a proboscis exists, the 
process of withdrawing it into the interior of the body is as beautiful as it 
is perfect in a mechanical sense. The jaws, when they are present, first 
meet at the mid-point of the terminal orifice of the proboscis ; they are then 
reversed, that is, their extremities are directed backwards towards the tail of 
the animal : they may now be seen moving backwards in the axis of the 
oesophagus as the act of withdrawing the proboscis proceeds. To explain 
the mechanism of this movement, it is required only to conceive the exist- 
ence of two concentric cylinders of longitudinal muscular fibres ; one on the 
outside of the proboscis under the papillae, and the other on the inside be- 
neath the mucous lining. It is now easy to perceive, that when the exterior 
cylinder retracts, its muscles contracting, the effect on the proboscis will be 
that of everting or protruding it ; and when, conversely, the interior cylinder 
of muscular fibres diminishes its length (the muscles contracting^, the pro- 
boscis will be furled upon itself, as it were, and drawn backwards into the 
interior of the body. The orifice at the extremity of the organ, whether 
guarded or not with jaws, is surrounded by a sphincter muscle, by which the 
alimentary object is firmly grasped while being carried back into the oeso- 
phagus during the inversion and retraction of the proboscis. These move- 
ments may be readily imitated by the finger of a glove. It is a curious ana- 
tomical fact, that the glandules furnishing the secretion, to the agency of 
which the food is first submitted, should be restricted to the parietes of the 
proboscis, since those of the oesophagus, properly so called, are generally 
without a trace of them. Such glandular organization points to the pro- 
boscis as the analogon of the mouth and pharynx, with their tributary glands 
in the higher animals. For reasons, however, already advanced, it were 
unsafe, on the ground of this apparent analogy, to rest the inference that 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 23S 

the papillary glandules of the proboscis, like their elaborate representatives 
in the mouth, furuished a fluid for the exclusive purpose of insalivation. 

In the Phyllododdce the biliary intestine begins where the mechanical oeso- 
phagus ends. Neither a crop nor a gizzard intervenes between these two 
divisions. It is on this account that the inference, denying to the probos- 
cidian glandules an exclusively salivary office, is rendered probable. These 
glandules in reality may supply a fluid, uniting in its chemical agency the 
twofold properties of the gastric and the salivary. 

The segmentation of the body, exteriorly, is in these ornate worms very 
deeply marked. This fact determines the degree in which the intestinal 
canal is segmented. It is curious, however, that the oesophagus should in 
no case conform in the outline of its structure to that. of the integuments. 
In no known instance is it sacculated or annulated, like the intestine. This 
latter division of the canal in these worms is quite moniliform in figure, the 
contiguous sacculi being divided by an interval of constriction equal in length 
to themselves. The biliary glandules, which in the PhyllodocidcB are charged 
with a dark green pigment, are limited in their distribution to the dilated 
portions of the intestine, and may be^ traced in diminishing numbers to the 
extreme tail-end of the tube. It is probable that the absence of the charac- 
teristic colour in the biliary layer of the intestine may depend in some way 
upon entire absence of all red pigment from the blood. Such facts as these, 
bearing to each other an evident though unresolved connection, suggest the 
conclusion that all local pigmentary accumulations, whether occurring in 
glandular organs or integumentary structures, are mere modifications of the 
primary pigment matter of the blood. The blood in the Phyllodocid<s being 
devoid of all colour, it is accordingly difficult to conceive the source whence 
the materials of colour may be drawn by the biliary organs. In confirmation 
of this doctrine the instance of Phyllodoce viridis may be mentioned. All 
the structures in the body in this worm are strongly tinged with a grass- 
green colour, and that probably because the blood is densely charged with 
this pigment. 

The Syllidce (Plate XI. fig. 59) are proboscidian worms, and no known 
species presents an exception to this rule, — in some they occur as minute 
transparent bodies on the inside of the orifice of the proboscis. This organ 
in S. prolifera (fig. 59) exhibits four of these little corneous formations (fig. 
59a); they are crenated at their distal end. In S.armillaris these piercing 
instruments are replaced by a single cup-shaped organ, of the mechanism of 
whose action it is difficult to form a correct conception. It is placed on the 
superior edge of the terminal orifice of the proboscis ; the edges of this orifice 
being fringed with fleshy papillae, which are obviously, from their situation, 
the seat of exaggerated tactile sensibility. In other species there is no corneous 
formation of any sort superadded to the proboscis. These Annelids are gene- 
rally found creeping over the surface of algaceous plants. From the absence 
of any structure bearing the semblance of browsing organs, or mechanical 
additions of any description to the proboscis calculated to cut and masticate 
vegetable substances, taken in conjunction with the circumstances under 
which these worms are commonly discovered, they may be classed \\ith con- 
fidence among the herbivorous Annelida. This conclusion is supported by 
the anatomical proofs derived from the character of the digestivecanal. 

In the Syllidce the proboscis (fig. 59 6) is capable of extrusion to a con- 
siderable distance beyond the mouth. Unlike that of nearly all other Anne- 
lids, it is quite smooth and destitute of all traces of parietal glandules. In this 
genus the papillary glands are transferred to the walls of the oesophagus 
(fig. 59 c). They may be readily seen projecting beyond the plane of the ex- 



234 REPORT — 1851. 

ternal surface of this part of the tube, in form of transparent vesicular tubuli 
filled with minute cells. To the oesophagus in all SyllidcB succeeds an elon- 
gated highly glandulated gizzard-like portion peculiar to and characteristic of 
this genus (fig. 59 d). The parietes of this portion are not perhaps dense and 
muscular enough to claim for it the character of a true gizzard. The glan- 
dules are arranged in transverse or circular rows, and communicate with the 
interior by means of a minute excretory tube or orifice. One type of struc- 
ture prevails throughout all varieties of the secernent glandules, whether 
biliary or salivary, discoverable in the digestive system of the Annelida. They 
resolve themselves, in ultimate analysis, into membranous capsules filled with 
secondary cells, for the most part oleous. These cells are contained in a 
plasma, out of which they draw the material of their own formation and in- 
crease. They dehisce and contribute thus a perfected secretion, adapted to 
perform a part in the chemical and vital processes of digestion. The biliary 
intestine in these worms presents a deeply notched outline, approaching the 
moniliform (fig. 59 e). The segments of that part which immediately succeeds 
to the gizzards are very much elongated, while those nearer the tail present 
annulations corresponding with those of the integument. The biliary layer in 
these worms is not pigmented.bright yellow, but dull yellow, having a greenish 
tint. There is nothing demanding notice in the formation of the rectal 
intestine in the Syllidce. The outlet is situated dorsally and above a small 
median style. As the blood-proper is destitute of colour, there is little diflS- 
culty in explaining the absence of brilliant pigments from the solid glandular 
structures of the body. 

The genus Sjno or Nerine comprehends two well-known species, N. vul- 
garis and N. coniocephala ; to which number the author has lately added 
N. Marcella. These Annelids are notorious for the extraordinary accumu- 
lation of faecal matter which occurs in the posterior half of the intestinal 
canal, causing the whole of this moiety of the body to look closely like an 
inanimate string of sand and earthy substance. This character is more 
striking in the two last-named species than in the first. Spio vulgaris is an 
active ivorm, and the posterior half of the body does not drag like a lifeless 
appendage, as it does in *S'. coniocephala and S. Marcella, These worms 
are improboscidean. The head terminates in a prolonged tapering snout. 
The mouth is situated ventrally and a little behind the extreme end of the 
head; the lining membrane of the pharynx is capable of being only very slightly 
exserted. It is by the operation of the arms that food is conveyed to the 
mouth. The chief part of this food consists of sand, fragments of shells, &c. 
In consequence of the conical figure of the snout, these worms penetrate the 
gravelly and shelly soil in which they are found with great facility. That 
portion of the body which corresponds with the oesophagus, contrasts prettily 
by its dull white colour with the rest of the body, which is dark green. The 
oral two-thirds of the oesophagus is a smooth tube, unsupplied with glands 
(Plate X. fig. 60 a) ; the remaining portion, as far as the intestine, embraced 
by a flocculent layer consisting of a vast multitude of follicular glandules (b). 
They coincide in structure with those which in the carnivorous Annelids 
beset the proboscis. The first fifth of the true intestine is generally empty 
and thickly furnished with parietal biliary glands. At this part the colour 
is dark green. The perfect yellow does not appear in these worms. Next 
to this portion occurs the colonic segment of the canal, which is distin- 
guished by its earthy contents, the dark green of the integuments becoming 
sensibly diminished, enabling the contents of the canal to contrast strongly 
with the anterior portions of the body. The segmentations of the anterior 
part of the intestinal canal are deeply marked, the tube being reduced at 



ON THE BRITISH AMNELIDA. 339 

the constricted intervals to a fine thread, through which, into the contiguous 
segment, a minute portion of faecal matter periodically passes. The biliary 
glandules on the parietes of the intestine present a definitively linear arrange- 
ment ; that is, when traced around the cylinder they form circular rows of 
glands. 

