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REPORT 



TWENTY-SECOND MEETING 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT BELFAST IN SEPTEMBER 1852. 



¥ 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1853. 



PRINTED BY 
RICHARD TAYLOR AND WILLIAM FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xiii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xvi 

Table of Council from commencement xviii 

Treasurer's Account xx 

Officers and Council xxii 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxiii 

Corresponding Members xxiv 

Report of Council to the General Committee xxiv 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xxix 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxxii 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxxv 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xl 

Address of the President xli 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Third Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phaenomena. Catalogue of 
recorded Earthquakes from 1606 b.c. to a.d. 1850. By Robert 
Mallet, C.E., M.R.I.A I 

Twelfth Report of a Committee, consisting of H. E. Stkickland, Esq,, 
Professor Daubeny, Professor Henslow, and Professor Lindley, 
appointed to continue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality 
of Seeds 177 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1851-52. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford 178 

On the Influence of the Solar Radiations on the Vital Powers of Plants 
growing under different Atmospheric conditions. By J. H. Glad- 
stone, Ph.D 239 

A Manual of Ethnological Inquiry ; being a series of questions concern- 
ing the Human Race, prepared by a Sub-committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, appointed in 1851 (con- 
sisting of Dr. Hodgkin and Richard Cull, Esq.), and adapted for 
the use of travellers and others in studying the Varieties of Man ... 243 

Mean Temperature of the Day and Monthly Fall of Rain at 127 Stations 
under the Bengal Presidency, from official Registers kept by Medical 
Officers, for the year 1851. By Colonel Svkes, F.R.S 252 

On Experiments on the Laws of the Conduction of Heat. By J. D. 
Forbes, F.R.S. L.& E 260 

On the Chemical Action of the Solar Radiations. By Robert Hunt... 262 
On the Composition and QZconomy of the Flax Plant. By Dr. Hodges, 
F.C.S., Professor of Agriculture, Queen's College, Belfast, and 
Chemist to the Chemico-Agricultural Society 273 

The Freshwater Fishes of Ulster, as enumerated in the MSS. of the late 
William Thompson, Esq.. President of the Belfast Natural History 
and Philosophical Society. Contributed by Robert Patterson, 
Esq. and James R. Garrett, Esq 290 

Supplementary Report on the Fauna of Ireland. By the late William 
Thompson, Esq., President of the Belfast Natural History and Phi- 
losophical Society 290 

Observations on the Meteorology of Birmingham. By William Wills, 
Esq., F.G.S 297 

On the Vortex- Water- Wheel. By James Thomson, A.M., Civil En- 
gineer, Belfast 317 

On the Composition of Foods in relation to Respiration and the Feeding 
of Animals. By J. B. Lawes, Esq., of Rothamsted ; and J. H. Gil- 
bert, Ph.D., F.C.S .323 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 
Rev. Dr. Bryce's Account of a Treatise on Arithmetic in the Chinese Lan- 
guage, by the Rev. Dr. Moncrieff, late of St. Paul's College, Hong Kong 1 

Mr. W. Gartland on Criteria for real and imaginary Roots of Biquadratic 
Equations 2 

Sir William R. Hamilton on Biquaternions 2 

J. J. Waterston on the Gradient of Density in Saturated Vapours, and its 
Development as a Physical Relation between Bodies of definite Chemical 
Constitution 2 

Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

Sir David Brewster's Notice of a Tree struck by Lightning in Clandeboye 
Park 2 

Account of a Case of Vision without Retina 3 

On the Form of Images produced by Lenses and 

Mirrors of different sizes 3 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Stereoscopometer 6 

on a Manifold Binocvilar Camera 6 

Professor Matteucci on the Laws of Magnetism and Diamagnetism, in a 
Letter to Dr. Faraday 6 

Captain E. J. Johnson on placing Compasses on Board Iron Ships 10 

Professor Powell on a peculiarity of Vision 11 

on Luminous beams 11 

on Converging Sun-beams 12 

Mr. W. J. Macquorn Rankine on the Re-concentration of the Mechanical 
Energy of the Universe 12 

Professor C. Piazzi Smyth on an Improved Form of Reflecting Instrument 
for Use at Sea 12 

Remarks on the Red Prominences seen during 

the Total Solar Eclipse 13 

Professor Stokes on the Optical Properties of a recently discovered Salt of 
Quinine 15 

,Mr. J. P. Joule and Professor W. Thomson on the Thermal EiFects of Air 
rushing through small Apertures 16 

Professor W. Thomson on the Som-ces of Heat generated by the Galvanic 
Battery... , 1& 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor W. Thomson on the Mutual Attraction between two electrified 
Spherical Conductors 17 

on certain Magnetic Curves ; with applications to Pro- 
blems in the Theories of Heat, Electricitj', and Fluid Motion 18 

on the Equilibrium of elongated Masses of Ferromag- 
netic Substance in imiform and varied Fields of Force 18 

Mr. R. W. TowNSEND on an Instrument for exhibiting the Colom-s of Liquids 
by Transmitted Light 20 

Dr. John Tyndall on Molecular Action 20 

on Poisson's Theoretic Anticipation of Magneciystallic 

Action '. 20 

Astronomy, Meteors, Waves. 

Mr. H. Hennessy on the Connexion between Geological Theories and the 
Theory of the Figure of the Earth 21 

Mr. James Nasmyth's proposed Theory of the Origin of the Asteroids 21 

The Earl of Rosse's Drawings to illustrate Recent Observations on Nebula;. 
With Remarks by Rev. Dr. Robinson 22 

Meteorology. 

Sir David Brewster's Account of a remai-kable Case of Mirage 24 

on certain Phaenomena of Diffraction 24 

Dr. G. BuiST on four simultaneous Experiments in the Island of Bombay to 
determine the Fall of Rain at different Heights below 200 feet 25 

on Atmospheric Daily and Yearly Fluctuations 25 

Communication from the Smithsonian Institution ' on the Plan adopted for in- 
vestigating the Meteorology of North America' 26 

Lieut. W. H. H. Hooper on the Aurora 26 

Rev. H. Lloyd's Notes on the Meteorology of Ireland, deduced from the Ob- 
servations made at the Coast-guard Stations under the direction of the Royal 

Irish Academy 26 

Mr. M'Farland on the Fata Morgana of Ireland 29 

Mr. W. J. Macouorn Rankine on the Causes of the Excess of the Mean 
Temperature of Rivers above that of the Atmosphere, recently observed by 
M. Renou '. 30 

Rev. T. Rankin's Meteorological Summary for 1851, at Huggate, near Pock- 
lington 31 

on an Aurora observed at Huggate 31 

Rear-Admiral Sir John Ross on the Aurora Borealis 31 

Captain Strachky on the Formula for the Wet-bulb Thermometer 31 

Dr. J. Taylor on Tropical Hurricanes 31 

Mr. J. K. Watts on the Aurora Boreahs observed at St. Ives, Hunts 32 

Miscellaneous. 
Mr. Henry Tavining on an Instrument for Drawing 32 

CHEMISTRY. 

Professor Thomas Andrews on the Discovery of Minute Quantities of Soda 
by the Action of Polarized Light 33 

• on the Atomic Weights of Platinum and Barium 33 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Professor Thomas Andrews on the Microscopic Structure of certain Basaltic 

and Metamorphic Rocks, and the Occun-ence of Metalhc Iron in them 34 

Professor James Apjohn on the Results of Analysis of a Substance resembling 

the Pigolite of Professor Johnston 35 

Is the Mechanical Power capable of being obtained 

by a given amount of Caloric employed in the production of Vapour indepen- 
dent of the Natm'e of the Liquids? 35 

Mr. Samuel Bateson on Glynn and Appel's Patent Paper for the prevention 

of Piracy and Forgery by the Anastatic Process 35 

Mr. James S. Brazier on Irish-bog Butter 35 

Professor T. Graham on the Principle of the Endosmose of Liquids , 36 

Professor John F. Hodges on the Phosphatic Nodules of the Greensand of 
the North of Ireland 36 

Mr. — Knox on the Effect of the Moon's Rays 36 

Mr. A. Macdonnell on the Atomic Weight of Magnesium 36 

Professor Frederick Penny on the Estimation of Iodine 37 

Professor E. Ronalds on the Oil of the Sun-Fish 39 

Professor G. G. Stokes on the apj^lication of certain Optical Phsenomena to 
Chemistry 39 

Professor Tennant on the Koh-i-Noor Diamond 39 

Mr. Thomas Woods on Chemical Combination, and on the Amount of Heat 
produced by the Combination of several Metals with Oxygen 39 

on the Combination of Metals with Oxygen 40 

GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Professor T. Andrews on a New Variety of Magnetic Iron Ore ; with Re- 
marks upon the Application of Bicarbonate of Baryta to Quantitative Ana- 
lyses > 41 

Mr. W. BoLLAERT on the Sources of Common Salt 41 

Sir David Brewster's observations on the Diamond 41 

Mr. James Bryce, jun., on the Geological Structure of the Counties of Down 
and Antrim 42 

on the Disposition of Granite Blocks in Ai'gyllshire ... 43 

Major Charters on the Alps in the Vicinity of Mont Blanc 43 

M. Achille Delesse's Account of the Changes occasioned during the Cool- 
ing of the Granite of Mont Blanc 43 

Dr. Andrew Fleming on the Rocks of the Upper Punjaub 43 

Professor E. Forbes on the Fossils of the Yellow Sandstone of the South of 
Ireland 43 

Mr. John Grainger on the Shells found in the Alluvial Deposits of Belfast... 43 

Mr. Richard Griffith on the Lower Members of the Carboniferous Series 
of Ireland 46 

Notices of the Geology of Ireland 47 

Mr. Robert Harkness on the Fossil Remains of the Lower Silurians of the 
South of Scotland, and their Position 48 

on the occui-rence of Graphite at Almorness Head, 

Kirkcudbrightshu-e 50 

Mr. H. Hennessy's Account of the Researches of German Geologists ......... 61 



viii CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. J. Beete Jukes ou Devonian Rocks m the South of Ireland 51 

Professor William King on the Permian Fossils of Cultra 53 

Colonel Lloyd on the Mines of Copiapo 53 

Mr. Long on Crag Formations and Coprolites 53 

Mr. James MacAdam on the Fossiliferous Beds of the Counties of Antrim and 

Down 53 

Professor M'Coy on the Subdivisions oi Leptcena 55 

on the Stnicture of certain Fossil Fishes found in the Old 

Red Sandstone of the North of Scotland 55 

— on the Mode of Succession of the Teeth in Cochliodus 55 

Prof. J. NicoL on the Struetme of the South Silurian Mountains of Scotland 55 

on the OccmTcnce of Glacier Moraines in Arran 55 

Mr. C. B. Rose's Notice of the Discovery of a new Talpina ? 55 

Mr. J. W. Salter on the Lowest Fossiliferous Beds of North Wales 56 

. on a few Genera of Lish Silurian Fossils 59 

Mr. W. D. Saull on the supposed Action of Water in Geological Formations, 

and the Position of the Poles of the Earth 61 

Mr. James Smith on the Conditions under which Boulders occur in Scotland 61 

Dr. William Stanger ou Certain Fuitows and Smoothings on the Surface 

of Granite, caused by Drift Sand, at the Cape of Good Hope 61 

Mr. H. Twining on some Peculiarities of Granite in Certain Points of the Py- 
renees ^2 

Dr. Vallini's Notice of a Skeleton of Mastodon angustidens found near 

MontopoH 62 

M. De Verneuil on the Geological Structure of Spain 62 

Major ViCARY on the Geology of a portion of the Himalaya Mountains 62 

Mr. J. King Watts on the Geology of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire, and its 

Neighbom-hood 63 

Mr. R. Young on the Eskers of the Central Part of Ireland 63 

BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 
Botany. 
Professor Allman on the Development of Ferment Cells in the Warm-Water 

Flax Steeps 64 

on a Microscopic Alga as a Cause of the Phsenomenon of 

the Coloration of large masses of Water 64 

Professor Balfour's Remarks on the Flora of the South and West of Ireland 64 

Professor Dickie on the Distribution of the Marine Algse on the British and 

Irish Coasts, with reference to the Influence of the Gulf-stream 65 

Notice of a Monstrosity oi Bellis perennis 66 

— Remarks on the Altitudinal Ranges of Plants in the Noi"th 

of Ireland 66 

Professor W. Hincks on an Anomaly of the Trifolium repens (white clover), in 
which the Pedicles of the Flowers were very much elongated, and the Petals 
and Pistil converted into Leaves 66 

Professor M'Co.sh's Morphological Analogy between the Disposition of the 

Branches of Exogenous Plants and the Venation of their Leaves 66 

Major MuNRO on the Transmutation of ^f/ilops into Trificum 68 

Professor Royle on the Black and Green Teas of Commerce 69 



CONTENTS. ^^ 

Page 

Zoology. 

70 
Professor Allman on a peculiar Annelidan Larva ••••■•• 

on the Universality of a Medusoid Structure m the Repro- 

ductive GemmJE of the Tubularian and SertiUanan Polypes •• • • • 

on the Signification of the Ovigerous Vesicles m t^e Hy- ^^ 

dioid Polypes * V , ' "i^ t»i ^ 

Dr. Maktin Barry on a singular Locality chosen for its Nest by the Black ^^ 

Red-Start {Sylvia Tithys) ^^ 

Prince of Canino's Zoological Notices •••••; •••;•- ' 

Professor Dickie's Remarks on the Distribution and Habits of EcUnusUmdus 72 
Professor E. Forbes on a New Map of the Geological Distribution of Marine ^^ 

Life, and on the Homoiozoic Belts 

Remarks on a species of Sepiola new to Britain, and first 

procured in the Neighbourhood of Belfast ••■ ;•• 

Mr. John Grainger's Catalogue of the Shells found in the Alluv>al Deposits ^^ 

of Belfast " 

Rev Thomas Hincks on a peculiar Organ which occurs on some of the Ma- 

rine Bryozoa, and which appears to indicate a Difference of Sex 75 

Mr Thomas H. Huxley's Researches into the Structui-e of the Ascidians ... /6 
Mr George C. Hyndman on a New Species of Acaleph from Belfast Bay... /7 
Mr. William Ogilby on the Geographical Dista-ibution of Animals m con- 

nection with the Progress of Human Civilization 

Professor Owen on the Homologies of the Cranial Vertebra • /S 

Mr C W Peach on seme Fishes, Crustacea and MoUusca found at Peterhead 78 
Dv. Wyville T. C. Thomson on the Character of the Sertularian Zoophytes /8 

Physiology. 
Dr. J. Barker on the Part played by the Cavernous Sinus in the Circulation ^^ 

of the Brain ," ",! xm 

Dr. E. DU Bois-Reymond on a New Effect produced on Muscles by the Elec- ^^ 

trie Current '. ■■"'■ 

Professor T. Wharton Jones on the Forces by which the Circulation of the ^^ 

Blood is carried on 

Dr. Richard Fowler on the State of the Mind during Sleep 



82 



ETHNOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

Ethnology. 

Dr. BiALLOBLOTZKi's Remarks on an Ethnological Collection, in illustration 
of the Ethnology of Java 

Mr Richard Cull on the Misapphcation of the terms Evolution and Develop- 
ment, as appUed by Ethnographical Philologists to the Inflexions of a ^^ 
Language ■■' 

, Notes on Blumenbach's Classification of the Human Race ... 84 

Mr. John V. Giles's Description of a Samoied Family seen at Archangel, ^^ 
in aletter to Dr.Hodgkin • 

Mr. John Grattan's Notes upon a Collection of Irish Crania 

Rev. Edward Hincks on the Ethnological Bearing of the Recent Discoveries ^^ 
in Connexion with the Assyrian Inscriptions ^ 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Rev. Edward Hincks on the Forms of the Personal Pronouns of the Two 
Fiist Persons in the Indian, Eui-opean, Syro-Arabic, and Egyptian Lan- 
guages "° 

Rev. A. Hume on the Origin, Characteristics, and Dialect of the People in 

the Counties of Down and Antrim 89 

Professor MacDouall's Heads of a Paper "On the present state of Medo- 

Persic Philology " °" 

Geogkaphy. 

Capt. W. Allen's Attempt to account for numerous appearances of sud- 
den and %Tiolent drainage seen on the sides of the basin of the Dead Sea... 95 

I on a Proposed New Line for a Ship Canal to the East Indies 

through the Dead Sea 9/ 

— ; on the Antiquities of the Island Ruad, the Ancient Aradus, 

and on the ancient Harbour of Seleucia in Pieria 98 

Mr. W. F. AiNSVifORTH on a Railroad through Asia Minor 100 

Mr. Willia-m Bollaert on the Distribution of Common Salt, and other Saline 
Bodies, with a view to show their Primary Origin and subsequent Forma- 
tions ^00 

Colonel Chesney's Observations on the Euphrates Line of Communication 

with India .. 104 

Mr. F. Galton's Expedition to the East of Walfisch Bay 110 

Dr. J. Gabon's Climatological Notes on Pisa and Lucca 110 

Messrs. Lionel Gisborne and Forde's Recent Sm-vey for a Ship Canal 

through the Isthmus of Central America 110 

On a Recent Journey across Africa from Zanzibar to Angola, as communicated 

from Her Majesty's Foreign Office to the Royal Geographical Society 1 10 

Rev. Dr. Hincks on certain Ancient Mines 110 

Messrs. Livingston and Oswell's latest Explorations in South Africa to 

the North of Lake N'gami 112 

On the E.\pedition to the Interior of Central Austraha in search of Dr. Leichardt 1 12 
Lieut. L. Macleod on the Proposed Expedition to ascend the Niger to its 

Source 112 

M. A. Petermann's Notes on the Distribution of Animal Life in the Arctic 

Regions • 112 

Commercial Documents relating to the Eastern Horn of Africa 113 

Lieut.-Colonel Sykes's Notes on the Possessions of the Imaum of Muscat, and 
on the Climate of Zanzibar, with Observations on the Prospects of African 
Discovery 113 

Capt. Synge on the most Rapid Communication with India vid British North 

America 114 

Chevalier Van de Velde's late Explorations in Syi'ia and Palestine 114 

Consul Vandey on the Upper Nile 114 

STATISTICS. 

Professor Alison on the Present State of the Law of Settlement and the 

Removal of Paupers in Scotland 114 

Rev. John Edgar on the Neglected and Perishing Classes, and the Means of 

their Reformation i ■•• 116 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Mr. J. W. GiLBART on the Laws of the Currency in Ireland, as exempUfied in 
the Changes that have taken place in the amount of the Annual Circula- 
tion of Bank Notes in Ireland since the passing of the Act of 1845 115 

Professor Hancock. Should our Gold Standard of Value be maintained if Gold 
becomes depreciated in consequence of its Discovery in Australia and 
California? 116 

■ Are there any impediments to the Competition of Free 

Labour with Slave Labour in the West Indies? 117 

Mr. James Heywood's Statistics of the Revenues of the University and some 
of the Colleges of Oxford, compiled from the Report of the Oxford Uni- 
versity Commission 118 

Mr. Holden's Notice of the Progress of the Sewed Muslin Manufacture in 

Ireland 118 

Statistics of the Island of Portsea 118 

Mr. John Locke on Excessive Emigration and its Reparative Agencies in Ireland 1 18 
Mr. Henby M'Cormac on the Connexion of Atmospheric Impurity with Disease 1 19 
Mr. D. M'CuLLOCH on the Statistics of the Province of Nova Scotia 119 

Dr. A. G. Malcolm on the Sanitary State of Belfast, with Suggestions for its 

Improvement 119 

Mr. G. R. Porter on the Productive Industry of Paris 119 

Dr. John Strang ontheProgress and Extentof Steamboat Building in the Clyde 120 

Lieut-Colonel Sykes on the Census and Condition of the Island of Bombay... 120 

Mr. W. A. Wilde's Statistics of the Deaf and Dumb in Ireland 121 

A Short Account of the early Bills of Mortality at Dubhn ... 121 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Mr. F. C. Bakewell on Telegraphic Communications by Land and Sea 121 

Mr. John Barker's Mechanical Proof of the Composition of Rotatory Forces 122 

Mr. James Barton on the Permanent Way of Railways 122 

on the Calculation of Strains in Lattice Girders, with practical 

deductions therefrom., 123 

Mr. J. F. Bateman on a series of Observations on the Discharge of Water 
from actual Experiment 124 

Mr. George Clarke on the Evolution of Gas in Wallsend Colhery 124 

Mr. James Cooper's Account of the Drainage of the Middle Level of the 
Bedford Level ; with Observations on Arterial Drainage 125 

Mr. William Fairbairn on the Mechanical Properties of Metals, as derived 
from repeated Meltings, exhibiting the maximum Point of Strength, and the 
Causes of Deterioration .'. 125 

; on the Tensile Strength of Unwrought Iron Plates 

at various Temperatures 125 

New Tubular Boiler 125 

— Remarks on the Minie Rifle 125 

Mr. Robert Garrett on Improvements made in the Harbour of Belfast 126 

Mr. Thomas Murray Gladstone on Malleable Iron for Beams or Girders... 126 

Mr. John Godwin on an Improved Cast-iron Sleeper for Railways 127 

M. Perreaux on a Dynamometric Machine for Measviring the Strength of 
Textile Fabrics and other Substances 128 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Page 
Messrs. W. J. Macquorn Rankine and John Thomson on Telegraphic 

Communication between Great Britain and Ireland, by the Mull of Cantyre 128 
Mr. W. J. Macquorn Rankine's Remaiks on the Mechanical Process for 

Coohng Air in Tropical Chmates proposed by Prof. C. Piazzi Smjth 123 

Capt. J. Saunders's Design for Safety Harbours 129 

Mr. W. H. Smith on the Natural Pecidiarities and Advantages of the Mineral 
Field and the proposed Harbour of Fair Head 129 

Professor C. Piazzi Smyth on Penrose and Bennett's Shding Hehcograph ... 129 
Mr. James Thomson on some Properties of Whirling Fluids, with their apph- 
cation in improving the action of Blowing Fans, Centrifugal Pumps, and cer- 
tain kinds of Turbines 130 

on a Jet Pump, or Appai-atus for drawing up Water by 

the Power of a Jet 130 

Mr. W. S. Ward on the Production of Cold by Mechanical Means 131 

Mr. Charles V. Walker on Telegraphic Time Signals 131 

on Graphite Batteries 132 

Mr. Thomas Webster on the New Patent Law 132 

Mr. Matthew Whytlaw on a New Method of Scutching the New Zealand 
Flax {Phormium tenax) 132 

Mr. Alfred J. Woodhouse on the Mould for casting Conical Bullets 132 

Index I. — To Reports on the State of Science 133 

Index II. — To Miscellaneous Communications to the Sections 135 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Editors of the preceding Notices consider themselves responsible only 
for the fidelity with which the views of the Authors are abstracted. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 

OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are,-To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry,-to promote the intercourse ot those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empu-e, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers -to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 1 T,i 1 1 • 1 c„ 
The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become TNIembers of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managmg Committees, ot 
Philosophical Instuutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. i i i • ri -i 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its '-ouncil 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. ,, . . , , 1 r^ 1 
Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the Genera 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a Creneral 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive sratuitously the Reports of the Association ^vhich may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. c r^ n a 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of 1 wo Pounds, 
and in each following vear the sum of One Pound. Phey shall receive 
gratuitously the Report's of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay rvlthout interimssion their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay ihis Subscription in any Particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilegeof receiving the volumes of the Association grah* : 
'but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum ot 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
elisible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1852. " 



XIV RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 18S9, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first yeai", and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845 a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing tlieir sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has beenprintedin its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XV 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Plulosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

Li the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNJCATIONS.. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

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II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 

Dillwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Diinkwater, J. E., Esq. 

Durham, Edward Maltby, D.D., Lord Bishop 

of, F.R.S. 
Egerton, Sir Philip de M. Grey, Bart., F.R.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 
Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. 
Enniskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Fitzwilliam, Charles William, Earl, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. 
Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. 
Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 
Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Graham, Professor Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
Gray, John E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. 
Gray, William, jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. 
Grove, W. R., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hamilton, W. J., Esq., Sec.G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir William R., Astronomer Royal 

of Ireland, M.R.LA. 
Harcourt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 
Harrowby, The Earl of. 
Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D., President of Queen's 

College, Belfast. 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. William, late 

Dean of Manchester, LL.D., F.L.S. 
Herschel, Sir John F.W., Bart.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 
Hifl, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.R.LA. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Ibbetson,Capt. L. L. Boscawen, K.R.E., F.G.S. 
Inglis, Sir Robert H.,Bart.,D.C.L.,M.P,,F.R.S. 
Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Johnston, Right Hon. William, Lord Provost 

of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Professor J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Acland, Professor H. W., B.M., F.R.S. 

Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Adare, Edwin, Viscount, M.P., F.R.S. 

Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airy, G. B.,D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 

Alison, Professor W. P., M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 

Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.R.S. 

Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 

Babbage, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 

Babington, C. C, Esq., F.L.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. 

Balfour, Professor John H., M.D. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 

Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.R.S. 

Boyle, Right Hon. David, Lord Justice-Ge- 
neral, F.R.S.E. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Brewster,SirDavid,K.H.,D.C.L.,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Principal of the United College of St. Sal- 
vator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brunei, Sir M. L, F.R.S. 

Buckland, Very Rev. William, D.D., Dean of 
Westminster, F.R.S. 

Burlington, William, Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., 
Chancellor of the University of London. 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. 

Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.G.S. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph. 

Cathcart, Lt.-Gen. Earl of, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., late Professor of 
Divinity, Edinburgh. 

Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Profes.sor S. H., M.A., Sec. R.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

Clark, Rev. Prof., M.D., F.R.S. (Cambridge). 

Clark, Henrv, M.D. 

Clark, G. T.', Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. 

Gierke, Major Shadwell, K.H., R.E., F.R.S. 

Clift, William, Esq., F.R.S. 

Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. 

Conybeare,VeryRev. W.D., Dean of Llandaff, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wallace, Esq. 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. 

Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 

Danbenv, Prof Charles G. B., M.D., F.R.S. 

De la Beche, Sir Henry T., C.B., F.K.S., Di- 
rector-General of the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom. 



Keleher, William, Esq. 

Kelland, Rev. Professor P., M.A. 

Lansdowne, Henry, Marquis of,D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Lardner, Rev. Dr. 

Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 

Lee, Very Rev. Jolin, D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of tlie University of Edinburgh. 

Lee, Robert, M.D., F.R.S. 

Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, Speaker 
of the House of Commons. 

Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 

Liddell, Andrew, Esq. 

Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Listowel, The Earl of. 

Lloyd, Rev. Bartholomew, D.D., late Provost 
of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Lloyd, Rev. Professor, D.D., Provost of 
Trinity College, Dublin, F.R.S. 

Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 

Luby, Rev. Thomas. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A., F.R.S. 

MacCullagh, Professor, D.C.L., M.RJ.A. 

Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L..S. 

MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 

Malcolm, Vice Admiral Sir Charles, K.C.B. 

Manchester, James Prince Lee, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of. 

Meynell, Thomas, Jun., Esq., F.L.S. 

Middleton, Sir William, F. F., Bart. 

Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 

Moillet, J. L., Esq. 

Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 

Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 

Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 

Moody, T. F., Esq. 

Morley, The Earl of. 

Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 

Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 

Murchison, Sir Roderick L, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. 

Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 

Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.G., M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. 

Norwich, Edward Stanley, D.D., F.R.S., late 
Lord Bishop of. 

Norwich, Samuel Hinds, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq., F.G.S. 

Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. 

Orpen, J. H., LL.D. 

Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S, 

O.xford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Osier, FoUett, Esq. 

Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 

Peacock, Very Rev. George, D.D., Dean of 
Ely, F.R.S. 

Peel, Rt. Hon. Sir Robert, Bart., M.P., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Pendarves, E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Phillips, Professor John, F.R.S. 

Porter, G. R., Esq. 

Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Professor W., M.A. 

Reid, Lieut.-Col. Sir William, F.R.S. 

Rendlesham, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.P. 



Rennie, George, Esq., V.P.R.S. 

Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S. 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ritchie, Rev. Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 

Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., Pres. R.LA., 

F.R.A.S., 
Robison, Sir John, late Sec.R.S.Edin. 
Roche, James, Esq. 
Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 
Roseberv, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Ross, Ca'pt. Sir James C, R.N., F.R.S. 
Rosse, William, Eail of, M.A., M.R.LA., 

President of the Royal Society. 
Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, James, Esq. 
Russell, J. Scott, Esq. 

Sabine, Col. Edward, R.A.,Treas. & V.P.R.S. 
Saunders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Sandon, Lord. 

Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Professor Adam, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 
Spence, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Staunton, Sir George T., Bart., M.P.,D.C.L,, 

F.R.S. 
St. David's, Connop Thirlwall, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., F.R.S. 
Strang, John, Esq. 
Strickland, H. E., Esq., F.G.S. 
Sykes, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., late Vice-Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. J. J. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Tindal, Captain, R.N. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Walker, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Rev. Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Warburton, Henry, Esq., M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N. 
West, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, John Stuart, Lord, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 
Whewell, Rev. William, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Charles J.B., M.D.,F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Wills, William. 

Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
AVooUcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



£ 

693 


s. 
5 


d. 
11 


90 








202 








244 








141 








5 









THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 2nd of July 

RECEIPTS. 

£ s. 

To Balance brought ou from last account 

Life Compositions at Ipswich and since 

Aunual Subscriptions at Ipswich and since 

Associates' Subscriptions at Ipswich 

Ladies' Tickets at Ipswich 

Book Composition 

• Dividends on Stock (eighteen months' Dividends on £3500 

3 per cent. Consols) 152 18 3 

From the SaL of Publications : — Reports, Catalogues of Stars, &c. : — 

Volume 1 18 

2 16 

3 15 

4 13 

5 1 4 6 

6 16 6 

7 15 

2 15 

10 9 

11 10 6 

12 16 

13 1 6 8 

14 2 

15 15 

16 5 8 

17 2 8 

18 5 6 8 

19 64 10 

British Association Catalogue of Stars 56 3 6 

Lalande's Catalogue of Stars 5 3 

Lacaille's Catalogue of Stars 16 

Dove's Isothermal Lines 7 9 

Lithographic Signatures 9 

162 13 4 



1690 17 6 



Audited and found correct, 

CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Auditor. 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



1851 (at Ipswich) to 1st of September 1852 (at Belfast). 



PAYMENTS. 

£ *. d. 
For Sundry Printing, Advertising, Expenses of Ipswich Meeting, 

and Petty Disbursements made by General and Local Trea- 
surers 

Printing Report of 20tli Meeting (paid on Account) 

Engraving, &c. for Report of the 21st Meeting 

Salaries, Assistant General Secretary and Accountant, (eighteen 
months) 

Dove's Isothermal Lines 

Maintaining the Establishment at Kew Observatory : — 

Balance of Grant of 1850 29 13 

Part of Grant for 1851 .. , 204 4 8 

On account of Grant — 

For Experiments on the Conduction of Heat 

Influence of Solar Radiations 

For a Geological Map of Great Britain and Ireland 

Researches on the British Annelida 

Vitality of Seeds 

Strength of Boiler Plates 

Balance at the Bankers 226 17 3 

Ditto in the hands of the General Treasurer and Local Treasurers 10 12 8 



£ s. d. 



206 14 2 

300 

17 6 10 

525 
100 



233 


17 


8 


5 


2 


9 


20 








15 








10 








10 


6 


2 


10 









237 9 11 



1690 17 6 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1852-53. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I.MuRCHisoN,G.C.S'.S„F.R.S. The Very Rev. GeorgePeacock,D.D., Dean 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. of Ely, F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 
COLONEL EDWARD SABINE, R.A., Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal Society. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
The Earl of Enniskillen, D.C.L., F.R.S. Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., Pres.R.LA., 
The Earl of Rosse, M.A., M.R.LA., Presi- F.R.A.S. 

dent of the Royal Society. George Gabriel Stokes, F.R.S., Lucasian 

Sir Henry T. Dr la Beche, C.B., F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics in the University 
Director-General of the Geological Survey of Cambridge. 

of the United Kingdom. John Stevelly, LL.D.. Professor of Natural 

Rev. Edward Hincks, D.D., M.R.LA. Philosophy in Queen's College, Belfast. 

Rev. P. S. Henry, D.D., President of Queen's 
College, Belfast. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 
William Hopkins, Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S.,F.G.S., Pres. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
The Earl of Carlisle, F.R.S. Charles Frost, Esq., F.S.A., President of 

The Lord Londesborough, F.R.S. the Hull Lit. & Philos. Society, 

Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S., Pro- William Spence, Esq., F.R.S. 
fessor of Chemistry in the Royal Institu- Lt.-Colonel W. H. Sykes, F.R.S. 
tion of Great Britain. Charles Wheatstone, Esq., F.R.S., Pro- 

Rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., M'ood- fessor of Experimental Philosophyin King's 
wardian Professor of Geology in the Uni- College, London, 
varsity of Cambridge. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT HULL. 
Henry Cooper, Esq., M.D., V.P. Hull Lit. & Phil. Soc. 
Bethel Jacobs, Esq., President of the Hull Mechanics Institution. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT HULL. 
Edmund Smith, Esq. 
ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
J. C. Adams, Pres.R.A.S. John P. Gassiot, F.R.S. Prof. Owen, LL.D., F.R.S. 

C. C. Babington, F.R.S. William R. Grove, F.R.S. Francis Ronalds, F.R.S. 

Professor Bell, Sec.R.S. Robert Hutton, F.G.S. Sir J. Clark Ros's.R.N., F.R.S. 

Prof.DAUBENY,M.D., F.R.S, James Heywood, Esq.,M.P. Prof.H.E.STRiCKLAND.F.R.S. 
Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. Rev. Dr. H. Lloyd, F.R.S. Lt.-Col. W. H. Sykes, F.R.S. 
Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Sir C. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Professor Graham, F.R.S. Prof. W. H. Miller, F.R.S. Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
neral and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi- 
dents of former years, viz. The Earl Fitzwilliam. Rev. Dr. Buckland. Rev. Professor Sedgwick. 
Sir Thomas M.Brisbane. The Marquis of Lansdowne. The Earl of Burlington. Rev. W. 
V. Harcourt. The Marquis of Breadalbane. Rev. Dr. Whewell. The Earl of Ellesraere. 
The Earl of Rosse. The Dean of Ely. Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Su- Roderick I. Miu-- 
chison. Sir Robert H. Inglis. The Rev. Dr. Robinson. Sir David Brewster. G. B. Airy, 
Esq., the Astronomer Royal. 

GENERAL SECRETARY. 
J. Forbes Royle, M.D., F.R.S., Prof. Mat. Med. & Therap. in King's College, London. 
ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., York. 
GENERAL TREASURER. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 
LOCAL TREASURERS. 
William Gray, Esq., York. Professor Ramsay, Glasgow. 

C. C. Babington, Esq., Cambridge. G. W. Ormerod, Esq., Manchester. 

William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. J. Sadleir Moody, Esq., Southampton. 

3. H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. John Gwj'n Jeffreys, Esq., Swansea. 

William Sanders, Esq., Bristol. J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipswich. 

W. R. Wills, Esq., Birmingham. Robert Patterson, Esq., Belfast. 

AUDITORS. 
J. W, Gilbart, Esq. J. P. Gassiot, Esq. C. C. Babington, Esq. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXUl 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
BELFAST MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. Professor William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S. L. & E. 

Vice-Presidents. J. C, Adams, F.R.S. Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. ; Right 
Rev. Dr. Denvir, Sir W. R. Hamilton, Astron. Royal for Ireland ; Rev. Dr. Lloyd, 
F.R.S.; Professor Stokes, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. W. J. Macquorn Rankine ; John Tyndall, Ph.D. ; Professor Dixon, 
F.T.C.D. ; Professor Stevelly. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATION 
TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President.— Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. Professor Apjohn, M.R.I.A. ; Professor Connell, F.R.S.E. ; 
Professor Graham, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. Professor Hodges ; Professor Ronalds ; Dr. Gladstone. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Lieutenant-Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. Richard Griffith, F.G.S. ; Sir H. De la Beche, F.R.S. ; James 
Smith, Esq., F.G.S. 

Secretaries. James Bryce, F.G.S. ; James MacAdam, F.G.S. ; Professor M'Coy, 
F.G.S. ; Professor Nicol, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. W. Ogilby, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents. Professor Allman ; Professor Walker Arnott ; Dr. Robert Ball ; 
Professor E. Forbes ; Professor Owen. 

Secretaries. George C. Hyndman, Esq. ; Edwin Lankester, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. ; 
Dr. Dickie. 

SECTION E GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Colonel Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., &c. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S., Pres. R.G.S. ; Rev. 
Dr. E. Hincks. 

Secretaries. — Richard Cull, Esq., Hon. Secretary Ethnological Society, London ; 
Robert MacAdam, Esq. ; Norton Shaw, M.D., Assistant Secretary Royal Geogra- 
phical Society, London. 

SECTION F. — •STATISTICS. 

President. — His Grace the Archbishop of Dublin. 

Vice-Presidents. — Lord Duiferin ; Mountiford Longfield, Esq., LL.D. ; Major 
Thomas A. Larcom, R.E. ; Lieutenant-Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. ; Valentine Whitla, 
Esq. ; the Earl of Mayo; James Heywood, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Hancock, LL.D. ; James MacAdam, Jun., Esq. ; Professor 
Ingram, F.T.C.D. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— James Walker, Esq., C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. L. &E. 

Vice-Presidents. — William Fairbairn, C.E. ; John Godwin, Esq., C.E. ; C. Lan- 
yon, Esq., C.E. ; Alex. Mitchell, Esq., C.E. 

Secretaries. — John Frederick Bateman, Esq. ; Charles B. Hancock, Esq. ; Charles 
Manby, Esq., Sec. Inst. C.E. ; James Thomson, Esq., C.E. 



XXIV 



REPORT — 1852. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassb:, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 
M. Arago, Paris. 
M. Babiuet, Paris. 

Dr. A. D. Bache, Philadelphia. 

Professor II. vou Boguskwski, Breslau. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U. S. 

Monsieur Boutigny (d'Evreux),' Paris. 

Professor Brasehmann, Moscow. 

Chevalier Bunsen (Prvissian Embassy), 
hondon. 

Prince Charles Buonaparte, Paris. 

M. De la Rive, Geneva. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

M. Dufrenoy, Paris. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 

Professor Elu-enberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsi'uhe. 

Professor Encke, Berlin. 

Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 

Professor Esmark, Christiania. 

Professor G. Forchhammer, Copenhagen. 

M. Frisiani, Milan. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U. S. 

Professor Hemy, Washington, U. S. 

Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Berlin 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 

Professor Kreil, Prague. 

M. Kupifer, St. Petersburg. 



Dr. Langberg, Christiania. 

M. Leverrier, Paris. 

Baron de Selys-Longchamps, Liege. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von Middendorff, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordengseiold, Finland. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor Plucker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Philadelphia. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Virginia. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Baron Senftenberg, Bohemia. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

Dr. Van der Hoevcn, Leyden. 

Baron Sartorius vou Waltershausen, 

Gotha. 
M. Pierre Tchihatchef, (Russian Em- 
bassy), Paris. 
Professor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



Report on the Proceedings of the Council in 1851-52, as presented 
TO THE General Committee at Belfast, Wednesday, Sept. 1, 
1852. 

" I. With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Ipswich, the Council have to report as follows : — 

(a) The Council having requested the President, Mr. Airy, to use his best 
endeavours to obtain from Government a grant towards the publication of Mr. 
Huxley's Zoological and Anatomical Researches, made during the voyage of 
H.M.S. ' Rattlesnake,' have been informed by Mr. Airy that the Govern- 
ment have expressed their inability to make a grant for that purpose in the 
present year : the Council recommend that the application should be re- 
peated. 

(b) The Council requested the President, Mr. Airy, to communicate to 
Her Majesty's Government, and to the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company, the recommendation approved by the General Committee, that 
the necessary aid should be given for the speedy publication of the Bo- 
tanical Researches of Drs. Hooker and Thomson, Captain Strachey and Mr. 
Winterbottom, so as to constitute, by combination with former publications, 
a general Indian Flora. The Council have been informed by Mr. Airy, first, 
that Dr. Hooker is engaged under an instruction from Government, in 
arranging his materials for publication, in three volumes, the first of which 
will not be ready before November 1852 ; and that no immediate application 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXV 

for further assistance is required ; and secondly, that, having ascertained the 
state of preparation of Dr. Thomson's researches, he has laid the case fully 
before the Court of Directors in a letter to Mr. Melvili, to which he has as 
yet received no reply. 

(c) The Council requested the President, Mr. Airy, to make the necessary 
application to the Court of Directoi's of the East India Company to afford 
Captain Strachey such aid as would enable him to publish his explorations 
in the Himalaya Mountains and in Thibet, with the necessary maps and 
illustrations; and have learned from Mr. Airy tiiat he has been informed 
that the Chairman of the Court of Directors has signified his intention of 
giving to Captain Strachey the assistance contemplated by the Association, 
and that he lias therefore taken no further step. 

" II. The President, as one of the Committee for Tidal Observations in the 
Atlantic appointed by the General Committee at Ipswich, has communicated 
to the Council the Memorial which the Tidal Committee has presented to 
Government. It is as follows: — 

" ' We beg leave to make to Her Majesty's Government a representation 
with which we have been charged by the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, respecting the importance of sending out a ship or 
ships to extend our acquaintance with the phoenomena of the Tides of the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

" ' The importance of an acquaintance with the phaenomena of the Tides, 
both for practical and theoretical purposes, is sufficiently obvious, and has 
been recognised by the Government of this country in many ways. At 
most of the points of our own coast, and at several places in other countries, 
observations have long been made which suffice for most of these purposes. 
But perhaps it is not generally understood how far these observations, 
hitherto, are from giving us such a connected knowledge of the subject as 
may enable us to follow the course of the tide over any considerable portion 
of the Ocean. Even with regard to our own shores, such accurate know- 
ledge hardly existed till observations were made and continued for a fortnight 
at the coast-guard stations of Great Britain and Ireland in June 1834, and 
again in June 18S6. On the latter occasion application was also made to 
foreign maritime states, to make a similar and simultaneous series of obser- 
vations, the Duke of Wellington, at that time Foreign Secretary of State, 
promoting the object in a manner which procured from them the most cordial 
and effective co-operation. The results of these observations were inserted 
and discussed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836 (Part II.) ; and, in 
consequence, the course of the tides along the shore from the Strait of 
Gibraltar to the coast of Norway, was made out, as to some general features 
and also along the coast of the United States. But beyond these limits we 
may be said to have no connected knowledge of the course of the tides of 
the Atlantic ; and even within these limits it is impossible, for want of other 
observations, to connect those which were made ; for instance, the tides on 
the American and the European shores. Along the coasts of Africa and of 
South America we are ignorant of the course and progress of the tides, 
although Ave know some of the phfenomena at detached points, and know 
some of them to be remarkable and perplexing. Nor is it at all likely that 
these defects in our knowledge will be removed by any collection of de- 
tached observations. It is only by systematic observations made with the 
express view of connecting our knowledge on this subject, and pursued from 
place to place, as the results themselves suggest, that Ave shall ever obtain a 
general view of the facts. Such observations might be made in no long 



XXvi REPORT — 1852. 

time if an expedition were sent out with this special and exclusive object ; 
and might, in that case, be so conducted as to lead with certainty to the 
result. 

" ' The best mode of mailing observations would, probably, be found to be 
to place observing parties at certain distances along the coast, the intervals 
being various according to the nature of the phaenomena; and to direct 
them to make simultaneous observations for a few days^nd then to proceed 
farther along the coast with the expedition ; or the tides at any place might 
(on any day) be referred to the moon's transit, and this would afford suffi- 
cient means of comparison with any neighbouring case, unless the phaeno- 
mena were peculiar. In this way the progress of the tide-wave along the 
coasts of Africa and America would be determined ; from what points it 
diverges, and towards what points it converges ; the latter points being, it is 
presumed, generally those of very high tides, such as occur on the east coast 
of Patagonia. With these observations, combined with others at oceanic 
islands, the general course of the tide elevation might be traced ; and if this 
were done for the Atlantic, it would be the first time that the course of the 
tide in such an ocean-space has been made known to us. 

" ' It would also be desirable to observe at the same time the streams of 
flood and ebb. From such observations, combined with those of High and 
Low water, it has appeared in Captain Beechey's recent researches, results 
may be deduced, giving a new and unexpected view of the tidal movements 
of the sea, and supplying knowledge useful for the practical purposes of 
navigation. 

" ' As has been said, it is probable that an expedition devoted especially to 
such a purpose might attain the leading features of the required results in no 
long time ; perhaps in a year or eighteen months. This must be on the sup- 
position that it did not attempt to follow the details of the tides out of the 
oceanic space into collections of islands like the West Indies, the details of 
which would employ a much longer time. 

" ' One ship, with several boats to set down and take up observing parties, 
would probably be the fittest scale of the expedition ; and standard points, 
where the observations should be longer continued, and to which the obser- 
vations at secondary points sliould be referred, would be established from 
place to place in the course of the operations.' 

"III. It has been reported to the Council, by the officers of the Associa- 
tion, that from accidental circumstances, the three following recommenda- 
tions from the Committee of Section C, at Ipswich, had not reached the 
Committee of Recommendations in sufficient time to be included in their 
Report to the Committee : — 

"1. That a Committee be appointed to take into consideration and report 
upon the exact position, number and nature of the phosphatic beds of the 
Crag, and to connect this subject with that of mineral manures generally 
with reference to their scientific and economic value ; and further to investi- 
gate the geological conditions under which the so-called ' Coprolites ' and 
other drifted Organic and Inorganic bodies occur in the Red Crag, and the 
probable sources from which these bodies have been respectively derived. 
The Committee to consist of Professor Henslow, Mr. Searles Wood and 
Mr. Long, with power to add to their number. 

" 2. That Mr. Searles Wood be requested to prepare for the next meeting 
of the Association, a Report of the observed distribution of the specific forms 
of Vertebrata and Invertebrata in the supracretaceous deposits in the vicinity 
of Ipswich. , 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXVll 

" 3. That Mr. Logan's paper on the Geology of Canada be printed in full 
in the next volume of the Reports of the Association. 

"The Council have requested the gentlemen named in the two first recom- 
mendations to proceed in the matters referred to, pending a decision of the 
General Committee, that may be taken at Belfast ; and have ordered that 
Mr. Logan's paper on the Geology of Canada should be printed in full in 
the Ipswich volume of Reports. 

" IV. In concurrence with the Belfast Provisional Committee, the Council 
directed that the meeting should commence on Wednesdaj'^, the 1st Sep- 
tember ; and requested the following gentlemen to undertake the offices of 
Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections respectively, subject 
to confirmation by the General Committee, viz — 

Section A. — President, William Thomson, Esq., Professor of Mathe- 
matics, Glasgow. Vice-President, Rt. Rev. Dr. Denvir. 

Secretary W. J. M. Rankine, Esq. 
B. — President, Dr. Andrews, M.R.I.A. Secretaries, Dr. Hodges, 

Dr. Blyth. 
C President, Lieutenant Colonel Portlock, R.E. Secretaries, 

James M'Adam, Esq., J. Bryce, Esq., Professor Nicol, 

Professor M'Coy. 
D — President, Wm. Ogilby, Esq. Secretaries, Dr. Lankester, 

J. C. Hyndman, Esq., Dr. Dickie. 
E. — President, Colonel Chesney, R.A. Secretaries, R. Cull, 

Esq., Dr. Norton Shaw, R. M'Adam. 
F. — President, the Archbishop of Dublin. Vice-President, 

V. Whitla, Esq. Secretaries, Professor Hancock, J. 

M'Adam, Esq., jun. 
G. — President, James Walker, Esq., F.R.S. Vice-President, 

C. Lanyon, Esq., C.E. Secretary, James Thomson, Esq., 

C.E. 

"V. The Council have added the names of the following cultivators of 
science who attended at the Ipswich meeting to the list of Corresponding 
Members of the British Association : — 

M. Babinet, Paris. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 

M. Dufrenoy, Paris. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef, Russian Embassy, Paris. 

Dr. N. Nordengsciold, Finland. 

Professor Asa Gray, U.S. 

" VI. The Council have great pleasure in submitting the following list of 
invitations from which the General Committee will have to select the place 
of meeting in 1853, viz — 

"Hull: from whence invitations were also received in 1838, 1839, 1842, 
1849, 1850 and 1851 ; in which invitations the Municipal Council and all 
the other public bodies of the town united. 

"Liverpool: from the Mayor and Corporation; the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society ; the Royal Institution ; the Architectural and Archasolo- 
gical Society ; the Polytechnic Society ; Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire ; being a renewal of the invitation presented at Edinburgh in 1850. 
. " Brighton : from the Earl of Chichester and sixty-eight other gentlemen, 



xxviii REPORT — 1852. 

in addition to the application made to the meeting at Ipswich, on tlie part of 
the Commissionei's of Brighton, by their clerk. 

" Glasgow ; from the Magistrates and Town Council, and from tlie 
Glasgow Philosophical Society. 

"Leeds: for a meeting some year after the year 1853. 

" VII. The Council are happy to have it in their power to report most 
favourably on the proceedings in the last year at the establishment at Kew. 
The experimental f'^l of Mr. Ronalds's magnetographs, which was in pro- 
gress when the last Report of the Council was made, has been completed, 
and detailed statements of the performance of each of the three instruments 
have been furnished by Messrs. Ronalds and Welsh, and are inserted in the 
volume of Reports for 1851. The Council have great pleasure in referring 
to these statements as showing that Mr. Ronalds's adaptation of photography 
to record the magnetic variations is an effective and practicallj^ useful in- 
vention, supplying to those who may desire it the means of making and 
preserving a continuous registry of the phaenomena. The processes employed 
for the construction and verification of standard thermometers, have proved 
remarkably successful, and will form the subject of a distinct and detailed 
Report from the Committee of the Kew Observatory. The thermometers 
prepared by Mr. Welsh, under the direction of the Committee, have been 
found, on intercomparison, and also on comparison with Mr. Regnault's 
standard, to furnish results highly satisfactory. They have already been 
supplied on application to the observatories at the Cape of Good Hope and 
Toronto, and to several persons under the following regulation of the 
Council : — ' That standard thermometers made at Kew be supplied on ap- 
plication to members of the British Association, and Fellows of the Royal 
Society, at 1/. each.' The Council have also directed that the Kew Com- 
mittee be authorized, at their discretion, to supply standard thermometers 
on official application to any department of Her Majesty's Government, or 
to the East India Company ; and 2nd, that the Committee be authorized, at 
their discretion, to present standard mercurial thermometers to certain of 
the philosophical instrument makers. In compliance with the first of these 
regulations, the Committee have supplied, on application from the Admiralty, 
fourteen thermometers graduated to extreme low temperatures, to be em- 
ployed in the Arctic Expeditions: and, in compliance with the second 
regulation, they have presented standard thermometers to each of the follow- 
ing artists, viz. — Messrs. Adie, Barrow, Watkins and Hill, Negretti, Newman, 
and Simms. Applications have been received from Professors James Forbes 
of Edinburgh, and William Thomson of GlasgoAv, for suitable thermometers 
for very delicate experimental researches in which these gentlemen are en- 
gaged, and which thermometers are now in preparation. 

" The preparations for the construction of standard barometers are far 
advanced ; and with a view to the further prosecution of these objects, the 
Committee for the construction and verification of standard instruments have 
taken steps for procuring autlientic standards of length and weight, by placing 
themselves in communication with the Commission appointed by Her Ma- 
jesty's Government to prepare such standards. 

" At the request of the East India Company, twenty sets of instruments 
for proposed meteorological observations in India have been examined and 
verified at Kew. 

" The arrangements required for Professor Stokes's experiments have been 
completed, and the experiments are now in progress. 

" The Council have great pleasure in repeating their former expressions of 



REPORT OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. XXIX 

entire approbation of the zeal and intelligence with which Mr. Welsh con- 
tinues to discharge the various duties entrusted to him from time to time, 
by the Superintending Committee. These qualities have been especially- 
shown in the manipulations required in the construction of the standard ther- 
mometer's, and in the processes for their verification. 

"At the request of the Council, the Superintending Committee have made 
arrangements with Mr. Green for four ascents of the Nassau balloon, for the 
purpose of investigating the meteorological phaenomena of the atmosphere. 
Two of these ascents have already taken place, one on the 17th and the 
other on the 26th of August, on each of which days Mr. Green ascended 
to between 19,000 feet and 20,000 feet, accompanied by Mr. Welsh and 
Mr. Nicklin, taking with them instruments prepared in the Kew Observatory. 
The observations made in these two ascents had reference chiefly to the laws 
of the deci'ement of temperature and of aqueous vapour in ascending into 
the atmosphere, and will be the subject of a communication from Mr. Welsh 
to the Mathematical and Physical Section. 

" In closing this report of the proceedings at the establishment at Kew, the 
Council are glad to be able to state that the expenditure during the year has 
not exceeded the sum placed at their disposal by the General Committee, 
and that there are no debts; and the Council strongly recommend that the 
establishment should continue to receive the support of the British Asso- 
ciation." 



Report of the Parliamentary Committee of the British Asso- 
ciation FOR THE Advancement of Science, presented to the 
General Committee at Belfast, Wednesday, September I, 1852. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows : — 

The Committee met for the first time on the 3rd of February last, they 
met again on the 11th of March and on the 17th of June. 

At these several meetings the following, among other business, was trans- 
acted. The Committee agreed to meet yearly on the day succeeding the 
meeting of Parliament, and on the second Thursday in July. 

In consequence of the dissolution of Parliament, the meeting of June was 
this year substituted for that of July. The Committee resolved to cooperate 
with the President and Council of the Iloyal Society, who had already taken 
steps in this behalf, in urging upon the Government the expediency of facili- 
tating the cheap and rapid international communication of scientific publi- 
cations ; and the Council of the Royal Society, by a resolution dated the 19th 
of February, informed this Committee that they would be much gratified by 
such cooperation. 

In pursuance of these resolutions, Lord Wrottesley, as Chairman of this 
Committee, in company with the End of Rosse as President, and Colonel 
Sabine as Treasurer of the Royal Society, had, on the 10th of March, an in- 
terview with Sir Thomas Freemantle, the Chairman of the Board of Customs, 
who suggested a plan by which eminent scientific individuals and institutions 
might be permitted to receive from abroad their presentation copies of scien- 
tific works duty free, through the medium of the Royal Society, and whereby 
certain facilities in this behalf might likewise be afforded to the Smithsonian 
Institution of the United States, in return for privileges conceded to that 
Institution by the Government of those States ; and he recommended that a 
letter should be Avritten to the Lords of the Treasury embodying these sug- 
gestions. 

1852. c 



XXX REPORT — 1852. 

In conformity with this recommendation a letter was addressed to the 
Lords of the Treasury by the Earl of Rosse, as President of the Royal So- 
ciety, in concurrence with Lord Wrottesley as Chairman of this Committee. 
To this letter no reply has as yet been received. 

With the view of promoting the same general object, viz. the cheap and 
rapid international communication of scientific publications, it was resolved 
that Lord Wrottesley should address, and he addressed accordingly, a letter 
to the Earl of Malmesbury, as Secretary for Foreign Affairs, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

" March 15, 1852. 

"My Lord, — As Chairman of a Committee composed of Members of both 
Houses of Parliament, selected by the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, to watch over the interests of science and inspect the various 
measures from time to time introduced into Parliament likely to affect such 
interests, and which met for the first time on the 3rd of February last, I am 
requested to represent to your Lordship the great inconvenience to which 
the cultivators of the various branches of science in this country are now ex- 
posed by the extravagant charges levied by Foreign Governments on the 
conveyance by post of Presentation Copies of Scientific Publications sent from 
this country to eminent scientific men, pursuing similar branches of science 
in foreign parts ; and I am further directed respectfully to request your Lord- 
ship, by negotiating Postal Conventions or otherwise as you shall think pro- 
per, to endeavour to prevail on the governments of other countries to afford 
greater facilities for the 'transmission by post of such publications. 

" The undersigned believes that he cannot better illustrate the extent of 
the evils complained of than by subjoining the following list of charges for 
the conveyance by post to the various countries named therein, of a commu- 
nication printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1851, and which was 
conveyed by our own post office to every place within the United Kingdom 
at a charge of 8d. : — 



To Modena 14 10 

Palermo 15 

Milan 18 4 

Turin 12 8 

Padua 18 4 

Bonn 9 



To Berlin 9 

Seeberg 9 

Dreissen 9 

Brussels 5 

Cadiz 7 

Gottingen' 6 



"Your Lordship will at once perceive that such charges as these are far 
beyond the moans of many of the most distinguished cultivators of science, 
who are absolutely disabled thereby from forwarding by post to their friends 
abroad the copies of their scientific memoirs which are presented to them 
gratuitously for the purpose of distribution by the respective societies, to 
which such communications are sent and in whose Transactions they appear. 

" From this cause, combined with the duties levied at the Custom House on 
similar publications imported from abroad, at present the interests of science 
are very injuriously affected, for it happens continually, to use the expressions 
of the Treasurer of the Royal Society in a letter addressed to the under- 
signed, ' That a quantity of intellectual labour of a very high class is un- 
productively consumed in doing over again in one country that which has 
already been done in another, from the want of a more rapid interchange of 
knowledge.' 

" Mr. Rowland Hill of the Post Office Department, has suggested a mode 



REPORT OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. XXXI 

by which these evils might be remedied, viz. if Foreign Countries could be 
induced to adopt the arrangement, by which books are now forwarded to 
some of our Colonies, at charges very reasonable as compared with the above. 

" I remain, &c., 

" Wrottesley." 

To the above letter the following reply was received from Mr. Addington, 
the Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs :- ^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

« My Lord,— I am directed by the Earl of Malmesbury to acquaint your 
Lordship that he has referred to the Postmaster-General your letter ot the 
15th inst., urging that steps be taken by Her Majesty's Government to induce 
Foreign Governments to reduce their rates of Postage on printed papers, with 
a view of facilitating the distribution of scientific works. 

" I am, &c., 

" H. U. Addington." 

The Committee also requested Lord Wrottesley and Sir Robert Inglis to 
represent to the Earl of Derby the inadequacy of the present fund out ot 
which Pensions are provided in certain cases for eminent scientific men. 

In pursuance of this resolution Lord Wrottesley and Sir Robert Inglis re- 
quested and obtained an interview with the Earl of Derby on the 19th of March 
last, at which they directed his attention to the ill-success which had lately 
attended the applications for Scientific Pensions, and instanced the cases ot 
Mr. Hind and Dr. Mantell, in whose behalf the Earl of Rosse, as President 
of the Royal Society, had applied for a grant of Pensions. 

The Earl of Derby, in replv, stated it to be the wish of the Government 

to apportion the fund equitably amongst all the separate classes into which 

the List is divided, or to that effect, and requested to know the share of the 

whole fund which had in fact been allotted to Science. In answer to this 

latter question Lord Wrottesley addressed to the Earl of Derby a letter, of 

which the following is a copy :— ,^^„ 

" ^•' " Wrottesley, April 24, 1852. 

« Dear Lord Derby,— When I had the honour of an interview with you 
in the matter of Pensions to Scientific men, you asked me for the exact 
amount of those that had been granted in favour of Science. I could not 
answer this question, as I had not then been able to obtain either the earliest 
or latest returns. I have since procured all the papers and the account stands 
as follows: out of £16,800 (1200 X 14), the total sum granted for Pensions, 
since the Civil List was settled at the commencement of the Queen's reign, 
a sum of £2150 has been appropriated to Science, properly so called, or not 
quite 13 per cent. 

" I give this detail because it was required from me ; but I would not be 
understood to ground any argument upon it : our complaint is, that in a 
country like this, which owes so much to Science, there should be at any 
time no means of rewarding, either by money payments, or in any other 
manner both appropriate and acceptable to the candidates for distinction, 
cases of great merit, which have been brought to the notice of the Govern- 
ment by Scientific Societies in whose recommendations confidence may be 
securely reposed. 1 say Scientific Societies, for however trustworthy an in- 
dividual may be, there can never be the same reliance on a single opinion in 
cases of this description*. 



" I may add, that when I saw you I was not aware that Lord Rosse had 

* A paragraph is here omitted as referring to personal matters. 

c 2 



XXxii REPORT — 1852. 

applied on behalf of Mr. Ronalds of the Kew Observatory, and that this 
would likewise seem to be a very deserving case ; it was favourably enter- 
tained, but the funds were exhausted*. 

" Yours, &c., 

" Wrottesley." 

In closing their Report the Committee cannot but express a hope that 
their negotiations with the Government, with respect to the cheap and rapid 
international communication of scientific works, may ultimately result in the 
complete accomplishment of this desirable object. 

June 17th, 1852. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at thTe 
Belfast Meeting in September 1852. 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of £200 be placed at the disposal of the Council for the 
maintenance of the establishment of the Observatory at Kew. 

That Dr. Hodges be requested to investigate the chemical changes which 
are observed to occur in the technical preparation of flax ; and that £20 be 
placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert Hunt and Dr. Gladstone be requested to continue their 
experiments on the influence of the solar radiations on chemical combinations, 
electrical pheenomena, and the vital powers of plants growing under different 
atmospheric conditions ; with £15 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Mallet be requested to continue his experiments on the propa- 
gation of earthquake waves, availing himself of the operations now carrying 
on at Holyhead ; with £50 at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Lankester, Professor Owen, and Dr. Dickie, be a Committee to 
continue the superintendence of the publication of tabular forms in reference 
to periodical phajnomena of animals and vegetables ; with £10 at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Mr. H. E. Strickland, Dr. Lindley, and the other members of a 
Committee already named, be requested to continue their experiments on 
the vitality of seeds ; with £5 10s. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. Patterson, Dr. Dickie, Mr. Hyndman, and Mr. Grainger, be 
requested to carry out a system of dredging on the North and East coasts 
of Ireland; with £10 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Wyville Thomson, Professor Balfour, Professor Goodsir, Mr. 
Peach, and Dr. Greville, be requested to carry out a system of dredging on 
the East coast of Scotland ; with £15 at their disposal. 

That Professor E. Forbes and Professor T. Bell be requested to assist in 
the publication of the remaining part of Dr. Williams's Report on the Struc- 
ture of the Annelida; with £10 at their disposal for the purpose. 

Tliat the sum of £5 be granted for defraying the expenses attending the 
distribution of a Manual of Ethnological Inquiry prepared by Mr. Cull and 
a Sub-committee appointed in 1851. 

That a large outline Map of the World be provided for the use of the 
Geographers and Ethnologers ; and that Sir R. I. Murchison, the Lord 
Bishop of St, Asaph, and the Secretaries of the Geographical and Eth- 
nological Societies, be a Committee for carrying this into effect; with £15 at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

* See page Ixi. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXXIU 

Involving Application to Government or Public Institutions. 

That in order to meet the growing wants of science, and remedy, in some 
degree, the inconvenience caused to its cultivators by the dissociated, incom- 
plete, and discontinuous publication of scientific researches, it is expedient 
that the British Association, which, by its constitution, includes representa- 
tives of the various scientific institutions of the empire, should propose such 
general views on the subject as may be suggested by the experience of its 
members. 

That a Committee be formed for the purpose of considering of a plan by 
which the Transactions of different Scientific Societies may become part of 
one arranged system, and the records of facts and pheenomena be rendered 
more complete, more continuous, and more convenient than at present. 

That it be an instruction to this Committee to place itself in communica- 
cation with the Council of the Royal Society, and the Councils of other Sci- 
entific Societies which receive scientific communications at regular meetings. 

That the Committee consist of Prof. W. Thomson, Prof. Andrews, Leo- 
nard Horner, Esq., Prof. Owen, Sir R. I. Murchison, Col. Sykes, W. J. Ran- 
kine, Esq., J. C. Adams, Esq., Dr. Lloyd, Prof. Wilson, Dr. Robinson, Prof. 
Bell, Prof. Graham, W. R. Grove, Esq., Sir D. Brewster, and ex officio the 
General Officers, with power to add to their number. 

That it is important to have a Quarterly Record of British and Foreign 
scientific publications and discoveries, and that the consideration of the prac- 
ticability of obtaining this be referred to the same Committee. 

That a representation be made to the Royal Society of the importance at- 
tached by M. Otto Struve to the determination of the constant of "Irradiation" 
for the Huyghenian object-glass of 123 feet radius. 

That it is expedient to proceed without delay with the establishment in 
the Southern Hemisphere of a Telescope not inferior in power to a three 
feet reflector ; and that the President, with the assistance of the following 
gentlemen, viz. Lord Rosse, Dr. Robinson, Lord Wrottesley, J. C. Adams, 
Esq., the Astronomer Royal, J. Nasmyth, Esq., W. Lassell, Esq., Sir D. 
Brewster, and E. J. Cooper, Esq., be requested to take such steps as they 
shall deem most desirable to carry out the preceding Resolution. 

That the publication of the reduction upon a scale of one inch to the mile 
of the Tovvnland Survey of Ireland, ordered to be made in connection with 
the Geological Survey by the Ordnance, and for which a vote was taken for 
1852-53, upon the Estimates of that department, be recommended to the 
Government to be accelerated. 

That the Council of the British Association be requested to continue their 
efforts to obtain the assistance of the Government for the publication of Mr. 
Huxley's researches. 

That, with the view of obtaining an accurate knowledge of the countries 
on and near the Eastern coast of Africa, from the Red Sea to 10° S. lat., the 
very important products of which have been enumerated by the late Sir 
Charles Malcolm and Mr. D. Cooley, the British Association do call the 
attention of the Court of Directors of the Honourable the East India Com- 
pany, to the desirableness of sending an expedition thoroughly to explore, 
that region, as recommended by the Royal Geographical Society of London. 
The deputation to consist of the President of the British Association, and 
the President and Vice-Presidents of the Royal Geographical Society. 

That most important meteorological data are attainable by balloon ascents ; 
and that the Council be requested to solicit the cooperation of the Royai 
Society in this investigation. 



XXxiv REPORT — 1852. 

That it is important that Professor W. Thomson and Mr. J. P. Joule be 
enabled to make a series of experiments, on a large scale, on the thermal 
effects experienced by air in rushing through small apertures ; and that a 
representation to this effect be made to the Royal Society. 

That the Government be requested, on the part of the British Association, 
to connect with the survey of the Gulf-stream an examination of the Zoology 
and Botany of that current ; and also of the temperature of the sea round 
the shores of the British Islands. 

The Committee having been informed that an expedition has been pro- 
posed for ascending the Niger to its soui-ce, by Lieut. Lyons Macleod, R.N. ; 
and that it has been recommended to Her Majesty's Government by the Royal 
Geographical Society and the Chamber of Commerce of Manchester, resolve 
that the President be requested to concur with the President of the Royal 
Geographical Society in bringing the subject before the Government. 

The Committee having understood tiiat Dr. Bakie, Mr. A. Adams and Mr. 
W. T. Alexander, each of them in the medical branch of Her Majesty's Navy, 
have proposed to undertake a thorough exploration of the countries watered 
by the river Magdalena in South America, in respect to their botanical, 
zoological, and geological products, on the condition of being allowed their 
full pay, request the President of the Association and Sir R. I. Murchison 
to urge the Government to accede to this proposition. 

The Committee being aware of the liberality with which the Master- 
General and Board of Ordnance have supplied the several engineer stations 
with instruments for meteorological observations, would suggest the advan- 
tage of adding to their instruments, in the Ionian Islands, others for measu- 
ring the direction and amount of earthquake vibrations, so frequent in these 
islands. 

That a systematic collection of the Agricultural Statistics of Great Britain, 
of a similar nature with the returns of the agricultural produce of Ireland, 
prepared under the care of Major Larcom, R.E., is a desideratum, and would 
be of great public utility ; and that the President, Mr. Hey wood. Major 
Larcom and Col. Sykes, be requested to communicate the above resolution 
to Her Majesty's Government. 

That a Committee, consisting of Rev. Dr. Robinson, Prof. C. P. Smyth, 
W. Fairbairn, Esq., W. J. M. Rankine, Esq., C.E., and W. S. Ward, Esq., 
be requested to take into consideration the methods of cooling air for the 
ventilation of buildings in tropical climates by mechanical processes, and 
should they see fit to prepare a memorial in the name of the British Asso- 
ciation to the Hon. the East India Company, representing the. advantage of 
making a trial of a process of that kind on a large scale, e.g. in a hospital. 

Not involving Grants of Money or Application to Government, Sfc. 

That the thanks of the British Association be given to the Smithsonian; 
Institution for the communication of Charts illustrating the plan adopted by 
that Institution for deducing the general facts of the Meteorology of North 
America, bearing on the laws of the great North American Storms ; and 
that it be referred to the Council to consider what steps it may be advisable 
to take for the purpose of extending the system of observations over the 
British portion of North America. 

That the thanks of the British Association be given to Prof. Dove for his 
valuable communication respecting the lines of abnormal temperature on the 
globe ; and that it be referred to the Council to consider of the expediency 
of procuring copies of the map of the abnormal temperatures in different 
months of the year, for the supply of members of the Association. 



RESEAECHES IN SCIENCE. XXXV 

That Mr. Sylvester be requested to draw up a complete Report on the 
Theory of Determinants, to be laid before the next meeting of the Associa- 
tion. 

That the Earl of Rosse, Dr. Robinson, and Professor Phillips be requested 
to draw up a Report on the physical character of the moon's surface as com- 
pared with that of the earth. 

Printing of Communications. 

That the observations of mean daily temperature and fall of rain at 127 
stations of the Bengal Presidency, be printed at length in the next volume 
of Transactions. 

That Mr. James Thomson's paper, on Vortex Water-wheels, be printed at 
length in the Transactions of the Association. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Belfast Meeting in Sept. 1852, with the 
Name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Committee, is 
entitled to draio for the Money. 

Keio Observatory, A s. d. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying Expenses 200 

Chemical Science. 

Hodges, Prof. — Researches on Chemical Changes in the pre- 
paration of Flax 20 

Hunt, Mr. R. — Influence of the Solar Radiations on Chemical 
Combinations, Electrical Phaenomena, and the Vital Powers 
of Plants growing under different atmospheric conditions. 15 

Geology. 
Mallet, Mr. R. — Experiments on the Propagation of Earth- 
quake Waves 50 

Natural History. 
Lankester, Dr. E — Periodical Phasnomena of Ammals and 

Vegetables 10 

Patterson, Mr. R. — Dredging on the North and East Coasts 

of Ireland 10 

Strickland, Prof. H. E.— Vitality of Seeds 5 10 

THOMSON,Mr.Wyville. — Dredgingon the EastCoast of Scotland 15 
Forbes, Prof. E. — Researches on Annelida 10 

Geography and Ethnology. 

Cull, Mr. R — Manual of Ethnological Inquiry 5 

MuRCHisoN, Sir R. I. — Large outline Map of the World .... 1500 

Grants £355 10 



XXXVl 



REPORT — 1852. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for Scien- 
tific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions. 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology. .105 

^167 

1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology. . 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c. 50 

Experiments on long-conti- 
nued Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments. ... 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

^'434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves .... 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperatui-e 8'.) 5 3 

Vitrification E.Kperiments . . 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations . . 30 

Barometers 1118 6 

^'918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (con- 
struction) 100 

Cast Iron (strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (preservation of) If) 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Grov.th of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 C 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Laud and Sea Level 26/ 8 7 

Carried forward ^"800 12 9 



Brought forward 800 12 9 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 

.€956 12 2 

1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological ObseiTations 

at Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

A'itrification Experiments . . 9 4 7 

Cast Iron Experiments .... 100 

Railway Constants 28 7 2 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 4 

Steam- Vessels' Engines. . . . 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste . . 331 18 6 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue. . 6 16 6 

Animal Secretions 10 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies. ... 300 

Gases on Solar Spectrum . . 22 
Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 

. €1595 11 

1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperatm'e . 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments ...... 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 60 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste). ... 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies . . 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

Can-ied forward ^^006 15 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXVU 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 1006 15 7 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical 

Phrenomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations . . 185 13 9 

^1546 16 4 

1841. 
Observations on Waves .... 30 
Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperat«re 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents .... 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers .... 618 6 

Stars (Histoire Ce'leste) .185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) . . 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological ObseiTations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs &2 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 65 

Magnetical Observations . . 61 18 8 
Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinbvu-gh 69 1 10 

Tabidating Observations . . 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

.£1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 11 2 

Auoplura Britannia; 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 ] 7 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia . . 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

CaiTied forward ^432 8 3 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 432 8 3 

Stars (Histou-e Celeste) .... 59 
Stars (British Association 

Catalogue of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dy- 
namometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds. . 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds. . 8 I II 

Questions on Human Race . 7 9 

. £1449 17 8 

1843. 
Revision of the Nomencla- 

tiu-e of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue . . 25 
Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hom-ly Meteorological Ob- 
servations at Kingussie 

and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 

Anemometer at Plymouth 10 
Meteorological Observations, 

Osier's Anemometer at 

Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation .... 10 8 10 
Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light . . 18 16 I 
Estabhshment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 

Furniture and Sundries . . 133 4 7 
Experiments by Captive 

Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Carried forward £789 8 4 



XXXVIU 



REPORT — 1852. 



£ s. d. 
Brought forward 789 8 4 
.Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological No- 
menclature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone neai- Manchester . . 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds . 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on 

British Fossil Mammalia .100 

Physiological operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels .... 100 

Reduction of Observations on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instniment and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials • 60 

^1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Obsen-ations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Pubhcation of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland . . 100 

Re^dsion of the Nomencla- 
ture of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew ObseiTatory 117 17 3 

Insti-uments for Kew Ob- 
servatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland . 5 

Colom-ed Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary 
Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes, 1842 23 11 10 

Can-ied forward ,£538 11 8 



£ s. d. 
Brought forward 538 11 8 
Researches mto the Struc- 

tm-e of Fossil Shells .... 20 
Radiata and MoUusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas, 1842 100 
Geographical distributions of 

Marine Zoology .... 1842 10 
Marine Zoology of Devon 

and Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu . . 10 
Experiments on the VitaUty 

of Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds ^ 1842 8 7 3 

Reseai'ches on Exotic Ano- 

plura 15 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquuies into Asphyxia .... 10 
Investigations on the internal 

Constitution of Metals . . 50 
Constant Indicator and 

Morin's Instrument, 184 2 10 3 6 

.€981 12 8 

1845. 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Obsen'ations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

atEdinbiu-gh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at PhTnouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatoiy 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces. . 50 

Experiments on the Actino- 

graph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplma 1843 10 

VitaUty of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitahty of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Me- 
dicines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

MortaUty in York 20 

CaiTied forward <£814 15 1 



GENERAL. STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 814 15 1 
Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 184 3 15 14 8 

^830 9 9 

1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839. .... . 50 

Maintaining the Estabhsh- 

ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 
Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia ... . 6 16 2 
Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Marine Zoology of Britain . . 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs .... 2 3 6 
Researches on Atmospheric 

Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons .... 1844 8198 
Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortahty at York 12 

^685 16 

1847. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals . . 10 

Physiological Action of Me- 
dicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Researches on Atmospheric 
Waves 6 9 3 

Vitahty of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

^208 5 4 
1848. "~~^ 
Maintaining the Estabhsh- 

ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 
Researches on Atmospheric 

Waves 3 10 9 

VitaUty of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of 

Stars 70 

On Coloui-ing Matters .... 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

.£275 1 8 



£ s. d. 
1849. 
Electrical Obser\'ations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phseuomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations. ... 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the EstabUsh- 

ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 
Periodical Phsenomena .... 15 
Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Estabhsh- 

ment at Kew Observatory 

(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Experiments on the Theoiy 

of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phsenomena of 

Aiumals and Plants .... 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 
Ethnological Inquiries .... 12 
Researches on Annelida. ... 10 

£391 9 ~7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

VitaUty of seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plat es 10 

£304 6 7 



xl REPORT — 1852. 

Extracts from ResoluUons of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom giants of money for scientific pur- 
poses liave been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of tlie progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the As- 
sociation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report 
that the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person etititled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., Queen Street Place, Upper Tiiames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additionrd grants of money are made for tlie continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sura named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 1st, at 8 p.m., in May Street Church, Sir Roderick 
I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S,, on the part of G. B. Airy, Esq., M.A., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal, resigned the office of President to 
Colonel Edward Sabine, R.A., Treas. and V.P. R.S., who took the Chair 
at the General Meeting, and delivered an Address, for which sec p. xli. 

On Thursday, Sept. 2nd, a Soiree took place from 8 to 10 p.m., in the 
rooms of Messrs. Workman, which had been arranged for the purpose. 

On Friday, Sept. 3rd, at S p.m., in May Street Church, G. G. Stokes, 
F.R.S. , Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, delivered a Dis- 
course on some recent discoveries in the properties of Light. 

On Saturday, Sept. 4th, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the rooms of 
Messrs. Workman. 

On Monday, Sept. 6th, at 8 p.m., Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S,, delivered 
a Discourse on the recent discovery of Rock-salt at Carrickfergus, and the 
geological and practical considerations connected with it. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 8th, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting of 
the Association was lield in May Street Church, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee, and the grants of Money for scientific purposes were ex- 
plained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Hull*. 
* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 7th of September, 1853. 






ADDRESS 



COLONEL EDWARD SABINE, R.A. 

Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal Society. 



Gentlemen of the British Association, 

My first duty in addressing you from this Chair, must be to express my 
grateful thanks for the high honour you have conferred upon me by placing 
me in so distinguished a position. My acknowledgements are due in the 
first place to the gentlemen of Belfast, who by their Provisional Committee 
brought my name before the Council as that of a person whose nomination 
to the Presidency would give satisfaction at Belfast ; next, to my colleagues 
in the Council, who adoped the suggestion of the Provisional Committee, 
strengthening it by tiieir approval ; and finally, to the General Committee 
(the governing body), by whom it was confirmed. The strong attachment 
which I am known to have felt for so many years to the British Association 
will be my best guarantee that no endeavours shall be wanting on my part 
to perform the duties of the Office to the utmost of my power. 

Gentlemen, we meet for the third time in the Sister Kingdom, on the 
invitation, which has been most welcome to us, of a part of the kingdom 
which has furnished to tlie British Association so large a proportion of dis- 
tinguished members actively engaged in almost every department of science. 
On our arrival, we find ourselves surrounded by faces familiar to us in the 
recollections of many previous meetings, and long recognised as amongst the 
warmest and steadiest friends of our Association. Our meeting is graced 
and honoured by the presence of Her Most Gracious Majesty's representa- 
tive in Ireland. With ample and excellent accommodation liberally provided 
in the fullest anticipation of our wants, and with the evidence which forcibly 
impresses itself on every side of rapidly increasing prosperity, opening a wide 



xlii REPORT — 1852. 

field for the practical applications of science, our satisfaction in assembling 
here would be complete, were it not clouded by the absence of one friend 
who would have been among the foremost to have welcomed us to this 
meeting which he prepax-ed, the Naturalist of Ireland, whose memory will 
long be honoured and cherished by the members of the British Association. 

The ever-increasing activity of the various branches of science embraced 
by the British Association is such, as to render it scarcely possible to com- 
prehend within the limits of an address of the usual length, even a brief 
review of the progress made in the seven departments which constitute our 
Sections. In the selection which I have thus found myself compelled to make, 
I have been guided by a practical principle, which appears not unsuited to 
an Association in which the Presidency is an annual office, viz. that the 
President for the year should notice by preference those subjects with which 
he is most familiar, in which the Association as a body have taken a part, or 
which are likely to be discussed at the meeting over which he presides. 

Among the subjects which are likely to come before the Mathematical and 
Physical Section, there is none perhaps of greater importance, or requiring 
more careful consideration, than the question whether the time is arrived, 
when the establishment of an Observatory in the Southern Hemisphere, fur- 
nished with instruments of suitable optical power for the examination of the 
Nebulae of the southern heavens, and devoted exclusively to that branch of 
sidereal astronomy, should be again brought under the consideration of Her 
Majesty's Ministers. I need not occupy your time by restating on this 
occasion the reasons both of scientific and national concernment, which in- 
duced the two principal Scientific Institutions of the United Kingdom, con- 
jointly, to recommend to those entrusted with the administration of public 
affairs, the formation of an establishment of this description in some fitting 
part of Her Majesty's southern dominions. I would rather refer you to the 
memorial presented to Government by the Earl of Rosse on the part of the 
Royal Society, and by Dr. Robinson on the part of the British Association, 
not only because it contains such a complete and formal exposition, as may 
be most advantageously consulted by those who will now be called upon to 
take part in the reconsideration of the subject, but also because it appears to 
me to furnish an admirable model both in spirit and in matter, for communi- 
cations designed to fulfil the important purpose of conveying in an official 
form the opinions and suggestions which the united body of scientific men 
of this Kingdom may desire from time to time to bring under the considera- 
tion of the Executive. 

In the discussions which took place at a former period, the only diflficulty 
which appeared to be apprehended in reference to the successfid working of 
such an establishment, arose from a doubt whether mirrors of the required 
magnitude could be repolished, as they would frequently need to be, on the 
spot. This difficulty has now it is understood been entirely removed by the 
improvements which the noble Earl, the President of the Royal Society, to 



ADDRESS. xliii 

whom science is so deeply indebted for the instrumental means of prosecuting 
these researches, has made in the apparatus for repolishing the mirrors, 
and in the instructions for the guidance of those who may have occasion to 
employ it, which his own great personal experience has enabled hira to 
prepare. 

In this happy country, in which men are free to consider and to discuss the 
propriety of public support being given to undertakings conducive to national 
honour, and are encouraged to do so by the experience that public men of all 
parties who succeed each other in administration, seek to be guided by en- 
lightened public opinion, we may justly entertain the full conviction that 
measures which from their intrinsic importance deserve to be adopted will 
sooner or later obtain the consideration they merit. When such propositions 
are brought in the first instance, — as in the class of subjects with which we 
are here concerned it is desirable they should be, — before those public bodies 
which are justly regarded as possessing the highest scientific authority in this 
country, and as most competent to judge of them, they cannot be too carefully 
considered and discussed, before by their adoption they become invested with 
the authority and weight which those bodies have it in their power to impart. 
But when after due deliberation they have been so adopted, it is equally fitting 
that those public bodies should be true to their own convictions, and should 
steadily persevere in urging on ail proper occasions, both publicly and pri- 
vately, the measures which they believe Avill add to their country's honour, 
as well as to that general advancement of science by which all nations benefit 
freely and alike in proportion to their degree of mental cultivation. That an 
Observatory for the purpose specified, in a part of the globe where it can 
render peculiar service, and where we possess facilities which other nations 
do not possess, will ere long be established, no one I believe entertains a 
doubt. The importance was admitted by the Ministry to whom the recom- 
mendation was made, the only question with them appearing to be one of 
time. When therefore we view the intrinsic merit of the proposition itself, 
the general interest which it has excited at home and abroad, and its already, 
to a certain extent, favourable reception by Government, we cannot doubt 
that we have but to persevere, and by a judicious selection of times and 
opportunities the object will be secured. It will be for the Members of the 
Mathematical and Physical Section to consider in the first instance, and for 
the General Committee, subsequently, to consider and decide whether any 
official step shall be taken by the British Association in the present year. 
Should such be your decision, it will be the duty of the Officers and Council 
of the Association to confer with the President and Council of the Royal 
Society, and in conjunction with them to take such steps as may appear most 
fitting to bring the subject again, and in the most impressive manner, under 
the consideration of the Authorities of the State. On the former occasion it 
Was thought most respectful to abstain from any suggestion in regard either 
to a suitable locality, or to the Astronomer who might be advantageously 



Xliv REPORT — 1852. 

selected to direct an establishment of this novel description. Such may still 
be deemed, perhaps, the least exceptionable course ; but at the same time it 
may be desirable that it should be fully known, that we are not unprepared 
on these and other points, if it be the pleasure of Her Majesty's Government 
to desire our opinion. 

Hitherto the reseai'ches of Sidereal Astronomy, even in their widest exten- 
sion, had manifested the existence of those forces only with which we are 
familiar in our own solar system. The refinements of modern observation 
and the perfection of theoretical representation, had assured us that the 
orbits in which the double stars, immeasurably distant from us, revolve 
around each other, are governed by the same laws of molecular attraction which 
determine the orbits of the planetary bodies of our own solar system. But 
the NebulfK have revealed to us the probable existence in the yet more distant 
universe, of forces with which we were previously wholly unacquainted. The 
highest authorities in this most advanced of all the sciences, acknowledge 
themselves unable even to conjecture the nature of the forces which have 
produced and maintain the diverse, yet obviously systematic arrangement of 
the hosts of stars which constitute those few of the Spiral Nebulae which 
have been hitherto examined. Hence the importance of increasing our 
knowledge of the variety of forms in which the phaenomena present them- 
selves, by a similar examination of the Southern Heavens to that which Lord 
Rosse is accomplishing in the Northern Heavens ; hence also, we may believe, 
in great measure, the devotion with which his Lordship has directed the un- 
precedented instrumental power which he has created almost exclusively to 
the observation of nebulas. But whilst we cannot but admire the steadiness 
of purpose with which an object regarded as of paramount importance is un- 
deviatingly pursued, we can scarcely forbear to covet at least an occasional 
glance at bodies which from their greater proximity have more intimate 
relations with ourselves, and which, when viewed with so vast an increase of 
optical power, may afford instruction of the highest value in many branches 
of physical science. In our own satellite, for example, we have the opportu- 
nity of studying the physical conformation and superficial phsenomena of a 
body composed, as we believe mainly at least, of the same materials as those 
of our own globe, but possessing neither atmosphere nor sea. When we re- 
flect how much of the surface of the earth consists of sedimentary deposits, 
and consequently how large a portion of the whole field of geological research 
is occupied with strata which owe their principal characteristics to the ocean 
in which they were deposited, we cannot but anticipate many instructive 
lessons which may be furnished by the points of contrast, as well as of resem- 
blance, which the surface of the moon, viewed through Lord Rosse's telescope, 
may present to the best judgement we are able to form of what the appearance 
of the earth would be if similarly viewed, or with what may be more difficult 
perhaps to imagine, — what we may suppose the earth would appear if it 
could be stript of its sedimentary strata, which conceal from us for the most 



ADDRESS. xlv 

part the traces of that internal action which has played so large a part iu 
moulding the great outlines of tlio present configuration of its surface. It is 
understood that Lord Rosse himself participates in the wish that such an 
examination of the surface of the moon should be made, and, should the 
desire of the Association be expressed to that effect, is willing to undertake 
it in conjunction witli one or two other gentlemen possessing the necessary 
physical and geological knowledge. It will be for the Members of the As- 
sociation to determine the form in which a Report on the " Physical Features 
of the Moon compared with those of the Earth " may most appropriately be 
requested. 

In connection with Astronomy, I permit myself to notice the publica- 
tion, now in progress, of two works of considerable magnitude and value, 
because they do honour to the science and public spirit of the part of the 
United Kingdom in which we are assembled ; I refer to the Markree 
Catalogue of Ecliptic Stars, and to the results of the Observations at the 
Armagh Observatory. The establishments from which these publications 
emanate belong to the class which owe their endowment and support to 
private munificence, but by the extent and character of the work they per- 
form entitle themselves to rank with the Institutions, which in this and 
other countries testify the liberality of a nation's patronage. The Markree 
Observatory, which has already distinguished itself under the personal 
superintendence of its founder, amongst other services by the discovery 
of one of the thirteen planets by which our knowledge of the solar do- 
main has been enriched in the last seventeen years, — will hereafter take 
its position amongst the establishments which have most largely contributed 
to the perfection of modern astronomy by its catalogue of the appi-oximate 
places of all the stars in the ecliptic down to the twelfth magnitude inclusive ; 
by which catalogue the detection of any still undiscovered planetary bodies 
belonging to our system will be greatly facilitated. One volume has already 
been published in the year which has elapsed since our Ipswich Meeting, and 
a second is in preparation, and both, by the aid of funds supplied from the 
annual grant now placed at the disposal of the Royal Society, to be applied 
in the advancement of science. Tlie publication of the results of the ob- 
servations of the Armagh Observatory, since it has been under the very able 
direction of Dr. Robinson, has been for some time a desideratum. At the 
instance of the Royal Irish Academy it was recommended by the Irish 
Executive, but without success. It is now being accomplished by aid 
from the same source as the Markree Catalogue. I have the more satis- 
faction in noticing these appropriations in favour of Irish science from funds 
designed for the general benefit of the United Kingdom, because they indicate 
the fairness and equality with which the distribution of those funds is ad- 
ministered : it is also I believe strictly in character with the prevailing 
principles which sanction public aid, that it should be given, when needed, to 

1852. d 



Xlvi REPORT — 1852. 

those who, as in the case of these private observatories, have already largely 
contributed from their own resources. 

The Mathematical and Physical Theories of Light have afforded subjects 
for many interesting and profitable discussions in Section A, and have usually 
had one day in the six specially allotted to them. Those discussions will 
derive a more than usual interest at this meeting from the remarkable dis- 
covery recently made by Prof. Stokes, that under certain circumstances a 
change is effected in the refrangibility of light, and from the advantage we 
possess in having amongst us on this occasion the eminent mathematician 
and physicist by whom this most important contribution to the science of 
physical optics has been made. His researches took their origin from an 
unexplained phsenomenon discovered by Sir John Herschel and communicated 
by him to the Royal Society in 1845. A solution of sulphate of quinine exa- 
mined by transmitted light, and held between the eye and the light, or 
between the eye and a white object, appears almost as transparent and colour- 
less as water ; but when viewed in certain aspects and under certain 
incidences of light, exhibits an extremely vivid and beautiful celestial blue 
colour. This colour was shown by Sir John Herschel to result from the 
action of the strata which the light first penetrates on entering the liquid; 
and the dispersion of light producing it was named by him epipolic disper- 
sion, from the circumstance that it takes place near the surface by which the 
light enters. A beam of light having passed through the solution was to all 
appearance the same as before its entrance ; nevertheless it was found to have 
undergone some mysterious modification, for an epipolised beam of light, 
meaning thereby a beam which had once been transmitted through a quini- 
ferous solution, and had experienced its dispersive action, is incapable of fur- 
ther epipolic dispersion. In speculating upon the possible nature of epi- 
polised lights Prof. Stokes was led to conclude that it could only be light 
which had been deprived of certain invisible rays which in the process of 
dispersion had changed their refrangibility and had thereby become visible. 
The truth of this supposition, novel and surprising as it at first appeared, has 
been confirmed by a series of simple and perfectly decisive experiments ; 
showing that it is in fact the chemical rays of the spectrum more refrangible 
than the violet, and invisible in themselves, which produce the blue superficial 
light in the quiniferous solution. Professor Stokes has traced this principle 
through a great I'ange of analogous phaenomena, including those noticed by 
Sir David Brewster in his papers on " Internal Dispersion," and has distin- 
guished between " cases of false internal dispersion" or "opalescence," in 
which the luminous rays are simply reflected from fine particles held in me- 
chanical solution in the medium, and those of " true internal dispersion," or 
" fluorescence," as it is termed by Mr. Stokes. By suitable methods of ob- 
servation the change of refrangibility was detected, as produced not only by 
transparent fluids and solids, but also by opake substances ; and the class of 



ADDRESS. Xlvii 

media exhibiting " fluorescence" was found to be very large, consisting chiefly 
of organic substances, but comprehending, though more rarely, some mineral 
bodies. The direct application of the fact, as we now understand it, to many 
highly interesting and important purposes, is obvious almost on the first an- 
nouncement. The facility with which the highly refrangible invisible rays of 
the spectrum may be rendered visible by being passed through a solution of 
sulphate of quinine or other sensitive medium, affords peculiar advantages 
for the study of those rays ; the fixed lines of the invisible part of the solar 
spectrum may now be exhibited to our view at pleasure. The constancy 
with which a particular mode of changing the refrangibility of light attaches 
to a particular substance, exhibiting itself independently of the admixture 
of other substances, supplies a new method of analysis for organic compounds 
which may prove valuable in organic chemistry. These and other applica- 
tions of the facts as they are now explained to us, will probably form subjects 
of notice in the Chemical and Physical Sections, and a still higher interest 
may be expected from the discussion of the principle itself, and of the founda- 
tion on which it rests. A discovery of this nature cannot be otherwise than 
extremely fertile in consequences, whether of direct application, or by giving 
rise to suggestions branching out more and more widely, and leading to 
trains of thought and experiment which may confer additional value on the 
original discovery, by rendering it but the first step in a still more extensive 
generalization. 

As the interest of this discovery is not confined to a single branch of 
science, the Officers, with the approbation of the Local Cbmmittee, have 
requested Mr. Stokes to favour the Association with an exposition of the 
subject at an evening meeting, when the members of the different sections 
may be able to attend without prejudice to their respective sectional duties : 
and in that view I have thought that this brief introductory notice might not 
be misplaced, a notice which I cannot conclude without adverting to the 
gratification which all who cultivate science in this part of the United 
Kingdom must feel at the rising eminence of their highly accomplished 
fellow-countryman. 

Among the subjects of chemical inquiry which may well deserve the 
attention .of a combination of philosophers, perhaps few could more usefully 
occupy their joint labours than the revision of the Equivalent Numbers of the 
Elementary Bodies. This is a task which must necessarily require the co- 
operation of several properly qualified individuals, if it be accomplished 
within anything like a reasonable period of time. Most of the Numbers now 
in use depend upon experiments performed by Berzelius, at a time when the 
methods of research then known were inadequate, even in such hands, to 
determine these constants with an accuracy sufficient for the wants of science 
at the present day. So much has this been felt to be the case, that many 
of the most accomplished chemists now living have undertaken extensive 
and laborious, though isolated researches, upon the combining quantities of 

d2 



xlviil REPORT — 1852. 

some of the most important elements. But much more than has been already 
performed still remains undone. Such a subject it is believed might be 
highly proper for consideration by the Chemical Section, to whose notice it 
would be introduced by the distinguished chemist, Dr. Andrews, who pre- 
sides over that Section, and than whom no one could be named as more 
competent to estimate the importance of such a revision, or to judge more 
truly of the qualifications that would be required for its execution. 

We are deprived by the illness, I tiust only temporary, of our valued asso- 
ciate Prof. James Forbes, of the Report he would have given us of the progress 
of the experiments which he has undertaken at the request of the Association 
to test the Theory of Heat. But this branch of Physics abounds more 
perhaps than any other at the present time in subjects which may be most 
profitably discussed. The theory of Heat has made great advances within 
the last ten years. Mr. Joule has by his experiments confirmed and illustrated 
the views demonstrated about the end of the last century by Davy and Rum- 
ford regarding the nature of heat, which are now beginning to find general 
acceptance. He has determined with much accuracy, the numerical relation 
between quantities of heat and of mechanical work. He has pointed out the 
true principles upon which the mechanical value of any chemical change is 
to be estimated, and by very careful experiments he has arrived at numerical 
expressions for the mechanical equivalents in some of the most important 
cases of chemical action, in galvanic batteries, and in combustion. These 
researches appear to be laying the ground-work for the ultimate formation 
of a Mechanical Theory of Chemistry, by ascertaining experimentally the 
mechanical equivalents expressed in absolute motive force of the thermic, 
electric and magnetic forces. Mathematical developments of the theories of 
heat and electro-dynamics, in accordance with these principles, are given in 
various papers by MM. Helmholz, Rankine, Clausius and Thomson, published 
principally within the last two years. In discussing these subjects the Sec- 
tion will have a great advantage in being presided over by the last-named of 
these gentlemen, a native of Belfast, who at so early an age has attained so 
high a reputation, and who is taking a leading part in tiie investigations 
to which I have referred. 