In (r/ycera a/ia (Plate XI. fig. 61), the alimentary canal is remarkably 
moveable ; it is tied to the integumentary by bridles of muscular fibrillae. 
This most attractive and lively little worm inhabits loose moist sand, tlirough 
which it progresses by frequent thrusts forwards with its proboscis. The jaws 
of this organ are four in number, hook-shaped (fig. 61 a), each presenting a 
secondary piece projecting from the back; the base being strong and 
broad. The extremity of the proboscis is smooth, while the posterior four- 
fifths is thickly villose with papillary glandules (fig. 61 i). The oesophagus 
exceeds the proboscis in length, enabling the latter to be packed upon the 
former. The intestinal segmentations commence at the oesophagus ; there is 
no proper stomach. The functions of the stomach are merged either in 
those of the proboscis, or in those of the biliary intestine. In numerous ex- 
amples it has already been shown that this conformation is frequent among 
the Annelids. From the peculiar character of those ' zones ' of the sea-shore 
in which this worm is ordinarily found, it is probable that it subsists on the 
organic material contained in the soil, of which it swallows considerable 
quantities. 

Nephthys Hombergii is commonly discovered in fine sand, saturated with 
sea-water. It swims with facility. Its proboscis presents a formidable ap- 
pearance. It is edentulous, the jaws being, however, replaced by fine but 
strong fleshy bristly processes. The digestive canal is found in general 
heavily laden with the sandy refuse of digestion. Its parietes are pigmented 
with a bright yellow colour ; the oesophagus slightly exceeds in length the 
extended proboscis ; the intestinal canal is annulated in correspondence with 
the integumentary. The constrictions between the segments are only slightly 
marked. 

I4 may with great probability be affirmed generally of those worms which 
subsist by swallowing the soil in which they live, that the real food is a 
mixture of animal and vegetable matter, since the soil of the sea-shore 
abounds as much in minute fragments of algaceous vegetation as in living 
and dead animal matter. No part of the body of these worms is coloured 
by the contents of the intestine. The whole animal presents a general dirty 
mother-of-pearl appearance. They attain a considerable size, and exhibit in 
the adult state extraordinary muscular power. The oesophagus in this worm 
supports a very long single vessel — the cylindrical heart. It is little vascular, 
and quite devoid of follicular glandules ; these latter are restricted to the 
proboscis. The oesophagus is a strongly muscular tube, in consequence of 
the part which it is required to perform in the protrusion and retraction 
of the proboscis. The proboscis, being a large bulky appendage to the oeso- 
phagus, gives to the latter, when withdrawn, an apparently greater diameter 
than any part of the intestine. The absence of a vascular web on the parietes 
of the oesophagus, excludes it from the physiological actions of digestion ; it 
is in this worm, as in many others, a mere mechanical tube. The biliary 
intestine is highly vascular; it is embraced, in conformity with the dorsi- 
branchiate type of the intestinal circulation, by four large longitudinal 
trunks, from which lateral vessels proceed to form a dense reticulation of 
capillaries. It is in the minute spaces between these ultimate vessels that 
the biliary glandules are lodged. 

In the organization of the digestive canal of the AriciadcB, there is little to 



236 REPORT— 1851. 

remark which does not fall under the description already presented. The 
intestine is of a bright yellow as far as the tail. The colour of the biliary 
yellow pigment of the intestinal parietes blending with the dull white of the 
integument, these worms appear as yellowish-white threads, twisting about 
with great beauty. They are distinguished, like the Spios, by the fact that 
the whole of the posterior three-fourths, or more, of the body hangs on, like 
a lifeless coil of sand, to the cephalic and only active and locomotive part 
of the body. The former is apparently dragged along by the latter in pro- 
gression. Although supplied with feet and branchiae, they seem in this 
region to take little part in the movements of the anterior part of the body. 
This incapacity for muscular movement seems to depend upon the weight 
of the earthy mass contained in the intestine. The blood being brightly red, 
the branchiae form a pleasing contrast with the dark colour of the body; 
These worms live on sand, and are destitute of proboscis. The head is 
prolonged into a finely tapering snout, by means of which its march through 
the sand is eflPected with tolerable facility. 

The preceding description will serve to convey a pretty exact idea of the 
character of the alimentary canal in the Opheliadce — worms which are not 
uncommon on the British coasts. The author recently made several additions 
of species to the list of British Ariciadce ; they are distinguished from 
the old species by a shorter body, by the presence at various points of fila- 
mentary appendages, not unlike those of Cirrhatulus, by a far greater activity 
in the posterior parts of the body in progression, and by the absence of the 
earthy colour, and undue accumulation in the posterior moiety of the digestive 
canal. 

Cirrhatulus Lamarckii, so abundant between tide-marks on the coast of 
Swansea, subsists almost entirely by swallowing clay. Its long branchial 
appendages are little subservient to, and less used for the prehension of food. 
The mouth, a small circular orifice, is ventrally situated, and some little way 
posterior to the tapering snout, in which the head terminates: it is well 
adapted for sucking in semi-solid food. The pharynx is susceptible of ever- 
sion in a slight degree. The native colours of this worm are beautifiully 
variegated : the brilliant yellow of the intestine, which begins near the head 
and continues to the tail, relieved by the greenish hue of the integuments of 
the back, contrasts agreeably with the vermilion thread which spangles 
every portion of the worm. The alimentary canal, from one end to the other, 
is closely united, at short intervals, by means of minute septal bridles, to the 
integuments ; the peritoneal fluid, on that account, is very limited in quantity. 
The course of the intestine describes a zigzag from one extreme to the other. 
The oesophagus is short, and the proboscis wanting. The biliary glandular 
layer of the intestine is thick and flocculent, and densely supplied with blood. 
This worm is capable of throwing out from the general cutaneous surface a 
considerable amount of viscid adhesive secretion, which enables the worm to 
roll itself in an impenetrable coat of mail. The mechanical act of applying 
the surrounding substances to the body is accomplished by the thready 
appendages. Nothing can be more exquisite than the perfect and yet rapid 
manner in which these microscopic strings perform this work of protection. 
In its natural state Cirrhatulus does not inhabit channels. It is commonly 
found in soft semi-fluid clay, stretched under stones near the ebb-mark of 
the tide. 

The family of Aphroditacece are uniformly proboscidean. Many mem- 
bers are found in deep water, rendering it dilRcult to assign their exact 
habitation. The Polynoe are inhabitants of the shores, and affect pro* 
tected situations, such as the inferior surface of slates and stones, over the 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 237 

surfaces of which they crawl in search of food. The oesophageal apparatus, 
with its appended proboscis, is always powerfully muscular. Some anato- 
mists have assigned the name of the " gizzard " to the true oesophagus in 
Aphrodita aculeata. Whatever outward resemblance this part may pre- 
sent to a gizzard, it possesses none of the structural characters of this latter 
organ. Its parietes are powerfully muscular and dense, because they are the 
engine by which the proboscis is thrust out and drawn in. The extended 
proboscis of ^. aculeata is a savage-looking instrument; in size it is propor- 
tionate to that of the animal, and is edentulous. The oral orifice of this 
proboscis is encircled by a short and thick-set fringe of compound peni- 
cillate filaments, divided into sets by a fissure on each side; each filament 
has a short stalk, with a tuft of numerous forked papillae on its summit ; ex- 
terior to the orifice of the proboscis there are four fleshy tubercles placed at 
the angles. As the external surface of the proboscis and that of the oesopha- 
gus are devoid of all glandular structure, the iiiternal lining membrane of both 
these portions of the digestive tube is glandularly organized, that is, the 
membrane is villose and highly vascular. It is important to remember this 
fact, for it denotes an anatomical feature which belongs to all the Aphrodi- 
tacece, embraced in the four leading genera Aphrodita, Polynoe, Pholoe, and 
Sigalion. Plate X. fig. 62 illustrates the outline anatomy of the alimentary 
system of Polynoe squamata. It exhibits a striking approach in plan to 
that of Aphrodita aculeata (c, c, digestive caeca). From its position in 
the alimentary tube, it is manifest that this villose oesophageal membrane 
furnishes a fluid which is concerned in the process of digestion ; it does not 
extend in any species beyond the limits of the oesophagus. The true stomach 
is quite dissimilarly organized. The proper occasion has now arrived for 
explaining the real physiological meaning of the complicated csecal append- 
ages, so familiar to the comparative anatomist, by which the interior capacity 
of the digestive cavity is multiplied in the AphroditacecB. 