In connexion with the subjects of Heat, I would advert to the experiments 
in which Mr. Hopkins is engaged for investigating the possible influence of 
high pressure on the temperature at which substances, in a state of fusion, 
solidify — an inquiry which was shown by Mr. Hopkins, in a report recently 
presented to the British Association, to have an important bearing on the 
questions of the original and pi'esent state of the interior of the earth. It is 
well known that the temperature of the earth increases as we descend, and 
it has been calculated that at the rate at which the increase takes place in 
such depths as are accessible to us, the heat at the depth of eighty or a hun- 
dred miles would be such as to fuse most of the materials which form the 
solid crust of the globe. On the hypothesis of original fluidity, and assuming 






ADDRESS. xlix 

that the rate of increase known to us by observation continues further 
clown, and is not counterbalanced by a considerable increase in the tempe- 
rature of fusion occasioned by pressure, the present state of tlie earth would 
be that of a solid crust of eighty or a hundred miles in thickness, enveloping 
a fluid nucleus. Mr. Hopkins considers this state to be inconsistent witli the 
observed amount of the precession of the equinoxes, and infers that if the 
temperature of fusion be considerably heightened by pressure, the conclusion 
must be unavoidable that the earth is solid at the centre. Mr. Hopkins is 
assisted in these experiments, which are carried on at Manchester, by the 
well-known engineering knowledge of Mr. Fairbairn, and the equally well- 
known experimental skill of Mr. Joule. The principal difficulties attending 
the experiments with substances of low temperatures of fusion have been 
overcome, and strong hopes are entertained of success with substances of 
more difficult fusibility. The pressures employed are from three to four 
tons to eight and ten tons on the square inch. The latter is probably equal 
to the pressure at several miles beneath the earth's surface. 

From Heat the transition Is easy, and by many may be deemed natural, to 
Terrestrial Magnetism, a science which, more perhaps than any other, has 
profited by the impulse and systematic direction communicated to it by the 
British Association, and whicii perhaps more than any other required such 
external aid. In the infancy of a science, the phsenoinetia of which present 
on our first acquaintance with them a great appearance of complexity, the 
path by which its progress may be advanced may be by no means easy to 
discern ; and individual explorers may well, under such circumstances, be 
discouraged by doubts whether their labour will be recompensed by pro- 
portionate success, as well as disheartened by the little sympathy which is 
usually given to investigations which hold out but little immediate prospect 
of practical utility. Some there have been however from time to time, who, 
impressed with a persuasion of the position which magnetism deserves to 
take, and which sooner or later they believe it will take, amongst the phy- 
sical sciences of the highest order, have not spared this precursive labour, 
and have been uniformly conducted by it fo the same general conclusion, 
viz. that in order to obtain a sufficient foundation of facts upon which to 
raise a fitting superstructure of inductive reasoning, it would be necessary to 
organize a system of cooperative research, in which the labours of many 
might be united agreeably to concerted arrangements ; and that as such re- 
searches would require to be carried on nearly at the same epoch at many 
distant parts of tiie globe, for which private resources were inadequate, public 
assistance must be sought. That this conclusion w'as extensively recognised 
and acquiesced in is sufficiently attested by the readiness so f^jenerally mani- 
fested by governments and individuals in all countries where mental cultivation 
is regarded to take part in the general system of magnetic cooperation pro- 
posed by this country in 1838. In the years which have since elapsed, the 
energy and zeal of those who have engaged in these researches have accumu- 



1 REPORT — 1852. 

lated a mass of observations, which, as the fruit of systematic and concerted 
labour, is, I believe, wholly unprecedented. The labour of digesting, com- 
paring, and coordinating the body of facts thus obtained may certainly be 
stated to be not less than that expended in obtaining them ; and as the one 
process must necessarily be in great measure carried out subsequently to the 
other, we are only now beginning to reap the first-fruits of this great co- 
operative undertaking in the bearing of its results upon theory. At the 
Ipswich meeting of the British Association, I was requested by the General 
Committee to draw up a report on the state and progress of the magnetic 
researches consequent on the application of the British Association to Her 
Majesty's Government in 1838. I regret that, from the other very pressing 
duties above alluded to, I have not been able to complete this report in time 
to present at this meeting, but as I may assume, from the request just made 
to me, that the subject retains with the British Association the interest which 
it there so happily acquired, I may venture to avail myself of this opportunity 
to make a very few remarks on some of its most important results ; confining 
myself for the most part to results obtained by persons of our own country 
as the direct and immediate consequences of the recommendation of the 
British Association, leaving to a more fitting occasion a more general and 
comprehensive view. 

We recognise in terrestrial magnetism the existence of a power present 
everywhere at the surface of our globe, and producing everywhere effects 
indicative of a systematic action ; but of the nature of this power, the cha- 
racter of its laws, and its economy in creation, we have as yet scarcely any 
knowledge. The apparent complexity of the phsenomena at their first aspect 
may reasonably be ascribed to our ignorance of their laws, which we shall 
doubtless find, as we advance in knowledge, to possess the same remarkable 
character of simplicity which calls forth our admiration in the laws of mole- 
cular attraction. It has been frequently surmised, and the anticipation is I 
believe a strictly philosophical one, that a power which, so far as we have the 
means of judging, prevails everywhere in our own planet, may also prevail 
in other bodies of our system, and might become sensible to us, in the case 
of the sun and moon particularly, by small perturbing influences mea- 
surable by our instruments, and indicating their respective sources by their 
periods and their epochs. As yet we know of neither argument nor fact to 
invalidate this anticipation ; but, on the contrary, much to invest it with 
a high degree of probability. Be this however as it may, we have in our 
own planet an exemplification of the phaenomena which magnetism pre- 
sents in one of the bodies of our system, on a scale of sufficient mag- 
nitude, and otherwise convenient for our study. Accordingly the first 
object to which the British Association gave its attention was to ob- 
tain a correct knowledge of the direction and amount of the magnetic 
force generally over the whole surface of the globe corresponding to a 
definite epoch. It has been customary to represent the results of magnetic 



ADDRESS. li 

observations by three systems of Lines, usually called isogonic, isoclinal, 
and isodynamic lines. [Lines of equal horizontal direction, of equal 
inclination, and of equal force.] In the maps of these lines existing 
in 1838, large spaces of the earth's surface were either blank, or the lines 
passing across them were very imperfectly supported by observations. In 
the more frequented parts, where observations were more numerous, the dis- 
crepancies of their dates impaired their suitability for combination ; for the 
position and configuration of the magnetic lines has been found to undergo 
a continual process of systematic change, with the causes of which we are as 
yet wholly unacquainted, but which has obtained the name of secular change 
to distinguish it from periodical variations of known and limited duration. 
Amongst the most marked deficiencies in these maps, were the greater part 
of the extra-tropical portion of the southern hemisphere, — the British pos- 
sessions in North America, and British India; — magnetic surveys of these 
were expressly recommended, and the practicability and advantage of 
making the observations on board-ship, and of thus extending them over the 
surface of the ocean, were pointed out. It is most pleasing to recall to recol- 
lection, and gratifying to acknowledge from this chair, the favourable manner 
in which the recommendations of the British Association were received by 
Her Majesty's Government and by the East India Company, and how 
promptly and eflFectually they have been carried out. The blanks in the 
southern hemisphere have been filled up by maritime expeditions appointed 
expressly for the purpose. Magnetic surveys have been completed of 
British North America at the expense of our own Government, and of the 
Indian Archipelago at that of the East India Company, and India itself is 
now in progress ; whilst from the zeal of our naval officers contributions 
have flowed in from almost every accessible part of the ocean. The coordi- 
nation and mutual connection of so large a mass of materials is necessarily a 
work of time, but is progressing steadily towards completion, and when pre- 
sented in one connected view,will form the groundwork on which will securely 
rest a general theory of terrestrial magnetism corresponding to the present 
epoch. Until these combinations and calculations are performed, it would be 
obviously premature to speak of numerical values by which the magnetic 
forces at one part of the globe may be compared with those of another, or 
with forces of other descriptions ; and for the same reason it is desirable 
to abstain for the present from notices of the geographical positions which 
particular lines, or as some may deem them, critical points in the magnetic 
resultants may occupy on the earth's surface at the present epoch. Such 
notices could only be as yet provisional and liable to the amendments which 
more exact and extended calculation must be expected to produce. But 
thus much may be safely stated in reference to the general character of the 
three systems of lines which have been spoken of, that when derived afresh 
and exclusively from the observations of the last few years, they do most 
fully confirm the general conclusions derived from the observations of earlier 



lii REPORT — 1852. 

date, which were submitted to tlie British Association in the Report on the 
" Variations of the Intensity of the Magnetic Force at different points of 
the Earth's surface," which preceded the recommendations of 1838. The 
magnetic phaenomena, or as it is now customary to call them, the three mag- 
netic elements, appear to be everywhere and in both hemispheres the 
resultants of a duplicate system of magnetic forces, of which one at least 
undergoes a continuous and progressive translation in geographical space, 
the motion being from west to east in the northern hemisphere, and from 
east to west in tiie southern. It is to this motion that the secular change in 
all localities is chiefly if not entirely due, affecting systematically and ac- 
cording to their relative positions on the globe, the configurations and geo- 
graphical positions of the magnetic lines, and producing conformable 
changes in the direction and amount of the magnetic elements in every 
part of the globe. The comparison of the earlier recorded observations 
with those of the present epoch gives reason to believe, that viewed in its 
generality, the motion of the system of forces wliich produces the secular 
change has been uniform, or nearly so, in the last two or three centuries. 
Under favourable conditions the regularity of this movement can be traced 
down to comparatively very minute fractions of time ; by the results of 
careful observations continued for several years at the observatory of St. 
Helena, where, in common with the greater part of the district of the South 
Atlantic, the secular change of the declination exceeds eight minutes in the 
year, and from its magnitude therefore may be advantageously studied, — 
every fortnight of the year is found to have its precise aliquot portion of the 
annual amount of the secular change at the station. This phaenomenon of 
secular change is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable features of the 
magnetic system, and cannot with propriety be overlooked, as too frequently it 
has been, by tliose who would connect the phaenomena of terrestrial magnetism 
generally, mediately or immediately, with climatic circumstances, relations of 
land and sea, or other causes to which we are assuredly in no degree entitled 
to ascribe secular variation, and who reason therefore as if the great magnetic 
phaenomena of the earth were persistent instead of being as they are subject 
to a continual and progressive change. It may confidently be affirmed that 
the secular magnetic variation has no analogy with, or resemblance to, any 
other physical phaenomenon with which we are acquainted. We appear at 
present to be without any clue to guide us to its physical causes, but the way 
is preparing for a future secure derivation of its luivs to be obtained by a 
repetition, after a sufficient interval, of the steps which we are now taking to 
determine the elements corresponding to a definite epoch. 

The periodical variations in the terrestrial magnetic force, which I have 
before adverted to as distinguished from its secular change, are small in com- 
parison with the force itself, but they are highly deserving of attention on 
account of the probability that by suitable methods of investigation they 
may be made to reveal the sources to which they owe their origin and the 



ADDRESS. liii 

agency by which they are produced. They formed accordingly the subject 
of a distinct recommendation from the British Association, which met with 
an equally favourable reception. To investigate these variations by suitable 
instruments and methods, to separate each from the others, and to seek its 
period, its epochs of maximum and minimum, the laws of its progression, and 
its mean numerical value or amount, constituted the chief purposes for which 
magnetic observatories wei*e established for limited periods at certain stations 
in Her Majesty's dominions, selected in the view that by a combination of 
the results obtained at them, a general theory of each at least of the principal 
periodical variations might be derived, and tests be thus supplied whereby 
the truth of physical theories propounded for their explanation might be 
examined. We are just beginning to profit by the collocation and study of 
the great body of facts which have been collected. Variations corresponding 
in period to the earth's revolution around the sun, and to its rotation around 
its own axis, have been ascertained to exist, and their numerical values ap- 
proximately determined in each of the three elements, the Declination, In- 
clination, and Magnetic Force. We unhesitatingly refer these variations to 
the sun as their primari/ source, since we find that in whatever part of the 
globe the phsenomena are observed, the solstices and equinoxes are the cri- 
tical epochs of the variation whose period is a year, whilst the diurnal varia- 
tion follows in all meridians nearly the same law of local solar hours. To 
these unquestionable evidences of solar influence in the magnetic aflPections 
of the earth, we have now to add the recently ascertained fact, tliat the mag- 
netic storms, or disturbances, which in the absence of more correct know- 
ledge were supposed to be wholly irregular in their occurrence, are strictly 
periodical phajnomena, conforming with systematic regularity to laws in which 
the influence of local solar hours is distinctly traced. 

But, whilst we recognise the sun as the primary cause of variations whose 
periods attest the source from whence they derive their origin, the mode or 
modes in which the effects are produced constitute a question which has been 
and may still be open to a variety of opinions : the direct action of the sun 
as being itself a magnet, its calorific agency occasioning thermo-electric 
and galvanic currents, or in alternately exalting and depressing the magnetic 
condition of substances near the surface of the earth, or in one of the consti- 
tuents of its atmosphere, — have been severally adduced as hypotheses afford- 
ing plausible explanations. Of each and all such hypotheses the facts are the 
only true criterion ; but it is right tiiat we should bear in mind that in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge, the evidence which may give a decided counte- 
nance to one hypothesis in preference to others does not preclude their possible 
coexistence. The analysis of the collected materials and the disentanglement 
of the various effects which are comprehended in them, are far from being yet 
complete. The correspondence of the critical epochs of the annual variation 
with the solstices and equinoxes rather than with the epochs of maximum 
and minimum temperature, which at the surface of the earth, in the subsoil 



liv REPORT — 1852. 

beneath the surface, or in the atmosphere above the surface, are separated 
by a wide interval from the solstitial epochs, appears to favour the hypothesis 
of a direct action ; as does also the remarkable fact which has been established, 
that the magnetic force is greater in both the northern and southern hemi- 
spheres in the months of December, January, and February, when the sun 
is nearest to the earth, than in those of May, June, and July, when he is 
most distant from it: whereas if the effects were due to temperature, the two 
hemispheres shoidd be oppositely instead of similarly affected in each of the 
two periods referred to. Still there are doubtless minor periodical irregular 
variations yet to be made out by suitable analytical processes, which, by 
their possible accordance with the epochs of maximum and minimum 
temperature, may support in a more limited sense, not as a sole but as 
a coordinate cause, the hypothesis of calorific agency so generally received, 
and so ably advocated of late in connection with the discovery by our great 
chemist and philosopher of the magnetic properties of oxygen and of the 
manner in which they are modified and affected by differences of temperature. 
It may indeed be difficult to suppose that the magnetic phenomena which 
M'e measure at the surface of the globe, should not be in any degree influ- 
enced by the variations in the magnetic conditions of the oxygen of the 
atmosphere in different seasons and at different hours of the day and night ; 
but whether that influence be sensible or not, whether it be appreciable by 
our instruments or inappreciable by them, is a question M'hich yet remains 
for solution by the more minute sifting of the accumulated facts which are 
now undergoing examination in so many quarters. 

To justify the anticipation that conclusions of the most striking character, 
and wholly unforeseen, may yet be derivable from the materials in our 
possession, we need only to recall the experience of the last few months, 
which have brought to our knowledge the existence of what may possibly 
prove the most instructive, as it is certainly at first sight the least explicable, 
of all the periodical magnetic variations with which we have become ac- 
quainted. I refer to the concurrent testimony which observations at parts 
of the globe the most distant from each other bear to the existence of a 
periodical variation or inequality, affecting alike the magnitude of the diurnal 
variations^ and the magnitude and frequency of the disturbances or storms. 
The cycle or period of this inequality appears to extend to about ten of our 
years ; the maximum and minimum of the magnitudes affected by it being 
separated by an interval of about five years, and the differences being much 
too great, and resting on an induction far too extensive, to admit of uncer- 
tainty as to the facts themselves. The existence of a well-marked magnetic 
period which has certainly no counterpart in thermic conditions, appears to 
render still more doubtful the supposed connexion between the magnetic and 
calorific influences of the sun. It is not a little remarkable that this periodical 
magnetic variation is found to be identical in period and in epochs of maxima 
and minima with the periodical variation in the frequency and magnitude of 



ll 



ADDRESS. IV 

the solar spots which M. Schwabe has established by twenty-six years of 
unremitting labour. From a cosmical connexion of this nature, supposing it 
to be finally established, it would follow, that the decennial period which 
we measure by our magnetic instruments is, in fact, a solar period, mani- 
fested to us also by the alternately increasing and decreasing frequency and 
magnitude of obscurations on the surface of the solar disc. May we not 
have in these phsenomena the indication of a cycle or period of secular 
change in the magnetism of the sun, affecting visibly his gaseous atmosphere 
or photosphere, and sensibly modifying the magnetic influence which he 
exui cises on the surface of our earth ? 

The determination of the figure and dimensions of the globe which we 
inhabit may justly be regarded as possessing a very high degree of scientific 
interest and value, and the measurements necessary for a correct knoM'ledge 
thereof, have long been looked upon as proper subjects for public underta- 
kings and as highly honourable to the nations which have taken part in them. 
Inquiries in which I was formerly engaged led me fully to concur with a 
remark of Laplace, to the efiect that it is extremely probable that the first 
attempts were made at a period much anterior to those of which history has 
preserved the record; the relation which many measures of the most remote 
antiquity have to each other and to the terrestrial circumference strengthens 
this conjecture, and seems to indicate, not only that the earth's circumference 
was known with a great degree of accuracy at an extremely ancient period, but 
that it has served as the base of a complete system of measures the vestiges of 
which have been found in Egypt and Asia. In modern times the mei-it of re- 
suming these investigations belongs to the French nation, by whom the arc of 
the meridian between Formentera and Dunkirk was measured towards the close 
of the last century. The Trigonometrical Survey of Great Britain, commenced 
in 1783, for the specific object of connecting the Observatories of Greenwich 
and Paris, was speedily expanded by the able men to whom its direction was 
then confided into an undertaking of far greater scientific as well as topo- 
graphical importance, having for its objects on the one hand the formation 
of correct maps of Great Britain, and on the other the measurement of an 
arc of the meridian, having the extreme northern and southern points of the 
Island for its terminations. A portion of this arc, amounting to 2° 50', viz. 
from Dunnose in the Isle of Wight to Clifton in Yorkshire, was published in 
the Phil. Trans, in 18C3. As the whole arc, extending from Dunnose to 
Unst and Balta, the most northern of the Shetland Islands, would comprise 
more than 10°, and as nearly half a century had elapsed since the publication 
of the earlier part of the Survey, it is not surprising that some degree of impa- 
tience should have been felt, both by those who desired the results for scientific 
use, and by those who were interested for the scientific character of the nation, 
that the general results of the Survey applicable to scientific purposes should 
at length be given to the world. Accordingly, at the Birmingham Meeting 
of the British Association in 1849, a Resolution was passed appointing a 



Ivi REPORT — 1852. 

deputation to confer with the Master-General of" the Ordnance, and a similar 
resolution was passed about the same time by the President and Council of 
the Royal Society. On communicating with the Master-General, it appeared 
that the want of special funds for the requisite calculations formed the only 
obstacle, a difficulty which was happily immediately surmounted by an appli- 
cation of the President and Council of the Royal Society to Lord John 
Russell, then First Lord of the Treasury. The Report of the Council of the 
British Association to the General Committee at the Meeting of the last year at 
Ipswich, contained an official statement from the Inspector- General of Forti- 
fications of the progress of the reduction and examination of the observations 
preparatory to the desired publication, and concluded with expressing the 
expectation of the Director of the Survey, that he " should be able to furnish 
for communication to the British Association that would probably assemble 
in 1852, the principal results obtainable from the geodetic operations in 
Great Britain and Ireland." By a recent letter to my predecessor from 
Captain YoUand of the Royal Engineers, who is entrusted with the direction 
of the publication, I am enabled to have the pleasure of announcing that the 
"printing of the observations made with the Zenith Sector, for the determi- 
nation of the latitudes of stations between the years 1842 and 1850, is 
finished, and will be presented in time for the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation, and that the calculations connected Avith the triangulation are 
rapidly advancing towards their completion." 

In the meantime the great arc of Eastern Europe has been advancing 
with unexampled rapidity and to an extent hitherto unparalleled. Originating 
in topographical surveys in Esthonia and Livonia, and commenced in 1816, 
the operations, both geodesical and astronomical, have been completed be- 
tween Izmail on the Danube and Fugleness in Finnmarkeu, an extent of 25J 
meridional degrees. Next to this in extent is the Indian arc of 21° 21' be- 
tween Cape Comorin and Kaliana ; and the third is the French arc already 
referred to of 12° 22'. It appears by a note presented to the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh by M. Struve, that a provisional 
calculation has been made of a large part of the great arc of Eastern Europe, 
and that it has been found to indicate for the figure of the earth a greater 
compression than that derived by Bessel in 1837 and IS^l, from all the arcs 
then at his conmiand, — Bessel's compression having also been greater than La- 
place's previous deduction. It is naturally with great pleasure that I perceive 
that the figure of the earth derived by means of the measurement of arcs of 
the meridian approxiniates more and more nearly, as the arcs are extended 
in dimension, to the compression which I published in 1825 as the result of 
a series of Pendulum Experiments, which, by the means placed by Govern- 
ment at my disposal, I was enabled to make from the equator to within ten 
degrees of the pole, thus giving to that method its greatest practicable ex- 
tension. 

The observations hitherto made on the tides of the ocean have been insuf- 



ADDRESS. Ivii 

ficient to furnish such a connected knowledge of the subject as would enable 
us to follow the coui'se of the tide over any considerable portion of the ocean, 
and in the opinion of persons most competent to judge, it is only by systematic 
observations specially directed for the purpose, that this connected knowledge 
is likely to be obtained. Accordingly a resolution was passed at the Ipswich 
Meeting of the Association, appointing a Committee to prepare a Memorial 
to Her Majesty's Government, representing the importance of determining 
the progress of the tide wave along the coasts of Africa and South America 
by an Atlantic Tidal Expedition. This Memorial was presented to Govern- 
ment by my predecessor, and, having been referred to the Hydrographer, has 
been most favourably reported upon. We may therefore expect that the 
survey will be very shortly commenced. The recent researches of Captain 
Beechey, which have given a new and unexpected view of the tidal movements 
of the ocean, show how much yet remains to be learnt respecting the tides 
even for the practical purposes of navigation. 

The facts derived a few years since from the barometrical observations at 
St. Helena, showing the existence of a lunar atmospheric tide, have been 
corroborated in the last year by a similar conclusion, drawn by Captain Elliot 
of the Madras Engineers from the barometrical observations at Singapore. 
The influence of the moon's attraction on the atmosphere produces, as 
might be expected, a somewhat greater effect on the barometer at Singapore, 
in lat. 1° 19', than at St. Helena, in lat. 15° 57'. The barometer at the 
equator appears to stand on the average about 0"006 in. (more precisely 
0'0057, in lat. 1° 19') higher at the moon's culminations than when she is 
six hours distant from the meridian. 

We have received from our valued corresponding member Prof. Dove, for 
presentation to this Meeting, an important continuation of his researches on 
the temperatures at the surface of the globe. In former communications he 
has furnished us with maps showing, so far as observation permits, the 
isothermals of the whole globe in every month of the year. He has now 
given us, first, the norynal temperatures of each parallel of latitude in each 
month ; being the average of all the temperatures in that parallel in such 
month ; and second, the abnormal temperatures, or the difference between the 
temperature of each place and the mean temperature of its parallel. From 
these again are formed lines of abnormal temperature for each month, sur- 
rounding and marking out those districts or localities, which, from peculiarities 
of the surface or other causes affecting the distribution of heat, are charac- 
terized by excessive abnormal heat or abnormal cold. The importance of 
these researches on the general theory of the causes which interfere with the 
equable distribution of heat according to latitude is obvious. 

The activity which has prevailed so greatly of late, in the collection 
of meteorological data, has been almost exclusively confined to that portion 
of the surface of the globe which is occupied by land, although the portion 



Iviii REPORT — 1852. 

covered by the ocean is not only much greater in extent, but is also better 
suited for the solution of several meteorological problems. Many striking 
examples might be adduced to show that it is " systematic direction," and 
not " individual zeal " in naval men, which has been wanting, and it has been 
therefore with great satisfaction that meteorologists have learnt that a pro- 
position has recently been made from the United States Government to the 
British Government, to undertake, conjointly and in cooperation, a system 
of meteorological observations, to be made -at sea in all ships belonging to 
the naval service of the two countries, and sufficiently simple to be parti- 
cipated in by the merchant service also. In a partial trial which has been 
already made of this system in the United States, it has been found to produce 
results which, exclusive of their scientific bearing, are of great importance to 
the interests of navigation and commerce, in materially shortening passages 
by the knowledge of prevailing winds and currents at particular seasons. 
The practical advantages arising from the coordination of the observa- 
tions in the Hydrographic Office of the United States, and of the circu- 
lation of the charts of the Avinds and currents, and of the sailing direc- 
tions founded on them, have been such and so appreciated, that there 
are now, as it is stated, more than 1000 masters of American ships en- 
gaged in making them. The request for British cooperation in an un- 
dertaking so honourable to the country in which it originated, was referred 
in the spring of this year by the Earl of Malmesbury to the President and 
Council of the Royal Society for a Report ; from which I permit myself to 
quote the concluding sentence, in the persuasion that it would find an echo, 
if necessary, in every part of the United Kingdom, and that it cannot fail to 
be promptly acted upon by the Government of a country in which 
maritime interests hold so prominent a place : — " To the Government of 
this country the demand for cooperation and for the interchange of obser- 
vations is most earnestly addressed by the Government of the United 
States ; and the President and Council of the Royal Society express their 
hope that it will not be addressed in vain. We possess in our ships of war, 
in our packet service, and in our vast commercial navy, better means for 
making such observations, and a greater interest in the results to which they 
lead, than any other nation ; for this purpose every ship which is under the 
control of the Admiralty, should be furnished with instruments properly con- 
structed and compared, and with instructions for using them ; similar in- 
structions for making and recording observations, as far as their means will 
allow, should be given to every ship that sails, with a request that they will 
transmit the results to the Hydrographer's Office of the Admiralty, 
where an adequate staff" of Officers or others should be provided for their 
prompt examination, and the publication of the improved charts and sailing 
directions to which they would lead ; above all, it seems desirable to establish 
a prompt communication with the Hydrographer's Office of the United States, 



ADDRESS. lix 

SO that the united labours of the two greatest naval and commercial nations 
of the world may be combined, with the least practicable delay, in promoting 
the interests of navigation." 

Amongst the most valuable results which the Physical Sciences may expect 
to obtain from this extensive system of nautical observation, we may reckon 
the construction of charts of the isothermals of the surface of the ocean cor- 
responding to every month in the year, similar to Dove's monthly isothermals 
of the temperature of the air ; and a knowledge of the normal condition as 
well as the abnormal variations, with their special causes and effects, of the 
great Gulf-stream which connects the shores of the Old and New World, 
and in its normal effects is influential in many ways on the climate of the 
United States and Western Europe, whilst its abnormal effects are principally 
known, so far as we are yet aware, by the peculiarities of climate they 
occasionally produce on the European side of the Atlantic. Of the extent, 
depth, and limits of this remarkable current in ordinary and extraordinary 
years we are as yet very imperfectly informed. Of the zoology of the great 
tracts of ocean which are covered by its banksof seaweed, we know nothing 
beyond the fact that they are the habitation of a countless number of oceanic 
animals, — giving rise possibly to deposits which may have distinctive 
characters from littoral deposits or from those of marine estuaries. But 
doubtless, we can now estimate only a very small part of the advantages 
'(Vhich Terrestrial Physics as well as Hydrography and Navigation would 
derive from the concurrent exertions of the two great maritime nations in 
the way that has been pointed out. 

The analogy of the configuration of the land and sea on the north of the 
Continents of Asia and America, has for some time past caused an opinion 
to be entertained that the sea on the north of the Parry Islands might be as 
open as it is known to be throughout the year in the same latitude on the 
north of the Siberian Islands. The expectation that Wellington Strait might, 
as the continuation of Barrow's Strait, prove a channel of communication 
from the Atlantic into that part of the Polar Ocean, has been considerably 
strengthened in the last year by the discoveries which we owe to the hardi- 
hood and intrepidity of our merchant seamen. The access to the Polar 
Ocean, and the degree in which it may be navigable for purposes of dis- 
covery or of scientific research, are amongst the few geographical problems 
of high interest which remain to be solved ; and we may confidently look 
for a solution, in the direction at least that has been adverted to, by the 
Expedition which has been despatched under Sir Edward Belcher to follow 
up the discovered traces of Sir John Franklin's vessels. 

The success which the Kew Observatory Committee have had in their un- 
dertaking to make Standard Thermometers, encourages us to hope that they 
will be equally successful in the endeavour in which they are now engaged 
to introduce a greater degree of precision in the construction of meteorological 
instruments generally, as well as in the more delicate kinds which are so fre- 



IX REPORT — 1852. 

quently required in phj'sical experiments. An establishment has long been 
a desideratum in whicli instruments for various physical researches employed 
in foreign countries should be tried in comparison with the instruments used 
here, and the relaitive merits of each examined, and in which new and pro- 
mising inventions and suggestions should receive a practical trial. Amongst 
its other services rendered to Science and to the country, the British Associa- 
tion is now entitled to claim the merit of having organized an establishment 
M'hich appears extremely well-suited to supply this deficiency, and needs only 
more extensive means to supply it to any required extent. The applications 
which have been made to Kew in the past year by Profs. Forbes and Thomson 
for thermometers of particular kinds, required in very delicate experiments in 
■which those gentlemen are engaged, and by the Admiralty for Standard Thei'- 
mometers for very low temperatures to be employed by the Arctic Expeditions, 
show that the advantages to be derived from such an establishment are already 
beginning to be recognised ; and as these become more known and felt, it may 
confidently be anticipated that means will not be wanting for such an exten- 
sion of the establishment at Kew, as may be necessary to meet fully the 
public requirements. The desire which is so frequently manifested by 
voyagers and travellers in distant countries to contribute to our knowledge 
of terrestrial physics, would be greatly aided by increased facilities afforded 
to them of obtaining suitable and well-assured instruments, and still more if 
practical instruction or advice could be added. It is not from deficiency of 
interest, or of a desire to be useful in such inquiries, that our British travellers 
do not reap the full advantages of the great opportunities which they possess, 
so much as from the absence of any provision for supplying instruments on 
which reliance can be placed with practical instructions for their use. In no 
department is the " systematic direction," which it is the object of the British 
Association to communicate to the sciences generally, more needed than in 
Physical Geography. To carry this desirable purpose into effect, might with 
great propriety and public benefit be made to form a branch of the duties of 
the Kew Observatory. 

In compliance with a resolution of the Council, the Kew Committee have 
made arrangements for four aeronautic ascents in the Nassau Balloon, chiefly 
for the purpose of investigating the laws of the decrement of temperature 
and of aqueous vapour in ascending into the atmosphere. The two first of 
these ascents took place on the 17th and 26th of August, attaining in each 
case between 19,000 and 20,000 feet, and will be the subject of a commu- 
nication to the Association, which will doubtless excite much interest, from 
Mr. Welsh of the Kew Observatory, who was charged by the Superintend- 
ing Committee with the conduct of the observations. 

The opportunity which the Observatory furnishes to the Association, of a 
convenient locality, presenting many facilities for carrying on a series of 
delicate experiments, has been taken advantage of by Professor Stokes for 
experiments in which he is engaged on the Index of Friction in different 



ADDRESS. Ixi 

Gases. Experiments reported by myself to the Royal Society in 1829, 
showed that the retardation of a pendulum vibrating in different gases 
was not proportionate to their respective densities, but appeared to depend 
also on some inherent quality, whereby the different gases present different 
degrees of resistance to the motion of bodies passing through them. I was 
interrupted in the prosecution of this subject by a recall to military duty, and 
I now rejoice to see it in hands so far more able to do it justice. 

The Parliamentary Committee appointed at the Ipswich meeting to watch 
over the interests of Science, consisting of Members of the British Asso- 
ciation who are also Members of the Legislature, have this morning made 
their first Report to the General Committee, and some notice of the subjects 
which have chiefly occupied them in the past year may not be unacceptable 
to the Members of the Association at large. One of these subjects is that of 
Scientific Pensions. It is known to all that since the commencement of the 
reign of Her present Majesty pensions to the amount of £1200 have been at 
the disposal of the First Minister of the Crown, to be granted each year in 
recompense of civil services, chiefly, though not exclusively, in literature and 
science, and that several persons of various degrees of literary and scientific 
eminence have received pensions accordingly, many of which have given 
much public satisfaction. On examining the appropriations which have 
been made in the fourteen years since this fund became available, it appeared 
that only about thirteen per cent., or an eighth part of the whole amount, had 
been allotted to scientific pensions. Considering this (o be a proper subject 
to be brouglit under the notice of Government, Lord Wrottesley, the Chair- 
man, and Sir R. H. Inglis, one of the Members of the Committee, obtained 
an interview with the Earl of Derby for that purpose. The readiness of 
Government to attend to such representations has been fully shown in the 
scientific pensions granted in the present year, amounting to nearly a third 
of the whole sum available for the year. These pensions have been granted, 
on the recommendation of the President of the Royal Society, — to Mr. 
Hind, who has the unique distinction of being the discoverer of no less than 
six out of the twenty-five known planets of the solar system,- — to Dr. 
Mantell, so well known for his successful researches in palaeontology, — and 
to Mr. Ronalds, for the electrical and kindred researches in which he has 
been engaged for so many years. The intimate association of the scientific 
services of Mr. Ronalds for several years past with the Observatory of the 
British Association at Kew, must render this last selection peculiarly gra- 
tifying to our Members. 

Another subject which has occupied the attention of the Parliamentary 
Committee in the last year, is one to which their attention was requested by 
the Council of the Association, with a view of carrying into effect the desire 
of the General Committee for a more cheap and rapid international commu- 
nication of scientific publications. The credit of the first move towards the 
accomplishment of this desirable object is due to the Government of the 

1852. e 



Ixii REPORT — 1852. 

United States, by whom an arrangement was made for the admission duty 
free of all scientific books addressed as presents from foreign countries to all 
institutions and individuals cultivating science in that country, such books 
being sent through the Smithsonian Institution, by whom their further dis- 
tribution to their respective destinations was undertaken. This arrangement 
was notified to our Government through the British Minister at Washington, 
and a similar privilege was at the same time requested for the admission 
duty free into England of books sent as presents from the United States to 
public institutions and individuals cultivating science in this country, under 
such regulations as might appear most fitting. This proposition gave rise to 
communications between the President of the Royal Society and the Chair- 
man of the Parliamentary Committee on the one part, and the Treasury and 
the principal Commissioner of Customs on the other ; the result of which 
has been the concession of the privilege of admission, duty free, into England 
of scientific books from all countries, designed as presents to institutions and 
individuals named in lists to be prepared from time to time by the Royal So- 
ciety, after communication with other scientific societies recognized by charter, 
under the regulation, however, that the books are to be imported in cases 
addressed to and passing through the Royal Society. This arrangement has 
come into operation ; and it may be interesting to notice, as giving some 
idea of its extensive bearing, that the first arrival from the United 
States which has taken place under these regulations consists of packages 
weighing in all no less than three tons. There is another branch of the 
same subject which is more difficult to arrange, viz. the international com- 
munication hy post of scientific pamphlets and papers at reduced rates of 
postage ; the Parliamentary Committee have directed their attention to this 
part of the subject also, and I earnestly hope that their exertions will be 
successful. 

Allusions have been made by influential men, and in influential places, to 
a direct representation of Science in Parliament ; and we frequently hear 
opinions expressed that Parliament might be improved by a greater admix- 
ture of men who might be chosen as the representatives of the intellectual 
cultivation of the nation, amongst those who represent its material interests. 
The benefit which the Legislature might derive from a change of this descrip- 
tion, is a question rather for statesmen than for men of science, and would 
be quite unsuitable for discussion here : but in respect to the influence which 
such change would exercise on Science itself and on its cultivators, it does 
belong to us to consider both its probable advantages and disadvantages. I 
have no hesitation in expressing as an individual opinion, my belief that the 
possible gain would be incalculably outweighed by the too certain evils ; and 
that scientific men cannot too highly value and desire to retain the advantage 
they now possess in the undisturbed enjoyment of their own pursuits un- 
troubled by the excitements and distractions of political life. Some there 
are amongst us, and some there ever have been, who, born to a station which 



ADDRESS. Ixiii 

brings with it public duties, but gifted with a strong natural taste for the 
pursuits of science, do manage to succeed in a greater or less degree in com- 
bining both. Success is in such cases the more honourable, and is the more 
admired, because it manifests the strength of the original disposition, and in- 
dicates how much more might probably have been accomplished by an 
undivided attention. The economy of human labour points specially to such 
men as the most suitable representatives of science in the legislature of which 
they already form a part. The selection from amongst them of a certain 
number to be particularly charged with the duties of watching over and pro- 
moting the interests of science, either with Government or in the Legislature 
appears in this view a most happy expedient. We cannot read over the 
names of the noblemen and gentlemen who form the Parliamentary Committee 
of the British Association, without being satisfied that science would not be 
likely to be more honourably or more ably represented by any system of 
direct representation ; nor can we look to the discretion and practical wisdom 
with which the proceedings of the Committee have been conducted in the 
first year of its existence, without being impressed with the belief that it is 
destined to render important services both to the country and to ourselves. " 

Gentlemen, I have now occupied fully as much of your time and attention 
as I can venture to trespass upon, and yet have found it impossible to com- 
prehend within the limits of a discourse all the topics to which I would gladly 
have called your notice, even in those branches of knowledge in which I 
may consider myself least uninformed, in three of the seven departments 
into which our science is divided. I have left wholly untouched those wide 
fields of Geology and Natural History, which would of themselves have 
furnished fitting subjects for an address of still longer duration. No one can 
be more sensible of this, and of many other imperfections and deficiencies, 
than the individual who addresses you ; yet, if he has not wholly failed in 
the purpose he designed — if the impression which he has endeavoured to 
convey, however faint may be the image, be true to that which it is intended 
to represent, — you have not failed to recognise the gratifying picture of 
British Science in the full career of energetic action and advancement, press- 
ing forward in every direction to fill the full measure of the sphere of its 
activity in the domain of intellectual culture; regardful on the one hand of 
the minutest details in the patient examination of natural facts, and on the 
other hand diligent in combining them into generalizations of the highest 
order, by the aid of those principles of inductive philosophy, which are the 
surest guide of the human intellect to the comprehension of the laws and 
order of the material universe. 



e2 



REPORTS 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE 



Third Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phanomena. 
By Robert Mallet, C.E., M.R.I.A. 



ERRATA IN MR. MALLET'S SECOND REPORT ON EARTHQUAKES, 

Since the printing of the preceding Report the following errata have been 
discovered : — 

In page 288, line 5 from bottom, /or 0"-014206 read 0"-014286. 

289, line 14, /or 0"-013910 read O'H) 13903. 

Iine30,/or0"-41743reac;0"-4l726. 

hue 31, /or 0"-013914 read 0"-013909. 

[The preceding corrections apply also to the table of chronograph ratings 
at foot of p. 289.] 

In page 290, line 2,/or 0"-013914 read 0"-013909. 

■ for 0"-006956 read 0"-006954. 

293, line 1,/or ratio read rate. 

298, line 33, for 307-05 read 307-50. 

299, line 12, /or 9-607 read 9-609. 

306, line 13, supply a comma after the word "dial". 

306, line 4 from bottom, supply a comma after " dial ". 

These errors are all small, and affect the results within limits much less 
than those of the differences between one experiment and another. A single 
arithmetical mistake remains however to be noticed, which alters consider- 
ably the constant of wave transit in sand as deduced from the experiments ; 
namely, that in page 292, line 3 from bottom, '8 was read instead of '3, at 
the beginning of the number representing the average of col. 4. The result 
of the subtraction should therefore be3"-411639 instead of 2"-911639, and 
hence the gross rate of transit in sand =774'*568 feet per second. Using 
this corrected number in the calculation (p. 307) of the distance lost in 
raising the wave in the seismoseope, and applying throughout the small 
corrections mentioned above, the true rates of transit are — 

In Sand 824-915 feet per second. 

In discontinuous Granite 1306-425 „ 

In more solid Granite 1664-574 „ 

which numbers should therefore be substituted for those given in pp. 307, 
308. 

This correction still further removes any probability of aerial commotion 
having at all interfered in the Killiney experiments : see pp. 303-305. 



The Catalogue of Earthquakes contained in Mr. Mallet's Report will be 
continued in the next volume. 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTIIOUAKE PIIENOMEXA. 



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REPORT — 1852. 





Livy, lib. iv. c. 21. 
Thucydides, lib. ii. c. 8. 

Thucydides, lib. iii. c. 87. 

Thucydides, lib. iii. c. 89 ; and Dio- 

dorus, hb. xii. c. 59. 
Thucydides, Ub. iv. c. 52. 
Balbi, Essai poUtique sur la Roy- 

aume de Portugal, t. i. p. 102. 
Strabo, lib. i. and viU. ; and Pausa- 

nias, lib. vii. ; Achaica, c. 24 — 25. 

Balbi, t. i. p. 102. 

Livy, lib. %'ii. c. 6 ; and PUny, Hist. 
Nat. lib. XV. c. 18 (20). 

Ukert upon Lemnos and Mosychlos 
in the allgem. geograph. Ephem. 
for Dec. 1812. 

Kiimpfer, (v. Dohm.) Japan, vol. i. 
p. 190 ; v. Humboldt, Frag, de 
Geogr. Asiat. vol. i. p. 223. 

Justinus, Ub. xxiv. c. 8. 

Justinus, Ub. xvii. ; at the beginning, 

Orosius, Ub. iv. c. 4. 

V. Hoff, Chronik, vol. iv. p. 149. No 
authority quoted. 

Livy, lib. v. c. 6 ; Pliny, lib. u. c. 86, 


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A great chasm opened in the forum, which after- 
wards filled with water, forming the Lacus 
Curtius. Probably an earthquake. 


In the province of Oomi a large tract of land sank 
in one night, forming a lake 72^ mUes long 
and 12^ wide. In Sourouga volcanic eruptions, 
and the mountain Fousi-no-Yama,stiU an active 
volcano, was thrown up. 

A portion of a hill thrown down ; the earthquake 
followed by a violent storm of hail. 

The city Lysimachia destroyed 

Accompanied " horrendo fragore" 

The colossus of Rhodes thrown down. Eusebins 
(ii. p. 235 and 247) mentions this occurrence 
in the 168th Olympiad = 105 B.C. 

On the day of the battle with Hannibal at the 
LakeThrasymene. Many cities were destroyed, 
rivers turned from their course, and hUls 
thrown down. 


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Great inundations of 
the sea, overwhelm- 
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Fifty-seven shocks oc- 
curred during the 
year. 


ei 


c 
£ 


c 

(2 


Athens, Eubcea, Bocotia, 
and especially Orcho- 
menos. 

In Greece, especiaUy in 
Euboea, and Atalante. 


c 


Peloponnesus, especially 
at Helike and Bura. 


E 
c 


Island of Chryse, near 
Lemnos. 

In the provinces Oomi 
and Sourouga of the 
Japanese island Ni- 
phon. 

nelnbi ; 


Country about the Cher- 
sonesus and Hellespont. 
Probablynear Picentia in 

the south of Campania. 
Caria, and the island of 

Rhodes. 

Central Italv .. _ 


1 

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432, or 431... 
431, or soon 

after. 
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Before 323 ... 
285, or 284... 

2R2 . 


-About the 
sametime. 

276, or per- 
haps 271. 

224 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 



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REPORT— ly52. 





to 


Josephus de bello Jud. lib. i. c. 14 ; 

and Antiqu. lib. xv. c. 6. 
Eusebius, p. ii. p. 257. (Not found 

in tbe Greek text.) 

Eusebius. Like the last, only found 
in the Armenian and Latin trans- 
lations. 

Eusebius, p. 259. Not in the Greek. 
Julius Obsequens. 

Eusebius, p. 261. Not in the Greek. 

Miinster's Cosmogr. lib. v. 

Calvisius. 

Tacitus, Annal. lib. ii. c. 47; Euse- 
bius, p. 263. 

Matthew, xxvii; Luke, xxiii.; Euse- 
bius, p. 265. 

V. Hoff, vol. ii. p. 227 ; without 
quoting authority. 

Acts, xvi. 

Eusebius, p. 272. Only in the Arme- 
nian and Latin. 

Seneca, Natural. Quaest. lib. vi. c. 1. 
Tacitus, Hist. lib. xv. c. 22 ; Seneca, 
Nat. Qu. lib. i. c. 1 and 27. 

Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. ii. c. 83 (85). 
Eusebius,p,277; Orosius,lib.vii.c.9. 




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Produced great destruction ■ 

Thirteen cities of note destroyed 

At the crucifixion. The city of Nisa:a was de- 
stroyed. 










No shock recorded. A meadow and field planted 
with olives moved from one place to another ; 
perhaps only a landslip. 

Three cities overwhelmed 4.... 




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Palestine 

Tralles, inLydia (and, ac- 
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tion Academique,many 
cities also in Ionia, 
Mysia and vEtoIia). 

Thebes, in Upper Egj'pt 

Cvnrus 


ThevillaofLivia,thecon- 
sort of Augustus, at the 
foot of the Apennines. 

Cos, in the Archipelago 

Tralles. in Lvdia 


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Philippi, in Macedonia 
The cities of Laodicea, 

Hierapolis, and Colosse 

in Phrygia. 
Achaia and Macedonia 
Pompeii, Ilerculaneum, 

Colonia Nucerinorum, 

and Naples. 
Ager Marrucinus near 

the Adriatic sea, on the 
Aternus. 
Island of Cyprus 




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ON THE PACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



13 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



15 




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uther, &c 
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ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE 


PHvENOMEXA. 






17 




Philippi Bergomat. Suppl. Chron. 
fol. 265. 

Beuther quotes Peucer in exposit. 

3. part. Chron. Carion. 
CoUectiorl Academique. 
Cedrenus, p. 696 ; Michael Glycas, 

p. 309 ; Baronius, p. 843 ; Ch. 

Mathias, p. 554. 
Muratori, t. vii. p. 164. 
Sarti, su i terremoti, cap. 3. 
Vattier, Vie des 49 chalifs par Le 

Macine, p. 262. 

Philippi Bergomat. Suppl. Chron. 
fol. 286. 

ElMakin. ' 

Beuther quotes Fabricius. 

Beuther quotesNaucler; Curio ; Col- 
lection Academique; Cent. Magd. 


Gazette de France, 14th April 1 786 ; 
Gentleman's Mag. vol.lvii. p. 175. 
Baglivi, loc. cit. 

Bertrand, Coll. Academique, p. 516. 
Sigonius, p. 474. 

Collection Academique, Baglivi, 

loc. cit. 
Hadschi Chalifa ; Abulfaradsch, 

p, 219. 

Collection Academique ; Memorial 
de Chronol. t. ii. p. 911. 




Others give the date 983, and others that of 997, 
saying that it wa? accompanied by an aurora. 
An eruption of Vesuvius took place in 983. 


















3 

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Accompanied by igneous meteors 

Overthrew many buildings ; amongst others the 
monastery of Monte-Cassino, the chronicle of 
which house gives the date 1005, which would 
probably make it coincide with the one following. 


10,000 persons were buried in the ruins of build- 
ings, and many more swallowed up by the 
eai-th. At Bagdad great snow. 




























































Shocks did not cease 
until the 14th day 
of the following 
month (Saphar). 


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Constantinople; also felt 
all through Greece. 

Beneventum and Capua 


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986. October. 
990 




992. Aug. ... 

996. Aug. ... 
997 




999. Dec. 14. 

1000. Mar. 29 




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1004, or 1005 

1005. Jan. to 
March. 

1007 


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ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PH^ENOMENA. 



19 



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REPORT— 


-1852. 














i| 


o 


Abulfeda, iii. 1. 

Bernherz quotes Schubert. 

Sigonius, p. 543. 

El Makin. 

Stumpffius; Hermannus Contractus; 
Bertrand; Cent. Mag.; Lyco- 
sthenes; Dom Bouquet, t.xi. p. 22. 

Abulfeda, ii. 

Joann. Scylitzae Curopal, Breviar. 
Ilistor. p. 816, Paris edition; 
Zonaras, p. 274 ; Glycas, p. 325, 
&c. 

Calvisius. 

Hadschi Chalifa; ElMaldn; Abul- 
feda. 

Beuther quotes Chron. Univers. 

Matthew ofWestminster, lib. ii. p. 6 ; 

Collection Academique ; Dom 

Bouquet, &c. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Collection Academique. 
Chron. S. Petri Vivi Senon ; Dom 
Bouquet, t. xii. p. 279. 


to 


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The frosts were very severe from November to 
April. 

Followed by an abundant harvest 






•^ 


















The sea retired from 
the coast, leaving 
the shore dry, and 
then returned with 
such vehemence as 
to inundate the 
country. 














1 


« 


c 

c 
r 






1 






c 
c 
"c 

> 


Exceedingly violent. 
The shocks were fre- 
quently repeated for 
two years, and ap- 
peared to proceed 
irom the west. 








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In the East, probably ,but 
no place is mentioned. 

Bale, Constance, Neuf- 
chatel, and other parts 
of Switzerland. 

Syria, especially at Tri- 
poli. 

In Thrace, especially at 
Constantinople ; and 
also in Asia Minor, 
particularly atCyzicus 
and NicDea. 

In Hermnnv 


Syria, especially at Ram- 
la, in the south-west 
of Palestine; also in 
Egypt. 

Cologne and the country 

round. 
Throughout all England 




C 

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1064. Sept. 
23. About 
the second 
watch of the 
night. 

1065. Mar. 27 
(Easter-dav). 


1070. May 11. 
1076.Mar.26. 

April 6. 

22 

(19th day of 
the moon). 

1077 


3 1 


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. 





ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



21 



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REPORT — 1852. 



50 


Lupi Protospata; Chron. t. v. p. 46. 

Simeon Dunelmensis, Hist. Cal. 21 5 ; 
Collection Acadeuiique ; Dom 
Bouquet, &c. 

CourrierFran^ais of 27th Mar., 1 843. 

Dom Bouquet, t. xii. p. 557. t. xiv. 

p. 79 ; Christ. Mathias, p. 582. 

Eberus in Calendario. 

Abulfeda, Ann. iii. 

Simon Schard ; Chron. Ilirsang. ; 

Cent. Magd.; Dom Bouquet, 

t. xiii. 1). 714. 
Vite de' Duchi di Venezia, Muratori, 

t. xxii. p. 479. 

Chron. S. Maxentii ; Dom Bouquet, 
t. xii. p. 403 ; Labbe, t. i. p. 214. 

Dom Bouquet, t. xii. pp. 403 and 
484; Labbe, t. xv. pp. 215 and 
281 ; Chron. S. Maxentii. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

IJerghaus in v. Hoff' s Chronik. 
Roger de Hoveden in Rerum Anglic. 

Script, fol. 26S. 
Baglivi, p. 542. 
Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, Article 

Chronology, without quoting any 

authority. 
Chronicon Parmense, Muratori, t.ix. 

p. 759. 
Clu-on. S. Maxentii ; Dom Bouquet, 

t. xii. p. 404. 




in 




Houses were seen to leap upwards and return 
to their position. There was a great scarcity 
of fruits tills year, and the harvest was not got 
in until the 30th November. 

Probablv the same with the last 


.\ccompanied by great thunder and lightning. 
Great stones were thrown from the arches of 
the windows of the large tower of the church. 


% 

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p. 

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In February there was a severe frost, and in June 
great rain followed by disastrous inundations. 




; •<!)< 










































■ eo 














■ ^ 

• c 

• s 

■i 


^ 






















: 1 




CJ 


Throughout la Puglia 

in Italy. 
Tlirougliout all England 


J 

-5 


Constance and the shores 
of the lake of same name. 
Antioch and Damascus 
Place not mentioned. 
Probably in Germany. 

Vpnicp 


= 

4 

£ 
£ 


c 
1 c 

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- 


1088. Sept. 
Day not given. 

1089. Aug. 11, 
3rd hour of 
the night. 

1090 

1091. Nov. 2. 

1092. Feb. 8. 


1095.Sept.l0. 
Middle of 
the night. 

1096 ? Sept. 
Middle of 
the night. 

1097. Oct. 13. 

1098.Sept.26. 

Oct. 5. 

6. 

1st watch of 
the night. 

1099. Nov. 3. 
linn 




1104. Jan. 3. 

1105. Apr. 13. 















































ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



23 



Cent. Magd- j Muratori, &c. 
Sigonius, p. 609 ; Muratori, Annali 
d'ltalia, t. vi. p. 351 ; Vite de' 
Duchi, &c., p. 483 and 486. 

Gentleman's Magazine, vol. for 1750, 

p. 56. 
Dom Bouquet, t. xii. p. 486. 

J. Malvecii Chron. loc. cit. p. 874. 

Frytschius. 

Simeon Dunelmensis, Hist. X. Script, 
col. 251 ; apud Salopiam Chron. 
Henrici de Knyghton, X. Script, 
col. 2379. 

Martene et Durand, t. v. p. 805. 

Lycosthenes ; Frytschius ; Collec- 
tion Academiqne; Centuriae Mag- 
deburgenses ; Miinsterus, Cos- 
mogr., lib. iii. 

Dom Bouquet, t. xii. p. 557. 

JeandeFerreras,Histoired'Espagne, 

t. iii. p. 324. 
Labbe, t. ii. p. 218. 

Muratori, t. vii. p. 590. 

Ch. Mathias, p. 587; Cent.Magdeb. 

t. xii. p. 863 ; Muratori, t. xxii. 

p. 484. 
Purchas, Pilgrimes, vol. ii. p. 1208 ; 

Collection Academique ; Muratori, 

t. xii. p. 591. 
Bar Hebrffius, p. 298 ; El Makin ; 

Muratori ; Ch. Mathias, &c. 


: t« 

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i 1 

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c 
t: 
c 

c 
a 

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The earth opened and houses were swallowed up 

The river Trent stopped for a mile in length, so 

that it could be passed with dry feet. This 

continued from morning until the third hour 

of the day. 


& a, 
2 S 

■5% 

Si 

■£.S 

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Trialeth, Mariscum, Manistria, and other towns 
were destroyed wholly or in part. 

Aleppo, Samosate, Jerusalem, Antioch, Haran, 
and Balasch were greatly injured. Possibly the 
same with the last. 


The island was en- 
gulphed by the sea 
during an earth- 
quake. 










































1 

■13 

1 

% 

o 
.a 
m 








S 

03 . 
1 S 
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jerusaifiML r> 

Island of Malamocco 
near the Italian coast ; 
also at Venice. 

Ely in England. 

Anirers ? 


03 

_ca 
X a 

►3 < 


Shrewsbury and Not- 
tingham in England. 

Lombardv 


Southern Germany ; 
especially Rothenburg 
on the Necker. 

"In partibus Britanuiae." 
Query in England ov 
in Brittany. 

Toledo 


n3 
1 

ea ca _ 
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29 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 



31 











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56 and 361. 
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Annales Genuen 
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32 



REPORT — 1852. 



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ON THE FACTS OP EARTIlOlfAKE PHENOMENA. 



33 



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34 



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35 






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m _< J3 o 

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2 «-S 




ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 



37 



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38 



REPORT — 1852. 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



39 



1 


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40 



REPORT — 1852. 






•'^ 'K rt .la 3 



§2-^ft^ 

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fr: 


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82. 
0, Muratori 
n. di Bologn 
i. p. 414; 




1 




53 


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a. 3 
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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PH^ENOMENA. 



41 



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a "*! 

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REPORT — 1852. 



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r-l M -^ J3 IM ' 



ON THK FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



43 



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(N 



ON THE PACTS OP fiARTttClUAKE PHoENOMENA. 



45 



I4PM 



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46 



REPORT — 1852. 



o 






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<» ^< 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



47 



Sb 



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48 



REPORT — 1852. 



ss 



:;a 



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c c . c 
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to 




t. XVI 

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logna sa; 
recurred 
Sept. anc 
Shocks di 
days. 


Vcco 
&D 
last 
The 



CO 



C8-. 



bo 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQU.AKE PH^NOMEXA. 



49 



:a 

•P 

X 

i 

"o 

m 

2 o g '■■7 c 
; QO Q 




Expedition scientifique en Moree, 
Part. geol. p. 269. 

Annales Foroliv., Muratori, t. xxii. 
p. 225. 

Philippi de Lignamine Chron., Mu- 
ratori, t. ix. p. 270. 

Ditto. 

Istoria Napolitana, Muratori, t.xxiii. 

p. 235. 
Ditto. 
AUegretti, Diari Senesi, Muratori, 

t. xxiii. p. 772. 

Ditto. 

Annales Foroliv., Muratori, t. xxii. 
p. 225. 

Philippi de Lignamine Chron., Mu- 
ratori, t. ix. p. 271 ; Chron. di 
Bologna, Muratori, t. xviii. 
p. 742, &c. 

Funccius and Palmerius. 

Chron. di Bologna, loc. cit. p. 758. 




e8 

"S 

a 1^ 
S a 



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a a 

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OCL, 

00 


These three earthquakes do not appear to have 
extended beyond the territory of the two towns 
mentioned. 

During the shocks the island was increased in 
size by land raised from the sea. 












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Twenty-five shocks in 
the time mention- 
ed, of which the 
last was the most 
violent. 


1 

•«- 
s 

> 


1 

J 

> 










One very violent shock , 
followed by other 
slighter ones. 

A shock which did 
great damage. 


1 
1 

a 


t 

c 




i! 
lis s 

3 C 


•E 

(£ 

§ 
c 
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) 
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Ditto, principally at Pe- 
rugia. 

Island of Hydra in the 

Archipelago. 
Castftlln . 


t 

c 




c 

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b: 


c 


c 
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lioti. Oec.io: 
About 6 A.M. 

30. 

1457. Apr. 26. 
22nd hour. 

29. 

From evening 

to morning. 

30. 

5| hour. 


1458. April 7. 

1459. Mar. 18. 
Ist hour of 
the night. 

Nov. 

7th hour of 
the night. 

1461. June. 

Aug. ... 

22. 

2nd hour of 
the night. 

Sept. 3. 

Nov. 20. 

27. 

5th hour of 
the night. 

UfiS 


1465. Jan. 22. 
5^ hour of 
the night. 


1 18 


52 


























E 







50 



REPORT — 1852. 



CO 


Chron. Eugubinum, Muratori, t. xxi. 
p. 1009. 

IstoriaNapolitana, Muratori, t.xxiii. 
p. 234. 

Me'zerai, t. ii. p. 126 (3 vol. edit.). 

Chron. Eugub., Muratori, t. xxi. 
p. 1013. 

Ditto. 

Kiinipfer, v. Dohm, p. 233. 

Hist. Senen., Muratori, t. xx. p. 63. 

Clironicon Haselbergii Viennense. 
Bertrand ; Collection Academique. 

Chron. Eugub., Muratori, t. xxi. 

p. 1020. 
Philippi Bergomat. suppl. chron. 

fol. 388. 

Annales Placentini, Muratori, t. xx. 

p. 942. 
Allegretti, loc. cit. p. 781. 

Ditto. 

Lerner's Chronik ; Kriegk. loc. cit. 


in 






1 

a 

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The author who reports this event, says that there 
fell this year in Italy hailstones larger than 
ostrich eggs. 

Rain continuous for almost the whole month ... 






■^ 






























! 


M 


D great earth- 

uakes, followed 

y a third still 

Tcater during the 

ight. 

ted the time of a 


liserere, decrea- 

inghowever in vio- 

ence towards the 

nd. 

at eartliQ uakes ... 


^ 




ny earthquakes in 

le same year. 

y violent shocks, 

asting for twenty 

ays. 

disastrous earth- 

uake. 


§ 

a 

a 
a 

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a CO 

CO .ij 

+= o 

5? J= 




1 

B 


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ll 






g > < o a 


cS : 1 


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c 

2 
a 
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Naples and the country 
round, especially at Bo- 
cino, Piescopagano, &c. 

Soissons and the neigh. 

bourhood. 
Gubbio 


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1465, (May 
13?). 

1466. Jan. 14. 
9th hour. 

In sum- 
mer. 

Oct. 

Nightbetween 

27 and 28. 

Dec. 26 

15th hour. 


1467. Aug. 
End of the 
month. 

1468. Feb.... 

1470. Feb. 6. 

5 P.M. 

1471. March 

Aug. 15. 

22iid hour. 

1473. May 7. 
13th hour. 

1474. Dec. 17. 
17th hour. 

18. 

12 in the 
morning. 
































1 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



51 



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REPORT — 1852. 



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ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



53 



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54 



REPORT 1852. 



to 


Statistique des Bouches du Rhone, 
Communication from M. Aug. 
Bravais to M. Perrey. 

Huot, Cours dc Geologie, t. i.p. 110. 

Mezerai, t. ii. p. 335 (4to edit.); 
Lycosthenes; Collection Acade- 
mique. 

Tarcagnota, foe. cit. fol. 373. 

Collection Academique. 
Kampfer, v. Dohm, p. 234. 
Bertrand ; Collection Academique. 

Rivander's Diiringische Chronik. 
Paul Joves, trad, de D. Sauvage, t. i. 
pp. 218 and 345. 

Merian, iiber die in Basel wahrge- 

nommenen Erdbeben. 
Montgomery Martin, History of 

the British Colonies, vol. v. p. 431. 
Lycosthenes ; Fincelinns, lib. iii. ; 
MiinsteriCosmograph. Univ. lib. iii. 

Berghaiis's Annalen der Erdkunde, 
quoting Sultan Baber's Memoiren. 

Partsch, Detonations-Phiinomen zu 

Meleda, p. 188. 
Frundspergersche Geschichtschrei- 

ber, lib. ii. ; Funccius. 
Huot, Cours de Geologie, t. i. p. 1 10 ; 

V. Hoff. 
Merian, iiber die, &c. foe. cit. 
Philippi Bergomat. Suppl. Chron. 

fol. 437. 


o 




a 

a 

c 
c 


Accompanied by very high winds, and intense 
cold. 

Some houses and statues were thrown down ... 


1. 


• a S 

!i| 

_2 a 

. .a '" 
: ^ o 

• « a 

Jg 

. ^. o 

. t; ^ 

• ^ =s 

■ s 1 
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3 -e 

as 

o ta 


The mountain, shaken by an earthquake, 
fell with a great noise into the valley below, 
thereby diverting the course of the river 
Brennio. 




: .a 

• '3 

: "ca 

: & 

: "^ 
: o 

3 

13 

: 2 

: ftn 

• a 

1 

: "S 

• S. 
: [o 
: '> 
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bo 

3 

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: Q 










During an eclipse of the moon. There were two 
lunar eclipses this year, namely on the 12th 
March and 5th September. 


-* 








The water in the 
canals was much 
agitated. 




























■ 


M 






Several earthquakes. 

Rather considerable, 
but lasting a very 
short time. 




c 

.3 

C 


1 
o 

1 

u. 






c 




% 

c 
X. 

1 
« 

c 
n 
"c 

'> 

< 














W 


Manosque (Basses- 
Alpes). 

Nordlineen in Bavaria. . . 


In Italy; especially at 
Florence, Ravenna, and 
Venice. 

Venice. Also felt at 
Padua, Trevisa, &c. 

Lavliach in Carinthia . . . 


e 

•i 


tS 

J 1 

•ois 

N 3 

> s 


A mountain at the foot 
of the Alps, above 
Bellizone. 

Bale 


(D 
% 

N 


Nordlingen in Bavaria, 
and the country for 
two miles round. 
The lowervalley of Djan- 
dul, one of the valleys of 
Cabul in Afghanistan. 
Rao-iisa 




a 


« 

Da 


1 

3 
< 


3 


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1509.Dec.l3. 

1510. June 10. 

During 

the winter. 

1511.Mar.26. 


1 


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3 
< 
CO 


®" : 

3 


1517.June26. 
1519 


o 






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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 



55 



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56 



REPORT — 1852. 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



57 



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58 



REPORT — 1852. 



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in circum 
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rtifications 




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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHjENOMENA. 



59 






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light, by 
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then ros 
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same 1 
lliancy, 
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suddenl 
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altered. 


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carnage in 
llowed, the 
of great bri 
all over Ge 
Duchy of W 
feet square 
six feet, an 
the height 
any buildin 
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60 



REPORT — 1852. 



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p. 8 


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ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



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REPORT — 1852. 



<£ 


Wieland's Chronik. 
Beuther. 

Spon, Hist, de Geneve, t. i. p. 521 ; 

Bertrand ; Coll. Acad. 
Tavares, in Balbi, Essai sur le Por- 

tug. t. i. p. 102. 
Collection Acaderaique. 
Baker's English Chronicle, p. 420. 

Ennery et Hirth, Diet, de Geogr. 

t. iv. p. 508. 
Rytfische Chronik (1514-1584). 
Ditto, and Wurstisen's Chronik; 

Bertrand ; Coll. Acad. 
Bertrand ; Coll. Acad. 

Ragor. 

Bertrand ; Stumpf 's Schweizer 
Chronik. 

Ragor. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ragor ; Wieland's Chronik. 

Ditto. 

y. Humboldt, loc. cit. t. ii. p. 297. 

Beuther. 


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Probably simultaneous with some of the earth- 
quakes at Bale. 


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Three shocks at the 
times mentioned; the 
second less violent 
than tliefirst, and the 
third, according to 
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memoirs, more vio- 
lent, andaccordingto 
another, less so, than 
the second. 










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The Thames at London 

The district of San Sal- 
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Bale 


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Ditto. AlsofeltatGeneva, 

and in the Pays de Vaud. 

Bale, and all through 

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1575.April24. 
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1576. Oct.... 

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21 and 22. 

■ Dec.20 

and 21. 

1577. Feb.27. 

Sept. 22. 

Between 2 
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at 5 p.m., 
and during 
the night. 

23. 

24. 

29. 

Oct. 5. 

18. 

Nov. 30. 















































ON THE PACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 



63 



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REPORT 1852. 



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73 



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83 



Communication of M. Ch. Martins 

to M. Perrey 
Collection Academique. 

Bertrand ; Coll. Acad. 
Collection Academique. 

Dresdn. gel. Anz. foe. cit. 
Terra tremens ; Coll. Acad. 

Bertrand ; Coll. Acad. 

Sansovino, foe. cit., p. 85 and 753 ; 
Coll. Acad. 

Communication of M. Ch. Martins 

to M. Perrey. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto, 
v. Hoff. 

Gentleman's Magazineforl750,p.56. 
Dresdn. gel. Anz. foe. cit. 

Phil. Trans, vol. 1. p. 9. 

Dresdn. gel. Anz. toe. cit. 
Fiore, foe. cit. p. 289. 


1 






Threw down several buildings at the capital Ta- 
jovan and part of the fortifications of Fort Ze- 
land. This island is said to be subject to 
earthquakes. 


Modena, Florence, Faenza, Forli, and twenty 
other places are mentioned as having suffered 
considerably by this earthquake. At Cassiano 
and Castro two clefts opened in the earth, from 
which there came forth a smell of sulphur. 

Followed the day after by thunder, and hail of a 
large size. 
















The houses were shaken, and chimneys thrown 
down. 

Followed by a thunder-storm 

Threw down several buildings 


1 
1 






The sea was violently 
agitated, and the 
ships dashed about. 






The water in the 
canals was raised, 
and ebbed and flow- 
ed like the sea. 


























i 

i 


1 






The direction of the 
vibrations at Venice 
was from E. to W., or 
according to others, 
from N.E. to S.W. 














A violent shock, fol- 
lowed by two others 
during the night and 
following morning. 






1 

i 

i 
1' 

: s « 


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1 

■s 

> 

z 
Q 


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I sland of Formosa 

Ravenna and twenty- 
four places adjacent. 

Central Italy ; princi- 
pally in Modena, Tus- 
cany, and the States 
of the Church. 

Near Aigle in the Valais 

At Venice. Also felt in 
the Romagna. 

Bale 


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1662. Jan. 26. 

6 P.M. 

Sept. ... 

Nov. 6. 



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84 



REPORT — 1852. 



CO 


Dresdn. gel. Anz. loc. cit.; Huot, 

loc. cit. 
Kampfer, v. Dohm, B. i. S. 190 and 

241; Montanus, Gesandtschaft. 

Phil. Trans, vol. 1. p. 9. 
Bertrand ; Coll. Acad. 

Terra tremens ; Coll. Acad. ; Mac- 
gregor's Travels in America, &c. &c. 

Bertrand ; Coll. Acad. 

Ditto ; Scheuchzer. 

Ditto. 

Collection Academique. 

Statistique des Bouches-du-Rhone 
(communication of M. Aug. Bra- 
vais to M. Pen'ey). 

Hadschi Chalifa. 

Montgomery Martin, Hist, of the 

British Colonies, vol. v. p. 431. 
Collection Academique. 

Girolamo Brusoni, Hist, d'ltalia, 
p. 791 ; Brewer, Historica, sive 
Hist. Univ. t. x. p. 123. 




>n 




1 i 

a s 
a 

a 1 

eg 

111 

III 

Sol 




Tabussac, Quebec, Sillery, &c. were injured 
by the shocks, which were accompanied by 
loud noise, and various atmospheric pheno- 
mena. For copious details see Perrey's memoir 
on earthquakes in the United States and 
Canada. 


Accompanied by a subterranean murmuring noise, 
which appeared to frighten the cattle. 

Ditto 

At the place mentioned there was a high moun- 
tain, at whose foot was a lake of great depth. 
The waters of the lake were completely swal- 

In his memoirs on the earthquakes of the 
Italic peninsula and of France, Belgium, 
and Holland, M. Perrey gives the date 1664 
for this event, but in that on the earth- 
quakes of the basin of the Rhone he places it 
in 1663. 

Did great damage in many places 




1 

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Very violent. The 
shocks recurred 
until the following 
July. 

More shnf^lfs 




1 

c 

i 

C 

S 






c 
> 

> 


A rather violent shock 

The shocks recurred 
for thirty-two days. 


1 


1 


M 


.2 
c 

CS 

13 
C 


Province of Oomi iu 
Japan. 


In the Canton of Berne, 
on the side of Aigle. 

A district of 400 leagues 
in circumference in 
Canada. 

Canton of Berne, on the 

side of Aigle. 
All the Alps of the 

canton of Claris. 
Ditto 


The southern side of Ice- 
land, near Krisewik. 

Nice and Marseilles ... 


§ . 

c8 a 4. 
■S 3 -s 

t- o ^ 
4; tl CI 


In the East Indies, at 
seven days' journey 
from Ducca. 

In the island of Candia. 


; 


, 


- 








1663. Jan. 5. 

(or, accord- 
ing to others, 
Feb. 5). 

June 10. 

Sept. 10. 

13. 


1664. Feb. 15. 






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1 


Dresd. gel. Anz. foe. cit. ; Lerner's 
Chronik; Kriegk. 

Collection Academique. 

Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Dresdn. gel. Anz. loe. cit. No. 18. 

Spon, Hist, de Geneve, t. i. p. 555 ; 
Academie des Sciences, t.i. p. 341 ; 
Coll. Acad. ; Bertrand ; Richard, 
Hist, des Met. t. viii. p. 495 ; 
Wieland's Chronik ; Suppl. to 
Brombach's Diarium, &c. 

Lerner's Chronik ; Kriegk. 
Scheuchzer; Coll. Acad. 

Collection Academique. 


•d 


The earthquake broke the ice on the river Maine, 
which had been so strong that laden waggons 
had crossed upon it. It, however, did no 
damage. 

Preceded by a subterranean noise, which ap- 
peared to come from the West. 




Preceded by a loud noise, apparently coming 
from the West. 

Accompanied by the fall of a mountain near. 

Accompanied by loud subterranean noise, and 
agitation in the air. Flames came forth from 
the earth in various places, particularly at Re- 
miremont on the Moselle. In Switzerland, 
Bale, Neufchatel, Geneva, and the Canton of 
Claris, were most violently affected. At Gotha 
the tower of the Rathhaus and the steeple 
of St. Margaret's church were made to oscil- 
late very considerably. In France it was felt 
at Bar-le-Duc, Metz, Nancy, Troves, Auxen-e, 
Vesoul, Orleans, Paris, andseveral other places. 
The dates May 12 and 13 are also given, but 
they probably only refer to the same event. 


i II 

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Lasted half a quarter 
of an hour. The 
oscillation was first 
from W. to E., then 
from E. to W., and 
finally from W. to 
E. again. 




In the direction W. to 
E., which is the direc- 
tion of Mont-Craplatz. 


Several shocks. At 
Remiremont they 
recurred constantly 
for some weeks. 




In the direction, ac- 
cording to some, of E. 
to W., and, according 
to others, of N. to S. 


ei 


Mayence, Frankfort on 
the Maine, and Hanau. 


■• S 


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3 
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t 


Throughout thewliole of 
Savoy, Switzerland, 
Provence, Alsace, Bur- 
gundy,andas far north 
as Paris ; and even in 
Thuringiain Germany. 

Frankfort on the Maine. 
In the Canton of Claris. 

At Lyons 


• 


- 


1681. Jan. On 
a Friday, be- 
tween 4 and 5 
(a.m. or P.M..') 
Aug. 19. 

2 A.M. 

Nov. 16. 

18. 

Dec. 27. 

1^ hour be- 
fore dawn. 

1682. Jan. 16. 

May 2. 

Between 2 
and 3 a.m. 

4. 

7 p.m. 

7. 

June 1 . 



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REPORT — 1852. 



i 
to 


Journ. Hist. Mai, 1731, p. 350. 

Nova Acta Acad. Petropol. t. xv. ; 

Hist. p. 71. 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. i. p. 309. 

Phil. Trans, (edit. 1745) t. ix. p. 398; 
Journ. Hist. Juin, 1731, p. 411 ; 
Seyfart, p. Ill; v. Hoff. 

Ditto. 

Journ. Hist. 1731, Juillet.p. 46. 

V. Bueh quotes the account of Don 
Andr. Lorenz. Curbato, the cure 
of Yaisa in the island. 


tii 


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Four provinces were much injured by earth- 
quakes. 

The heavens were obscured by heavy clouds, 
which afterwards cleared away before a gentle 
breeze from the North. Water was thrown 
out from wells of 30 or 40 feet deep. 

The heavens were clear, but tlie sun appeared 
pale as if obscured by thin vapour. Before 
this earthquake the inhabitants of the Terra- 
di-Bari perceived around Monte Gargano a 
sort of flame like sudden lightning, which 
vanished in smoke. In the neighbourhood of 
Foggia this and the other earth(iuakes of April, 
October, and November, were observed to be 
preceded in general by violent wind from the 
north-east. Sometimes however it was quite 
calm. These aerial phtcnomena were accom- 
panied by terrible noises in the open country. 
Foggia was greatly injured. It was supposed 
to be the centre of the shocks, and that they 
diminished in the ratio of the square of the 
distances of the places at which they were felt 
from it. About 600 persons perished. A spring 
of hot water made its appearance. 

3600 persons perished 

Accompanying a very violent and most remark- 
able volcanic eruption, which began on the 1st 
September If 30, was extremely violent for two 
years, and did not entirelv cease until the 16th 
April 1736. 


■4 








At Siponto and Bar- 
letta the fishermen 
perceived a sudden 
rising of the sea 
which nearly wreck- 
ed their boats, al- 
though there was 
no wind. 








M 

ci 








Very violent. First 
there was a trem- 
bling, then a pulsa- 
tion, and finally a 
rocking motion like 
that of a ship, last- 
ing altogether three 
min. and some sees. 

Shorter and less vio- 
lent than the last. 

Fifty shocks during 
the day. 




1 


si 

■-a 

a 

: t « 

a, t 
) < C 


Foggia and its environs 

The island of Lancerote, 
one of the Canaries. 


- 


d 

CO 


1731. Begin- 
ningof theyear 

Mar. 20. 

(N.S.) 4 A.M. 

21. 

8 a.m. 

Aprai7. 

June 4. 



ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



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134 



REPORT — 1852. 



<o 


Jean BernouUi, t. iv. p. 304 ; Coll. 
Acad. 

Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Ditto. 


>ri 


1 
1 

1 
1 

a 

F- 


The sky, which had hitherto been clear (the 

wind at S.W.), became obscured; the barometer 

went down about 4 p.m., and three thunder clouds 

formed in the W., S.W. and S., about 8 p.m. The 

sky then cleared again, and at night lightning 

was seen in the W., and W.S.W. 

These shocks did some damage. Almost all were 

accompanied by loud subterranean noises. The 

heavens were a little cloudy ; thunder and 

rain from 8 to 9 p.m. At 9'' 45"" p.m. an igneous 

meteor was seen. 

Most of these shocks attended as before with 
loud subterranean noises. The weather vari- 
able, and the wind shifting. At about 4 a.m., 
an aurora borealis, visible notwithstanding the 
clouds which then obscured the heavens. 


■^ 










- 


CO 


5 or 6 violent shocks, 

principallyat5'' 37 and 

46"'. Again at a little 

after 4 and at 5 p.m. 

numerous and violent 

shocks andtrerablings. 

Many shocks and 

tremblings as before. 

Again at 8 a.m. and 

Sh 5'" to 8'' 20'". 

Several shocks, recur- 
ringat9A.M. At9''45"' 
P.M. a terrible earth- 
quake lasting3'"or 4™. 
Again at between 10 
and 11 P.M. (one at 
lO"" 45"' was vertical) 
and at ll*" 45'" p.m. 
Many shocks, but less 
violent than the form- 
er. About 3 A.M. a vio- 
lent trembling. Some 
minutes before 4 a.m., 
two vertical shocks. At 
B"" & rather more than 
40"' 2 terrible shocks, 
followed, r" after, by 
athird.andcontinuous 
tremblings. Between 
noon and 1 p.m., two 
more vertical shocks. 
At 1 P.M. a violent 
shock from the S.E. 
At 1 1' 30'" another from 
the S. At 2'' 15'" one 
from S.E., at 3'' and 
some minutes,another. 


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1737. May 16. 
5 to 6^ 15™ 

A.M. 

17. 

5 to 6 A.M. 

18. 

5 to 6 A.M. 

19. 

The whole of 
the first hour 
(from mid- 
night of the 
18th). 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHJENOMENA. 



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REPORT 1852. 



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143 



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ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



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146 



REPORT— 1852. 



<o 


Phil. Trans, vol. xlvi. Appendix. 

v. HofF. 

Phil. Trans, toe. cit. 

Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 


icj 


Some persons spoke of a former slight shock at 
London at 7 a.m., and also of one at Plymouth 
at 1 a.m. on the following day. Both appear 
to be very doubtful, v. Hotf has obviously 
copied incorrectly the shocks in England of this 
year. 

Keferstein mentions an earthquake at Constance 
on the same day, but v. HofF thinks this name 
is only mistaken for Canstadt. 






Preceded by a loud noise compared by some to 
thunder, by others to the roaring of the wind, 
and moving in the direction, according to some, 
of S.E. to N.W. or W.; according to others, of 
W. to E., N.W. to S.E., or vice versa. This 
noise (compared there to that of a carriage in 
motion) was heard at one or two places where 
no shock was felt. A black cloud with con- 
tinual and confused flashes of lightning had 
been visible, the latter ceasing a minute or two 
before the earthquake. Some chimneys were 
thrown down and houses injured. A girl was 
thrown from her bed and her arm broken. In 
St. James's Parkandelsewheretheearth seemed 
to swell up, and to be ready to open three times. 
Dogs howled dismally, fishes threw themselves 
out of the water, and a horse that was brought 
tothewatering-place,refusedto drink. Oneper- 
soa felt himself turned on his feet by the shock. 


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Three or four consecu- 
tive shocksinthespace 
of 10 or 12 sees, (or, 
according to some,only 
3 or 4). Direction at 
London said to be E. to 
W., in the neighbour- 
hood froniNE.toSW., 
or even from N.W. to 
S.E. Others believed 
they felt alternate vi- 
brations from N.W. to 
S.E., and vice versa. 
At Chelsea two figures 
of porcelain, whichhad 
been placed with their 
faces to the W., were 
found after the shock 
turned to N.E. 


m" 


London and the country 
for seven miles round, at 
Tooting, Chelsea, &c. ; 
especialiyviolent on both 
sides oftheThamesfrom 
Greenwich to Richmond. 
Also at the same time on 
the coasts of Normandy 
(at Havre and Boulogne), 
Picardy and Brittany. 
Canstadt in Swabia ... 

London and some other 
places in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

Ditto . 




London, Chesnut (Ches- 
hunt ?), Hertford, 
Copthall, Bromley, 
Croydon, Tooting, 
Chelsea, Fulham, 
Epsom and Turn- 
ham. 


-• 


1750. Feb. 19. 
12'' 40"° noon. 

Mar. 10. 

19. 

(N.S.) Midn' 
(of the 18th) 

2 a.m. 

3 a.m. 

5'' 40"" A.M. 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PH^ENOMENA. 



147 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



149 



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le clefts opened 
re came out wat 
sques and houses 
at Constantinopl 
the afternoon E. 
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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 



155 



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157 






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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 




159 


Dupetit Thouars, Voy. de la Venus, 
t. ii. p. 213. 

Phil. Trans, vol. xlviii. part ii. p, 819, 
and vol. xlix. part i. p. 117, 

Ditto, 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto, 
Ditto, 

Gazette de France, 5 Oct, 

Phil. Trans, loc. cit. 

Ditto. 

Gazette de France, loc. cit. 


The city -was ruined 

In Constantinople much damage was done to the 
buildings. The shock was tiiere felt more vio- 
lently in the upper than the lower stories. The 
city of Sivas was ruined, that of Nicomedia 
much injured. The earthquake was preceded 
by complete calms. The wind during the day 
on which it occurred was from E.N.E. to E. 








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The Collection Academique gives the dates 9 and 
10 November for these shocks, and the third 
at the same place mentioned below. 




i ■« 

1 

'o 
a 
m 

1 

i 


Accompanied by an 

elevation of the sea, 
three or fourmetres 
above the lowest 
tides. 
























At Constantinople a 
vertical shock fol- 
lowed by some hori- 
zontal oscillations, 
the whole occupy- 
ing about thirty 
seconds. The di- 
rection nearly E. 
to W. 

More shocks 


o 

a 


Two rather more vio- 
lent shocks. 

Two more shocks ... 


C 


s 

p 


Two shocks at the 
hours mentioned. 

Another shock 


o 

P 


O 

P 




Acapnlco 

Constantinople. Also 
felt at Adrianople, and 
still more violently in 
Asia Minor, especially 
in Diarbeckir and Ar- 
menia; alltbecountiy 
between suffering 
more or less. Also, ac- 
cording to Seyfart,felt 
at Alexandria and 
Cairo in Egypt. 

Constantinonle 


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1754. Aug. 30. 
In the night. 

Sept. 2. 

(O.S.)IOp.m. 

At mid- 
night. 

3. 

10 a.m., and 
at noon. 

4. 

2 P.M. and 

111" 15"" P.M. 

At dawn and 
at g'^O^A.M. 

4 A.M. 

8. 

4'' 30" a.m. 

and 10 a.m. 

9. 

72-and8^p.M. 

Midnight. 
10. 

4 A.M. 



























160 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PlI^NOMEXA. 169 



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170 



REPORT 1852. 



to 




tri 


The crew of the Dutch vessel mentioned saw the 
effect of the shock on Monte Zizambre itself, 
large masses of rock being detached and rolled 
into the sea. Towards night a mass of smoke 
(observed also at Colares) was seen in the 
E.N.E., 7 or 8 leagues from where they were, 
and afterwards a fire, the light of which was 
seen all night. (This probably proceeded from 
one of the towns ruined and on fire.) At 
Funchal the shock was preceded by a dull 
noise like that of carriages, which lasted some 
seconds after the shocks. The doors and 
windows vibrated quickly. 


■"T 


it began at 2'' 45'", 
lasted but 3 hours, 
and attained the 
height of 8 feet. At 
Newlyn and Mouse- 
hole, on the same 
coast,thcpheiiomena 
werealmostidentical. 
This strange tide a\ as 
also remarked at St. 
Ives, Haylc, and 
Swansea, at the last 
placeal)outC''45'". At 
Kinsale in Ireland the 
water came over the 
quay with such vio- 
lence as to tlirow 
manv people down. 
At 9'' 45'" a Dutch 
vessel, a league and 
a half off Monte Zi- 
zambre (6 or 7 leagues 
from Setuval) expe- 
rienced a violent 
shock. Some more 
shocks were felt on 
board the same ves- 
sel towards sunset. 
V. Iloff mentions the 
shock as felt by a 
ship 50 leagues west 
of Lisbon. Several 
other vessels appear 
to have experienced 
it in various regions 
of the Atlantic. At 
ll*" 45'" at the island 
of Madeira the sea 
suddenly retired 


w 


At Funchal the shock 
was violent, from E. 
to W., and consisted 
of two epochs of un- 
dulation, the first 
being much the more 
violent. The whole 
lasted 1 minute. 


oi 


Over the surface of the 
Atlantic Ocean the dis- 
turbance seems to 
have extended widely, 
as far as the necessarily 
limited observations go. 
At Funchal in the south 
of Madeira, the shock 
was strongly felt. 


-• 


91 A.M. (Fun- 
chal time = 
about 10 A.M. 
Lisbon time). 



ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. l7l 






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ON THE FACTS OP EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENA. 



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ON THE PACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PH^ENOMENA. 



175 



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ON THE VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



177 



Twelfth Report of a Committee, consisting of H.E.Strickland, Esq., 
Professor Daubeny, Professor Henslow, o?j(/ Professor Lindley, 
appointed to continue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality 
of Seeds. 

The 8eeds set apart for this year's sowing were those collected in IS'i^, and 
it is the third lime that the same kinds have been subjected to experiment. 

There is a very evident decrease in the numbers which have vegetated when 
compared with those of previous sowings, as will be seen by reference to the 
annexed table. 

It being still desirable for the continuation of these experiments that seeds 
of known date should be added to the Depot at Oxford, more especially of 
families and genera not already there, we again beg to call the attention of 
the Members to the subject ; and to guide them in the selection, we refer 
them to the List of Genera, the seeds of which are now in our possession, 
given in p. 32 of the Report of this Association for IS^S. 



Name and Date when gathered. 


No. 
sown. 


No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 


Time of vegetating 
in days at 


Remarks. 


Ox- 
ford. 


Cam- 
bridge. 


Chis- 
wick. 


Ox- 
ford. 


Cam- 
bridge. 


Chis- 
wicls. 


1844. 

1. Ammobium alatum 

2. Asparagus officinalis 

3. Alstroemeria aurantia 

4. Argemone mexicana 

5. Bryonia dioica 


200 
150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
200 
100 
200 
200 
150 
200 
200 
150 
200 
200 
200 
200 
150 
200 

200 


27 




26 
3 


25 




15 

7 

13 

9 


r Strong and 
\ healthy. 

Plants weak. 

J Strong and 
L healthy. 

Plants weak, 
r Strong and 
I healthy. 






6. Carthamus tinctorius 


8. Catananche coerulea 


10. Chenopodium Botrys 

11. Eschscholtzia californica . 

12. Helleborus foetidus 












14. Scorzonera hispanica 


16. Solanum ovigerum 




1? 








2 

68 






18. Sanvitalia procumbens ... 

19. Tragopogon porrifolium... 

20. Vesicaria grandiflora 

21. Madia splendens 




42 


30 


10 


3 









Sown at Oxford on the 18th of June in pots and placed in a cold frame, 
at Cambridge on the 21st of June in the open border, and at Chiswick on 
June 10th in pots placed in slight heat. 



1852. 



178 REPORT — 1852. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1851-52. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Pro- 
fessor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

In submitting to the British Association a fifth report in continuation of 
former ones on observations of Luminous Meteors, I am bound to acknow- 
ledge the contributions (as heretofore) of Dr. Buist, the Rev. J. Slatter, Mr. 
J. King Watts, the Rev. T. Rankin and Mr. Birt, besides several other friends 
who ha\ e favoured me with occasional observations : to Mr. E. J. Lowe I am 
especially indebted for communicating, besides his own valuable series, those 
of Mr. Lawson, and the very exact observations of M. Bulard, and a series ob- 
served by the Rev. J. B. Reade and several friends. 

These latter sets of observations have each been drawn up in such complete 
and distinct tabular forms that I have judged it better for the most part to 
retain them in the order in which they were communicated, than to attempt 
to reduce them to a more strict chronological arrangement. 

I have also received a considerable series of older meteor-observations by 
T. W. Webb, Esq., of Ganarew, near Monmouth, extending over a period 
of upwards of thirty years prior to 1850. As it was found almost impossi- 
ble to reduce these to the tabular form, they are given precisely as they were 
communicated : they in several instances afford points of comparison with 
former records, and supply deficiencies in them. 



L Observations of Luminous Meteors, from 1818 to 1850, extracted from old 
diaries of natural phmiomena. By Thomas William Webb, Esq., of 
Ganarew, Monmouth. 

1818. Jan. 5 A meteor about S'' 30™ p.m.; it passed from N.E. to S.W. 

across the zenith ; its observed time was about 3 sees. (This is but an uncer- 
tain observation, from youth and inexperience.) 

1820. Aug. 10. — My father, the Rev. John Webb, "informed me that as 
he was travelling about a quarter past 2 a.m., he saw a remarkable meteor. 
It was somewhere near Auriga, and had the appearance of a luminous line, 
with sparks issuing in great quantity from both sides of it. This soon dis- 
appeared gradually, and directly after, another, much less bright, was seen 
further on, which lasted only for a moment." He was also informed, that 
" one had been seen about 1 1 p.m., which was much brighter and lasted longer. 
Shooting stars were observed in surprising numbers all night." 

1821. Aug. 23. — The same gentleman supposed that a meteor might have 
appeared about 9 p.m. " in tlie N.W. part of the sky, as he saw a light on the 
hedges before him (he was then going S.E.) such as would be produced by 
the sudden appearance of a candle, or the flash of a gun. It was accompanied 
by a noise like a rushing gale. The weather was hot, and the sky serene and 
cloudless, without a breath of wind. It should be observed that there was a 
thunder-storm on the evening of the 24'th"(and therefore this observation is 
only so far valuable as it may be corroborated by others. It was in South 
Herefordshire). 

1821. Sept. 9. — A meteor about 8*^ p.m. at some height in the north. It 
had the appearance of a star, about as bright as Venus, and disappeared 
instantly without motion. 

1822. Nov. 28. — About 9^^ 45™ p.m. I saw a falling star which appeared, 
at first, quite as bright, if not brighter, than a star of the first magnitude, but 



A CATALOGUK OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 179 

very soon lost its splendour and gradually diminished till it became totally 
invisible. Its course was perpendicular, in the N.E., and about 30° in length. 
The full moon was shining at the same time with very great I)rightness. Its 
course was sti'aight and performed with a medium rapidity. 

1823. Sept. 7 About 9'^ 15"^ p.m., a meteor was seen in the S.S.E., whose 

course may be thus delineated : 

In its descentitmade an angle of about 10° with 
*„ the horizon : at first it appeared as bright as 

^y Aquarius */3 ^ Athair, and it did not diminish until it had run 

*o about half its course, when it gradually became 
fainter and I'ainter. Its progress was not more 
rapid at first than that of a cloud driving with a 
*Scheat *y high wind, but it became quickerwhilsttheangle 

*J of inclination to the horizon increased. It re- 
mained visible about 3 sees. (S.Herefordshire.) 
1821'. Aug. 29. — About 10*^ p.m., my mother saw a meteor in the S.W., 
which from her description must have had when first seen 20° or 30° of alti- 
tude : it descended in a sloping westerly direction, till near the horizon, when 
it disappeared without diminution, either by extinction, or by passing behind 
trees. It was larger than Venus in her brightest state, but so blue as to be 
compared to a batl of quicksilver, and to appear quite unUke any planet or 
star. Its velocity was considerable, and it seemed as though projected with 
force. (South Herefordshire.) 

, 1824. Aug. 31,— About g'' 30™ p.m., the Swan being S. of the zenith, 
a falling star appeared in it, whose course was short and rapid, in a S.E. di- 
rection. It was of the second magnitude at one time, but very tremulous and 
variable. About three minutes after, another appeared just below it, in the 
N. part of Aquiia, of the fourth magnitude, sailing in a W. direction, with 
a slow and equable movement, over a considerable space. (South Here- 
fordshire.) The Diary adds, " this night there seemed to be many little 
starlings and flashings in the heavens;" but on this I would not rely, as I am 
very near-sighted, and I think at that time did not wear a concave glass. 

1825. April 13 A servant at Gloucester saw a meteor at night in the S., 

which passed in a W. direction : it was quite red, larger than a falling star, 
and not like one. The night was quite cloudy, but the veil was unequal, and 
in some places occasionally thin. 

1825. June 5. — About 8"^ iS'" p.m., a light seemed to catch my eye for a 
moment in the N. at about 30° of elevation. If not a deception, which is 
very probable, it must have been twice as large as Venus. 

1825. Aug. 10 About lO'^ 30"" p.m., a meteor equal to a star of the 3rd 

magnitude in brightness passed across the upper part of Pegasus in a straight 
line, tending somewhat downwards. Immediately on its disappearance an- 
other appeared just E. of the hand of Perseus, exactly in the course of the 
first, produced in the opposite direction : it seemed to come with a very short 
horizontal course from the N., then becoming stationary, blazed out as bright 
as Algenib for an instant, then diminished to the 4th magnitude, and quickly 
after vanished. Soon aiter another of the 3rd magnitude fell in the S.W., in 
a perpendicular line from Serpentarius downwards, with a swift course. After 
ll** P.M. another meteor shot horizontally, rather descending, for the length 
of 2° or 3° by Scheat in Pegasus : it dissolved into a splendid broadish train 
of faint bluish light visible for some seconds. At the begiiming of its course 
its apparent magnitude was about the 2nd. Just after this a very distant red 
reflexion of lightning was seen in the S. All these meteors came more or 
less from the N.E. 

K 2 



180 REPORT 1852. 

, 1825. Aug. 16. — About 9^ 30°^ p.m., a shooting star of the 3rd magnitude 
was seen in the E. at an altitude of about 40°, which rose perpendicularly for 
7° or 8°. 

1825. Nov. 6. — At 9^ p.m., a meteor was seen 3° or 4° below Menkar in 
the E.S.E., as large or larger than Venus when at her greatest brightness. It 
did not seem to move, but vanished in an instant. 

1826. Ma J' 12. — Great meteor, about 10^40"" p.m., which by the account 
of a person who was with me began to appear about two-thirds of the distance 
between the Pole and Lyra, but on a lower line, between Lyra and Cygnus. 
It was described to me to have begun " as if a star had shot," and then it 
broke out all at once in a great body, moving, with a moderate velocity, to 
the N.W. ; at first, and for some parts of its course, horizontally, but at last 
deflecting downwards in a considerable curve ; in which part of its course I 
first saw it, my attention being roused by the strange blue light it cast on the 
ground. As it was passing on beneath the Pole, it went out, as it were, but a 
red spark, half as large as Mars, passed on in the same direction for 3° or 4°, 
and had the same effect as a case that remains kindled after the extinction of 
a fire-work. This meteor had an intense bluish white light, and illuminated 
objects considerably which were not immediately in the moon's rays. When 
I saw it I thought it one-third as large as the moon, then about five days old. 
I do not think it left any train. I fancied the light on the ground was waver- 
ing and streaming, and diminished before I looked up, but"I was informed that 
the meteor appeared uniform from beginning to end. An hour before, a fall- 
ing star had been seen, with a course of 50° or 60° from the zenith to S.\\ 
diminishing before it disappeared. (Gloucester.) 

1826. Sept. 15. — I was informed that about S^ p.m. (uncertain to half an 
hour), a meteor had been seen at some elevation S.E., which passed from N. to 
S., or from N.E. to S.W., for 30° or 40^ as large as a star of the 1st magnitude ; 
its course was mostly horizontal, but descending towards the last. It had a 
very broad train, as long as two-thirds of its course, which lasted a short time. 

1826. Dec. 21. — About 9^ 30™ p.m., while I was looking through a tele- 
scope, I perceived a falling star with the other eye : as soon as I could direct 
my attention to it, 1 ascertained that it was descending nearly in a straight 
line in the E., the point where I first saw it being between Ursa Major, Au- 
riga, and Gemini : its course was perhaps 20°, pretty slow. It was of the Ist 
magnitude, as large, as bright, and nearly as red as Mars : at the extremity 
of its course it suddenly diminished to the 3rd or 4th magnitude, proceeded 
2° or 3° in that state, and vanished. A few seconds after, another was seen, 
which first appearing very near the course of the former one, I think below 
Gemini, proceeded 8° or 10° in a direction to the S., perfectly at right angles 
to the course of the other. It was hardly so large as the 3rd magnitude. 

1827. Dec. 6. — About 6^ or 7*^ p.m., a very large shooting star was seen, 
whose course was nearly perpendicular, 8° or 10° long, passing through the 
tail of Ursa Major, and very slow : its commencement was not very accurately 
noted, but afterwards it exhibited two or three alternations of light, from a 
white star of the 2nd magnitude, to a brightness much exceeding a Lyrse, and 
of a splendid reddish yellow colour. It went out in a faint spark. 