These appendages, in their mechanical arrangement, realized two import- 
ant objects : — 

1st. They effect the purpose of lodging and detaining a considerable 
quantity of a dark-greenish chymous fluid. 

2nd. They are so disposed with reference to the large exterior current of 
water which rushes under the elytra or scales, as to bring their chymous 
contents as closely as possible into contact with this aerating medium. 

They perform, therefore, two supreme functions, namely, that of respi- 
ration and digestion. Perhaps this latter process, in this particular in- 
stance, should be designated as that of sanguification, since the fluid con- 
tained in these caeca is evidently the blood in its first stage of preparation ; 
it is' the fluid which, when absorbed into the circulating system, becomes 
the true blood. It is to the AphroditacecB what the chylo-aqueous con- 
tents of the peritoneal cavity is to all the other Annelids. This cavity in the 
Aphrodites, like that of the Echinoderms, is occupied by a fluid, which in 
appearance and composition closely approaches sea-water. It can scarcely 
be doubted that this cavity, thus tilled, becomes in these eccentric worms a 
reservoir wherein oxygen accumulates, and that from this store, in part at least, 
the fluid contained in the digestive caeca draws its supply of the aerating 
element. In the AphroditacecB, the blood-proper is colourless, and the blood- 
system of vessels is very inferiorly developed. The median tube of the 
stomach, which is straight and unsegmented, and from either side of which 
the casca proceed, is always found to be filled with a semi-solid faeculent 
matter, which is quite unlike that contained in the caeca. These two por- 
tions of the contents of the digestive system are kept apart by a sphincteric 
structure encircling the openings leading from the straight stomach into the 



238 REPORT — 1851. 

lateral csecal appendages, an arrangement, by which, in the most perfect 
manner, everything but the digested chyme is excluded from the caeca, ex- 
emplifying in humble life, the principle on which the " pylorus " acts in the 
higiier animals. The above description will serve to convey a precise con- 
ception of the conformation of the alimentary system in the other genera of 
Aphrodites, namely, in Polynoe (Plate X. fig. 62), Pholoe, and Sigalion, In 
these smaller Aphrodites, the true stomach is limited to the posterior -|rds of 
the body ; the cesophageal portion, with its embraced proboscis, engaging the 
anterior. It is necessary to observe, that, as in Sigalion Boa, the peritoneal 
fluid, external to, and enveloping the digestive appendages, assumes a highly 
organized and blood-like character, having express branchial organs provided 
for its own exposure to the aerating element. This, however, is only a modi- 
fication, not a violation, of the principle already enounced. It should be here 
stated, that in the AphroditacecB, the true biliary apparatus is distributed in 
form of a dark green glandular layer over the parietes of the digestive caeca, 
and that it is exclusively limited to these situations. 

In the genera Lumbricus and Nais (fig. 63), the digestive canal is a simple 
segmented tube, brightly coloured yellow by the glandular biliary layer form- 
ing one of its coats. 

In relation to the mechanism of alimentation in the suctorial Annelids, 
which comprise the subgenera Hcemocharis, Albione, Branchellion, Clepsina, 
and Malacobdella, the following principle may be definitively enunciated, — 
that there exists in all species an inverse proportion, both as regards quantity 
and quality, between the fluid contained in the peritoneal cavity and that 
of the digestive caeca. It is accordingly found, that when the stomach 
is reduced to the simplicity of a straight tube, unsupplied with lateral 
caeca, the chamber of the peritoneum is spacious, and replete with a highly 
organized fluid ; that, on the contrary, when the stomach is multiplied and 
complicated by the addition of lateral appendages, filled with a chymous 
fluid, the peritoneal space becomes reduced in capacity, and almost entirely 
deprived of contents. The fluid, thus balanced, is not changed physiologically 
when transferred from the peritoneal chamber into the interior of the digestive 
caeca, or vice versa. Of the genus Hirudo, the following are subgenera, of 
which the digestive system is sacculated : — the common Leech, in which 
the sacculi are largest ; Hcemocharis, in which the hindmost pair only are 
highly developed, the rest in front being small ; and Aulastoma nigrescens, 
in which the whole of the anterior portion of the tube is perfectly straight, 
having only two long caeca at the posterior extremity, on either side of the 
rectum. 

Albione muricata presents a digestive tube perfectly devoid of all lateral 
sacculations; this is also the case in the genus Branchellion, and that of Ma- 
lacobdella. These Annelids are all suctorial. In some species a sucker 
exists at both extremities, in others at the posterior only. 

NemertinidcB. — In the ' K egne Animal ' the genus Nemertes is thus cha- 
racterized : — " C'est un ver d'une moUesse et d'un allongement extremes, lisse, 
grele, aplati, termine a une extremite par une pointe mousse percee d'un 
trou ; evase et largement ouvert a I'extremite opposee par ou il se fixe. 
Son intestin traverse toute la longueur du corps. Un autre canal, probable- 
ment relatif a la generation, serpente le long de ses parois, et finit a un 
tubercule du bord de I'ouverture large. MM. d'Orbigny et de Blainville, 
qui ont vu cet animal vivant, assurent que c'est I'ouverture large qui est la 
bouche." 

" La seule espece connue (^Nemertes Borlasii, Cuv.) a plus de quatre pieds 
de long. Elle se tient enfoncee dans le sable, et attaque, dit-on, les anomies 
qu'elle suce dans leur coquille. Je dois ce ver singulier, dont Borlase (Corn- 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 239 

■wall) seul fait mention a M. Dumeril, qui I'a trouve pres de Brest. M. Oken 
en fait son genre Borlasia, M. Sowerby I'avait nomme Lineus." 

In the preceding definition Cuvier commits himself to several important 
points of structure, the incorrectness of which, it will be subsequently shown, 
may now be proved by easy and direct demonstration. It is first stated that 
the body in these worms terminates in a blunt point perforated by an anal 
orifice. This is an unquestionable error. The posterior extremity of the 
body in all the species of this genus is imperforate. It is next affirmed that 
the intestine traverses the whole length of the body, and that " another canal, 
probably concerned in generation, winds along the sides, and terminates by 
a tubercle on the side, by a large orifice." The constituent elements of struc- 
ture have thus been accurately recognised by Cuvier, but very erroneously 
interpreted. It will be hereafter demonstrated that " the second canal," ter- 
minating at the side, is concerned in digestion, not in generation. It is a 
compound of oesophagus and proboscis. The figures by M. Quatrefages of 
Nemertes Borlasii represent this worm as possessing several longitudinal 
fissural oral orifices adapted for sucking. Nor does it appear that this saga- 
cious naturalist had become at all acquainted with the existence in this 
remarkable Annelid o^ a proboscis. His conception, therefore, of the mecha- 
nism by which it obtains food must have been remote from the truth, since 
the oral end of the alimentary system is not many-fissured, but composed 
only of a single longitudinal slit underneath the conical rostrum : with such 
an orifice it is manifest that the process of suction would be impracticable. 
In the beautiful illustrations of the anatomy of Nemertes Camilla, published 
from the inedited researches of M. Quatrefages in Crochard's edition of the 
' Regne Animal,' this author describes the jaws, which are situated at the 
extremity of the proboscis when protruded (an extraordinary organ in these 
worms), as being contained in a pouch of the digestive cavity, " poches a 
stylets en voie de formation." The dissections of this worm by M. Quatre^ 
fages are, notwithstanding this instance of a misinterpretation of structural 
characters, accurately defined, and, as far as they have extended, confirmed 
by those of the author. It is, however, not a little surprising, that the 
real organic characteristic of these worms should have eluded the eye of an 
ingenious observer, who bad attained to a point bordering closely on a true 
solution of the problem, viz. the real mechanism of the proboscis and oeso- 
phagus. And in relation to the function of that large glandular mass which 
constitutes so considerable a proportion of the whole bulk of the worm, 
M. Quatrefages shares the erroneous views already propounded by Cuvier, both 
describing it as a reproductive (ovarian) organ. 

In the year 1844? Prof. CErsted of Copenhagen published an important 
contribution to the anatomy and systematic description of the JVemertini*. 
The diagnostic descriptions of this observer prove beyond question that he 
also missed the right clue to the secret of the true organization of these 
worms ; he describes the buccal fissures as designed to admit water into con- 
tact with the heart for the purposes of respiration. He describes the anal 
orifice as having a terminal situation. He states that the proboscis is " nullum 
exsertile," and, like Cuvier and Quatrefages, he falls into the error of charac- 
terising the 'glandular organ,' which occupies nearly the whole length of the 
body, as the reproductive apparatusf . In fact, the differences between the 

* Entwurf einer systematischen Einfcheilungund speciellen Besdirabung der Plattwiirmor, 
Kopenhagen, 1844, p. 76. 

t By M. CErsted the Nemertini are regarded as a suborder of Vermes Apodes, and are 
characterized as follows : — " Corpus liueare teretiusculum rarius depressum, multo longius 
quam latius, indistincte annulatum, mucosum, ciliis vibrantibus obsitum ; musculi distincti, 



240 REPORT — 1851. 

results of the inquiries of QErsted and those obtained through the author's 
investigation are so striking and irreconcileable, that one or other of them 
must be egregiously false. Rathke has published descriptions of what he 
announces as new species of NemertinidcE. As our desire is in this place only 
to refer to sucli points of structure as relate to the alimentary system, it is 
necessary merely to report, with reference to the descriptions of M. Rathke, 
that some of the diagnostic characters are thus given. "At the anterior 
margin of the body a small opening was found which Rathke did not regard 
as a moutli, which lies further down on tlie abdominal side, and is represented 
by a large longitudinal cleft. On the right and left of the anterior end of 
the body is a boat-shaped, superficial, longitudinal furrow, to which a strong 

bundle of nerve passes from the red ganglion of the brain The 

intestine, running out straight at the posterior end of the body, contained a 
whitish slimy fluid, from which circumstance thi<: author conjectures that the 
worm sucks its nourishment from other white-blooded animals, as a great 
number of small, thin, cuticular sacs, which were attached in a single row, 
behind each other, on the inner side of tlie body of this worm, contained in 
some individuals distinct eggs, and in others sperm-cells. Under the dorsum 
runs a very long snow-white and spiral canal, which is very muscular, and 
lies bulged out like a proboscis at the opening first mentioned. Rathke con- 
fesses that he could not succeed in determining its use." 

By Ehrenberg it is held that the part described by the preceding authors 
as an alimentary canal is really an egg-passage, while he regards the white 
spiral organ as the alimentary canal. Enougli has been cited historically, to 
convey to the comparative anatomist some conception of the chaos and dark- 
ness which brood over the problem of the organization of this genus of An- 
nelids. The observations of Mr. H. Goodsir* on this subject must not be 
omitted. By this author a description of two species of Nemertinidce is pub- 
lished, one under the name of Serpentaria, the other under that of Nemertes. 
With reference to the former species, Mr. Goodsir observes that the anterior 
extremity of the body is pointed, with the proboscidean orifice obscure and im- 
perfectly developed; the male generative apertures on each side, and the cloaca 
on the abdominal surface immediately behind. Mr. Goodsir further states, 
that as the animal has no true proboscis, the proboscidean orifice is very 
small or imperfectly formed, which renders it difficult to be seen. On each 
side of the rostrum there is to be seen a longitudinal narrow slit, generally 
closed, and communicating with the male generative system. Immediately 
behind these, and on the abdominal surface, is another larger orifice, which 
the animal has the power of opening and shutting at pleasure. When open it 
is of an ovoid shape. The edges are serrated. This leads to a large longitu- 
dinal cavity which runs through the whole length of the body, but lor a 
considerable extent anteriorly is continuous and very much dilated ; in the 
remainder of its extent it is more confined and interrupted by the ovaries 

non vero nervi (?). Oculi 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. Multi vel nulli. Orgaiia respiratoria specialia nulla, 
vel fissurse respiratoriae laterales in capite aquae ad cordum parietes aditum concibantes. 
Circulatio completa et corda duo. Tubus cibarius simplex cum oris apertura infera (rarius 
terminali) et ano teniiinali. Os nullum exsertile. Sexus duo, in utroque orgauum copula- 
tionis stimulandoe. Testiculi et ovaria cava ne minimum quidem forma inter se discrepantia 
tantum modo contento (ovuUs aut spermatozois) complura in utroque latere uniuscuj usque 
segmenti." It will be found that this diagnosis corresponds in no essential point with the 
statement given in the text of the anatomy of Nemertinidie ; and, moreover, the inaccura- 
cies into which Oersted has fallen exemplify the importance of resting all ' diagnoses ' on 
carefully instituted dissections. Anatomy alone should be the basis of all correct specific 
descriptions. 

* Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist., June 1845. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 241 

which lie on each side of it. All that portion of the body in which the 
common cavity is continuous and dilated consists of one annulus, but the 
succeeding or terminal is composed of a great many, each about the eighth 
of an inch in length. 

Each of these separated annuli contains all the elements of the perfect or 
original animal, viz. a male and female generative apparatus, the cavity com- 
mon to the generative, digestive and respiratory Junctions. Serpentaria 
therefore is a composite animal, each perfect individual consisting of numerous 
and apparently still unformed or imperfectly formed individuals. 

With respect to Nemertes, Mr. Goodsir makes the following observations. 
Anterior extremity of the body rounded, somewhat quadrilobate, M'ith the 
proboscidean orifice in the centre. Male generative apertures on each side. 
Cloaca or abdominal surface immediately behind. The anterior extremity 
is slightly quadrilobate, and in the centre there is a small foramen, through 
which a long, narrow, extensile, trumpet-shaped probos(;is can be protruded 
at the will of the animal. On each side of these are two narrow longitudinal 
slits similar to those in Serpentaria ; these, as already mentioned, are aper- 
tures to the male generative apparatus, which consists of two long, narrow 
cellular tubes, running down each side of the body. The cloaca on the 
abdominal surface of the body is small and rounded, and opens into an oblong 
cavity similar to that of Serpentaria. With reference to an alleged orifice 
at \}s\^ posterior termination of the body, Mr. Goodsir states that the opening 
was so large that it appeared in process of filling up after the last separation, 
admitting thus the fact of the existence of a terminal anal orifice. This 
excellent observer proceeds to remark, "that the leading features in the 
structure of both these species are similar. The large common cavity in 
both species is common to the respiratory, digestive and generative systems. 
The water in which the animal lives is transmitted through this cavity, and 
thus acts as a means of respiration. In Serpentaria it acts I would say al- 
most altogether as an organ of digestion, and for this purpose its construction 
is slightly different from that of Nemertes, in which animal the structure 
approaches more to that of the true Planaria, in so far as it is endowed with 
an extensile'trumpet-proboscis, which is continuous with a large puckered-up 
tube running along the upper and central part of the common cavity, and 
which, contrary to the supposition of Rathke and other naturalists, is, accord- 
ing to the opinion already expressed by Ehrenberg, the intestinal canal. It 
is tied down at intervals by strong filjrous or muscular bands (mesentery), 
which, when unwound, allows the intestine to escape IVom its attachments. 
The ovaries which run down on each side of the body have no means of 
throwing off the ova except into the common cavity. It appears to me 
therefore that Ehrenberg is correct in supposing that cavity to be an egg- 
passage, and in Serpentaria this is more fully shown than in Nemertes." 