1828. Jan. 19. — About 5^ 45'" p.m., during light twilight a shooting star 
was observed to pass between two clouds in an open space of 2° or 3° in a 
direction sloping to the left. It seemed quite as bright as Venus. 

1828. April 10. — About Q"" SO" p.m., a meteor appeared at about 30° high, 
S.S.W. As I only saw it out of the corner of my eye, I cannot be particular 
as to its appearance, but it seemed a sudden short blaze or flash of bright red 
light, brighter I thought than Venus, then uncommonly brilliant. There had 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 181 

been a clap of thunder in a hail-storin during the day, which was showery; 
and there were a few clouds in the sky at the time, and a faint liaze in the 
place where it appeared. It might, perhaps, be an electric spark ; its instan- 
taneous disappearance rendered this likely, but no report followed, nor did it, 
as far as I can judge, illuminate the haze in which it appeared. 

1828. Aug. 22. — A beautiful shooting star as large as Venus passed in a 
long tract from S.E. to N.W. under Cassiopeia, about 9*^ JO™ p.m. It seemed 
to become extinct by degrees. 

1828. Aug. 28. — About 10^ .SO"" a beautiful shooting star was seen, whose 
course was from S.E. to N.W., not less than 40° long, a little S. of the zenith. 
It was of the 1st magnitude. About the middle of its course it became duller, 
moved slower as I thought, and was perhaps a little deflected : it then resumed 
its first appearance : it seemed to leave a train on disappearing, but I could 
not tell, the moon being bright, and 1 not using an eye-glass. 

1828. Sept. 29. — At lO'' 52"" a brilliant falling star appeared, which had a 
short course close to the horizon a little to the W. of the W. extremity of a 
fine auroral light in the N. horizon. It made an angle of 60° or 70° with the 
horizon (as a streamer might have been supposed to do in that situation), 
being deflected to the right as it advanced. It was gradually extinguished. It 
had a blue colour, as bright as Venus. 

1828. Dec. 1. — (At the close of the memorandum of an aurora borealis, 
the following occurs) : — Several falling stars were seen, whose courses were in 
opposite directions. 

1830. June 25. — (The following is added to an account of a most tremen- 
dous thunder-storm.) The storm passed about two miles E. of Gloucester at 

lO'^p.M., and at some period between lO"" 20™ and 10'' 40", Mr. , who had 

a complete view of the whole, perceived a strange meteor in the W. or W.S.W., 
where the sky was cloudy, precisely like the moon behind clouds, of the same 
colour, and nearly as large, so that he thought for a moment it had been the 
moon. He called several other people, who all saw it. It lasted about three 
minutes as near as he could judge, and gradually disappeared as if obscured 
by clouds, or retiring in a straight line backwards, for it was quite stationary. 
He stated also that he saw another thing of thef same kind, very much smaller, 
on the same night. But query, was it not the moon ? [Supposing it to have 
been actually a meteor, and the observer, an educated and intelligent man, 
might not have been supposed liable to such a mistake, though the moon was, 
I believe, actually in that quarter, some light may be obtained from the fol- 
lowing memorandum, which occurs under 1831, Feb. 6.] Mr. J. B' , an 

accurate observer of nature, told me that about the beginning of Sept. 1830 
(a note states that there can 'be no doubt, from the account of another per- 
son, that the correct date was June 25) a thunder-storm came on towards 
night, the lightning of which was of a remarkable pale hue, and had not so 
much the appearance of flashing as of rolling from one cloud to another, and 
chiefly from N.E. to S.W. (This observation was made in the South of Here- 
fordshire.) When it had passed oif, and the sky was clear, about mid- 
night, though it still lightened at a distance towards N.E., as he was return- 
ing home, a meteor suddenly broke out in the E. horizon, and passed rapidly 
across the sky till it disappeared in the W. horizon. He described it as a cloud 
of fire, of the deepest i-ed, of surprising brilliancy, especially at its first break- 
ing out ; so that while it passed any minute thing might have been seen upon 
the ground. He described it as appearing as large as his garden, but taper- 
ing at the two ends : it produced no noise, and the whole appearance was 
over in a quarter of a minute. 

1830. Nov. 11 (After some streamers of an aurora in the N. about 9^ 

P.M.) Just afterwards a very large falling star was seen E.N.E. 



182 REPORT — 1852. 

1830. Dec. 10. — About 5'^ 1.5" p.m., a meteor was indistinctly seen at 
about 10° elevation N. by E. It was stationary, lasted a second or two, and 
appeared in colour and size much like Mars in opposition, as far as could be 
judged from a very imperfect view. 

1830. Dec. 12. — (A description of a fine aurora, concluding thus): — After 
8^, when the streamers hud ceased, a splendid and large green falling star was 
seen lowish in W.N.W. which left a train : another large one was also seen ; 
and one also during the aurora of the night before. 

1831. April 10. — There were faint streamers N. at night, and a beautiful 
and brilliant falling star N.E., and a light most clearly connected with a 
black cloud N.W. 

1831. Dec. 8. — The morning being overcast with very low fuggy clouds, 
and very dark (it was probalily before 7*^), as I looked suddenly towards my 
window I saw a flashing or flickering effect of light, such as might have been 
produced by faint lightning oi- a fire in the opposite quarter. No light seemed 
to come into the room ; the illumination was in the clouds or fog. As I in- 
stantly went towards the window, the light, after becoming rather brighter, 
faded and disajipeared very suddenly. It occurred to me that it was proba- 

' bly the efi"ect of some great meteor (for though the light was faint, the lumi- 
nous body must have been considerable to have produced such an eff"ect 
through such dense clouds); on the other hand, a boy was whistling not far off", 
who, had such been the case, would probably have been frightened. Such an 
eff'ect from a lantern I never saw, nor believed it possible ; it might have been 
best compared, as above, to faint lightning ; perhaps a little ruddy. (South 
Herefordshire.) (The Hereford Journal of Dec. 21, contained a long ex- 
tract, a copy of which I possess, from the Bath Journal, giving a long, though 
very unscientific account of this meteor, for such it was, which seems to have 
been visible over a great extent of country.) 

1832. Oct. 20. — Four shooting stars were seen within half an hour about 
10^, three of which were large and beautiful, and sailed with a fine equable 
motion : all from E. or N.E. But one which proceeded from the latter quarter, 
at a considerable elevation, traversed 40° or 50° of the N. sky in a direction 
nearly straiglit and parallel to the earth, leaving behind it a fine white streak, 
which gradually spread wider and dispersed. As the star was equal to one 
of the 1st or 2nd magnitude, and as the streak was visible at once throughout 
so long a course, the effect wa.'; very striking and beautiful : what seemed re- 
markable was that the other three, though similar lo this in their direction, 
left no visible train behind them. One night two oi' three months ago (I 
rather think on Sept. 18), I saw a bright star, which falling perpendicularly 
seemed to be partially quenched, but yet proceeded a short distance before 
it was totally extinct, in the form of a dull red spark. The appearance was 
just like that of a candle suddenly plunged into carbonic acid ; the transition 
being apparently from a state of inflammation to that of simple ignition. 

1832. Dec. 12. — A great meteor seems to have appeared between 1^ and 

8^ P.M. M was then returning through the field behind her mother's 

house at , when a bright light shone round her, much brighter than 

moonlight, and more permanent than lightning. 

1832. Dec. 13. — Another great meteor about G'' p.m., described as a great 
body of fire passing across the sky from E. to W., and giving so strong a 
light that a pin might have been taken from the ground for a short time. 
Another account was that it passed two ways. No report seems to have 
succeeded it. The weather had latterly been electrical : it lightened on 
several nights at the end of last month, and I saw a strong distant flash on the 
evening of Dec. 2. (South Herefordshire.) 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 183 

1833. Dec. 11. — At 10'' p.m., I saw a very beautiful meteor. It com- 
menced somewhere near /3 and y Ursas Minoris, probably above and to the 
right of them, as a small shooting star, taking a left-hand direction, with an 
inclination of about 4:5° to the horizon. During a course of 8° or 10° it had 
increased gradually to a splendid globe, perhaps three times the size and bril- 
liancy of Jupiter, and of a lovely colour, not easily described, probably nearest 
to a greenish blue. The remainder of its course was intercepted from my view 
by a building ; but from the great illumination of the sky, I imagine its splen' 
dour still continued to increase. Its velocity was that of an ordinary falling 
star : it did not appear to leave any train. Frequent, though faint, flashes of 
lightning were seen in the E. horizon between 6'' and 7'' p.m.. and a very strong 
one had been perceived on the prceedicg evening. The wind was N.W. with 
slight but very cold showers, indicating snow upon the mountains, which pro- 
bably existed there at the time, and the next day was seen in considerable 
quantity. (South Herefordshire.) 

1834. July 4. — A very beautiful meteor was seen at Tretire (South Here- 
fordshire) at about 9*^ 1.5™ p.m. When first noticed it was probably about 55° 
(or perhaps 60°) above the E.S.E. horizon, in the form of a very brilliant body 
of yellow or pale orange light, not apparently exactly circular, but a little irre- 
gular or angular in its outline. This appearance I think may have arisen from 
the preceding part being more brilliant than the rest, but my surprise at its 
sudden outbreaking, and the smallness of its diameter, which probably did not 
exceeds', prevent me from speaking with certainty. It descended with a very 
slow motion, vertically, for about 15°, and then broke into three balls, and be- 
came extinct : the lowermost bail was by far the largest and brightest, the 
other two were much smaller, one of them almost a point. They all became 
of a dull red before their disappearance, which took place when they were 
several minutes apart, one beneath the other, in a vertical line. This change 
of colour before extinction I have several times remarked, and it always gives 
me the idea of an entrance into a medium incapable of supporting combustion. 
The appearance of the present meteor was decidedly that of a ponderable 
body, probably fluid, in a state of ignition, perhaps fusion, actually, not ap- 
parently, descending, and upon disruption coalescing by the force of gravity 
into smaller globules, of which the heaviest preceded the rest. At any rate 
it had no resemblance to any electrical phaenomenon which 1 ever witnessed. 
No report could be perceived ; there was, however, a considerable noise of 
wind, and of the mill ; at the time I am almost cerlain that the largest ball 
preserved its original brilliant colour longer than the others. I should esti- 
mate its splendour, before division, at 6 or 8 times greater than the maximum 
of Venus : such estimates, however, are apt to be very uncertain. The twi- 
light was so strong, that a Aquilse, which was a little below and to the left 
of the place of its disappearance, had not long been visible with the naked 
eye. Had it been in a dark winter's night the effect would have been surprising 

and magnificent. This meteor was also seen by young Mr. P , then in the 

neighbourhood of Newport, Monmouthshire ; he described it as having a tail, 
which very probably was at its first appearance, which I did not see. He says 
it was as large, or larger at first than at last ; its disappearance was out of 
sight behind trees, but he thought it had fallen in the garden just at hand. 
Mr. P. informs me that two or three years ago, very early in the morning, 
there was so brilliant a meteor as to terrify such of his men as were out ; the 
blaze seemed to surround them ; and they might have picked a pin from the 
ground. (South Herefordshire.) 

1834. Sept. 29 — About 7'' 15™ p.m., the twilight having already become 
very dusky, as I was walking along a lane among trees, I was startled by 



184 REPORT — 1852. 

seeing the road before me suddenly illuminated by a beautiful blue light, much 
resembling the eifect of lightning, and scarcely longer in its duration ; such 
indeed for a moment I supposed it to be. I looked up, and saw, at a height 
of about 60° as I guessed, in the N.E., the luminous track of a meteor. The 
sky for a great extent in this quarter was overcast with a thin irregular veil, 
interspersed with darker masses ; but a few stars were visible here and there, 
and as it soon became clear, I found that the phaenoinenon must have oc- 
curred in or near the Galaxy between Cassiopeia and the tail of Cygnus. The 
track was about 3° or 4° long, considerably bright and very narrow, if not in- 
terrupted in places. Its form and appearance were exactly that of the summit 
of a dense cloud illuminated from behind, which, indeed, for a moment I 
thought it had been ; its light was reddish. It continued visible by estima- 
tion for 2 or 3 minutes, gradually decreasing in brightness and appearing 
more unconnected and like a series of insulated patches. The following may 
give a faint and inadequate idea of its form. 

_^V ^^2x_ No report was heard. 

1835. Aug. 4. — The forenoon had been very warm and nearly cloudless. 
Towards 3'' or 4'' clouds began to form in the W. horizon, which rapidly in- 
creased. Their great darkness indicated considerable density, but they exhi- 
bited no towering summits, or hard and defined edges, such as would lead to 
any apprehension of thunder. They gradually rose and spread to a consider- 
able height, and it appeared likely that showers would ensue towards even- 
ing, which proved to be the case, but they did not seem dense enough for 
tempest. About 4'' 30™, being in my bedroom at Tretire (in the South of Here- 
fordshire), I was surprised by a distant explosion, dull and heavy, like that of 
a cannon, and by no means loud, yet causing a vibration in the house, which 
is very strongly built, and the windowr distinctly rattled from it. I should 
have supposed it a cannon fired at Goodrich Court (about 5 miles distant), or 
the blasting of a quarry, had it not been followed by a long low rumble of 
some duration. I immediately exclaimed almost involuntarily two or three 
times, that I never heard anything like it. A servant in the kitchen heard 
the cellar door so jar from it, that she thought some person had gone down 
there. Our man, who had the fairest opportunity of hearing it, being out of 
doors, was greatly surprised at it, and thought it had been the blasting of a 
quarry, only it seemed at some height in the air towards the E., and the suc- 
ceeding rumble travelled towards the N. I also referred it to an E. direction. 
The sky on that side was nearly free from clouds, and of a fine serene appear- 
ance. My own impression decidedly was that it was not thunder, but the ex- 
plosion of some meteor. 

Extract from Hereford Journal, referring to the last notice : — 

" On Tuesday the 4th inst. a most extraordinary concussion in the air was 
perceived by several persons in different parts of the kingdom, and at the same 
moment, about 40 minutes past 4 in the afternoon. It is described as a re- 
port as of heavy ordnance, and followed by a reverberating heavy sound for 
some seconds. A great peculiarity attending it, and most strongly showing the 
immensity of its distance, is the impression it made on all those who heard it, 
as if it was immediately in their own vicinity." 

(I find here a reference to the Analyst, No. XIII., p. 175, which I am at 
present unable to verify.) 

1835. Aug. 28.— About 9"^ IS"", a falling star, brighter than Venus, was 
seen at a moderate elevation in the E. descending with a straight course. 

1836. March 8. — A beautiful falling star appeared in the S. to the left of 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 185 

Sirius, about 7^ p.m., but was scarcely noticed time enough to be fairly seen. 
It seemed fully as brilliant as Jupiter, and of a greenish light. 

18^8. Oct. 15 About 8^ 35'", or 40™ p.m., the sky being for the most part 

covered with low dark dense clouds, driving with a strong wind, with an ob- 
vious degree of electrical light between them, in a part of the sky somewhat 
less obscured, and where several stars were plainly shining, a bluish light be- 
gan to appear, which in two or three seconds became very brilliant, as much 
so as one-quarter or one-third of the full moon, and faded away again in about 
the same time. The luminous body itself was invisible behind a cloud, and 
nothing was seen but the reflexion. This exactly resembled distant light- 
ning, but was less transient. 

1838. Dec. 7. — A great number of falling stars were observed between 
6^ and 1^. In about half an hour forty were counted, sometimes by one, 
sometimes two, sometimes three observers, two at a medium. They were of 
all magnitudes up to the first : the larger dissolved into a train of light, but 
left no train [I presume this means no streak] behind them ; the S. and W. 
quarters were chiefly observed, but their prevalence seemed to be universal : 
they all fell in nearly a vertical direction, but those in the N.W. and S.E. 
quarters inclined towards the S.W. The colour of the more conspicuous ones 
seemed to verge towards orange. Their courses were of no great length. 
There was at the same time a pale auroral light along the N. horizon from 
N.W. to N.E., apparently equally extended on each side of the true meridian. 
The meteors were not watched after 7^ but about 1 1\ upon looking out again, 
I saw one, the only one in several minutes, in the S.W.; but it had no longer a 
vertical direction, its course pointing now to the N.W. (South Herefordshire.) 

(For an account of this phaenomenon as observed by Mr. Maverly at Gos- 
port, see ' Proceedings of the Meteorological Society during the Session 
1838-39,' p. 9.) 

[This shovver of stars is not noticed by M. Coulvier-Gravier in his ' Etoiles 
Filantes.'] 

1840. June 30. — About 10'' 30"", a beautiful falling star was seen in the S., 
nearly in the meridian, having a long straight course somewhat inclined to 
the E. Its commencement was small ; it gradually attained considerable 
splendour, and after a period of obscuration, produced perhaps by a thin 
cloud, it attained the magnitude of Jupiter in quadrature before it disap- 
peared. Its colour was orange. Streamers of the aurora borealis had pre- 
viously been noticed, extending from N.E. towards S.W. 

1841. Aug. 12. — In the early part of the night, from about 9'' to lOi"', 
many falling stars were seen. Being engaged myself with the telescope, I 
saw but very few ; but two or three persons in the company were frequently 
exclaiming that they perceived them. I should imagine that there must have 
been three or four times the average number. I did not then recollect, what 
has since occurred to me, that the smaller periodical shower is about this 
time. 

1841. Aug. 13. — On looking out of my window between lO'' and ll"", I 
saw a large falling star, which induced me to go out to examine whether there 
was any repetition of the phaenomenon of last night ; I saw however nothing 
in the course of several minutes. 

1841. Nov. 8. — The night seemed remarkably free from shooting stars. I 
was abroad from 6*^ to 6^ 15™, and from 9*" 30™ to 9'' 55™, without noticing 
one. (South Herefordshire.) 

1841. Nov. 9. — There appears to have been a considerable meteor this morn- 
ing, from the following extract from a note from Miss H. (South Hereford- 
shire) : — " Last Tuesday morning, before 5 o'clock, one of our workmen saw 



186 REPORT — 1852. 

an immense large substance, which he described to be like a ball of fire, 
coming down from the sky quite perpendicular till within fifteen yards of the 
earth, when it suddenly disappeared." 

1841. Nov. 11. — One of our servants saw three falling stars in the course 
of milking, about 7'' p.m. She described them as passing from E. to W. in 
the N.W. quarter of the heavens, as being of the first magnitude, and leaving 
trains. (South Herefordshire.) 

1841. Nov. 12. — The day had been rough and showery, with a high wind 
from W. or W.S.W., and a little hail in some places, but the evening twilight 
was very clear, during which, about the same hour and in the same quarter 
as last night, our servant saw two considerable falling stars with trains. About 
6^ SO"* there was afaint light in the N. horizon, which I then thought indicated a 
slight tendency to an aurora, but I afterwards found it accompanied the edges 
of dark clouds in various parts of the sky. Until 9^ I was detained indoors at 
L. (South Herefordshire) ; from that time till 9'' 45°\ I kept as sharp a look out 
as a speedy walk over a bad path permitted, but saw nothing until about 
9I1 40™, when a meteor of an orange-colour appeared low in the S.E. to the 
right of Rigel, and about the size of that star ; its course was short, rapid and 
flickering, descending gradually towards the S. I did not perceive any train. 
lO*" SO"* there was a fine meteor of the 1st magnitude, orange-coloured, with 
a train, in the E. quarter, shooting, as the former, in a line directed from Leo ; 
it was not seen by me. Two smaller ones afterwards, one with a train, which 
one I did not see, had short courses from the same direction in the E. or S.E. 
quarter, in the space of the next 7"" or 8"". But between lO"" 35°> and 10^ 40"", 
a small point was perceived towards the feet of the Great Bear, not far above 
the N.E. horizon, drawing a small train after it, and rapidly increasing in size 
as it rose with a steady course, in such a way as to prove that it was really 
drawing near from an incalculable distance in an apparently straight line. It 
grew brighter and brighter, as did its splendid and beautiful train, and it as- 
sumed an orange-yellow hue ; it passed a few degrees N. of the zenith, but 
not quite so far N. as Cassiopeia, and still continued to increase as it de- 
scended towards the W. horizon, but it seemed to become fainter and to be 
extinguished before it reached it; but trees partially obscured this portion of 
its course. It was seen by three others besides myself, my father, Mr. T. and 
his son, and it appeared to all of us except ray father, to be attended, when at its 
height, with a hissing sound, but a loud rushing wind prevented any cer- 
tainty as to this point. Its appearance was like that of a magnificent rocket, 
and the impression of absolute height, speed, and projectile force, was truly 
sublime. Its size appeared to me greater than Venus, but not so vividly 
brilliant. The length of its course might be 5 or 6 seconds. At ll"* 5™ a 
stormy cloud in the N.E. horizon had a faint luminosity attendant upon its 
upper edge. A shower afterwards came on. At Il''45°S a storm, which had 
passed to the E.N.E. horizon, was followed by a similar light, which was very 
evident 5™ afterwards amongst dark patches of cloud. Our friends also saw 
what appeared like a light cloud somewhere towards the S.W. horizon, and 
wondered at it in the absence of the moon. 10™ after midnight the E. ho- 
rizon continued light, though the clouds had left it. I watched the S.E. 
quarter pretty frequently from 11'' till l"" 30™, Nov. 13, but no meteor was 
seen after the large one, nor could I see anything during a short examination 
at 3'' 30™ and 4'' 30™. The distinctness with which I saw the light of the 
Welsh furnaces [20 or more miles distant] upon my walk about 9^ 30™, 
though the sky was very clear, except low in the horizon, was very unusual 
indeed. The air was not favourable for delicate astronomical observations, 
the diameters of the stars, according to Sir W. Herschel's remark, appearing 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 187 

enlarged. Miss H. N., who watched from half-past l*" till morning, informed 
me that she saw thirteen meteors ; the finest, which ran a longer course, were 
between 5"" and 6''. None of them, however, seem to have been remarkable 
either for brilliancy or trains. 

ISil. Dec. 10. — Eleven shooting stars were counted between ll"" and IS*" 
at night, by a person in Hampshire. " The greater part proceeded from a 
N.W. direction, some far less brilliant than others, and their light of a silvery 
whiteness." 

184-2. Aug. 9. — About lO*" (as near as I can judge) I looked out for two 
or three minutes for the periodical meteors, but saw nothing, though the sky 
was very clear : my fatlier thought he perceived a flash of lightning in the S. 
horizon. But on looking out about lO"" SO"* (having been called by him upon 
the appearance of a falling star), I counted in about one-fourth of the hea- 
vens, or possibly one-third, 8 or 9 in as many minutes, two of which were 
brighter than any fixed star, and of an orange-colour ; one left a beautiful 
train. I heard that two had been seen by a servant, between 9'' and 10\ 
bright, and in immediate succession, but passing in diflTerent directions; and 
one of those 8 or 9 (which one I did not see) appeared to my father to de- 
viate from the general direction of the others, which was towards the S. 
For about 15'" afterwards I saw no more, and gave up the observation. No- 
thing could be seen during a minute or two, about 1'' SO" on the following 
morning, or again at 2^ 45™, except perhaps one meteor the latter time, but 
I am not sure. (South Herefordshire.) 

The meteors on this night were seen by several persons in the neighbour- 
hood. 

1842. Aug. 10. — The night was cloudy and rainy. Aug. 11. — I was out 
much during the evening and eaiiy part of the night, but saw nothing. 

1842. Aug. 13. — Extract of a letter from a correspondent in Hampshire. 
" The scene was truly magnificent. I saw thirteen shooting stars within the 
space of half-an-hour, between 11 and 12, and S. saw one shoot at the same 
time that I did not witness, making fourteen. Three of them had beautiful 
trains, two in the S.W., with trains something like the tail of the comet of 
1818 ; colour of these two a silvery whiteness ; one was of sui-passing beauty 
and brilliancy ; they both proceeded in a southerly direction. The third ap- 
peared near the Polar star, and proceeded towards the S.E. This was less 
brilliant than the two preceding ones, of the same colour, but had a curious 
flickering motion in the train ; the streams of light radiated towards the cen- 
tre of the train, something like this figure /-/^^^/v"/ • -'■'' ^^^ ^^'"Y beau- 
tiful indeed, and what I had never before witnessed. The motion too was 
less rapid than that of the two preceding ones." 

1842. Aug. 27. — A little before D'' p.m., the sky being overcast with thin 
clouds, a glow of dusky red light appeared between me and a thick hedge be- 
side which I was riding, and which was very dark ; from its peculiarity of ap- 
pearance, its being chiefly visible to one eye, and its duration (however short), 
I felt more inclined to refer it to (the reflexion of) a great meteor than to 
lightning, of which there was no appearance, though the weather was close 
and warm. The clouds were thin and foggy, and had no electrical appear- 
ance. (South Herefordshire.) 

1842. Sept. 3. — Between 9'' and lO"" p.m., an unusual number of falling 
stars were seen, probably seven or eight in about 20". 

1844. Aug. 9. — Several fine falling stars, more numerous than the average, 
were seen (at Gloucester). Mr. H. W., who was observing with me, told me 
that for some nights previously, but especially last night, they were still more 



188 REPORT — 1852. 

numerous and brilliant at Minehead in Somersetshire, and that he saw one 
very curious appearance, resembling a serpentine train of sparks. He de- 
scribed them as generally visible towards the S.E. All those that we noticed 
tflnight had a similar general direction from N.E. to S.W. 

ISii. Aug. 10 A few falling stars were noticed (at Gloucester) moving 

in the same direction as last night, but one was observed which presented the 
singular appearance of a comparatively slow, and as it were difficult progress 
in the opposite direction. 

1846. July 25. — A workwoman near Gloucester, returning home about 10'' 
p.Ar., saw a meteor of considerable magnitude. It was of the size and colour 
of the moon, and she compared its light to that of day. According to her 
account, it seemed as though it proceeded downwards from an opening cloud, 
and Avas instantly withdrawn into the cloud again ; but probably this retro- 
grade motion may have been a deception. It was in the N. or N.E. at a con- 
siderable altitude. 

[This meteor was described in the ' Illustrated London News.'] 

184-7. March 19. — Extract of a letter from a lady. 

" On the evening of Friday, March 19, A. and I left Albion Road [Hol- 
loway] about half- past 8. Not any stars were then visible, but when we were 
in Highbury Place, A. called my attention to what we thought a fire-balloon 
ascending slowly. It was in the west, a little inclining to the south. As it 
passed on slowly to the west its intense brilliance convinced me that it was not 
an earthly thing. When it appeared to be over Hampstead (but as high in the 
heavens as the sun is at 6 o'clock in the evening when the days are longest), 
it shot forth several fiery coruscations, and whilst we were gazing at it, broke 
into an intenselj/ radiant cloud. This cloud sailed on slowly, and we never 
took our eyes off it. At this time the stars were shining. When we were in 
the gravel path opposite to Highbury Terrace, the cloud was rather higher 
in the heavens, and more to the W. It cast a most brilliant light on the 
houses there, brighter than moonlight, and unlike any light I ever saw. It 
appeared of a blue tint on the bricks, but there was no blue light in the cloud 
itself. Suddenly over the radiant cloud appeared another cloud still more 
brilliant, but I now felt so awe-struck that I cannot say precisely how long 
they hung one over the other, before the most wonderful sight happened. 
Perhaps tiiey remained so for two or three minutes, when from the upper 
cloud a small fiery ball (about the size that the largest planets appear to the 
naked eye) dropped into the lower cloud, and was instantly absorbed. Soon 
after another similar ball dropped from the upper to the lower cloud ; and 
then a ball apparently four or five times the size of the two preceding fell from 
one cloud to the other in the same wonderful way. Shortly after this both 
clouds disappeared, apparently absorbed in the heavens, though I did see a 
few pai'ticles of the brilliant clouds floating about for a minute or so. Pre- 
sently the moon appeared considerably to the northward of the place where 
the clouds had hung. We then saw the bright light across the heavens which 
you told me was zodiacal light, which lasted for more than an hour." 

1847. Aug. 10. — A little after lO*" p.m., several large and beautiful falling 
stars, with fine trains, appeared to descend in the S. in pretty quick succes- 
sion ; and on the whole the meteors of this kind certainly much exceeded the 
average between lO'^ and 11'^ 30". Most of them fell in the above-men- 
tioned direction, but the track of a small one, near the latest time of obser- 
vation, pointed towards the N.W. Several of them were noticed two or three 
nights ago. [Reference is then made to an account of shooting stars in a 
letter in the ' Times,' dated Aug. 17, and this folloAvs.] The Hereford Journal 
of Sept. 8, 1847, contains also the following : — " M. A. Frere, of Montizon, 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 189 

has stated that on the night of the Hth ult. he counted more than fifty shooting 
stars in the course of two hours, viz. from 11 to 1. Most of them were seen 
in the Milky Way, and a few towards its edges. The direction of all, how- 
ever, was by the Milky Way, and towards the S.W. horizon." • 

184.7. Sept. 14. — About 9'' 48^" p.m., as I was looking (or going to look) 
through a telescope towards the S., a light caught my left eye towards the E. 
horizon. I turned immediately, but only caught a glimpse of a meteor of a 
yellow or reddish colour, about the brightness of Jupiter or Venus, Avhich 
had descended through the N. Fish, to the S. of Aries, in a course a little in- 
clined towards the N., and had become invisible behind a building, leaving a 
narrow red streak, at first of considerable brightness, but fading very rapidly. 
Its course must have been of 20° or 30° in length, before hidden near the ho- 
rizon. (Gloucester, I believe.) 

1848. Nov. 17. — During a brilliant aurora witnessed by me at the ex- 
treme W. verge of Herefordshire, three falling stars of considerable magnitude 
were seen, one with a long course and fine train. 

1850. Aug. 12. — A few minutes after 11^ (Greenwich time) a beautiful 
meteor shot across Cygnus, then at a great elevation in the meridian. I do 
not know whether I caught its first appearance ; but its brilliancy drew the 
attention of my left eye, while the other was at the telescope. Its course was 
from W. to E. and not rapid, extending for perhaps 10° or 12° till I lost it 
behind the top of a tree. Its light was intense, much brighter than that of 
Venus, and of a beautiful clear blue colour : in the middle of its course it 
seemed to be extinguished, and then broke out again as bright as before. I 
think it left no train. Nearly an hour before I had noticed a much smaller 
one, falling in quite a difi"erent direction, low in the S.S.W. perpendicular to 
the horizon. This meteor was seen at Highfield near Nottingham, by Mr. 
Lowe, as appears by his letter in the ' Times.' He calls its colour, however, 
yellow. (South Herefordshire.) 

1850. Aug. 24. — A little after 10"" p.m., a fine yellow meteor fell from near 
the zenith to a Aquilse, as large as Venus. 

1850. Oct. 5. — While looking with my 5^ feet achromatic at a consider- 
able star, probably of about 7 mag., I saw in the field a bright point of light, 
of nearly the same size and appearance, and at no great distance, which imme- 
diately vanished. It seems to have been a small and instantly extinguished 
meteor. It had I believe a reddish tinge. 

1850. Nov. 29.— About 9^, or from 9" to 9^ 10" p.m. Greenwich time, I 
caught an oblique sight of a very beautiful meteor of a yellowish colour and 
considerable size, which seemed to run a very short course at a great alti- 
tude, a few degrees W. of the zenith, and I believe among the stars of Gloire 
Frederici ; but I did not exactly note the place, as finding it had left a bright 
and beautiful, though short train, I endeavoured to turn the telescope upon 
it ; but before I could succeed, the train had disappeared, and I then could 
not exactly identify its place. [This meteor is mentioned in the 'Times,' 
in two letters, dated Barnstaple and Brixton Road.] 



190 



REPORT — 1852. 



11. Meteors observed by Henry Lawson, Esq., F.R.S. {assistedby T. Cane, 
Esq., and H. Adams, Esq.), at Hereford, during the November Epoch 
of ISil. Communicated by E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Nov. 11. From 
h in 

7 15 till S*" 35° none seen. 

8 35 from Ursa Minor to Cygniis, 
with slight train. 

8 45 from Ursa Minor to Lyra. 
8 55 between Pleiades and Ursa 

Minor, with slight train. 
8 57 passing downthrongh Ursa 

Major. 
257. 9 4 near Polaris to the Great 

Bear. Soon became 

cloudy. 



No. 253 



254. 
255. 



256. 



Nov. 12. 




258. 


7 from Cassiopeia towards 




Polaris. Very faint. 


259. 


7 29 near Pleiades. 


260. 


7 30 from Cassiopeia to Ursa 




Minor. Bright. 


261. 


8 15 from Polaris. 


262. 


8 30 from E. to W. Small. 


263. 


8 35 from W. to E. 


264. 


8 36 from W. to E. Alt. 90°. 


265. 


8 37 from E. to W. Alt. 25°. 


266. 


8 40 =lst mag. from E. to W. 




Alt. 45°. Train of light. 


267. 


8 44 from E. to W. Small. Alt. 




40°. 


268. 


9 from W. to N. Alt. 40°. 


269. 


9 23 from E. to N. Alt. 30°. 


270. 


9 43 from E. to W. Alt. 30°. 


271. 


9 48 from zenith to N. Alt. 40°. 


272. 


9 54 from E. to N. Alt. 60°. 


273. 


10 from Cassiopeia to Polaris. 


274. 


10 1 from Ursa Minor to Ursa 




Major. 


275. 


10 2 from between Castor and 




Pollux to Ursa Major. 


276. 


10 5 as bright as Vega from me- 




ridian. Alt. 15° down- 




wards to E. 


277. 


10 6 from near Pleiades to Cas- 




tor. 


278. 


10 15 from E. to S. Alt. 10°. 


279. 


10 20 from W. to E. Alt. 20°. 


280. 


10 40 from zenith to Castor. 


281. 


10 44 from Rigel to Batelguex. 


282. 


10 45 from Pleiades to Castor. 


283. 


10 45 from E. to W. as large as 




Sirius. Of a bluish-green 




colour and wth a train 




70° long. 


284. 


10 48 fi-om zenith to W. 


285. 


10 49 from W. to E. Alt. 20°. 


28G. 


10 54 from W. to E. Alt. 80°. 


287. 


12 from Pleiades to Castor. 


288. 


12 1 from Castor to Procyon. 


289. 


12 2 from N.E. to S. Alt. 20°. 


290. 


12 15 alt. 20° in S.E. moved to- 




wards horizon. 


291. 


12 16 towards N.E. Alt. 25°. 


292. 


12 21 from Great Bear to horizon. 



Nov. 12. From 
h m 

293. 12 24 alt. 20° towards horizon in 

a S. direction. 

294. 12 25 from Cassiopeia to Ursa 

Minor. 

295. 12 50 alt. 90°. 

296. 12 52 = 2nd mag. Between Cas- 

tor and Great Bear. 

297. 13 10 alt. 40o, from W. to S. 

Declining. Slight train. 

298. 13 11 from zenith to Great Bear. 

299. 13 33 alt. 70° from N. to S. 

300. 13 34 train of light, from Ursa 

Major to S. 

301. 13 45 from Castor, downwards. 

302. 13 46 from Capella to N.W. 

303. 14 from Cassiopeia to N.E. 

304. 14 8 from \V. to E. through the 

Pointers. 

305. 14 1 7 from Great Bear towards W. 

306. 14 32 8° towards N. 

307. 14 40 from Pointers towards W. 

308. 14 45 from N.E. to N.W. Alt. 30... 

309. 14 45 from N.W. to W. Alt. 12°. 

310. 14 46, flashes in Ursa Major. 

311. 15 1 from Orion downwards. 

312. 15 2 from Orion downwards. 

313. 15 3 from alt. 40° in East down- 

wards. 

314. 15 4 from E. to W. Alt. 30°. 

315. 15 15 train of light. From Leo 

to Ursa Major. 

316. 15 16 crossed Orion to W. 

317. 15 17 from Ursa Major to W. ho- 

rizon. 

318. 15 1 7 from Ursa Major to W. ho- 

rizon (following the path 
of the other). 

319. 15 18 from Orion downwards. 

320. 15 22 from Gemini, southwards. 

321. 15 22 from E. to N. Alt. 20°. 

Train of light. 

322. 15 25 from Leo downwards. 

323. 15 27 through Orion downwards. 

324. 15 29 from N. to S. through Ursa 

Major. 

325. 15 30 from Orion to Sirius. 

326. 15 32 to W. Alt. 70°. 

327. 15 35 from Polaris, downwards, 

with train of light 

328. 15 37 from E. to S. Alt. 10°. 

329. 15 40 from zenith to Polaris- 

330. 15 45 from Sirius to S.E. horizon. 

331. 16 2 from Castor. 

332. 16 6. Alt. 20°. 

333. 16 10 from zenith to W. Train of 

light. 

334. 16 10 from zenith to E. 

335. 16 14 from Castor to E. 

336. 16 30 due E. Downwards from 

an alt. of 20°. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 191 
III. Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1848-51. By M. Bulard, B.A. 



















..-•" 










yo> 










HaM, 


;■--'-- 






« 




y>^ ^■!^$ 


•!^ 








A 








/ 


HJ#i 








/ 


^m 


W 






1 


A 








/ 






1 




1 




^, 






1 




f^p^ 






yr^ 




ts 
S 




/ 




:y:-P> - 


3 








^ 








/- 






/ 






g 
o 


























m- 






/^ ''" 


" 


•K. 




1 






1 




1 


^^ 










^ \ 


/■ 


^ 

s 

^ 

s 




/ 


/ \ 


sa/ 




/ 


^-^ 


^N. 






/» 


y ^ 






/ 


1- 










A^- 








1 












ff^ / 


ja 






/ / 


■"/ /r. 


/ 




•«■'' 


I 


: y 


o 






is: 


\ / 










. \\ 















192 



REPORT — 1852. 







Hour. 




Bright- 


Velo- 


Mean places for 


Mean places for 


No. 


Date. 




Apparent 


ness and 


city or 


1840 of A. 


1840 of B. 


Greenwich 


Magnitude. 


Colour. 


Dura- 






















Mean Time 






tion. 


R.A. 


Decl. 


R.A. 


Decl. 




1848. 


h m s 






s 










1 


Feb. 22 
1849. 


9 21 25 


Siriusxl2 ... 


Blue 


40 


el 24 


14 18 


56 Oi 


9 05 


2 


April 24 


11 34 53 


a. Pegasi 


White ... 


30 


234 40- 


7 48 


239 02 


11 05 


3 


May 22 


11 45 00 


y Orionis 


White ... 


20 


247 00 


-10 16 


243 30 


-11 25 


4 


July 5 


11 38 00 


a. Orionis 


^^1lite ... 


30 


343 36 


28 20 


334 17 


20 00 


5 


6 


11 34 OoUOrionis 


White ... 


40 


281 35 


33 46 


266 28 


32 28 


6 


Aug. 12 


10 00 53 £ Geminoruni 


Blue 


10 


352 56 


28 27 


344 00 


24 36 


7 


12 


10 7 00 


SiriusxS 


Blue 


30 


356 05 


26 50 


345 41 


19 55 


8 


12 


10 14 50 


X Orionis 


Blue 


20 


284 31 


12 29 


289 21 


7 03 


9 


12 


10 15 45 


X Arietis 


Blue 


1-0 


284 45 


9 09 


288 00 


4 10 


10 


12 


10 21 00 


« Arietis 


Blue 


05 


282 00 


3 50 


284 26 


- 3 07 


11 


12 


10 43 00 


a Arietis 


Red 


1-5 


30 48 


61 48 


20 08 


55 39 


12 


12 


12 20 40 


X Arietis 


White ... 


0-5 


274 35 


38 52 


281 03 


34 35 


13 


12 


12 24 00 


•X Arietis 


White ... 


0-5 


336 47 


28 28 


334 17 


20 16 


14 


12 


12 14 50 


Sirius X 6 


Blue 


50 


291 04 


16 39 


292 14 


- 1 40 


15 


12 


12 25 00 


A Pegasi 


Blue 


0-5 


1 35 


25 11 


358 35 


14 28 


16 


12 


12 38 00 


SiriusxS 


Blue 


1-5 


282 00 


38 39 


275 44 


23 50 


17 


13 


11 12 52 yPegasi 


Blue 


20 


5 25 


23 24 


354 32 


20 16 


18 


13 


12 53 00 


Sirius — 0-1 ... 


White ... 


20 


310 09 


37 59 


298 38 


28 48 


19 


13 


10 3 00 


« Arietis 


White ... 


10 


357 8 


26 50 


346 30 


34 46 


20 


13 


11 53 00 


Sirius X 2-5 ... 


Blue 


4-5 


352 28 


44 41 


8 00 


31 47 


21 


13 


12 18 00 


^Pegasi 


Blue 


20 


25 20 


29 56 


20 44 


28 12 


22 


13 


12 23 00 


A. Orionis 


Blue 


0-5 


23 32 


19 29 


16 21 


16 09 


23 


15 


12 18 00 


Q> Orionis 


Blue 


2-0 


349 15 


31 30 


326 28 


23 45 


24 


15 


12 31 OOiSOrionis 


White ... 


20 


358 35 


-53 


352 56 


- 9 43 


25 
26 


15 
15 


12 37 55 
12 45 00 




AATiite ... 
White ... 


50 
2-0 


341 58 
357 46 


27 2 
25 11 


340 33 
350 00 


14 27 
21 45 


9> Pegasi 


27 


15 


12 49 00 


/3 Orionis 


Wliite ... 


30 


344 50 


30 27 


333 21 


20 00 


28 


15 


12 49 05 


Aldebarau ... 


Red 


0-5 


338 53 


29 23 


339 40 


30 27 


29 
30 

31 


15 
15 

16 


12 58 00 

13 11 00 

10 15 00 




Blue 

White ... 

Blue 


10 
20 

05 


356 3€ 
20 38 

38 19 


57 11 
14 29 

39 01 


17 40 
12 10 

45 3 


62 03 
6 43 

38 13 




X Arietis 


32 


19 


10 27 00 


I Geminoruni 


Blue 


20 


339 42 


- 5 03 


335 44 


- 7 22 


33 
34 


Sept. 7 

7 


9 30 00 
9 33 00 


Sirius 


Blue 

White ... 


30 
0-25 


309 00 
335 8-45 


20 39 
-10 45 


301 43 
334 41 


16 37 
-10 51 


a star, 3rd mag. 


35 


11 


9 26 00 


Siriusx4 


Blue 


20 


11 58 


10 07 


8 8 


5 59 


36 


11 


10 21 00 


Aldebaran ... 


Blue 


20 


348 3 


4 40 


340 30 


54 


37 


11 


10 22 00 


Aldebaran . . . 


Crimson 


30 


348 3 


4 40 


340 30 


54 


38 
39 
40 


22 
24 
24 


9 48 00 

11 53 00 

12 6 00 




Blue 

White ... 
Blue 


20 
2-5 
20 


66 21 
58 50 
49 42 


40 56 
67 42 
10 00 


59 39 
63 47 
52 00 


36 26 
6 41 




SiriusxS 


41 


Oct. 15 


9 9 00 


Sirius— 3 


Blue 


1-5 


42 47 


8 16 


40 9 


5 19 


42 

43 
44 


15 
15 
15 


10 17 04 

11 1 30 
11 22 53 




White ... 

Blue 

White ... 


20 
10 
10 


335 28 

8 53 

66 43 


2 25 

-24 

11 00 


324 52 

3 40 

71 31 


1 51 

- 4 30 

8 17 




« Arietis 


45 
46 
47 


15 

15 

Nov. 6 


11 35 00 
11 52 00 
11 3 00 




White ... 
White ... 
Orange... 


1-5 

1-75 

1-5 


28 27 
32 26 
80 57 


- 6 32 

1 7 

24 1 


22 3 
26 19 
69 22 


-11 8 
-21 

20 00 




Aldebarau x 5 


48 
49 


10 
13 


6 34 00 
9 39 15 




White ... 
Blue 


2-0 
0-5 


10 6 
332 25 


22 31 

- 2 55 


356 12 
335 45 


15 56 
- 7 20 


/3 Orionis 


50 


14 


10 50 00 




Blue 


20 


75 00 


- 3 33 


66 39 


7 54 

. .._ 





A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



193 



Mean places for 
1840 of C. 



Decl. 



Place of Observation. 



L. from G 



Lat. 



Train or sparks. Remarks. 



138 56 
!l4 7 
2 38 
173 3 
30 8 
84 14 
|5l I 
118 3 
J6 47 
34 62 

18527 



3 45 

14 25 

-11 00 

1 57 
23 15 
20 47 

7 58 
36 
01 

- 5 07 

50 00 

27 49 

12 23 

-13 00 

5 59 

14 35 
12 09 

15 21 
37 38 
20 00 

25 11 
10 00 

2 14 
-16 40 
-12 28 

15 33 
7 36 

30 02 
56 58 

- 5 14 

34 14 
-12 21 

10 14 

-10 41 

00 

-53 

-53 

31 47 
5 20 

-11 33 



+2 54-7 



+2 54' 

+2 54- 

4 22 

-4 22 

+2 54' 
-(-2 54' 
+2 54- 
+2 54- 
+2 54' 



+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 547 
+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 
4-2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
4 2 54-7 
4-2 54-7 
4-2 54-7 
4-2 547 
-f2 547 
4-2 54 7 
4-2 547 

4-2 547 
+2 547 
4-2 547 
4-2 547 
4-2 547 
4-2 547 
4-2 547 
4-2 547 
4-2 547 
4-2 547 



1 00 


4-2 547 


- 6 31 


4-2 547 


- 9 57 


4-2 547 


3 29 


4-2 547 


-16 30 


+2 547 


-97 


-^2 547 


13 32 


+2 547 


6 43 


4-2 547 


-11 32 


4-2 547 


-14 10 


4-2 547 



4-50 59 46-6 



4-50 
4-50 
4-49 

49 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 

50 



59 46-6 
59 46-6 
26 29 
26 29 
59 46-6 
59 46-6 
59 46-6 
59 46-6 
59 46-6 



A most splendid meteor, giving light all 
over the country. Explosion without 
noise. See fig. 4. 



With a train of light 
and nebulous ball. 




4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 466 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46 6 
4-50 59 46'6 
4-50 59 46 6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 

4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 

4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46 6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46 6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46 6 

4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 
4-50 59 46-6 



Passing through a small n^ 

Cirrocumulus. |*:v. 

A very beautiful meteor, having a nebulous 
appearance, train of light. No. 16, alike. 
No. 14. See fig. 3 in Map. — 



Rather a brilliant object. 




Here a rather curious phenomenon took 
place. When No. 27 was in C, No. 28 
vanished at C, fig. 10. 



A. beautiful meteor with train of light. 

34. Seen in the field of telescope while ob- 
serving Neptune. The given places are for 
1800. 35. Train of light. 

37. This meteor has not been observed ex- 
cept the light which emanated from it 
from the zenith and which was very bril- 
liant indeed, and so intense was it that the 
observer thought it safer to take a shelter 
in-doors. o 



\' 



This is the curious meteor of which a draw, 
ing is given in the Map. It showed a 
dark side, and then a bright one. See 
fig. 9. 



' o 



194 



REPORT— 1852. 



No. 



Hour. 

Apparent 
Date. Icreenwichl Magnitude. 
MeanTinie 



51 

52 
53 
54 
55 
56 

57 
58 
59 



Nov. 16 7 37 00 Aldebaran 



Bright- 
ness and 
coloiir. 



. Blue 20 



Velo- 
city or 
Dura- 
tion. 



16 7 37 37JSirius Blue 

16 8 43 00|Siriasx3 |Blue 



Dec. 



8 11 9 00 

8 11 13 00 

9 9 7 00 



1850. 
i Jan. 
Feb. 



a Lyrae. 
Sirius . 
Siiius . 



61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 I 

78 

79 

80 

81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 

91 
92 
93 

94 
95 
96 
91 
98 
99 
100 



Mar. 



6 6 13 00 « Lyrse 
9 7 17 32 /3 Orionis . 

11 9 10 25 U Lyrae.... 

12 10 57 00 Siriusx5. 

6[ 8 22 Oolsirius— 4 Blue 

151 9 42 00 1/3 Orionis Blue 



White 
White 
White 

White 
White 
Blue... 
Blue... 



May 



June 



15l 12 9 00 \% Aldebaran.. 

5! 9 OOlLyra a. 

5 9 16 00jSiriusx3 

18 8 48 00 U Lyrae 

91 13 10 00 (3 Orionis 

9 13 1 7 00 /3 Orionis 



30 11 55 00 
1 11 33 00 



.\rcturus 
a Orionis 



Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
White 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



\ 11 42 53 « Arietis Blue, 

1 13 47 00 * Arietis Blue 

12' 10 10 37ULvr8e Blue. 

12 10 23 30 U Lyrae Blue 

12:10 47 35 Sirius Blue 

12' 10 49 37 Sirius ... 

12! 10 50 37 U Lyrae... 

30 11 15 OOULyrte... 

10 10 57 30 /3 Orionis 

10 11 23 54/3 Orionis 



Blue... 
Blue... 
WTiite 
Blue... 
Blue... 



8 

23 

25 

1851. 

Jan. 5 

27 



7 8 00 
7 30 00 

7 33 54 

8 21 30 

8 39 24 

9 35 24 
7 35 00 
5 58 00 



Pegasi . 

Lyrae.... 
Sirius X 5 . 
a Orionis . 
/S Orionis . 

/; Pegasi , 
j3 Pegasi - 
a Lvrse... 



Feb. 



10 12 00 
10 42 00 

27| 10 48 00 
Sill 33 00 
5,11 34 50 
5 11 45 00 
5' 11 52 00 



Mars X 4 . 
a Lyrae.... 
a. Lyra?.... 
/3 Orionis . 
Sirius — 
j3 Orionis . 
a Lvrae.... 



Blue.. 
Blue. 
Blue. 

Red . 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 




Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue.,. 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Wliite 
Blue... 



Mean places for 
1840 of A. 



R.A. 



10 10 15 00 !« Pegasi White ... 

10 11 6 OOJSirius Blue 

11 10 33 50 U Orionis. 
el 7 27 30 Sirius X3. 

9 56 00 (3 Pegasi 



30 
50 
10 
20 
0-5 

40 
10 
05 
50 

10 
0-5 
05 
10 
50 
20 
1-5 
10 
20 
. 10 

0-5 
05 
10 
1-5 
05 
05 
10 
05 
0-5 
05 

0-5 
20 
05 
20 

0-5 

10 

15 

10 

0-75 

0-5 

0-5 
05 
10 



Decl. 



15 12 
45 37 
79 51 
64 59 
82 00 
324 21 

359 45 

85 2 

121 30 

170 30 

195 00 
130 46 
214 45 
193 33 
212 37 
168 13 
282 00 
281 3 
151 51 
237 16 

306 16 
2fil 42 
281 00 
295 00 
17 35 
20 44 
355 00 
344 00 
358 00 



Mean places for 
1840 of B. 



R.A. 



1-5 

0-5 

10 

0-75 

1-5 

05 

10 



53 04 

15 00 

197 00 

166 28 
65 24 

81 25 
149 56 
186 00 
140 00 

185 00 

128 00 

92 00 

191 53 



22 47 


164 50 


28 8 


5 15 


6 00 


31 05 


322 18 


12 22 


30 5 


29 28 


14 17 



34 46 
19 00 
45 00 
12 43 
18 2 
23 45 

28 12 

1 28 

9 40 

- 2 07 

71 7 
17 34 
22 4 
10 18 
62 17 

8 12 
38 38 
33 49 

72 55 
3 02 

42 54 
47 54 
32 40 
7 10 
57 25 
55 39 
32 00 

24 36 
18 44 
27 13 

61 15 

- 9 20 
20 00 
64 00 

14 00 

25 00 
34 46 
20 00 

18 35 

19 23 

33 27 

2 46 
9 30 

16 45 
10 00 
23 56 

24 

15 47 
8 00 

1 15 



26 9 
38 45 
99 44 
58 40 
83 10 
332 6 

15 35 

85 10 
126 29 
181 40 

212 17 
124 55 
223 22 
189 23 

jS^Borealis 

1 172 11 
275 44 

1 274 51 
154 59 
231 47 

313 9 

253 33 

277 53 

290 20 

30 01 

13 31 

4 30 

355 00 

357 45 

20 44 

155 88 

19 05 
7 08 

20 00 
23 17 

325 38 
11 40 
28 39 
25 00 



Decl. 



24 15 
21 53 
59 36 
8 29 
6 12 
14 3 

30 34 
-48 

12 45 
- 9 16 

70 11 

14 44 

21 51 

6 00 

S Borea 

4 2S 

23 5( 

28 5( 

59 0( 

1 38 

43 5: 
42 4( 
31 3{ 

1 3i 
55 51 
49 5; 
42 
23 4 
14 4 
20 4 

58 4 
-12 4 

2 4 
80 

4 

16 S 
26 ( 
14 
12 



-I- 4 30 
+23 16 
+ 6 40 



5 14 


14 ] 


51 00 


26 i 


17 54 


- 3 i 


195 00 


7 i 


160 00 


12 < 


69 30 


11 i 


72 02 


23 ' 


149 00 


i 


l!)6 30 


14 1 


144 00 


9 ; 


189 00 


4 .' 


119 30 


+13; 


87 1 


+25 


197 23 


+ « 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



195 



Mean places for 
1840 of C. 



Decl. 



16 55 

22 00 
62 33 

3 28 

- 2 42 

5 25 

17 23 
9 44 

18 00 
-15 37 

66 32 
10 39 

17 29 
35 

23 45 

- 1 37 
14 35 
20 55 
47 47 

- 7 53 

44 53 
34 22 

28 48 
-62 
52 50 
50 8 
46 23 

18 44 
7 36 

14 38 

54 45 
-16 49 
-11 15 

82 56 

- 5 41 

7 30 
16 05 

6 09 

5 19 
10 00 

20 00 

- 9 58 

6 00 

8 00 
10 00 
20 25 

- 54 
8 00 
8 15 
6 10 

+16 23 

+23 56 

+ 4 00 



Place of Observation. 



L. from G, 



+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 

+8 200 

+8 20-0 

+8 20-0 

+8 20-0 

+8 20-0 
+8 20-0 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
-4 22-27 
-4 22-27 
-4 22-27 
-4 22-27 
-4 22-27 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 

+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 
+2 54-7 



Lat. 



+50 59 46-6 
+50 50 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 

+50 30 00 
+50 30 00 
+50 30 00 
+50 30 00 

+50 30 00 
+50 30 00 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 

+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+49 26 29 
+49 2& 29 
+49 26 29 
+49 26 29 
+49 26 29 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 

+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 

+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 

+50 69 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 

+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 



Train or sparks. Remarks. 



Ascending slowly. 



Ascending slowly. 

A beautiful meteor with two successive fire- 
balls. Explosion without noise. See 
fig. 7, 101' 57" 0'. Fig. 8, lO'' 57'" 4= 



This meteor passed exactly over the follow 
ing stars. 




A fine meteor with train of light. 



A beautiful meteor having the appearance 
of a blue ball. 



A beautiful meteor, of a red colour, inclining 
towards orange, perhaps on account of 
its proximity to the horizon. 






o 



o 2 



196 



REPORT — 1852. 



No. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Greenwich 
MeauTime 



.\pparent 
Magnitude. 



Bright- 
ness and 
Colour. 



Velo- 
city or 
Dura- 
tion. 



Mean places for 
1840 of A. 



R.A. 



Decl. 



Mean places for 
1840 of B. 



R.A. 



104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 

111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 

121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 

131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 

141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 

151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 



1851. 

Feb. 21 
21 
21 
22 
26 
Mar. 24 
Apr. 19 

19 
22 

28 
28 
28 
30 
Julv 21 
21 
21 
21 

21 
21 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 



Au" 



h m s 

12 20 00 

13 8 30 
13 30 30 
13 30 30 

8 58 30 
13 56 30 
10 30 30 

9 45 30 

10 47 30 
9 40 30 
9 50 30 
9 55 30 

11 40 30 

10 40 30 

11 23 46 
11 28 40 
11 46 40 



Lyra 

Virgo 

Virgo 

Sirius 

Aldebaran 

Lyra 

Arcturus .. 



Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Regulus . . 
Regains .. 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Aldebaran 

Lyra 

y Arietis .. 



49 10 
56 25 
53 10 

2 
19 40 
23 10 
53 10 
56 25 
56 30 

1 10 



y Arietis 
y Arietis 
y Arietis 

Lyra 

Sirius ... 
y Arietis 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Sirius ... 
Lyra 



12 5 55 
12 12 10 
9 48 15 
10 27 45 
10 29 00 
10 33 45 

10 54 50 

11 2 50 
11 14 30 
11 22 20 



Sept. 



12 8 
12 12 
12 16 
12 36 
12 46 
12 56 

12 59 

13 1 
13 14 
13 28 



y Pegasi . 
Sirius x2. 
Lyra X 2 . 
Lyra X 2 . 
Lyra X 2 . 
Lyra X 2 . 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra X 4 . 
Lyra X 4 . 



15 Lyra. 



9 44 30 
10 25 30 
10 36 30 
9 49 30 
9 50 1 
10 2 1 
13 26 30 



Lyrax4 ... 
Lyrax4 ... 
Lyra -0-25 
Lyra— 0-25 
Lyra- 0-25 

Sirius 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 



Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

SiriusxS. 



Blue... 
White 
White 
Blue... 
Red ... 
Blue... 
Blue... 



Blue.. 

Blue.. 

Blue.. 

White ... 

White . 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 

Red.... 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 



Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
White 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 



Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue.. 
Blue. 
Blue., 
Blue., 
Blue., 



Blue... 
White 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 



Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue., 
Blue., 
Blue., 



0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

0-5 

1-5 

0-5 

20 

1-0 

05 

0-5 

025 

0-25 

0-5 

0-5 

10 

0-5 

0-25 

0-25 

0-25 

0-25 

1-5 

0-25 

0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

0-5 

0-25 

0-25 

10 

0-5 

025 

0-25 

0-25 

0-5 

0-25 

05 

0-25 

0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

0-25 

0-25 

0-5 

0-25 

0-5 

0-25 

10 

0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

0-25 

10 

0-5 

10 



178 10 
144 00 
216 14 
175 13 
196 37 
15 33 
214 00 

128 54 
227 6 
180 00 
185 24 
184 00 
263 00 

3 1 
353 8 

348 14 
357 44 

10 15 
28 30 
20 44 

349 21 
340 25 

9 

357 14 

30 

6 40 

18 45 

368 26 

24 45 

333 40 

348 15 

22 3 

346 5 

357 14 

359 8 

10 00 

353 59 

34 45 

5 36 

31 8 

36 5 

4 2 
SO 57 
40 20 
53 4 
56 4 
43 31 

257 14 
268 14 
262 17 
239 00 
17 40 
181 52 
8 28 



+ 7 30 

+26 45 
+31 4 
+ 15 28 
+41 00 
+80 27 
+39 00 

+ 18 13 

- 8 30 
+ 2 40 
-14 30 
-16 00 
+ 4 40 
+28 52 
+45 40 
+26 50 
+46 59 

+33 5 
+31 30 
+29 14 
+30 00 
+23 40 
+53 38 
+45 11 
+29 00 
+59 15 
+59 17 

+38 48 
+ 48 15 
+29 18 
+22 46 
+47 4 
+ 29 18 
+ 4 34 
+30 18 

- 3 25 
+23 41 

+ 7 35 

-10 35 

+ 11 00 

+39 31 

-13 6 

+ 17 23 

37 10 

32 52 

17 2 

20 42 

43 27 
16 40 
1 19 
4 40 
12 30 
57 00 
40 24 



170 00 

138 .50 

219 00 

163 27 

191 40 

343 51 

205 28 

127 6 
230 00 
170 32 
181 00 
180 00 
259 00 
2 5 

1 18 
354 56 

2 30 

12 20 
30 5 

26 4 
30 

342 20 

359 10 

9 58 

2 34 

350 15 
15 35 

2 30 

35 00 

338 24 

348 40 

28 31 

351 S5 
20 53 

345 13 

32 

348 41 

27 15 

38 

34 40 
40 25 

1 38 
27 9 

35 12 
52 36 
56 29 
45 37 

5 37 
265 1 
257 46 
236 50 

21 49 
176 54 

10 19 



A CATALOGUK OV OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



197 



Mean places for 
1840 of C. 


Place of Observation. 




t 
o 


i 








Train or sparks. Remarks. 




R.A. 


Decl. 


L.froniG. 


Lat. 


16^ 4 


+ 4 29 


m s 
+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 






133 20 


+25 5 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








224 11 


+36 30 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








150 00 


+16 00 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 


Train. 






190 58 


+28 25 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








350 13 


+ 77 00 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








195 00 


+ 5 00 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








123 43 


- 1 37 


+2 51-7 


+50 59 46 








232 31 


- 9 31 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








163 00 


-13 55 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








178 00 


-18 00 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








178 00 


-22 00 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








257 00 


- 7 00 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








3 5 


+ 16 00 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








14 25 


+49 41 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








357 24 


+34 46 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






7 5 


+38 42 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








15 00 


+25 11 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








32 18 


+22 35 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








30 57 


+27 1 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








12 45 


+50 00 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






342 24 


+14 27 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








358 24 


+48 25 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








21 00 


+47 55 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








6 5 


+32 40 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 




CT* 


c» 


. 337 57 


+71 33 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 




pq 


S 


13 00 


+59 47 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 


•1 

"3 


"(O 


7 5 


+33 40 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 




•l 


1 48 30 


+53 15 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 


pq 




1 335 12 


+20 10 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 




J 


M 


i 348 41 


+ 19 57 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








30 1 


+34 14 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








1 359 47 


+34 46 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








! 52 53 


+60 38 


+5 12 


- 50 45 25 


Train of light. 






1 355 53 


+45 30 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






i 350 53 


-15 55 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






1 345 29 


10 53 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






22 45 


- 2 12 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






52 


-22 35 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






38 28 


10 35 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






1 44 1 


29 30 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






360 00 


-22 40 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






24 14 


8 21 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of Ught. 






31 48 


34 14 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






51 49 


23 00 


+5 12 


+ 50 45 25 


Train of light. 






57 57 


8 29 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






50 30 


10 23 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






17 31 


53 1 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






251 53 


4 50 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






255 18 


- 5 50 


+5 12 


+ 50 45 25 


Train of light. 






i 235 19 


1 25 


+ 5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






25 10 


18 30 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of Ught. 






168 20 


54 30 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






11 32 


18 19 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 




- 



198 



REPORT — 1852. 
IV. Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1851-52. Com- 



Date. 



1851. 
July 4 



Hour. 



h m 
11 16 30' =twice -if. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Orange - red, 
the separate 
balls blue, 
very bright, 
at last be- 
came more 
purple. 



2011 5 ;=twice J/. 



11 15 As a spark 



Aug. 



29 



Sept. 3 
4 
5 



10 



14 



10 36 Small, indistinct , 

10 39 



10 39 



9 3 
8 23 



9 30 
10 31 



111- to 13'' 

9 40 

9 40 



10 7 
10 25 



9 16 



9 15 



More than 1st mag- 



Small 
Large 

Large 



Small 



= 2nd mag. . . 
= to Saturn 



: 3 times Venus in 
opposition. 



Verysmall, = 7th mag. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Small separate balls. 



Red 



Orange-red ... 



YeUow 

Yellow. Less 

thanlstmag. 

= lst mag. ... 



= 4th mag. 



Blue. 



Orange - red. 
Brighter than 
Saturn. 

=4 times Ve- 
nus in oppo- 
sition. Blue, 



Colourless ... 



Train or sparks. 



QlH 



Slieht tail 



SUght tail 



Separate sparks 
Separate sparks 

Train 25° long 



As a spark 
Long tail . . 



Continuous streak 
Giving out stars . . . 



Long continuous blue 
stream of light. 



Continuous streak 



Velocity or 
duration. 



3 sees., slowly ; at 
lastvanished sud- 
denly. 



0-2 sec. 



0*5 sec 

14 sec; slowly ., 

Passed 1° 30' above 
y, 2° below ^, and 
just below i// Ur- 
sse Majoris. 

Rapidly 



Passed midway be- 
tween 2 Dracoj 
and a Ursse Mj 
joris, througli 
Ursae Majoris. 



Rapid 



Moved over 12° in 3 

sees. 



3 sees. 



Instantaneous . 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 199 
municated by E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S, F.G.S. 



Direction or altitude. General remarks, i Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


From y Lyrae through /3 Cygni, 
/JDelphini to yEquulei. The 
meteor always equally large 
and bright. 

From near No. 6 Cassiopeiae to 
H. I Camelopardi. Com- 
menced R.A. 23'» 51"", N.P.D. 
29° 10', ended at R.A. 1M5", 
N.P.D. 25° 15'. 

X Cassiopeiae to v Persei. Com- 
menced AR. Oh 12", N.P.D. 
40°,endedAR.l''27"S N.P.D. 
37° 30'. 


Well-defined circu- 
lar disc. The small 
cu-cular append- 
ages kept vanish- 
ing quickly, never 
remaining Nisible a 
distance of twice 
the diameter of the 
object. 

Increased from a 
point to 2 sees. 7). . 


Highfield House 

j 

Ibid 


E. J. Lowe, Esq 
Id 


Mr. Lowe's 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 


MS. 


Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 

J. Graham, Esq. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 


Lyncis. 




Darlington, Dur- 
ham. 

Highfield House 
Ibid 






£ Ursae Majoris to 42 Coma Be- 
renices. 

From E. to W., passing 10° S.E. 
of zenith. 


Seen through haze. 


Nottingham 

Darlington, Dur- 
ham. 

Ibid 


M. J. L. E. Du- 

rand. 
J. Graham, Esq. 

Id 






Many falling stars . 


in S.E 


Ibid 


Id 


From zenith perpendic. down in 

N.W. 
From under Atair perpendic. 

down. 
Downwards — 45°, passing 35' 




Highfield House 

Observatory. 
Ibid 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Bright 


TnrrpaspH from a 


Ibid 


Id. 


above Saturn. 1 point and disap- 
peared at maxi- 
! mum brightness. 
Prom midway between 6 and >i'Circular, well-de- 
AquUae, passing above \Aqui-l fined edge, in- 
1 lae through »i Seipentis,disap-: tensely blue. 
1 peared between y and r Ophi- 
uchialittle above Z Serpentis. 


Observator}', 
Beeston. 

Ibid . 


Id 


Id 


igi-Sl", N.P.D. 90° 20' ; point 
1 ofdisappearanceR.A.17''41°', 
1 N.P.D. 92° 58'. 
j Through i Lyrse, passing to N. 

horizontaliy. 


meteors. 


Highfield House 


Id 



















200 



REPORT— 1852, 



Date. 

1851. 
Sept. 14 



Hour. 



h m 
10 20 



18* 8 41 



18* 

18* 

18* 

18* 

18 
20 



21 



28 



Oct. 1 



8 55 

8 59 30' 

9 40 

9 41 



9 50 



Appearance and 

magnitude. 



= 3rd mag. . 

= 3rd mag. 
= 1st mag. 
= lst mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mas;. 



Colourless 



Nearly ^ diam. (J 



16 



8 20 
8 24 
8 30 
8 30 
8 31 

7 40 



8 20 
8 30 
8 45 

8 20 



1912 
2310 



27 



Small 

Small 

Small 

Small 

= 2nd mag. 

= 8th mag. 



= Gth mag. 
= 6th mag. 
= 2nd mag. 

= 2nd mag. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or snarks. 



Continuous streak 
Continuous streak 



Blue, brighter Continuous streak 
than 1st. mag. 



Blue. 



Stream. 



Blue. 



Stream. 



Light blue 



Long train, which vanished 
rapidly. 



51 .... 
54 30' 



10 3 



= 2Qd mag. 
= 1st mag. 
= 4'5 mag. 
1st inag. ... 
= 3rd maa;. 



= 3rd mag 

= 2/. at opposition 



Veiy small 



Blue 

Orange-vellow 



Bluish . 
Blue... 



Yellowish. 



Blue 

Faint blue 



Streak . 
Streak . 
Streak , 
Streak , 
Streak . 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Duration ^ sec. . 

Duration 1 sec. . 
Duration 1-5 sec. 

1-2 sec 

Rapid 

0-8 sec 



3 to 4 sees. 



Instantaneous . 



Collection of sparks, thus : 



As a spark 



Train 



Instantaneous , 



1 sec. 



3 sees 



1 sec. 



2 sees. 



2-5 sees. 
2 sees. .. 



1 sec. 



* These five meteors gave a point of 



I 



m 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 201 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



From 10° S. (and same level as) 
a Lyrae towards S. 



From a Cassiopeiae perpendic. 

down. 
From 39 through | Pegasi 



Appeared very di 
stinct at <45° ; 
rapid. 



From a Draconis through « Ur- 
sae Majoris. 

Through t Aquilse perpendicu- 
larly down. 

From 6 VulpeculSe perpendic, 
down through 9- Serpeutis. 



Increased from a 
point, circular. 



Hishfield House 



Observatory, 

Beeston. 
Ibid 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid.. 



Below X Draconis over S Ursae 
Miuoris, vanishing in the 
head of the Lynx near No. 14. 
First seen R.A. IS^ 8'", N.P.D. 
15° 40', disappeared R.A. 
6'' 15™, N.P.D. 31°. 



Down through a Cassiopeiae 

Through a Delphini, downwards 

Through a Cassiopeiae 

Through Polaris 

From head of Draco towards 
Cygnus. 

Horizontal level but 2° E. of 
a. Andromedae, perpendicular 
down inclining to S, I 

Below a Cassiopeiae perpendic. 
down. 

Across from a Arietis under Pe- 
gasus, square at -<25°. 

Moved horizontally from 3° N. 
and 3° lower than Saturn, 
moved towards N. Passed 
over 2° of space. 

Moved down at -<25° towards 
N. from 1° above Cor. CaroJi, 
passing 15' to N. of that star. 



Several meteors 
Almost as light as 
day. 



Several small me- 
teors. 



Highfield House 
Ibid 



Ibid,. 



Obser'', Beeston 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid.. 



From under Cassiopeia hori 
zontally to /3 Ursae Majoris. 

From S. downwards at < of 
40°, passed 2° below C • 

Immediately below a Pegasi 
perpendic. down. 

Between at Pegasi and « Andro- 
medae down. 

/3 Pegasi to* Andromedae 



From /3 Cygni to //■ Aquilse 

From fi Aquilae, incurved direc- 
tion towards 9 Tauri Ponia- 
towski. 



Near Scheat to near Markab 
(Pegasi). 



Ibid. 



Ibid.. 



An assemblage of Ibid., 
sparks, the whole 
mass being equal 
to a 2nd mag.* 

Auroral glare and i 
lightning. 



Ibid., 



Many meteors . 
Slow 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Space 4° 



Ibid 

CastleDonington 
Highfield House 
CastleDonington 



Small at first, gra- 
dually ^increased 
to size If. at op- 
position. 



Ibid. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

[Esq. 
A. S. H. Lowe 
Id 



Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

W. H. Leeson, 

Esq. 
A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
W. H. Leeson, 

Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



divergence about R.A. 23'' 15'", N.P.D. 30° 



202 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 



1851. 
Oct. 27 



Nov. 3 



12 



Hour. 

h ra s 
10 11 30 

8 58 30 

8 25 ... 

8 50 ... 

9 4 ... 
5 32 ... 

5 30 ... 



2nd mag 

3rd mag 

6 times size of Saturn 



i size of C 



7 49 30... 



8 5 30... 

7 56 

9 4 

10 10 

10 45 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Small 

Very small . 
= to Saturn. 



Very bright . 



Small 



Very small 
= 4'5 mag. 

= 2nd mag. 
= 2nd mag, 



Much brighter 
than Saturn; 
orange. 



= 3rd mag., 
yellow. 

Orange, =3'5 
mag. 

Pale orange 
and after 
15° move 
ment turned 
bluish. 



Orange and 
prismatic. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Blue. 



Much brighter 
than Vega. 



Blue. 



Brighter than 
2nd mag. ; 
orange-red. 



Long tail of sparks . 



Almost instantane- 
ous. 
2 sees 



Continuous streak 



Composed of many sepa- 
rate sparks. 
Slight tail 



1 sec. ; rapid . . 

2 sees. ; slowly 
12 sees 



The above is a sketch of it. 
No sparks 



Leaving bright train, cu- 
rious path, thus : — 




Sparks , 



Train of light 



Velocit)' or 
duration. 



I sec. 



Several seconds 



3'5 sees. 



0-5 sec. 



Less than 1 sec. 
Less than 1 sec. 



1 sec. 



I 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSKRVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 203 



Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


Midwaybetween Vega and Altair 
to below Delphinus. 




Castle Donington 


W. H. Leeson, 


Mr. Lowe's 


MS. 




Esq. 






From OS to » Draconis 


Aurora at the time. 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 




From near S- Draconis to about 
No. 76 Ursae Majoris. First 


Obser'', Beeston 


Id 






seen R.A. 12° 53',N.P.D. 31°; 












disappeared R.A. 12'' 32", 












N.P.D. 26° 20'. 












From ^Andromedas to S Piscium 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid, 




From No. 72 to » Piscium 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 

Ibid. 




From 13° S. of Marac ; passed 


Moved very slowly. 


Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


3° S. of Arcturus; continued 


Before starting in- 




and A. S. H. 






visible to near horizon ; va- 


creased from a poin1 




Lowe, Esq. 






nished suddenly. 


to 4 times the sizeol 
Saturn, moved 15°, 
and then increased 
to 6 times the size ol 
Saturn. 










From justN. of Jupiter fell down- 
wards at an angle of 55° towards 




* mile W.N. W, of 


R. Enfield, Esq. 


Ibid. 






Bramcote. 






N. horizon ; it disappeared very 












near the horizon in haze. The 












sun just set, a half ([ , and much 












glare in the sky at the time. 












When first seen was about i size 












of C and had confused edges, be- 












ing a mass of prismatic light; af- 












ter descending slowly for a time 












the confused light disappeared. 












and it assumedtheform of a well- 












defined orange ball, twice the size 












oi Tl , and intensely bright. The 












meteor disappearedin thickmist. 












[Probably the luminosity which 












surrounded it was rendered invi- 












sibleowingto passingbehindcir- 












•ous haze, which there was at the 












ime.— E. J. L.) 












7rom 6 Pegasi to 3° belo w Altair, 




CastleDonington 


W. H. Leeson, 


Ibid. 






nuch brighter than Altair ; it 






Esq. 






hen became fainter, and moved 












1° in horizontal direction some- 












vhat zigzag, then shot off more 












apidly towards S Poniatowski, 












lear which star it suddenly dis- 












ippeared, leaving a bright train. 












1° above » Ursae Majoris to 1° 
below that star. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 










'rem' a Pegasi to $ Pegasi 




Ibid „ 


Id 


Ibid. 




I'rom midway between y and /5 
' Cygni to near /3 Lyraj. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 














'rem /3 Persei through the Plei- 
i ades. 

j'rora Polaris to head of the 




Highfield House. 
Ibid 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 


Ibid. 






Ibid. 




Dragon. 










r '™ 













204 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



1851. 
Nov. 15 



16 



Hour. 



17 
18 
20 

30 
Dec. 1 



h m 
6 18 

6 20 

6 58 

7 4 

7 5 
7 36 

7 45 

10 50 

10 8 

11 10 

11 13 
6 26 



8 23 45' 



11 4 



8 3 
29 10 14 

7 46 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Small 



Small 



Small, thus : — 



Small 
Small 



= to Saturn. 
=to Rigel . 
= 1st mag. . 
= 3rd mag. . 



= 3rd mag. 



= twice Saturn 



= 3rd mag. 

= 2nd mag. 
= 2nd mag 



Orange, outshone 
Mars. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Yellow . 



White 



Red 



Coloured, bril- 
liancy of Rigel. 
Red 



Orange. 



Orange 

= lst mag. 



Red and 
orange. 



Orange. 

Orange. 
Yellow . 



Trains or sparks. 



SUght tail 



Instantaneous . 



Tail 

Separate stars . 



Instantaneous , 
2 sees 



No tail , 



J sec. ; rapid . 
Instantaneous , 



Continuous train left 

Shght sparks 

No tail... 

Sparks 



3 sees. 



Sparks . 



Separate sparks 

The following figures will 
show its several appear 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1 sec. 



1 sec. 



Passed midway be 
tween x and x Dra 
conis,and over i Ur 
sse Majoris. 
4 sees 



Train of light left 



TaU 

Tail 

Without a train 



Rapid, being 
stantaneous. 



^ sec. 
sec. 



InN.E.alt.l20,an 
moved down tc 
wardsthe extremit 
of an auroral arcl 
Its path formed a 
angle of about 6C 
with E. horizon. 1, 
vanished when ItJ 
above the uppt, 
edge of the' arc! 
near its E.extrem' 
ty; at about l"'latt 
a very great chang 
occurred in the ai 
rora,it becamevei 
ac tive , very brilliai 
streamers occu 
ring for 15°. 



i 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



205 



Direction or altitude. 



From M Ursae Majoris perpendic. 

down. 

From /S Bootis perpendic. down 
From 1° above Saturn horizoU' 

tally towards S. 
From immed'' above a Andro- 
med8e,moved towards Atair, and 
lendedwhen half-way to that star 
From a Arietis to 2° E. of Saturn 
Perpendic. down from midway 

between « and /3 Aurigae. 
Fell upwards through 6, « and 

? Draconis. 
Perpendic. down from y Pegasi 

N. of a Cygni towards hori- 
zon, passing S. of Vega. 

iPerpend. down from midway 
between « Ursas Majoris & A 
Bootis. 

[Perpendic. down from y Ursae 
Majoris. 

Rapid 



General remarks. 



Moved over 20° of Ibid 



space. 
Ibid 



Lightning and au- 
rora borealis. 



From 55 Ceti to | Eridani 



l>° S. and 5° lower than Mars ; 
moved down in direction of 

i S. at an angle of 45°. 

'rom 5° belovr Pleiades, per- 
pendic. down. 

'Vom Polaris towards W. at an 
angle of 45°. 

'ery slow, moving over 3° in 5 
sees. 



Moved over 2^° of 
space. 

Moved over 3° of 
space. 



First as a spark, 
then increased as a 
number of sparks, 
became less bright 
when passing near 
the star 35 Eii 
dani, but increased 
again immediately; 
moved slowly. 



Place. 



Highfield House 
Ibid 



Ibid.. 



Obser^ , Beeston 
Ibid 



Ibid.. 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid. 

Ibid., 



Darlington, Dur. 
ham. 



Obser. Beeston 



Highfield House. 



Observer. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Id. 



Id 

Id 

A.S.H.Lowe,Esq 
E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



Id 

J. Graham, Esq. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Darlington, Dur- 
ham. 



Id 

Id 

Id 

J. Graham, Esq, 



Reference. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



206 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1852. 
Jan. 24 



25 



h m 
10 45 



10 45 15' 



9 
8 36 



8 52 



Feb. 1 

18 
20 

22 



April 



12 



13 



10 13 

10 55 
9 17 

8 54 
8 50 



10 19 

9 39 

10 40 

10 55 

12 40 

13 12 



13 18 



21 
26 

May 10 



10 45 

9 40 
9 50 

10 10 

11 



= 3rd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 



Colourless 
Colourless 



Larger than Mars 



Size of Mars 



Long streak. 
Streak 



Yellow 

= 1 st mag. 



= 1st mag. 



[lOng train 



Orange. 



Small, =3rd mag. 
= 2nd mag 



Continuous train . 



Not so bright 
as 2nd mag. 



No tail. 



Small 

Small ...... 

Small 

Small 

Small 

= 4th mag. 



= to <?. 



= 2nd mag. 



Blue Train 



Blue. 



Two sparks 



Yellowish red. 
Brighterthan 

Orange 



Small 
Small 
Small 
Small 



Stream of light 



Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous 



2 sees 

Descended perpen 

die. down in W., 

passed between 7 

& a, Pegasi, about 

2° nearer the lat' 

ter star. 

Passed 5° above y 

Pegasi, and moved 

obliquely nortb 

ward, its path 

forming an angle 

of about 20° with 

horizon. It moved 

over 4°very slowly; 

it made a stop and 

partially disap 

peered before it 

finally vanished. 

Slowly ; duration 1 

sec. 



Slowly 

Duration 1'5 sec. 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid 

Instantaneous . 



1 sec. . 
Slowly . 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 207 



Direction or altitude. 



From i between y and /3 Andro 
medse perpendic. down. 

From <y Ursae Majoris between 
» and ? Ursas Majoris, nearly 
perpendic. down. 

From ^ to >i Ursse Majoris .. 

Passed over 15° in 3 sees. .. 



General remarks. 



From midway between jS and ■v^ 
Ursae Majoris, fading away at 
about R.A. 13° 30',N.P.D.44^ 

Prom 30° above S.S.W. horizon 
perpendic. down. 

Prom X Ursse Majoris through 
Ursae Minoris ; moved slowly 
towardsa Cephei,fadingwhen 
3° from that star. 

Moved downwards, passing 
slightly E. of Procyon. 

A very large meteor reported as 
being in N. ; unluckily I was 
not observing at the moment. 
My brother saw the reflexion 

' and registered it as a flash of 

j lightning. 

iFrom S Cephei towards Arcturus 

From S Hydrae perpendic. down 

|Down across a Leonis 

'Through Mars 

Near Spica Virginis 

From Caput Medusae to s Bootis 



Place. 



Observer. 



Highfield House 
Ibid 



Ibid 

Darlington, Dur- 
ham. 



Ibid. 



About 30' above Mars 
1° towards Pollux. 



moved 



From a Cassiopeiae towards W. 
I a slight inclination. 
Downwards from ^ Virginis .. 

jDown from y Leonis 

Oown from t Lyrae 

li'erpendic. down in N.N.W. .. 
. 



Two spark meteors 
side by side; moved 
very rapidly, appa 
rently at no very 
great elevation. 
Well-defined circu- 
lar disc. 



Highfield House 
Observatory, 



Ibid. 
Ibid., 



E. J. Lowe, Esq, 
Id 



Id 

J. Graham, Es 



Id. 



Ibid. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Ibid. 
Ibid., 



Ibid 

Ibid... 

Ibid... 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Bath Observa- 
tory. 



Mr. LawsOn's 
Observatory, 
Bath. 

Highfield House 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Id. 



Id. 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Id 

Id 

Id 

A.S.H.Lowe,Esq, 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Tbid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



208 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 



1852. 
July 3 



Hour. 



h in 
10 30 



G times J/. , gi'adually 
diminished in size. 



12 10 47 30' 



13 



19 



22 



10 47 

11 
11 10 



10 39 15' 
12 6 .... 

11 59 57' 

12 30. 



2311 45 



Aug. 5 
9 
10 



15 



10 32 p.m. Bright , 
10 43 Small 



Appearance and 
maffnitude. 



: 2/. at opp. 



= 2nd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 

= 3rd mag. 



10 24 

10 35 

11 5 
11 5 
11 5 
11 5 
11 10 
11 14 

9 52 



Meteor.. 
Meteor.. 
Meteor., 
Meteor., 
Meteor., 
Meteor. 
Meteor. 
Meteor. 
Meteor. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Pale blue Long streak 



Small 



Small ... 
Brilliant 



Colourless 
Colourless 
Colourless 
Colourless 

Colourless 



Left a train , 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Slowly, 8 sees. 



2-5 sees. 



Leaving a lengthened train 



Red 



Continuous streak 

Continuous streak 

Continuous train . . . 

. Continuous train... 



Continuous train 0"1 sec 



With train 
Faint train 



Horizontally from r 
through f Ser- 
pentis. 
Through zenith 
from S.E. to N.W 
Fell parallel with 
milky way, pass- 
ing near fi Cygni, 
moving to E. 
Slowly, 1-2 sec. 
0-2 sec, rapid 

0-2 sec 

0-2 sec 



Rapid 



With train 



1851. 
Aug. 19 

19 



20 



V. Observations of Luminous Meteors made at the Observatory, Stone 



10 3 p.m. 



Brighter than a star 
of the 1st mag. 



Blue Train 



Blue I A train as long as twice the 

distance from a. Andro- 
medae to Markab. 



Slow ; visible di 
ring 4 sees. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 209 



Direction or altitude. 



Near ^ Urste Majoris, above x 
Draconis through Polaris to 
/ Cephei. Ill-defined trem- 
bling mass of light. 

From y Cygni to a point 2° be- 
low Deneb, it then changed 
its course andproceededabout 
3° in horizontal direction, 
growing less and less bright, 
till at length scarcely visible. 
In an instant it changed its 
course a second time, became 
as brilliant as at its first ap- 
pearance, fell in a direction 
nearly perpendic. to horizon 
and disappeared midvray be- 
tween Deneb & /3 Pegasi. 



General remarks. 



J'rom e to ^ Andromedae 

?rom A through s Ophiuchi ... 
hvtSL y through s Ophiuchi ... 
Hoved across /3 and a Arietis 

towards N. 
'rem £ Herculis to S Coronse 

Borealis. 
"rom Cassiopeia to Andromeda, 

E. ofMiltyWay ... 

nS.W 

nN.E 

nS 

nw .'.'.';."!!.;;.'.'." 

n zenith 

n S.S.W .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.' 

n S. along Milky Way 

ja W ' 

rom 15° below Vega to S,.!.; 



Place. 



NearDreux(Eure 
& Loire), France 



CastleDonington 



Observer. 



M. J. E. Durand 



W. H. Leeson, 
Esq. 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Highfield House 



Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



[Beeston 
Observatory, 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



A. S. H. Lowe, 
Esq. 



6 meteors in 9 
minutes. 



Ibid., 



Highfield House 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



E. J. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. , 

A. S. 
Id. . 
Id. . 
Id. . 



Ibid., 



Lowe, Esq, 



H. Lowe. 



Ibid. 



Id. 



Id. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid, 



^icarage, Aylesbury, Bucks. Lat. 51° 47' 57"-03. Long. 0° 52' 16"-35 W. 



|wo meteors from N. to S. un- 
der Cassiopeia. 

jwo meteors from E. ttf W., 
one under « Herculis, and the 
other under a Aquilje. 

,'om Cassiopeia, passing south 
of p. Pegasi to /3 Aquarii ; it 
disappeared in a cloud beyond 
Aquarius. 



1852 



It appeared as a 
train of beads very 
well separated. 



Stone 
Ibid.., 

Ibid... 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id 



Rev, J. B. Reade 
and Vnt. Fasel, 
Esq. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



210 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1851 
Aug. 20 
21 

22 

28 



30 



31 

Sept. 3 



14 



19 



20 



h m 

11 p.m. 
9 10 p.m. 



9 30 

8 20 59' 
8 23 58' 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



2nd mag 

About 5 th mag. 



9 48 

9 55 

10 8 4th mag. 

10 9 '3rd mag. 

10 15 J3rdmag. 

3rd mag. 



10 50 
10 53 

10 54 

11 49 
11 52 



38 a.m. 
8 41 p.m. 
8 4 p.m. 

7 48 p.m. 

8 43 p.m. 
10 45 



5th mag. 
3rd mag. 
2nd mag. 

5th mag. 

2nd mag. 

2nd mag. 



8 44 p.m. 

8 55 p.m. 
7 35 p.m. 

7 45 p.m. 

8 4 p.m. 

8 31 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9 38 p.m. 
9 45 p.m. 
9 54 p.m. 

10 8 



1] 45 



8 25 



8 45 

9 17 



9 18 
10 28 



4th mag. 



3rd mag. 
1st mag. 
3rd mag. 



3rd mag. 



3rd mag. 
4th mag. 

3rd mag. 

4th mag. 
4th mag. 
4th mag. 
2nd mag. 
4th mag. 
3rd mag. 
5th mag. 

4th mag. 



3rd mag., andas bright 
as a star of the 1st 
mag. 

2nd mag 

4th mag 



2nd mag. 
3rd mag. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train 



Red 
Red 



YeUow. 
White . 



Blue. 
Red . 



Blue. 
Red . 



Blue.... 
Yellow. 
White . 



White 



Red 
Red 



White 



Blue 

Yellow 

Dull red 

Light yellow 

White 

Light blue . . 
White 



Yellow. 



Yellowish. 



White 

Light blue 

Yellow... 
Orange... 



Train or sparks. 



Train 
Train 



Train 



Short train . . , 
Train-beaded 



Short train 



Short train 



Long train 



Train 

Beaded train 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Very rapid 
Rapid , 



Moderate . 



Rapid 

I sec. duration 



Rapid .... 
Moderate . 
Rapid .... 



Moderate . 



Rapid 
Rapid 

Rapid 



Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 
Moderate . 

Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 



Rapid 



Moderate . 



Rapid .... 
Moderate. 



Rapid 
Rapid 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 211 



Direction or altitude. 



Went through the Pleiades 
From a Lyrae to « Coronas Bo- 

reaUs. 
From below ;3 Ursse Minoris to 

2° east of a. Ursfe Majoris. 
From Cassiopeia to a Andro 

medae. 

iFrom Markab to a very short di 
stance south. 

From t Urs. Maj. to Mizar 

. From a to /3 Cassiopeiae 

From Perseus to the Pleiades.. 
From H Urs. Maj. to * Bootis . 
From Cassiopeia to Polaris 
From the square of Pegasus ; 

from east to west. 
Through Corona Borealis, from 

E. to W. 
A.bove £ Bootis from E. to W. 
Went through Aquarius due S 
..From ? Urs. Maj. down to the 
( horizon. 
^° below the Pleiades from E 

toW. 
..I'rom % Ursae Majoris passing 
i through y, to 2° beyond it. 
..j'rom 4° below Corona borealis 
/ to c Bootis. 

.j-'Tirough Lyra from E. to W.... 
.jjYom /S Urs. Min. to a. Urs. Maj. 
..t'rom 2° below a Serpentis, 
i passing between ? and e Urs, 

Maj. to 2° below them 
.ji'rom E. to W., passing by 
; a Herculis. 

..itorn Sheat to S Cygni . . 

.. irom below Polaris to half-way 

' between Polaris and Perseus, 

,..rom a short distance west of 

« Bootis to near Cor. Caroli. 

..irom $ to X Draconis 

...rom y Cephei to 2° below it 

..!rom £ Pegasi to y Aquarii .. 

...irom Cassiopeia to CapeUa .. 

.,'hroughCassiopeiafromN.toS 

„ rom /3 Cephei to (• Urs. Min. . 

...rom Musca Borealis to the 

Hyades. 

;arted half-way betwaen Alde- 

baran and the Pleiades, and 

travelled about 3° towards 

. the Pleiades. 

,.|om about ? Andromeda to 
12° below S. 



General remarks. 



Train red and con- 
tinuous. 



Place. 



Stone 
Ibid.... 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Ibid... 
Ibid... 
Ibid... 
Ibid... 
Ibid... 
Ibid... 



Ibid. 

Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid., 

Ibid.. 

Ibid.. 



..jom j3 to y Andromedae 

„Jom o Urs. Maj. to between 

jthe Pointers. 
„ jom 4° above to /3 Aurigae . . . 

' from CapeUa to 6° due east . 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



Aylesbury 



Bright 



Stone 
Ibid... 



Ibid. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid., 



Observatory. 



Stone 
Ibid.... 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
J.W.Eccles,Esq. 



Observer. 



Id. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 

■Vnt.Fasel,Esq.,& 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
O. J. Grace, Esq. 
H. Smith, Esq. . 
O. J. Grace, Esq. 

Id :. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 



Reference. 



E. J. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Id. 

W. 

Rev. 

Id. 



[Esq 
Whitbread, 
J. B. Reade 



W. Whitbread, 

Esq. 
Id 



Rev. J. B. Reade 



H. Smith, Esq. , 
W. Eccles, Esq. , 
0. J. Grace, Esq, 



J. W. Eccles, 

Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id 



J. W. Eccles, 

Esq. 
0. J. Grace, Esq. 

Id 

J.W. Eccles, Esq 

Id 

H. Smith, Esq. , 

Id 

J.W.Eccles,Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid, 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Vnt. Fasel, Esq. 



J.W. Eccles, Esq. 
Rev. C, Lowndes 

,|Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



p2 



212 



REPORT— 1852. 



Date. 



1851 
Sept. 20 



21 



Oct. 



Hour. 



h m 
11 15 



11 43 p.m. 4th mag. 
7 27 p.m. 3rd mag. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



3rd mag. 



7 27 p.m. 

7 53 

9 18 



2nd mag. 
4th mag. 
3rd mag. 



9 25 

7 56 
7 31 
7 32 



15 



16 



7 42 30= 

7 55 p.m. 
9 5 p.m. 
9 10 p.m. 

8 15 p.m. 

9 14 p.m. 
7 2 p.m. 

7 53 p.m. 

8 8 p.m. 

8 10 p.m. 

9 2 p.m. 
6 47 p.m. 



7 10 p.m. 

7 56 p.m. 

8 6 p.m. 

9 7 p.m. 



11 4 p.m. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Orange. 



Train or sparks. 



Long train 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



3 sees, duration . 



Red ... 

White 



Blue 

White .... 
Yellowish. 



4th mag 

As bright as a. Aquilae. 

4th mag 

2nd mag 



Orange. 



4th mag 

3rd mag 

3rd mag 

3rd mag 

As bright as Capella 

Much larger and 
brighter than Ca- 
pella. 

3rd mag. when it be 
gan, and of the 6th 
when it ended. 

2nd mag 



Light blue 

White Train 

Blue Train 



Train 
Train 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 

Rapid 



Blue.... 
Yellow . 
Yellow . 
Yellow . 
White . 



Brilliant white 



Blue. 



1st mag. 



3rd mag 

As bright as a star of 
the 1st mag. ; it in 
creased in size as it 
proceeded. 



3rd mag. 
4th mag. 



4th mag. 



3rd mag. 



Brilliant white 



Blue. 



Blue. 



White 

Bright orange 



White 
Blue... 



Very rapid 
Moderate . . 
Rapid 



Rapid 

Moderate 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Instantaneous , 



Beaded train 



Short flash, no train 



Slow... 
Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 



[iOng train 



Long train 



White 



Blue. 



Instantaneous flash. 



Slow. 



Moderate . 
Slow 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Moderate . 



Moderate 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 213 



Direction or altitude. 



From Capella, through Perseus, 
to Caput Medusae. 



From Algenib to t Pisciura ... 
From 47 Audromedae to a Tri- 
anguli. 



.From/3 Andromedfe to \ Arietis. 

From a. Lyrae to i Cygni 

[From a Cassiopeiaj to y Andro- 

[ meda3. 

iFi-om a Audromedae to « Cas. 

i siopeiae. 

iFrom a Aquilae to a, Ophiuclii 

iFrom X Cephei to /3 Urs. Min. 

(Through Pegasus, in a south- 

I eastern direction. 

iFrom Polaris to a Urs. Maj. .., 

.3° through Lacerta from N.to S 

|From S Aurigae to a Urs. Maj. , 

IFrom S Aurigae to Castor 

tfn 7 Camelopardalis 



General remarks. 



The tail of the train 
was visiblefor se- 
veral seconds af- 
ter the meteor 
had disappeared. 



This meteor started 
a few seconds be 
fore the follow- 
ing one. 



|?rom 3°east of the moon, cross 
i ed the moon, and went about 
\ 7° west of it. 
i?rom Cassiopeia to J Cygni 



Phrough Aquarius from N. to S. 



'rom I Bootis to the horizon 
It started a little to the E. of 
t Bootis. 

,'rom f> Bootis down to the ho- 
rizon. 

,'rom a Arietis to /3 Andromedae 

i'rom about 24 Lyncis, passed 
through 42 Urs. Maj., and be- 

; tween the Pointers ; and va- 

I nished in the middle of the 
trapezium, about 5 J°from the 
little star above-named, 42. 

,'rom a Arietis to S.E. horizon . 

'rom between a. and ^ Aquila; 
to the horizon. 

it the cluster in the sword of 
Perseus. 

jtarted from Algol, passed be- 
tween a and 1 Persei, and va- 
nished about 3° beyond -^ 
Persei. 

rom a. Andromedae, and travel- 
led about 8°towards x Andro- 
medie. 



It was as bright as 
Jupiter when it 
ended. 



Place. 



Hartwell 



Stone 
Ibid... 



Observer. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Hartwell 



Stone 
Ibid... 
Ibid..., 



Rev. C. Lowndes 



Vnt. Fasel, Esq. . 
H. Smith, Esq. . 



Id 

J.W.Eccles, Esq. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 

Rev. C. Lowndes 

J.W.Eccles, Esq. 
0. J. Grace, Esq 
W. Carter 



Reference. 