From the preceding quotations it is obvious that Mr. Goodsir's ideas with 
reference to the anatomy of the Nemertinidce are by no means clearly defined ; 
he first states that there exists a terminal anal orifice, while at the same time 
he describes the presence of a cloaca on the abdominal surface not far from 
the head ; he affirms that the water is admitted directly into the great cavity 
of the body, contending at the same time that in this cavity the threefold 
office of respiration, digestion and generation is discharged. It will be here- 
after shown that the views of Mr. Goodsir, in relation to the plan of structure 
on which these eccentric Annelids are organized, differ most widely from 
those to which the author of this Report has been conducted by his own 
investigations, and which are now published for the first time. 

1851. R 



242 REPORT — 1851. 

In the recently published researches of M. Emile Blanchard * on the ana- 
tomy of the Entozoa, physiological opinions are expressed which lend support 
to the errors already exposed. 

This naturalist, to whom science is so much indebted, characterized the 
voluminous spongy organ which constitutes by far the greatest part of the 
bulk of each segment of Tcenia Solium as the true ovary, entering into mi- 
nute details to prove the existence in each ring of an oviduct and vulva, and 
asuperaddedsperm-producingapparatus, demonstrating thus the independence 
of each segmental division, as regards at least the reproductive system. M. 
Blanchard recognises in the minute, lateral, smooth-sided and wwsacculated tu- 
bular threads, running straightly in parallelism with each border of the body, 
what he calls the " gastric canals," communicating with each other by means 
of commissural transverse branches. A system of true blood-vessels coin- 
ciding in distribution with the former is also described by this anatomist. 

Now, if the views of M. Emile Blanchard be true with reference lo the 
organization of the cestoid Entozoa, those now to be propounded in rela- 
tion to the anatomy of the Nemertinidce must be untrue. Both cannot be 
admitted into the category of truth ; they are irreconcileably opposed. 
Though at variance with the fashionable doctrines of the schools, it may be 
enounced as an absolute law, that in the ceconomy of all inferior organisms 
the alimentary exceeds the reproductive system in size and importance. The 
gastric and intestinal organs form in all instances a considerable part of the 
bulk of the body. The dissections of M. Blanchard have reduced those of 
Tcenia to dimensions of utter insignificance. His descriptions are sanctioned 
by no analogy. It is not difficult to demonstrate that the zoological affinities 
of the cestoid Entozoa suggest conclusions with regard to their organization 
which the isolated and undirected results of dissections cannot disprove. 
When however the mind of the anatomist is first awakened to a conception 
of the typical principle of structure which prevails throughout the JVemerti- 
nidce, Planarice, Trematoda, on the ground of their zoological consecutive- 
ness in the scale, he will cease to doubt that the same principle of structure, 
though opposed to his anatomical observations, obtains amongst the cestoid 
Entozoa. It is really, however, in practical anatomy easy to establish a unity 
of plan in the organization of this series. The direct continuity of the Ento- 
zoan and Annelidan chains is rendered unquestionable by investigations thus 
directed. Although the laborious researches of M. Emile Blanchard render 
it probable that no oral orifice f exists in Tcenia, the digestive character of 

* Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 1848, 1849. 

f At the present stage of my investigations, I by no means'desire to commit myself to this 
doctrine. On the faith of the trustworthiness of M. Blanchard as an observer, I concede for 
the present, argumenti gratia, the probable truth of his results. But on this admission it is 
not difficult to show that Tcenia is clearly within the boundaries of the plan of structure on 
which the Nemertinidae (under which designation I would rank the freshwater Gordiusida, 
the Planariada, the genera Borlasia, Lineus and Serpeniaria (Goodsir)) are organized. I 
have hitherto enjoyed only an imperfect opportunity of dissecting tlie Tape-worm, my ob- 
servations having been confined to a few segments from the mid-body ; but I have seen 
enough of its structure to convince me that it falls witliin the type prevalent throughout the 
Liniadds, Borlasia and Planaria ; that the great central organ, which hitherto all anatomists, 
including M. Blanchard, have concurred in regarding as llie ovarian apparatus, is in truth a 
great digestive cecum. If it be true, as affirmed by Prof. Owen, and after liim by M. Blan- 
chard, that neither an orsd nor an anal orifice exists in Tienia, then the ahmentary fluid upon 
which the parasite subsists must be drawn by suction through the suctorial discs, directly 
into the interior of the digestive caecum ; aud as these suctorial discs are not perforated, but 
covered by a porous membrane, the food is fllered a.s it is being drawn into the body. This 
arrangement, however, by no means requires that any other than a digestive function should 
be assigned to the spongy organ commonly known as the ovarium ; for in Borlasia, Lineus 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 243 

the 90-calIed ovarium is rendered not the less probable. It will afterwards 
become apparent that two distinct lines of inquiry converge upon the infer- 
ence that this " ovarium " of authors is a true digestive caecum on a large 
scale; that it is filled by a chylous fluid, charged with organized corpuscles ; 
that its parietes are organized with especial view to supply a secretion by 
which the fluid contents are assimilated ; and that the whole force of analogical 
inquiry supports the view which assigns to other structures exterior to, and 
independent of this organ, the functions of reproduction. It is proposed at 
this place to enter into the details of the demonstrations which the author 
has to ofler with reference to the anatomy of the genera Borlasia, Linens 
and Gordius. The grounds will then become intelligible on which he enter- 
tains the belief that the principles of structures developed by these researches, 
when extended to the instances of the cestoid Entozoa, will prove no less 
exact. 

The whole exterior of the body in these worms is one continued scene of 
ciliary vibration. This extraordinary fact it is essential to remember, since 
it will be found to bear corroboratively on the views afterwards to be ex- 
plained, as to the uses of structures hitherto held as enigmatical*. At a 
point a little posterior to the extreme end of the rostrum, and corresponding 
with what CErsted has designated Jissurce respiratorice laterales, the cilia 
assume an augmented size, appearing in this situation as though supplied to 
guard fissural openings leading into cavities. These apparent openings are 
really only depressions, spaces left between the cervical muscles, in order to 
make room for the heart, which is situated on each side immediately under- 
neath, to expand. The red colour of these two spots on either cheek is due 
to the blood in the heart, which (Plate XI. fig. 64a, a) is a bilocular organ. 
The blood colour of these spots has led nearly all observers to the mistake 
of supposing that the office of respiration is circumscribed to these limited fis- 
sures. The microscope, which resolves the part into its component elements, 
furnishes a direct disproof to this view. In structures devoted to respiration, 
the blood is uniformly divided and subdivided into the minutest streams. 
In this part this fundamental law is violated, for here the blood is accumu- 
lated into one large cardiac chamber. In these Annelids the proboscidean 
orifice is not terminally but ventrally situated. It is slightly behind and on 
the abdominal surface of the conical snout which forms the cephalic termi- 
nation of the body. In itself this opening is a simple longitudinal slit, adapted 
for no me*chanical purpose. Its sides are smooth, and armed with no mecha- 
nical instruments. It is merely an opening through which, in Borlasia, 
Lineus and Gordius, a powerful and an extremely long proboscis is pro- 
truded (fig. 64 B). The extremity of this organ is armed with several sty- 
leted jaws (fig. 64 c), which, from their construction, seem designed only to 
fix the suctorial end, h^ perforating the alimentary object. When the pro- 
boscis is withdrawn into the interior of the body, fitting admirably into a 

and Gordius, the anatomy of which my dissections, I trust, have reduced to clear demonstra. 
tion, the ' alimentary organ,' the great digestive caecum, which both in general and ultimate 
structure is the exact counterpart of what is called in TeBnia " the ovary," has been proved 
beyond dispute to have no direct external communication. Its contents, therefore, which 
the microscope demonstrates to consist of an organized corpusculated fluid, of a milky 
character (the correlate of that which in other Entozoaand Annelida occupies the jBenYowea/ 
chamber, i.e. exterior to the aUmentary organ), cannot be excrementitious ; it is chylous. 
It is the pabulum which in part supplies the materials out of which the blood-proper is formed, 
and by which, in part probably, the work of solid organization is accomplished. 