E. J. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



It only broke out, 
and then vanished.! 
It appeared hke the|lbid 
flame of a candle, 



Ibid 

Ibid. 

Hartwell 

Ibid 

Stone ... 



The same meteor 
was seen at Hart- 
well by Rev. C. 
Lowndes ; his ac- 
count perfectly 
agrees with this. 



Stone 

Stone Observa- 
tory. 



It increased to 2nd 
mag. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Aylesbury 



Ibid. 



Stone 
Ibid..., 



Ibid.. 



Ibid.. 



Ibid., 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
0. J. Grace, Esq. 
Rev. C. Lowndes 

Id 

Rev. J. B. Reade 



,I.\V. Ecdes.Esq, 



Id. 



Id 

Rev. J. B. Reade 



Id. 



J.W.Eccles, Esq. 
Vnt. Fasel, Esq. . 



J.W.Eccles, Esq. 
0. J. Grace, Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 

Vnt. Fasel, Esq. . 



Id. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



214 



REPORT — 1852. 



1851. 
Oct. 17 



Date. 



Nov. 



21 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



h m 

7 47 50' 

7 48 p.m. 
7 50 p.m. 

7 54 p.m. 

8 p.m. 
8 17 p.m. 
8 21 30' 
8 24 p.m. 
8 24 30* 
8 26 p.m. 

8 27 30.. 



8 35 p.m. 

9 p.m. 

9 25 p.m. 
7 1 p.m. 
7 2 p.m. 
7 2 7' 

7 35 p.m. 
6 32 p.m. 

6 45 p.m. 



1st mag. 

3rd mag. 
6th mag. 
3rd mag. 

5th mag. 
4th mag. 
1st mag. 
4th mag. 
2nd mag. 
1st mag. 



1st mag. and as bright 
s a Lyrae. 



After it parted, that 
of the 2nd mag. -was 
that of the 4th was 



YeUow Train 



Yellow . 
Red .... 

White . 



3rd mag. 
3rd mag. 



3rd mag. 
2nd mag. 
2nd mag. 
2nd mag. 



3rd mag. 
3rd mag. 



As large as Mars, with Of the same 
a well-defined disc, colour 
Mars. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Red .... 
Yellow . 
White . 
YeUow . 
Blue.... 
Red .... 



Blue. 



Bright orange. 
Blue 



Blue 

Light blue 



Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 

Red . 
Blue. 



Train 



Train 
Train 



Train 



Red tail 



Train 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Very rapid 



Rapid . . . . 
Moderate . 
Rapid . . . . 



Moderate.., 
Moderate.., 
Moderate.. 

Rapid 

Very rapid 
Rapid 



Moderate . 



Moderate. 
Moderate . 



Moderate . 
Slow 



Rapid .... 
Moderate . 
Rapid .... 
Rapid .... 



Moderate . 
Rapid .... 



22 8 22 p.m. 3rd mag Orange Short train Rapid 

N.B. The above 89 meteors were observed within the space of three months and three days. From tl 
there have been many bright starry nights, on every one of which there has been a constant and caref 

1852 

Light yellow . 



Aug. 



15 



9 30 p.m. ,1st mag. and as bright 
as Jupiter. 



10 p.m. 2nd mag. 
10 18 p.m. '3rd mag. 

9 10 p.m. 12nd mag. 

9 15 p.m. 3rd mag. 



Reddish 
YeUow.. 
Whitish 
YeUow.. 



Train 

Train 
Train 
Train 
Train 



Rapid 



Rapid 

Very rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 



On the 10th August many meteors were seen between D"" an 



^ 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 215 



Direction or altitude. 



From /3 Bootis, went 5°, passing 
between y and J Bootis. 

From ft Herculis to /3 Bootis . . 

From /3 to S Bootis 

From y Lyrae, and went in cir. 
cular form to « Herculis. 

From « to /3 Lyrse 

From « to ? Pegasi 

From a Lyree to y Draconis ... 

From X Herculis to S Bootis . . . 

From y Pegasi to Z Cygni 

It went 5°, running parallel with 
« and /3 Draconis. 

From about 15° east of the sol- 
stitial colure and 7° above a 
Lyrae; it went 4° towards 
N.W., then parted into two 
meteors, one of the 2nd and 
the other of the 4th magni 
tude; they took a diflferent 
direction, each leaving a train 
That of the 2nd mag. went 
to I HercuUs, and that of the 
4th vanished at X Hercuhs. 

Prom about » Cygni to « Lyrse 

From 1° under Saturn, went 
about 1^° from E. to W. 

From Polaris to S Aurigse 

rhrough Lacerta from S. to N. 

From /3 Cygni to near a Aquilae 

Through * Hercuhs from east 
to west. 

from Saturn to /3 Ceti .. 

Prom a little below Polaris to ? 
Urs. Maj. 

Passed up the field of the tele 
scope, which is 1°, in a little 
less than half a second. It 
preceded u Herculis of the 
3rd mag., and its declination 
was the same as Brorsen's 
comet. Hence its R.A.= 

I ISh 55" ; its N.P.D. 43° 55'. 

l-'Vom a to /3 Cygni 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Stone 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
saw the same me- 
teor from a dif- 
ferent place, and 
the two descrip- 
tions perfectly 
agree. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid., 



It appeared low 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid.. 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Observer. 



W. Whitbread, 
Esq. 

Id 

Id 

J.W.Eccles.Esq. 
[Esq. 
W. Whitbread, 

Id 

H. Smith, Esq.... 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
Vnt. Fasel, Esq. . 
Rev. J. B. Reade 

Vnt. Fasel, Esq. 



Reference. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
J.W. Eccles,Esq. 



Id 

Vnt. Fasel, Esq. . 
J.W.Eccles.Esq 
Rev. J. B. Reade 



J.W.EcclesEsq 
Rev. J. B. Reade 



Id. 



Id. 



latter end of November 1851 up to the beginning of August 1852, vera few meteors 
look out.— Vnt. Fasel. 



E. J. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 



were seen, although 



from about 2° south of j Aquilje, 
and travelled about 10° in a 

, S.W. direction. 

I'rom i Urs. Maj, to very near 
Cor. CaroH. 

from a Cassiopeiae to half-way 
to Polaris. 

;''rom about i Delphini to « 

; Aquilse. 

Vom a- Pegasi, and travelled 

I about 13° in a southward di- 
rection. 

|0'» p.m. immediately after a thunder-storm. 



Stone 



Ibid., 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid., 



Vnt. Fasel, Esq. 



Id 

Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 







Ibid. 



216 



REPORT 1852. 

VI. Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1851-52. Com- 



Date. 



Hoiir. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1850 
Sept. 4 



1851 
May 2 

22 



23 
June 1 

24 

July 30 

Aug. 3 



h m 

From 
9 30 a.m. 

to 
3 30 p.m. 

10 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 



8 30 p.m. 



11 
11 



10 p.m. 



10 9 

11 35 
10 27 



10 28 
10 30 
10 43 



10 45 

10 46 30' 
10 48 40' 
10 48 50' 
10 52 



10 54 .... 
10 55 30' 



11 26 



9 57 p.m. 
10 16 p.m. 



9 40 p.m. 



From 

10 p.m. 
to 

11 p.m. 



A vast number of lu 
minous bodies seen 
through a telescope 



Circular illumination 
in the clouds, about 
10° in diameter. 

Large and brilliant 
meteor. 



Smaller andless bright 

Brilliant light = moon 
four days' old. 



Various mag- 
nitudes, from 
2" to 20" 
with discs 



Somewhat in- 
creased in 
size&bright- 
ness, purple 
and green. 



Various velocities,' 

but uniform. 1 



Did not change 
place, lasted about 
one minute. 



Tail or streak lasted two 
minutes. 



3rd mag. 
3rd mag. 



>-Sirius 



Became green 
just before 
disappearing 

Red 

Red 



Fell and dissipated 
at 10° alt. 



Bluish white . 



1st mag 

3rd mag 

Gradually dying away 

and suddenly = 1st 

mag. 

2nd mag 

2nd mag 

2nd mag 



4th mag. 
3rd mag. 
3rd mag. 
4th mag. 
1st mag. 

2nd mag. 
4th mag. 

4th mag. 

4th mag. 



No train 
No train 



No train 



No train 
No train 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Fine sparks 



Continuous line of light . . . 



i sec. 
^ sec. 
i sec. 

sec. 
^ sec. 
5 sec. 
^ sec. 
1 sec. 

^ sec. 
1 sec. 



2nd mag. 



White , 

Reddish, bril- 
liant. 
Blue, very 
brilUant. 



Very rapid 
Rapid 



7 meteors. 



Train of blue light, stopped 
several seconds in its 
progress, then proceeded 



Slow. 



; 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 217 
municated by various Observers. 



Direction or altitude. 



[n a continuous stream due E. 
aud W. about 18° in breadth. 



General remarks. 



:n S.E. 



Jnder a verandah, first seen at 
alt. 75°, fell perpendicular to 
horizon into the sea. 



Place. 



Entirely cloudy . . 



'rom N.W. to S.E. 
"rom zenith to S. , 



S.E. alt. 25° to 15° , 
.3.E., alt. 25° to 45°. 



1 N.N.E., alt. 40° 



hrough Ursa Major below |3. 

hrough Sagittarius 

own on right of Milky Way. 



These two meteors 
were seen through 
hazy clouds, pur- 
suing each other. 

Communicated to 
me by a friend 
staying in the 
house. 



South Mimms . . . 



Ennore, India, 11 
miles N. of 
Madras. 

Ibid 



Observer. 



Rev. W. Read, 
M.A. 



Reference. 



MS. See Appendix 
No. 13. 



Ibid 

Calcutta 



Rose Hill, near 
Oxford. 



Ibid.. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



E. of Z, Aquarius 

hrough Bootes 

elow Delphin. through Anti- 
nous. 

hrough Sagittarius 

3 a Capric 

bove Cassiopeia , 

' E. of Polaris 

om centre of Pegasus -•- to 

the rest, 
elow Cassiopeia, || to rest 

om E Pegasi, -Lto rest with 

great force. 
lom /3 Aquar. to between 

and jS Capric. 

om Ursa Major 

3low Ursa Major 



jar Polaris 



ftrious directions, 5 generally 
towards S,, 2 towards N. 



Passed downwards. 
From N. to S 



Ibid.. 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 

Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid.. 



St. Ives, Hunts. 
Ibid 



Passed to N Ibid 



Moon full; atmo- 
sphere hazy. 



Haverhill. 



Correspondent to 
Dr. Buist. 



Id. 



See Appendix, No. 
3. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

See Appendix, No. 
5. 



Rev. J. Slatter... MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell. 



Id. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



J. King Watts.. 
Id 



Id. 



Mr. and Mrs. W, 
Boreham. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



MS. communicated. 
See diagram, App. 

No. 7. 



218 



BEPOET— 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1851. 
Aug. 13 

14 



*19 



22 



h m 
8 45 



9 40 .... 

9 38 .... 

9 38 30' 

9 43 .... 

10 2 .... 

10 13 .... 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



3rd mag. 



3rd mag. . . 
4th mag. .. 
5th mag. .. 
2nd mag... 
Jupiter 
1st mag. ., 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Sept. 2 



9 52 p.m. 
9 8 p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 
9 23 p.m. 
9 27 p.m. 
9 35 p.m. 



10 35 p.m. 
9 50 p.m. 
7 30 p.m. 



Red ,., . 
Orange. 



Small 
Large 



Large and brilliant . . 

3rd mag 

Large and bright — 
Large and beautiful 



White 
Bluish 

White 
White 
Bluish 
Very 
and 



Train or sparks. 



Coarse sparks 
Train 



Beautiful sparks and bright 



A few sees, 
later. 



19 



= 4th mag. 



Large 

An ill-defined lumi- 
nous patch or band, 
longer diameter 
slightly inclined. 



bright 
white, 
increased un- 
til it disap- 
peared in 
sparks. 



Train 

Train continuous. 



7 30 



A small shooting star 
nearly in the same 
place. 

Two-thirds of moon . 



White and 
brilliant. 

Bright white, 
gradually in- 
creased ir 
brightness, 
then decrea 
sed and dis 
appeared. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1 sec. 

1 sec. 
1 sec. 
1 sec. 
1 sec. 
1^ sec. 



Very rapid 
Slow 



Slow... 
Rapid 
Slow.. 
Slow.. 



Slow. 



Stationary,duratio! 
about 1 minute. 



7 45 

10 

1 a.m. 

11 p.m. 



Sheet form 

Star of 1st mag 

Larger than any star 



20 



25 



9 45 p.m. 
9 50 p.m. 



Between 
lO&ll p.m 



Bright meteor, one- 
fifth full moon,star 
shaped. 



Disc. 



Dark red , 



Lighter red . 



Yellow and 
violet. 

Illumination 
more than 
half moon, 
tinged with 
blue. 

Bright blue ... 



Longtrain,which exploded About 2 sees. 

No explosion, disappeared About 5 sees 
suddenly, leaving no 
track, except a whitish 
trace at the upper part 
of its course. 



Very large 



Oct. 



7 52 



A large ball of fire 



Iridescent sparks 



Rather slow, disa 
peared witho 
explosion. 



Rapid 



* This day an immense meteor was 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 219 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Obser^'cr. 



Reference. 



3eneatli Polaris 



Phrougli Perseus downward 
rhrough Ophiuchus above » 
[■hrough Aquila above y .. 
rhrough Capric, slanting down 
Same as last, slightly curved .. 
fhrougb y Cor. Bor. from un 
der Polaris. 

JVom Virgo 

i'rom Leo 



Jelow Virgo to west 

Jelow Ursa Major to west.. 

i^om Ursa Major to west .. 

'assed the whole length of Ursa 
Major from sovith to north, 
and in its progress rendered 
some of his stars invisible, 



° below Cor. Bor. from near 
Polaris, 
"rom Lyra down to the west 



Passed S 

Exploded with 
brilliant light. 



n S.W., alt, 60° ? 



fpwards ... 
[orizontal 



Phosphoric meteor. 



urved towards the earth 



rom a little north of zenith 
down about 45° to S.W. 



rom near Polaris, passed Ursa 
Major (see sketch in Appen 
dix). 

•om N.N.W. to N.N.E., from 
alt. 25° to alt. 20°. 



ill perpendicularly down, ap- 
parently into the sea. 



ineath the moon in S.W. 



To the W. of Ursa 
Major. 



Altitudestakenfrom 
windows, also re- 
ported by Mr, 
Lowe. 

In a storm, accom- 
panied by a rush- 
ing sound and a 
noise as if of a 
falling mass. 



Rose HUl, near 
Oxford. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

St. Ives, Hunts, 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



RoseHilljOxford. 

St. Ives, Hunts. . 

Garsington, near 
Oxford. 



Ibid 

Huggate 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Calcutta 



Near Farnham, 
Surrey. 

RoseHill,Oxford, 



Several places 
near Bombay, 



Rev. J. Slatter.., 



J. King Watts... 
Id 



Rev. J. Blatter.., 

J. King Watts.., 

Rev. T. Master- 
man. 



Id 

Rev. T. Rankin . 

Id 

Gamekeeper 
Id 

Correspondent to 
Dr. Buist. 



Mr. G.W.Hewitt 



Seen by some of 
Mr. Slatter's 
family. 

Several commu- 
nicated to Dr. 
Buist. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. PoweU. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Verbal communica- 
tion to Prof. 
Powell. 



Ibid. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 

Bombay Times, 
App. No. 4. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. PoweU 
see App. No. 8. 

MS. communicated 
to Prof, Powell 
from Rev. J, 
Slatter. 

Bombay Times. 
See App. No. 6, 



Rose Hill near Brother of Rev. MS. communicated 
Oxford. J. Slatter. to Prof. Powell 



seen at Naples from W. to E. — Papers, 



220 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 



1851. 
Nov. 4 



24 

25 
1852 
Mar. 12 

April 20 



Hour. 



p.m. 



10 2 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 

7 6 a.m. 



9 28 
10 5 



11 25 
11 35 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Brilliant 



Large 
Large 



2nd mag. 



Small 
Large 



1st mag. 
4th mag. 



Fell slowly towards the W. 
in a curve concave to 
horizon. 



White 

Purplish, bril- 
liant. 
Pale vellow . . 



White . 
White, 
liant. 



bril 



Train or sparks. 



Sparkling. 



Sparkling, and stopped 
twice in its progress. 



t 




May 14 



July 12 



■¥: Capella. 
B 



• . ' ' ; i 



iHf. Capella 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



-' 



Rapid 

Slow.. 



About 1 sec. 



Slow. 
Slow. 



i ' ' ; 



A 



A Auroral beam. 

B C Course of meteor. 



J t ^ 



11 35 5'... 

12 25 

10 33 30' 



About 
9 59 p.m. 

G.T. 



4th mag. . 

= Jupiter. 

Vega . 



Apparent diameter 
little inferior to full 



13 10 p.m. 
(London 
time.) 



29 



Aug. 3 



9 45 p.m. 



9 15 p.m. 

(g.m.t.) 



White 

White 



Larger than %. As it 
fell biilUancy in 
creased; then seem 
ed to decrease and 
again to increase till 
disappearance. 

= 2nd mag., but gra- 
dually decreased till 
=5th. 



At first like a small 
star, intensely bright 



Fine sparks 
Fine sparks 



Very bright, 
ruddy co- 
lour. 

Bright orange, 
red, chan- 
gingto near 
ly white, and 
then red 
again. 

Bluish white 



Noted shape 

tail pointing to south. 

Disappeared without sepa- 
ration ; no explosion. 



Moved towards the 
N. very rapidly, 
Duration of visi- 
bility about 2 sees 

About 2 sees 



For about 15° gradually Train 
increased in magnitude 
became brilliant, though 
white (as if inflamed), 
= 2 diam. of ? when 
brightest, and continued 
through about 30^, when 
it suddenly resumed its 
first appearance (as if 
burnt out) and continued 
onward some distance 
further. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSEUVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 221 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Appeared first below and a little 
to the right of the moon, in 
S.E.alt. Estimated about 35°. 

From Polaris running northward 
Left of Ursa Major tc north 

Perpendicular down 



From the Pleiades to the north 
From Polaris to the N.W. .. 



From Ursa Major to 2° N. of 

Mars. 
From Capella 



From Capella 

From 1° W. of Spica to Crater . 
From Spica to Crater, curve 

curving upwards, intensely 

incandescent at the endof the 

curve. 
Altitude about 30° above west 

point of horizon. 



Appeared in N.N.W. at alt. 20°, 
fell nearly vertically or a little 
toE. 



Path perpendicular to a line, 
joining Polaris and the Upper 
Pointer ; greater part of course 
above that Une, and thence 
down to horizon. 

From a Lyr£e to past fi Scor 
pionis. 



Perhaps the same 
as one seen 
Nottingham; vide 
Mr.Lowe's Catal 



St. John's Lodge, 
Stone, near 
Aylesbury, 

St. Ives, Hunts... 
Ibid 



Miss G. R. Smyth 



J. King Watts. 
Id 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Below Leo Minor 



Huggate 



St. Ives, Hunts. 
Ibid 



Rev. T. Rankin 

J. King Watts.. 
Id 



During Aurora 



Rose Hill, near Rev. J. Slatter. 
Oxford. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



[The meteor f fell downwards till apparently near 
the auroral haze, and then started aside into a wavy 
course, as if repulsed. J followed downwards unin- 
terruptedly. It was as if J had been repulsed by a 
similar electric force and exhausted it. See figure 
above.] 



[bid., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid- 



Seen at Glasgow, 
Helensburgh, 
Perth, &c. 



i\bout 2 sees., velo- 
city uniform. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid., 



Dunse, 

Lat. 55°47'N 
Long. 2°23'W. 

Carlisle. Seen 
also 90 miles 
W. of Carlisle, 



Victoria Park, 
London. 



Oxford. 



Wm. Stevenson 



John Carrick 
Moore, Esq. 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Mr. G. A. Row 

eU. 



Communicated to 
Prof. Powell, 
through Mr. Fa- 
raday. See App, 
No. 9. 

MS. commimicated 
to Prof. Powell 



Ibid. 



222 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 



1852 
Aug. 5 



10 



Hour. 



h m 
9 40 



9 40 p.m. 

9 42 p.m. 
From 

10 25 to 

11 30 

10 58 



= lst mag. 
Small 



Small 

80 shooting stars 



10 21 p.m. 

10 30 p.m. 

to 

10 40 p.m. 

10 50 p.m. 

to 

11 5 p.m. 
11 12 p.m. 

to 
11 27 p.m. 
11 30 p.m. 

to 
11 45 p.m. 
11 50 p.m. 

to 
5 a.m. 
20 a.m. 

to 
35 a.m.* 
9 20 p.m. 



9 22 p.m. 
9 47 p.m. 



9 53 p.m. 
9 59 p.m. 



Large 

(Magnitudes full 1st 
down to 5th or 6th 
No. counted in 
northern sky. . S 

I No. counted in 
I southern sky. 



1 p.m. 
1 p.m.' 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



White 
White 



1 brilliant 



13 



No. counted in 
northern sky. . 

No. counted in 
southern sky. . 14 

No. counted in 
northern sky. . 12 

No. counted in 
southern sky.. 18 

Large 



Small 
Large 



Small 
Small 

Large 
Large 



* On this evening, 
sides the above, chief! 
six being visible at th 



Many the whole even 
ing, 17 in 20 mins. 
.(from 10'' 45'"', to 
11" b"'.) 



Brightness 
and colour. 



White 



Mostly stellar 



* Night 
cloudy. 

—78 

Whitish red.. 



White .. 
Reddish 



White 
White 



Train or sparks. 



Path illuminated for 30 or 
40 sees. 



Almost all left a luminous 
train. 



Brilliant 



Many brilliant sparks, and 
a train similar to a rocket, 
thus : 



■ -v . ..^ ., * -,^— ■ 



Wliite Brilliant 

White Brilliant 



which was ver y clear, many other meteo 
y in the field bjetween Polaris, Ursa Majo 
e same time, going in various directions. 



None particu- 
larly bril- 
liant. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Slow... 
Rapid 



Rapid 



Velocity as usually 
noticed. Duration 
1' to 5" or 6". 



Slow. 
Slow. 



Slow.., 
Rapid 



Slow. 
Slow. 



rs were visible be 
r and Lyra, five oj 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 223 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



From near Cassiopeia towards 

N.N.E. Through 14°. 
N.W. 



Velocity moderate, 

2 sees. 
From Ursa Minor , 



W. 



Oxford 

St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdonshire. 

Ibid 

HaverhUl 



N.W. 



Nearly all moved to S. 
S.S.W. In northern sky a 
few moved to N.W. and E 



The meteors were 
distributed over 
all parts of the 
sky ; the place 
from which they 
proceeded ap 
peared to be in 
the northern sky, 
somewhere be- 
tween Perseus 
and the Pole, but 
this is uncertain 



From a Cephei to 
the S., then be 
came stationary 
several seconds 
and threw oflf 
some large sparks 
before it expired. 
From Ursa Major, 
From a Lyrae 
through Cygnus 
to zenith. 



St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdonshire. 
Dunse 



Mr. G. A. Rowell 

J. King Watts, 
Esq. 

Id 

W. W. Boreham, 
Esq., and Mrs 
W. W. Bore- 
ham. 

J. King Watts, 

Esq. 
Wm. Stevenson 



MS. commimicated 
to Prof. Powell. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. See App. No, 
11. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powelf. 
Ibid. 



St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdonshire. 



[Esq 
J. King Watts, 



Ibid. 
Ibid., 



)J., 



,W. 
|K.E.. 



Ul from E. to W. 
at each 45°. 



From zenith to W. 
From Ursa Major 

dovrawards. 
To Ursa Major 
From Cygnus*. 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 



Downwards 



* These two meteors 
crossed each other's path, 
and both shining at the 
same time, thus : 



From a window Oxford 
facing S.E, 




Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Mr. G. A. Rowell 



Communicated 
Prof. PoweU. 



224 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Appearance and 
magnitude. 


Brightness 
and colour. 


Train or sparks. 


"Velocity or i 
Duration. 


1852. 


h m 










Aug. 10 


From 


23 shooting stars ... 








9 57 to 












10 57 












From 
10 to 


Numerous ; one large 
star. 




With long horizontal train 










11 












9 2 p.m. 


2nd mag 


White, increa- 




Obliquely across 
Cassiopeia, about 






sed rapidly in 










brilliancy un- 




half a degree N. 








til its extinc- 




ofy. 








tion. 








9 8 p.m. 


Between 2nd and 3rd 

mag. 






Obliquely towards, 
the horizon, a lit- 
















tle to E of y Pe- 




9 18 p.m. 


2nd mag 


Bluish-white 


Slight scintillations as it 
passed along. 


gasi; 
Shot from midway 
between Cassio- 


















peia and Ursa 












Major, towards 












a Ursae Majoris, 












where it became 








1 


extinguished. 




9 27 p.m. 


Small ; 3rd mag 


I 


From Cassiopeia td 
/3 Pegasi. 






t 

1 . 




9 27 30' 


Between 2nd and 3rd 


SliorTit frnin isjliipVi mii^Vlv 


From Cassiopeia to- 
wards « Ursse 




mag. 




vanished. 












Majoris, nearly 












parallel to tht 












course of the stai 












seenbyMr.Hard. 




9 28 p.m. 


Nearly as large as 1st 


Commenced 




ing. 
From Cassiopeia tO' 






mag. star. 


with consi- 
derable bril- 
liancy,which 
graduallydi- 
minished as 
it proceed- 
ed, as if it 
were a long 
narrow cone 
of hght, the 
base being 
first illumi- 
nated with 
great bril- 
liancy, and 
the apex ve- 
ry dim, as 
under. 




wards Ursa Ma- 
jor across f Cas 
siopeiJE. 






* 






Colour bril- 










liant white, 












with silver 












greyish tinge. 







i 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 225 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Globular Ibid, 



Place. 



Haverhill 



Observer. 



Derby and neigh- 
bourhood. 



Victoria Park 
London. 



Extinguished when 
nearly under Po^ 
laris. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid. 



W. W. Boreham, 
Esq. 

Correspondent to 
Derby Mercury 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 



Id. 



Reference. 



MS. See Appendix 
No. 11. 

Ibid. 



See App., No. 10. 



J. Harding, Esq. 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 

W. R. Birt, Esq., 
and J. Hard 
ing. 



J. Harding, Esq, 



1852. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



226 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



1852 
Aug 10 



15 



Hour. 



h m 

9 34 p.m. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Small 



9 37 p.i 



22 



9 5 p.m. 
9 8 



Immediate 
ly after 
last. 
9 14 .. 



Small, brilliant 
Small, globular 
Very similar . . 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Bright 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



7 44 p.m. 



Light, =2nd mag.... 
Nearly = half moon . . 



Bright bluish- 
white. 



Brilliant clear 
white light. 



From below /3 & 
Ursse Minoris 
? Ursse Majoris. 

From Algae obliqur 
ly towMd the h( 
rizon. 



Left a train in its path ., 



Slow ; several se- 
conds. 



APPENDIX, 

Containing original details of various observations of Meteors communicated 
by the respective observers to Prof. Poivell. 

No. 1. — It may be important for comparison to mention that in the Phil. 
Mag,, Jan. 1839, will be found observations of 54 shooting stars, seen in the 
night of Nov. 12-13, 1838, at 109 York Street, Whitechapel, by W. R. Birt, 
Esq. 

Ko. 2. — Further particulars of the Meteor shower, April 19-20, 1851. 
(See last Report, App., Nos. 23, 24, 25, 29.) 

" Meteors. — We have been favoured with the following from Madras on the 
subject of the shower of meteors visible all over India on the 1 9th or 20th 
of April. By a blunder of our own we mistook the Bombay date, and made 
it Saturday the 19th, when it ought to been Sunday the 20th; and on this 
night accordingly the shower was seen here, at Poona, and at Cawnpore. 
With all these coincidences we came to the conclusion that our Kolapore 
correspondent, who gave an account of them, had also mistaken the date, and 
that there had been one shower only. As he makes no sign of recantation, 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 227 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Above /3 Cassiopeiae to S.E. for 

above ^°. 
Through Pegasus' square .. 



Parallel, but to E. 



° N. of /3 Cassiopeiae towards 
Pole. 

['rom W. to E. with a slight 
i curve, from near a Lyrae to 
I beyond a Persei. 



Perteug 



Victoria Park, 
London. 



Ibid. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid., 



St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 

Id. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

J. King Watts, 
Esq. 



See Appendix, No. 
10. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. No. 12. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. Letter. 



m^ 



^ 



Tfyal^yz 



^aCxjgni 



we now come to the conclusion that there were two showers on two suc- 
cessive nights, bearing a very close resemblance to each other. The following 
description is one of the most copious and clear that we have met with ; it is 
from the pen of one of the oldest and ablest of our observers in India : — 

" ' On the evening of Saturday the 19th of April, I was sitting in a 
verandah of the Government House at Madras, facing to the eastward, from 
about \ past 8 to i past 10. From the height of the verandah 1 could see 
the sky to about an altitude of 60° or 6,5°, and about one-fourth of the horizon 
between north-east and south-east. During the period above stated I counted 
not less than forty meteors, of diiferent magnitudes and brightness. The flight 
of the whole was from north and north-east to south and south-west. Some 
of them commenced their flight at a point of the heavens invisible to my eye, 
whilst others came into sight whilst on their career, from my left-hand. Some 
burned out (if I may use the expression) whilst visible, and others disap- 
peared whilst yet burning to my right-hand. I heard no explosions, though 
some of the largest left a bright streak or tail, the trace of which remained 
for several minutes. The greater part of the time it was brilliant moonlight, 
which detracted greatly from the effect of the meteors. 

No. 3. (Continued from the same). — " ' During the period between the 

Q 2 



228 REPORT— 1852. 

29th of April, 1851, and the 6th of May the atmosphere at Madras was com- 
pletely overcast with dense clouds. On the night of the 2nd of May (Friday), 
at 10 o'clock, there was every symptom of the subsequent gale. At the 
hour I state, I observed in the south-east quarter a very extensive circular 
illumination of the clouds^ which continued for above a minute. The space 
in the clouds so lighted up might, I estimated, be about 10° in diameter, 
but owing to the dense state of the atmosphere and the lowness of the 
clouds, I saw nothing of the meteor, which doubtless covered the circular 
illumination. I infer that the meteor was flying towards me, that is, from 
south-east to north-west, because the shape of the illumination in the clouds 
did not vary. 

" ' On the night of the 22nd of this month, I was sitting, as is my wont, 
under an awning on the terrace of my bungalow at Ennore (11 miles north 
of Madras) : I could see in altitude about 75°. About ^ past 10 o'clock, a 
very brilliant and large meteor came within the range of my sight, and fell 
apparently perpendicularly in the sea (Bay of Bengal). From the moment 
it became visible to me it rather increased into size and brilliancy than other- 
wise, and was in full blaze when it disappeared behind the sand-hills in front 
of my bungalow, which is not above a quarter of a mile from the sea-shore. 
The colour of this meteor, which seemed to be as large as an 811b. shot (qu.), 
was bright purple and green mingled, and it left a luminous tail or streak, 
which did not wholly disappear for about two minutes. 

" 'Last night (the 23rd) I saw another meteor in the same quarter, but 
neither of the dimensions nor brilliancy of that of the preceding night. The 
flight was from north-west to south-east, and it burned out before it had got 
within 10° of the horizon. — Ennore, 24th of May, 1851.' 

" Our correspondent mentions a very brilliant meteor seen from Madras 
some months since before sunset ; it swept clean across the sky, and was so 
light and of such magnitude that it caused a glare over the landscape even at 
this early hour. This is the third meteor within the year that has been visible 
in daylight in India ; that seen to explode on the 30th of November, 1850, 
near Bissunpore at 3 p.m., — the stone was afterwards picked up ; — and that 
seen near Beerbhoom at 9 p.m. on the 8th of January, 1851." [See last Re- 
port.] — Bombay Times, June 4, 1851. 

No. 4. — " A correspondent of the Bengal Hurkaru, subscribing himself 
' W. M.,' gives the following interesting account of a meteor which he had ob- 
served on the night of the 19th of September : — 

'"A splendid meteor burst over Calcutta last night about 11 p.m., and I 
send this notice to you that it may serve as a record of the event. On the 
13th, 14th, and 15th, theatmosphere was dry and its general movement from 
south-west, the lower clouds also moved from south to west, little wind and 
occasionally sultry and oppressive. On the 16th and 17th a storm or squall 
brewed in the south-east during the afternoon, but did not visit us. On the 
18th of September the clouds and atmosphere during the forenoon moved from 
south-west ; the weather dry and close. Between 3 and 5 p.m. nimbus clouds 
passed over quietly from north-west to east, with scarcely a breath of air. After 
5 p.m. the aspect of the sky was again dry. The chirping of the crickets was 
unusually loud, and the weather close and sultry. About 11 p.m. the sky was 
clear, but the stars were not brilliant, and there was no wind, when a most 
splendid meteor lighted up in zenith or a little north of it, and shot down 
half-way to south a little west, illuminating the landscape as if the full or 
half-moon had suddenly appeared on high. The meteor was a bright ball of 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 229 

light appearing to be of a size equal to one-fiftli the area of the full moon : it 
was star-shaped, its light brilliant with a faint tinge of blue, but its light re- 
flected from surrounding objects had a green tinge even in the sky ; and in 
its progress there was a curdling appearance in the sky, about ten or fifteen 
degrees in advance of it, as if cirrus or fleecy clouds, very gauzy and thin, were 
retreating from it and crowding on each other, or more like a very thin and 
watery solution of white paint brushed over a smooth and polished surface 
and then invaded by the finger. The white particles fly from the finger with 
the repelled liquid, and form a white fleecy circle at a little distance all round 
it. The meteor endured as long as a person would require to take five or 
six steps at a quick march and disappeared at once, from perfect brightness 
to nothing, leaving no apparent tracic where it was extinguished : but in the 
upper part of its course, a little south of zenith, there was a milky or phos- 
phorescent line, its thickness that of the little finger, and tapering towards the 
south ; and between its southern point and the spot where the meteor vanished, 
a clear space of some degrees without any evidence of a track. There was 
no appearance of an explosion, nor did I hear any sound. I am not quite 
certain of the hour, but I think the church clocks were chiming eleven a few 
minutes after the meteor disappeared. Shortly after a light southerly air 
sprung up, and during the night the temperature was low, approaching to 
cold.'" — Bombay Timesy Oct. 3, 1851. 

No. 5. — " On the 1st of June last, about 8| p.m., while there were clouds 
around, cirrostratus overhead, and moderate south-east wind blowing, a splendid 
meteor shot from zenith towards south : it gave a light like that of the moon 
when it is four days old, and turned to a green star just before it disappeared. 
This meteor was preceded by four days of dry and sultry weather." — Ihid. 

No. 6. — " Some singular phsenomena occurred during the thunder-storm 
of Thursday evening, Sept. 25, 1851, which seem well-worthy of record. 
Exactly at a quarter past ten, when the thunder was at its loudest, the inha- 
bitants of the northern end of the Fort were alarmed with the sound as if of 
a large mass of something rushing violently through the air, the noise 
resembling that of a huge cannon-shot passing close by ; and immediately 
afterwards a tremendous crash was heard, as if the mass had impinged on the 
ground or penetrated some of the buildings ; nothing however could yester- 
day morning be discovered in the neighbourhood. The whole closely re- 
sembled what is mentioned as having occurred in Ross-shire in August 1849, 
when a huge mass of ice was found to have fallen. The rain was at this time 
falling so furiously, the night was so dark in the intervals between the 
flashes of lightning, and these last so bright and frequent, that a meteor of 
any size might have " swept unheeded by;" yet appearances look very much 
as if something of this sort had fallen, and we should recommend observers 
to be on the outlook for the corpus delicti — more than likely at the same 
time to have dropped into the sea. A tumbler half full of water, on the side- 
board of a house near the Mint, fell in two about seven in the evening, im- 
mediately after a vivi(f flash of lightning ! We have it now before us; it is 
cut almost as clean asunder as if cloven with a knife. The storm abated 
somewhat after eleven, having apparently gone round to the west and south- 
west : half an hour after midnight it again got round to east, and several loud 
peals of thunder were heard; the lightning throughout was almost continued. 
Shortly after one all was tranquil again." — Bombay Times, Sept. 27. 

" The Meteor — The writer of the following most interesting notice has our 
grateful thanks ; we trust to hear further of the matter from the lighthouse. 



230 REPORT — 1852. 

or those on board the outer light- vessel. We have no doubt whatever that this 
was a meteor or fire-ball of large dimensions which has fallen into the sea : — 
' It may be of interest to you, with reference to the notice in to-day's paper 
of the storm on the night betwixt Thursday and Friday, to know that I was 
last evening informed by a seafaring friend of mine, who was, at the time the 
Times describes the rushing sound to have been heard, sitting on the deck of 
a vessel in harbour watching the storm, that he saw what appeared to be an 
immense mass or ball of electric fluid fall perpendicularly (as it were) into 
the sea, apparently near the outer light- vessel : the persons in charge of this 
craft may probably be able to afford further information.' " — Ibid. Sept. 29. 

" Some further particulars of the fall of the meteor which occurred during 
the thunder-storm of Thursday evening noticed in our two last issues, have 
since then been received. The mighty rushing sound and violent concussion 
perceived by hundreds of persons in the Fort, was so in exactly the same 
manner in Colaba, a mile to the southward, — at Ambrolie, two and a half miles 
to the north-west, — as it was in the Roadstead, a mile to the eastward. All the 
parties between these two extremes of nearly four miles give exactly the same 
account of the matter. The sound was said to proceed from the northward as 
of that of a body passing right over head towards the south, and striking the 
ground at no great distance. As these phaenomena are spoken of by all parties 
as nearly identical, the meteor must have passed when at its nearest at a di- 
stance of ten or twelve miles at least. We want more information on the sub- 
ject; the smallest contributions will be acceptable: only one party who has 
communicated with us actually saw it rush through the air, and observed it 
fall near the outer light-ship." — Ibid. Sept. 30. 

" The 3Ieteor of last Thursday. — The following notice of the meteor of 
Thursday last, Sept. 25, closely corresponds with what has already reached us : 
had our correspondent been able to give us anything like an exact idea of 
the interval which elapsed betwixt the fire-ball being seen and the sound being 
heard, we might have formed an estimate of the distance of the falling body, 
if the hissing spoken of was in reality the same as the rushing through the 
air described by other observers. We shall be happy to receive the further 
communication our correspondent promises us. ' My wife and I had been 
watching the lightning for some time at the door of our bungalow, but feel- 
ing very much fatigued, being an invalid, I retired to the sofa, and had scarcely 
done so when my wife called out that she saw a ball of fire fall into the sea 
in the vicinity of the outer light-ship. The heavens appeared to open at one 
spot, from which it descended. This took place between the hours of ten 
and eleven p.m. Neither of us noticed at that time any peculiar noise, but 
at a later hour I said. Listen to the conflict going on amongst the elements : 
they seemed hissing one another for some moments. I recollect many 
years since, when residing at Sidmouth, on the coast of Devon, during a 
violent storm, a large ball of fire fell into the sea, illuminating the whole re- 
gion ; but in those years little or no notice was taken of these things.' " — 
Ibid. Oct. 2. 

No. 7 Meteors seen by Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Boreham, Aug. 11, 1851, 

from 10 to 11 o'clock. Right ascension of zenith 19*^ 20'" to 20'' 20°\ 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 231 

North. 



West. 




South. 

No. 8 — Diagram of Mr. Hewitt's meteor, Sept. 20, 1851. 

^ Polaris. 



S»N. 






'^ 



S \ 



^J 



East. 



232 REPORT — 1852. 

No. 9 — Extract of a note from John Carrick Moore, Esq., Corswall, 
Stranraer, N.B. Addressed to Mr. Faraday. 

" On the evening of Tuesday, the 13th of July, 1852, 1 happened to observe 
a very brilliant meteor. I was walking on the bridge of Carlisle when it oc- 
curred. It resembled a large star, but certainly bigger than Jupiter, which 
was shining bright at the time. It was about N.W. or perhaps N.N.W., and 
seemed to fall vertically, or with a very slight inclination to the E. I guess 
the altitude when it -first appeared to have been about 20° above the horizon. 
[I am aware that persons not in the habit of using instruments generally ex- 
aggerate altitudes ; but still I do not think it could have been less.] The co- 
lour was a bright orange-red ; as it fell, the brilliancy increased ; it became 
nearly white, and then again a very bright red, and disappeared without di- 
viding. The night was still, there were no clouds, and not the slightest sound 
was perceptible. I do not think it could have been two seconds visible. It 
had scarcely disappeared, when the clock of Carlisle, set to railway, that is 
London time, struck 10. 

" I would mention a circumstance, which I thought I noticed, but in which, 
as the time was so short, I may be deceived. The meteor appeared after the 
brilliancy increased, suddenly to become dim, and then again to shine out in 
its greatest brightness, which was at the moment of its disappearance. It 
seemed so near, that I tried to mark the spot where it fell. Mr. Hyslop, the 
clergyman of Kirkcolm, tells me he also saw it on the shore of Loch Ryan, 
about 90 miles as the crow flies to the west ; he expected it also to fall near 
him. Mr. H. tells me it seemed to him to fall with a considerable slope to the 
east. He did not observe the dimness after the first increase of brilliancy, 
which I have mentioned, and of which I feel rather confident ; the more so, 
that I did not expect it, and never heard of such being observed before." 

No. 10.— Extract of a letter to Prof. Powell from W. R. Birt, Esq. 

" 11a Wellington Street, Victoria Park, London, Aug. 11, 1852. 

" My dear Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you the enclosed obser- 
vations of luminous meteors witnessed by myself and a friend, Mr. J. Hard- 
ing, last evening in the Victoria Park. The two classes of shooting stUrs are 
very apparent, viz. those stars that increase in brilliancy during their progress, 
and those that decrease as they proceed. The first star seen by myself, at 
gh gm p.m., is an instance of the first class, and that seen by Mr. Harding, at 
gh 28" P.M., is a fine instance of the second. The description by Mr. Harding 
appears to be very accurate : I regret I did not catch it, but the figure given 
■well describes the appearance presented by the meteor seen on the evening 
of July 29th, an account of which I forwarded you. The paths of the whole 
of the stars now sent, if prolonged, meet in the constellation Camelopardalis, 
and may be regarded as confirmatory of the point of divergence being in this 

constellation at this period of the year The same feature which I noticed 

three years since was well brought out last evening, viz. the retrograde move- 
ment of the meteors towards the southern and eastern part of the heavens, 
and the direct movement of those in the northern and western, — confirmatory 
of the idea that the real movements of the meteors are of a planetary nature 
and opposed to the motion of the earth in its orbit, unless they should be com- 
paratively at rest as the earth passes through the group. 

" I have the honour to be, my dear Sir, 

" Yours very respectfully, 
" Rev. Professor Powell." " W. R. Birt." 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 233 

No. 11 — Letter from Mr. W. W.Boreham to Prof. Powell, with diagrams 
of meteors. 

" Haverhill, Aug. 13, 1852. 

" Dear Sir, — I enclose three diagrams of the approximate paths of 80 on 
Aug. 9, and 23 on Aug. 10. 

" On the former evening I was assisted by Mrs. Boreham ; on the 10th I 
observed alone, looking westward. 

" There was one very remarkably brilliant meteor at lO"" 58" on the 9th, 
the path of which was illuminated for 30 or ■iO seconds (marked *). 

" Trees interfered with my seeing it perfectly. 



« Rev. Prof. Powell." 



" I am, dear Sir, yours most truly, 

" Wm. W. Boreham." 



West. 




East. 



South. 



Aug. 9, 1852, from lO*" 25"" to 10'' 55" mean time. Right ascension of zenith IQ^ 40" to 
20"' IC". 



234 



REPORT — 1852. 



Fig. 2. 
North. 



West. 




East. 



South. 



Right ascension of zenith 20'' 10" to 



Aug. 9, 1852, from 10'' 55" to ll*- 30" mean time. 
20i> 45". 

No. 12.— Note from W. R. Birt, Esq., to Prof Powell. 

" Observations of Luminous Meteors seen at 11a Wellington Street, Vic- 
toria Park, London, by W. R. Birt. 

" 1852, Aug. 15, 9*" 5"" p.m. — A very small luminous meteor passed just 
above /3 Cassiopeise towards the south-east, its visible part less than half a de- 
gree ; it was very brilliant for its size, which was less than a star of the third 
magnitude. 

" 1852, Aug. 15, 9'' 8" P.M. — A small globular meteor, between second and 
third magnitude, passed about midway between a Andromedae and /3 Pegasi; 
it appeared to describe a somewhat curved path, but very slightly so, within 
and nearly parallel to the sides of the square formed by a, /3 and y Pegasi and 
a Andromedae ; its motion was from the line joining a Andromedae and /3 Pe- 
gasi to that joining a and y Pegasi. 

" Immediately afterwards another very similar meteor described a very 
similar and nearly parallel path about the same distance, east of a Andromedae 
and a Pegasi, as the former star was west of them : both these meteors very 
closely resembled the falling stars designated b, No. 4 and 5, observed on the 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 235 



Fig. 3 
North. 



% 



West. 




East. 



South. 
Aug. 10, 1852, from Q*" 57" to lO"" 57" mean time. Right ascension of zenith 19'' 15"" to 
20'' 15". 

10th of August, 1849 (see Report, 1849, pp. 51, 52). The approximation 
of the parallelism of their paths clearly indicates them to have been two 
distinct bodies ; colour a bright bluish white. 

" Aug. 15, 9*^ 10™ P.M. — A bright meteor fully of the second magnitude 
shot across the Milky Way about half a degree north of /3 Cassiopeise towards 
Polaris. 

" Upon comparing the path of this star with that observed on August 10, 
9*" 2"" P.M. (1 852), it will be found that their paths cross at rather a consider- 
able angle, the star of August 10 moving from Capella towards Cygnus, 
which would be slightly erratic from the general direction of movement wit- 
nessed on that evening. The direction of the star seen this evening at 9'' 14™, 
is considerably at variance with the motion of the other three, indicating that 
the body was certainly moving (i. e. with its true motion) in a different di- 
rection." 

No. 13. — Communication from the Rev. W. Read, M.A., to Professor 
Powell. 

" Croydon, Suney, Aug. 12, 1852. 
" I have the honour to transmit an account of a singular phaenomenon wit- 



236 UEPORT— 1852. 

nessed by myself and my family on the morning of the 4th of September, 
1850. 

" I was then residing at the Vicarage, South Mimms, Middlesex, in a 
situation peculiarly favourable for astronomical observation. 

" I had been engaged for several consecutive days in observing the planet 
Mercury during his approach to the sun ; partly to test the accuracy of my 
power of observation by the calculations of the Nautical Almanack, but 
chiefly to remark how nearly I could trace the planet in his course to the sun, 
before he should be wholly lost in his rays. 

" For this purpose I used the most careful adjustments my instrument was 
capable of, and continued my observations without noticing anything peculiar. 

" When, however, on the morning of the 4th of September I was preparing 
my equatoreal before it was fixed on the planet, I observed, passing through 
the field of view, in a continuous stream, a great number of luminous bodies ; 
and I cannot more correctly describe the whole appearance, than by employ- 
ing the same language which I used when I communicated the circumstance 
to the Royal Astronomical Society, in the Monthly Notices of Dec. 13, 1850, 
and Dec. I'ith, 1851. 

" When I first saw them I was filled with surprise, and endeavoured to ac- 
count for the strange appearance by supposing that they were bodies floating 
in the atmosphere, such as the seeds of plants, as we are accustomed to wit- 
ness them in the open country about this season ; but nothing was visible to 
the naked eye. 

" The sky was perfectly cloudless ; and so serene was the atmosphere, that 
there was not a breath of wind through the day, even so much as to cause 
any perceptible tremor of the instrument ; and 1 subjected the luminous 
bodies to examination by all the eye-pieces and coloured glasses that were 
needful; but they bore every such examination just as the planets Mercury 
and Venus did, both of which were frequently looked at by me, for the pur- 
pose of comparison, during the day ; so that it was impossible I could resist 
the conclusion (much as I was early disposed to hesitate) that they were real 
celestial bodies moving in an orbit of their own, and far removed beyond the 
limits of our atmosphere. 

" They continued passing, often in inconceivable numbers, from i past 9 
A.M., when I first saw them, almost without intermission, till about ^ past 3 
P.M., when they became fewer, passed at longer intervals, and then finally 
ceased. 

" The bodies were all perfectly round, with about the brightness of Venus, 
as seen in the same field of view with them ; and their light was white, or 
with a slight tinge of blue ; and they appeared self-luminous, as though they 
did not cross the sun's disc ; yet when seen near him they did not change 
their shape, or diminish in brightness. 

" They passed with difl^erent velocities, some slowly, and others with great 
rapidity ; and they were very various in size, some having a diameter, as nearly 
as I could estimate, about 2", while others were approaching to 20". 

" I tried various powers upon them, and used both direct and diagonal eye- 
pieces ; but with every one I employed they showed the same appearance, 
being as sharply defined as the planet Jupiter, without haze or spot, or in- 
equality of brightness. 

" I naturally anticipated some such appearance at night, but after \ past 3 
I saw nothing peculiar, though I waited till 11 p.m. ; but have since been in- 
formed that at \ past 1 1 (it is believed on the same night) a meteor of amazing 
brilliance and size, and passing in the same direction and about the same al- 
titude, was observed by Mr. Ballan of Wrotham Park, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of South Mimms. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 237 

" I repeated my observations the following morning, and then saw one such 
single body pass in the same direction as those of the preceding day. 

" They occupied a tolerably well-defined zone of about 18° in breadth; 
and, though with some exceptions, their direction was due east and west. 
Their motion was perfectly uniform, so far as I was able to follow them with 
the instrument at liberty; and they were observed continuously by myself and 
members of my family, accustomed to the use of instruments, both by day 
and night. 

" The telescope I employed on this occasion is one of 3^ feet focal length, 
and 2f inches aperture, by Mr. Dollond, of faultless performance and mounted 
equatoreally by Mr. Jones of Charing Cross, the circles divided by Mr. 
Rothwell of London, and reading off to 5". 

" I understand that a similar phsenomenon has been witnessed by Mr. 
Cooper of Markree Castle, County of Sligo, though I have not communicated 
with that gentleman on the subject; but I take the opportunity of subjoining 
a portion of the contents of a letter to me from Charles B. Chalmers, Esq., 
F.R.A.S., now residing at Jugon, Cotes du Nord, France. 

" He thus writes : — * About the latter end of the year 1849, I witnessed a 
phaenomenon similar to that which you saw in September 1 850, in everi/ re- 
spect, excepting that I thought some of the bodies were elongated, though 
certainly the majority were globular; and their brightness appeared to me 
about equal to that of Venus, as seen at the same time. 

" 'I was then residing at Weston- Super- Mare, in Somersetshire ; and the 
instrument with which I saw them was a S-feet telescope, equatoreally 
mounted, in a fixed observatory. 

" ' I was engaged similarly to yourself in observing the planet Mercury ; 
about A past 10 a.m. I was at first inclined to believe it must be the seed of 
some plants of the thistle nature floating in the air, but from my position that 
could not have been the case. 

" ' The wind on the day I observed the phasnomenon was very slight ; but 
such as it was it came from the sea. The bodies all appeared sharply defined, 
no feathery appearances that I could detect ; and I did not observe any differ- 
ence in their brightness during the time I observed them'. 

" Mr. Chalmers, then, after offering some remarks on a communication 
made by Mr. Dawes to the Roy. Astron. Society's Notice in April 1852, says, 
' My impression certainly is that the phsenomena observed by Mr. Dawes 
and myself were not similar, and I trust that future observers may throw a 
clear light on the subject ; for though Mr. Dawes is a very high authority, 
he is not infallible'. 

" I feel it right, myself, to notice, that in the paper referred to by Mr. 
Chalmers, Mr. Dawes conceives an appearance which he saw to have been 
produced by seeds floating in the atmosphere. 

" No one, I am sure, would doubt the correctness of his observations on 
such subjects; but, excepting in the season of the year, there is so little real 
similarity, that they cannot be parallel cases ; and in his concluding observa- 
tion that ' had such a dense shoal of bodies so brilliant as those described by 
me, as seen in September, passed in the night, they would havesufticed to turn 
darkness into day ;' no doubt but that would have been the case, as it was 
in the phaenomenon witnessed by Messrs. Olmsted and Palmer in America, 
as recorded by Capt. Smyth and Baron Humboldt. 

" In conclusion, I may be permitted to say to the British Association, that 
I had been, at the time my family and myself witnessed what I now commu- 
nicate, a careful observer with superior instruments for upwards of 28 years, 
but that I never saw such appearance before nor since that period. 

" William Read, M.A." 



238 REPORT— 1852. 

No. 14. — Letter from Dr. Buist to Prof. Baden Powell, Oxford. 

" Bombay, July 24, 1852. 

" Dear Sir, — I have done myself the pleasure of forwarding from time to 
time to your address copies of the ' Bombay Times,' containing notices of 
meteors seen on the coast of India in the course of the year. I regret to say 
that the list is a poor one ; whether it be the want of reapers or the barren- 
ness of the celestial field which has prevented more information being gathered, 
1 shall not take upon myself to determine. 1 have been about as much out 
in the open air as usual, that is, I have driven home from office six miles every 
evening after dark, and so am likely to observe anything unusual in the skies •. 
this season 1 have absolutely seen nothing. 

" One of the most extraordinary circumstances hitherto observed, is the 
length of time through which they are occasionally visible in one spot, when 
they must either be approaching or retiring from the earth in a line with the 
observer's eye. Another adverted to by Olmsted is the almost equally sur- 
prising train of light they occasionally leave behind them ; the most extraor- 
dinary case of which is that described in a recent number of the Journal of 
the Bengal Asiatic Society, by Professor Middleton. ' I was awakened,' 
says he, ' at four o'clock on the morning of the 4th of Sept., 1844, by my friend 
Mr. Williams, Head Master of the College, who remarked to me that some- 
thing remarkable had occurred towards the north, when a truly beautiful 
object presented itself, namely a delicate white arch of light, extending from 
about four degrees from the horizon on the west, to about seven on the east, 
its crown rising up to near the Pole star. It looked as if an even and rigid 
rod coated with phosphorus had been made to arch the sky in the manner 
described. It was seen under very favourable circumstances, also in so far 
as no trace of cloud was anywhere visible, the sky being at the time of that 
peculiar depth and transparency which is to be witnessed here during a break 
in the rains. The account which he gave of its first appearance was this : — 
a servant rushed into the house in great fright, declaring that the sky had split. 
He first saw he said an immense ball of fire pass from east to west, which left 
behind it the rent which had terrified him so much. During the time which I 
was able to observe the arch, about twenty minutes, it increased in curvature 
near the crown, which besides moved slowly through about two degrees to- 
wards the east. The dawn was now setting in, and the arch diminishing in 
absolute brightness, though still as well-defined as at first, and before it had 
ceased to be distinguishable it had shortened by several degrees, rushing away 
from the ends upwards.' 

" I sent to you last year an account of a meteor seen here on the 6th of 
November, 1850, a few minutes before seven o'clock. When first seen it was 
about 60° above the horizon, and was rushing towards the south. It tra- 
versed an arc of about 40°, when it exploded without noise, descending in a 
number of brilliant fragments towards the earth. It left a long stream of 
brilliant white light behind it, ten or twelve degrees in length, resembling the 
tail of a comet, and which was visible for full twenty minutes. Seen through a 
telescope it bore exactly the appearance of a comet, the nucleus, even after 
the explosion, and when nothing was visible to the naked eye, but the light 
appearing like a star of the second magnitude, surrounded by luminous va- 
pour or cloud. Captain Shortrede describes a meteor seen by him from Churla 
on April 11, 1842 ; it was from ten to twenty degrees in length, equally bright 
throughout, except at the upper end, where it was rather faint. It continued 
of the same appearance and at the same place for two or three minutes, when 
it became fainter and fainter and then vanished. There are numberless 
instances in which similar things have been visible, but for shorter periods of 
time. I called your attention last year to the extraordinary shower of me- 



ON THE INFLUENCE OP SOLAR RADIATION ON PLANTS. 239 

teors seen on the 19th of March, 1851, at Shekarpoor, Bombay, Kholapoor, 
and Cawnpoor, over an area of nearly a thousand miles each way. I have 
now to bring to your notice the following remarkable facts in reference to 
fire-balls seen to fall during thunder-storms. 

" 1 have scarcely any hope that this will reach you in time for the Meet- 
ing of the Association, as this is our season of slow mails. It was not in my 
power to despatch it sooner, and the facts may be worth preserving though at 
present useless to you. 

" We have had three instances this season of what seems to have been the 
fall of an aerolite during thunder-storms. On the 25th of September a violent 
explosion occurred in the air at Bombay, followed by a wild rushing sound 
overhead, heard at various points over an area of thirty miles in length and 
eight in breadth, followed by a severe conucssion, as if a heavy body had 
fallen, just before the occurrence of which a large fire-ball was seen plunging 
into the sea. On the 18th of March, during a violent thunder-storm near 
Dhutmah in the north-west provinces, at seven p.m., a thunderbolt, as it was 
called, was seen to fall and strike the ground, giving out in the course of the 
concussion a clear ringing sound like the crack of a rifle ; there was no echo 
or reverberation at all like thunder. It appeared 150 yards from Choki, and 
resembled in its descent a huge ball of red-hot iron with a band of fire esti- 
mated at about thirty feet in length. On the 30th of April, about midnight, a 
violent explosion was heard during a storm of wind and rain at Kurrachee, 
resembling the discharge of a vast artillery battery, and about half a minute 
afterwards a meteor, partially obscured by the rain, but still distinct and visible, 
was seen descending into the sea. It is now well-established that in India at 
all events earthquakes are almost always accompanied by furious storms of 
thunder, lightning, wind and rain : it is difficult to trace the cause of coinci- 
dences so remarkable in the commotions of the earth and air, still more so to 
imagine any connection whatever betwixt the perturbations within the limits 
of our atmosphere and the movements of solid bodies entering it from re- 
gions beyond its boundaries; yet it is surely possible to suppose a thunder- 
storm propitious to the precipitation on the surface of the ground of bodies 
which might otherwise have passed on in their career." 



On the Influence of the Solar Radiations on the Vital Powers of 
Plants growing under different Atmospheric conditions^ By J. H. 
Gladstone, Ph.D. 

There are few subjects of experimental research in which such opposite 
statements have been made as on the mutual action of the atmosphere and 
the vegetable kingdom ; even the apparently simple question as to whether 
plants increase or diminish the amount of oxygen in the air was long a matter 
of dispute. This arose partly from defective modes of analysing gases; 
partly from experiments upon plants being made under circumstances very 
unfavourable to their healthy development ; and partly also from variations 
in light having a great influence in modifying the functions of the vegetable 
world. The history of these discussions, in which many of the greatest 
philosophers of the day took part, is too long and too well known to need 
further notice here. When it was fully conceded that carbonic acid really is 



240 REPORT — 1852. 

decomposed by the plant, it was natural enough that those who observed the 
wonderful powers of the chemical rays of the solar spectrum in reducing 
salts of silver and other substances, should refer the chemical changes taking 
place within the vegetable tissues to the same occult agency. But Dr. 
Daubeny, in an admirable investigation, published in the Philosophical 
Transactions for the year 1836, has shown by indisputable evidence that it 
is the luminous, and not the chemical or the caloriBc rays, which cause the 
decomposition of carbonic acid with emission of oxygen from the leaves, the 
formation of chlorophyl, the irritability of the Mimosa, the evolution of water, 
and indirectly at least the absorption of it by the roots. The colours of 
flowers are supposed by this author to depend also on the luminous rays ; 
sunshine was found to act far more energetically than diff"used daylight ; 
while no colouring effects were observed to be produced by any artificial 
illumination, not even by that afforded by incandescent lime. 

That portion of the inquiry requested by the British Association which 
devolved upon me, embraced a question not included in the investigations of 
the Oxford Professor, nor in those of any other experimentalist, as far as I 
am aware : I refer to the influence of various atmospheric conditions in 
conjunction with light. This circumstance necessitated the employment of 
closed vessels under which the plants should be grown ; and glass, from its 
transparency, was not only the best but almost the sole article which could 
be employed. Bell-shaped glasses were accordingly procured ; and they were 
made of various colours, in order that the different properties of the spectrum 
might be to a considerable extent separated. 

The blue glasses mentioned in this paper had each a capacity of about 690 
cubic inches. A smaller bell-glass of 172 inches capacity was also employed 
in an experiment not described on the present occasion. The yellow glasses 
had a capacity of 650 cubic inches ; the red of 558 ; and those made of 
colourless glass of 740 cubic inches. The darkened glasses mentioned below 
were made by partially covering bell-jars with brown paper, thus excluding 
the light except such as passed through about one-eighth of the surface of 
the glass, and that on the side turned away from the window. Their cubic 
contents were 500 inches. Small colourless and yellow glasses were also 
procured, each having a capacity of 177 cubic inches. 

The blue glass employed is of so intense a colour, that it cuts off by far 
the greater portion of the luminous rays, but photographic paper showed that 
it admits the chemical rays freely ; it may also be considered as interfering 
much with the transmission of heat. The red glass, on the contrary, freely 
admits the calorific influence, but stops the chemical, whilst, like the blue, it 
diminishes greatly the luminous. The yellow again scarcely decreases the 
illuminating power of light, but almost destroys its chemical action. 

The place in which the experiments here described were conducted, was a 
room in a dwelling-house at Stockwell, in the neighbourhood of London. 
The glasses stood on a table close by the window, which had a S.S.E. aspect. 
No fire was ever lighted in the room, but it must have been a little warmer 
than the external atmosphere in the winter time on account of the vicinity of 
heated apartments. 

As preliminary experiments, merely the effect of these coloured glasses in 
accelerating or retarding the growth of various kinds of plants was tried. 

Hyacinths were chosen as samples of bulbous-rooted plants. They were 
all of the same description, purple in colour, as nearly as possible of the same 
size, healthy, and beginning to put forth a plumule and radicles. They were 
weighed, placed on the top of colourless glasses containing sufficient pure 
water just to touch the rootlets, and then covered with the large glass shades. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SOLAR RADIATION ON PLANTS. 241 

The experiments were started on Nov. 13th. In order to change the air, 
the shades were lifted off for a minute or two about every second night. 
Each plant grew healthily and flowered ; yet some differences were observed 
of a character which might fairly be attributed to the quality of the light. 
First, as to the rootlets. Under the colourless glass they grew abundantly ; 
under the blue glass they also grew abundantly and more rapidly ; under the 
red glass scarcely any rootlets were produced, and what there were never 
attained any considerable length ; while under the yellow glass they were few 
in number, but long. Secondly, as to the leaves and flower-stalk. Under 
the colourless glass they were put forth in process of time and grew healthily. 
No difference was noticeable under the blue ; under the red long spreading 
leaves were put forth, that bent towards the light in a very marked manner, 
and the plant had an unhealthy appearance ; while under the yellow glass 
short sturdy leaves and flower-stalks were produced. 

As to the flower itself, it began to open at about the same period in each 
instance, namely, — 

Under colourless glass, on Feb. 1 1th, or after 90 days. 
Under blue „ „ 10th, „ 89 „ 

Under red „ „ 8th, „ 87 » 

Under yellow „ „ 10th, ,, 89 „ 

There was no observable difference in the colour of the four flowers, not- 
withstanding the variety of tint under which they had been formed. The 
flower under the red glass was long and thin. Latterly they all suffered 
for want of room. 

On April 16th all the plants were removed from the water into which their 
rootlets dipped, dried in the air, and weighed. 

Prims 
Under colourless glass 
Under blue „ 

Under red „ 

Under yellow „ 

showing an increase of — ■ 

Under colourless glass, as 

Under blue 

Under red 

Under yellow 

The greatest growth therefore was in the plant exposed to all the influences 
of the solar ray. 

Cereals were also grown under the various glasses, a comparative experi- 
ment being made under a darkened shade. Access of air was permitted to 
the plants by the glasses being placed upon boards which were perforated 
with holes close together, and were raised about one-third of an inch from the 
table. No direct rays of light could enter, especially as the space under the 
boards was blocked up on the side nearest the window, and any diffused light 
finding access by the perforations had to pass through several folds of tarla- 
tane of the same colour as the glass shade itself. 

On Sept. 12th three grains of white wheat, sown in garden mould, to which 
a little stable manure was added, were placed under the various glasses. The 
wheat began to grow in a few days in each instance, one seed only under the 
red glass proving unproductive. They were watered as occasion required. 
In a week or two the plants under the darkened shades attained a consider- 
able height, turning in a very marked manner to that part where most light 
1852. R 



y weight of bulb. 


Weight of fully developed plant. 


1303 grs. 




2118 grs. 


1328 „ 




2026 „ 


113.5 „ 




1386 „ 


1299 „ 




170* „ 


ass, as 


1000 : 


1623 


> 


1000 


1525 


> 


1000 : 


1221 


) 


1000 : 


1312 



242 REPORT — 1852. 

entered. No secondary leaves ever appeared, but each plant consisted of 
two long white leaves of about 9 inches in length, so thin and flaccid that 
they were unable to support themselves ; and after thirty days they drooped 
entirely and became mouldy. The corn-plants under the other glasses grew 
more slowly, but put forth "many leaves, attained a height of 10 or 12 inches, 
and remained healthy throughout the winter and spring. Those under the. 
yellow glass were the most sturdy in their growth ; and those under the blue 
alone appeared thin and unhealthy. 

Mallow-seeds (Malope trifida) were sown in garden mould, and placed 
under the various glasses near the commencement of September, the arrange- 
ments being the same as in the preceding experiment. They began to grow 
after the lapse of a few weeks, first under the colourless glass, then under the 
blue, and afterwards under the red, yellow, and darkened glasses at about 
the same time, October 8th. Thin etiolated stalks, with only the first pair 
of leaves, and those badly developed, about 2 inches in length, were all that 
was produced under the darkened shade. In about a fortnight they died ; 
and in the middle of March some other seeds sprouted in a precisely similar 
manner. The mallows under the other glasses grew more healthily and sur- 
vived much longer, but in no instance did they arrive at maturity : the best 
plant was one that grew under the yellow light ; it had sprouted in the early 
part of January and put forth many leaves, reaching the height of 5 inches. 
They grew worst perhaps under the blue glass. A self-sown Stellaria grew 
luxuriantly along with the mallows under the red, and a grass-plant under 
the yellow shade. 

In a paper read by my brother and myself before the Association last year, 
and published in the Philosophical Magazine for September 1851, we re- 
marked that plants kept in an unchanged atmosphere appear to enter into a 
sort of lethargic condition. An experiment was instituted for the purpose 
of ascertaining whether the alteration in light produced by coloured media 
made any marked variation in this matter; and as the pansy and Poa annua 
were the plants generally experimented on in our previous investigation, 
they were employed here likewise. Six pansies newly struck, which had 
taken good root and were vigorous, were planted in six flower-pots contain- 
ing good garden mould; and with each was also placed a grass-plant in 
flower. They were all set in trays filled with water to the depth of an inch, 
or thereabouts ; five were covered with the different descriptions of glass 
shades dipping into the water, so as to cut off" all communication between 
the external and internal atmospheres; while one was freely exposed to all 
the changes of the surrounding air. The experiment was commenced on 
October 17th, and access of air was never permitted to the covered plants. 
The results under the glasses were very various, but how far they depended 
upon the character of the light or upon the peculiar atmospheric condition, 
could not be determined with any accuracy. One thing however was clear, 
that the plants survived much longer for being in an unchanged atmosphere. 
The pansy that was not covered by any shade was attacked with aphides 
eight week^ after tlie commencement of the experiment, and although these 
were washed off", it drooped before the end of December. The Poa also 
scarcely survived the winter. Under the colourless glass the plants remained 
healthy much longer ; the pansy was attacked by the forementioned insects 
at the commencement of December, but although it was necessarily impos- 
sible to remove the aphides without disarranging the experiment, the plant 
lived till March. The grass-plant grew very luxuriantly. A curious phae- 
nomenon was observed. As the air within the glass shade was perfectly still, 
the ripe seeds of the Poa did not fall from the flower-stalk, and through the 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 243 

dampness of the atmosphere many of them which rested against the sides of 
the glass germinated and sliot forth leaves, in some instances 3*5 inches long, 
and radicles of 1 inch in length. Under the blue shade the plants grew very- 
tall. No aphides appeared, but mouldiness was observed. In March both 
plants were straggling and unhealthy ; the grass-seeds never germinated ; 
and any portion that died quickly suffered decomposition. The plants ex- 
posed to the red light were healthy at firjit, and the grass grew luxuriantly ; 
but aphides appeared on the pansy in the middle of December, and at the 
commencement of the succeeding month it became sickly and drooped. The 
grass-plant also lost its healthy appearance during the spring : some of its 
seeds germinated. Under the yellow glass neither of the plants increased in 
size at first, but in the spring they grew, the grass attaining a very great 
length ; they maintained a strong and healthy appearance ; no insects showed 
themselves on the pansy, and the grass-seeds gave little indications of germi- 
nating. Some changes in the colour of the pansy's leaves were observed to 
take place, but the grass remained of its proper green tint. The plants 
under the darkened shade soon became sickly. On December 11th the 
grass was found to be dead ; the pansy had grown tall, and turned decidedly 
towards the least darkened part of the shade; it was mouldy and ill-favoured, 
and on January 6th it drooped. 

Researches connected with the growth of plants must necessarily stretch 
over a considerable space of time. My object in detailing these experiments 
now is not to draw any general conclusions from them ; I regard them as 
far too few and uncertain for that; but offer them to the Association as a 
sample of my preliminary attempts in this inquiry, — attempts which may 
indicate a line of fruitful investigation in future seasons. 



A Manual of Ethnological Inquiry ; being a series of questions concern- 
ing the Human Race, prepared by a Sub-committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, appointed in 1851 {con- 
sisting q/"DR. HoDGKiN and Richard Cull, Esq.), and adapted 
for the use of travellers and others in studying the Varieties of 
Man^. 

The late Dr. Prichard read a paper at the Meeting of the British Association 
held at Birmingham in 1839, " On the Extinction of some Varieties of the 
Human Race." He cited instances in which total extinction has already 
taken place, and other instances in which a continually decreasing population 
threatens a total extinction. He pointed out the irretrievable loss to science 
if so many tribes of the human family are suffered to perish, before those 
highly important questions of a physiological, psychological, philological and 
historical character in relation to them, have been investigated. In order 
to direct inquiry rightly into the subject, a set of questions was drawn up by 
a Committee of the British Association, which was largely circulated by 
means of successive grants of money for that purpose. These questions were 
however adapted, not only to direct inquiry respecting those tribes which are 
threatened with extinction, but also to the rest of the human family. The 
object in publishing these questions is to induce Consuls, political and other 

* Copies of this Manual may be had on application to the Assistant General Secretary, 
York ; Messrs. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street ; and Richard Cull, Esq., 
13 Tavistock Street, Russell Square. 

R 2 



244 REPORT — 1852. 

residents and travellers, to obtain precise knowledge in reply to them, and 
to send it to a centre, the British Association. 

It should always be borne in mind that the verification of what is already 
known is of importance in Ethnology, as in other sciences. The discovery 
of new tribes of the human family falls to the lot of but few observers, while 
many have the opportunity of adding to our knowledge of those tribes that 
are partially known, besides which, recent observation may differ from the 
older in consequence of changes that may have taken place in the people. 
Any amount of knowledge, however trifling it may appear in itself, may be 
of great value in connexion with other knowledge, and therefore will be wel- 
comed. We are seeking Facts, and not inferences ; what is observed, and not 
what is thought. 

The following questions might be much increased in number, and the 
reasons and motives for framing them stated, but such detail would swell the 
tract to a volume. 

Physical Characters. 

1. Ascertain the form, size and weight of the people. Measure the height 
of several men ; state those measures, and whether they are above or below 
the ordinary stature. Measure the length of the limbs, giving the situation 
of the elbow and knee. Measure the circumference of the chest, thighs, legs, 
arms, neck and head of the same men : and weigh the same men. Observe 
if the women be less than the men in stature and relative dimensions ; and, 
if possible, measure and weigh them also. If any remarkable deviations 
above or below the ordinary stature occur in the adults, measure and weigh 
them also. 

2. Note if there be any prevailing disproportion between different parts of 
the body, or any peculiarity of form. 

3. What is the prevailing complexion ? It is impossible to accurately 
describe colour by words. The best method is to imitate the colour on paper ; 
if this be impracticable, state what the colour is in comparison with some 
well-known complexion. The colour and character of the hair can be ob- 
tained by bringing home specimens. State at what age the hair falls off or 
turns grey. The colour, form, size, situation and other character of the eyes 
should be accurately described. It is very desirable to obtain individual like- 
nesses by means of some photographic process. 

4. Is there, apart from lack of personal cleanliness, any peculiar odour, as 
in the Negro? If so, describe it. 

5. The importance of the head claims particular attention. The head 
consists of two parts, viz. the face and the brain-box. Is the shape of the 
face round, oval, long, broad, lozenge-shaped, or of any other marked form ? 
In addition to the best verbal description, give three sketches of the whole 
head, by which means the character of the features, their relation to each 
other and to the whole head, can be at once displayed. These sketches should 
be, — 1st, a profile; 2nd, a front face ; and 3rd, a view looking down on the 
top of the head. Let sufficient neck be taken in order to show how the head 
is set on and carried. And in these sketches accuracy of drawing is indis- 
pensable, without which picturesque effect is valueless. 

The form and size of the head, and the relative proportions of its parts, 
can be obtained with minute precision, by measuring it in the method laid 
down by phrenologists. If the observer be competent, by a previous study 
of phrenology, he is requested to observe the manifestations of mind in con- 
nexion with the cerebral development, as indicated by the form, size and 
proportions of the head. 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 245 

6. Human skulls should be collected, and care should be taken to bring 
away such specimens as fairly represent the people. Remarkable skulls 
should also be preserved and marked as such, their deviations should be ac- 
curately described. And besides those specimens which are brought away, 
it is desirable to observe certain things in a large number, always stating the 
number observed. 

a. Is the OS frontis divided by a middle suture ? 

b. Are the skull-bones thick, thin, heavy, light, dense, &c. } 

c. Are the sutures much indented ? 

d. Are ossa triquetra frequent? if so, in what sutures do they occur? 

e. Does the squamous bone well abut on the frontal bone? 

f. Open some crania to ascertain if there be large frontal sinuses ; if so, 
state the condition of the ossification, and also of the teeth. 

g. Observe the bones of the face, their relation to each other, and to 
the cranium. 

h. What is the form of the outer orbitar process ? 

i. Is the palatine arch fiat or vaulted ? 

j. Does the upper jaw project forwards ? 

k. What is the form of the lower jaw ? 

/. What is the shape of the chin ? 

m. What is the relative position of the ossa nasi and unguis ? 

n. What is the situation of the foramen magnum ? 

o. What is the state of development of the paroccipital processes ? 

p. Observe the number, position, character and mode of wear of the 
teeth. 

q. Have they any artificial means of modifying the form and appear- 
ance of the teeth ? 

7. The number of lumbar vertebrae should be ascertained, as an additional 
one is said to occur in some tribes. 

8. Measure the length of the sternum, and that of the whole trunk, so that 
comparisons may be instituted. 

9. Give some idea of the relative magnitudes of the chest and abdomen. 

10. What is the character of the pelvis in both sexes ? 

11. What is the form of the foot ? 

12. The form of the scapula deserves attention, especially its breadth and 
strength, and the clavicle also in relation to it. 

13. The blood-vessels and internal organs can be subjected to examination, 
but with greater diflJculty : observe any peculiarities in regard to them. 

Peculiarities may exist which cannot be anticipated by special question ; 
the observer should, if possible, examine each organ in detail, and, comparing 
one with another, he will find few things escape him. 

14. Are Albinos found ? if so, what characters do they present ? State 
their parentage, and all that can be gathered to throw a light on their origin. 
State the physical characters of their children if they have any. 

15. Where a district obviously possesses two or more varieties of the 
human race, note the typical characters of each in their most distinct form, 
and indicate to what known groups or families they may belong : give some 
idea of the proportion of each, and state the result of their intermixture on 
physical and moral character. When it can be ascertained, state how long 
intermixture has existed, and of which the physical characters tend to pre- 
dominate. It is to be observed, that this question does not so much refer to 
the numerical strength or political ascendency of any of the types, but to 
the greater or less physical resemblance which the offspring may bear to the 
parents, and what are the characters which they may appear to derive from 



246 BEPOBT — 1852. 

each : whether there is a marked difference arising from the father or the 
mother belonging to one of the types in preference to another ; also whether 
the mixed form resulting from such intermarriage is known to possess a per- 
manent character, or after a certain number of generations to incline to one 
or other of its component types. 

16. Any observations connected with these intermarriages, relating to 
health, longevity, physical and intellectual character, will be particularly 
interesting, as bringing light on a field hitherto but little systematically in- 
vestigated. Even when the people appear to be nearly or quite free from 
intermixture, their habits, in respect of intermarriage within larger or smaller 
circles, and the corresponding physical characters of the people, will be very 
interesting. 

Language. 

17. The affinity of languages is one line of evidence of high value in eth- 
nological researches, and hence the importance of obtaining accurate infor- 
mation concerning the language of a people. 

18. If the language be a written one, care should be taken to obtain spe- 
cimens of the best compositions in it, both of verse and prose. If possible, 
procure native manuscripts ; if not, obtain copies of them. 

If there be no written language, and therefore no literature, yet traditions 
will be found which should be obtained and recorded as closely as possible 
verbatim, so as to preserve their own collocation and arrangement of words, 
taking care to select as the most valuable, such as relate to their own origin, 
history, wars, habits, superstitions, &c. 

19. If possible, cause some competent person to translate into their lan- 
guage a well-known continuous composition, as the Lord's Prayer, the 1st 
Chapter of Genesis, and the 6th and 7th Chapters of St. Luke's Gospel, for 
with these examples a philologist will be able to give a very good account of 
any language. 

20. In compiling a vocabulary from the mouth of an Intelligent native, 
two objects must be steadily kept in view, viz. 1st, the right selection of 
words ; and 2nd, their accurate reproduction. 

1st. The proper selection of words. — In selecting the words to form the 
first vocabulary of a strange language, we must reject, — 1st, all words which 
have no corresponding words in our own language ; 2nd, all words which 
(mly imperfectly correspond to words in our own language ; and take only 
such words as perfectly correspond. Words are names of things, events, 
qualities, conditions, &c. Words of the following classes should be taken. 
a. The names of natural physical objects, as sun, moon, fire, water, 

man, arm, river, hill, &c. ; the names of animals, &c. 
/3. The names of physical qualities, as red, blue, round, long, heavy, &c. 
y. The names of events, actions, conditions, &c., as to fall, to walk, to 

eat, to sleep. 
B. The names of family relationships, as father, mother, sister, uncle, &c. 
f. The names of the numbers as high as they can enumerate. The ordi- 
nal numerals should also be given. 
It should be ascertained if there be Distributives, Multiplicatives, and 
Proportionals. Is there anything corresponding to our Numeral 
Adverbs ? 
'C. Personal Pronouns. 

jy. Particles such as prepositions, conjunctions, &c. 
In compiling a vocabulary, the observer should verify every word he 
receives from one informant by the testimony of others. 
2nd, J'heir accurate reproduction. — The words should be so written, that 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 24? 

a person quite ignorant of the language, and with no other guide than the 
vocabulary, shall be able from it alone to pronounce each word with accu- 
racy, sufficient for philological researches. 

If elementary sounds peculiar to the language, as the clicks of the Kaffirs, 
or the sounds represented by ^ and c of the Persian alphabet, occur in the 

words of the vocabulary, it is obvious that no alphabetic notation will enable 
one who is ignorant of the language to reproduce those words even though 
the compiler invents characters to represent them. Mr. Ellis's Ethnic Al- 
phabet is a useful stock of characters to those whose lingual knowledge is 
sufficient to use it. Our own alphabet, however, is found to be sufficient to 
write many vocabularies, including both Kaffir and Persian, with an accuracy 
sufficient for our purpose. 

In writing the vocabulary it is of great importance to mark the accented 
syllable of the word. The mark' of the acute accent is commonly adopted 
for this purpose, and is recommended to be continued by future compilers. 

21. Ascertain the extent of the geographical area over which the lan- 
guage is spoken. 

22. Ascertain what languages it comes in contact with at the periphery of 
its area : and if unknown, or but partially known languages occur, collect 
vocabularies of them also. 

23. Ascertain if the same language without dialectic variations be spoken 
over the whole lingual area. If variations occur, give examples of them ; 
always bearing in mind that Facts are of greater value than opinions. 

Grammar. 

In giving an outline of the Grammar, the following hints may be useful. 

24. Give the various forms which words assume, as — 

a. The plural forms of Nouns, and the Dual if it exist. 

/3. The cases of Nouns. 

y. Adjectives, their inflections and modes of concord. 

i. Pronouns, their various forms, with the Dual if it exist. 

25. Exhibit the formation of compound words. 

26. What is the order of words in a sentence? 

27. Beyond the mere order of words, observe if the subject take pre- 
cedence of the predicate : the cause of the effect, and of any peculiarity in 
the statement of propositions. 

Individual and Family Life. 

28. Are there any ceremonies connected with the birth of a child ? Is 
there any difference whether the child be male or female ? 

29. Does infanticide occur to any considerable extent, and if it does, to 
what causes is it to be referred, want of affection, deficient subsistence, or 
superstition ? 

30. Are children exposed, and from what causes, whether superstition, 
want of subsistence or other difficulties, or from deformity, general infirmity, 
or other causes of aversion ? 

31. What is the practice as to dressing and cradling children, and are 
there any circumstances connected with it calculated to modify their form ; 
for example, to compress the forehead, as amongst the western Americans ; 
to flatten the occiput, as amongst most Americans, by the flat straight board 
to which the child is attached ; to occasion the lateral distortion of the head, 



248 REPORT— 1852. 

by allowing it to remain too long in one position on the hand of the nurse, as 
amongst the inhabitants of the South Seas ? 

32. Are there any methods adopted, by which other parts of the body may 
be affected, such as the turning in of the toes, as amongst the North Ameri- 
cans; the modification of the whole foot, as amongst the Chinese? 

33. How are the children educated, what are they taught, and are any 
methods adopted to modify their character, such as to implant courage, 
impatience of control, endurance of pain and privation, or, on the contrary, 
submission, and to what authorities, cowardice, artifice? 

34. Is there anything remarkable amongst the sports and amusements of 
children, or in their infantile songs or tales? 

35. At what age does puberty take place ? 

36. What is the ordinary size of families, and are there any large ones ? 

37. Are births of more than one child common ? What is the proportion 
of the sexes at birth and among adults ? 

38. Are the children easily reared? 

39. Is there any remarkable deficiency or perfection in any of the senses? 
It is stated, that in some races sight is remarkably keen, both for near and 
distant objects. 

40. To what age do the females continue to bear children ? and for what 
period are they in the habit of suckling them? 

^l. What is the menstrual period, and what the time of utero-gestation ? 

42. Are tiiere any ceremonies connected with any particular period of life? 

43. Is chastity cultivated, or is it remarkably defective, and are there any 
classes amongst the people of either sex by whom it is remarkably cultivated, 
or the reverse, either generally or on particular occasions? 

44. Are there any superstitions connected with this subject ? 

45. What are the ceremonies and practices connected with marriage ? 

46. Is polygamy permitted and practised, and to what extent ? 

47. Is divorce tolerated, or "frequent ? 

48. How are widows treated ? 

49. What is the prevailing food of the people? Is it chiefly animal or 
vegetable, and whence is it derived in the two kingdoms ? Do they trust to 
what the bounty of nature provides, or have they means of modifying or 
controlling production, either in the cultivation of vegetables, or the rearing 
of animals? Describe their modes of cooking, and state the kinds of condi- 
ment which may be employed. Do they reject any kinds of aliment from 
scruple, or an idea of uncleanness ? Have they in use any kind of fermented 
or other form of exhilarating liquor, and, if so, how is it obtained ? What 
number of meals do they make ? and what is their capacity for temporary or 
sustained exertion ? 

50. Describe the kind of dress worn by the people, and the materials em- 
ployed in its formation. What are the differences in the usages of the sexes 
in this respect? Are there special dresses used for great occasions ? and, if 
so, describe these, and their modes of ornament. Does any practice of tat- 
tooing, piercing, or otherwise modifying the person for the sake of ornament, 
prevail amongst the people ? N.B. Such modifications not to be blended 
with other modifications used as signs of mourning, &c. 

51. Have the people any prevailing characteristic or remarkable modes of 
amusement, such as dances and games exhibiting agility, strength or skill? 

52. Are games of chance known to (he people, and is there a strong passion 
for them ? 

53. Do the people appear to be long- or short-lived ? If any cases of 
extreme old age can be ascertained, please to state them. Such cases may 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 249 

sometimes be successfully ascertained by reference to known events, as the 
previous visits of Europeans to the country. Is there a mariied difference 
between the sexes in respect of longevity ? 

54. What is the general treatment of the sick? Are they cared for, or 
neglected ? Are any diseases dreaded as contagious, and how are such 
treated ? Is there any medical treatment adopted ? Are there any super- 
stitious or magical pi'actices connected with the treatment of the sick ? What 
are the most prevailing forms of disease, whence derived, and to what extent ? 
Is there any endemic affection, such as goitre, pelagra, plica, or the like? 
With what circumstances, situations, and habits do they appear to be con- 
nected, and to what are they referred by the people themselves? 

55. Where there are inferior animals associated with man, do they exhibit 
any corresponding liability to, or exemption from disease ? 

56. Do entozoa prevail, and of what kind? 

57. What is the method adopted for the disposal of the dead? Is it 
generally adhered to, or subject to variation ? 

58. Are any implements, articles of clothing, or food, deposited with the 
dead ? 

59. Is there any subsequent visitation of the dead, whether they are 
disposed of separately, or in conjunction with other bodies? 

60. What is the received idea respecting a future state ? Does this bear 
the character of transmigration, invisible existence about their accustomed 
haunts, or removal to a distant abode ? 

liuildings and Monuments. 

61. What are the kinds of habitations in use among the people ? Are 
they permanent or fixed? Do they consist of a single apartment, or of 
several? Are the dwellings collected into villages or towns, or are they 
scattered, and nearly or quite single ? If the former, describe any arrange- 
ment of them in streets or otherwise which may be employed. 

62. Have any monuments been raised by the present inhabitants or their 
predecessors, and more especially such as relate to religion or war ? State 
their character, materials, and construction. If they are still in use amongst 
the people, state this object, even if they should be of the simplest construction, 
and be little more than mounds or tumuli. If these monuments are no longer 
in use, collect, as far as possible, the ideas and traditions of the natives re- 
garding them, and, if possible, have them examined by excavation or other- 
wise, taking care to deface and disturb them as little as possible. 

63. In these researches be on the look out for the remains of the skeletons 
of man or other animals ; and, if discovered, let them be preserved for com- 
parison with those still in existence. 

Works of Art. 

64. Let works of art, in metal, bone, or other materials, be likewise sought 
and preserved, and their similarity to, or difference from implements at 
present in use amongst the people of the district, or elsewhere, be noted. 
Have they any kind of commerce or exchange of commodities with the people 
of other tribes or countries, civilized or uncivilized ? and, if so, what are the 
articles which they give and which they take in exchange? la this trade or 
barter in continued or irregular operation, or periodical by means of fairs, 
stated journeys to or visits from other people ? 

65. Name the people and channels of this trade. 

66. Is it of long standing, or recent? 

67. Has it undergone changes, when and how ? 



250 REPORT — 1852. 

68. When a people display their ingenuity by the extent or variety of their 
works of art, it will not only be desirable to describe what these are, but also 
the materials of which they are constructed, the modes in which these ma- 
terials are obtained, the preparation which they undergo when any is required, 
and the instruments by which they are wrought, Such particulars will not 
only throw light on the character and origin of the people, but will, directly 
or indirectly, influence the commercial relations which may be profitably 
entered into when commerce alone is looked to. When colonization is con- 
templated, the facts contained in the replies to these queries will point out 
the mutual advantages which might be obtained by preserving, instead of 
annihilating, the aboriginal population. 

Domestic Animals. 

Are there any domestic animals in the possession of the people ? Of what 
species are they ? Whence do they appear to have been derived, and to what 
variety do they belong ? Have they degenerated or become otherwise 
modified ? To what uses are they applied ? 

Government and Laws, 

69. What is the form of government ? Does it assume a monarchical or 
democratic character, or does it rest with the priests ? 

70. Are the chiefs, whether of limited or absolute power, elective or 
hereditary ? 

71. Is there any division of clans or casts ? 

72. What are the privileges enjoyed by or withheld from these? 

73. What care is taken to keep them distinct, and with what effect on the 
physical and moral character of each ? 

74. What laws exist among the people ? How are they preserved ? Are 
they generally known, or confided to the memory of a chosen set of persons ? 
What are their opinions and regulations in reference to property, and espe- 
cially the occupation and possession of the soil ? Does the practice of hiring 
labourers exist among them ? 

75. Have they any knowledge or tradition of a legislator, to whom the 
formation of laws is ascribed ? 

76. Do they rescind, add to, or modify their laws? and how ? 

77. Are they careful in the observance of them ? 

78. What are their modes of enforcing obedience, and of proving and 
punishing delinquency ? 

79. How are judges constituted? Do their trials take place at stated 
periods, and in public ? 

80. How do they keep prisoners in custody, and treat them ? 

81. What are the crimes taken cognizance of by the laws? Is there gra- 
dation or commutation of punishment ? 

Geography and Statistics. 

82. Briefly state the geographical limits and character of the region inha- 
bited by the people to whom the replies relate. 

83. State approximately the number of inhabitants. As this is an im- 
portant, but very difficult question, it may not be amiss to point out the modes 
in which the numbers may be ascertained. The people themselves may state 
their number with more or less accuracy, but it should be known whether 
they refer to all ranks and ages, or merely comprehend adult males, who may 
be mustered for war, or other general purpose requiring their combination. 
In this case state the apparent proportion between adult males and other 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 251 

members of families. The number of habitations in a particular settlement 
may be counted, and some idea of the average numbers of a family be given. 
Where the people inhabit the water-side, the number and dimensions of their 
craft may be taken, and some idea of the proportion between the number of 
these and of the individuals belonging to them, may be formed. In drawing 
conclusions from observations of this kind, it will be necessary to have due 
regard to the different degrees of density or rarity, in which, from various 
causes, population may be placed. 

84. Has the number of inhabitants sensibly varied, and within what 
period ? 

85. If it have diminished, state the causes ; such as sickness, starvation, 
war, and emigration. When these causes require explanation, please to give 
it. If the inhabitants are on the increase, is this the result of the easy and 
favourable circumstances of the people causing an excess of births over deaths, 
or is it to be assigned to any cause tending to bring accessions from other 
quarters? State whether such causes are of long standing, or recent. 

86. Is the population generally living in a manner to which they have been 
long accustomed, or have new relations with other people, and consequently 
new customs and practices, been introduced? 

87. If the people, being uncivilized, have come under the influence of the 
civilized, state to what people the latter belong, how they are regarded, and 
what is the kind of influence they are producing*. State the points of their 
good influence, if any, and those of an opposite character, as the introduction 
of diseases, vices, wars, want of independence, &c. 

88. Is there any tendency to the union of races ? how is it exhibited, and 
to what extent ? 

Social Relations. 

89. What kind of relationship, by written treaty or otherwise, subsists 
between the nation and other nations, civilized or not ? Have they any 
intercourse by sea with other countries ? Do any of them understand any 
European language ? Or are there interpreters, by whom they can commu- 
nicate with ihem ? 

90. Are they peaceable, or addicted to war? Have they any forms of 
declaring war, or making peace ? What is their mode of warfare, either by 
sea or land ? their weapons and strategy ? What do they do with the slain, 
and with prisoners ? Have they any mode of commemorating victories by 
monuments, hieroglyphics, or preservation of individual trophies, and of what 
kind ? Have they any national poems, sagas, or traditions respecting their 
origin and history ? Where Europeans have introduced fire-arms, ascertain 
the modes of warfare which have given place to them. 

State whatever particulars respecting their origin and history are derived, 
either from traditions among themselves or from other sources. 

Religion, Superstitions, ^c. 

91. Are the people addicted to religious observances, or generally regard- 
less of them ? 

92. Do they adopt the idea of one great and presiding Spirit, or are thev 
polytheists? r » r j 

93. If polytheism exist, what are the names, attributes, and fables connected 
with their deities, and what are the modes in which devotion is paid to each ? 

* This question will comprise the existence of missions — the success or the want of it from 
causes connected with missionaries themselves or others. 



252 REPORT — 1852. 

Are any parts of the body held sacred, or the reverse ? Do they offer sacri- 
fices, and are they of an expiatory character, or mere gifts ? 

94. Have they any sacred days or periods ? fixed or moveable feasts, or 
religious ceremonies of any kind, or any form of thanksgiving or other 
observance connected vith seasons ? 

95. Have they any order of priests, and if so, are they hereditary, elective, 
or determined by any particular circumstance ? 

96. Is the religion of the people similar to that of any other people, neigh- 
bouring or remote? If different, are they widely so, or dependent on par- 
ticular modifications, and of what kind ? 

97. In what light do they regard the religion and deities of neighbouring 
tribes ? 

98. Is there any idea of an inferior order of spirits and imaginary beings, 
— such as ghosts, fairies, brownies, and goblins ; and how are they described ? 

99. Have they any notions of magic, witchcraft, or second sight? 

100. What ideas are entertained respecting the heavenly bodies ? Have 
they any distinction of stars, or constellations? and if so, what names do they 
give them, and what do these names signify ? 

101. Are they in any manner observed with reference to the division of 
the year, and how ? 

102- If time is not divided by observations of those bodies, what other 
mode is adopted ? and do observances connected with them rest with tiie 
priests or chiefs? 

103. When the traveller, by personal acquaintance with the language, or 
by means of competent assistance from interpreters, can freely converse with 
the people, it will be desirable that he should form some idea of their amount 
of intelligence, their tone of mind with regard to social relations, as respects 
freedom, independence, or subserviency, and their recognition of moral obli- 
gations, and any other psychological character which observation may detect ; 
and more especially such as may contribute to an estimation of the probable 
results of efforts to develope and improve the character. 

In using this little manual, it should be borne in mind that it is not a mere 
guide to inquire into those tribes that are threatened with extinction, nor to 
make out certain details which are desiderata in our knowledge of the people 
of any given locality, but is intended to direct inquiry generally respecting 
the varieties of man. 



Mean Temperature of the Day and Monthly Fall of Rain at 127 
Stations under the Bengal Presidency, from official Registers kept 
by Medical Officers, for the year 1851. By Colonel Sykes, 
F.R.S. 

[Ordered to be printed entire among the Reports.] 