* I have not yet succeeded in actually proving the existence of cilia on the integuments 
of Gordius ; from the resemblance of its internal structiu-e, however, to that of the Liniadm, 
of which the cutaneous surface is richly ciliated, it is scarcely rash to believe that in it also 
these motive organules will be found to exist. 

r2 



244 REPORT — 1851. 

short oesophagus, these sharp instruments are packed and folded upon them- 
selves. M. Quatrefages, ignorant of the protrusibility of these parts, wrongly- 
conceived that this was the permanent and immoveable position of these parts, 
and described the chambers in which the jaws were lodged as "poches a 
stylets." The appearance of cavities or pouches is, however, altogether delu- 
sive, and depends upon the closing round the jaws of the sides of the pro- 
boscis. This organ in Lineus longissunus (Sowerby) is positively several 
feet in length, and constitutes a formidable instrument of offence*. 

It is remarkable that the very existence of this proboscis has escaped the 
observation of ihe many excellent observers by whom from time to time and 
under different names it has been accurately described. This organ is pro- 
vided with a thick stratum of papillose glands (PI. XI. fig. 64 d), by which 
doubtless a secretion is furnished important to the digestive process. This 
glandular salivary product is poured into the channel of the proboscis : thence 
it finds its way, mingling with the fluid food, into the oesophagus (e), wherein 
it sojourns for a short period, and thence tra7isudes, by exosmose, through the 
purietes and reaches the cavity of the great alimentary organ (/), where it 
assumes by slow assimilation a higher organic standard, becoming probably 
fitted to nourish the solids of the body, and to replenish the contents of the 
true blood-vessels. It will be seen that there is no direct open communication 
between the oesophageal tube (e) and the great alimentary caecum (/,/}, nor 
between the cavity of the latter and the exterior. The contents of this great 
cavity must, therefore, in great part at least, be recrementitious, not excre- 
mentitious. 

The oesophageal intestine terminates (fig. 64 g^ in a distinct papillose outlet, 
which is situated at a short distance posterior to the cephalic end ; when the 
proboscis is withdrawn into the interior of the body, the oesophagus lies in 
the cavity of the great alimentary ceecum, being traceable back to some di- 
stance in the direction of the tail. While in this position, this tube may be 
readily, as it always has been, mistaken for a true intestine ; followed more 
minutely, however, it may readily be observed to return upon itself and ter- 
minate in the lateral outlet already indicated. In the mere mechanical dis- 
position of these parts an intimate analogy may be remarked between the 
Nemertinidce and the Sipunculidce, in which the alimentary canal coils upon 
itself and ends in an outlet situated ventrally, about the anterior third of the 
body. In this case, however, there is no other alimentary organ, in which 
respect the Sipunculidce differ most fundamentally from the Nemertinidce. 

The great spongy mass which in the geneca Borlasia, Lineus and Gor- 
dius, constitutes so considerable a portion of the whole bulk of the body, com- 
mences anteriorly, immediately behind the hearts (fig. 64 a, a), under the cha- 
racter of a ccecal end (h). Although the oesophagus enters {appears to per- 
forate) into the contained cavity of this organ at this situation, yet the interior 
of the latter is not laid open, for its parietes are reflected over and embrace 
those of the oesophagus. Nor is it possible to discover at any part of the 
course of this tube any direct opening of any sort leading from it into the 
cavity of the digestive ccecum. It is, notwithstanding, from the relative con- 
nexion of these parts, impossible to doubt that the food passes from the 
oesophagus, after a short detention therein, for the purpose of insalivation, 
into the interior of the digestive caecum. In the absence of all proofs of a 
direct opening between these two cavities, the passage of the food can only 
be accomplished by transudation through the parietes of the oesophagus. 

* Several specimens of this extraordinary ■worm have recently been found on the shores 
of the Bristol Channel, one by Mr. Lewis Dillwyn, one by Mr. Moggridge, and several by 
myself. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 245 

Having arrived in the chamber of this great caecum, it will of course follow 
on the same ground, that the refuse matter can only escape by the same me- 
chanism, for no direct outlet to this cavity can anywhere be discovered. It 
is therefore a perfectly closed sac, filled with a milky fluid. But it must not 
be overlooked that its interior cavity is considerably multiplied by the super- 
addition o^ diverticula (fig. 64 e, i) to the sides. The parietes of these last parts 
are more glandular, granular and darker than those of the ventral or dorsal 
aspect of the tube. This granular character has been invariably misconstrued 
by every observer into an evidence of the ovarian signification of these parts. 
The microscope places the inaccuracy of this view beyond dispute by demon- 
strating that these ova (otc) consist only of oil-globules. 

This organ is tied at definite intervals, by means of minute bridles, to the 
integument, according to the manner in which, in nearly all Annelida, the in- 
testine is connected with the cylinder of the integument, ^t its posterior, 
caudal termination it has been proved, by repeated observations, that there 
exists no orifice; of this fact there is no doubt. It is then proved by direct 
demonstration that there is neither an inlet nor an outlet to this remarkable 
organ, and it is hoped that evidence has been accumulated to superfluity, to 
establish its digestive character. But through another line of inquiry these 
proofs receive additional force. At short distances, along the whole line of 
the body of these worms on either side, membranous sacculi may be defined 
with readiness in the interval between the alimentary tube and that of the 
integument. It is on these organs undoubtedly that the office of reproduction 
devolves. If this be not their true function, no other can be assigned to them; 
and if this be their real meaning, it follows that no other than that of digestion 
remains for that organ, which the author has ventured to designate as the 
great alimentary cmcum*. 

The key to the real organization of this unfamiliar group of Annelids 
having thus been forged by the demonstration of the structure of a few 
typical and illustrative species, material assistance is aff'orded for unlocking 
the difficult anatomy of all the allied genera. Taking for groundwork the 
plan on which the Planarice are formed, the anatomist may trace the indica- 
tions of the same constructional pi'inciple from the genus Litieus, through 
that oiBorlasia, Gordius, Meckelia, Serpentaria and Prostoma, genera which 
are characterized by the possession of a long proboscis and short oesophagus, 
forming a system almost distinct from the great digestive ccecum. In passing 
to the Planarice, these two prehensile structures disappear, and the mouth 
opens directly, without any intermediate tubular arrangement, into the di- 
gestive cavity. The caecal ramifications of the digestive system of the Pla- 
narice are the precise equivalents of the great digestive ccecum with its se- 
condary diverticula, as observed in the Nemertinida:. 

The anatomy of the Planarice conveys an exact expression, in all its de- 
tails, of that of the parenchymatous Entozoa. The digestive apparatus of the 
genera Fasciola and Distoma is conformable to the same type. Like the 

* As it would be out of order to enter in this place into a detailed description of the re- 
productive organs of these wpnns, no further proof can be adduced, bearing upon the ques- 
tion of the digestive character of the organ which in the text I have denominated " the great 
digestive caecum." In the second part of this Report, vphich I trust will appear in the next 
year's Volume of the Transactions, some further observations on the reproductive organs will 
be added in connexion with the subject of the Embryology of the Annelida. At present I 
■ only desire to indicate the example of the Planarian family, as sufficient to prove that in 
them at least, the digestive cseca, so exactly homologous with the alimentary caecum of the 
Nemertinidrs, have been shovra incontestably to be wholly unconnected with, and indepen- 
dent of, the reproductive system, the anatomy of which, in aU its minutest details, may be 
defined vrith perfect clearness. 



246 REPORT — 1851 

Nemertinida, the Planarice are provided with ciliated integuments. This 
general distribution of vibratile cilia over the cutaneous surface, suggests the 
inference that the milky contents of the digestive tubules, in common with 
the blood-proper, undergoes a respiratory change. And lastly, a further 
departure from the type of the Nemertinidce occurs in the Cestoid Entozoa, 
for in Tania and Sothriocephalus, not only the proboscis and oesophagus 
disappear, but the mouth also. The digestive system remains, notwithstand- 
ing, essentially the same. By these observations, the author hopes that an 
addition of some interest and importance is made to our knowledge of the 
organization of some of the most curious forms of inferior life. The plan 
of study which they are well calculated to suggest, may lead, in the hands of 
others, to much further and more extensive results. They will suffice, he 
trusts, to divert the attention of physiologists from the blood-proper as the 
exclusive fluid element of nutrition, to the study of the characters of the 
great chyl-aque^s system of fluid, of the existence and importance of which, 
in nearly all invertebrate animals, ample evidence has been adduced in the 
progress of this Report. They establish the principle formerly enounced, 
that each constituent element of the living organism, whetliev fluid or solid, 
in its generic and specific phases is governed by one undeviating law. The 
fluids obey their law and the solids theirs. Thus the successive members of 
the zoological series are united at several points, all component systems of 
the organism displaying a consecutiveness of development, a unity of plan, 
such that the presence of each in its allotted position is essential to the re- 
sultant, symmetrical unity of the whole. 