Dr. George Lambe, late Physician-General in Bengal, has been good enough 
to transmit to me the following analysis of official meteorological returns, made 
by medical officers of the Bengal Presidency to the Medical Board in Calcutta. 
They are limited to the returns of mean daily temperature and fall of rain, the 
extreme difficulty of getting barometers conveyed in safety to distant stations, 
not one in three sent over reaching its destination in an efficient state, having 
left the great majority of medical officers without the means of determining 
the varying pressure of the atmosphere j and with regard to the moisture in 



TEMPERATURK AND RAIN IN BENGAL,. 253 

the atmosphere and fixing dew-points, although several medical officers kept 
registers of the dry- and wet-bulb thermometers (there not being any hygro- 
meters on Daniell's plan in use), yet the registers appeared so little satisfac- 
tory, that Dr. Lambe did not think it desirable to include them in the 
analysis. The daily mean temperature was determined by daily observations 
from three to six in number ; but as these were made during the day and not 
at all at night, the mean temperature is necessarily higher than the mean of 
the 24 hours would be. Proper precautions were taken against direct radi- 
ated or reflected heat, by the thermometers being placed in the hospitals or in 
the surgeons' houses, properly shaded and with a northern aspect ; but the 
errors of construction in the instruments do not appear to have been generally 
verified ; they are not to be relied upon therefore for absolute results ; but as 
the same mode of observation obtains throughout, the different meteorological 
records have a relative value to each other which makes them acceptable. 
The records of the pluviometer are more free from objections than those of the 
other instruments, and they contain some highly interesting results respecting 
the unequal distribution of rain, and in support of the facts adduced by myself 
from Western India, and by Mr. Miller from Cumberland, testifying that the 
rain-fall becomes a maximum in mountainous districts at a certain height, and 
then diminishes as the height increases. For the reasons previously assigned, 
I shall circumscribe my observations on temperature within narrow limits ; 
but as the stations are arranged in groups, vnthin certain areas of latitude and 
longitude, some few facts of interest may be selected. For instance, in the 
Calcutta group of 15 stations, within lat. 19° 48' and 25° 42' N. and long. 
85° 49' and 89° 14' E., Cuttack, in lat. 20° 28', has a lower mean daily tempe- 
rature in January than Balasore, a degree further N. ; but in February this 
is reversed, but reversed again in a marked manner in March, April, May and 
the remaining months until September, when Cuttack becomes hotter than 
Balasore ; but in October it is reversed again. The maximum daily mean 
temperature in this group is 99° in May at Kishnaghur, lat. 23° 24', long. 
88° 22' E. The next is the Dacca group of 19 stations between the parallels 
oflat. 20° 8' and 27° 31' N., and long. 90° 17' and 95° I'E. The same discre- 
pancies are observed here as in the preceding, of the higher latitude having a 
higher mean daily temperature than the lower in some months, witness Buri- 
saul, lat. 22° 35', temperature in January 66°, while Sylhet, lat. 24° 53', in 
the same month is 6 7°' 7 Fahr. The highest daily mean temperature in this 
group is 88°" 6 at Burisaul in May. The next group of 10 stations is in 
ascending the Ganges from Hazareebaugh, lat. 24° 0', to Darjeeling, lat. 27° 3', 
at 7000 feet above the sea* ; and from Gyah, long. 85° 3', to Dinagepore, 
long. 88° 41'. The highest daily mean temperature is at Gyah in Behar, lat. 
24° 48', viz. 96°-9 in Mayf. The next is the Benares group of 7 stations, 
from Mirzapore, lat. 25° 9', to Goruckpore, lat. 26° 46', and from long. 82° 6' 
Sultanpore to long. 83° 37' Ghazeepore. The highest mean temperature is 
101° in May at Sultanpore, in a higher latitude than any station of the group 

* Cherrapoonjie and Decca are in the same group, the former at 4500 feet above the sea ; 
the latter is on the Delta of the Brahmaputra. Their difference of latitude is 1° 33' 35" ; 
their difference of mean temperature in May is 19°-1, which would give 235 feet to a degree. 
In October the difference is 13°- 7, which gives 329 feet to 1° Fahr. 

t Darjeeling at 7000 feet, and Sarun on the plains differ 17^ miles in latitude; the difference 
ofmean daily temperature in May is 31°-1, giving 225 feet for each degree of temperature ; but 
in December the difference of mean temperatures is only 14°-8, giving 473 feet for each 
degree of temperature. Tirhoot and Darjeeling differ 55 miles in lat. The difference of the mean 
temperature in May is 30°, giving 233 feet to 1° ; the difference in December is 17°-4, giving 
102 feet to a degree. 



254 REPORT — 1852. 

except Goruckpore, and at 1050 feet above the level of the sea. The next 
group is in the N.W. Provinces, and consists of 18 stations, from lat. 21° 51' 
Baitool to lat. 27° 23' Futteghur, and from long. 11° 45' Hoshungabad to long. 
81° 54' Allahabad. The highest mean temperature is 103° in May at Myn- 
poorie, lat. 27° 1', and 100°" 1 at Allahabad and Nursingpore, the former in 
lat. 25° 27' on the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna. The daily mean 
temperatures run very high in May and June at all the stations in this group. 
The Agra group, embracing Rajpootana, has 9 stations, but the observations 
are incomplete. The highest mean daily temperature at Agra, lat. 27° 10', 
was 96°- 1 in June. The Meerut and Delhi group has 1 3 stations, embra- 
cing Almorah at 5500 feet, from Budaon, lat. 27° 50', to Deyrah, lat. 30° 19', 
and from Delhi, long. IT 13', to Almorah, long. 79° 41'. The highest 
mean temperature is 104° at Goorgaon, 38 miles south of Delhi, lat. 27° 53', 
in June, and at Delhi, lat. 28° 31', the temperature in May is 98°-6. 
The Umballa group of 1 1 stations embraces Simla, at 7500 feet, and other 
hill stations. At Ferozepore, on the Sutlege and Simla, differing 9 miles, in 
lat. 30° 57' and 31° 6', the highest mean temperature at both is respectively 
in June, 97°"5 and 69°"2 ; the difference of elevation giving 220 feet for each 
degree of difference of temperature in the month of June; but in the month of 
January the difference of mean daily temperatures, 40° and 55°'9, gives 397 
feet for each degree of temperature. The last group takes us to the Punjab, 
where there are 25 stations between Mooltan, lat. 30° 10', and Peshawur, lat. 
34° 0', and Kohat, long. 71° 26', to long. 76° 19' Kangra. Lahore in this group 
is 1180 feet above the sea, and Peshawur 1068 ; and I presume none of the 
stations, excepting probably Mooltan, have a lower elevation than these. The 
returns are defective, but it wovdd appear a very high daily mean temperature 
exists in some months, notwithstanding the comparatively high latitude; Mooltan, 
lat. 30° 10', temp. 99°-4 ; Jehlum, lat. 32° 55', temp. 97° ; and Mean Meer, at 
Lahore, lat. 31° 33', temp. 98°*2, all in June. The general results would seem 
to indicate that the daily mean temperature in the summer months increases 
with the latitude ; that is to say, that the daily mean temperature in lat. 32° 
in June, July and August, is greater than in lat. 22°. The rain-fall manifests 
in a marked manner, as I have formerly had occasion to show, the great discre- 
pancies in the fall vnthin very limited areas ; and in the increase in the fall up 
to certain maximum elevations. In the case of Calcutta and Barrackpore, only 
9 miles separate in latitude and 4^ in longitude, the fall of rain respectively 
for 1851 was 64' 16 and 42*75, differing 22 inches. Hooghly is 20 miles N. 
of Calcutta, and differs only 6 miles in longitude, but the fall was only 36 
inches, differing from Calcutta 28 inches. Barrackpore is intermediate between 
Calcutta and Hooghly, and only \\ mile west of the longitude of Barrackpore, 
but the difference in the rain-fall is 6| inches. All these three places are on 
the Ganges, on the same level, about 20 feet above the sea. Burdwan, which 
is 40 miles N. of Calcutta and 28 miles W., had only a fall of 28 inches ; but 
more remarkable still, Midnapore, 8 miles south of Calcutta and 59 west of it, 
had only 22'78 inches; while Cuttack, 1^ miles south and 1^° of longitude 
west, had 50* 17 inches. In the Dacca group, which contains the hill station 
of Cherraponjie in the Cossya hills, the most extraordinary discrepancies occur. 
Chittagong, only 13 miles south of the latitude of Calcutta, but 2>\° to the E., 
has 86 '33 inches of rain, and lying under the same meridian as Cherraponjie, 
which is 116 miles N. of Chittagong, at an elevation of 4500 feet, it has 
524*02 inches of rain less than Cherraponjie, at which station the almost 
incredible quantity of 61035 inches fell in 1851 ; and that this deluge is 
no mistake of record, independently of the official report which I quote, I have 
a letter from Professor Oldham in confirmation of the fact, who spent the mou- 



TEMPERATURE AND RAIN IN BENGAL. 255 

soon of 1851 at Clierraponjie, and kept a separate record : 50 feet 10 inches depth 
of water may be said to have fallen chiefly in 7 months, for in November and 
December there was not a shower ; in Januaryonly ^of an inch, in February 3*05 
in., and in March l^inch. The S.W. monsoon would appear to commence in 
April vnth 67 in., followed by 115-15 in May, 147-20 in June, 99-40 in July, 
103-9 in August, 71-7 in September, and 40*3 in October ; so that the vapour 
from the south passed over Chittagong, and little of it was condensed until it 
reached Cherraponjie and the Cossya hills. But the discrepancy in the fall 
in the neighbourhood of Cherraponjie itself is not the least remarkable cir- 
cumstance. Sylhet, which lies below Cherraponjie 23 miles to the S. of it, 
and only 7 miles to the "W., had only 209-85 in. of rain ; the fall at the prox- 
imate places differing 400-5 in. The greatest fall in any month at Sylhet was 
43-35 in May. The explanation of this extraordinary fall at Cherraponjie is 
in the physical circumstances connected with its location. The station is on 
the Cossya hills, at 4500 feet above the sea, facing the south ; and the vapour 
from the Bay of Bengal, floating at a height of about 4500 feet, passes over the 
plains of the Deltas of the Ganges and Brahmapootra, and first impinges upon 
the Cossya hills, and is immediately condensed by the lower temperature at the 
hills ; and then comparatively little of the vapour reaches the higher regions, 
as is the case in the Western Ghauts of India, where the maximum condensa- 
tion takes place also at about 4500 feet. This is shown at Darjeeling, 1500 
feet above Cherraponjie, 134 miles to the N., and 3^° of longitude to the W. 
of Cherraponjie, the fall being only 125-20 in. ; and yet rain fell in every 
month of the year, the maximum fall being 31 in. in June. The rain -tables 
are not complete for Simla at 7500 feet, but the maximum fall in the mon- 
soon months was only 17-95 in. in July and 1 1-65 in August, the most rainy 
months ; so that there can be no question but that the fall does not exceed that 
at Darjeeling, and we have then the fact that those stations so widely separated 
in India as Simla, Darjeeling and Dodabetta on the Neilgherries, at about an 
elevation above the sea of from 7000 to 8400 feet, have about the same 
amount of rain-fall ; while the lower elevations of 4500 feet in the peninsula 
of India have the maximum fall, ranging from 300 to 600 inches. It will scarcely 
be desirable to make further comment upon the rain-tables ; but it may be 
stated generally, that as the latitude is uacreased, and westing made, from Cal- 
cutta the mean annual fall appears to decrease, the fall at Ferozepore being as 
low as 23 in. ; but the discrepancies in the fall in neighbouring localities con- 
tinue, as is manifest in the case of Goruckpore, lat. 26° 3', long. 83° 13', 
having 61*70 in., Azimghur, 42 miles south and 9 miles east, having only 
39-96 in. The rain-tables from the Punjab are incomplete. 

The above meteorological observations suggest to us to be cautious in ge- 
neralizing from local facts, not less with regard to temperatures and falls of 
rain, than on the supposed law fixing a fall of one degree of Fahrenheit for a 
certain number of feet of ascent into the atmosphere. 



256 



REPORT— 1852. 



Abstract of Mean Temperature of the Day and Fall of Rain from Registers kej 

N.W. Proviui 



Calcutta 

Barrackpore . . • 

Hooghly 

Jessore 

Kishnughur . . . 

Burdwan 

Moorshedabad . 

Rungpore 

Bauliah 

Beerbhoom • • • 

Bancoora 

Balasore 

Midnapore . . . 

Poorie 

Cuttack 



ft. 
i8-ii 



76 



Dacca 

Akyab 

Sandowy 

Ramree . • • • 
Chittagong . . 
Tipperah . . • ■ 
Burisaul . . • • 

Pubna 

Bogra 

Mymensing . 

Sylhet 

Cherraponjie 
Gwalparah . 
Gowahuttee . 

Cachar 

Seebsagur . 
Tezpore . . . 
Debroghur . 
Nowgong A. . 



Dinapore 

Tirboot 

Dinagepore . . . 

Purneah 

Daijeeling . . • 

Sarun 

Mongbyr 

Hazareebaugh 

Gyah 

lihaugulpore 

Benares .... 
Gonickpore . . 
Azimghur. . . . 
Sultanpore . . 



Alean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 



Z2 33"0I 
22 42-35 

22 53-24 

23 9- 
23 24- 

23 13-10 

24 11-50 

25 42*50 
24 23-15 

^3 505 
23 14-8 

21 30-7 

22 25'i3 

19 48-09 

20 28-55 

23 43'io 



88 20-34 
88 25-4 

88 26-34 

89 10-30 

88 22-20 

87 52-20 

88 13-20 

89 14-50 
88 33-45 
87 34-00 
87 6-31 

86 58-11 

87 19-25 
85 49-10 
85 S4'i5 

90 23-40 
92 56 



4500 



January. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



2'2 20-30 91 47'30 



23 27-30 
22 35-40 



24 44-50 

24 S3 

25 16-35 

26 II 
26 11-15 
24 48-40 



91 5-40 
90 17- 



90 24-20 

91 50-30 

91 43*55 

90 40- 

91 47-10 

92 47-17 



26 36-45 92 50-10 
^7 3i'4S 95 I 



25 3y45 85 5"io 

26 7-20 85 26-15 



71-2 

72-5 

68-5 

64- 

70- 

70-5 

63- 

65*3 

66-3 

69-5 

71-9 

72-9 

69- 

71-6 

72- 

67-3 

7i"S 

78- 

65-5 

67-7 

69-2 

66- 

70-3 

6r 

62- 

67-7 

537 

64-2 

66-4 

62-5 

60- 

65-2 

63-6 



February. 



7000 



1050 



25 37-30 

25 48-00 
27 3- 

26 45-27 
25 27-26 
24 0-0 

24 48-44 

25 14-50 

25 18-26 

26 46-35 
26 3-2 
26 15-35 



41-00 



63-6 
61-8 
69- 



87 33-00] 64-5 

88 18-40 

85 29-12 

86 43-38 
85 24-20 
85 3-16 

87 o-oo 



83 3-12 

83 22-6 
83 13-20 
82 6-40 



40-9 

65-5 
64-3 
70- 
66-7 

64-3 
62-2 
64-3 
65-5 



0-07 
0-24 
0-95 
0-40 
2-50 
0-30 

0-20 
1-10 



0-90 
0-50 
0-26 



0-69 



0-75 

o"55 

0-72 
0-75 
0-30 
0-75 
0-70 
0-51 



0-61 



1-75 

375 
0-80 
2-12 
3"45 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 



0-85 

0-30 
0-75 



76-01 

70-5 

68- 

72- 

69- 

76-5 

65-5 

68-7 

71-6 

73'i 

74" 

74*9 

69- 

75-6 

78- 

71' 

73-8 

81- 

66- 

72-9 

7i'4 
72-6 

74' 
68-2 

647 
69-6 

55'i 

66-1 

68-3 

66- 

62-3 

65-2 

637 
66-5 

67-7 

65-2 

71" 

65-5 

417 

68- 
65-4 
72- 
72-5 



2-31 
3-60 
3-80 



2-41 
1-17 
0-65 
0-0 

1-20 
I-IO 
1-65 
0-10 
0-60 
0-60 
0-93 
0-27 
0-23 
0-40 
0-04 

0-99 



67-8 
65-4 
669 
70-6 



85-5 

857 
80-4 

8o- 

94" 

83- 

79-2 

79-8 

81-3 

82-7 

82-4 

85-8 

74" 
82- 
82-5 

82-5 
76-9 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



1-05 
0-24 



0-30 

0-50 
0-20 
1-16 
I'lO 
1-20 

i'54 
0-25 



April. 



May. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



1-90 
1-25 
2-50 

i"6o 

1-70 

3'25 
4-50 
3-05 
0-70 
c-47 

4'39 
1-87 

5 "49 
2-85 



1-45 
0-80 
3-25 
2-40 

1-25 
1-00 
1-25 
1-50 



75' 
80-3 

77" 
82-5 
80-7 
76- 

75'i 
76-5 
65-3 
76-1 

77'5 
767 
70-5 

74* 

73-1 

72-4 

78-5 
757 
82-5 

71-5 
51-8 

75'S 
76-5 
76-8 
79-8 



88-7 

90- 

85- 



86- 

83- 

82-6 

859 

86-9 

89- 

87-5 

8i-5 

85- 

86- 



1-60 74'5 

0-20 75' 

1-08 76-1 

.. 83-4 



1-22 
0-50 
2-15 
1-30 
1-05 
J "45 

1-06 
2-07 
2-25 
210 



0-90 
0-30 
1-50 
4-00 

0-20 
°"35 

o-oo 
0-65 

0-20 

o-6o 



83- 
85- 

77'5i 

81-7 

82-1 

84-8 

84-2 

83-5 

77'3 

777 

67-1 

77-6 

78-9 

777 

72-8 

77'3 
73"5 
75-8 

87-8 
84-2 
89-5 
88- 

55-3 

92-5 

84-5 

83- 

9>" 

86-5 

87-3 
82-9 
81-9 
92-2 



375 
2-79 

2-10 
3-85 
2-60 
0-40 

2-35 

370 
0-23 
2-50 
4-22 
3"35 
174 
i-oo 
1-66 

4-28 

0-50 

2'55 
5-50 
3-18 
2-30 
1-20 
5-30 

i9"35 
27-60 

I0-20 

5'57 

12-11 

8-85 

4-27 

9'43 
8-55 



0-70 
2-00 
4-55 



0*40 
0-80 



0-10 
0-80 



92-9 

95"S 
89- 

94- 

99" 

90- 

88- 

86-2 

90-8 

92-2 

95" 
96- 
87- 
88- 
94' 



85-1 
83-5 
81- 
80-6 

83-3 
88-6 

87-5 
86-8 
82-8 
81-5 
69-3 

79"3 
81-1 
81-6 
77-6 
79-1 
76-2 
79" 

96-4 
91-9 

94' 5 
84-5 
61-9 

93" 

92-5 

89-1 

96-9 

92-5 

96-3 
90-8 



TEMPERATURE AND RAIN IN BENGAL. 



257 



by Medical Officers at Civil and Military Stations in Bengal and the 
for 1851, 




4-50 


86-2 


3-50 


85-8 


12'50 




975 


85-5 


31-00 


63-7 




86-4 


8-20 


86- 


876 


799 


3-2 S 


86-s 


10-45 


«7- 


6-30 


86-5 


15-60 


85-9 


4-4X 


«V3 




88- 



258 



REPORT 1852. 



Tabl 



Mirzapore . . ■ ■ 
Ghazeepore . . . ■ 
Juanpore 

Cawnpore 

Futteghur . ■ ■ 
Mynpoorie . . . 

Itawah 

Humeerpore. . . 

Oorai 

Banda 

Futtepore 

Allahabad . . . 

Saugor 

Dumoh 

Nursingpore . . . 
Hoshungabad . 

Baitool 

Seeonie. 
Jubbulpore • . . 

Nowgong 

Jhansee 

Agra 

Neemuch 

Mnttra 

Erinpoora 

AUyghur. 

Khewaree 

Beawur 

Bolundshuhur. 
Ajmere. 

Meerut 

Delhie 

Goorgaon 

Moradabad . . . 

Bareilly 

Shajehanpore 
Sebarunpore 

Deyra 

Almorah .... 
Budaon .... 

Bijnore 

Nynetal .... 
Landour .... 

Umballa .... 

Simla 

Kussouli .... 
Dugshai .... 
Ferozepore . . 
Loodiaua .... 
Sirsa 



*» o 



25 9-19 82 37-23 
25 34-25 83 37-9 
25 43-48 82 44-7 



26 28-15 80 23-45 ^^'6 

27 23-201 79 40-25 59-7 



January. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



February. 



Mean I 
tempe-' 
rature Rain, 
of the ! 
day. I 



6o- 

64-5 

58-5 



27 1-24 79 13'5» 
26 45-31 79 3-18 
^6 7*49l 79 47'a2 

^6 6-2 80 24-18 
25 27-43 81 54-12 
23 50- 78 47-55 



22 45-43 
21 51-13 



9'39 
3-30 



27 10-26 

24 27-30 
27 28-42 

25 9-15 



SS°o 



7500 



0-41 
31-23 

5324 
12-49 
12-17 

i'35 
57-18 
18-58 
35'io 
S°'33 
22-36 



77 45'S 
77 58-15 

79 59*43 
79 31' 



78 5-4 

75 ^•3° 

77 22-3 

73 9'40 



59*5 
61- 



66-5 
58-5 
64-7 



62- 



1-70 



4"95 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



72-5 

68- 
65- 



676 
64-7 

.. |72- 
2-76 65-5 
1-50 58-5 



2-90 



70-8 

67-4 0-50 
65-7 3-92 



57*5 
65-5 

59" 



30 23-4 

31 6-6 



77 45'3 

77 i3'39 

77 24"35 

78 59-46 

79 34'45 
79 35'ii 

77 35'3° 

78 4-27 

79 4i'i6 
78 44-58 
78 10-32 



65-6 

5^" 



58-S 
55-2 



60-5 

58- 

48- 



42-1 
35-9 



76 48-42 57- 

77 11*1 40- 



42-9 
30 57-051 74 4r4»| 55-9 
30 55-451 75 56-57 



71' 

6i-2 

69- 



67- 



2-60 
2-85 

4-59 



6-29 



3-15 
2-50 



0-37 
1-17 



77-6 

72-3 
70-4 



68 

73-50 



63-5 



64-8 

62-2 

76- 

63-5 

63-0 

64- 

55-5 



1-40 



0-66 

0-63 
o-8o 



2*0O 
1-30 



0-90 

0-66 



1-08 



46-5 
40-7 

60-3 

44-1 

47-4 

45-°5 

62-5 

6i-i 



0*30 
2*90 



3-71 



7-15 

3-50 
2-10 
1-68 
3-25 

O'll 



79* 
74' 

76-9 

75-5 
83- 
75-8 
78-5 

77-2 

70- 

8o-6 



79' 
85-3 

79-5 
8o-8 

79-6 
81-5 

77- 



71-5 



74" I 
71-1 

72-5 
76- 

74- 
6i-5 



76-5 
74*5 
56- 
51-3 

73-2 
53-4 
58-5 
56-8 
72-3 
70-2 



60 



April. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



2-60 



O'lO 

0-22 



1-56 



May. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 



82-5 



85-0 

93- 
85-5 

95- 

92- 
8o- 
92-6 



95' 
90- 
92-9 

94-5 
91-6 
88-6 

88-4 
88-5 



80-5 



83-, 

86-4 

92- 

8i-5 

82- 

8i-5 

72-5 

83-3 

70-1 

90-5 

8r 

6i-2 



0-50 

0-30 
0-36 

0-151 



8i-2 
61-3 

64-1 

84- 

81-9 



0-05 
0-30 



96- 

95- 
93* 

92 
103- 
94-7 
93-5 
86-5 

98-5 
90-2 
loo-i 
91-5 

loo-i 

94* 

87-4 

99-8 
96-4 
96-2 

95-1 

90- 



87- 



o-6o 
0-96 
3-30 
0-50 



86-1 
98-6 

104- 
92- 



1*23 



1-17 



2-16 



0-75 
0-14 



0-14 



89-5 
80-3 

9i'S 
8c'4 
96-5 

87-5 
69-5 



87-9 
66-3 

77-2 
74-2 
92-8 
90-5 



TEMPERATURE AND RAIN IN BENGAL.. 



259 



{continued.) 



June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


«■ 


Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




Rain-fall. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 






day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 






o 


in. 


Q 


in. 


^ 


in. 




in. 




in. 




in. 




in. 


in. 


96- 
















84-5 




71' 




64- 






94" S 


8-40 


88- 


6'20 


86- 


5-70 


86- 


5-70 


83-5 


6-10 


69- 


0-00 


64- 


o-o 


35-8 


94" 
















80- 




68- 




57-5 






95-8 




86-3 




86-9 




77'5 




77-5 




72- 










92-2 


3-22 


84-3 


I5"3S 


85-5 


S'43 


83-4 


6-;7 


78-5 


0-44 


69-4 




63-4 




37-29 


98-5 




94' 5 




88-3 




88-5 




74'S 




6i- 










947 


0-87 


91-5 


1 1 "40 


87-5 


9-23 


82-5 


6-16 


76-5 


0-29 


707 


o-oi 


62-7 


0-05 


31-84 


93"S 


670 


89- 


i2'63 


87- 


10-54 


86-2 


4-81 


82-5 


0-64 


68-2 








37-92 


9i"5 




83-5 




84-5 




78-5 




73' 




65- 










93' 




86- 




87-5 


.. 


83- 




80-5 




62-5 










91' 


i-io 


90- 


8-50 








6-' 


77'5 


1-20 












96-3 




88-9 




91-8 




88- 




81- 




75-6 




68-8 






92- 


^•38 


86- 


1477 


81-2 
82-5 


12-40 


76-5 
79" 


13-23 


76-5 

IT 


1-26 


65-5 
68- 




63-5 






92-3 


1-30 


83- 


17-67 


81-5 


7-38 


80-1 


10-96 


79-2 


0-41 


74' 3 


0-59 


68-5 






90- 


2'00 


85- 


14' 


82- 


9-50 


81- 


17-90 


80- 


1-25 


70- 


0-50 








85-6 


3'5o 


8r 


14-50 


787 


8-90 


79'5 


37° 


82-5 




67-8 


0-20 


70-8 




32-02 


90-8 


5*97 


82-5 


17-17 


83- 


3"93 


79-6 


8-22 


79'S 


1*34 


70-8 


0-37 


65-5 




38-87 


94-8 


3-92 










84-6 




84-3 




74-6 




67-9 






94*4 












8i-i 




85-1 




73-6 




657 






96-1 
86- 


o'3o 
5-00 


86-3 


9-80 


85-4 


9'9S 


83-6 


3-98 


8i-2 


0-57 


67-4 








27-81 


855 






























93-S 


4*oo 


867 


14-70 


87-5 


5-10 


85- 


0-60 


80-1 




69-8 




S9"2 






97-9 


0-39 


86-4 


11-62 


88-5 


6-56 


92- 




81-5 




68-8 




59'6 




25-08 


04- 




93-5 


14-10 


87- 


4-80 


90-1 


















93- 




86- 


13-25 


87-5. 


6-10 


84- 


4-70 


84- 


2-00 












927 


3-04 


85-5 


1 6-8 1 


87-5 


775 


8o- 


17s 


77'5 


2-70 






56-8 






94*5 




89- 




87- 




82- 




78- 














94-8 




86- 




90- 




82- 




78- 




68-4 




62-6 






85-9 
8i-2 




83- 




82- 




80- 




75-2 




64-5 




59'S 






6'9o 


74-6 


10-00 


76-9 


2-00 


777 


S'SS 


7^*3 


2-10 


61-1 




S3'2 






93-2 




88- 


8-85 


88-5 




83-2 




79" 














l^\ 




86- 




87-5 




87- 




79' 














69-6 


ii"65 


67-8 


23-95 


69-2 


24-69 


65-1 
68- 


5-67 


61-5 
64-1 


2-36 
0-95 


50-1 
49-6 


0-31 

2-10 


47*9 
46-3 




82-31 


96-3 


1-30 


87-1 


7-80 


90-7 


3-10 


91-6 


0-60 


84-3 




67-1 




62-2 




25-76 


Ibg-z 


3-50 


64-6 


17-95 


63*4 


11-65 


66-3 




60-2 




52-3 




46-1 






80-9 




75-5 


2-40 


737 




70- 




67-9 














73'9 


3'oo 


70-5 


22-13 


70-6 


6-50 


72-1 




66-2 














97-5 


074 


88-8 


i8-8i 


93'3 


0-18 


94' 




86-1 




70-8 




61- 




23-13 


92-9 


1-50 


86-1 


10-62 


88-4 


2-50 


88-9 




82- 




66-6 




61-6 


0-50 




85- 


2' 


85- 


i6- 
























H 


























s2 





260 



REPORT — 1852. 



- 


Is 


1 
1 


i 
§ 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 


Rain. 


Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 


Rain. 


Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 


Rain. 


Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 


Rain. 


Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 


Rain. 


Hissar 

Landour 

Paneeput. 
Rhotuck 

Lahore 

Jullunder .... 
Hooshearpore . . 

Kangra 

Umritsir 

Mean Meer .... 

Nakoda 

Kurtapore .... 

Peshawur 

Kohat 

Rawulpindee 
Murrie 

Jhelum 

Wuzeerabad 

Sealkote 

DheraGhazeeKh. 
Dheralsmael Kh. 

Ghoojarea 

Mooltan 

Shapore 

Shaikapoora.. .. 

Ghoojrat. 

Jhung. 

Leia. 

MozufFergur. 


ft. 

ii8o 
io68 

1 


31 35-0 
31 19-30 

31 3i'3o 

32 6-10 

31 33-10 
31 7-0 

31 26-40 

34 0-5 

33 32-3° 
33 34-40 

32 55-10 
32 26-20 

30 10-40 


74 22-0 

75 36-45 
75 57-45 
76 19-5 

74 24-30 

75 30-25 
75 32-30 

71 38- 
71 26-25 
73 s-20 

73 45-25 

74 9-50 

71 33-25 


35*9 

53-6 
57-4 
51- 
49-3 

55-8 

55-3 
57-2 

48-8 
50-5 
49-8 

53-1 
53-8 

53- 

50- 
51- 
48-s 

59" 


0-54 

2-40 
3-20 
6-75 
7-25 

0-58 
3-28 
2-58 

3-24 
3-24 

3-59 
3-73 


40-7 

59-9 
51-4 
57-6 

59-7 

61- 

60-9 

58-5 
57-1 

6o- 

61-9 

58-5 

59" 
58-5 

53-5 
66-5 


in. 
I-c 

3-4 
4-; 

yt 

2-4 
2- 

2-4 
2-C 

6-c 
3' 


9 

^2 
5 
5 

1-7 
7 

^0 

32 
58 

)0 


51-3 

69-1 

70-2 
68-7 
82-5 

71-4 
71-9 
70-1 

67-3 
55-1 

71-8 
68-5 
65-5 

69-5 

69- 

59-5 


in. 
0-13 

0-90 

o-o8 
0-29 

0-37 

1-65 
2-6i 

1-56 


81-3 
79-9 

8i-8 
78-1 

8V-5 
83-4 
82- 

77-7 
74-2 

85-3 
8i-8 

77-5 
80-8 

73-5 
86- 


in. 

0-47 

i-oo 
0-20 

0-25 

0-20 
0-50 

I-I5 

2-50 

1-35 


82-5 
104- 

88- 
86-9 

86- 
91-1 

79-5 
93-5 
92- 

90- 
89-4 
78-5 
88- 


in. 
o-lg 

o-o 

2-Ic 



On Experiments on the Laws of the Conduction of Heat. 
By J. D. Forbes, F.R.S. L. &,• E. 
I REGRET to state that my experiments have been altogether suspended since 
the time of my last report by a severe illness which occurred just when I was 
about to renew them. Consequently only a trifling amount of the sum voted 
in 1851 for prosecuting the experiments has been expended; not is it my 
wish at present to have a fresh grant of money, as it is altogether uncertain 
when they may be recommenced. 1 have not, however, neglected to examine 
narrowly the results of the experiments already made, so far as they have 
been reduced. I am glad to say that they appear to be very consistent, and 
the experimental numbers to be worthy of preservation as valuable data in 
the science of heat. 

It is with more reserve that I communicate any conclusions affecting the 
basis of the theory of conductivity as commonly received. But having been 
in possession for more than a year of a result which seems highly probable, 
if not quite certain, I am unwilling to withhold it longer on account of an 
outstanding difficulty which I have not been able satisfactorily to remove. 
The result is this, that in the case of iron (the only one yet tried) the flux 



ON THE LAWS OF THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT. 



261 



(continued.) 



June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October, 


November. 


December. 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




Rain-fall. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 






day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 








in. 
2'l6 


85-5 


in. 

6-27 




in. 




in. 




in. 




in. 




in. 


in. 


94'3 


0-54 


86- 




89-3 




87-8 




76-5 














89-4 


178 


85-9 




88-3 




86- 




76-2 




66- 




S9'4 






92-9 




86- 




85-6 




86-6 




80-9 




64-6 




S9-2 


0-12 




91-2 


3'oo 


8r8 




81-9 




83-5 




78-4 




S9-S 


1-90 


57-4 


0-50 




94- 












8s- 








6rs 










98-2 




86-4 




89-1 




87-5 




7r6 




64- 


0-60 


S9'4 


O'lO 




947 


i'S4 


87-3 




90-3 




90" I 




82- 




66-4 


1-09 


60-4 






94-8 


1-25 


87-5 
9S-S 




9o'6 
887 




87-1 




82-6 

74* 




68-s 
60-6 


i'35 


6o-6 

57-5 


0-2S 




93- 


0-98 


92-1 




90-4 












57-9 




S8- 






90-9 


370 


85-5 




83-^ 




857 


•• 


76-2 




45" 










69-5 




68-4 




667 




62-1 




62-8 














97- 








90- 




84- 








55- 










9S"5 




88-3 




92-1 




887 




8s- 




67- 




61- 






81-5 




84-1 




817 




84- 








64-s 

62- 

63- 




58-6 


































95*5 








89-5 




82- 








S8- 










99"4 




92-3 




92-1 




9^'5 




86-9 




68-4 










86-5 








86-5 




8r 








S6- 










95- 








93" 




93' 








67- 











of heat through the solid is not in a simple direct proportion to the difference 
of temperature of two contiguous thin slices, but varies in a less rapid pro- 
portion; or, the conductivity diminishes as the temperature increases. My 
experiments were so framed as to give the numerical relation between the 
conductivity and the temperature ; but though the numbers, given by expe- 
riments under circumstances essentially different, substantially agree, I do 
not as yet feel justified in assigning a numerical value to the effect of tem- 
perature on the conductivity of iron, until the possible disturbing effect of 
the cause which I have mentioned shall be better ascertained. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my acknowledgements to Professor 
Kelland for the advice which he has, with his usual kindness, from time to 
time afforded me. I still hope to be able to renew these experiments, and 
1 shall not cease to devise plans for their improvement ; in the meantime I 
intend to put on record both the principles of the method and the direct 
results obtained, as well as the reductions ; and also the manipulations which 
experience has taught me, and which I believe will be found of use to any 
future observer. 

Ambleside, 25th August, 1852. 



262 REPORT— 1852. 

On the Chemical Action of the Solar Radiations. 
By Robert Hunt. 

(1). The following results are offered as a small instalment of an exten- 
sive system of examination which I have undertaken. The object in view 
is to determine, with all the accuracy possible, the relation which each 
coloured ray of the prismatic spectrum bears to the chemical action which 
takes place upon the different agents employed in the production of the 
sensitive surface. Since different media exhibit very various degrees of 
absorbent action upon the chromatic rays, as well as on the chemical rays, of 
the spectrum, by employing them we obtain indications by which we may 
determine the relation in which these phgenomena stand to each other. 

(2). The plan upon which I am proceeding is this. Having obtained a 
very extensive series of coloured glasses, and by the solution of chemical 
compounds, procured a still more varied set of transparent coloured solu- 
tions, I analyse the luminous spectrum of a well-formed vertical opening be- 
tween two knife-edges, by passing the spectrum through a particular absorb- 
ent medium. The spectra are obtained, first, by means of an excellent flint- 
glass prism ; again, by one of crown-glass of faultless purity, the manufac- 
ture of Messrs. Chance, Brothers, of Birmingham ; and, thirdly, by a hollow 
prism, in which I have the means of employing fluids of very different re- 
fracting powers. For obtaining the chemical impression of the spectrum, I 
procure a flame-like chromatic image of great intensity, 1 inch in length, from 
a vertical opening in my steel plate. I have adopted this as my measure 
throughout, dividing it into 100 equal parts : thus, all the numbers employed 
are intended to express inches, or the one-hundredth part of an inch. 

(3). The first part of the present Report is devoted to the examination of 
the prismatic spectrum by coloured glasses of various kinds. The numbers 
affixed may appear somewhat irregular, but as they correspond with a very 
extensive series, over many of which I have no control, but which are well 
known to me by these numbers, and can always be obtained, I have thought 
it best to retain them. I have however adopted the plan of numbering my 
paragraphs, so that in referring back there will be no difficulty in comparing 
the chemical with any particular luminous spectrum. 

As I hope to present to the next meeting a far more complete examina- 
tion of this subject, I refrain from offering a single speculation, contenting 
myself for the present with the record of careful observations and exact 
experiments. 

The lines a a' indicate throughout the length of the normal spectrum. 

Analysis of Spectrum by Absorbent Media. — No. 1. 
(A.) Series of Yellow Glasses. 

(4) i6. Deep yellow. Colouring matter Carbon, fig. 1. — The Fig. 1. 
ordinary red rays very intense, but partaking more of a scarlet colour 
from the mixture of yellow than a pure red ; the orange and red rays 
blend so perfectly that it is difficult to define their boundaries. 
Combined, these rays occupy '12. The yellow rays are reduced to 
a line of bright light equal to "10. Beyond these the green rays ap- 
pear very intense, and occupy a M'ell-defined space equal to •25. 
Blue and violet rays, confined within a space equal to '38, appear 
somewhat more luminous than the green, presenting no decided 
colour, but appearing rather as a patch of a pale neutral tint. 

(5) 15. Straw- YELLOW. Silver stain upon one surface only. — Shortens 
the spectrum by two-thirds of the violet, so that its entire length is reduced 




h 


J' 


( 


y 


€ 


►' , 


i' 


III'- a' 




a 


J! 



ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 263 

to '80 ; the other rays continue unchanged, exhibiting a tolerable degree of 
intensity. When concentrated by a lens the violet ray is seen to suffer yet 
further extinction relatively to the other rays. 

(6) 1 8. Medium yellow, believed to be Charcoal. — The red ray exhibits 
more crimson from the introduction of blue ; orange and yellow well-defined ; 
green ray somewhat shortened, but exhibiting considerable intensity, and well- 
defined. The blue ray reduced to a small band, and the rays beyond are 
only indicated by a pale stream of light, neutral in colour. 

(7) 14. Brown yellow, bi/ Carbon, fig. 2. — Red Fig. 2. Fig- 3. 

and yellow rays are considerably reduced ; the green is ^ ^ 

well-defined, shading off" into blue, of which a faint 
portion alone remains, the space beyond appearing ra- 
ther a lavender colour than violet. 

(8) 17. Deep yellow, fey Iron, fig. 3. — This spec- 
trum consists of four well-defined and nearly equal 
circles, or rather oval spaces. No blue can be de- 
tected in the spectral image ; the green rays occupying 
the place of the blue ; the yellow rays considerably ex- 
tended ; the red rays are well-defined, but on the upper 

edge a band of scarlet or deep orange is detected when the eye has become 
accustomed to the light. The violet has more red than usual in the rays ; 
and at the upper edge, after long gazing, is seen a faint line of neutral gray, 
the lavender ray of Herschel. 

(9) 45. A yellow glass, having a peculiar pink hue. — Does not pro- 
duce any change on the coloured rays of the spectrum ; it appears to pro- 
long the yellow by reducing the upper edge of the orange and the lower 
edge of the green. 

(10) 1x3. Very dark smoky brown. — All blue flowers appear of a 
deep red brown. Purple and claret- coloured flowers lose all their blue, and 
appear red. The red, orange and green rays only are visible through this 
glass, and the illuminating power of those is very considerably diminished. 

(11) 114. A LIGHTER BROWN THAN 113. — A Very much morc decided 
action on natural colours than 113. An examination of the spectrum shows 
that the red rays are slightly shortened ; the orange and yellow rays blend, 
the yellow coming out in much purity ; the green rays are well-defined, but 
cut off somewhat sharply at the more refrangible end. Beyond these, by 
accustoming the eye to the light, a faint trace of blue becomes gradually 
apparent. 

(B.) Series of Red Glasses, 

Fig. 4. 

(12) 50. Pink GLASs(notveryclear), fig. 4. — The illuminating 
powers of all the rays considerably reduced. The violet rays are 
lengthened and the indigo lost ; the blue also considerably short- 
ened. The influence of this glass is of a very marked character in 
separating the rays from each other, every ray visible being well 
marked out. The orange rays are only made out after long exa- 
mination as a line of inconsiderable width edging the red rays. 
By using two thicknesses of this glass, and a spectrum concen- 
trated by a lens, the orange rays are brought out as a well-marked 
band, edged by two black lines. 

(13) 13. Violet glass, fig. 5. — 1st. Rays passed through the glass 
to the prism. The spectrum appears divided into two distinct parts. The 
illuminating power of all the rays lessened. In the lower section ( 1, a), 
red, orange and green are visible ; blue and violet occupying the space b. If 




264 



REPORT — 1852. 




Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7. 






the spectrum is concentrated by a lens and then Fig 5. 

examined through this glass, the images appear 

as in (2 a), joined by a thin neck of a neutral 

tint. Few spectra are more beautiful than this 

when all the extraneous light is cut off, each 

colour being so very distinctly and clearly made 

out, the lower illumination enabling the eye to 

examine it without weariness or confusion. 

(14) 12. Red glass (Gold), fig. 6. — The 
spectrum becomes an oval spot of intense red- 
ness with a prolongation of the same colour ; the 
red oval comprehending all the rays from the upper end 
of yellow to the end of ordinary red, and the prolongation 
extends to the edge of the blue. 

(15) 117. Violet-coloured glass, fig. 7- — Blue 
flowers observed through it appear far more red than 
under ordinary circumstances. The spectrum separated 
into two long ovals, one, h, being violet, and the other, 
c, exhibiting the red and green rays only, the spectrum 
being very considerably shortened at the least refran- 
gible end. 

(16) 119. Violet. — This glass obstructs but a very 

small quantity of light, and its action upon the spectrum is not very decided. 
The red rays are seen in great beauty and purity extending over the space 
covered by the orange rays; the yellow is very pure, but the green is some- 
what diminished in intensity, and also in length. The violet rays are prolonged 
into the blue, thus shortening the latter, which are however very brilliant. 

(17) 48. A deep and not very pure violet. — The red rays are slightly 
shortened at the lower end, but they appear extended as they in- 
crease in refrangibility, so that the orange and yellow rays present 
a long band of a pale orange tint uniform throughout. The blue 
rays are sharply cut off from the violet, the interposing indigo being 
nearly black ; the violet rays being themselves exceedingly beau- 
tiful and clear. 

(18) 104. Lilac glass (Manganese), fig. 8 — Reds of flowers 
seen in strong contrast with the leaves, which appear darker from 
the loss of their yellow. The yellow rays of the spectrum are nearly 

obliterated ; red shortened ; green is gradually lost in black sha- 

dow, and all the other rays blended in an intense oval patch of blue. 

(C.) Series of Green Glasses. 

(19) 36. Apple GREEN glass. — The red rays are shortened one-half, 
the yellow extends into the orange, and is sharply cut off without any blend- 
ing at the edge of the red ; on the more refrangible side the green 
encroaches considerably on the yellow, and upwards into the blue ; 
the violet by extending into the blue obliterates the indigo. 

(20) 33. Intense GREEN, fig. 9. — All the rays below the orange 
are cut off; the yellow and green form one tint of pale pea-green. 
The blue rays are very light in colour, losing but little of their 
illuminating power, and these are fringed with a deep band of 
indigo ; no violet rays apparent. 

(21) 34. Green. Copper of great brilliancy, j^g. iO. — The red 
below the orange cut ofl'; does not shorten the violet end, but pro- 
duces a great extension of tiie blue ; the green rays encroach consi- 



Fig. 8. 




Fig. 9. 











ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 265 

derably on the yellow. The chemical action commences at "IS from ^'g- 1^. 
the line a' ; the orange occupies the space of *10, the yellow about 
•16, but blending with the green; this is not easy of exact deter- 
mination ; the green occupying about "25, and the blue and vio- 
let "38. There is a considerable loss of light in the spectrum. 

(22) I20. Green glass acting powerfully on all the reds of 
flowers, &c. — Cuts off one-half the red, extends the yellow, and con- 
sequently reduces the green of the spectrum. The blue is shortened 
by an extension of the violet. Although the reds of the least re- 
frangible end of the spectrum suffer considerably, those which are 

most refrangible pass this glass (copper) freely. 

(23) 121. Green glass (Copper). — Reduces the reds of spectrum ; brings 
the violet down on the blue ; but the violet less red than ordinary. 

(24) 122. Green glass. — Nearly the same as the last (121). Kg- H- 
There is little change on the lower rays, but the blue and violet 
rays are reduced to one-half their ordinary linear dimensions. 

(25) ii6. Deep iron-green, fig. 11. — All the reds of flowers 
observed through this glass become nearly black. The spectrum 
exhibits two spots of pure crimson; perfect blackness between them. 
A spot of yellow of great purity, from which the green shades off 
into a light blue, which becomes very bright, and then passes into 
a line of indigo. The violet is entirely wanting. 

(26) 115. A PALE smoky-green. — Acts buttery slightly upon 
any of the rays. 

(27) 44. Deep iron-green, fig. 12. — Cuts off the lower red rays ; Fig. 12. 
admits the permeation of the orange rays freely. The green very 
much blended with the yellow, so that it is only by adjusting with 
great care that a line of yellow can be seen. The blue and violet 
rays suffer scarcely any change, the lengths of these rays being rela- 
tively as follows: — green '30, blue •25, violet '15. 

(28) 6. Intense copper-green. — The spectrum appears as 
orange, green, blue and violet. The yellow rays are entirely want- 
ing ; a very thin line of red appears at the lower end of orange ; the 
violet is considerably reduced by the loss of red. SL 

In all the deep greens we find the violet rays almost entirely destroyed 
owing to the removal of the red. It is from results of this character that I 
am led to believe the violet rays to be due to a reappearance of red rays 
amongst the more refrangible ordinary rays. 

(29) 52. Yellowish-gfeen glass. — This glass has but very slight ac- 
tion on the spectrum, defining more perfectly than ordinary the limits of the 
violet, but producing no sensible change on any other of the chromatic rays* 

(30) 107. Light green. — The reds of flowers are lost, the flowers ap- 
pearing purple. Yellows are also lost, the yellow blossom of the Elder tree, 
&c. becoming pure while. 

The violet rays are considerably cut off; the other rays are well-defined, 
but more green and less yellow than ordinary. 

(31) 119. Light BOTTLE-GREEN. — Produces no evident change on na- 
tural colours ; its action on the specttum is merely to define the spaces of 
tlie rays without producing any other change. 

(32) 110. Deep bottle-green. — Natural blues are blackened, and the 
paler reds suffer slightly. This glass cuts off all the most refrangible rays ; 
a band of violet, or blue with some red, is seen lining the edge of the green. 
The green rays very brilliant, and yellow passing to whiteness ; the red rays 
suft'ering scarcely any change. 



266 



REPORT 1852. 



(33) I02. OnvE-GREEN. — Green of spectrum somewhat more yellow; 
the violet diminished by an elongation of the indigo ; tlie violet appearing as 
a border to the indigo only. 

(34) 103. Deep olive-green. — Red flowers not to be distinguished from 
the green leaves; spectrum diminished to red, yellow and green rays, the red 
being very much reduced in extent, and the yellow and orange blended. 

(D.) Series ofJBlue Glasses. 

(35) 49. A LIGHT BLUE, fig. 13. — The spectrum is represented Fig. 13. 
in its three primary rays, suffering a little reduction in length ; when 
concentrated by a lens a little violet appears at the extreme edge 
of the blue. Natural objects do not suffer much change when ob- 
served through this glass ; purple flowers lose more of their red 
than blue, and violet-coloured ones appear nearly pure blue. 

(36) 46. Intense cobalt-blue, fig. l^. — The ordinary red ray 
disappears, and a pure crimson ray, the extreme red, is seen below 
the lower edge a' of the ordinary spectrum and extending up to the 
mean yellow. All the rays but the blue, which becomes very 
intense, and a trace of violet at v, are ob- 1. 
literated, the red rays being sharply cut off at 
y, between which and the blue a dark band 
appears. When concentrated by a lens, the 
spectrum is changed, as shown in (2). The 
lower crimson ray at a' becoming a defined 
circle, surrounded by a band of intense black- 
ness, which extends to the second circle at ?/, 
whichr instead of being crimson, as was conti- 
nued in the neck of (1), is now of a lavender 
hue, from the mixture of some yellow with the 

red, the blue is condensed, the black at the lowest edge being an intense 
indigo. 

(37) 3. Combined blue and green glasses, fig. 16. — Looking at the 
spectrum through these glasses, every trace of red is obliterated, the resulting 
spectrum being a pure green and blue. Making the rays pass from -ptg. 16. 
the prism to a lens (fig. 15), and causing the concentrated rays to ^ 

Fig. 15. 



Fig. 14. 




\^ 




permeate this combination, the result is somewhat more decided. The spec- 
trum is not shortened at the most refrangible end, but the red of the violet 
is entirely removed, forming a pure blue patch equal to '8. Over the space 
marked g the green is far more luminous than over any other part, and the 
ravs gradually darken towards the lower end. 

"(38) 105. Deep cobalt-blue, fig. 17. — The red of flowers, as of the 
Fuchsia, &c., is entirely lost, and not to be distinguished from the green leaves. 
The surface of leaves appears a grey or blue, with a few exceptions ; the Arbor 
vitcB assumes a red-brown colour, remarkable from the striking contrast it 
makes with the surrounding trees. The leaves of the Currant and several 




ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 267 

other plants appear red on their under surface when examined through this 

glass, the light falling on the upper surface, and being trans- j-jg. 17. 

mitted. Yellow Nasturtiums become of an intense brown. Blue 

Larkspurs not to be distinguished from the leaves. The violet 

and blue rays form a large oval, which, encroaching on the 

green, reduces it to a line bordering the lower edge of the blue. 

Yellow, a well-defined circular spot, ordinary red obliterated, 

and the extreme red forming a well-defined circular image quite 

surrounded by a black band. A prism of crown-glass gives 

the same result, as does also the hollow prism filled with Castor 

oil. The extension of this spectrum is remarkable. 

(39) 108. Pale grey-blue appears to act most upon the 
yellow of natural objects, but produces no marked difference in 
the general tints. Its action on the spectrum is very slight ; the yellow ray 
is somewhat reduced in size, and appears whiter than ordinary ; and the 
green is lessened by the blue ray encroaching on it. 

(40) 112. A SMOKY-BLUE. — No cffcct ou coloufs generally; increases 
the extent of the violet and diminishes the blue. The yellow suffers, green 
passing into it ; orange lost in the red. 

(41) III. Blue-grey. — Produces a slight, but by no means a marked 
change on the colours of natural objects ; defines more perfectly the line 
between the blue and violet, and by lowering the yellow gives a more de- 
cided margin to the green. 

(42) 1x8. Pale blue, fig. 18. — The reds of flowers are nearly Fig. 18. 
lost when observed through this glass, all extraneous light being 
shut off from the eyes. The red rays of the spectrum are thrown 
into two circles, and the yellow into a well-marked patch. The 
green rays are well defined ; blue and indigo do not appear to 
suffer change. The red of the violet is completely lost. 

(43) 123. Light cobalt-blue. — The red of the spectrum is 
brought into a well-defined oval, the yellow very distinct; the green 
rays are considerably reduced. The blue rays extended, and con- 
sequently the violet rays are much diminished. 

(44) 47. Deep purple glass. — Red, orange, green, and blue rays ad- 
mitted ; violet only distinguished after long examination. When concen- 
trated by a lens, the violet becomes quite visible as a well-defined band of 
coloured light. 

(E.) Miscellaneous. 

(45) 101. Smoke-coloured glass. — Does not appear to alter the co- 
lours of natural objects observed through it. Blue of spectrum nearly ob- 
literated, but the indigo and violet rays are extended ; entire length of 
spectrum is not lessened. The most remarkable feature is the way in which 
the spectrum is extended over the violet end, proving the existence of red 
rays far down in the ordinary blue rays. 

(46) 106. A GREY GLASS. — Removes some red from the violet and 
shortens it. All the rays lose in luminous power, otherwise they do not 
appear, relatively, to change. 

(47) 115. Smoke-coloured, having a green tint. — Scarcely any 
action on either of the rays ; there is a little loss of light. 

(48) 151. Glass very slightly smoky. — No change can be detected 
when this glass is interposed. 




268 



REPORT — 1852. 



Chemical Series, No. 1. 

Chemical Spectra obtained after the Prismatic Spectrum has been analysed 
by the interposition of Transparent Coloured Screens. 

Photographic Agent. 
Collodio-iodide of Silver on Glass Plates*. 

Tlie numbers preceding the coloured glass employed, refer to the numbers attached to each 
particular medium in the previous series. No. 1. Those following the colour refer to the 
paragraph. 

(49). Normal Spectrum, formed by a very pure flint-glass prism. — Light 
admitted between two knife-edges, separated ^th of an inch, and generally 
passed through a hole of the same diameter in an inner screen. The chro- 
matic image was received on a white tablet in a perfectly black box ; its 
length, when most accurately adjusted, was 1 inch and 2%ths, but for con- 
venience this has been reduced to 1 inch and divided into 100 parts, and re- 
latively to this all the chemical spectra have been corrected (1 :2). 



(50). Without any interposed medium, fig. 19. — Chemical 
action commences "dO above the lower end of red, and from 
this point extends to the length of 1^ inch. Over the 
space covered by the red and orange rays are indications 
•of a well-defined circle of protective action ; immediately 
above this a dusky brown commences, forming a kind of 
fringing which is extended to '60, and in a similar manner 
it bounds the whole of the spectrum. This is due to 
diffused light, which I always find bordering the spectrum. 
Over a space equal to "10 a well-defined black space ap- 
pears, then the action weakens, but is still strong over •?, 
when it again increases just at the end of the violet, and 
is somewhat sharply cut off at 1*90 above 0, or lowest 
red, presenting an image similar to that represented in 
the margin. Placing the glass at a small angle, and ob- 
serving the spectrum by reflexion, the lower dark space 
comes out very strongly, and the whole space above it 
appears of a dark semi-metallic purple shaded by a dusky 
brown border. 

Glasses (A.) Yellow Media. 

(51) 1 6. Deep yellow (4), fig. 20. — Chemical ac- 
tion commencing over the region of the indigo and violet 
rays, the most intense action appearing to take place 
about the line H of Fraunhofer. It forms eventually a 
well-defined oval, the greatest amount of darkening going 
on in the centre of the impressed spectrum, a protected 
band, well-defined from the other parts of the surface, in 

* The collodion was made with gun-cotton which had been pre- 
pared with nitrate of potash and sulphuric acid. This being well 
washed was dissolved in aether. Iodide of potassium was dissolved in 
spirits of wine and iodide of silver added so long as it would take 
up any, and two drachms of this were mixed with one fluidounce of 
the collodion. The solution of silver employed was 30 grains to the 
fluidounce of distilled water. The image was always developed by 
pyrogallic acid. 



Fig. 19. 




Fig. 20. 




ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR KADIATIONS. 269 

contrast with the little darkening from extraneous light beyond the luminous 
image. The space between a and the lower end of the impressed spectrum 
is very decidedly protected from change. Upon placing the Fig. 21. 
glass in a solution of hyposulphite of soda, and allowing it to 
remain for some time, the variations of action are more ap- 
parent: — 1st, the very dark centre; 2nd, a band of much 
weaker action ; 3rd, a far more energetic band surrounding 
the whole ; and 4th, a protected band extending from the lower 
point far below this as a protected circle, as indicated by the 
shading in the figure. 

(52) 1 8. Medium yellow (6), fig. 21 — Chemical action 
commences above the yellow ray, upon the confines of, but in 
the green, commencing •40 above lower red, the space oc- 
cupied by the green rays being impressed as a well-defined 
oval of the length of '25, then a neck of very much lower in- 
tensity of -20 ; a large and well-defined oval '90 in length, 
exhibiting the greatest degree of intensity in the middle space, 

shaded off to the edges. The length of impressed spectrum 

1*40, and from the zero a! to end of chemical action 1*85, or pig. 22. 
length of action beyond luminous spectrum at a 'S5. Here 
we have an extinction of the violet and indigo rays ; and over 
the space occupied by the blue rays a comparatively weak 
action, this action being continued with very much energy 
over the space occupied by the dark rays. The indication of 
protected spaces around the spectrum is less evident than in 
many other examples. 

(53) 114. Light red-brown (11), fig. 22. — Action com- 
mencing at "75 and extending with tolerably uniform inten- 
sity to 1-60, and gradually shading off to 1'85. At the lower 
end the action descends slowly to '65. A brown line of 
shading appears around this spectrum, but this is probably due 
to dispersed light, since this shading is considerably increased 
when many clouds are floating about. 



Glasses (B.) Red Media. 

(54) 13. Violet glass (13), fig. 23 Chemical action commences at -60 

above 0, and is then continued with tolerable uniformity to 1"35, a faint sha- 
ding being prolonged about "15 further, or -50 beyond the luminous spectrum. 
The long dark oval in the interior of the spectrum exhibits a more intense 
chemical action than the other portion ; this darkened space appears to 
belong mainly to the upper oval of the luminous pig. 23. Fig. 24, 

spectrum and over the dark space beyond it. In 
some other experiments, during a period when 
the sky was covered with light white clouds, and 
consequently when the intensity of the sunshine 
was varying, the chemical limits were subject 
to constant changes, commencing sometimes as 
high as '70 and terminating at '30. 

{55) 104. Lilac glass (18), fig. 24. — Che- 
mical action commences at "75 and ceases en- 
tirely at 1*25, forming thus one small patch of 
changed silver, commencing near the line H, and 
occupying but about one half-inch of space. 




270 



REPORT 1852. 



More than half of the blue rays are inactive, the action being 
confined to the space of the violet and the lavender ra"5's. 
(56) 12. Red (Gold) (l^), fig. 25. — A great number 
of experiments have been made with the hope of detecting 
some chemical action on the iodized collodion by the 
bright crimson rays which permeate this glass. In no 
instance have I been successful; instead of obtaining any 
indication of change, the only result has been the occa- 
sional evidence of a protecting action over the spot on 
which the oval red patch, described in the analysis of 
the spectrum, falls when diflPused radiations have acted 
on the sensitive surface generally. 



Fig. 25. 




Glasses (C.) Green Media. 



Fig. 26. 




(57) 36. Bright apple-green (19), 
fig. 26. — Action appears singularly divided. 
Two spaces of most intense action, corre- 
sponding with the green and violet rays as 
shown at y, v, these being surrounded with 
a band of a chocolate-brown colour. By 
placing the glass in a strong solution of the 
hyposulphite of soda the outer band is 
readily dissolved off, but the ovals y, v resist 
for a long time the action of the solvent, 
dissolving indeed, only when the film of col- 
lodion separates from the glass. 

(58). The former result was obtained in 

London. On repeating the experiments at a^ a" 

Falmouth, a very different result was ob- 

tained. The action commencing at "60, and continuing to 1*60, an extended 
though much weaker action is prolonged to '35. The experiments having 
been repeated several times in both localities under precisely the same con- 
ditions as regards prism, size of opening between knife-edges, length of 
spectrum, &c., these results indicate some peculiar atmospheric conditions. 
These, however, can only be determined by several sets of experiments at 
different times. 

(59) 6. Intense copper-green (28),fig. 27. 
— Intense action, producing a bronzed line, 
commences at "60 and extends to I'lO, or over 
a space equal to '50. A weak action extends 
down to '45, marking the space occupied by 
the green ray. A similar modified action 
extends upward to 1'60. By long exposure a 
light fringe appears over the space occupied 
by the yellow rays, the actual chemical spec- 
trum being 1'35 in length. The fringe around 
the lower part of the spectrum, which is not 
readily explained, is a tolerably constant re- 
sult. It may possibly arise from some refrac- 
tion of the rays near the Fraunhofer line B, 
within the glass plate. 

(60) 34. Green (Copper) (21), fig. 28.— 
Action commences at "60, and it is continued 



Fig. 27. 



Fig. 28. 




ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 271 

with full intensity to 1'15. This forms a well-defined dark olive-green oval 
spot ; it is somewhat smaller at the upper end ; the chemical action is then 
continued faintly to 1-35, and still more faintly to 1-60. At the lower end the 
impressed image descends to -50, and a faint border of dusky brown sur- 
rounds the spectrum, which is impressed over a space equal to 1'5. The prin- 
cipal action is limited to the blue and the rays above it. 

(61) 33. Intense green (20), fig. 29. — The action here on Kg- 29. 
the most sensitive collodion plates is exceedingly slow, and after 9 

an exposure of five minutes in the brightest sunshine, the only S: 

indication of any chemical action is the appearance of a faint 
spot near the line H. This when acted on by the pyrogallic * 
acid becomes very dark, and another spot a little beyond the 
violet rays makes its appearance. 

(62). In the camera obscura, which has been devised for 
working with the very sensitive and beautiful collodion process 

in the open air, yellow glasses have been introduced for the ^ 

purpose, as it was thought, of cutting off the chemical rays, at 
the same time as light enough was admitted to enable the operator to see 
his work. The results obtained (see Yellow Media) clearly prove that rays, 
chemically active for collodion, pass the yellow media very freely; some 
green glasses, as the above, offer much more obstruction, but red glasses ap- 
pear to be still more effective. 

(63) 44. Deep iron-green (27) The action of this spectrum is very 

slow, and confined to the limits between the mean green ray and the extreme 
violet. In a great many experiments the spectrum impressed has been always 
limited to the space -50 ; that is, it has commenced in the middle of the 
luminous spectrum and terminated with the violet rays. Very weak hypo- 
sulphite of soda washes off the darkened portion so readily, that I am led to 
infer that it is an exceedingly superficial dust upon the surface only. 

(64) 116. Another deep iron-green (25). — By long-continued action 
there is scarcely a trace of any chemical change. Here we have an example 
of a spectrum in which the blue class of rays, ordinarily called the chemical 
rays, are very brilliant, yet they are chemically inactive upon this most sen- 
sitive photographic preparation. 



Glasses (D.) Slue Media. 

(65) 105. Deep cobalt-blue (38), fig. 30. — The 
rapidity of action with this medium prevents the marking 
of many of the more remarkable gradations of change 
which appear to go on within the chemical spectrum. 
Chemical action commences between 'TO and 1"70, and ex- 
tends up to 2"20. The inner portion of this spectrum 
appears the lightest, but in reality ^the action has been 
much more intense over this section than on any other 
part, and the semi-transparency of this portion is due to 
the complete production of metallic silver in a state of 
fine division. Ammonia will dissolve off the outer dark 
brown edge, but does not act in the slightest degree on 
the inside oval space. The spectrum obtained without 
any interposed medium is, upon collodion, of less extent 
than that now described ; it is, usually, a long flame- 
shaped band of 1*60 or 1*70 in length, and of uniform 
intensity throughout. The operation of the cobalt-blue 



Fig. 30. 




272 



REPORT — 1852. 



glasses on the spectrum indicates'some peculiar influences, which require more 
extensive study than they have yet received. The remarkable difference 
between the luminous and the chemical spectrum is very striking, and it ap- 
pears to indicate the independent existence of the actinic or chemical rays. 

(66) 3. Combination blue and green (37), fig. 31.— The spectrum 
impressed by long exposure commences at -4.5 and terminates sharply at 1-0, 
there being no indication of anv action beyond the visible spectrum. It will 
be found by examining the drawing of the luminous spectrum obtained 



when the light has passed this combination of j-^g. 31. 
glasses, that the action commences at the lower 
edge of the green rays. The whole space im- 
pressed has equal intensity throughout, with a 
brightening of the silver in the middle. 

(67) 49. A Light blue (35), fig. 32.— The 
action commences at the lower edge of the blue 
rays -55 from 0, and extends to 1'40, when it is 
suddenly interrupted. Considering the usual 
character of blue glasses, and that this one is of 
an unusually transparent nature, it will be ne- 
cessary to subject it to a much more search- 
ing examination than it has yet received. That 

the chemical change is very superficial, is proved by the Rg. 33, 
rapidity with which the hyposulphite of soda removes the 
impression. . 

(68) 46. Cobalt-blue (36), fig. 33.— Action com- 
mencing at -75, extending with full energy to 1-50; at 
the lower edge it is continued with faint shading to -55, 
and even some very slight continuation to -0, which is to 
be detected by placing the collodion glass plate upon a 
sheet of white paper and viewing it at a small angle, and 
shading off at the most refrangible end, until at 2-10 all 
action appears to cease. This is the greatest extension 
of the spectrum which up to this date (August 20, 1852) 
has been obtained ; and in two experiments made in very 
intense sunshine at noon-day, a well-marked spot has 
been obtained -10 below 0, as marked in the drawing. 
This spot will be found to correspond with one of Sir 
John Herschel's heat spots, and may possibly be referred 
to some peculiar chemical action due to the so-called /^a- 
rathermic rays. The presence of vapour, in the form of 
light cloud or mist, however attenuated, appears to ob- 
st'ruct this peculiar class of rays. 

(E.) Miscellaneous Series. 

(69) loi. Smory-coloured glass (46), fig. 34. — Che- 
mical action commences at -70 and extends to 1-90. At the 
least refrangible end the impression descends faintly to -50. 
The maximum of action is within the limits of the visible most 
refrangible rays, the most intense spot being near Fraunhofer's 

line H. , , . , 1 • r 

Those media which have been employed in the analysis OJ 
the prismatic spectrum, and are described in the optical series, 
but which do not appear in the chemical one, have been omitted, 
until further experiments confirm, or the contrary, the results 
which have been obtained. 



Fig. 32. 




Fig. 34. 



THE FLAX PLANT. 272 



On the Composition and (Economy of the Flax Plant. By Dr. Hodges, 
F.C.S., Professor of Agriculture, Queen's College, Belfast, and 
Chemist to the Chemico-Agricultural Society. 

Next in importance to the study of the substances which serve man for food, 
is the investigation of the composition and ceconomy of the materials which 
yiehi him clothing. Among the plants which, from the most remote anti- 
quity, have been valued for their textile adaptation, those of the Linacese 
family — and especially the Linum usitatissimum, a native of our own country, 
and widely spread over Europe, and also found in Hindostan and North 
America — have occupied a prominent place; the flax plant, we have reason 
to believe, having been cultivated for its fibre in the earliest seats of civi- 
lization, and manufactured in the tents of the patriarchal fathers of our race. 
We find that it was worn in the temples, and the microscope has demon- 
strated that it was entombed in the sepulchres of Egypt. It also appears 
that its valuable qualities were known to the ancient tribes of northern and 
western Europe. 

A complete account of the flax plant, and its industrial applications in 
Ireland, should include — 1st, the history of flax cultivation in Ireland; 2nd, 
an account of the processes of cultivation ; 3rd, an examination of the chemical 
composition of the plant; 4th, an account of its technical preparation. 

The second division of the subject, however, belongs so exclusively to the 
practical department of agriculture, that its consideration may at present be 
properly omitted ; and though it would be out of place to occupy much time 
in this Section with the first division, yet a few remarks may be permitted, 
for the purpose of exhibiting the attention which, from a very remote period, 
seems to have been directed to flax cultivation in this country, and as illus- 
trative of its vast importance to the inhabitants of the province in the com- 
mercial capital of which we are now assembled. 

1 . The History of Flax Cultivation in Ireland. — From the earliest periods, 
we have reason to believe that the inhabitants of this island were acquainted 
with the valuable qualities possessed by the fibre of the flax plant, and manu- 
factured it for clothing. By whom, however, or from what country it was 
introduced, we have no satisfactory record ; for the assertion made by some 
writers, that the Phoenicians were the instructors of the Irish people, is 
totally destitute of historical foundation. Our Irish name for flax is Lhin, 
which word is also applied to thread, while the term Anairt, which is used 
to express a kind of coarse linen cloth worn by the peasantry. Dr. O'Donovan, 
of Queen's College, whose extensive and valuable researches in connexion 
with the native records of this kingdom are so well known, informs me has 
no cognate term in any language with which he is acquainted, and is evidently 
a word of great antiquity. In the Brehon laws, also, we find it enjoined that 
the Brughaidhs or farmers must be acquainted with the mode of working flax. 
The linen shirt, dyed yellow, indeed, appears to have been a national dress ; 
and the celebrated Jesuit, Edmund Campion, speaking of the "meere" Irish, 
describes their fondness for capacious linen garments. " Linen shirts," he 
says, " the rich doe weare for wantonness and bravery, with wide hanging 
sleeves, playted ; thirtie yards are little enough for one of them." The 
importance of flax cultivation in Ireland appears to have been fully recognized 
by the English government, as may be inferred from the number of legislative 
enactments and grants for its encouragement. In 1809, we find that govern- 
ment appropriated the sum of £20,000 for this purpose. The exertions of 
several national societies have also been directed to the promotion of flax 

1852. T 



274 REPORT— 1852. 

cultivation ; and by the labours of the Royal Dublin Society, the parent of 
all our agricultural associations, important improvements were introduced in 
the management of this crop. Since the establishment, in 1841, of the Royal 
Flax Improvement Society of Ireland — an association of proprietors and ma- 
nufacturers, which was originated, and holds its meetings in this town — there 
has been expended of money, collected by subscriptions from members, 
£.8000, and of money granted by the government to the Society, for the pro- 
motion of flax cultivation in the south and west of Ireland, £4-000. Yet, 
notwithstanding the efforts Avhich have been made by governments and 
societies to stimulate the culture of flax, and though the total extent of the 
crop produced last year was estimated by the Census Commissioners as equal 
to 138,619 acres, the value of which would be about £1,700,000, this produce 
is only about a fourth of that annually required by the rapidly increasing 
manufactures of the United Kingdom. Though flax is at present cultivated 
in almost every part of Ireland, yet it is in Ulster that this branch of industry 
has attained its ciiief development. Of the 138,619 acres of flax grown in 
1851, only 14,893 acres were beyond the bounds of this province. It is in 
Ulster, also, that the principal seats of its manufacture are to be found. 

2. The Composition of the Flax Plant. — In reference to the third division 
of the subject, I conceive that the most satisfactory method will be to com- 
municate the history of a crop grown by myself for experimental purposes, 
the progress of which I was able carefully to watch, from the sowing of the 
seed till its conversion into dressed flax for the market. Some of the details 
which I have collected, though of importance in the study of agricultural 
science, have not been hitherto much attended to in this country. 

The field selected for the experiments was situated about a mile and a 
half from Belfast; it has a south-west aspect, and the soil is a sandy loam, 
composed of transported materials, such as are common in the districts sur- 
rounding Belfast. It had been occupied as a grazing field for four years, 
and allowed to produce rich crops of thistles and ragweeds. Its chemical 
examination proved that it contained a fair supply of all the ingredients re- 
quired for the purposes of cultivation : 100 parts had the following compo- 
sition : — 

Organic matters 6'60 

Oxide of iron 2-06 

Alumina 2*00 

Carbonate of lime 1*91 

Sulphate of lime I'Ol 

Phosphate of lime O'lS 

Carbonate of magnesia 0*06 

Salts of potash and soda 2*40 

Insoluble siliceous matters 83'32 

99-54 

Water in the sample .... 3"00 

Textural composition. — Clay, fine sand, and organic matters. . . . 16*50 
Coarse sand and gravel 83*50 



100*00 



Progress of the Crop. — On the 16th of April, 1851, a portion of the field, 
measuring exactly 70 yards by 70, which had been prepai-ed by spade labour 
in winter, was reduced to a fine tilth by harrowing and rolling, and sown 



THE FLAX PLANT. 275 

with two and a half bushels of clean Riga seed of superior quality. The 
weather had been dry for some time; but in the evening, after the sowing, 
0*300 inches of rain fell. 

On the 28th of April the young plants appeared above the soil. 

Mean temperature, from 16th April, 46°'5 Fahr. 
Quantity of rain 1'385 inch. 

On the 14th of May the surface of the field was green ; each plant con- 
sisted of two leaves. 

May 31.— Each plant, with root, measured about 6 inches. Eight plants 
were taken for examination, and were found, when all traces of adherent 
earth were removed, to weigh 36 grs. They were dried at 212°, and care- 
fully incinerated in a platinum vessel, and were found to be composed as 
follows : — 

Per-centage composition. 
Fresh plants. Dry. 

Water 30-18 83-833 

Organic matters 509 14.-139 87-4-46 

Inorganic matters . . 0-73 2-028 12-554 

36-00 100-000 100-000 

June 26. — Two plants, with roots, were taken from the same part of the 
field as those last examined. The plants were just about to flower. Height 
of each above surface of soil, 22^ inches. Both together weighed 60 grs. 

Per-centage composition. 
Fresh plants. Dry. 

Water 81-917 

Organic matters 16*837 93-11 

Inorganic matters 1*246 6-89 

100-000 100-000 

June 28. — The plants were in flower. Mean temperature, from their first 
appearance above the soil (60 days), 53°-7 Fahr. 

July 7. — One plant in flower was taken. Height, 29 inches. Weight of 
entire plant, 26-05 grs. 

Per-centage composition. 
Fresh plants. Drv. 

Water 73-321 

Organic matters 25*144 94*25 

Inorganic matters 1*535 5*25 

100*000 100*000 

July 28 — One plant of flax, in seed, was taken ; height above ground, 
31 inches, root 5^ long; length from surface of the field to the first branch 
24 inches. About 5 inches of the lower end of stem had become yellow. 
The weight of the entire plant was 71*1 grs. 

Per-centage composition. 
Fresh plant. Dry. 

Water 69*210 

Organic matters 30*045 97*58 

Inorganic matters 0*745 2*42 

100*000 10000 

T 2 



276 REPORT 1S52. 

The plant was cut into three portions, which were separately incinerated, 
witli the following results : — 

1. Root and lower part of stem weighed, dried, 6"60 grs., gave O'CQ^ ash, 
1"424' per cent. 

2. Capsules and branches, dry, weighed 9'i^7, gave '293 ash, 3'094' per cent. 

3. Middle portion, dry, weighed 5 '53, gave •14'3 ash, 2584 per cent. 
August 10. — One plant taken ; entire length, with root, 37 inches ; length 

from surface of soil to branches, 29 inches ; stem of a light straw colour ; 
leaves withered on 10 inches of stem ; capsules 10 in number — Deeds green; 
weight of entire plant 71 grs.; branches and capsules 31"8 grs.; water in 
plant 45'336 grs. ; solid matter in ditto 25*665 grs. ; inorganic matter in ditto 
1-006 gr. 

Per-centage Composition. 

Water 63-852 

Organic matters 34-732 96-08 

Ash 1-416 3-92 

Total. . 100-000 100-00 

August 25. — The pulling of the crop was begun — a plant was taken and 
examined ; weight of entire plant 62-40 grs. ; weight of capsules 22-50 grs. 
Per-centage Composition of Stem, 

In fresh plant. Dry. 

Water 56-64 

Organic matters 41 '97 96-80 

Ash 1-39 3-20 

Total.. 10000 100-00 

The crop was placed in stooks, and remained in the field until the 8th of 
September, when it was weighed at the Cregagh Steeping Works. At this 
period the air-dried straw was found to contain 12*2 per cent, of water, and 
the bolls 11-84 per cent. 

The weight of the produce of the experimental field (straw and bolls), air- 
dried, was 7770 lbs., for which tlie sum of £12. 2s. 9d. was obtained. 

Amotint of Nitrogen and Inorganic Matters in the Straiv and Capsides, 
as pulled on the 25th August, dried at 212°. 

In the straw. In tlie bolls. 

1. Nitrogen, per cent 0-53 1-26 

2. Ash, per cent. 3-20 4-77 

Composition of the Inorganic Matter of the Crop. 

100 parts of the ash of the straw and capsules had respectively the fol- 
lowing composition : — 

Ash of straw. Ash of capsules. 

Potash 20-32 16-38 

Soda 2-07 6-25 

Chloride of sodium 9-27 12-98 

Lime 19-88 13-95 

Magnesia 4-05 3-91 

Oxide of iron 2-83 0*38 

Sulphuric acid 7-13 14-51 

Phosphoric acid 10-24 23-26 

Carbonic acid 10-72 6-37 

Silica 12-80 0-67 

Total.. 99-31 99-02 



THE FLAX PLANT. 277 

One of the earliest among those who directed their attention to tiie che- 
mical composition of flax, was a distinguished member of this Association, Sir 
Robert Kane. Since that time analyses of the ash of the straw of flax have 
been published by Professor Johnston of Durham ; by Messrs. Mayer and 
Brazier, and by Mr. Way in England ; by Leuchtweiss in Germany ; and by 
the reporter. The only examination however of the proximate constituents 
of the plant, so far as I am aware, consists of an analysis of the seed by Leo 
Mayer. It is, indeed, strange that a plant, the straw of which has afforded oc- 
cupation to the industry of so large a portion of the world in all ages, and the 
preparation of which, for commercial purposes, consists in acting upon its 
proximate constituents, should not have been more carefully studied. Having 
been for some time engaged with investigations in this important department, 
I shall, on some other occasion, bring forward the details of my analyses. At 
present I shall merely state the general results of the examination of a spe- 
cimen of flax-straw taken from the experimental crop. A preliminary exa- 
mination having indicated the presence of a volatile oil, a quantity of the 
stems of the plant, carefully deprived of the seed capsules, was distilled with 
water containing common salt, and from the distillate, which was without 
action on litmus, I obtained an oil of a yellow colour; 5 lbs. of the fully- 
grown fresh stems afforded about 10 grs. of this oil, which had an agreeable 
penetrating odour, and suggested the peculiar smell which is remarked on 
entering a room where flax is stored. In my examination of tiie proximate 
constituents of the plant, the straw, coarsely powdered, was placed in an 
extraction apparatus, and successively treated with aether, absolute alcohol, 
water, dilute hydrochloric acid, and weak solution of potash. The solutions 
obtained on examination were found to contain a fat oil, wax, traces of chlo- 
rophyle, a peculiar green resin, a gum resin, which presented some of the 
characters of the principle which Pagenstecher termed linine, and described 
as existing in the Linum catharticum or " purging flax," but could not be 
identified with it, a modification of tannic acid, which afforded a gray preci- 
pitate with perchloride of iron, but was not aff'ected by solutions of isinglass 
or tartar emetic, gum, not affected by solution of borax or basic silicate of 
potash, a brown colouring matter, albumen, caseine, starch, pectine, cellulose, 
and salts. The following table exhibits the action of the various solvents 
employed : — 

1. Soluble in aether 2-83 

2. Soluble in absolute alcohol 3*52 

3. Soluble in water 5-92 

4. In dilute hydrochloric acid 22*76 

5. In dilute solution of caustic potash. . 16*39 

6. Cellulose and salts 48*58 



100-00 



I shall now proceed to the fourth division of the subject, and describe the 
various methods which are adopted for the purpose of preparing the flax 
plant for the spinner. I shall not in this place allude to the oeconomy of its 
seed, but confine myself to the management of the fibre of the plant, to 
obtain which, of superior quality, is the main object of the flax-growers of 
Ulster. 

When a portion of the straw, as it is termed, of the flax plant is examined, 
it is found to consist of three parts : fii'st, of a woody, central, hollow column, 
which the microscope shows to be composed of cellular tissue ; second, of a 
tubular sheath, composed of long and firm bast-cells; and thirdly, of a deli- 



278 REPORT — 1852. 

cate covering of epidermis. By rubbing a piece of dried flax-straw between 
the fingers, the woody central part and delicate epidermis can be readily 
broken to pieces, while the tough fibres of the bast-cells will be found to re- 
main but little injured. Those tough fibres, which are capable of being split 
into filaments of extreme delicacy, constitute the raw material of our greatest 
national manufacture. In the country farm-houses and manufacturing towns 
of Ulster, they afford employment to thousands of our people, and are made 
to assume almost innumerable forms. They are moulded into the costly lace 
and beautiful cambric. They cover our tables, and supply us with "fine 
linen," equal to that which was once the pride of Egypt. The coarser fibres 
give stout sails to our ships, and even the refuse rejected by the spinner is 
worked up into a cheap and substantial material for covering our farm-houses, 
while the sweepings of the Belfast warehouses are sold to the paper-makers 
of England, and used to produce the broad sheets upon which the Times 
and Morning Chronicle newspapers are printed. 

To separate this invaluable fibre from the worthless parts connected with 
it is the first step in its preparation for the spinner. Numerous plans have 
been proposed for thia purpose, both by scientific and practical men. The 
examination of the plant shows us that its parts are bound together by gummy 
and resinous sul^stances, and that vegetable jelly fills its cells. The separa- 
tion of the fibre, therefore, merely by mechanical means, as might be expected, 
cannot be perfectly accomplished ; yet at various times patents have been 
taken out for the application of machinery for this purpose; and in 1815 the 
Linen Board expended £6000 in the attempt to introduce into Ireland a ma- 
chine which had been invented by a Mr. Lee. One of those machines was 
lately sold as lumber at the White Linen Hall in this town. In other 
countries the dry preparation has also been tried, and though it has been 
found capable of producing a coarse, discoloured fibre, adapted for inferior 
fabrics, such as bagging, &c,, yet it has been nearly discontinued. The 
specimens on the table will serve to illustrate the results of this method of 
treatment, as pursued in the jail at Cork, where it serves to give useful 
employment to the prisoners. 

From the earliest times only one method has been found capable of yielding 
the textile material in a condition adapted for every purpose, and possessing 
all the qualities demanded by the spinner, viz. the decomposition, by the 
process of fermentation, of the adhesive substances which connect together 
the bast fibres and the ligneous tissues of the straw. It is by this pro- 
cess, variously modified in the arrangements for conducting it, that nearly all 
the fibre produced in the great flax-growing countries of Europe is at present 
prepared. In many parts of Germany the fermentation is induced by ex- 
posing the flax, spread in the fields, to the influence of the air and moisture ; 
while in Belgium, which is justly regarded as the model country for flax 
management, the practice of enclosing the straw in wooden frames, and im- 
mersing it in the waters of rivers until the necessary changes are produced, 
is in many places adopted and found to yield fibre of superior quality. 

In Ireland, at the present time, two modifications of the system of fermenta- 
tion are in use — one of wiiich consists in steeping the straw in pools of water 
in the open air at ordinary temperatures, while, according to the other method, 
the steeping is transferred from the farm to the factory, and the fermentation 
accelerated by employing water maintained at an elevated temperature. The 
former method of steeping has prevailed in this country and in other parts of 
Europe to some extent from the earliest times ; and though it has been 
asserted by some writers, without, however, any authority for the statement, 
that the ancient inhabitants of this island prepared the flax in the same rude 



THE FLAX PLANT. 2'J9 

manner, by beating the unsteeped straw, as observed among some of the 
people of the South Sea Islands, yet we may, I think, infer from the number 
of places to which the name "poll a Ivi" i. e. flax hole, is applied, that 
they steeped in water. The plan followed by the farmer, who adopts the plan 
of steeping the flax on his farm in the open air, is to excavate a pond in con- 
nection with some convenient stream. The dimensions preferred are from 
twelve to eighteen feet broad, and about four feet deep. The quality of the 
water employed requires careful consideration, hard waters being found ma- 
terially to interfere with the process; ferruginous waters also are avoided ; 
and in those districts where the steeper is obliged to make use of them, the 
flax acquires a dark tinge, which the bleacher finds it difficult to remove. 
From the action of the salts of iron upon the modification of tannic acid, 
which I have shown to exist in the straw, we can readily understand that the 
presence of iron in the water of the steep-hole must be prejudicial. As the 
oozing of water from the adjoining soil also frequently produces discoloration 
of the flax, careful sleepers place on each side of the pond a small drain, to 
prevent the entrance of drainage waters. The flax, after pulling, is prepared 
for steeping by removing the seed capsules, or bolls, by means of a simple 
machine, composed of a number of iron teeth, about eighteen inches long, 
screwed to a socket of wood, and fixed perpendicularly on a long bench, upon 
which the workmen sit. The bolls are separated from the stems by the work- 
men taking a handful of the flax, spreading it out, and drawing it through 
the teeth of the ripple, as the machine is termed. Sometimes, however, the 
steeping does not take place until the flax has been stored for some time, and 
has become so dry that the fibre would be liable to injury by using the 
common rippling-machine. In such cases the seed is beaten off" by means 
of a " beater," formed of a block of wood furnished with a curved handle. 

In England, where the flax plant is cultivated more for supplying food for 
cattle than for its fibre, the value of its nutritious seed is acknowledged by 
every farmer; but in Ireland, unfortunately, industrial knowledge is only 
beginning to influence the practice of the agricultural population. It is in 
Ulster that the chief progress has been made. The Royal Flax Society has 
diffused much useful information ; and another institution, the Chemico- Agri- 
cultural Society, by its lectures and publications, has also contributed, in no 
small degree, to overcome ancient prejudices. Yet it must, I fear, be regarded 
by this meeting as but little creditable to our agriculture, that, though annu- 
ally nearly 650,000 qrs. of ffax-seed and 70,000 tons of flax-seed cake are pur- 
chased by the farmers of the United Kingdom from foreign countries, only 
about one-tenth of the seed grown in this country is saved, the remaining 
portion, by the prejudices or indolence of the farmer, being consigned to the 
steep-hole. 

In placing the bundles of flax in the steeping-pond, they are arranged in 
regular rows,' placed in an inclined position, so that the tie which confines 
the straw in one bundle rests upon the root end of the preceding bundle ; 
the bundles of flax of equal length being arranged in different parts of the 
pond. When the pond is filled, a thin layer of straw or rushes is spread 
evenly over the flax, and on this covering old sods are placed, so as to keep 
the bundles from rising above the water. In a day or two, according to the 
temperature of the season, fermentation commences in the pool, and in warm 
weather in from eight to ten days, at other times in from twelve to fourteen, 
the steeping and retting, as the process is usually termed, is completed. 
During the steeping the water acquires a dark brown colour, carbonic acid 
is disengaged in great abundance, and the surface becomes covered with a 
gelatinous scum. To remove this matter it is usual to allow a gentle current 



280 REPORT--1852. 

of water to flow over the surface of the pond from the supplying stream, as, 
when it is allowed to remain, the colour of the flax is found to be injured. 
Various methods are resorted to in this and other flax-growing countries, to 
ascertain the proper period for the removal of the flax from the pond. Thus 
the Silesian steepers take some stalks of the flax from the pits, and place them 
on the surface of the water. If the stalks sink they remove the flax, but if 
they swim they allow the steeping to continue for some days longer ; while 
the Irish farmer, day after day, when the fermentation has fairly commenced, 
anxiously tests the progress of decomposition by drawing a few stalks from 
one of the flax bundles and breaking them across in two places, about two 
inches apart. If he can readily pull away the central woody column without 
tearing the filaments of bast which surround it, he considers that the period 
has arrived for removing it from the pit. 

It is easy to perceive that the peculiar series of changes which facilitate 
the breaking up of the various organic compounds which compose the struc- 
ture of the flax plant, must, in our fickle climate, where so many sudden 
alterations of temperature occur, be liable to frequent disturbance, and 
that the progress of the fermentation, in the shallow steeping-pools, must 
be exceedingly irregular and uncertain. It is not, indeed, to be wondered, 
that, notwithstanding the closest supervision, the most experienced steepers 
should frequently be deceived, and that one part of the flax should be too 
much decomposed while another part has not properly experienced the altera- 
tions which facilitate the complete separation of the valuable material. 

The disagreeable odour evolved from a flax-pool must be familiar to those 
■who have travelled in the north of Ireland in the steeping season, and the 
black hue which the streams in some country districts acquire at that period, 
from the refuse waters of the pools being allowed to fall into them, excites the 
surprise of strangers. 

It is interesting to discover, amongst those wonderful records, not merely 
of the military achievements, but of the rural occupations and manufactures 
of the ancient inhabitants of Egypt, which have come down to us on the walls 
of their temples, that the steeping of flax and its preparation for their "fine 
linen," was conducted nearly, we may conclude, in the same manner as by our 
farmers at the present time. The drawings exhibit to us large wooden vats 
for containing the flax-straw, and men are represented carrying water to fill 
them. 

To render the history of the crop complete, it is necessary to give some 
account of the treatment which the flax undergoes on its removal from the 
steeping-pool. I shall confine myself to a description of the ordinary system 
of this country. The first operation to which it is subjected is what is tech- 
nically termed grassi7ig, which consists in spreading the steeped straw in thin 
and even layers upon pasture ground, for from six to ten days, according to 
the season, frequently turning it during its exposure, that tiie air may act 
equally on every part of it. Jiy ffrasshig the ereniacausis of the woody matter 
and loosening of the fibre is still further promoted, and the colour of the flax 
also improved. After grassing, the straw is either stored up in stacks, for 
subsequent treatirent, or at once subjected to the action of machines which 
break up and remove the brittle woody parts. To break up the woody matters 
so as to facilitate their removal in the ordinary practice of the farm, a simple 
machine, termed " the break," is employed. It consists of two wooden frames, 
each of which is furnished on one side M'ith a number of parallel angular bars, 
so arranged, that, when the frames are connected together by a hinge, the 
angular surfaces of the bars on one frame are received into the hollows formed 
between the bars of the other. One of the frames is permanently fixed on 



THE FLAX PLANT. 281 

a support, while motion is communicated to the other frame by means either 
of an iron spring, or by an elastic pole of wood attached to it and connected 
with a treadle, upon which the workman presses with his foot. By placing 
a handful of the straws between the frames, and pressing upon the treadle, 
the moveable frame descends and bruises, or breaks the inelastic woody 
matter, while the supple fibre is uninjured. So prepared, the straw is ready 
for the second and final operation, which it undergoes before it is transferred 
from the farm to the factory. Steeping and grassing have destroyed the co- 
hesion between the various structures of the straw, the break has fractured 
the woody matters, it only now remains to liberate completely the valuable 
textile material from its worthless encumbrance. This is effected on the farm 
by means of a simple implement of manual labour ; an improved form has 
been introduced from Belgium. It consists of a thin blade of wood, attached 
to a handle, and an upright wooden stand, with a notch cut on one side, in 
which the workman inserts a handful of the steeped and bruised flax, and 
turning the flax so as to present every part to the implement, by the blows 
of the "scutcher" the brittle and broken wcody matters, technically termed 
"shoves," are knocked away, and at the same time any very short or injured 
fibres are removed, producing what is known as "scutching tow." Some- 
times bits of " shove " adhere so closely to the bast fibre, that the workman 
requires to scrape them away by means of a blunt knife. 

Amongst the various obstacles which impede the extension of flax cultiva- 
tion to the so.uth and west of Ireland, is the difficulty of obtaining experienced 
scutchers; and serious loss has frequently been sustained, by persons who 
have attempted the preparation of the crop, from the want of that skilled 
labour which is available in almost every part of Ulster. Thus it was found 
that while the northern scutchers can turn out from 12lbs. to I4lbs. of fibre 
per day, the workmen in the south and west have not been able to prepare 
more than from 5 lbs. to 6 lbs. daily, and frequently not more than 2 lbs. It 
is therefore of great importance to this country that government is about to 
afford encouragement to the erection of machinery for scutching, in districts 
where skilled workmen cannot be obtained. Even in Ulster, for some years 
the opinion has begun to prevail, that, as in other departments of our manu- 
factures, hand labour must, in the preparation of the flax fibre, give place to 
machinery, and "scutch-mills," where the work is performed for the farmer, 
are to be found in all our flax-growing districts. 

The fibre of the flax, prepared either by manual labour, or in the scutch- 
mill, is ready for market, and is sold according to its quality, at prices ranging 
from £30 to £150 per ton. It is not yet, however, suitable for the opera- 
tions of the spinner. In the same bundle there exist fibres of various quali- 
ties ; and it is also necessary that the filaments should be arranged in parallel 
" reeds." They must be sorted and hackled. " Hackling " consists in draw- 
ing the mass of fibres through sets of iron teeth, fixed in a stand of wood, 
which, like the teeth of a comb, separate and arrange the fibres, and remove 
all broken pieces. Thus treated, flax is rendered fit for its various textile 
uses. 

Produce of Fibre, cSfC. — The amount of rippled flax-straw, viz. 5824 lbs., 
obtained in my experiment, considerably exceeded the ordinary produce 
of the farmer. From the returns of the Royal Flax Society, and from my 
own inquiries, I would estimate the average produce of a statute acre, in the 
north of Ireland, of air-dried flax-straw, with bolls, at two tons, which by the 
seeding machine are usually reduced to 3360 lbs. By the various processes 
of the rural manufacturer, the amount of dressed flax or fibre obtained ave- 



282 REPORT — 1852. 

rages from four to five cwt. per acre. Some time ago I made an experiment 
at one of the country sciUch-niills nearBelfast, for the purpose of ascertaining 
the relative proportions of the various qualities of fibre, and also the distri- 
bution of the inorganic matters. The flax employed had been steeped in the 
usual way, and was found to contain 1*73 per cent, of inorganic matters: — 
4000 lbs. of air-dried straw produced of — 

Dressed flax 500 lbs. 

Fine tow 132 lbs. 

Coarse tow 1 92 lbs. 

824. lbs. 

An examination of the amount of ash which the above materials respec- 
tively contained, showed that its distribution was as follows :— 

In the flax 4"48 lbs. of inorganic matters. 

In the fine tow 2-08 

In the coarse tow 2'56, or in all 9"121bs. 

So that .'JQ'OSlbs. of the inorganic matters, which the crop had withdrawn 
from the field, remained locked up in the woody shoves, which, as obstinately 
resisting decomposition, are used for fuel, while 9'12 lbs. were carried away 
in the dressed flax and tow sold to the spinner. 

Accelerated Fermentation — The Patent System. — For so far, we have con- 
sidered the preparation of the flax fibre solely as constituting a part of the 
ordinary farm operations of this country. Where the necessary amount of 
intelligence prevails among the agricultural community, with regard to the 
proper cultivation of the crop and its after treatment, as is the case in Belgium, 
in some provinces of which country frequently 10 per cent, of the cultivated 
area is devoted to its production, and in Ulster, where we find that, in 1851, 
one out of every 44 acres was under flax, experience has taught the farmer, 
that even with the various disadvantages attendant upon the old and uncer- 
tain methods of management, it is capable of yielding considerable profit to the 
grower. Notwithstanding, however, the efforts which have been made by 
societies and government to extend the cultivation of the crop to those di- 
stricts in the south and svest of the kingdom, where, for various reasons, it was 
most important that the means of occupation which it was found to afford in 
Ulster should be rendered available, great difficulties were experienced, both 
from the deficiency of skilled labour and the want of convenient markets for 
the produce. Fortunately, at a time when great discouragements had been ex- 
perienced by those who had entertained the expectation that the fertile soils 
of the south of Ireland were destined to render our manufacturers independent 
of the supplies of foreign countries, the attention of the flax-growers of Ulster 
was directed to a system of flax management, proposed by an American 
named Schenck, which appeared to remove all the difficulties of the old 
system, and promised completely to revolutionize the ceconomy of the crop. 
In the method of Mr. Schenck, as in the old system, a process of fermentation 
is employed for the separation of the fibre ; but instead of the steeping being 
conducted in the open air in shallow pools, it is made a factory operation, 
and the requisite changes are accelerated by placing the rippled flax in water 
maintained at an elevated temperature. This method is not new, but had 
been proposed by Professor Scheidweiler in Belgium, and tried in this country 
several years before the arrival of Mr. Schenck. It also appears to have 
been employed by the Malays and the natives of Bengal ; but it is to the late 



THE FLAX PliANT. 283 

Mr. Schenck, and his successors, Messrs. Bernard and Koch, that the credit 
of organizing establishments for working the process is to be ascribed. 

The advantages whicli the new system presented were most important : — 

1st. By leading to the establishment of factories for the steeping of flax, 
and the purchase of the crop from the farmer, who would thus be relieved 
from the trouble of its preparation, it rendered it possible to extend the cul- 
tivation of the crop beyond the bounds of the ordinary flax-growing districts. 

2nd. It introduced greater certainty and ceconomy into the preparation of 
the fibre. 

3rd. It prevented the destruction of the valuable seed, and also increased 
the per-centage of fibre. With these advantages, as might be expected, the 
new system made rapid progress, and establishments were erected, not merely 
in Ireland, but in England and Scotland, and the attention of several Con- 
tinental countries was also at once directed to it. 

To enable you completely to understand the system of management pur- 
sued at these establishments, one of which those interested in the subject 
will have an opportunity of inspecting in the neighbourhood of Belfast, 
I shall continue the description of the treatment of the experimental crop, of 
which I have already given a portion of the history. When the crop had 
been completely air-dried, by exposure in the field, so as to yield, as al- 
ready stated, in the straw, when dried at 212°, only 12 per cent, of water, 
it was removed to the steepiug-works at Cregagh. It was there placed in 
stacks, and after some time prepared for steeping. The first operation for 
this purpose is the removal of the valuable bolls or capsules. This, in these 
establishments, where the cost of labour is carefully considered, is usually most 
expeditiously and perfectly efl'ected by means of a machine composed of two 
massive cast-iron rollers, to which motion is communicated by a belt from 
the steam-engine. Between these the flax is passed and the capsules bruised, 
so that the seed can be readily shaken out. Having been deprived of its 
bolls by this machine, it was found that the 7770 lbs. of flax plants were 
reduced to 52 cwt., or 5824' lbs. 