Reproductive System. 

No subject within the domain of comparative anatomy has experienced so 
much neglect as that which relates to the structure of the organs of repro- 
duction in the Annelida. The whole process of multiplication in these worms, 
as explained by M. Duges and Sir E. Home, seems little else than a myth or 
a fable. A romance or a fairy tale, woven in the picturesque language of a 
modern fiction-writer, could not prove to the imagination of the practical ob- 
server more full of mystery and marvel. Since the epoch of these two ana- 
tomists, no attempt whatever has at any time been made to determine the true 
characters of the reproductive organs of the Annelid. Milne-Edwards, to 
whom science owes no ordinary gratitude, has indeed resolved the enigma 
of the development of one solitary worm, viz. Terehella nehrdosa. It is to 
be wondered at, however, that, while noting the embryological history of this 
worm, he did not turn to the parent animal and describe the organization of 
the parts engaged in the production of the new being. It were to serve no 
purpose of historical interest to reproduce in this place the descriptions of 
the earlier anatomists. They contain little of what is true and much of what 
is false. This statement is not made in the spirit of reproach. Duges' instru- 
ments of observation, used too on a little restless worm almost itself micro- 
scopic, could not carry the eye to those details of structure through which alone 
the real connection and dependence of organs was to be tracked. The ob- 
servations of Sir E. Home, far less faithful and exact, are still less entitled to 
repetition in this place. 

The Annelida are commonly reputed to multiply the species, not alone by 
the production of young, but also hj fission and gemmation. With cha-- 
racteristic gravity, for example, the learned Hunterian Professor* relates, 
that " the power of repairing injuries and reproducing mutilated parts is 

* Sections on Invertebrate Animals, vol. i. p. 143. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. ^Ajf 

considerable in the Annelida, and especially in the species of Lumbricus and 
Nais, in which it has been variously and extensively tested by the experi- 
ments of Bonnet and Spallanzani. A worm cut in two was found to repro- 
duce the tail at the cut end of the cephalic half and form a new head upon 
the caudal moiety. Bonnet* progressively increased the number of sections 
in healthy individuals of a small worm (Lumbricus variegatus), and when one 
of these had been divided into twenty-six parts, almost all of them reproduced 
the head and tailU, and became so many new and perfect individuals. It 
sometimes happened that both ends of a segment reproduced a tail. Wish- 
ing to ascertain if the vegetative power was inexhaustible, Bonnet cut off the 
head of one of these worms, and as soon as the new head was completed, he 
repeated the act; after the eighth decapitation, the unhappy subject was re- 
leased by death ; the execution tools effect, the reproductive virtue had been 
worn out : this series of experiments occupied two summer months. Since 
many of the smaller kinds of worms and Naids frequently or habitually ex- 
pose a part of their body, the rest being buried in the earth, both they and 
their enemies profit by the power of restoration of the parts which may be 
bitten off I With this power of reproduction of lost extremities is associated 
that of spontaneous fission in the genus Nais. In these little red-blooded 
worms, the last joint of the body gradually extends and increases to the rest 
of the animal ; its anterior part begins to thicken and to be marked off by a 
deeper constriction from the penultimate link. In the JVais proboscidea a 
proboscis shoots out from it like that on the head, and it is then detached 
from the old JVais. It often shoots out, previously to its separation, another 
young one from its own lost joint in a similar way, and three generations of 
Naids may thus be organically connected, and forming one compound indi- 
vidual." 

On the authority of hundreds of observations laboriously repeated at every 
season of the year, the author of this Report can declare with deliberate firm- 
ness, that there is not one word of truth in the above statement. It is because 
accounts so fabulous have been rendered " respectable" by the fact, that Pro- 
fessor Owen has thrown over them the aegis of his great authority, that they 
demand a contradiction which may'displease by the strength of the language 
in which it is given. 

The following is another illustration of the extraordinary degree to which 
the groundless fancies of the older observers have taken captive the imagina- 
tion of the moderns : — " In the class Annelida we still find that gemmation 
performs a very important part in the act of reproduction ; the multiplica- 
tion of similar segments, which is so remarkable in many members of this 
group, being almost entirely due to it; and a spontaneous division some- 
times taking place by which the parts thus produced are detached from one 
another, sometimes in such a condition that they must be regarded as per- 
fect individuals, whilst in other cases they seem little more elevated in the 
scale of animality than are detached ovigerous segments of the Taenia. A 
complete reproduction by gemmation succeeding by spontaneous fission, may 
be seen to take place in Nais, a worm which, though aquatic in its habits, 
belongs to the order Terricolce. After the number of segments in the body 
has been greatly multiplied by gemmation, a separation of those of the pos- 
terior begins to take place ; a constriction forms itself about the beginning 
of the posterior third of the body, in front of which the alimentary canal 
undergoes a dilatation, whilst on the segment behind it, a proboscis and 
eyes are developed, so as to form the head of the young animal which is to 
be budded off; and in due time, by the narrowing of the constriction, a com- 
* (Euvrep, vol.i. pp. 117-245. 4to, 1779. 



248 REPORT— 1851. 

plete separation is effected and the j'oung animal thenceforth leads an inde- 
pendent life. Not unfrequently, however, before its detachment, a new set 
of segments is developed in front of it, which in like manner is provided with 
a head and separated from the main body by a partial constriction ; and the 
same process may be repeated a second and even a third time ; so that we may 
have in this animal the extraordinary phsenomenon of four worms which are 
afterwards to exist as separate individuals, united end to end, receiving 
nourishment by one mouth and possessing one anal orifice. A similar phse- 
nomenon has been observed in several genera of the dorsibranchiate order ; 
but the gemniEe thus detached are not complete individuals, for each con- 
sists of little else than a generative apparatus, with the addition of locomo- 
tive organs ; thus bearing a similar rehition to the parent stock, which does 
not form generative organs of its own, to that which is borne by the Medusae- 
buds to the Polype-stock. 

"In the one case, as in the other, it must be improper to reckon the gene- 
rative segments of a new generation, since they are merely the ' complements' 
of the organism that would be incomplete without them. 

" As many as six of these generative offsets have been seen in continuity 
with each other, and with the parent stock, by Prof. Milne-Edwards, the 
most posterior being evidently the oldest, and one in direct connection with 
the parent, consisting an yet but of a few segments and being obviously the 
youngest. A similar detachment of a generative segment has been observed 
among the Tubicolce. There are several Annelids which may be multiplied 
by artificial sub-division, each part being able to grow up into the likeness 
of the perfect animal, though they do not spontaneously reproduce them- 
selves in this mode*." 