Of the portions of the plant removed by the seeding machine, 910 lbs. con- 
sisted of clean seed, 1036 lbs. of husks, leaves, and sand. The vats to which 
the flax is now removed are formed of wood, strongly bound together by 
hoops, the oval shape being preferred. They are furnished with false bottoms, 
pierced with holes beneath, through which, by means of a coil of pipe, as re- 
presented in the drawing, steam is conveyed. The flax having been placed in 
the vats, with the bundles resting on the butt or root ends, and in single layers, 
as in the ordinary steeping-pools, a wooden frame is fixed above them, so as 
to prevent their rising out of the water during the fermentation. The vats 
are now filled with water, so as completely to cover the flax, and the steam- 
cock opened so as gradually to raise the temperature to 90° F. The 
overseers are furnished with thermometers, and instructed carefully to main- 
tain the temperature at that point day and night. Reckoning from the time 
at which the steam is admitted to the vats, the duration of the steeping 
averages about sixty-six hours. W^hen the object is to obtain a very fine 
fibre, the retting is continued for a longer period. The method of ascer- 
taining the proper period for the removal of the flax from the water is the 
same as has already been described as relied on by the common steeper. 
The loss experienced by the seeded flax in steeping was 13 cwt. 

Drying. — When the steeping is completed, the flax is carried from the vats 
to an adjoining apartment of the factory, and placed in layers upon tables, 
«iid fixed by women in the di'ying holders. These consist of two wooden rods, 



284 REPORT— 1852. 

5f feet long, between which a thin layer of flax is secured, by passing metal 
rings over the ends of the holders, fifty holders being employed for about 
1 cwt. of flax. Tlius secured, the holders are carried to open drying sheds, 
and suspended from cross-beams. In three days, in favourable weather, the 
drying is completed; but in damp weather it is placed in a hot chamber, to 
heat which the waste steam of the steam-engine is employed. 

Breaking and Scutching. — As in the patent steeping establishments a 
sufficient number of skilled workmen could not be at all times obtained, a 
new impulse was given to the invention of machines capable of performing 
the work of the hand-scutcher, and several ingenious and beautiful mecha- 
nical arrangements have been proposed, both for breaking and scutching the 
flax. In this department Belfast has produced some excellent examples, and 
the machines of Messrs. M'Adam, Brothers and Co., and of Mr. Richard 
Robinson, are to be found in almost every flax-growing district both in this 
country and in England. From the 52 cwt. of seeded straw, the produce of 
the experimental crop, there remained 6 cwt. 1 qr. 2 lbs. of marketable 
fibre. 

After the introduction of the new system, and that several establishments 
were occupied in the preparation of fibre, objections were made to the 
quality of the material, and considerable doubts were expressed, both with 
regard to the amount of produce obtained, and its adaptation for its various 
uses. These objections, however, were at the time removed by experiments 
instituted by experienced manufacturers, both in this country and at the admi- 
rably-conducted works of the Messrs. Marshall in Yorkshire. In Messrs. 
Marshall's experiments, samples of the products of which are on the table, 
flax-straw grown in Holland was the material employed ; the steeping of a 
portion was conducted at two establishments, on Schenck's system, while 
another portion from the same lot was steeped in Holland in the ordinary 
way. The results were regarded as in all respects confirmatory of the supe- 
riority of the patent process ; and a Committee of the Royal Flax Society 
also reported, that all objections with respect to any injurious influence of the 
accelerate fermentation on the strength and bleaching qualities of the fibre 
had been shown to be groundless, and that the yield of the fibre was greater 
than when " the old, slovenly, and uncertain process of watering " was prac- 
tised. 

The process of fermentation, as conducted in the patent establishments, so 
far as my investigations have extended, does not appear in any respect to 
present phsenomena ditFertnt from what I have observed in the ordinary 
steeping-pools of the country, when only rippled flax is employed. Usually, 
in eight or ten hours after the flax had been placed in the vats, a copious 
extrication of gas is observed, and sometimes the vat becomes covered with a 
head of froth, like the vat of the brewer ; and at this period an odour is 
evolved in the establishment closely resembling that of the brewery. The 
gas evolved at this period is chiefly carbonic acid. The liquid at the same 
time exhibits a slight acid reaction. As the process continues the tem- 
perature rises, so that an additional admission of steam is seldom required to 
maintain the liquid at from 85 to 90 degrees. Towards the conclusion of 
the operation, usually in about 60 hours, the escape of gas becomes less abun- 
dant, and a covering of slimy matter collects on the surface of the liquid. 

The steep-water at this period has a light brown colour, is transparent, 
and closely resembling bitter ale. It is strongly acid to litmus, but the 
original blue colour of the test-paper is restored on drying. 

Its taste at first is rather agreeably acid, but followed by the peculiar 



THE FLAX PLANT. 285 

plant-like taste of the flax. Contrary to what has been stated in some reports 
on this subject, the liquid I found, at the conclusion of the process, j'ields 
nearly a trace of acetic acid, and in numerous experiments no trace of the 
evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen could be detected at any stage of the fer- 
mentation. When the flax is allowed to remain in the vats after the usual 
time, a new series of changes, and a fresh and rapid extrication of gas, take 
place. I have made, during the last three years, numerous experiments 
with respect to the composition of the steep-water from several establish- 
ments, and also from the common steep-pools, which afforded me some inter- 
esting results, and satisfied me that the fermentation which is induced by 
steeping flax in water resembles the so-called butyric acid fermentation, 
merely traces of acetic acid, and invariably hirge quantities of butyric acid, 
having been detected in every case. In fact, the fragrant butyric aether, so 
extensively employed in the preparation of pine-apple rum, and in flavouring 
confectionery, might readily be obtained in large quantities from the stinking 
waters of the flax-pool. 

(Economy of the Flax Water. — With regard to the refuse waters of the vats, 
some years ago, upon the opening of Mr. Schenck's establishment in Belfast, 
I made an analysis of the water in which the flax had been steeped, which 
confirmed the conclusions to which I had been conducted, from my examina- 
tions of the waters of the country steep-ponds, that an opinion which had 
been promulgated by scientific authority, of the possibility of restoring to the 
fields of the farmer all the ingredients abstracted from the soil during the 
growth of the flax, by moans of the steep-water and other refuse parts of the 
plant, was not, even supposing that these matters could be oeconomically 
employed as manure, which is impossible, supported by investigations with 
respect to the amount of fertilizing ingredients which they contained. 

Chemistry is, I conceive, contributing in no small degree to the progress 
of agricultural knowledge. It has even already introduced greater ceconomy 
into many departments of the farmer's business, and has opened up to him 
new sources of fertilizing agents. But in some cases it is to be feared that 
the chemist has himself raised obstacles to the reception of agricultural 
science by the practical agriculturist, by proposals which, though capable of 
being carried out in the laboratory, are totally inapplicable in the great 
operations of the husbandman. 

To ascertain exactly the effect produced by steeping, and the composition 
of the steep-water, I obtained from the works at Cregagh a sample of flax- 
straw unsteeped, a portion of steeped straw taken from the same lot, and a 
gallon of the steep-water taken from the vat immediately after the removal 
of the flax. The composition of the ash obtained by burning the extract of 
the steep-water, and the samples of the straw, is given in the Table. The 
spring-water employed at the works is moderately hard, indicating, on Dr. 
Clarke's scale, 8 degrees. It was not considered necessary to deduct the in- 
gredients supplied in it, as these would a.dd but little to its fertilizing value. 
An imperial gallon of the liquid of the vat was found to contain, in grains 
and tenths, — 

Organic matters 136*7 

Inorganic matters ISl*^ 

Total solid matters 268"1 



286 REPORT— 1852. 

Composition of the Ash of the Flax- straw before and after steeping, and of 
the Inorganic 3fatters of the Steep-water. 

100 parts of each respectively contained — 

Unsteeped Steeped Ash of the 

flax. flax. steep water. 

Potash 13-88 11-40 19-31 

Soda 5-33 4-17 

Chloride of potassium .... ,,. ... 3-83 

Chloride of sodium 6'47 3*28 21-24 

Lime 18-86 17-69 823 

Magnesia 4-10 5-50 10-18 

Oxide of iron 5-40 5-76 2-02 

Sulphuric acid 11-16 4-07 6-10 

Phosphoric acid 9-63 11-87 3-77 

Carbonic acid 10-37 20-06 23-30 

Silica 15-23 15-78 1-12 

Sand ... 0-60 



99-77 



100-43 99-58 

Ash per cent, in the straw . . 3"89 2-59 

100 grs. of the dried extract of the steep-water contained 1-56 nitrogen, 
= 1-89 grs. of ammonia; therefore an imperial gallon would be capable of 
supplying 5 grs. ; and a vat containing 3000 gallons of water, 2-^ lbs., 
worth about \s. 2d., and would convey to the fields of the farmer about the 
same weight of phosphoric acid. 

By the kindness of the proprietors of the Patent Steeping- Works at Cregagh, 
who have liberally given me an opportunity of inspecting the books of their 
establishment, I am enabled to give the following average statement of the 
changes which 100 tons of flax undergo, when treated by Schenck's process. 
100 tons of air-dried flax-straw yield — 



1. By Seeding — 33 tons of seed and husks, leaving of seeded flax. 

2. By Steeping — 67 tons of seeded flax yield of steeped straw . . . 

3. By Scutching — 39^ tons of steeped straw yield of dressed flax . 



Tons. 
67 
39-5 
5-90 
Of tow and pluckings 1-47 

Flax Cotton. — The irregularity in the supply of cotton, the raw material 
of an important allied branch of English manufacture, and of which it is cal- 
culated the mills of the United Kingdom require annually a quantity equal 
to 1000 tons daily, has at various times suggested attempts to convert our 
indigenous flax into a form which might render it capable of being spun with 
the ordinary cotton machinery. It appears that attempts to produce from 
flax a substance possessing the properties of cotton, were many years ago 
made by a Swede named Des Charmes, and that in 1775 Lady Moira com- 
municated to the Society of Arts some experiments which, suggested by those 
of the Swede, she had made in this country. Her ladyship's experiments are 
to us peculiarly interesting, as her letters show that they were carried on at 
her seat, the present residence of David Ker, Esq., M.P., only twelve miles 
distant from Belfast. Neither Des Charmes' nor Lady Moira's experiments 
seem to have led to any practical application of the proposed substitute for 
the foreign material ; and though subsequent trials for the same purpose 
were made by various persons, the public do not appear to have placed any 
confidence in their plans. Lately, however, the project has been revived by 
a Brazilian gentleman, the Chevalier Claussen, known to the public as the 
inventor of an ingenious loom. This gentleman has been more successful than 



THE FLAX PLANT. 28/ 

his predecessors in exciting attention, and his processes have been described 
by several chemists of reputation in England, as affording a new and beauti- 
ful application of the powers of chemistry to practical purposes. In every 
part of Europe, indeed, much interest has been excited by the accounts which 
have been published respecting his discoveries, which were regarded as cal- 
culated to render Great Britain nearly altogether independent of foreign 
supplies of cotton. The proposals of M. Claussen were not confined to cot- 
tonizing flax, but also embraced a method of preparing long-line or fibre for 
the flax-spinner, substituting for fermentation the more rapid action of a 
weak solution of caustic soda, followed by boiling, or simple immersion in 
water, acidulated with sulphuric or muriatic acid. The material employed 
for the production of his cotton was at first unsteeped flax-straw ; but at 
present I find that the flax in its original state is not used, and that the 
refuse tow of the scutch-mills is preferred. This limitation of the application 
of M. Claussen's patent removes some of the objections which were urged 
against his original proposal to cut up valuable flax, so as to produce what 
the opponents of the invention regarded as an inferior article ; now, however, 
it is merely the waste tow of the scutching-mill, which can be purchased at 
from £4" to £7 per ton, that is used in M. Claussen's establishments : and 
from this, as tlie interesting series of samples which have been kindly 
supplied to me by Dr. Ryan show, a beautiful material, capable, it is stated, 
not merely of being spun with cotton machinery, but of being combined 
with wool, silk, and other fibres, and exhibiting, apparently, that increased 
affinity for colouring matters which Mr. Mercer has found to be possessed 
by cotton fibre, acted upon by caustic alkali, has been obtained. The first 
operation at M. Claussen's works is to pass the tow through a carding and 
hackling machine, for the purpose of arranging its fibres parallel ; so straight- 
ened, it is cut by another machine (somewhat similar in its operations to the 
chaff-cutter of the farmer) into pieces of about one and a half inch in 
length, and is then conveyed to the steeping vats. The vats are placed side 
by side ; and by means of a cradle and a travelling railway, the tow can be 
transferred from one to the other, as required. It is, in the first place, 
steeped for twenty-four hours in a cold solution of caustic soda, of 1° "Twad- 
del. The next step is to plunge it in another vat containing a similar solution, 
but furnished with a steam-pipe, so that the liquid can be kept at a boiling 
temperature for two hours. The peculiar part of the process, or the Claus- 
senizing of the tow, is commenced by transferring the material prepared, as 
described, to a third vat, which holds a solution containing 5 per cent, 
carbonate of soda. It is allowed to remain immersed about an hour, so as to 
be completely saturated with this liquid, and is then raised from the vat and 
placed in a solution containing about one-half per cent, of sulphuric acid. 
In the bath of sulphuric acid it is alleged that important chemical and me- 
chanical changes are effected in the character of the flax fibre. It is stated 
that it becomes at once changed, as if " by a new instance of natural magic," 
from a damp aggregation of flax to a light expansive mass of cottony texture, 
increasing in size, like leavening dough or an expanding sponge; and this 
material, it is asserted, can be produced at a cost not exceeding '2}d. per lb., 
which is considerably below the price at which cotton can be grown and 
imported from the United States or any other cotton-producing country. 
By a simple process of bleaching, and subsequently " carding," the tow thus 
modified assumes both the texture and appearance of foreign cotton, and can 
at once be employed by the cotton-spinner. 

With such alleged advantages to recommend it, it was not wonderful that 
M. Claussen's proposal attracted the attention and excited the sympathies of 
Mr. Porter and other eminent ceconomists, and that the late Lord Lieutenant 



288 REPORT— 1852. 

of Ireland, the Earl of Clarendon, should desire that a scheme which promised 
such important results to this country, so deeply interested in the production 
of flax, should be carefully tested on a proper commercial scale. 

An inquiry having been committed to Sir Robert Kane, Director of the 
Museum of CEconomic Geology, I was requested, together with Professors 
Blyth and Murphy of Cork, to make sucJi investigations as might properly 
ascertain the value of the various methods proposed. But, unfortunately, 
the mechanical arrangements which had been made by M. Claussen's agents, 
to illustrate the production of the new material from unsteeped flax, were not 
capable of affording satisfactory results ; and, though some trials with tow 
proved more successful, it was found impossible to carry out the object of the 
inquiry at the locality selected. I am informed that it is the intention of 
the patentees to solicit a full investigation of the methods pursued in their 
operations at works which they have established near London, and where, 
they state, the material is produced in large quantities. Tlie real value 
however oi" Claussen's substitute for cotton must be decided by the ex- 
perience of the manufacturers of England. With regard to the ceconomy of 
the processes, it would be improper to give an opinion until the investigation 
whicii M. Claussen solicits has taken place. The specimens show what can 
be made from the waste tow of the spinner; and it is interesting to find both 
Berthollet and Gay-Lussac, many years ago, pointing out the advantages 
which appear here to be realized from the conversion of tow into a substitute 
for cotton. 

I have now to request attention to a new process, entirely different from 
any of those which have been described, and the first public announce- 
ment of which I am permitted by the patentees to make to this meeting. 
The methods adopted are the invention of Mr. Watt, a countryman and 
namesake of the great philosopher. In this process neither fermentation nor 
the action of acid nor alkaline solutions are employed, the separation of the 
fibre from the useless matters of the straw being effected by subjecting the 
stems to the action of steam, and afterwards by pressure applied by powerful 
rollers. In the first place, Mr. Watt proposes to take seeded flax, and to ex- 
pose it to steam, at the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere, in a close cham- 
ber, of peculiar construction, so as to soften and dissolve out the gummy 
and other soluble matters. The chambers which he employs are square 
vessels constructed of wood, or of plates of cast iron, and provided with false 
bottoms, formed of the perforated iron plates used in malt-kilns. Two doors 
are placed in the ends of the chambers, for putting in and removing the flax. 
The top of each vat is formed of cast-iron plates so arranged as to constitute 
a shallow tank for containing water, and through which, extending for some 
inches above the surface of the water, passes an iron pipe, Avhich commu- 
nicates with the interior of the chamber. To the opening of this pipe a valve 
is fixed, whicli can be opened or closed as required. Resting upon the false 
bottom, there is an arrangement of pipes, which are intended to act like the 
vomiter, or throw-pipe of the bleacher. The process is commenced by 
placing the flax in bundles, as received from the seeding machine, on the 
false bottom, until the chamber is nearly filled. The doors are then secured 
by screws, and steam is discharged into the chamber by a pipe which passes 
between the bottoms, and for some time allowed to escape through the valve- 
pipe in the roof, so as to remove the volatile oil contained in the straw. 
After some time the valve is closed ; and the escape of the steam being pre- 
vented, it penetrates through the mass of the flax, softening' and loosening 
its various parts. Water is now admitted into the metal tank, and the steam, 
which strikes against the cooled roof of the chamber, is condensed and made 
to descend in showers of distilled water, by which the soluble and softened 



THE FLAX PLANT. 289 

extractive matters are washed out and carried below the false bottom, and 
conveyed by pipes into a reservoir and preserved. It is, however, proposed 
at intervals, during the operation, to allow the flax liquid to accumulate until 
it rises above the false bottom, and then, by the pressui-e of the steam, to 
cause it to ascend in the throw-pipes, and to descend in streams over the 
straw, so as completely to Mash away all the softened matters. In about ten 
hours the entire operation may be completed, though tiie patentee regards 
it advantageous to subject the flax to the action of the steam for from 
twelve to eighteen hours. 

The second part of Mr. Watt's process consists in submitting the straw, as 
it is removed, softened and swollen, from the steam chambers to the success- 
ive action of two pairs of very heavy iron rollers, somewhat resembling the 
seeding rollers used in the hot- water steeping establishments, for the purpose 
both of quickening the drying process, and of expressing any adherent colour- 
ing or glutinous matter. By this operation, also, he finds that not only is the 
drying facilitated, but that a considerable portion of the enveloping cuticle 
of the stems is removed, and that the separation of the fibre in scutching is 
rendered more perfect by the bruising and splitting up of the woody parts 
consequent upon the longitudinal pressure to which they are exposed under 
the rollers. This new method, which is in operation at present in the extensive 
works of Messrs. Leadbetter in this town, appears to offer most striking ad- 
vantages. It is peculiarly adapted for rendering the separation of the fibre a 
manufacturing operation. No disagreeable smelling odours are evolved ; and, 
if experience confirms the expectations of the patentees with respect to the 
quality of the fibre obtained, and the comparatively low expenditure required 
in its production, the new process will, in no trifling degree, contribute to 
the extension of flax cultivation in this countrj'. 

A striking peculiarity of this process, and one which renders it exceedingly 
interesting to the scientific agriculturist, is, that it oflFers the only satisfactory 
method of ceconomizing the matters which are dissolved from the flax plant 
in its treatment. The dark liquid which accumulates in the lower chamber 
of the vat can be obtained in a most concentrated form ; it is totally free 
from the disagreeable odour of the flax-pool, and experiments which have 
been tried prove that it is found by pigs a palatable and nutritious food. 

I have to apologize for the length to which this Report has extended, and I 
feel that some of the details which I have included in it may appear unneces- 
sary to those who are familiar with the various process of the flax manufac- 
ture; but as many persons present, though acquainted with the beautiful 
fabrics, which, in every market in Europe and America, attest the skill and 
ingenuity of the linen manufacturers of Ulster, have probably now for the 
first time visited a district which, like the north of Ireland, on every side 
exhibits, in its steeping-establishments, busy flax-mills and extensive bleach- 
greens evidences of the advantages which this country has derived from the 
cultivation and skilful management of the flax plant, I trust, that, whilst in- 
specting the various processes to which our manufacturers have liberally invited 
the attention of the members of the Association, the outline which I have en- 
deavoured to give them of the ceconomy of the crop may tend to increase 
their interest in this important department of our national industry. And if 
my remarks on the composition of the plant and the various plans proposed for 
the preparation of its valuable fibre should induce any of those whom I have 
the honour to address to undertake investigations which maj' contribute to 
improve either the agricultural or technical management of the crop, the 
present visit of the British Association will be regarded, if possible, with still 
greater satisfaction by the manufacturers of Ulster. 

1852. u 



280 REPORT — 1852. 

The Freshwater Fishes of Ulster, as enumerated in the MSS. of the 
late William Thompson, Esq., President of the Belfast Natural 
History and Philosophical Society, Contributed by Robert Pat- 
terson, Esq. and James R. Garrett, Esq. 

The contributors of this paper stated that they had prepared it from their 
late friend's MSS., in consequence of a suggestion which bad been made to 
them, to the effect that an accurate catalogue of the freshwater fishes of Ulster 
would, on the present occasion, be interesting to many who had not before 
had an opportunity of observing the physical features of the North of Ireland. 
The several species of fish which inhabit purely fresh water for at least a por- 
tion of the year, and which Mr. Thompson had noted as having been found 
iu the province of Ulster, were enumerated thus : — 

Perca fluviatilis, hinn. Cobitis barbatula, Linn. 

Gfasterosteus aculeatus, hinn., including Esox lucius, Linn. 

the several varieties figiu-ed in Yar- Salmo salar, Linn. "1 

rell's British Fishes, viz. ( Salmulus.) / 

G. trachurus, Cuv. Sf Vol. - Eriox, Linn. 

' semiarmatus, Cuv. 4* Val. trutta, Linn, 

— — leiurus, Cuv. 8f Val. fario, Linn. 

brachycentrus, Cuv. Sf Val. ferox, Jard. 

spinulosus, Cuv. Sf Val. umbla, Linn. "I 

pungitius, Linn. (S. Salvelinus, Don.) J 

Gobio fluviatilis. Will. Coregonus PoUan, Thomp. 

m- ■, ■ f ? "1 Introduced into Platessa flesus, Cuv. 

p , ' r • ' I ponds but not Anguilla acutirostris, Yarr. 

^ t /"'■ I considered in- — — mediorostris, Yarr. 

' ' J digenous. latirostris, Yarr. (?). 

Abramis Brama, Cuv. Petromyzon marinus, Linn. 

Buggenhagii, Thomp. \ fluviatilis, Linn. 

(Cyprinus , Block). J Planeri, Bl. 

Leuciscus erythrophthalmus, Cuv. Ammocsetes branchiaUs, Cuv. 



Supplementary Report on the Fauna of Ireland ky the late William 
Thompson, Esq., President of the Belfast Natural History and 
Philosophical Society. 

Robert Patterson and James R. Garrett, Esqs., the two gentlemen by 
whom this communication was brought forward, gave the following explana- 
tion as to the circumstances under which it was prepared : — At the Meetings 
of the British Association held in the years 1840 and 1843, Mr. Thompson 
presented Reports on the Fauna of Ireland, drawn up by him at the request 
of the Association. Shortly after his imtimely decease in February last 
(1852), his MSS. were — in pursuance of directions contained in his will — 
handed over to the two gentlemen above-named, with a \aew to publication, 
so as to complete his work on the Natural History of Ireland, three vols, of 
which — on the Birds of Ireland — had appeared during the author's lifetime. 
On examination of these MSS., a memorandum was found containing a list of j 
the papers which it had been Mr. Thompson's intention to submit to the 
Belfast meetuig of the Association, and, amongst others, there was specified \ 
a supplement to his former reports. The materials of this Supplement were ; 
also discovered, partly arranged, and it was considered desirable that th^; 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 291 

author's intentions should be carried out as far as possible. The remaining 
volumes of " The Natural History of Ireland " being in course of preparation 
for the press, the present communication was confined to an enumeration of 
the several species of animals now recorded as Irish, but which had not 
been made known at the date of the publication of Mr. Thompson's previous 
reports. 

Div. VERTEBRATA. 

Class Mammalia. 

Vespertilio Nattereri, Kuhl M'Coy, in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xv. p. 2/0. 

Delphinus tursio, Fabr Gray, in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. vii. p. 84. 

Class AvES. 

Vultur fulvus, Linn Yarrell, Br. Birds, ed. 2. vol. i. p. 1 ; Thomp. 

Nat. Hist. Ireland, vol. i. p. 84. 
Aquila Nsevia, Brisson Yarr. Br. B. vol. i. p. lOj Thomp. N. H. Ire. 

vol. i. p. 13. 

Circus cineraceus, Mont, (sp.) Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. i. p. 427. 

Motacilla alba, JJJMw., GomW „ „ p. 218. 

Alauda cristata, Gould Yarr. Br. B. vol. i. p. 455. 

Alcedo Alcyon, Linn Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. i. p. 373. 

Hirundo piupurea, Wilson Yarr. Br. B. vol. ii. p. 257. 

Perdix rufa, JlfoM^ Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. ii. p. 65. 

Charadrius cantianus, Latham „ ,» p. 104. 

Grus cinerea, BecAsf „ „ p. 131. 

Botaurus lentiginosus, Mowf. (sp.)... „ „ p. 168. 

Cicama. slha, Brisson • „ „ p. 175. 

Scolopax Brehmi, KaMjj „ vol. iii. p. 447. 

Tringa platyi'hynca, Temm „ vol. ii, p. 282. 

Schinzii, Bonap „ „ p. 297. 

Bonapartei, Schlegel „ „ p. 297. 

rufescens, Vieill M'Coy, in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xv. p. 271. 

— Temminckii, Leisler Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. ii. p. 302. 

Crex Bailloni, Fiei/Z. (sp.) „ „ p. 321. 

GaUinula Martinica, Gmel „ „ p. 331. 

Anser Canadensis, Gmel. (sp.) „ vol. iii. p. 24. 

^gyptiacus, jLiwre. (sp.) „ „ p. 64. 

Tadoma rutila, PaZZas (sp.) ^ „ p. 65. 

Anas Americana, GmeZ „ „ p, 112. 

Oidemia perspicillata, Z/«MM. (sp.) ... „ „ p. 118. 

Mergus cucullatus, L«w» „ „ p. 161. 

Uria leucophthalmus, Fa6er „ „ p. 21 1. 

Sterna Velox, JR««pj9e^ „ „ p. 266. 

— — leucopareia, ^ftWerer „ „ p. 298. 

leiicoptera, Meissner 8f Schinz,. M'Coy, in Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 271 ; Thomp. 

N. H. Ire. vol. iii. p. 307. 
Larus Bonapartii, JlicA. 4" iSwaiMS.... „ „ p. 317. 

Procellaria glacialis, LJMW „ „ p. 406. 

Class Pisces. 

Coitus Qrcenlandicus, Cuv. S)- Val..., Specimen m Dublin University Museum, ob- 
tained by Dr. Ball at Youghal; another 
procured by Mr. Wm. Andrews from Dingle 
Bay, Feb. 1850. 

Sebastea Norvegicns, Cuv. Sf Val. ... Obtained from Dingle Bay by Mr. Wm. An- 
drews. 

Pagellua erythrinus, Cuv. 8f Val Taken on south*west coast by the same gen- 
tleman. 

u2 



292 



REPORT — 1852. 



Canthariis lineatus, Mont, (sp.) Ann. N. II. vol. xviii. p. 313. 

Biama Raii, Cuv. S,- Val „ vol. xv. p. 311. 

Xiphias glaclius, ivJHM. ? „ vol. x\Tiii. p. 314. 

Cepola rubescens, I/in?! Obtained by Dr. Fan-an on southern coast, 

Dec. 1848. 

Scopelus borealis, Nillson Ann. N. H. vol xx. p. 171. 

Platessa limandoides, Jeny?js Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter off Cape 

Clear, in muter of 1848. 

Pleuronectes Amoglossus, Se^n Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter on Galway 

coast, Sept. 1848. 

Solea pegusa, Yarr Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter on Galway 

coast, Sept. 1848. 

Echeneis remora, Linn Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 314. 

Syngnathus ophidion, Linn „ vol. i. (new series) p. 63. 

Orthagoriscus oblongus, Sehn Specimen obtained near Tramore (Co. Water- 
ford), in Sept. 1845 ; now in the Collection 
of the Dublin Nat. Hist. Society. 

Acipenser huso, Linn Ann. N. H. vol. xx. (1847) p- 172. 

Scymuus borealis, Flem.l Mr. R. Ball (MS.). 

Amphioxus lauceolatus, Pallas (sp.).. Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 314. 

Div. INVERTEBRATA. 



MOLLUSCA. 



Testacellus Maugei, Ferussac Ann. N. 

Succinea oblonga. Drop „ 

Acteon virichs, Mont, (sp.) „ 

Eolis violacea. Alder ^ Han „ 

Alderia modesta, Loven (sp.) Allman, 

Idalia aspersa, Loyert (sp.) Thomp. 

Polycera punctilucens, D'Orb „ 

Doris obvelata, Johnst „ 

Ulidiana, Thomp „ 

Aplysia nexa, TAow^ „ 

Orbis foUaceus, PAj/ „ 

Bullsea priiinosa, Clark „ 

Utriculus , Brown „ 

Volvaria subcylintb-ica. Brown ,, 

Cylichna (Bulla) strigella, Loven .... „ 

Bulla mammillata, Phil „ 

• producta, Brown „ 

Bulla ? acuminata, Br^lg „ 

Ovula patula, Penn. (sp.) „ 

Pleurotoma Farrani, Thomp „ 

■ coarctata, Forbes „ 

striolata, Scacchi „ 

brachystoma, Phil „ 

Isevigata, Phil „ 

— — teres, Forbes „ 

UlicUana, Thomp „ 

Triton elegans, jf%07n^ „ 

Fusus Sabini, Gray „ 

Buccinum Zetlandicum, Forbes „ 

Nassa varicosa, Twr/. (sp.) „ 

Ti-ichoti'opis boreahs, Brod. ^- Sow. . „ 

Natica Montagui, Forbes „ 

sordida, Lam „ 

Odostomia crassa, TAowj9 * „ 

Eulima nitida (Melania), Lam „ 

Styhfer Turtoni, Brod „ 



H. vol. XX. p. 174. 

vol. vii. (new series) p. 501. 
vol. XV. p. 314. 
vol. XV. p. 313. 
in Ann. N. H. vol. xvii. p. 1 . 
in Ann. N. H. vol. i. (new series) p. 63. 
vol. XV. (1845) p. 313. 
p. 311. 
p. 312. 
p. 313. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 351. 
p. 381. 
vol. XV. (1845) p. 314. 
p. 315. 
vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 
vol. iii. (u. s.) p. 351. 
vol. XV. (1845) p. 314. 
vol. iii. (u. s.) p. 351 . 
vol. x\iii.(1846)p.384. 
vol. xv. p. 316. 
vol. XX. p. 174. 
vol. xviii. p. 384. 
p. 384. 
p. 384. 
vol. xviii. p. 383. 
vol. XV. p. 316. 
„ p. 317. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. XV. (1845) p. 316. 
vol. xviii. p. 383. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. xviii. (18^6) p. 384. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. XV. (1845) p. 315. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
p. 351. 



ON THE FAUNA OF IRELAND. 



293 



Rissoa Warreni, Thomp Thomp. in Ann. N 

fulgida, Mont, (sp.) „ 

proxima, ^Wer „ 

inconspicua, ^Wer „ 

costulata, Risso „ 

— — abyssicola, Forbes „ 

■>*: 

Lacuna Montacuti, Turt „ 

Scissurella crispata, Flem „ 

Enaarginula crassa, Sow „ 

Puncturella noachina, Linn, (sp.) .... „ 

Chiton Hanlej'i, Bean „ 

Pecten similis, Laskey „ 

fuci, Gmelin ,, 

Area raridentata, S. Wood „ 

Nucula Polii, PM „ 

decussata. Sow „ 

Modiola vestita, PAi7 „ 

Galeomma Turtoni, Sow „ 

Montacnta oblonga, Turt „ 

Lucina lactea, Poli (sp.) „ 

Cardium Loveni, Thomp „ 

Ervilia castanea, Mo«^. (sp.) „ 

Amphidesma intermedia, TAoOTp. ... „ 

TelUna pygma;a, Phil „ 

• balaustina, Linn „ 

Nesera cuspidata, Olivi (sp.) „ 

Teredo bipalmulata, £)eZ. Chia „ 

Didemnum gelatinosum, Edw „ 

Ascidia grossularia. Van Benedeii ... „ 

tubularis. Mull „ 

virginea, Forb. ^- Han „ 

Botrylloides rubrum, M. Edw „ 

rot\ie.r a., Edw „ 

albicans, Edw „ 

Botryllus smaragdus, Edw „ 

violaceus, Edw „ 

Amoroucium albicans, Edw „ 

Aplidium fallax, Johnsf „ 



H. vol. XV. (1845) p. 315. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 351. 
vol.xx. (1847)p. 174. 
p. 173. 
vol.-w. (1845)p.315. 
vol. iii. (n.s.) p. 351. 

vol.xx. (1847)p. 173. 
vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 384. 
vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 385, 
„ . p. 385. 

p. 385. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. XX. (1847) p. 174. 
vol. XV. p. 318. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 385. 

p. 385. 
vol. XV. p. 317- 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol.xv. (1845)p. 318. 
vol. i. (n. s.) p. 63. 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 385. 

p. 385. 
vol. XX. p. 237. 
vol. i. (n. s.) p. 64. 
p. 63. 
p. 63. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
p. 353. 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 386. 

p. 385. 
vol. i. (n. s.) p. 64. 
p. 64. 
p. 64. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 



Adna anglica. Leach 



CiRRHIPEDA. 

Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 386. 



Crustacea. 



Obisium maritimum. Leach Ann. N. H. vol. .tviii. p. 386. 

Stenorhynchus tenuirostris. Leach ... „ vol. xx. p. 237. 

Eurynome scutellata, Bisso „ „ p. 238. 

Polybius Henslowii, Z/eacA „ vol. xv. p. 319. 

Thia polita Dr. Scouler, in Ann. N. H. vol. xvii. p. 176. 

Pagurus Forbesii, Bell Dr. Melville, in Ann. N. H. Sept. 1851, p. 236. 

Gebia deltura. Leach Ann. N. H. vol. xx. p. 239. 

Crangon fasciatus, Risso „ vol. i. (n. s.) p. 64. 

■ sculptus. Bell Dr. Melville, in Ann. N. H. Sept. 1851, p. 236. 

bispinosus, BeZZ „ ,, p. 236. 

Hippolyte Thompsoni, Bell Bell, Brit. Crust, p. 291. 

■ Pandaliformis, Bell „ p. 289 . 



* This shell has, since Mr. Thompson's decease, been identified by S. Hanley, Esq. as 
Rissoa Beanii : found in shell sand in deep water, — mouth of Belfast Bay. 



294 



REPORT— 1852. 



Cynthia ? Tkomp. (J. V.) 

Themisto bre\'ispmosa, Goodsir 

Orchestia ? 

Amphithbe fucicola. Leach (sp.) 

rubricata, Mont, (sp.) 

Gammarus marinus. Leach 

campylops, Leach 

longimanus, Leach (sp.) 

punctatus, Johnst 

Opis tj-pica, Kroyer 

Anonyx (sp.?) 

Cerapus falcatus, Mont, (sp.) 

Hyperia Lati-eillii, Edw 

Galba, Mont, (sp.) 

Lestrigonus ? 

Caprella lobata. Mull 

tuberculata, Goodsir 

acuminifera, Leach 

Idotea acuminatum. Leach ? 

Tanais Dulongii, Audouin (sp.) 

Jaera albifrons, Mont, (sp.) 

Praniza caerulata, Mont, (sp.) ? 

Sphseroma Prideauxiana, Leach 

Griffithsii, Leach MSS.l 

Cymodocea truncata, Mont, (sp.) ... 

Cirolana hirtipes, Edw 

Eurydice pulchra, Leach 

Bopyrus hippolytes, Kroyer 

(new) I 

Sida crystallina, Miill. (sp.) Edw 

Crust 

Daphnia crystallina, Miill. Entom 

Lynceus lamellatus, Miill 

Cypris reptans, Baird"? 

Canthocarpusminuticomis,MMZZ.(sp.) 
Cetochilus septentrionalis, Goodsir... 

Notodelphis ascidicola, Allman 

" Caligus minutus, Otto, Nordm. " 

Edw 

diaphanus, Nordm 

Stromii, Baird 

curtus, Kroyer 

■ rapax, Edw 

Midleri 

Nordmanni, Edw 

pectoralis, Kroyer 

Trebius caudatus, Kroyer 

Chondracanthus gibbosus, Kroyer . . . 

Lernseopoda galei, Kroyer 

Nymphon Jobnstoni, Goodsir 

■- spinosuni, Goodsir 

femoratum. Leach 

Phoxichilidium globosum, Goodsir... 

Munna Kroyeri, Goodsir 

Pasithoe vesiculosa, Goodsir 

;^gina? longispina, Kroyer , 



lw.-\ 
1. .J 



Ann. N. H. vol. xx. p. 240. 

„ p. 240. 

„ p. 242. 

„ p. 242. 

„ p. 242. 

„ p. 242. 

„ p. 242, 

„ p. 242. 

„ p. 242. 

„ p. 243. 

„ p. 243. 

„ p. 243. 

„ p. 243. 

„ p. 244. 

„ p. 244. 

„ p. 244. 

„ p. 244. 

„ p. 244. 

„ p. 244. 

„ p. 245. 
„ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 354. 

„ vol. XX. p. 245. 

„ p. 245. 
„ vol. i. (new series) p. 65. 

„ vol. XX. p. 245. 

„ p. 246. 

» p. 246. 

» p- 246. 

„. p. 246. 
„ vol. i. (new series) p. 65 

"Found in Galathea in Belfast Bay" 
MSS.} 

Ann. N. H. vol. i. (n. s.) p. 65. 
p. 65. 
vol. xviii. p. 386. 
p. 386. 
vol. XX. p. 247. 
„ p. 247. 
Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. April 1847. 

Ann. N. H. vol. xx. p. 247. 
„ p. 247. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 354. 
vol. XX. p. 247. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 357. 
p. 357. 
p. 357. 
vol. XX. p. 247. 
„ p. 248. 



vol. XV, 
vol. XX, 



vol. XV, 
vol. XX, 



p. 248. 
p. 248. 
p. 319. 
p. 319. 
p. 249. 
p. 249. 
p. 247. 
p. 319. 
p. 245. 



ON THE PADNA OF IRELAND. 295: 

Annelida. 

*Udonella caligoram, Johnst Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 320. 

Borlasia alba, TAomp „ „ p. 320. 

octoculata, JoAms^ „ vol. xviii. p. 388. 

purpurea, Jo Ams< „ „ p. 388. 

o\iva,cesi, Johnst „ „ p. 388. 

Planaria cornuta. Miill „ vol. xv. p. 320. 

rosea.. Mull „ „ p. 321. 

liLctea., Milll „ vol. xviii. p. 388. 

mgra, Milll „ „ p. 389. 

torva, MmZ; „ „ p. 389. 

flexilis, Daly ell „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 354. 

arethusa „ vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 

Nemertes melanocephala, JoAbs^. ... „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 387. 

Nephelis octoculata, Moquin-Tandon „ „ p. 389. 

Glossiphonia Eachana, TAom/j „ „ p. 389. 

Pontobdella Isevis, B/amwiZfe „ „ p. 391. 

Tristoma coccineum, Cmz> „ vol. xx. p. 175. 

Euphrosiaa foliosa. And. &f Edw. ... „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 355. 

" Octobothrium (? ) Merlangi \ „ S ^ifi 

(Octostoma.M.ex\9.n^\,Kuhn),"Nord.j " " P"^^"* 

FORAMINIFERA. 

Rotalina communis, D'Ori Ann. N. H. vol. xx. p. 175. 

Rotalia crassula, MoK^ (sp.) „ „ p. 175. 

Guttulina communis, D'0r6 „ „ p. 175. 

Quinqueloculina semilunaris, D'Orb. „ „ p. 175. 

" Quinqueloculina cora, D'OrJ 1 p 175. 

semilunaris, var.?" Wood ... j " " "' 

Triloculina minuta. Brown (sp.) „ „ p. 175. 

Globulina gibba, D'0r6 „ „ p. 175. 

Spirolina subarcuatula. Mora?, (sp.)... „ „ p. 175. 

Ai-ethusa lactea, Mow^ (sp.) „ „ p. 176. 

Entozoa. 

Tetrarhynchusmegacephalus, Bmc?.... Ann. N. H. vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 
Echinorhynchus gigas, Emc? „ „ p. 501, 

ECHINODERMATA. 

Brissus lyrifer, Forbes Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 393. 

Holothuria inhaerens, Miill „ vol. xv. p. 32 1 . 

— — niger. Couch..... Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter on west coast, 

Sept. 1848. 

? Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 393. 

Thyone raphanus, Duben ^ Koren... „ vol. xx. p. 176. 

Chirodota digitata, Mont, (sp.) „ vol. xv. p. 321. 

Syriax Harveii, Forces | 

granulosus {M'Coy in Ann. N. > „ vol. xviii. p. 393. 

H. vol. XV. p. 272) J 

? [Two specimens found under stones, on beach 

at Tory Island, by Mr. Hyndman.— TAo»w), 
MSS.'] 

Forbesii, M'Coy Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 273. 

tenuicinctus, M'Coy „ „ p. 273. 

Sipunculus — — ? [From Belfast Bay. Intermediate in some 

respects between the genera Syrinx and Si- 
punculus. — Thomp, MSS.'] 

* Included by Mr. Thompson amongst the Cruitacea in Ann. N. H., but subsequently 
noted by him as belonging to the Annelida. 



296 KEPORT — 1852. 

Priapulus ? M'Coy iu Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 273. [Not 

distiuct from P. caudatus. — W. T.] 

ACALEPHA. 

Velella subemarginata, Thomps Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 321. 

ZOOPHYTA. 

SyncorjTia Listeri, Van Ben. (sp.) ... Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 394. 

Gorgonia verrucosa, Linn „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 356. 

Turbinolia milletiana, Defrance „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 394. 

Corynactis Allmani, T/jOM/js „ „ p. 394. 

Dysidea ? papillosa, JoA?!s? ) gg^ 

(Zoanthus Couchii) I " » I • • 

Lucernaria campanulata W. H. Ilavvey and W. Andrews, Esqs. 

Iluanthos Scotieus, Forbes Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 322. 

Alecto granulata, i^rfju ,, vol. xx. p. 176. 

major, Johnst „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 357. 

dilatans, Jo^Msf „ „ p. 357. 

Hippothoa sica, CojicA „ vol. i. „ p. 65. 

Cellepora Skenei, Ellis SfSoland.{si>.) „ vol. xv. (1845) p. 322. 

Lepralia simplex, JoAnsf „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 357- 

Hyndmanni, Jo/(«s? „ „ p. 35/. 

granifera, Johthf 

. annulata, Fa6r. (sp.) JoAws*. ... „ „ p. 357. 

. Peachii, Jo/«ns? „ „ p. 357. 

reticulata, Macgillivray 

innominata, vav. ? Couch "1 2ibT . 

(description, no^ figure) JoAws^... / " 

B^Wn, Johnst „ „ P- ?'''7- 

trispinosa, Johnst ,. » P- 35/. 

C0QC\n&7i,Ahilgaard „ » p. 357. 

violacea, Forbes 

concinna, {BusJc BIS . ) 

labrosa, (i?«s^ MS.) 

Escbara foliacea Obtained bv Mr. W. Todhunter ott Cape Clear, 

winter of 1848. 
Retepora cellulosa, Linn, (sp.) Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 322. 

Amorphozoa. 

Halichondria hispida, Moni. Wern. ] ... 

Mem. vol. ii. p. 86. pi. 5. figures \ Dr. Scouler m Ann. N. H. vol. xvni. p. 396. 

\ &. 2; Johnst. B.S.l^.9S J . ^, , „ 

, macvdaris See Dr. Jobnston in Berw. Club, Froc. vol. u. 

p. 196. 

Note. — Mr. Thompson's MSS. contain references to several sponges in his 
coHection, which he considered to be of species not previously described. 
They are now in the Museum of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Sociej;y. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 297 

Observations on the Meteorology of Birmingham. 
By William Wills, Esq., F.G.S. 

The accompanying Tables have been compiled from a Meteorological 
Register kept at the Birmingham Philosophical Institution. 

The observations for temperature, pressure, rain and wind, extend over a 
period of eight years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive. The dew-point tables 
embrace a period of five years, from 1838 to 1842 inclusive; and the evapo- 
ration tables the two years of 1843 and 1844 only. The whole of these 
observations, with the exception of those for the four months from August 
to November 1844, were made by the late Dr. Ick, the Curator of that 
Institution, whose accuracy as an observer is well known ; the observations 
for the excepted months were made by a gentleman who acted as his sub- 
stitute during his last illness, and continued to do so for a short time after 
his death, and as they bear internal marks of care and accuracy, I have not 
hesitated to incorporate them with those of Dr. Ick. 

This Register came into my possession during an ofRcial connection with 
the above-mentioned Institution, and from the care with which it appeared 
to have been kept, the long period over which it extends, and the importance 
of Birmingham as a meteorological station, it occurred to me that a reduction 
of the recorded observations was likely to repay the necessary labour, and 
that the results would probably form an acceptable contribution to this de- 
partment of knowledge ; and the rather so, that with the exception of Mr. 
Osier's papers on the winds, contained in the Reports of the Association, 
I am not aware of the existence of any long-continued series of trustworthy 
observations on the Meteorology of Birmingham. 

I will briefly notice the subjects of these observations, and recapitulate 
their chief results. 

1 . Temperature (Tables I. to VII.). — The instruments were placed in the 
shade, for the first two years 4§ feet, and subsequently about 38 feet above 
the ground, and about 437 and 470 feet respectively above the mean level 
of the sea, the place of suspension being nearly in the centre of the town of 
Birmingham. In consequence of breakages, the same instruments were not 
employed throughout the whole series of observations, so that it has not been 
possible to submit them to verification. The self-registering thermometer 
was of Rutherford's construction. 

The mean monthly and annual temperatures are deduced in Tables I., II., 
III., — first, from continuous daily observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. local 
time ; secondly, from the highest and lowest daily markings of the self-regis- 
tering thermometer ; and thirdly, from the highest and lowest annual indica- 
tions of the same instrument. 

The mean annual temperature for eight years, as deduced, — 

1st. From the daily observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., is 49°"90 

2nd. From the highest and lowest daily observations of the self- 
registering thermometer \ 49°'17 

3rd. From the highest and lowest yearly observations of the self- 
registering thermometer SO^'OO 

ith. The mean temperature of the five years, from 1838 to 1842 
inclusive (see Table XXL), which excludes the year 1837 
and the unusually warm years 1843 and 1844, is 49°'694< 

Of these amounts some portion is doubtless due to the great number of 
our manufacturing and domestic fires. 

In Table IV. is shown the distribution of the temperature through the 
several meteorological seasons, with the differences from the mean. 



299 BEPOit,T<^1852. 

The Tables III., V., VI. exhibit the mean range of the self-registering 
thermometer through the several years, months and seasons, with the differ- 
ences from the seasonal and annual means. The mean annual range of 
temperature is 64-°"25, and the mean monthly range 32°'51 ; while the greatest 
monthly range, that of April, is 6°"49 in excess, and the least monthly ranges, 
namely, those of November and December, are severally 4'°*95 in defect 
from the general mean. 

In Table VII. is given the number of days on which the self-registering 
thermometer was at or below 32° ; the average yearly number being 53. 

2. Barometric pressure (Tables VIII., IX., X., XL). — The instrument 
employed was a standard barometer of Newman's construction, of '5^Q in. 
bore, with moveable brass scale, and which had been compared with the 
flint-glass barometer at the Royal Society's rooms. The cistern was 18 feet 
above the ground, and about 44'7 feet above the mean level of the sea. 

The Tables VIII., IX., X. exhibit the mean monthly and annual barometric 
pressure, deduced from observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., corrected for tem- 
perature, with its distribution through the several meteorological seasons, the 
corresponding barometrical ranges, and the differences of pressure and range 
between each season, and the general mean of the several seasons. 

The mean annual barometric pressure is 2y"381 inches, from which the 
greatest yearly difference in excess is +*084;in., and in defect — '109 in. 

In Table XI. is shown the mean monthly and annual pressures as derived 
from the highest and lowest of the pressures at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. The mean 
annual pressure thus obtained is 29303 in., differing from the mean of the 
two daily observations by "078 in. only. 

In the synoptical Table XXI. the barometric pressure is resolved into its 
gaseous and vapour constituents; and their mean monthly amounts, shown 
for the period of five years, comprised in the dew-point register, namely, from 
1838 to 184!2 inclusive, with their respective differences from the several 
annual means : — 

Inches. 

The mean annual gaseous pressure is 29*065 

Ditto vapour pressure '324; 

Total pressure (from 5 years' observations). . 29*389 
This result differs from that obtained from the mean of the daily obser- 
vations for eight years by only -f- '008 in. 

3. Rain (Tables XII. to XV.). — The receiver of the rain-gauge was placed 
38 feet above the ground, and about 470 feet above the mean level of the sea. 
The quantities which fell were registered daily at 9 a.m. The average annual 
amount was 25*258 in. The tables show the distribution of the aggregate 
annual amounts through the several months and meteorological seasons, with 
the differences from the means ; and also the number of days on which rain 
fell in each year and season, and their mean monthly and annual numbers. 

The greatest excess in any year above the average amount was in 1839, 
when it amounted to about -|- 3*907 in., and the greatest deficiency in 1844-, 
when it amounted to —5*332 in., making a total difference between the two 
years of 9*269 in. The mean monthly quantity is 2*105 in., which, on the 
average of eight years, is exceeded in November, February, July, August, 
September, and October, in the order of enumeration. The smallest monthly 
amount falls in April, and next to that month, in December, after which fol- 
low, in order of dryness, March, May and June. 

The greatest quantities of rain fell iu the several seasons in the following 
order, nanjely, autumn, summer, winter, spring. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OP BIRMINGHAM. 299 

4. Deto-point (Tables XVI. XVII.). — The dew-point register extends over 
five years, from 1838 to 184'2 inclusive. The Table XVI. shows the monthly 
and annual means as derived from observations made daily at 9 a.m. and 
3 P.M. with Daniell's hygrometer. 

The mean annual dew-point from Table XVI. is 44°'95, while the same 
result deduced in Table XVII. from the highest and lowest monthly dew- 
point at the above-mentioned hours is 44'°'18. 

Adopting the first quantity, 4'4'°-95, the mean annual dryness of the climate 
of Birmingham is 4<°*95, and its mean humidity (complete saturation being 
represented by unity) is =0*707 ; and consequently tlie weight of vapour in 
a cubic foot of air is =S*03 grs., and the quantity required for saturation 
about 1*28 gr. 

5. Evaporation (Table XVIII.). — The amount of evaporation is recorded 
for two years only, namely^ 184'3 and 184'4; ; and was registered daily at 9 a.m., 
by Howard's evaporation gauge, which was placed 37 feet above the ground. 
In 1843 the greatest amount took place in the months of June, July and 
August, and the least in February; while in 1844? the greatest amount took 
place in the months of May, June and July, and the least in December. 

The total amount of evaporation was, for 1843, 32*166 in., and for 1844, 
35-113 in. 

6. Winds (Tables XIX. XX.).~The Table XIX. records the direction of 
the winds at 9 a.m., through the several months of the years 1837 to 1844 
inclusive ; Table XX. being a summary of the aggregate number of the 
several winds throughout that period, with the corresponding barometric 
pressures, reduced to 32°, with their variations from the mean. The mean of 
the barometric pressures at 9 a.m. was 29*403 in. ; differing only by -f-*014 in. 
from the mean of the observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m.; and the forces, as 
shown by the pressures, balance each other to the hundredth of an inch. 

The prevailing winds at Birmingham are from the S.W., S., and S.S.W. in 
the order indicated. Of 2914 registered winds, not fewer than 906, or nearly 
one-third, blew from those quarters alone; namely, from the S.W. 341, from 
the S. 300, and from the S.S.W. 265. 

It is an anomalous fact, of which I do not understand the cause, that the 
barometer is lower with the S.E. than with the S.W. winds, the mean pres- 
sure with the S.E. winds being 29*191, and with the S.W. winds 29*347. 

Conclusion. — In the synoptical Table XXI. the meteorological elements of 
temperature, pressure, and dew-point, during the five years for which the 
materials of comparison exist, are brought into juxtaposition; and in the ap- 
pended curves (Plate V.) these elements are represented graphically. 

It is not my intention to enter into any enumeration or discussion of the 
many interesting deductions suggested by the before-mentioned tables. I 
may, however, remark, in general, that they exhibit some important results 
in comparison with similar tables constructed from data derived from other 
localities, and show a marked difference between the climate of the south- 
western and other parts of our island and its interior ; and illustrate, more- 
over, the influence of situation and local circumstances, even at moderate 
distances, in modifying the general laws of climate, and their influence on 
human health, longevity, and enjoyment. 

The striking accordance of form between the accompanying curves and 
Blmilar ones formed by numerous observers, from facts obtained at different 
and widely separated places, is strongly corroborative of the simplicity, 
uniformity, and universality of the laws by which the great agencies of me- 
teorologic change are restrained from destructive irregularity and excess, 
and controlled and adjusted, with the nicest exactness, to the exigences of 
animal and vegetable e)dstence. - (■•■> 



300 



REPORT 1852. 



Table I Mean Monthly and Annual Temperature from daily observations 

Differences from 



Years. 



1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 

Means.. 



Dec. 



39-73 
40-72 
39-81 
38-94 
35-19 
40-81 
46-70 
45-49 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



38-30 
29-34 
37-92 
40-12 
35-41 
33-80 
39-64 
40-56 



40-924 36-88C 



43-34 
32-86 
41-32 
39-73 
37-12 
41-01 
36-74 
36-27 



38-548 



37-03 
42-38 
41-32 
42-22 
49-21 
45-38 
43-03 
41-75 



April. 



42-02 
44-85 
47-88 
54-61 
49-31 
51-10 
49-26 
54-83 



May. 



June. 



42-79 



49-232 



52-15 
53-18 
57-00 
55-67 
59-55 
55-34 
52-41 
54-73 



55-003 



63-43 
59-58 
56-47 
60-71 
01-73 
61-06 
57-26 
61-53 

60-221 



Table II.— The Highest and Lowest Monthly Temperature by the Self- 
Monthly and Annual Means, and the Dif- 



Month, 



Dec... 
Jan. ... 
Feb.... 
Mar.... 

Apr 

May .. 
June... 
July... 
Aug... 
Sept . 
Oct. .. 
Nov... 



1837. 



High. Low. Mean. 



Means. 



DiflF. fr. 



55-0 
51-0 
54-0 
49-0 
58-5 
69-0 
79-0 
79-0 
76-0 
67-5 
68-5 
56-5 



63-6 



23-00 
25-50 
28-25 
19-00 
27-50 
3400 
39-00 
47-00 
44-50 
42-00 
33-00 
27-50 



39-00 
38-25 
41-12 
34-00 
43-00 
51-50 
59-00 
63-00 
60-25 
54-75 
50-75 
42-00 



1838. 



High. Low. Mean. 



32-52 48-05 



An. M. 



-1-12 



55-00 
46-00 
45-50 
62-00 
61-50 
75-00 
74-00 
72-50 
78-00 
68-50 
63-00 
57-00 



63-16 



27-50 
9-00 
22-00 
29-00 
27-00 
35-00 
42-00 
47-00 
45 00 
40-50 
33-50 
26-00 



41-25 
27-50 
33-75 
45-50 
44-25 
55-00 
58-00 
59-75 
61-50 
54-50 
48-25 
41-50 



1839. 



High. Low. Mean. 



31-96 47-56 



-1-61 



52-00 
51-00 
55-00 
55-00 
72-00 
78-00 
78-00 
76-00 
79-00 
70-00 
66-00 
55-00 



25-00 
20-00 
22-50 
22-00 
27-50 
30-50 
41-00 
45-00 
42-50 
42-50 
36-00 
30-00 



05-58 32-04 48-81 



38-50 
35-50 
38-75 
38-50 
49-75 
54-25 
59-50 
CO-50 
60-75 
56-25 
51-00 
42-50 



1840. 



High. Low. Mean. 



-0-36 



52-00 
54-00 
51-50 
57-50 
81-50 
74-00 
80-50 
75-50 
82-00 
74-00 
60-00 
58-50 



28-00 
22-00 
25-00 
25-00 
33-50 
38-00 
43-00 
46-00 
46-50 
38-00 
34-00 
27-50 



66-75 33-87 50-31 



4000 
38-00 
38-25 
41-25 
57-50 
56-00 
61-75 
60-75 
64-25 
56-00 
47-00 
43-00 



+1-14 



Meanofthe8years49°-17. 



Table III Showing the Highest and Lowest Temperature of each yea 

the Means d<*" 



Highest 

Lowest 



Mean Temp. 



Ann. Range... 



1837. 



79 June 23. 
19-0 March 24. 



49-0 



60-0 



1838. 



78-0 August 27. 
9-0 January 20. 



43-5 



69-0 



1839. 



79-0 August 2. 
20-0 January 30 



1840. 



82-0 August 9. 
220 January i 



49-5 



59-0 



52-0 



60-0 



Mean of the extremes of Temperature 50° 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



301 



tt 9 A.M. and 3 p.m. for 8 years, from 1837 to 184.4. inclusive, with the 
he General Mean. 



July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. Nov. 


Annual Means. 


Differences from 
Annual Means. 


65-43 
62-03 
62-93 
59-57 
59-85 
61-85 
61-28 
63-06 


62-61 
61-54 
62-02 
65-62 
61-63 
61-16 
63-12 
59-59 


56-61 
57-38 
57-86 
54-85 
59-93 
57-85 
61-79 
61-06 


52-23 42-37 
51-40 41-62* 
51-45 45-43 
48-59 44-08 
49-26 42-12 
46-88 42-62 
47-31 43-60 
49-75 42-61 


49-604 
48-073 
50-117 
50-392 
50-025 
49-905 
50-178 
50-935 


- °299 
-1-830 
+ -214 
+ -489 
+ -122 
+ -002 
+ -275 
+1-032 


62-00 


62-161 


58-416 


49-608 43-056 


49-903 





legistering Thermometer for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive, with the 
erences from the Mean of the 8 vears. 



1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


52-50 


22-0 


37-25 


51-50 


22-00 


36-75 


58-00 


32-00 


45 00 


54-0 


30-00 


42-00 


50-00 


120 


31-00 


42-00 


21-50 


31-75 


53-50 


2600 


39-75 


51-0 


23-00 


37-00 


52-50 


17-5 


35-00 


53-50 


25-00 


39-25 


48-50 


18-50 


33-50 


46-5 


21-00 


33-75 


67-50 


32-0 


49-75 


57-50 


31-50 


44-50 


62-00 


26-00 


44-00 


57-5 


27-00 


42-25 


71-00 


340 


52-50 


76-50 


30-00 


53-25 


67-00 


29-00 


48-00 


67-5 


35-00 


51-25 


85'00 


400 


62-50 


70-00 


39-50 


54-75 


70-00 


37-00 


53-50 


700 


31-00 


50-50 


72-50 


40-0 


56-25 


85-00 


44-00 


64-50 


71-50 


42-00 


56-75 


82-0 


43-00 


62-50 


74-00 


44-5 


59-25 


76-00 


45-00 


60-50 


78-00 


46-00 


62-00 


85-0 


47-50 


66-25 


78-00 


45-0 


61-50 


86-50 


4500 


65-75 


82-50 


46-00 


64-25 


82-5 


44-50 


63-50 


81-00 


390 


6000 


77-00 


42-00 


59-50 


7900 


36-50 


57-75 


85-0 


40-00 


62-50 


59-00 


36-0 


47-50 


58-00 


29-00 


43-50 


64-50 


31-00 


47-75 


61-0 


3200 


46-50 


36-50 


22-0 


39-25 


52-00 


3200 


42-00 


55-00 


30-00 


42-50 


56-0 


31-00 


43-50 


66-62 


32-0 


49-31 


65-46 


33-87 


49-66 


65-79 


• 33-33 


49-56 


66-5 


33-75 


50-12 


+0-14 


+0-49 


+0-39 




+0-95 



^om 1837 to ISii inclusive, by the Self- Registering Thermometer, with 
jjuced therefrom. 



1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 




i35-0 May 27. 

^2-0 Jan. 8 & Feb. 7. 


86-5 August 18, 
21-5 January 24. 


8°2-5 August 18, 
18-5 February 16. 


8°5-0 July24&Sept.l, 
21-0 February 23. 




18-5 


540 


50-5 


53-0 




'3-0 


650 


64-0 


64-0 






Mean of tb 


9 yearly Range 64<'-25. 







302 



BEPORT — 1852. 



Table IV. — Temperature of the Meteorological Seasons, and Differences 
from the Means for 8 years, from 1837 to IS^^ inclusive. 







DiflFerence 




Difference 




Difference 




Difference 


Years. 


Winter. 


from 
Mean. 


Spring. 


from 
Mean. 


Summer. 


firom 
Mean. 


Autumn. 


from 
Mean. 






o 


o 




O 


o 


o 




1837. 


40-45 


+ 1-67 


43-73 


-5-28 


63-82 


+2-36 


50-40 


+0-05 


1838. 


34-30 


-4-48 


46-80 


-2-21 


61-05 


-0-41 


50-13 


-0-22 


1839. 


39-68 


+0-90 


48-73 


-0-28 


60-47 


-0-99 


51-58 


+1-23 


1840. 


39-59 


+0-81 


50-83 


+1-82 


61-96 


+0-50 


49-17 


-1-18 


1841. 


35-90 


-2-88 


52-69 


+3-68 


61-07 


-0-39 


50-43 


+0-08 


1842. 


38-54 


-0-24 


50-60 


+ 1-59 


61-35 


-0-11 


49-10 


-1-25 


1843. 


41-02 


+2-24 


48-23 


-0-78 


60-55 


-0-91 


50-90 


+0-55 


1844. 


40-77 


+1-99 


50-43 


+ 1-42 


61-39 


-0-07 


51-14 


+0-79 


Means... 


38-78 




49-01 




61-46 




50-35 








Mean Ann 


ual Temper 


ature 49°-9. 






Means of the Seasons. 


Difference from Mean of the Year. 




Winter .. 




38-78 
49-01 






Wint 
Sprin 


er 


.. -11-12 
. — -89 




Snrino- ... 




«■ 


Summer 




61-46 
50-35 






Summer 

Autumn 


. +11-66 
. + -45 




Autumn., 















Table V. — Monthly Range of the Self-Registering Thermometer for 8 
years, from 1837 to 184;4< inclusive. 



Month. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


Means. 














Dec... 
Jan — 
Feb. ... 
Mar.,.. 
Apr.,.. 
May «.. 
June... 
July... 
Aug.,.. 
SeptJ.. 
Oct. 4.. 
Nov ... 


32-00 
25-50 
25-75 
30-00 


2V5O 
37-00 
23-50 
33-00 


2V0O 
31-00 
32-50 
33-00 


2°4-00 
32-00 
26-50 
32-50 


30-50 
38-00 
35-00 
35-50 
37-00 
45-00 
32-50 
29-50 
33-00 
42-00 
23-00 
34-50 


29-50 
20-50 
28-50 
26-00 
46-50 
30-50 
41-00 
31-00 
41-50 
35-00 
29-00 
20-00 


26-00 
27-50 
30-00 
36-00 
38-00 
33-00 
29-50 
32-00 
36-50 
42-50 
33-50 
25-00 


2°4-00 
28-00 
25-50 
30-50 
32-50 
39-00 
39-00 
37-50 
38-00 
45-00 
29-00 
25-00 


2°7-56 
29-93 
28-40 
32-06 
39-00 
38-25 
36-06 
31-00 
35-69 
35-20 
29-43 
27-56 


31-00 
35-00 
40-00 
32-00 
31-50 
25-50 
35-50 
29-00 


34-50 
4000 
32-00 
25-50 
33-00 
28-00 
29-50 
31-00 


44-50 
47-50 
37-00 
31-00 
36-50 
27-50 
30-00 
25-00 


48-50 
36-00 
37-50 
29-50 
35-50 
36-00 
20-00 
3100 


Means. 


31-06 


31-21 


33-54 


32-92 


34-62 


31-58 


32-46 


32-75 


32-51 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



303 



Table VI Range of Temperature in the several Meteorological Seasons 

from the Self-Registering Thermometer, and Differences from the Means 
for 8 years, from 1837 to IS^* inclusive. 



Years. 


Winter. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Spring. 


Differ 
fro 
Mea 


3nce 
[n 


Summer. 


Difference 
from 
Mean, 


Autumn. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


n. 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 


3°2-0 
46-0 
35-0 
320 
30-5 
32-0 
39-5 
33 


-°3-0 
+11-0 

-"so 

- 4-5 

- 3-0 
+ 4-5 

- 2-0 


50-0 
48-0 
56-0 
56-5 
530 
46-5 
440 
43-0 


+0-5 
-1-5 
+ 6-5 
+ 7-0 
+3-5 
-3-0 
-5-5 
-6-5 


o 
40-0 
36-0 
38-0 
39-0 
38-0 
42-5 
40-5 
42-0 


o 

+0-5 
-3-5 
-1-5 
-0-5 
-1-5 
+3-0 
+ 1-0 
+2-5 


41-0 
42-5 
40-0 
46-5 
59-0 
48-0 
49-0 
54-0 


-°6-5 

- 5-0 

- 7-5 

- 1^0 
+115 
+ 0-5 
+ 1-5 
+ 6-5 


Means... 


350 




49-5 




39-5 




47-5 










Me 


in Range 


af the four Seasons 42-875. 










Mean Ran 


ge of each i 


Season. 




Diflf. from the Mean Rang 


e of the four Seasons. 




Winter .. 




350 
49-5 
39-5 
47-5 


, 




Wmt 


er 


.. -7-875 
.. +6-625 
.. -3-875 
.. +4-625 








Spring .. 
Summer.. 
Autumn.. 


Sprino; 




Sumi 
Autu 


ner 




mn 








1 



Table VII. — Number of days in each year, from 1837 to 184-4' inclusive, in 
which the Temperature was at or below 32°. 





Months. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 






December 


9 

9 

5 

20 

15 


7 

26 

23 

3 

6 


9 

18 

8 

10 

7 


12 
9 

12 
13 


18 

16 

13 

1 


6 


2 
9 


1 

6 








21 

7 
1 
4 












16 
10 


20 

8 












April , 






5 
















... 




... 




1 














4 


9 


1 


4 


8 


3 

1 


5 
3 


1 
5 






November 






Sums... 


62 


74 


5a 


50 


56 


43 


50 


42 





304 



REPORT — 1852. 



Table VIII. — Mean Monthly and Annual Barometrical Pressure, from ob- 

(corrected for 



Months. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9a.u. 


3 p.m. 


Meat 


December 


in. 

29-227 
•402 
•366 
•440 
•279 
•415 
•469 
•434 
•406 
•362 
-574 

29-275 


in. 

29-245 
-392 
•354 
•414 
•264 
•390 
•446 
•408 
•434 
-277 
-530 

29-252 


in. 

29-236 
•397 
•360 
•427 
•271 
•402 
•457 
•421 
•420 
-319 
•552 

29^263 


in. 

29-349 
•378 
■033 
•220 
•247 
•356 
•296 
•399 
•402 
•415 

29-428 

28-683 


in. 

29-367 
•376 
•035 
•207 
•199 
•339 
•281 
•406 
-321 
•434 

29-383 

28-980 


in. 

29-358 
-377 
•034 
•214 
•223 
•347 
•288 
•402 
•361 
•424 

29-405 

28-831 


in. 

29-464 
•360 
•375 
•225 
-517 
•409 
•383 
•273 
•414 
•033 
•425 

29-118 


in. 

29-452 
•127 
•387 
•240 
•513 
•402 
•335 
•340 
•396 
•028 
■424 

29-100 


in. 

29-458 
•243 
•381 
•232 
•515 
•405 
•359 
•306 


in. 
29 


123 
177 
337 
715 
504 
383 
510 
408 
494 
369 
575 


in. 

29^109 
•034 
•337 
•684 
•464 
•359 
•502 
•394 
•445 
•319 
•552 

29-137 


in. 
29^i: 
•1( 

•3; 

•6! 
•4f 

•3; 

•5( 

•4( 

•4( 
•3' 

■5i 
29-1 










June 


July 


August 


•405, 
•030 i 
•424 ; 


September 


November 


29-109 J29 


211 


Annual Means 






29-377 






29-272 






29^322 1 


29-a 


Diff. from Mean 


-•004 


-•109 






-•059 : 


-•0 



Table IX. — Barometrical Pressure in the several Seasons, with the Differ- 
ences from the Mean for 8 years, from 1837 to ISi-l- inclusive. 







Difference 




Difference 


1 
Difference 


Difference 


Years. 


Winter. 


from 


Spring. 


from 


Summer. from 


Autumn. 


from 






Mean. 




Mean. 




Mean. 




Mean. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1837. 


29-331 


-•029 


29^367 


-•046 


■29-422 


+ -004 


29-378 


+•044 


1838. 


•256 


-■104 


•261 


-152 


•350 


--068 


•220 


-•114 


1839. 


•361 


+•001 


•384 


--029 


•353 


--0G5 


■188 


-•146 


1840. 


•186 


-•174 


-518 


+•105 


•450 


+•032 


■361 


+•027 


1841. 


•462 


+•102 


•410 


-•003 


•430 


+•012 


•232 


-•102 


1842. 


•412 


+-052 


•431 


+-018 


•544 


+•126 


•401 


+•067 


1843. 


•340 


-•020 


•378 


-•035 


•455 


+•037 


•457 


+•123 


1844. 


29^531 


+•174 


29^558 


+ •145 


29^339 


-•078 


29^434 


+•100 


Means... 


29-360 




29^413 




29-418 




29^334 










Mean 


f the 8 yeai 


s 29-381. 




Means of the Seasons. 




Differences from ^ 


[ean of 8 yeai-s. 








29^360 
29-413 






AVinI 
Spru 




.... --0 


11 


Spring... 




ig 


.... +-0 


32 




Summer 





29-418 






Summer 


.... +-037 1 




Autumn 




29-334 






Autu 


mn 


.... --0 


47 















ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



305 



iervations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. daily, for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive 
Femperature). 



1841. 




1842. 




1843. 


1 1844. 


Means. | 


M. 


3 p.m. 


Means 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


1 3 P.M. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 P.M. 


Means. 










in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 






in. 
29-453 


JO 


29-685 


29^692 29^257 


29^I88 


29-222 


29-644 


29-657 i29^650 


29-894 


29-889 


29^891 


29-457 


29-449 


16 


•338 


•342 


•588 


•544 


•566 


•126 


•273 


•199 


•562 


•547 


•554 


•369 


•329 


•348 


19 


•338 


•343 


•467 


•431 


•449 


•197 


•143 


•170 


•163 


•133 


•148 


•284 


•269 


•277 
•400 


(4 


•401 


•422 


•406 


•377 


•391 


•502 


•485 


•493 


•267 


•386 


•326 


•402 


•399 


iV 


•386 


•411 


•318 


•595 


•456 


•319 


•310 


•314 


•682 


•646 


•664 


•413 


-422 


•417 
•422 


J4 


•389 


•396 


•452 


•439 


•445 


•335 


•318 


•326 


•699 


•671 


•685 


•431 


•413 


iV 


•481 


•504 


•588 


•551 


•569 


•408 


•387 


•397 


•493 


•466 


•479 


•459 


•431 


•445 


1 


•379 


•369 


•497 


•499 


•493 


•503 


•456 


•479 


•455 


•434 


•444 


•416 


•414 


•415 


.6 


•419 


•416 


•581 


•550 


•570 


•507 


•470 


•488 


•055 


•133 


•094 


•409 


•396 


•403 


19 


•274 


•291 


•442 


•393 


•417 


-739 


•718 


•728 


■593 -900 


•746 


•408 


•418 


•413 


8 


•152 


•115 


•556 


•534 


•548 


•262 


•264 


•2G3 


•215 -210 


•212 


•389 


•381 


•385 
29^324 


8j29^280|29^289 29^249 


29^225 


29-237 


29^397 


29^386 


29-381 


29^356 29^335 


29-345 


29^323 


29-335 


29^382 


29^447 


29^407 


29^465 


FinalMean 29-381 


+•001 


+•066 


+•026 


+•084 
































L 



Tablk X — Range of Barometrical Pressure in the Meteorological Seasons, 
as observed at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive, 
and Differences from the Means. 



Years. 


Winter. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Spring. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Summer. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


.lutumn. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 


in. 
1-587 
1^843 
1-599 
1^988 
1-806 
1-699 
2-401 
1-881 


in. 

--263 
-•007 
-•251 
+•138 
-•044 
-•151 
+•551 
+•031 


in. 
M34 
1-732 
r233 
1-303 
1-266 
1-361 
1-125 
1-298 


in. 

--172 
+•426 
-•073 
-•003 
-•040 
+•055 
-•181 
-•008 


in. 
1^403 
M58 
1^055 
1-250 
1-116 
■918 
1-075 
1-069 


iu. 

+-273 
+•028 
-•075 
+•120 
-•014 
-•212 
-•055 
-•061 


in. 
r894 
2-028 
1-424 
2-299 
1-661 
1-784 
1-459 
•444 


in. 

+ ^270 
+ ^404 

- ^200 
+ -675 
+ ^03 7 
+ ^160 

- ^165 
-M80 


Means... 1-850 




1-308 




1-130 




1^624 










Mean ^ 


innual Ran^ 


;e 1-477. 






Means of the Seasons. 


] 


Differences from Meai 


1 Annual 1 


lange. 


1 


vVinter ... 




1-850 
1-306 
1-130 
1-624 






Winter 

Spring 

Summer 

Autumn 


.. +^37 
.. --17 
.. --34 
.. +-14 


3 

I 
7 
7 


< 


Summer... 
Autumn... 










1852. 

! 

] 
















X 





306 



REPORT— 1852. 



Table XL— Mean Monthly and Annual Barometric Pressure, deduced from 

for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 in- 



1837. 



1838. 



Months. 



9 A.M. 



3 P.M. 



9 A.M. 



3 P.M. 



High. 



III. 



Dec 

Jan 

Feb 

March .. 
April . . 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 29-803 

Oct 30-137 

Nov 29-803 



29-800 
30-030 
29-883 
•871 
-881 
•778 
-799 
•776 
-856 



Low. 



in. 

28-520 

■793 

•645 

-748 

28-846 

29034 

29021 

:28-669 

I -903 

' -533 

1 -730 

128-395 



Mean. High. 



in. 

29-160 
-411 
•264 
-309 
-363 
-406 
-410 
-222 
-379 
•168 
•433 

29099 



AnnualMeans 29-302 



DiflF. from Final Mean - •OOl 



Low. Mean 



•29-837 

-997 

-784 

-867 

•878 

•783 

•743 

•780 

•813 

29^781 

30^114 

29-798 



lin. 

28-453 

-700 

-443 

•747 

■28-755 

(29-129 

i29-015 

28-453 

i -883 

i ^520 

I -558 

'28^243 



High. 



29^145 
•348 
•113 
•307 
•316 
•456 
•379 
•116 
•348 
•150 
■386 

29-020 



29 



29 



•924 
•865 
•868 
•941 
•698 
•828 
•700 
•656 
•645 
•937 
•929 
■879 



Low. 



28^723 

•824 

•088 

•503 

•620 

•920 

28-973 

29-066 

28^542 

-695 

28-705 

127-909 



29-257 I 



Mean. High. Low 



29-323 
29-344 
28-977 
29-222 
159 
374 
336 
361 
093 
•316 
29-317 
28-894 



lin. 

29-931 

I -835 
-833 

I -907 
-624 
•786 
•690 
•645 
•601 
-915 
-898 

29-844 



29-226 



-•046 



-•077 



in. 

28-675 

809 

181 

534 

209 

■962 

28-983 

29-012 

28-573 

•652 

28^795 

27-969 



Mean. 



29^303 

322 

007 

29-220 

28-916 

29^374 1 

•336 

•328 

•087 

•283 

29346 

28-906 



29-202 



-•lor 



Table XL- 



Months. 



December 
January . . , 
February .., 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . 
November 



1841. 



1842. 



9 A.M. 



3 P.M. 



9 A.M. 



3 P.M. 



High. 1 Low. ' Mean. High. Low. Mean. High. Low. Mean. } High. [ Low. Mean 



30^257 
29^970 
29^993 
30^044 
29-786 
826 
933 
719 
834 
726 
743 
29-975 



Ann. Means. 



DiflF. from Fina 



in. 

28-716 

•451 

•557 

•778 

-921 

28-766 

29-057 

28-817 

•953 

•623 

-345 

28-314 



m. 

29-486 
-210 

! -275 

; -411 
-353 
-296 
-495 
•268 
•393 
•174 
•044 

29^144 



30^199 
29^979 
944 
983 
770 
819 
878 
718 
•782 
•691 
•579 
29^934 



29296 



1 Mean 



-•007 



in. 

28-789 

-519 

-599 

-879 

-961 

28-677 

29-019 

i28-962 

:29-080 

28-752 

•454 

l28^416 



m. 

•29^494 

•249 

I ^271 

! •431 

•365 

! ^248 

I ^448 

1 ^340 

•431 

•221 

•016 

29170 



■29^726 
30-097 
30-092 
29^896 
29^955 
i30^021 
!29^874 
I ^952 
•990 
,29^831 
30095 
30 096 



29-307 



28-519 
754 



-872 
28-660 
29-177 

-108 
29-287 
28-841 
I -320 
28-312 



29-122 
-425 
-386 
-341 
•413 
•340 
•525 
•530 
•638 
•336 
•207 

29-204 



in. 

|29-717 

|30097 

:30-044 

29-878 

-900 

•961 

•852 

•962 

•944 

29-802 

30-064 

30-028 



m. 

28-469 
398 
636 



28-692 

29-072 

-093 

29-202 

128-958 

•415 

28-329 



29-09: 
24 
34 
38 
39 
32 
46 
•52 
•57 
■38 
•23 

29-15 



+•004 



29^372 


29-34 


+-069 


+•0^ 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



307 



the Highest and Lowest Monthly Observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. daily 
elusive (corrected for Temperature). 



i 1839. 


1840. 




9 a.m. 


3 P.M. 


9 A.M. 


3 P.M. 




High. Low. 


Mean. 


High. Low. 


Mean. 


High, i Low. 


Mean. High. Low. 


Mean. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. ;in. 


in. 


n. lin. 


in. 


in. in. 






29-874 


28-755 


29-314 


29-941 


28-788 


29-364 


29-761 ,28-545 


29-153 


29-741 28-573 


29-157 




•992 


•393 


-192 


-989 


•463 


-226 


29-852 -568 


-210 


-867 -236 


-051 




•855 


•848 


-351 


•872 


-855 


-363 


jO-029 128-089 


-059 


29-999 28-041 


•020 




•593 


•797 


-195 


•583 


•765 


•174 30^076 29-258 


•667 


30-050 129-2.30 


•640 




•998 


•810 


-404 


•955 


-813 


•384 29-760 i29-064 


-412 


29-756 


29-079 


-417 




•695 


•851 


-273 


-694 


-825 


-259 


•916 ,23-820 1 


-368 


-908 


28-773 


-340 




•703 1 -789 
•746 |28-713 


•246 
-229 


-668 
-728 


-812 
•759 


•240 
•243 


•741 i2 
-816 2 


9-245 
9-002 


•493 
-409 


-721 
■809 


29-208 
28-999 


•464 
-404 




•753 i29'021 


29-387 


-692 


•698 


29^195 


-807 2 


3-566 


-186 


-7C9 


-723 


-246 




•418 28-389 


28-903 


•475 


-384 


28^929 2 


9-782! 


-344 


-063 


29-744 


•439 


-101 




•800 1 ^851 


29-325 


-808 


•926 


29-367 3 


0-195 ' 


•667 


-431 


30-166 


28-695 


29-430 




19-644 28-644 


29-144 


29-636 


28-686 


29-161 3 


0-025 2 


^•300 


29-162 129-993 


27-896 


28-944 




29-247 


29-242 


29-301 


29-268 




-•056 


--061 


--002 


--035 




{Contimied.) 


1843. 


1844. 


Means. 










9 A.M. 


3 p.m. 


9 A.M. 


3 P.M. 




High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


9 A.M. [3 P.M. 


1. 


in. 


n. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


0-042 


28-883 


29-462 


30-024 


28-874 


29-449 


30-085 


29-424 


29^754 


30-065 


29-310 


29-687 


29-347 29-336 


^•072 


27-671 


28-871 


30-037 


27-716 


28-876 


29-976 


28-711 


29-343 


29-946 


28-731 


29-338 


•251 i -176 


|9^704 


28-570 


29-137 


29-680 


28-486 


29-083 


29-729 


-204 


28-966 J29-730 


-243 


28-986 


•177 •HS 


•967 


29-013 


-490 


-935 


-942 


-438 


30-096 


28-798 


29-447 130-040 


28-810 


29-428 


-385 -378 


•672 


28-906 


-289 


•663 


•842 


•252 


-051 


29-179 


-615 


30-010 


29-196 


-603 


-376 * -331 


•786 


29-039 


-412 


•757 


-961 


•359 


30-044 


-410 


-727 


29-967 


-402 


-684 


-399 -381 


-683 


28-816 


•249 


•712 


28-753 


-232 


29-736 


-187 


•461 


•735 


-191 


-463 


•402 ! •.'i78 


-800 


29-005 


-402 


-756 


29-090 


•423 


-804 


29-042 


•423 


-783 


29-026 


•404 


•355 


•348 


'9-828 


-039 


-433 


29-808 


•001 


•404 


-880 


28-817 


•348 


-857 


28-811 


-334 


•357 


•327 


M-126 


29-348 


-737 [30-097 


29-288 


•692 


-920 


29-273 


•596 


-916 


29-276 


■596 


•287 


•294 


Hl4 


28-758 


-236 ,29-703 


28-667 


•185 


-848 


28-506 


-177 


-855 


28-476 


•165 


•271 


•267 


)-922 


28-866 129-394 


29-908 28-880 


29^394 29-917 


28-525 


29-221 


29-893 


28-550 


29-221 


29-158 


29-124 


29-342 




29-315 29-465 


29-409 


29-314 


29-291 


+-039 


+•012 -I--120 


+•106 





Final Mean 29303 in. 



x2 



308 



REPORT — 1852. 



<u 8 

ia 


■*t>.00lf5«aDCTi-H 
COr-COOr-HCgM-H 

.5 — t^«<N — — — >h 
+1+1 +++ 1 






— lo iM in «o o 
^ -i m C-. oi t^ -i r- (j> 


en 
in 


> 

o 


iO irt if^ in O 
in -* C^. O O «r^ CO 

in ^H i^ »— 1 (N in t>. 1-^ 

_C<Ncbcn-*(NTf<<NCJ 


en 
•<* 


4 
o 


m in in 
c^ in OD cc -^ -^ 

<Ca0MO1rH00-H^ 


Ol 
IM 
<N 

in 

eo 
en 




in in in in 

OCCitOODOCSfncO 

_C50ooot»mt^o 


u; 

^ 


in 
Oi — o — in M -o 
OC350 — en^oi-iM 

cm— CJ<JjPl — COO) 


in 




in 00 
^HCc:r>int->.t->.'Ti<o^ 

. T' V" ?' '^ "? '.^ ^ ?^ 


in 
in 


5 

1-5 


in in 

ooQoi^ino — 0-* 

_ooo-^oo — triin 


— 




p-H in in in in in 

QOCOC^lOO^HC^i— l*f 

,OepiOMO-7'0-. M 


en 

00 




in in 
o en oo «5 in en t^ 
_ooooo-q<-^inoicn 
_e — — — o — o — o 


in 
■■o 




in in in 

i^(NO-9<Tfc: — in 
_ — -"Jl 00 — — o o --P 
C — rH — OWC<l— (N 


o 

en 
'O 


^ 


in m cc •J^ 
cot>-'*'^«3crs'^oo 

_— OOOMOII^O 


o 


c 


in in in in 
c^oioinOiojin'K 
. Cl O en 1;~ c~. o »_-- eo 
c^^o — <N — oi — — 


00 
CO 


c3 


i-^ in 

(M ■* 00 in •* 

_en«Oen">.eoooooiM 
_g — — — — oenoo 


in 
o 


1 


t^oo'mo — (Nen^ 
enencn^M*-^'^'^ 

ODOOQOOOODOCODOO 


1 



CI 


!K 








rt 


rt 


Ol 






C/J 


«5 


. 


<U 




.S 










w 


a 










o 








S^Q 



s > 
■a -^ 



P2 



^ 



d 

S 2 


in. 
+1-484 
-2-017 
+3-728 
-2-565 
+ 1-713 
+1-328 
+1-839 
-5-511 




o a 
a a 


— OiniMOin^-o 

(N'M^0t-'.in50»^<M 

o-^-HOo — r^wm 
^ Os en C-. N "^ -h r- ci 


en 
in 




i^t^co<Ncoen(Nt^ 

-T'tenr-.-HOen — 

CO — — — (NOOO 
■"1 1 + 1 ++ 1 1 






i 

3 

"3 
< 


o o in in o o in o 
en en — -o o 00 -p -o 

_ — t^ O l^ p CO O (>1 

a i-^ o C-. -o o i) iV (^ 


00 


s a> 

.'la 


05— CT>00-0(MO 

ocj — ininenot^ 
^ t>» in — 1^ in t^ c<i in 

COO-JfOO — OIN 
"" + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 






a 
a 

s 


oooinoineoin 

coinci-Hencn*>-o 
^cst^cninaoinTpp 

C w O — -O !>. ih I?- -V 






encOin — Oino 

tj r,. i^ »^ 00 ci o in 

c6o6 — o6i>) — 

■" 1 + 1 1 + + + 1 








o in in O o in o in 

^ in — — — en --o ID 

_ — in p p -p J-. 00 qq 

£5 ■* in Tj" en in in o en 


»n 


a p 

Is 


MnoooOTen<Nin»~- 

inM-oooo — o 

— — 1^ o C-. -o Ol cc 

coj — 6 — — — 66 

■" + 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 








inininiNOincoto 

;O0C-*CC — — CIO 

(£> en !->• in p p— ' Ol t^- 

_(at»-^-^6cni.^ih-^ 


en 
in 

in 


H 


w 00 ci o — cj en -r 
enencn-^'*'^^"* 

OOCOGOODOOOOOOOO 





ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



309 





Oif50-^mO«>.OOOif50 


e«5 




0005-*OOCO!OCOOO.-iCD 




00 


»r5c^ait>.cocot>.^HOc^ic<j oj 


i-H 




.gi-i6(NM4fib-^-!»<Mffqr^p 


S5? 




momoo^ioiMmooo 


5D 




-*Ttit^0C5U:i!MCMrtNr-<0 


«o 


1 CO 


aiO(»r-(-*;o<Na>M«>in-c»i 








(M 






CO 


1 J 














u 


u u 






§ 


January 
February 
March... 
Anril ... 


.§ 
S 


3 


> 


August 

Septemb 

October 

Novembe 

Decembe 


1 

3 





s a 





17-125 
17-750 
15-500 
17-375 
12-375 
15-250 
14-625 
18-500 
16-625 
16-250 
19-000 
'20-375 


CO 
to 


00 


otoooajino.oco«ocor-Hao 




CO 
00 


coi-H'^iMO—iin— <5Do»lom 

r-l(Mr-li-l(NC^,-iOqrt WCM 


o 


-*• 

00 


«O00vOJ>.5OtOO5mC>l-!t<>-i^ 
ev|r-li-lC>l rt i-lr-Hi-li-HIN 


o 

05 


00 


r-lr-lr-lrtr-l-HC>)Ca(MCVJr-l 


CO 


d 

00 


ooiootofoojt^comooso 

(M rH rt ^ rt !N rt <M ^ (N 




en 

CO 

CD 


05— lI>«0050CTi050^iMIM50 

l-l<Mr-l<M — (r-lrtrHC^<N(» 


CO 


00 
CO 
00 


005-HOiOHOMOt-.eO>(50 
(M i-lF-li-lrHCvie^F-lrHi-Heg 


o 

IN 


CO 
CO 




O 


1 


s i 


i 


^1 


1 
< 




., a. 
£ 


1 


i 


ii 

in O 


!-< 

i 

> 

o 





rt 









< 



ai 
.'el 

<11 


-^6eJ'^(Jjdoo-* 

(M rt r^ CO 

+++++ 1 +1 




a ,a 


oocooooo 
oooooooo 
NrtcoMcbdovi 

00(MOr-t050'.0 


in 

o 

o 




NNOOOOOONOOC^ 

OtOcOCOCOtOCOtO 

-*1>.-^C0 1^.010CO 

1 I+++ 1 + 1 






S3 

a 

"3 
< 


oooooooo 
oooooooo 
i^a)oeicoi>ii(fi 




.€a 


t.ait^i>5dbco<No 

1 ++++7+7 






s 
a 


oooooooo 
oooooooo 
(Ncit»ibao«bcjdi 

"^ir^iTSOOCOiOCO 


in 


ii 


++M+++7 








-H-*OJr-ieflO»CO»-^ 

iraiococo»ra-*iOco 


in 


0} C3 
U CS 

!sa 


cot^cocoi>*eot^t>» 

tpcptpcpcptpcpco 
i^otbtbodocji) 

+7++7+I 1 






-g 


eooeeooo 

(i)O^A.oo5oo-?t< 


CO 

o 

in 


ts 


«>^oooio'i-HMco-* 

cococo-*^^^-* 

OOOOOOOOQDOOODOO 







310 



REPORT — 1852. 



Table XVI. — Mean Monthly and Annual Dew- Point, from Observa- 



December 39-08 

January 27-02 



February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . 
September 
October ... 
November 



30-25 
36-51 
36-90 
44-89 
51-96 
55-08 
55-54 
51-55 
46-00 
38-10 



1838. 



9 A.M. 3 P.M. Means 



40-98 
28-56 
32-69 
37-88 
38-76 
46-65 
54-13 
56-24 
56-65 
52-52 
46-45 
39-36 



40-03 
27-79 
31-47 
37-19 
37-83 
45-77 
53-04 
55-66 
56-09 
52-03 
46-22 
38-73 



1839. 



9 A.M. I 3 P.M. Means 



37-88 
34-42 
36-73 
37-22 
38-77 
50-56 
52-70 
5506 
54-25 
53-26 
46-93 
44-20 



39-05 
35-41 
38-56 
40-34 
39-62 
47-31 
54-63 
56-26 
54-37 
53-47 
48-02 
45-40 



38-46 
34-91 
37-64 
38-78 
39-19 
48-93 
53-66 
55-66 
54-31 
53-36 
47-47 
44-80 



9 a.m. 



37-24 
39-46 
36-51 
34-21 
47-58 
48-49 
51-35 
52-84 
56-95 
49-50 
43-90 
4005 



Annual Means 42-74 



44-24 



43-49 



45-15 



46-03 



45-59 



44-84 



Table XVII. — Highest and Lowest Monthly Dew- Point, observed at 9 a.m. 

Annual Means 





1838. 


1839. 




Highest. 


Lowest. 


Means. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Means. 


Highest. 


1 




5°l-00 
44-00 
42-25 
47-50 
50-50 
53-50 
64-00 
65-00 
64-50 
59-00 
57-00 
52-00 


30-50 
10-00 
21-00 
28-50 
23-50 
33-50 
42 00 
46-50 
46-50 
37-00 
32-00 
24-00 


40-75 
27-00 
31-62 
38-00 
37-00 
43-50 
53-00 
55-75 
55-50 
48-00 
44-00 
38-00 


4°8-00 
48-00 
50-00 
50-00 
54-00 
59-50 
63-50 
61-50 
61-50 
61-00 
57-50 
52-50 


o 

27-50 
24-00 
24-50 
26-50 
27-00 
33-00 
39-00 
44-00 
42-00 
43-50 
33-00 
3300 


37-75 
36-00 
37-25 
38-25 
40-50 
46-25 
51-25 
52-75 
51-75 
52-25 
45-00 
42-75 


50-50 
50-50 
47-00 
44-00 
56-00 
59-00 
61-00 
63-20 
67-50 
64-50 
52-50 
53-50 




February 


March 








July 












Annual Means 


54-187 


31-25 


42-676 


55-58 


33-08 


44-31 


55-76 





ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



311 



tions at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. for 5 years, froui 1838 to ISiS inclusive. 



1840. 






1841. 






1842. 




Monthly 
Means. 






















3f.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means, 






39-10 


3°8-17 


3°l-70 


34-12 


32-91 


40-46 


40-43 


4°0-44 


3°8-00 




36-09 


37-77 


33-15 


33-35 


33-25 


32-29 


33-30 


32-78 


33-30 




36-86 


36-68 


34-48 


35-56 


35-02 


37-19 


39-67 


38-43 


35-84 




34-52 


34-36 


43-54 


45-03 


44-28 


40-90 


41-73 


41-31 


39-18 




44-80 


46-19 


41-48 


43-30 


42-39 


41-15 


41-90 


41-52 


41-42 




49-59 


49-04 


47-28 


52-06 


49-67 


46-98 


47-14 


47-06 


48-09 




51-96 


51-65 


48-36 


48-63 


48-49 


53-57 


54-70 


54-13 


52-19 




54-99 


53-91 


52-22 


52-29 


52-25 


54-99 


54-79 


54-89 


54-47 




57-96 


57-45 


55-83 


56-45 


56-14 


60-25 


61-37 


60-81 


56-96 




48-72 


49-11 


54-48 


55-80 


55-14 


53-58 


55-16 


54-37 


52-80 




44-01 


43-95 


46-66 


45-95 


46-30 


42-89 


43-73 


43-31 


45-45 




42-78 


41-41 


39-86 


43-60 


41-73 


40-82 


42-92 


41-87 


41-70 




45-10 


44-97 


44-08 


45-51 


44-79 


45-42 


46-40 


45-91 


44-95 



and 3 p.m. for 5 years, from 1838 to 1842 inclusive, with the Monthly and 
deduced therefrom. 



1840. 






1841. 






1842. 




Monthly 
Means. 






















Lowest. 


Means. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Means. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Means, 






30-00 


40-25 


50-00 


2°3-50 


3°6-75 


50-00 


2°4-00 


3°7-00 


3*8-50 




24-50 


37-50 


46-50 


15-00 


30-75 


41-00 


21-00 


31-00 


32-45 




23-00 


35-00 


46-50 


18-00 


32-25 


49-00 


26-50 


37-75 


34-77 




22-50 


33-25 


53-00 


34-00 


43-50 


51-00 


31-50 


41-25 


38-85 




28-50 


42-25 


58-00 


32-50 


45-25 


52-00 


32-50 


42-25 


41-45 




33-50 


46-25 


64-00 


42-50 


53-25 


56-00 


39-00 


47-50 


47-35 




38-50 


49-75 


59-00 


35-50 


47-25 


65-00 


43-50 


54-25 


51-10 




44-50 


53-85 


65-00 


43-00 


54-00 


63-00 


43-00 


53-00 


53-87 




45-50 


56-50 


68-00 


46-00 


57-00 


73-00 


43-00 


58-00 


55-75 




39-00 


51-75 


65-50 


41-00 


53-25 


64-00 


45-00 


54-50 


51-95 




34-50 


43-50 


53-00 


36-00 


44-50 


54-00 


30-00 


42-00 


43-90 




30-50 


42-00 


52-00 


25-50 


38-75 


50-50 


33-00 


41-75 


40-25 




32-87 


44-32 


56-70 


32-66 


44-70 


57-70 


34-33 


45-02 


44-18 



313 



REPORT — 1852. 



Table XIX. — Winds registered daily at 9 a.m. during 8 years, from 1837 
to 1844 inclusive. 

1837. 



Dec. ... 
Jan. .., 
Feb. ... 
March.., 
April .., 
May .. 
June ... 
July ... 
Aug. ... 
Sept. ... 

Oct 

Nov. ... 



N. N.N.B. N.E. E.N.E. 



16 



13 



32 



S.S.E. S. S.S.W. S.W. W.S.W. W. W.N.W. N.W. N.N.W 



16 14 30 38 



51 16 32 15 26 27 358 



* From the 25th to the 31st inclusive, wind not registered. 



1838. 



Dec. ... 


1 


2 


5 






1 


3 


7 


5 


3 


2 


1 








1 


Jan. ... 


2 


1 


3 


3 


6 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 












3 


Feb. ... 




4 


8 


3 


5 


2 


2 


1 


1 










1 






March... 


1 


1 




1 




1 


4 


1 


3 


2 


6 


1 


1 


8 




1 


April ... 


4 


1 












1 


4 


2 


3 


1 


2 


9 




2 


May . . . 


5 


5 


2 


4 


2 


2 


'i 


1 


2 


1 


2 




2 


1 


... 




June ... 


2 




2 


1 


1 




4 


3 


6 


3 


•2 


1 


1 


2 




i 


July ... 


1 








1 




2 


4 


6 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


1 


Aug. ... 


2 








1 




1 


1 


10 


4 


4 


2 


4 


1 






Sept. ... 


1 


2 


i 






2 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 






Oct 


3 


2 


1 






1 


1 


4 


3 


5 


2 


2 


3 


1 




2 


Nov. ... 


3 


1 


3 




6 




1 


5 


3 


3 


1 


1 




2 








25 


19 


25 


12 


22 


13 


24 


35 


50 


31 


27 


12 


19 


31 


9 


11 



1839. 



Dec. ... 


_ 






1 




1 


5 


6 


4 


2 


1 


3 




5 


1 


2 


31 






1 




... 




• •• 




1 


5 


2 


7 


5 


5 


3 


1 


1 


31 


Feb. ... 


1 


1 


2 








i 


2 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 






28 


March... 


2 


3 




4 


1 


4 


1 


2 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 






3 


31 


April ... 


2 


4 


4 


4 


1 




2 


1 


1 




7 


1 


1 




2 




30 


May ... 


4 


3 


3 




1 




1 




1 


4 




2 


3 


1 


7 


i 


31 


June ... 






4 


3 


3 




3 


1 


4 


1 


4 


3 


J 




3 




30 


July ... 




1 










2 


3 


10 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


4 




31 


Aug. ... 
Sept. ... 
Oct^ 


1 


1 




i 






2 




5 


2 


5 


4 


2 


4 


3 


... 


30+ 














4 


2 


7 


7 


4 


2 


3 




1 




30 


3 


2 


5 


2 




2 


3 


2 


8 


1 






2 






i 


31 


Nov. ... 


1 


1 


... 


5 




2 


1 


1 


3 


6 


4 


*2 






2 


2 


30 




14 


17 


18 


20 


6 


9 


25 


21 


58 


37 


41 


28 


21 


15 


24 


10 


364 



* Wind not registered on the 31st. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



313 



Table XIX. — (^Continued.) 

1840. 





N 


N.N.E. 


N.E. 


E.N.B. 


E 


E.S.E. 


S.E. 


S.S.E. 


s 


s.s.w. 


s.w 


w.s.w 


w 


W.N.W 


K.W 


N.N.W. 




3. ... 




3 




1 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


2 


2 






2 




31 


I. ... 




1 






1 


1 




2 


10 


5 


4 


2 


2 


2 




1 


31 




1 




3 


4 


4 


3 




1 


3 


4 


3 


1 


1 


1 






29 


rch... 


4 


4 


3 


6 


1 










1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


31 


•il ... 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 




1 


2 


4 


1 


2 




3 


1 


4 


3 


30 


y ... 


3 


3 


2 


4 


2 




1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


• •• 


c 


1 


2 


1 


31 


le ... 
















2 


C 


2 


6 


3 


1 


5 


4 


1 


30 


y ... 


1 


2 














2 


5 


9 


2 


8 


2 






31 




2 


2 




i 


2 




3 


i 


2 


9 


2 


2 




3 


... 


31 


t. ... 






2 








1 




.5 


4 


5 


4 


3 


3 


2 


1 


30 





1 


1 


1 


1 




i 


2 


2 


1 




2 


1 


5 


3 


7 


3 


31 


T. ... 




3 


1 






3 


4 




3 


4 


7 


1 


29 


1 


2 


1 


30 




11 


19 


19 


17 


11 


14 


14 


17 


44 


34 


53 


19 


22 


29 


14 


366 


1841. 




2 


2 


7 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 




1 


2 


4 


1 


31 




2 


1 


2 


1 






2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


5 


4 


4 


2 


31 




2 


1 


1 


5 


2 


1 




3 


4 


1 


2 


1 




2 


3 


... 


28 


ch... 


1 












2 


3 


8 


3 


8 


2 


3 


1 




... 


31 


il ... 


1 


5 


2 


1 






1 


2 


5 


2 


4 


1 


3 


3 


... 


... 


30 


... 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


5 


3 


3 


5 


1 


1 




3 




31 


; ... 


3 




1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


5 


2 




2 


3 


3 


1 


30 


... 


4 




4 








... 




1 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


1 


31 


■ ... 


3 




1 














4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


1 


31 


;. ... 












4 


3 




7 


3 


6 


1 


3 




1 


1 


30 




1 




3 


2 


2 






2 




2 


2 


5 


3 


2 


4 


2 


31 


■ - 


2 




1 




1 




1 


2 


3 


3 


5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


... 


30 




22 


14 


24 


13 


11 


8 


12 


21 


36 


32 


45 


23 


35 


28 


32 


9 


365 


1842. 




1 






1 








2 


3 


1 


3 


3 


6 


3 


6 


2 


31 





1 






2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


5 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


3 


31 








1 
1 






2 


3 


2 
2 


5 
1 


4 
5 


6 
4 


2 

4 


1 
5 


2 
4 


3 


i 


28 
31 




1 




2 


2 


8 


4 


4 


2 


1 


3 




1 


1 








2 


*.* 


30 






1 


3 




3 


1 




4 


5 


2 


4 


5 


1 


2 






31 




1 




3 


3 


2 




2 


1 


2 


4 


2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


2 


30 




1 


1 


2 


1 


2 




3 


1 


4 


1 


3 


4 


1 


2 


2 


3 


31 


••. 


2 




1 


6 




2 


4 




2 


5 


3 


1 


2 




2 


1 


31 


. 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 


2 


1 




2 




3 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


30 




4 


3 


2 


1 








1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 




4 


5 


31 




2 


1 


2 


2 


3 




... 


4 


5 


4 


2 


2 


1 




1 


1 


30 




17 


9 


28 


22 


17 


10 


16 


23 


35 


30 


34 


28 1 


27 


19 


30 


20 


565 



314 



REPORT — 1852, 



Table XIX 



1843. 



Dec. 

Jan.... 

Feb.... 

Mar... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct... 

Nov. 



N. N.N.E. I N.E. E.N.E. E. E.S.E. S.E. S.S.E. S. S.S.W. S.W. W.S.W, 



20 14 20 



23 23 



11 



11 



26 28 46 



N.W. N.N.W. 



25 22 



26 



22 



Table XX.— General Summary of the number and direction of the V 
184.4. inclusive, with the corresponding Barometric Pressures, red 



Dec. . 
Jan. . 
Feb. . 
March. 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
Aug. . 
Sept. . 
Oct. . 
Nov. . 



No. of 
Winds. 



Barom 
Pressure 



„.} 



12 

8 
16 
16 
22 

8 
15 
11 

6 
15 

11 



4 
6 
9 

10 

18 

20 

4 

7 

9 

9 

12 

9 



148 



Var. from i 
mean press. | 



29-509 



+•106 



117 



29-537 



+•134 



21 
6 
19 
13 
18 
30 
23 
9 

12 
20 
14 
10 



195 



29-545 



+•142 



3 
6 
17 
18 
16 
18 
14 
2 
11 
13 



135 



29-482 



6 

10 
15 



19 
13 
8 
9 
6 
3 
12 



116 



7 
6 
9 
8 
4 
7 
5 
1 
6 

10 
7 



77 



29-432 



+•079 



+•029 



29^349 



19 
8 

10 

13 
8 
6 

13 

11 
9 

14 
8 

12 



-•054 



131 



29-191 



-•212 



Mean Pressure ol 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OP BIRMINGHAM. 



315 



Hnued.) 



1844. 





N. 
1 

3 

1 
4 
1 
6 
1 
3 
2 

i 


N.N.E. 


N.E. 


E.N.E. 


E. 


E.S.E. 


S.E. 


S.S.E. 


s. 


s.s.w. s.w. 


w.s.w. 


w. 


W.N.W. 


N.W. 


N.N.W. 




... 


"i 

2 
2 
1 
1 
. 2 
1 
2 


"i 

2 

13 
3 

1 

7 
1 

1 


"i 

2 
2 
6 

"i 

"4 
1 
2 


i 
1 

1 
2 
1 
1 

::: 

1^ 


i 
"i" 

"i" 
2 
1 


3 

i 

2 

"3 

1 

"1 
2 


"i 

1 

"2 
2 


2 

"3 

1 
3 

1 

2 
1 

3 

4 

1 


1 

2 
2 

2 

'e 

1 

2 
5 
4 


7 
2 
7 
1 
4 
1 
4 
2 
3 
2 
4 
7 


4 

1 
1 
3 
3 

"3 
2 
5 
5 

"3 


5 
5 
5 
7 
3 

"3 
2 
8 

1 
2 


"2 

3 

1 

3 

2 
6 
3 
2 
3 
1 


12 
3 

4 
1 
1 

"4 
3 

1 
3 

1 


1 

"3 

2 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 

"2 


31 
31 
29 
31 
30 
31 
30 
31 
31 
30 
31 
30 




23 


12 


29 


19 |9 


6 


13 


8 


21 


35 


44 


30 


41 


26 


33 


17 


366 



tered daily at 9 a.m. during each month of the period from 1837 to 
2° Fahrenheit, and their Variations from the Mean. 



















Total 


• 


s.s.w. 


s.w. 


w.s.w. 


w. 


W.N.W. 


N.W. 


N.N.W. 


number. 


I 


23 


33 


18 


24 


12 


20 


7 


248 


) 


17 


24 


21 


24 


15 


31 


14 


241 


3 


18 


30 


11 


- 13 


10 


11 


8 


226 


2 


18 


28 


16 


22 


19 


13 


15 


248 


I 


14 


28 


12 


17 


20 


15 


14 


240 


3 


21 


24 


11 


11 


9 


15 


6 


248 


S 


28 


26 


13 


13 


13 


17 


14 


240 


7 


21 


29 


22 


27 


24 


26 


10 


248 


) 


23 


35 


24 


25 


15 


19 


5 


247 


3 


23 


27 


14 


19 


16 


9 


10 


240 


i 


24 


22 


22 


21 


14 


23 


19 


248 


i 


35 


35 


16 


13 


11 


10 


8 


240 





265 


341 


200 


229 


178 


209 


130 


2914 


!86 


29-301 


29-347 


29-381 


29^369 


29*448 


29-473 


29-495 




.17 


-•102 


--056 


-•022 


-•034 


-I--045 


+•070 


+•092 





;he Winds 29-403. 



316 



REPORT — 1852. 



a 






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o 


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1 


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3 



ON THE VORTEX WATER-WHEEL. SljT 

On the Vortex Water-Wheel. By James Thomson, A.M., Civil 
Engineer, Belfast. 

[A Communication ordered to be printed among tlie Reports.] 

Numberless are the varieties, both of principle and of construction, in the 
mechanisms by which motive power may be obtained from falls of water. 
The chief modes of action of the water are, however, reducible to three, as 
follows : — First, The water may act directly by its weight on a part of the 
mechanism which descends while loaded with water, and ascends while free 
from load. The most prominent example of the application of this mode is 
afforded by the ordinary bucket water-wheel. Secondly, The water may act 
by fl'.iid pressure, and drive before it some yielding part of a vessel by which 
it is confined. This is the mode in which the water acts in the water-pressure 
engine, analogous to the ordinary high-pressure steam-engine. Thirdly, The 
water, having been brought to its place of action subject to the pressure due 
to the height of fall, may be allowed to issue through small orifices with a 
high velocity, its inertia being one of the forces essentially involved in the 
communication of the power to the moving part of the mechanism. Through- 
out the general class of water-wheels called Turbines, which is of wide extent, 
the water acts according to some of the variations of which this third mode 
is susceptible. The name Turbine is derived from the Latin word turbo, a 
top, because the wheels to which it is applied almost all spin round a vertical 
axis, and so bear some considerable resemblance to the top. In our own 
country, and more especially on the Continent, turbines have attracted much 
attention, and many forms of them have been made known by published 
descriptions. The subject of the present communication is a new water- 
wheel, which belongs to the same general class, and which has recently been 
invented and brought successfully into use by the author. 

In this machine the moving wheel is placed within a chamber of a nearly 
circular form. The water is injected into the chamber tangentially at the 
circumference, and thus it receives a rapid motion of rotation. Retaining 
this motion it passes onwards towards the centre, where alone it is free to 
make its exit. The wheel, which is placed within the chamber, and which 
almost entirely fills it, is divided by thin partitions into a great number of 
radiating passages. Through these passages the water must flow on its 
course towards the centre ; and in doing so it imparts its own rotatory mo- 
tion to the wheel. The whirlpool of water acting within the wheel chamber, 
being one principal feature of this turbine, leads to the name Vortex as a 
suitable designation for the machine as a whole. 

The vortex admits of several modes of construction, but the two principal 
forms are the one adapted for high falls and the one for low falls. The 
former may be called the High-pressure Vortex, and the latter the Low-pres- 
sure Vortex*. Examples of these two kinds, in operation at two mills near 
Belfast, are delineated in Plates 1 and 2, with merely a few unimportant 
deviations from the actual constructions. 

Plates 1 and 2 are respectively a vertical section, and a plan of a vortex 
of the high-pressure kind in use at the Low Lodge Mill near Belfast, for 
grinding Indian cornf. In these figures AA is the water-wheel. It is fixed 

* These terms correspond to Hochdruckturbine, and Niederdruckturbine, used in Germany 
to express the like distinction in turbines. 

f This vortex was only in course of erection at the time of the meeting of the British 
Association in Belfast. The water-wheel itself, removed from its case, being light and of small 
dimensions, was exhibited in Section G. It is composed chiefly of thick-tinned iron plates 
united by soft solder. 



318 REPORT — 1852. 

on the upright shaft, B, whicli conveys away the power to the machinery 
to be driven. The water-wheel occupies the central part of the upper di- 
vision of a strong cast-iron case, CC ; and the part occupied by the wheel 
is called the wheel chamber. DD is the lower division of the case, and is 
called the supply chamber. It receives the water directly from the supply 
pipe, of which the lower extremity is shown at E, and delivers it into the 
outer part of the upper division, by four large openings, F, in the parti- 
tion between the two divisions. The outer part of the upper division is 
called the guide-blade chamber, from its containing four guide-blades, G, 
which direct the water tangentially into the wheel-chamber. Immediately 
after being injected into the wheel-chamber the water is received by the 
curved radiating passages of the wheel, which are partly seen in figure 2, at 
a place where both the cover of the wheel-chamber and the upper plate of 
the wheel are broken away for the purpose of exposing the interior to view. 
The water, on reaching the inner ends of these curved passages, having 
already done its work, is allowed to make its exit by two large central orifices, 
shown distinctly on the figures at the letters L, L ; the one leading upwards 
and the other downwards. It then simply flows quietly away ; for, the vortex 
being submerged under the surface of the water in the tail race, the water 
on being discharged wastes no part of the fall by a further descent. At the 
central orifices, close joints between the case and the wheel, to prevent the 
escape of water otherwise than through the wheel itself, are made by means 
of two annular pieces, L, L, caWed joint-rings, fitting to the central orifices of 
the case, and capable of being adjusted, by means of studs and nuts, so as to 
come close to the wheel without impeding its motion by friction. The four 
openings, H, H, Plates 1 and 2, through which the water flows into the wheel- 
chamber, each situated between the point or edge of one guide-blade and the 
middle of the next, determine, by their width, the quantity of water admitted, 
and consequently the power of the wheel. To render this power capable of 
being varied at pleasui-e, the guide-blades are made moveable round gudgeons 
or centres near their points ; and a spindle, K, is connected with the guide- 
blades by means of links, cranks, &c. (see the Plates) in such a way that, 
when the spindle is moved, the four entrance orifices are all enlarged or con- 
tracted alike. This spindle, K, for working the guide-blades is itself worked 
by a handle in a convenient position in the mill ; and the motion is commu- 
nicated from the handle through the medium of a worm and sector, which 
not only serve to multiply the force of the man's hand, but also to prevent 
the guide-blades from being liable to the accident of slapping suddenly shut 
from the force of the water constantly pressing them inwards. The gudgeons 
of the guide-blades, seen in fig. 2 as small circles, are sunk in sockets in the 
floor and roof of the guide-blade chamber ; and so they do not in any way 
obstruct the flow of the water. 

M, in Plate 1, is the pivot-box of the upright shaft. It contains, fixed 
within it, an inverted brass cup, shown distinctly on the figure ; and the cup 
revolves on an upright pin, or pivot, with a steel top. The pin is held sta- 
tionary in a bridge, N, which is itself attached to the bottom of the vortex- 
case. For adjusting the pin as to height, a little cross bridge, O, is made to 
bear it up, and is capable of being raised or lowered by screws and nuts 
shown distinctly on the figure. Also, for preventing the pin from gradually 
becoming loose in its socket in the large bridge, two pinching-screws are 
required, of which one is to be seen in the figure. A small pipe, fixed at its 
lower end into the centre of the inverted brass cup, and sunk in an upright 
groove in the vortex-shaft (see the Plates), aff'ords the means of supplying 
oil to the rubbing surfaces, over which the oil is spread by a radial groove in 



ON THE VORTfiX WATER-WHEEL. 319 

the brass. A cavity, shown ia the Plates, is provided at the lower part of 
the cup, for the purpose of preventing the oil from being rapidly washed 
away by the water*. 

Four tie-bolts, marked P, bind the top and bottom of the case together, so 
as to prevent the pressure of the water from causing the top to spring up, 
and so occasioning leakage at the guide-blades or joint-rings. 

The height of the fall for this vortex is about 37 feet, and the standard or 
medium quantity of water, for which the dimensions of the various parts of 
the wheel and case are calculated, is 540 cubic feet per minute. With this 
fall and water supply the estimated power is 28 horse power, the efficiency 
being taken at 75 per cent. The proper speed of the wheel, calculated in 
accordance with its diameter and the velocity of the water entering its cham- 
ber, is 355 revolutions per minute. The diameter of the wheel is 22-|- inches, 
. and the extreme diameter of the case is 4; feet 8 inches. 

A low-pressure vortex, constructed for another mill near Belfast, is repre- 
sented in vertical section and plan in Plates 3 and 4. This is essentially the 
same in principle as the vortex already described, but it diflFers in the material 
of which the case is constructed, and in the manner in which the Avater is led 
to the guide- blade chamber. Ln this the case is almost entirely of wood ; and, 
for simplicity, the drawings represent it as if made of wood alone, though in 
reality, to suit the other arrangements of the mill, brick-work, in certain 
parts, was substituted for the wood. The water flows with a free upper sur- 
face, W, W, into this wooden case, which consists chiefly of two wooden 
tanks, AA and BB, one within the other. The water-wheel chamber and 
the guide-blade chamber are situated in the open space between the bottom 
of the outer and that of the inner tank, and will be readily distinguished by 
reference to the figures. The water of the head race, having been led all 
round the outer tank in the space CC, flows inwards over its edge, and passes 
downwards by the space DD, between the sides of the two tanks. It then 
passes through the guide-blade chamber and the water-wheel, just in the 
same way as was explained in respect to the high-pressure vortex already 
described ; and in this one likewise it makes its exit by two central orifices, 
the one discharging upwards and the other downwards. The part of the 
water which passes downwards flows away at once to the tail race, and that 
which passes upwards into the space E within the innermost tank, finds a 
free escape to the tail race through boxes and other channels, F and G, 
provided for that purpose. The wheel is completely submerged under the 
surface of the water in the tail race, which is represented at its ordinary level 
at YYY, Plate 3, although in floods it may rise to a much greater height. 
The power of the wheel is regulated in a similar way to that already de- 
scribed in reference to the high-pressure vortex. In this case, however, as 
will be seen by the figures, the guide-blades are not linked together, but each 
is provided with a hand-wheel, H, by which motion is communicated to 
itself alone. 

* Great stress has been by continental engineers and authors laid on the supposed neces- 
sity for oiling the pivots of turbines. The autlior of the present communication has thus been 
led to endeavour to find and adopt the best means for oiling pivots vporking under water. The 
oiling, however, is a source of much trouble ; and he has found in the course of his experience, 
that pivots of the kind described above, made with brass working on hard steel, and with a 
radial groove in the brass suitable for spreading water over the rubbing surfaces, will last well 
without any oil being supplied. The rapid destruction, which is commonly reported as having 
been of frequent occurrence in turbine pivots, he believes may in many cases have arisen from 
the employment of an inverted cup like a diving-bell as one of the rubbing parts, without any 
provision for the escape of air from the cup. It is evident that a pivot of this kind, although 
under water, might be perfectly dry at the rubbing surfaces. 



320 REPORT — 1852. 

In this vortex, the fall being taken at 7 feet, the calculated quantity of 
water admitted, at the standard opening of the guide-blades, is 24'60 cubic 
feet per minute. Then, the efficiency of the wheel being taken at 15 per cent., 
its power will be 24 horse power. Also the speed at which the wheel is 
calculated to revolve is 48 revolutions per minute. 

In connexion with the pivot of this wheel arrangements are made which 
provide for the perfect lubrication of the rubbing surfaces with clean oil. 
The lower end of the upright revolving shaft enters a stationary pivot box, K, 
through an opening made oil-tight by hemp and leather packing. Within 
the box there is a small stationary steel plate on which the shaft revolves. 
Within the box, also, there are two oil-chambers, one situated above and 
round the rubbing surface of this plate, and the other underneath the plate. 
A constant circulation of the oil is maintained by centrifugal force, which 
causes it to pass from the lower chamber upwards through a central orifice 
in the steel plate, then outwards through a radial groove in the bottom of 
the revolving shaft to the upper chamber, then downwards back to the lower 
chamber, by one or more grooves at the circumference of the steel plate. 
The purpose intended to be served by the provision of the lower chamber 
combined with the passages for the circulation of the oil, is to permit the 
oil, while passing through the lower chamber, to deposit any grit or any 
worn metal which it may contain, so that it may be maintained clean and 
may be washed over the upper surface of the steel plate at every revolution 
of the radial groove in the bottom of the shaft. A pipe leading from an oil 
cistern, L, in an accessible situation conducts oil to the upper chamber of the 
pivot-box ; and another pipe leaves the lower chamber, and terminates, at 
its upper end, in a stop-cock, M. This arrangement allows a flow of oil to 
be obtained at pleasure from the cistern, down by the one pipe, then through 
the pivot-box, and then up by the other pipe, and out by the cock. Thus, 
if any stoppage were to occur in the pipes, it could be at once detected ; or 
if water or air were contained in the pivot-box after the first erection, or at 
any other time, the water could be removed by the pipe leading to the stop- 
cock, or the air would of itself escape by the pipe leading to the cistern, 
which, as well as the other pipe, has a continuous ascent from the pivot-box. 
Certainty may consequently be attained that the pivot really works in clean oil. 

The author was led to adopt the pivot-box closed round the shaft with oil 
tight stuffing, from having learned of that arrangement having been sucess- 
fully employed by Kdchlin, an engineer of Miihlhausen. As to the other 
parts of the arrangements just described, he believes the settling chamber 
with the circulation of oil to be new, and he regards this part of the arrange- 
ments as being useful also for pivots working not under water. In respect 
to the materials selected for the rubbing parts, however, he thinks it necessary 
to state that some doubts have arisen as to the suitableness of wrought iron 
to work on steel even when perfectly lubricated ; and he would, therefore, 
recommend that a small piece of brass should be fixed into the bottom of the 
shaft, all parts being made to work in the manner already explained. 

The two examples which have now been described of vortex water-wheels 
adapted for very distinct circumstances, will serve to indicate the principal 
features in the structural arrangements of these new machines in general. 
Respecting their principles of action some farther explanations will next be 
given. In these machines the velocity of the circumference is made the 
same as the velocity of the entering water, and thus there is no impact 
between the water and the wheel ; but, on the contrary, the water enters the 
radiating conduits of the wheel gently, that is to say, with scarcely any 
motion in relation to their mouths. In order to attain the equalization of 



ON THE VORTEX WATER-WHEEL.. 321. 

these velocities, it is necessary that the circumference of the wheel should 
move with the velocity which a heavy body M^ould attain in falling through 
a vertical space equal to half the vertical fall of the water, or in other words, 
with the velocity due to half the fall; and that the orifices through which 
the water is injected into the wheel-chamber should be conjointly of such 
area that when all the water required is flowing through them, it also may 
have a velocity due to half the fall. Thus one-half only of the fall is em- 
ployed in producing velocity in the water ; and, therefore, the other half still 
remains acting on the water within the wheel-chamber at the circumference 
of the wheel in the condition of fluid pressure. Now, with the velocity 
already assigned to the wheel, it is found that this fluid pressure is exactly 
that which is requisite to overcome the centrifugal force of the water in the 
wheel, and to bring the water to a state of rest at its exit, the mechanical 
work due to both halves of the fall being transferred to the wheel during the 
combined action of the moving water and the moving wheel. In the fore- 
going statements, the effects of fluid friction, and of some other modifying 
influences, are, for simplicity, left out of consideration ; but in the practical 
application of the principles, the skill and judgement of the designer must be 
exercised in taking all such elements as far as possible into account. To 
aid in this, some practical rules, to which the author as yet closely adheres, 
were made out by him previously to the date of his patent. These are to be 
found in the specification of the patent, published in the Mechanics' 
Magazine for Jan. 18 and Jan. 25, 1851 (London). 

In respect to the numerous modifications of construction and arrangement 
which are admissible in the Vortex, while the leading principles of action are 
retained, it may be sufficient here merely to advert, — first, to the use (as 
explained in the specification of the patent) of straight instead of curved 
radiating passages in the wheel; secondly, to the employment, for simplicity, 
of invariable entrance orifices, or of fixed instead of moveable guide-blades ; 
and lastly, to the placing of the wheel at any height, less than about thirty feet, 
above the water in the tail race, combined with the employment of suction 
pipes descending from the central discharge orifices, and terminating in the 
water of the tail race, so as to render available the part of the fall below the 
wheel. 

In relation to the action of turbines in general, the chief and most commonly 
recognised conditions, of which the accomplishment is to be aimed at, are 
that the water should flow through the whole machine with the least possible 
resistance, and that it should enter the moving wheel without shock, and be 
discharged from it with only a very inconsiderable velocity. The vortex is 
in a remarkable degree adapted for the fulfilment of these conditions. The 
water moving centripetally (instead of centrifugally, which is more usual in 
turbines) enters at the period of its greatest velocity (that is, just after passing 
the injection orifices) into the most rapidly moving part of the wheel, the 
circumference ; and, at the period when it ought to be as far as possible 
deprived of velocity, it passes away by the central part of the wheel, the part 
which has the least motion. Thus in each case, that of the entrance and 
that of the discharge, there is an accordance between the velocities of the 
moving mechanism and the proper velocities of the water. 

The principle of injection from without inwards, adopted in the vortex, 
affords another important advantage in comparison with turbines having the 
contrary motion of the water; as it allows ample room, in the space outside 
of the wheel, for large and well-formed injection channels, in which the 
water can be made very gradually and regularly to converge to the most 
contracted parts, where it is to have its greatest velocity. It is as a con- 

1852. Y 



322 REPORT — 1852. 

comitant also of the same principle, that the very simple and advantageous 
mode of regulating the power of the wheel by the moveable guide-blades 
already described can be introduced. This mode, it is to be observed, while 
giving great variation to the areas of the entrance orifices, retains at all times 
very suitable forms for the converging water channels. 

Another adaptation in the vortex is to be remarked as being highly bene- 
ficial, that namely according to which, by the balancing of the contrary fluid 
pressures due to half the head of water and to the centrifugal force of the 
water in the wheel, combined with the pressure due to tiie ejection of the 
water backwards from the inner ends of the vanes of the wheel when they 
are curved, only one-half of the work due to the fall is spent in commu- 
nicating vis viva to the Mater, to be afterwards taken from it during its 
passage through the wheel ; the remainder of the work being communicated 
through the fluid pressure to the wheel, without any intermediate generation 
of vis viva. Thus the veiocitj' of the water, where it moves fastest in the 
machine, is kept comparatively low ; not exceeding that due to half the 
height of the fall, while in other turbines the water usually requires to act at 
much higher velocities. In many of them it attains at two successive times 
the velocity due to the whole fall. The much smaller amount of action, or 
agitation, with which the water in the vortex performs its work, causes a 
material saving of power by diminishing the loss necessarily occasioned by 
fluid friction. 

In the Vortex, further, a very favourable influence on the regularity of the 
motion proceeds from the centrifugal force of the water, which, on any in- 
crease of the velocity of the wheel, increases, and so checks the water supply ; 
and on any diminution of the velocity of the wheel, diminishes, and so admits 
the water more freely ; thus counteracting, in a great degree, the irregularities 
of speed arising from variations in the work to be performed. When the 
work is subject to great variations, as for instance in saw-mills, in bleaching 
works, or in forges, great inconvenience often arises with the ordinary 
bucket water-wheels and with turbines which discharge at the circumference, 
from their running too quickly when any considerable diminution occurs in 
the resistance to their motion. 

The first vortex which was constructed on the large scale was made in Glas- 
gow, to drive a new beetling-mill of Messrs. C. Hunter and Co., of Dunadry, in 
County Antrim. It was the only one in action at the time of the Meeting 
of the British Association in Belfast ; but the two which have been particularly 
described in the present article, and one for an unusually high fall, 100 feet, 
have since been completed and brought into operation. There are also 
several others in progress ; of which it may be sufficient to particularize one 
of great dimensions and power, for a new flax-mill at Ballyshannon in the 
West of Ireland. It is calculated for working at 150 horse-power, on a fall 
of 14 feet, and it is to be impelled by the water of the River Erne. This 
great river has an ample reservoir in the Lough of the same name ; so that 
the water of wet weather is long retained, and continues to supply the river 
abundantly even in the dryest weather. The lake has also the efi'ect of 
causing the floods to be of long duration, and the vortex will consequently 
be, through a considerable part of the year, and for long periods at a time, 
deeply submerged under back-water. The water of the tail race will fre- 
quently be 7 feet above its ordinary summer level ; but as the water of the 
head race will also rise to such a height as to maintain a sufficient difl"erence 
of levels, the action of the wheel will not be deranged or impeded by the 
floods. These circumstances have had a material influence in leading to the 
adoption in the present case of this new wheel in preference to the old breast 
or undershot wheels. 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 323 

On the Composition of Foods, in relation to Respiration and the Feeding 
of Animals, By J. B. Lawes, Esq., of Rothamsted ; and J. H. 
GibBERT, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

During the last twelve years our knowledge of the adaptation of food, 
according to its composition, to the various exigences of the animal system, 
has assumed much of definiteness ; and it is to the experiments and writings 
of MM. Boussingault, Liebig and Dumas, that we must attribute, either 
directly or indirectly, much of the progress that has been made. There are, 
however, connected with this important subject still many open questions ; 
and it is with the hope of aiding the solution of one or two of these, and thus 
providing a new starting-point for further inquiry, that we propose iu the 
present paper to bring forward some results of our own which bear upon 
them, and to point out the conclusions to which they appear to us to lead. 

The writers to whom we have above referred, as well as many others, 
whether themselves experimenters or more systematic writers on the subject 
of the chemistry of food, may, with few exceptions, and with some limita- 
tions, be said to agree on two main points, viz. on the one hand, as to the 
connection of the nitrogenous constituents of the food, with the formation in 
the animal body of compounds containing nitrogen, and with the exercise of 
force ; and on the other, as to the general relationship of the «ow-nitrogenous 
constituents of the food with respiration, and with the deposition of animal 
fat. It is indeed upon the assumption of this broad and fundamental classi- 
fication of the constituents of food, according to their varied offices in the 
animal oeconomy, that a vast series of analyses of foods have of late years 
been made and published ; whilst, founded upon the results of these analyses, 
numerous tables have been constructed, professing to arrange the current 
articles of diet both of man and other animals, according to their comparative 
values as such. Among the labourers in this field of inquiry, we are much 
indebted to MM. Liebig, Dumas, Boussingault, Payen, Playfair, E. D. 
Thomson, Horsford, Schlossberger and Kemp, and others. 

When speaking generally then, of the various requirements of the animal 
organism, the more special adaptations of the several proximate compounds 
and ultimate elements of which our vegetable and animal aliments are made 
up, are, as we have already said, fully admitted ; but in attempting to apply to 
practice the principles herein involved by the construction of tables of the 
comparative value of foods, it seems to have been generally assumed, that our 
current food-stuffs are thus measurable rather by their flesh-forming than by 
their more specially respiratory and fat-forming capacities. Hence, with 
some limitations, the per-centage of nitrogen has always been taken as the 
standard of comparison. 

Founded upon their per-centage of nitrogen, M. Boussingault first arranged 
tables of the comparative values of different articles of food, chiefly in refer- 
ence to the dieting of the animals of the farm ; and with this method Professor 
Liebig has expressed his concurrence. At page 369 of the 3rd edition of his 
Chemical Letters, he says — " The admirable experiments of Boussingault 
prove, that the increase in the weight of the body in the fattening or feeding 
of stock (just as is the case with the supply of milk obtained from milch 
cows), is in proportion to the amount of plastic constituents in the daily 
supply of fodder." And at page 349 of the same, speaking of the nitrogenous 
compounds of food, he says — "It is found that animals require for their 
support less of any vegetable food in proportion as it is richer in these 
peculiar matters, and cannot be nourished by vegetables in which these 
matters are absent." 

In like manner, various specimens of flour and of bread have been arranged 
by Dr. R. D. Thomson ; other articles of vegetable diet by Mr. Horsford ; and 

y2 



324 REPORT — 1852. 

a large series of aliments from the animal kingdom by MM. Schlossberger 
and Kemp. Dr. Anderson also, in his valuable Report on the Composition of 
Turnips, grown under different circumstances and in different localities, has 
taken their per-centage of nitrogen as the measure of their comparative feed- 
ing value. 

The views which have thus led to a vast number of analyses of foods, as 
well as the information supplied by the analyses themselves, have contributed 
much to the advancement of our knowledge of the chemistry of food. It has 
however been found, that the indications of tables of the comparative values 
of foods, founded on the per-centages of proteine compounds, were frequently 
discrepant with those which common usage or direct experiment affords. 
These discrepancies have not escaped the attention of the authors of the theo- 
retical tables ; but they have attributed them rather to the erroneous teachings 
of common practice or experiments on feeding, than to any defect in the theo- 
retical method of estimation. On all hands, however, it has been admitted, 
that further direct experiment bearing upon this important subject was much 
needed; and it is the acknowledgement of this necessity that seems to justify 
the publication, under the auspices of the British Association, the results of 
this kind which we have now to submit. 

The question to which we shall first call attention, is, whether, in the use 
of our current foods, under ordinary circumstances, but especially in the case 
of animals fattening for the butcher, the amount of food consumed, and that 
of increase produced, have a closer relationship to the supplies in such foods 
of the ^JzVro^ewozw, or of the «on-nitrogenous constituents? That is to say, 
whether the sum of the requirements of the animal system is such, that, in 
ordinary circumstances, and in the use of ordinary articles of food, the 
measure of the amount taken, or of the increase produced, will be regulated 
more by the supplies of the " Plastic," or of the more peculiarly respiratory and 
fat-forming constituents. According to the views upon which all the tables 
of the comparative values of foods are constructed, it is the supplies of the 
plastic elements of food chiefly, that should regulate both the consumption, 
and the increase in weight, of a fattening animal. If, however, we bear in 
mind the views which are generally entertained as to the influence of respi- 
ration on the demands of the system for the oxidizable elements of food, it 
would appear more consistent to suppose that the measure, at least of the con- 
sumption of food, would be chiefly regulated by its supplies of those elements. 
In the experiments to which we shall call attention, sheep and pigs have 
been the subjects. As, however, their object has partlj^ been the solution of 
certain questions of a more purely agricultural character than those now 
under consideration, the details, as to the selection of the animals, and the 
general management of tiie experiments, will be given more appropriately in 
another place. Indeed, the particulars of some of the experiments with 
sheep, so far as their agricultural bearings are concerned, have already ap- 
peared in the Journals of the Royal Agricultural Society of England ; and 
those of the rest, and also of the experiments with pigs, will probably do so 
shortly. It should here be stated, however, that the general plan has been 
to select several different descriptions of food, containing respectively various 
amounts of nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous constituents, the proportions of 
which were ascertained by analysis. To one or more sets of animals to be 
compared, a fixed and limited amount of food of a high or of a low per-centage 
of nitrogen, as the case might be, was allotted, and they were then allowed to 
take ad libitum of another or complementary food. In this way, in obedience 
to the instinctive demands of tiie system, the animals were enabled to fix for 
themselves, according to the composition of the respective foodsj tlie quantities 
of eacii class of constituents which they required. 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 325 



In the tables which follow the results of the experiments are arranged to 
show — 

1st. The amounts respectively of the nitrogenous and the wow-nitrogenous 
constituents consumed iveekly per 100 lbs. live iveight of animal. 

2nd. The amounts consumed of each of these classes of constituents to 
produce 100 lbs. increase in live weight. 

Summary tables of the results of the analyses of the foods are also given. 

In the tables showing the amounts of the constituents consumed, &c. — the 
weights of the animals themselves — of the foods consumed — and their per cent- 
ages, of dry matter, of ash, and of nitrogen — have formed the basis of the 
calculations. Thus, the column of nitrogenous substances consumed, is 
obtained by multiplying the amount of nitrogen by 6'3, on the assumption 
that they all exist as proteine compounds. This method of estimation will, we 
think, be found sufficient for our present purpose ; though, as we shall have 
occasion to point out further on, it is frequently far from accurate, and 
especially when applied to succulent vegetable substances. 

The amounts of wow-nitrogenous constituents are obtained by deducting 
those of the mineral and nitrogenous constituents from the amount of the 
total dry matter consumed. 

In the tables showing the amounts of the respective constituents consumed 
by a given weight of animal within a given time, it is their mean weights that 
are taken for the calculation; namely, those obtained by adding together their 
weights at the commencement and at the conclusion of the experiment, and 
dividing by 2. 

In the tables showing the constituents consumed to produce a given iveight 
of increase, the figures are obtained by simple rule of three; taking as the 
elements of calculation, the consumption during the total period of the ex- 
periment, and the total increase in weight during the same period. 

With these short explanations we may now introduce the tables them- 
selves. 

Table I. 
Summary Table of the Per-centage Composition of the Sheep Foods. 



Foods eaten by Series 1. 



Description of Food. 



Mean Per-centage Results. 



Dry Matter. 



Inclusive Exclusive 
of Ash. of Ash. 



In Fresh In Dry 
Substance. Matter. 



Nitrogen. 



In Fresh In Dry 
Substance. Matter. 



Swedish Turnips, No. 1. 
Swedish Turnips, No. 2. 

American Oil- cake 

Oats 

Clover-chaff 

Oat-straw Chaff 



10-58 
1212 

89-50 
85-18 
78-61 
81-28 



10-00 
11-49 
84-08 
82-24 
72-33 
74-86 



0-577 

0-632 

5-42 

2-94 

6-28 

6-42 



5-46 
5-21 
606 
3-45 
7-99 
7-87 



0-263 

0-151 

5-08 

208 

1-85 



2-49 
1-25 
5-68 
2-44 
2-35 



Foods eaten by Series 2. 



Oil-cake 

Linseed, No. 1. 
Linseed, No. 2. 

Barley 

Malt 

Clover-cbaff ... 



87-36 


81-88 


5-48 


6-27 


5-01 


90-56 


86-28 


4-28 


4-72 


3-68 


91-54 


87-46 


4-08 


4-45 


405 


85-54 


83-23 


2-31 


2-70 


1-49 


91-65 


89-34 


2-31 


2-52 


1-51 


84-66 


77-39 


7-27 


8-58 


211 



574 
407 
4-44 
174 
1-65 
2-50 



326 



REPORT — 1852. 



Table I. {contimied.) 



Foods eaten by Series 3. 


Description of Food. 


Mean Per-centage Results. 


Dry Matter. 


Ash. 


Nitrogen. 


Inclusive 
of Ash. 


Exclusive 

of Ash. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


Norfolk White Turnips, " 
grown by mineral manm-es ■ 
only 

Norfolk White Turnips, " 
grown by mineral manures > 
and ammoniacal salts 

Norfolk White Turnips, ' 
grown by mineral manures >• 
and rape-cake 

Norfolk White Turnips, " 
grown by mineral manures, 
rape-cake and ammoniacal 


9-37 

8-42 
7-78 

7-88 


8-74 
7-79 
7-14 

7-17 


0-627 
0-630 
0-639 

0-703 


6-69 
7-48 
8-21 

892 


0-146 
175 
0183 

0-252 


1-56 
2-08 
2-36 

320 




Foods eaten by Series 4. 


Long Red Mangold, No. 1, ... 
Long Red Mangold, No. 2. ... 

Mean 

Barley 


12-94 
1314 


11-94 
1216 


1-002 
0-979 


7-74 
7-45 


0-30 

0-28 


2-36 
218 


1304 


1205 


0-990 7-59 


0-29 


227 


81-84 
95-39 
93-76 
89-74 


79-51 
92-78 
850(i 
83-60 


2-32 
2-60 
8-70 
6-12 


2-84 
2-73 
9-28 
6-82 


1-45 
1-62 
410 
5-26 


1-78 
1-70 
4-38 
5-87 


Malt 













Table II. 
Summary Table of the Per-centage Composition of Sheep Foods (continued). 



Series 5. 
Foods eaten by Hants and Sussex Downs. 


Description of Food. 


Mean Per-centage Results. 


Dry Matter. 


Ash. 


Nitrogen. 


Inclusive 
of Ash. 


Exclusive 
of Ash. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


Swedish Turnips, Lot 1 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 2 


9-81 
10-32 
87-54 
81-24 


9-20 

9-73 

80-84 

72-82 


0-607 
0-607 
6-70 

8-42 


6-19 

5-87 

7-65 

10-36 


0231 
0-301 
4-98 
203 


236 
2-61 
5-70 
251 


Clover-hay 





POODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 327 



Table II. (continued.) 



Eaten by Cotswolds. 


Description of Food. 


Mean Per-centage Results. 


Dry Matter. 


Ash. 


Nitrogen. 


Inclusive 
of Ash. 


Exclusive 
of Ash. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 

Matter. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


Swedish Turnips, Lot 1 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 2 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 3 


10-88 
10-70 
12 60 

87-54 
83-66 


10-37 
1012 
11-84 

80-84 
76-46 


0-504 

0-579 

0-758 

6-70 

7-20 


4-63 
5-41 
6-00 
7-65 
8-60 


018 
0-28 
0-27 
4-99 
2-24 


1-66 
2-63 
221 
5-70 
2-68 






Eaten by Leice 


sters ; and by Cross-bred Ewes and Wethers, 
^Leicester and South Down.] 




Swedish Turnips, Lot 1 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 2 


10-89 10-38 
11-88 11-26 
86-32 78-52 
80-48 72-38 
80-08 71-90 


0-520 
0-623 

7-80 
8-10 
8-18 


4-79 

5-23 

904 

1006 

1017 


0-23 
025 
5-05 
2-73 
2-73 


2-15 
2-14 
5-86 
3-40 
3-42 













Table III. 
Summary Table of Per-centage Composition of the Pig Foods. 



Eaten by Series 1. 



Description of Food. 



Mean Per-centage Results. 



Dry Matter. 


Ash. 


Nitrogen. 


Inclusive 


Exclusive 


In Fresh 


In Dry 


In Fresh 


In Dry 


of Ash. 


of Ash. 


Substance. 


Matter. 


Substance. 


Matter. 


88-30 


83-57 


4-72 


5-35 


4-24 


4-80 


87-30 


82-42 


4-87 


5-58 


4-52 


5-18 


86-62 


81-64 


4-98 


5-75 


4-56 


5-26 


89-70 


88-33 


1-37 


1-53 


1-72 


1-92 


89-89 


88-61 


1-28 


142 


1-95 


217 


84-79 


78-77 


6-02 


7-10 


2-61 


3-08 


81-86 


79-72 


214 


261 


1-83 


224 



Egyptian Beans.... 

Lentils, Lot 1 

Lentils, Lot 2 

Indian meal. Lot 1 , 
Indian meal. Lot 2, 

Bran 

Barley 



Eaten by Series 2. 



Egyptian Beans 
Lentils, Lot 1. 
Lentils, Lot 2. 
Barley, Lot 1. 
Barley, Lot 2. 
Barley, Lot 3. 
Bran 



88-17 
89-42 
89-97 
82-38 
80-95 
82-53 
85-08 



84-45 
86-44 
85-10 
8019 

78-77 
80-48 
78-67 



3-72 

2-98 
4-87 
2-19 
2-18 
2-05 
6-41 



4-22 
3-33 
5-41 
2-66 
2-69 
2-48 
7-53 



4-21 
4-54 
4-18 
1-82 
1-83 
1-55 
2-62 



4-78 
508 
4-65 
2-21 
226 
1-88 
308 



328 



REPORT 1832. 



Table IV. 

Experiments with Sheep.— Weekli/ consumption of Nitrogenous and Non- 
nitrogenous constituents of Food joer 1 00 /6s. liveiveight of animal (quan- 
tities stated in lbs., tenths, &c.). 



Series 1. — Five sheep in each pen, 14 weeks. 


4 


1 
Limited Food. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic Substance. 


'S 

Is 






1- 




■s § 
1= a 


-A . 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 




Swedish Turnips . . 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


1-63 

0-88 
0-69 


0-82 
0-69 
0-94 
107 


246 
1-57 
1-64 
1-07 


2-75 
4-76 
3-99 


7-10 
6-61 
913 
9-82 


9-85 
11-36 
1312 
1017 


12-31 
12-93 
14-76 
11-24 


Oats 1 




Oat-straw chaflf 


^ Means 


1-071. 0-882 


1-68 


3-83 


8-16 


11-13 


12-81 


Series 2. — Five sheep in each pen, 19 weeks. 


1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 


Oil-cake 

Linseed 

Barley 

Malt 


Clover-chaff 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


1-64 
1-26 
050 
0-44 


214 
1-95 

2-08 
208 


3-78 
3-21 
2-58 
2-52 


2-55 
3-19 
3-83 
3-98 


10-38 
9-47 
9-96 

1004 


12-93 
12-66 
13-79 
14-02 


16-71 
15-87 
16-37 
16-55 


Means 


0-96 


2-06 


302 


3-39 


9-96 


13-35 


16-38 


Series 3. — Five sheep in each pen, 10 weeks. 


1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5. 


Barley 

Malt and malt-dust ... 


Mangold-wurtzel. . 

ditto 

1 ditto 

ditto 

(Utto 


0-44 
0-43 
0-43 

0-40 

0-.'52 


1-26 
1-20 
1-65 

1-36 

1-36 


1-70 
1-64 

208 

1-77 

1-89 


3-53 
3-32 
3-35 

3-09 

3-97 


7-06 
6-80 
9-24 

7-60 

7-66 


10-59 
10-12 
12-60 

10-70 

11-63 


12-29 
11-76 
14-68 

12-47 
13-52 


Malt and malt-dust 


Malt and malt-dusi 
(extra quantity) 


Means 


0-44 


1-37 


1-82 


3-45 


7-67 


11-13 


1294 




Series 4. — Five sheep in each pen, 10 weeks ; no limited Foods. 


1. 
2 

3 
4 


Norfolk "White Turnips, mineral manures 


1-20 
151 
1-64 
2-14 


10-30 
9-24 
8-86 
7-60 


11-50 
9-75 

10-50 
9-74 


Norfolk White Turnir 

and aramoniacal salt 

Norfolk AVhite Turnii. 


s, mineral manures 


s, mineral manure' 


Norfolk White Turnip 
rape-cake and ammc 


s, mineral manures 




Means 


1-62 


900 


10-37 



FOODS. IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 329 

Table IV. (continued.) 





Series 5.- 


—Different breeds of sheep. 




g 


N 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic SulSstance. 


H 




1 
1 




II 

Bt3 




1-^ 

Cfl, 


11 

CT3 






fi 


Forty Hants Downs, twen- 1 
ty-six weeks J 


'g 




2-27 


112 


3-39 


5-43 


5-63 


1106 


14-45 


Forty Sussex Downs, twen- 1 
ty-six weeks J 

Forty-sixCotswolds, twen- '_ 
ty weeks 


3h 

> 

o 


p. 
■p 

5 


2-31 
2-27 


106 
114 


3-37 
341 


5-64 
5-37 


5-35 
665 


10-99 
1202 


14-36 
15-43 


Forty Leicesters, twenty"! 
weeks J 


•n 




2-30 


107 


3-37 


4-70 


6-46 


1116 


14-53 


Forty cross-bred Ewes, "I 
twenty weeks J 

Forty cross-bred Wethers, "1 
twenty weeks J 


1 
O 


1 


2-39 
2-41 


109 
112 


3-48 
3-53 


4-91 
4-96 


6-60 
6-73 


11-51 
11-69 


14-99 
15-22 


Means 


2-32 


110 


3-42 


517 


6-23 


11-40 


14-83 



Table V. 

Experiments with Sheep. — Consumption of Nitrogenous and Non-nitrogenous 
constituents of Food to produce 100 lbs. increase in live weight of animal 
(quantities stated in lbs.). 



Series 1. — Five sheep in each pen, 14 weeks. 


o 

2; 

a 


Limited Food. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic Substance. 


o § 


ji-a 




1- 

Cfci 


J. -a 
II 

Ct3 




58 


1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 




Swedish Turnips . . 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


111 

55 
43 


56 

48 
59 
102 


167 
103 
102 
102 


181 
289 
223 


469 
395 
513 

881 


650 
684 
736 
913 


817 

787 

838 

1015 


Oats 








Means 


70 


66 


118 


231 


565 


746 


864 




Series 2. — Five sheep i 


1 each pen, 19 weeks. 






1. 
2. 
3. 
4 




Clover-chaff 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


138 
112 
45 

49 

1 


183 
177 
190 
217 


321 
289 
235 
266 


219 
291 
353 
412 


884 

853 

916 

1045 


1103 
1144 
1269 
1457 


1424 
1433 
1504 
1723 






Malt 








Means 


j 86 


192 


278 


319 


925 


1244 


1521 



330 



REPORT — 1852. 

Table V. (continued.) 



Series 3. — Five sheep in each pen, 10 weeks. 


1 
1 


Limited Food. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic Substance. 


■3 

!l 


II 

C-3 




Cfci 






ll 


1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5. 


Barley 


Mangold-wurtzel .. 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


31 
29 
25 

32 

35 


87 
82 
96 

104 

91 


118 
111 
121 

136 

126 


243 

220 
194 

237 

265 


488 
457 
536 

584 

511 


731 
677 
730 

821 

776 


850 
788 
851 

958 

903 


Malt and malt-dust ... 

Barley (steeped) 

Malt and malt-dust 
(steeped) 


Malt and malt-dust 
(extra quantity) 


Means 


30 


Q2 


123 


232 


515 


747 


870 


Series 4. — Five sheep in each pen, 10 weeks ; no limited Food. 


1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 


Norfolk White Turnips, mineral manures 
only 


192 
153 
324 

Lost weight. 


1627 

930 

1682 

Lost weight. 


1819 
1083 
2006 


Norfolk White Turnips 

and ammoniacal salts 

Norfolk White Turnips 


, mineral manures 


, mineral manures 


Norfolk ^\Tiite Turnips 
rape.cake and ammon 


mineral manures, 




Means 


223 


1413 


1636 



Series 5. — Different breeds of sheep. 






Si 

-a 

■s 

1 

3 


il 

" 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


N on -nitrogenous 
Organic Substance. 


1 . 


II 

Ct3 


^1 




II 

CT3 


II 


1- 


Forty Hants Downs, twen- 1 

ty-six weeks J 

Fortj'SussexDowns.twen- | 

ty-six weeks J 

Forty-six Cotswolds, twen- 1 

ty weeks J 

Forty Leicesters, twenty I 

weeks J 

Forty cross-bred Ewes, "1 

twenty weeks J 

Forty cross-bred Wethers, 1 

twenty weeks j 


•g 

u 

> 




'2 
3 

4) 

t 




H 

% 


124 
129 
111 
127 
127 
127 


62 
60 
55 
59 
58 
59 


186 
189 
166 
186 
185 
186 


300 
318 
260 
261 
260 
261 


312 
302 
322 
358 
350 
355 


612 
620 
582 
619 
610 
616 


798 
809 
748 
805 
795 
802 


Means 


124 


59 


183 


277 


333 


610 


793 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 331 



Table VI. 
Experiments with Pigs. — Weekly consumption of Nitrogenous and Non- 
nitrogenous constituents of Food per 100 lbs. live weight of animal 
(quantities stated in lbs., tenths, &c.). 



Series 1. — Three pigs in each 


pen, 8 -weeks. 






d 

s 


Limited Food, per head, 
per day. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic Substance. 


'2 




If 
c 3 


■3 . 

n 

apt, 


«T3 

II 

Ct3 


" 1 


£"2 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 




Bean and Lentil 


6'83 
1-32 
214 


8-84 
7-30 
6-39 
4-73 


8-84 
8-13 
7-71 
6-87 


5-5 

5-0 

10-6 


17-6 

14-3 

12-8 

9-4 


17-6 
19-8 
17-8 
200 


26-4 
27-9 
25-5 
26-9 


Indian meal 


ditto 

ditto 

ditto 




Indian meal and Bran... 


Means 


107 


6-82 


7-89 


5-3 


13-5 


18-8 


26-7 


7. 
8. 




Indian meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


l-'95 
1-21 

3-05 


2-91 
2-60 
274 

215 


2-91 
4-55 
3-95 

5-20 


'3-9 
4-6 

8-1 


19-3 
17-2 
17-9 

14-0 


19-3 
211 
225 

221 


22-2 

25-7 
26-4 

27-3 


Bean and Lentil meal .. 


Bean and Lentil meal, 




Means 


1-55 


2-60 


4-15 


41 


171 


21-2 


25-4 


9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 


Bean and Lentil meal. . . 


Bran 


3-34 
1-44 

3-23 


1-8.5 
2-46 

1-73 
612 


5-19 
3-90 

4-96 
612 


6-7 
9-4 

10-4 


70 
9-3 

6-6 
201 


13-7 
18-7 

17-0 
20-1 


18-9 
22-6 

22-0 
26-2 


ditto 

ditto 

Bean and Lentil 
meal, Indian 
meal, Bran, each 
ad libiium 


Bean and Lentil meal, 
and Indian meal . . . 




Means 


200 


3-04 


504 


6-6 


10-8 


17-4 


224 


Means of the 12 pens 


1-54 


415 


5-69 


5-3 


13-8 


19-1 


24-8 


Series 2. — ^Three pigs in each 


pen, 8 -weeks. 






1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 




Bean and Lentil 
meal 


l'23 
0-66 

1-95 


6-69 
706 
8-07 

4-85 

6-67 


6-69 

8-29 
8-73 

6-80 


7-3 
2-5 

101 


14-5 
15-3 
175 

10-5 


14-5 
22-6 
200 

206 


212 

30-9 

28-7 

27-4 


3 lbs. Barley meal 

1 lb. Bran 


ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


3 lbs. Barley meal, 1 lb. 
Bran 




Means 


0-96 


7-63 


5-0 


14-4 


19-4 


270 



332 



REPORT 1852. 

Table VI. (continued.) 



i 

i 


Limited Food, per head, 
per daj'. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic substance. 


1 8 
1 


il 

Ct3 






^T3 

II 

C-CJ 


■Mi 




5. 

6. 

7. 
8. 




Barley meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


2-81 
0-61 

2-98 


391 

2-36 
3-45 

1-66 


3-91 

517 
406 

4-64 


61 
2-3 

7-2 


23-6 

13-9 
20-9 

100 


23-6 

200 
23-2 

172 


27-5 

25-2 
273 

21-8 


IJlb. Bean, and Hlb. 
Lentil meal 


1 lb. Bran . 


li lb. Bean, H lb. Len- 
til meal, and 1 lb. 




Means 


1-60 


2-84 


4-44 


3-9 


171 


210 


25-4 


9. 

10. 
il. 

12. 


None 


Mixture of 1 part 
Bran,2partsBar- 
ley meal, and 3 
parts Bean and 
Lentil meal 

Duplicate of pen 9. 

Mixtiu-e of 1 part 
Bran, 2 parts 
Bean and Lentil 
meal, and 3 parts 
Barley meal ... 

Duplicateofpenll. 




665 
703 

5-86 
602 


6-65 
7-03 

5-86 
602 




20-6 
21-9 

214 
221 


20-6 
21-9 

21-4 
221 


27-2 

28-9 

27-3 
28 1 


None 








Means 


.., 


6-39 


6-39 




21-5 


21-5 


27-9 


Means of the 12 pens 


0-85 


5-30 


615 


2-9 


17-7 

15-8 


20-6 


26-8 


Means of the 24 pens 


119 


4-73 


5-92 


41 


19-9 


25-8 



Table VII. 

Experiments with Pigs. — Consumption of Nitrogenous and Non-nitrogenous 
constituents of Food, to produce 100 lbs. increase in live lueight of animal 
(quantities stated in lbs.). 



Series 1. — Three pigs in each pen, 8 weeiis. 


1 




Limited Food, per head, 
per day. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non -nitrogenous 
Organic substance. 


.a 

§ . 

tog 

o g 

■atn 


II 

£■2 


IS 




II 


1 13 

a 1 


Cfe 


1. 

2. 

3. 
4. 




Bean and Lentil 


12 

28 
38 


138 
102 
133 

83 


138 
114 
161 
121 


77 
105 
185 


275 
201 
267 
166 


275 

278 
372 
351 


413 

392 
533 
472 




ditto 

ditto 

ditto 




Indian meal and Bran . . . 


Means 


19 


114 


133 


92 


227 


319 


452 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 333 
Table VII. {co7itinued.) 



6 
a 


Limited Food, per head, 
per day. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic substance. 


o g 


11 

£-3 


1^3 

as 

li 


1^ 


u 


JI.T3 


Cpt. 


5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 




Indian meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


31 
18 

43 


57 
42 
40 

30 


57 
73 
58 

73 


'62 

68 

114 


378 
275 
264 

195 


378 
337 
332 

309 


435 
410 
390 

382 


Bean and Lentil meal .. 


Bean and Lentil meal, 




Means 


23 


42 


65 


61 


278 


339 


404 


9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 


Bean and Lentil meal.- 




127 

48 

74 


71 

82 

40 
107 


198 
130 

114 
107 


255 
311 

240 


268 
309 

151 
350 


523 
620 

391 
350 


721 
750 

505 
457 


ditto 

ditto 

Bean and Lentil 
meal, Indian 
meal, Bran, each 
ad libitum 


Bean and Lentil meal, 

and Indian meal ... 

None 




Means 


62 


75 


137 


202 


269 


471 


608 


Means of tlie 12 pens 


35 


77 


112 


118 


258 


376 


488 


Series 2. — Three pigs in each pen, 8 weeks. 


1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 




Bean and Lentil 


20 
12 

36 


146 
117 
140 

89 


146 
137 
1.52 

125 


120 
43 

186 


317 
254 
305 

192 


317 
374 
348 

378 


463 
511 
500 

503 


3 lbs. Barley meal 

lib. Bran 


ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


3 lbs. Barley meal, 1 lb. 




Means 


17 


123 


140 


87 


267 

385 

245 
341 

215 


354 


494 


5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 




Barley meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


50 
10 

64 


64 

41 

56 

36 


64 

91 
66 

100 


107 
38 

157 


385 

352 
379 

372 


449 

443 
445 

472 


l^lb. Bean and Hlb. 


1 lb. Bran 


Hlb. Bean, Hlb. Len- 
til meal, and 1 lb. 




Means 


31 


49 


80 


75 


297 

362 
342 

320 
321 


372 


452 


9. 

10. 
11. 

12. 


None 


Mixture of 1 part 
Bran,2partsBar- 
ley meal, and c 
parts Bean and 
Lentil meal 

Duplicate of pen 9 

Mixture of 1 part 
Bran, 2 parts 
Bean and Lenti 
meal, and 3 parts 
Barley meal . . 

Duplicate of pen 1 1 




117 
110 

88 
87 


117 
HO 

88 

87 




362 
342 

320 
321 


479 
452 

408 
408 




None 






Means 




101 


101 




336 
300 


336 


437 


Means of the 12 pens 


16 


91 


107 


54 


354 


461 


Means of the 24 pens 


25 


84 


109 


86 


279 


365 


474 



334 REPORT — 1852. 

A glance at the Tables as a whole must show, that in all comparable cases 
there is much more of uniformity of amount in the total columns of 7ion-mtro- 
genous than in those of nitrogenous substance, both as to the quantities con- 
sumed to a given weight of animal within a given time, and to those required 
to produce a given iveight of increase. The deviations from this general 
regularity in the amount of non-nitrogenous substance consumed under equal 
circumstances, arc indeed, in most cases such, that when examined into they 
tend the more clearly to show, that the uniformity would be considerably 
more strict if the amounts only of the really available respiratory and fat-- 
forming constituents could have been represented, instead of, as in the case 
of these Tables, tliat of the gross or total ?«OM-nitrogenous substance consumed. 
For, in reading tlie actual figures of the Tables, allowance has to be made 
both for those of the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food which would 
probably become at once effete, and also for the different respiratory and fat- 
forming capacities of the portions of them M'hich are digestible and available 
for the purposes of the animal ceconomy. It must further be remembered, 
that even after all due allowance has been made for the sources of discre- 
pancy just referred to, the amounts which we may suppose to be so corrected 
must still cover all variations, whether arising from differences of external 
circumstances — from individual peculiarities in the animals themselves — from 
the different amounts stored up in them according to the adaptation of the 
respective foods — as well as from the many other uncontrollable circum- 
stances which must always interfere with any attempts to bring within the 
range of accui-ate numerical measurement the results of those processes in 
which the subtle principle of animal life exerts its influence. Bearing, then, 
all those points in mind which must tend to modify the true indications of 
the actual figures in the Tables, it appears to us, that the coincidences in 
the amounts of available respiratory and fat-forming constituents consumed 
by a given weight of animal, under equal circumstances, within a given time, 
and also in those required under equal circumstances to produce a given 
amount of increase in weight, must be admitted to be much more striking 
and conclusive than a jjriori we could have expected to find them. With 
this general uniformity, however, as to the amounts of wow-nitrogenous 
substance consumed under given circumstances, or for a given result, those 
of the nitrogenous constituents are found to vary, under the same circum- 
stances, in the proportion of from 1 to 2 or 3. 

In illustration of our statements let us examine the Tables for a moment 
somewhat more in detail. 

In Table IV. we have the amounts of the two classes of constituents re- 
spectivelv, which were consumed weekly per 100 lbs. live weight of animal, 
in the case of five different series of experiments with sheep. In all cases 
the experiments extended over a period of many weeks, and in some even of 
several months. Each series comprised several pens, to each of which (except 
in Series 4, in which there were no limited foods) there was allotted a dif- 
ferent description of fixed or limited food, the ad libitum or complementary 
food being (except in Series 4) the same throughout the several pens of the 
same series, but different in the different series. In the Series 1, 2, 3 and 4, 
there were five or six sheep in each pen ; in Series 5, from 40 to 50 sheep in 
each pen. 

In Series 1, the complementary or ad libitum food was Swedish turnips, 
and the limited foods were^ — 

In pen 1, oil-cake. 

In pen 2, oats. 

In pen 3, clover-chaff. 

In pen 4, oat-straw chaff. 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 335 

The oat-straw chafF of pen 4 was given as adding to tlie otherwise only- 
succulent matter of the turnip, the bulk of solid matter which seems to be 
demanded particularly by ruminant animals. So small a quantity of this 
straw was eaten, however, that it need scarcely enter into our calculations. 
Turning to the results of pens 1, 2 and 3, it is seen that the weekly consump- 
tion of non-nitrogenous matter per 100 lbs. live weight of animal is, with the 
oil-cake as limited food, 9"8 lbs.; with the oats, 1 1 '3 lbs. ; and with the clover- 
chaff IS'l lbs. Now, of these three descriptions of food, the oil-cake would 
contain by far the most of oleaginous matter, the respiratory and fat-forming 
capacity of which is about twice and a half as great as that of the starch 
series of compounds which would more abound in the oats. Hence we find 
that a less actual weight of non-nitrogenous substance was consumed with 
the oil-cake than with the oats. But to the reason just given, to which a part 
of the result was doubtless due, we might add that there was a compai'atively 
large and somewhat excessive amount of nitrogenous matter consumed in the 
oil-cake pen, a part of which at least might serve the respiratory and fat- 
forming functions. Then, again, in pen 3, where clover-chaff was the limited 
food, the animals would consume a much larger amount of effete woody 
fibre than with either the oil-cake or the oats ; in this pen therefore a larger 
gross weight of non-nitrogenous substance must be eaten to yield the same 
equivalent of that which is available for respiratory or fat-forrning purposes 
than with either of the other foods. When therefore, allowance has been 
made for the different quantities and capacities of the available constituents 
in the several foods, it will be seen, that the equivalents of the available non- 
nitrogenous constituents consumed in the different cases, are in reality much 
moi-e nearly identical, than the figures as they stand in the Table would 
indicate. But if we now turn to the column of the nitrogenous substance 
consumed under the same circumstances, we find that it varies, comparing 
one pen with another in this first series, nearly as much as from 1 to 2\. 

In the second series (Table IV.) we have clover-chaff as the ad libitum or 
complementary food in all the pens, instead of Swedish turnips as in Series 1 ; 
and again, with the much larger amount of effete woody fibre, we have a 
larger gross amount of the non-nitrogenous substance consumed. The 
average of the four pens of this Series 2 is indeed almost identical with the 
amount where clover-chaff was employed in Series 1. Again, comparing one 
pen with another in this clover-chaff series, we have with the larger amounts 
of oleaginous matter supplied in the linseed and oil-cake, less of gross non- 
nitrogenous substance taken than with the barley or the malt, in which there 
is a proportionally larger amount of the starch series of compounds. When 
due allowance is made, then, for the different respiratory and fat-forming 
capacities of the several foods, we have again a closer coincidence than would 
at first sight appear, in the equivalents of the non-nitrogenous substances 
consumed in the different pens of this second series — as also when we com- 
pare this series with the former one. Turning now to the column of the 
nitrogenous substances consumed in this second series, we see that the gross 
amounts vary more than in those of the non-nitrogenous ; and more indeed 
than, according to any knowledge we at present possess, could be accounted 
for by a consideration as to the state in which the nitrogen existed in the 
severalpens. Comparing nowthe result of the one series with those of the other, 
although in the two cases the description of the larger portion of the food is 
widely different, and we have found that there is nevertheless considerable 
coincidence in the amounts of non-nitrogenous substance consumed, yet the 
columns of nitrogenous substance throughout the two series show a very 
great variation in the quantities of these consumed — amounting, indeed, in 



336 REPORT — 1852. 

the extreme cases, to as much as from one to three and a half. There can be 
little doubt that the method of estimating the amount of available nitro- 
genous substance from the per-centage of nitrogen must be more or less faulty, 
both in the case of the succulent turnips of the tirst series, and in that of the 
also unripened produce — clover-chaff — of the second ; but whether or in 
what degree the differences in the amounts consumed in the two series would 
be lessened by corrections due to this source of discrepancy, we have not the 
means of accurately deciding. 

In the third series, which consisted of five pens, mangold-wurtzel was the 
complementary food ; and the limited foods were barley and malt, respectively, 
in different states and proportions in the several pens. Throughout this series 
the proportion of nitrogenous to non-nitrogenous constituents varied but 
little in the limited foods, and being also constant in the complementary foods 
of the several pens, we have but little difference in this series in the amounts 
respectively of either class of constituents when comparing pen with pen. 
Comparing the results of this series with those of the others, however, we 
observe that there was a very close coincidence between the amounts of avail- 
able mo»-nitrogenous substance consumed ; but in those of the nitrogenous 
substances there is little in common when thus taking at one view the results 
of the several series. 

In the fourth series we have no supply of limited food. In all the four 
pens Norfolk-white turnips only were given ad libitum. Those supplied to 
the different pens, were however, respectively grown by very different manures, 
and diflFered in all cases very much in ultimate composition and other 
qualities. Thus, the per-centage of dry substance and the state of maturity 
were greatest in the turnips of pen 1, and diminished in the order of the pens, 
they being in pen 4 the worst in both these respects. On the other hand, the 
per-centage of water, of mineral matter, and of nitrogen, and the degree of 
unripeness or unfitness for food, were in the inverse order. The turnips eaten 
in pen 1 were, however, too ripe, and what is called " pithy " ; and those 
were in the best condition which were supplied to pen 2. 

In this series there was, with a probably generally lower amount of effete 
matter, at the same time a generally less amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed — though most where the turnips were known to be too ripe and 
pithy. In pen 4; there was a very small amount of ?«o«-nitrogenous substance 
taken ; but there is no doubt that here the limit to consumption was fixed by 
the unfitness of the turnips as food, and not by their high value in this respect; 
for these turnips were very succulent and unripe, and notwithstanding they 
contained a very high per-centage of nitrogen^ all the animals fed upon them 
lost weight. Taking the circumstances into account, then, we have as much 
iiniformity in the amounts of non-nitrogenous constituents consumed as we 
could expect, both among the several pens of the series, and in comparing this 
series with the rest. In the column of nitrogenous constituents, on the other 
hand, there is nothing to indicate any uniformity of demand for the supply 
of them, whether we compare pen with pen, or the results of this series 
with those of the others. It might perhaps be objected, from what we have 
already said of the varying qualities of the turnips used in this series, that 
the nitrogenous compounds themselves would exist in the diffei'ent lots in a 
more or less assimilable condition; and hence probably some of the diflTerences 
in the amounts consumed. Doubtless there were differences in this respect 
in the different lots, but it is seen that there is nearly twice as much of nitrogen 
consumed in one pen as in another ; and we cannot suppose that by any such 
method of correction as has been suggested, so large a difference as this, 
or even that the whole of the lesser ones observed in the other cases, could 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 337 

be thus accounted for. It is woi-thy of observation, however, that in this 
series the amounts of the nitrogenous constituents consumed are in an inverse 
ratio to those of the non-nitrogenous ; and if we are to calculate, that in the 
case of a defect of the latter or an excess of the former, a notable portion of 
the nitrogenous constituents would serve as respiratory material, such an 
assumption in the present case would tend yet more clearly to show the closer 
dependence of consumptioii upon respiration, than upon the supplies by the 
food of the plastic elements of nutrition, as such. 

In the next and last series of experiments to be noticed with sheep, as far 
as possible the same description of foods is used throughout; but animals 
of different breeds and weights and other admitted qualities are now the 
subject of experiment in the several pens. The breeds which have thus been 
compared are, — the Hampshire Down, Sussex Down, Cotswold, Leicester, 
Half-bred Wethers (Leicester and Southdown), and Half-bred Ewes 
(Leicester and Southdown). In all these experiments oil-cake and clover- 
chatf were the limited foods, and Swedish turnips the complementary food. 
About 1 lb. per head per day of each of the limited foods was given to the 
Hampshires ; and taking this allowance as the standard, the other breeds had 
quantities of these foods exactly in proportion to their weights. Thei'e were 
from iO to 50 sheep in each lot ; and each experiment extended over several 
months. The experiments vyere, however, not all made in the same season ; 
the turnips were therefore of different growths ; and the oil-cake and clover- 
chaff, though chosen as nearly as possible of similar quality, were not always 
from the same stocks. These circumstances, then, as well as the intrinsic 
differences in the breeds themselves, if any, might be supposed perhaps to 
have some share in any variations in result. We see, however, that there 
is nevertheless a very striking coincidence in the amounts of constituents 
consumed to a given weight of animal among the different breeds. Bui 
what is more to the purpose, the amounts of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed to a given weight of animal by these different breeds, and at 
different times, are, after making, as before, due allowance for the probable 
different equivalents of the foods, exactly consistent with the indications of 
the otiier series with all their varied foods. This result, then, further shows that 
in all, the respiratory and fat- forming exigences of the animals have fixed 
the limit to their consumption of food; and also that these requirements have, 
on an average, and under somewhat similar circumstances, a pretty constant 
I'elationship to their weights. With this general coincidence in the amount 
of non-nitrogenous substance consumed to a given weight of animal in the 
several pens of this series, there could not, of course, with foods of similar 
composition in all, be much variation in the amounts of the nitrogenous con- 
stituents taken under the same circumstances. Of these, hov/ever, we have 
throughout this series twice or thrice as much as in many cases of the other 
series, which would not happen if the demand for them had been the guide 
to consumption ; nor shall we afterwards find that the increase in weight 
obtained was by any means proportional to this large amount of nitrogenous 
substance consumed. 

In our experiments with sheep, then, whether with different descriptions 
of food, or with different breeds of the animal, the amount of food consumed 
would seem to be regulated by the quantities which it supplied of the non-nitro- 
genous rather than by those of the nitrogenous constitue7its. 

So much, then, for the bearing of our sheep experiments upon the question 
of the amount of food consumed according to its composition : but before 
entering upon a consideration of the results of these same experiments in 
relation to the second question, namely, that of the increase produced, it 

1852. z 



338 REPORT — 1852. 

will be well to see how far the experiments with pigs afford us similar indi- 
cations in relation to the former one. 

The pig requires much less of mere bulk in his food than the ruminant 
animal. Indeed, the food of the pig, when on a liberal fattening diet, consists 
generally, weight for weight, of a much larger proportion of digestible or 
convertible constituents, and contains much less of effete woody fibre than 
that of the sheep. Thus, whilst the food of the fattening sheep is principally 
composed of grass, hay and roots, with a comparatively small proportion of 
cake or corn, that of the fattening pig comprises a larger proportion of corn, 
which contains a comparatively small amount of indigestible woody fibre, 
and is comparatively abundant in starch, sugar, &c., and in highly nitro- 
genous compounds. Notwithstanding the generally richer character of his 
food, however, the fattening pig is found to consume a much larger quantity 
of dry substance in relation to his weight than the sheep. We should at 
least expect, therefore, that he would yield a greater proportion of increase, 
and this he is found to do. Such, indeed, is the greediness of the animal, 
and so much larger is the proportion of the food which he will consume 
beyond that which is necessary for the respiratory function, or for the 
formation of flesh, and which is therefore employed in storing up fat, that 
the amounts of non-nitrogenous matter consumed must obviously, in his 
case, have a less close numerical relationship to the requirements of the 
respiratory system than in that of the sheep. Hence, no doubt, is in part 
the reason that the exact indications of the figures of the Tables are, on the 
whole, not so consistent as m ith the sheep. The experiments with the pigs 
however bear testimony in the same direction as those with the sheep on 
the question now in discussion, and the evidence they afford on the point is, 
indeed, very conclusive. 

In the arrangement of the pig experiments the selection of the foods was 
made rather according to composition than to cost. In the first series (see 
Tables VI. and VII.) the foods chosen were — 

A mixture of equal parts of bean and lentil meal, as a highly nitrogenous 
food. 

Indian corn meal, as the comparatively non-nitrogenous food. And — 

Bran, as containing a considerable amount of woody fibre. 

The series comprised twelve pens, in each of which three pigs were placed. 
In the first four pens, the bean and lentil mixture constituted the ad libitum 
food ; in one of these it was given alone, and in the others with a limited 
amount of one or both respectively of the other two descriptions of food. 
In the second set of four pens, the Indian corn meal was the ad libitum food ; 
and it, in its turn, was in one case given alone, and in the others with a 
certain amount of the other or limited foods. In the third set of pens, bran 
was the ad libitum food ; the other two then constituting the fixed or limited 
food. In this way there was secured a great diversity in the proportion of 
the nitrogenous to the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food in the 
several pens ; and as the animals were allowed to fix for themselves the limit 
of their consumption, the results afford us the means of judging, whether in 
doing this, their natural instincts have led them to any uniformity in relation 
to their weights, in tlie amounts taken of either of these classes of constituents. 

In Table VI. are given the amounts of the nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous 
constituents respectively, consumed iceekly by every 100 lbs. live iceight of 
animal. In this Table we see at a glance, that although there are some 
apparent discrepancies, yet the figures in the column of wow-nitrogenous 
constituents are much more uniform than in that of the nitrogenous ones. 
And, as to the few apparent deviations from this uniformity, we think it 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 339 

will be much more reasonable to attempt to explain, or even considering the 
nature of the subject, to admit as inexplicable, a few discrepant cases, than to 
reject on their account the general testimony of much more numerous, more 
consistent, and otherwise sufficientlj' conclusive results. Thus in the first 
set of four pens in this series, there is, upon the whole, a less amount of the 
non-nitrogenous constituents consumed than in the second; and this lessened 
amount of non-nitrogenous constituents consumed in the former is seen to be 
coincident with excessive consumption of the nitrogenous ones, and it is even 
the less the greater that excess. It is also worthy of remark, too, that in pens 
5 to 8, where there was this larger amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed, it was supplied chiefly by Indian corn meal, which, containing 
more oily matter than that of the foods in pens 1 to 4, would also possess a 
higher respiratory and fat-forming capacity, weight for weight, than that in 
the other cases. We may here suppose, that perhaps a surfeit of the nitro- 
genous substances put a limit to the further consumption of non-nitrogenous 
constituents which would otherwise have been taken ; or, that being in excess, 
the nitrogenous substances have substituted other respiratory material ; and 
it is consistent with such a supposition, that with the less amount of non- 
nitrogenous constituents consumed, where the nitrogenous are in excess, there 
is nevertheless a larger amount consumed of total organic substance than 
where there is more of the non-nitrogenous constituents. 

That a larger amount of the complementary food was consumed when it 
consisted of the comparatively low nitrogenized Indian meal, was not due 
only to a craving for a supply of nitrogen which a less quantity would not 
have yielded, would appear, among other considerations, from the fact, that 
when, after a time, the pigs in pen 5, where Indian meal alone was given, 
had become affected with large tumours breaking out on their necks, 
their breathing and swallowing becoming at the same time difficult, we, in 
order to test the question as to whether this arose from a defect of nitrogen 
or from other causes, supplied them with a trough of wmeraZ sub stances: they 
soon recovered from their complaint, and eventually proved to be among the 
fattest and best of the entire series of pigs ; at least, a dealer in pork with 
a practised eye, purchased by preference one of these animals from among 
the whole set of carcases. The mineral mixtui'e that was supplied to them 
was composed of twenty parts coal ashes, four parts common salt, and one 
part superphosphate of lime ; and for it they seemed to exhibit considerable 
relish. 

In pens 9, 10 and 11, a comparatively small quantity of the more digestible 
foods was allowed, the complementary food being in these cases bran ; and 
as we have before said, the digestive apparatus of the pig is not adapted for 
a large amount of bulky woody substance. Here the animals consumed a 
less amount of non-nitrogenous substance in proportion as the bran predo- 
minated in their food ; and they at the same time also increased and fattened 
much less than those in the other pens. In fact, until 3lbs. per head per day 
of the limited foods were allowed instead of only two, as was at first given, 
several of the pigs lost weight and became unwell ; being as it were paralysed 
(gouty ?), and almost deprived of the use of their legs. There can be little 
doubt that the proportion of woody matter in the bran, which food only 
they had at full command, was too great for the convenience of their sto- 
machs ; and that hence, after their respiratory requirements had been fulfilled, 
a limit was put to further consumption to serve the mere purpose of fattening. 

In pen 12, the several foods, namely, the bean and lentil mixture, the 
Indian meal, and the bran, were each put into a separate trough, and the 
animals were allowed to take of all or any of them ad libitum. Were it nofc 

z2 



340 REPORT — 1852. 

that one of the pigs in this pen was unwell in the same way as those referred 
to in the previous pens during a considerable portion of the period of the 
experiment, we might have assumed perhaps, that the results of this pen would 
have pointed to the proportions of the several foods best adapted to the wants 
of the animals; and if such a conclusion were a legitimate one, it would 
indeed appeal", tliat their natural demands called for a larger proportion of 
nitrogen than was within the reach of the animals in anj' of those pens in 
which Indian meal was the ad libitum or complementar}'^ food. Two of the 
pigs, however, in this pen 12, increased exceedingly well, and gave eventually 
the highest proportion of carcass to live weight, of any in this entire series of 
experiments. It is, too, an interesting fact, that as the experiment proceeded, 
and the animals matured, their consumption diminished very considerably. 
Thus, the proportion of the bean and lentil mixture to the total food consumed 
was only two-thirds as great at the conclusion as at the commencement of 
the experiment, whilst that of the Indian meal was not three-fifths as much 
at the commencement as at the conclusion. We have in this fact some indi- 
cation of the large proportion of the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food 
which is appropriated by the fatting animal. 

Reviewing, as a whole, the reults of these twelve dietaries, and carefully 
considei'ing the bearing of the various circumstances which must influence 
our reading of the actual figures of the Table relating to them, we think it 
cannot be doubted, tiiat here, as in the case of the sheep, we have very clear 
evidence that it is the non-nitrogenous, raiher than the nitrogenous consti- 
tuents of the food, that have fixed the limit to consumption. 

In the lower section of this Table VI., we have the results bearing upon tlie 
same point, of a second series of experiments with pigs, conducted on a 
similar plan to that of the former one. In this second series of pig experi- 
ments, we have, as before, the bean and lentil mixture as the highly nitro- 
genous food. Barley meal is in this case used as the non-nitrogenous food, 
instead of Indian corn as in the former series. Bran, again, constitutes the 
third food. h\ this series however, when either the bean and lentil mixture, 
or the barley meal, constituted the limited food, the daily allowance per head 
was 3 lbs. instead of 2, as in the former series. When the limited food was 
bran, lib. only, instead of 2 as previously, was now given. In otlier respects, 
excepting that in this series bran was in no case given alone as the ad libitum 
food, the arrangements were the same as in the case of the previous series. 

The weather during part of the period of this second series of experiments 
was exceedingly hot; from this several of the animals suffered considerably ; 
and some, either from this or other causes, became quite ill and died, or were 
"killed to save their lives." Nevertheless it is seen, tliat there was, upon the 
whole, a larger amount of respiratory food consumed in relation to weight in 
this series than in the previous one during the cooler season. 

If we compare the column of the amounts of non-nitrogenous constituents 
consumed weekly, per 100 lbs. live weight of animal, for this series, as given 
in the lower section of Table VI., with that in the upper section for Series 1, 
we shall see that there was, upon the whole, a greater uniformity in the former 
than in the latter. There are, however, one or two marked exceptions to the 
regularity of amount of non-nitrogenous matter consumed in this Series 2, 
which, but for coincident circumstances, and the abundance we have of evi- 
dence in tiie opposite direction, might lead to different conclusions than those 
which we have drawn from the results as a whole ; but at any rate the uni- 
formity is still greater here than in the column of the nitrogenous substances. 
The more obvious exceptions to the rule are pens 1 and 8 ; but apart from 
any incidental causes which might account for these — and in each of these 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 341 

pens one of the animals died — we shall see, when we come to consider the 
question of the amount of increase produced by a given amount of food con- 
sumed, that although the pigs were satisfied to eat a smaller proportion of 
food in relation to their weight in these pens where the proportion of nitrogen 
was comparatively large, yet the proportion of increase to the food consumed 
was less than whei'e the amount of ??07z-nitrogenous substance consumed 
was much greater. Hence, in these cases, if thej-e were a smaller amount 
of food consumed, there was also a smaller proportion of increase produced 
by it, and there would therefore at the same time obviously be a larger 
proportion of it available for the purposes of respiration. These apparent 
exceptions are not> then, necessarily adverse to the view t!iat the respiratory 
process was the gauge of consumption. 

We have already noticed, that notwithstanding the weather was much hot- 
ter during the progress of the second series of experiments, yet that there 
was here, upon the whole, a larger amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed in proportion to weight of animal than in the first. This apparent 
excess, if indeed it show any real excess in respiratory and fat-forming equi- , 
valent, at any rate does not do so in the degree which the bare figures of the 
Table would indicate. Tlius, the Indian corn of the first series, of which 
a less amount seems to have sufficed than of the barley in the second, con- 
tained about 6 per cent, of oleaginous matter, instead of less than 3 per cent., 
as in the barley. And as a deficiency of 3 per cent, in fatty substance would, 
for respiratory and fat-forming purposes, require to be substituted by about 
twice and a half that amount of the other non-nitrogenous constituents, it 
is obvious that the respiratory and fat-forming capacity of the Indian 
meal non-niti-ogenous matter was therefore somewhat higher than that of the 
barley ; and hence a less amount of it would be required to produce the same 
result. 

We could add to the results already given those of further experiments 
both with pigs and sheep, as vvell as some with bullocks, bearing upon the 
point we have been considering ; but those we have- already adduced are, 
we think, sufficient to justify our conclusion, that, in reference to this first 
question, at least so far as fattening animals are concerned, the amount of 
food consumed is regulated more by its supplies of the non-nitrogenous, than 
of the nitrogenous constituents. 

We now come to the second question ; namely, that of the relationship 
of the increase in live weight produced to the consumption of nitrogenous 
and non-nitrogenous constituents in the food. 

Turning first to the experiments with sheep, we have in Table V. the amounts 
respectively of the non-nitrogenous, of the nitrogenous, and of the total or- 
ganic substance consumed to produce 100 lbs. increase in live weight. 

In viewing the Tables in reference to this point, we must, as before, read 
the indications of the actual figures as modified by the obviously different 
capacities for the purposes of the animal ceconomy of the substances, the 
amounts of which they in each case represent. Especially, too, when con- 
sidering the results with the sheep, we must bear in mind the fact, which we 
have ascertained by direct experiment, namely, that other things being equal, 
the more succulent the food, the less will be the proportion of real dry sub- 
stance in the increase obtained by its means ; and also, that the greater the 
amount of fat produced the greater considerably will be the per-centage in 
the gross increase of real dry substance. And we must further remen)ber, 
that as in the Tables showing the relationship of consumption to respiration, 
the figures also included the increase in weight obtained, so now, in the 
Tables professing to show the relationship of the increase to the constituents 



342 REPORT — 1852. 

consumed, the figures at the same time include the amounts which have been 
expended in the respiratory process. 

Looking down the entire columns of Table V., it is at once seen thatwiierever 
clover-ciiaff was employed, that is to say, wherever there was a large amount 
of innutritious woody fibre, tlie gross amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed to produce a given amount of increase is always great. The ana- 
lysis of the excrements of this series showed, indeed, that there was, in re- 
lation to the non-nitrogenous matter consumed in the food, a very much 
larger proportion of it voided by the animals than in the case of the series 
where the amount of woody fibre in the food was less. This, therefore, must 
be allowed for in comparing the figures in the column. It will at once be 
seen, when due allowance has thus been made, that the amounts oi available 
non-nitrogenous substance consumed to produce a given weight of increase, 
are at any rate much more nearly uniform than are those of the nitrogenous 
constituents. Of the differences which will still remain after the allowance 
for woody fibre has been made, many can be again reduced by a consideration 
of the different equivalents of the remaining available non-nitrogenous con- 
stituents ; as for instance, when in comparable cases these contain, in one 
instance, more of oil, and in another more of the starch'^series of compounds. 
A less amount of the former than of the latter is required to produce the 
same resulting increase in the animal ; and again, less of the starchy series 
than of some of the peculiar products of the root crops. 

In the column showing the proportion of the total nitrogenous substance 
consumed to increase produced (Table V.), we have a much wider range of 
difference than in that of the non-nitrogenous, and much wider, indeed, than 
can be explained away by such considerations as have above been alluded to 
in reference to tiie latter. It is true that these figures cannot, any more than 
in the column of the non-nitrogenous constituents, be taken as showing ab- 
solutely proportional nutritious values of the matters represented ; for as we 
have before observed, the figures assume the whole of the nitrogen of the 
food to exist in the form of proteine compounds, which obviously would not 
be the case with the succulent and unripened produce, such as the roots and 
clover-chaff ; and hence, this consideration must more affect the correctness 
of the statement of nitrogenous constituents consumed for a given result in 
the sheep experiments than in those with the pigs, where the foods employed 
were ripened seeds. But, as we have observed, the differences in the figures 
in the Table would seem to be too great to be satisfactorily accounted for by 
the correction of any errors arising from this cause. 

Looking at this Table V. rather more in detail, we see, taking the first two 
pensin Series 1, which are comparable so far as the description of the ac?/?toMm 
food is concerned, that whilst the non-nitrogenous substance consumed to 
produce 100 lbs. increase in weight is very nearly equal in the two cases, yet 
that of the nitrogenous constituents varies in the two in the proportion of 
from three to two ; but a diffei'ence in the nature of the nitrogenous substance 
cannot be supposed to have made a difference so great in the amount of con- 
stituents consumed to produce a given result. On the other hand, the higher 
capacity of the oleaginous matter of the oil-cake than of the starch, &c. of 
the oats, is sufficient further to lessen the but small difference in the amounts 
of the non-nitrogenous substance in the two cases. In pens 2, 3 and 4 of 
the first series of sheep, we have all but identical amounts of gross nitrogenous 
substance consumed for a given amount of increase ; but this would be of the 
most highly elaborated kind in pen 2 with the oats, and the least so in pen 4, 
with turnips only ; and in the latter, besides having less o{' available nitrogenous 
substance, the respiratory and fat- forming capacity of the non-nitrogenous 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 343 

substance in the exclusive turnip diet would be less than in the other instances^ 
and hence the larger amount consumed for a given result. 

Turning to the results of the second series, with clover-chafF instead of 
turnips as the ad libitum food, we have, with the larger amount of woody- 
fibre, which would become at once effete, much more gi'oss non-nitrogenous 
matter consumed to produce 100 lbs. of increase than in Series 1. This is 
less, however, in pens 1 and 2, with the large proportion of oleaginous matter, 
than in pens 3 and 4. Tiiere is, moreover, in this second series, with this 
greater amount of wo/i-nitrogenous matter consumed for a given effect than 
in Series 1, a much larger amount also of the nitrogenous constituents ; the 
gross amount of the latter, indeed, in this second series, is twice, and even 
sometimes thrice as great as in Series 1. 

In the next series, namely. Series 3, with barley and malt in different states 
and proportions as limited food, and mangold-wurtzel as the complementary 
food, we have, upon the whole, about the same amounts of non-nitrogenous 
substance required to produce the same result as in Series 1, with, besides, a 
small quantity of grain or other limited food and Swedish turnips as the com- 
. plementary food, which latter are in great degree comparable with the mangold- 
wurtzel ; and of course, as in Series 1, the average amount is very different 
from that in the second series with the large proportion of clover-chaff. 
Looking to the three total columns, namely, of nitrogenous, of non-nitrogen- 
ous, and of total organic constituents consumed, although it is true the dif- 
ferences are not great, and perhaps such as might be covered by differences 
in the composition of the increase, yet it may be noticed, that larger amounts, 
both of non-nitrogenous and of total organic substance, were consumed to 
produce the same result the larger the proportion in the latter of the nitro- 
genous constituents. 

In Series 4, we have a more marked instance of the result last noticed. 
But, apart from the question as to whether the increase of the fattening 
animal has a closer relationship with the amount of the true proteine com- 
pounds, or, within certain limits, of the available non-nitrogenous constitu- 
ents of its food, we have here a striking illustration of the inapplicability on 
other grounds of the per-centage of nitrogen as the measure of feeding value, 
or indeed of any analytical method, unless a detailed determination of the 
proximate compounds, when succulent products, such as in this instance, the 
roots, are the subjects of the experiment. Thus, in the fourth pen of this series, 
where there was by far the largest amount of nitrogen consumed, the animals 
lost weight; and in the other three pens, the productiveness of the food is in 
the inverse order of tlie amounts of nitrogen taken in the food. This arose of 
course from the different states of maturity, and the consequent state of elabo- 
ration of the constituents of the various turnips, the produce of the diffei'ent 
manures. Indeed, we believe that an unusually high per-centage of nitrogen 
in succulent produce is frequently a pretty sure indication of immaturity and 
innutritions qualities. Comparing the results of this series with those of the 
others, we have, considering how small would be the proportion of inert 
woody fibre in the unripe turnips, about twice as much dry substance (in 
pens 1 and 3 at least) consumed to produce a given amount of increase — a 
difference which could, at any rate in only a small degree, be accounted for 
by any difference in the capacities of the digestible and available portions of 
the foods in the cases thus compared. 

Considering only the ostensible similarity of the foods in the several pens 
constituting the 5th and last series of experiments with sheep, there is, per- 
haps, no more of coincidence in the amounts that have been required to pro- 
duce a given increase in the different pens, than, judging from previous 
results, we might have anticipated. From what we know, however, of the 



344 RKPORT— 1852. 

varying character of the several breeds as fatteneriJ, greater differences might 
have been expected ; for, in some cases a less or larger proportion of the 
gross increase would be solid substance tlian in others ; whilst this solid sub- 
stance itself would be composed of more or less of fat or lean — circumstances 
which obviously imply the appropriation in the increase, of varying amounts 
and proportions of the constituents of the food consumed. Then, again, 
though nominally the same, there were unavoidably slight differences in the 
qualities of tlie food used in the different cases, and the experiments them- 
selves were not all conducted in the same season ; that with the Hampshire 
and Sussex Downs being made in the winter of 1850-51, that with the Cots- 
wolds in 1851-52, and with the Leicesters and half-breeds in 1852-53. 
There is also, upon the whole, a very general coincidence in the amounts of 
non-nitrogenous and total organic substance, consumed to produce a given 
amount of increase in this series with the different breeds, and the Series 
I and 3. At least the general coincidence throughout these several series is 
quite as close as the variations in the foods could lead us to look for. Ikit 
in the colunm of nitrogenous substance the agreement between this series 
and the others is by no means so obvious ; nor, so far as we know, can the 
want of agreement in the cases thus compared together be accounted for by 
differences in the composition and applicability of the nitrogenous consti- 
tuents themselves. 

Reviewing then the whole of the experiments with sheep, — if we consider 
that it is the results obtained under the subtle agency of animal life that we 
are seeking to measure and express in figures, and if we also bear in mind 
the various sources of modification to whicii our actual figures must be sub- 
mitted in order to attain their true indications, we think that it cannot be 
doubted, that beyond a limit below which few, if any, of our current fattening 
food-stuffs are found to go, it is their available non-nitrogenous constituents, 
rather than their richness in the nitrogenous ones, that measure both the 
amount consumed to a given weight of animal, within a given time, and the 
increase in weight obtained. 

But we have still to examine the results of tiie experiments with pigs as to 
the latter point, namely, that of tlie relationship of the increase produced to 
constituents consumed ; and owing partly to the peculiarities of the animals, 
and partly to the nature of the foods employed, the actual figures themselves 
even (see Table VII.) bear out the view that has been maintained more ob- 
viously at first sight, than those relating to the sheep. Thus, casting the eye 
down the column of total non nitrogenous substance consumed, and more 
particularly tiiat of the total organic matter, we see with but few exceptions, a 
strikingly close coincidence in the amounts required-to produce 100 pounds 
of gross increase throughout the two series of twenty-four pens, and as many 
different dietaries. Some of the exceptions, such as those where a large 
quantity of bran was used, are at once explained by a consideration of the 
more obvious qualities of that substance; and many of the minor difterences 
by that of the different capacities of those portions of the foods which would 
be digestible and available for the purposes of the animal ceconomy ; and in 
this way, as we have already noticed when speaking on the first question, we 
must account for the generally larger amount consumed with the barley meal 
in Series 2, than in the comparable cases with the Indian corn in Series 1. 