The whole of this subject is not easy of proof; experiments conclusively 
ai)d unexceptionably conducted must extend over a considerable time, and 
should be followed out under the most favourable circumstances of leisure 
and opportunity ; a very large portion of the subject may, however, even with 
our present acquaintance with the habits of the Annelida, be very confidently 
disposed of. 1st, as to the spontanemis division of the body. — It is true that 
towards the latter end of every summer two species of worms are multiplied 
by a cutting across of the body at one or more points. If the fission occurs 
at more than one point, the animal becomes of course divided into more than 
two pieces. This circumstance seldom occurs. The fission in Arenicola 
generally occurs somewhere within the middle third of the body, securing a 
few branchial tufts for each fragment. The tail however is sometimes de- 
tached, and sometimes the division happens very near the head. This pro- 
cess, both in Nois and Arenicola, happens during July and August. The 
cephalic and caudal pieces in Arenicola continue for some time to writhe in 
the S'and, somewhat further down in the soil from the surface than the per- 
fect individuals. Towards September, the fragments, both that attached to 
the head and that belonging to the tail, dissolve away ring by ring, and 
finally disappear by decomposition. If the fragment examined be that of 
the tail, it will be observed, at the point of separation, to exhibit an eversion 
of the edges, placing the alimentary canal exteriorly ; and a very evident in- 
crease of size in the vessels also occurs, accompanied by a tumified state of 
all the structures of the part. From this latter fact it is easy to be misled 
into the idea that the vessels can become enlarged for no other purpose than 
that of repairing the injury done by the fission, or perchance of reproducing 
the part detached by that process. Such would naturally be the meaning 
which a physiologist would attach to the swollen appearance of the blood- 
* Carpenter's Principles of Physiology, 3rd ed. p. 934, par. 714 a. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 249 

vessels. But such is not the conclusion to which the careful practical observer 
is conducted by the study of the actual phsenomena of the process. It is of 
course indisputable that nature accomplishes some adequate object by the 
fission of the body of the worm ; but that object, whatever else it be, is un- 
questionably not that of multiplying the species. The tail-fragment never, 
as can be proved by easy observation, produces a single new ring or segment 
of the body. If this be true, how completely improbable must be the state- 
ment that the headless piece is capable of reconstructing a new headl In 
Arenicola and Nais the author can confidently declare that such reproduc- 
tive properties as those implied in the reformation, and that too by a remnant 
of an integral part of the body, do not exist. It is equally inaccurate to 
maintain that a new tail is formed by the cephalic fragment. This half of 
the divided worm, like the former, gradually presents evidences of decay ; it 
becomes less and less irritable, the muscles and integuments begin to decom- 
pose, the blood-vessels of the branchiae become blacii, and the whole disap- 
pears by the dissolution of the structures. 

If, as is commonly affirmed by zootomists, each individual ring of the body 
constituted a real organic submultiple of the entire animal, the possibility of 
its iadependent existence could be readily conceived. This however is not 
the case. In Arenicola, Nais and Terebella, and many other species, the 
reproductive organs are limited to the anterior two-thirds of the body. They 
do not exist in the caudal segment. When this latter part therefore is de- 
tached from the cephalic extremity, it is evident that it cannot be regarded 
as a totuyn irdegrum, a perfect animal in miniature. It wants the most im- 
portant and essential components of a perfect organism — the generative ap- 
paratus, without which the mind cannot realise the conception of distinct 
individuality. In Nais Jiliformis the division most frequently happens at a 
short distance from the head, through the very middle of the glandular mass 
of the reproductive organs, tubes being cut across, and the testicular glands 
being bisected. These extraordinary facts, correctly interpreted, prove clearly 
that there can be no method in this spontaneous fission of the body, no one 
situation selected in preference to another, no including of one system of 
organs and an excluding of another, no definite intelligible ruling principle. 
What then can be the meaning of such an extraordinary freak of nature? 
Is it an accident which befalls only a few luckless individuals ? The sand of 
the sea-shore and the mud of the freshwater pools are thickly strewn with 
the mutilated bodies of these worms, the former situation of the Lug, and 
the latter of the Naiades. It is a catastrophe, in which every autumn in- 
volves the whole community. 

The following interpretation of the above facts, the truth of which cannot 
be disputed, may be presented as best accordant with what is at present 
known with reference to the history of the reproductive process in these 
worms : — 

1st. These Annelids are annuals ; the term of existence is completed when 
the organic cycle is once accomplished. They are born during the latter 
months of one summer, and survive the winter, attain to the maturity of 
growth, reproduce the species, and die by the spontaneous subdivision of the 
body into fragments on the arrival of the same season of the succeeding year. 
This brief round comprehends the history of each individual. Since these 
worms are monoecious, each shai-es the common fate. Each contributes by 
its own death to the multiplication of the species ; the species being multi- 
plied, the ends of its own existence are accomplished. 

2nd. For some time before the fission of the body occurs, the process of 
the maturation of the ova is proceeding. Arrived at the matured phase, they 



250 REPORT— 1851. 

escape from the ovarian system into the free space of the peritoneal cavity, 
wherein they sojourn until the next phase of their growth has been attained. 
It is during the period marked by the presence of true ova in the chamber 
of the peritoneum, floating in the contained fluid, that the division of the 
body of the parent animal takes place. In each fragment is nestled, incu- 
bated, a considerable number of ova. Filled still by the fluid of the perito- 
neal cavity, each fragment becomes subservient to the end of hatching the 
young. It resists decomposition only for the period required for the ac- 
complishment of this purpose. When the ova are committed to the sand, 
the fragment rapidly disappears by putrefaction. The fission of the body, 
thus interpreted, becomes the last act of the parental worm, since the portions 
into which the body is subdivided by fission, never take food. The proboscis 
of the cephalic fragment is never more protruded to take in sand. With the 
fission the necessity for food terminates. If, on the contrary, the division of 
the body were the first step of a real reproductive operation, characterized 
by the superaddition of new segments to the body, the reconstruction of lost 
heads, and the manufacture anew of departed tails, a resort to physiological 
arguments were little required to prove that each fragment should grow vo- 
racious, and consume extra supplies of nourishment, in order to provide the 
necessary pabulum for the reparation of the mutilated parts. As this is not the 
fact, the inference is clear that the division of the body is not the prelude to 
a series of reconstructive operations by which parts are made " wholes," or 
mutilations repaired. The experiment of artificially bisecting the body of a 
Nereid or an Earth-worm, replacing the divided halves with care again in 
their native habitats, invariably, in the author's hands, has led to the follow- 
ing results. 

The cephalic half, by this division of the body, does not lose the power of 
locomotion. In a few days after the operation it begins to grow less active 
and vigorous in its movements ; the annulus at the point of division begins 
to contract and wither ; in process of a few more hours it dies — it mortifies 
away. This process of dissolution creeps in the direction of tlie head from 
one segmental ring of the body to the other, until finally the cephalic remnant 
ceases to manifest any signs of life. 

The tail-half immediately loses the power of advancing; it writhes on one 
spot, and that only on contact of some external body ; its motions become 
excited, not voluntary ; it never reacquires the power of swallowing earth. 
The process of decay begins much sooner than in the cephalic half, and 
extends in the direction of the tail, implicating one ring after another more 
rapidly, until the whole is involved in decay*. 

If the Annelid were really endowed with the reproductive properties, which 
by the most recent and distinguished naturalists they are reputed to possess, 
such marvellous powers would undeniably have been called into activity by 
the artificial division of the body. 

From the analogy of the two species, viz. Arenicola and Nais, on which 
the author's observations have been chiefly conducted, the conclusion may 
be deduced that the "fission of the body" in every other species of Annelida 
in which it occurs, has for object in like manner to protect and incubate the 

* I have a distinct remembrance that many years ago, whilst studying physiology under 
the zealous teachership of Mr. Grainger, experiments were related by that distinguished 
physiologist, and oonducted by himself, with a view to resolve the enigma of the " myste- 
rious tales" popularly prevalent with reference to the reproductive powers of the worms, 
from which he drew conclusions precisely the same as those expressed iu the text. I can 
now add ray testimony to the correctness of the observations, instituted for a diflferent pur- 
pose, and so long ago, by one who has contributed not a little to the advance of physiological 
science. 



ON THE BRITISH ANNELIDA. 251 

ova. In this indirect sense, and that alone, can the "spontaneous division" 
of the body in the Annelid be regarded as participating in the reproductive 
operations. 

All that is known of the embryology of the Annelida has been within re- 
cent years only contributed by Milne-Edwards. The illustrations given by 
hira delineate the successive stages presented by the young of Terebella 
nebulosa in the process of growth. As the author of this Report has yet 
enjoyed few opportunities of studying the development of the young, he pro- 
poses for the present to omit entirely that department of his subject, hoping 
that on some future occasion he shall be able to complete the history of the 
British Annelids by the addition, to the embryology of the worms, of the 
results of his own personal inquiries. Nothing would be here gained by 
the further repetition of the oft-repeated descriptions of Duges with reference 
to the structure of the generative organs of the Leech and the Naid. It is 
remarkable to relate, that no anatomist, from the epochs of Duges and Sir 
Everard Home to the present time, has perceived that these descriptions 
comprise only one-half of the sexual organs of these worms. It is extraor- 
dinaiy