Looking to pens 1 and 2 of Series 1, where the food consisted chiefly of 
the highly nitrogenous Leguminous seeds, we have comparative!}'^ verj"^ small 
amounts of non-nitrogenous substance required to produce a given amount 
of increase ; a result which at first siglit appears to lead to conclusions 
opposite to those from the experiments as a whole. If we look down the 
column of total organic substance, however, we observe that the amounts 



FOODS. IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 345 

of it in tiie second section of Series i, where the Indian corn predomi- 
nated, and where tiie nitrogenous constituents consumed were only about 
half as great as in the pens 1 and 2, are genei'ally as small, or even smaller, 
than in these two pens. It is not. then, that there was in reality a very great 
productiveness in gross increase from a given amount of food in these tAvc» 
pens, but rather only that with the large supply of available nitrogenous con- 
stituents in the Leguminous seeds, a certain amount of the non-nitrogenous 
constituents have been substituted by it. It was observed, too, that although 
all the pigs were very fat, excepting the few with an excessive allowance of 
bi-an, yet those apparently f/reiv more, where, with no deficiency of other 
matters, the nitrogenous constituents were very liberally supplied. Hence 
the gross increase obtained might be somewhat more nitrogenous with the 
large supply of nitrogenous food ; but it would in that case, according to 
some experiments of our own, contain a larger proportion of water, and less 
of solid matter, than where more fat had been produced. 

But, with the very great regularity of non-nitrogenous equivalent con- 
sumed throughout this large series of pig experiments to produce a given 
amount of increase, we have, in the column of total nitrogenous substance, 
on the other hand, a difference in the amounts required, in the proportion of 
from one to two, or three, or even more ; though, since all the foods used in 
these experiments were ripened vegetable products, a very trifling error, if 
any, can arise from representing, in all cases, the whole of the nitrogen as 
existing as proteine compounds. And, there is throughout, a generally 
larger amount of total organic substance required to yield a given amount of 
gross increase, the larger the proportion in that substance of the nitrogenous 
constituents. 

It is seen, as has been already noticed, that where the amount of nitrogen 
consumed in these pig experiments to produce a given amount of gross in- 
crease is comparatively large, it is where a large proportion of the Legumi- 
nous seeds have been employed. Some writers who have taken the per-cent- 
age of nitrogenous compounds as the measure of feeding value, have recog- 
nised, and endeavoured to explain in various ways, the fact that the records 
of practical feeding experiments do not award to the Leguminous seeds a 
feeding value in proportion to their richness in nitrogen ; and they have con- 
cluded, that it is the accepted indications of the practical experiments, and 
not the theoretical conclusions, that are at fault. Thus, it has been objected 
against the teachings of such experiments, that the variations in the compo- 
sition of the same description of food used in different cases has not been 
determined ; that the test has been the gross increase or loss in weight; that 
the increase may be only fat formed from starch, &c. ; that the loss in weight, 
if anj', may be the result of activity, and not of defective diet ; that the food 
in the different cases has been employed in different states, that is, coarse or 
fine, raw or prepared; that the animals have been vai-iously circumstanced as 
to temperature, exposure and activity ; that individual animals have very 
various tendencies to increase, and so on. Now we believe that not one of all 
these objections can vitiate the comparisons which we have made, unless, in- 
deed, in some degree, the one which refers to the difficulty of determining 
whether the gross increase obtained be composed chiefly of fat formed from 
the starch and oily series of compounds ; or whether of flesh from the nitro- 
genous ones. We believe, indeed, from the many direct experiments which we 
have made, that in reality, the composition of our domestic animals generally, 
but especially that of the gross increase of the so-called " fattening " animals, 
consists of a much larger proportion of fat than is usually supposed. We 
have instituted very extensive and laborious investigations in regard to this 
point, the details, or even the general results of which must be reserved for 



346 REPORT — 1852, 

some future occasion ; before closing this paper, however, we propose to 
call attention to a mere summary statement of one of these experiments. 
But, apart from the considerations involved in the question of the varying 
composition of increase, or from the fact tliat our own feeding experiments 
(jvhich, so far as we are aware, are the largest comparable series bearing upon 
the point) afford testimony in the same direction, we think there is evidence 
of another kind of the probable correctness of the decisions of practical ex- 
periments which have thus been objected to. Thus the comparative prices 
of the Leguminous seeds and the Cereal grains, may be taken as a pretty safe 
condemnation of the measurement of feeding value according to their per- 
centage of nitrogenous constituents. In matters of this kind, indeed, espe- 
cially when staple and generally used articles of food are concerned, the 
market is one of our shrewdest judges, as we shall presently endeavour a 
little further to illustrate. 

Whilst speaking of the comparative feeding values of the Leguminous seeds 
and tlie Cereal grains, we may casually allude to some other considerations 
of much interest bearing upon this question, which, however, we cannot in 
any degree adequately discuss in this place. 

As a general rule, it may be said, that weight for weight, the Leguminous 
seeds contain about twice as much of the nitrogenous constituents as the 
Cereal grains. We have elsewhere shown, that in a Leguminous crop, under 
equal circumstances of soil and season, an acre of land will frequently yield 
twice or thrice as much of nitrogenous constituents as in a Cereal grain ; and 
again, that in the latter an increase of produce is not obtained except at the 
cost of more nitrogen in the manure than is contained in that increase. How 
is it, we would ask, if this be the case, and if really these foods are valuable 
in proportion to their richness in nitrogenous constituents, that according to 
the usual state of the market, we can obtain, for a given sum, about twice as 
much nitrogenous substance in the Leguminous seeds as in the Cereal grain ; 
or how is it, on the other hand, that the Leguminous crop does not, much 
more than is in fact the case, supersede the Cereal grain in the field, the feeding 
shed, or even on the table ? We have, it is true, much yet to learn of those 
minor diffierences of composition to which is due the greater or less adapta- 
tion to the instinctive wants of the system of the various constituents of which 
our staple articles of food are made up, but we think that in no considerations 
of this kind could we seek an adequate solution of our question. On the 
other hand, we believe that in the Leguminous seeds the due proportion of 
the non-nitrogenous to the nitrogenous constituents is not observed. It is 
obvious, if this be the case, that in the use of the Leguminous seeds, instead 
of the Cereal grains, more than was requisite of nitrogen would be taken into 
the system before the adequate supply were attained of the non-nitrogenous or 
respiratory materials ; nor, as the markets go, would the relative prices of these 
seeds and grains be found to interfere with a somewhat lavish use and expen- 
diture of nitrogen in the former. 

In the facts which are here briefly stated, we have surely very curious and 
interesting matter for reflection ; and we have brought to our view a striking 
instance of the mutual adaptations which are everywhere traceable in the 
practical operation of natural laws. Thus, then, we have said, that under 
given circumstances, the Leguminous crop will give a much larger acreage 
yield of nitrogen than the Cereal grain ; and that an increase of produce of 
the latter is not obtained except at the cost of more nitrogen in the manui'e 
than is obtained in this increased produce ; whilst in point of fact, in the or- 
dinary practice of rotation in this country, the growth of the Leguminous corn 
or fodder crop, with its large per-centage and actual amount of nitrogen, is 
itself frequently either the direct or indirect source of the nitrogenous ma- 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 347 

nure by which the increased Cereal is obtained ; and again, this Cereal, ob- 
tained at the cost of, but with its lessened jororfwce of nitrogen, is found in 
practice to be of equal, or of a more highly feeding value than the more 
highly nitrogenized Leguminouu product which perhaps has been expended 
to produce it. It would thus appear, therefore, that the demands of the re- 
spiratory function which again, more than any other, regulate the consump- 
tion of food, would, in point of fact, not be satisfied in the use of the Legu- 
minous diet unless by a consumption or expenditure of an amount of nitrogen 
beyond that which the due balance of the constituents of food would seem 
to require ; whilst on the other hand, in the use of the Cereal grain, its better 
proportion of respiratory to nitrogenous constituents has only been attained 
by the sacrifice of nitrogen expended in its growth. It would seem, there- 
fore, that whether we would seek our supplies of respiratory food in the 
direct use of the highly nitrogenized Leguminous seeds, or in the better ba- 
lanced diet of the Cereal grains, in either case the end is attained only at the 
cost or expenditure of nitrogen ; in the one case, by the consumption of a 
larger amount of it in the food than the due balance of constituents would 
seem to require, Avhilst in the other this due balance has not been attained 
without a loss of nitrogen during growth. The claims of health and na- 
tural instinct generally leave little doubt which alternative should be adopted, 
in the case of human food at least ; and it becomes us, therefore, to investi- 
gate and understand the practical bearings of these curious and interesting 
facts ; for upon the principles they involve depend much for their success 
those fundamental practices of the farm, — the feeding of our stock, for their 
double products of meat and manure, and the adaptation of our rotations. 

It would appear, then, from our experiments, that taking our current food- 
stuffs as we find them' it is their supply of the ?iow nitrogenous, rather than of 
their nitrogenous constituents, which guidesboth the amount of food consumed, 
and of increase produced, by a fattening animal. When we consider the na- 
ture of the respiratory process, and the large share which its demands must 
necessarily have upon the consumption of food, it can scarcely appear sur- 
prising that consumption, at least, should be chiefly regulated by the supply 
in the food of compounds rich in carbon and hydrogen, rather than nitrogen. 
That the amount of increase produced should also bear a closer relationship 
to the supply of these constituents than to that of the latter, does not perhaps 
at first sight seem so obvious, especially if we supposed, as some writers on 
this subject have done, that the amount of nitrogen in the current food of 
man and other animals was frequently insufficient to supply the amount re- 
quired for the production or restoration of the nitrogenous products of the 
animal organism. We believe, however, that a closer examination of the 
facts would show that this exceedingly rarely happens ; and we think, more- 
over, as we have already intimated, that in fact, that portion of nitrogen which 
is stored up in iV^increa^e of a growing, and especiallyof a "fattening "animal, 
is much less than is usually supposed. We cannot in any degree adequately 
discuss this question in this place; but when maintaining a greater relative 
importance of the wow-nitrogenous constituents of food than is usually ac- 
corded to them, it seems somewhat pertinent briefly to adduce some evidence 
in confirmation of our conclusions on this point. 

We propose, therefore, to give a very brief summary of one of our expe- 
riments, in which pigs were tlie subjects, which was undertaken chiefly for 
the purpose of ascertaining the composition of the increase of the fattening 
atiimal; but to obtain also, some clear evidence in reference to the much- 
debated question, whether or not more fatty matter is stored up in the 
animal, than is contained, as such, in its food. 



348 



REPORT — 1852. 



Taking first the question of the composition of the increase, we have in the 
following table a nummary statement of the composition of tlie foods em- 
ployed in (he experiment referred to ; and also of the pigs themselves, both 
in the store, and in the fat condition ; as well as that of the increase in weight 
during the fattening process, as deduced by calculation. 

Table VIII. 

Sunmiary of the Per-centage Composition of the Foods employed — of the 
Store Pig, and of the Fat Pig- — and also of the Increase in Live Weight of 
tlic latter. 



Description. 


Dry Blatter. 


Mineral Matter (Ash). 


Nitrogen. 


FattyMatter(by oether).! 


Inclusive 
of Ash. 


Organic 
only. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Substance. 


In Fresh In Dry 
Substance. Substance. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Substance. 


Egyptian Beans . 

Lentils 

Foreign Barley... 


87-8 
86-96 
81-86 
85-08 


84-53 
82-03 
79-72 
78-67 


3-274 
4-926 
2-140 

6408 


6-73 
5-66 
2-61 
7-53 


4-214 4-80 
4-487 5-16 
1-834 224 
2-620 3-08 


2-26 
2-23 
2-34 

4-98 


2-58 
2-56 
2-86 
5-85 




Store or Lean Pig 
Fat Pig 


39-70 
54-74 


37-03 
53-09 


2-67 
1-65 


6-73 
3-01 


2-20 5-54 
1-75 3-19 


23-32 
42-20 


58-74 
77-09 




Increase in \ 
Live Weight / 


71-83 


71-39 


0-436 


0-61 


1-33 


1-85 


63-44 


88-32 



We may briefly explain, that, for the purposes of this experiment, two pigs 
were selected resembling each other as nearly as possible both in weight and 
in every other respect. One of these was killed at once, and its composition 
determined by methods which we shall fully describe on some future occasion. 
The other pig, after it had been put up to fatten for a period of eight weeks 
upon weighed quantities of the foods, the composition of which is given in 
the upper lines of the table, and its increase in weight determined, was also 
killed, and submitted to the same methods of preparation and analysis as the 
former one. The composition of the two pigs — the one in the store and the 
other in the fat condition — thus being ascertained, that of the increase in 
loeight was, as will be readily understood, simply a matter of calculation. 

We learn from this table (VIIL), that rather less than 40 per cent, of 
the Store or Lean Pig was dry substance; of which about 2frds were mineral 
matter. Of the remaining 37 per cent, of dry substance, 2'2 were nitrogen, 
equal to about l^ only of proteine compounds. There is, however, of abso- 
lute or dry fat in this Store or Lean Pig, about 23i per cent. ; or nearly twice 
as much as of dry nitrogenous compounds. 

In the Fat Pig, on the other hand, there is about 55, instead of about 40 
per cent, of dry substance ; of which only 1 |rds, instead of 2§rds, are mineral 
matter. Of the remaining 53 per cent, of dry substance, only 1-75, instead 
of 2'2, is nitrogen; and this is equal, upon the entire animal, to only 11, 
instead of 14 per cent, of proteine compounds. We have, however, of fat, 
instead of 23^ per cent., about 42^: per cent, in this Fat Pig, or nearly double 
as much as in the Lean one ; and nearly four times as much as of dry 
nitrogenous compounds. 

With then only about 14 per cent, of nitrogenous substance in the Lean 
Pig, and nearly twice as much fat, we have, in the fattening process, con- 
ducted only for a few weeks, the per-centage of mineral matter, reduced by 
about one-third, and that of the nitrogenous substances by about one-fourth ; 
that of the fat, on the other hand, which in the Store Pig even, was in so 



FOODS, IN KELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 349 

much the larger proportion, is nearly doubled in the Fat one. Thus, the 
increase in weight during the fattening process was found to contain as much 
as 72 per cent, of dry substance, of which only 0*4-36 is mineral matter, and 
only 1*33 nitrogen, equal to about 8^ of proteine or gelatinous compounds. 
There is, however, about 63^ per cent, of fat, or nearly eight times as much 
as of dry nitrogenous compounds. Indeed, it is seen in the table, that 88 
per cent., or about eight-ninths of the entire dry increase of this Fat Pig, was 
pure fat. 

M. Boussingault, in his ' Rural Economy,' estimates that the Ox, the 
Sheep, and tiie Pig, contain from 3^ to 4 per cent, of nitrogen ; and more 
recently in his paper on the Formation of Fat in the Animal Body (^A)in. cle 
C/iemie, vol. xiv. p. 444), he supposes 4 as the probable per-centage in the 
Pig. He also states (Rural Economy), that M. Payen estimates the increase 
of the fattening pig to contain about 16 per cent, of nitrogenous compounds, 
equal to about 2§ per cent, of nitrogen. It will be observed, however, that 
only about half of these amounts of nitrogen were found in the direct expe- 
riments of our ov.n which we have quoted ; and it should at the same time 
be remarked, that the Fat Pig in our experiment was by no means so fat as 
is usual, at least in this country. 

It is doubtless true, that other animals, as fed for the butcher, will generally 
contain more flesh and less fat than the pig. In a very fat sheep, iiowever, 
fed for Chi-istmas, and wliich was indeed too fat, we found a larger per- 
centage of fat, and as little nitrogenous substance, as in the moderately fat 
pig, whose composition has been given above. Among our experiments on 
this subject, it was only in the case of a lean ox, that we found the nitrogen 
to exceed 2| per cent, of the entire animal ; whilst in all the cases of store 
or lean animals, the per-centage of dry fat was much greater than that of the 
drj^ nitrogenous compounds. 

The fact that fat is in so much a larger proportion than lean in the animals 
fed for the butcher, would seem not only to be consistent with the results of 
our experiments as to the great influence of the non-nitrogenous constituents 
of the food of these animals in the production of increase dui-ing the fattening 
process — but it indicates also the predominance of this non-nitrogenous cha- 
racter in that description of human food (butcher's meat), which is generally 
spoken of as the most nitrogenous, and therefore the most nutritive. 

That the fatty matter of the food is not the only source of the fat stored 
up in the body of the fattening animal, is illustrated by a further consi- 
deration of the circumstances and results of this same experiment with pif^s. 
Thus, in the follov/ing table are shown the amounts of Gross Dry Sub- 
stance — of Mineral Matter — of Dry Organic Matter — of Total iVbn-nitro- 
genous constituents — of Nitrogenous constituents — and of fatty matter, stored 
up in the Fat Pig, for 100 lbs. of each of them consumed as food. 

Table IX. 

Showing the proportion of certain constituents stored up in the Fattening Pig 

for 100 of each of them consumed as food. 



Constituents. 


.Consumed 

as 

Food. 


stored up 
in the 
Animal. 


Expired, 
Perspired, 
or Voided. 


Gross drj' substance 

Mineral matter 


100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


15-04 

2-19 

15-59 

17-74 

8-35 

407-00 


84-96 
97-81 
84-41 
82-26 
91-65 


Total dry organic matter 

Non-nitrogenous constituents 
Nitrogenous constituents ... 
Fatty matter 





350 



REPORT 1852. 



It may be observed, that in the case of the experiment with this single pig, 
the amounts of nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous constituents required to 
produce a given amount of increase — though nearly the same as the averages 
of the 24 pens, as given at the foot of Table VII. — were greater, than in many 
of the cases with the better foods. Hence, the quantities of the various con- 
stituents, represented in Table IX. as stored up in tliis pig for 100 of each of 
them consumed, are less than they would be in many of the other experi- 
ments. We believe, however, that the figures in the Table (IX.) may be trusted 
in their general indications; and attention may therefore be called in passing 
to the fact, that for 100 of eacij consumed, there is of the total dry substance 
little more than 15 stored up in the animal; of the mineral matter, little 
more than 2 per cent. ; and of the nitrogenous constituents, about 8^rd per 
cent. 

Again, a glance at the Table shows how very much larger is that propor- 
tion of every constituent of the food — excepting fatty matter — which was 
expired, perspired or voided, i. e. which was expended in merely keeping in 
working order the living mechanism, than that which is stored up in the 
animal as increase. Oi fat, however, it appears that there was nearly four 
times as much stored up in the animal, as there was of fatty matter ready 
formed in the food. There was then, in this experiment, a considerable 
formation of fat in the animal body. 

As is seen in the Table (IX.), for every 100 lbs. of gross dry substance 
consumed as food, only about 15 lbs. were stored up in the animal; and about 
85 lbs. expired, perspired or voided. It may be convenient here to show in a 
tabular form, the composition of this 15'04 of total dry increase obtained by 
the consumption of 100 of total dry matter as food. 

Table X. 





009 

1-67 

13-28 




Non-nitrogenous substance (fat) 


Total increase 


1504 

8196 


Expired, perspired or voided ... 


Total dry matter consumed 


100-00 



It must not be concluded, however, that only 15 per cent, of the dry sub- 
stance of the food was employed in the production of the 15 parts stored up 
in the fat pig. Thus, in Table X. we see, that, of the 15'04' of gross dry 
increase produced from 100 of gross dry food consumed, 13'3 wereya^; and 
from Table IX. we learn, that only one-fourth of this fat could have been 
derived from fatty matter already formed in the food. As then only one- 
fourth, or about 3-3 parts of the 13'3 of pure fat, was already formed in the 
food, about 10 parts out of the 15 of dry animal substance produced, would 
he fat formedin the body from some other constituents. We may perhaps 
safely reckon, that at least 2^ parts of starch, or the other wow-nitrogenous 
compounds of food, would be required for the formation of one part of fat. 
It is true, that less than 2| of starch, &c. would contain all the constituents 
of one part of fat ; but when we consider, that in the conversion of the 
starch series of compounds into fat a large quantity of oxygen is eliminated, 
which we may assume would not leave the body except in combination with 
matters that would otherwise serve the respiratory process, it would seem 
probable, that more than 2^ parts of other constituents of food would be ex- 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 351 

pended in the direct production in the animal body of one part of fat. At 
any rate, we are safe in assuming this amount for our present purpose, in the 
absence of more exact knowledge than is at command on the nature of the 
intermediate changes to which the constituents of food are subject in their 
passage through the body. If, then, we suppose, that the starch series — rather 
than the proteiue compounds — of the food, served for the formation of the 
fat in the animal body, it follows, that about 25 parts of these were expended 
in the formation of the 10 parts of produced fat. If now we add to this 
amount of the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food not fat, the 3|-rd parts 
which were fatty matter already formed, and also the Ifrds of the increase 
which was not fat, it would appear, that at least 30 parts of the 100 of dry 
substance consumed, must have been directly employed in the production of 
the 15 only of dry animal increase. It is obvious, too, from the nature of the 
chemical change by which fat would be formed from the starch series of 
compounds, that the extra 15 of the 30 parts of the dry substance of the 
food, which were expended in the direct production of the 15 of dry increase, 
would not serve any useful purpose in the respiratory process of the fattening 
animal. And, unless indeed, we were to assume — that in the more direct use 
of the starch series of compounds as respiratory matter, their oxygen was 
eliminated only in combination with respiratory material — and that when em- 
ployed in the production offal it was not so — it would appear, that not only 
must this produced fat have been obtained at the cost of respiratory material 
expended by the fattening animal which produced it — but that it is, at any 
rate, not in the amount of respiratory material thus obtained, that there can 
be any gain in this conversion by the fattening animal of a given amount of 
compounds of loioer respiratory and fat-forming capacity, into fat to serve 
as human food, of which it is the most concentrated of the respiratory con- 
stituents. 

If, then, as we have seen, so large a proportion as nearly ^rd of the dry 
substance of the food of the fattening pig may be employed in the direct 
production of increase — and we have reason to suppose that frequently more 
than this is so employed — we think that the deviations from uniformity in the 
amounts of non-nitrogenous constituents consumed by a given weight of 
animal, within a given time, as shown in our tables, will be admitted to be 
even less than might have been expected in so extensive and varied a series 
of experiments — and to be, by no means such, as to raise any question as to 
whether or not, it was the supplies of the respiratory and fat-forming, rather 
than the flesh-forming constituents of the foods, which determined the 
amounts consumed. 

But to recur to the question of the formation of fat in the animal body. 
We believe that such a formation, even to a considerable, and practically 
important extent, is demonstrated by the results of the experiments with pigs 
last given ; and there is every reason to believe, that it is the starch and other 
non-nitrogenous constituents of the food that contribute mainlj', if not en- 
tirely, to this formation. 

At one time MM. Dumas and Boussingault maintained that the formation 
of fat in the animal body was improbable ; and others have done so more re- 
cently. Since that time, however, both M. Boussingault and M. Persoz have 
instituted direct experiments in reference to this question. In the course of 
these experiments they found a decided formation of fat ; and most probably 
from the starch series of compounds. 

M. Boussingault made numerous experiments of a somewhat artificial kind 
with ducks ; from which it appeared, that fat might be formed in the body 
from other non-nitrogenous constituents of food, and probably from nitroge- 



352 REPORT — 1852. 

nous conipouiuls also. He also experimented with pigs, in a manner somewhat 
similar to that adopted by ourselves ; and it is a curious circumstance, that 
his store, or lean pig, contained almost identically the same per-centage of 
fat as our own. The foods lie employed were, however, far inferior in fatten- 
ing quality. Hence, though his experiments extended over a much longer 
period of time, the per-centage of fat in his y^? pig was scarcely 5 per cent, 
higher than in his lean one ; whilst almost the whole of this increased fat had 
been supplied by fatty matter in the food. It was indeed mainly upon a 
calculation of the fat which had been supplied in the food of the store pig, 
that he found the evidence of the formation of fat in his experiments with 
pigs. M. Boussingault is disposed to believe, that the nitrogenous con- 
stituents of food probably have some considerable influence in the formation 
of fat in the animal body. We have ourselves called attention to the fact, 
that a large supply of the nitrogenous constituents of the food would seem 
to replace a relative deficiency of other constituents. The amount of increase 
is found, however, to bear a rapidly decreasing ratio to the amount of nitrogen 
in the food when this exceeds a somewhat narrow limit ; whilst the composition 
of such increase would appear to contain a less proportion of fat. Whether 
thei'efore any effect of an excess of nitrogenous compounds in the produc- 
tion of increase be due merely to the amounts they contain of certain non- 
nitrogenous elements, or to the influence of the nitrogenous compounds them- 
selves as such, ill increasing the activity of some of the vital processes, and thus 
aiding the production of fat, or whether any increase due to the nitrogenous 
constituents in tlie food is more generally not fat at all, may be considered 
to be an open question. 

In the experiments made by M. Persoz, geese were the animals he operated 
upon, and maize the food employed. He found a i\ec\AQd formation of fat; 
and apparently from the starch series of compounds. 

We repeat, then, that we believe that the formation of fat in the animal 
body, even to a considerable and practically important extent, and most 
probably from the starch series of compounds, may now be considered to be 
clearly proved. It would appear, therefore, that the theoretical opinions of 
Baron Liebig on this point are fully boi-ne out. 



We have thus far only alluded to the feeding of fattening animals ; and we 
think that tlie results which have been brought forward clearly indicate, that 
with them at least, as our current food-stuffs go, both the amount consumed, 
and the increase produced, are regidated more by the supplies of the more 
peculiarly respiratory and fat-forming constituents, than of the flesh-forming 
or nitrogenous ones. We have, however, calculated many human dietaries ; 
and this branch of the subject we hope to enter upon more fully on some future 
occasion. ' We may, however, remark in passing, that from the results of this 
inquiry, as well as from a consideration of the management of the animal 
body undergoing somewhat excessive labour, as for instance, the hunting 
horse, the racer, the cab-horse, and the fox-hound, and also pugilists and 
runners, we are led to believe, that in the cases, at least of ordinary exercise 
of force, the exigences of the respiratory system keep pace more nearly with 
the demand for nitrogenous constituents of food than is usually supposed ; 
and in fact, that the exigences of the animal body are much more correctly 
stated in the following sentences by Professor Liebig, than in those wherein 
he has attached so much more of importance to the amounts of the nitro- 
genous constituents, as the measure of the comparative value of foods. 
At page Sli of the 3rd edition of his Chemical Letters, he says: — 
u * * * It is evident that the amount of nourishment required by an animal 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 353 

for its support must be in a direct ratio with the quantity of oxygen taken 
into its system." 

And again at page 322 : — 

" But the waste of matter, or the force exerted, always stands in a certain 
relation to the consumption of oxygen in respiration ; and the quantity of 
oxygen taken up in a given time determines in all seasons, and in all climates, 
the amount of food necessary to restore the equilibrium." 

A somewhat concentrated supply of nitrogen does, however, in some cases, 
seem to be required when the system is overtaxed ; as for instance, when 
day by day, more labour is demanded of the animal body than it is compe- 
tent without deterioration to keep up ; and perhaps also, in the human body, 
when under excitement or excessive mental exercise. It must be remembered, 
however, that it is in butcher's meat, to which is attributed such high flesh- 
forming capacity, that we have also, in the fat which it contains, a large pro- 
portion of respiratory material of the most concentrated kind. It is found 
too, that of the dry substance of the egg, 40 per cent, is pure fat. 

A consideration of the habits of those of the labouring classes who are 
under- rather than over-fed, will show, that they first have recourse to fat 
meat, such as pork, rather than to those which are leaner and more nitroge- 
nous ; thus perhaps indicating, that the first instinctive call is for an increase 
of the respiratory constituents of food. It cannot be doubted, however, that 
the higher classes do consume a larger proportion of the leaner meats ; 
though it is probable, as we have said, that even with these as well as pork, 
more/a<, possessing a higher respiratory capacity than any other constituent 
of food, is taken into the system than is generally imagined. Fat and butter, 
indeed, may be said to have about twice and a half the respiratory capacity 
of starch, sugar, &c. It should be remembered, too, that the classes which 
consume most of the leaner meats, are also those which consume the most 
butter, sugar, and in many cases, alcoholic drinks also. 

It is further worthy of remark, that wherever labour is expended in the 
manufacture of staple articles of food, it has generally for its object the con- 
centration of the wo«-nitrogenous, or more peculiarly respiratory constituents. 
Sugar, butter, and alcoholic drinks are notable instances of this. Cheese, 
which at first sight might appear an exception, is in reality not so ; for those 
cheeses which bring the highest price are always those which contain the 
most butter ; whilst butter itself is always dearer than cheese. 

In conclusion, it must by no means be understood that we would in any 
way depreciate the value of even a somewhat liberal amount of nitrogen in 
food. We believe, however, that on the current views too high a relative 
importance is attached to it ; and that it would conduce to further progress 
in this most important field of inquiry if the prevailing opinions on the sub- 
ject were somewhat modified. 



1852. 2 A 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

The Rev. Dr. Bryce gave an Account of a Treatise on Arithmetic in the Chinese 
Language, by the Rev. Dr. Moncrieff, late of St. Paul's College, Hong Kong. 

The Chinese have for ages had a character (called Ling) corresponding in part to 
our zero, but used by them only to fill a vacant place, not to give local value. Thus 
they came one step nearer the Arabic notation than the Greeks did. One step how- 
ever remained, which Dr. Moncrieff has taken. The Jesuit missionaries to China 
had printed Vlacq's Logarithmic Tables in a simplified character, and it has been 
said that a copy of their work was presented to the Royal Society about the year 
1750. Dr. Moncrieff's letter requesting him to make the present communication, 
had only reached Dr. Bryce on the first day after the present meeting ; and having 
been pretty constant in his attendance on the Sections, he had not had time to 
investigate the matter particularly : however, he had examined all the records of the 
Royal Society within his reach, but could find no notice of the work of those reverend 
gentlemen. He was therefore unable to say whether they had attempted to introduce 
the admirable device of local value, which is the distinctive characteristic of the Arabic 
notation. If they had. Dr. Moncrieff evidently knew nothing of their having done 
60 ; which is not wonderful, inasmuch as Dr. Peacock, in his learned and elaborate 
history of the science (Encyclopaedia Metropolitana), makes no mention of their 
work, from which we may infer that it was unknown even to him. At all events, 
Dr. Moncrieff found the actual arithmetic of China in the same clumsy condition 
in which it has been for ages, their notation quite unfit for making calculations on 
paper as we do, in consequence of which they were obliged to perform all arithme- 
tical operations on the Abacus*. 

Finding the circle used for another purpose in the written language of China, Dr. 
Moncrieff used a triangle for his ling or zero, and employed it to convert the cha- 
racters representing simple units, into symbols for tens, hundreds, &c., exactly as in 
the Arabic notation. He also introduced our marks of addition, subtraction, mul- 
tiplication, division, involution, evolution, &c., modifying some of them to distinguish 
them from characters already in use for other purposes. 

The work comprises the common rules, — fractions, common and decimal, — invo- 
lution and evolution ; in short, the general scientific principles of arithmetic. He 

* Two different figures of the Chinese Abacus are given in the Phil. Trans, for 1686, and 
in Du Halde's History of China. 

1852. 1 



2 REPORT 1852. 

did not attempt a commercial arithmetic, as that would have required a fuller know- 
ledge of their weights, measures, &c. than he found it convenient to acquire ; but 
as these are all decimal, it will be easy for any one to do what remains. His main 
object was to make arithmetic an instrument of tliat intellectual culture, which, in 
common with all missionaries, he deemed of so much importance. With this view 
he has given the reasons of all the rules, except that for finding the greatest common 
measure of two numbers, and that of Mr. Horner for extracting any root of a number, 
which are obviously too difficult for the pupils for whom his book was intended. 

Dr. Moncrieff 's attempt has already had such a measure of success as to encourage 
a hope that the stream of European improvement may, with less difficulty than we 
have hitherto supposed, be made to flow into the stagnant waters of Chinese science 
and literature. 

On Criteria for real and imaginary Roots of Biquadratic Equations. 
By W. Gartland. 
This is an extension and simplification of Sturm's method, but does not admit of 
being given in an abstract. __^^__ 

On Biquaternions. By Sir William R. Hamilton, LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

The author briefly explained the term which he had been obliged to introduce into 
this new system ; showed the simplicity and the reasons for the leading operations 
in it ; and by a few very simple experiments on the rotation of planes round axes 
inclined to each other, explained the simple interpretation of some of those results 
which appeared at first to be inconsistent with the principles of the ordinary analysis. 



On the Gradient of Density in saturated Vapours, and its Development as a 
Physical Relation between Bodies of definite Chemical Co7istitution . By 
J. J. Waterston. 

The object of the present communication was to give a short notice of certain de- 
velopments of a general law of density in saturated vapours, which the author had 
lately, in a paper laid before the Royal Society, collected evidence from observation 
to support. Density is, by him, taken to signify, not specific gravity, but the quotient 
of the pressure of the vapour by its temperature, reckoned from the zero of gaseous 
tension ; the standard of temperature being that of the air-thermometer. The 
general law is, that the temperature and sixth root of the density of a saturated 
vapour form the co-ordinates of a straight line. In other words, at the same tem- 
perature, or at the same interval of temperature, any two vapours in contact with 
their generating liquids, have densities that are either equal, or that have a constant 
proportion to each other. The author gave diagrams illustrative of the application 
of this law to several vapours. The point of convergence of the right lines he calls 
nodes. He gave twenty-four distinct examples of its application to steam, alcohol, 
cether, and several other vapours, laid down the formulee by which the computations 
could be conducted, and pointed out the method of determining the value of the 
constants. 



Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

Notice of a Tree struck by Lightning in Ctandeboye Park, 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., &,■ V.P.R.S. Edinb. 

During one of the thunder-storms which passed over the county of Down in August 
last, a birch-tree of considerable magnitude was struck by lightning. The tree stood 
in a thick mass of wood, and was not the tallest of the group. The iightning-bolt 
struck it laterally about 15 feet above the ground, exactly at the cleft where the two 
principal branches of the tree rose from the trunk. A large part of the bark and a 
piece of the solid wood were driven to some distance, and the electric fluid passed 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 3 

down the trunk into the ground, splitting the tree in two by a rent throughout the 
whole of its thickness. Lord Dufferin was so good as to have the tree cut down 
for examination. From a section of the upper branches it was obvious that the 
lightning had not entered at the top and passed through the branches into the trunk. 
Several workmen, indeed, ih the neighbourhood saw the lightning-bolt moving hori- 
zontally before it struck the tree, a fact entirely confirmed by the effect which it 
produced. The force of the bolt must have been great, as it was expended in tear- 
ing off the piece of the trunk already mentioned, and in rending the tree in two, 
without separating the two halves. 

The track of the lightning was marked, from its point of entrance to its passage 
into the earth, by a darkish brown band, about 2 or 3 inches broad. A portion oi 
the wood thus marked will be sent by Lord UufFerin to Dr. Andrews, who will 
ascertain if the colouring matter contains any of those mineral substances which 
M. Fusinieri, an Italian philosopher, has found to exist in those parts of bodies over 
which lightning has passed. 

The fact contained in this notice, that an object may be struck by lightning in a 
locality where there are numerous conducting points more elevated than itself, shows 
that a lightning-bolt cannot be diverted from its course by conductors, and that 
the protection of a building from this species of meteor can only be effected by con- 
ductors stretching out in all directions. 



Account of a Case of Vision without Retina. 
% Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. .5, V.P.R.S. Edinb. 

In the course of last summer I met with a gentleman who had a peculiarity or 
vision of a very remarkable kind, and one of which I believe there is no other ex- 
ample. While hunting he fell from his horse, and received such a severe blow upon 
his head as to deprive him entirely of the sight nf one eye, and to a great extent of 
the sight of the other. Neither of the eyes had suffered the slightest local injury 
from the blow, and therefore the total blindness in one eye and the partial blindness 
in the other arose from the insensibility of the retina caused by the disorganization 
of the part of the brain more immediately connected with the origin of the optic 
nerves. 

The degree of vision which remained in one eye was such as to enable its pos- 
sessor to recognise any friend at the distance of 400 or 500 yards, or more generally 
speaking, at a considerable distance ; but in society he could not recognise his most 
intimate acquaintances. He could see only the nose, the eye, or the mouth of his 
friend j and he was not able to obtain, from the duration of the impression of light, 
and the rapid transference of his eye from one feature to another, such a combina- 
tion of the separate impressions as to give the likeness which they composed. 

In order to explain this singular result, I must recall the attention of the Section 
to a notice printed in the Reports of a former meeting of the Association, ' On the 
Visual Impressions on the Foramen Centrale of the Retina*.' 

From these facts it is obvious that the limited vision which we have described, 
was performed entirely on the choroid coat and through the /orome» centrale of the 
retina. 

In order to ascertain the area of distinct vision, I requested the patient to tell me 
the number of letters he could read distinctly, and found that the angle which these 
letters subtended at the retina was as nearly as could be ascertained about 4 J degrees, 
the angle subtended by the foramen as deduced from the previous experiments which 
1 have mentioned. 

The use of the retina is to give sensitiveness, and of the choroid, distinctness. 



On the form of Images produced by Lenses and Mirrors of different sizes. 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H, D.C.L., F.R.S., ^ V.P.R.S. Edinb. 

The shape of the images of objects as formed by lenses and mirrors with spherical 
surfaces, has been treated of by various optical writers f ; but I am not aware that 

* See Reports of the Association for 1848. 

t Smith's " Complete System of Optics," vol. i. chap. xii. p. 238, and vol. ii. Remarks, p. 83. 

1* 



4 REPORT 1852. 

aay author has treated of the shape of images as affected only by the size of the 
lenses or mirrors by which they are formed. This subject is of fundamental im- 
portance in the new art of Photography, when the images delineated by the solar 
rays are formed by lenses, and sometimes, too, by mirrors of a larger size. 

The images of objects formed upon a plane surface differ from the objects them- 
selves, from many causes which it is unnecessary here to enumerate. The most 
skilful opticians have striven, and to a great extent successfully, to make the most 
perfect lenses for photographic purposes ; but the photographer himself has over- 
looked the greatest imperfection to which his art is subject, arising solely from the 
size of the lenses in his camera. 

According to the geometrical principles of perspective, the correct representation 
of any body or object whatever, upon a plane surface, is obtained by drawing lines 
from the point of sight, through every point of the body or object, to that plane. 
As the pupil of the human eye is little more than two-tenths of an inch in diameter, 
we may regard the picture on the retina as a correct representation of external 
objects, in so far, at least, as its correctness depends upon the size of the lens which 
forms the picture. In like manner we may consider the image of objects formed by 
a lens the size of the pupil of the eye as a correct representation of the object. 

Now if in perspective we take a new point of sight two-tenths of an inch distant 
from the first, the perspective representation of the object on a plane will be changed, 
and the magnitude of the change will increase with the distance between the two 
points of sight. In like manner, if we look at an object from two different points, 
which are two-tenths of an inch distant, we shall obtain two views of that object 
equally dissimilar. 

Following out this principle, let us suppose that a lens four inches square is 
employed to produce upon a plane surface the image of any object, and that the 
size of the pupil of the eye is two-tenths of an inch ; then, as there will be several 
hundred areas equal to that of the pupil in the lens, the image given by the lens will 
be a compound image consisting of several hundred perspective views of the object 
taken from several hundred different points of sight, each distant two-tenths of an 
inch from its neighbour, and all those on the margin of the lens distant three inches 
and eight-tenths from those opposite to them. Such a jumble of images cannot, 
under any circumstances, be a true representation of the object. This view of the 
question, as one of perspective, will be more intelligible if we consider the subject 
optically. 

Let LL be either the horizontal or the vertical section of a lens, by means of 

which an image or picture of the object 
Yxs. 1. ABCDE is to be taken either on a plane sur- 

,. face, or suspended in the air, and made visible 
to an eye behind the lens. The solid object 
ABE consists of a cylindrical portion ABDC, 
whose termination AB is a circle, and of a 
conical portion CDE. If we continue the 
lines EC, ED, and CA, DB, they will meet 
the lens in the points c, a, d, b. If we now 
cover all the lens except the central portion 
ab, the image of the object ABE will be 
merely a circle, as shown at ab, fig. 1, because 
not a single ray from the cylindrical surface 
ABDC, nor from the conical surface CDE, can 
Fig. 2. reach the lens ab. In like manner, if we cover 

all the lens except cd, the image of the ob- 

Dject ABE will be, as shown in fig. 2, at cd, 
its circular termination, and the cylindrical 
1 «. 6 p^j,j. jjj- jj. Qjjjy being seen, because not a single 

ray from its conical part CDE can fall upon 
the lens cd. But when the whole area LL of the lens is exposed, the whole object 
will be seen suspended in the air, as at LL, fig. 2. 

If the image is received upon a plane surface behind the lens, the cylindrical part 
will be represented by a halo or circle of light surrounding the circle ab, and cor- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. ' 5 

responding in size to the section mn, fig. 1, of the cone of rays CccZD ; and tlie 
conical part CDE will be represented by another halo or circle, round the halo mn, 
and corresponding to the section op of the cone of rays ELL. 

Results demonstrating the truth of these views have been obtained photographi- 
cally by my friend Mr. Buckle of Peterborough, whose beautiful Talbotypes obtained 
a Council Medal at the Great Exhibition. The acting diameter of his lens was 3| 
inches, and the effect of the combination of the marginal pictures is most distinctly 
exhibited. 

Let us now apply these results to the photographical pictures of the human bust 
as taken in a camera. The human face and head consist superficially of various 
surfaces, some vertical, some horizontal, and many inclined at all angles to the 
axis of the lens by which they are to be represented on a plane surface. A true 
perspective representation of the human head placed at AB, will be that which is 
given by a lens ab whose diameter is equal to that of the pupil of the eye, or as 
formed by lines passing from the centre of the pupil to different points of the 
head. From such a portrait, all surfaces, such as AC, BD, EC, ED will be 
excluded ; but if we use the whole lens LL, all these surfaces, and all those of an 
intermediate inclination between AC and EC, BD and DE, will be introduced 
into the portrait. If, for example, LL is a horizontal section of the lens, the right 
hand marginal parts of the lens, between a and L, may introduce into the portrait 
the left eye, or the left ear, or the left side of the nose, and all other parts of a certain 
inchnation to the axis ; thus enlarging all such parts and widening the picture. If 
LL be a vertical section of the lens, the lower part of the nose, the interior of the 
nostrils, the lower part of the upper lip, and the lower part of the chin will be intro- 
duced into the portrait by the lower marginal parts 6L of the lens ; while the top 
of the head, the upper parts of the lip and the eyehds, will be introduced by the 
upper marginal parts aL of the lens. The same is true of all other sections of the 
lens, and a monstrous portrait of the human bust is thus obtained by the photo- 
grapher, the monstrosity increasing with the size of the lens. The nature and 
character of the portrait will thus vary with the superficial form of the lens, which 
may be circular, oval, square, rectangular, triangular, or of any irregular form ; and 
in this way remarkable modifications of photographic portraits may be produced 
merely by varying the shape of the lens. 

The amount of the deformity introduced into portraits by a lens three or four inches 
in diameter may be readily estimated by the fact, that when a portrait is taken from 
two points two and a half inches distant, such as those taken as seen by each eye 
separately, the difference between the two is so well marked that it can be pointed 
out by a child. A portrait, therefore, consisting of a combination of portraits as 
seen from every point of a lens three or four inches in diameter, must give a form and 
expression to the human countenance very wide of the truth. 

The hideousness of photographic portraits is universally admitted, and has been 
ascribed to the imperfection of the lenses employed, the unsteadiness of the sitter, 
and the necessary constraint of features and of limb under which he submits to the 
operation. The true cause, modified doubtless by others, is the size of the lens, even 
if the lens is optically perfect. 

The photographer, therefore, who has a genuine interest in the perfection of his 
art, will receive these truths with gratitude ; and by accelerating the photographic 
processes, with the aid of more sensitive materials, he will be able to make use of 
lenses of very small aperture, and thus place his art in a higher position than that 
which it has yet attained. The photographer, on the contrary, whose sordid interests 
bribe him to forswear even the truths of science, will continue to deform the youth 
and beauty that may in ignorance repair to his studio, adding scowls and wrinkles 
to the noble forms of manhood, and giving to a fresh and vigorous age the aspects 
of departing or departed life. 

But while small apertures possess such a peculiar advantage as that of giving a 
true perspective representation of the object or scene to be delineated, a small lens 
possesses still greater advantages. In large lenses much light is lost by the absorp- 
tion of rays in passing through a great thickness of glass, and also by reflexion from 
the /owr or eight surfaces of the achromatic lens or lenses employed. In such lenses, 
too, neither the chromatic nor the spherical aberrations, which increase with the 



e REPORT 1852. 

aperture, are completely corrected, and no attempt even is made to remove the 
influence of the secondary spectrum. With small apertures, too, objects, or 
parts of objects, at different distances, will be delineated with nearly the same 
distinctness, and a picture produced as nearly resembling the original as it can be 
made in the present state of practical optics. 

The same observations, with the exception of those which relate to the achromatism 
and the thickness of the refracting medium, are applicable to the images produced 
by mirrors of different sizes. 

On the Stereoscopometer. By A. Claudet. 

This was a simple instrument, by which the relative positions of the two cameras 
and the placing of the object could be accurately determined in taking the pictures 
for the binocular stereoscope. 

Ow a Manifold Binocular Camera. By A. Claudet. 

The author exhibited a Double Camera for taking the two stereoscopic Daguerreo- 
types of groups or individuals, and by which four double pictures could be succes- 
sively taken with such rapidity as to be exact representations of the same circum- 
stances. It would be impossible to make all the mechanical arrangements of this 
instrument intelligible without drawings. 



On the Laws of Magnetism and Diamagnetism, in a Letter to Dr. Faraday. 
By Professor Matteucci. 

Pisa, August 15, 1852. 

My dear Faraday, — With much regret, and at the last moment, I am compelled 
to renounce the pleasure of assisting at the Meeting of the British Association and 
of conversing with you and other friends on scientific subjects. I beg you to present 
my cordial thanks to Col. Sabine for the invitation he so kindly sent me. I ask 
your permission to address to you an extract of my researches on magnetism and 
diamagnetism, which have occupied me for several years : if you think that this 
communication can offer any interest to the members of the Association, you can, if 
you please, read it to the meeting, as I should be glad in any way to prove my 
gratitude to that respectable body. 

I have studied, in the first place, the influence of temperature and mechanic action 
on magnetic and diamagnetic substances. Thus, I operated on iron in a state of 
fusion obtained by the flame of oxyhydrogen gas. In this experiment a small iron 
globule is placed in a cavity at the extremity of a horizontal bar of copper wire or 
caustic lime, suspended by a cocoon silk in the magnetic field between the conical 
poles of a very powerful electro- magnet. Iron in a state of fusion, partially oxidated, 
is always attracted by the magnet ; the diminution of magnetic attraction produced 
by fusion in iron is immensely great : in one experiment, which I think was suf- 
ficiently exact, I found that attraction became at least 15 million times less, passing 
from the ordinary temperature to the state of fusion. All the compounds of iron, 
and all natural substances containing a portion of metallic iron, suffer a diminution 
by heat ; hence it is that the natural or artificial compounds of magnetic and dia- 
magnetic substances, such as certain coals and charcoal, clay, impure metals, gold, 
copper, zinc, &c., which are attracted at the ordinary temperature, appear to be 
temporarily repelled when strongly heated. Passing to diamagnetic substances, I 
have found that their repulsive action suffers a very slight diminution by fusion in 
phosphorus and sulphur. But this is not the case with bismuth in fusion, upon 
which I have verified and completed the observation of Pliicker. 

The following experiment is simple, and sure to succeed at the first attempt. Take 
a bar of pure caustic lime and suspend it in the magnetic field in the manner 
described ; when the magnetic power is developed, the bar is repelled ; and when 
the bar is strongly heated, the repulsion is certainly not less great. Touching lightly 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 7 

the small cavity in the bar of lime with a piece of paper besmeared with oxide of 
iron, one can easily arrange so that the bar is attracted ; and when the quantity of 
oxide is sufficient, the bar continues to be attracted even when strongly heated. 
Fill the cavity with bismuth, 1 gramme, for instance, and the bar will be again 
repelled when the magnetism is developed. But if, before passing the current, the 
bismuth is fused, the bar will be attracted, and will attach itself to the extremity of 
the pole when the magnetism is produced. At the instant that the bismuth becomes 
solid, the bar detaches itself abruptly from the pole, and the diamagnetic repulsion 
of the bismuth prevails. 

It now remained for me to ascertain whether bismuth in a state of fusion was 
indifferent to magnetic action, or whether, on the contrary, it became magnetic. 
For this purpose, I measured by the number of oscillations the diamagnetic force of 
a cylinder of bismuth contained in a corresponding cavity formed in a bar of lime 
suspended by a glass hook to a cocoon silk. Operating with the necessary pre- 
cautions, which are too long to be described here, I have found that the bar of lime, 
with its cylinder of bismuth in a state of fusion, made the same number of oscilla- 
tions as when without bismuth. The lime being constantly diamagnetic, this might 
have masked the change of the bismuth transformed into a magnetic body by fusion. 
I therefore suspended between the poles of the electro-magnet a bar of lime, formed 
somewhat like a salt-spoon, in order to increase greatly the quantity of bismuth in 
fusion compared with that of the lime. In one experiment I employed as much as 57 
grammes of fused bismuth, and nevertheless the repulsion continued. Thus, then, the 
diamagnetic power of bismuth diminishes suddenly at the point of fusion, and during 
the state of fusion the bismuth remains indifferent, without being apparently changed 
into a magnetic body. 

I have studied the influence of mechanic action on diamagnetisra. By means of 
a copper box provided with a screw, I was able to compress a pure bismuth cylinder, 
3 millims. in diameter and 34 millims. in length, so as to reduce it to 28 millims. 
I then made two cylinders of bismuth precisely of the same dimensions, the one 
compressed, the other in its natural state, and I found that the compressed cyHnder 
had a diamagnetic power distinctly superior to that of natural bismuth. I think it 
advisable here to call your attention to the fact which Coulomb, and more recently 
Pliicker, have discovered respecting feebly magnetic substances ; namel)', that all 
cylinders of bismuth have the same oscillation independently of their weight, or in 
other words, that the diamagnetic power is proportionate to the weight of the 
cylinders. Cylinders of bismuth, varying in weight from 0"576 gr. to 18"600 gr., 
give the same oscillation, I studied afterwards, at some length, the influence of a 
powerful electro-magnet upon chemical affinity and cohesion. You have proved 
that gases, and even the most magnetic of the gases, do not suffer any variation in 
density by magnetic action. I have repeated the same experiments on gases, em- 
ploying a glass tube closed or open, such as that of a spirit-level, filled with gas 
and different liquids. The gaseous bubble placed between the two polar extremities 
suffers considerable contraction and elongation, according to the nature of the liquid 
and gas. I think I have proved that these appearances are owing to a simple 
change of form in the bubble without variation of density produced by the differential 
action of the magnet on the gas and on the liquid. I made a great number of expe- 
riments in order to measure the electrolyzation of acidulated water in a very powerful 
magnetic field, or independently of this influence. Several precautions, not gene- 
rally followed, are absolutely necessary to obtain a uniform result in the use of the 
voltameter. These experiments led me to conclude that the most powerful magnetic 
action has no influence whatever on the electrolyzation of water. There is however 
a phsenomenon which 1 do not think has been observed hitherto, and on which I 
must say a word. In electrolyzing water in a powerful electro-magnetic field, and 
if the experiment is properly arranged, the streams of gas bubbles which rise from 
the two electrodes are violently carried away in certain directions when the magnetism 
is put in activity. I think this movement is communicated by the liquid currents 
discovered by Davy. By employing a saturated solution of sulphate of copper for 
electrolyte, and by blowing into that liquid through a glass capillary tube a stream of 
atmospheric bubbles instead of those formed by electrolyzation in water, I could 
easily convince myself that the phsenomenon is independent of any peculiar state of 



8 REPORT— 1852. 

Ihe gas supposed to be derived from electrolyzation. By a proper application of 
Nobili's beautiful experiment of colours obtained by electrolyzation, I was enabled 
to demonstrate, that an axis of great magnetic power has no sensible influence in 
disturbing the distribution or propagation of the electrical currents, nor the physical 
or chemical composition of the body traversed by them. Make a rectangular box, the 
longer sides of which are formed of perfectly clean plates of platina. Fill this box 
with a solution of chloride of iron, or acetate of lead, or other metallic salts, and place 
it between the poles of a very powerful electro-magnet. The coloration of these 
plates, produced by the shortest passage of a very feeble current, is found to be exactly 
the same at all points, that is, on the line of the magnetic poles, as at the distance of 
150 or 200 millimetres from that line. The magnetic power therefore does not 
change either the composition of the liquid subject to its action, por the distribution 
of the electricity which traverses it. I remember having found formerly' that the 
laws of the derived currents on a plate of tin and of the isodynamic lines, were not 
disturbed by the influence of a very strong electro-magnet. I have also studied the 
influence of the magnetic power of the elements on that of the body resulting from 
their combination. Although there are some examples of magnetic compounds, 
the elements of which are diamagnetic, such as protochloride of copper, one finds in 
general that the magnetical character of the compound results from that of its ele- 
ments. Pure copper, which, independently of inductive currents, is decidedly dia- 
magnetic, produces protoxide, which is indifl"erent or scarcely diamagnetic, and a per- 
oxide which is decidedly magnetic. The same may be said of silver; the protoxide 
is diamagnetic, and the binoxide, obtained by the pile, is decidedlymagnetic. Operating 
on the various oxides of bismuth and antimony, I measured the variations in the 
magnetic power induced by different quantities of oxygen contained in these oxides. 

I have made a great number of conclusive and elegant experiments on the laws of 
equilibrium of diamagnetic bodies in the magnetic field, and on the reciprocal action 
of diamagnetic bodies. I have employed in these experiments a solution of chloride 
of iron in concentrated alcohol, so as to have the same density as olive oil, which is 
a diamagnetic body. I could thus fill the magnetic field with this ferruginous 
solution, in which floats a drop of oil, more or less large, or I could reverse the 
arrangement. At the moment in which the electro-magnet is set in action, the 
two liquids are set in movement and place themselves in equilibrium, occupying 
distinct places in the magnetic field. By adopting the proper arrangements, one 
can easily determine the form of the curved surfaces of separation of the two liquids. 
This method is delicate, and fitted for discovering the slightest difference in the force 
of the two poles, or in their relative distance from the centre of the magnetic field. 
If the magnetic field is uniform, as one obtains it with plane polar surfaces of great 
extent, a small piece of bismuth suspended to a cocoon silk, in the manner employed 
also by yourself, is in equilibrium in the centre of the magnetic field and in the 
greater part of the equatorial line. When the magnetic field is formed by the ferru- 
ginous solution, a piece of bismuth or drop of oil floating within the liquid does not 
remain in equilibrium in the centre of the field, but flies off to the side following the 
equatorial line. The drop changes in form, and is prolonged in axial or equatorial 
direction according to its being magnetic or diamagnetic. The constant motion of 
the diamagnetic drop from the centre towards the side along the equatorial line and 
this, even when floating not at the surface but in the middle of the liquid mass, is 
not in evident accord with the beautiful experiments of Reich and Tyndall. I have 
remarked on the fact, that the motion takes place when the drop is even in the 
midst of the liquid, in order to prove that this motion is independent of the remark- 
able elevation undergone by the ferruginous liquid along the line of the poles. 
With this method I could easily examine the mutual action of diamagnetic bodies. 
For this purpose the base of the square box placed in the magnetic field was formed 
one half of marble or wood, the other of bismuth. This base was covered with a 
thin stratum of ferruginous liquid, and of oil three millimetres in thickness. The 
line of junction of the marble and bismuth was alternately axial and equatorial. I 
was never able to discern the slightest dissymmetry in the form of the surfaces of 
separation of the two liquids, which might be attributed to the influence of the two 
very different substances, marble and bismuth, as regards their magnetic power. In 
the same way, I have never been able to discover any mutual action at the moment 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 9 

when the electro-magnet was in activity, between two drops of oil suspended in the 
midst of the ferruginous liquid, or between a piece of bismuth and one of these drops. 
I have therefore reason to doubt whether such movements, which have been con- 
sidered as proving the mutual action of diamagnetic bodies, are not rather owing to 
the movement of the entire liquid mass of which we have spoken. Although it is 
extremely probable that the mutual action of diamagnetic bodies does exist, and, 
according to the laws admitted also by yourself, still it must be allowed that this 
action is very feeble, and it is much to be desired that an experiment should be made 
by which it might be clearly demonstrated. 

I pass over in this extract, which is already too long, my experiments upon the 
diflferent inductive power of various metals, on the time of induction in the different 
metals, &c. ; but I must finally call your attention to the part of these researches 
which I belie-ve to be the most important, and which relates to an experimental 
theory of diamagnetic phsenomena. 

A mass composed of very fine powder of perfectly pure silver or copper, the con- 
ductibility of which is destroyed by the interposition of a thin film of oil of tur- 
pentine, duly suspended in proximity of the polar surface, is repelled at the instant of 
the passage of the current, and continues to oscillate like a mass of bismuth. If one 
composes other similar suspended matter in which the quantity of metal and con- 
ductibility gradually increases, one sees the silver or copper pendulums first repelled 
from the pole, then come to a stop after a constantly decreasing number of oscilla- 
tions, until at last they present the phsenomenon which you have called revulsion, 
due to the production of induced currents. In the same way a small copper 
or silver disc, fixed to the extremity of a straw lever suspended by a cocoon 
silk near to a pole, is repelled or attracted at the beginning or end of the current 
without being subject to any movement of oscillation : if this disc is cut so as to 
destroy its continuity as much as possible, to prevent the development of the induc- 
tive current, it then exhibits the phsenomenon of oscillation like bismuth. These 
phsenomena, and several others which you have described, and which it is unneces- 
sary to adduce here, have led you and Weber, with much reason, to admit the 
hypothesis of a diamagnetic polarity in reverse direction of that acquired by mag- 
netic bodies. I hasten to add, that my experiments do not lead me to reject this 
hypothesis, as you, and more recently M. Verdet, have done ; and that, on the con- 
trary, it seems to me in conformity with physical analogy to admit that diamagnetic 
substances, when subjected to magnetic force, assume a polarity the same in kind 
as, but reverse in direction of, that acquired by iron, which polarity has a duration 
varying according to the nature and conductibility of the substance, and which, 
according to these circumstances, tends to transform itself into an inductive instanta- 
neous current. I abstain from entering here into a minute development of these theo- 
retical views, which every one can do for himself, and proceed at once to speak 
experimentally. It is perfectly true that you, and more recently M. Verdet, have 
demonstrated that the phsenomenon discovered by Weber in bismuth can be explained 
by simply referring to the inductive currents, and without having recourse to dia- 
magnetic polarity ; but the same experiments have not proved the non-existence of 
diamagnetic polarity. In the first place, I recollect that oxide of copper is strongly 
magnetic ; consequently a mass of copper filings with oxidated superficies cannot, 
when it acts on the electro-magnet, develope inductive phsenomena similar to those 
of bismuth or pure copper. In fact, I found with my inductive apjiaratus, which is 
certainly the most powerful and delicate hitherto constructed, that a mass of copper 
filings oxidated at the superficies, such as used in organic analysis, gives inductive 
currents as if it were a magnetic body. In order to prove by our experimental 
method that diamagnetic polarity does not exist, one must prove that no induced 
currents are obtained in the direction demanded by that supposed polarity, when one 
makes an electro-magnet act on a diamagnetic body, incapable of conducting in- 
duced currents, and in quantity suflScient to induce sensible effects on our apparatus. 
To show the superiority of my apparatus, I have onlj' to mention, that a stratum of 
500 grammes of cotcothar brought near, but not in contact with the electro-magnet, 
and consequently without any apparatus of rotation, produced an induced current of 
10° to 15° and more, according to the strength of the battery. With this same appa- 



10 REPORT 1852. 

ratu3 and a rotating machine, I obtained very distinct phaenomena of induction by the 
action of a bundle of varnished bismuth or copper ivires. I have ah'eady observed 
that the experiment can be decisive only when one acts on the electro-magnet with 
a sufficient quantity of the diamagnetic substance. In fact, it seems reasonable to 
admit that the effects of induction, magnetic or diamagnetic, ought to be in propor- 
tion with the corresponding effects of attraction or repulsion. Now I am not very 
far from the truth in admitting that 1 gramme of bismuth is repelled by an electro- 
magnet with the same force as 11 milligrammes of colcothar is attracted by the 
same magnet ; that 1 gramme of sugar or stearic acid makes equilibrium to 5 or 6 
milligrammes of colcothar, and 1 gramme of sulphur to 2 or 3 milligrammes of col- 
cothar. I have already said that the inductive action of 500 grammes of colcothar 
gives me 10° to 15° of induced current : therefore, to obtain a similar effect by bismuth 
(if diamagnetic polarity- exists), one must employ a quantity of that metal, which is 
at least a hundred iimes 500 grammes, or 50 kilogrammes. By similar reasoning one 
sees what an enormous quantity of phosphorus, sugar and sulphur would have to be 
employed in order to obtain a sensible inductive effect, and how far we have hitherto 
been from employing the necessary quantity. It is only by the method of rotation 
of inductive bodies in presence of the electro-magnet, that one can obtain sensible 
effects from small quantities of diamagnetic substances. Using the method of 
rotation, as V^erdet has done, with an electro-magnet and inductive coil more powerful 
than any which have been hitherto employed, I have succeeded in obtaining distinct 
signs of induction from a mass composed of fragments of varnished bismuth. I con- 
tinue to vary and extend my experiments in this way ; therefore, for the present, 
though I should be grateful to you if you would communicate this note to the British 
Association, I wish to be able to arrange these researches myself before publishing 
them. 



On placing Compasses on Board Iron Ships. By Captain E. J. Johnson, 
B.N., F.B.S., Superintendent of the Compass Admiralty Department of 
the Boyal Navy. (In a Letter to the President.) 

It was my intention to have been present at the Meeting of the British Association 
at Belfast, but I have been prevented by my official duties on board some of H.M. 
steam-ships which could not be delayed. One of these was the iron steam-vessel 
"Trident," and I think it worth while to notice to you a circumstance which oc- 
curred relating to the compass observations. 

As a member of the Compass Committee, j'ou are aware that the system adopted 
in H.M. service on board iron ships, is to elevate the compass considerably — to 
ascertain the deviations and allow for them, and to persevere in a continual series 
of observations to ascertain the change of deviation according to the change of the 
ship's geographical position, as described in the " Practical Rules" which have been 
issued to all H.M. ships since 1842 ; — the said plan being considered safer than the 
application of iron or magnets for the reduction of the amount of deviation. 

In placing the compasses of H.M. ships, I have, of course, adhered to the recom- 
mendations of the Committee, taking care by a few preliminary observations to fix 
upon a position where the deviations were lessened ; but the circumstance to which 
I wish to draw your attention at present is this : — While the " Trident" was in the 
basin at Woolwich, it occurred to me to try whether a position could be discovered 
where the influences of the ship's iron upon the compass were so equalized as to 
render the amount of deviation so small as to be of no practical importance. 

The correct magnetic direction of the ship's head having been determined by a 
compass on the shore, and that proving to be near to one of the points of maximum 
deviation (the standard compass on the quarter-deck there indicating 20° westerly 
deviation), I moved the standard compass several feet (urther forward in the centre 
line of the ship, and there found the westerly deviation increased to 29°. I now 
commenced to move the compass aft 6 or 7 feet at a time, observing the deviation 
at each position, and found the zvesterly deviation decreased : and on placing the 
tripod of the compass directly over the rudder-head, easterly deviation was produced ; 
and hence it followed that there must be a position somewhere between the two last 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 11 

places of observation where there would be no deviation while the ship's head re- 
mained in the same direction. 

This position I practically discovered by moving the compass a few inches at a 
time, till it indicated the correct magnetic direction of the ship's head. 

The question which now remained to be proved, was, to what extent the deviations 
of the said compass had been lessened (or what they actually were) when the ship's 
head was placed upon different points, and I was gratified to find that after swing- 
ing the vessel and observing upon the eight principal points, the compass, placed as 
before described, proved to be correct within ^ of a point. 

It is necessary to mention that the "Trident" has wooden beams under the 
quarter-deck, and therefore it remains to be seen to what extent such observations 
may be useful in vessels which have iron beams. 

It will also be requisite to ascertain by actual observation how far a position so 
selected shall prove advantageous when the ship changes her geographical position ; 
and as the "Trident" is about to proceed to the southern hemisphere, and is amply 
provided with instructions and the means of ascertaining such changes, and as I 
shall swing her again at Greenhithe on every point before she leaves, we may hope 
for much useful information on this important subject. 

In sending you these remarks, I must observe, that it may not always be practi- 
cable to find the position of no-deviation, or where the influences of the iron in the 
ship upon the magnetic needle are equalized, because such a point might be found in 
a most inconvenient position, or be too near moveable iron work, machinery, &c. ; 
but if we succeed in approximating towards it, and thereby reduce the deviations 
within moderate limits, a point of great practical importance will be gained in navi- 
gation. 



On a peculiarity of Vision. By Professor Powell, F.JR.S. 

1 he peculiarity to which I refer affects both my own eyes, but more especially the 
left eye. They have always been long-sighted, but I never used glasses till about 
seven j'ears ago. About that time I had, I fear, injured my eye-sight generally by 
optical experiments, and have in consequence thought it prudent to desist from them 
m a great degree. I then perceived a general indistinctness of vision, which is how- 
ever completely removed by the use of convex glasses of long focus ; but I have not 
till lately been aware of the precise nature of this indistinctness. I have now found 
that it is produced by the image of every small object, as for instance, a fine dark line 
on a white ground appearing triple. I do not find any difference from varying 
the distance of the object from the eye, nor in placing the line in different azimuths 
round the axis of the eye ; the appearance is presented whether I use one ej'e or 
both, but is somewhat less marked with the right eye. Conjectures may easily be 
started as to the change of form in the lens which might produce such an appear- 
ance, but I will not at present do more than simply mention the fact, as it may 
perhaps elicit other statements of a similar kind which may tend to throw light on 
the question as to its nature. 

On Luminous Beams. Communicated by Professor Powell, F.R.S, 

Appearances of luminous beams in the sky, of a peculiar kind, agreeing neither 
with the characteristics of aurora, nor of the zodiacal light, have been occasionally 
recorded. A remarkable instance of this kind was observed by Mr. G. A. Rowell, 
at Oxford, July 11, 1850 : — "When the sun was just setting, or set, but hidden by 
clouds, he saw a bright beam with parallel sides extending vertically upwards from 
the place of the sun to an altitude estimated at 15° or 20°." Again, on July 6, 1852, 
Mr. Rowell saw a similar pheenomenon which he describes thus : — " About 10 o'clock 
P.M., I observed two extraordinary rays of light in the N.N.W., each extending 
from the horizon to upwards of half-way towards the pole star, and apparently pro- 
ceeding from the sun's place below the horizon, in a direct line towards that star. I 
watched this pheenomenon till lO^ 30'°, and I beheve it could not have been caused 



12 REPORT — 1852. 

by an aurora borealis, the direction and appearance of the rays being veiy different 
from any aurora I have ever seen ; there was no change to be observed in them, and 
they kept their place with regard to the stars. At 11 o'clock they had disappeared." 



On Converging Sun-heams. Communicated by Professor Powell, F.R.S. 

A peculiarly brilliant instance of the phaenomenon of the solar rays converging by 
the effect of perspective to a point opposite the sun immediately after sunset, was 
observed by several persons in and near Oxford, on July 6, 1852, about 8"35 p.m., 
and lasted about twentj' minutes. Mr. G. A. Rowell collected the accounts of dif- 
ferent observers, illustrated by sketches, given unknown to each other, and apparently 
without their being aware of the real nature of the pheenomenon. He states that — 
" All agree as to the general appearance being that of five or seven principal rays of 
bright light arising from (converging to) a point in the S.E. horizon, just opposite 
to where the sun had set. Each ray extended about 65° or 70°, and was widest at 
the upper end ; the middle ray being perpendicular. There is a difference in the 

statements as to whether there were smaller rays between the principal ones 

The observer on Shotover Hill had a clear view of the N.W. horizon, and remarked 
that there was not at the time the slightest appearance of rays where the sun had 
gone down," 

On the Re- concentration of the Mechanical Energy of the Universe. 
By W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., F.R.S.E. 

Mr. Rankine observed that it has long been conjectured, and is now being esta- 
blished by experiment, that all forms of physical energy, whether visible motion, 
heat, light, magnetism, electricity, chemical action, or other forms not yet understood, 
are mutually convertible ; that the total amount of physical energy in the universe 
is unchangeable, and varies merely its condition and locality, by conversion from 
one form to another, or by transference from one portion of matter to another. 

Professor William Thomson has pointed out, that in the present condition of the 
known world there is a preponderating tendency to the conversion of all the other 
forms of energy into heat, and to the equable diffusion of all heat ; a tendency which 
seems to lead towards the cessation of all phsenomena. 

The author of the present paper points out, that all heat tends ultimately to 
assume the radiant form ; and that if the medium which surrounds the stars and 
transmits radiation between them be supposed to have bounds encircling the visible 
world, beyond which is empty space, then at these bounds the radiant heat will be 
totally reflected, and will ultimately be re-concentrated into foci ; at one of which, if 
an extinct star arrives, it will be resolved into its elements, and a store of energy 
reproduced. 



On an Improved Form of Reflecting Instrument for Use at Sea. 
By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, F.R.A.S. 

The peculiar circumstances of an observer at sea, caused chiefly by the rolling of 
the vessel, preclude the use of any of the ordinary instruments employed on land 
for measuring altitudes, depending as they do on levels or plumb lines for their zero 
points ; recourse must be had to the principle of double images by two reflectors, 
the method invented by Hadley and Newton. This one necessary principle has been 
carried out in a variety of different forms, in the sextant, quadrant, quintant or re- 
flecting circle, some more or less accurate or more or less convenient than others ; 
but all of them, under whatever names they are known, are merely different forms 
of essentially the same instrument. 

Great ingenuity has been shown in many of these forms, but still the greatest 



TRANSACTIONS OF TH6 SECTIONS. 13 

degree of efficiency has not yet been arrived at, or the highest degree of convenience 
attained for all the various occasions required in practice. 

The naval officers, who know what these difficult circumstances are, unfortunately 
are not in a position to remedy the defects of their instruments ; while the makers 
thereof, living at home at ease, cannot fully appreciate all the difficulties actually 
met with in real practice at sea. This has left room for a person like the author, 
who has had some practice at sea and some experience in instrument-making, to 
eflFect several minor improvements of a practical character. 

The ordinary form of the reflecting instrument at present in use is the sextant, 
in which will generally be found, even as made by the best makers, more or less of 
the following little practical drawbacks upon the speedy and accurate employment 
of it. 

It is packed in its box in a way difficult to be got out, the handle, by which it 
ought only to be touched, being below : also it cannot be laid down anywhere 
without a changing of the hands and the incurring of risk in handling parts which 
should be sacred from the touch. 

Next there are several loose parts, as the telescope, plain tube, dark glasses, &c., 
which have to be screwed on before an observation can be taken, and time is lost 
thereby ; even then too it may be often found with faint stars at night, that the 
object-glass of the telescope is prejudicially small, and the reflectors insufficiently 
bright, as well as erroneous at extreme angles, on account of the impossibility of 
procuring perfect glass, besides giving the nuisance of images from each surface, &c. 

Then, supposing the observation taken, there is such a needless difficulty in read- 
ing oflF the divisions, a difficulty not felt by beginners alone, but equally by practised 
naval officers, who give that as a reason why the very important class of observa- 
tions of stars by night is so little practised at sea. 

Finally, the observation when read off at last is taken merely upon a sextant or 
part of a circle, and is therefore liable to errors of excentricity and motion of the 
centre, and this to an unknown extent, and not constantly, as they may be influenced 
by accidental causes unknown to the observer. It is essential to the accuracy and 
the honesty as it were of observations, that they should be taken with some form of 
circle with opposite readings ; many such have been brought forward in England 
and France, but owing apparently to their greater complexity, size and weight, they 
have not obtained a footing amongst practical men. 

The author then exhibited a reflecting instrument which he had had constructed 
by Messrs. Adie of Edinburgh, and which appeared to supply all the desiderata, for 
it was in the shape of a circle, small, light, and simple, with the delicate parts pro- 
tected from injury under all circumstances : the usual loose telescope and plain tubes 
were avoided by making them cross through each other and work on a pivot, thus 
admitting of instant alteration from one to the other ; the illuminating apparatus 
was improved and rendered powerfully effective even with a faint light ; and a small 
apparatus was added, which, without sensibly cumbering the instrument, gave, either 
by night or by day, a convenient horizontal referring point, visible in the field of 
view. 



Some Remarks on the Red Prominences seen during the Total Solar Eclipse. 
By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, F.R.A.S. 

When the Members of the Association separated last year at Ipswich, it was under 
circumstances of peculiar astronomical import, viz. the impending occurrence of the 
total solar eclipse in a neighbouring region : many astronomers started to observe 
the phaenomenon to the utmost, and more especially everything having relation to, 
or tending to throw any light on the physical characteristics of the sun ; amongst 
which the "red prominences" were considered the most promising and important. 

The author was amongst the number of observers who started with these objects 
in view, but was totally defeated by the occurrence of clouds. Having been pre- 
vented then himself from seeing the red prominences, he thought it proper to defer 
to the opinions of those observers who had been more fortunate, and who seem in 



14 REPORT — 1852. 

all cases to have come to the conclusion that these apparent bodies were really at- 
tached to, and connected with, the sun, and were no less than masses of light-giving 
matter, 30,000 or 40,000 miles in length, and playing of course a most important 
part in the mystery of the nature and the source of solar light, and the whole 
oeconomy of that mighty orb. 

But if we are never to see these bodies but during the rare occasion of a solar 
eclipse, and then only for the too short space of three minutes, ages upon ages may 
pass away before we ascertain anything very precise upon the subject. In this case 
it becomes of the greatest importance to contrive some method of making the red 
prominences visible on ordinary occasions ; and a method having been proposed by 
Mr. J. Nasmyth of Manchester, which at least promised well, the author lost no 
time in putting it into execution. 

The method consisted in receiving the image of the sun and field of view, formed 
by a telescope in a dark room, on a white board, in which was a hole just large 
enough to let the sun pass through, and be absorbed on the inside of a black bag 
beyond ; the image of the field, and therefore of the sky in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the sun, could then be examined with the greatest nicety, and free from 
the prejudicial effect of the glaring solar image ; while any faint ray of light extend- 
ing fiom that luminary into the space beyond could be much more easily appreciated 
than before. But although the experiment was carefully tried on all the best days 
of last summer as well as the present, not the slightest appearance of red prominences 
could be detected. The author however would not presume to say that they did not 
therefore exist } for although the experiment in itself was extremely successful, inas- 
much as during the very time that the sun was being received into the black bag the 
room itself was much darker than the atmosphere at the solar eclipse, yet the light- 
ness of the sky, by reason of the reflective power of the air outside the room, was so 
extreme, that nothing so faint as the red prominences are reputed to be, could well be 
seen on so bright a background. This is a difficulty which can only be got over by 
ascending to a great height in the atmosphere, and it would be well worth while to 
repeat the experiment on the top of a high mountain. 

Having given this experiment, founded on the opinions of observers, full trial, the 
author then thought himself justified in taking up an opposite idea, and supposing 
that the red prominences might be some spurious effects of diffraction of the sun's 
light at the edge of lunar mountains. He therefore produced an artificial eclipse by 
introducing a small opake ball into the telescope, near the focus of the object-glass, 
when directed on the sun. The results were, that pink light, similar to that of the 
prominences, was thrown off from the edge of the eclipsing ball, in greater quantity as 
the polish of the surface was increased, and was broken ujj into more distinct portions 
the more irregular the surface. Prominences most similar, nay, precisely like those 
of the eclipse, in shape and colour, were produced by an opal glass ball, scratched 
and cut on the edge with a diamond. 

There was however still the important failing, that the artificial prominences were 
connected with the eclipsing ball as a centre, and not with the sun, as in the case of 
the real prominences. In the latter instance, however, tire sun's rays fall on the 
moon in a parallel direction, while in the former they converge on the eclipsing 
ball. To arrive therefore more nearly at this particular, the author placed a large 
tin disc, with spherically curved tangential rim, on the top of the Nelson monument, 
and examined the appearance from below, when the sun was eclipsed behind the 
disc, with a small hand telescope. The result was that orange and red light were 
thrown off the edge ; and in greater abundance, according to the greater proximity 
of the sUn behind to any particular side of the disc, and also according to the greater 
purity of the atmosphere. This certainly seems to point out the great probability 
of a spurious origin for the red prominences at this surface of the lunar mountains ; 
but this experiment should also be tried on a high mountain, in an atmosphere a 
little more nearly approaching that of the moon in rarity and purity. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 



15 



On ike Optical Properties of a recently discovered Salt of Quinine. 
By Professor Stokes, M.A, F.R.S. 
This salt is described by Dr. Herapath in the Philosophical Magazine for March 1852, 
and is easily formed in'the way there recommended, namely, by dissolvirig disul- 
phate of quinine in warm acetic acid, adding a few drops of a solution of iodine in 
alcohol, and allowing the liquid to cool, when the salt crystallizes in thin scales re- 
flecting (while immersed in the fluid) a green light with a metallic lustre. When 
taken out of the fluid the crystals are yellowish- green by reflected light, with a me- 
tallic aspect. The following observations were made with small crystals formed in 
this manner ; and an oral account of them was given at a meeting of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, shortly after the appearance of Dr. Herapath's paper. 

The crystals possess in an eminent degree the property of polarizing light, so that 
Dr. Herapath proposed to employ them instead of tourmalines, for which they would 
form an admirable substitute, could they be obtained in sufficient size. They appear 
to belong to the prismatic system; at any rate they are symmetrical (so far as re- 
lates to their optical properties and to the directions of their lateral faces) vi^ith re- 
spect to two rectangular planes perpendicular to the scales. These planes will here 
be called respectively the principal plane of the length and the principal plane of the 
breadth, the crystals being usually longest in the direction of the former plane. 

When the crystals are viewed by light directly transmitted, which is either polar- 
ized before incidence or analysed after transmission, so as to retain only light polar- 
ized In one of the principal planes, it is found that with respect to light polarized 
in the principal plane of the length the crystals are transparent, and nearly colour- 
less, at least when they are as thin as those which are usually formed by the method 
above mentioned. But with respect to light polarized in the principal plane of the 
breadth, the thicker crystals are perfectly black, the thinner ones only transmitting 
light, which is of a deep red colour. 

When the crystals are examined by light reflected at the smallest angle with which 
the observation is practicable, and the reflected hght is analysed, so as to retain, 
first, light polarized in the principal plane of the length, and secondly, light polarized 
in the other principal plane, it is found that in the first case the crystals have a 
vitreous lustre, and the reflected light is colourless ; while in the second case the 
light is yellowish-green, and the crystals have a metallic lustre. When the plane 
of incidence is the principal plane of the length, and the angle of incidence is in- 
creased from 0° to 90°, the part of the reflected pencil which is polarized in the 
plane of incidence undergoes no remarkable change, except perhaps that the lustre 
becomes somewhat metallic. When the part which is polarized in a plane perpen- 
dicular to the former is examined, it is found that the crystals have no angle of 
polarization, the reflected light never vanishing, but only changing its colour, passing 
from yellowish-green, which it was at first, to a deep steel-blue, which colour it 
assumes at a considerable angle of incidence. When the light reflected in the prin- 
cipal plane of the breadth is examined in a similar manner, the pencil which is 
polarized in the plane of incidence undergoes no remarkable change, continuing to 
have the appearance of being reflected from a metal, while the other or colourless 
pencil vanishes at a certain angle, and afterwards reappears, sq that in this plane 
the crystals have a polarizing angle. 

If, then, for distinction's sake, we call the two pencils which the crystals, as belong- 
ing to a doubly refracting medium, transmit independently of each other, ordinary 
and extraordinary, the former being that which is transmitted with little loss, we 
may say, speaking approximately, that the medium is transparent with respect to 
the ordinary ray and opake with respect to the extraordinary, while, as regards 
reflexion, the crystals have the properties of a transparent medium or of a metal, 
according as the refracted ray is the ordinary or the extraordinary. If common light 
merely be used, both refracted pencils are produced, and the corresponding reflected 
pencils are viewed together ; but by analysing the reflected light by means of a 
Nicol's prism, the reflected pencils may be viewed separately, at least when the ob- 
servations are confined to the principal planes. The crystals are no doubt biaxal, 
and the pencils here called ordinary and extraordinary are those which in the lan- 
guage of theory correspond to different sheets of the wave surface. The reflecting 
properties of the crystals may be embraced in one view by regarding the medium as 



16 REPORT 1852. 

not only doubly refracting and doubly absorbing, but doubly metallic. The metallicity, 
so to speak, of the medium of course alters continuously with the point of the wave 
surface to which the pencil considered belongs, and doubtless is not mathematically 
null even for the ordinary ray. 

If the reflexion be really of a metallic nature, it ought to produce a relative change 
in the phases of vibration of light polarized in and perpendicularly to the plane of 
incidence. This conclusion the author has verified by means of the effect produced 
on the rings of calcareous spar. Since the crystals were too small for individual ex- 
amination in this experiment, the observation was made with a mass of scales depo- 
sited on a flat black surface, and arranged at random as regards the azimuth of their 
principal planes. The direction of the change is the same as in the case of a metal, 
and accordingly the reverse of that which is observed in total internal reflexion. 

In the case of the extraordinary pencil the crystals are least opake with respect 
to red light, and accordingly they are less metallic with respect to red light than to 
light of higher refrangibility. This is shown by the green colour of the reflected 
light when the crystals are immersed in fluid, so that the reflexion which they exhibit 
as a transparent medium is in a good measure destroyed. 

The author has examined the crystals for a change of refrangibility, and found 
that they do not exhibit it. Safflower-red, which possesses metallic optical proper- 
ties, does change the refrangibility of a portion of the incident light; but the yel- 
lowish-green light which this substance reflects is really due to its metallicity and 
not to the change of refraogibility, for the light emitted from the latter cause is red, 
besides which it is totally different in other respects from regularly reflected light. 

In conclusion, the author observed that the general fact of the reflexion of coloured 
polarized pencils had been discovered by Sir David Brewster in the case of chrysam- 
mate of potash*, and in a subsequent communication he had noticed, in the case of 
other crystals, the difference of effect depending upon the azimuth of the plane of 
incidencef. Accordingly, the object of the present communication was merely to 
point out the intimate connexion which exists (at least in the case of the salt of 
quinine) between the coloured reflexion, the double absorption, and the metallic 
properties of the medium. 

Note added during printing. — When the above communication was made to the 
Association, the author was not aware of M, Haidinger's papers on the subject of 
the coloured reflexion exhibited by certain crystals. The general pheenomenon of 
the reflexion of oppositely polarized coloured pencils had in fact been discovered in- 
dependently by M.Haidinger and by Sir David Brewster, in the instances, respectively,, 
of the cyanide of platinum and magnesium, and of the chrysammate of potash. A 
brief notice of the optical properties of the former crystal will be found in Poggen- 
dorff's 'Annalen,' Bd. Ixviii. (1846), S. 302, and further communications from M. 
Haidinger on the subject are contained in several of the subsequent volumes of that 
periodical. The relation of the coloured reflexion to the azimuth of the plane of in- 
cidence was noticed by M. Haidinger from the first. 



On the Thermal Effects of Air rushing through small Apertures. 
By J. P. Joule, F.R.S. and Professor W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S.E.X 



On the Sources of Heat generated by the Galvanic Battery. 
By Professor W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S.E. 

It has been stated as an objection to the chemical theory of the galvanic battery, 
that the chemical action being the same in all elements consisting of zinc and any 
less oxidizable metal, their electromotive force ought according to that theory to be 
the same ; which is contrary to experience, the electromotive force of a zinc and tin 
element in dilute sulphuric acid, for instance, being found by Poggendorff to be only 

* Report of the Meeting of the British Association at Southampton, 1846, paitii. p. 7. 

t Ibid. Edinburgh, 1847, p. 5. 

X This paper has been published in the Philosophical Magazine for December 1852. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 17 

about half that of a zinc and platinum element in the same liquid. Mr. Joule in 
1841 gave (in his papei- on the heat of electrolysis) the key to the explanation of all 
such difficulties, by pointing out that the heat must be generated in different quan- 
tities by the electrical evolution of equal quantities of hydrogen at equal surfaces of 
different metals. The author of the present communication, reasoning on element- 
ary mechanical and physical principles, from Faraday's experiments, which show 
that a zinc diaphragm in a trough of dilute sulphuric acid exercises no sensible 
resistance to the continued passage of a feeble electric current, demonstrated that a 
feeble continued current, passing out of un electrolytic cell by a zinc electrode, must 
generate exactly as much more heat at the zinc surface than the same amount of current 
would develope in passing out of an electrolytic cell by a platinum electrode, as a zinc- 
platinum pair working against great external resistance icould develope hi the resistance 
wire by the same amount of current. A series of experiments, commenced for illus- 
trating this conclusion, were described and a few of the conclusions stated. It was 
found that in two equal and similar electrolytic cells in the same circuit, which dif- 
fered from one another in one of them having its exit electrodes of zinc, and the 
other of platinum, very sensibly more heat was developed in the former than in the 
latter, verifying so far the conclusion stated. By separating the two electrodes by 
means of porous diaphragms, it was found that, at least with low strengths of cur- 
rent, more heat was developed at the negative than at the positive electrode, when 
both electrodes were of zinc ; while when both were of platinum, much more heat 
was found at the positive electrode than was found at the negative, for all strengths 
of current, which gave sufficient thermal effects to be tested in this respect. The last- 
mentioned result, which had not been anticipated by the author, appears to be in 
accordance with experimental conclusions announced by De la Rive. 

Many other results of a remarkable nature were obtained in a series of experi- 
ments on the heat evolved in different parts of various electrolytic and chemical 
electromotive arrangements, but much difficulty had been found in interpreting 
them correctly on account of initial irregularities depending on " polarization," 
which often appeared to last as long as the experiments could be continued without 
introducing other sources of disturbance, and which produced marked effects on the 
observed thermal phaenomena. 

This communication was brought forward principally for the purpose of calling 
attention to what may be done if experimenters can be induced to undertake re- 
searches on the evolution of heat in all parts of a galvanic battery or of any electro- 
thermal apparatus, but partly also on account of the novelty of some of the results 
which have been already obtained by the author. 



On the Mutual Attraction between txoo electrified Spherical Conductors. 
By Professor W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S.L. ^ E. 

In a previous communication by the same author at the last Oxford Meeting of 
the Association, the attraction of a single electrified sphere, influenced by the presence 
of another, on any external electric point, was shown to be the same as that due to 
a converging infinite series of electric points in determinate positions within it, to 
which the name of " electrical images" was given. Hence it is concluded that the 
attraction of one sphere upon the other is equal to that of one infinite series of 
electrical images upon another, and is immediately expressible algebraically by a 
" double series." Another method by which a single series is obtained to express the 
required attraction, had been alluded to at the previous Cambridge Meeting, and worked 
out to numerical results, which were published in November 1845, in the first Number 
of the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal. It was not until 1849 that 
the author found a way of reducing the double series to a single one, and so suc« 
ceeded in arriving at the same form of result by the two methods. Detailed accounts 
of both methods, with all the formulae for completely working out the solution, 
including the case of contact for which the series is not convergent, were commu- 
nicated by letter to M. Liouville in the month of July of that year, and, not having 
as yet been published, are now laid before the British Association. Similar methods 
are applicable to determine the whole force experienced by either of two electrified 

1852. 2 



18 iiEPORT — 1852. 

spheres placed near one another and subjected to the influence of an electrified 
point, whether in the line joining the centre of the spheres or not ; but the formulae 
expressing the details were not brought forward. 



On certai7t Magnetic Curves ; xoith applications to Problems in the Theories 
of Heat, Electricity, and Fluid Motion. By Professor W. Thomson, 
M.A., F.R.S.L. ^ E. 

A method, which had been given by the author in the Cambridge Mathematical 
Journal for integrating the differential equations of the lines of force in any case of 
symmetry about an axis, is applied in this communication to the case of an infinitely 
small magnet placed with its axis direct or reverse along the lines of force of a 
uniform magnetic field. Diagrams containing the curves drawn accurately, accord- 
ing to calculations founded on the result of this investigation, (corresponding to 
series of ten or twelve different values given to the constant of integration,) were 
exhibited to the Section. Certain parts of these curves were shown in a separate 
diagram, as constituting precisely the series of hues of electric force about an insu- 
lated spherical conductor under the influence of a distant electrified body ; and the 
other parts, in a separate diagram, as constituting the lines of motion of a fluid mass 
in the neighbourhood of a fixed spherical solid, at considerable distances from which 
the fluid is moving uniformly in parallel lines so slowly as to cause no eddies round 
the obstacle. The circle representing the section of the spherical conductor, in the 
former of these diagrams, cuts the entire series of curves at right angles, with the 
exception of one curve, which it cuts through a double point at an angle of 45° to 
each branch. The circle representing the section of the spherical obstacle in the 
latter diagram, along with two infinite double branches consisting of the axial dia- 
meter produced externally in each direction, constitutes the limiting curve of the 
series shown, and is not intersected by any of them. A series of diagrams (deduced 
from the former of these by describing a circle of the same size as that shown in it, 
and drawing, on a smaller scale, as much of the curves as lies without this circle,) 
was shown as representing the disturbed lines of magnetic force about balls of ferro- 
magnetic substance of different inductive capacities, placed in a uniform magnetic 
field ; and another series, similarly derived from the latter, (that is, the one repre- 
senting the lines of fluid motion about a spherical obstacle,) was shown as represent- 
ing the disturbance caused by the presence of diamagnetic balls of different inductive 
capacities in a uniform magnetic field. These two series of diagrams are also accu- 
rate representations of the lines of motion of heat In a large homogeneous solid 
having heat uniformly conducted across it, as disturbed by spherical spaces occupied 
by solid matter of greater or less conducting power than the matter round them; 
the two principal diagrams from which they are derived being the corresponding 
representations for the cases of spherical spaces occupied respectively by matter of 
infinitely great and infinitely small conductivity. The author called attention to 
the remarkable resemblance which these diagrams bore to those which Mr. Faraday 
had shown recently at the Royal Institution to illustrate his views regarding the 
action of ferromagnetics and diamagnetics in influencing the field of force in which 
they are placed ; and justified and illustrated the expression " conducting power for 
the lines of force," by referring to rigorous mathematical analogies presented by the 
theory of heat. 

On the Equilibrium of elongated Masses of Ferromagnetic Substance in 
unifoi'm and varied Fields of Force. By Professor W. Thomson, M.A., 
F.R.S.L. <^ E. 

The fact, first discovered experimentally by Gilbert, that a bar of Soft iron, held 
bv its centre of gravity in a uniform magnetic field, settles with its length parallel 
to the lines of force, is not explained correctly when it is said to be merely due to 
the property of magnetic induction in virtue of which the bar of soft iron becomes 
temporarily a magnet like a permanent magnet in its position of stable equilibrium. 
For exactly the same statement would be applicable to a row of soft iron balls rigidly 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 19 

connected by a non-magnetic frame ; yet such an arrangement would not experience 
any directional tendency, (since no one of the balls in it would experience either a 
resultant force or a resultant couple from the force of the field,) unless in virtue of 
changes in the states of magnetization of the balls induced by their mutual actions. 
Hence the mutual action of the parts of a row of balls, and, as is easily shown, of 
a row of cubes, or of a bar of any kind, must be taken into account before a true 
theory of their directional tendencies can be obtained. The author of this commu- 
nication, by elementary mechanical reasoning founded on what is known with cer- 
tainty regarding magnetic induction and magnetic action generally, shows that an 
elongated mass, in a uniform magnetic field, tends to place its length parallel to the 
lines of force, whether its inductive capacity be ferromagnetic or diamagnetic, pro- 
vided it be non-crystalline, because if ferromagnetic it becomes more, or if diamag- 
netic, less intensely magnetized, if placed in such a position, than if placed with its 
length across the lines of force. But for all substances, whether ferromagnetic or 
diamagnetic, possessing so little capacity for induction as any of the known dia- 
magnetics, this tendency, depending as it does on the mutual action of the parts of 
the elongated mass, is, and probably will always remain, utterly imperceptible in 
experiment. All directional tendencies in bars of diamagnetic substance which have 
yet been, and probably all which can ever be discovered by experiment, are due 
either to some magnecrystallic property of their substances, or to the tendency of their 
ends or other moveable parts, from places of stronger towards places of wealcer force, 
in varied magnetic fields, or to these two causes combined, and in no respect to the 
inductive effects of the mutual influence of their parts. To consider the effects of a 
want of uniformity of the force, in a varied field, on the equilibrium of a ferromag- 
netic bar, the author quoted Faraday's admirable statement of the law regarding the 
tendency of a ball or cube of diamagnetic substance, and referred to former papers, 
in which he had proved that, when applied to non- crystalline substances generally, 
with the proper modification for the case of ferromagnetics, it expresses with admi- 
rable simplicity the result of a mathematical investigation involving some of the 
most remarkable principles in the theory of attraction. From this it was shown, 
that if we conceive a ferromagnetic mass to be divided into verj' small cubes, each of 
these parts would, of itself, tend towards places of stronger force, and therefore 
that the bearing of the whole mass in a varied field will be produced partly by this 
tendency and partly by the tendency depending on the mutual inductive influence 
which alone exists when the field is uniform. The author then proceeded to illus- 
trate these theoretical views by a series of experiments. In some of them a steel bar 
magnet was used, and small soft iron wires, fixed in various positions on light wooden 
arras, were shown to be sometimes urged on the whole from places of stronger to 
places of weaker force by their tendency to get into positions with their lengths along 
the lines of force. In others, a ring electro-magnet, consisting of insulated copper 
wire, rolled fifty times round as closely as possible to the circumference of a circle 
of the diameter stated, about 9 inches in diameter, fixed in a vertical plane at 
right angles to the magnetic meridian, was used, and a single cube of soft iron, 
placed in an excentric position on a long narrow pasteboard tray centrally sus- 
pended in the field of force by unspun silk, was attracted into the plane of the 
ring ; but a row of three or four cubes placed touching one another in a line 
through the axis of suspension, settled as far from the plane as possible, in virtue 
of the tendency of an elongated mass to get its length along the lines of force. 
Two cubes placed in contact are found to be in stable equilibrium in the plane of the 
ring, or in oblique positions, or as far from the ring as possible, according to the 
greater or less distances at which they are placed in the tray, from the point of 
suspension. A number of equal and similar bars of a composition of wax and soft 
iron filings of different ferromagnetic strengths, suspended successively with their 
middle points in the centre of the magnet, settled in various positions. Those of 
them which were of greatest ferromagnetic capacity settled perpendicular to the 
plane of the ring or along the lines of force ; others, with a smaller proportion of iron 
filings, had positions of stable equilibrium both in the plane of the ring and perpen- 
dicidar to it ; and others, with a still smaller proportion of iron filings, had their 
sole positions of stable equilibrium in the plane of the ring. The last-mentioned 

2* 



20 REPORT — 1852. 

experiments illustrated very curiously the diminished proportion borne by the effects 
of mutual influence of the parts to those of a non-uniformity in the field of force, in 
similar bodies of smaller ferromagnetic capacity. 



On an Instrument for exhibiting the Colours of Liquids by Transmitted Light. 
By R. W. TowNSEND. 

This consisted of a short portable trough for containing the liquids, at the ends 
of which parallel mirrors being placed, by the reflexion of the visual ray or of 
light backward and forward several times, the effect was produced of transmitting the 
ray proceeding from the eye (or a beam of light) virtually through considerable 
thicknesses of the liquid. The author had been led to construct this in order to test the 
common explanation of the deep blue colour of the waters of the Rhone, where they 
enter the Lake of Geneva, and in other places. But his experiment with the in- 
strument did not lead to the conclusion that the natural colour of all pure water 
was blue. Pure spring or rain water when pprfecthj clear exhibited no colour when 
thus viewed ; but a sunbeam transmitted thus through the water received a beautiful 
deep yellow-green colour. He verified the experiment by afterwards using a very 
long trough without mirrors, and found the results the same. 



On Molecular Action. By John Tyndall, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

In this investigation the author has examined the influence exerted by the peculiar 
structure of wood upon the transmission of heat through the substance. A sen- 
sitive thermoscope was found in a bismuth and antimony couple, and by means of 
cushions of mercury which pressed upon the bodies under ex